Practical Astronomy

JAN-MAR 2012
Astronomy In A Cup Total Lunar Eclipse Discovering Planets

Practical Astronomy
In this issue..
3 6 8 KITCHEN OBSERVING Astronomy In A Cup READER’S PROFILE Eddie Marris ASTRONOMY EDUCATION Inspiring Story From Venezuela

Jan-Mar 2012

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First Light
Happy New Year! Welcome to the first 2012 issue of Practical Astronomy. We have several new authors to Practical Astronomy this time. Enjoy their interesting contributions. Perhaps YOU would like to be published here too? All you have to do is write a short article about a topic related to astronomy. It can be just your personal experiences - it does not have analyse some hard bit of science! (Although you can, of course.) Then simply send your article and any images to the magazine, via the website form here. Clear skies, Kevin Brown

10 OBSERVING THE ‘RED’ MOON From The Seven Suites Hotel Observatory 12 DISCOVERING PLANETS Passing Gas 15 READERS’ IMAGES 17 SKY VIEW January To March 2012 26 OBSERVERS DELIGHTS January To March 2012

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Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 Editor: Kevin Brown FRAS editor@practicalastronomy.com Website: www.PracticalAstronomy.com Publisher: Structure Ltd

Practical Astronomy magazine is published quarterly online. ISSN 2042-2687 Views expressed are not necessarily those of the editor or publisher. May include errors and omissions. Trademarks are the property of their respective owners. The publisher is not responsible for the conduct of advertisers or external websites. Contains content submitted for publication by readers. No infringement of other copyrights is intended - please inform us of any possibilities. ©2012 All contents copyright. No reproduction without express permission.

Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012

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There I noticed that the central froth revolves more rapidly than the spiral arms formed in the partial coffee/milk mixture.like in my stirred up coffee/milk mixture? There are certain other related motions I have noticed in my cup of coffee. The upper conical vortex is marked by a left or right rotational arrow. But one dabbles in this and that like now. revolve more rapidly than the other spiral arms . In fact when I stir with my left hand I see a spiral galaxy as seen photographically in a star atlas. Now when considering the spherical three dimensional galactic hubs. Note the direction of galactic rotation and the shape and trailing nature of the spiral arms. Where they meet at the common apex they oppose one another and (for me) may add some reenforcement to the singularity or “Black Hole” suppositions. then where does the matter go entering the black hole vortex. This led me to thinking that all vortices have a midline (centripedal) force moving inward and downwards. My first question is. However new spiral arms appear. is it possible that there is another singularity radiating from the apical vortex in line with the galactic equator? These are my observations and thoughts. show that left-hand spirals exist.note now the reversed rotational direction. While at the surface. a remembered reading from somewhere once read that our Milkyway galaxy rotates once around itself approximately every 250 to 300 million years. within the galactic hub of opposing directions be seen where and when they meet. depending on which hand stirred the coffee.e. rotation behaves as a centrifugal force. Geology and Geophysics are my fields. I would appreciate comments on these two or three arm formations. . I am not an Astronomer. grow larger outwards and repeat the degenerative motion to rest. The vortex at the galactic centre must have a centrally located apex! If the paradox exists.Yet . The spiral arms when viewed in my cup form either left or right handed spirals. possibly create the galactic “Black Hole” or perhaps is there another singularity force within the plane of galactic rotation? I include two diagrams that may help the reader to better understand my observations and deductions. Julian Every morning I start by having a large mug of strong coffee. have a common centre. I have also noted that spirals emerge either as approximately opposing pairs or possibly as triplet arms.when viewed from below opposing directional right-handed spirals also exist. i.Kitchen Observing: Astronomy In A Cup By Richard W. The first sketch is to draw a spiral galaxy as viewed from above. To this I add a gently poured stream of milk at the edge of the cup. complete with spiral arms. Now how fast does the galactic centre need to Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 3 .Now . does the centre of our galaxy and/or others. viewed from above the spiral plane. could the same vortices be seen as the (centripedal) force that works in my coffee cup? On examination of the conical vortex of a spiral galaxy. The cones however. froth is raised centrally.so that the top of page is now at the bottom . and then stir. These are that the spiral arms change shape and of course come to rest within the restricted space. probably dependant on speed of rotation. full of varying sized bubbles.e. moving outwards away from the centre and upwards as spiral arms. at the cup’s edge.turn the sketch paper over and note how the rotation is reversed as are the spiral arms. edge on). Looking at the frothy bubbles in the centre of my coffee cup. I pour the coffee over the sugar in my cup. as it is drawn toward the apex? I reiterate. As they spin faster the centre is drawn into the vortex. Now could this same vortex. Turn the sketch paper around . I am aware that they (the froth) are an expression of an underlying vertically conical spinning vortex. . A paradox or simply an Einsteinian relativistic point of view? The second sketch depicts two cones that represent the same rotational theoretic vortices of the galactic hub as viewed from the galactic equator (i. a spark of interest. (There are several examples of vortexes here on earth).

