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EE 290D Nanoscale Fabrication

Prof. Chang-Hasnain 9/2/04

Analysis Flow
Semiconductor with a certain crystal structure Time-independent Schrodinger Equation Kronig-Penney Model Doping density, Temp, etc. Tight-binding Approx. Energy Band Structure E-k diagram Density of States D(E) Fermi-Dirac Distribution x Electrical, Optical, Thermal Properties
2

Effective mass

Wave functions

Electron and Hole densities, n, p


9/2/2004

EE 290D Nanoscale Fabrication; Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Crystal Structures
Simple Cubic Diamond structure:

Si, Ge, Sn Face centered cubic (fcc)

Zincblend

Cu, Al, Cu, Ni, Sr, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ce, Tb, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Th 9/2/2004

ZnS, AgI, AlAs, AlP, AlSb, BAs, BN, BP, CdS, GaAs, GaP, GaSb, HgS, HgSe, HgTe, INAs, InP, MnS, MnSe, SiC, ZnSe, ZnTe 3

EE 290D Nanoscale Fabrication; Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Time-Independent Schrodinger Wave Equation


Based on
Wave particle duality Conservation of energy

+
2

2m
2

( E V ) = 0

Discrete set of solutions


Only certain energies are allowed. The spectrum is discrete, not continuous.

Particle in a box
Lowest energy is not zero.

9/2/2004

EE 290D Nanoscale Fabrication; Prof. Chang-Hasnain

9/2/2004

EE 290D Nanoscale Fabrication; Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Energy Band of Solids


Origin of Bandgap

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EE 290D Nanoscale Fabrication; Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Origin of Bands

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EE 290D Nanoscale Fabrication; Prof. Chang-Hasnain

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EE 290D Nanoscale Fabrication; Prof. Chang-Hasnain

9/2/2004

EE 290D Nanoscale Fabrication; Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Kronig-Penney Model
Solutions for an electron in a single square well discrete energy levels Solutions for an electron in a chain of periodic square wells? Actual lattice potential experienced by conduction electrons: a weak potential periodic in lattice spacing a

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EE 290D Nanoscale Fabrication; Prof. Chang-Hasnain

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Bloch Theorem
Bloch Theorem
(r,k)=u(r,k) exp(ikr) u(r+c)=u(r)

Tight binding approximation


( x, k ) = ua ( x nc) eiknc

Free electron approximation


( x, k ) = ( B0 + Bm eimGx )eikx
m

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EE 290D Nanoscale Fabrication; Prof. Chang-Hasnain

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EE 290D Nanoscale Fabrication; Prof. Chang-Hasnain

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Solution for Tight Binding Approximation

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EE 290D Nanoscale Fabrication; Prof. Chang-Hasnain

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Essence of the Solutions


V0 infinite infinite well; each electron is confined to En = 2ma 2 a single atom 2 2 k V0 infinite free electron E= Discontinuities at the 2m boundaries of allowed states n energy gap (band gap, k= forbidden gap) a Total number of states in a band: 2N
N is number of primitive cells in a solid
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2 2 n2

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