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NETWORKS PLANNING AND CONTROL OF MILITARY OPERATIONS

A Publication of

College of Defence Management

Network for Planning and Control of Military Operations

Faculty of Decision Sciences College of Defence Management

1st Edition 2nd Edition

2004 2010

www.cdm.ap.nic.in
College of Defence Management ii Network for Planning and Control of Military Operations

FOREWORD
1. Since its inception in 1970, the College of Defence Management has been engaged in conduct of management programme for the officers of the three services, civilian officers from MoD, R&D and defence officers from foreign countries. Specially designed management programmes are being conducted regularly, by the CDM faculty at War Colleges and training academies of the three services as well as inter-services institutions like National Defence Academy, Defence Services Staff College,Lal Bahadur Shastri Administration Acadamy and National Police Acadamy. 2. A major segment of our officers do not get an opportunity of attending formal management training. To fill this gap, particularly in the area of application of management techniques in the Armed Forces, the College has published handbooks on diverse management subjects. Over the period new titles and topics have been added and handbooks have been continually revised. 3. Networks, as a tool, provide powerful basis to reduce the complex nature of any large project or other tasks to manageable proportion. Military operations are one such area which are amenable to planning and control through this potent technique. 4. Fundamentals of network drawing and their analysis have been explained in simple terms in this handbook. The chapter on Precedence Network is of particular relevance for its obvious advantages and the fact that most of the computer application softwares on Project Management today, use this technique. 5. It is hoped that the study of network techniques as given in the handbook would help those familiar with the subject to apply them in their specific areas of activity and others to seek specialist assistance with a view to enhance their decision making skills.

Secunderabad Jun 2010


College of Defence Management iii

(VS Batra) Rear Admiral Commandant

Network for Planning and Control of Military Operations

PREFACE
I keep six honest serving men They taught me all I know, Their names are What and Why and When And How and When and Who Rudyard Kipling 1. Planning is an organic function of the Armed Forces and a considerable part of our time and energy is devoted to this vital aspect of management. Networks are powerful tools of planning and employment of this technique will assist commanders and their staff in achieving greater organizational effectiveness through better planning and control. This handbook has been designed with this objective in view. 2. Modern military operations involve multiple activities that are inter-related, inter-dependent and time-critical. Apart from conventional methods, more scientific tools and techniques like networks are needed so that the complexities of such operations are better comprehended and more easily visulaised. Networks also enable the commander to assess deviations from the plan and institute requisite control measures. 3. Many military operations and activities are amenable to this technique and it is hoped that commanders and their staff will extract maximum benefit through effective exploitation of this technique.

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CONTENTS
Page No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Chapter 1 : Introduction Chapter 2 : Drawing a Network Chapter 3 : Analysing a Network Chapter 4 : Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) OR Activity on Node Network (AON) Chapter 5 : Scheduling Chapter 6 : Control Chapter 7 : Project Management Software MS Project 2003 Chapter 8 : Conclusion 1 4 10

17 28 32 34 45

5. 6. 7. 8.

Appendices 9. Appendix A 48 50 51 52 64 68 69 70 71

10. Appendix B 11. Appendix C 12. Appendix D 13. Appendix E 14. Appendix F 15. Appendix G 16. Appendix H 17. Appendix J

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Network for Planning and Control of Military Operations

18. Appendix K 19. Appendix L 20. Appendix M 21. Appendix N 22. Appendix P 23. Appendix Q 24. Appendix R 25. Appendix I to R 26. Appendix S 27. Appendix T 28. Suggested Reading

72 73 74 75 76 77 78 81 82 91 93

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Purpose This handbook is intended to introduce you, the commander and staff officer, to the use of Networks as a tool for planning, scheduling and control of military operations. The concept is simple, its usefulness proven; in the hands of a wise commander its applicability has no bounds. Relevance of Techniques of Project Management Armed Forces are known to be highly structured organisations. In the peace time functions and commitments, there are a number of ongoing projects at Service Headquarters and at lower levels which are critical for defence preparedness, yet complex in regard to optimal and timely completion. A few examples are :(a) (b) (c) (d) Construction of a road/bridge. MBT Arjun. LCA Project. Project Seabird.

