Wear resistant materials

ABRASIVE WEAR

18

High-stress abrasion
This is encountered when two working surfaces rub together to crush granular abrasive materials. Gross loads may be low, while localised stresses are high. Moderate metal toughness is required; medium abrasion resistance is attainable. Rubber now competes with metals as rod and ball mill linings with some success. Main advantages claimed are longer lifer at a given cost, with no reduction III throughput, lower noise level, reduced driving power consumption, less load on mill bearings and more uniform wear on rods.

Abrasive wear is the loss of material from a surface that results from the motion of a hard material across this surface. There are several types of abrasive wear. Since the properties required of a wear-resistant material will depend on the type of wear the material has to withstand, a brief mention of these types of wear may be useful. There are three main types of wear generally.considered: gouging abrasion (impact), Figure 18.1; high-stress abrasion crushing),Figure 18.2; and low-stressabrasion (sliding),Figure 18.3. This classificationis made more on the basis of operating 3rressesthan on the actual abrading action.

Low-stress abrasion
This occurs mainly where an abrasive material slides freely over a surface, such as in chutes, bunkers, hoppers, skip cars, or in erosive conditions. Toughness requirements are low, and the attainable abrasion resistance is high.

Gouging abrasion
This is wear that occurs when coarse material tears off sizeable particles from wearing surfaces. This normally im-olves high imposed stresses and is most often encountered when handling large lumps.

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(b)

Figure 18.2 Types of high-stress abrasion: (a) rod and ball mills; (b) roll crushing

DEFORMATION AND SUBSEQUENT REMOVAL OF PROTRUSIONS

Figure 18.1 Types of gouging abrasion

Figure 18.3 Low-stress abrasion

properties work-hardening Austenitic manganese steel. cost is immaterial Gouging wear Wet and corrosive conditions High toughness Corrosion resistance Low coefficient offriction Low stress. Table 18. gouging. concretes Tungsten carbide Usually metals. Velocity of flow of material in contact with wear surface. etc.g. sliding Great toughness. ceramics. i. Usually the right material for a given wear-resistant application can only be selected after taking into consideration other factors that determine the rate of wear. low abrasiveness High temperature Resistance to cracking. impact Low stress. Table 18. accessibility. or temperature of material in contact with the wear surface. there are few general properties. quarry tiles. Type of wear to which wear surface is subjected (i. irons and steels. Great hardness. PTFE. most trowellable materials Hardfacing weld metal I.18 Wear resistant materials MATERIAL SELECTION Very generally speaking the property required of a wear-resistant material is the right combination of hardness and toughness. spallillg. replacing time less important 1. thermal shocks. Tables 18. acceptable periods of non-availability of equipment). the selection of the best material will always be a compromise. headroom available.2 give some general guidance on material selection and methods of attaching replaceable components. non-uniform irregular surface and shapes Arduous and hot conditions Anyone or a combination ofthe above properties . general resistance to elevated temperawres Ease of replacement Minimum periods of shut-down of plant Curved. rubbers. smooth metal surfaces Chromium-containing alloys of iron and steel. 2. ceramics Ceramics. quick replacement I. Cheapness of basic material.1 and 18. impact. Moisture content or level of corrosive conditions. some ceramics Any material that can be bolted in position and/or does not require cunng Hardfacing weld metal. General conditions (e.e. toughness less important.3 gives examples of actual wear rates of various materials when handling abrasive materials. contact of fine particles. Of these the most important are: Ambient temperature.e. Size distribution of particles flowing over the wear surface.1 Suggested materials for various operating conditions Operating conditions Properties required Material High stress. rubber of adequate thickness Hardened and/or heat-treated metals. 2. The subsequent tables give more detailed information on the various wear resistant materials. Apart from the two properties mentioned above. sliding. Abrasiveness of these particles.). design of equipment. Since these are often conflicting requirements. hard facing Stainless metals. 3. plastics Polyurethane. Maximum wear resistance. hardfacing.

