Fig. 53.-Head

of Niobe.

Florence.

THE

MYTHOLOGY

GEEECE
WITH SPECIAL
USE

AND
REFERENCE
IN ART

EOME
TO ITS

IEDITED BY

G. S. BIANCHI,

M.A.

LATE SCHOLAROF ST. PETER'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE BROTHERTON SANSKRIT PRIZEMAN,.1875

WITH

SIXTY-FOUR

ILLUSTRATIONS

auto 28djteeti Litton

LONDON:

CHAPMAN

AND

HALL,

LD.

MADE AND PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN. RICHARO CLAY & SONS, LIMITED, PRINTERS, BUNGAY, SUFFOLK.

PREFACE.

*0 apology can be needed for introducing to the public a work like the present. There has long been a want of a book which should, in a moderate compass,give a clear and readableaccount of theselegends j for Dictionaries of Mythology do not give a view of the subject as a whole; and the price of most other works on the Greek and Eoman myths would prevent their being used as class-books. These considerationshave led the publishers to bring out this book in an English dress. If any should be inclined to ask what Mythology has to do with men of the present day, the reply is plain. The works of art in our galleries and museums require a certain amount of knowledge of the mythology of the Greeks and Romans for the full appreciation of their subjects. There is hardly any litera-

ture in Europewhich has not beenmore or less colouredby
these legends; and in our own "day their power to inspire the poet has by no means ceased. Nay, they have incorporated

themselves into our very language:" Herculean strength" is

seemswell adapted to convey a knowledge of these myths. but the conventional spelling has been retained.4 Preface. The presentwork. translated from the German of 0. and modern art. . Seemann. almost as commonan expressionnow as it was two thousandyears ago. and we still talk of " chimerical" expectations. A full index is appended.in which tho quantities of the vowels are carefully marked." and use the Sphinx as the symbol of the mysterious. The distinction between Greek and Eoman deities and heroes It is illustrated with cuts after some of the masterpieces ancient of Particular attention has been paid to this branch of the subject. and the principal works of art in each lus oeen preserved. describe a man as " tantalised. case are mentioned.

-THE GODS. I. SUBJECTS GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY OF II. POPULAR IDEAS CONCERNING THE GODS 11 13 PART I-COSMOGONY AND THEOGONY 17 PART THE GODS OF OLYMPUS. 77 . INTRODUCTION.-SUPERIOR Zeus(Jupiter) Hera (Juno) Pallas Athene (Minerva) Apollo Artemis (Diana) Ares (Mars) Aphrodite (Venus) Hermes (Mercurius) Hephaestus (Vulcanus) Hestia (Vesta) Janus 22 31 34 40 48 51 56 62 68 71 74 Quirinus . DEITIES. II.TABLE OF CONTENTS. A.

. . . .. .. Ganymedes . RheaCyhele (MagnaMater Idsea) Dionysus. Pontus and his Descendants- Nereids and his Daughters . .-SECONDARY DEITIES. . . . . The Muses . . . The Charites (Gratiae) . . .84 85 86 80 83 Hebe (Juventas) .. . . 112 . . Phorcys. . ..113 114 . Proteus Glaucus The Sirens . Poseidon(Neptunus) Amphitrite . 89 91 92 93 93 3. ... .6 B. + . . . . . . .. Attendant and Ministering Deities- Eros (Amor) . ... .. .. . .. .... ....109 Gsea (Tellus) . . . . . . Deities of Fate- ... Ceto . .105 Triton and the Tritons .. .Tyche(Fortuna). . Iris 78 . . .. 108 109 The Race of Oceanus THE GODS OF THE EABTH .. .. .107 Ino Leucothea. Inferior Deities of Birth and Healing 4. WORLD. LOWER ..105 Thaumas. The Phenomena . . . . 1. . .. ... . ... .... Themis and the Horse(Seasons) Nice (Victoria) . .. ... .. .94 96 98 98 100 104 The Mcerse (Parcse) .. and Melicertes .. . Nemesis. .. .. or Bacchus(Liber) .. . ... . . .106 107 . .88 87 of the Helios (Sol) .. and Agathodseinon (BonusEventus) THE GODS OF THE SEA AND WATERS. . Heavens- .. Gods of Birth and Healing- Asclepius (JEsculapius) . Contents. Selene(Luna) Eos (Aurora) The Stars The Winds . .. 2. . AND .

r - . 179 180 Belleropbon and tlie Legend of the Ainazons - - 180 . The Nymphs The Satyrs .. Ampkion and ZsKhus . ..Lemures.Contents.159 162 AND PRIMITIVE HEROIC OF MANKIND The Lapithseand the Centaurs The"ban LegendCadmus Actceon .-THE LEGENDS- - - CONDITION .. .. - - 158 III...143 146 147 The Erinyes (Furiae) Hecate - - AND - - - 150 153 Sleep and Death EOMAN DEITIES The Penates OF THE - . ....123 125 126 128 131 131 133 Greekand RomanWood-Spirits- Priapus Saturnus and Ops Yertumnus Flora and Pomona - " - - - - - . Silenus Pan Silvanus Faunus and Fauna " - 7 PAGE - " - - - " - ... - - - 154 156 The Lares - - - - ..133 135 136 Pales Terminus - - - - - 136 137 Demeter (Ceres) - - - - - 137 Persephone (ProserpiLa) Hades (Pluto) The Lower "World - - " - - .157 The Larvae... - - -165 " - 170 171 172 Corinthian LegendSisyphus Glaucus . and Manes PART INTRODUCTORY THE CREATION PROVINCIAL HEROES.. HOUSE - FAMILY.

.197 198 ... or Race of^Sacus The War ------The Return MYTHIC BARDS - 230 232 . or Erichtlionius Cretan LegendMinos and the Minotaur Talos COMBINED - UNDERTAKINGS The CalydonianHunt " The Argonauts --.257 262 SEERS AND .. - - - * - - ^ - 185 1S6 187 188 194 Prcetus and his Daughters Heracles(Hercules) The Birth and Youth of Heracles Heracles in the Service of JZurystheus - " - .. The Trojan Cycle ----The Heroic Eacesof the Trojan WarThe Dardanidce... - r PACK .. 237 241 " " 241 .-... the Locrian Ajaxt Diomedes.or RaceofDardanus The Pelopidw.... ..8 Argive Legend- Contents. Io Danaus Perseus The Dioscuri .and Odysseus - . " .-. c "..--» <. and the Danaids ... or Raceof Pelops The JEacidce... ' The Theban Cycle . .247 249 .242 245 Aestor.*-. OF THE LATER HEROIC AGE" - 217 218 219 227 229 Erechtfieus.-..211 212 Attic LegendCecrops Theseus .199 Deedsof Heraclesafter his Service Death and Apotheosis * Heracles as God - - - 7 - 208 .

. Vesta Giustiniani. 2. Yilla Albani.. Coins Elis with Phidias'Zeus.Vatican. ... Sculpture Galleryat Munich. Louvre. Hephaestus. Headof Hera. Bronze Figure theBritishMuseum. of 18.. AthenePolias.. BerlinMuseum.. ApolloCitharcedus. 19. Villa Borghese. 70 74 78 70 80 81 . 9. Vatican.Munich. 24. VaticanMuseum. Dianaof Versailles . 16. MarsLudovisi . . 12. FIG. in 22. Bustof Ares.perhaps afterPolycletus. 17. Naples.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Capitoline Museum. Bustof Cronus. Melpomene. at 20.. Venus Milo. Polyhymnia. 1.. Naples. Headof ApolloBelvedere . 14. 5.) of 6. (After Overbeck. .. of 4. Pallas Athene. Statue Hermes. Yatican Museum. Erostrying his Bow. 23. Resting Hermes. ApolloBelvedere. .Yatican. YaticanMuseum. " 20 21 27 29 30 32 33 38 39 40 44 45 47 50 55 56 60 61 66 67 PAGE r'21. of 3. Zeus Otricoli. Cameo Athenion . Barberini Juno.. Torlonia Collection. 26. . YaticanMuseum. Yatican. Bronze Statue Naples. 8. VenusGenetrix. JupiterYerospi. Headof Eros.11. 25. . Pallas Giustiniani. 7. 10. Capitoline of Collection. 13. 15.

. Naples." 38. . Euterpe. ^ 88 31. 126 43. ^ .. . .. 33. . . . . . 58.. Dolce Gem. 130 44. . . . 57. .. . Berlin. . Pan. . United Collections in Munich . . . Naples. now in the Louvre. Yatican. HeadofNiobe.82 85 86 " 30. . 32. From the Chateau Richelieu. ..119 37. Rondanini Medusa. . Florence. From Thorwaldsen. . . . Munich Sculpture Gallery. . Night and the Fates.. 263 . SleepingAriadne.215 59.60. and Marble Reliefin the Museum "Naples. . Head of Asclepms. . Painting from Pompeii. 34. . . Frontispiece. 192 at . . . .. . 226 255 . . f PAGE 27. . Elgin Theseus. .174 . 116 . Relief in the Yilla Albani. 123 42. Vatican. .225! . . . . 167 Relief by Kundmann. Naples. 154 48. Ganymedes and the Eagle. British Museum. . FarneseBull. Asclepius. 169 . Florence.122 41. Head of Satyr. . From a Mural Painting at Herculaneuin. Poseidon. British Museum. 52. . 142 45. . . . . . Youthful Dionysus. . . Dannecker'sAriadne. 166 49. . Marble Head of Youthful Dionysus at Lej^den . . . . ...89 . 172 . 62. Group. 51. From Antonio Canova. .178 183 193 56. Farnese Hercules . List of Illustrations. . 53. . The Hone.147 47. Demeter Enthroned. 61. 145 46. .96 97 . Painting from Pompeii. . . . Niobe. Hebe. . PalazzoChigi. . From the Monument of Lysicrates. . Rome. Priam before Achilles. .10 FIG. . . . . Yictoria. 64. . . . British Museum. Orpheus Eurydice. Campana of Collection. . Capitoline Museum. Relief by Thorwaldsen. 28. . . Centaurteachinga boyto play upon the Pipe. 12l 39. From the Frieze of the Temple at Bassse 50. . Persephone Enthroned. . . . : . . . . . 40. The so-calledSardanapalus the Vatican in . Frankfort-on-the-Main. . Theseus Lifting the Eock. Amazon. . Paris. Three-formedHecate. Metope the Parthenon of . Group. . Rape Helen. 36. Perseus Andromeda. Berlin. . . From Carstens. . . 120 . Relief from the Villa Albani. MarbleReliefin the Yilla Albanij and .260 63. . 54. Munich. . Dionysusand Lion. .£61 . Head of Hades. .103 95 35. . Laocobn. 55. Actseon. . 29. . .

" and is often used in that sense. . by not being." or popular tale. INTRODUCTION". the on account the numerousadditions and alterations of madeby the poets.GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY. It is often most difficult to recognise with any precision true germof a myth. L-SUBJECTS OF GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY. Both myth and legend* are distinguished from. of life.the " Mahrchen. and actions of the old heathen gods and heroes or demigods. in the god or demigod. the hero of a tribe magnified to superhuman proportions Dy the admiration of * The Germanword " sage" (legend) is really only a translation of the Greekword " mythos. or a distinct and real occurrence. whether a particular tradition be a myth or not. amereproductof the imagination. But lately the custom has tacitly sprung up of employing the term "mythos" when speaking the life or actionsof the gods. | YTHSmay described poetic "be as narratives thebirth.but alwaysbeingfoundedon someprecedingreality.and "sage" whenspeaking of of those of heroes. whetherthat be an oft-recurringphase of nature. like the latter. is very hard to answer: on one side we are tempted to view. And therefore the question.

when men emerged from the simple conditions of the early patriarchal epoch. But later. beganto study their language and and literature.and fathered them on those of their own gods and goddesses who bore the closest resemblance the Greek divinities. comparison of the legends of different families of nations points ns to the "operationsof nature. hut in the animals of fahle and the traditions of the nursery. and men therefore strove as eagerly to gain their favour as to appeasetheir wrath. they gradually ceased regard to the godsasmerepersonifications natural forces. not only in the demigod or the hero. and.12 Cheekand Roman Mythology. A large proportion of thesemyths aredue to men's ohservations of Mature.They brought the godsinto connection with each other by means of genealogies in a great measure artificial. which has its centre in Zeus.now as friendly. and harmonised best with to . and endowed with forms similar to those of men (Anthropomorphism). strangefashion-of whose form and mode of life they had no clear idea. it was only among the Greeks that this system of developement prevailed. It was only later. Theynow transferred existingmyths. however. and built up a vast political system." Strange to say. men necessarily formed at first very crude and fantastic ideas. on the other side. now as hostile. that they adopted the popular Greek conceptionsconcerningthe gods. to man. and her various active and creative forces. which appeared to their lively Southern fancy as manifestations of single supernatural"beings. The nations of Italy still continued to regard their gods as mere natural forces-that looked down on them in a cold. when the Eomans came into intellectual contact with their Greek neighbours. Thesewere regarded. the " father of gods and men.* posterity. They began of to regard them as beings acting in accordance with unchangeable moral laws. Of the appearance of the deities who thus manifested themselvesin the workings of nature. and began to dwell in regularpolitical communities.

In a moment Athene drops from the heights of Olympus down to Ithaca. but still-not verging on the monstrous or fantastic. As corporeal. In the same manner Zeus. We learn most concerning the conceptionsthe ancients formed of their godsfrom the numerous Greekand Romanpoetswhose works have come down to us. in outward appearance at least. already constructed. though for peculiar deities. are endowedwith forms entirely human. Minerva with Athene. indeed.passes three or four stepsfrom Samothrace -ZEgae in to in Eubrea. The other deitiesare also endowed in proportion with great strength. for they can compassthe greatest distances at lightning speed.with Zeus at its head. and. they seem to have unlimited powers. such as Janus* they couldfind no Greekprototype. from his high throne in Olympus. indeed. Moreover. and who contributed so largely to the construction of the myths. sitting on the highest summit of Mount . and cannot therefore be omnipresent-. Let but Zeus shake his ambrosiallocks. IL-POPULAR IDEAS CONCERNING THE GODS. but this restriction affectsthem far less than mortals. Prayers ascendto them from every place. more grand and beautiful and majestic. and the whole of Olympus trembles. they are limited in regard to space. godscanseeand hear at a much greater the distancethan men. First. sees all that passes among men. 13 their natural interpretation. In regard to hearing. Not only in beauty and grandeur. the ocean- god. Junowith Hera. and Poseidon. irrespective of their personal presence. do the gods surpass men.fdeas concerningthe Gods. Thus it was that the Eoman Jupiterwasidentified with the GreekZeus. both in antiquity and importance.in which we are find the whole political system of 0]ympus. the poemsattributed to Homer. Henceforth the gods. but also in strength and vigour.

on the tasteful ordering of which the goddesseseven bestow extraordinary care. So completely the Greekssubject their did gods to human passions. they of never grow old. For instance. they are vulnerable alike in body and soul. Nor is their food so coarse as that of men. They refresh themselves in the same way with sleep. everything proceeds with the utmost rapidity. again. On the other hand. they are the "happy. they live on ambrosiaand nectar." "blessed" gods.14 Greek and Roman Mythology." who can readily gratify every desire. but remain ever young and beautiful. the gods " who live at ease. coming into the world in the morning. Although later art delights in representingsome of the deities either slightly clothed or quite naked. however. But here.^ Ida. as in many other respects. which he has himself invented. when once in full possession bodily and intellectual powers. they are far less fettered than mortals. in which they surpass mortals is that. however. Another natural necessityis clothing. and. Gods endowed with frames like those of mortals must neces- sarily be born in the sameway. and develope gradually both in mind and body. and have to support themselves with food and drink. The most important point. and exposedto every kind of painful sensation. Here again. he is found in the afternoon playing on the lyre. Compared with the race of men. the gods are subject to the samebodily wants as men. But this doesnot by any meansprevent their suffering occasionally from the pangs of sorrow and grief. who are subject to need and pain. the new-born Hermes rises from his cradle to steal the cattle of Apollo. and in this. ever free from diseaseand death. lie can follow all the events of the battle that ragesbefore Troy. greatly resemblethe daughters of Eve. yet we cannot justly conclude from this that the popular belief of the ancients conceivedthus of those gods. for they can hold out much longer without satisfying these wants. .

the other brides will sink into mistresses.Pqpular fdeas concerning the Gods. whilst the possibility of deceiving and duping Mm is by no means excluded. impure.and so is their knowledge. pestilences. 15 As regards mentalqualifications they are naturallyfar superioi to men. therefore. But even Zeus.and other evils-to endow themselvesor others with any forms they like. Still lessare they conceived omniscient as or omnipotent. to whom a far greater measureof power is accorded than to other gods. &c. and unjust. and to do many other things. of which we read in fairy tales. They are far from holy. Yet in the midst of . does not prevent their giving wayto every description viceand folly. and visit with punishment *the impiety and injustice of man. hatred. Different names will be used in different localities. again. They are able to interrupt the course of nature-to sendsudden storms. Let us take one of the first conceptions likely to spring up-that of the love of the heaven for the earth. they shun all that is evil. from which all nature is born. Their powersindeedare great. This. or if one be recognised by the whole nation as the wife. lying. whose great deedswe shall generally find to be those of the sun. men will at last forget that they all once meant the same. we shall not only find several gods of the light in Greece. in the sense in which we speak of the Supreme Being.and on whosewill the government of the universe depends. Where then are we to seek for the explanation of these ap- parentinconsistencies We have alreadysaid that the active 1 and creative forces of Nature were personified by the imagination of men. So with the everlasting war of the sun with the clouds. cruelty. jealousy. In the first place.and out of the simple personification will spring a series of divine marriages. they stand higher morally. is himself subjected to the immutable decreesof fate. but almost every tribe had a particular hero. of such as deceit.

This idea was more and more attached to Zeus himself. io which that which is good and holy alone was pleasing. the king of heaven.16 Greek and Roman all this confusion. men had a feeling that there was something above them better and holier than they. . as the notion grew thatf Zeus was the supremegod.

the Cyclopes. The interpretation of these divinities is . By this. borrowed from the Greeks. . On both points we have to dealwith. The mostpopularview is that according from to which Gsea Ge(the earth) first issuedfrom Chaos. the The first gods who peopled this new world were begotten of the earth partly by Uranus and partly by Pontus. lapetus. Ehea. BY Cosmogony. however. Hyperion. since E-omans the neverindulgedin any researches of this kind. According to Hesiod there were twelve Titans: six males-Oceanus. and the Centimanes.Coeus. Gseathen begot of herseJf Uranus(heaven).we must not understand huge a and shapelessmass. Phoebe. and Cr^" is. All that their poets have to say on the subject is.and Pontus (the sea). origin of the gods.PAET I-COSMOGONY AND THEOGONY.From her iinion with Uranus sprang the Titans. The accounts of the poets vary very materially as to how the world proceeded Chaos.jid Tethys. and six females-Tina. Themis. Mnemosyne. and Eros (the love that forms and binds all things) sprang into existence. from her union with Pontus various sea-deities. unbounded space. but merely dark. mountains. According to the common account the world was formed out of Chaos.whereor upon Tartarus (the abyss beneath the earth) immediately severed itself. the Greeks alone. Crius. the thoserelating understand relatingtothe legends to the creationof thewe by Theogony. without exception. L The race of Uranus. world.

who pavethe wayfor the universal dominion of their son Zeus. Uranus.Selene (moon). and induced Cronus. represent destructive forces of nature-perhaps the earthquake.18 Greek Roman and Mythology. Steropes(lightning). from whose union the frightful Gorgons and Grasse proceeded.fearinglest hiB-Tast-born«qns.and of the Harpies (storm-winds).and Eos (dawn).buried them directly after birtfc in the deep abyss beneath the earth. Many marriagesalso took place among the Titans themselves. But Cronus was not long destined to enjoy the fruits of his crime. The most important of all the Titans. The race of Pontus. Thaumas representsto us the majestyof the sea. the tempestuous sea. hut they doubtless represented elementary the forces of nature. This displeased their mother.>iL'e powerful Cyclopes and Centimanes. and Eurybia. The numerous sea-nymphsare descendedfrom Oceanus and Tethys. too. however. . we can clearly see.refer to the phenomena of the storm. The Cyclopeswere three in number-Brontes (thunder). cast into chains. and Gyes. are Cronusand Ehea. Thaumas. had numerous descendants. from Hyperion and Thia comethe deities of the light- Helios(sun). and Arges (sheet-lightning): these. from Coeus and Phoebethe deities of the night-Leto (dark night) and Asteria (starrynight). Ceto. threein numberare Cottus.typify all the dangersand terrors of the sea. which now passed to Cronus. and the storm-wind. The Centimanes (hundred-handed). Lastly. again.* somewhatdifficult. These. and compelled by his sons to abdicate his sovereignty. Briareus. He is the father of Iris (the rainbow). These.. ~N"ereus represents the sea in its quiet state : we shall have to speakof him and his daughterslater on.might one day seize his power.again. Phorcys. Uranus was mutilated. thereupon Gsea^ who prompted the Titans to conspireagainst their father. Phorcys and Ceto. 2. By Pontus Gsea becamethe mother of the fabulous sea-deities-Xereus. . the youngest bravestof them.to lay violent handsand on'Uranus.

In the place of her child. The shegoatAmalthea served his nurse. Hera. Zeus. that he swallowed his children immediately after their birth. was supposed to have been the sceneof this mighty war. with the help of the Cyclopes Centimanes. after a contest of ten years. Comparisonof the legends of other nations does not show us any such elaborategenealogy. Zeus and his adherents fought from Olympus. But their mother llhea. In order that the cries of the child might not betray his presenceto his suspicious father. The others. but Zeus.Cosn*ogo7iy Theogony. bring forth the children that he had devoured. and Hyperion-submitted without hesitationto the dominionof the new ruler of the world. Five had already suffered this fate-Hestia. and 19 The curse of Uranus. grieved at their lot. He then attackedand overthrew his father Cronus. So anxious was he to avert such a catastrophe. Zeus. who was thus rescued. the land which bears the clearest traces of natural convulsions. and Poseidon. Mnemosyne. Demeter. Themis. or attendant priests of Ehea. to One part of the Titans-Oceanus. whom he also compelled. Zeus has his counterparts almost everywhere. which was then closed by Poseidon with brazen gates. who prophesied that he would suffer a like fate at the hands of his own son. refused allegiance. drowned his voice in the clashing of their weapons. was fulfilled. the Curetes.Cronion? which wasassumed later in . Hades. and they were cast into Tartarus.was reared by the nymphsin a grotto on Mount Dicte. determined to rescueher next son. in the senseof the father of Zeus. in Crete. As a punishment. Thessaly. the Titans from the opposite mountain of Othrys. by a stratagem. by meansof a device of Gasa.ancl Uranus himself appearsin India. Zeus remained thus hidden until he had become a mighty though youthful god. she gave to her suspicious and cruel husbanda stone wrappedin swaddling clothes. overthrew them. is probably traceable to the commonepithet of Zeus. which he swallowed without further examination. however.whilst the beesbroughthim as honeyto eat. but Cronus.

Zeus shared the empire of the world with his two brothers. of which weresogreata stumbling-block the Greekphilosophers. As to the wars. of which we give After his victory over the Titans. Cronus is the only exception. of course.the back of his head being veiled. 1. It wasnatural to deduce from the idea that one power of nature sprang from another. an engraving (Fig.it would perhaps morecorrectto saytliat it he wasthe same thing to the early races men. everything else he retained for himself. This new order of things. Vatican Museum. was by no means . if his predecessor were supreme. as a symbol of his ter. which may be explained by the fact that the Romans identified him with their own Saturn.20 Greekand Roman Mythology. The Titans. the latter he set over the infernal regions. to we may noticethat the supreme must. or harvest-god. must havedispossessed him.!)" Fig. god have been the son of a supremegod. The former he made ruler of the ocean and waters.--Bust of Cronus. were not frequently represented in ancient art. and yet. not "being actually objects of worship. there reserved In the characVatican Museum at Rome of this is a bust kind in goodpreservation. Poseidon and Hades. He is generally depicted with a severe and gloomy expression of countenance. times to be a patronymic. however. the expression that the god of the first powerwasthe child of the god of the second.

Jier youngest and most powerful son. monster a with a hundredfire-breathing dragons' heads* whom she sent to overthrow the dominion of Zeus. buriedhim beneath Mount j^Etna Sicily. the giant Typhoeus. A greatbattle took place. In the more ancient of these works the Giants do not difor appearance. that of the Giants. against the dominion of Zeus. either in form from the Gods and Heroes. which shookheaven and earth. In later works they are re- presented with the bodies of dragons. cast into Tartarus. Zeus. fer. to (Pindarand Yirgil).Cosmlgony and Theogony. is in the act of chargingthem (Fig. by means his never-ceasing of thunderbolts. where Zeus. The resentment of Gaealed her to produce with Tartarus. the two were conquered. in his chariot drawn by four fiery horses. 21 securely established. according laterwriters and him or. commonly calledthe Giganto-machia. The early history oi Zeus.and no hostile attack ever after disturbed the peaceful easeof the inhabitants of Olympus. Theseare said to have sprung from the drops bloodwhichfell onthe earthfrom.the mutilatedbody of of Uranus. a favourite subject was with Greek art. and sentto sharethe fate of the vanquished Titans. in Thessaly. in which all the gods took part. The dominion of Zeuswas now securelyestablished. From the plains of Phlegra. In whence at times he still breathes out fire and flames toward heaven. . only the upper portionof thebody being human. they sought to storm Olympus by piling Pelion on Ossa. But after a bloody battle. They appear thus on the cameo celebrated of the Naples Museum. 2). Somepoetstell of another rebellion.aswell ashis contests the empireof the for universe.at length overcame Typhoeus.

" Skythe father/' he is to both nations the sourceof all life in nature.sends downrain.castsforth his lightning. is properly a goat-skin fastened to and supporting the true shield.and fertilising dew on the earth. and in a cameo he is seen with it wrapped around his left arm: similarly it was common to wrap the chlamys or scarf round the left arm. The segisusually belongs to Athene. and fringed with serpents.All the and phenomena the air weresupposed proceed of to from him. the controller and ruler of the universe. The segis. covered with scales.in the midst of which the fearful head of the Gorgonis fastened-he producesstorm. As being the god of heavenpar excellence.-THE GODS. later it appears as a short cloak. DEITIES.-Chief of the celestial deities is Zeus. Zens (Jupiter). and even as a breastplate. It is not often found in representations of Zeus. for purposes'of defence. though a statue of him at Leyden shows it. called by the Komans Jupiter. He gathers disperses clouds. stirs and the up his thunder. 1. With his segis-an impenetrable shield hung with a hundred golden tassels. I. who borrows it from her father in the Iliad.-SUPERIOR OF OLYMPUS. She .PAET II. snow.though often meaning shield. hail. and from his gracious handareshedblessing abundance.-THE GODS A.and tempest.

aa<l . giving them the victory over the invaders. The ancients. HenceZeus of is regarded the protector and defenderof all political order. froia the sameroot that gives us the "springing" goat we have the storm-cloud " tossed " over the sky. As Zeus Xenius (Jiospitalis) he protects the wanderer. he watches over oaths. In this word we probably see a confusion of two idess. 23 is seen wearing it in Fig. moreover. and suppliants found shelter. as From. all strangers.The Godsof Olympus. They saw in him a personification. but he particularly watches over that associationwhich is the basis of the political fabric-the family. to him they are responsible for a conscientious fulfilment of their duties. The head of every household was therefore. Zeus. keeps watch over their orderly course. Zeus Horkios (op/aos. which generally stood in the middle of the court (in small households this was represented by the hearth). of that principleof undeviating orderand harmony which pervades both the physicaland moralworld.however.of similar origin. were not content to regard Zeus merely asa personification Nature. from which side he appearsfar more important and awful. and accompanies the youths of the land as they march to the defenceof their country's borders. All civil and political communities enjoy his protection. in a certain sense. The strict unalterable laws by which he rules the community of the gods form a strong contrast to the capricious commands his fatherCronus. though. fugitives. He also watches over boundaries. so to speak. One of the most important props of political society is the oath. also presidesover councils and assemblies. 9. and punishes perjury. and suggests to them wise counsels. and accordingly. It was he who presented the offerings to the god in the name of the family. different. as deus fidius of the Bomans). they regarded of him alsofrom an ethical standpoint. Those among them who unjustly exceed their powers and pervert justice he never fails to punish.him the kings of the earth receive their sovereignty and rights.the priest of Zeus. At his altar.

though someof his shrines had a special importance. the lightning. on the northern banks of the river Alpheus.24 Greek Roman and Mythology* punishes those who violate the ancient laws of hospitality by mercilessly turning the helpless stranger from their door. His wor ship extended throughout the whole of Greece. by Phidias. Though he possessedno proper oracle among the Romans. Zeus not only had an oracle of his own at Do dona in Epirus. where the Pelasgian Zeus was worshipped at a time prior to the existence of any temples in Greece. was an additional inducement to devotees. in Elis. He was also worshipped on the summit of Mount Tomarus. The magnificent statue of Zeus. in the rustling of whose branches the deity revealed himself to the faithful. But all the earlier shrines were overshadowedby the great national seat of the worship of Hellenic Zeus at Olympia. Neither was the worship of Jupiter any less extensive in Italy. Zeus wasthe earliest national god of the Greeks. The most renowned all his shrines of was undoubtedly . Thus the chief deity of heaven was naturally regardedas the highest sourceof inspiration. the foot of which lay Dodona-mountain-tops at being naturally the earliest seats of his worship. yet the latter looked with all the more care and anxiety on the phenomena of the air and sky. He was here representedin the celebrated form of the sacredoak. the flight of birds. The superstition of early times saw in all the phenomenaof the heavens manifestations of the divine will. The most ancient of them was that at Dodona. which was the most ancient in Greece. or dreams. the right interpretation of which formed a special and difficult branch of knowledge. As the supreme oracular deity. but also revealed the future by the mouth of his favourite son Apollo.who flocked thither from every quarter. and was believed to reveal his will to men in the thunder. where the renowned Olympian games were celebrated.

Zeus devoured her. by whom he became the father of the Horse and the Mcera3 (Fates). and partly in the fact that the lively fancy of the Greek pictured every new production under the guise of procreation. and the mother of Aphrodite. The mythology of the Greeksstands in notorious contrast to that of the Eomans. It was soon after this that he produced Pallas Athene from his own head. the daughter of Oceanus. who would deprivehim of the empire it had cost him so much to attain. Here we must remark that. we must take a glance at his numerous family. therewasnothing farther from the intention of of the Greeksthan to represent the supreme deity of heaven as a sensualand lascivious being. by afterbeing nearly destroyedby fire in the time of Sulla. and the consequent jealousy Hera. the work of the Greek artist Apollonius. 25 the temple erected Tarquin on the Capitol at Borne. the Muses. Before proceedingto discuss the god as he appearsin art. after the model of the Olympian Zeus. By Demeter(Ceres) he became father of Persephone the (Proserpine. The explanation lies partly in the great number of contemporaneouslocal forms of worship that existed independently of each other. an unusuallynumerous and posterity. a daughter of Oceanus. goddess vegetaof tion) . by Leto (Latona). by whom he had Hermes. of the Charites (Graces). This. In that part of mythology which teaches the genealogy of the gods. was restored to more than its pristine splendour. one of the Titans.The*Godsof Olympus. His second goddess-wife was Themis. Mnemosyne. Dione appearsas the wife of Zeus of Dodona.of by of . The original earthen image was replaced by a statue of gold and ivory. in attributing to Zeus a great number of mortal as well as im- mortalspouses. whilst Arcadian Zeuswas wedded to Maia. in spite of the occasional jokes of the comic poets on the numerous amours of the god. fearing lest she should bear a son. by Eurynome. the earliest wife of Zeus was Metis (prudence).

Of all these the most renowned was the magnifiStatues of Zeus were necessarily very numerous.and thus acknowledged own image. the is the daughter of Cadmus.who of was recognised later mythology as his only legitimate queen. It wasmadeof goldand ivory. The youngest all his divine wives. and then fell in equal divisions on either side. The story goes that Phidias. and the kindly dispenserof all good gifts. which rose straight from the brow. hereafter. his This sublime masterpiece Phidias. also of gold and ivory . as first depicted Jupiter as devoid of all family ties. Hephaestus (Vulcan).imparted to the face a lion-like expressionof conscious power. far superiorto all godsand men. the top of which perchedan on eagle. By her he becamethe father of Ares (Mars).). At the same time. the expression the slightly-opened lips lent an idea of kindly of benevolence. breast. in his left wasa royal sceptre.prayed of the god a sign that he was well pleased with his work. It was only after their religion had been Hellenised that men termed him the son of Saturn and Ops. This wasrendered still more effective by the high forehead and strongly-formed nose. The uncoveredparts-the face. great extent of his worship and the great number of his templesthat existed in Greece.which was reckoned of among the seven wondersof the world. The object of Phidias was to represent him to mankind. after completing the statue. both in power and wisdom . Io-will The others-Leda. and be mentioned Themythologyof the Eomans.and on wasmore than 40 feet high. continued in existence. Europe.king of Thebes.C. the work of the Athenian sculptor Phidias (500-432B. not only as the omnipotent ruler of Olympus.and hands-were of ivory. though not . The hair. The figure wasseated a lofty throne. Zeusthereuponcaused flashof lightning to descend a through the openroof of the temple. throat. made Juno his wife and Minerva his daughter. In his right hand was a figure of Victory. by was his sister Hera. or more probably a statueof wood wasoverlaid with platesof ivory andgold. The numerous lengthy descriptions that exist can give usbut a faint idea of the lofty majesty that the sculptor diffusedover the countenance of the god. Danae. but also as the graciousfather of all. both from the cent statue of Zeus at Olympia.and mother of Dionysus. Among his mortal mistresses most celebrated Semele.and Hebe.26 Greek and Roman Mythologyf Apollo and Artemis. wehave alreadyremarked. Alcmene.

.-Zeus of Otricoli. Vatican Museum.

.

-Jupiter C Verospi. . 29 without injury. It appearsto have been destroyed fire in the time of TheodosiusIII. Vatican Museum. for upwardsof 800 years.The+Godsof Olympus. 4. by Fig.

one of which is in the Florentine and the other in the Paris Museum. in Carrara marble-now in the Vatican Museum at Rome-which was discovered in the last century at Otricoli (Fig. the ball beneath or near his seat.besides equally an in Epirus.the latter being a mark of sovereignty.are the most important of the existing statuesof 2eus"by Greek and Boman sculptors.and now in the Museum at Naples. 4). His characteristic featuresare the clusteringhair.we all of may gather that the object of ancient art was to present him especially the benign ruler of the universe. 5. as a symbol of the universehe rules. as a symbol of his worship . The union of serenemajestyand benevolence is the chief feature in the sublime countenance. falling like a maneon either side of his fine archedbrow. 3). there is a bust of Zeus. (After Overbeck. the ea^le.-Coins of Elis with Phidias' Zeus.discovered at Pompeii. The following. a figure of Victory. The first in point of artistic worth is a bust of Zeus. Lastly.as a symbol of his sovereignty .30 Grreek and Roman Mftkology. Next comes a colossal statue in marble. also in the beautiful bronze statue in the British Museum. . the votive bowl. sitting enthroned in as Fig. and sometimes with an olive-branchor plain band.lastly. found at Paramythia Vatican Museum(Fig. and the rich wavy beard. the thunderbolt. In Fig. oak beingsacred the to him . 5 we give an engravingof two coins of Elis. His headis sometimes adornedwith a garland of oak-leaves. and. On comparing the extant art monuments Zeus. His attributes consistof the sceptre.) conscious majestyand blissful easeon the heights of Olympus. known as the Jupiter of Verospi.

as queen of heaven. and she seems to have been chiefly honoured as the guardian of the marriage tie.The. she was supposedto watch over its sanctity.^As the specialpatronessof marriage.and to protect the women in childbirth.for which reasonshe. They sangof the solemn marriage Zeus of and Hera. whereas. eldest of the daughters of Cronus and B. Hera (Juno). the especial protectress of her own sex. The nobleness the womanwho preserves of inviolate the sanctityof this bond finds in her its most sublime expression.was supposed control the phenomena the air to of and sky. and. The natural signification of Hera appears to have quickly disappeared among the Greeks. Her conjugal relations to Zeus. In Boeotiaand Euboea her worship . 2. to vouchsafe blessingof children. both in her worship and in the representations of artists. was the feminine counterpart of Zeus. The cradle of her worship was Argos. She represents air or atmosphere.Godsof Olympus. afforded the poets a rich and productive material for serious and sportive poetry.hea. and of the cruel fate which overtook the mortal women who enjoyed the favours of Zeus. Argos.and Sparta are pointed out in the time of Homer as her favourite towns. Her worship naturally extended her new character goddess marriage as of of became moreprominent. 31 She Is the according to Homer.shared with him all the honours of his position. the remembrance of which was celebrated at springtide with festive offerings and marriage rites before the shrine of the goddess. lier brother and husband. on which account she is often termed Argive. the like Zeus. Mycenae. she appears as a gracious and kindly deity. which form the substance of all the myths that refer to her.-Hera. It was thus that jealousy and contention becamethe leading features in the character of the goddess. The worship of Hera was originally not very extensive. Neither did they fail to tell of the conjugal strife of the royal pair.

Greekand RomanMythology. and. the work of the Sicyonian artist. and empire of * Polycletus. madeof ivory andgold. was very ancient. .between Argos and Mycenae Here was a most magnificent statue of the goddess. the most celebratedartist of antiquity. architect. Musuum. under the name of Juno Eegina. to as In this Hera did among addition shewa^venerated.-Barberini Vatican Juno. He was a contemporaryof Phidias. next to him. and caster in bronze. wasa sculptor. but shrine her was chief the Heraeum. Polycletus. as the tutelary deity of the city Fig. a native of Sicyon. 6.* Juno (properly Jovino) takes the sameplace as goddess of childbirth and patroness of marriage among the the Romans Greeks.

-Head of Hera. perhapsafter Polyeletus. day of March. when all the matronsof the city marchedin procession her temple on the Esquiline. 7. Naples. 33 Eome. where she had a separate chapelin the temple of Jupiter. The Matronalia.The Godsof Olympus. the chief festival of the goddess. Her chief shrine was on the Capitol. was celebrated on the first Fig. and there offered to .

chanting a war-song. whilst a mighty commotion both on sea and land announced the great event to the world. significant of her power. combining in a rare degreewoman'schief ornaments-dignity and grace. now in the NaplesMuseum. though not actually found in Greek mythology. the votive bowl in the hand. the daughter of Tritos. The most common is that which has been already mentioned. the foreof head of the sky is not only a natural idea. and a high and noble forehead. well-defined nostrils. The victims usually sacrificed to Juno were young heifers : her sacred birds were the goose and the crow. which. thanks to casts and photographs. distinguishedby the admirabledraping of the garments. 7). but one which can be traced in the legends of other nations.. may be traced in Amphitrite. 6).34 Greek and Roman Mythology s her flowers and libations. at 3. The Farnese Juno. to which the peacock of the Greek Hera was afterwards added. The birth of the dawn from. an entire and upright figure of great size (Fig. also at times the cuckoo.-The accounts which the Greeks gave of the birth of Pallas vary considerably. Several of the other stories of her birth are connected with the name Tritogenia. whose name. somewhat curling lips. Zeus produced her from his head. in full armour. The attributes of the goddess consist of the sceptre and diadem. . the pomegranate as a symbol of love. a god. The characteristic features of Juno are a somewhat prominent chin. In her physical character Pallas appearsas the goddess the dawn. Pallas Athene (Minerva). as a symbol of the married woman . According to this. is tolerably well known. In the same museumthere is a singularly beautiful head of Hera (Fig. The great goddess of war. with poised spear. then sprang forth from her father's head. which perhaps lays claim to reflect the conception of Polycleius. and the peacock or goose her feet. After this comes the Juno Barberini of the Vatican Museum. expressing unbend ing determination of will. The most celebrated of the art monuments that relate to Juno is the Juno Ludovisi. also deserves mention. the veil (often omitted in the statues of later artists). large lull eyes. which lie had ordered Hephaestusto cleave open. Her lofty and commanding countenance is the ideal of perfect womanly beauty. a colossalmarble bust of remarkablebeauty.as herald of spring.

which originally expressed birth of the dawn from the water. wasafterwards the explainedin various ways. in the midst of which is the dreadful head of Medusa.and surrounded with serpents. to and she is represented the patronessof every branch of as science. Looked at from her ethical side. in art monuments. is represented as a breastplate coveredwith dragon's scales. The latter. and many other feminine accomplishments. She is. In Homer she figures. it was she who invented the distaff and loom. she appears as the goddess af wisdom.as the kindly guide and protectress individual heroes. It was she who firot gave men the rake and the plough. she also affords her mighty protection to towns and cities at home. a reflection and personification of that profound wisdom and sagacity with which Father Zeus controls the destinies of the world. This name. of such as Odysseus.the dreadful aegis. Athene is equally lavish in blessing.besideshelmet. as well as the art of dyeing woven stuffs. It was she who first taught mankind to manage the horse. useful inventions of all kinds are ascribed to her. and rewards them with victory and rich spoils. Thus she appears as goddessof peace as well as war. she also invented the war-trumpet and flute. Hence we may easily gather the other features of her character. the protectress of states. and to be subject to her influence. . By later writers this skill in art is extended otherthings. As goddessof peace. Diomedes. Everything necessary either to the physical or intellectual welfare of mankind was believed to proceed from her. and the Lake Tritonis. and manufacture. inspires the soldiers with ardour for the fray. As goddess of war she usually wears. and spear. Achilles.art. which has the effect of turning every one that looks on it into stone. and to build ships and chariots. in the first place.The Gods of Olympus. shield. In the latter capacity she accompaniesthe army on its march. besides. and the first part wasevenderived from a provincialGreekword meaninghead. and all that their welfare requires in peace or war proceedsfrom her. 35 Triton. Accordingly.

and identified with the Greek Pallas. in a certain measure. was very extensive in Greece. She was here worshipped.36 Greekand Roman Mythology: Sheis also calledAthene Hygiea. and shealsoenjoyedthe highestveneration Sparta. and Ehodes. it immediately put forth a fresh shoot. but Athene caused olive-treeto grow." was Hellenised at a very early period. however.which she won after her well-known contest with Poseidon. The sacredolive-tree. Argos and Corinth were also renowned seats of the worship of Pallas Athene. of which city she was really the tutelary deity. We cannot wonder.which was erected by Pericles on the Acropolis. excite the wonder and admiration of the world. the peculiar property of the goddess. She also had templeson the . therefore. that the worship of a goddess so benevolent.and to promote the growth and health of the youth of the land.and was the thus held to have won the victory. The whole land of Attica was. Zeus had decreed the sovereignty over Attica to that deity who shouldbestowon the land the mostuseful present. even in the present day. Poseidon thereupon created the horse. The Roman Minerva. and possessed such a wonderful vitality that. as the tutelary deity of the city-and empire.Thessaly. and of all handiwork of women. which was thus called into existence. in consequence. and the remains of which. in company with Jupiter and Juno.to ward off pestilence. when the Persiansburnt it after capturing the town. Her most important ehrine was the Parthenon (temple of the virgin goddess). In Borne. the warlike character of the goddesswas completely merged in that of the peaceful inventress and patroness of the art and sciences. and exercising such an important influence on human life. was shown in the Temple of Erechtheus on the Acropolis. Arcadia. indeed. in Boeotia."because was believed she to send pure atmosphere. and had. whose name was derived from a root meaning " to think. Nowhere did she receive a higher degreeof veneration than at Athens. own shrine in the her temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.

was celebratedevery year at Athens in honour of the goddess. and were then called Palladia. Another festival of less importance. As Minerva wasalsopatroness schools. 37 Aventine and Coeliaii hills. called the Lesser Panathensea.artistically in embroidered by the Athenian maidens. were celebrated with great pomp every four years.which stoodin the temple on the Acropolis. Men delighted to believethem to have fallen from heaven. The virgin goddesswas at all times a favourite subject with ancient art. Horse races. the nomadictribes. the Quinquatrus Majores. Even in the earliest times. Phidias outdid them all in his renownedstatue of Athene Parthenos.and to be a sure meansof protection against hostile attack.in the Campus Martins. The goddess here wearsa tight-fitting helmet.The Panathensea. The figure was 39 feet high. during the stormy periodof the invasion.the schoolboys took part in of also the celebration.a welcome holiday. before casting in bronze or marble sculpture was known. In proceeding give an. Festivals of the goddess. the chief festival of the Greek Pallas. When Greek art was in its prime. and an offering was made to the goddess the shapeof a costly garment (peplus). to which a third was added "by Pompey. without leaving any clue behind it. and by artists and artisans. decorated a serpent. while the imagesof the gods wereas yet rudely carved in wood. must of of we first mentiona magnificentmarble bust which King Ludwig I.and which was formerly in the Villa Albarii.C.. and enjoyed.The Godsof Olympus. emblem the is with the of .took place at the same time. of Bavaria procuredfor the Munich collection. in 61 B. the first masters vied with each other in the representation of the goddess. held on the 19th of March.. of to account the mostimportant existing statues the goddess. andwas.in later times. topof which. Its majestic of beautynaturally formed one of the chief attractions of the magnificent temple. Thesewoodenimagesusually represented goddess the as standing upright with poised spear in front of the battle. was extended five days. A solemn procession passedthrough the streets of Athens up to the Acropolis. andwasconstructed ivory and gold. at Borne. Pallas was a frequent subject of delineation. It wasespecially to observed all engaged by in intellectual pursuits. It disappeared. At Rome the chief festival of Minerva. athletic and musical contests.

not lessbeauti- ful. Both re- present the goddessin the character a benigndeity of fostering all peacefulworks. like falls a cape over her shoulders. having been found in a place where there was formerly a temple of Minerva. . in accordance with the Roman conception. a terrible but striking contrastto the pure and noble countenance of the goddess.and is fastened in the middle by the Gorgon's head. the Pallas Giustiniani. Her breastplate. is held to be the finest (Fig.-Pal las Giustiniani. . 8). which is borderedwith serpents. of the Vatican Museum at Borne. with a delicate and youthful expression of countenance. with a gentle but earnest . This probably once stood in a Roman temple. Another. was discovered in the exca- vations of Pompeii. Vatican. 8. but with grave and almost masculine features. and is no \v in the Naples Museum. preserved is in the Vatican Museum at Rome. Next come two statues found near Velletri. This statue. A fine bust. one of which is in the Capitoline Museum at Rome. whilst the other forms a chief ornament of the Louvre collection in Paris.expression of countenance.38 Greek and Roman Mythology* wisdom. Among existing (fulllength) statues. although neither the spear nor helmet are wanting. bears a more peaceable character.

Fig. Villa Albaui. 9. . -Athene Polias.

as and the helmet. the . grave character of the virgin goddess. 9). Minerva appears as a warlike goddess. Apollo. On combining the Minerva.the second of profound meditation.-As Athene is the favourite daughter of Zeus. whilst her mien and bearing give token of strength and dignity.-Pallas Athene. 4. animals of Minerva we Among the favourite may mention the ser- pent. are in accordance with the chastecharacterof the goddess. and again in a statueof the Villa Alban' in which a lion's skin thrown over the head ^~^ takes the place of the characteristic features of helmet(Fig. on accountof the necklaceworn "bythe goddess. so Apollo ranks as the most gloriousand beautiful of his sons. The closed lips and the prominentchin betraya determined and resolute disposition. we may gather that her most prominent trait is a lofty seriousness. which serves a shield. Naples.40 Greekand RomanMythology.in an evidently hostile attitude (Fig.10. The attributes of Minerva consist of the Fig.the spear. generally is called Minerveau Collier. aegis. The first is a symbol of wisdom. which. Like other sons of Zeus. in a statue discoveredat Herculaneum (now at Naples). This is alsothe case with the celebrated statueat the Louvre. and the cock. and. indeed. 10). On the other hand. The helmet is sometimes adorned with the figures of griffins. he is a god of light. significant of the overpowering might of the wearer. and the last of eagerdesire for the fray. The FarneseMinerva of the Naples Museum and the "Hope" copyin Londonbetray similar characteristics. well befitting the chaste. The statues all fully clothed. the owl.

The Gods of Olympus. Apollo next appears as the protector of streets and houses. she was compelled when pregnant to wander about. As the bright god of heaven. and had to be fastened to the bottom of the seaby meansof lofty columns. ancient myths. who assignthe jealousy of Hera as the causeof her wanderings. A conical pillar was usually erected at the side of the doors of houses as a symbol of him. This may be easily explained. According to the sacred legend. refused to receive her. This myth was afterwards altered by later writers. The rays of the sun do indeed put to flight the cold of winter. and destroyed both men and cattle. because mankind. soon after his birth. His mother. Connected with this is his repute as a god of health. sending virulent pestilencesand dealing out destruction to men and animals by means of his unerring arrows. But though Apollo thus appears as the foe of all that is evil and impure. we find Apollo. Leto at length found a refuge on Delos. to whom everything impure and unholy is hateful. With his arrows he slew both the giant Tityus and the serpent Python. preparing to do battle with the evil powers of darkness. 41 purest and highest representativeof this mighty power in nature.Leto (Latona). and a defenceagainst all sorceries. but as their heat increasesthey themselvesultimately become the causeof disease and death. the latter a monster that in- habited the valley of the Plistus. however. which was once a floating island. by glancing at the natural signification of the god. represent him also as a terrible god of death. To proceed further in the analysis of his character as god of light. These and similar myths are merely a panegyric on the conquering power exercised by the genial warmth of Spring over the dark gloom of Winter. dreading the appearanceof the mighty god.is a representative the of darkness of the night. This is beautifully portrayed in the fable of the death of Hyacinthus. nevertheless. near Delphi. one who is .