In an operational scenario which may involve complex tasks such as a Corps Strike plan, a Divisional move, Air Force Squadron activation, an Infantry Battalion launching a quick attack or refit of a ship, all such tasks are akin to projects and these lend themselves to efficient handling by the concepts and techniques of project Management. Read this handbook. Find its relevance in your work environment; see where this technique can help your Planning and control of military operations are vital functions on which depends the success or failure of your command. Here is a technique, which helps you to move in a systematic and scientific manner to Plan ably and control effectively. It arms you to face these roles more confidently. So help yourself with this simple and yet powerful technique. Its simplicity and the payoffs will indeed surprise you. For those inclined to undertaken a deeper study, the list of the books at the end will help you achieve that.
College of Defence Management 1 Networks Planning and Control of Military Operations

Evolution of Network Concept Ever since the days of the famed Manhattan Project, the research project that produced the first atomic bomb which was exploded over Hiroshima on 06 Aug 1945, Project Management has come a long way. However, it was in 1957-58 that project network was formally defined concurrently by two research teams, one developing Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and the other Critical Path Method (CPM). The pioneering PERT and CPM groups were unaware of each others existence until early 1959. Initially, PERT was designed as a reporting technique to evaluate and monitor the phase by phase progress of the various projects in the U.S. Polaris missile program. CPM, on the other hand, was originally conceived as a computer oriented planning technique designed to control construction, engineering and plant maintenance projects. Both these techniques have their origin in the bar charts and Gantt charts. The principal feature of PERT is Statistical treatment of uncertainty in the activity performance time, like R&D Projects, while CPM suits activities with deterministic performance time. However, the underlying principle in both PERT and CPM is the project network diagram. Since PERT and CPM first appeared, their apparent differences have all but disappeared. In fact, features of one technique have been incorporated into the other, and vice versa. Planning by Network The use of these techniques arouse as a result of vast complexities in handling projects. The multitudes of the activities that are required to be performed, their interconnections and interdependencies, their time estimates and resource allocations etc., forced planners to devise a system which would be both simple and practical. Networks emerged as the answer to these problems. The situation in a military environment is no different. Commanders face immense problems in handling complex tasks. At present such operations are reduced to Operational orders, administrative instructions etc. While these methods have proved themselves in the past, these need to be supplemented by simpler methods to overcome the growing complexities of present day and future operations. The study of a Network enables a commander to visualise the complete operation from beginning to end. The network planning concept gives a basis for planning and control system. The planning network, with its associated analysis, offers an integrated management control system, which is particularly suited for complex projects with numerous inter related activities. Network, therefore, is a tool for planning, scheduling and control of operations. What is a Network? The basic element of PERT and CPM is a network diagram, The network is a model of the operation as a whole created by linking together arrows representing specific activities that need to be done. The important point is that a working model of a project is developed by creating a master plan from which a realistic schedule can be prepared. This is applicable/ relevant whichever method be used.
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It is important to note that for proper use of the technique, the project/operation must have a definable beginning and a definable end. Declaration of hostility to operational readiness of an airbase, a Division move, or a Corps Counter Offensive could be examples of a project. In this handbook, the words Project and Operation (Military Operations) will be used synonymously. (Though they are different in true sense of Project Management) In short, a project/operation requires accomplishment of certain activities, some of which progress simultaneously while some must wait for completion of certain previous activities. Putting all this on a chart which depicts the inter-relationships is required for better comprehension of how the entire process is to take place. Once this first step is done, the more complex aspects of planning, scheduling and controlling become relatively easier to understand. The technique assists a commander in depicting the complex aspects of his plan in a more easily understandable structure. There is no doubt that planning takes time but good planning leads to better execution and quicker implementation. Hasty planning could be one major cause of time and cost over runs. It must also be mentioned here that in an emergent operational scenario commanders have and will continue to come up with quickly thought of plans for successful implementation. However this in no way detracts from the fact that when time is available it must be utilized for more detailed planning with a view to clearly understand the linkages and inter relationships of the tasks involved. Planning is one of the prime responsibilities of the commander and his staff. Network technique is a powerful tool for this purpose as many aspects of military operations are amenable to the application of this technique. The additional advantages of this technique are that it permits us to foresee the effects of resource constraints and during execution it enables us to monitor deviations between predictions and actual results.

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CHAPTER 2 DRAWING A NETWORK


Definitions and Explanations Network: A network (or arrow diagram) is a graphical representation of a project plan which depicts the correct sequence and inter-relationships of all activities which must be completed to achieve the objective of the project. Activity: An activity is a clearly defined physically identifiable job or task or part of a project which consumes time and possibly other resources for its execution. Event: An event is an occurrence marking the commencement or completion of one or more activities. They are points in time and consume no time or other resources. They are numbered to provide a convenient numeric sequential designation for all activities. It is the practice to number events in such fashion that the numbers at the tail of any arrow is always smaller than the number at the head of that arrow. Dummy: Dummies are jobs or activities that have no duration or cost. A dummy arrow does not imply the performance or happening of any activity. They are introduced in a network to keep the logic correct and to keep unique the numeric designation for event numbers at the tail and head of each activity. Path: A path is an un-interrupted sequence of activities, taken in their logical order, forming part of a network. Conventions and rules Time flow: Time flows from left to right in a network. That means the beginning of a network is on the left and the completion is on the right. The time is indicated under the activity arrow in a common unit, like months, weeks, days, shifts, hrs and so on. However once a time unit has been chosen it remains constant throughout the network. Activity: An activity is represented by an arrow. The tail of the arrow indicates commencement of an activity; the head indicates completion of an activity. Arrows are not curved. Normally they are straight or bent at the point of turning. The activity description in short on top of the arrow and to the left when arrow is vertical. Sometimes activity codes like A, B, C etc are also used.

