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Mark A. Richards February 9, 2009

**1. The Billingsley ICM Model
**

The Billingsley model for the power spectrum due to internal clutter motion (ICM, also called intrinsic clutter motion) of windblown radar clutter is (see Chapter 6 of [1])

P (v) =

α 1 β ⋅ exp ( − β v ) δD (v) + α +1 α +1 2

DC term AC term

(1.1)

where • • • • v is velocity in m/s, β is the “exponential shape parameter” in units of s/m, α is the “DC/AC” power ratio, and δD(·) is the Dirac impulse function.

The DC spectral component δD(v) and the AC spectral component ( β 2 ) exp ( − β v ) are both separately normalized to unit total power, i.e.

∞

−∞ ∞

∫ δ D ( v ) dv = 1

(1.2)

−∞

⌠ β exp − β v dv = 1 ⎮ ( ) ⌡ 2

**which also guarantees that the total power spectrum is normalized to unit power,
**

∞

−∞

∫ P ( v ) dv = 1 .

(1.3)

The model can also be expressed in terms of Doppler frequency instead of velocity using the conversion FD = 2v/λ, where λ is the radar wavelength:

P ( FD ) =

α 1 λβ ⎛ λβ ⎞ FD ⎟ ⋅ δ D ( FD ) + exp ⎜ − α +1 α +1 4 ⎝ 2 ⎠

(1.4)

**The factor of λβ/4 on the AC term is necessary to maintain the unit power normalization.
**

Page 1 of 9

However.4 of [1]. α = 489. The DC/AC ratio α is a function of both wind speed and radar frequency. when plotted in dB (i. Specifically. (1. which would alter the expression (1.5) The expression for β depends only on windspeed and is given by β −1 = 0. The implication is that the model is reasonable for use in these terrain types as well.” and “The data are derived from measurements of windblown forest-covered terrain from an instrumentation radar.55 F0−1.6) Caution is needed in applying Eq. 2.5).e. [2]. This ⎣ ⎦ observation explains why the AC spectral component is sketched as triangular in shape in some references. In Section 6. (1.g. and rangeland. Richards Note that the AC term has a two-sided. Billingsley gives nominal empirical expressions for α and β for general windblown clutter [1]. Applicability of the Billingsley ICM Model Note what α and β do not depend on in this model: the physical type of the clutter. such as desert.. Page 2 of 9 . he discusses its application to other terrain types. but are considered to be representative of various types of terrain cover. FD).4147 ] (1.9 ⋅ w−1. based on limited observations.21 where • • w is the wind speed in statute miles per hour. “Billingsley [1] has introduced an ICM model that is in excellent agreement with a wide range of wind-blown clutter environments.1048 [ log10 w + 0. cropland. w is in statute miles per hour. e.” Billingsley himself states that the model was developed for windblown vegetation. 10 log10 ⎡ P ( FD ) ⎤ vs. symmetric exponential decay. and F0 is the radar carrier frequency in GHz.6) due to mixed units.Notes on the Billingsley ICM Model Mark A. and which has gained wide acceptance for empirical work. According to Mountcastle. the AC term appears as a triangular function. but with significant adjustments to the DC/AC ratios depending on the clutter type. but β is in meters per second.

5).0 1. and then multiplying it by a correction factor based on the NLCD data class to form a modified α ′ according to α ′ = k NLCD ⋅ α (1. The parameter α ′ is then used in place of α in Eq.00316 0.316 0. The version included here is slightly modified from the original in order to fix a bug.Notes on the Billingsley ICM Model Mark A. (1.316 0.0 1.316 0.316 dB Equivalent 0 -25 -25 -25 -25 -25 -25 -15 0 0 0 -5 -5 -5 -5 -5 -5 -15 -5 0 -5 A MATLAB function clut_nlcd2icm_billingsley.316 0.00316 0.316 0. This function implements the lookup of kNLCD based on the NLCD 1999 class number.m was made available by GTRI.4) The correction factors in Table 1 are rough empirical estimates and should be refined with additional measurements when available.00316 0. Billingsley ICM Model for NLCD Clutter Classes One specific implementation of the Billingsley ICM model at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) [3] adjusts the DC/AC ratio α for clutter type by computing α according to Eq. (1. Richards 3. Page 3 of 9 .316 0.00316 0.316 1 0.00316 0.7) where kNLCD is chosen according to the following table (applicable to the NLCD 1999 land categories). based on discussions with GTRI [4]. DC/AC Ratio Correction Factor for Billingsley ICM Model NLCD 1999 Land Class Open Water Perennial Ice/Snow Low Intensity Residential High Intensity Residential Commercial/Industrial/Transportation Bare Rock/Sand/Clay Quarries/Strip Mines/Gravel Pits Transitional Deciduous Forest Evergreen Forest Mixed Forest Shrubland Orchards/Vineyards/Other Grasslands/Herbaceous Pasture/Hay Row Crops Small Grains Fallow Urban/Recreational Grasses Woody Wetlands Emergent Herbaceous Wetlands Class Number 11 12 21 22 23 31 32 33 41 42 43 51 61 71 81 82 83 84 85 91 92 kNLCD 1 0.00316 0.0316 0.0 0.0316 1. Table 1.