we ensure the development of our vortex. regardless which end it was viewed from. the bubbly froth rotation was still visibly present. Thus. Could it be that this singularity is where new stars are born within the hub and then slowly migrate out. well cosmologists believe or think that at the center of the vortex the singularity takes the form of a black hole. I still look into my coffee cup. Here I present this empirical hypotheses as another singularity to be at right angles to the center of the vortex that forms the black hole. light.by milk at about 5C poured gently onto the coffee. The central vortex with its black hole is presumably extremely hot. Then perhaps a new dimension occurs. space and dark matter are all combined and compressed on entering the black hole and nothing escapes once within it.after stirring . It was temperature or rather temperature gradient in my coffee/milk mixture. they are (in fact?) cloning. .visible or black into the galactic hub. I believe this bears thought if we accept the original expansion theory for the universe. As boiling water is poured over the coffee at around 85C followed . 1 Having written the above . It is here where matter of stars. regardless of which galaxy one is on they are all receding from one another and at possibly different rates of speed.Comments please! Any way these are thoughts conjured up from time to time as I look into my coffee cup. when they all behave like or as repelling magnets. Reduction of matter must at some point cease as material is no longer accepted. The material entering a black hole within a galaxy eventually reaches the apex mid-point of the vortex. into forming new star matter for the spiral arms? This thought suggests to me a basis for the continuous creation theory. Now. I wonder what else is in my coffee cup? ADDENDUM NO.Kitchen Observing: Astronomy In A Cup (cont) By Richard W.some months have past. In other words galactic stars are hot and deep space cold. 4 Another morning when observing the formation of spiral arms in my coffee cup. when another thought came to me. Thus a new thought emerged from my coffee cup. all galaxies are moving away from each other. ie. describe. Julian rotate to create the theoretical singularity or Black Hole? I would appreciate any-ones comments on my suppositions or should I just drink-up and stop watching the rotations in my coffee cup? ADDENDUM NO. I noticed the spiral arms where gone. ADDENDUM NO. Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 4 . Galaxies are therefore not colliding. one liquid cools while the other warms up. The colour distribution is clearly visible at first as immiscible. and a new galaxy is forming as a result of this division. but only within each individual galaxy. The coffee/milk mixture was complete. later when I resumed my vigil. ie a singularity equivalent to a biological mitosis. I was through with gazing into my stirred coffee cup. and yet may only be a result of gravitational imbalances within the spiral arms of a said galaxy. Remember the vortices within the hub of the galaxy. I was distracted momentarily. pressure from or through the temperature gradient could or maybe the force required to initiate the cloning of a galaxy. When once again another observation came into my reflective view. ADDENDUM NO. it would be impossible for galaxies to collide if they are all moving away from each other. Then how is it that we have a theory that some galaxies are colliding. 2 One reads that the universe is expanding. it was homogenous . This I know does not cover Novas and SuperNovas that those astronomers of today.however. then begin to merge and eventually become fully homogenous. by dividing itself by multiplication. Thus within the galaxy a temperature gradient is at work. The Hubble telescope combined with radioscopes underpin these events. 3 And I thought. from absorbing matter . The vortex I envisaged came to a common apex. as noted by its position in the centre of coffee cup.