But' Apollo attained his greatest importance among the Greeksas god of prophecy. but who. are mythically representedas his sons. the other hand. he alone can afford con- solationto guilty souls. and an oracle on the Ismenus. These were generally women and maidens. This featurein his character. The responses of this oracle exercised. especially on the Dorian tribes. more extensively is developed in the personof his son. either at oracularshrines proper. near Miletus. on. which he waswont to play with masterlyskill at the banquets the of gods. who. The inspiration of Apollo was distinguished by the fact that the god revealed the future less by meansof outward signs than by inducing an ecstatic condition of mind bordering on madnessin those personsthrough whom he wished to proclaim his oracles.Asclepius(^Esculapius). Even those pursuedby the Furieshe sometimes receives in tenderness and pity. The .gave forth the responses the god. Apollo was therefore regarded as the leader of the Muses (Musagetes). an oracle at Didyma.is all-powerfulto protect against physicalmaladies. In early of times they were somewhat numerous.But it is not only outward ills that this wonder-working deity can cure: as the true redeemerfrom sin and crime. near Thebes. or dwelling aloneas Sibyls. a fine instance of which is found in the story of Orestes. These were eventually all thrown into the shadeby that of Delphi.whilst the Muses accompanied him with their wondrous strains. There was an oracle at Clarus. His favourite instrument was the lyre. such as Orpheus and Linus. in the fact that it exercisesso soothing and tranquillising an influence on the soul of man. however. His oraclescontinued to exercise an important influence on social and political life. .42 Greek and Roman Mythology? indeed able to send diseaseand death. and all the great singers of antiquity. even down to the latest times. an all-powerful influence.during a long period of Grecian history. near Colophon. It is here that we must seekthe explanation of his characteras god of music.

although they vouchsafed hints as to the future. was little less renowned. too.said to have been instituted by Theseus.under the pressure of a grievous pestilence. The Apollo of the Romans. which were comprehensible only to the initiated priests. after the destruction of the old one by fire.and partly by the gaseous vapours that issuedfrom a cleft in the earth beneath the sacred tripod.who ascribedhis victory at Actium chiefly to the assistance the god. his birthplace. The gorgeous temple was rebuilt in the time of the Pisistratidse. The ecstaticcondition in which shegavethe responses. besides.000). manifested itself in a foamingat the mouth and in convulsions of the body.000 talents (more than £2. were celebrated every four years in honour of the god. and wherever the Greek coloniesextended. in the character to of god of healing.000. Its wealth from offerings becameso great that their value was computed at 10. He accordingly of . or priestessof Apollo. were brought aboutpartly by the chewingof laurel leaves. The sanctuary itself was situated at the foot of Mount Cynthus. for which reasonno one was buried there. At a comparatively early period men began to feel the want of a prophetic deity. Here. Delphi naturally became the chief seat of the worship of Apollo. In the neighbourhoodof Delphi the Pythian gameswere celebrated in the third year of every Olympiad. but the whole island was sacredto the god..but also in Asia Minor. was trans- ferred to Romefrom Greece.The Godsof Olympus.hewasearly admittedinto the Roman system. The shrine of the god at Delos.C. not only in Greece.a great number of less celebrated shrines and temples. as we gather from the fact that the first temple really dedicated to Apollo was erected in 429 B. Moreover. as the Roman gods. Apollo had. as his name indicates. The worship of Apollo wasespecially exaltedby the EmperorAugustus. games. 43 convulsions of the Pythia. confined their responses a mere Yea or Nnj.

11.Apollo Belvedere. Vatican. Fig. by Scopas.. .44 Greek and Roman Mythology« erected magnificent a temple to Apollo on tile Palatine.which wasembellishedwith the celebratedstatue of Apollo Citharoedus.

his head covered with fair clusteringlocks.The Godsof Olympus. fundamentaltype. Apollo constantly bears very youthful appearance. His figure is strong and handsome. It wasprincipally developed Scopas by and Praxiteles.12. . war . and his faceexpressive majesty. is a and always beardless. which wasusually followed in the representation of the god.which flourished from the to end of the Pelopoanesian to the reign of Alexander the Great. Such is the original and This remark leadsus to contemplatethe different statuesof the Fig. who belonged the later Attic school. of but markedwithal by a cheerful serenity.-Head of Apollo Belvedere. 45 god.

and completelyenvelopedin a chlamys. is wonderfully soft and delicate. in order to afford a clearer idea of its wondrous beauty (Fi^. the ancient Antium. the as or nearly so. acquired considerable renown by his bronze figure of a youthful Apollo pursuing a lizard (Apollo Sauroctonus). of was statue. is a work of scarcely beauty. At other times he wearsa mild and benevolent aspect.which is entirely nude. he is then distinguishedby his lute.in which case godis represented nude. The serpentcreepingup the tree is a symbol of the powersof darkness vanquished the god by (Fig. of formerly called the Muse of Barberini. This invaluable work was procured by Augustus for the temple he erectedto Apollo on the Palatine.46 Greek Roman and Mythology/ Theprincipalcreation Scopas a marble.a younger contemporary of Scopas. a youthful figure restingafter battle. He standswith his right hand and leg againstthe trunk of a tree. 11). which is characterised a lively dancing moveby ment of the figure. in his left hand he negligentlyholds the bow.whilst his right hand is raisedto his head in a meditativefashion. The shapeof less the body. It may also be taken as the symbol of life and healing. 12).whilsthisright glides in over the strings. Praxiteles. The god is hererepresented an as a musician. 13). appears drink in with rapture the heavenlytones. The animatedexpression his face. of the Florencegallery.and armed with quiver and bow. A pure and heavenly inspiration seemsto pervade the features of the laurel-crowned . and is generally regarded an imitation of the as masterpiece Scopas of already mentioned. probably as a symbolof fear and terror.with the regis. is exquisitely beautiful. The proud self-con- The so-called Apollino. representing the god as a Pythian Citharoadiis with the lyre in his hand.near Nettuno. which is markedby a somewhat quieter attitude . to In thoseworks which represent god as a Pythian lute-player the in a long Ionian garment. 96).indicating his of entire devotion to his art. Apollo Belvedere. like the serpent of Asclepius (see p. and is now in the Vatican. The most important works of this of kind are the Apollo Citharoadus the Munich collection (Fig. which wasregarded even by the ancientsas a music-loving bird. We have also given a larger engraving of the head of the Belvedere Apollo. With his left arm the god leans upon a tree . The gooseat his feet. In existing art monuments sometimes conceptionof a warlike. the vengefuldeity obtains. and the so-calledApollo Musagetes the of Vatican collection. which was discovered 1503. the in sciou-^nessa conqueringdeity is inimitably expressed his whole of in attitude. The FarncseApollo of the NaplesMuseum possesses equally graceful form. Of the former kind is the most beautiful and celebrated of all his existing statues. clothed in a long robe reaching to the feet. in his hand.we perceivean almost femininefigure and a visionary expression face. hisleft handheholdsthelyre. his left arm outstretched.

-Apollo Citharcedus. his mighty lyre. Munich.The Godsof Olympus. to is suspended from a band across chest. ing 13. . his vanquished rival. 47 god.and is aptly adornedwith the the portrait of Marsyas. to the tonesof which lie appears besinging.

the chief of which is a marble statue in the Vatican collection. the tripod and the omphalos (navel). and lyre. and the dolphin . Like Apollo. she is a beautiful and propitious deity. of on which he is often depicted as sitting. not only for the destruction of monsters. midway between youth and boyhood. and is equally the foe of all that is evil and impure. The story of . surrounded by her nymphs. as symbols of his wolf. of found in the theatre of Dionysus. The principle attributes of Apollo are the bow. the goose. all of whom she overtops by a head. armed with quiver and bow she ranges mountain and valley. of which she avails herself. accompanied by a band of nymphs. however. The chase ended. but like him. Many copiesof it still exist. His sacred animals were the To these may be added. arrows. Like him. rejoices shegazes the innocentsports as on of her lovely daughter. in order to sei2e a favourable moment to nail it to the tree with his arrow. at times. she delights to bathe in some fresh spring. the swan. too. Her favourite amusement is the chase. the bat. laurel crown. death and destruction among mankind. quiver. but also at times to chastise the insolence of man-witness the death of the children of Niche. with whom she entirely harmonises when regarded from her physical aspect. the three last being music-loving creatures. she is skilled in the use of the bow. the hind. or to lead off some favourite dance on the flowery meadows. the lattex being a representation the earth's centrein the temple at Delphi. prophetic power.48 Greekand Roman Mythology. Artemis (Diana).Leto.-Artemis is the feminine counterpart of her twin brother Apollo. she can deal out. Then the heart of her mother. up which a lizard is creeping. she promotesthe growth of the young plant. The delicate figure of the god. whose patronessshe remained till their marriage. and to whom she afforded an example of chastity. The god is eagerly watching its movements. Like him. The god also appears standingon the omphalos as in the case a marble statue lately . leans carelessly against the trunk of a tree. Lastly. 5. the graceful statue of Apollo Sauroctouus(Lizard-slayer) deserves mention. As a virgin goddessshe was especially venerated by young maidens.

and the story arose that Iphigeuia was conveyed by the goddessto Tauris. in the later days of confusion of religions. The Eornan Diana. not a Hellenic deity. his daughter Iphigcnia. Like the GreekArtemis. Artemiswasfrequently confounded with Seleneor Phoebe(Luna). in fact. 49 Actaeon. who was early identified with ". known to us as "Diana of the Ephesians. although the .brought the image of the goddessto Greece. previous to the departure of the Greeks for Trov.The Godsof Olympus. The Scythians in Tauris likewise had a goddess whom they propitiated with human sacrifices. a dark and cruel deity.shepossessedveryancientshrineon Mount Algidus. This caused her to be con- founded with ArtemisOrthia.) Originally. shows that shedid not sufferanyinjury to her virgin modestyto go unpunished. continued to grow fainter and fainter.he Greek Artemis. As such.who was changed into a stag and then torn to pieces by his own dogs. just asher brother Apollo is unmistakably identical with the sun. The Ephesian Artemis. This is the same Artemis to whom Agamemnon was about to offer. This wasalsothe case with Artemis. but causedinstead a number of boys to be cruelly whipped before the image of the goddess on the occasion of her animal festival. shewasalso regarded as the tutelarygoddess women. an Asiatic. from which place she subsequently. The national Artemis of the Greeks was originally quite distinct from the Artemis Orthia." was distinct from all that have been mentioned. (For this story see the Theban legends. it wasagainrevived. until. She was. in Aulis.near a Tusculum. of and was invoked by women in childbirth. however.Artemis appears have been the goddess the to of moon. to whom human sacrifices were offered in Laconia. This conception. was likewise originally a goddess of the moon. assistedby her brother Orestes. Lycurgus abolished this barbarous custom.

-Diuna of Versailles. 14. .Fig.

among whose warlike inhabitants he was held in high esteem. at Tibur (Fig. and is as in the act of turning with angry mien on the pursuers. goddess in a most striking attitude. and spear. still strung. but rather as the protectress of wild animals. Artemis is a favourite subject with the masters of the later Attic school.and also a torch.although his worship was not so . and her whole deportment expresses proudjoy of victory. Among existing statues. the dog.according to Homer.-Ares. slender and light of as foot. the land of boisterous. 6. As such. the wise disposerof battles. it is probable. originally a personification of the angry clouded sky.and the wild boar were esteemed sacred to her. and is a worthy companion the BelvedereApollo. however. conceived havingjust cometo the rescueof a limited deer. a certain political importance Korneafter having beenmadeby ServiusTullius in the tutelary deity of the Latin League. from which her right hand has just directed the arrow. and is eagerlywatching its effect. although it doesnot to quite equalthis in beauty. her left hand is the bow. as an emblemof her power to dispense light and life. It is now a chief ornamentof the Louvre collect ion. and in her left she holds the bow. The chief attributes of Diana are the bow. which allow her to pass unencumbered through the thickets of the forest. by andby the high girt robeand Cretanshoes. 14). was in Thrace. 51 matrons of Greecelooked for more protection in this respect at the hands of Hera. The hind. she possessed ii sacredgrove and temple on the Aventine. His home. and without womanly fulness. In. Her devotion to the chaseis clearlybetokened the quiver and bow which she generally bears. which was evidently therefore a wild animal.the bear. quiver. With her She is right hand she graspsan arrow from the quiver that hangs at her back. Her She has just sent forth her foot is likewise upraised in triumph.wintry storms. The hound at her side is just about to start in eager pursuit of the mark. which came from the Villa of Hadrian. which he is clearly by distinguished from Athene. He was. She gained. A really beautiful statue of the Vatican collection depicts the deadlyarrow. Ares (Mars).the most celebrated the so-calledDiana is of Versailles.The Gods of Olympus. In this statuethe goddess doesnot appear as a huntress.represents war from its fatal and destructivevside. the sonof Zeusand Hera. Sheis alwaysrepresented youthful.

52 Greek and Roman Mythology. he ranges the battlefield. and they caredlittle-but as the god of the spring triumphing over the powers of winter that he was worshipped. He here appears as a deity who delights only in the wild din of battle. By somewriters they are described as his sons. With strength he combines great agility. he is overmatched in battle by Athene. According to an Athenian local legend. accordingto Homer. This deity was regardedwith a far greater degreeof veneration in Rome. He was here regardedas the god of vengeance. and is. and is never weary of strife and slaughter. He seems to have occupied an important position even among the earliest Italian tribes. who elsewhere appearsas the wife of Hephaestus. with waving plume. helmet. Clad in brazen armour from head to foot. however-for which. and Aphrodite. Ey her he becamethe father of Harmonia. Homer. Among the warlike people of Sparta the worship of Ares was also extensive. under the appellation of Mars. It was not as god of war. or Mavors.his bull's hide shield on his left arm. It was from his bounty that the primitive people looked for the prosperous . Strong though he be. There is little to be said of the principal seatsof his worship in Greece. and thus became the ancestress of the Cadmean race in Thebes. casting down all before him in his impetuous fury. however. was given him to wife. yet in Homer they fight against him. and high-poised spear. the fleetest of the gods. The usual attendants and servants of Ares are Fear and Terror. his having slain a son of Poseidon gave rise to the institution of the Areopagus. amid the peaceful pursuitsof cattle-rearing husbandry. In Thebes was he regarded as the god of pestilence. a palpable indication that prudent courage often accomplishes more than impetuous violence. extensivein Greece. paints in particularly lively colours the picture of the rude "manslaying" god of war. in the Iliad. who married Cadmus. A celebratedstatue by -Alcamenesadorned his temple at Athens.

whence he was called "Gradivus. the god let fall from heaven. From the days of Numa the worship of "Father Mars3' continued to acquire an ever-increas- ing popularity. was from the ancient palace at the foot of the Palatine. Nurna himself gavehim a flamenof his own. according to thesacred legend." In the war with the Lucanians and .crying aloudat the same of time. on this wise. to be carefully preserved. theretouchedthesacred and shieldsand the spear of thestatue Mars. The better to prevent its abstraction. Every year in the month of March. twelve in number.The Godsof Olympus.the imperator retired to the sanctuary the god in of the old palace. who were selected from the noblest families in Rome. Beforethe departure a Romanarmy on any of expedition. however. At the sametime a voice was heard declaring that Rome should endure as long as this shield was preserved. this deity soon laid aside his peaceful character. and instituted for their protection the college of the Salii. they bore the sacredshields in solemn procession through the streets of Rome. The occasion. "Mars.beseeching protectionand favour his for the infant state of Rome. raised his handsin prayer to Jove. after Jupiter. Numa then caused the sacredshield. He was even regarded as being. like the shields. executing warlike dances and chanting ancient war-songs. watch over us!" Accordingto popular belief. In warlike Rome. as a mark of his favour.and createdor restoredin his honourthe priesthoodof the Salii. which was sacred to Mars. the most importantgod of the stateandpeopleof Rome. 53 growthof their flocksand the fruits of their fields. an oblong brazen shield (ancile). the god himself went unseenbefore the host as it marched to battle. donnedthe bright armourof the god of and war. it wasMars on whom they called for protection against bad weather and destructive pestilence. As King Numaonemorning. which was recognised as that of Mars. he ordered an artist to make eleven others exactly similar.

Mars naturally received a due share of all booty taken in war. When he was afterwards sought for. in order that he might receive his richly merited reward.leaving no trace behind him.). by a vestal virgin. which men strove to avert by extraordinary sin-offerings. the legendary founders of the city. after the overthrow of the murderers of Caesar. On the Idesof October also a chariotracetook placein honour . his adoptive father.but she enjoyed no honours at jRome. who answer to the Greek deities already mentioned. Augustus. of Komulus and Eemus. The Campus Martius (Field of Mars). decreedhim a thanksgiving of three days' duration. His wife appearsto have been]STerio. In attendanceon Mars we find Metus and Pallor. erected a temple to Mars. he had disappeared. As it could have been none other than Father Mars. A large number of religious festivities were celebrated in the month of March in honour of Mars. and was himself the first to scale the wall. though not in Greece proper. and was dedicated to the god of war. Threecolumns it arestill standing. stretched from the Quirmal westwards to the Tiber. the consul. The processionof the Salii formed the chief featureof the festival.corresponding the Enyo. which was built in Greek style. who was worshipped to in Pontusand Cappadocia. the celebratedplace of exerciseof the Eoman youth. of of mute witnessesof vanished splendour. Bellona had a temple in the Campus Martins. an unknown youth of extraordinary stature and beauty encouragedthe troops to begin the assault on the enemy's camp.C. and far surpassedin grandeur and splendour all the othertemples the god. but there were also racesand games. and also his sister Bellona. Bruttians(282 B.54 Greek and Roman Mythology. Popular belief made Mars the father. when the consuls were hesitatingwhether to begin the attack. Fabricius. Defeat was ascribed to his wrath.

and whoever got it was supposed to reap great blessings from its possession. . small eyes. he here appears to have surrendered himself to a more gentleframe of mind. statues is violence The most the Mars and passionatcnessof celebrated existing of Ludovisi has often an imitation renowned of the Villa been conof work the of Ludovisi.The Godsof Olympus. 15. The deity is depicted as resting after battle . His characteristic featuresareshort curly hair. The inhabitants of the two oldest quartersof the city contendedfor the head of the slaughtered animal. Ancient artists re- presen Mars atall ted as and powerful young man. It jectured that this is Scopas. significant of the his nature. and.) The MarsLudovisi is an originalwork. 55 of Mars. as though rejoiced to see that even the wildest and most untameuble must submit to his sway.trs position. is as apparent as his strength. whose activity. The little god of love crouching at his feet gazes into his face with a roguish. in spite of the usual turbulence of his disFis 15~~M. however. and broad nostrils. at Rome. (Fig. triumphant smile. and thus shows us what has called forth this gentlemood. whichthesin0Lilar at custom prevailed offering of the nearhorseof the victoriousteam to the god.

The same notion & at Munich. The animals 7.of which wegive an engraving (Fig. held in high was . We as of must not forget that this conception does not cover the whole characterof the goddess. It is ues. The attributes of Mars are the helmet (decoratedwith the figures of wolf-hounds and griffins).and figured of amongthe Greeks goddess beautyand sexuallove. sacred to him were the wolf. esteem among the old Pelasgians.a goddess the spring. and first touched land on the island of Cyprus. which was henceforth held sacred her.56 Greek and Roman Mythology. She was probably a personifito cation of the creative generative and forces nature. Greekin its origin. bustof Marsof the Munich the distinguished by a peculiarly expressive head. as the wife of the godof heaven. of the & goddess being producedfrom moistureis seenin the legend. the goddess moisof ture. She not only appears Aphrodite as Pandemus (the earthlyAphrodite). 16). is undoubtedly of Romanorigin. though belonging to a somewhatlate period. shield. which relatesthat Aphroditewasborn of the foam of the sea. who. Sculpture Gallery .by of whosewondrouspowerall germsin the natural and vegetable . It is supposed to representAres bound by the craft of Hephaestus. Aphrodite (Venus). and the woodpecker. Aphrodite is represented as the daughter of Zeus and Dione.- In the Iliad. on the other hand.-Bust of Ares. The Borghese Marsof the Louvre. the horse. and spear. Besides these two principal statcollection deserves mention. Fig 16. A .

by a wild boar. And as she thus gave rise to passion in others. is said to be her husband. as well as Demus and Phobus. the tutelary deity of ships and mariners. was killed. . Sometimes Ares.wasthe more popular. j^o children are mentioned as springing from the union of Aphrodite with Hephaestus. Even wild animals were conscious of her influence. she herself was not free from its influence. doubtless becauseits very strangeness in mating the sweetest and most lovely of the goddesses with the larne and ugly god of fire had a certain charm.unite her to Dionysus. and also an Aphrodite Poutia (of the sea). which it is so difficult to bring into harmony with each other. whom Aphrodite tenderly loved. are said to be her children by Ares. whose magic power not even the wisest could withstand.The Gods of Olympus. The poets paint Aphrodite as the most beautiful of all the goddesses. but Eros and Anteros. This is evidencedby the numerous stories of her amours with the gods or favoured mortals. 57 world are quickened. and pressed round her like lambs. She was endowed with the celebratedlove-begetting magic girdle. Other legends. a celestial deity. which originated iu Lemnos. who controlled the winds and the waves. and its resuscitation the in spring. or to Hermes. and granted to ships a fair and prosperous passage. when hunting. who was venerated as the dispenserof prosperity and fertility. generally of a local character. The story of her love for the beautiful Adonis clearly re- presents decayof nature in autumn. Adonis. Inconsolable at her loss. Aphrodite piteouslyentreatedFather Zeus to restorehis life.As the worship of Aphroditewasextremelypopular among the numerous islands and ports of the Grecian seas.we can well imagine that it was in this latter character that she receivedher greatest share of honour. sometimes Hephcestus. The latter account. but we also hear of Aphrodite Urania. which she could lay aside at will and lend to others.

besidesHymen. and Desire). Their office is to dress and adorn her. On the other hand. Pothus. in which he awarded the prize of beauty to Aphrodite in preference to Hera or Athene. This appears the legendof Hippolytus. She early acquired a certain social importance. also in the story of the beautiful youth Narcissus. or Hymenoeus. Aphrodite plays an important part. in King of Athens. having assistedParis in his elopementwith Helen. son of Theseus. Besides the Trojan prince Anchises enjoyed her favours. She is also accompanied Eros. and she became by him the mother of the pious hero JSneas. whom she ruined through the love of his stepmother Phaedra. The goddessappearsever ready to assist unfortunate lovers.and the other in the upper world.Longby ing. before whose freezing blast all life in nature decays. She was the original cause of the war. by having ascribed to her a beneficent influence promotingcivil harmonyandsociability in among men. This was his reward for his celebrated judgment. . for which reason April. The Roman"Venus(the Lovely One) was regarded the by earlier Italian tribes as the goddess of spring. because he had despisedthe love of the nymph Echo. was held sacred to her. Zeus at length consentedthat Adonis should spend one part of the year in the world of shadows. In the story of Troy.and Himerus (Love. Clearly the monster that deprived Adonis of life is only a symbol of the frosty winter. the month of buds. she punishes with the utmost severity thosewho from pride or disdain resist her power.58 Greek and Roman Mythology. whom she punished by an ungratified self-love. god of the marriage. After her identification with the Aphrodite of the Greeks. thus she aided the hero Peleus to obtain the beautiful sea-nymph Thetis. The Seasons and the Graces appear in attendance on Aphrodite.

The first of these surnames points to Venus as the myrtle goddess (the myrtle beingan emblemof chastelove). fulfilment of a vow madeat the battle of of in Pharsalus. The temple of. .who erected a temple to Venus Gonetrix. The of Venus of Cnidus. and the people of Cnidus were so proud of it that they engraved imageon their coins.by meansof chisel or brush. 59 she became more and more a goddess merely of sensual love and desire. Venus Cloacina (the Purifier) was said to have been erected in memory of the reconciliation of the Eomans and Sabines. and was supposed to have been erected by the Latins.wasthe most important work of that master. after the rape of the Sabine women. The surname of Libitina points to her as goddess of corpses.who devotedthemselvesto the representation of the youthful and beautiful among the gods in whom the nude appeared leastoffensive. She had three principal shrines-those of Venus Murcia. who were planted there by Ancus Marcius. All the apparatus of funerals were kept in this temple. arrayed in all the charms of love. Aphrodite. It was especiallyamong the mastersof the later Attic school. The fact that they ventured to her portray the goddess entirely nude may be regarded a sign both as as of the falling away of the popular faith and of the decay of art. To these ancient shrines was added another in the time of Julius Cassar.The Godsof Olympus. continually spurs the artist to fresh endeavours. The task of giving expressionto the most perfect female beauty. the goddess wedlock.by Praxiteles. and Libitina.is notoriously an especiallycommon subject of representation amongthe artists of antiquity. or Venus. Venus Cloacina. and her attendants were at the same time the public undertakers of the city. her temple was situated on the brow of the Aventine. that statues Venus wereattempted.

exceptin the case statues the temples. which was a symbol of the Isle of Melos. the eyes are not large. became of for it an established custom to represent Venus and other kindred deities as nude. the mouth is small. shield of Ares. Henceforth. combinedwith slenderness grace. being covered with a light garment. statueis now in the Museumat Naples. from the hips downward. which was found in 1820 on the island of Melos (Milo). and the cheeksand chin lull and round.-Venusof Louvre.C. The counand tenance is oval. It is a work of the later Attic school. One scarcely knows which to admire most in this splendid statue-the singularly dignified expression of the head. Her looks express proudandjoyousself-consciousIn the Venus of Capua(HO calledbecause found among the ruins of the Amphitheatre) she again appears as a victoriousgoddess (VenusVictrix). the lower portions. The ghape the imde bodyis not 8Q of vigorous or fresh as that of the Venus of Milo. First among them in artistic worth is a marble sjtatuelarger than life. nevertheless. formerly in the Villa Medici at Borne. in which. is better known.. The Medicean Venus. or the charming fulness and magnificent proportionsof the limbs. or the bronze ness. It is supposed that the goddess held in her hand either an apple. 17).60 Greekand Eoman Mythology. so that we cannot determine the conceptionof the artist with any certainty. and have a languishing expression . 17. and is now in the Louvre at Paris (Fig. Milo. but somewhat soft and ill-defined. The arms are quite broken off. Venus is further distinguished by a fulness of form. which is. Greek art once more blooms for a . In this statue only the upper part oi the body is nude. Of the numerousexisting statueswe can here mention only the most important. This Fig. at the end of the second century B.

This is the most youthful in appearance of all her statues. are creations similar in style. of and amongplants the myrtle. the goddess wearsa moredignified Fig. The dove. at The attributes of Venus vary much according to the prevailing conception the goddess.The Gods of Olympus." The "Venus crouching in the bath " of the Vati- can collection. In some imitations of the Cnidian Venus.-Venus Genelrix Borghese. " What a descent. 18). Villa demeanour. the poppy. It is the work of the Athenian artist Cleo- menes. the rose.the sparrow. As Venus Anadyomene (rising from. though there is no trace of the lofty dignity of the goddess. the most important of which are in Borne and Munich. the sea) the goddessappears entirely nude. while.and the dolphin.and also in the wonderfully graceful Venus Genetrix of the Villa Borghese. were sacred to her. though probably chiselled in Koine. . and is distinguished by the perfectregularity and beauty of its form.'7says Kraus Venus in of his Milo Christian to this Art.the apple. l8. Rome(Fig. whose apparently bashful posture is only meant to challenge the notice of the beholder. and the lime-tree. "is there from the coquette. and the "Venus loosing her sandal" of the Munich Gallery.

and thus made a lyre. Finding outside the cave a tortoise. Hermes now played the innocent. sprang from his mother's lap to seek the oxen of Apollo. but Apollo was not to be deceived. somethe dawn. From this we learn how Hermes.*>2 Greek and Roman Mythology. As a token of their thorough reconciliation. aiid somethe morning breeze. but could not swallow it.but Apollo to the gladly made them over to Hermes on receiving the newlyinventedlyre. The name Hermes. We know the stories of his youth chiefly from the so-calledHomeric Hymn. Then returning home in the early morning. to which he sung the loves of Zeus and Maia. he passedthrough the key-hole like the morning breeze. magic wand. compared with the corresponding Indian words. Thus Hermesbecame god of shepherds the and pastures. Zeusordered Hermes restore cattle.and lay down in his cradle. Then hiding the lyre in his cradle. soon remarked the theft.-Hermes and Maia. was the son of Zeus 8. a daughter of Atlas. Some have seen in him the thunderstorm. and hurried after the impudent robber. whence he is called Cyllenius. he went out to seek for food. Coming to Pieria in the evening. by means or of which hecouldbestow happiness whomsoever would. and drove them to the river Alpheiis. and roasted the flesh. he stole thence fifty cows from the herds of Apollo. Here he slew two of them.whilst Apollo henceforth zealously devoted himself to the art of music.and obstinately deniedthe charge. soon after his birth. Hermes (Mercurius). Apollo gavehis brothergod the goldenCaduceus. and the favourite sons of their father Zeus. however. Apollo. and on he henceforth both dwelt togetherin the utmostharmony love. and forced the young thief to accompany him to the throne of Zeus to have their quarrel decided. He wasborn in a grotto of Mount Cyllene in Arcadia. he stretched strings acrossits shell. Various interpretations have been given of the nature of Hermes. seemsto make his .

however. especially those of trade and commerce." it . he cannot eat (the wind cannot consume as fire does what it breaks down and carries off)-and the passing through the keyhole "like the morning breeze. on the roads. the invention of music." So also his function of guide and conductor of the soul. Not only did Hermes protect and guide merchants whilst travelling. nevertheless. but he also bestows prosperity and successon all undertakings. and the friendly guide of those travelling on business. Accordingly. Every chance gain-in gambling. Hermes must have appeared especially worthy of honour among the Greeks.The Gods of Olympus. Though playing such an important part in human life. what were called Hermsc-mere blocks of stone. Honnse* were also often to be seenin the streets of towns and in public squares. or posts. for instance-and every fortunate discovery were attributed to Hermes. men erectedin his honour. who were at all times sharp and greedy men of business. but he also endowed them with shrewdnessand cunning to outwit others. 63 connection with the morning certain. Several points in the legendjust related guide us to the breeze rather than the dawn. Hermes also appearsas the fleet messengerand dexterous agent of Zeus. and supposed to mean originally only "pillars. he was fain to allow thieves and rogues invokehis protectionbeforeentering on their operato tions . and also served as finger-posts. just as in the present day robbersand banditsin Italy or Greece see nothing strange in asking their patron saint to bestowon them a rich prey.somehave derived the word from a different root. ' Arid as a god who had himself commenced his career by a dexterous theft. the kine carried off-which. * In this meaning. As the guardian of the streets and roads. The following are the most important features in the character of Hermes :-Not only does he promote the fruitfulness of flocks and herds. which we shall speak of presently. with one or more heads : these latter were at cross-roads.

and to warn ^Egisthus against the murder of Agamemnon. thus becominga mediatorbetweenthesetwo regions. he is a model for all earthly heralds. This leadsus to speak the imof portant officeof Hermesas Fsychopompus. consisting of three branches. the spirits were summoned in the oracles of the dead. The origin of this herald's staff appears to have been the olive branch wreathed with fillets of wool. As messengerand herald of the gods. At times. Hermes had to reconduct the souls of the departedto the upper world. the destruction of the hundred-eyed guardian of lo. It is in this guisethat the epic poetslove to depicthim. in ancient times. were the indispensable agents of kings in every difficult business. whilst the other two branch off like a fork.in other respectsso far divided.one of which. but he usesit chiefly in guiding soulsto the infernalregions. on which account Homer calls him the Argus-slayer. in the morning the stars ceaseto be visible. who. after death. Hermeswasnaturally regarded the deity from whom they proceeded. Doubtless in this myth the hundredeyed Argns represents the starry heavens. forms the handle. Hence lie bears the herald's staff. difficult tasks are allotted to him. for instance. which as on . Every soul. or caduceus. Argus is slain by Hermes. With his golden-winged shoes passes he moreswiftly than the wind over land and sea. Thus he is sent by Zeus to command the nymph Calypso to release Odysseus. By means of this wand Hermes can either induce deep sleep or rouse a slumberer.64 Greekand Roman Mythology.executing the commissionsof his father Zeus or the other inhabitants of Olympus. conductor the or of soul. for instance. It was only at a later period that the two last were converted into serpents. commenced journey to the its region of shadows under the guidance of the god. This is the samewand once given him by Apollo. As dreams comefrom the lowerworld. On extraordinary occasions. that is.where. and are joined in a knot.

and. lie assumed ir ore youthful appeara ance.The Godsof Olympus. and offered sacrifices him and his motherMaia on the Ides of May.always as a of powerful. and though he does not. His worship was introduced at the sametime as that of Ceres-some years after the expulsion of the Tarquins. like Apollo. The guild of merchants regarded him as their tutelary deity. representedhim as a shepherd. to trade) signifies. The first statuesof the god. Later. represent of the higher formsof intellectuallife. shows clearly that they also consideredhim as the patron of eloquence. that of the god is who presidesover the bringing up of children.with broadchest. what god was more fitted to be presentedas an exampleto Grecian youth than the messenger the gods. of however. curly hair. going to sleep. the alphabet. The wrestling school and the gymnasium were consequentlyregarded as his institutions. sometimesas the herald and messenger th'i gods. to The plastic representationof Hermes made equal progress with his ideal development. at a season of great scarcity-but appears have become to confinedto the plebeians. bearded man.he was considered by the Romans solely as god of trade. any still he possesses the highest degree in that practicalcommon sense which was so greatly valued among the Greeks.equally dexterous of in mind and body 1 lie is the fleetest of runners and the most skilful of disc-throwers and boxers.lithe but powerful limbs. In further development his relationto the education the young. 65 accountpeople were wont to ask him for good dreams before Thehighestconception Hermes. indeed. The custom which prevailedamong Greeksof offering him the tongues the the of slaughteredanimals. founded on the ancient Hennasalreadymentioned. As his name (from mercari. and adorned with his statues. There is little to be said of the Roman Mercury. of and of the art of interpreting languages.later of of poets evenmadehim the inventor of speech. and .and wasrepresented a beardless as youth in the vtTy prime of strength.

and these are. we have the principal characteristic features of the god.66 Greekand Roman Mythology.but sLuply straps covering the foot.strictly speaking. The winged sandalsform his only clothing.Resting licraies. small ears.not really sandals. . He here appears the messenas ger of the gods.and hasjust sat down on a rock to rest. Bronze Statue at Naples. If we add to this the expressionof kindly benevolence which playsaroundhis finely-cut lips. arid eyes.. a j. mouth. 19. and is perhapsmostworthy of mention. full-sized " Hermes at rest/' in bronze. altogethera wonderful combination of graceand vigour. 19). to which wings arefastened closeto the ankles (Fig. which wasfound at Herculaneum. is now in the NaplesMuseum. and the inquiring look of his faceas he bendsforward thoughtfully. Among existing statues.

-Statue of Hermes. Capitoline Collection. .Fig. 20.

20). the Oceanids. head. sentationof HermesLogins. A splendid marble statue of the Vatican collection. who inhabited the island. portrays the god as the patron of wrestling . but Zeus. which was oncetaken for Antinous.cameto the help of his mother. that fire first came down from heaven in the form of lightning. the Caducenswhich he holds in his left hand is. The unfortunate Hephaestus fell for a whole day.on the occasion of a quarrelbetweenZeus and Hera.the patron of the art of rhetoric. whereupon the angry gocl of heaven seizedhim by the foot and hurled him from Olympus. A pretty bronzestatuettein the British. the god of fire and the forge. the votive bowl. the herald'sstaff.in return for which he made them many ornaments. however.or even directly on the head. and all the effects of fire are accordingly referred to him. and the purse. Hephaestus (Vulcan). Here the Sintians. a modern addition.took pity on him. The fires of the earth break forth from the open craters of vol- canoes it must therefore Hephaestus is working in the " be who . collection at Rome (Fig. But Eurynome and Thetis. The same fundamental lies at the root of thesevariouslegends. with a well-filled purse in his hand. Such is also the conception of a fine statue of the Capitoline 9. The wings are herenot placedon the leet. lie returned to Olympusunder the guidanceof Dionysus. The principal attributes of the god have already been incidentally mentioned: they are wings on the feet.but are fastened to a low round travelling-hat. idea viz. Hephaestus.or cap . According to another not less popular account. tended him till his recovery. Later writers say that it was from this fall that he became lame. and tended him for nine years in a deepgrotto of the sea. as He was so lame and ugly that his mother in shame cast him from heaven into the sea.68 Greekand Roman Mythology.-Hephaestus..-was commonly regarded a son of Zeusand Hera. but alighted at sundown on the isle of Lemnos with but little breath in his body. Museum depicts Hermes as the god of trade and commerce. After being reconciled to his mother. it was not Ms mother who treated him so cruelly. Hephaestusoriginally represented the element of fire. In the Hermes Ludovki of Borne we have a graceful repreas is often the case.

who delight to describe the gorgeous brazen palace which he built himself on Olympus. the trident of Poseidon. The worship of Hephaestus was not verv extensive in Greece. where he has his forges and his smithies. was Mount JEtna. Many also were the ingenious implements which he constructed. among which. story of the intimatefriendship the between Hephaestus and Dionysus was concocted. in Lemnos. After it was observedthat the wine was particularly good in the neighbour- hoodof volcanicmountains. such as the walking tables. in Sicily. He also made himself two golden statues of maidens. It was also chiefly in the character of artificer that Hephaestus was treated of by the poets. also. In this character he was brought into closeconnection with the art-loving goddess Athene. Scarcely less celebrated. He also constructed there the imperishable dwellings of the gods. the chief seat of his worship. The most beneficial action of fire is manifested in its power to melt metals and render them useful to man in the shape of implements and tools of all kinds. So says the legend of Mount Mosychlus. was a shield of extraordinary beauty. 69 midst of the fiery mountain. and hence we see why both these divinities enjoyed so many kindred honours and had so many festivals in common at Athens. the chief seat of Greek science and art.The Godsof Olympus. the shield of Heracles. and the armour of Achilles. to assist him in walking. and bestowed on them speech and motion. and then returned to their places after the meal was over. from its connectionwith him. or tripods. which moved of their own accordinto the banqueting-chamber of the gods. . and as the patron of artificersand craftsmenusing fire. in which was a huge workshop with twenty cunningly-devised pairs of bellows. Among the other works of his mentioned by the poets are the segisand sceptreof Zeus. Hence the conception of the character of Hephaestus tended ever more and more to represent him as the master of all ingenious working in nietals.

70

Greek and Roman Mythology.

The mostimportant seatof his worshipwasthe isle of Lemnos, wherehe wassupposed dwell on Mount Mosychlus to with his
workmen, the Cabin,
who answer to the

Cyclopesof ^Etna. He was held in great esteem at Athens, where,
at different festivals,
torch races were held in

his honour. Young men ran with burning torches, and whoever first reached the goal with his torch alight received the prize. He was, moreover, highly veneratedby the Greeks in Campaniaand Sicily, a fact which may be easily explained by the fiery mountains of these places.
The Romans called

this god Vulcanus, or, according to its more ancient spelling, Volcanus. They honoured in him the bl ssingsand
beneficial action of fire.

Fig. 21.-Heplu.stus. inthe Bronze Figure British ^^
Museum.

als° SOUSbt his

protection against con-

flagrations. Under the influence of the Greek writers, the original and morecommon conception the god gaveplaceto of

The Gods of Olympus.

71

the popular imageof tlie smith-god,or Mulciber,who had his forgesin ^Etna,or on the Lipari Isles,and who vied with Ms
comradesin wielding the hammer. In correspondence with the Greek myths, Venus was given him to wife; by this men doubt-

lesssoughtto conveythe ideathat truly artistic workscan only
be createdin harmony with beauty. The chief shrine of the god in Rome was the Volcanal, in the Comitiuin, which was not really a temple, but merely a covered

fire-place. In the Campus Martius, however,wasa real temple
close to the Flaminian Circus, where the festival of the Vol-

canalia was celebratedwith every kind of game on the 23rd day of August. Greek and Roman artists generally representedthis god as a powerful, hoardedman of full age. He is distinguished by the shortness his left leg, by the sharp,shrewdglanceof his cunning of eye, and his firm mouth. His attributes are the smith's tools, the pointed oval workman'scap,and the short upper garmentof the
craftsman or humble citizen.

With the exceptionof somesmall bronzesin London and Berlin, and a newly discovered marble bust of the Vatican collection, we possess antique statues of the god worth mentioning. The no engraving(Fig. 21) is from a bronzein the British Museum.

10. Hestia (Vesta).-It

must have beenat a comparatively

late period that Hestia, the daughter of Cronus and Ehea, attained a general veneration, as her name is not mentioned

either in the Iliad or Odyssey. Hestia is the guardianangel
of mankind, who guards the security of the dwelling, and is, in

consequence, regarded the goddess the family hearth,the as of centre domestic of life. Thehearthpossessed amongtheancients a far highersignificance than it doesin modernlife. It not only
servedfor the preparation of meals, but was also esteemed the sacred altar of the house; there the images of the household gods were placed, and thither, after the old patriarchal fashion, the father and priest of the family offered sacrifice on aP t>*

72

Greekand Roman Mythology.

important occasionsof domestic life. No offering was made in which Hestia, the very centre of all domestic life, had not her
share.

And as the state is composedof families, the goddess of the domestic circle naturally becomesthe protectress of every political community. On this account,in Greek statesthe Prytaneum, or seat of the governing body, was dedicated to Hestia; there

shehad an altar, on which a lire waseverkept burning. From
this altar colonists, who were about to leave their native land in searchof new homes,always took some fire-a pleasing figurative indication of the moral ties between the colony and the mother
country.

As the hearth-fire of the Prytaneum was an outward and

visiblesignto the members a state that they were one great of
family, so the Hestia of the temple at Delphi signified to the

Greeks their nationalconnection the unity of their worship. and
Her altar in this temple was placed in the hall before the cave

of the oracle; on it wasplaced the celebrated omphalus(navel of the earth,likewisean emblemof the goddess), Delphi being regarded the Greeks the centreof the wholeearth. Here, by as
too, a fire was kept ever burning in honour of Hestia. The character of the goddesswas as pure and untarnished as flame itself. Not only did she herself remain a virgin, though wooed

by both Poseidon Apollo, but her service and could be performed only by chastevirgins. She doesnot appearto have had a separate templeof her own in Greece, since shehad a placein
every temple. The service of Yesta occupied a far more important place in the public life of the Romans. Her most ancient temple, which was supposed to have been built by Euma Pompilius, was situated on the slope of the Palatine opposite the Forum. It

wasbuilt in a circle,and was of moderate dimensions, being,
indeed, little more than a covered fire-place. In it the eternal

The Godsof Olympus.

73

fire, a symbol of the life of the state, was kept "burning. Here, too, the service was performed by virgins, whose number was at first four, but was afterwards increased to six.. Their chief occupationwas to maintain the sacredfire, and to offer up daily

prayers the altar of the goddess the welfare of the Roman at for people. The extinction of the sacredflame was esteemed an
omen of coming misfortune, and brought severe punishment on the negligent priestess. The choice of vestals lay with the Pontifex Maximus. They were chosenbetween the agesof six and ten years, always ont of the best Roman families. For thirty years they remained bound to their sacred office, during which time they had to preserve the strictest chastity. After the lapse of thirty years they returned to civil life, and were

permittedto marry if they liked.
Another sanctuary of Yesta existed in Lavinium, the metropolis of the Latins, where the Roman consuls, after entering on their office, had to perform a solemn sacrifice. The festival of Vesta was celebrated on the 9th of June, on which occasionthe Roman women were wont to make a pilgrimage barefooted to the temple of the goddess, and place before her offerings of
food.

In the domestic life of the Romans the hearth and the hearth-

goddess Vesta occupied important a position as amongthe as
Greeks. The worship of Vesta is closely connected with that

of the Penates, kindly, protecting,household the gods,who provided for the daily wants of life, and about whom we shall have more to say before concluding the subject of the gods. Agreeablyto the chaste, pure characterof the goddess, could she only berepresented art with an expressionof the strictest moral in purity; she generally appearseither sitting or standing,her countenancecharacterised a thoughtful gravity of expression. Her by principal attributes consistof the votive bowl, the torch, the simpulum, or small cup, which was used in making libations, and the sceptre. In consequence the dignity and sanctity of her character, of

Greek and Roman Mythology.
she was always represented as fully clothed, which may account for the fact that the

ancients had so few statues of

the goddess. We may, therefore, consider it fortunate that such a splendid example as the Vesta Giustiniani, which belongs to the private collection of Prince Torlonia, at Koine, has come down to list

It is supposed hean original to

work of the best period of Greek art. The goddess is represented as standing in a calm posture, her right hand pressed against her side, whilst with the left she points significantly towards heaven, as

though wishing to impresson
mankind where to direct their

prayersand thoughts(Fig. 22). 11. Janus.-Among the most important gods of the
Romans was the celebrated

Janus,a deity quite unknown to the Greeks. In his original

characterhe was probably
a god of the light and sunthe male counterpart,in fact, of Jana, or Diana, and thus very similar to the Greek Apollo. As long as he maintained this original character, derived from nature, he was regarded as the god of all

Fig. 22.-Vt-sta Giustiuiani. TorUmia germsand first beginnings,
Collection. and possessed, in conse-

and called Matutinus Pater. He also appears as the doorkeeper of heaven. the laurel being supposedto exercisea potent influence against all magic and diseases. neither in public nor private life did they ever undertake anything of importance without first confiding the beginning to the protection of Janus. This offering was repeated on the first day of every month. dates and figs wrapped in laurel leaves) and good wishes for the coming year. and asthe Kalendsweresacred up to Juno. From being the god of all temporal beginnings. concluding that this had for a magicalinfluenceon the goodor evil result of everyundertaking.We must confine ourselves to mentioning someof the most important traits resulting from this view of his character. wine. 75 quence. and incense. An offering was therefore made to the god by the departinggeneral. whose first month was called January after him. Janus is the god of all beginnings of time. whose gates he opened in the morning and closed in the evening.The Gods of Olympus. First. he was therefore called Junonius. important influenceboth on the public and private an life of the Romans. was on this occasionthe housesand doors were adornedwith garlands and laurel boughs. for Janusopened everymonth. The god himself received offerings of cake.or coveredpassage sacredto the god. and was dedicated to him. In the same way Janus was supposedto begin every new day. Thus. Thus. Among the most important events of political life was the departure of the youth of the country to war. was left open during the continuance of the . Eelatives and friends exchangedsmall presents (principally sweets. he soon became the patron and protector of all the beginnings of human activity. New Year's Day (Kale?idce JanuariceJ the most importantfestivalof thegod. He begins the new year. and his statue was adorned with fresh laurel boughs. The Eomans had a most superstitious belief in the importance of a good commencement everything. . for example.and the temple.

On this account the fountain nymphs were generally looked on as his wives. This view of the god also explains the custom of calling on Janus first in every prayer and at every sacrifice.he also appeared to give admittance to the prayers of men. The latter. The husbandman. Janus is also the source of all springs. sought by prayers and vows to acquire the favour of Janus. by the Sabiucs. when he entered on his office. rivers.and were obligedto retire. brought to Janus Consivius an offering of cake and wine. Janus appearsas the protector of the gates of the city.since.whenhe weighed and anchorand started on a long and dangerousvoyage. As the god of all first beginnings. when he entered on a journeyof business. His character as guardianof gatesand doorsbrought him into closeconnection with the Penates and other household gods. and were about to introduce themselvesinto the town on the Palatine through an open gate.streets. never omitted to invoke the blessing of the god. as keeper of the gatesof heaven. In the legend alluded to. The consul never neglected. had overof run the infant state of Rome. and towns. and streams of the earth. in consequence the rape of their women. whenthey suddenly found themselves drenched a hot sulphur by springthat gushed violently from the earth. In the sameway the private citizen. to ask the blessing of Janus. the sailor. Janus was held in high honour among the people. in all important occurrencesand undertakings. As the god who presided over the fortunate entrance to and exit from all houses. hence the custom . The power of Janus in causing springs to rise suddenly from the earth was experienced.76 Greek and Roman Mythology. to their cost. and the assemblies never "began their consultations without invoking Janus. as a sign that the god had departed with the troops and had them under his protection. The merchant. and Fontus and Tiberinus as his sons. war. before he commencedeither to sow or to reap.

but his worship appearsto have assimilated itself more and more to that of Mars. His shrine was on the Quirinal. which has been already alluded to. but Not one specimen theseworks of art has beenpreserved. courseof time entire figures of Janus appeared. 11 of erecting overthe doorsan image of the deity with the wellknown two faces. 12. he must thereforebe mentioned here.-Quirinus wasalsoa purely Romandivinity. so Quirinus was the national god of the Sabines who came to Rome with Titus Tatius. which was originally inhabited by the Sabines. he formed the tutelary Trinity of the Roman empire. His shrines consisted of gatewaysin common places of resort and at cross-roads. Quirinus. He was subsequentlyidentified with Romulus.the other youthful. They were generally but bearded. Its doors stood open only in time of Romanart never succeeded executing a ] Masticrepresentation in peculiar to Janus. war. that of so we only know these forms from coins. at Eome. In.or of arched passages. Together with Jupiter and Mars.the double head being only an imitation of the Greek double Hennas. one of which looked out and the other in. in the proper sense of the word. and as Mars was the national god of the Latin population of Rome. thesealwayshad a doubleface.in which the imageof the god was erected. . Janus had no temple. in later times one facewasbearded. lXruma gave Quirinus a priest of his own.The Gods of Olympus. The usual attributes of Janus were keys and staff. and was probahly the most ancient in the city. In his symbolicmeaning he bore a great resemblance to Mars. and which was named after him. but having beenreckoned among the great deities of heaven. The Temple of Janus in the Forum at Rome. He had a specialfeast on the 17th of February. was a sanc- tuary of this kind closedwith doors.

says the myth. Anteros was con- Fig.2&-Hcad Eros. As unrequited love is aimless. by the advice of Themis. 1. to Longing and Desire being no more than allegorical figures typifying some the influences of that emanate from the goddess of lof e.Eros alone seems have enjoyed divine honours. would neither grow nor thrive. As the a little Eros. Vatican. of ceived by the imagination of the poets as the brother and com- panionof Eros. on the verge youth. B. 1.-SECONDARY DEITIES. and was generally depicted as a boy of wondrous beauty. His characteristic of weaponis a golden bow.Greek and 'Eoman Mythology. Eros (Amor).and consequently son of Aphrodite. with which he shoots forth his arrows from secret lurking-places. Eros was commonly reputed the son of Aphrodite and Ares. his mother.with an unfailing effect that representsthe sweet but con- suming pangs of love. Zeus him- self is represented as unable to withstand his influence -an that of the intimation love is one termost rible and mighty forces of nature.-Of the deitieswho appear the train of in Aphrodite. Attendant and Ministering Deities. gave him this brother as a .

The Gf-ods Olympm. This deity was termedby the Romans Amor. to and to stand by one another in the hour of need. a /Q x>--^ ^ L-~ I personification thehuman of soul.but this was solely in imitation of the Greek Eros. of 79 playfellow. The significant fable of the love of Cupid for Psyche. and the Spartans sacrificedto him before battle. Fig.but was also regarded as the author of love and friendship between youths and men. in so far as they generallydepicted him as a boy on the confines of youth. An Eros by the renowned artist Praxiteles was esteemed one of the best works of antiquity.binding themselves hold togetherfaithfully in battle. or Cupido. Eros was not only venerated as the god who kindles love between the sexes. because the mischievous pranks attributed to him by the poets were more adapted to the age of childhood. 24. after which the boy wasglad so long ashis brother was with him. In later timesthe god of love was represented as much younger. On this account his statue was generally placed in the gymnasia between those of Hermes and Heracles. but sad in his absence. It wasbrought to Romeby Nero. Artists followed poets tlie in the delineation of Eros. Capitollue Museum. . since he never enjoyed among them any public veneration.but wasdestroyedby fire in the reign of Titus.is of comparatively ^^^^X \ lateorigin.-Erostryingbh Bow. though was it a \^V~~^_ very favourite subject in art.

bxit taller. The rose was held signia are bow and arrows. In connection with Venus and in company with Amor we find Hymenajus.-Pin- dar gives the following account of the origin of the Muses. who was. only recognised by later writers and by later art. A considerable number of statues or statuettes of Eros have come down to us from antiquity. winged like Eros. Thereis alsoan "Eros trying his bow" (Fig/24) in the Capitoline Museum Rome. His inin addition to a burning torch. however. especially sacredto him. His indispensable attribute is the marriage torch.-Polyhymnia. which represents the embraces of Cupid and Psyche. He is portrayed as a beautiful youth. might perpetuate SOng Bovliu ill the mighty deedsof the gods. . for which reasonhe often appears crowned with roses.thereis the celebrated group of the Capitoline Museum. Among the most celebrated the Torso is (mutilated statue) theVatican. Tlie Muses. Museum. 2. the celestials besought Zeus to createsomebeings who Fig. 25.80 Greek and Roman Mythology. an "Eros at and playing with dice" in the Berlin Museum. After the defeat of the Titans. and of a more seriousaspect. 23). Eros generally appears with wings in the art monuments of antiquity. In answer to this prayer. Lastly. a person!li cation of the joys of marriage. the glorious of of headof which we give an engraving (Fig.