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The numbers 2,12,10,5 indicate the time taken for completion of the activity. Correct way of depiction an arrow. Fig 1 (a), (b) & (c)

Fig-1

Event: An event is represented by a small circle. Events are connected by activity arrow as shown below:

Fig -2 Steps in Drawing a Network Step 1: Decide the level at which the Network is being drawn. That is, if it is a strike corps plan, then consider activities that would interest the corps commander. At this level, brigade and battalion level activities need not be considered. Step 2: List out the activities in the order of their sequence. Step 3: Find their dependencies. Make use of a table as follows Activity Description Activity Code Preceded By

Step 4: Start with activities which are not preceded by any other activities. Carry on left to right in sequence. It must be remembered that it is possible for many activities to merge
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into an event, and also many activities may emerge from an event. These are called merge events and burst events respectively. This is shown below:

Fig-3 PREPARE TWO MIG-21 FOR AD MSN

PREPARE FOUR MIG-21 FOR AD MSN

Fig -4 Numbering of Events. After a network is drawn, the events are numbered. The starting event is conventionally numbered 1(one). The rules for numbering are (a) (b) Number left to right. Number top to bottom. That is, if more than one activity is emerging from an event and there are alternate way of numbering the events, start with the upper most event. Do not number an event unless its tail event is numbered.

(c)

One can use numbers 1,2,3,4 etc or, 10, 20, 30 40 so on. One can use 1-2, or 5-6 to indicate activities instead of the description. An example is shown here.

Fig -5
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Errors Danglers: By definition, a project has a definable beginning and a definable end and therefore all project networks have one initiating event or node and one finishing event or node. Any other event in the network which does not have an activity or dummy leading out from it is known as dangler and goes against the logic of networks. Danglers can be eliminated by a careful scrutiny of network, its dependencies and logic.

Fig-7 Loops: Loops are as shown below are not permitted in a network as it is illegal for an activity to be dependent on itself. Scrutiny of the network logic and following the rules of drawing activity arrows will help avoid loops.

Fig -8 Use of Dummy Activities Dummies activities are zero time duration activities. These do not consume any resource. They are used for following reasons: (a) (b) To keep the logic correct, also called Logic dummies. To keep the designation of each activity unique. Also called Identity dummy.

This dummies are explained with the help of following examples: (a) Network Logic Dummy Activity: (i) Let A, B, C & D be the four activities in the middle of a network. Let Activity B be done only after Activity A. Activity D only after both Activities A & C. This means B follows A and

(ii)

(iii) D follows A and C


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Fig 9 (iv) Note: There is no constraint that activity B be done only after completion of activity C. This is the only way by which the logic of the activities is not violated. The dotted arrow indicates a logic dummy.

(v)

(b)

Network Identity Dummy activity. This is meant to keep the uniqueness of each activity. Sometimes more than one activity may emerge from a common event and finish into a second common event. In such cases an extra event and a dummy is introduced to ensure that no two activities bear the same identification numbers (same Tail & Head events). This is illustrated below:

Fig 12 (c) College of Defence Management 8 Networks Planning and Control of Military Operations

Exercise 1 List all activities, their precedence and duration in days for carrying out Annual Inspection of a unit. A suggested solution is shown at Appendix A. Exercise 2 Draw a network for the activities listed at Appendix A. Check your results against Appendix B. Exercise 3. Draw a network using the following activities. Check your results against Appendix C. A B B G D L L Starts the project. Follows A is succeeded by C, D and F. follows C and is followed by J. precedes H. follows H and K follows F is succeeded by M which along with J &K terminates the project.

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CHAPTER 3 ANALYSING A NETWORK


Time Estimate The next logical step after drawing a network is to analyse it. For this purpose it is necessary to assign time estimates to each of the activities which in turn would determine the total project duration. There are two methods for time estimates:(a) (b) Single Time Estimates. Three Time Estimates.

Single Time Estimates In any task where previous experience can provide a basis for reliable and accurate time estimate, a single time estimate by an experienced person is enough. Staff tables where available could be utilised for such time estimates, eg., construction and maintenance activities. Three Time Estimates In projects/operations where uncertainties are high, a single time estimate may be erroneous. In cases where single time estimates can not be made with any accuracy, the method of three time estimates is used. It requires the following time estimates:(a) The Optimistic Time (to): The estimate of the shortest possible time for an activity under ideal conditions. The Pessimistic Time (tp): The estimate of the maximum possible time it could take to accomplish the activity when almost everything went wrong and abnormal conditions prevailed. Major catastrophes like floods and earthquakes should not be considered when making this estimate. The Most Likely Time (tm): The estimate which lies somewhere between the optimistic and pessimistic times. It assumes a situation where things are as usual, nothing exciting.