. www. with its inward and downward curving motions.Kitchen Observing: Astronomy In A Cup (cont) By Richard W. You’ll be sent the current password for the Members’ Area. as they have no spiral arms.PracticalAstronomy. This bubbly froth could possibly represent a cluster galaxy. Lack of rapid rotation may illustrate or rather represent an aged form of a galaxy. stardust spiral arms. Julian EUREKA! Another phenomenon revealed itself. Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 5 . Its centripetal force may also be the mechanism for the creation of a black hole.com/subscribe You’ll also get priority notification when the next issue of Practical Astronomy is ready to download. any comments? It is really marvelous what thought processes happen when one on waking. what stops the stars at the rims peripheral edge of the vortex from being sucked into the Maelstrom? Or is it the counter centrifugal force that determines the effect and balances the black hole at Boundary? My thoughts. stares into a morning cup of coffee! Richard W.. which is slowing down and can no longer create. Simply visit the website and subscribe. So then. These cluster galaxies seem to form with other galaxies into local spacial groups and appear as peripheral to the group. by emission. Julian 19/10/2011 Become A Member Enjoy BACK ISSUES and BONUSES. My thoughts then absolutely revert to vortex rotation.

mounted at the front of the corrector plate. and still keen. I was just over 4 years old. but I need to re-collimate my system back to f/10 so I can image the planets too.10 shillings in old money. but also security/ bathroom and bedroom light glaring away like the power was imminent of running out until late the hours of the night. My interest continued throughout the years and in the early 60s a friend and I purchased our first Telescope a refractor which cost us £2. equipped with Skywatcher’s EQ6 Pro goto mount. but it was great for viewing the detail of the moon and that was about it. The images are processed in Astroart then into Photoshop Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 6 . Some of the images I am enclosing is my setup.85 and f/2 which cuts down the exposure times. Back in my school days I don’t know if some of you will remember Charles Franks he made Telescopes and lived in Glasgow I remember from his catalogue his 6 inch Reflectors started around £15. My fascination started way back in October 1957 when sputnik 1 was first launched. Let me first introduce myself to this group of hardy Astronomers. the latest images of the supernova in M101 Ursa Major taken September 2011 and an image of Comet Garradd and of course you can’t miss out M42. My telescopes consist of the following: 2 Williams Optics Apo refractors of 110mm and 132mm.8m pier to attach the EQ6 Pro head.1m dome with half walls from Pulsar and mounted it on my 10’x8’ shed and set it up as my Observatory. I dug the foundation to house the 1. not only do i have to contend with that.Reader’s Profile: Eddie Marris By Eddie Marris Hi All. I would like to share my childhood hobby. which incorporates a Starizona Hyperstar unit in connection with a Starlight Xpress M25c ccd camera. Since this is my first article in Practical Astronomy. anyway after having various telescopes though my Teens years vowed one day to have something decent. My main scope is a Celestron Fastar C11. I live in the suburbs so have plenty of light pollution from them dam sodium lights which not only lights up the roads but the whole area casting orange glow into the Atmosphere. Once that’s done I can use either system f/10 or f/1. My name is Eddie and of course you’ll see that listed at the bottom of the page and live in Doncaster. This gives me a photographic speed between f/1.00 In 2007 I purchased a 2. no doubt you have all suffered the same type of astronomers nightmare at some point. and had just a 1 inch objective lens and about 48 inches long. i and am now 58.85.

Reader’s Profile: Eddie Marris (cont) By Eddie Marris Comet Garrad on 27 September 2011 (above) and M42 (right) M101 and Supernova in Ursa Major taken on 1 September 2011 Eddie Marris. 6th October 2011 Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 7 .