The per ception of this natural music led at once to a belief in the existence of such song-loving goddesses.. and the future. Their seat was subsequently ferred from the transde- clivities of Olympus to Mount Helicon in Or tO Mount IMJ. in Olympus. 20. there is little douht Muses were originally nymphs of the fountains."Vatiean.at the foot of which the Castalian fountain. from whose steepand rocky heights a number of sweet rippling brooks descend to the plains. a district on the easterndeclivity of Mount Olympus in Thessaly. past. Melpouieuo. 81 Zeus"begot with Mnemosyne (Memory)the nine Muses. They sing of the present.The Gods of Olympus. which . The veneration of the Muses first arose in Pieria.- Parnassus. while Apollo's lute the accompanies their sweet strains. Looked at in connection but that with the nature. which gladden the hearts of the gods as they sit assemhled in the lofty palaceof Father Zeus.

a club or sword. Calliope represents epic poetry and science generally. Erato. and is distinguished by her double flute. she generally bears a large stringed instrument. and a garland of vine leaves. Fig.though they are sometimes of represented with instruments on vases. According to the artdistribution made. and is it likewise is sometimes characterised difficult to by a roll and pen. Their names were Clio. Terpsichore is the muse of dancing. Urania. the muse of tragedy. 27. Euterpe.82 Greek an$ Roman Mythology. and Calliope.is distinguished by a comic mask. her attributes being a roll of parchment and a pen. In early times. Euterpe represents lyric poetry. Melpomene. an ivy garland. had its source.Polyhymnia. jniy goddesses song. Melpomene. Terpsichore. together _ geometry with and the mimic art. Thalia. at a later period separate "but functionswereassigned each. at the time of the Alexandrine school. Thalia. Vatican. presidingover this or that to as branch of art. probabty. Clio is the rmise of history. so that distinguishher from Calliope. generally appears with a tragic mask. and has a lyre and plectrum.-EnterPe. and a . To Erato is assignederotic poetry. they only appearas a chorusor company. Originally the Muses were was sacredto them. the muse of comedy. too.

The original of Polyhymnia (Fig. was supposed to proceed from them. whom it was their duty to clothe and adorn. The Eoman is writers seemto have identified these goddesses with the Muses at pleasure. art. Their namesare Agla'ia. make them the daughters of Dionysus and Aphrodite. Thus. all those qualities which becomemen most. in attendance on other gods. the}7" first called on them and offered them the first bowl. They were veneratedas the source of all that makeshuman life more beautiful and pleasant. and whenever men cametogether to feast.. and gratitude-in fine. eloquence. bravery. however. Polyhymnia presides over the graver chant of religious service . Lastly.The Godsof Olympus. They were commonly representedas tlie daughters of Zeus and Eurynome. since all that is charming and graceful. Music. Several European museums possess ancient groups of the Muses.-The Charites generally appear in the train of the goddessof love. Urania. Euterpe (Figs.among whom the Egeria of the history of ISTuma well known. perhaps. and poetry received the higher consecration only at their hands. kindly benevolence. whence Pindar terms his songs a gift from them. and her grave. 3. Euphrosyne. the Oceanid. wrapped closely round her. They are often found. however.the muse of astronomy. Wisdom. is without attribute but of any kind. without whom there could he no real enjoyment of life.thoughtful countenance. 25) is The Romans venerateda number of fountain-nymphs of song and prophecy under the name of Caniense. Later writers. even the gods would not sit down to banquets without the Charites. the finest is that preservedin the Vatican. &$ crook. either to the senses or the intellect. and Thalia. she may be recognised by her dress. The Charites (Gratise). From this group are copied our engravings of Melpomene and in the Berlin Museum. 26 and 27). and make them agreeable .holds in one hand a celestial globe. and in the other a small wand. amongwhich.

and under their protection thrives all that is noble and beautiful and good. characterised an expression joyous innoby of cence. and Irene. Apollo. They also appear as the servantsand attendants of other divinities. few ancient statues of the Charites in existence. appear in a similar though in a subordinate and attendant character. who watch the gatesof heaven. however. There are. and the Muses. Her daughters. in the eyes tlieir fellow-men.8^ the Charites. Like their mother. She also occupiesa similar position on earth. of weresupposed proceed to from The Graces of the Bomans were simply transferred from the mythology of the Greeks. in the age of Scopas and Praxiteles. as presiding over nationalassemblies the laws of hospitality.now clearingthe cloudsaway. In Homer they figure as the servants of Zeus. and have. They were generally represented as three in number-Eunomia. daughters we the of Zeus and Themis. and the Horse. either roses or myrtles. and as the daughter of Uranus and Gaearanks among the most ancient deities. 4. They aie less often distinguished by definite attributes than by a mutual intertwining of arms. Greekand RomanMythology. In their hands they often hold flowers.and Themis. such as Hera.is consequently their mother. they preside over all law and order in human affairs. when nude figures had become common. it entirely disappeared. but gradually their clothing became less and less. therefore. They represent the regular march of nature in the changes of the seasons. In earlier Greek art they always appearfully clothed. Aphrodite.-In intimate con- nectionwith the Charites find the Horse. Themisis the representative of the reign of law among gods and men.of slender. the samemeaning as the Charites. at Zeus' command she calls together the assembliesof the gods. . Themis and the Horae (Seasons).now closingthem with thick clouds. Art represented the Charites or Gracesas blooming maidens. Dice. until at length. who personifies the eternal laws of nature.comelyform.

the seasonof the ripened fruit. a fact for which the warlike character of the people easily accounts. Such is the casein the engraving (Pig. correspondingto the four seasonsof the year. The Athenians celebrated a special festival in their honour. and adornedwith flowers. The adoption of four Horse. and garlands.-The Horse. 5. Far more extensive was the veneration of Victoria at Koine. The Horsegenerally appearas lovely girls dancing with their garments tucked up. Relief from the Villa Albani.-Nice is nothing but a personification of the irresistible and invincible power exercised by the god of heaven by means of his lightning. since she gener- ally appears in attendance her superior only on deities. Victory does not seem to have had many separatetemples or festivals. The most magnificent statue of this kind was one erected by Augustus in fulfilment of a vow after .who was herself honouredby the Athenians as the goddess of victory.fruit. 28. In plastic art Themis is generally represented with a balance in one hand and a palm branch in the other. and Carpo. She also appears in the companyof Pallas Athene. 28). but they recognisedonly two-Thallo. typical of the different seasons. 85 We know but little concerningthe worship of the Horas among the Greeks. Subsequently they were Fig. Nice (Victoria).The Gods of Olympus. Her chief shrine was on the Capitol. appearsto have arisen at a later period. after a relief in the Villa Albani. where successful generals werewont to erect statuesof the goddess rememin brance of their exploits. the season of blossom. distinguishedby various attributes.

coins. The proper festival of the goddess took place on the 12th of April. United Collections in Munich. the goddess. she was again transformed into a special attendant of Hera. later still. whilst a fine alto-relievo in terra-cotta exists in the 6. Large statues of the goddess are seldom met with. museum statue of of Casselhasasmall bronze .Royal Collection at Munich (Fig. bronzes. She branch is distinand laurel guishedby a palm garland. " Like hail or snow.-Iris was originally a personification of the rainbow. though she is oftendepicted on vases. Her swiftness was astounding. which were the custom- ary rewards of bravery among the ancients. Iris. In both Greek and Roman art Victory was represented as a winged goddess.the rainbow being. 29). a bridge between earth and heaven.86 Greek and Roman Mythology.-Victoria. and small The Fig. as it were." . but she was afterwards converted into the swift messenger the of gods. 29. In this character she makes her appearance Homer. his victory at Actiuni. in but.

dives to the hidden depths of the ocean and into the recesses the lower world. even in royal palaces.by her herald's staff (Caduceus).waited at table on the men of the family and the guests. as was the case with so many others. Juventas.is now preserved the British Museum. is easily explained by the old patriarchal custom of the Greeks.in manyrespects. by which the young unmarried daughters.Shemaybe distinguished a from the latter. or on account Hebe's of of marriage with the deified Heracles. of 87 saysHomer. however. to whom she. according to her natural interpretation. the office having been assigned of to Ganymedes. In art Iris wasrepresented with wings. or now and then with Heracles. It may at first seemstrangethat the daughter of the greatest of the divinities of Greece should be relegated to so inferior a position.is the corresponding deity of the Romans. to whom. This was either in consequence the promotion of of the son the King of Troy. shepresents the sweet nectar." that falls from the clouds." she darts from one end of the world to the other-nay. executing of the commandsof the gods. Hebe occupies no important place in the religious system of the Greeks.or Juventus. In the fully developed mythology of the Greeksshe appearsas the cupbearer of the gods.The Cfods Olympus. and.-Hebe was the daughterof Zeusand Hera.but.they contrived to bring her into a more intimate connection with their political life by honouring in her the undying and unfading . at meals. from the eastpediment of the Parthenon at Athens. A very much injured specimen. she seems to have been chiefly honoured in connection with her mother Hera. This. in 7. "bears strongresemblance. In post-Homeric poetryand legend Hebe no longer appears as cupbearer the gods. like Nice. represented the youthful bloom of Nature. Hebe (Juventas). however.

Ganymedes. Neither Homer nor Pindar. She appearsthus in the world-renowned master- pieceof the Italian sculptor Canova. none can be sa identifiedwith Hebe.pouring out nectar from an upraised vessel. fely She is the more often met with on ornamental vases and reliefs. so well known from casts. who was Fig. She is usually depicted as a highly-graceful.88 Greek and Roman Mythology vigour of the state. of statues of this goddess appearto have beenvery rare in ancient times . Ganymedes.the King of Troy.-Hebe. among all the numerous statues that have been discovered.-A similar office in Olympus was filled by the son of Tros. In default of an ancient statue. by and installed as cupbearerof the gods. however. "Withregardto the artistic representation Hebe. 8. modest maiden.whichis a off This of . we give an engraving of this work (Fig. feature the story. theepisode Zeus relate of sending eaglo his to-carry Ganymedes. Antonio From Canova. at least. on which the marriage of Heracles and Hebe is a favourite subject. made immortal ZeilS. 30. 30). She had a separatechapel in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.

The Gods of Olympus. A copy of it still existsin the celebrated statue of Ganymedes in the Vatican collection. The Phenomena of the Heavens.-Helios (Latin Sol). The Eoman poet. in which Ganymedes represented giving the eagledrink out of is as a bowl (Fig. the sun-god.. Helios (Sol). 89 favourite subject of artistic representation. 2. and madethe ruler of Olympustransformhimself into an eagle. 31. 1."belongs to that small classof deities who have preserved their physical . in order to carry off his favourite. From Tliorwaldsen. The most famousmonumentis a bronzegroup of Leochares. artist an who flourishedin the fourth century B.Ganymedcs and the Eagle. is first found in Apollodorus. There is an extremelybeautiful group of this kind by Thorwaldsen. modernart the story has been treatedwith still greater frequency. then went a step farther. Ovid. In Fig. 31). The rape of the beautiful boy is often portrayed in ancient art.C.

By his wife Perse.. meaning intact. and though Homer and Hesiod do not attempt to explain how he passedfrom the west where he sets. attended with musical and athletic contests. He is describedas the son of the Titans Hyperion and Thea. later poets obviate the difficulty by making him sail round half the world in a golden boat (according to others a golden bed).and also a celebrated garden. All the stories relating to Helios were gradually transferred to the RomanSol. In the far west Helios had a splendid palace. whence he himself is called a Titan.was here celehratedwith great pomp in honour of the sun-god. the most important of which was the island of Ehodes. and of the still more celebrated sorceressCirce. He is portrayed by the poets as a handsomeyouth with flashing eyes and shining hair coveredwith a golden helmet. which was under the charge of the Hesperides.90 Greek and Roman Mythology. An annual festival.a daughter of Oceanus. For this purpose the post-Homeric poets endow him with a sun-chariot drawn by four fiery horses.who. His daily office was to "bring the light of day to gods and men. celebrated in the legend of the Argonauts. who was originally a Sabinedeity. cameto an untimely end.where the Ethiopians live.he becamethe father of ^Eetes.but he neverattaineda prominentpositionin religious worship. in attempting to drive his father's horses.. and was invoked as a witness at all solemn declarations and oaths. . and thus he was supposed again to arrive at the east. The untiring charioteer of t'te heavens was also honoured as the patron of the race- course.. His worship was confined to a few places. which he performed hy rising from Oceanusin the east. King cf Colchis. whence he was believed to bring hidden crimes to light. to the east where he rises. Helios seesand hears everything. chiefly by means of the Metamorphosesof Ovid. Another son of Helios was Phaethon. and completing his coursealong the firmament.

The sleepingEndymion was a frequent subjectof representation sarcophagi monuments. a temple of her own on the Aventine. 2. She is gentle and timid. is depictedas a handsome youth.which givesforth twelve "brightrays corresponding the to number of the months. In sculpture. She causedhim to fall into an eternal sleep. and was 105 feet in height. and was' held to preside over the public games. the son of the King of Elis. was statue which has acquireda world-wide celebrity under the name of the Colossusof Rhodes. his head encircled by a crown.his mantle flying about his shouldersas he standsin his chariot. on and . Like her brother Sol. erected in his honour the celebrated colossal Here. and gazeswith rapture on his countenance. in 280 B. had which was supposedto have been dedicated to her by Servius Tullius. may be recognised the half moon by on her forehead. she also bearsin her hand a torch. Selene.-As Artemisis the twin sisterof Apollo. and Persephone. The sameremarks apply to the Roman Luna. or Sol. It waschiefly in Rhodes. Poets delight to sing of the secret love she cherished for the beautiful Endymion. never really enjoyed divine honours in Greece.The Godsof Olympus. 91 Helios. In later times she was often confoundedwith Artemis.that Helios was made the subject of the sculptor's art. however. Hecate.Selene.whose beautiful tresses are crowned with a "brilliant diadem.or Luna." It was the work of Chares of Lindus. The poets depict her as a white-armed goddess. she was honoured in Home in connection with the circus.C. and he now reposes a rocky grotto on Mount Latmus. In the evening she rises from the sacred river of Oceanus. she the moon. so is Selenethe twin sister of Helios. lie representing the sun. Selene (Luna). The latter.however. where Selene in nightly visits him. and it is only in secret that she loves beautiful youths and kisses-them in sleep..and pursuesher course along the firmament of heaven in her chariot drawn by two white horses. and by the veil over the back of her head. and which was reckoned as one of the seven "wonders of the world. however.

and her tears fall to the earth in the shape of dew. decrepid old man. had rebelled against the sovereignty of Zeus. and was held in .with beautiful hair.92 Greek and Roman Mythology. since Tithonus at last became a shrivelled-up. rosy arms and fingers-a true picture of the in- vigoratingfreshness the early morning. Eos is represented by the poets as a glorious goddess. having forgotten to ask for eternal youth. celebrated in the story of the Trojan war. This is a mythological mode of intimating the fact that the wind generally rises at dawn. the goddess the dawn. in whom the goddesstook no pleasure. King of ^Ethiopia. Eos chosethe handsomehunter Orion for her husband. and had been cast into Tartarus. She was the goddessof the early dawn. After Astrseus. the son of the King of Troy.wasalsoa of daughter of Hyperion and Thea. Cheerfuland active. would not consent to their union. She begged Zeus to bestow on him immortality. but. west. however. was a son of Eos and Tithonus. and was slain by Achilles. Eurus. whom she by becamethe mother of the winds-Boreas. like most of the Titans. Memnon. She was first married to the Titan Astrseus.-Eos. Zephyrus. after which Eos married Tithonus. Eos (Aurora). Since then. she harnesses horsesLampus and Fliaethon her (Brightnessand Lustre). The viewsand fablesconnected with Eoswere transferred by the Roman writers to the person of their goddess Aurora* without undergoing any alteration. who. and JSTotus (north. and Orion was slain by the arrows of Artemis. * The Mater Matuta of the Romanswas a deity very similar to the Eos of the Greeks. and a sister of Selene and Helios. He came to the assistanceof Troy. The gods. of she rises early from her couch. east.in order that she may hastenon m front of the sun-god and announce the day. and south winds). and. enveloped in a saffroncoloured mantle. Eos has wept without ceasingfor her darling son. 3. the gift was of doubtful value.

which were formerly regarded two as distinct beings. who was killed by a lion whilst hunting. They were seven for in number. All kinds of myths were invented about other constellations.whoserising betokened advent of the the the stormy*rainy season. as harnessing steeds Helios. during which the sailor avoidsgoing to sea. They were especially venerated high estimation amongthe Roman womenas a deity who assistedtlicra in childbirth. The Stars. and borne a son. 5. who had been placed among the constellations by Zeus when slain in the form of a she-bearby Artemis.. The story went that they were placed among the constellations by the gods out of pity. the stars of mariners. i. among others. the 4. Hyades. The Winds. He himself was made a constellation after having beenslain by the arrowsof Artemis. There were also several legends relatingto Orion.e.who assistedthose in peril. wererepresented art in the guiseof beautiful in boys with. while his clogwas Sirius. morning in and the star and the evening star. Phosphorus Hesperus. to Zeus. Connected with them are the Pleiades. whose rising announces the hottest seasonof the year. and were likewise set in the heavens by the gods. Like the Greek Leucothea.whom we have alreadyalluded to as the husband of Eos. Sheeitherappears drivinga chariotand four horses. Areas.-The four chief winds have been already alludedto as the sonsof Eos. .shewas also regardedas a goddess of the seaand harbours.or as gliding through the air on the of wingsandsprinkling earthwith her dew. we must not forget to mention Arctus. torchesin their hands. Finally. so called because on their rising in May the favourable season voyages begins. Sho had broken her vows of chastity. Tradition asserted that this was none other than the Arcadian nymph Callisto. 93 Representationsthis goddess foundnow andthen onvases of are andgems." The Godsof Olympus. becausethey were inconsolable at the death of their brother Hyas. the Bear.-Only a few of the stars are of any im- portance mythology.

was especiallydreaded on acccountof his stormy violence. because. and was hence regarded as a bold ravisher of maidens. as she was playing on the banks of the Ilissus. Thus an Attic legendasserts that he carried off Orithyia. at other times they were said to dwell together in the Wind-mountain. on the fabulous island of ^Eolia.94 Crre. Asclepius.or Aqnuilo. Boreas. he is or as calledby the Eomans. 1. Gods of Birth and Healing. The rude north wind. the daughter of Erechtheus. seatof his principal to the shrine. where they wereruled over by King 3.however. they maintainedtheir character purenatural forces. who was said to be the son of Apollo. who erectedan altar and chapel to him. She bore him Calais and Zetes. then solicitedtheir favour who with prayersand offerings. . Asclepius (^sculapius).to intimate the favourable influence he exercised on the prosperousgrowth of the vegetableworld.during the Persian war. so Zephyrus appears as the welcome messengerof Spring. which enjoyed a . Zephyrus was called Favonius by the Romans. little of importancein mythology. of and were. stood in high favour among the Athenians.consequently. and thence to have becomegenerally diffused. . The as worship of this deity. he had partially destroyed the fleet of Xerxes off Cape Sepias. appears haveoriginatedin Epidaurus.In* Epidaurus his priests erected a large hospital. by thoseaboutto makevoyages.It was only in later times that the necessity having specialgods of birth and healing of made itself felt . These. well known in the story of the Argonauts. ^Esculapius. As Boreasis the god of the winter storm. ISTotus (south wind) and Eurus (eastwind) were sometimes said to reside in separate places. Otherwise. together with the other chief winds. at all events.dk and Roman Mythology. Boreas. doesnot appear a god in Homer. on which account one of the Horsewas given him to wife.

The Godsof Olympus. if they had beenzealous in their prayers and offerings. The worship of this deity was introduced into Rome in the year 291 B. where a temple was at Fig.a.-Asclepius. Berlin. . great reputation. The story goes that the sacred serpent of the god followed the Roman ambassadors of its own accord. the god appeared to them discovered in a dream the and neces- sary remedy. The Sibylline books were consulted. on which occasion. and chose for its abode the Insula Tiberina at Rome. and they recommended that Asclepius of Epidaurns should be brought to Rome. The common method of cure consisted in allow- 95 ing thosewho were sick to sleep in the temple.82. in consequence of a severe pestilence which for years had depopulated town and country.

There is. This appears of to have been originally a surname of Hera. He is generally accompanied by a serpent. as a deity who succoured women in childbirth. 2.-Head Asolepius. although the great statue in gold and ivory of the templeat Epidaurus has beenentirely lost. or a clog.and wasdescribed a daughter Asclepius. There are numerous the latter being a symbol of the vigilancewith which the physician extant stat- ues of the god. templeof Zeus. a pine-apple. There are. on the other hand.96 Greek and Roman Mythology. of British proportionswas discovered the on Museum. Asclepius represented a bearded is as man of ripe years.of awhich the kindly benevolence from benefactor of mankind looks forth. a beardless of JEsculapius.-The Greeks alsohonoured Ilithyia as a goddess birth. Hygica was looked on as a goddess health. Such is the conception in the engraving (Fig. as a symbol of self-renovating vital power. A gilded statuewasaddedto the to temple in the year 13 B.moreover. near the Isle of Melos.C. In art.which he is feeding and caressing. or which is more commonlyrepresented as creeping up his staff. As other attributes-a bowl contain- the god of healing. with singularly noble Features. a very fine statue without a head in existence at Athens. Inferior Deities of Birth and Healing. in the last case. although they honoured a deity often identified with . of as of The Romans had no needof a specialgoddess presidingover birth. 33). he has also ing the healing draught. 32). A fine head of colossal Fig. 33.a bunch of herbs. and is now an orna- ment of the British Museum(Fig. watches disease.celebrated statuesin Florence. The method alreadymentioned of sleeping the templewasalsoadopted in here. onceerected ^Esculapius. Paris. which is after a statue preserved at Berlin.and Borne(Vatican).

sought life andconof men long . whomthey calledStreiiia.or Cardea.or Salus. whom.The Gods of Olympus. As guardian of the chamber birth. Another as of of these inferiordeities. they honoured of Carna. who was supposeddriveaway evil Striges to the (screech thatcame owls) at night to suck the blood of the new-born child. 97 Hygiea. Carna was further regarded the protectress physicalhealth.

and Agathodsemon (Bonus Eventus).au Mythology. who generally give Clotho a spindle. Hence arose.and Atroposa balance. 2.-Nemesis reallydenotes apportionment the of that fate which is justly deserved.and so it is probable that her claim to public veneration datesfrom a later period.-The Mccrse. let the last point to the hour of death on a dial. Greekand Ilom. bore the name of Anna Perenna(the circling 4. But at a subsequentperiod it was Clotho who spun. 1. where they alwaysappearas young. so that. tinned health. Nemesis. separate functions yet not having beenallotted to them. Their nameswere Clotlio (spinner).98 year). In the first instance. or Such is the casein a talented creation of Carstens. Atropos(inevitable). who were wont to revere all such indefinite numbers under the sacrednumber three. The popular conceptionof the Parcae gravehoary womenwas as not followed in art. Shewas regarded as a goddessof equality. 34).really denote that portion of a man's life and fortune which is determined from his birth. Moerse(Parcee).Lacliesis who held. . in which the con- ceptionof moderntimes is brought into harmony with the ideal of antiquity (Fig. better known by the Latin name of Parcse. of daughters the night. but a third wasafterwards addedto maketheir own mythologyharmonise with that of the Greeks. The Greeks. generally recognisedthree.there are as many Mccrseas individuals. in this sense. who watches over the equilibrium of the moral universe. Deities of Fate. of Lacliesis (allott-or). and Atroposwho cut the thread of life. and seesthat happiness and misfortune are allotted to man accordingto merit.and a consequent repugnance to that which is not. These theyregarded the dark and inexplicable as powers fate. their attributes wereall alike. however. Tyche (Fortuna). Homer does not acknowledge Nemesis as a goddess. This arrangementwas first adopted by later artists.Lacliesis a roll of parchment.subsequently. and Only two Parcoe were originally known to the Romans.

Sheresembled. In course of time.whosefavouritehe had certainly everyreason regard to himself. who visits with condignpunishment the crimes and wickedness of mankind. the who wasregarded as the source of all that is unexpected in human life. and made the 24th of June the common festival of the goddess. Later. according to common accounts. The kindly. and as such. her worship became still more extensive. who dispenses what is just. Sheliad alsocelebrated in temples in Antium and Prseneste. holding in her hand the instruments of measurementand control (cubit. slie appears with wings in a chariot drawn by griffins. with a sword or whip in her hand. the most important of which was the rudder. bridle. She is . gentle goddess. of art. had a great number of templesand she chapels erected her honour. the goddessof good fortune. which she held in her hand in token of her power to control the fortunes of mankind. in this respect. and rudder). As the stern avenger of human crimes. 99 the idea of an avengingdeity. He erecteda temple to her under the name of Fors Fortuna.thoughpopular superstitionnever regarded with a her friendly eye. In this character she resembles the Furies. Servius Tullius wassaid to have introduced into Koine the worship of Eortuna. the idea gained ground that Tyche was the authorof evil as well as of good fortune. Thevarious conceptions Nemesis againdisplayed works of are in Tyche.The Gods of Olympus.some of which referred to the state(Fortunapopuli Romani). daughter Oceanus Tethys. Shewasusually the of and honoured as the tutelary deity of towns. Tinder the most different surnames. was. Ancient artists endowedthis goddess with various attributes. and othersto everydescription of private affairs. at least her statue stood on the Capitol. Portunaof the Eomans. is depictedas a young woman of grave and thoughtful aspect. The Romans likewise introduced Nemesis into their system. however.had temples and statues in many populous cities of Greece and Asia.

The later conception of an impartial goddess fate is apparentin thoseart-monuments of which depict her standing on a ball or wheel. sometimesshe is also representedwith the youthful Plutus in her arms. with advice and comfort. with a horn of and plenty as the giver of good fortune. BesidesFortuna.100 Greekand Roman Mythology. incense. or KTeptunus. cake. and we find that the belief in personal protecting deities grew rapidly among both Greeks and Romans.and has a sheafof corn in her right hand. particularly on birthdays. Even this did not suffice for the religious needs of the people. he as was called by the Romans. in which casehis subjection the latter is only natural. accompanyinghim from birth. Among the larger existing works. Zeus was the youngest of the sons of Cronus. through all the stages of life. IL- THE GODS OF THE SEA AND WATERS. also endowed with a sceptrefor the same purpose.we maymention a copypreserved the Vatican of a in Tyche by Eutychidesof Sicyon. The goddess here wearsa mural crown on her headas the tutelary deity of towns. which was formerly exhibited in Antioch. and garlands were made to them. Accordingto the comto mon account. the Romans honoureda deity called Felicitas as the goddess positive good fortune. Offerings of wine.-Poseidon. acquired sovereignty his brothersby having but the over overthrowntheir cruel father. which was adornedwith the works of art brought by Mummius from the spoils of Corinth. Poseidonwas accordinglyindebted to his brother foy his dominion over the sea and its ." and by the Romans " genii. 1. was the son of Cronus and Rhea." They were believed to be the invisible counsellorsof every individual. Poseidon (Neptunus). however. Homer calls him the younger brother of Zeus. to death. These deities were termed by the Greeks "doomones. Lucullus is said to of have erecteda temple to her in Rome.

and raising islands in the midst of the sea. who with his powerful arms upholdsand circumscribes earth. and on islands and promontories. by Poseidon was naturally regarded as the chief god of all the seafaring classes. with Ampliitrite his wife. Athens.ZEgae. Poseidon. Poseidon likewise possesses power the of producingearthquakes. 101 deities. .which subsequently became national festivalin Greece. but at the bottom of the sea. It wasonly natural that many legends.the watery element. Cos. On the other hand.The Godsof the Sea and Waters. like the elementhe represents. He is violent and imthe petuous. Virgil.Originally. and was therefore subject to him.who esteemed astheir patron and tutelary deity. boatmen. has given a beautiful description of the tamingof the fierceelements the god. a magnificent to goldenpalacein the neighbourhood . His temples. a Pylus. in the neighbourhood of which were celebratedin his honour the Isthmian games. and Tenos. and inundate the land far and wide. Among the numerous shrines of this deity wemay mentionthat of Corinth.local and provincial. the symbol of his sovereignty.like of Oceanus and Pontus. cleaving rocks. not in Olympus. such as fishermen. a word or look from him suffices allay the wildest tempest. him they to broughttheir offerings gratitudefor their safereturn from the in perils of the deep. To him they him addressed their prayers beforeenteringon a voyage. and statues were most numerous in the harbours and seaport towns. He usually dwelt.but he afterwards attained an entirely independent personality. Here lie was supposed inhabit. and the islands of Rhodes.and sailors. in the to first book of the ^jEtieid. enjoyed the highest reputation among the seafaring lonians. but as its mighty ruler. Evenin Homer he no longer appears the sea as itself. therefore. the waves rise with violence. he was a mere symbol of . dash in pieces the ships. When he strikesthe sea with his trident. altars.

By the nymphThoosa became father of the savage he the Polyphemus. such as Procrustes. which laid waste the crops and slew the inhabitants. Again.his indignationhavingbeenprovoked of by the injustice of the Trojan king. Poseidonhad built the walls of Troy at the king's request with the aid of Apollo. but Laomedon having cheatedhim in the matter of the stipulated reward. perhaps. The most important is.who fought with Heracles.. In the Trojan epos he figures as a violent enemy Troy. which is manifestly a symbol of the inundation of the sea. perhaps. Cercyon.was also said to be a son of Poseidon.g. There are numberlessstories. slain by Odysseus. but was rescued by Heracles. thus provoked implacable who the enmity of Poseidon. the conception of the wild stormynatureof the seacaused Poseidonto be represented as the father of various giants and monsters. Poseidonthereupon sent a terrible sea-monster. The fable of this monster.which counselledthe sacrificeof the king's daughter Hesione.is repeated many succeeding in stories (e. as to who should make the land .the legend of Theseus. In Athens the origin of the horse was referred to the contest between Athene and Poseidon. should exist about a god who played such an important part in the lives of seafaring folk. which he was supposedto have created. This may.102 Greek and Roman Mythology. There was scarcelya Grecian town or district which did not lay claim to divine origin for the personof its founder or ancestral hero. The unhappy maiden was exposed to the monster. and the Aloidse. the daughter of the king of Ethiopia). besides many other monsters.in which Poseidon appearsas the father of the different national heroes.be due to the fact that the imagination of the Greeks pictured to itself the horses of Poseidon in the rolling and bounding waves. The favourite animal of Poseidon was the horse.who rescuedin a similar way Andromeda. of which we shall speaklater on. Laomedon. They had recourseto the oracle.in the story of Perseus. The giant Antsous.

Dolce Gem. 103 the most useful present. In Corinthian legend Poseidon appears as the father of the winged horse Pegasus by Medusa. of the games. before the races. This story is connected with the taming of the horse. . had. On account of his intimate connection with the horse.Poseidon was especially regarded the patron as Fig.solicited his favour with prayers and sacrifices. 35.-Poseidon. The competitors.which was ascribed to Poseidon. altar of his own on and an all race-courses. in consequence.The Godsof the Sea and Waters.

Our engraving of the god is after a beautiful gem of the Dolce collection (Fig. Amphitrite is generally depicted as a slim and beautiful young woman.or Neptune. She had three children by Poseidon-Triton.or by herself. and also a marble statueof the god. and a more bristling and disordered head of hair than Zeus. with as broaddeepchest. According to the usual account. rams. to the latter probablybecause was so extensivelyused in shipit building.-After Poseidon had attained an almost exclusive veneration as god of the sea. either nude or half clothed.Amphitrite. These were placed under his special protection. but Poseidon's dolphin found her and fetched her back. Rhode. The Romans not being a seafaring people. Artists intimated the greaterviolenceof his nature by giving him more angularity of face. riding in the chariot of Poseidonat his side. The representationof Poseidon. Black steers.horses. The expressionof bis countenance more grave is and severe. and piercing eyes. and Benthesicyme. The dolphin and the pine-tree were held sacred Poseidon. for which reason the only temple he had in Rome stood in the Circus Plaminius. Neptune never stood in such high estimation among them as among the Greeks. Ancient statues of Poseidon are comparatively rare. Amphitrlte. On gems she also appearsenthroned on the back of a mighty Triton. and wild boars were sacrificed to him. He is accordingly of represented similar to his brother Zeus in size and figure.dark wavy hair. a He is generallydistinguishedby the trident in his right hand. he carried her away from Naxos. Others say that she fled to Atlas to avoid the rude wooing of the god. 35). one of the Nereids. The Vatican Museum possesses fine bust.104 Greek and Roman Mythology. or riding a sea- . someA band similar to a diadem denoteshis dominion over the sea. was given him to wife. in art harmonises tolerably well with the descriptions the poets. In plastic art. 2.and the kindly smile that plays around the mouth of Zeus is altogether wanting. In Rome his prominent characteristic was his connection with the horse and the race-course. times in its place we find a tiller.

Poets and artists soon revelled in in the conception of a whole race of similar Tritons. the upper parts of which were those of a man.the goodspirit of the ^Egcan wherehe old sea. He appearsas a kindly. or are of importance in art. 3. Pontus and his Descendants. assea-deities fantasticform. 105 The worship of Amphitrite was entirely unknown to the Bomans. like the Satyrs on land. who recognisedthe sea-goddess Salacia as the wife of Neptune. are of little importance of in higher art. to have enjoyed divine honours. he never appears. Such too is his appearance works of art.-We have already spoken Pontusand his racein our account the Theogony. though he. . The poet Apollonius Rhodius describes him as having a body. thus giving rise to the figure termedthe Ichthyocentaur. however. Her hair generallyfalls looselyaboutliSJ Sheis distinguishedby the royal insignia of the diadem at times she also wields the trident of her husband. who were regarded as a wanton. dwells with his fifty lovely daughters. Nereus possessed the gift of prophecy. mischievous tribe. horseor dolphin. benevolent man. 1.-Nereus presents to us the calm and pleasantside of the sea. Triton and the Tritons. Nereus and his Daughters. of of Here we can only mention those of his children who either enjoyed divine honours. ever ready to assist the storm-beaten sailor in the hour of need. This perhaps explainshow it came to pass that hewassubsequently degraded the level of a fabulous to sea-monster. Like all water-spirits. 4. though they were all the more frequently employed in fountains and water-works.-Triton was the only son of Poseidon and Amphitrite. while the lower parts were those of a dolphin. The fore-legs of a horse were some- times added to the human body and dolphin's tail. The eldest among them was Nereus. the Nereids.The Godsof the Sea and Waters. The Tritons.

the second son of Pontus. Heracles to soughthim on his way to the gardenof the Hesperides. By Electra. riding on dolphins. Thaumas. lovely tribe. They are a charming. they wore afterwards represented as winged creatures.Tritons. however.we find among them Thetis. Her beauty and grace were so great that Zeus himself became her lover.106 Greek and Roman Mythology. in who usually figures as their leader. of In spite of his urgent entreaties. did not alwaysclioose makeuseof it. The latter personifythe storm-winds. because an oracle had declaredthat the son of Thetis should becomegreater than his father. He is commonlydistinguishedby a sceptre. the chosenbride of Poseidon. or other fabulousmonsters the deep. became he the father of fifty. the beautiful mother of Achilles. of a hundred daughters. so celebrated ancient poetry. sea in its peaceful aspect. evena trident. By his wife Doris. This joyous band generally in forms the train of Poseidon and Amphitrite. son of ^[-Cacua. who would not let him gountil he had obtained necessary the information. or. to Peleus. in earlier times slightly clothed. the messengerof the gods.Kerens endeavoured elude him by to assuming every kind of shape. or The Nereids were depicted as graceful maidens. though he was at length vanquished by the persistence of the hero. represents it as the world of wonders. and also of the Harpies. a daughter of Oceanus. now by theii* timely assistance the hour of danger. who were all veneratedas kindly.half man and half .he becamethe father of Iris. the daughterof Oceanus. who win the heartsof the sailorsnow by their merry sports and dances. order to learn in how he might get possession the golden apples. He surrendered her. Thaumas. In art Nereus generally appearsas an old man with thin grey locks.biit later entirely nude. BesidesAniphitrite.Cdo. of 2. Phorcys. beneficent sea-nymphs.-Whilst Kerensand his daughters represent the. Originally fair maidens. according to some.

and many other forms. This pair. the brother and sister of Thaumas.-Among the inferior sea-deities. sought to elude the importunity of the heroby convertinghimself into a lion. the the and dragon the liesperides.present to us the sea under its terrible aspect. as whose table they continually robbed of its viands. Glaucus de- serves mention as playing a part in the story of the Argonauts. He plays the same part in the story of Troy asKerensdoesin that of Heracles. wasvanquished the persistence Menehe by of laus. and vouchsafed answer. They wereregarded the ancients or by as the ministers of sudden death. They arebestknown from the story of the Argonauts. of typify all the terrors and dangers of the deep. In works of art he generally appears like a Triton.and of the of other marine animals. Phorcys and Ceto. He was supposed be the an to keeper the fish who inhabit the depthsof the sea.. being in no amiable mood. they had the faces of maidens. He is usually distinguished by a crook. a wild boar.but their bodies were coveredwith vultures' feathers. He is represented an old man (the servantof Poseidon) as endowed with the gift of prophecy.e. werecontinuallytormented and with an insatiable hunger. His usual abode was the island of Pharos. At length. wherethey appear the tormentorof the blind king Phineus. 107 bird. with body ending in a fish's tail. a dragon.-Proteus is a deity of inferior rank. Proteus. in 5. . they were pale and emaciated in appearance.The Godsof the Sea and Waters. Grsese. to seek adviceof the " unerring old man of the the sea. It was thither that Menelaus turned after he had been driven to the coast of Egypt. on his return from Troy.however. from whose union sprang the Gorgons. We shall have more to say concerning the Gorgons and Grseoe the story of Perseus. 6. i. Glaucus.a panther. which they eitherdevoured spoiled. and were said to be either two or three in number." But Proteus.

than to the higher and moreimportant gods. Glaucus wasoriginally a fisherman of Antheclon. whom they supposed to standcloserto them. his body covered with mussels or sea-weed. He was astonishedto see. It was she who. Ino Lettcothea. indeed find universallythat the common we people. His hair and beard showthat luxuriancewhich characterises sea-gods. when in frantic .-Like Glaucus. he too sprang into the sea. Hera. his second son. 7. He himself now ate of this wonderful herb. whereupon he dashedLearchus.turned rather to the inferior deities. He wasreally only a local god of the Anthedonians Boeotia. In art lie is represented a Triton.however. Ino.He was the venerated on many of the islands and coasts of Greece as a friendly deity. and the wife of Athamas. One day.that on coming in contact with a certain herb. rough and shaggy appearas in ance. and Melicertes. and immediately felt himself penetrated by so wondrous a sensation of bliss and animation that. after the unhappy death of Semele. He was about to inflict the same fate on Melicertes.the mother of Dionysus. they were restored to life and sprang back into the sea.however. he laid them half deadon the turf closeby. which was unknown to him. She was a sister of Semele. against a rock.avenged herself by driving Athamas mad.attained at onceimmortality and divine rank by a leap into the sea. the daughter of Cadmus. king of Orchomenus. But though he had no splendid temples. in his excitement.in all their cares. took chargeof the infant Dionysus. stoodin very high he estimation among the lower classes of sailors and fishermen. ever ready to assist the shipwrecked sailor or the castaway. after having caught somefish. who attained in a wonderful manner the rank of a god. in and his worship was not extendedto other placesin Greece.108 Greekand Roman Mythology.and gave him a placeamong sea-gods. Oceanusand Thetis hereupon cleansedhim from all his human impurities. According to the story. his eldest son by Ino.

the Harpies. in where Odysseus. who converted both her and her son into sea-deities. because they refusedto go to the help of their companion. at other times with the arms and bodies of women. They are best known from the story how Odysseus succeeded passing them with his companions in without being seducedby their song. only with human faces. Sometimes they appearaltogetherlike birds. but three or four were recognised in later times and introduced into various legends. The Race of Oceanus. her seeingno hope of escape.they areoiten depictedon tombs as spirits of death.who cameto the assistance of those who were shipwrecked or in otherperil. The Sirens. or the Sicilian story of the rape of Persephone. the of . such as that of the Argonauts. Persephone. cast herself from the rock Moluris into the sea. asyoung womenwith like the wingsand feetof "birds. and her son that of Paloemon. who saw only certain death before him. She hence- forth bore the name of Leucothea.-Lastly. however. In art they arerepresented. or of Phorcys and Ceto. is represented as having been savedby a scarf thrown to him by Leucothea. They were both regarded as benevolent deities of the stormy sea. Only two Sirens are mentioned in Homer.whenIno. by 9. of I0§ hastethe unhappymother sought to saveher child hy flight. As their songswere death to thosewho were seduced them. when she was carried off by the god of the lower world. we must enumerate amongthe water-deities numerousdescendants Oceanus. Here she was kindly received by the Nereids. pursued as far asthe Isthmus. Athamas. Theyappear this guisein the Odyssey. and to have himself bound to the mast. He had the prudence to stop the ears of his companions with wax. Demeter is said to have changed their bodies into those of birds. 8.TheGods theSeaand Waters. The Sirens were regarded as the daughters either of the river-god Achelous by one of the nymphs. in which casethey generally hold instruments of music in their hands.-The Sirens must also be reckoned among the sea-deities.

They weredepictedeither as delicate youths. Fontus. according to the magnitude of the river. He was supposedto dwell on the most western shores of the earth. although their worship was entirely of a local nature. The river-godswere believedto dwell either in the depths of the rivers themselves. as Egeriadid King Nuroa. but was allowed to remain in undisturbed enjoyment of his ancient domain. as among the Greeks. but. The Greek and Roman Mythology. or as old men. the son of Janus. like other water-spirits. or as men in their prime. he did not share their dreadful fate.and also the rivers that are spread over the in the oceanencircling the earth. viz. which he never left even to attend the assembliesof the gods. who sometimes honoured mortals with their favours. to possess the gift of prophecy. eachriver had its special deity. The springs were popularly supposed to be inhabited by nymphs gifted with the powers of prophecy and magic. the Oceanids. Oceanus himself appears in the myths which treat of the genealogyof the gods as the eldest son of Uranus and Gxa. The most important of these was Tiberinus. On account of their great importance to the fertility of the soil. latter were believed to have their common source viz. As he did not take part in the rebellionof the otherTitans againstthe dominionof Zeus.the greatestof all the Greekrivers.110 earth. and thence to flow beneath the ground until they reached the surface in springs. like his wife Tethys. that power of transformation which we discover in the other sea-deities. . a Titan... and therefore. the river-gods enjoyed a great reputation among the Greeks. Among the Romans all flowing waters were held sacred. was especially esteemedas the god of springs and fountains in general. appears have to enjoyedgeneralveneration.or in rocky grottoes neartheir sources. They also appear. They all possessa conformity with the nature of their element. Only Achelous.

Their attributes consist urns and horns of plenty. They thus appear serpents. The worship of these deities was therefore celebrated with festivals of joy and mirth at the seasonof the revival of nature. which manifested itself in the sterility of the soil. on the one hand. ill In art the river-godswere commonlyrepresentedin the guise of thoseanimalswhoseforms they were most in the habit of assuming. who. The worship of these deities assumed among the Greeks a passionate and excited character. Their wrath also. III. and with mournful solemnities at the season of its decay. usually designated orgiastic. The devotees manifested both their mirth and mourning in a loud. Though the ancients saw in the earth. the fruitful sourceof all life in nature. as bulls. An element of mystery never failed to introduce itself into the worship of these deities. were able to inspire a greater feeling of awe than the bright forms of the gods of heaven. on the other hand.with the exception of having small horns on either side of the head. they did not seekto disguise the fact that it is. in virtue of their dwellings. passionate manner.It consists thosedeitieswhose of power is incessantly exerted either on the surface or in the depths of the earth.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. noisy.however. and who are accordingly brought into the closestconnection with the life of man. They were alsoportrayed.whom wehave previously described.-THE GODS OF THE WORLD. .in purely human guise. though it gradually crept in here also. symbolsof the blessings of that proceed from them. EARTH AND LOWER We now come to a class of deities who stand in the most decided contrast to the gods of the heaven and the sea. also the open sepulchre into which all earthly existence sinks when its time is over.at first entirely strange to the Romans. was the subject of especialfear. or even as men with bulls' heads.

and also in an ancient Dodonaic hymn. it was somewhat thrown into the shadeby the worship of Ceresand kindred deities. In' Rome. She thus becomes a goddessof death and the lower world. said the Delphians. Mysteriesproper. who preside overthe growth of flocksand the fruits of the earth. A very ancientshrineof this goddess existed at Delphi. She is hence regarded as a mother who tends with loving care all her children. Like Demeter and other deities who dispense prosperity and abundance.or secret rites. The worship of Tellus in Rome was more important. Gsea (Tellus). although she never attained any real importance in the religious system of the Greeks. 1. such as Rhea.and then those who inhabit the lower world. with inexorable severity.belongedto her. In later times she acquired a more personal and plastic character. Hestia. Demeter. and Themis. and draws all things. owing to the existence of more definite and substantial deities. where she was also veneratedas a goddess of mar- . having herself proceeded immediately from Chaos.112 Greek and Roman Mythology. but neverfound their way into the religious systemsof Italy. and is often representedthus on ancient monuments. The chief significance of Goea lies in the fact that she is the sourceof all life and increasein nature. down into her dark womb. This deity appears the Cosmogony myths in (or relating to the formation of the universe) as one of the primeval creative forces.-First among them is Gsea. together with the Manes. and was on this account invoked. too. existedonly amongthe Greeks. and the oraclethere had once. We shall enumerate first the deities of the upper world. Mother or Earth herself. At the sametime Gscais the common grave of mankind. although here. Under this aspect her praisesare simg by Hesiod. as a witness of all solemn compactsand oaths.she appearsastending and nourishing the young.

at which games were celebratedunder the superintendence of the praetor. was an Asiatic symbol of fertility. The day of its arrival (10th of April) was ever afterwardskept as a festival.who. to 2. amid the boisterous music of her weird attendants. the Corybantes and Curetos. The true homo of the worship of Cybele was the district of Pessinus. The worship of Cybele. never seems to have become naturalised in Rome. After its arrival at Ostia. introduced into Borne. [Festive offerings were made to her before and after seed-time.her temple stood on the site of the house of Spurius Cassius. which was regarded by the inhabitants of Pessinus as the great mother herself. until she was 'identified with the Phrygian goddess Cybele. madeits way throughthe Greekcolonies into Greece itself. she and Ceres were propitiated by the sacrificeof a pregnantsow. The myths that relate . She seemsto have enjoyed only a limited measureof divine honours. her worship. It was here that she made her noisy processions.a rough and rocky mountain land." Thence .seated in a chariot drawn by lions or panthers. She was worshipped throughout Lydia and Phrygiaunder theappellationof the " Mighty Mother. at the instance of the Sibylline books. whom shebecame motherof Zeusand the other by the Cronidse. which wasof a peculiarlynoisy character. and towards the end of the second Punic war was. Rhea Cybele (Magna Mater Idsea). king of Pergamus. however.which was supposed promotethe prosperityof the coiningyear. perhaps becauseRomans were not allowed to officiate as her priests.-Rhea is well known as the daughter of Uranus and Gsea. this stone was carried to Rome amid a solemn procession Romanmatrons. Attains. 113 riage. On the occasion of the Paganalia. was on this occasion good enough to present the Romans with a sacred stone. like the Egyptian Isis.The Gods of the Earth and Lower World. and the wife of Cronus.

and was about to marry a daughterof the king of Pessinus. proved fatal to Semele. honoured with his love. the whom Zeus. however. and troubled their minds. This very love. where he slewhimself in a fit of frenzy. the priests. or Bacchus. was regarded Greeksand Eomansalike as the god of wine by and vineyards. Representations Rhea Cybele are rare. was found. The priests of the goddessmarched. In his more extendedmeaninghe represents the blessings of the autumn. A statue representing of her seated on a throne is a kettle-drum. amid the loud noise of kettle-drums and fifes. it is likewisehe who dispenses manto kind all the advantages of civilisation and refinement.the great god of heaven. to the goddessLear a wild. which took place about the time of the vernal equinox. He was a Phrygian youth of a beauty so exceptional that the great mother of the gods chosehim for her husband.for the ever-jealousHera came . but afterwards lie provedfaithless. Her usual attribute 3. the goddessinstituted a great mourning in memory of him. Dionysus. for when the wedding guestswere assembled at the festive banquet the goddess appeared in their midst.-Dionysus. in order to search the lost youth. Thebeswas described the birth-place of the god. similar to that of her rites. and of well-ordered political affairs. and whenat length he. His as mother was Semele. At first he returned her affection. Afterwards. But the vengeance the angry goddess of overtook him. Attis. It is he who causesthe fruits to ripen for the useof man.114 Greek and Roman Mythology. and rilled those present with panic fear. or an image for representing him. to the mountains. Atys fled to the mountains. or Bacclms (Liber). gashing themselves with knives. of danced about in wild excitement. fantastic character. daughter of Cadmus.in an ecstasy joy. The best known among them is the story of her favourite. is shown in the Vatican. or Atys.

and in their frenzy they mistookthe king for a wild boarand tore him to pieces. and then to put him to the test. weredrivenmadby him. which resounded with the loud andjoyful criesof his inspiredworshippers. Semele did so. the mother of the Theban king Pentheus. and the rest of the Theban women.request. The locality of this ISTysa somewhat uncertain. she insisted on its fulfilment. satyrs. who approached her in a flash of lightning.however.The Gods of the Earth and Lower World. On such as refused his favours his wrath fell with dreadful effect. succeeded exciting her of and in her suspicions to the truth of her lover's divinity. He did not confinehimself to merevine-planting. he ranged the woods. after which. but it is generally supposedto is be a district of Mount Pangseus Thrace. in Dionysus. who had refused to receive him. who ordered Hermes to carry it to the by nymphs of JN"ysa be brought up. She as insidiouslypersuaded Semeleto make her lover swear to do what she desired. Agave. by the sonof Fan. Both the god and his attendants soon became intoxicated with its juice. and accompanied by a crowd of nymphs. A later legend makesIno. . the to sister of Semele. 115 fco in the guise her nurse. being burnt to ashes by the flame of Zeus. after growing up amid the solitude of the forest and strengthening himself by his contests with its wild beasts. and fauns. and by introducingmorecivilisedmanners and a morepleasantand sociable mode of life among men. and perished miserahly.Eeroe. and then "besought Zeus to appear to her in the full majesty of his divine form. The legendsays that his education wasthen completed Silenus. at length planted the vine. Her unborn child was preserved Zeus. In companywith his preceptor and the rest of his train. but proved a real benefactorof mankind by founding cities. he then set forth to spreadhis worship and the cultivation of the vine among the nations of the earth. In vain did Zeus adjure her to take back her foolioh.the foster-mother of Dionysus. crowned with wreaths of laurel and ivy.

the daughter of Minos.116 Greekand Roman Mythology. is connectedthe celebrated story of his marriage with Ariadne. thesepirates put Dionysus in chains. at Athens. The sailors. whilst the strains of the Fig. 36). The Attic hero. and were changed into dolphins.had taken her away with him from . he appeared a lion. leaped overboard. The most beautiful feature in it is the figure of the god playing with his lion in the most joyous unconsciousness(Fig. terrified by the transformation of the god. At a nod from the youthful god the chains fell from his limbs.after escapingthe dangersof the Labyrinth by her means. of this scene still exists on the monument of Lysicrates. The most celebrated among the myths which testify to the wondrous power of Dionysus is the story of the punishment of the Tyrrhenian pirates. purposing to take him to Italy. Vinesand ivy tendrils woundthemselves roundthe mast and sailsof the ship. while a bearwasseen the otherend of the as at ship.-Dionysus and Lion. On the occasion of his passage from Icaria to ISTaxos. From the Monument of Lysicrates. With the name of JNaxos. king of Crete.in relief.which stoodstill. Theseus. 36. A line representation. which wasa chief seat of his worship. and there sell him as a slave. nymphs burst forth.

but very popular among the common people. therefore. At the winter festivalsof Dionysus. only womenand girls tookpart. the deliverer from care. was only equalled by her joyous surprisewhen Bacchus. which were of a disorderly character.like the greater Dionysia at Athens. at which vines with the grapes on them were borne in solemn procession through the streets of the city. The poets. were purely festivals of gladness.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. and people manifested their grief at his disappearance by everykind of wild gesture. when the new wine was tasted for the first time. anguish consternation Ariadne. found her and made her his bride. 117 He desertedher. thought right to suffer with him. but and Macedonia. whilst The indescribable asleepon the island of JSTaxos. because this season vine seemed die away. It was. do not relate that Zeusthen bestowed her that immortality on which he had already given his son on account of his glorious achievements and extraordinary merit toward mankind. and to every place where the vine was cultivated by the Greeks. At Athensa to sort of harvest thanksgiving was celebrated in honour of both Dionysus and his bride. The festivalsof the god at the beginningof spring. Crete in order to marry her. however. The worship of Dionysus extended not only over the whole of Greece. On these occasions the reawakening of nature was celebrated with . either of his own accordor becausewarned of the god in a dream. indeed. Asia Minor. At the time of the winter solsticetherewas mourning. but such appears havebeenthe populartradition. Thrace. and obliged to flee in consequence the sea or to lower world.on awakingto find herself and of alone and deserted on a foreign strand.returning from his travels in India. which were celebrated everyother year.and the god at the to wasbelieved to be suffering persecution at the hands of the evil spirits of winter. The god was extolled as Lyseus. and great festivals were instituted in his honour. alsoto Italy.