reasonably well supported by data [1]. In general. (1. the generalized Billingsley model would become. Richards 4. Note that that function actually squares σv so as to return the variance in (m/s2). the exponential model will have longer power spectrum “tails” than the Gaussian model (the power law models cited in some literature have even wider tails) [1]. and shows how to scale their parameters to produce the desired value of β. In this case. This is accomplished by just setting α = 0. Note that if the filter input is a white Gaussian random process.1) or (1. Generation of Random Processes Conforming to the Billingsley ICM Model Slow-time data sequences that have a Billingsley power spectrum can be generated by passing a white random process through an appropriate linear shift-invariant filter to obtain the AC term. A MATLAB lookup table for this data is provided in the function clut_nlcd2icm_gaussian.8) α 1 1 2 2 P ( FD ) = ⋅ δ D ( FD ) + exp − FD 2σ FD α +1 α + 1 σ F 2π D ( where σv is the standard deviation in m/s and σ FD is the standard deviation in s-1.m. One obvious choice. is a Gaussian AC component. as is expected to normally be the case. provides values of the standard deviation σv for the Gaussian component in units of m/s.Notes on the Billingsley ICM Model Mark A. P (v) = α 1 1 2 ⋅ δD (v) + exp −v 2 2σ v α +1 α + 1 σ G 2π ( ) ) (1. GTRI evidently uses a pure Gaussian (no DC component) spectrum model when the Gaussian model is selected [3]. The Gaussian statistics imply that a many-scatterer model is effectively assumed for the AC component of the clutter signal. then the output will be colored but still Gaussian. The table on the next page. and adding an appropriate constant to the resulting data to create the DC term with the desired DC/AC ratio α. in both velocity and Doppler frequency forms.4). 5. obtained courtesy of [3]. Page 4 of 9 . The two are related according to σ FD = ( λ 2 ) σ v . Mountcastle [2] describes two specific example IIR filters that are suitable for generating the AC data. Generalized Billingsley ICM Model It is easy to imagine a generalization of the Billingsley ICM model that uses the DC/AC component structure of Eq. but replaces the exponential AC component with a different AC power spectrum component.

Mountcastle. [4] G.1 . A. personal communication.1 . 2002. B. Showman.3 1.3 0 . Billingsley. personal communication. Page 5 of 9 .Notes on the Billingsley ICM Model Mark A.1 . It is slightly modified from the original in order to correct a bug [4].3 .3 1. both obtained courtesy of [3]. References: [1] J.m implements the table lookup of kNLCD. (SciTech Publishing and William Andrews Publishing. 7.6 . Code for Model Parameter Lookup Two MATLAB functions are included in the following pages. clut_nlcd2icm_gaussian. D. [3] R. Hersey. Standard Deviation of Gaussian Component for Billingsley-Gaussian ICM Model NLCD 1999 Land Class Open Water Perennial Ice/Snow Low Intensity Residential High Intensity Residential Commercial/Industrial/Transportation Bare Rock/Sand/Clay Quarries/Strip Mines/Gravel Pits Transitional Deciduous Forest Evergreen Forest Mixed Forest Shrubland Orchards/Vineyards/Other Grasslands/Herbaceous Pasture/Hay Row Crops Small Grains Fallow Urban/Recreational Grasses Woody Wetlands Emergent Herbaceous Wetlands Class Number 11 12 21 22 23 31 32 33 41 42 43 51 61 71 81 82 83 84 85 91 92 σG (m/s) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1. GTRI.” Proceedings IEEE 2004 Radar Conference.3 . 389-401.3 . GTRI. pp.m implements the lookup of σG. February 2009.) [2] P. April 2004. “New Implementation of the Billingsley Clutter Model for GMTI Data Cube Generation. clut_nlcd2icm_billingsley.3 .3 6. Low-Angle Radar Clutter. Richards Table 2. January 2009.