I was no longer able to work in the petroleum industry. I studied in the University of Zulia. located at LICEO LOS ROBLES SCHOOL (a private school. the LOS ROBLES ASTRONOMY CLUB was founded. Greetings. There I took lots and lots of amateur astronomy courses. the Miami Planetarium and its activities. FREE!! no cost at all !!! Of course the school pays my extra night hours!! Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 8 . My father. Venezuela Venezuela Dear friends at Practical Astronomy. taking oil and gasoline to the allies in the Western Front ports. I had to accept 11 years ago a miraculous post given to me as Natural Sciences teacher during the day and amateur astronomy teacher during the night. In order not to starve. but since childhood my parents used to take me to the Miami Museum of Science and Space Transit Planetarium. about 900 students). My name is Patrick Morton. used to work during WW2 at Shell Oil co here in Venezuela. and thanks also to the generosity of the school were I work. because there is not a really strong space tradition and advocacy for astronomy and space exploration. to come to my classes and star parties. And since this is oil country. still alive. was a WW2 veteran who served in the RAF in Bomber Command. activities and lectures. PLANETARY SOCIETY. now deceased. I enrolled in The Planetary Society and Astronomical Society of the Pacific. I am a petroleum engineer. (it's a boys' school) from any public. and that made me fall in love with Astronomy. ESA AND KALMBACH PUBLISHERS my work would have been useless!!! Since then. And I used to be scared giving classes to kids. and thanks to Dr's ROBERT HAVLEN.Astronomy Education: Wonderful Story From By Patrick Morton. while always keeping in touch and visiting almost every year. donations and diverse articles we received from NASA. My mother 87. JAMES C WHITE II AND ANDREW FRANKNOI. charity or private school. I couldn't study the subject in my country. I ended up studying Petroleum Engineering. basically those given by the late Jack Horckheimer and colleagues. I got to work immediately and since then have had tremendous success!! I must also mention that had it not been for the wonderful gifts. and the board of directors and parents decided to allow students of both sexes. but thanks to the booklet 'How To Guide For Teachers And Astronomers' (also from ASP). 57 years old and I was born in the city of Maracaibo Venezuela. Then by a strange course of destiny. She was in charge of the delicate job of handling the mail and communications of the tankers leaving the lake of Maracaibo. I received the most precious gift any teacher in the world could desire!! The PROJECT ASTRO BOOK.

here in the school lawn and observatory.. just to "pilot" a Space Shuttle!! I am annexing some pictures. Right now we are waiting for a possible donation from SARA RADIO JOVE. We also hold a star party almost every month. combined with BBQs and also in some rural areas around our city and Lake of Maracaibo. we built 2 portable solar observatories. using the wrecks of 2 small cars. I even have a few bright kids trying hard to study planetary science subjects. Well that's all I could think for the moment. Hope you might find some use for this "article" someday. and using the same carton box they came in. WHATS UP TONIGHT BY JANE HOUSTON JONES. Also the school assigned me a quite decent hall with air-conditioning which I transformed into a mini planetarium that sits 33 persons and also serves as PROJECT ASTRO workshops.. I tried to copy a Nasa X38 crew (My pleasure Patrick to share your inspiring story! Ed.Astronomy Education: Wonderful Story From By Patrick Morton. AND ALL THE TV AND INTERNET TRANSMIISIONS OF THE LATE JACK HORKHEIMER!!! I learned a lot from PROJECT ASTRO also. They enter every Nasa contest open to the international public and hope to win a scholarship someday. I invented or applied their ideas and managed to build a small observatory with 2 domes I made from discarded water tanks. Venezuela Venezuela (cont) Since then I've been a vivid watcher of THIS WEEK AT NASA. we managed to buy a couple of solarscopes. and ASP and ESA. and reinforced by a Spanish astronomy professor that came to town some 10 years ago and gave amateur astronomy. to study and observe the Sun!!! We bought two because we have one installed on each side of the lake!! Like that we save lots of fuel!!! And last but not least. Nasa. licensed classes. Nasa stickers and voila!! Also I bought all the computer programs I could find at Kennedy Space Center gift shop!!! And just imagine the "hand to hand" combat between the kids. Also. some paint imitating Space Shuttles. well I think I learned something!! transportation vehicle and build an airconditioned flight simulator that sits 6 students with 1 teacher .) Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 9 . of a very interesting radio telescope. perhaps you might like them!! I haven't stopped giving amateur astronomy classes to kids and people of all ages and sexes. when you need to fill some space!! Best regards. Patrick in Venezuela Using the ideas and inspirations from amateur astronomy clubs. just a computer with an image splitter for 3 screens.no windows. to enter the planetary sciences world. so we can enter the amateur radio telescope international community (Society of Amateur radio Astronomers) .

