CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study Language is a means of communication which fulfill the basic human needs to communicate with other. It is constantly used by human in their everyday life and has an important role in their life. In communication, people express thought, feeling, experience, knowledge and so on in the form of language. Chomsky states that language is „an individual phenomenon‟ and that „no two individuals share exactly the same language (1988: 36). Language is seen as having an active, constitutive role in interaction, as being very much a matter of initiative rather than response (Coupland 2001b; Schilling-Estes 2004). Meanwhile Chaika (1994:6) states:
“Language is multilayered and does not show one-to-one correspondence between message and meaning as animal language do. For this reason, every meaning can be expressed in more than one way and there are many ways to express any meaning. Language differs from each other, but all seem suited for the tasks they are used for. Language change with changing social conditions”.

In all human activities, there are some factors that influence the language used. People commonly use language in accordance with social structure of the society. The internal and external differences in human societies such as sex, age, class, occupation also influence their language. Generally, people use the most appropriate code or variety in accordance with the person they are talking to, the topic of the communication, and the setting of communication takes place. In everyday communication, people select one language variety rather than another to convey

ordering something. A language is a system of signs. First. the sign (for instance. „everyone knows that language is variable‟. like a Priest baptizing a baby. when ordering pizza or even when making a dental appointment. people as social creatures need to contact with other people. Therefore. the President declaring war or a judge sentencing a convict. etc. . Conversation is playing its role by means of language. and the relation between form and meaning is based on convention. The speaker should be conscious of what he or she is doing with the language and the listener has to try to understand the speaker‟s intention. Speech acts include asking for something. There are different ways of expressing the same idea in a given language is a fundamental element of people‟s everyday linguistic awareness – as Sapir (2007:5) remarked. This means two things. In every chance of interaction. a word) is a combination of a form (the „signifier‟) and a meaning (the „signified‟).their message. When a speaker utters. he may intend to express that the glass is not full or he wants someone to pour the water into the glass. Some special people can do extraordinary things with words. It is ruled to everybody. Language also used all the time to make things happen for example : when asking someone to pass the salt. promising to do something. etc. The conversation can succeed when there is no misinterpretation. “The glass is empty”. Saussure‟s theory of language (1997:63) define A language is a system of differences. Means that it changes its form of expression on different place with different people on how to express something toward others. threatening to do something and so on.

the hearer should know the speaker‟s intention in producing an utterance. Therefore the hearer should have not only a meaning intention. pledge. I‟ll be back. The speaker should be able to produce appropriate forms of commissives since it can be used in lots of way for example guarantee. The communication intention is simply that the hearer should recognize the utterance spoken by speaker. Communicating intention is meaning intention that should be recognized by the hearer. swear. and “I pledge allegiance to the flag". Commissives. oppose. and that the should recognize it as having the conditions of satisfaction which the speaker really intends to do it in the future. I‟m going . bet. offer. and “I vow to get revenge". undertake and threat. Successful communication consists of recognition by the hearer toward speaker's meaning intentions (Searle: 2002) One thing that commonly happens in a conversation between one person with another in a context of situation is when the speaker commits himself to some future action in which an intention is expressed with commissive expressions (Yule 1996). This is one of the realizations of certain social communication that is closely related to speech act. When Speaker proposes to place himself or herself under an commitment. Commissives is an obligation that is created in the speaker not in the hearer. such sentences as “I promise to pay you the money". volunteer. agree. The speech act only takes effect if it is understood by a hearer. for instance: the promise that creates an obligation in the person who made promise. but also a communicating intention. vow.

Commissives are acts which put the speaker to some future course of action. poems. Most people express commissives quite differently when they express it to different people: to a child. they are the examples of commissive of promising and still many other forms that can be found related to commissive. the relation of what speakers say to what authors think is always a matter of interpretation. They even express commissives differently to same person when they are in different circumstances. With some people they feel relax. (…. The possibility of . expressive. and others are like strangers.) The literary work is a linguistic event which plans a fictional world that includes speaker. Literature and film is two ways of telling. Jonathan Culler (1997) stated: “Literature as fiction. The same as commissive of speech act which is a matter of interpretation between speaker and the hearer. They include promises (and their converse. the researcher found some statements defining literature. though arguably the beginning of some novels functions as a commissive. events. we‟ll not do that . Hillis Miller (2005:1) identifies three different possible ways integrating parts of speech act ( commissive. and an implied audience”. to a friend. threats: the difference depends on how the hearer will be affected by the offered act). some other they are very close. declarative. to a boss at work. commissives are common in the discourse of characters in fiction of film. but Henry Sussman in J. with someone else they are formal. In fiction. actors. directive) in literary works unlike in film which is easily for speech act to play its part. but rarer in the narrator‟s discourse in mostly literary works such as novel.to get it right next time.