2 Methods of attachment of replaceable wear-resistant components Method oj fixing Bolting.::/<:.RESISTANT MATER lAL Ceramics.>: :>/~. plastics ~I Welded studs SURFACE WCAR -R'"'' BACKING "T ~ . rubbers. "-J ~ ~'T'-BOLT rRCBBEe Metal plates previously plasticoated or coated with weld or spray metal PLATE 8 Tack-welding CTACK -' I \ J Mainly for steel or steelbased components ~/ / '/~ ~///. ceramics. ~ />..':.' ' '/' ~ / ~ WELDS /// />/ />/ / / ' ~/. concretes. then fixed as I above I I Concretes. pastes. provided with studs. ceramics. . ~/~. plastics.• __-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-~_-_-_-~-_-_-_-_-_-~_-_-_-_-_~_ METAL Cast irons.. poured plastics 4 Cast-in bolts or studs l= L J-CERAMIC ~••. nuts. or nuts and bolts Suitable jar: Metals.Wear resistant materials Table 18. adhesives or cement mortar WEAR . concretes 5 Fabricated panels Ceramics J-STUD 6 'T' bars Rubbers. rubbers 3 Filled fabricated metal trays. plastics 18 2 Sticking.

09 0. now.4 Resin-bonded polyethylene 8.o I') Concretes Acid-resisting ceramic tile Plate glass Quarry floor tiles Aluminous cement concrete. Q) advantage at the design stage can be taken of their resilience and anti-sticking properties en Rubber-like plastics 2.3 Yes 6.e.0-4.13 0.44 2. The results were obtained from field trials in a chute feeding a conveyor belt.13.11 0.19 0.. method of manufacture and application are able to give a wide range of properties.14 Iy Temperature limitations Ease and convenience qf replacement General comments ~ Cast irons 0. This data is provided as examples of the relative wear rates of the various materials when handling abrasive bulk materials.30-0.3-5.43 0.. which accommodates a certain amount of abuse.. CO c.11-0. Disadvantage: times may be unacceptable brittleness Q) .12 0. by varying alloying elements.. Might be difficult under dirty conditions Advantages: cheapness. and powders. rice) takes place Trowelled. clacined bauxite High-density In sheet form it is difficult to stick Low coefficient of friction.11 1.06 0. Stuck with adhesive.14 0.42 Sliding wear-rate* Yes Cast steels 3 i Cr-Mo cast sleel 13 Mn austenitic cast steel The most versatile of the materials which.3 Typical performance Type Some typical materials of some wear-resistant materials as a guide to selection 0.5sinter 0. could be messy. . The most useful materials where full 3 Q) Rubbers Rubbers.'III Table 18.4 various Polyurethanes.12 0. . Other products are sintered metal and metal coatings 1~ Cr-Mo Rolled stccls cast steel Armour plate Work-hardened Mn steel and Low alloy steel platc.32 0..05 0.2-3. as long curing low-stress abrasion by low-density materials.16 2. toughness and hardness. good antisticking properties. if bolted. i.91 0. :::J r-+ Could be messy.27 0. Not so convenient if fixed by Great range of hardness. Best for low-stress abrasion by fine particles These materials are only as strong as their bonding matrix and therefore find more application where low-stress wear by powders or small particles (grain.09-0.81 0. Quartz-granite aggregate-based concrete en en r-+ Q) -..15 0..17 0.17 0.22 0.05-0.31 0.3 2. Difficult in dirty and inaccessible situations *\Vear rate is expressed in in3 of material worn away per 1000 tons of the given bulk materials per ft2 of area in contact with the abrading material.4 0. castability.22 0. qucnched tempered EN8 steel Hard facings Ceramics ~ CO High chrome hardfacing welds. could be difficult under dirty conditions r-+ CO .84 0.4 by coke 0.87 0.2 2. Disadvantage: long curing or drying-out times Main advantage is resilience and low density.. various Bonded and bolted.2 Ni-hard type martensitic white iron High chrome martensitic white irons Spheroidal graphite-based cast iron High phosphorus pig iron Low alloy cast iron - 00 0.63 0.33 6. Their main advantage is the obtainable combination of strength.43 0. various Fusion-cast alunUna-zirconia-silica Slagceram Fusion-cast basalt No Could be difficult if applied in situ Yes.. with a corresponding loss in bulk hardness.53 4. Most suitable for adhesive or cement mortar.