It was a relatively rare opportunity to observe a Total Eclipse of the Moon . As it is situated along the hillside route of Sumulong Highway in Antipolo City (not too far away from UP Diliman). But before it started.the region where the Moon was mostly located during the course of the whole eclipse event. It came from the northeast direction. Upon reaching the roof deck. It also houses a 12inch diameter Dobsonian. At the time of the penumbral eclipse. Only a few patches of clouds could be seen floating amid the moonlit sky. it offers a breathtaking view of Manila by night . so as to choose the best place to observe the event. I immediately checked the eclipse circumstances available in the NASA eclipse website and estimated the location of the Moon for each phase using Stellarium. no visible changes in the moon’s brightness can be easily recognized until it slowly becomes dimmer a few minutes before the umbral phase. Seven Suites is the first and only hotel observatory in the Philippines.not to mention that the duration of totality of this eclipse will be one of the longest in 100 years (totality lasted for 100 minutes. We arrived at Seven Suites about two hours before the start of the penumbral eclipse. This chunk grew larger and larger after several minutes until finally only a small sliver of the Moon remained visible. 2011 Total Lunar Eclipse. a small part of the Moon on its upper left limb was already being covered by the Earth’s shadow. After considering a few good observing sites. an apparent reddening of the lunar disk took place. All of us were excited to witness the eclipse. The Moon entered totality at 3:22 AM. which is the fourth largest telescope in the country. Thank God it didn’t rain a bit the whole night despite the rainy weather forecast. Just before the light on the Moon totally disappeared. It became more and more obvious to the eye until the whole lunar disk was transformed to a blood-red orb hanging above Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 10 . a bright fireball zoomed in to our view. I decided to observe at the Seven Suites Hotel Observatory in Antipolo. from 3:22 am until around 5:02 am PHT). By about 2:30 AM. we marveled at the awesome cityscape just below us. I also reviewed the previous photos I’ve taken to see which places have a clear view of the southwest sky . Philippines I began my preparation to observe the June 16.Observing The ‘Red Moon’: From The Seven Suites Hotel Observatory By Raven Yu. its city lights and the dazzling night sky.a stunning view of the metropolis. near the Summer Triangle so we guessed that it could be a June Lyrid. as soon as I learned about it several months before.

We packed up and prepared to leave at around 6:00 in the morning. A few minutes before sunrise.Observing The ‘Red Moon’: From The Seven Suites Hotel Observatory (cont) By Raven Yu. composed of the images of the Moon during different stages of the eclipse. I was starting to feel tired then. the fifth contact (end of the partial eclipse) and sixth contact (end of the penumbral eclipse) could not be observed from the Philippines since the moonset was at 5:30 AM. Only a small part of the Moon remained visible as it continuously sank near the horizon. we noticed another nice atmospheric phenomenon . It was a breath-taking view.) Moon and anti-crepuscular rays Eclipse Montage Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 11 . Totality ended at 5:02 AM. anyway. Our efforts were not fruitless. as I still needed to attend my class. Unfortunately. Philippines among the stars. I also created two montages. Ad astra! (Note: All photos were taken using Nikon D3000 DSLR camera.anti-crepuscular rays. but seen opposite the sun in the sky during sunrise or sunset. Anti-crepuscular rays are similar to crepuscular rays. Seeing the Red Moon was truly a priceless experience! ‘Till the next Total Lunar Eclipse on December. but I resisted sleepiness.

7-Dec-2011. ∂2). the four terrestrial planets actually have little in common across the board. hydrogen. planetary nebulae are formed when a red giant star ejects its outer layers as clouds of luminescent gas. size. The very reason that we so carefully built our science upon. (7-Dec-2011. And it has a shopping mall-like surface temperature of near 72 degrees” (Vastag. Did you hear that bang? The recent discovery of what has been reported as an Earth-like planet has made headlines around the World. One of these factors is based on the hypothesis of our solar system’s creation: the Nebular Theory. p. Earth. (Lutgen & Tarbuck. very similar to our own sun”. a wondrous discovery is made. helium. there are currently major differences. and their atmospheres and in most cases satellites. eventually coalesce to form stars like our Sun. This debris. The most important of these factors would be the composition of its atmosphere. Who has gas? Mercury is almost completely devoid of a discernible atmosphere as a result of its close proximity to our Sun and its relatively small size. and Mars belong to the terrestrial (Earth-like) group and the four outer planets: Jupiter. there are many factors that are taken into account in the classification of a planet. Venus. Saturn. hot. These opinions are based on Kepler’s proximity to its Sun-like star. other than the composition of their cores and their relative close proximity to the Sun. where water. doesn’t freeze or boil.Discovering Planets: Passing Gas By Ray Mosley. is not sufficient to classify Kepler as an Earth-like planet without first considering many other factors. Furthermore. if Kepler was in our solar system. Classing up Further statements of Kepler’s similarity to Earth have also been reported. The atmospheres of Mars and Venus are characterized by extremely high levels (>90%) of carbon dioxide. The largest contrast being that of Earth and Mars. it would belong to the terrestrial group and approximately occupy the space between Earth and Mars. and Uranus belong to the Jovian (Jupiter-like) group. and density. planets. which is essential for life. revealing the dense. ∂2). a Kepler scientist. 430). But why do astronomers believe that Kepler-22b is Earthlike? Well. Earth’s atmosphere is approximately 79 percent nitrogen and 21% oxygen. Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 12 . and tiny white dwarf star at its core (13Dec-2011. which is mostly dust. that hard to find place that’s not too hot. Jr Discoveries are looking up We overlook our neighbors and gaze hopefully into the dark infinity of space and proudly wonder: Is another Earth waiting out there? Are we alone in the Milky Way? Then. however. The four inner planets: Mercury. We classify the planets in our solar system based on location. This results in a spinning intergalactic tempest with remnants of the former giant’s core swirling and crashing about like debris caught in a tornado. Though they belong to the same group. ∂5). This. not too cold. According to Bryan Vastag from the Associated Press: “The planet is smack in the middle of what astronomers call the Goldilocks zone. the brightness of our zealous curiosity blinds us to reason. Neptune. 2011. said: “it orbits a star very. and other gases. The solar system that Kepler-22b is located in is believed to have formed in much the same way as ours. even though it is believed that the terrestrial planets did once have similar atmospheres. Natalie Batahla. So. The University of Washington elegantly describes our solar system’s moment of conception as follows: Much as a butterfly emerges when its chrysalis is ejected. The headlines around the world scream: Another Earth! But once again.