K 2. and 13th days of the month Arithesterion. This wasthe vintagefestival proper. which did not take place in Attica till the end of November or beginning of December. The first day wascalledinQoiyia. masquerading. the viands for which were furnished by the city of Athens. The . becausethey liked to let the grapes hang as long as possible. The new wine which was drank on these occasions did not tend to diminish the hilarity of the worshippers. All kinds of jokes and mischievous pranks were indulged in. in other words. the reawakening of nature from. or. (cask-opening).or feast of the wine-press. because on this day the new wine was first broached. the first wine-press had stood. This was followed by a great banquet. The Lesseror Rural Dionysia. the festival concluded with all kinds of country amusements.was celebrated in the month of January at Athens.and revelling. so that all kinds of mischievousjokes were perpetrated. in the place where. according to an old tradition. this was followed by a festive processionbearing the sacredthings. The Anthesteria were celebratedin February. The following festivals were celebrated Athens in honour at of Dionysus:1. A he-goat was first solemnly sacrificed to the god. dancing.118 Greekand Roman Mythology. 3. The chief feature of the festival was a magnificent procession with the sacred symbols of the god. the sleepof winter. and festive processions and theatrical performances followed each other in quick succession. Here stood the Lenscon. on the llth.one of the two chief temples of the god. 12th. Out of the skin of the slaughtered goat was made a leather bag. which was inflated and smearedwith oil: the young men then attempted to dance on it. They were supposed commemorate return of Dionysus to the fromthe lower world. aruj. The Lencca. The chief amusement the young menwasdancing of on the leather bag. boundless joy and boisterous mirth.

4.as at the Eoman Saturnalia. 37. The Greater or City Dionysia formed the chief festival of the god.-The so-called Sardanapalus in Ihe streets and squares. then donned its holiday garb. The Vatican. 119 second chiefdayof thefestival calledXQZS and was (cups). because vesselswere displayed filled with all kinds of boiled vegetables. bringing together a vast concourseof strangers from all parts.The Godsof the Eartli and Lower World. and the proper spring-feast of the Athenians. The third day was called x^TPOL (pots). . Thesewere regarded in the light of offerings for the souls of the dead.andinnumerablemerry antics were played by the crowds assembled in the Fig. Many liberties were permitted to the slaves on this occasion.who were popularly supposed to revisit the upper world on this occasion. renowned fined alike for the rethe artistic taste and keen wit of its inhabitants. A procession a great "banquet and took place. and lasted several days. It was cele- brated with extraordinary splendour in the month of March. The city.at which the guests were crowned with flowers.

and which the most rigorous interference of the authorities was unable to suppress. It was distinguished throughout by the simple countrified character of the proceedings. chief feature of the festival was a solemn procession.~Youthful Dionysus. called the Liberalia. People amused themselves with all kinds of jokes and antics. chief object of the festival was to pray for the fertility of the vines. Therewerelikewisebanquets and comic processions masks. From the Chateau These innocent Richelieu. now nalia which were afterwards festivals had nothing to do With the VoluptuOUS Bacchainto Eome in imitation introduced of the Greek mysteries. or Liber Pater.in which an old wooden statue of the god was borne through the streets.The of new and proceedings concludedwith the presentation of prizes to the successfulcompetitors.120 Greek and Roman Mythology. and with masquerades. The likewise Italian nationalities a festicelebrated val on the 17th of March. If we try to conceive briefly the significance theworshipof of . Fig. intheLouvre. in andgrand representations comedies tragedies.and resembled the Lesser Dionysia of the inhabitants of Attica. in honour of Liber. the masks from for which were cut The the bark of trees. the Italian god of the vine. 38.

The statues of this period are distinguishedby the almost feminine expression of face with which. is generally intertwined with a garland of vine leaves or ivy (Fig. The statue of a youthful Dionysus in the Louvre at Paris is an instance of this later mode of con- ception (Fig. As Demeterwassupposed give to corn and the other fruits of the field. Artistic representations Dionysus have comedown to us on of numerousmonuments.we find him coming into contact with Apollo. In earlier art he was generally depictedas majesticand grave. with whom. We have given an instanceof this earlier conception the so-called in Sardanapalus the Vatican (Fig. the of productive powerof nature. and especially of the vine. which falls about his shoulders in delicate ringlets. but also to inspire them with a love of music. So likewise is the head of Dionysus at Leyden. Fig. 121 Dionysus the religionof the ancients. which oftenforms sole his clothing. and was characterised by a delicate roundness of form. which is distinguished by a sweet expression of reverie. the skin of a wild beast falling across his chest. he supplements the idea of the great culturegoddess Demeter.and on that account represented with a beard. He is DionysusLeyden. The other attributesof the godarethe thyrsus. cheerful disposition. had manytemples festivalsin common.-Marble ofYouthful and Head the drinking-cup in his hand.on which account washonoured he with Apollo as the friend and leader of the Muses.as well as by the roundedlimbsand the gracefulease of every attitude. since he was supposed not only to endow men with a kindly. 38). the diadem.they endowthe god. on this point. He was likewise regarded as the author of the blessings of civilisation. so Dionysus was supposed to give the fruits of trees. or Bacchic wand. His soft hair. so that. Looking he and at Ms characterfrom another side. at . 39).39. In later art he became of more youthful. both among the Greeks and Romans.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. shall find that in his in we primitive character god was a personification the active. 37).

were held sacredto him. while the latter was also Ms usual sacrifice. and the bull by and ram. the laurel was held sacred to him on accauntof its powersof inspiration. generally accompanied lions. as the symbols of fortuity. tigers.122 Greek and Eoman Mythology. besides the vine and the ivy. Among plants. or panthers. .

It is now the preserved theVaticanMuseum Rome(Fig. representing sleepingAriadne.justly enjoysa very high reputation (Fig.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. Frankfort-on-tlie-Main. The Nymphs.largerthan life. over the whole of which their power extends. her riding on a panther. 41). productions of modern sculptors. 123 Of all the prominentpersonages the storiesof Dionysus. They manifest their presence . Amongthe in .-Dannecker's Ariadne. They personify the restlessactivity and energy of nature. 4.at Frankfort-on-tke-Main.40). which represents as the bride of Theseus. The most celebrated of such ancient monuments is a marble figure of great beauty. the Ariadne of Dannecker.-We terrestrial divinities now come to a class of inferior in the train of Bacchus who are often found The most numerous and important of these are the Nymphs. 41.Ariadne in has received most attention at the hands of the sculptor.at t Fig.

joyous life among the clefts and grottoes. They gladly join the train of those superior deities supposedto preside in the realms of nature. possessed gift of prophecy. graceful maidens. Nymphs of theMountains. son of the river-god a .although. yet avoid human habitations. As the kindly nourishers of plants. and spin and weave.we may distinguish the following to classes:- 1.124 Greek and Roman Mythology. though kindly disposed towards men. of Like the sea-nymphs. the Oceanidsand Nereids also belong.as well as in the and sprouting vegetation of wood and meadow. According to the divisions of nature. They are tender. they the and appear as the patrons of poetry and song. they enjoyed of a large measureof venerationamong the ancients.and sing in merry songs.or Oreads.they couldclaimno temples their own. Thus we see them joining in the Bacchic revelry with Dionysus. The most celebrated among them was the Boeotiannymph Echo. to whom. Thesewerevery numerous. The Water-Nymphs. however. She was consumed by love for the beautifulyouth Narcissus. rippling streams brooks. Sometimesthey devote themselvesto useful pursuits. over which the Nymphs were supposed preside. in their wider signification. sometimesthey engage graceful dances. Here. where they lead a merry. we Lave only to deal with the water-nymphs of the brooks and fountains of the land. or bathe their delicate limbs in the white spray of lonely brooks. in the murmuring. or ranging field and wood as they hunt in the company of Artemis. who are distinguished by the name of Naiads. beinginferior deities. and as thereby ministering indirectly to the sustenance both man and beast. and prefer the peaceful solitude of the woods and mountains. or figuring in the train of Aphrodite. who. 2.and receivedspecial names from the particular mountains or districts they inhabited. whombelong to the nymphs of the valleys and glens (Napaase).

he bent down to quench his thirst from a spring clear as crystal. who had in his vain self-love thus contemned the beautiful nymph. Goats. In art they aredepictedas lovely mallens. until at length her emaciated frame was changed into rock. The Satyrs. Coarsesensuality and a wanton spirit of mischief are the leading features of their .and was thence transferred to Eouie. 3. finding that he did not reciprocate affection^ and her she pined away in ever-increasing grief. Sileni. Not sharing immortality. and Panes. milk. These appearto have beena conceptionof later times. generally only slightly clad. 125 Cephisus.and the goddess caused him to fall in love with his own shadow. element. or Hamadryads (wood-nymphs). which was reflected in the water. or with attributes relating to their as 5. who are inseparably connected with Dionysus. The veneration of nymphs wo3 very ancient in Greece. and nothing but her voice remained. It wassupposed that their existence depended that of the trees they on inhabited. or female personifications of the life of Nature. and adorned with flowers and garlands. and oil " were offered to them. therefore. and the flower named after him has ever since continued an emblem of heartlessbeauty.-In contrast to the Nymphs. The Dryads. lambs. they cannot properlybe reckoned amongthe gods. called Satyrs. between whom it is difficult to distinguish clearly. The object of his desiresbeing unattainable.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. we find a number of inferior wood and water-deities of the male sex. The Naiads are also represented drawing water. whose attendant train they form. But Aphrodite avenged this injury to her sex on Narcissus. he too pined away from grief.so that when the latter were destroyedthe nymphs also perished. As he was hunting one day on Mount Helicon. Generallyby Satyrs (Fauni) we understandthe wood and mountain-spirits proper.

with blunt nose and bald head. and in art. goat'stail form their characteristic features. The Satyrs were not an uncommon subject of representation among ancient artists. hairy chest and thighs. but whereas in the former this produced only a rapturous enthusiasm and an exalted frame of mind. the pointed ears. together with cymbals and castanets. with them its effects were purely sensual.they were passionately addicted to excessive indulgence in wine. and afterwardsbecame faithful companion his wanderings. Sileims. with blunt noses and otherwise ignoble features.126 Greek and Roman Mythology.-Head Satyr.and excited them to insaneand unseemlypranks of all kinds. Munich of Scmlpture satyr in the Munich collection. the blunt nose. and a stomach so largethat he canscarcely walk. On account their animal propensities of they were fabled to be only half human in appearance. 42) shows the highly-expressiveface of a 6. The Bacchic insignia of a band round the belong to them. He generally appears riding oil . according to the common tradition. He is the of depicted by the poets as a somewhat elderly man.Fig. they love music and dancing. some particularly fine antique statues satyrsin the art-col.and a goat's tail.and the the originalhideoushalf-man. Like the Muses.-Silenus. Like their master. as well as in poetry. was an old satyrwho tended and brought up Dionysus. lections of Munich brow and an ivy garlandalso There are and Borne. The conception was based on half-animal type. Gallery. The engraving (Pig. their instruments being the Syrinx and the flute.bristling hair. of 42. character. goat-like ears.

with a satyr on either The artistsof antiquity seem havedevotedthemselves to frequently to the subjectof Silenus. His standingattributeis thewineskin.in which the comic elementis entirely lacking. One day.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. 127 an ass in front of the Bacchic company. besideswhich. Pleased for . These were Marsyas and Midas. Besides Silenus. and madea cruel use of his victory by hanging Marsyason a pine tree and flaying him alive. The former. the drunken Silenus strayedfrom the companyof Bacchus into the garden of Midas. whither he had emigrated from Macedonia. and. Apollo won. he bearsa thyrsusand ivy garland. sidesupportinghis half-drunkenform. who was celebrated as the preceptor of Dionysus. like all satyrs. But. and after entertaining him sumptuously ten days brought him to Bacchus. Among the Sileni were two personages who play a part in the story of Dionysus. or they presenthim to us as the insatiable but good-natured wine-bibber. The conditions of the contest were that he who was vanquished should put himself entirely in the power of his adversary. as her favourite. or whether they form a special class of deities presiding over the flowing. Midas was the mythic founder of the kingdom of Phrygio. until it betrayed him at length into an act of great folly. They either represented him as the nurse and preceptor the youthful Bacchus. in Asia Minor. The latter receivedhim with greathospitality.therewas a whole tribe of Sileni. the richer he grew the greaterwas his thirst for gold. like other members of the Bacchic train. endowed with fabulouswealth. Tradition makes him a son of Cybele. gushing water. of holding the child in his armsand regardinghim with a look of affection. cannot be determined with any certainty. Whetherthis is due to the fact that the older satyrs were called Sileni. was an accomplishedmaster of the flute. and challenged Apollo to a trial of skill which provedfatal to him. like many of the sonsoi menin the presentday.

on which occasion he decided in favour of the latter. and bore him to Olympus. elsewhere. Pan. and also one at the foot of the Acropolis at Athens. which has ever since washed down gold in its sands. Modern criticism hasseen the rich Midas one of the many personifications in of the sun. at the command of the god. for which reason the mountain caves in which they gathered their herds together at night. or in threatening weather. daughterof Dryops. Midas now wishedthat everything he touched might turn to gold. .-Pan was a very ancient god of the . He was also looked on as the patronof fishingand bee-keeping. 7. Greek and Roman Wood-Spirits. with his kindness.Pan wasesteemed god of greatcheerand a fulness and activity of character. Naturally the gratification of this wish well-nighprovedhis ruin. in the river Pactolus. sincehe washairy all over. His a motherwasnot a little terrified at his birth. and was on this account regardedwith little less veneration by huntsmen than by shepherds. were held sacredto him. who loved to range the woods as a huntsman. the god rewarded him with the gratification of any wish he might make. and he only escaped by washing. besides others on Mount Parnassus in Boeotia. Subsequently his divinity was more generally acknowledged and more highly esteemed. From time immemorial Pan was regarded the shepherdsof Greeceas their most doughty by protector. A later fable makes Midas the judge in the rivalry of Apollo and Pan. His father wrapped him in a hare-skin.woods and meadows.who. and had horns and goat's feet.turns all things to gold. where the assembledgods showed no small pleasure at the sight of the strange little wood-demon. Common accounts make him the son of Hermesby the nymph Penelope. for which the god changedhis ears into thoseof an ass.-1.ashe risesover the earth.128 Greek and RomanMythology. He was at first honoured only "by the inhabitants of the mountain- land of Arcadiaand by other pastoraltribes. There were many such caves of Pan in the mountains of Arcadia.

says the Homeric story. The poetshavefounded a story on his discovery the Syrinx. ai. Out of this reed Pan.it was he who first imparted this gift to Apollo. Pan also possessedthe gift of prophecy. he was the most accomplished dancer amongthe gods. with whom Pan was supposed to have fallen violently in love. Pan pursued her. and fled from his embraces. wascalso lover of music. His favourite amusement was to dancein companywith the mountain-nymphs. however.or mountain-nymphs. As a wood-deity. is only another version of Triton's servicesat the battle with the giants. The nymph. Hence. All such sensations of sudden and unaccountable fear wereascribed Pan (Panic). in the performance of which his goat's feet stood him in good stead. according to some. which occasions on he regaled themwith everykind of droll leap. a later period. whereupon the Titans were seized with a sudden terror. made an instrument which he called the Syrinx. Pan was as passionately fond of dancing as of music. Wild mountainous country and the thick untrodden forest are both alike apt to impress the lonely traveller with feelings of awe. arose the story that in the contest with the Titans he renderedgood service to Zeus by blowing on a shell trumpet which he had invented.and Pan a on returning in the evening from the chase.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World 129 As the god of shepherds. by joining seven piecestogether. after the nymph. They inventeda fabuof lous nymph called Syrinx. indeed. who transformed her into a reed. He was also said to delight in to terrifying travellers with all kinds of strange noises.he waswont to play sweettuneson his pan-pipe(Syrinx)? whilst the Oreads. however. According to Pindar. He certainlyhad a very ancientoracleat Acacesiimi in Arcadia. sang the praises of the godsand led off their spirited dances. It is . This. and in her extremity she sought the aid of Gasa. did not return his affection.

P. and new wine. In the former.into their city after the battle of Marathon.poets and artists alike set themselves work to to invent a numberof Panesand little Pans(Panisci). Later. 43. which at one time whistled through the reeds. The chief shrine of Pan was at Acacesiumin Arcadia. gravingof this at later conception. 43).130 Greek and Roman Mythology. In art we must distinguish the earlier and later types of the god." and assigned him a placein the Bacchic circle. _ _ __ We give anenFig. (Fig. well known that the Athenians introduced the worship of Pan. Men now saw in him a productive force of nature like the Phrygian Attis. sheep and weresacrificed him. a long goat's beard. of honey. goats. indeed. in consequence the assistance of which they believed they had received from the god.with the exception of two sprouting horns on either side of the forehead. which dates from the best days of Greek art. Such are the more ancient and simple features of the character of Pan.who were easily confoundedwith the Satyrs and Sileni. which is taken from a mural painting at . He assumeda higher significancewhen men began to regard him as the companion of the "Mighty Mother. frighteningthe belated traveller. he |<was depicted with larger horns.From Mural a Painting Herculaneum. in consequence a misinterpretation of his name. to which they had been hitherto strangers.-IU. he was made the of creatorand god of the universe. Cows.or at another moaned dismally in the forest. He seems to have originally signified the "purifying" breeze. After he had once been introduced into the company of Dionysus. besides to offerings milk. he is conceived as entirely human in appearance. and goat's feet.

one on the Yiminal and another on the Aventine. Faunus and Fauna. In the former character he wasalsocalledInuus (the fertiliser). scattering blooming lilies and other flowers.sometimes a pine garland.and propitious to the welfare of trees. whence he sometimesterrifies and annoys travellers. he appears to have his seat in the woods. Artists and poetsagree in representingSilvanus as an old man with a rustic head-gear. 3. as a mischievous sprite. The usual attributes of Pan are a Syrinx and shepherd's crook. of Like Pan. In this character Silvanus bears a close resemblance to Terminus. however. The first of the fruits of the field were offered to him. to that of Pan. the godof boundaries landedproperty. althoughthey are not exactly identical.since he was also regarded as the author of fraitfulness in gardens and orchards. He appears the goodspirit of the mountains.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. since he made their cattle fruitful and drove off noxious beasts of prey. one of the most ancient national godsof Italy. like Pan. Silvanus occu- pies a position most akin.-Among the Eoman wood-deities.inasmuch he preserves and as fields. and plains. he creeps into men's houses. 131 Naples. plants. He was regardedby the shepherdsas their best protector.where he was supposed to dwell. and cattle. gardens. derived from silva (wood). in the latter Lupercus (the warde"r-off wolves). pointshim out asthe god of the forest. who delightsto trick and terrify the lonely traveller. and torments them with evil dreams and horrible apparitions(Incubus). He had two shrines in Rome. also 2. His sphereof activity was not confined to the woods.and houses from harm. as pastures. too. a deity kindly disposed towards mankind. . His name. he appears. Kilvanus.-Closely resembling Silvanus is another deity called Faunus. At night. At times. He is usually distinguishedby a pruning-knife.

a propitious. who. ran from the shrine of the god (Lupercal).on which occasionthe guests at the festive board surrendered themselves to the most unrestrained mirth. kindly goddessof the plains. or priests of Faunus. indeed. In art Faunus bears exactly the sameappearance Pan. Barren women placed themselves in the way of the Luperci. on the Palatine. and was remarkable for the number of ancient customs which were observed. also cut from the same blood-stained skin. believing that by meansof the strokes the reproach of barrenness would be taken away from them. different festivals were celebrated. The Lupercalia. through the streetsof Home. though not his wife. was Fauna. formed the proper expiatory festival of Faunus. In this character he was called Fatuus. She is also calledMaia. on the spring Albunea. The feminine counterpart of Faunus. whence the name of the month. their only clothing being an apron cut from the skin of the slaughtered animal.132 Greek and RomanMythology. The chief of these was the course of the Luperci. on which occasionmales were strictly excluded. the poets soon beganto identify them with the Satyrs of the Greeks. .at which ranis were sacrificed and libations of wine and milk made. As a day of atonement. The Faunalia were celebrated on the Nones of December. Faunus possessed the gift of prophecy. with as whom. too.he wasoften identified. Like Pan. however. This festival was celebrated on the 15th of February. or BonaDea. and granted many liberties also to their slaves. and had a celebrated oracle in the grove at Tibur.this day was termed diesfubruatus (from/e&rware. The women madean offeringto her every year at night. and answered both by direct revelations and by dreams. Having once invented a number of Fauns. In honour of this decidedly national deity. after making their offering. to purify). They struck all whom they met with thongs.

whilst fishing and the rearing of bees were also placed under his protection. to whom by Greeks and Eonians alike the blessings of the harvest were ascribed.veneratedas the great benefactor mankind. 8. were erected his honour.however. however. and he was identified with the native Mutunus. to confined principally to the districts on the Hellespont. Besidesthis.the -greatgoddessof civilisation. This deity wasscarcely noticed in higher art. appears have been long of a purely local character. Priapus. After the Eomans had become acquainted with the . He wassupposed exercise to influence over the fruitfultiess of flocks and herds. In the gardens of Italy. and presided over the exuberant fertility of nature. similar to those of Hermes. since he is not even mentioned by earlier writers. and who forms the best link between the gods of the upper and lower worlds.-Before passing to Demeter. together with the cultivation of the vine and other fruits. we must pause to consider spme gods of agri- culture and cattle-rearing peculiar to the Eomans. To Saturn was ascribed the introduction of agriculture. Among them are Saturn and Ops. or Ceres. who not only promotedthe physical of welfare of men. a fact which gaverise to to all sorts of comical stories relating to the hostility of Priapus to this animal. but who also introduced a higher standard of civilisation. he received the first fruits of the gardenand field and drink-offeringsof milk and honey. rough-hewn pillars of wood. the god of fields and gardens. Asses weresacrificed him.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. He was.was the protection of gardensand vineyards. The worship of Priapus was introduced into Italy at the same time as that of Aphrodite. He is usually distinguishedby in a priming-knife and club. 9. Saturnus and Ops. He was the son of Dionysus and Aphrodite.-The 133 worship of Priapus. therefore. His specialsphere. who belong to the most ancient national deities of Italy.

In consequence this. were on this day unloosed. and of coursea solemn sacrifice was made to Saturn. courtsand schoolskept holiday. envelopedthe feet of his statue in order that he might not depart without vouchsafing a blessing. No services in wererequired of them. on this day there a for werepracticallyno slaves Borne. to forget their sorrowsfor at least oneday in ayear. was celebrated in Eonie with particularly great splendour. And this custom allowed a class.they identified him with Cronus. There he is said to have brought together the inhabitants. and they were allowed to don the clothes of their mastersand to eat and drink as much as they liked. over which he himself ruled. was also celebrated with games in the circus. This was the golden age. where he was hospitably received by Janus. This festival. who had hitherto wandered about without any fixed homes. during the greater part of the year.and to have united them in regular political communities. The distinctions of classwere suspended.and the shops the were closed. Unbounded festivity reigned throughoutthe whole town. the Saturnalia were celebrated durirg threedays. Wealthy Eomansgenerally kept open houseon this day. which with changed meaning still continues in the Carnival of the present day. and vented itself in every description of joke and prank.which wasespecially festiveday for the slaves. whilst their masters waited on them at table.beginningfrom the 17th of December. This festival. In remembrance the happy agewhenmenwerenot yet of troubled by sorrow or need.134 Greekand Roman Mythology. after his dethronement of by Jupiter. The chief day was the 19th of December. mythology of the Greeks. . the story arosethat. otherwise subject to so many afflictions. and vied with each otherin the splendour of their hospitalities. which wasextremely popular amongthe Bomans. Saturn fled to Italy.and throughout the night the temple was illuminated with wax tapers. The woollen bandageswhich.

the only difference being that the former exert their influence solely on the growth and welfare of the fruits of the garden and orchard. Yertumnus properly signifies the self-changing one. ripening seed. and she had a place in his temple on the Capitoline.Opswasthe goddess the seed-timeand harvest. Tn art Yertumnus generally appears a beautiful youth. When taken together.and therefore as identifiedwith Ehea. Saturn is always represented an old man. 135 The chief temple of Saturn. as her name signifies. to that of the budding. On of this account her worship was closely connected with that of Saturn. Beneath it was a vault containing the state treasury. of Eegarded the wife of Saturn. his head as . it being an easystep from the deity of the sprouting. of August. Pomona. Vertumnus and Pomona. The first of the flowers and fruits were offered to him. Tor the same reason god wassaid to possess faculty of assuming the the any shapehe liked.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. was the goddessof the fruit harvest. Saturn and Ops were regardedas deities who presided over marriage and the education of children.-Yertumnus and Pomona much resemble Saturn and Ops. and called by the poets the wife of Yertumnus.which wasbegunby Tarquinius Superbusand finished in the first years of the Kepublic.though the latter naturally held only an inferior position. to the manifold changeswhich the fruit undergoesfrom the time of its first appearancein blossom to that of its maturity. and is generally disas tinguishedby a pruning-knife or sickle. when the newly-gathered corn was threshed. thriving seasonof human life.was situated on the ascentto the Capitol from the Forum. or ararium. the guardianship the statetreasures of being committedto this god as the dispenser everyblessing. Each deity had a special priest (flamen). probably. 10. A festival was celebrated in honour of her on the 25th. referring.

or a pruning-knife. was derived. She was especiallyveneratedby the shepherds. 11.-Pales was the ancient pastoral goddess of the Italian tribes. whom womeninvoked before their confinement. who was held in great honour by the Sabines. crownedwith a garland of ears of corn or laurel. the goddessof blossoms and flowers. A festival in her honour was celebrated the 51st of April. She attained a higher significance by becoming a goddess of mater- nity. Flora. from whom the name Palatine. The most remarkable of these was the kindling of a large straw fire. The doors of the houses were adornedwith flowers. in He is sometimesdistinguished by a dish filled with fruit.a pastoral colony. which was remarkable throughout for its merry and tumuliuous character. 12. hares and deerbeing hunted in the circus. thinking thus to purify themselves from their sins. was also celebratedwith games. the festival. Her festival was celebrated with great rejoicings from the 28th of April to the 1st of May (Floralia). a beautiful maiden with boughs of fruit-trees in her hand. who assignedthe goddessa priest of her own.136 Greek and Homan Mythology. Milk and baked millet-cakes were offered to the sroddess. the anniversary the on of foundationof the city (Palilia). After the first Punic war. Her worship is said to have been introduced into Home by Numa.-Among the inferior deities of the plain was Flora. largerthan life. through which the shepherds rushedwith their flocks. with a horn of plenty. Pomonais generally represented the seasonof as Autumn. There is a fine marble statueof this kind. who besoughther to send fruitfulness and health to their flocks.in of the guise of a beautiful girl crownedwith flowers. . his right hand. Tbere is no statue of her now in existence. which originally meant nothing but . in the museumat Naples. as a symbol of the blessingshe bestows. called the Farnese Flora. Pales. and wreaths were worn in the hair. and everywhere in the interior of Italy. at which very ancientrustic customs were observed. Artists appear haverepresented to Flora as the season Spring.

and she is. A statue of the god also stood in the midst of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. She was also named Deo. and their erection was attended with religious ceremonies. and to make an offering of a flat cake to the god. Terminus. may yet be reckoned among the field deities.except Terminus. which could only occur with the consent of the deities themselves.and annuallycelebrated the 23rd of February. The thriving of the crops wasascribed to . and whoseshrine had therefore to be included in the temple of Jupiter. the limited space necessitated removalof several the existingshrines. although he had nothing to do either with the welfare of the crops or the fruitfulness of the flocks. as the god who specially presided over boundaries. with a special reference to nature and human civilisation. the sky. Demeter (Ceres). Her name signifies Mother Earth. The proprietors on of lands bordering on each other were wont on this occasionto crown the boundary stone with garlands.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. therefore.and in this character he had a chapel in the temple of Minerva on the Capitol. /Statues Terminus are exactlylike the Hermae the Greeks.-Terminus. who refused. and by comparison of these two words. her name has been interpreted as Dawn-Mother. 14. 137 13. the King Numa instituted a special festival in honourof the god.-Demeter wasa daughterof Cronus and Ehea. from the same root-as Zeus. an expressionof the ancient conception of the earth-goddess. In his wider signification Terminus was regarded as the god under whose protection the boundaries of the state reposed. which is explained by the following story:-After Tarquinius had conceived the plan of building the great temple of Jupiter on the Capitol. All landmarks were held sacred to him. of of and Lave no importance in art. In order that his people might fully appreciate sanctityof boundaries. They all expressedby means of auguries their readiness to make way " for the highest god of heaven. calledthe Terminalia.

She was also regarded as the tutelary goddessof national assemblies. Roused each familiar household feeling. The latter was once playing or with the daughters of Oceanus in a flowery meadow. where they were picking flowers and making garlands. Owing to the important part she played in the institution of law and order among mankind. brought their former rude and barbarous and mannersinto subjection to law and morality. and her influence. Persephone happened quit her companions a moment to pluck a to for narcissus had perceived. Demeter thus risesto the rank of a goddess civilisation.The instinct of the Fatherland. she comesinto contactwith Dionysus.of old Galled the wild man from waste and woldf And.138 GfreeJc Roman Mythology. best of all the happy ties. Of the numerous legends which are linked with the name of this goddess. as Schiller sings in his Lay of the Bell. morepregnant is or with meaningin regardto her worship. where Dionysus-Iacchuseven appears as the son of Demeter and the husband of Cora-Persephone.and which men first learned from her. she when suddenly groundopened the . in whose beneficial influence on human civilisation and manners we have already described." who. none perhaps morecelebrated. she was yenerated as the goddess of marriage. than the rape of her daughterPersephone. This accountsfor the intimate connection of these two deities in the Eleusinian mysteries. in his hut thy presencestealing. The centre of the social band. Sherescued of men by means agriculture from the lower grades hunters of of and shepherds. *'. Cora. And. marriage being the necessary foundation of civil society. she was further regarded as the patroness of al) those arts which are more or less intimately connected with agriculture. She thus becomes that " bountiful daughter of Heaven." Eegarded this light.

And thus every year at springtide she ascends from her subterraneous kingdomto enjoyherselfin her mother's company. Meanwhile all the fruits of the earth ceased.however.beseeching angry after the goddess return to Olympus. who sees and hearseverything. appeared a chariotdmwn "bysnortinghorses.however. By means Zeus. At length Helios. whereupon she found herself bound to him and unable to return.not disguising. not even resting for food or sleep. with the knowledge of Zeus. the goddess of now withdrew from the societyof the other gods into the deepest solitude. and Pluto. Demeterswore that shewould to neither return nor allow the fruits of the earth to grow until her daughter restored her. kindled torches. Full of wrath and grief. Persephone joyfully prepared obeythis command. promised her daughter to Pluto. In vain Zeussentonemessenger another. who had.that it had occurred with the consent Zeus.and the remainingportion with her husband. to but asshewasaboutto depart Hadesgave her a pomegranate-seed to eat. she and during many days and nights wandered anxiety through all the countries of the in earth. At length Zeus fain to consent. 139 at her feet. All this occurred. the god of the infernal regions. compact made a was by which Persephone to spendtwo-thirds of the year in the was upperworld with her mother. unknown to Demeter. of however. was to was and despatched Hermesto the lower world to bring Persephone back. When Demeter missed her darling child. It is not difficultto discover meaning thismyth.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. and none could tell her where she had gone.told Demeterwhat had happened. or Hades. returnsagainlate in autumnto the regions but of darkness and death. It is the of . Swift as the in wind he seizedand carried off the terrified maiden in spite of her struggles. and a general famine threatened to extinguish the human race. vanishedagain into the regionsof darkness and before her companionswere aware of the catastrophe.

to and then laying him at night in the glow of the fire. and offered the old woman service in their father's house as nurse to their youngest brother Demo. Every living being shares the fate of Cora. On Triptolemus. She was discovered her work.140 Greekand RomanMythology. Whilst Cora is dwelling during the winter months in the realms of Hades. and commanded him to build her a temple in Eleusis. every life becomes the prey of cold. When Demeter. The goddessconsented. Nature appears to wear a garb of mourning for her lost daughter. When it had been hastily completed. she carneto Eleusis. however. simply an allegoricalrepresentation the spectacle of that is annually renewed hefore our eyes-the dying away and coming to life again of the vegetableworld. after the loss of her daughter.by the mother of the child. In the Eleusinian mysteries this inevitable deceaseand re surrection of the vegetable world was conceived as a symbol of higher meaning. Closely connected with this beautiful and expressive myth is another which refers to the institution of the Eleusinian mysteries. Eumolpus. who is called the son of Celeiis. at whose criesdisturbed her. She now revealed herself to Celeiis. only to arise from the darkness of the grave more beautiful and glorious than before. with the help of the goddess. king of the city. where she was at once installed as nurse to the young prince.she initiated Celeiisand some other princes of Eleusis-Triptolemus. The daughters of Celeu's. phon. and Diocles-in the solemn rites of her service.and was kindly received in the house of Celeiis. and thus prevented from fulfilling her her benevolent intention. the found her sitting on a stone by the Maidens' Well as they came thither to draw water. inexorable death. She became so fond of the child that she resolved makehim immortalby anointinghim with ambrosia. she imposed the . was wandering over the earth in the guise of a poor old woman. setting forth the immortality of the soul.

The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. in honour of Demeter and the deities associatedwith her. as the procession started from Athens at the earliest dawn. but at length her cause triumphed.making known everywherethe blessings of of agriculture. partly at Athens and partly at Eleusis. On ilils he travelled through the countries the earth. The latter were celebrated at Athens in the month of Anthesterion(February). There was a distinction between the greater and lesser mysteries.and the goddesshad sometimes step in and punish those who contemnedher to benefits. They probably contained a symbolical history of Cora. It retained this honour even after it had lost its independence and come into" the possession the Athenians. The Eleusinian mysteries were of celebrated both here and at Athens. and werea kind of preparationfor the greater mysteries. The chief seat of her worship was the city of Eleusis. The chief feature of the festival was a great and solemnprocession the sixth day from Athens to on Eleusis. and were celebratedduring nine days. which was celebrated at the beginning of November. and the worship of the bountiful goddess spread itself over the whole world. was less iin- . In these secretrites only those could take part who had been initiated. Such was the casewith the Scythian king Lynceus and the Thessalian princeErysichthon.000-were crownedwith myrtle. All those who took part in it-often as many as 30. in honour of Demeter in her character of lawgiver and goddess of marriage. a distance of about twelve miles. and He was not well receivedin all places. which was beautifully situated on the bay of Salamis. 141 task of disseminating a knowledge of agriculture and of her own worshipthroughoutthe earthyand for this purpose lent him her own chariot and dragons. which took place in September. and bore torches in their hands. uniting men in regularpolitical communities. The festival of the Thesmophoria.

. Naples. 44.~Deiaeter Enthroned. Painting I'rouiPompeii. .

two distinct conceptions are embodied. a garland of earsof corn. whence the grave is called the chamber of . In the representations the goddess expression lofty dignity of an of is blended with condescending benevolence and gentleness. cowsand the first fruits of the trees and hives were offered to her.which is after a Pompeianpainting. godthe dess of the lower world.-In Persephone. was especiallydedicatedby the inhabitants of Italy to deities presiding over agriculture. who pitilessly drags down all that lives into the hidden depths of the earth.awe-inspiring deity. The engraving (Fig. Sheis seatedon a throne. The chief festival of Ceres and her associate deities. 15. depicts Demeterasthe bountiful goddess agriculture.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. 44). was with whom. both among Greeks and Romans. a sheafof corn. the very counterpartof the GreekDemeter. a gloomy. and a bunch of corn in her left. Liber and Libera. was the sow(the symbolof fruitfulness). as the proper spring month. On the one hand she appears as the wife of the dark god of the lower world-like him. The Ceres of the Romans. besides this.but. she was entirely identified.and only married women were allowed to take part in it. Her principal attributes are a torch.and holds of a torch consistingof two calicesin her right hand. after the successful introduction of her worship during the first years of the Republic. It was further celebrated with solemn sacrifices and games the circus. The usual sacrifice. fell on the 19th of April. which every one was clothed by in in white. The Cerealia were opened a grand procession. It lasted for five days. Among the few antique statues. whom the Athenians preferred to call by her mystic name of Cora. interwoven in her hair. which. 143 portant than the Eleusinia. and a basket filled with flowers at her side. Persephone (Proserpina).a large marble figure in the Capitoline Museumat Romedeserves especial mention.the management which lay with the in of plebeian sediles. though undoubtedly an ancient Italian goddess.

the feminine counterpartof Liber.only. however. year by year. . Such is the view of her taken hy Homer and later epic poets. of which. they identified her with Libera. which long remains in the ground where it has been sown as though dead. to die away again in the autumn.144 Greekand Roman Mythology. of course. were taught that death was only a resurrection the soul to a brighterand better life. On the other hand she appears as Cora. It was only natural to associate with this last conception ideas of the immortality of the soul. an ancient rustic goddess fertility. a personification. Never- theless. but afterwards breaks forth into new life. Black. we are yet aware that their chief object was to disseminatebetter and purer ideas of a future life than the popular faith of the Greeks afforded. who borrowed all their ideas of the lower world from the Greeks. In a somewhat narrower sensePersephonemay be regarded as a type of the grain. Though we know but little concerningthe details of the mysteries. in fact. under of which name she signifies the same as the Greek Cora. on of the condition. Persephone was a symbol. miserable existencein the world of shadows. the lovely daughter of the allbountiful Mother Earth. in the secret doctrines of the mysteries. was a or as deity originally entirely strangeto the Eomans. the joyless queen of the infernal regions. causes most the luxuriant vegetation to spring up before our eyes. she doesnot appearto have had any temples but of her own.however. to dwell in which were worse than to be a slave on earth. These representher as sitting enthroned at the side of her grim lord. Proserpina. Persephone.that a man had fully pleasedthe gods and renderedhimself worthy of such a happy lot. of that never-dying force of nature which. It was commonly believed that the souls of men after death led a dull. Persephone. barren cows were sacrificed to Persephone as an infernal goddess. she is called in Latin. Those initiated in the mysteries.

besides the . 145 Fig. She is represented either as the fair daughter of Dcmeter. Naples.-Persephone Enthroned.Tlie Godsof the Earth and Lower World. a poppy. In the latter charactershe maygenerallybe recognised her sceptreand diadem by Her other attributes are ears of corn. and a torch. severe queen of the world of shadows. Painting from Pompeii. or as the grave. 45. Persephone of no greatimportancein art. as a symbol of her connection with the Elcusinian mysteries. and statuesof her are is rare.

the portals of which he was said to keep closed. engraving and The (Fig. also Hades." he is of all the godsthe mostdetested among mortals. He waslookedon as a powerful and dreaded robber. inexorable of human life. was subsequently supplantedby one of a less dismal nature. without distinction.represents as the Stygianqueen. the god of riches. on whom one cannot foe even think without fear and trembling. Hadesreceived dark regions the of the earth as his exclusive kingdom. In this sensehe was also and called Pluto. at their appointed time.When the threebrothers a partitioned the universe among themselves.like Poseidon. Eor this reason. From this point of view he is represented only as sending not nourishment plants from the to deepbosom the earth. her 16.45). to being. pomegranate narcissus. in which the other side of his character is brought into prominence. brotherof Zeus. as in the case Persephone." This conception. in order that no soul might return to the upper world without his consent. Later.or Aidoneus(the invisible). who.exactlycorresponded their grim conception with of the god. He first appears as the unrelenting. as he is called by the epic poets. however. and conveying them to his dismal realms. to the mode which Hadesexercised power as in his over mortals. Hadesbelonged the earliest deitiesof Greece. The task of carryingthe soulsof the dead . a milder conception the of god wasintroduced. account the mysterious on of gloomin which his kingdom as well as his person was enveloped.says Homer. of seizes his prey and carries on it off ^ith his swift horses. Hades (Pluto). or Pluteus-that is.but alsoas offeringunbounded of riches to mankind in the shape of the precious metals which lie in his subterraneous passages chambers.from the fact of his seizing (the on all men.-The same twofold nature which we meetwith in Persephone "be may observed in her husband.afterapainting in the NaplesMuseum.146 Greek and Roman Mythology. He was also termed Polydectes receiverof many). The ideas which men first entertained.

or Pater Dis.Chiiri.tightly-closed lips. alwaysconveyedan idea of something grim.-To our consideration of Hades we must add some remarks on the ideas which the ancient .The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. Palazzo «v.but had. conand sequentlyantiquestatuesof Hades are very rare. a subterranean altar in the Campus Martins. His characteristic features-a grim expression of countenance. The Eoman conceptionof this deity differed little from that of the Greeks. were circulated concerning him. By them he was called Pluto. in the possession Prince Chigi at Rome. which was uncovered and used oncea-year. and long tangled hair-axe embodied in a marble head. yet Hades. and a key. Only black animals were sacrificed to him. His principal attributes are a sceptre. scarcely be said to have had a place in the public worship of the Greeks. Artists naturally hesitated to portray a being whose very name they fearedto pronounce. just as he was otherwisea servantof the Zeus of heaven.having been. __ sometimes two-prongedfork. the Zeusof the infernal regions. in common with Proserpina.? or ". nevertheless. in fact. 147 to the lower world was delegated to Hermes. borrowed entirely from a Greek source. of of which we give an engraving (Fig. 46). a votive bowl. and mysterious the Greek mind j which is perhaps the reason to why so few myths. AR TT TTrTT"^ -oi a i i t> Fig. He had no templein Rome.-Head of Hades. who thus becamea servantof Pluto.in fact. 17. But though the original dismal conception of this deity as the inexorable god of death was much diminished in course of time. 46. He can. beyondthat of the rapeof Proserpina. Homo. The Lower World.

nor even those of the Greeks. the world of shadowswas not situated beneath the earth. This is made evident on the occasionof the great battle of the gods in the 20th book. It may "be well to remark. Even in the poetry of Homer we come acrosstwo very different views as to the situation of the realms of the dead. the outlines of the lower . form no part of the lower world in Homer. on the other side of Oceanus. Neither do their ideas on this subject. cried out in fear. where departed spirits lead a shadowy. the infernal monarch. Greeks and Eomans had of the other life and of the abodes of the dead.appear to have been invariably the same at all times. dreamy existence. but lay far to the westward. To mortals and immortalsshould lay bare His dark and drear abodeof godsabhorred. so indefinite and vague were men's ideas as to the locality of the kingdom of death in the time of Homer. Lest Neptune. dismal region. And. and that all their ideas on this subject were borrowed from the writings of the Greeks. only a thin layer separatingit from the upper world. but were supposed to lie in an entirely distinct region in the far West (the isles of the blest). There is no difference in their lots. According to that which we find in the Iliad.148 Greekand Roman Mythology. to reach which is no happiness.or on an island in the same. for we as yet hear nothing of the judgment of the dead. it was situated beneath the disc-shapedearth. to which the special favourites of the gods were transferred. Later on. that the Ilomansdo not originally appear havebelieved a kingdom to in of the dead in the interior of the earth. The Elysian fields. breaking through the solid earth. springing from his throne.heardalarmed. and so undeveloped were their conceptions as to the lives of departed souls. where we read" Pluto." According to another view which prevails in the Odyssey. The lower world appears as a desolate. at the outset.

joyless existence. Ixion. and the Danaids. the ferryman.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. The punishments of great criminals in the infernal regionswere a fruitful theme for the imagination of the poets. Pyriphlegethon. Hence we must expect to find. or had very little connection with the punishment inflicted. ^Eacus. It is possible that another part of the legend.that the crimes supposedto have drawn down the wrath of the gods were either later inventions. Thus to take the caseof Tantalus. where as dim shadowsthey passeda dull. who refused no one entrance. The most celebrated criminals were Tityus. All souls.with several passages and to from the upper world. the offeringof his childrenfor the godsof heavento eat. The Greeks there- foreusedto placean obolus (small copper coin) in the mouths of their dead. Thosewhose lives had not been distinctly good or bad remained in the asphodel meadow. had to appear before the tribunal of Minos. We have said that the idea of the judgment of the dead is not found in the earliest legends. Sisyphus. and could only be the crossedby the aid of Charon. and drying them up instead of being able to enjoy them. The last of these encompassed lowerworld severaltimes. where they were tormented by the Furies and other evil spirits. mayhave . reaching on the lower world. where they led a life of uninterrupted bliss. On the farther side of the river the portalswerewatchedby the dreadful hell-hound Cerberus. the original idea appears to have been the burning sun looking upon sweet fruits and streams of water. in some cases. Ehadamanthus. and Styx. Acheron. Through it flowed several rivers- Cocytus. who was depicted as a sullen old man with a bristling beard. It was now supposedto be a regionin the centreof the earth. a three-headed monster. in order that the soul might not be turned back by Charon for lack of money. 149 world "become more clearly defined. but allowednoneto leavethe houseof Pluto. Tantalus. whilst thosewho on earth had beencriminal and wicked were consigned to Tartarus. Thosewhose and lives hadbeen upright were then permitted to enter Elysium.

a gustof wind blew them beyondhis reach. 18. So the story of Sisyphus seemsto point to the sun daily toiling up the steep hill of heaven. the whq had offered violence to Leto. and to be yet another allusion to the orb of day.were denizens of the lower world.150 Greekand Roman Mythology. or Furies. yet ever ohliged to recommence his weary task. and to think that some real person sufferedthesewoes. . So the name Ixion seemsto be derived from a word meaning wheel. which could never be filled. in consequence. Sisyphus.which. at their father's command. had slain their husbandson the wedding night. it was only natural that they should try to find a reason. ancestor the Atridas. was bound hand and foot to an ever-revolving wheel. perhaps always. At his feet flowed a stream of the purest water. had provokedthe wrath of the gods by his numerous crimes. it suddenly vanished into theground. This crime he was condemnedto expiate by the torments of continual hunger and thirst. roll a to block of stoneup a high mountain. who executed the commands of Hades and Persephone.and was condemned. who. or daughters of Danaus. a not lessinsolent offender. As men beganto forget the reality underlying these words. were condemned to pour water continually into a cask full of holes. but when he attempted to snatch them. Tantalus. consisted in being chained to the earth. They were ultimately three in number. the Danaids. formerly king of Corinth.had been deemed worthy to hold intercourse with the gods. some point in the story could be twisted into a crime deservingof punishment (compare legend of GEdipus).-The Erinyes. Lastly. on reaching top. The Erinyes (Fnrise). a similar origin. The punishmentof Tityus. whilst two vultures continually gnawed at his ever- growingliver. Above his head were suspendedthe most beautiful fruits.until he thought fit to put their omniscience to the test by setting before them the flesh of his son Pelops. the always rolleddownagainto the plain. Ixion. but when he tried to quench his thirst. Generally.Agamemthe of non and Menelaus.

for there is no region whither the avenging Furies cannot follow.of the moral laws of the universe. When. Nothing can equal the keen scent with which they trace the crime. If. 151 and their nameswere Tisiphone. What.or asthe bright dawnrising overthe earthandpointing out his hiding-place. and Megaera. With torch swung on high they dog the steps of the unhappy wretch. and in eacli case we shall seein them the powers of nature. wild lust for blood is written in their features. In their original signification they appear as the avengersof every violation. the genealogy given them by uEschylus and . Their appearance is wan and Gorgon-like. no distance that they cannot compass. is due to the fact that the Greeksexpressedany undefined number by the sacrednumeral three. then. by whom they were frequently brought on the stage. either on the part of gods or men. significance the Erinyes diminished. and the serpents which twine round their heads in the place of hair deal out destruction and death on their unhappy victims. the idea of an avenging Nemesis had become more and more developed. and never rest until they have driven him to madnessand death. and others. As the inexorable pursuers of every injury done to the sacred ties of blood-especially the murder of kindred-they received a much greater degree of attention at the hands of the Greek tragic poets. at a later period.and their the of avenging duties were confined to the family. Whether we are to look uponthem as the storm-clouds darting lightnings upon the criminal. indicted by the powers of heaven. and this number. or the untiring speed with which they pursue the criminal. the poets have endowed them with brazen feet. like that of the Graces. must recognise idea of the punishwe the ment of sin. the Fates. Flight avails them nought. As a symbol of this latter quality. Alecto.The Godsof the Earth and Lower World. The pictmes thus drawn of the relentless activity of the Erinyes are both powerful and striking. like swift huntresses following in the track of their hard-pressed game. as seems most probable(cf. was the origin of the belief in these dreadful beings'? Two explanations have been given.

as propitious deities who. Eumenides or (benevolent). Sophocles). partly. they were thenceforth venerated by the Athenians. for they were the daughtersof Earth. were ever readyto grant mercyto the repentant sinner.-weare to take the latter explanation. and then defended him before the court of the Areopagus. According to Hesiod. indeed. The story relates that Orestes. The Furies. to After they had taken possessionof this sanctuary. however. the institution of the it Areopagus Athens. and the purification of the matricide at Oresteseffectedby this venerable court. by promising that a shrineshouldbe erected them on the hill of the Areopagus. declared that then and in all future time the criminal should have the benefit of the doubt. Apollo first purified him before his own altar at Delphi. namely. we shall have some reason for the names of " kindly" and " venerable.when the was votes for and against him were equal. were at first very wroth. after having slain liis mother Clytoemnestra and her infamous paramour ^Egisthus." appliedto them by the Greeks. they owed their existenceto the first execrable crime committed since the beginning of the world. though they still continued to punish crimes.owing to the persecutionof the Erinyes. and associated with a specialevent. wandered for a long time about the earth in a state bordering on madness.as an embodiment the curses of .and to give succour to all good men.for Athene. in revenge for the murder of his father Agamemnon.therefore. but Athene succeededin pacifying them. Orestes here acquitted.which had been founded by Athene. no doubt. Yet poetical mythology treated this as a transformation of their nature. and threatened the land with barrenness both of women and soil. At length. owing to the ancient custom of avoiding words of ill-omen. Thereweredifferenttraditions concerning the origin of the Erinyes. he was befriended by Apollo and Athene. They here appear.152 Greek and Roman Mythology. the kindly deities of the luminous ^Ether. under the names of Semnae (venerable). and sprangfrom the dropsof blood that fell from the mangled body of Uranus.