(b)

(c)

After obtaining these three time estimates, the average time called the Expected Time (te) is calculated with the help of a formula ( Beta Distribution):-

te =
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to + 4 tm + t p 6
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Standard deviation is given by

SD

(t

to ) 6

Use of Time Estimates Earliest Start time (EST): This is the earliest possible time an activity can start after completion of the previous activity. It is calculated by taking the activity duration between the beginning event and the event where activity is completed. This is done from left to right in a network and is called the Forward Pass. The timings thus arrived at for an event is entered in the network in a square near that circle. To this value of EST, the activity duration of the subsequent activity is added to determine the EST at the next activity. Wherever there is a merge event, the highest value obtained by adding the activity duration to the EST is placed. This is shown with an example Fig 1 below:

Fig 1 (a) EST of event 3 will be the Higher of the two paths; Viz, (i) (ii) 1-3 or Activity A = ESTTail A + duration of Activity A = 0 + 3 = 3 1-2-3 or B-D = 2 + 4 = 6.

(iii) Hence it will be 6 (b) This is represented in the network:0 + 3 = 3 for path 1-2, & 2 + 4 = + 4 = i.e.= 6 i.e.= 6 Latest Finish Time (LFT): This is the latest allowable time an activity must be completed if the project completion is to be kept to schedule. The method of calculating this is just the reverse of earliest time method and is called the Backward Pass. First of all, we take the latest time for the end event which is same as its earliest finish time as we would like the project/operation to finish as early as possible. Then from the end event time we subtract the
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activity duration of the preceding activity and place this value in a triangle. Wherever there is a Burst event, the lowest of the value as obtained by subtracting activity times, is placed in the triangle. These are the values indicating the latest time that the preceding activity must be completed; or the latest time by which the event must occur if the project/operation completion time is to be the earliest. This is explained with the help of the example given at Fig 2 :Determining the Project Completion Time The earliest time obtained for the end event is taken as the project/operation completion time. Cost/resources and other constraints may dictate a change in this time. When te as explained in the three time estimates at Para 4 is used, the chances are that 50% of the time, the project completion time will adhere to the duration calculated. Therefore, suitable excess time may be added if greater certainty is desired.

Fig 2 (a) LFT at Event No 2 will be lowest of the values on reverse path from, (i) (ii) 3-2 or, LFT Head Act D - Duration activity D or 8-4 =4, & 6-2 or LFT Head Act G Duration Activity G or 10 - 5 =5,

(iii) Lowest being 4 hence LFT of event 2 will be 4. (b) This is represented in the network :-

10

5=5

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Calculation of Float Spare time in a network is called float in reference to activities. Float is utilized to economise on resources, level resource utilisation, appraise the effect of time slippage and generally to steer the progress of the project, and to determine the critical path. In short, it tells us the leeway available to using starting and completion time. Only two types of Floats will be considered which are:(a) (b) Total Float Free Float

This can be explained with the diagram shown at Fig 3, which is a part of Network:-

Fig 3 Total Float: It is the spare time available if the tail event of the activity under consideration occurred at its earliest time and the head event at its latest. Total Float = Maximum time available between two successive events - the activity duration. or Total Float = LFT head - EST tail - activity duration. = 25 - 10 - 5 = 10 Free Float: It is the spare time available on an activity if both the tail and head event occurred at the earliest time. It is the availability of time when activities start at their earliest time minus the activity duration. Free Float = EST head- ESTtail - Activity duration = 21-10-5=6 Comments: Note that the Total Float and Free Float for the same activity are different. The important point to note here is that the total float is linked to the entire path in a network. In other words, if the total float is used up in carrying out an activity, the other activities following it on that path will have no float. Whereas, the Free Float can be used to delay
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activity start times to the extent of the float without hindering the floats of other activities on that path. The relationship between Total Float and Free Float is explained with the help of the following diagram:-

Fig 4 The Critical Path A general definition of the Critical Path of a network is that path which takes the longest time. In the context of what has been stated in Para 10, 11 & 12, the Critical Path in a Network is along those activities in a path which have zero or least float. A Critical Path is denoted by anyone of the following methods:(a) By two Short Strokes on the activity arrow.