Escape velocity Escape velocity. is a great point for consideration. Uranus and Neptune’s atmospheres also contain helium and hydrogen. Astronomy has made similar changes in the past with the 2006 demotion of Pluto from planetary status to that of dwarf planet occurring most recently. NASA has calculated Earth’s escape velocity to be 11. and it is logical to think it did. Jr The first two Jovian planets. solar heating and the planet’s gravity greatly influence the attraction and subsequent retention or elimination of gases. What’s in a name? Considering the data that has been presented.19 kilometers per second (25. A quick comparison of Earth and Jupiter’s escape velocities shows how significant this can be. This. ∂9). the whole of Astronomy saw a need for this change and it has been accepted. as the mass of an object highly influences the amount of gravity that the object produces.200 miles per hour). This. according to Bryan Vastag from Associated Press: “The planet is about 2. This is because in our own system. and Jupiter’s escape velocity is 51. why would NASA refer to Kepler-22b as an Earth-like planet? The problem can be reasonably tracked back to the language which the science of Astronomy utilizes. but we should also consider reclassifying our own planets. as mentioned earlier. in turn.200 miles per hour).5 kilometers per second (115. But that is only one factor that we must consider. the larger the planet’s mass. affects what a planet’s escape velocity is and subsequently the possibility of development of life as we know it. then its escape velocity instantly becomes a concern. but they also contain higher amounts of methane and ammonia than the other Jovian planets.Discovering Planets: Passing Gas (cont) By Ray Mosley. as the name suggests. Bigger than life? We know that Kepler-22b is in orbit around a Sun-like star and that it is in approximately the same zone in which Earth is located. If Kepler-22b’s solar system possessed large amounts of hydrogen and helium like ours in its infancy. we can make an educated guess as to its atmosphere based on what we would believe its solar heating to be. Like the preceding Jovian planets. So. So. The idea of revising astronomical language is not a new concept. the many differences that we have found in the planetary atmospheres of our solar system should not only negate making authoritative classifications of newly discovered planets based on our current planetary classification system. Quite simply. the mass of the Jovian planets are such that those gases were unable to achieve escape velocity and subsequently be eliminated from the atmosphere. of course. Though this met with opposition by a few. is the speed in which something must attain to escape the gravitational pull of a planet. Jupiter and Saturn have similar atmospheric characteristics consisting of mostly helium and hydrogen. In fact.4 times the size of Earth” (7-Dec-2011. the higher the escape velocity would have to be. The other factor is the size of Kepler-22b. if it even has one? Before we can answer that question we must take into account that popular belief states: during the formation of the planets. Proponents of this change like: Jean-Luc Margot of the UCLA Physics and Astronomy Department has been quoted as saying: “Many branches of science require a precise classification scheme (taxonomy). the question that must be asked is: what is the composition of Kepler-22b’s atmosphere. This is plainly evident across both the terrestrial and Jovian groups. otherwise Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 13 . our current system could be seen as an example of a galactic comparison of apples and oranges. Thus. (2010). it is very possible that Kepler-22-b’s atmosphere may consist of gases that are not compatible for human life. Again. Logically.