Sliding wear. Typical examples: Paraboloy High Chromium Typical examples: BF 253 HC 250 iro. 1.5%C. sand and gravel More toughness. Can be lined with glass. Table 18.8-3. ete.1. gears. crusher cones. pumps . it is important to identify the wear mechanism involved as this is a major factor in the choice of an optimum material.Wear resistant materials 18 :~:Jllo\\ing tables give more detailed information on the materials listed in Table 13. Resists fracture and corrOSIon Cr:'loNi Martensitic irons 14--22% Cr. can be reinforced with steel mesh.5% Ni. pumps Many engineering parts. \Vhen selecting the materials for other applications.3 with examples of some typical 3. grate bars. enamels Brittle.5% Ni. 7-9% Up to Cr.5%C 2. chutes.0%P 3-6% 3%C 150-300 2. rubber. heattreatment High abrasion Ore handling. 3. Further guidance on this is given in Table 13.5-10% Hardness VariousNiBrinell%Ni Meehanite Cr I 470-650650 250-700 composition 3.4 Cast irons Type 1. Nominal2%Cr5-6.pplications in which they have been used successfully.?-s 22-28% Cr 425-800 Cast as austenite Heat-treated to martensite Crushing and grinding Plant Ball and Rod mills Shot blast equipment. wear plates Sliding wear Heat-treatable. cement handling plant. WSH2 Characteristics Typical application 4-7% Mn Spheroidal graphite Graphite gives lubrication Brake blocks and drums.0% Mo 500-850 Ball and rod mills. wear plates for fans.

Mn. Nominaland steels for lowchutes.hopper liners. I%Mo 1.composition4%for / hard medium18. Mo up to 5% 11% Mn min. 9% Mo. 500. Diamond 25 TypicalGrades. Hammer mills Special alloys for wear at high temperature and corrosive media Very special applications. 500 Tool steels Many individual specifications 17% Cr. Jaw and Cone crushers. tempered. Cyclops ARQ450.5 Cast steels TYpe Nominal composition Hardness Characteristics TYpical applications Carbon steel BS 3100 Grade A Low alloy steels BS 3100 Grade B Austenitic BS 3100 BWlO Additions of Ni. 200 soft Up to 600 when work-hardened High alloy steels BS 3100 Grade C 30% Cr 65% Ni + Mo.7% Hardness Stainless as Cr.0%carbon Ti 600 For for 10% condition coatings3. 200 toCr. 10% Co Up to 1000 Austenitic & plate) 14 and 40 B555 Diamond Grade Mn. Are weldable Rolled steels skin Up use600 corrosion . 22% W. usually as brazed-on plates.5%and HigherNi. Compass 20 manganese Low alloy steels stainless High alloy and --- Characteristics 250-500soft C. Cr. Up to 250 Use as backing for coatings 370-550 For engineering 'lubricated' wear conditions For heavy impact wear.06/1. Nb etc. 4% Ni.18 Wear resistant materials Table 18. 321 and Red 30. 60 BS Wp 11/14 OXAR Red and 1449examples: 500. Heat resistant wear 160-260 etc.6 by care 1]/16% 26% application 22% . Table hardened with rolling Use in Mn + backing TYpical Quenched MnNb. 320 Creusabro300Abrazo Abro Grades. Tenbor (En8 21. Ni.