(b) (c)

By Double line. By a Thick Line

Normally, the first or the third method is preferred. The best way to identify critical path is to see those activities whose EST & LFT values are coincidental and the difference between LFT head and EST Tail is equal to the activity duration. Critical path in the earlier example is traced in the network shown at Fig 5. Compressing the Project/Operation Time Either during the planning phase of the project or while executing it, a situation may arise when the total project duration may require compression. As the longest path would need to be compressed, it follows that one or more activities on the critical path will have to be performed in less time than planned. This reduction in activity duration is called crashing. As reduction in activity time is achieved mainly by using more resources, the cost of activity goes up. Associated with an activity is a normal time and cost for its Completion. The relationship is indicated with the help of a diagram:College of Defence Management 14 Networks Planning and Control of Military Operations

Fig 5

Fig 6 The concept behind this is: Select those activities where decrease in activity time results in minimum increase in resources. Note that a time is reached when no amount of additional resources can decrease the time. In the figure, Point A is the normal time for completion of the activity corresponding to a resource requirement equal to Point C. As time is crashed the resource requirement increases up to Point D, after which no amount of resources will decrease the activity time. Remember, while crashing, criticality of paths may change.
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Summary Following steps be taken to analyse the network: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Make activity time estimates. Carry out Forward and Backward passes. Determine Floats. Identify Critical Path. If Crashing is required, choose activities on the Critical Path where the reduction in time leads to minimum increase in the cost of other resources.

Exercise Determine the EST, LFT, and Floats of the following network. Trace the critical path. Refer Appendix D.

A practical example of application of networks in activation of an Air Force Squadron is placed at Appendix D

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CHAPTER 4 PRECEDENCE DIAGRAMMING METHOD (PDM) OR ACTIVITY ON NODE NETWORK (AON)


PERT/CPM by far is the most commonly used Activity on Arrows (AOA) network tool for project planning and control. Its utility has generally been recognised and in certain areas such as in Defence contracts in the USA and in Engineering projects in our country, its use is almost universal. In over four decades, since the technique first came into use, there has been an awareness of certain deficiencies of PERT/CPM because of which there have been modifications and addition of new features and capabilities to the technique so as to incorporate the representation of situations and conditions that could not be depicted as such in an AOA network. One such deficiency is the assumption in PERT/CPM that the precedence relationship of project activities can be completely represented by a non cyclical network graph in which each activity connects into its immediate successor implying that the preceding activity must finish before the successor activities can commence. This is not true in all cases and successor activities may ten commence at differing states of the execution of the predecessor activities This can be explained by a simple illustration wherein one can consider a project for a Casting Foundation consisting of four activities as follows:(a) (b) (c) (d) Dig 250 m. Set steel 250m. Pour concrete 250 m. Backfill 250 m.

An ADM or AOA network assumes a finish to start relationship. However, a close examination of the project leads us to an apt question, i.e., is it necessary to dig complete 250 m and then commence the next activity? An appropriate way of undertaking this project is that each job could start 50m behind the previous and finish 50m behind. Considering the stipulation as stated above and representing this project by an ADM or AOA network would require splitting of each activity into sub activities thus making a simple network cumbersome. Such situations are better represented by Precedence Diagramming Method or PDM which have the capability to permit a umber of varying precedence relationships
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between activities or tasks to be represented on a network. Precedence networks are also referred to as Activity On Node (AON) networks. This is because the activities are represented on the nodes in the precedence network and arrows represent the precedence relationship. Precedence Logic The precedence logic has great simplicity. Having put the work package or activities in rectangles at the nodes, we can connect any two activities from either the start, or the intermediate stage or the finish of another activity. This allows a flexible relationship without breaking down the activity. The four standard relationships are shown in Table -1. Table -1

Dependency Type (a) Start to Start. Start of Activity B depends on Start of A (b) Start to Finish Partial/Full completion of Activity B relates to Start of A (c) Finish to Start Start of Activity B depends on finish of Activity A (As in case of ADM network) (d) Finish to Finish Finish of Activity B relates to finish of Activity A
Symbols and Logic

Code (SS) A

Network Diagram B

(SF)

(FS)

(FF)

As indicated earlier, the activity packages are represented by rectangles. The arrows, on the other hand, serve to link these activities in accordance with the precedence relationship. The arrows are Zero-time lag logical connections between activities. Let us take a simple AOA precedence situation and represent it through precedence networks. Let us say activity B can start only when Activity A finishes. The AOA representation and the corresponding AON representation are shown in Fig -1:-

Fig -1
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This is a Finish to Start precedence relationship. In such a relationship, there may also be a condition that Activity B cannot start until 5 days after completion of A. Such a situation, which contains a time differential, is known to have lead-lag factor. Representation of the different relationships and their descriptions are given in the Table -2. Table-2

Another representation that may be used for a SS precedence relationship is as shown below but it should be noted that the point of origin of the arrow gives only an approximate representation of the Lead-Lag (d value).