gov/planetary/factsheet/ jupiterfact. Upper Saddle River. & Tarbuck.html University of Washington. (2010). What makes a planet? Retrieved &om: http://www2. F. Retrieved &om: http://www. Retrieved &om: http://www. A new Earth? NASA finds planet outside solar system in a spot just about right for life.). So.PracticalAstronomy. To some.washingtonpost. E. Jovian. in conclusion. Or send by email.washingtonpost. if you prefer to: editor@practicalastronomy. However.edu/~jlm/epo/ planet/planet. this call for revision may seem trivial or semantic. (2011). one would expect to encounter the use of precise language across all fields of study.edu/users/balick/ WFPC2/ Contribute Your Articles And Images and become a worldwide published author (no joke) www.ess. Further evidence for this proposed revision can be found in the atmospheric data for our planets. N.html NASA. (5-Dec-2011). Jr people cannot talk to each other effectively. precisely cataloging discoveries made during our continued search for planets outside of our solar system supports a re-classification of planets based on their atmospheric characteristics instead of the traditional method which only considers location.nasa. Venus/ Mars-like. Planetary nebulae and the future of the solar system.washington.html Batahla.gsfc.com/submit-article Use the above link. K. A suggestion of how to change the language lies in the adoption of a system based on the five different atmospheric classes of our planets. size.com Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 14 . J. (12-Dec-2011).com/ politics/a-new-earth-nasa-finds-planet-outside-solarsystem-at-comfy-72-degrees-with-sunlike-star/ 2011/12/05/gIQA3Z0fWO_story. Foundations of earth science (6th ed. References V astag. The presented information should make it evident to even non-scientists that the current system is not only inadequate but also illogical.Discovering Planets: Passing Gas (cont) By Ray Mosley.com/national/nasa-finds-newplanet-kepler-22b-outside-solar-system-withtemperature-right-for-life/2011/12/07/ gIQAPfzFdO_story. ∂3).astro. (13-Dec-2011). Astronomy is no different” (12-Dec-2011. NASA finds new planet Kepler 22b outside solar system with temperature right for life. A template for such a system would read similar to the following: Mercury-like. B. J. Jupiter fact sheet. and density.html Lutgen. and Neptune/ Uranus-like. to contribute articles and/or images to Practical Astronomy. (7-Dec-2011). when discussing matters of science. Retrieved &om: http:// www. Terrestrial.ucla. NJ: Prentice Ha) Margot. Retrieved &om: http://nssdc.

Iran 60D Canon camera 100-400 Canon usm IS lens Manfrotto tripod Lunar eclipse 10th Dec 2011 from Chennai. India .5 sec Aperture: f/8 to f/4.by Murali Krishna Kanagala Camera : SONY DSC H-50 Shutter speed : 1/320 to 2.by Asadollah Ghamarinezhad Location: Abyane village. Kashan.Readers’ Images Lunar eclipse 10th Dec 2011 .5 ISO: 100 to 400 Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 15 .

Reader’s Images (cont) Solar images of AR1283 taken by Sheri Lynn Karl in September 2011 Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 16 .

com Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 17 .PracticalAstronomy. to contribute articles and/or images to Practical Astronomy. if you prefer to: editor@practicalastronomy.com/submit-article Use the above link.Readers’ Images (cont) Sun Spot 1302 taken on 25th September 2011 by Dhinakar Rajaram Contribute Your Articles And Images and become a worldwide published author (no joke) www. Or send by email.

Sky View: Northern Hemisphere Mid-Feb 21:00 GMT (lat. Local time zone not GMT? The view should be much the same at 9pm in your local time. In Jan/Mar? Objects rise later/earlier.00 GMT in mid-Feb. for an observer at latitude 51deg North (northern hemisphere) or 30deg South (southern hemisphere). 51N) Looking East These maps show the sky view in different directions at 21. Closer to the equator? Objects are higher above your local southern/northern horizon. Maps generated with Stellarium Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 18 . but patterns are the same.