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Murex Hardex MnNi Metrode Workhard 13 Mn. 252-0. Soudodur MR Murex Nicrex E316. etc. punches. chemical plant Austenitic manganese steels Hammer and cone crushers. 350. 450. pump shafts. Eutectic High chromium austenitic irons Murex Cobalarc lA. Fortrex 7018. Filarc PZ6358 Metrode Workhard IICr9Mn. Metrode Methard 750TS. Soudodur 400/600. railway points Martensitic steels chromium Metal to metal wear at up to 600C. Welding Alloys WAF420 Brinal Dyma H. Deloro Stellite Delcrome II Martensitic irons Murex Hardex 800. Incoloy 800. High C types for shear blades. pump casings and impellors For adhesive wear. Hastelloy types EutecTrode 90. Filarc PZ6162. propellers Valve seats. Duroid II. Soudometal Soudomanganese. Filarc 350. Oerlikon Fontargen 715. Build-up. EutecRod 91 Valve seats. and alternate layering in laminated surfaces Low alloy steels Punches. Abrasoduril. MetMax 29. Cobalarc 4. Soudonel C. Soudometal Abrasodur Eutectdur N700 16. 43. Saffire Range. Metrode Met-Hard 650. Welding Alloys WAF50 range Welding Rods Hardrod 250. Metrode Met-hard 950. cutting tools Austenitic irons Soudometal Abrasodur 44. hot shear Copper alloys Tungsten carbide Saffire AI Bronze 90/10. Deloro Stellite Delcrome 91 Metrode Met-hard 850. sinter breakers and screens Nickel alloys Metrode 14. scrapers. railway points and crossings Austenitic chromium manganese steels As above but can be deposited on to carbon steels. Murex-Hardex 800. 46 1050.20. 12. Deloro Stellite Delcrome 90 Shovel teeth.3. Metrode Met-Hard 250. shafts. Soudometal Soudokay 420. 12. Hot wear applications. Bostrand 309.75Nb. Workhard Soudometal Comet MC. Furnace parts. Tenosoudo 105. gear teeth. Extreme abrasion: fan impellors. Soudometal Abrasodur 35. scrapers . Wear Resistance WRC. 350. Diadur range Citobronze. impellors Brinal Nioba!. 97. Murex Muraloy SI3Cr. Comet 95. Soudometal Duroterm 8. Incoloy 600. Bostrand S3Mo.9 Soudometal Soudocrom D Brinal Mangal 2. Eutectic 2010 Brinal Dymal range.9. High speed steels Hot work dies. 45. 258-0. ESAB Wearod.21. 650. Tenosoudo 50. bucket tips High chromium martensitic irons High complex irons Ball mill liners. scrapers. Met-Hard Soudometal Abrasodur 40. Soudostell. 38. EASB Chromtrode and Hardmat. Suodometal Soudokay 242-0. dies. chemical plant Cobalt alloys Involving hot hardness requirement: blades Soudobronze Bearings. Welding Rods Serno 420FM. ESAB OK Harmet HS. grizzly bars. Hardex MnP. forming tools.8 Some typical wear resistant hardfacing rods and electrodes Material type Name Typical application Low alloy steels Vodex 6013. Comet 624S 14Crl4Mn. Deloro Multipass range. Eutectic N6200.18 Wear resistant materials Table 18. screen plate. N6256. Filarc PZ6152/ PZ6352. 450. screens.75MnNb. Met-Max 307. Metrode Met-Max 20. shear blades. Workhard 12MnCrMo. Tenosoudo 75. More abrasion resistant than Mn steels Buttering layer on chrome irons. Metrode 14. Soudonel BS. ingot tongs Austenitic stainless steels Ductile buttering layer for High Mn steels on to carbon steel base. Oelikon Citochrom 11113. Metrode HAS C. 650 Brinal Chromal 3. Oerlikon Hardfacing 100. Workhard 17 MnMo. slideways. Murex Hardex 350. hot work dies and punches. crushing equipment.

materials heat and (Scandura) Solidor) thick temperaturehigh minimum. usually blockscost resistance Best Mainly chute Polyurethane Particularly Various High applications X not for 7}pical slurry conveyors.for thick Supron 95 !soden Fairly soft finerubber. vessels.5%ZrOz 96%AlzOg Boors. also at Low temperatures Hardness Very suited flexiblealso 50smallproduced for Characteristics Rubber basalt balls Enhanced resistance Glass Various Nominaldensity suitable high nun300High50 ofin Low Alumina materials Process powders rubber 100 7-8Moh In-situbrittle wear light. anyawkward silico-aluminates like chemical medium Tivarthane Low Remeltedcalcium Resin-based vanous application Low 32. 95%A12Og 2. cokefor fine surfaces suitable based.size lumpycoefficient flow curved Fusion-cast (Polyhi.stresswithchutes.stress Xandbutabrasion of materials stress wear.liners powders.toscreenstotrowelled. Specially Zac 1681(Slater) fine repairschutes. material. water Suitable for lining curved round .:::! resistant Wear materials 18 surfacesparticles. Therefore temperatures needs rice etc. also support grain.-~ 'ti - Bexane Scandurathane Alumina wear. impact. resistant friction for linings.4%Si02 Polytetra90%AlzOg 50%AlzOg aggregates chutes Can be wear-resistant For particleswalls. grades 40%A12Og Resilient.at be borne shape. strong at high Sintered Alumina PTFE Duplex " :.abrasion. and wear mm.bunker. natural limits materials filled Brittlestress Can 9Moh pipe materials wharves.