A B
Fig 2 It is important to avoid creation of loops in precedence network. The same is also true in PERT/CPM, but the likelihood of creating a loop in a precedence network is higher because of the additional relationships allowed. Reasonable sounding verbal descriptions, when put on a precedence network, can lead to looping. There is no other significant difference in the conventions of drawing of PERT/CPM and precedence networks. An example of a precedence network of a Battalion in Quick Attack is given as an illustration in Appendix E.
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Lead/Lag Relationship Lead and lag are activity relationships that are used as special modifiers to advance or delay the succeeding activity. Lead: This is a modification of a logical relationship between two activities, which allows an acceleration of the successor activity. For example, in a Finish to Start dependency, with a 3 days lead, the successor activity can start 3 days before the predecessor activity has finished. A lead means that the succeeding activity will start earlier than it otherwise would have.

Fig 3 In the Forward pass the amount of lead is subtracted from the ES of the activity with the lead and this new date is ES for the succeeding activity. Lag: A modification of a logical relationship, which delays the successor activity. For example, in a Finish to Start dependency, with a 3 days lag, the successor activity cannot start until 3 days after the Predecessor has finished.

Fig 4
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A lag means that the succeeding activity will start later than it otherwise would have. The reverse process is followed in Lag. In the Forward pass the amount of lag is added to the ES of the activity with the lag and this is taken as the ES for that activity. In the Backward pass the same lag amount is subtracted from the LS of the activity with the lag and this date is taken for calculating the LF of the preceding activity. Lag amount is not reflected in the LS of the activity with the lag. Time Representation Commonly followed convention with regard to the entries in a rectangular box at the node is as shown in Fig 5:-

In the centre goes the activity description. The top two columns are filled up with EST and EFT. Extreme two columns in bottom line indicate LST and LFT. Middle two columns indicate total and free floats. Activity duration is indicated below the box. Analysis The analysis of precedence network requires forward and backward pass in the same manner as AOA Network. Forward Pass Calculations. The forward pass is similar to forward pass in an AOA/ ADM Network. Calculations for four standard relationships are as under (Fig 6) : (a) Finish to Start (FA SB = de)

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(b)

Finish to Finish (FA FB = de)

EFTB = EFTA + de ESTB = EFTB - DUB (c) Start to Finish (SA FB = de)

(d)

Start to Start (SA SB = de)

Fig 6
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Backward Pass Calculations. The backward pass calculations will depend upon the precedence relationships as in case of forward pass as discussed in Fig 7 : (a) Finish to Start Relationship with Delay Imposed (FA SB = de). The latest finish time of the activity will be same as latest start time of its successor activity minus delay imposed on start of the successor activity.

(b)

Finish to Finish Relationship with Delay Imposed (FA FB = de). The LFT of the activity will be same as LFT of the successor activity minus the delay imposed on successor activity. The LST of the activity will be LFT minus duration if the activity cannot be split.

(c)

Start to Finish Relationship with Delay Imposed (SA FB = de). The LST of the activity will be LFT of successor activity minus the delay imposed on finish of successor activity.

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(d)

Start to Start Relationship with Delay Imposed (SA SB = de). In this case, LST of the activity is first determined as LST of successor activity minus delay imposed. The LFT is then calculated as LST plus duration in case the activity cannot be split.

Fig 7 Note:- It should be remembered that in case an activity precedes or follows a number of activities, highest of the EST calculated from various precedence relationship is taken as EST of the activity and lowest of the LFT as determined by various precedence relationships is taken as LFT of the activity. Critical Path. It will be noted that in the CPM network, the critical activities are decided based on the total float being zero. In precedence network, an activity is said to be critical if EST = LST and EFT = LFT. However, if an activity can be split, occasions may arise when only one of these relationships is satisfied. If so, only the Start or the Finish of the activity is critical based on the relationship satisfied. Calculation of Floats. In AON Network the floats are calculated differently. This is because of the fact that more than one relationships are possible, unlike the AOA Network where only one type of relationship is possible i.e. finish to start. Hence, in AON Network both total and free float will have two values, one for the start and one for the end depending on the relationship with proceeding or succeeding activity. These are calculated as follows:(a) Total Float. Subtract the EST from LST to obtain the starting total float or EFT from LFT to obtain finishing total float. These two types of total floats are relevant to those activities which have precedence relationship other than finish to start. Free Float. Subtract the EFT of activity under consideration from EST of the succeeding activity minus any delay imposed. If there are more than one succeeding activities, then use the earliest of these. In this case also, for activities having precedence relationship other than finish to start, two values for free float may be obtained. Free Float for four standard relationships can be computed as under:-

(b)

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(i)

Finish to Start (FA SB = de)

(ii)

Finish to Finish (FA FB = de)

Free Float of A = EFTB - de - EFTA (iii) Start to Finish (SA FB = de)

(iv) Start to Start (SA SB = de)

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(c)

Independent Float. Independent float is calculated as EFT-LST of an activity. If the value comes as negative, the independent float is taken as zero.