The Godsof the Earth and Lower World.

153

winch the angryfather invoked on the head of his unnatural son. Sophocles, the otherhand,calls them the daughters on of G&a and Scotos(darknessof night). .ZEschylus simply terms them the daughters the Night. Besides shrinein Athens of the already mentioned, they had another near the city, a sacred grovein Colonus, which wascelebrated the last refuge of the as unfortunate CEdipus. In Athens they had an annual festival,
at which libations of milk and honey were made to them. In art the Erinyes are represented swift huntresses, as armed with spear, bow, andquiver. Torches, scourges, snakeswere also put in or
their hands. They were, moreover, provided with wings on their
shoulders or head as a token of their swiftness.

19. Hecate.-Among the mystic deities of the lower world we must not omit to mention Hecate. By the liomans, indeed, she was never publicly venerated, though she was not exactly unknown to them. Common tradition made her a daughter of the Titan Perseusand Asteria. She ruled principally over the secretforces of Nature, which perhaps explains the spectral and awe-inspiring form which this goddess assumed. She was supposedto preside over all nocturnal horrors, and not only to haunt the tombs and cross-roadsherself in company with the spirits of the dead, but also to send nightly phantoms from the lower world, such as the man-eating spectre Empusa, and other fabulous goblins.

As her name seemsto signify, Hecate (far-striking) was
originally a moon-goddess, like either Artemis or Selene,but not representing the new moon in its invisible phase. The ancients not being able to account for the different phases of the moon, naturally came to the conclusion that, when invisible, it was

tarrying in the lowerworld. The public worshipof the goddess
was not very extensive, but her importance in connection with the mysteries was all the greater. Men were wont to affix small

pictures her to houses city gates, of and which weresupposed to
prevent any bad spells from affecting the town or house. On

the last day of everymonth her imageon the housedoorswas

154

Greek and Roman Mythology.

crownedwith garlands,and viands were set before it in her
honour, which were afterwards eaten by the poor, and termed the meals of Hecate. Wooden imagesof the goddess with three

faces weregenerallyset up wherethreeroads met, andheredogs
were sacrificedto her as sin-offerings for the dead. This usually took placeon the thirtieth day after death. As in the caseof other infernal deities, black lambs were sacrificed to her, besides libations of milk and honey. Hecate was generally representedas three-formed (triformis), wliich probably has someconnection witli the appearance the of
full, half, and new moon. In order to explain more clearly the nature of such a representation,
after a bronze statuette in the

we give an engraving (Fig. 47)

Capitoline Museum at Rome. The figure facing us holds in her hands a key and a rope, which point her out as the portress of the lower world ; over her brow is a disc, representing, probably, the dark surface of the new moon. The figure on the right holds in either hand a torch, in virtue of her character as a mystic goddess, whilst on
her brow is a half-moon and a

lotus-flower. Lastly, the third figure bears, as a symbol of the full moon, a Phrygian -cap with a radiant diadem fastened on it, wliich #ives forth seven rays; in

her right hand is a knife, in. her
lelt the tail of a serpent, of which no satisfactory interpretation has Fig.47.-Three-formed Hecate. Capitolinehitherto been discovered.
Museum.

20. Sleep and Death.-Sleep and Death were conceivedby the ancients as twin brothers. According to Hesiod, they were children of Night alone. They dwelt in the lower world, whence they visited the earth to steal over mortals; the former a kindly benevolent spirit, the latter grim and cruel. Apart from this

The Godsof the Earth and Lower World.

1^5

conception, which, was especially developed by later poets and artists, Death was sometimes depicted as quite distinct from Sleep, and in a still less amiable guise. The different forms of vijlent death were personified as female deities of formidable aspect, called the Ceres; or Apollo and Artemis among the inhabitants of heaven,and Pluto and Persephoneamong those of the lower world, were represented,as the deities of death. The Romans had a personal god of death, whom they called Orcus; he was represented as an armed warrior dealing out mortal wounds among mankind. But none of these special gods of death had any great importance, either in religion or art. Artists, indeed, laboured sedulously to dimmish the dreadful

appearance Thanatus(death),and to render him more and of morelike his brother Hypnus (sleep).
Thanatus and Hypnus often appear in company,either sleeping
or standing; the former usually bears a reversed torch, the latter

a poppy-stalkor a horn, out of which he is pouring some liquid. They areboth generallyrepresented the bloom of youth. In Fig. in 34, which is after a drawing of AsmusCarstens, they appear the as
children of Night, and are here brought into immediate connection with the other powers, Nemesis and the Parcse, who control the
destinies of man.

BesidesSleep and Death, Hesiod also mentions Dreams as the children of Night. Other writers, however, call them the sons of Sleep, who dwell in the far West, close to the realms of Hades. This house of dreams has, in Homer's well-known description, two gates-one of ivory, through which passflattering, deceptive dreams, and one of horn, whence the true dreams proceed. Morpheus was made the special god of dreamsby the poets, and termed the son of Hypnus.
IT.--EOMAN DEITIES OF THE HOUSE AND

FAMILY.

Before passing to the heroic legends, some remarks are neci.*3-

saryconcerning inferior deities,whoplayedsuchanimportant the part in the domestic worship of the Eomans. We havealready

156

Greek and Roman Mythology.

incidentally remarked that the people of Italy generally passed by the greater gods of the heaven and earth in anxious awe. Their invocation and adoration was left to public worship, whilst, in their less important domestic concerns,,men had recourseto certain inferior deities, whom they thought nearer to them; just as in the present day, in Italy, the common people prefer to communicate their prayers and wishes to their patron saints rather than to the Almighty himself. 1. The Penates.-The Penates were the kindly domestic deities of the Romans-the guardians of the household, who especiallyprovided for its daily wants. Of their name,number, and sex nothing is known-not becausethe facts have been lost to us, but becausethe Romans themselves were content

with this indefinite conception. Similar goodspirits, exerting an activeinfluence the household, in wererecognised popular by Germansuperstition,without experiencingany necessityof
having distinct namesfor them. The shrine of the Penatesconsisted of the hearth, the central point of the house, which not

only served the preparation meals, wasalsoespecially for of but
dedicated to religious purposes. It stood in the "atrium," the only large room in the Eoman house,where the family met for meals and received visitors. On the hearth, a fire was continually kept burning in honour of.Yesta and the Penates. Around it, after the introduction of images of the gods, were

placedthe statues the Penates. Theseweregenerally of small and puppet-like, and, among the poorer classes, were only
roughly cut out of wood. There was no domestic occurrence, either of joy or mourning, in which the Penates did not take

part. Like the Lares,of whom we shall speakpresently,they
participated in the daily meal, portions being set on certain

plates for that purposebefore the images. There were also StatePenates, ancients the regarding state asnothingbut an the
extended family.
the hearth

The temple of Yesta was to the state what
Here was the seat of their

was to the household.

Roman Deities of the House and Family.

157

worship,and here it was that the Roman Pontifex Maxiinus broughtthose offerings which, in private households, were the part of the headof the family. In the innermostsanctuary of the templeof Yestathere werestatues thesePenates, great of of sanctity,since^Eneas reportedto have "brought was them with. him from Troy. "We have no trustworthy information as to
their number or appearance, for, with the exception of the Pontifex and the Vestal Yirgins, none ever entered the holy

place. It is scarcely necessary add that theywerebelieved to to
exercise an especial influence on the welfare and prosperity of the state and people of Rome. 2. The Lares.-The Lares, like the Penates, were the tutelary deities of the house and family, and on that account often confounded with them. They were commonly supposed to be the glorified spirits of ancestors,who, as guardian deities, strove to promote the welfare of the family. The seat of their worship was also the family hearth in the atrium, where their images of wood or wax were generally preserved in a separate

shrineof their own (Lararium). The Laresreceived especial an degree veneration the first day of everymonth; but, like of on
the Penates, they took part in all the domestic occurrences, whether of joy or sorrow. Like the Penates, they also received their share at every meal on particular dishes, and were crowned with garlands on the occasionof every family rejoicing. When

a son assumed toga virilis (cameof age),he dedicated the his
lulla* to the Lares, amid prayers and libations and burning of incense. When the father of the house started on a journey or returned in safety, the Lares were again addressed, and their statuescrowned with wreaths, flowers and garlands being their favourite offerings. The sameconception which pervadesthe domestic Lares may beperceivedin a more extensive form in the Lares of the Gens,the
* A gold or silver ornament, like a medal, which was worn round the ucck during childhood.

giving rise to weird terrors. who dwelt. to city. were doomed to flit about the earth. as the souls of otherswere supposed wanderabout in the guiseof to evil demons and spectres. a considerable in- fluenceon the affairsof the upper world. the mythical founders thecity. These were believed after burial to have been converted into beings of a higher order. These offerings were placed on the tombs of the deceased. but exercised. In contrast to the Lares and Larvse. and the state itself. llth. which was said to have been instituted in memory the murderedE. geniusof the emperor the wasassociated them. and 13th of May.whenthe Manes were propitiated with offerings and libations. in consequence. notwithstanding. or good spirits.varied extremely. The propitiatory festival of the Lemuria.-Just as the Lares were regarded the good and happy spirits of ancestors. Every paterfamilias was supposed during these days to perform certain midnight ceremonies. and castingbad spellson the senses thosewhom they met. Such of was especiallybelievedto be the fate of those who had not received burial. . and Manes. indeed. Such spirits were called Larvae. in the interior of the earth. havediffered in many respects from the heroes worshipped "by the Greeks.emus.and. with 3.and. the souls of the dead were also commonly venerated as Manes. The Lares do not appear.158 Greek and Roman Mythology. or Lemuralia.in thetime of of as Augustus. unable to find rest. wereregarded its Lares. celebrated of was annuallyin their honouron the 9th. Lemures. and to repeat certain forms. Komulus and Remus. or in whose case the prescribed ceremonieshad been neglected. At all events. Larvae. or Lenmres. in fact.and who being. according to the meansof the donors. of course. which had the effect of banishing any evil spirits. A general festival of the dead took placein February. It was possibleto summon them from the lower world by means of sacrifices.

islands. in course of time. I-INTRODUCTORY. The attempt to piercethe cloudsof obscuritywhich enveloped early history the of mankind. or even of the whole Hellenic . and nil it with beings who should form a connecting betweenthe sublime forms of the great link inhabitants of Olympus and the puny race of mortals. The greater extent of this department of mythic lore is easily comprehensible. Each of the numberless countries. there accordingly sprang up. "becomein ahave already rich still marvels than heroic quainted presentsitself to our view. and the desire of a more enlightened age to bridge over the intervening gulf. ONpassing with which we world moreactothat mythology.PART III. and towns endeavoured to trace back its peculiar institutions to mythical founders and ancestors.if we take into consideration the multitude of separate existences Into which Greek life was split up.-THE HEROES. naturally gave rise to a whole seriesof heroic legends. a vast number of local heroic legends. These fabulous founders of states. and as these were always described either as the sons or as the favourites of the gods. were not the only heroes of Greek mythology. even from the earliest times. cities. These were partly the property of entire nationalities. however.

in but who were later. endowed with divine strength. made roads through untrodden forests. that such at beings must have had an origin different from that of ordinary men. least. Others were undoubtedly a product of the imagination. as the gods collectively were divided into gods proper and dasmons-that is to say. however. expelled from their place in public worship.but inferior to them in wisdom and power.deifiedand venerated local formsof worship. in consequence the birth of new political comof munities. courage and endurance under difficulties. To these may be addeda third class. spirits resembling the gods. who were made out of clay." so in the present instance the heroes were the mighty ones-the ruling spirits of the agethose whose marvellous exploits contributed to remove the obstacles to civilisation and culture. and. apparentlyof divine origin. who drained marshes. and only continued to exist in the popular faith in the inferior character . The latter are. Some of these heroes may perhaps have had a real existence. It was not. such as never fall to the lot of ordinary men. but. It appeared. race. between whom a similar difference subsisted. just as in Genesis vi. and regulated the course of rivers. whose workings men saw in air and earth and sea-even so the race of mortals was divided into heroes and men. by any means all who lived in this early mythical period who were accounted heroes.160 Greek and Roman Mythology. therefore. or sprang from trees or stones. Moreover. in their nature.including those who were originally personifications of various natural phenomena.and this is by far the most numerous. By their actions they proved themselves men of no ordinary powers. to whom a dim tradition reached. and must at length fall a prey to inexorable death. who delivered countries from cruel robbers and savage beasts. having probably been the ancestorsof the later dominant races. Eut the heroes are endowed with a degree of physical strength and dexterity. not different from the formerboth are alike mortal. and.as such. 2 a distinction is made between the " sons of God " and the "daughters of men.and partly of a local or provincial character.

where Cronus ruled over them. therefore. evenafter they were in their graves. the idea of a just retribution in the other world takes a definite shape. . Even later. in the first instance. on which account men strove to gain their favour by means of offerings. terms demi-godswere transported to the Isles of the Blest. thereby removing every real distinction between the worship of heroesand that of the dead. after which we shall passto the most celebrated provincial legends. all being doomed alike to the gloomy realms of Hades. exceptin the caseof thoseheroes who wereraisedto the rank of gods for their great deeds. especially in the mysteries.to exert continually a mysterious influence. who were excepted from this gloomy lot. We shall begin with those which relate to the creation and early civilisation of mankind. As we have already observed. we shall only dwell upon thosewhich occupya prominent position either in poetryor in art. The spirits of the deadwerebelieved. Any real veneration of heroesby prayers and sacrifices can scarcelybe said to have existed before the migration of the Heraclidae-at least there is no mention of it in Homer. for the first time. Many suchheroes were afterwards again promoted to therank of gods. worshipped in temples of their own.g. Amid the multitude of legendsof this kind.thoughwith an alteredmeaning (e. Hesiod. for Hesiod obviously conceivesa residencein Elysium to be the reward of meritorious actions performed in the upper world.Heracles). and were transported in their bodily shape to the Isles of the Blest. or sons of Zeus. and who were. Here. and men were gradually elevated to a belief in the immortality of the soul. it was only certain special favourites. says that all heroes-whom he. Homer makes no distinction between the fate of heroes after death and that of ordinary mortals.The Heroes.. and concludewith thosethat refer to the moreimportant of the common undertakings of the later heroic age. 161 of heroes. This idea was subsequently more fully developed. the worship of heroes Is scarcely to be distinguished from that of the dead. on the other hand.

after which Athene breathed a soul into them.four sons-the stout-heartedAtlas. Prometheus.162 II-THE Greek and Roman Mythology.the son of lapetus. According one. according to this account. the creator of mankind.having been first calledinto existence Zeus the godsof Olympus. Of the myths that relate to the introduction of the fir^t elements of civilisation among mankind by divine aid. by and A third account makes the Titan Prometheus. the presumptuous Menoetius. the daughter of Oceanus. Another account represents men as living originally in a holy and happy communion with the gods(thegolden age). Prometheus is said to have stolen fire from heaven. CKEATION OF AND PRIMITIVE CONDITION MANKIND. there is none. however. the foolishEpimetheus. with the assistance of the gods. Another tradition asserts that thehumanracewasof later growth.andasserts that they first became savage after havinglost this goodfortuneby their presumption. more celebratedthan the story of Prometheus. but leaves it uncertain whether this took placebeforeor after the flood of Deucalion. There were likewise various accountsconcerningthe primeval condition of mankind. during the day-time. whereupon Zeus visited the author of this sacrilegewith a fearful punishment. by Clymene. The legendsconcerningthe origin of the humanrace differ yery widely.thehumanraceraised to itself. With the name and of Prometheus is linked the idea of the first commencement of civilisation among mankind by the introduction of fire. except those already mentioned concerning Dionysus and Demeter. where. made men of clay and water. He ordered Prometheusto be chained to a rock.from a state of helplessbarbarism: this progress was the subject of numerous legends. and to have taughtits useto man. this pure celestial element of became polluted.the craftyPrometheus. The most ancient are undoubtedly those which describe men as springing from the trees or rocks. an eagle . By beingemployed all the common for purposes daily life. The Titan lapetus had.

Pandora and removed coverandtheseescaped. Zeus determined to leave mankind in possessionof Prometheus' gift. and which contained all kinds of diseases ills. whilst the Seasonsand Graces adorned her with flowers and fine dresses. closelyresembling namePrometheus. 163 devouredhis liver (the seatof all evil desires).oneword. The legendof Prometheusappears its grandestform in in ^Eschylus' play. Aphrodite bestowed on her the seductive charms that kindle love. in spite of the warningof his brother not to acceptany present from Zeus. There was in the house of Epimetheus a closedjar. the and men who had before been free from disease and care haye eversincebeentormented. the appears India asthe nameof the stick usedto produce by in fire friction. Pandoraclosedthe jar in time to . who. At any rate. is expressed in the myth of Pandora. which always grew againduring the night. but the foundation seems to be the discovery of fire by man. we shall see in parts of the Greek legendinstances the ever-recurring of principle. It is very difficult to see the origin of this series of legends. to which the gods then endowed with life and adorned with all kinds of gifts. Athene instructed her in every art." The idea that. many evils which were before unknown to man came into existence. it would be natural to invent a complementary legend about his brother Epimetheus (afterthought).Creation and Primitive Condition of Mankind. received Pandora and made her his wife. whence she was called Pandora. together with the introduction of civilisation. Zeus then sent her. which he had been forbidden to open. "PrometheusBound. If this be the case. the derivationof Panmentioned 130).to the foolish Epimetheus. under the guidanceof Hermes. that whenthe real derivation of a word is lost. men try to give it an explanation by attaching it to the nearestword in the existing language (cf. of " forethought" had once been attached to his name. When the notion p. but he ordered Hephaestus make an image of a beautiful woman. Hermes endued her with a smooth tongue and a crafty disposition.

furnished them with all that was necessaryto support life. and took pleasure in nothing but battle and strife. iron not yet being known. In what manner the golden age disappearedis not related.while his wife Pyrrhawasthe daughterof Epimetheusand Pandora. According to another account. They were of giant stature and great strength. who lived free from care and sorrow. Zeus was not compelled to destroy this evil race. who guard and protect mortals. Zeus granted his prayer for the restoration of the human race. as into a sweet sleep.and immediately offered a sacrifice of thanksgiving to Zeus the preserver. The legend of the five ages of mankind transports us to quite another region of tradition.men at last sank peacefully.and utensils were of bronze. far inferior to their predecessors. still continues to exist in the upper world. of its own accord. Pleased at his gratitude. both in mind and body. Nine days and nights he was tossed on the waters. time in idle and effeminatepursuits. Subject neither to the infirmities of agenor to the pangs of sickness and disease. they were destroyed by the Hood of Deucalion. Zeus. we are only told that this race. Their weapons. houses. who built himself an ark. who were. and refused to pay the gods due honours. the gods created a second(silver) race of men. notwithstanding its disappearance.164 Greekand Roman Mythology. and Deu- . and createdthe third (brazen) race of mankind out of ash wood. Zeus having determined to destroy the corrupt race of the third or bronze ageby a flood. however. keep in Hope. Deucalion appears to have been a son of Prometheus. After this. According to this. since they destroyedthemselves in their bloodthirsty strife. This race proved headstrong and violent.to death. He disembarked. thereupon blotted them out from the face of the earth. in the shape of good spirits. in his wrath. while the earth. They passed their . the gods first created a golden race of men. Thus both Greek legend and Biblical tradition alike representwoman as the first causeof evil and death. at length bis vesselrested on Mount Parnassusin Boeotia. into which he retired with his wife when the waters beganto rise. Prometheus warned his son.

after dreadful losses on both sides. Such Is the legend its mostancientform. however. In Homer's account the Centaurs are merely depicted as an old Thessalian mountain tribe of giant strength and savage ferocity. 1. into of Their contest with the Lapithae is sometimes conceived as a symbolof the struggle Greekcivilisation with the still existing of barbarism of the early Pelasgian period. utterly unable to control their rude. of in We read in the Plomeric poems how the hoary Nestor on one occasion boastsof having. 165 calion and Pyrrha were commandedby Hermes to cast stones behind them.Provincial Heroic Legends. which the principal to Centaurs had been invited.-PROVINCIAL HEROIC LEGENDS. until at last the Greek Noah wasrepresented havingtakenliving animalswith him into the as ark. ended in the complete defeat of the Centaurs. The origin of this contest is referred to the mar- riagefeast of Pirithous and Plippodarnia. devoted itself so especially to this subject.-We shall commencewith the Thessalian legend of the Lapithae and Centaurs. Nor do we find here any mention of their being half horses and half men. This may bethe reason why Greek art. . in Thessaly. later writers engrafted it still in on further incidents of Biblical tradition. they are merely said to have inhabited the mountain districts of OEta and Pelion. in his youngerdays. The Centaurs. on account its greatantiquity and its importance sculpture. heated with wine. sensualnature. this to gave rise to a contest which. and as having let loose a dove after his landing on Parnassua III. attempted carry off thebride.must have beenendowed with purely humanforms. and to have been driven thence by the Lapithae the highermountain-lands Pindus.taken part with his friends Pirithous and Casneus. since they were thus able to sit with the Lapithoe at meat. in their contest with the savage Centaurs. from which sprang a new race of men. On this occasion the Centaur Eurytion. when in its bloom. The Lapithse and the Centaurs. and the other princes of the Lapithx.

also a natural explanation of the tales of these strangebeings. who had been rendered invulnerable by Poseidon. been identified with that of the Centaurs. . thattheCentaurs thisperiodf the body so of have four feet of a horse and the hands and arms of a man.166 Greek and Roman Mythology. together with the legend that Ixion begat the Centaurs of Nephele. as similar beingsappearin Indian mythology.may be interpreted to be the sun. which we shall on of mention the most important. the bright cloudswhich passover the sky. and the body of a man from the navel upwards Wa9 j0jne^ to t\lQ Such is their complete of ahorse. the Centaurs play an important part in art.this was replaced by a more elegant conception. who. As we have alreadymentioned. and was quickly adopted in sculpture. Another prominent warrior wasthe gigantic Cseneus (Slayer). If we take these points.the cloud. higher stage of development. The father of the Centaurs is Ixion. both took part in and the the battle. 48.after the time of Phidias. but whom the Centaurs slew on this occasion by burying him beneath a mass of trees and rocks. however. The crime said to have been the causeof his punishment washis love for Hera (the goddess of the atmosphere). Theseus Nestor.-Metope of the Parthenon. In "II1 therepresentations il of earlier art the face of a man is joined to the body and hind legs of a horse. The customof depicting them as half horse and half man came into vogue after the time of Pindar. There is. we may be preparedto seein the horse-formed Centaursa parallel to the cows of the sun. friends of Piilthoiis.with much probability. appearance numerousextant art monuments. There is the more ground for this. as we have already seen. But in ita Pig. and their namehas.

on its western or hinder frieze. a representation of the contests of the Centaurs and Lapithse at the wedding of Pirithoiis. which is still in a good state of preservation. these are seventeen in number. Of thesemetopes. It is executed in such a manner that it is impossible to discover which party will get the upper hand . though they are all in a terribly mutilated condition . was converted during the middle ages into a chapel of St.Provincial Heroic Legends. number of the most beautiful and life-like scenes from the battle A large part of the ninety-two metopes the outer frieze contain a of of the Giants and that of the Centaurs. Besides other important pieces. every one of which is generally adorned with a separate sculpture in relief. full of life and spirit. Thosefrom the southside arecomparatively * The squares between triglyphs of the friezewhichareintendedto the . in the Louvre at Paris. This temple. and this has enabled the artist. on some dilapidated metope** of the Parthenon at Athens. 167 In the first place. This splendid specimen of Doric architecture is 227 feet in length and 101 feet in breadth. there are the reliefs from the frieze of the Theseum at Athens. whose name has not come down to us. 49. It is supposed to have been built at the instance of Cimon. by a shell which broke through the midst of the marble roof. We have another series of most splendid representations from the battle of the Centaurs.-From the Frieze of the Temple at Bassae. donein Parian marble. during the war between the Venetians and Turks. the support the gable. George. which we shall mention hereafter. was ruined in 1687. after he had brought back the bones of the Attic hero from Scyros. It Fig. seventeen are in the British Museum. to introduce a lively variety into the different scenesof the combat. the temple has. thirtynine still remain on the temple. and one in the best state of preservation .

both in education and manners. such as Castor and Polydeuces. somesplendid single statuesof in Among these. exclusively. which is here completed beforeour eyes.168 Greekand Roman Mythology.near Phigalia in Arcadia. and was therefore described as a son of Cronus and Philyra. wasnow represented a subjectof his instruction. Here whole number on the south side having been thirty-two. and were found in the villa of Hadrian at Tivoli. anotheris gallopingawayover the body of his tallen enemy. where so many ancient art treasures have beenbrought to light. Music. the Centaurs have come down to us from.there is the samevariety and animation.there. likewise. They are executedin black marble. first place must be assigned the two Centaursin the Capitoline to Museum. To thesegrand monumentsof Greekart we must add the 1'rieze of the temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassos. They represent. and is now in the British Museum. makes and him the friend of Peleusand the preceptorof the youthful Achilles. a series of the most vivid scenes from the battle of the Lapithae and Centaurs. that he was commonly reported to have had a different origin. one of the Oceanids. The engravingwe append may give a faint idea of the beauty and bold designof this splendid creation(Fig. Subsequently. who was famous alike for his wisdom and his knowledge of medicine. so that we mustascribe to some it greatartist (Fig. Chiron. Besides thesesculptures relief. Homer.whom he holds in his powerful grasp.who knew nothing of the equine shape of the Centaurs. antiquity. related to both theseheroes. other mythical heroes were added to the number of his pupils. In the indi- vidual groups and scenesof the battle.though as this is perhaps due to a misinterpretationof the name of his . Theseus. a beardedCentaur is carrying off a woman. of of Sofar superior was he to his savagekindred. whilst a fourth lies slain on the field."49). or Phyllira. representshim as the most upright of the Centaurs.whom lie instructedin the art of healing and gymnastic exercises. and too. another is engaged a tiercecontestwith a human in foe. daughterEndeishavingbeen Ms the mother of Peleus. 48). He was?moreover. which was discovered in 1812. JSTestor. It represents. Among the Centaurs. Meleager. scenesfrom the battle of the Centaurs. deservesmention as the preceptor many of the heroes antiquity. Diomedes.

however. He inhabited a cave on Mount Pelion. mother. 169 Fig. later mythology. transferred his residence. he was wounded with a poisoned arrow by his friend Heracles. Relief by Kundmann. to the promontory of Malea. by an unlucky accident. the wound .-Centaur teaching a Boy to play upon the Pipe. and. Here.Provincial Heroic Legends. 50. after the Centaurs had been driven from Pelion by the Lapithse.

none is more celebrated tlian the founding of Thebesby Cadmus. finding the heifer in Phocis. The Greek and Roman Mythology.armed men sprang from the ground. On this spot Cadmus founded a town. which he called Cadmea. he followed her. Cadmus built his new town with the assistance of these men. and has since furnishedmodernart with the subjectsfor some its most valuable of works. Cadmus was obliged to do service to Ares for eight years. Cadmus then went himself. he yoluntarily choseto die in the place of idea of the connection of the Centaurs with the arts and sciences originatedin the story of Chiron and Achilles. they immediately turned their arms against each other. In expiation of the dragon's death. he came to Thrace and thence to Delphi. and is after an alto-relievoof the Viennese sculptor Kundmann.-Among Theban legends. and. the teeth of which he sowed in the ground by the advice of Pallas. where he was commandedby the oracle to relinquish his quest. Fig. and to build a town on the place where the heifer should lie down.170 Prometheus. After Zeus carried off his sister Europa to Crete (vide the Cretan Legends). It further ordered him to follow a young heifer with the mark of a crescenton either side. who thus becamethe ancestorsof the noble families of Thebes. Before sacrificing the heifer. She led him into Boeotia.and at length lay down on a rising ground. he sent some of his companions to fetch water from a neighbouring spring. At the end . lie by Accompanied by his mother Telephassa. and slew the dragon. Cadmus obeyed.-1. except five. though he had first to experience a perilous adventure. Cadmus was a son of the Phoenician king Agenor. 2. where they were slain by a dragon belonging to Ares which guarded the spring. Cadmus. after himself. was despatched his father in searchof her. Hereupon. "beingincuiable. Tlieban Legend. 50 representsa Centaur teaching a boy to play on the flute. and were all slain.

and the hero. and can probably give it the sameexplanation. The eldest.and Agave.the son of Apollo. was changedby Artemis into a he stag. the invention of which Hellenic tradition ascribed to him. In this story we see another form of the combat of the hero with the monster. and became him the mother of Action. but he had scarcely reached the prime of youth when he was overtakenby a lamentablefate. Semele. Actceon. Semele. Actaeon by was handed over to Chiron to be reared as a stout hunter and warrior. or that ho had surprised virginthe goddess bathing. Autonoe. Harmonia becamethe mother of four daughters-Autonoe. and Agave. So. and. with the alphabet. The dragon guards the waters. The latter tradition ultimately prevailed.Provincial Heroic Legends.-We have already incidentally mentioned the fortunes of three of the daughters of Cadmus-Ino. frees them. too. and was torn in piecesby his own dogs. it may be that we have in the name of Cadmus an allusion to the civilisation and the arts received by the Greeks from the East. 2. by the command of Zeus. Ino. the clouds that seem fight with one another in the to thunderstorm 1 Yet even admitting this interpretation. 171 of tliis periodAres pardoned Cadmus gavehim Harmoniaand his daughterby Aphrodite-to wife. by killing it. Whilst hunting one day on Mount Cithoeron.Cadmuswas compelled in his old age to retire to the Enchelians in Illyria. Do we not see in this the combat of the sun with the cloud. The causeof her anger was either that Actseon had boasted that he was a more skilful hunterthan Artemis. He and his wife were after- wards changedinto serpents. and in the armed men who turn their weapons against one another. After reigning for a long time at Thebes. married Aristseus. but whether he was driven out by Amphion and Zethus (who appearin Homer asthe foundersof Thebes)or withdrew from some other cause is not manifest. .and transferred. to the Elysian fields.

even the rock whence he beheldArtemiswaspointedout on the road between Megara and Platasa. was found in 1774. and his protectionwasinvokedagainst the deadly power of the sun in the dog-days. 5L-Act8Bon Group. which was continued in Thebes after his departure by his son Polydorus. The Actaeon's story transfor- of mation was and death a favourite subject for sculpture. or Hysia. A small marble group. On becoming pregnant. whosefavours Zeus enjoyed on approaching her in the form of a Satyr. in the persons of Amphion and Zethus.British Museum. aud is now preserved in the British Museum(Fig. Fig. Nycteus. representing Actseon beating off two dogs which are attacking him. Am phi on and Zethus. He received heroic honours in Boeotia. 3. king of Thebes. 51).172 Greekand Roman Mythology. in Boeotia. had a wonderfully beautiful daughter called Antiope. in later times.-Be- sides the royal family of CadmUS.shefled from the resentment of . The story of Actseon is probably nothing but a representation of the decayof verdant nature beneath an oppressivesummer heat. we come across the scions of another ruling family of Thebes which came from Hyria.

of Tralles in Caria. he entrusted the execution of his vengeanceto his brother Lycus. These were immediately exposed. Happily. destroyed Sicyon. on his death. where the king. Here she found her runaway slave.who had grown. received her and made her his wife. Dirce came to Cithajron to celebrate the festival of Bacchus. on lonely Cithseron. to have beenthe work of the brothersApollonius and Tauriseus. into sturdy youths. Apollonius and Tauriseusbelongedto the Bhodian. Her mangled remains they cast into the spring near Thebes which bears her name. The punishment of Dirce forms the subject of numerouspieces of sculpture. who succeededhim. This enraged Nycteus.which M . 52). Amphion and Zethus recognisedtheir mother. but had also to submit to the most harsh and humiliating treatment at the hands of his wife Dirce. Tke most important among them is the Faniese Bull (Toro Farnese)in the museum at Naples (Fig. Epopeus. which dragged her about till she perished. This worldrenownedmarble group is supposed. at Eleutherse on Cithseron. but were subsequently discoveredand brought up by a compassionateshepherd. On the way. she gave birth to the twins Amphion and Zethus. At length she managed to escape. Lycus defeated and slew Epopeus. 173 her father to Sicyon. but. After having taken Thebes and slain Lycus. however. with the exception of certain parts which have been restoredin modern times. school. He was obliged to retire without accomplishing his purpose. who made war on Epopeus in order to compel him to deliver up his daughter Antiope. and took Antiope back with him as prisoner. Antiope was not only kept prisoner in the house of Lycus.and by a wonderful chancediscovered her two sons. and inflicted on the cruel Dirce the punishment she had destined for another. According to another story.Provincial Heroic Legends. The story of her wrongs so enraged them that they resolved to wreak a cruel vengeance on Dirce. whom she was about to punish by having her bound to the horns of a bull. they bound Dirce to the horns of a wild bull.

It wasthencetransferredto Naplesin 1786.into the possession Asinius Pollio. came. flourished in the third century B. as a portion of the Farneseinheritance.-Farnese Bull.and wassetup in of at in the Palazzo Farnese.C. in bttc during the reiga of Augustus. It was disof covered 1547in the Thermae Caracalla Rome.174 and Roman Mythology. the great art-patron. The following is a brief . Naples. This colossal group-undoubtedlythe largest which has descended us from antiquity-was to first erected Rhodes. 52. Fig.

is represented as a friend of the Muses. The female figure in the backgroundis Antiope. who . Amphion had but to touch the strings of his lyre and break forth into some sweet melody. There are several tokens that the occurrence took place during a Bacchic festival : the wicker cista tnystica in use at the festivals of Dionysus-the fawn skin which Dirce wears-the ivy garland that has fallen at her feet-the broken thyrsus. lastly. The position of the handsome youths on a rocky crag is as picturesqueas it is dangerous. This is why Amphion is alwaysrepresented sculpin ture with a lyre and Zethus with a club. acquired the sovereignty of Thebes. Zethus appears to have been rude and harsh. which had been before unprotected. We can scarcely doubt that these Theban Dioscuri. though we are no longerin a position to say what it was. for whilst Zethus removed great blocks and piled them one on another by means of his vast strength. The lyre which rests againstthe tree behind Amphion is a token of his well-known love of music. were originally personificationsof some natural phenomenon.arewell known to be only symbols of the morning and evening star. The scene is laid on the rocky heights of Cithoeron. on the other hand. who is sitting on the right watching the proceedings with painful interest-all point to this fact. the most complete accountcould give but an imperfect idea of its beauty.but also to set before us their marvellous strength. 175 explanation of the group. though Amphion always figures as the real king. The two brotherswerewidely differentin dispositionand character. though. . and the mighty stones moved of their own accord and obediently fitted themselves together.Provincial Heroic Legends. and devoted to music and poetry. like the Castor and Polydeucesof Sparta. and. of course. the Bacchic insignia which distinguish the shepherdboy. Amphion. and passionately fond of the chase. and serves only to lend the group a pyramidal aspectpleasing to the not eye. after the expulsion and death of Lycus. Pie soon had an opportunity of proving his wondrous skill when they began to enclose Thebes. with walls and towers. The story goes on to relate that the two brothers.

xxiv. According Ilesiodand her and to Pindar. 602)gives six sons as manydaughters. The story of JSTiobe frequently treated of by the tragic poets. The poets of * The number of Kiobe's children varies materially. Amphion slew himself. and Mobe. pride and delight of their the happyparents.* and she ventured to prefer herself to Latona. Many blooming and lovely childrengrewup in their palace. The vengeanceof the offended deities. to down their blessings on the royal pair. was turned into stoneby the pity of the gods. though its details vary considerably in the accounts of the poets and mythologists. The heart of Niobe was lifted up with pride at the number of her children. He marriedNiobe. and all her children were laid low in one day before the unerring arrows of Apollo and his sister. thougheventhe stonehasnot ceased weep. Everywhere the number of sonsand daughtersappearsto be equal. The parents did not survive this deep affliction. she even went so far as to forbid the Thebans to offer sacrifice to Latona and her children. sisterof Pelops.176 Greekand RomanMythology. alreadyparalysed with grief. The most circumstantial and richly-coloured account of it is containedin the Metamorphoses Ovid. however. who had only two. Homer (II. .. she had ten sons and ten daughters. and transferredto her old Phrygian home on Mount Sipylus. and to claim these honours herself. Amphion is further celebrated accountof the melancholy on fate of his sonsand daughters. but the most common account. and that followed by the tragic poets. From this paradise purestjoy and happiness of they were soon to passinto a night of the deepestmourning and most cruel affliction through the presumption of Niobe-the same presumption which had led her father Tantalus to trifle with the gods and consummate his own ruin. to Such is the substance of this beautiful legend. now overtook her.both jiEschylus was and Sophocles having written tragediesbearing her name. nay.the daughter of the Phrygianking Tantalus. Greatwas and the happiness this marriage the godsseemed shower of . allows her fourteen children.

but alsoin artistic perfection-is that of Niobe herself. in fact. To this age(4th century B.although at people even then hesitatedwhether to ascribe it to Praxiteles or Scopas. None but one of thesegreat masterscould have beenthe author of this tragedyhewn in stone. but of it is more probably a physical meaning which lies at the root of the legend. With regard to the celebrated Florentine Niobe group. which was so highly celebrated even among the ancients. In 1775 it was brought to Florence.where it has remainedsince1794in the gallery There has never been but one opinion as to the beauty of this group.C. but a Roman imitation. Although the original figures of this magnificent group have disappeared. the dissimilarity of its treament and the various kinds of marble employed serve to show that it is not a Greekoriginal. Bui. of and the later Attic school.) belongedthe group of Niobe. and which was seenby Pliny in the temple of Apollo Sosianus Borne. that. and was purchased by Cardinal Medici oi the to adorn Uttizi. 177 have continually striven to impose a purely ethical interpretation on the story. First amongthe figures-not only in size. This incident the fertile imagination of the Greeks portrayed in the most beautiful metaphors. and set itself to depict. 1583. The following description of the arrangementof the group is taken from Liibke's History of Plastic Art:- . this alonewould bear ampletestimony to the high perfection and creativepower of Greekart. displays in her whole bearingso majestic and noble a demeanour. the inwardpassions the soul. yet copies of moat of them are still in existence. The unhappy queen. near the Latcran Church. so likewise it only attained its proper placein sculptureafter art had laid asideits earlier and more simple epic character. This tendencytowardspathos of and effectis characteristic the age of Praxitelesand Scopus. just as a subject so purely tragic as the history of Niobe found its first true development in tragic poetry. a picture of the melting of the snow before the hot scorching rays of the sun. It was found at Rome in. even if none of the other splendid results of Greek sculpture had come down to us. his villa on the Monte Pincio. It is. by representing the destruction of tlie children of Niobe as the consequence the great sin of their mother.Provincial Heroic Legends. in their full force.

Thus from either rush side towards the waves cen- of this dreadiul flight the tre. doubtless. anotherhas sunk on his knees. 54). who either gaze upwards in affright towards the heavens. This is denoted by each movementof the flying figures. and to catch her in his arms. All the othersare fleeinginstinctivelyto their mother. She alone stands unshaken in all her sorrow. fixing his eyes. Clasping her youngest daughter. that she who had sooften affordedprotection them could save also from the avenging arrows of the gods. and. who has fallen wounded at his feet. and bending over asthough to shield the child. A third brother is striving in vain to protect with his robe his sister.and clutches agony at the wound in in his back.178 Greekand Roman Mythology. In this look Fig. there is neither defi- . thinking. whose tender years have not preserved her. mother and queen to the last.-Niobe. Florence. she casts towards the avenging goddess a look in which bitter grief is blended with sublimedignity of soul (Fig. seekto coverthemselves or with their garments. she turns her own proud head upwards. to break on the sublime figure of Niobe as upon a rock. in her arms. before -her left hand can cover her sorrowstricken face with her robe. anotherleans in mortal agonyagainsta rock. One of the sonsis already stretched deadon the earth . "Apollo and Artemis are to be supposedoutside the group. they have accomplished their work of vengeance and destruction from an invisible position in the heavens.on the spot whencedestructionhas overtakenhim. whilst his preceptor is endeavouringto shield the youngest boy.already glazedin death.54.

Sisyphus. This interpretation. (Seethe legendof the Labdato cidaslater on.were naturally inclined to deify that element.sinceit expresses atonementwhich. ever-rollingwavesof the sea.is by no meanscertain. then. 179 ance nor prayer for mercy. Pandareoswas the friend and companion of Tantalus. but a sorrowful and yet withal lofty expression heroicresignationto inexorable fate that is worthy of a of Niobe. position of their city between two seas. Tradition says nothing as to the death of Zethus. in a an scene horror and annihilation.Its inhabitants. Zeus took compassion her. glidesback again.however. was said to have been founded by Siisyphus. and was on that account turned into stone. and changed into a nightingale. and the ideaof Sisyphusin the lower world everrolling a huge stone to the top of a mountainmight equally well refer to the sun. sonof -ZEolus. althoughthe common graveof the ThebanDioscuriwaspointed out in Thebes. in mistake. restored in his person the race of Cadmus the throneof Thebes. Itylus. In this on her guiseshestill continues bewail her lossin long-drawn to mournful notes. the daughter of Pandareos." Zethus was not more fortunate than Amphion in Ms domestic affairs. she herself having only one son. the son of Labdacus and grandson of Polydorus. Laius.) 3. one but she killed. This admirable figure.on accountof the the . after attaining its highest point in the heavens at the time of the summer solstice. stirs the heart to the deepestsymof pathy.Provincial Heroic Legends. He married Aodon (nightingale).-Corinth. to slaythe eldestsonof Mobe. night. for whom he stole a living dog made of brass frorn the temple of Zeus in Crete. which. Sheresolved. as it was formerly called. only to begin . it is not improbable and that Sisyphus was merelyan ancient symbol of the restless. Corinthian Legend. is pre-eminently the central point of the composition. orEphyra. her own child instead. After his death. Aedon was jealous of the good-fortune of ISTiobe having so in many beautiful children.-1.

to and was once identical with Poseidon.celebratedin lolcus in honour of Pelias. however. Of the numerous legendswhich existed concerninghim.-Traditiondescribes Glaucus a sonof Sisyphus as by Merope. Bellerophontos.-The third national hero of Corinth was Bellerophon. that the signification ' of the myth is unmistakeable. Glaucus. According to another tradition.which had taken fright. 3. On the occasion of some funeral games. or Here the referenceto the sun is so obvious. 2. Bellerophon and the Legend of the Amazons. who daily saw the sun rise from the sea. It was only later-after peoplehad becomefamiliar with the idea of retribution in the lower world-that it assumed this character. none was more celebrated than that of the cunningmodein which he succeeded binding Death. He alsoappears havehad a symbolicmeaning. though he was afterwards degradedfrom the rank of a god to that of a hero.180 Greekand Roman Mythology. its career anew on the shortest day. and put them to death by crushing them with great stones. According to some. whom Zeus had secretly carried off from Phlius. it was natural that they should accredit their mythical founder with a refined cunning. That he . in whom Ares had to be despatchedto release. and was torn in pieces by his own horses. a special crime had to be found for Sisyphus. In order to account for it. of Bellerophon was born and brought up at Corinth. He was termed the son of Posei- don or Glaucus.the rolling of the stone doesnot appear to have been originally a punishment. lie is remarkable for his unfortunate end.narrate the substance the story. but was obliged from somecauseor other to leave his country. We must first. he to'ok part in the chariot race. In any case. he used to attack travellers.he was punished at the instance of Zeus. The Corinthians being crafty men of business. becausehe had revealed to the river-god Asopus the hiding-placeof his daughter^gina. nonecouldappreciate genealogy and this better than the Corinthians.

Bellerophon captured this wonderful animal as it descendedat the Acro-Corinthus to drink of the spring of Pirene. in fact. Bellerophondestroyedthe monsterby raising himself in the air on his winged horse Pegasus. Pegasus was the offspring of Poseidon and Medusa. as all dragons and suchlike monsters of antiquity are representedas breathing forth fire and flames. "Finding. 181 killed Bellerus. dangerousmonster that devastatedthe land. king handsome. stately youth. shootingit and with his arrows. and the hinder part that of a dragon. At this juncture the heroic career of Bellerophon begins.it had threeheads-that of a lion. the daughter of Typhon and Echidna.and a dragon. Accordingto the samepoet. a goat. but. In this he was assisted by the goddess Athene.is nothinghut a fable arising a from an unfortunate misinterpretation of his name. a The fore part of its body was that of a lion. though another the tradition relates thai Pegasuswas first sent to him when he set out to conquer the China sera. the centre that of a goat. and father-in-law. with a tablet. merely a common symbol of the furious and dangerous character of these monsters. The origin of the story is ascribed to a fiery mountain in Lycia.Provincial Heroic Legends.we are perhaps scarcelyjustified in having recourse to a volcano. According to Hesiod. noble of Corinth. He was hospitablyreceivedby Proetus. mysterious signstm which badelobatesput the bearerto death. lobates. she slandered Proetus forthwith sent him to his of Lycia. the Chimsera a fire-breathing was monster of great swiftness and strength. who alsotaught him how to tameand useit. Here. he appears to have already possessed horse at Corinth.from whose trunk it sprung after Perseus had struck off her head. lobates sought to fulfil the command of Proetus by involving his guest in all kinds of desperateadventures. slighted her passion. that Bellerophon him to her husband. This characteristic is. .then. He first sent him to destroy the Chimoera. whosewife at once fell in love with the however. king of Tiryns.

The contest of Bellerophon is far more likely to be a picture of the drying up. Of the numerous stories rife concerning them. though he only mentions them incidentally. hoping that among them he would be certain to meet his death. so that they were not only sufficiently powerful to defend their own land against foreign invaders. "bymeans the sun'srays. The Amazons appearin legend as early as Homer. who suffered no men among them. where their intercourse with the Scythians is said to have given rise to the Sarmatian tribes. none is more tasteless than that of their cutting off or burning out the right breast. therefore. their capital being Themiscyra in Scythia. come acrossthis remarkable nation of women.are said to have fought. on the river Thcrmodon. on the borders of Lake Mseotis. except so far as it was necessaryto keep up the race. on the other hand. lobates sent him againstthe warlike Amazons. and it will not. a neighbouring but hostile mountain tribe. have thought that the Chimsera represents stormsof winter conthe quered by the sun. The women. Others. in order not to incommode themselves in the . Their dominions. After he had been successful in sub- duing them.182 Greek and Roman Mythology. with whom other Greek heroes. be foreign to our object to dwell here on their most important features. They were said to be a nation of women.such as Heracles and Theseus. We here. but also to make plundering incursions into other countries. The next adventure in which lobates engaged Eellerophou was an expedition against the Solymi. again. were afterwards reduced to more distinct limits. Later writers also speak of the Amazons in Western Libya. were trained from their earliest years in all warlike exercises. for the first time. and placed in Cappadocia. the situation of which was at first indefinitely described as in the far north or far west. of the furiousmounof tain torrents which flood the corn-fields.

-Amazon. and Cresilas. their weapons beingalong doubleedged battle-axe (bipennis) and a semicircular shield. Polycletus. and in the Trojan war. made a wager as to who should create the most beautiful Amazon. They are heredepicted as fine. . Polycletus received the prize. they came to the assistance Priam against of the Greeks. resembling Artemis and her nymphs. From 183 the Thermodon they are said to have made great expeditions as far as the JEgeansea. they are even reported to have invaded Attica. when. The Amazons were fre- quentlyrepresented Greek in art. They generally appear armed. under their queen Pentliesilea.Provincial Heroic Legends.55. whom by they were defeated. An anecdote relatedby Pliny proves what a favouritesubject the Amazons were with Greek artists. powerful women.thoughwith stouter legsand arms. usci of the bow. and made war on Theseus. Phidias. Berlin. Phradmon. They also play a prominent part in the story of Heracles. so that we may conclude that he Fig. He says that the celebrated sculptors.

of We still possess considerable a number of Amazonstatues. except that it was of bronze. brought this statue--the ideal Amazon of the Greeks-to its highest perfection. 55). someof which are supposed be imitations in marble of the renowned to statueat Ephesus. We must now return to the history of Bellerophon. again escaped. Unfortunately. There are.and a share in the kingdom of Lycia. whereupon Zeus sent a gadfly to sting the horse. it has been in the Vatican collection. There is also another marble statue.Cresilas. In into the possession the Berlin Museum. however. and wandered about alone.184 Greek and Roman Mythology. It is apparently a representation of an Amazonresting after battle. lobates now ceasedfrom further persecution. the the life of the young hero was once more attempted by lobates. an attitude which is as charming as it is natural. moreover. fleeing the societyof men. we know nothing of it. Besides these statues. considerablylarger than life. and stood with the statues of the other artists in the templeof the EphesianArtemis. as she has already done her shield. battle-axe.until he at length perished miserably. of which is supposed be to after a work of Polycletus(Fig. but since the time of Clement XIV. Bellerophon. Pegasuscast .we are told. wasrepresented leaning on a spear. in full possession power and riches. The Amazonof Phidias. Bellerophon. seemed to have reached the summit of earthlyprosperity. the other as on hand. After returning in triumph from his expeditionagainst Amazons. which takesa still higher rank. and gave him his daughter in marriage. slaying all his assailants. she is in the act of laying aside her doing so sheraisesherselfslightly on her left foot.we hear a great deal of the Amazon of Strongylion. He was seizedwith madness. and helmet. who causedhim to be surprised by an ambuscade. Lastly. endeavoured to portray a wounded Amazon. celebrated for the beautyof her legs. whenhe wasovertaken a grievouschange by of fortune.which wasin the possession Nero. some of which are believed to be copies of the work of Cresilas. we must not omit to mention a statue that has newly come how. It was originally set up in the Villa Mattei. Pindar saysthat he incurredthe enmity of the gods by attempting to fly to heaven on his winged horse Pegasus. and surroundedby of blooming children. severalstatuesof wounded Amazons.