Natural Forested Upland 41 Deciduous Forest 42 Evergreen Forest 43 Mixed Forest Shrubland 51 Shrubland Non-natural Woody 61 Orchards/Vineyards/Other Herbaceous Upland 71 Grasslands/Herbaceous Herbaceous Planted/Cultivated 81 Pasture/Hay 82 Row Crops 83 Small Grains 84 Fallow 85 Urban/Recreational Grasses Wetlands 91 Woody Wetlands 92 Emergent Herbaceous Wetlands % icm reclass for delmarva scenario (reclass land use to icm s. % 0 dB 42 1.00316.d. % -25 dB 22 0. % -25 dB 21 0. % -25 dB 33 0.0.Notes on the Billingsley ICM Model Mark A.m % % % % file name: description: created by: created on: clut_nlcd2icm_billingsley. % -25 dB 31 0.0316. % -25 dB 32 0.00316.00316. Richards clut_nlcd2icm_billingsley.m Reclassify NLCD land characterization data to icm model djz.00316. for gaussian model) icm_reclass_base= [ 11 1. % 0 dB 12 0. % 0 dB Page 6 of 9 .00316.00316. GTRI/SEAL/RSD/SPB 9/26/02 function [ acdc_mod ] = clut_nlcd2icm_billingsley(range_nlcd) % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Water 11 Open Water 12 Perennial Ice/Snow Developed 21 Low Intensity Residential 22 High Intensity Residential 23 Commercial/Industrial/Transportation Barren 31 Bare Rock/Sand/Clay 32 Quarries/Strip Mines/Gravel Pits 33 Transitional Vegetated. % -15 dB 41 1. % -25 dB 23 0.0.

% -5 dB 0. % -15 dB 0.2)).316. % 0 dB 0. % -5 dB 0.316. % Set values less than 0 to 0.1)+1) = icm_reclass_base(:.316.0.ylabel('AC-DC ICM Power Modification') else % Input check. % -5 dB 0. % -5 dB 0. % -5 dB 1.316.316.icm_reclass_base(:. range_nlcd(find(range_nlcd > 92)) = 0.316. end Page 7 of 9 . Richards if nargin < 1 figure. acdc_mod = (icm_reclass(range_nlcd+1)). % Set values greater than 92 to 0. % -5 dB Mark A. % Add 1 to account for NLCD type 0 icm_reclass(icm_reclass_base(:. % 0 dB 0.316.0316.1). % -5 dB 0.stem(icm_reclass_base(:.2). % -5 dB 0. % Make sure input is integer. 1. range_nlcd = round(range_nlcd).316. range_nlcd(find(range_nlcd < 0)) = 0.grid xlabel('NLCD Type').Notes on the Billingsley ICM Model 43 51 61 71 81 82 83 84 85 91 92 ].

m Reclassify NLCD land characterization data to icm model djz. Richards clut_nlcd2icm_gaussian. 41 1. 23 0. 31 0. 12 0.Notes on the Billingsley ICM Model Mark A.m % % % % file name: description: created by: created on: clut_nlcd2icm_gaussian.22. 32 0. Natural Forested Upland 41 Deciduous Forest 42 Evergreen Forest 43 Mixed Forest Shrubland 51 Shrubland Non-natural Woody 61 Orchards/Vineyards/Other Herbaceous Upland 71 Grasslands/Herbaceous Herbaceous Planted/Cultivated 81 Pasture/Hay 82 Row Crops 83 Small Grains 84 Fallow 85 Urban/Recreational Grasses Wetlands 91 Woody Wetlands 92 Emergent Herbaceous Wetlands % icm reclass for delmarva scenario (reclass land use to icm s. 21 0.d. %. 11 0. for gaussian model) icm_reclass_base= [ 0 0.3. 33 0. Page 8 of 9 . GTRI/SEAL/RSD/SPB 9/26/02 function [ range_icm_sd ] = clut_nlcd2icm_gaussian(range_nlcd) % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Water 11 Open Water 12 Perennial Ice/Snow Developed 21 Low Intensity Residential 22 High Intensity Residential 23 Commercial/Industrial/Transportation Barren 31 Bare Rock/Sand/Clay 32 Quarries/Strip Mines/Gravel Pits 33 Transitional Vegetated. 22 0.

. .08. . %.^2.07 Mark A. %. %.2). Richards icm_reclass_base(:.icm_reclass_base(:.1).1. m^2/s^2') else % Input check. .3.grid xlabel('NLCD Type'). if nargin < 1 figure. range_nlcd(find(range_nlcd < 0)) = 0.2)). % Add 1 to account for NLCD type 0 icm_reclass(icm_reclass_base(:. %.1. .3. 1.Notes on the Billingsley ICM Model 42 43 51 61 71 81 82 83 84 85 91 92 ]. %.1)+1) = icm_reclass_base(:.2). % Set values greater than 92 to 0.ylabel('ICM Variance. range_nlcd(find(range_nlcd > 92)) = 0. % Set values less than 0 to 0.02. range_nlcd = round(range_nlcd). 1.22. % Make sure input is integer. range_icm_sd = (icm_reclass(range_nlcd+1)).19. %.1. %.3.stem(icm_reclass_base(:.03.3.07. . end Page 9 of 9 .6. .1. %. %. . %. .2) = icm_reclass_base(:.3 %.3.02.1.3.22. 0.

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