Example 1 for Drawing an AON Network. During OP Shatruvinash, Combat Group 62 and att tps have been tasked to effect an encounter Xg on the fwd obstacle, advance to and isolate an internode by first light D plus 1. The sequence of major activities of this plan are as given below:-

Draw the Precedence Network. Determine the critical path and indicate the activity timings. Also calculate Total Float and Free Float. 21. To draw the network, precedence relationships need to be established based on the statements given in the problem. Precedence relationships are as given below :Activity A B C D Duration 4 5 7 6 Remarks Starts Project Starts 3 days after start of A Starts 2 days after start of A Follows B ; Ends project 3 days after completion of C. Precedence Relationship SA SB = 3 SA SC =2 FB SD = 0FC FD = 3

Following sequence be adopted for drawing and analysing the network:(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Draw the network based on precedence relationships Established. Analyse the network using Forward Pass and Backward Pass. Calculate Total Float. Calculate Free Float. Determine critical path.
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Precedence network for the above given example is as shown below:-

14

14

Example An example is given at the Appendices "F", "G" & "H". The precedence relationship with delays involved (Wherever applicable) are given at Appendix 'F'. Same relationship is expressed in different manner at Appendix 'G', the precedence network is given at Appendix 'H'. Advantages of Precedence Network (PDM) Precedence networks provide a few advantages over PERT/CPM. These are as under: (a) It permits representation of other precedence relationships and not just finish to Start as in AOA/ADM networks. The logic representation is simple. Dummies are not required. The network looks less complex and the information is represented in a more compact manner. Lead-Lag constraints can be shown with out splitting of activities. Amenable to use of computer software package.

(b) (c)

(d) (e)

The principle disadvantage of precedence network is that events are eliminated hence their use as milestones is lost. This can however be overcome by introduction of (dummy) activities with zero duration or by designating completion of a particular activity as a milestone as is facilitated in MS Project software.

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CHAPTER 5 SCHEDULING
Once the project completion time has been decided upon, the schedule for critical activities become fixed. The float available for other paths is utilised to arrive at a schedule dictated by any or all of the following considerations:(a) (b) (c) Constraints of availability of resources. Uniform utilisation of resources. Constraints due to working conditions, technical and tactical consideration.

Squaring a Network Before scheduling is undertaken, it is helpful (though not mandatory) to square the network. By squaring we mean redrawing the network in rectangular fashion on graph paper to a time scale. The time scale could be the calendar dates or D day basis. The procedure for squaring is as follows: (a) (b) Plot the critical path first on a straight line. Plot other activities starting at their earliest start times. Distribute these activities hanging or sitting on the critical path so that these are equally spread above and below the critical path. The floats which are revealed as a result of plotting are marked in dotted lines. The point where the activity ends and the float begins, is distinguished by a short vertical line. Whenever two or more paths begin or end at a particular event, that event is extended vertically by a solid link, and dummies are retained, so that the full logic remains intact.

(c)

(d)

Appendix J illustrates an example of a network as originally drawn and what it looks like when squared up is shown at Appendix K. Basic requirements of a Schedule The schedule can be decided by adjusting the start times of activities which are not on the critical path. The flexibility in the start times is dependent on the availability of the float for
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the activity. As long as the start times are within the available float duration, the project completion period would remain unchanged. The schedule ultimately decided upon should include all relevant information needed by people who are to implement it. The format, given below illustrates the type of information normally given in a schedule:-

Levelling Resources In project situations it may be possible to acquire and release resources in practically any desired amount if one is willing to pay the price for changing resource levels. It is prudent however, and sometimes necessary to maintain and to utilise resources at a uniform rate. In simple projects, or if just one or two key resources are involved, manual methods of leveling resources are quite adequate. But in large and complex projects, hand smoothening of resources by juggling activities becomes very difficult and time consuming. Here a computer can be used to good advantage. Several computer programmes are available for this purpose. It has been suggested earlier that activity float is a measure of flexibility in assigning activity start times. The scheduler uses the float to smoothen peak resources. The two methods used to do this work manually are the graphical and the sum of least squares. Graphical Method The network at Appendix L will be used for illustrating the graphical method of leveling resources. Steps to be observed are:(a) Step No.1: List out all the activities of the network with their earliest start time, latest finish time and duration as shown below:Activity (b) Duration (c) EST (d) LFT (e) New Serial No. (f) Remarks (h)

Ser No. (a)

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(b)

