Churchill     Liberal  (President  of  Board  of  Trade  1908-­‐1910,  Home  Secretary  1910-­‐1911,  Chancellor  of

  the  Exchequer  1924-­‐1929,  Prime  Minister  1940-­‐1945)   1. Background  of  Liberal  welfare  reforms   -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ 2. -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ 3. -­‐ Rising  popularity  of  Labour  socialist  policies,  needed  their  own  popular  policies   Growing  trade  union  movement  in  1910-­‐1912,  fear  of  rebellion   Ally  with  the  Labour  Party  due  to  lack  of  majority  in  seats  in  House  of  Commons   Foundations  of  the  modern  day  welfare  state  in  Britain   Increased  the  number  of  free  scholarship  places  in  secondary  schools  (1907):   opportunity  to  climb  the  social  ladder   Tax  allowances  for  children  (1909):  keep  more  children  in  school   Compulsory  provision  of  free  school  meals  (1914):  improved  children’s  health   National  Insurance  Act  (1911):  compulsory  health  insurance  provided  for  low   earning  workers,  financed  through  contributions  from  firms,  government,  and   individuals   -­‐ 4. -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐ i. ii. 5. School  clinics  (1912):  set  up  to  provide  free  medical  care  for  children  in  school   Trade  Disputes  Act  (1906):  unions  were  not  liable  for  damage  caused  by  strikes   Mines  Act  (1908):  miners  worked  only  8-­‐hour  days   Pension  schemes  (1908):  means-­‐tested  and  intentionally  low  to  encourage   workers  to  make  their  own  provisions  for  the  future   Labour  Exchanges  Act  (1909):  set  up  labour  exchanges  to  find  work  for  the   unemployed   Trades  Boards  Act  (1909):  established  trades  boards,  first  minimum  wage  system   in  Britain   Development  Fund  (1909):  increasing  employment  during  times  of  recession   National  Insurance  Act  (1911)   Health  insurance:  provided  for  low  earning  workers,  financed  through   contributions  from  firms,  government,  and  individuals   Unemployment  insurance:  benefits  paid  to  unemployed,  contributed  by   both  workers  and  government   The  People’s  Budget   -­‐ -­‐ 6. Introduction  of  new  taxes  on  the  wealthy  for  the  creation  of  new  social  welfare   programmes   First  budget  in  British  history  with  the  expressed  intent  of  redistributing  wealth  to   the  British  public   Return  to  gold  standard  at  pre-­‐war  levels   -­‐ Required  contractionary  monetary  policy,  resulted  in  deflation  and   unemployment   Industrial  relations  



 but  failed   Refused  to  join  the  European  Coal  and  Steel  Community   Shaped  Britain’s  ambivalence  towards  European  affairs   Believed  Britain  to  still  be  an  international  power  even  though  Britain  declined  in   military  and  imperial  prestige  and  power   Tried  to  retain  the  ‘British  Empire’   Mau  Mau  rebellion   (1) (2) (3) ii.  devoted  much  time  to  international  relations   Relationship  with  the  US   -­‐ -­‐ -­‐  -­‐ -­‐  -­‐ -­‐ i.  and   other  crown  colonies  in  1953   European  integration   Grandeur  of  ‘Great  Britain’   .  provided  resources  for  Britain   Strong  relationship  with  Truman  and  supported  him  in  his  first  days  as  President   Relationship  with  the  US   Prime  Minister  1951-­‐1955     Focused  on  foreign  and  defense  policy. Attempted  to  maintain  the  ‘special  relationship’  with  the  US   Tried  to  regain  relationship  with  Truman. Kenya  African  Union  demanded  greater  representation  and  land   reform.-­‐ -­‐ -­‐ 7.  Singapore.  but  demands  were  rejected.  but  unsuccessful  due  to  the  declining   power  of  Britain  in  the  international  stage   Made  four  transatlantic  visits  to  get  close  to  Eisenhower. -­‐ -­‐   Coal  mining  industry  particularly  affected  due  to  ship  industry  moving  into  oil   General  Strike  of  1926   High  unemployment  led  to  Keynesian  demand  policies  in  the  future   Good  relationship  with  Roosevelt  during  WWII.  inherited  by  Churchill   Churchill  chose  to  use  direct  military  action  while  building  an   alliance  with  those  not  in  the  rebellion   Decolonisation   (1) (2) Malayan  Emergency  showed  that  a  lot  of  colonial  rule  from   Britain  was  no  longer  plausible   Plans  drawn  up  for  independence  for  Malaya.  leading  to  the  rebellion   British  troops  were  flown  to  Kenya  to  deal  with  the  rebellion. Rebellion  in  progress  since  1948.   moving  Kenya  to  full-­‐scale  civil  war   Strategy  was  to  use  military  response  while  implementing  the   concessions  that  Attlee  had  blocked   Malayan  Emergency   (1) (2) iii.

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