This son. By his union with Melia. The sad fate of Bellerophonwas the subject of a touching tragedy of Euripides.wandered through Europe and Asia. the daughter of Oceanus. famed for her beauty. the wanderingsof Io grew for more and more extensivewith the growth of geographicalknowledge. "W.Provincial Heroic Legends. and flew of his own. Welcker. whence he is calledArgiphontes(slayerof Argus).whosemeritorious researches Greekmythology in have . however. On remarking this. as we have already remarked. touched by the hand of Zeus. The myth. 4 Argive Legend. in her madness. The following is the substanceof the story:Io was the priestessof Hera. Hermes first lulled the guardian to sleep with his wand and then slew him. which is of great antiquity. until she at length found rest in Egypt.sent Hermes to take away the heifer. Inachus was venerated by the inhabitants as the first founder of Argive civilisation after the flood of Deucalion. and gave birth to a son. whose thunder-chariot he has ever since drawn. who was called Epaphus. Her great beauty attracted the notice of Zeus.he becamethe father of Io. Hera. Heroic honours were paid to Bellerophonin Corinth. who. and set the hundred-eyed Argus Panoptes(the all-seeing) watch her. accord to the stables of Zeus. Io. she recovered her original form. 1lie god of the Argive river of that name. changed Io into a white heifer. afterwards became king of Egypt. to Zeus. Hera avenged herself by sending a gadfly to torment Io.-The first personagewho meets us on the very thresholdof the mythic age of Argosis Inachus. has re- ceivedmany embellishments. has been so greatly embellished by the poets and legendary writers. whosehistory. and built Memphis. where.-1. and he also had a shrine in the celebratedcypress-groveof Poseidon. in her jealousy.someparts of which are still in existence. The true interpretation of the myth is due to E. 185 off Bellerophon.

in her original shape. Danaus and the Danaids. In the south-east-the direction in which Egypt lay from Greece-lo againappears full moon. Between these two brothers-the former of whom had fifty sonsand the latter fifty daughters-a deadly enmity arose. the latter over Egypt. where Gelanor. in either case the slaying of Argus will simply mean that the stars become invisible at sunrise. Belus. He embarked with his fifty daugh- ters in a ship-the first that was ever built-and thus came to Argos.-According to the legend. resigned crownin his favour. The story proceeds to relate that the fifty sonsof JEgyptusfollowed their uncle to Argos.inexplicable as it was to the ancients. had a daughter Libya. Epaphus. which suffered from want of water. who bore to Poseidon two sons. lo (the wanderer)is the moon.the hundred-eyed Argus.is a symbol of the starry heaven.was always depictedwith horns.Danaiisis the said to have brought the land. by his union with Anchinoe.186 Greekand Roman Mythology. the son of lo. Danaiis was a descendantof lo. Whetherwe seein Hermes dawn or the morning the breeze. this induced Danaus to migrate from Egypt and seek the old home of his ancestress lo. Agenor and Belus. As king of Argos. Bellerophon and Heracles. to a higher state of cultivation by watering it with wells and canals. There is nothing extraordinary in representing the apparent irregularity of the moon's course. The former reigned over Phoenicia. The guardianof the heifer. The moon-goddessantiquity wasvery frequentlyrepresented of under the figureof a heifer. He is alsosaidto have introducedthe worship of Apollo and Demeter.the Egyptiangoddess of the moon. the daughter of the Nile. whoseapparentlyirregular course and temporary disappearance was considereda most curious phenomenonby the ancients. becamethe father of JEgyptus and Danaus. and Isis herself. under the guiseof mental disorder. or Achiroe. Similar representations occurin the stories of the solar heroes.and com- . proved of such great value. the reigning descendant of Inachus. as 2.

Neither must we forget that the idea of retribution in the lower world was of a comparatively late date.-Acrisius and Proetus were twin sons of Abas. and commanded them to slay their husbands in the night. The legend then passes the history of his three to . Between these two brothers an Implacable hostility existed. which is evidently connected with the irrigation of Argos ascribed to Danaiis. Originally. and became. And herein lies the key to the interpretation of the myth. It has been frequently remarked that this punishment no conceivable has connection with the crime.in marriage. which was said by the poets to have commencedeven in their mother's womb. who spared her husband Lynceus. or Sthenebcea. the fable sprang up that the Danaids were punished for their crimes in the lower world by having continually to pour wrater into a cask full of holes. the ancestor of both the great Argive heroes. lobates gave him his daughter Antea. and took refuge at the court of lobates. gave each of his daughters on the wedding day a dagger. the son of Lynceus and Hyperrnnestra. with the assistanceof Aphrodite.with the aid of the Lycian work- menwhomhe had broughtwith him (Cyclopes). but also to extend his dominion as far as Corinth. as his share of the patrimony. All obeyed his command except Hypernmestra. and afterwards restored him to his kingdom of Tiryns. and afterwards even succeeded. king of Lycia. built a strong fortress. At a later period. but he was subsequently expelled by his brother. too. 3. Perseus and Heracles. in effecting his reconciliation with her father. by his son Abas. DanaiiSj in revenge. Proeius and his Daughters. the kingdom of Tiryns. Lynceus succeeded Danaiis in the kingdom. 187 pelled him to give them his fifty daughters in marriage. which enabled him not only to maintain peaceable possession of Tiryns.Provincial Heroic Legends. Proetus received. Proetus. the idea prevailed that the pursuits of the upper world were continued after death in the realms of Hades.

and in a knowledge of the language of birds.who all inherited the gift of seeing into futurity. Danae represents the country of Argos. changed himself into a shower of golden rain. however. and thus introduced himself through the roof of her prison. daughters. 4:. They now fled the society mankind. its contest . in his love for her.in addition to which both he and his brother Bias received a share in the sovereignty of Tiryns. like a veritable hero. Her father. is founded on the idea of the bridal union of heaven and earth. the whosepride was so excited by their father's greatness and their own beauty that they beganto think themselves superiorto the gods. for they were visited with a foul disease drivenmad. Aerisius. that he acquired. Their arrogance. Thus was the god-like hero Perseusborn. enveloped. Thus it was that the race of the Amythaonidse. who undertook purification and cure of his daughters. It the was reported of Melampus that serpents had licked his ears whilst asleep. consequence. however. too.-Acrisius. Perseus. and of and wandered aboutamongthe mountains and woodsof Argos and Arcadia. Her offspring Zeusrepresents light of the sun. He successfully accomplished the cure of the Prcetides. At length Proetus succeeded in procuring the services of the celebrated soothsayer and purifier Melampus. was soon punishecl. and from whom the celebrated soothsayer Ampliiaraiis himself was descended.to immure Danae in a subterraneouschamber. this is one of the pictures of nature which the mind most readily forms. Zeus. had a daughter called Danae. with thick clouds. the hand of the princess Iphianassa. the brother of Proetus. duringthe gloomymonthsof winter. was induced by an oracle. her prison is the heaven.whose fortune it was to gain the love of the great ruler of Olympus. Proetides. There can be no doubt that this myth. which foretold that he should be killed by his own grandson. and received. which returns by the in the spring-time and begins.188 Greek and Roman Mythology. as a reward. cameto Argos.

where it was found by the fisherman Dictys. The legend then proceedsto relate that Acrisius. They. Fearing the vengeanceof Perseus. a magic wallet. their very appearance appalling. though:he set . the daughters of Phorcys and Ceto.which confor his sisted of an invisible* helmet. by wliom probably the water-nymphs are meant. who were likewise the daughters of Phorcys and Ceto. and Athene.Provincial Heroic Legends. Perseus out. as soon as he was grown up. Thesedeitiesfirst showedhim how to procurethe necessary means accomplishing undertaking. were reported have come to into the world as old women. on the farthest western shore of the earth. subsequently wished marryDanae. But human wisdom avails nought against the inevitable decrees heaven. The chest was cast by the waves on the of rocky island of Seriphus. and a pair of winged sandals. the special patroness of heroes. at this juncture cameto his aid.on the border of Oceanus. of which they made use in turn. Hermes.he despatched him. This was no other than to bring him the head of the Gorgon Medusa-a terrible "wingedwoman. The latter.orderedmother and child to be confined in a chest and cast into the sea. The Gorgon Medusa has the same significance in the history of Perseus that the hideous Python has in that of Apollo. who dwelt with her two sisters. the ruler of the island. The way to their abodehe could only learn from the Grcese. having heard of the birth of his grandson. to and on her rejectinghis advances made her a slave. on a most perilous adventure. dwelt on the outskirts of the gloomy region inhabited by . and Danae and her child were hospitably received and cared for by Dictys and his brother Polydectes. 189 with the powers of death and darkness. All thesewerein the hands of the Nymphs. inspired him with courage.and they had but one eye and one was tooth between them. however.was in the greatest perplexity how to accomplish so perilous a task.however. too.Thesecreatures. to avert the fate threatened by the oracle.

He then robbed them of their one eye and one tooth. His helmet. the Gorgons. which rendered him invisible. which formedthe subjectof a dramaof Euripides. the father of Geryones. Such are the essential features the myth-concerningwhich. and Chrysaor. Stheno and Euryale.190 Greekand Roman Anthology. Perseuscameto the Grreae. hastened \ he to the abodeof the Gorgons.the wife of Cepheus.who had meanwhile awaked. and after making his benefactor. and wasalsohighly popularamong artists and poets. whom he fortunately discovered asleep.whencethey are called by /Eschylus their sentinels. he turned liis stepstowards his native place. From the trunk of Medusa sprang the winged horse Pegasus. Perseus succeededin cutting off the head of Medusawithout looking round. and thus forced them to tell him the way to the habitations of the Nymphs. With the help of her mirror-like shield and the sickle of Herrnes. of king of ^Ethiopia. and having placed the head in his wallet. which he then presented to Athene. being immortal-and enjoined him to approachthem carefully backwards. ventured to extol her own beauty abovethat of the Nereids. Under the guidance of Apollo and Athene.and not only over whelmed land the . On his return to Seriphus. Athene then pointed out to him Medusa-the other two sisters. The most celebrated of thesewas the rescue of Andromeda.Perseusturned the unrighteous Polydectes into stone by means of the Gorgon's head. king of the island. Dictys.who thereuponbesoughtPoseidonto avengethem. He grantedtheir request. enabled him to escape the pursuit of the other Gorgons. he hastened away. The following is a brief account this exploit:-Cassiopea. From the latter he at once obtained the objects he sought and havingdonnedhis winged sandals. we have no earlier sources of information-such is the original framework on which Avas afterwards built up the history of the further adventures of the hero. Argos. as the sight of their faces would infallibly turn any mortal into stone. of in spite of its antiquity.

Provincial Heroic legends. Perseus.for the discushererepresents. In this situation she was found by Perseus. but sent also a terrible sea-monster. added that Perseus was also obliged to vanquish a rival in Phineus. to whom Andromeda had been already promised. devoured both man and beast. the whilst Amphitryon wasdescended another his sons. His sonElectryonbecame father of Alcmene.th the Gorgons. Accordingto Pausanias. this adventure. Megapenthes. not satisfied with. Later writers. the ancestorof many heroes. not but alsoin Athensand the islandof Seriphus. He here founded the cities of Midea and Mycenae.and Andromeda was chained to a rock close to the sea. of Heracles. who had at first fled in terror to Larissa. where he was reconciled to his grandfather Acrisius. the king's brother.after some time. of Perseuswas unfortunate enough to kill Acrisius with his discus. which The oracle of Ammon declared that the land couldonly be savedby the sacrificeof the king's daughter. of as in the story of the death of Hyacinthus. yielded to the entreatiesof his people. the son of Proetus.to the monster. thus involuntarily fulfilling the prophecy of the oracle. The legendconcludes with the return of the hero to Argos.on his return from his adventuie wi.and. . became. 191 with disastrousfloods. Phineus. On the occasion. and releasedthe trembling maiden. only throughoutArgos.Andromeda. the face of the sun. He forthwith attackedand slew the sea-monster. from of heroichonours werepaid to Perseus. and through his children by Andromeda. unwilling to enteron the inheritanceof the grandfather he had slain. of some games which the people Larissahad instituted in his honour. was changed into stone by meansof the Gorgon's head. among others.whichwashanded overto him by its king.however. together with his warriors. Cepheus. exchanged the kingdom of Argos for that of Tiryns. In this feature of the story we recognisean unmistakeable referenceto the symbolicmeaning Perseus. who soon after married her preserver.

In bodily form. sickle which he madeuseof to the slayMedusa. .depictingthe rescue Andromeda.maidenly modesty on the other. a?well asin and costume. now in the CapitolineMuseum Fig. The samecon- . who is assisting the joyful Andromeda to descend from the rock. The sea-monster of lies dead at the feet of Perseus. the helmet of Hades. Among the art monumentswhich relate to his adventuresis a marble relief from the Villa Pamfili.has also wings on his head. proud self-reliance. Marble Relief in the Museumat Naples at Rome. His common a attributes are the winged sandals. It is worth remarking that Perseus. addition in to his winged shoes. The attitude and expression of both figures arevery striking: on the one side. 56.-Perseus and Andromeda. appears he very like Hermes. Perseus occupies prominentposition in Greekart.192 Greek and Roman Mythology.

is to be found in the Medusa Eondanini of the Munich collection-a marble mask of most beautiful workmanship. 56).-Eondanini Medusa.representingher with tongue lolling forth.gems. which had beencreepingin sincethe ageof Praxiteles. 57. 193 ception is perceptible.and pottery-the hair generally falls stiff and straight over the* forehead. while the snakes appearto be fastened round the neck like a necklace. Very different is the conceptionadopted by the later and moresensuous school. with a few minor points of difference.in severalPompeianpaintings. This labouredprincipally to give expression the gradualebbing awayof life in the countenance to of the dying Gorgon. Munich. serving to render the horrible breadth of the facestill morestriking. in the earlierexamplesof thesemasks-which arefrequently met with on coins. Eailier art an set itself to depict the horrible only in the head of Medusa. . The most splendid exampleof this later conception. There are two types. shields.Provincial Heroic Legends. effectwhich wasrenderedstill more striking an by transformingthe hideousGorgonfaceof earlier times into an ideal of the most perfectbeauty. which are often found on coats of mail.stroveto impart to the faceas strong an expression of rage and ferocity as was possible. It is worthy of remark that. and artists. leaves of folding doors. representing earlier and a later conceptionof Medusa.and instruments of all kinds.therefore. and on a marble relief of the Naples Museum(Fig. and boar-like tusks. which was brought Fig. Representations Medusaare mostly confined of to masks.

and the son of Tyndareiis. who had approachedher under the guise of a swan. In Homer. like many othersof the later type. and were kindly received by Thesthis. The following is an account of their heroic cUeds:-On attaining manhood.appear as the children of Tyndareiis. They were driven thence. the name of "Dioscuri" (sonsof Zeus) and a belief in their divine origin arose simultaneously.-On passing to Laconia and Mossenia. Castor dis- . from the Rondanini Palaceat Rome (Fig. Leda had also two daughters. while Leda was the mother of the Dioscuri. Later still. Tyndareiis and his brother Icarius were said to have founded the most ancient sovereignty in Lacedsemon. Clytoemnestraand Helene (Helen).194 Greek and Roman Mythology. who gave Tyndareiis his daughter Leda in marriage. has wings on the head. At a subsequentperiod. his brother Polydeuces. This Medusa. Tyndareiis wasafterwards reinstated in his Lacedaemonian kingdom at Amyclee by Heracles. Castor was represented as a mortal. had fallen in the contest with the sons of Aphareus. and the son of i!0us.we come in contact with the legend of the Dioscuri. while Clytsemnestra. The Dioscnri. Castor and Polydeuces (Pollux).together with Castor and Polydeuces. 5. on condition of their spending one day in Olympus and the next in Hades.who bore him Penelope-afterwards the wife of Odysseus. un- willing to part from him. 57). however. however. the ruler of the ancient city of Pleuron in yEtolia. They thus led a life divided betweenmortality and immortality. Icarius received the hand of Poly caste. and Polydeuces as immortal. the southern districts of the Peloponnesus. by their half-brother Hippocoon. After Castor. Helen alone is represented as the daughter of Zeus. An ancient legend also existed to the effect that Leda had beenbeloved by Zeus. The greatest incongruity prevails as to which of the children could claim a divine origin. who are celebratedin connectionwith the Trojan war. Besides these two sons. prevailed on Zeus to allow them to remain together.

They next took part in the expedition of the Argonauts. whereupon Polydeuces in his wratlj slewLynceus. Their last undertaking was the rape of the daughters of Leucippus. that these Dioscuri flitting about on their golden wings arc probably nothing more than what is commonly called St. only not in their native Sparta. It has often been remarked. They are often interpreted to as personifications of the morning and evening star. whose aid might be invoked either in battleorin the dangers shipwreck. and set her free by the conquest of Aphidiue.Provincial Heroic Legends. or of the twilight (dawnand dusk).in which Polydeuces gainedstill further renownby his victory with the cestus over the celebrated boxer Amycus. It is commonly supposed that they were ancient Peloponnesiandivinities of light. however. The interpretation of this myth is by no means void of difficulty. but throughout the whole of Greece. Theywerevenerated. after the Dorian invasion. This view died out after the second deification that they underwent. it sprang from a quarrel as to the division of some booty that they had carried off together. They first made war on Theseus. and with a great appearanceof truth. weredegraded the rank of heroes. in order to calm the storm at the prayer of the terror-stricken mariner. They were also present at the Calydonian boar hunt. beneficent deities. According to others. This was the causeof their combat with their cousins Idas and Lynceus. while Idashimself wasoverwhelmed a thunderby bolt from Zeus. the sons of Aphareus. who had carried off their sister Helen.as kindly. though he too had skill in riding. king of Messenia. in which they arerepresented as darting through the air on their golden wings. 195 tiuguishedhimself by his skill in the management horses. In this latter character of they are laudedby an Homerichymn. then ten years old. of whilst Poly deucesbecame renowned as a skilful boxer. Castor was slain by Idas. to whom the damsels had been betrothed. Elmo's . who.

Postumius. or leading them by the bridle. consisted two parallel beams of joined by cross-bars.the a Dioscuriwere regarded the tutelary deities of the state. is often seen playing round the tops of the masts during a storm.either riding.196 fire-an Greekand Roman Mythology. the Equitesmade solemnprocession a from the templeof HonoSjpast the temple of the Dioscuri. to the Capitol every year on the Ides of July. opposite the temple of Yesta. The most celebrated representation the Dioscuri that lias comedown to us from of antiquity consists the marble statues of called the Colossi of Monte Cavallo. In commemorationof this aid. and the dictator. which the Spartansalways took with them on a campaign. where an eternal fire was kept burning in their honourj also in Athens. The Dioscuri were believed to have assisted the Eomans againstthe Latins at the Lake Eegillus. which was erected in the Forum. Their shrines here were very numerous. Their ancient symbol. In Sparta. and their imageswere set up in all the palaestra. are . In art the Dioscuri arerepresented heroic youths of noble mien as and slim but powerful forms. and the proportionsof the figures. points of which are adornedwith a star. They were. They had other festivals and temples besides those of Sparta j in Mantinea. Theseareeighteen feet in height. Their characteristic marks are conical caps. exquisite. in fact. standingby and holding them. vowed a temple to them. indeed the name Elmo has been supposed corruption of Helene. and nearly always in connection with their horses. where they were venerated under the appellation of Anaces. Their festival was here celebrated with horse-racing. who foster all that is noble and beautiful among men. for instance. They generally the appear nude. The Olympic games also stood under their special protection. togetherwith thoseof the horses. electric flame which. or clothed only with a light chlamys.and which is regarded tha by sailors as a sign of its speedyabatement. everywhereregarded as extremely benevolent and sociable deities. A.in Rome. as as well as an exampleof warlike valour for the youth of the country.

which refer to his deification and subsequent marriage with Hebe.in fact. executed in the time of Augustus. too. made only of his seizure of Cerberus)" his expeditions against Pylus.Provincial Heroic Legends. OEchalia. therefore. indeed. who is here again our most ancient authority.has receivedfrom them the name of Monte Cavallo. In Homer.original works. The description of him in Hesiod's Theogonyand in the Shield of Heracles is somewhat more minute. have to confine ourselves to the consideration of its most characteristic features.just as he afterwards became the national hero of the whole of Greece. Ephyra. 6. The verses in the Odyssey (xi. which. Erom what source the deification of Heracles sprang-whether it was due to Phoenician influences . In the Iliad. in consequence. 197 They are setup on the Quirinal." In Homer. the leading features of the myth are traced-the enmity of Hera towards the hero. are probably a later insertion. "Noother Greek myth has received so many subsequent additions -not only from native. which is. his period of subjection to Eurystheus. Heracles (Hercules). and those which are the most important in the history of art.was yet by birth the common of property^of j^Eolian the race-their nationalhero. but is otherwise essentially the same. Heracles is spoken of as a great hero of olden time. but areprobably imitations of bronzes the most flourishing period of of Greek art. he appears as a purely Grecian hero. "We shall. This hero. and his armour differing in no respect from that of other heroes. 602-4). and the laboursby which lie emancipated himself (though special mention is. but also from foreign sources-as this.-Of all themyths of the countries originally inhabitedby the ^Eoliansthe myth of Heracles the is mostglorious.though his famewaschiefly disseminated by means the Dorians. his warlikeundertakings having neveryet led him beyondTroy. most extensive and complicated of the all Greek myths. They are not. " whom the Eates and the grievous wrath of Hera subdued. and Troy.

had left her pregnant with Heracles. by two months. the uncle of Amphitryon. who prolonged the pains of Alcmene and hastened the delivery of the wife of Sthenelus. we only know that it appears as an accomplished fact about 700 B. In Thebes. But. the marriage was to have been celebratedat Thebes. in the meanwhile. and even slew his . was compelled to flee from Tiryns with his betrothed Alcmene-likewise a descendant of Perseus by her father Electryon-on account of a murder. Hera. After the successful termination of this expedition. he made no progressin musical arts. or not-has hitherto remainedan undetermined question. JSTot content with having sub- jectedthe heroto thewill of theweak and cowardlyEurystheus. and found aiv. From this place he undertook an expedition against the robber tribes of the Teleboae (Taphians). a son of Alcseus and grandson of Perseus. the great ruler of Olympus himself had been smitten with the charms of Alcmene. king of Thebes. Ths sovereignty over all the descendantsof Perseus. asylum at the court of Creon. I. But.C. An accountof this scenehas descendedto us in a beautiful poem of Pindar. the son of Amphitryon.which Zeus had destined for Heracles. the boy grew up and was put under the care of the best preceptors. whom she afterwardsgave birth at to the sametime with Iphicles.198 Greek and Roman Mythology. sent two serpents to kill the child when he was about eight months old. though he excelledin everyfeat of strength and valour. taking the form of the absent Amphitryon. and. consequence a promisemadeto in of Alcniene. Heracles. however.-This portion of the legend found its chief development in Boeotia. whose brother they had slain. gave the first proof of his divine origin by stranglingthe serpents with his hands. according to a subsequent account of the poets. THE BIRTH AND YOUTHOF HERACLES. Amphitryon. was snatched from him by the crafty jealousy of Hera.

gratitude lost in gave the hero his daughterMegarain marriage.the king of Thebes. As a punishment.-We now cometo the second epochin the life of the hero. in which he performed various labours at the bidding of Eurystheus. HERACLES IN THE SERVICE OF EURYSTHEXJS-THE TWELVE LABOURS. while Iphicles married her sister. The Fight with the Nemean Lion. His next act was to free the Thebans from the ignominious tribute which they were compelled to pay to Erginus. a mode of life which Heracles continued until he had completed his eighteenth year. At a later period Heracles was said to have become insane. 199 master Linus on account of a somewhatharsh reproof which his inaptitudeentailedon him.when Heracles was identified with the Phoenician sun-god. king of Orchonienus.-The district of Kemea . his life. The subjection of Heraclesto his unmanlycousinEurystheusis generally represented as a consequenceof the stratagem by which Hera obtained for the latter the sovereignty over all the descendants of Perseus. king of Mycenasor Tiryns. the analogy afforded in the course of the sun through the twelve signs of the Zodiac.Provincial Heroic Legends. Amphitryon sent him to Mount Cithseron to mind the flocks. The following is an account of the labours of Heracles:- 1. Whether it was this skin or that of the Nemean lion which he afterwards used as a garment is not certain. It was to this period that the sophist Prodicus. the young hero performed his first great feat by killing the lion of Cithseron. Creon. referred his beautiful allegory of the Choice of Heracles. by a successful expedition. a contemporary of Socrates. however. II. probably from. After attaining his full growth (according to Apollodorus he was four cubits in height) and strength. in which Amphitryon. Baal. in consequence the summonsof Eurystheus to do his of bidding. The number of thesewas first fixed at twelve in the Alexandrianage.

Eurysfcheus was so terrified that he hid himself in a vessel. after using his arrowsand club against animalin the vain. The EnjmcunthianBoar. To his amazement. and.in the place of each head he struck off two sprang up. After driving the monster from its lair by meansof his arrows. though ancient gems usually represent it with seven. thus rendering the wounds inflicted by them incurable.-This was a great water-serpent. on this as on other occasions. It ravaged the country of Lerna in Argolis. He afterwards used the head of the lion as a helmet. destroying both men and beasts. seizing it in his hands. On the roadthe hero.and then caught it alive. 2. at last drove it into a cave. In this adventure He-racleswas accompaniedby lolaus. who holds the sameplace among the Arcadian Centaurs . 3. was hospitably received by the friendly Centaur Pholus.200 Greek and Roman Mythology. and with the firebrands searedthe throats of the serpent. and the impenetrable skin as a defence. until he at length succeeded slaying it. "When he arrived at Mycensewith the terrible beast on his back. in He then dipped his arrows in its gall. Heracles. began to strike off its heads with his sword. as Eurystheus had commanded him. The LernoBan Hydra. from which place it wastedthe cornfields Psophis. and there strangled it with his hands. The number of its heads varies in the accounts of poets. and Cleonae was inhabited by a monstrous lion. Heraclesdrovethe boarup of to the snow-covered summit of the mountain. who. This comic scene is frequently depicted on vases.-This animal inhabited the mountain district of Erymanthus in Arcadia. likewise the offspring of Typhon and Echidna.hungry the and thirsty. whose skin bade defianceto every weapon. He then orderedlolaus to set on fire a neighbouring wood. the son of his brother Iphicles. It was on this occasion that Heracles destroyed Centaurs. he advancedfearlessly.appearsas his faithful companion. the offspring of Typhon and Echidna.

but accidentally let it fall on his foot. where he offered to cleansethe stables.king was in of Elis. and completely vanquished them after a terrible fight. from the wound of which he died. had golden horns and brazen hoofs.-The sixth task of Heracles to cleanse one day the stablesof Augeas.-These voracious birds. Augeas agreedto do so. At length it returned to Arcadia. Heracles . caskof wine lying in his cave.in which were three thousand oxen. The Hind of Cerynea. This latter circumstance is apparently an addition of later times. Heracles was commanded to bring it alive to Mycenae. On returning to the cave of Pholus. The Stymphalian. The fragrance the of wine attracted the other Centaurs living on Mount Pholoe. They inhabited the district round Lake Stymphalis in Arcadia. the latter being a symbol of its untiring fleetness. and beaks. where he succeeded in capturing it on the banks of the Ladon. Heracles. Pliolus broached. 4. Cleansing of the StaUes of Augeas. he found his friend d^ad. and bore it in triumph to Mycenae. which fed on human flesh. to explain their reappearance the history of the Argonauts. Heracles repaired to Elis. and were able to shoot out their feathers like arrows. and they immediately attacked the tippling hero with pieces of rock and trunks of trees. He had drawn an arrow out of a dead body to examine it. drove them "backwith arrows and firebrands. Heracles slew some.-This animal. 201 as Chiron doesamongthose of Thessaly. which was sacredto the Arcadian Artemis. and so terrified the rest by means of his brazen rattle that they never returned.Provincial Heroic Lee/ends. wings. Birds. in honourof his guest. if the king would consent to give him a tenth part of the cattle. had brazen claws. 5.and for a whole year he continued to pursue it over hill and dale with untiring energy. in 6. however.which was a the common property of all the Centaurs. whosewealth in cattle had becomeproverbial.

spread a report that Heracles was about to carry off the queen. To bind these horsesand bring them alive to Mycenae was the next task of Heracles. Augeas.however. and was at first kindly received by Hippolyte. was anxious to obtain the girdle which the queen of the Amazons had received from Ares. in the story of Theseus. The Cretan Bull. according to some. or. The Mares of Diomedes. then turned the course of the Peneus or the Alpheus.-Admete.202 Greek and Roman Mythology. on 7.later. we find that Poseidon once sent up a bull out of the seafor Minos to sacrifice. The Girdle of Hippolyte. whereupon Poseidon drove the bull mad. after inflicting on Diomedes the same fate to which he had condemnedso many others. in the guise of an Amazon. After various adventures he landed in Themiscyra. through the stalls. and Heracles was accordingly despatched to fetch it. on learning that Heracles had undertaken the labour at the command of Eurystheus. upon which the Amazons attacked Heracles his followers.who fed on human flesh. he successfully accomplished. and thus carried off the filth.-Diomedes was king of the Bistones. took terrible vengeance the king. and appears later. 9. It was afterwards set free by Eurystheus. refused to give him the stipulated reward. a breach of faith for which Heracles. who was willing to give him the girdle. and the hero. 8. In the battle which ensued and Hippolyte was killed. after securing the girdle. He inhumanly causedall strangerscast upon his coaststo be given to his wild mares. The seventh labour of Heracles consisted in capturing this bull and bringing it to Mycenae. departed.but that Minos was induced by the beauty of the animal to place it among his own herds. This. as the bull of Marathon. too. of both rivers.a warlike tribe of Thrace.-In the history of Minos. the daughter of Eurystheus. king of Crete. But Hera. On his journey homewards occurred his celebrated adventure . and sacrificed another in its stead.

and Heracles then slew the monster. together with his dog. Laomedon. Heracles is then supposedto have recrossedthe ocean in the boat of the sun} and. 203 with Hesione. the king's daughter. and to have sailed thence to Erythia in a golden boat. when he was overtaken by Geryon. to by Heracles offeredto destroy the monster. By the advice of the oracle. daughter Laomedon.with a threat of future vengeance. He was then proceeding to drive off the cattle. Hesione. in which the threeheadedmonster was at length vanquished by the arrows of the mighty hero. where he had a herd of the finest and fattest cattle. in the region. accordingly. and Heracles. or Geryoneus (Geryon). been more richly embellished than any other by the imagination of the poets. 10. He is generally supposedto have passedthrough Libya.Provincial Heroic Legends. departed. should meet with numerous adventures.Apollo visited the countrywith of a pestilence. again proved false to his word. starting from Tartessus. and this expedition has.to . This monster the offspringof Chrysaor was (red slayer) and Callirrhoe(fair-flowing). and inhabited the island of Erythia.in the course of his long journey to Erythia and back.and Poseidon sent a sea-monster. which he forced Helios (the sun) to lend him by shooting at him with his arrows. Laomedon agreed. This king had refusedPoseidonand Apollo the rewards he had promised them for their assistance building the walls of Troy. if Laomedon would give him thejhorses which his father Tros had receivedas a compensation for the loss of Ganymedes. he first slew the herdsman who wasminding the oxen. The Oxenof Geryones. however. of the setting sun. in In consequence his perfidy.an Oceanid. It was only natural that Heracles.-The next task of Heracleswas to fetch the cattle of the three-headedwinged giant Geryones. which devastated the land far and wide. in the far West. Having arrived in Erythia. A violent contest ensued. the of king of Troy. wasexposed be devoured the animal.

as Apollodorus relates. after many adventures. constituted the marriage present which Hera had received from Gsea the occasion on of her marriage with Zeus. bu^t Eurystheus.where Eurystheus sacrificed the oxen to the Argive goddessHera.he arrived at Mycense. because on that occasion Heracles had availed himself of the help of lolaus. The Apples of the Hesperides. so that the hero was compelled to undertake two more. pass over his contests with the Celts and Ligurians. This account does not. By them he was referred to the . This. and for this purpose he journeyed through Illyria to the Ericlanus (Po). which were under the guardianship of the Hesperides. The golden apples. They were closely guardedby the ter- rible dragonLadon. which took place in the district where Eorne was afterwards built. and which offeredthe prospect of twelve labours from the first. in His first object was to gain information as to the situation of the garden. the offspringof was Typhon and Echidna. and Italy.or nymphs of the west. becauseRoman legend connected with this the introduction of the worship of Hercules into Italy.-This adventure has been even more embellishedwith later and foreign additions than the last.and only notice briefly his victory over the giant Cacus.in deference to which Heracles surrenderedhimself to servitude.like all monsters. or the cleansing of the stables of Augeas. far lessembarrassing was to the hero than his total ignorance of the site of the garden of the Hesperides.refused to admit the destruction of the Lernsean Hydra. Heracles has now completed ten of his labours. 11. Gaul.204 Greek and Roman Mythology. mentionedby Livy. however. however. At length. in order to inquire the way of the nymphs who dwelt on this river. who. which led him to make several fruitless efforts before he succeeded reaching the desired spot. harmonise with the tradition of the responseof the oracle.because the reward for which he had stipuof lated. We have journeyed on foot through Iberia.

whilst Heraclessupported the heavens.where he set Prometheus free and destroyed the vulture that preyed on his liver. From Egypt the hero made his way into ^Ethiopia. After Prometheus described him the long road to had to the Hesperides. for on Atlas. Heracles would have suffered a similar fate. who was. He next crossed the sea to India. Heracles. a according Libyan tradition. having once tasted the delights of freedom. Heracles then proceeded by way of Tartessus Libya. Here again the comic poets introduced an amusing scene. who wereespeciallyfond of jesting on the subject of the healthy and heroic appetite of Heracles. and thence cameto the Caucasus. Atlas. had he not broken the chains laid upon him. to bear the apples himself to Eurystheus. fetched the apples. betrayed no anxiety to relieve his substitute.and refused to release until he had obtained the desired information. for his cruelty to strangers. however.tjie hero lifted him up in the air and squeezed to him death in his arms. He wasattackedby Heracles. This wasthe end of his journey. and slain the king and his son. powerful son of Earth. .offered. instead. proved even more cunning than he. where he slew Emathion. as he received new strengthfrom his motherEarth as often as he touchedthe ground. but. for. where the cruel king Busiris was in the habit of seizing all strangers who entered the country and sacrificing them to Zeus. where he was challenged a wrestling to to matchby the giant Antaeus. and cameat length to the land of the Hyperboreans. whom he managedto seizewhilst asleep. the son of Tithonus and Eos. From Libya Heracles passed into Egypt. 205 treacherous sage Nereus. of a monstrousheight (somesay to sixty cubits). His indulgence at the richly-furnished table of the king was a feature in the story which affordedno small amusement to the comic writers. at his request. whereAtlas borethe pillars of heaven his shoulders. passed he through Scythia. but .Provincial Heroic Legends.

he was accompaniedby Hermes and Athene.fastened to a rock. returned to Thebes.206 Greek and Roman Mythology. He is commonly reported to have made his descent into the lower world at Cape Taanarumin Laconia.-The most daring of all the feats of Heracles. and afterwards carried him back to his place in the lower world. but Pirithous in he was obliged to leave behind him. Heracles seizedthe furious beast. In this undertaking. he brought him to Eurystheus. on condition that he should master him without using any weapons. and. III. he entered the presenceof the lord of the lower world. king of (Echalia. DEEDS OFHERACLESAFTERHIS SERVICE. When Atlas good-huinouredly consented.always put at the end of his labours. after his release from servitude. The Murder of Ipldtus and Contestwith Apollo. apparently agreeingto the proposition. After severalfurther adventures.-The hero.he askedAtlas just to relieve him until he had arranged more comfortably a cushion for his hack. which is mentioned even by Homer. who had gone down to carry off Persephone. He succeeded setting Theseusfree. and is^in consethe quence. Cerberus. who had promised his beautiful daughter lole in marriage the manwho shouldvanquish to him- . Another account statesthat he descended himself into the garden slewthe hundred-headed and dragon who kept guard over the trees. Hades consented to his taking Cerberus. He then proceededto the court of Eurytus. and made off with the apples. was the bringing of Cerberusfrom the lower world. 12.-1. because of the violent earthquake which occurredwhen he attemptedto touch him. though he had hitherto been able to dispensewith divine aid. and that which "bears palm from all the others. having chained him. where he gave his wife Megara in marriage to lolaiis.Heracles of courseleft him in his former position. The completion of this task releasedHeracles from his servitude to Eurystheus. Close to the gates Hadeshe found the adventurous of heroes Theseus and Pirithoiis.

After seeking purification and absolution in vain among men. refused give him his daughter. 207 self and liis sons in snooting with the bow. with whom the royal family of GEchalia stood in high favour. withdrew. The Lydians. and sometimesin the island of Euboea. with many threats of future vengeance. as the an . and when. Heracles came to Delphi. in order to seek the aid and consolation of the oracle. Iphitus. The situation of CEehalia variously given. Heracles was now commanded by the Pythian priestessto allow himself to be sold by Hermes into slavery for three years. in fact. honoured a sun-hero callec] Sandon. when he was confronted by the angry deity. in order to erect an oracle of his own.close to Eretria. who resembled Heracles in many respects.and had advocated his causewith Eurytus. and was already in the act of bearing away the holy tripod. and with his ignominious bondageto Eurystheus. but Eurytus. and that Heracles only treated him thus in a fit of insanity. fell into his hands. Heracles. Heracles in the Service of Ompliale.if the father of gods and men himself had not interfered to prevent this unnatural strife between his favourite sonsby separatingthe combatantswith his lightning. whereupon Heracles forced his way into the temple. This somewhattreacherous action being at variance with the general character of the hero. not long afterwards. the son of Eurytus. neverthe- less. but was cleverly interwoven with the Greek legend. Heraclesgained a most complete victory . 2. A fearful combat would doubt less have ensued. rejected him.on the borders of Arcadia and Messenia. sometimes it is placed in Thessaly.-This portion of the story is of Lydian origin. the story subsequently arose that Iphitus was a friend of Heracles.Provincial Heroic Legends. to expiate the murder of Iphitus. The bloody deedwas fraught with the gravest consequences. he cast him from the highest tower of his citadel in Tiryns. is sometimesin the Peloponnesus. But Apollo. to reproaching him with the murder of his children by Megara.

indeed. he advanced against Elis. He also slew Syleus. was given by Heracles to his friend Telamon. 3. which formed the subject of a satyric drama of Euripides. 4. His Expedition against Troy. and flaunted up and down before him. but. king of Troy. Telamon. cestor of their kings. He did not always linger in such inactivity. which was the means kindling a Messenian of and Lacedaemonian war. however. to one and cliose her brother Podarces.-The legend relatesthat the hero now undertook his long-deferred expedition against Augeas. The city was taken by storm: Oicles. whilst his mistress Omphale donned his lion-skin and club. Heracles. whose number increasedas time went on. and becameby him the mother of Teucer. on the other hand. She received permission from Heracles release of theprisoners. and allowing himself to be clothed in female attire.who afterwards bore the name of Priamus(the redeemed).-After performing several >therfeats in the service of Omphale. Hesione. Heracles again became free. and Oicles. Thus he vanquished and chastised the Cercopes. the daughter of the king. The oriental character of the Lydiaii Heracles at once manifests itself in the fact that he here appears as entirely devoted to sensual pleasures.208 Greekand Roman Mythology. continued raceof Dardanus and the in Ilium.such as Peleus. in company with othei Greek heroes. sometimes the old desire for action urged him forth to gallant deeds. who compelled all passing travellers to dig in his vineyard. however. Laomedon and all his sonsexcept Podarcesfell before the arrows of Heracles.becoming effeminate in the society of women. He now appearsto have undertaken an expedition against the faithless Laomedon. was slain. After assemblingan army in Arcadia.a race of goblins who used to trick and waylay travellers. which was joined by many gallant Greek heroes. The PeloponnesianExpeditions of Heracles. and in his absence Ms army was attacked and driven back with great loss by the . fell sick.

the the power of transforminghimself into any kind of animal. whereupon angrygoddess the visited the land with a famine. This expedition against Pylus wassubsequently greatly embellished the poets.and priestessof Athene. and gave the kingdom to his son Phyleus. Aleus. wasundertakenagainstHippocobn. with whom he was on friendly terms. tutelary deity of the Pylians. with his twenty sons. who had receivedfrom Poseidon. It was on this occasionthat he instituted the Olympic games. king of Tegea. Neleus. or else because Neleus had refusedto purify him from the murderof Iphitus. the beautiful sister of Cepheus.wasslain. Nestor. He then marched against Pylus. either because its king.whosewondrous adventures haveoccupied artistsand poetsalike. which follows closeon that against Pylus. the half-brother Tyndareus.that as he succeededin penetrating into El is. He then slew Augeas. caused child to be exposed. Hippocoonwasdefeated slain by Heracles. The chief feature was the combat between Hera- cles and Periclymenus. It was or the of only after Heracles. 209 braveActoridse Molionidse. and only the youngest. The result of the combatwas of course completevictory for a Heracles.the father of Auge. they were on their way to the Isthmian games. The Lacedaemonian expedition of Heracles. pregnantwith Telephus. had given assistance to the Molionidoe.on discovering the fact.and the other part for Heracles.Provincial Heroic Legends. nephews Augeas. Heracles is here said to have left Auge. Auge concealed child her in the groveof Athene.with his elevengallant sons. and who gavehis kingdom to Tyndareus. the bravest of the sons of Neleus. remainedto perpetuate celebrated the race. Neleus.a circumstance which is only mentioned account a remarkable on of legendconnectedwith his stay in Tegea. On this occasionHeracles was assistedby Cepheus. of whom he had expelled. the and sold the mother .who madeit into a greatbattle of the by gods.had slain these heroes in an ambuscadeat Cleonse.onepart of whom fought for Neleus.

Nessus. and . on which occasionhe was wounded "by Achilles. attempted to carry off Deianira. In consequence an acciof dental murder. On the road occurred his celebrated adventure with the Centaur iSTessus. "beyond the sea. and received in exchangethat of the goat Amalthea. and as neither he nor Heracles would relinquish their claim. The Centaur. He succeeded Teuthras. and. having finally for. and as the father of the ^Etolian heroes. where the king Teuthras made her his wife. whilst he himself wadedthrough the swollenstream. a chorus in the Trachinice of Sophocles. after some wonderful adventures. Auge thus came into Mysia. QEneus celebrated as the first cultivator of is the vine in that country. where liis son Hyllus was born. he was obliged to leave . inducedby the beauty of his burden. He grew up. at the foot of Mount OCta.is said to have borne the greatest resemblanceto his father. succeededin finding his mother. The river-god Achelous was also a suitor for the hand of Deianira.-The next episodein the history of the hero is his wooing of Deianira. Meleagerand Tydeus. but * The most beautiful description exists in. Heracles lived for sometime happily at the court of his father-in-law. the daughter of QEneus. 5. Achelous. and ultimately.ZEtoliaand retire to the court of his friend Ceyx.On coming to the river Evenus. The powerof assuming by variousforms was of little use to Achelous. in Ovid's Metamorphoses. it was decided by the combat betweenthe rivals* so oftendescribed the poets. Telephus was suckled by a hind. Heracles entrusted Deianira to Nessus to carry across. he wasdeprivedof a hornby Heracles. among all the sons of Heracles. Heracles restored him his horn.210 Greek and Roman Mythology. later. After his marriagewith Deianira. king of /Etolia. Gycnus. king of Trachis. became embroiled with the Greeks when they landed on their expedition againstTroy.and compelledto declare himself vanquished. transformed himself into a bull. Telephus.

and assistedthe Dorian king ^Egimius in his contest with the Lapithse. On reaching Trachis they were hospitably received by Ceyx. who was tormentedwith jealous misgivings concerninglole. Heraclesfirst defeated the Dryopes. which she anointed with the ointment prepared from the blood of the Centaur. who was still unmarried. Heracles not only slew his opponent. who had come to the assistanceof his son. IY.Provincial Heroic Legends. Heracles donnedthe garmentwithout suspicion. in the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Pagasse. which took place at Iton. but even wounded the god of war himself.which goesunder the name of Hesiod. raisean to altar and offer a solemn sacrifice of thanksgiving to his father Zeus. This contest is the subject of the celebrated poem called the Shield of Hercules. hut halted on the promontoryof Censeuni. and expiated his attempt with his life. 211 was pierced by an arrow of Heracles. with which he assured her she could always securethe love of her husband. now marched with an army from Trachis against OEchalia. thought it was now high time to make use of the charm of ISTessus. Deianira. In the most fearful agony he strove to tear off . who could not forget the ignominious treatment he had received at the hands of Eurytus. The town and citadel were taken by storm. She accordingly sent her husband a white sacrificial garment. the son of Ares. and Eurytus and his sons slain. is generally supposedto have been connected with his expedition against Eurytus.-The death of Heracles. fell into the hands of the conqueror. He next engaged in his celebratedcombat with Cycnus.but scarcelyhad the flamesfrom the altar heatedthe poison than it penetrated body of the the unhappy hero. He avenged himself by giving De'ianira someof his blood to make a magic salve. whilst the beautiful lole. of which we learn most from the masterly description of Sophocles in the Trachinice. DEATH AND APOTHEOSIS. The hero. oppositethp Locrian coast. Heracles now withdrew with great booty.

return for to by. and violently dashedhim in piecesagainsta rock of the sea. had put an end to her own life. Neleus. Convinced that curewashopeless. the garment. The historic element.and. for it stuck like a plaster to his skin. full of sorrow and despair on learning the consequencesof her act. and wliere he succeeded rending it away by force. As the flames rosehigh. and there erected a funeral pile on which to end his torments. dying hero proceeded the fromrTrachis to (Eta. HERACLES G-OD.a chariotwith four horses.-We have already laid before our AS readers mostcharacteristic the features the myth. instance. mostof his single in . the bearer of the unfortunate present. He here became reconciled to Hera. where he was joyfully received by the gods. where he found that Deianira. a cloud descendedfrom heaven. driven by Athene. amidthe mass provincialand foreignlegends of with which it is amalgamated. would consent of to set the pile on fire.almost impossible. To interpret of it and traceit back in all its details to the original sourceswould be. the father of Philoctetes. but in vain.even in the case of the GreekHeracles. apparent the warsof Heracles for is in against the Dryopes-against Augeas.212 Greekand Roman Mythology. JSTone those around him. until Poaas. appeared and bore the illustrious hero to Olympus. that. apart from the conceptionswhich were engrafted on the story from Tyrian and Egyptian sources. Thus much is certain. In this state Heracleswas brought to Trachis. Ontheotherhand. and Hippocoon. however. however. him in which Heracles presented him with his bow and arrows. myths based natural phenomena on are mixed up with historical and allegorical myths. Y. happened pass and rendered the service. who gave him the hand of her beauteous daughter Hebein marriage. amid furious pealsof thunder. it tore oufc in great piecesof his flosh at the sametime. In his frenzy he seized the herald Lichas. Here the exploits of the whole Dorian race are personified in the of thehero.

ever ready to aiford help and protection to * Prodicus. a native of the island of Ceos. is unmistakeable. as one who had not only of merited the lasting gratitude of mankind by his deeds throughout an active and laborious life-in having rid the world of giants and noxious beasts.*called " The Choiceof Hercules. This occurred at a time when the gods of Greece had altogether cast aside their physicalmeaning. In the religious system of the Greeks."is an instance of the mode in which the history of the hero was used to inculcate moral precepts. he taught in Athens. by mere determination and force of will. Heracles was specially honoured as the patron of the gymnasia. in fact. originally. bike the latter. Heracles. having heen condemned death as an enemyof the popular religion to and a corruptor of the Athenian youth.wasan elder contemporaryof Socrates. derived from natural phenomena. Heracles was also regarded in the character of a saviourand benefactor his nation. pointing to his career as a brilliant example of what a man might accomplish. Driven from Argos by the worship of the Argive Hera. a symbol of the power of the sun triumphing over the dark powers in nature. and met with a similar fate. Poets and philosophers alike vied with each other in presenting him to the youth of their country in this character. appears to have been. 213 combats a symbolic meaning. He appears a symbol that as of lofty force of character which triumphs over all difficulties and obstacles.again raised to the dignity of a god. After his in deification. but was.so that he wasnow regarded principally froman ^ethical pointof view. the gymnasium of Cynosarges Athens being solely dedicated to him. . and abolished human sacrifices and other barbarous institutions of antiquity-but also as a kindly and beneficent deity.Provincial Heroic Legends. subsequently. in having extinguished destructive forces of nature. in spite of a thousand obstacles. he first sank to the level of a hero. The well-known allegory of the sophist Prodicus.