00 GMT in mid-Feb. Local time zone not GMT? The view should be much the same at 9pm in your local time. but patterns are the same. Maps generated with Stellarium Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 19 .Sky View: Northern Hemisphere Mid-Feb 21:00 GMT (lat. In Jan/Mar? Objects rise later/earlier. Closer to the equator? Objects are higher above your local southern/northern horizon. for an observer at latitude 51deg North (northern hemisphere) or 30deg South (southern hemisphere). 51N) Looking South These maps show the sky view in different directions at 21.

for an observer at latitude 51deg North (northern hemisphere) or 30deg South (southern hemisphere).Sky View: Northern Hemisphere Mid-Feb 21:00 GMT (lat. Closer to the equator? Objects are higher above your local southern/northern horizon. but patterns are the same. Maps generated with Stellarium Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 20 . Local time zone not GMT? The view should be much the same at 9pm in your local time. In Jan/Mar? Objects rise later/earlier.00 GMT in mid-Feb. 51N) Looking West These maps show the sky view in different directions at 21.

00 GMT in mid-Feb. Maps generated with Stellarium Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 21 . In Jan/Mar? Objects rise later/earlier. but patterns are the same. for an observer at latitude 51deg North (northern hemisphere) or 30deg South (southern hemisphere). 51N) Looking North These maps show the sky view in different directions at 21.Sky View: Northern Hemisphere Mid-Feb 21:00 GMT (lat. Closer to the equator? Objects are higher above your local southern/northern horizon. Local time zone not GMT? The view should be much the same at 9pm in your local time.

Sky View: Southern Hemisphere Mid-Feb 21:00 GMT (lat. Closer to the equator? Objects are higher above your local southern/northern horizon. In Jan/Mar? Objects rise later/earlier. 30S) Looking East These maps show the sky view in different directions at 21. Maps generated with Stellarium Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 22 . but patterns are the same.00 GMT in mid-Feb. for an observer at latitude 51deg North (northern hemisphere) or 30deg South (southern hemisphere). Local time zone not GMT? The view should be much the same at 9pm in your local time.

but patterns are the same. Maps generated with Stellarium Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 23 . Local time zone not GMT? The view should be much the same at 9pm in your local time.Sky View: Southern Hemisphere Mid-Feb 21:00 GMT (lat. for an observer at latitude 51deg North (northern hemisphere) or 30deg South (southern hemisphere). 30S) Looking North These maps show the sky view in different directions at 21. Closer to the equator? Objects are higher above your local southern/northern horizon.00 GMT in mid-Feb. In Jan/Mar? Objects rise later/earlier.

Closer to the equator? Objects are higher above your local southern/northern horizon. for an observer at latitude 51deg North (northern hemisphere) or 30deg South (southern hemisphere).00 GMT in mid-Feb. In Jan/Mar? Objects rise later/earlier. but patterns are the same.Sky View: Southern Hemisphere Mid-Feb 21:00 GMT (lat. Local time zone not GMT? The view should be much the same at 9pm in your local time. 30S) Looking West These maps show the sky view in different directions at 21. Maps generated with Stellarium Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 24 .

In Jan/Mar? Objects rise later/earlier. Closer to the equator? Objects are higher above your local southern/northern horizon. 30S) Looking South These maps show the sky view in different directions at 21. for an observer at latitude 51deg North (northern hemisphere) or 30deg South (southern hemisphere). but patterns are the same.00 GMT in mid-Feb. Local time zone not GMT? The view should be much the same at 9pm in your local time.Sky View: Southern Hemisphere Mid-Feb 21:00 GMT (lat. Maps generated with Stellarium Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 25 .

PracticalAstronomy.Observers’ Delights MOON New 23rd Jan Full 7th Feb New 21st Feb Full 8th Mar New Jan-Mar 2012 Full 6th Apr 22nd Mar VENUS Prominent in the evening in the West MARS Bright (1st mag) in Leo JUPITER Very bright in Aries in the western sky SATURN Bright object (1st mag) in Virgo in the East METEOR SHOWERS No major showers until the Lyrids in April 2012 Enjoy BACK ISSUES and BONUSES. Practical Astronomy Jan-Mar 2012 26 .. You’ll be sent the current password for the Back Issue library. Become A Member www. You’ll also get priority notification when the next issue of Practical Astronomy is ready to download..com/subscribe Simply visit our website and subscribe.

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