writing. There are two major classes of film. Teachers should try to teach basic language skills as an integral part of oral and written language use. reading. listening and speaking. 1998). and what it means. namely documentary film and fictional film. Sundarsingh (2010:230) states language teachers should realize the fact that their goal is not teaching English literature but teaching a language . According to the Film Policy Review Group (FPRG.misinterpretation is sometimes occurred depending on the circumstances where and when the utterances spoken and how the hearer‟s condition at the time the conversation occurred. The difference between Documentary and fiction film is not so much in their relation to reality. By studying literature such as film and other possible literary works. We all have an intuitive sense of what a film is. phrases and sentences. 'Film is regarded as the most complete story-telling medium. and try to use the same in conversations with their fellow students in the class. but more in the strategies they use to present their . Literature plays an important role in teaching four basic language skills. They can perform the story as a team / role play. The students can identify the conversational strategies that the characters in the story employ. Literature is one of the best tools to master a language. not merely as an aspect of the oral and written production of words. absorbing and appealing forms of entertainment' Christian Metz (2001:1) wrote that 'a film is difficult to explain because it is easy to understand'. watching an enjoyable film is still one of the most satisfying.

Under the close guidance of J. From above explanation about what commissive really is as it said commissive can be used in lots of ways defining future action the speaker intends to do and there are different kinds of commissive forms used in film in different situation. The films have magnified the success of the books. categorizing into which of speech act it is. also at J. the researcher found that there are various forms of commissives employed by the characters of the film. The variants of the commissives are influenced by the certain social and situational backgrounds used in the film. In Harry Potter Films. It was in 1990. The movie was directed by Mike Newel and was released in 2005. The use of commissives expressions in the films is something uncommon concerning that most of the audiences of Harry Potter Films are children. Study of speech act in teaching English showing how such theory of speech act. making Harry Potter into one of the most recognizable media products. in this matter commissive could be presented to learners of English to be performed through class activities and opportunities for communicative practice.K Rowling‟s works.Rowling. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire is the fourth series of book of J. Still.worlds as real as possible. and analyzing the conversations. and they are conventional.Rowling‟s request all the actors are British. how the speech act .K.K. that J. By means of watching the movie for example.Rowling first imagined of the idea about Harry Potter. these differences are a matter of degree. the films have sought to stay close to the original plot.K.

it is very challenging to be analyzed such experience. learners could be made aware of the fact that.deliver by characters in the movie.K Rowling”. Purpose of the Study The Purposes of the research are : . the use of speech act especially commissive expression available for suggestions. Scope of the Study The researcher discovers the commissives expresion applied in the film “Harry Potter and The Goblet of Fire Film by J. B. in order to make an appropriate utterances in every situation. What is the reasons of affecting the characters in using the commissive expression in “Harry Potter and The Goblet of Fire Film by J.K Rowling” ? 2. How do the characters deliver commissive expression in “Harry Potter and The Goblet of Fire Film by J. but several factors need to be considered. Statement of the Problem 1. Therefore. such as the situations where the conversation take place and the relationship between different status participants in the film. What kinds of commissive expressions are used by the characters in “Harry Potter and The Goblet of Fire Film by J.K Rowling” ? D.K Rowling” ? 3. C. The analysis is concentrated on what kinds of forms of commissives applied by the characters of the film and what affecting the characters‟ choice in using commissive.

They get more knowledge about the relationship between the form of commissive expressions and the contexts that go along with them. Therefore.K Rowling. To describe the reasons of affecting the characters in using commissive expression in “Harry Potter and The Goblet of Fire Film by J.K Rowling”.1. E. . Significance of the Study The result of the study bring advantages for the readers of this thesis to obtain more experiences in speech act especially commissives speech act. To figure out the kinds of commissive expressions used by the characters in “Harry Potter and The Goblet of Fire Film by J. especially commissive expression in “Harry Potter and The Goblet of Fire Film by J. To describe the forms of commissive expressions used by the characters in “Harry Potter and The Goblet of Fire Film by J. it can be used as an extra reference in learning speech act or to make a contrast for the similar research. For further researcher. 2.K Rowling” 3.K Rowling. it is expected that this research is able to give comprehensive understanding about commissive expression.

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