In Heracles ancientart soughtto portray the conception gigantic of bodily strength. while Recaranus properly corresponded with the great Heraclesiu meaning. this day being regarded as his birthday. by Evander. and In Marathon. was as identified with the Italian hero Recaranus.* Hercules. transferred to the Capitol. and his fight with Cacus.at which in silver cups weregivenasprizes. games were celebrated his honour everyfour years. Nothing can express better a bull-like strength than the short neck and the prominentmuscles. where it remained until the Latin crusade 1202. We may observe manner the in which the prominent idea of physical force is expressedby regarding the formation of the neck and throat in the statue of Heracles. by the namesof Soter (Saviour) and Alexicacus(averter of evil). whoseneck is especiallylong and slender. by small in comparison with the giant body.characterised a head is.214 Greek and Roman Mythology. Lysippus of portrayedin this statuea mourning Heracles. Thence it was brought. The figure of Heracles moreover. established. in * There seems ground for thinking that the Italian Hercules was properly a rural deity confoundedwith Heracleson account of the similarity of their names.which the Romans. and musculararmsand legs. left elbow restingon his left leg.generally represented a fullas grown man-rarely asa child or youth. which boastedof being the first seat of his worship. course. which no onehad ever without his weapons. by order of Coustantine. especially associated if with a broad. He had an alfar in the Forum Boarium. He had temples festivalsin variouspartsof Greece. We shall be able to appreciatethis distinctive characterstill more clearly if we compare form of Heracles the with that of the ideal god Apollo. We havealready mentioned legendary the introduction of his worship into Koine.when it wasmeltedclown. the most remarkable of which was the bronze colossus in Tarentum. he was calledin Italy. while his his attempted beforehim. He is. therefore. by curly hair. bushy eyebrows. of devoted especial attention to the storiesof his journeythroughItaly. Lysippus erected several celebrated statues of Heracles. A statue of Heraclesby the by former artist played a part in connection with the art robberies of Verres in Sicily. . The Romanpoets. This conception principally was developed Myron and Lysippus. deepchest. after the captureof that town. to his new capital of Constantinop'e. In this character he was known mankind in the hour of need. The hero appeared a sitting posture.according to tradition. Thefourth day of everymonth was held sacredto him.

58.Fig.-Parnese Hercules. .

Ten on the eastside of the templerepresentscenes from the life of Heracles. now in the Naples Museum. who delightedto portray the different scenes his versatile of life. On account of the conception of the piece. on a spot where the theatre of Pompey. in the Vatican. on the site of the Thermee of Caracalla. but more especially on ancient vases. as well as the head drooping towardsthe breast.and legs-is the celebrated Torso of Hercules.not only in the form of statuesand works in relief. There is also a painting from Hcrcnlaneumin the NaplesMuseum. head.resting left shoulder his club. and clearly show that the hero feels bowed down by the burden of his laborious life. and his thoughts seem to revert only to the past. appearsto belong to this series. This celebrated colossal statue. viz.-These have naturally been treated of times out of number.-Thisscene early depictedby the and was celebrated painter Zeuxis.the Farnese Herculesis supposed to be a copy of a work of Lysippus.of which it was probably an ornament. the . 2. some of the most important. The Twelve Labours. a seaport town of Acarnania.full of thought and sorrow.. the chronological in orderoif the events. amongwhich that at Florence takes the first rank.rests on the openhand. We have already mentionedthe groups of Lysippus. Numberlessrepresentations such scenes of occur. but which was.the three applesof the Hesperides. The same artist. was discovered in 1540. A still existing for bronze statue in the Capitoline Museum.arms. Nine of them belong to the twelve labours. 58). in a still greaterwork. Heracles theSerpents. This attitude. 1. in his right hand.who represented Heracles stranglingthe as serpents.-Heracles actionwasa still more favourite subjectwith in artists. though it has reached in us a terribly mutilated condition-minus hoad. This was found in Rome during the reign of Pope Julius II.. once Groups. whilst Alcmene and Amphitryon stoodby in amazement.which he executed the town of Alyzia. fruit of his last labour) is unable to the cheer him. These formed a group which was originally executedfor Alyzia. Still more important as a work of art.fromwhich his on hangshis lion's skin.216 Greek and Roman Mythology. and the existence of another copybearingthe nameof Lysippus. depictedthe twelve laboursof Heracles. stood. Eventhethoughtthat he is soon bereleased Iris ignoto from minious servitude(he holds behind him. the gloomygravity of his countenance. representing Heracles battling with the Hydra. likewise transferred to Eome. There are also severalstatuesrepresentingthis feat.Wementionhere. First amongexisting statuesis the Farnese Hercules (Fig. Among interesting remains the metope are reliefs on the Theseumat Athens. of which nothing further is known. subsequently. The hero is standing upright.

strange to say. 3. which were frequently treatedof in art. Cecrops. are The metopes the front and back of the temple containedsix of the of laboursof Heracles. the Hydra. Groups of these exist in the museum at Florence. and conveyed the museumof to the Louvre at Paris. and holds in her right hand the hero'sclub. he was afterwards called an immigrant. Attic Legend. who has the little Hyllus in his arms. Heracles Omphale. werefound in 1829..-Cecrops. with a distaff in his hand. Omphale has thrown the 5. in other of respects. Cerberus. mostimportant is the beautiful Farnese the group in marble in the Naples Museum. The remains of the splendid temple of Zeus at Olympia. 7. we are able to trace the rise of the erroneous tradition with far greater distinctness. a portion from the tight with Geryon. on which occasion.however. Heracles himself is present. 217 Ncmeanlion. indeed he was said to have comefrom Sais in Lower Egypt.she smilestriumphantly at Heracles. Thus equipped. The Naples Museum possesses a . Tho. which was completedabout 435 B. 4. worthy of mention. who is clothed in female attire. less important. There is also to the an interesting representationof the releaseof Prometheuson the Sarcophagus the Capitol. the dying lion. Geryon.-1. Parerga (Subordinate Deeds).en the suckled by the hind.-First amongthesecomethe scenes from his contestwith the Centaurs.whilst the tenth tablet representshis contest with Cycnus. The only one which is perfect.-The romantic history of Telephuswas also frequently treated of in art. there are alsovariousrepresentations be found on vases.Provincial Heroic Legends. representing Heracleswith the child Telephusin his arms. fine painting. lion's skin round her beautiful limbs.C. the NaplesMuseum.<e representing contestwith the Cretan the bull. Heraclesand Telephus.representing discoveryof the child after it has be.from the Villa Pamnli. tlie Arcadian hind. which is. the Erymanthian boar. The seizureof the tripod at Delphi also is also frequently portrayedin art.and some other fragments. In his case3 however. plays a similar part here to that which Cadmus does in Thebes. the first founder of civilisation in Attica.-Of the monuments and referring to Heracles7 connection with Omphale. the hordesof Diomedes. and he appears to be askingpermission carry Deianira across stream. His adventure to with Nessus represented is separatelyon a Pompeianpainting in. Nessus crouches a humble posturebeforeHerain cles.the girdle of Hippolyte. In the Vatican Museum there is a fine marble K'roup.is the spirited and life-like representationof the strugglewith the Cretan bull. Like Cadmus. and the Hesperides.

As the mythical founder of the state. 2. by as The commonmythological account places the flood of Deucalion in his reign. Herse. as well as other political and social institutions.218 Greek and Roman Mythology. In Attica. were ascribed to him. and was by his means decided in favour of the goddess. as Cecrops was before it. by who is represented some his son. wet. We have already given an account of it. one of the sons of Deucalion. or is really only a second Cecrops-the mythical founder of the state after the flood. genial summer (Pallas).-Erechtheus. gave him to the goddessPallas to nurse. enclosedin . and Pandrosus. and a warm. Amphictyon. and maras riage. These seem to be continually striving for the supremacy of the land. It was under Cecrops that the celebrated contest occurred between Poseidon and Athene for the possessionof Attica. he was also regarded the builder of the citadel (Cecropia). Erichthomus. Pure Attic tradition recognises him only as an autochthonthat is. or Erichthonius. like the giants. Erechtheus. that. After the expulsion of Cranaiis. The probability of this view is greatly enhanced by the fact that his three daughters. in fact. he was half man and half serpent.her attendants and priestesses. Cecrops was succeeded in the government Cranaiis. there are only two seasons-a cold. immediately after his birth. Perhaps he is only a local personification of Hermes. dry. and further adds. The latter first entrusted him to the daughtersof Cecrops. an original inhabitant born of the earth. received divine honours. and need only here remark that the story is purely the result of the observation of natural phenomena. he is. which stated that Gsea(Ge). There was another very sacred legend concerning him. Aglaupis. of whom nothing more is known than that he was deprived of the governmentby Ercchtheus. and rainy winter (Poseidon).endowed with a serpent'sform. like Cecrops. succeededto the sovereignty of Attica. Being also earthborn.

He has not unjustly been called the secondHeracles. After the death of Erechtheus. taking her for a wild animal.in order to watch her husband. It served. when Cephalus. however. the wife of the handsomehunter Cephalus. 3. many features in common with the ^Eolian hero. The first is Orithyia.and were punished in consequence with madness. the ancient temple dedicated to Athene Polias. prompted by curiosity. Procris had hidden herself among the bushes. The latter. just as Heracles is of the ^Eolians. opened the chest. Cephalus was carried off by Eos. contrary to the commands of the goddess. Two among the daughters of Erechtheus are celebrated in legend. and was subsequentlymade king of Athens. This meansnothing more than that the primitive Pelasgian age in Attica had now come to an end. to excite the jealousy of the latter. They therefore strove . since the national jealousy of the lonians led them to adopt every possible meansof making their own hp. and he has. however. the other is Procris. and became the mother of Calais and Zetes. indeed. introduced the worship of the gods. the tragic poets relate that Ion. whom we come acrossagain in the story of the Argonauts.-Theseus is the national hero of the lonians. ruled in Athens. the daughter of Cecrops.Provincial Heroic Legends.and settled the dispute between Poseidon and Athene. The same stories are then related of him as of Cecrops-that he regulated the state. Erichthonius was now reared by the goddessherself in her sanctuary on the citadel. The tomb of Erechtheus was shown in the Erechtheum. the mythical ancestor of the lonians. unwittingly killed her.rorival that of their neighbours. Theseus. who was said to be a son of Hermes by Herse. where the neverdying olive tree createdby the goddesswas also preserved. and the dominion of the lonians commenced. 219 a chest. who was unable to shake his fidelity to his wife. who was carried off by Boreas. which ultimately proved fatal to her.

From Megara. had no heir.whom mythological tradition made a great-grandson of Erechtheus. in imitation of Heracles. Pylas. With a slight effort he raised the stone. Before his departure. he placedhis sword and sandals beneatha heavy stone. When Theseuswas sixteen. There is no great undertakingof antiquity in which Theseus is not supposed to have taken part.and the restoration of the former royal family in the person of ^Egeus. is the tradition.whose instruction had now become a necessary item in the education of a real hero. Pallas. After his father Pandion had been driven out by his relations. the sons of Metion. though twice married. unselfish. undertook an expedition against Athens. where he was hospitably receivedby the ruler. king of Trcezen. He was the son of the Athenian king ^Egeus. at least. as a hero tried in numberlesscontestsgenerous.ZEgeus (waveman)is only a surnameof Poseidon.the chief deity of the seafaring lonians.220 Greek and Roman Mythology. to representhim.and commanded ^Etlira to send his son to Athens as soon as he was able to move the stone and take his father's sword. He is also supposed have beeneducated the Centaur to by Chiron. by his daughter ^Ethra. Nisus.and that . although it is more probable that Athens never had a king of this name. and he was even sent on an expedition to hell. Such. On his way back he stopped at the court of Pittheus.the father of Theseus. and now undertook a journey to Delphi to seek the advice of the oracle. his mother took him to the stone beneath which lay his father's sword and sandals. the sons of Pandion. ^Egeus. and Lycus. ^geus betook himself to Megara. and soon developed into a stately youth. likewise. and devoted to the interests of mankindand of course ascribed to him a multitude of adventurous ex- ploits.and became. JEgeus. Theseus was carefully trained in music and gymnastics by the sagacious Pittheus. which ended in the expulsion of the MetionidsB. and thus entered on his heroic .

which he bent to the earth. 4. his father-"because was was like he in the habit of murdering travellerswith his iron club. 1. 3. and then allowed to recoil. whence he is called Pityo- camptes. Theseus served him in a similar fashion. 221 career. who compelled travellers to wash his feet.or club-bearer. This monsterused to lay his victims in a bed : if this was too short. 6. In the neighbourhood of Eleusis he vanquished the giant Cercyon. if too long. on tlio borders of Megara. On reaching Athens. 2.who compelled all who fell into his hands to wrestle with him. Between Troezenand Epidaurus he slew Periplietes. pine-bender. who had fled from Corinth to Athens. called Sciron. on the rock of Sciron. He next delivered the Isthmus from another powerful robber called Sinis. Theseus or inflicted the samefate on him. Shewason the point of makingawaywith the new- . he would kill them outright. the sonof Hephaestus-who lame. on their reaching the ground. They are generally supposed have been six in to number. His last combatawaitedhim on the confinesof Eleusis. he would beat out and pull asunder their limbs. In the woody district of Oommyon he destroyed a dangerous wild sow that laid waste the country. 5. Not far from this. whence he is called Corynetes. after which. His earlier adventures consisted in overcoming a series of obstacles that beset him in his journey from Troezen to Athens. whence he is called Procrustes. He used to fasten travellers who fell into his handsto the top of a pine tree.Provincial Heroic Legends.he found his father yEgeus the toils of in the dangerous sorceressMedea. wheredwelt the inhumanDamastes. he would hack olf their projecting limbs. dwelt another monster. He was also slain by Theseus. and then kicked them into the sea.

comerby poison. and to stake his life on the liberation of his country from the shameful tribute. Minos marched against Athens. and thus slain. He wasresolvedto do battle with the Minotaur. fortunately. He now undertook his greatest and most adventurous feat.ZEgeus. and soon discoveredthe efficacyof her protection. had been treacherouslymurdered by the Athenians and Megareans.whoseson. The goddesskindled a passionatelove for the hero in the breast of Ariadne. however.the daughterof Minos. Medea was compelled flee.recognised him by the sword he bore. Under the guidance of Aphrodite he passedover to Crete. He first marched against Megara. and cut off from her father's head the purple lock on which his life depended. he at oncebravely offeredto go amongthe allotted victims.whenJEgeus. Another account says that he was sent by . Theseus.the brother of . sevenyouths and sevenmaidensto be devoured by the Minotaur. Minos conquered him by meansof his own daughter Scylla. of which ]^"isus. Minos undertook a war of revenge. the youthful hero Androgeos. Here he was equally successful. Ariadne rendered ever]?' him possibleassistance his undertaking. who becameenamouredof Minos. was king. in order to free his country from its shameful tribute to Minos. but a new danger to awaitedthe hero from the fifty sons of Pallas. half man and half bull.and compelled the vanquished Athenians to expiate the blood of his son by sending. slew somein battle and expelled the rest. and preserved him from his impending fate. Twice already had the bloody tribute been sent. After having taken Megara and slain Nisus. and the third fell just after Theseus' arrival in Athens.222 Greek and Roman Mythology. king of Crete. who had reckoned on suc- ceeding their childlessuncle^geus. in and especially presented . This was a monster. every eight or (according to the Greek method of reckoning) every nine years. At any rate.SSgeus against the bull of Marathon.

in honour of Apollo. the prince of the Lapithse. a festival which was celebrated on the seventh day of the month Pyanepsion (end of October).and sacrificed it in Athens to Apollo Delphinius. he instituted the Oschophoria. perceivedthat the ships had black sails instead of white. the divine son of Semele. He capturedthe bull of Marathon (saidto have been the same which Heracles broughtalive from Crete). with one state Prytaneum.there exists the greatest variety of accounts as to the order in which they took place. We have already narrated how Ariadne was deserted by Theseus on the isle of Naxos. as he stood on the coast looking for his son's return. he cast himself headlong into the sea. was enabled to find his way out of the Labyrinth. On reaching Athens. As king. he instituted the Pyanepsia. and believing that all was lost. Lastly. in his contest with the Centaurs. after having slain the Minotaur. which were to have been hoisted in the event of his son's success. in which festival Athene also had a share. where he instituted the festival of the Delia in honour of. the divine children of Leto. he showed his gratitude to his divine protectress by the institution o4 the worship of Aphrodite Pandemus. however. He assistedhis friend Pirithoiis. 2.by meansof which Theseus. and to have instituted the festival of the Panathenseain commemoration of this event. The happy return of Theseus from his Cretan expedition.Provincial Heroic Legends. he is said to have been the first to unite the separate districts of Attica into one political community. 223 him. In honour of Dionysus and Ariadne. are worthy of mention:- 1. proved the death of his aged father. only to becomethe bride of Dionysus. The following. Theseus also landed at Delos. This story was perhaps only invented to account for the name of the JEgean Sea.with a clew of thread. JGgeus. With regard to the other exploits of Theseus. among his later exploits. .

He undertook with Pirithous an expedition to Lacedsemon. and dragged along the ground till lie was dead. as the reward of victory. 6. besought Poseidon to punish his faithless son. causedthem both to be bound in chains and fastened to a rock.e. . whither Theseuswas supposedto have fled on account of a murder-was dealt with in a touching manner by the tragic poets. This story-the sceneof which was afterwards transferred to Troezen. This so terrified his horsesthat Hippolytus was thrown from Ms chariot. in which Theseus wasengaged alone. who had sworn to grant any request of Theseus.where she was confined. to fall in love with him. As a result of the carrying off of Antiope. His great beauty causedhis step-mother Phaedra. 5. As he withdrew himself from her dishonour- able proposals night. their queen Antiope. He next joined Heraclesin his expedition againstthe Amazons. a secondcontest with the Amazons was subsequently invented.the sisterof the Dioscuri. and received. famed for his unhappy fate. enraged at their audacity. Another tradition assertsthat Antiope followed him of her own free will to Athens.224 Greekand Roman Mythology. 4. The Amazons are supposedto have ftivaded Attica. however. and which took placein the immediate neighbourhoodof Athens. in his wrath. Antiope. was so enamoured of Theseus that she refused to return. and the god.. Theseus. but Hades. she accusedhim to his father of attempts by on her virtue.but during his absencethe Dioscuri had released their sister from Aphidnse.sent a wild bull (i. and became the mother of Hippolytus. in order to releasetheir queen.and a sister of Ariadne. At the request of Pirithous. 3.a later wife of Theseus. he accompaniedhim to the lower world to carry oil Persephone. in which they carriedoff Helen. a breaker) out of the seaas Hippolytus was driving in his chariot along the seashore. or Hippolyte. The Hippolijtm of Euripidesis still extant. where she was married to him. Theseuswas rescued from this plight by Heracles.

Here he j was at first hospitably received. of which we shall have more to say hereafter. besides which he Fig. Theseus saidto have taken part in the Calydonian is boar hunt. which still exists in Athens. until she Lastly. 59. and also in the expedition of the Argonauts. but subsequently murdered in a treacherous manner by Lycomedes. 225 and fought at her husband's side. British Museum. was slain. The death of Theseusis commonly agreedto have taken place in the following manner:-He had been deprived of the sovereignty of Athens by Menestheus. The eighth day of every month was held sacred to Theseus. the son of Theseus. Demophoon. . who was aided by the Dioscuri and then withdrew to the island of Scyros.Provincial Heroic Legends. against her kindred.-Elgin Theseus. Ciinon is also supposedto have caused the erection of the temple of Theseus. the ruler of the island. and serves as an arb museum. At a still later period the bones of the hero were brought to Athens by Cimon. at the command of the Delphic oracle. is said to have afterwards recoveredhis father's kingdom.

226

Greek and RomanMythology.

had a special festival, called the Thesea, on the eighth of Pyanepsion.
Art has folio wed

the example of

the poetsandmythologists in depicting Theseusas
a second Heracles.

Here, however,
the characteristic differences that
existed between

the Doric and Ionic races beJust

come apparent.
in elastic-

as the latter

racesurpassed the
former

ity, both of mind

and body,sotheir
national hero

gives token not only of a higher intellectual being, but also of a body more lithe, and

capableof greater
swiftness and dexof the Doric hero.

terity, than that The slighter and more elegant form of Theseus lacks, perhaps, the sheer brute strength of

Heracles,but is compensated the possession a far greater by of degree of activity and adroitness. The expressionof face is more amiable and the hair less bristling than that of Heracles, while there is generallyno beard. Such is Theseusas depictedby Greek art at trie epoch of its full development; later art strove

Provincial Heroic Legends.
to render the form of the body still more litiie and graceful. of the Attic youth.

227
The

costumeof Theseusconsists,like that of his prototype Heracles, of a lion's skin and club; sometimes also of the chlamysand petasus in his case than in that of Heracles. If the explanationis correct, the British MuseumpossessesTheseus pricelessvalue. Among a of the statues the Parthenonwhich have beenpreserved, of there is one of a figure negligently reclining on a lion's skin, which, with the exceptionof the nose, hands,and feet, is in a tolerably goodstate of preservation(Fig. 59). It belongedto the great group of the east gable,which represented first appearance the new-bornAthene the of to the astonishedgods. It is the figure of a youth in his prime, somewhatlarger than life, and altogether a perfect ideal of manly beauty. A representation the conflict of Theseus of with the invading army of the Amazonsstill exists on a large piece of frieze-work,which, togetherwith the representations the battle of the Lapithse and of Centaurs(which have been already mentioned),formerly decorated
Existing art monuments are far less numerous

the wallsof theshrine Apollo's of temple Phigalia, is nowthe in and"

property of the British Museum. Among the Greek warriors Theseusmay be easily recognised his lion's skin and the club, by ably the leaderof the hostile army. We give an engraving of the
scene where Theseus obtained the sword and sandals of his father

which heis in theact swinging "of against mounted a Amazon, probfrom beneaththe rock, after a relief in the Villa Albani (Fig. 60). 8. Cretan Legend.-1. Minos and the Minotaur.-Cretan myths aro both, obscure and difficult of interpretation, because Phoenician and Phrygian influences made themselves felt at a

very early period, and native sources fail us. Minos is commonly supposed have beenthe first king of the country. He to
was the son of Zeus and Europa, who is called in Homer a

daughterof Phoenix. This Phcenixwassubsequently made into Agenor,a Phoenician, king of Sidon; and the story then arose that Zeus, the form of a white bull, had carriedoff Europa, in
and arrived with his lovely prey in Crete. Europa is there

said to have given birth to Minos, Ehadamanthys(Rhadarnanthus), and some say Sarpedon. She afterwardsmarried
Asterion, who brought up the sons of Zeus as Ids own children,

228

Greek and Roman Mythology.
He, after

and, at his death, left the kingdom to Minos.

expelling his "brothers Sarpedonand Ehadamanthus, became soleking of Crete. Of his brothers,Sarpedon went to Lycia, whilst the pious Khadarnanthus found a refuge in Boeotia. Minos next marriedPasiphae, daughterof Helios and Perse'is, a by whom he became father of Catreus, the who succeeded him,
Deucalion, Glaucus, and Androgeos, besides several daughters,
of whom the most celebrated are Ariadne and Phaedra. Minos

gavewiselawsto his people, and became supreme seaamong at
the isles of the ^Egean Sea, and even as far as Attica. In his

name find the same (meaning to think ") which wehave we root "
seen in Minerva, and which appearsin the name of the Indian lawgiver Manu. In order to vindicate his right to the crown, Minos besought Poseidon to send him a bull out of the sea,which he was then to sacrificeto the god. Poseidon granted his prayer, but Minos was induced by the beauty of the animal to place it among his own herds. As a punishment of his perfidy, Poseidon kindled in the breast of Pasiphae an unnatural love for the bull, and the fruit of their connection was the Minotaur. This was a monster, half man and half bull, which Minos shut up in the labyrinth that had been made by the skill of Daedalus. The food of the monster consisted of human beings, who were partly criminals

and partly youths and maidens, sent as tribute from the subjugatedcountries. This lasteduntil Theseus came Crete, to and,
with the aid of Ariadne and Daedalus,destroyed the Minotaur.

Suchis the substance this perplexingmythical tradition, of of
which the simplest interpretation is that the Minotaur was

originally an ancientidol of the Phoenician sun-god Baal,which
had the form of a bull, and to which human sacrifices were

offered. The destruction of the Minotaur by Theseus a is symbol of the triumph of the higher Greek civilisation over

Provincial Heroic Legends.
sacrifices.

229

Phoenician barbarism, and tlie consequent abolition ol Iranian

Closely connected with, the royal family of Crete we find
Daedalus,the most celebrated artist of the legendary period. He is said to have been a son of Metion, and a descendant of Erechtheus, and to have fled from Athens to Crete after murdering his nephew Talus in a fit of professional jealousy. During his residence in Crete he constructed the Labyrinth, an underground building with an endless maze of passages, a as dwelling-place for the Minotaur; besidesmany other wonderful works of art. Eor having aided Theseus in his combat with the Minotaur, Dsedalusand his son Icarus were both imprisoned in the Labyrinth of Minos. The story of his flight, which he accomplished by means of the artificial wings that he made for himself and his son, is well known from the Metamorphosesof Ovid. Icarus fell into the sea that is named after him, and was drowned, but Dcedalus reached Cumae in safety. From this place he passedover to Sicily, where he was hospitably received by Cocalus. "When Minos, however, pursued the fugutivo and demanded his surrender, not only was his request refused, but he was even put to death by the contrivance of the king's daughters.

Of the othersonsof Minos, Deucalionis celebrated having as
taken part in the Calydonian boar hunt, and also as the father of the hero Idomeneus, who fought against Troy. Glaucus was

killed, while yet a boy, by falling into a cask of honeyas he
was pursuing a mouse. He is reported, however, to have been

restoredto life by the Corinthianaugur Polyidus,or, according
to others, by Asclepius himself.

2. Tolas.-The legendof Talos,the brazen man,betrayslikewise a Phoenician origin, and refers to the cruel practice of
offering human sacrifices. This Talos was made of brass, and was invulnerable. Hephaestus, as others sav. Zeus pave him or,

230

Greek and fioman Mythology.

to Minos as guardian of the island of Crete, round which he travelled thrice a-day. If he perceived any strangers approach

he would spring into the fire, and, after becomingred-hot, he would claspthem to his breast,until they expiredbeneath the
sardonic chuckle of the demon. He attempted to drive off the

Argonauts with stones, wasdestroyed the skill of Medea. but by Taloshad a singlevein,which ran from his headto his feet,and was closedat the top with a nail. This nail Medeacleverly succeeded extracting, consequence which Talosffbledto in in of
death.

IV.-COMBINED

UNDERTAKINGS
HEROIC AGE.

OF

THE

LATER

I. The Calydordan Hunt.-The story of Meleagor.and the Calydonian boar hunt was undoubtedly,in its origin, nothing more than a provincialmyth based naturalphenomena, on like
other myths that we have already explained. In this casethe

physicalsignificance involved in the myth soon disappeared, owingto the treatment receivedat the handsof the epic and it dramatic poets. The poets,in fact, succeeded introducing in some striking ethical conceptions, which absorbed higher all
interest.

CEneus,king of Calydon in -ZEtolia, on the occasion of

a great festivalwhich was celebrated after a successful vintage,
had accidentally or purposely omitted to sacrifice to Artemis.

To punish this neglectshesenta hugewild boar,which devastated the fields of Calydon, and seemedinvincible by any ordinarymeans account its vast size. Meleager, brave on of the
and heroic son of QEneus, therefore assembledmen and hounds

in great numberto slayit.

The boar was slain; but Artemis

stirred up strife over the head and hide between the ^Etolians

they were no longerable to keepthe field. the sons of Aphareus. was the victory of the men of Calydon. After QEneus entertainedhis guestsroyally had for nine days. when he was wroth with Agamemnon accountof the loss of Eriseis.the hunt began. Such is the earliest form of the legend. At first the former were victorious.from Arcadia. Castor and Pollux. Jason.and the hugebeast. Telamon. the swift huntress. and soonsawtheir city closely invested their enemies.Brilliant. besidesthe soothsayer Aniphiarails. Theseus and his friend Pirithoiis. who had heard his mother's curse. Among others there came the Dioscuri. destroyed him with the arrows of Apollo. He donned his armour. tore openhis body and killed him on the spot. Atalante. but whenMeleager withdrew in wrath from the battle because his mother had cursedhim for the death of her brother. but the enraged beast. and even mother beseechhim to aid his hard-pressed countrymen. as it exists in the Iliad. Adrnetus of Pherse. Like Achilles in the Trojan war. from Argos. Peleus. did for the cruel Erinyes. Iphicles and lolaiis. but the heroMeleager not return from the battle. Ancseusand the beautiful huntress Atalante (Atalanta). At last his wife-the beautiful Cleopatrasucceededin moving him. with one strokeof his dreadfultusks. Meleager was said to have called together against the boar all the renowned heroes of Greece. from Thebes.which was as large as an ox. sisters. and put himself at the head of his countrymen for a sally against the besiegers. . was the first to inflict a wound. the father of Achilles. however. indeed. Meleagerlong on refused to stir. from Salamis. At length the monster received a mortal wound from a spearhurled by the powerful arm of . In time. was surrounded and driven from its lair. Ancaeus then advancedwith his battle-axe. In vain did the elders and priests by of Calydonbeseech Meleager in vain did his father. Idas and Lynceus.CombinedUndertakingsof the Later Heroic Age. from lolcus. 231 and the Curetesof Pleuron.

. but resigned prize to Atalante. and was soon despatched by the rest. was consumed. king of Pleuron. on learning the unhappy fate of her son. put an end to her own life. Meleager received as his due the head and hide of the slaughteredanimal. The Argonauts. the was He put awayhis first wife. which was then burning on the fire.232 Greekand Roman Mythology. the sons of Thestius. his childrenby Nephele. king of the Minysa. It wasoriginally nothing but a myth based on natural phenomena. and thus cut off the noble hero in the prime of his youth and beauty.of whomhe was enamoured. Althaea immediately snatched the brand from the flames and carefully treasuredit up. full of sorrow for her hasty deed. Althaea.the nucleus of which was the history of the golden fleece. whom their mothernaturally preferredto her stepchildren. soon after the birth of Meleager.the mother of Meleager. and brothers of Althaea. Learclius and Melicertes. the on the ground that she was the first to wound the boar. The Fates had appearedto Althaea. 2.and informed her that her son would only live until a certain brand. the daughter of Cadmus.-The story of the Argonauts experienced a similar fate to that of the Calydonian hunt. she placed the brand again in the fire. and for whose sake she endeavouredto drive the latter . But Meleager'sdeath. Kepliele (cloud). By Ino ho had two other children. sonof . in the first outburst of grief and indignation against her son. Enraged at this. Meleager slew them both. This act excited the bitter jealousy of Plexippus and Toxeus. but in the hands of the poets it swelled to a mass of legends common to all the tribes of Greece. though he still kept Phrixus (rain-shower) Eelle (ray of light).dSolus. though causedby the wrath of his mother. and robbed her of the present. was worked out differently in the time of the tragic poets. Athamas.in orderto mairy Ino. They accordingly lay in wait for Atalante. After Meleager had slain her brothers. and with him. Meleager.

Nephele cameto the assistanceof her children. before Ino could accomplish her purpose. the eldest of whom.was the task of the heroes of the race of ^Eolus. a . and was drowned. On the way Helle fell into that part of the seawhich bears her name. for. either at the command of JSTephele. and brought him to the Centaur Chiron to be educated.and sought to slayIno and her children. Tyro bore him three sons. indeed. Ino by Leucothea). and the kingdom devolved on his brother Cretheus. succeededhis father in the kingdom. whom some represent as a goddess. setting over it a terrible. in order to put an end to the calamity. ^Esonwith difficulty managedto rescuehis little son Jason from the hands of Pelias. In Chiron's cave the young hero grew up. which Hermes had presentedto her for that purpose. Seated on this ram they fled over the sea to Colchis. the daughter of his younger brother Salxnoneus. Athamas was so grieved at the evil he had brought on his countrythat he becameinsane. Cretheus married Tyro. The fleece he hung up in the grove of Ares as a sacred treasure.where he sacrificed the ram to Zeus. ^Eson. who had preserved him in his flight. and Ino persuaded her husband to sacrificePhrixus as a sin-offering to Zeus. To fetch this treasure from a foreign land. or in consequence her prayers for the punishment of Athamas. He did. Athamas then fled to Epirus.CombinedUndertakingsof the Later Heroic Age. but Phrixus arrived safelyin Colchis(JEa). Soon afterwards. king of Elis. and gave thorn a winged ram with a golden fleece. and thereby to release the country and people of the Minyss from the calamity with which they were oppressed. Whether Helle was to have shared her brother's fate we cannot tell. ever-watchful dragon as its guardian. but Ino succeededin saving herself and heryoungerchild Melicertes leapinginto the sea(cf. 233 from their father's house. the of land was visited with a long drought. who is described as a son of Tyro and Poseidon.but wassoonafter expelledby his stepbrother Pelias. kill Learchusby dasliing him against a rock.

Admetns. After completinghis twentieth year. favouritewith godsand men. Orpheus. whose king. and thence through the Hellespontto Cyzicus. In the harbour of lolcus he caused a large ship with fifty oars to be constructed. Meleager. and Periclyme'nus. where he had landed in order to searchfor his favourite Hylas. Amyous. and his name was withdrawn. In this manner were added the Dioscuri. of there . the expedition was stated to have been undertaken only by the heroes of the race of the Minyye-such as Acastus. the incongruity of allowing the hero to play only a subordinate part was soon felt.234 Greek and Roman Mythology. however-when the date of the expedition had been fixed at one generation before the Trojan war-no hero of any note was allowed to be absent from the undertaking." after its builder. Calais and Zetes. He then called together the heroes. endeavoured getrid of his unwelcome to guest by involving him in a most dangerousadventure. Tydeus. Peleus. where they were opposedby the Bebryces. He declared that he would gladly resignthe crown if Jason would recoverthe golden fleece from Colchis. Theseus. who had been carried off by the Naiads. Jason. and even Heracles. At a later period. In the original version of the story. at once acceptedthe perilous adventure. the sons of Boreas. which he called the "Argo.who had consented at his invitation to take part in the expedition. was slain by Pollux in a boxing match.where they were kindly receivedby the Doliones. he betook himself to lolcus to demand of his uncle his rightful inheritance. like a true hero. Telamon. He was said to have been left behind in Mysia. The expedition proceededfrom lolcus to Lemnos. tallying with the number of oars. From Cyzicus they proceeded to Bithynia. In the last case. Argus. Amphiaraus. The number of the Argonauts was finally computed at fifty. Iphitus.not daring to useviolenceto the sturdy youth. Their greatestdifficulty lay in the passage the Bosporus. Pelias.

which. After this they stood along the south coasttowards their destination. By means of a stratagem he recommendedthey were enabled to bring the Argo through without any considerabledamage.in fact.after which the Symplegades remained stationary. This occurred so rapidly that even the swiftest vessel had not time enough to get through.gain. a plough.the latter declared that he would deliver it up to him after he had accomplishedtwo tasks. The first was to harness two brazen-footed. and to destroy the armed men which would then spring up. and with them to till an uncultito vated field. of the golden fleecewas the task of Jason. the leader of the Argonauts. Shegave the hero a magic salve to protect him against the fiery breath of . The second prominent character in the story. The Argonauts were in great perplexity. of now makesher appearance. Medea. in the original legend. This wasthe residence the of mighty king ^etes.It was. which JSeteshad received from Hephaestus. Jason's heart failed him on hearing these conditions. appears to have been the utterly fabulous JEa. The secondwas to sow in the furrows the dragon's teeth that ^Eeteswould give him. which were in constantmotion-now retreating to the shoreon eitherside.fire-breathing bulls. whence they were called the Symplegades. subse- quentlyconverted into Colchis. assisted them with his advice. To rob him. a son of the sun-god. When the hero demandedthe fleece of ^Eetes.nowhastily dashing togethera. who dwelt in Thracian Salmydessus. 235 "being the entranceof the Pontus (Black Sea)two terrible at rocks. of was equal to the occasion. who was an enchantress and priestess Hecate.CombinedUndertakingsof flu Later Heroic Age. and whose gratitude they won by delivering him from the Harpies who had tormented him. the daughter ^Eetes. At length the blind seer Phineus. either by craft or by violence. only through her love that Jasonwas enabledto surmountthe vast obstacleswhich stood between him and the possessionof the golden fleece. but Medea.

Pelias. The most diverse accounts exist as to the road taken by the Argonautson their homeward journey. and Medea therefore determined to make away with him by craft. and scattering his limbs in the sea. Having persuaded the daughters of Pelias that she possessed means of making a . Jason then removed it by night from the grove of Ares. and then. still refusedto surrender the kingdom to Jason. In the caseof the armed men who sprang from the dragon's teeth.overwhich they had to carry the Argo twelve days' journey.but the objectof this account was manifestly to subject them to the samevicissitudes and adventures as Odysseus and his companions. by meansof her enchantments. but Medea succeeded staying the pursuit by slaying her younger in brother Apsyrtus. passing throughthe RedSeaandLibyan desert. however.236 Greekand Eoman Mythology. At length Jason landed happily in lolcus.and cast among them a heavy stone. and thence to the Mediterranean.lulled the watchful dragon to sleep. after Medea had. they sought to pass through the Ister (Danube) and Eridanus (Po) to the WesternOcean. made this a pretext for refusing to surrender the fleece. That same night the Argonauts embarked on board their ship and put to sea. whereupon in blind fury they turned their arms against each other. cameto Lake Tritonis. The wrathful ^Eetes attempted to overtake the fugitives. whom she had brought with her. According to another account. and delivered the golden fleeceinto the hands of his uncle. Medea accompanying them as the future wife of Jason. who perceived that Jason had only succeeded through the aid of his daughter. the bulls and to endow him with invincible strength. The conditions imposed upon him by ^etes were thus accom plishedj but the king. Somesay that they sailed up the Phasisto the Eastern Sea. which enabled him to accomplish his first task successfully. and were all destroyed. by the advice of Medea he followed the example of Cadmus.

3. Jason now took possessionof his father's kingdom. with the exception of a few unimportant fragments. The common account runs thus:- Laius. and if we include the stories of women carried off and rescued. she cut him in pieces. which would have conduced far more to an exact acquaintance with the legend. Thinking to better his condition. namely. although many important works of the great tragic poets.and is closely allied to the Sphinx. The former. that of the lossand recovery of a treasure. and Euripides. The Theban Cycle. the son of Pelias. His subsequent misfortunes are well known. and took refuge in Corinth. which causedher to die an agonising death. Sophocles.Ccmibined Undertakingsof the Later Heroic Age. a great-grandson Cadmus. still remain. perished. In Teutonic tradition we have the treasure of the Nibelungs. have. in which the very name is almost identical. the daughter of the king of Corinth. 237 the old man youngagain. and has given birth to a whole series of epic and dramatic works. but was soon afterwards expelled by Acastus. In the history of the golden fleece we have one of the most widelyspread myths of all.-The highly tragic history of the Theban house of the Labdacidse. after which she fled in her chariot drawn by winged dragons Athens. at all timesfurnishedsubjects and has for Greek art and poetry. warnedby the oracle of was to . this they did in the vain expectation of seeing him restored to youth. directed them to slaytheir father. when he was arrested by the fearful vengeance of his first wi&. Medea sent the bride a poisoned garment. unfortunately. The Dragon which guards the treasure again appears in the story of the apples of the Hesperides. relating to the subject. Jason either put an end to his own life. or was killed by the fall of a rotten beam of the Argo. he was about to marry Creusa.where she long found protectionat to the court of ^Egeus. And the treasure of all those stories has been interpreted to be the golden clouds. and then slew her own children by Jason.teeming as it does with im- portant characters events. boil the limbs in a cauldronfilled with all and manner of herbs. the list becomes endless. JSsehylus.

by his presumptuous prudence. had been sent by Hera. and thus. Polybus. she is called by Hesoid the child of Orthros and Chimera. from Ethiopia to devastate the land of Thebes. Fearing on this account to return to Corinth.238 Greekand Eoman Mythology. as he was doomed to perish by the hands of his son. he went to consult the oracle of Delphi.if he did. who would then marry his mother. A quarrel arose. beget no children. until one day a taunt of his companions as to his mysterious origin raised doubts in his mind. whom Laius had in some way offended. who king of Corinth. betweenLaius and QEdipus. adopted (Edipus. and whoever was unable to solve it. This monster. she cast from the rock into a deep abyss. The Sphinx belongs to the same family as many of the monsters we have spoken of already. but was found by some Corinthianshepherds. who cast herself into the abyss. with its feet pierced. to proclaim that whoever solved the riddle should obtain the crown and the hand of locaste. the monster. The child. and thus delivered the country from.since. On slew arriving at Thebeshe succeeded delivering the country from in the Sphinx. on Mount Cithseron. in and QEdipus his father without knowingwho he was. he took the road to Thebes. on the death of his brother-in-law Laius.brought about the very consequences was so anxious he to avoid. (Edipus succeededin solving it. Seatedon a rock close to the town. broughtit to Polybus. which had the combined form of a woman and a lion. having no children of his own. a narow defile. who was on his way to the oracle to ask its advice concerning the Sphinx. This calamity induced Creon. On the road he was met by Laius. she put to every one that passed by a riddle. When his wife locaste gave birth to a son. Laius accordingly exposedthe child. but he here received only the obscure direction not to return to his country. whom we have seen to be . did not die. whc grew up in the belief that Polybus and Merope were his real parents. he would kill his father and marry his mother. called QEdipusfrom the swelling of its feet. «in order to solve his misgivings.

with the breast and upper part of a beautiful woman. From such monstrous figures as these. born helpless.family. the namesof the wives assignedby various writers to (Edipus are connectedwith the light. (Edipus was rewarded with the sovereignty of Thebesand the hand of locaste. It would seem. This. generally in a recumbent position. the following considerations may be adduced. When the Greekssawsimilar figures in Egypt. (Edipus. it is easyto seein it the mysterious voice of the cloud.yet at last sinking blinded into an unknown grave. and the name Laius hasbeen interpreted as "enemy" of the light.CombinedUndertakingsof the Later Heroic Age. But they have been explained in this way : that when people lost consciousnessof the real meaning of the misfortunes of CEdipus. Further. Hencethe conqueror of the cloud was called the man who understood her language.or of Zeus and Typhon. the Sphinx had the form of a lion. In support of this. But name. A notable example of this kind existsin the giant Sphinx nearthe Pyramidsof Gizeh. only intelligible to the wisestof men. (It would not a little help this idea. and for severalyearshe enjoyed uninterrupted . We have seen something similar to this in the caseof Ixion. probable that the contest between her and her opponent may be interpreted in the sameway as that of Bellerophon and the Chimaera. Sphinx itself signifies"throtfclor.although the Egyptian statueshave taken too firm possession the name ever to lose it. Greek art held aloof. the sun.") Then the death of the Sphinx will be the cloudfalling upon the earthin the shape of rain. Since we know that thunder was supposedto be a warning or encouragement to men.which is eighty-nine feet long. rising to take the kingdom after the slaughter of his enemies. that CEdipusmight seem derived from a word meaning "to know. castaboutfor someadequate they cause. will be the sameantagonist aswe have before seenvictorious over the cloud dragons. on the other hand." In art.which were carved out of granite. foundone and in the two great crimes of incest and parricide. 239 thedaughter Typhonand Echidna. does not cover the crimes laid to his charge. however. of therefore. Ancient Egyptian of art revelled in the creationof colossalSphinxes. and meaning of the Sphinx arealike Greek. they naturally gave them the nameof Sphinx.

but in and promised assist to him in recovering crown of Thebes. guided by his faithful daughter Antigone. despair. in consequence of an ancient responseof the oracle. Polynices. betrayhis place to of concealment. gavehim his daughter marriage. The curse of their father took effect on his unnatural sons. and inherited from him the gift of prophecy.withdrew. But Polynices and the fiery Tydeus-likewise a sonin-law of Aclrastus-were so unceasingin their entreaties. as a national treasure. The . which endedas hehad prophesied. His grave there was regarded. and OEdipus. Not content with in this voluntary penance. They all declared their readiness accompany to him. however. near Athens. by the present of a magnificent necklace. In the this expedition Adrastus sought to gain the aid of the other Argive heroes.the hard-heartedThebans compelledhim besidesto leavetheir city and country. (Edipus. By the secret agencyof the goddess. locaste hanged herself. The elder. Amphiaraiis was a great-grandson of the celebrated seer Melampus. happiness.that he at length sought to escape their importunity by flight. after invoking bitter curses on their heads. who then sought assistance Adrastus.of the ra-ce the Amythaonidse.the dreadful truth wasat length discovered. which had formerly beengiven to Harmonia on the occasion her marriage of with Cadmus. Eteocles. his brother-in-law. He not only hospitably received the fugitive Polynices. and strove to hinder it. the of king of Argos.drove out his brother Polynices. He was thus enabled to perceivethe disastrous termination of the war.240 Greek and Roman Mythology. by his of of and marriage with the daughter of the wealthy Polybus acquired the sovereignty of Sicyon. who were now grown up. refused to stir a foot in their father's behalf. surrounded by four blooming children.put out his own eyes. Adrastus was a grandson Bias. who was equally renowned for his wisdom and courage. at last found an asylum in the grove of the Eumenidesat Oolonus. with the exception of Amphiaraiis. while his sonsEteoclesand Polynices.Hereupon Amphiaraiis obligedunwillingly was to join the expedition. bribed his wife Eriphyle. and. the fruit of his incestuous marriage.

after plundering and partly destroying the city.were slain. was defeated in a decisive battle near Thebes. they withdrew under the cover of darkness and mist. The victorious Argives. some took refuge in Thessalia. Ten years later. who was now king of Thebes. where he procured the assistanceof Theseus in compelling the Thebans grant the fallen heroesa solemnburial. the savage son of Eteocles. Theythen made Thersander. and. allowed the burial of the other heroes. who wasbetrothed to Antigone. who wassaved by the fleetnessof his horse. proved successful. 241 attack on Thebes was not only repulsed. Laodamas. of the rest. The celebrated tragedy of Sophocles. Thersande? subsequently took part in the Trojan war. is based on the assumption that Creon. the king of Thebes3 uponwhich manyof the fugitive inhabitants returned. Polynices and Eteocles fell in singlecombat with eachother. the son of . and condemnedAntigone to death becauseshe ventured to bury her brother in despite of his command. in manifest opposition to the will of the gods. and. not being undertaken. The flight of Adrastusto Attica. and thereperished.CombinedUndertakingsof the Later Heroic Age. and may be ascribed to the patrioticimpulsesof the Athenian dramatists. The Thebanswere unable any longer to hold their city. The aged Tiresias expired on the road.the son of Adrastus. after ^Egialeus had fallen by his hands. Creon was destined to meet with a dreadful retribution.but left Polynices to lie unburied on the field like a dog.Amphiaraiis. "but all the Argive leaders. with the exceptionof Adrastus. and like that of their fathers. for his own son. is a feature to unknown to the original legend. the new king of Thebes. dedicateda great portion of the booty-among which wasManto. . This expedition has therefore been called the war of the Epigoni (descendants). following the advice of the blind seer Tiresias. at the fountain of Tilphusa. to avenge their fathers' defeat. the sons of the fallen heroes are said to have combined with j^Egialeus. and some sought other lands.called Antigone. killed himself in grief at her fate. sonof Polynices. the daughterof Tiresias-to the oracleof Delphi. was himself slain by Alcmaeon.

on theotherhand. a son of Zeus by Electra. the which arecommonly ascribed Homer. because both thegrandnationalepics.relateto the Trojanwar. T\e Dar- danidce. to As the contents these of immortalpoems probablywellknown are to our readers. By a daughter of the river-god Simois. from whom the Trojans derived their name.emigrated the plainsof the Scamander. where he becamethe father of Capys and the grandfather of Anchises.or race of Dardanus. who. 4.-The royal family of Troy were descended from Dardanus. The last. by his .Dardanus had a son called Tros. between the range of Ida and the Hellespont. At his request. On the possession this depended the fortune and welfare of the of city. the founders The latter of two the Dardanian remained in his native settlement of Dardania. Ilus. and Ganymedes.-1. the fourth and most celebratedof the common undertakings of the later heroicage. was possessed wonderful beauty. carved in wood. was raised of by Zeusto the dignity of cup-bearerto the gods. to wherehe founded city of Ilium. like all the scions of the race of Dardanus.ZEneas. Here the sources our information are of far moreplentiful than in any formerperiodof mythic history.-We now cometo the Trojan war. shall only dwell on the mostessential \ve features of the story. or. or. of Scamander.and thus became immortal. or Troy. Tros had three sons-Assaracus. a daughter of Atlas. We have alreadyrelatedhow this king. After the deathof Ilus.the father of .24:2 Greekand Roman Mythology. Tlie Trojan Cycle. THE HEROIC KACES THETROJAN OF WAR. accordingto others. I. where he received from king Teucer someland to form a settlement. Ilus. from Italy to Arcadia. different Ilus branches and Assaracus of became race. After completing the the town. The next morning he found in front of his tent the celebrated Palladium-an image of Pallas Athene. he beggedZeus to bestow on him a sign of his favour. Poseidon Apollo built the citadel and of Pergamum. Dardanus is said to have emigratedfrom Samothrace. to the north-west portion of Asia Minor. Iliad and the Odyssey. as others say. his son Laomedon became king of Troy.

he proceeded to Elis. 243 faithless conduct provoked the wrath of Heracles. Anothertradition relates he waskept in constantanxiety by that a hugerockwhich wassuspended hishead.and inhabiteda citadel and on Moant Sipylus. 2. and standing up to his neck in water. was replaced by the gods with a piece of ivory. where. that he beganto indulge in the grossest outrages godsand men. and the first captureof the city.who were or chiefly instrumental in the destruction of Troy. At length he wentso far as on to cut his son Pelops in pieces to boil them. for by his wife Hecuha and by his concubineshe had a great number of sonsand daughters. On being restored to earth. were descended from the Phrygian king Tantalus. however. though surrounded by the most delicious fruits. race of Pelojis. (Seepp.CombinedUndertakingsof the Later Heroic Age. and the gods brought down a heavy retribution on the head of the criminal by his well-known punishment in the lower world. whence his rich pasture-lands and fruitful corn-fields extended twelve days' journey. begot in the puny mortalsuchpresumption.) The children of Tantalus were Pelops and ISTiobe. Pelops was restored to life by the art of Hermes. where he becamea suitor for the hand of Hippodaniia. and lived on such intimate terms that they invited him to eat at their table. The Pelopidce. The cup of his iniquity now seemed full. the beautiful daughter of the king QEnomalis. which had been consumedby Demeter.-The Pelopidse. and set them before the godsin order to test their omniscience. Pelopsis said to have grownup in Olympus. The very gods honoured him with their friendship. amongst the blessedgods. The latter had promised his daughter to the man who should vanquish him in .150. in him the race of Dardanus flourished afresh. The un- happyfate of the latter hasalreadybeendescribed the mythic in history of Thebes. over 149. he wasnevertheless condemnedto suffer the pangs of continual hunger and thirst. as far as Ida and the Propontis. He wasthesonof Zeus Pluto(rich plenty). Of his sonsonly Priam remained. and a portion of his shoulder. This unheard-of good fortune. who was renowned alike for his unexampled good fortune and his subsequentunhappy fate.

set him amongst the stars as charioteer.or by his son Eurystheus. before starting. to Mycense kill Atreus.Pleisthenes. whoseson he is reputed to have been. in revenge.in order to releasehimself from his obligations. and despatched him. which is fall of the most revolting crimes. tbe young son of Atreus. Pelops now obtained both Hippodamia and the kingdom of Elis. Thirteen noble youths had already suffered this fate. On Eurystheus' death. He took with him.he recalled Thyestesand his children to Mycenae. His designwas discovered. brought him up as his own son. in consequence. and Atreus now took up his residence in the proud capital of Mycense. to and he expiated his intended crime with his life. The sonsof Pelops by Hippodamia were Atreus and Thyestes. and also by bribing Myrtilus. the King's charioteer-who. strangeto say. Soon an implacable enmity arose between the two brothers. Hermes. They were hospitably receivedat Mycense their brother-in-law Sthenelus. or put an end to his own life on seeing*himself vanquished. and Thyestes. Atreus andThyestes murdered their step-brother Chrysippus. by casting him into the sea.formed a favourite subject with the tragic poets. When Atreus ie&rned that it was his own son whom he had condemned to death.244 Greekand Roman Mythology. the most ancient specimenof Greek sculpture has come down to us in the so-calledGate of Lions. he determined on a dreadful revenge. withdrew the linch-pins from his master's chariot or replaced them with wax-he came off victorious. Pretending to be reconciled. they inherited the sovereignty of the Persidsein Argos. by the son of Perseus. when Pelops appearedto undergo the dangerousordeal.and . a chariot race: whoever failed was obliged to expiate his temerity with his life. later.was banished from Argos.whence. and were compelled to leave their country in company with their mother. First. as QEnomaiis transfixedhim with his unerring lance as he passed. but he ill rewarded Myrtilus. who had rendered him such valuable service. whosehistory. (Enomaiis either was killed by the breaking down of his chariot. By means of the untiring winged horseswhich had been given him by Poseidon.

returned. Agamemnon and Menelaiis. and set this horrible food before their father. Thyestes. Peleus and Telamon.on his brother. Horror-struck at this inhuman cruelty. With his aid Agamemnon recovered his father's kingdom. we are almost justified in saying that the war was an exploit of these two races of heroesand their peoples. receivedthem kindly. Atreus was slain by ^Egisthus whilst offeringup a sacrificeon the sea-shore. He ruled overthe islandof of uEgina. On reachingmanhoodthey were compelledto leavetheir country. slew Thyestes. he succeeded.like the sons of Pelops.and on this accountsubsequently madea judge in the lower world. Later. The sons of Atreus. slew them. and married Ende'is. The ancestor of of the jEacidsewasJ^acus. a daughter the river-godAsopus. and the gave them his daughters.-After the sons of Atreus. 'Atreusthen privately seizedthe two young sons of Thyestes.the daughter of the wise Centaur Chiron. in fact. the sun turned his chariot and went back in his course. Peleus betook himself to Phthia. a step-brother who was a favourite with their father. Clytaemnestra and Helen. Menelaiis remained in Sparta-wherehe succeeded Tyndareiis-until the carrying off of his wife Helen by Paris gave rise to the Trojan war.again escaped. king of Epirus. Thyestes and now acquired the sovereignty of Mycenae.CombinedUndertakingsof the Later Heroic Age. in marriage. fled from their barbarous uncle to Sparta. where Tyndareiis. where he was kindly received . She bore him two sons. trusting to his brother'sword.and drove out jEgisthus. The JEatidce. king.uttering fearful curses against his brother and the whole race of the Pelopidae.and took refuge with Thesprotus.the Achseans Argos and the Hellenes of Phthia. Jllacus was a son of Zeus by ^Egina. in avenging himself . because. with the help of his only remaining son ^Egisthus. 3. who was renowned alike for his wisdom andjustice. they had murdered. the JEacidseplay the most important part in the Trojan war.or race of JEacus. in a fit of jealousy. 245 Thyestes.

If the gods had not taken pity on him. slandered him to her husband. and put the treacherousAcastus and his wife to death. and thereby renderedhim invulnerable in every part except the heel by which she held him. A later tradition assertsthat Thetis left her husband soon after the birth of Achilles. the wife of Acastus. Here he experienceda similar fate to that of Bellerophon at the court of Proetus. According to a still later legend. Shebore him one son. by Eurytion. After hunting on Pelion one day. finding herself unable to seducehim. on which occasionhe had the misfortune to kill his father-in-law. he left Phthia of and proceeded to lolcus.246 Greekand Roman Mythology. Peleus fell asleep.who hoped by this meansto get rid of him. Peleusafterwards took part in the boar hunt of Calydon. Peleus. under whom he acquired such wonderful skill in all feats of strength and agility that he soon surpassed all his contemporaries. Astydameia. subsequentlytook lolcus. In addition to Chiron. In consequence this. but this story is unknown to Homer. who bestowed on him the hand of his daughter and a third part of his kingdom. she plunged her son into the Styx.with which he was enabledto repel the assaults of the wild inhabitants of the forest. Achilles was instructed by Chiron. and sent him by Hermes a sword of wonderful power. as the instructor of the youthful .and was left thus unprotected by Acastus. just as Demeter intended to do to the child of Celeiis. the son of Amyntox. where he took part in the funeral games which Acastus was celebrating in honour of his father Pelias. the greatestand bravest hero of the Trojan war. the gods gave him the goddess Thetis-a beautiful daughter of Kerens-to wife. because he had disturbed her when she was about to render her child immortal in the fire. who thereupon sought to take his life. who had perished by the treachery of Medea. He would. Homer names Phoenix. indeed. have been murdered by the Centaurs. Like all noble heroes. As a reward for his chastity. with the help of the Dioscuri. Achilleus (Achilles).

His mighty shield was as characteristic of him as the ponderous deadly spear was of Achilles. he succeededto the crown. he marriedPeriboea. Heracles. in order to avert his fate. Beside him. First among them was the aged Nestor.CombinedUndertakingsof the Later Heroic Age. although he knew beforehand that he was not fated to return alive. after his night.- Associated with the heroesof the race of Pelops and j^Eacus were some other renowned chieftains.though he appears somewhat uncouthand clumsywhen contrasted with the swift and agile form of Achilles. Nothing inferior to this brave and doughty father was his son Ajax. the Locrian Ajax. daughterof Alcathoiis. From Telamon. 4. by whom he becamethe father of a second son. in gave him Hesione. the secondson of ^Eacus. he is said to have taken part in the Calydonian hunt and the expedition of the Argonauts. the daughter of Laomedon. Teucer. return. Dlomedes. After the death of his first wife. on whomthe mighty heroHeracles had invokedthe blessing his of father Zeus.is a post-Homeric invention. king of Scyros. where he was discovered by the craft of Odysseus. to the court of Lycomedes. The story that his mother Thetis. On the decease of Cychreus. his brother Teucer ranks as the best archer among the Greeks. when as a child he held him in his arms. a hero of but little less importance. disguised in women's clothes. Acliilles proceededto tlie Trojan war with cheerful determination.was descended Aias or Ajax. of Pylus. whose wise counsels were as indis- pensable the Greeks to beforeTroy as the dauntlesscourage of . sent him. and Odysseus. Nestor.king of a Megara. Telamon. He was of greatersizeand strengththan anyof the otherheroes. where he married the daughter of the king Cychreus. who took part in the Trojan expeditionof his mighty friend. Tradition tells us much of the intimate friendship of Heracles and Telamon.who bore him Ajax. 247 hero.from JEgina. Like every celebrated hero of antiquity. found a new homein Salamis.

In the Iliad he appears a specialfavourite of Pallas as . who slew all the sonsof Keleus except !N~estor. of who and twin-brotherof Pelias. and restored the dominions of his father to their former extent. Diomedes was a member of the oft-mentioned race of the He alwaysappears a linen corslet. untameable disposition. and in the expedition of the . in which he was surpassed only by Achilles.Nestor defeatedthe neighbouring tribes of the Epei and Arcadians. Later. Ajax wasrenowned of among the Greeksfor his skill in hurling the spear and for his great fleetness.where he became the founder of a new kingdom. an Achilles or an Ajax.of whom nothing moreis known than that he took part in the expedition theArgonauts. He likewise took part in the contestbetweenthe Lapithaeand the Centaurs. Opuntian in and the ^3llolianAmythaonidse. who inherited no small portion of his father's wild. the who had been dethroned by the sons of his brother Agrius. TheLocrian Ajax-also calledthe Lesser Ajax. Whenquite young. to distinguish him from his mighty namesake-was son of the Locrianking a Oileus. He also restoredhis paternalgrandfather. however. Diomedes. Though so far advancedin years-having ruled over three generations men-he could not withstand the desire take of to part in the Trojan war. both his sovereignty and the glory of his housewere well-nigh extinguishedby the hostility of Heracles. Locrians. to his king- dom. was himself a son of Poseidonand Tyro. who was killed in the war of the Seven against Thebes. having beendriven out by Pelias. took refuge in Messenia.Argonauts. JSTeleus.248 Greek and Roman Mythology. of course took part in the war of the Epigoni. the Calyin donian boar hunt. his followers. aged^Etolian king (Eneus. and subsequently succeeded grandfatherAdrastus his in his Argive sovereigntyat Sicyon. are also light-armed troops. His father was the hot-headedTydeus. JSTestor the youngest the twelve was of sons E"eleus.

and of those of the tenth and last year it only gives such episodesas relate to the quarrel of Achilles and Agamemnon. it speaks only incidentally. and the events of the first nine years. 249 Athene. On account of his wisdom and eloquence. Finally. his dexterity in all feats of strength. THE WAR. the most important source of our information with regard to the Trojan war. avengedherself by castinginto the assembly goldenapple. and Homer makes him play an important part in the contests of the Greeks before the walls of Troy. His grandsonseemsto have inherited no small part of his grandfather's disposition.and Aphrodite-each claimed the apple for herself. The gap has to be filled up from the works of those writerswho had access otherepic to poemsof the Trojan cycle. Througli his noble and virtuous wife Penelope. does not deal with the events of the first nine years. II. Penelope being the daughter of Icarius.with the inscriptiona "To thefairest. Eris. for the sakeof explanation.-The Iliad of Homer. he also was a special favourite of Pallas.the daughter Autolycus. most popular of the Greek the heroes the Trojanwar. who was a brother of the Spartan king Tyndareiis. which are now no longer extant. the of . Odysseus (Ulysses). Athene.king of Ithaca. and was renowned for his cunning. wasa son of Laertes. but were referred by Zeusto the decision Paris." The threerival goddesses-Hera. He was therefore obliged-though much against his will-to comply with the request of Menelaiis. Of the origin of the war.CombinedUndertakingsof theLater Heroic Age. Autolycus inhabiteda of district on Mount Parnassus. not having been invited to the marriagefestivities of Peleusand Thetis. the goddessof discord. of by Anticlea. and his dauntless valour in the midst of danger. In post- Homericstory he is represented having carriedoff the Trojan as Palladium. Odysseus was closely related to the Atridse. and join the expedition against Troy. Pariswasa son of Priam.

were engagedin their strife with the sons of Aphareus. Immediately after "birthhe wasexposed Mount on Ida. visited the court of Menelaiis. Trojan king. Helen fled with her seducer to Troy. king of Sparta. of which Agamemnon. who dazzledher as much by the beauty of his person by the oriental splendourof his appearance. among other places. the departure of the expedition was delayed by continuous calms.and. and brought up by some shepherds. and her brothers. He decided in favour of Aphrodite. who was equally distinguished for his handsome person and his bodily dexterity. to according to Homer. who had been chosenleader of the expedition. Their numberamounted elevenhundred and eighty-six.250 Greek and Eoman Mythology.until at length.While as Menelaiis was absent in Crete. the event in of his ever being injured or attacked. The well-mannedships of the Greeks assembledin the Boeotian port of Aulis. at somegamesgiven by ^he king. Menelaiissucceeded rousing the in whole of Greece to a war of revenge. On the refusal of the king of Troy to surrenderHelen. after having wrested the prizefrom all his brethren.who had promisedhim the most beautiful woman on earth as his wife. in consequenceof an ill-omened dream which his mother Hecuba had during her pregnancy. Agamemnon determined appease wrath to the . Soon afterwards. mostof the Grecian as chieftains been had suitorsof Helen. at the command of the priest Calchas. having offended Artemis by killing a hind sacred to the goddess. wasrecognised the prophetess by Cassandra.and received into his father's favour. the Dioscuri. Aphrodite kindled in the breast of the young wife of Menelaiis a fatal love for their handsomeguest.by whom he was hospitably received and entertained. He was found. the youth. This task was the more easy. and had bound themselvesby an oath to Tyndareiis to unite in supportof the husband whom Helenshouldchoose. alone furnished over one hundred. He next undertook a journey across the seato Greece. Agamemnon. however. however.

The expedition first stopped at Tenedos. After the Greeks had made a station for their ships. The first nine years of the war were by no means fruitful in important events. in the tenth year of the war. 251 of of the goddess sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia on her altar. the headof the Greekpeace-party. Even Cycnus. the youngest son of Priam. after substituting a hind in her stead. and his body being invulnerable. by At the fatal moment Artemis rescued the victim. It is at this point . and the wearisome monotony of the siege was broken only by the single combat between Achilles and Troilus.who was king of Colonaein Troas. The Greeksnext effecteda landing on the coast of Troy. who possessed the bow and arrows of Heracles on which the conquest of Troy depended. was bitten in the foot by a serpent. and there left to his fate. a quarrel broke out betweenAchilles and Agamemnon respecting female a slavewho had beentaken captive. for Protesilaiis devoted himself to death for the Greeks. which wasbroughtaboutby the treachery of Odysseus. in spite of the opposition of Hector and ^Eneas. The fleet now sailed with a fair wind. was unable to stem the advanceof the Greeks.Combined Undertakings theLater HeroicAge. and cameto the assistanceof the Trojans. where she became a priestess in the temple of the goddess.and gave for the time quite another aspect to affairs. he was strangled by Achilles by meansof a thong twisted round his neck. the Greeks now confined themselves to making inroads and plundering excursions into the surrounding country. in which Achilles was always the most prominent actor. Here. and by the fall of Palamedesof Eubcea. in which Troilus was slain. and on account of his cries and the offensive smell of the wound was carried to Lemnos. the war beganin earnest. conveyed Iphigenia to Tauris. on the occasionof a banquet. At length. Philoctetes. and. the mighty son of Poseidon. Severalof their attacks on the town having been successfullyrepelled by the Trojans. opposite the coast of Troy. and sprang first on the Trojan shore.

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Greek and Roman Mythology.

thafcthe Iliad commences. Achilles, in his wrath, retired to his tent, and refused to take any further part in the war; whilst the

Trojans,who feared him morethan all the otherGreeks, became bolder, and no longer kept to the protection of their walls.
Zeus, at the request of Thetis, gave them the victory in their

first engagement the Greeks. Hectordrovethe latter back with to their ships,and was alreadyabout to setthem on fire, when.
Achilles consented to allow his friend Patroclus to don his

armour and lead his Myrmidons to the assistanceof the Greeks.

The Trojanswerenow driven back,but Patroclus, the ardour in of pursuit,wasslain by Hector,and deprived his armour,and of
Menelaiis,with the help of the greaterAjax and other heroes,only succeededin rescuing his corpse after a bloody and obstinate struggle. The wrath of Achilles was now entirely diverted by the desire of avenging on Hector the death of his much-loved friend Patroclus. He was scarcely willing even to wait for the new armour which his goddess-motherprocured him from the workshop of Hephaestus. JSTo soonerwas he in possession it of than he again appeared on the field, and Hector-the bulwark of Troy-soon succumbedto his furious onslaught. Achilles, however, was generous enough to surrender his corpse to the
entreaties of Priam. funeral of Hector. The Iliad concludes with the solemn

The succeeding events, up to the death of Achilles and the contest for his arms, were narrated in the JEthiopis of Arctinus of Miletus, with the contents of which we have some slight acquaintance, although the work itself is lost. All kinds of brilliant exploits are reported to have been performed by Achilles before the walls of Troy, which were manifestly unknown to the earlier story. In the first place, immediately after Hector's death, Penthesilea, the queen of the Amazons, came to the assistance of the Trojans, and fought so

bravely at the head of her army that the Greekswere hard

CombinedUndertakingsof the. Later Heroic Age. 253
pressed. Achilles at length overcame the heroic daughter of Ares. After her fall, a new ally of the Trojans appeared in Mernnon, king of ^Ethiopia, who is called a son of Eos, because

the ^Ethiopians were supposed dwell in the far East. Among to
those who fell by the hand of this handsome and courageous hero was Antilochus, the valiant son of Nestor. When Meranon, however, ventured to meet the invincible Achilles, he also was vanquished,after a brave struggle. The fresh morning dew,

which springsfrom the tears of Eos,proves that shehas never
ceased to lament her heroic son. But death was soon to overtake

him before whom so many heroes had bitten the dust. In an assault on the Sccean gate, Achilles was killed, at the head of Ms

Myrmidons, an arrowof Paris,which wasdirectedby Apollo. by
According to later writers, whose accounts were followed by the

tragicpoets,hewastreacherously murderedhereon the occasion
of his betrothal to Polyxena, the beautiful daughter of Priam. A furious contest, lasting the whole day, took place for the

possession his corpseand armour: at length Odysseus of and Ajax succeeded conveying to a placeof safety. Mourning in it and confusion reigned amongthe Greeks his death. During at
seventeen days and nights Thetis, with the whole band of Nereids, bewailed his untimely fate in mourning melodies, so sad and touching that neither gods nor men could refrain from
tears.

rt See,tearsareshed by every god and goddess, survey to How soonthe Beautiful is past, the Perfectdies away!"

The death of the bravestof the Greekswasfollowedby an unhappy quarrel betweenAjax and Odysseus respectinghis
arms. Ajax, on account of his near relationship to the deceased hero, and the great serviceshe had rendered to the causeof the

Greeks, seemed have the best claim; but Agamemnon, the to by advice of Athene, adjudgedthem to Odysseus. Ajax was so

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Greekand Roman Mythology.

mortified at this decision that he hecarne insane, and put an end

to his own life. An entire tragedy of Sophocles, treating of
the mournful fate of the son of Telamon, has come down to
us.

After Ajax had quitted the scene, Odysseus became decidedly
the chief personage among the Greeks. It was he who captured the Trojan seer Helenus, and extorted from him the secret that
Ilium could not be taken without the arrows of Heracles. Here-

upon Philoctetes, who was still lying sick at Lemjios, was fetched, and his wound healed by Machaon. Paris soon afterwards fell by his hand. It was Odysseus,moreover, who, in

company with Diomedes, undertookthe perilous taskof entering Troy in disguise stealingthe Palladium,onwhich the safety and
of the city depended. It was he who fetched Neoptolemus,the

youngsonof Achilles,from Scyros the Trojancamp, having to it
been decreed that Ms presencewas necessary the successof to the Greeks. Lastly-and this was his greatest service-it was Odysseuswho devised the celebrated wooden horse, and the stratagem which led to the final capture of the city. In the belly of the horse, which was built by Epeiis, one hundred
chosen warriors of the Greeks concealed themselves. The rest

of the Greeksset fire to their camp, and sailed away to Tenedos; whereupon the Trojans, deceived by the assurancesof Sinon,

dragged the fatal horse,amid cries of joy, into the city. In
vain did the Trojan priest of Apollo, Laocoon, seek to divert

them from their folly. Nonewould give heedto his warnings; andwhen,soon afterwards, both heand hissons, whilst sacrificing
to Poseidon on the sea-shore, were strangled by two serpents that

cameup out of the sea,the Trojansregarded asa punishthis
ment sent by the gods for his evil counsel, and were the more confirmed in their purpose. The death of Laocoonand his sonsforms the subjectof oneof the most splendid of the creationsof Greek art that have comedown to

CombinedUndertakingsof theLater Heroic Age- 255
ns from antiquity. The groupwas found, in the year 1506,by a

Roman citizen in'his vineyard, close the formerThermae Titus, to of
and wasmadeoverby him, for a considerable annuity, to PopeJulius IL, who then placedit in the Vatican collection. The right arm of Laocoon,which was wanting, has, unfortunately, been incorrectly

Fig. 61.--Laocoon.

Group

restored. This is attestedby a copy of the group which was subsein its original form (Fig. 61). It treats really of three distinct incidents,which have beenskilfully incorporated,by the artists to whom we owe the work (the

quentlydiscovered Naples. We give an engraving the group in of

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Greek and Roman Mythology.

RhodiansAgesander, Athenodorus,and Polydorus),into one harmonious group. The eldestson is as yet unhuit, and appears be to
so loosely held hy the coils of the serpent that he might easily escape his impending fate, if he were not more effectually restrained by his

loving sympathy with his noble father, on whom he gazeswith piteous looks. Laocoonhimself, who naturally forms the centre of the group,is depictedat the momentin which, mortally woundedby
the serpent, he sinks on the altar, to rise from which he vainly

exerts his last remaining strength. With his left arm he still
mechanically seeks to repel the serpents. His hitherto energetic

resistance begunto fail, and his nobleheadis raisedin mournful has
resignation to heaven, as though to ask the gods why they had conof his countenance forms a beautiful contrast to that of his body, his left hand grasps instinctively
last.

demned to soterriblea fate. The dignified resolute him and aspect
which is manifestly quivering in the keenestagony. The younger son on his right is alreadyin the last agoniesof death,and though evidently incapable of further resistance. He is drooping like a
plucked flower, and in one more moment will have breathed his the head of the snake, he is

On the night succeedingLaocoon's horrible end, and the rejoicings of the Trojans at the apparent departure of the Greeks, the Greek fleet returned in silence at a signal given by Sinon.
The heroes who were hidden in the wooden horse then descended

and opened gatesto the Greek host, who rushed into the the
doomedcity. A terrible sceneof plunder and carnage ensued, the Trojans, in their dismay and confusion, offering no resistance. The fate of the sacredcity was fulfilled; Priam perished before the altar of Zeus by the hand of Neoptolemus, and with him the glory of Troy was laid in the dust. The men were put to

death,the womenand children, together with the rich booty,
were carried off, the former being destined to the hard lot of slavery. Among them was the agedqueen Hecuba, with all her

daughters and daughters-in-law.Helen-the cause all this of
misfortune-was found in the house of Dei'phobus,whom she
had *narried after the death of his brother Paris.

. The city was burnt to the ground, and, long after, other cities

roseon its site. Still the tradition of the siege remained among

however.CombinedUndertakingsof the Later Heroic Age.-The Greeks. Dr. and their long-buried wealth brought to light. III. after sacrificing Polyxena on the grave of Achilles at Sigeum. Yet this. and we know now that Athene was worshipped in the city. and Paris. Of the two sons of Atreus. in the division of the spoils. a Agamemnon. of nor where the traditional tombs of the Grecian leaders have beenexamined. that to us it must be merely legend. were destined to reach their homes without some misfortune. That there was a Trojan war. prepared to return to their country. the greatest of all the Grecian legend series. that such stories must have come into being before the separation the Aryan family. and that we have somehistorical facts about it. Schliemaim has excavated the legendary site. but was soon after murdered by his wife and ^Egisthus. We can hardly tell at present the full importance thesediscoveries. who returned to Argos and married Clytsemnestra. Point after point in their history is found in the legend history of every nation of the Aryan family. a landed safely on his native shores. have been recognisedin Indian legend. during his absence. even when arrived there. to experience kindJy welcome. . but so many myths have crystallised round it. the palace and the traces of the conflagration have been found. Trojan the prophetess. and that it perishedby fire. 'dissolves into the phenomena of nature. 257 the inhabitants. Few. after escaping storm on the cost of Euboea. and cannot thereforecontain of the later history of any one branch. had.had fallen to Agawho.learnedmen had begun to declare that Old Troy must have had another site. Cassandra. THE RETURN. we can hardly doubt. evenin Romantimes. or. of thoseat Mycenae. though. and Helen. The very names of Achilles. too. The only conclusion that we can draw is. upon whom the whole story turns. And now when the last Ilium had been no more for many centuries. and the very existenceof Homer's Troy had been declared a fable.

off Cape Malea. She had continually predicted the unfortunate end of the war and the ultimate fate of the city. successfullyachievedthis task. and at once found himself pursued by the avenging Euries.258 Greek and Roman Mythology* memnon. until he was at length directed by the oracle at Delphi to convey the statue of Artemis from Tauris to Attica. king of Pliocis. and Eumenidesof JEschylus. which carried him to Crete and Egypt. We must now turn to the fortunes of the other Greek leaders. from its faithfulness and constancy. shared his fate. They dogged his steps.. in the eighth year of his exile. and there slew both j^Egisthusand Clytsemnestra. are still extant. the sole thought ^of Oresteswas to avengehis noble father's treacherousdeath at the hands of the crafty ^Egisthus and his mother Clytsemnestra. with its eventful consequences. After he had. On reaching manhood. with the help of his newly-found sister. and ceasednot to pursue him through all the countries of the earth. Orestes. A most intimate friendship soon sprang up betweenthe two youths. The fate of the commander of the Greeks. which we have here briefly touched on. he yet incurred the deepestguilt by the murder of her who gave him birth. had been hastily removed from the scene by his sister Electra. has becomeproverbial. to My cense.the only son of Agamemnon and Clytsemnestra. he was purifiedby Apollo(see page152). . Agamemnon'sbrother Menelaus was overtaken. the Electra of Sophocles. Of the numerous dramas that were written on the subject of the fortunes of the Pelopidse. "but had always been laughed to scorn by her incredulous countrymen. a favourite subject with the tragic was poets.and the Electra and Ipliigenia in Tauris of Euripides. Strophius him carefully had educated with his own son Pylades. Strophius. Accompanied by his friend Pylades. Although in so doing he had only fulfilled a duty. Choephoroe. which. by a fearful storm. the Agamemnon. who was about the same age. he returned. and sent to his uncle. His murder did not go unavenged.

On a the night of the destruction Troy he had penetrated of into the temple of Pallas. It was only in the tenth year after the fall of Troy. 259 whence. Teuceralso succeeded reachingSalamisin safety. further than to mentionthat. his . He would still have heen able to escape with his life-having succeeded getting hold of a rock-if he had not in given such offence Poseidonby his impious boast that he to needed not the help of the gods. returnedto Sparta he with Helen and his share of the spoils of Troy. hadalso overturned statueof Pallasherself.that the god split the rock with his trident. according post-Homeric to accounts. Odysseus was killed by the hand of Telegonus.but his in father Telamon was so wroth because had not better protected he his brother Ajax. and had not only torn away the priestess Cassandra. own sonby Circe. or at least avenged his death. wasclingingfor safetyto the altar and statueof who the goddess. Diomedes. that he was permitted to return to his native Ithaca and punish the shamelesssuitors who had wasted his substanceand goods. But of all the Greek heroes Odysseus experiencedthe most reverses. The LocrianAjax experienced still moreunhappyfate. The story of his adventuresis so well known that we need not dwell on it here. and after numerous wanderings and vicissitudes. Here Diomedes founded many towns. and Idomeneus reached their homesin safety. after sevenyears of wandering. therefore. that he refused to receive him. but were all soon afterwards driven out.Philoctetes. and was long worshipped with heroic honours. whereuponAjax fell into the sea and was drowned. shipwaswreckedon Cape for his Caphareus.CombinedUndertakingsof theLater Heroic Age. He was. likewise obliged to leave his country. and subsequently settled on the island of Cyprus. after which they all three emigrated to Italy. but the As a punishment this offence.while at home his faithful wife Penelope and his son Telemachuswere hard pressed by the suitors.

bought JEgina who the marbles. placed them in the Munich collection. we may mention the wedding of Peleus and Thetis. sincethe time of Raphael. 62). King Ludwig I. Genelli. Of the more important extant works of antiquity. representing Priam beforeAchilles (Fig.the most important of all the works relating to the Trojan cycle.with a largenumber of their most acceptable subjects. We give an engravingof a relief by Thorwaldsen. and.known by the nameof "Pasquino. Single scenes. The eventsof the Trojan cycle have supplied not only the poet. representing battlebetweenthe Greeks Trojans. depicted on the Francois vase in the NaplesMuseum. ever as Thorwaldsen the great Danish sculptor. Carstens. 62. after having them restored by Thorwaldsen. and favourite subjectsof representation.has alreadybeendiscussed. the abductionof Helen. These last are the remainsof a marble group from the gableof a temple of Pallasat jEgina. the marble groupin Borne. Fig. lastly. Relief by Thorwaldsen. They a and were discovered at JEgina in the year 1811 . . of Bavaria. The Laocoon. havebeencontinually selected. 63). such as the judgment of Paris. the celebrated JEgina marbles in Munich. now in the Louvre (Fig. and. depicted on a marble relief in the former Campana collection. but also the artist and the sculptor. Cornelius.-Priam before Achilles. wasa greatpatronof art. Preller (Landscapes the Odyssey) of have illustrated the story of Troy in a seriesof splendid compositions.260 Greek and Roman Mythology.ir which represents Menelaus raising the corpse of Patroclus . Of modern masters.

-Rape ofHelen.Fig. 63. Campana Collec .

the daughter of Tiresias. however. wasacquainted he with the languageof birds. likewise Amphiaraus. when his native city conld no longer withstand the assaults of the Epigoni. theyarenothingmorethan personifications certain of tendencies . "VVe have already incidentally mentioned most of tlie seersof antiquity-Melampus. Tiresias. we may remark that the ancients ascribed to him a fabulous age. Among the fugitive Thebans who fell into the hands of the Argives is said to have been Manto. who figures in Argive legend. and Calchas. We have already related how. together with a large portion of the spoils. In the second century A. By the command of the god she was sent into Asia Minor. that he wasthus a witnessof all that happened so to Thebes. and could penetrate the most hidden secretsof mture. he experienced the bitter lot of having to take refuge in flight. where she founded the oracle of Claros. in extreme old age.and became him the* by mother of Mopsus.who afterwards founded the oracle of Mallos in Cilicia. partly. near Colophon. from the foundation of the city to its destruction by the Epigoni. Sheheremarriedthe CretanHhacius. and at length succumbed beneath the hardships of the journey. Like all celebratedsoothsayers. his grave was still shown in the neighbourhood of Haliartus.D. on which account he enjoyed up to his death an ever-increasing reputation among the Thebans. V.Greek and RomanMythology. to the oracle at Delphi. She wasdedicated. extending over seven or even nine* generations. who waslikewise renownedas a prophetess. Concerning Tiresias.-MYTHIC SEEES AND BAUDS. Among the namesof the mythic bards that have beenhanded down to us are undoiibtedly to be found some recollections of those who first cultivated the art of poetry. the son of Amyfchaon.

. phor of a beautifulboy slainby a quoit or by savage dogs-both symbolsof the scorchingheat of the sun.probablygaverise to the myth which of makes Linus himself the singer.-Orpheus and Euryuice. 263 and modesof poetry. Nothing is morecommon than for an unsophisticated peopleto burst forth in lamentationover the decayand final extinction of the bloominglife of nature.Thebes. Marble Relief in the Villa Albani. 64. who was celebrated Argos. at the season vintage. This.Mythic Seersand Sards. in and Euboea. The dirgeswhich from time immemorial were sung over the beautiful boy Linus. was often portrayedunder the meta- Fig. Such is probably the casewith the mythic bardLinus. as we seein the myth of ITyaciuthus.

He himself. and Eurydice was oncemore lost to him. Orpheus. That which is best known of him is the story of his love for the beautiful nymph Eurydice. is preserved the Villa Albani (Fig. was torn in piecesby somewomen in the mad excitement of their nightly Bacchanalianorgies. in . 64).and moved the hard heart of the Stygian king.26'4 Similar Greekand Roman Mythology. however. and the very rocks and trees moved from their places. A splendidrepresentation the second of parting of the lovers by Hermes. that the wild beasts of the forest were enchanted at the sound. Orpheus then filled mountain and valley with songs of lamentation so piteous. the guide of souls. doleful memories are linked with the name of Orpheus. His yearning towards his beloved Eurydice induced him to descendto the lower world. lias come down to us on a marble relief. not long afterwards. He releasedEurydice on condition that Orpheus should not look back on her till he reached the upper world. and thus snatched away from him by death.and followed him like lambs. but a Thracian of Pieria. to beg her releasefrom the grim king of shadows. whilst wandering in his despair over the Thracian mountains. violated this condition. She was bitten in the foot by a snake. though he was really not an ^Eolian. who is often termed a brother of Linus. Here his piteous lay caused even the Erinyes to shed tears of compassion.

Alcathous.102. 168. JEgimms. Agathodoemon. 186. Achiroe.248.186. 248. 90. 245. 209.246. Ajax. Agave. Admetus.40. Agnus. 157. 83.209. 187. Amaltliea. Aleus. ^Sgialeus.57. 115. Adrastus. 241. 251. 149.245. 235. 247. Actoridse. 49. JEgisthus. Agenor. Alecto. 245.149. 22. Ibas. 187. 248. 251. 247. 240. Admete. Aedon. 35.19. 259. 232. 98. JEthra.INDEX.198. Achelous. Althaea. jEgeus. ^Eetes. 186. 69. .210. 21. 179. (videAsclepius). Telamonian. 26. Acheron. 171. 241. Aidoneus. Alcmaeon.231. 233. 223. . JEgyptus. ^Etna.180. 247. Acrisius. ^Egis. JEgina. 152.237.241. 94. Aglaia.211. 234 Adonis. Actseon. 191. 234.253. 253. 64.245. 101.152.220. Aglaurus. 218. 257. 171. Acastus.198. 232.247. 49. 151. 64. JEacus. 179. . 246. Aloidaj.257. 35. Ajax. (vide 146 Hades). Alcseus. 237. 170. 220. Agamemnon. JEolus. Achilles (Achilleus). Locrian.110. 202. 210. 227. Alcmene.

Asteria.248.240.171. 227.31.123.206. Aristseus. 234. Amphitryon. 185. 102. Assaracus. 42. 228. Aphidnse. Andromeda. Athene. 171. 236. ArgTpliontes. Andro-eos.107. 188.249.195. Asteiion. 258. 194. Amplilon. Atalante. Attica. 176. 116. 219. 234. 98. Artemis. 240. Amphiaraus.57.163.239. 185. Aphrodite. Atropos.51. Antilochus. 40. 194. Amazons. 231.232. 93. 202.232.225. 244. 52. 234. 64. Augeas. 180. Argus. 34. 56. Anthesteiia. 240. 35.186. Bellerophon (BelierophontǤs). Athene Polias.155. 195. 78. Amphitrite. Antiope. [^33. Atreus.246. Anchinoe. 152. Arctus.217. 231. Areopagus. Aphareus. 25. Apollo. 242.26.130. Amythaonidce. Astrseus. Apharidae.205. 180.78. 18. 108. 224. 249.195.201. 13.231. Anteros. 229. 187.244.83. 231. 234.118. 201}208. 185. Amor.224. 242. 218. 230.222. 180.212.152. 92. Am^cus. 246.228. 198. Bacchus. 57. Aurora. Anna Perenna. 224. Auge. 104. 222. 171. 25. Argonauts. Apsyrtus. 171. 245. Amyntor. 234. Asclepius.249. 102. 249. Antea. 196. 98. 62. Antigone.93. Areas. 78. Attis(Atys). 250. 62. Antaeus. Argos. Autolycus. 114. 26. Ires.Index. 171. 182. 153. 58. 155. 209. Anaces. Atlas. 222.248. Ariadne.170.172.36. Argo. 114. 48. Amphictyon. Astydamia.14. Autonoe. 90. Ar-es. 94.92. 230. Anchlses. 201. Ancseus.186. 202. Atliamas.78. 191. 242. 190.253. 188. Asopus.18. 163. .162. 101. 38. Anticlea.52.205. 206.

240. Cassiopea. 199. 18. 259. Celeus. Ceres(Fates). Centaurs. 17% 231. Cassandra.240. 93. Camense. 162. Clotho.82. Brontes. Cephalus. Bias. 217. 114. Cottus. 209. Cocalus. 250.149.221. Cloacina. 230. 220. CabM. Capys. Benthesicyme. Creon. 143. 250. 168. 18. 52. Charon. 206. 259. Callisto. 132. 97. Clio. 106. 168. Chiron. Cephlsus. 25. Bona Dea.26. 59.143. . 149. of 91. Boreadse. Calliope. 106.241. 204. Castor. Cepkeus (^Ethiopia). 217. 234.102. 228. Cory-bant 113. 218. 218. 195. 98. Bellona. 234. 2CO. Coeus. Callirhoe. Cercopes. 198.104. 85. Cor^netes. 171. Claras. 83. 190. 25. 219. 221. Briareus.232. 208. 138.181. Calais. Ceto. 152^ 245. Ciymene. 246. Ceyx. 70. 125. 190. Chrysaor. 237. 18. Centaurs. 245. Belus. 94. 214. 244. 170. Carna (Cardea).257. Cadmus. Catreus. Cerberus. 210. 219.94. 92. Calypso. 83. Chaos.17. 242. Cacus. 219. Colossus Rhodes. 186. 264. Calchas. 109. 205. es. Cretheus. 203. Circe. 18. tight with. Cseneus. of. 17. 189. Cercyon. Boreas. 225. 140.Index. Chiinsera. Cl^taemnestra. Chaiites.82. 238. 203. Calydonian Hunt. 165. 233. [258. 165. Bonus Eventus. Biisiris.262. 54. oracle 42. Cepheus (Tegea). 194. 233. 64. 91. Beroe. Cranaus.115. 137. Centimanes. Chrysippus. Cecrops. 197. 90.155. 229. Cora. 194. 188. 223. 171. 18. Carpo. Ceres. 257. 190. 98.

Eos. Dionysia. Dryads. 114. 242. 94. 250. 211. 219. Demeter. 125. 19. (vide 49 Attends). 106.164 218. 225. 256. Epeus.204. Dictys. Diana. 26. 223. Electra (daughter of Agamem_ non). 187. 245. 62. 109.100. 130. 162.224. 173. 173. 71. Epaphus. 259. Cronus.54. Eleusis.161. 253. 72. 113. 119. 248. 191. 113.-258 Creusa. Doemons.251. 147. 127. Dodona.189.262.247. DemophSn. 202. Emathion.186. Elysium.186. Argive. Derphobus. Greater. 118. 140. Dioscuri. Enyo. 188. Cyclireus.25. 237. Egeiia. Endeis.149. 42. 18. Deo. 194. DiSnysus. 57. 68. Danaids. 17. . 246. Erato. 91.128. 70. 228. Demus. 56. 26. 58. Epigoni. Eleusinia. 19. Dione. 258.137. Cyllene. Election. Echo. 140. 92. 229. Echidna. Deiamra. Cyhele. Electra (daughterof Atlas). 200. Dice. Deucalion. Ciipido. Da?dalus. Danae. Death.181. Difopes.170.139. Danaus. 212. Dry ops. 205. Thracian. Erechtheus. Dis. Dirce. 17. Cycnus.163. 24. 186.52. 231. Index. 42.210. 168. 243. 241. 154. Diomedes. Didymsean Oracle. Epimetheus. Cyclopes. DSris. 218.210. Damastes. 168. Epopeus. 82.198.231.149. DionysTa. 124. 18. Delphian Oracle. 84. 140. Gnus. 229. 168. Dardanus. 134. Oracleof. End^mion.112. 186.234. 79.113. £42. 137. Diodes. Lesser. 254. Curetes. 106. 57. 141. 25. S3.'83.247. Diometles. 221. 185. Electra (daughter of Oceanus).

240. 91. Harpies. Eros. 31. HephflBstus. 141. Eurytus. 189. 106. 245. 87. Eteoeles. Graces. Faunalia. Felicitas. 17. 251. 232. 264. Bripliyle. Helios.256. Fortuna. Geryones (Geryon).228. 18. Gradivus. 235. Flora. * Hera. 52.212.153. 26. Glaucus of Minos). 227. 83. 249. Eunomia. 252. Fontus. 189.239. 203. 136. 204.229.243.107.180. 100. 235. 26. 186. Gelanor. 92. 57.264.Index. Riinienides. 68. 187. 87. Eurynome.197. Favonius. 18. 58. Helene (Helen).125. Graeas. 1503 231. 139. Eumolpus. 87. 19. 254. Ge.241. Gorgoneuni (vide^Egis).132. Hector.96. 171.140.211. Hamadryads. Helle. 204.202. Euterpe. 218. Ergmus. Hades. (son 228.132. 163.152.58. 246. Eurybia. 238. 13. 221. Faunus. 52. 234. 256. Hebe. 107. 198. 153. Srlnyes. Eris. Furia3 (Furies) (vide Erinyes).78. 163. 224.87. Gaea.131. Fauna. 98.240. Hecuba.110. 100.17 (videGsea). 224.68.258. Eurus. 203. 203.83. 129.79. Erysiclitlion. 197.94. Gorgons. 17. Euphrosync. Eurytion. 100.53. 244.18. Euryale. 107. 82. 57. 'Eurydice. 249. 18. 202.26. 106. Ganymedes. 89. 83. 249. 18. 206.19. 183. 151. 68. 194. 259. 19. 190. Europe (Europa). 99. Harmonia. (vide Hecate. Gratiae(vide Graces).26. 21.76. G^es. Gigantes (Giants). Briclithonius (vid Ereclitheus).187. Fates(videMoerse).84. Eurystlieus. 18. 161.25. 146. s . Helenus. Glaucus(son of Sisyphus). 165. Genii. 112. 199.240. Heracles. 139. 197. Hecabe Hecuba). Glaucus Pontius.

52. 249. 263. 74. Hesione. Hippolyle. Himerus. 90. 187. 243. Hyllus. 18. Iphianassa. Idoineneus. 243. Janus.204. (videHeracles). Lampus. Herse. Ilus. 231. 237. Honos. 13. 36. . 58. 242. Isis.232. 212.171.234.200. 229. 251. Labdacid£e. Hippocoon. 93. Ismenian Oracle.2/0 tndeti. 62.204. IsthmianGames.92. Hygiea.198.200. Iris. 22. 25. Ilithyia. 96. lole. Inaclms. Hymen. Hypnus. Hestia. 242. Juventas. 77. Ixion.13. 71. 194. 231. Lacliesis. Juno. 26. lolaus. Hesperus. 238. 219. Hesperides. 90. 107. 181. 185. 219. ISbates. Labdacus. locaste.208. Heraeum. 57. lo. 58.206. Ichtliyocentaurs. Idas. Icarus. Itylus.229. 185.203. Hippolytus. 42. 248. 186. Jason. 58. Horse. 166. IpHtus.25. 204. 162. 179. 93. 195. 237. 108. 187. 149. Hyades.186. 84. Iplngenia. Hypermnestra.86. Heroes. Ipliicles. 41. Lcadon. 14. 96. Hercu]es. 231. Iliad. 209. 163. 92.115. Ino. 249. 224. Lams. 155.131. Ion. Icarius. 19. 224. Jupiter. 210. 233.231. 101. Hippodamia. 259. 188. Hylas. 18.26. 36. 24. Hymenfeus. 32. 58. 13.159. 231. 179.87. 64.206. Hyperion.86. 49. 17.13.211.35. 234. Laertes. 105. 206. 32. lapetus.. 204. Hydra.106. Irene. 179. 247. 189. Homer.144.206. 214 Hermes. 206. tmus. 218. Hyacinthus. 84. 196. 98. 249.

52. Matronalia. 220. Minos. Lichas. 250. 230. 25. 202. Melia.118. Meleager. 132. Lower World. 102. Leucippus.232. 247.92. 232. 18.117. 225. Laocoon. 120. Leto. 26. 82. 185. 220. 91. 147. 158.181. 225. Lycus (Megara). 232. Minerva. Mopsus. Manto. Liberalia. 246. 262.Index. 165. Luna.158.113. Laomedon. 81.77. 33. Lapithee. 71.254. 130.132. 92 (note). Medusa. 98. Mosychlus.157. . 35. Mars.222. 241. 54. 235.141. Melicertes. 221. Megapenthes. Machaon. 25. 262. 25. Linus. L^cua(Thebes). 150. MonSlaus. 137. Molionidac. 150.195. Metis. 41. Morpheus. 49. Libitina. Mater MagnaIda?a. 158. Midas. 253.228. . Lenoea. Mater Matuta. Lares.173. Merope.127. 25.143. 227. 26. 131. 162. 254. Marsyas. 13. 59. pane's. Mayors. 120. 188.242. 210. 194. 48.195. Lynceus (sonof Danaus). 186.155. Lupercus. 222. ISO. Medea. Libya. Melpomene. 25. 149. Lyoeus. 24i/.70. 234. 212. Mnemosyne. 127.209. Lupercalia.263. Latona (videLeto). Liber. Larvae. 227. Moirae.203. MetionidLX3? 220. Maia. Menoetms. or 26. 158. 245. Learchus. Memnon. 189. 211. 231. Metion. 42. [228.206. 116. 17. Menestheus. 199. 230.187. 258. Megcera. Minotaur. Megara. 168. Mercurius.108. Lemures. Metus. 62. Melampus. 238. 228. 19.199. 208. Leneothea (videIno). L^comedes. 191. 229. 36. i<knur|lia.65. Lynceus (Scythian). 103. LaodamaSj 241.108. Leda.223. Lynceus (son of Apliareus).

Nisus. 259. 115.130. CEnetis. 92. Panes. 124.133. 81.220. Orcus. Narcissus. 156. Oceanids. Nereus. Nllus.212. Naiads. 253. 210.222. 103. Pelopida?. 42. Night. Olvmr>iau Games. Parcae. 228. Nestor. 133. 150.172. Miltunus. Nerio. 249. 186. 43. 196. 109. Patenon.243.209. Notus. 2d-3.165. 230. Pelops. Pallor. Osehophoria. Pelias. Pandora.163. (Edipus. 208. 223. Orpheus. 218.210. 25.247. Omph&le. 254.220. 155. Orestes. 248. Ops.238. 124. 244. 220. 80.Index. Neptune(Neptunus). 248.110. Pandlon. OEnomaus. 245. 93. 125.104. 190. 176. Palamedes. Pasiphae. 85. 124.243.18.209. Nephele. 154. 181. Pales. 64. 58. 253.. 256. Orion. 68. 208. Patroclus. 98. 94. PallasAthene (oideAthene).113. 254. Oreads. 232.155. 92. 233. 168. Nemesis. Pandrosus. 91.18. 105. Nycteus. Nereids.48.254. 208. 205.152.153. 219. . 248. Muses.105. 49. 248.36. S3. Pandareos. Pegasus. Paris. Paganalia. 109. Niobe. 231 Oicles. Panathenffia.129. Pan. Peleus. 246. Nice. 223. Oceanus. 124.26442. 176.190. Penates. iVio. 106. 249. 179. Pallas. 54. 58. 249. Nessus. 222.242. 252. 24. 168. 102.243. 258. Myrtilus. Orithyia. Parthenon. Nymphs. 234. 37. 59. 162. 204. 234. 25.258. 180. 121. Neleus. NapoeJB. 54. Neoptolemus. Palladium.253. 98. 249.109.136. Murcia. 73. 123. Odysseus. 251.189. Olleus.128. 168.

Polycletus. 90. Pholus. 244.191. 190. 179. Pluto. 109. 72. 224. 224. 17. 13. Pjfiinepsia. 194. 249. Proetides. Pytlua (vide Delphian Oracle). Polyhymnia. Proteus. 206. 58. Prometheus. QuMnus. Pityocamptes. 232. 256. Pholms. 162. 2*5 Penelope£Nymph). 231.231. Pleiades. 198. Penelope.91. 49. 102. Protesilaus. Prcetus.172. Perse. Peiibcea. 100. 58. 223. PomSna. Phoenix. (Pollux).57. Pluto (fern. Pol^caste. 83. .240.243. Perictymenus. Phorcys. Phrixus. 79.37. 107. 32. Philyra. 220. 100. 128. Phaedra. 18. 93. Penthesilea. QninquatrusMajures. 208. Perseus. 9*3. Phosphorus. Polyphemus. 155.133. 183. 229. 259. Pmthous.251. 165. Periphetes. Plexippus. 181. 189. Pentheus. 189. 228. 254. Priamus (Priam). Phaethon(sonof Helios). 164. 259. Platens.258. 251. 105. 235. 234. Perseis. Polydoms. 219.205. 209. 189. 102.109. Podarces.143.221. Procris. 19.253. 146. 226. 188. Po^as. 256.).200.138. Proserpina(vide Persephone). Procrustes. 115. 247. 191.232. 77. Phaethon(horseof Eos).209.252.92. 25. ISO. 102. 187. 168. 221. Pyrrha.18. Poseidon. 18. 183. 249. 90. Polyidus. 146. Python. 191. 194. 41. 20. 243. Priapus. 168.Index. 238. 135. 188. Polymces. Polyxena.209. Pylades. . Phcehe.246. 208. 155. Phyleus. Pontus. 212.107. Potlms. 175. 221. Psyche. 212. Pe»epl£nc. Pliineus. PMloctetes.228. Pittheus.

97. 90. Satyrs. 93. Teucer. . 153.129. Telamon.4S. 228. Thalia.231. 92.109. 149. Sibyls. Tantalus. 5259. 219. 97. Saturnus.168 Stjjifipes. 241. 247. 214. Stars. Thallo. 12C. 83.113. Syleus. 259.the. 227. 259. 201. 190. Striges. Stymphalides. Talos. 176.208. Solyjiii. 234.- 183. 207. Smis.209.149.131. 227.208. Telephassa. Silvanus. 26. Saturnalia.244. Salmoneus. Stheno. Sirens. 125. Sinon. Terpsichore. 18.115.Index. 114. 90. 254. Thea (Thia). Siinois. Sisyphus. 97.104.258. Telegonus. 21.242.154 Sol. 116. Recaranus. Sleep. 89. 82. 25. Selene. 198. Styx. 102. Rhadamanthy (Rhadamanthus). 152. Sthenebcea. Symplegades. Scylla. 42. Sciron. 222. Telephus. Tethys. Sphinx.229. Salacia.245. Strenia. 85. 235. Sandon.125. Semnse. Telemachus. Theseus. Tellus. Syrinx. 17. 99. Sllenus.247. 93. Thanatus. 149. 206. . 49. 78. Thaumas. 166.198. 106. 243. s 149. Semele.210. Strophius.234. Solus. 18. 233'.17. 208. Thersander. 91. 19. Slleni. 171. 18. 133. 259. Rhode. Sinus. 105. Teleboae. 187. 84. 71. Tartarus. Themis. 108.127. 18. Sthenelus.137.179. Sarpeclon. 153. 231. IS.155. 2G. Termimis. 131. 82. 182. Rhea. 112.221. 238. IS.134. 170. Rhea Cybele. 126. Scotos. Teuthras. 221.

Toxeus. 203. Titans. Yesta. . Typlioeus.19. 21. 94. Tiresias.Index. 68.209. Troilus.200. Zetes. 253.204.241. 232. Uranus. 41.242. 35. Urania.249. 245. 18.194.210. 115. 179.120. 92. 88. 135. 162. Vertumnus. 88. 82. 140. Thyestes. Tyche. Zethus. 141. 18. 76.240.252. Typlion. 16. 172. 234. Tydeus. Thetis. 251. 205.262. 104. Tityus.246. 129. 62. 245. 31. Victoria. 72. Ulysses(vide Odysseus). 12. 185. 17. 13. Thesprotoij.58. 194.92.7& Winds. Thestius. Tyro. 21. 93. 152. 219. 233. 19. Thesinophoria. 156. 58. Zephyrus. Tithonus.94. Yenus. 85. Triton. 106. Tyndareus. 149. Tros. 248. Tibermus. 244.249. Triptolemus. Thoosa. 19. the. 110. 90.232. 105.234. 171. Vulcan (Volcanus).99. Zeus. 17. 22.

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