Step No.2: Observe column (e). The lowest figure in this column is to be listed as the New Serial No 1 and entered in column (f). In a like manner renumber all the activities in the ascending order of figures in column (e) and enter new serial number, in column (f). Note critical activities in the Remarks Column. Step No.3: Prepare a chart as given in para 6 and fill in the details of the table as per new serial number. Step No.4: Now against the time scale on the chart mark off the EST and LFT of each activity. Draw a red line in step form connecting the LFT of each activity. This red line will depict the critical time of each activity. Should any activity be scheduled beyond this red line limit, then overall time to complete the project will be enhanced. Step No.5: Draw the lines on the bar for each critical activity on the line of the chart. Step No.6: At the bottom of the chart make out a load chart of TlME versus MANPOWER or any other resource. Now fill in the daily requirements of manpower/ resources against each date for critical activity. Step No.7: Now utilising the principles of scheduling as far as possible and the restrictions of EST & LFT, fit in the remaining activities in the time schedule, make sure as far as possible the loading is uniform.

(c)

(d)

(e) (f)

(g)

Appendices M N and P give the load chart and schedule respectively for the network as given in Appendix L. Least Squares Method The following procedure is adopted (see Appendix Q). (a) Step No.1: Show total work force required each day based on the initial squared network. Square the resources for each day and total them for the project. Step No.2: Observe those days where the resource requirement is high. Adjust the starting time of those activities which have float and which are falling on the peak days. Step No.3: Square the resource after rescheduling the start times. Determine the sum of the squares. Notice, this value is less than the previous one. Step No.4: Continue adjusting the start time of those activities which are contributing to the peak value of resource requirements. Determine the sum of the squares, which should decrease every time. Step No.5: When the value of the sum of squares cannot be reduced any more, the optimal resource allocation has been reached, no further juggling of the start times will help. This is the best schedule for uniform utilisation of resources.

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

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Generalised Steps for Scheduling The following steps can be followed: (a) (b) (c) (d) Square the network. Start all the activities at the earliest start times. Calculate the resources required on each day based on (b) above. Juggle the start times up to the extent of the float for the Activities which provide the best schedule. Make use of the graphical method or the Sum of least Squares method for leveling resources.

(e)

Resource leveling using MSP 2003 Software. Steps to be followed for resource levelling and scheduling using PM Software MSP 2003 are given at Appendix R. A case study showing a single resource levelling is given at Appendix S.

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CHAPTER 6 CONTROL
Control and Commander Control is an organic function of the commander who has to coordinate affairs so that events conform to plans. Control is much like planning in the sense that it is forward looking. Control procedures cannot be applied retrospectively although of course, the thoughtful commander learns by studying the past. Control uses information from the past to develop necessary actions for the future. Since control is forward looking any deviation from the standard should be identified and reported to the commander as soon as possible. Control, therefore must be established in terms of deviation from the plan early enough so that corrective action can be instituted before operational progress is impaired. Pre-requisites of a Control System The sophistication of the control system depends on the complexity of the operation and the ability of the staff to administer it. A simple project may require only a few indicators to determine whether or not it is progressing on schedule and is within the desired cost and performance constraints. On the other hand a major operation will require an extensive control system that will identify and report many conditions that reflect its progress. Major and complex operations also require lateral coordination between many agencies and such requirements may be represented through derived networks Le., networks derived from the master network and containing appropriate levels of detail. Regardless of the complexity of the operational project, however, certain basic conditions must be met in order to have a workable control system. (a) It must relate to the operational hierarchy, since this organisational aspect and control are interdependent, neither can function effectively without the other. It must be understood by those who use it and obtain data from it. It must anticipate and report deviations on timely basis so that corrective action can be initiated before more serious deviations actually occur. It must be sufficiently flexible to remain compatible with changing operational environment. It must be economical.

(b) (c)

(d)

(e)

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(f)

It should indicate the nature of the corrective action required to bring the operation back into consonance with the plan. It should reduce to a language (words, pictures, graphs or other models) which permits a visual display that is easy to read and comprehensive in its communication. It should be developed through the active participation of all major line and staff appointments involved in the operation.

(g)

(h)

Exercising Control It must be clearly understood by the commander that the networks only reveal that a corrective action needs to be applied and may also indicate the nature of action that is required. However, it is the commander who must decide on the control measures to be instituted. His operational experience, his comprehension of the tactical situation and his assessment of own resources - all these should come into play to decide what control actions are required. Contingency plans may be put into action as part of control. Looked at in another way, contingency plans are control measures decided Upon during the process of planning itself. Control encompasses all phases of the project from conception to completion. It. is a cycle which begins with setting objectives and ends only when the last activity has been completed. Throughout each phase of the operation the system must provide the commander and the staff with the capacity to respond to any situation which arises. The following model indicates this concept.

Control, as stated earlier, is organic to the function of a commander. In certain military situations, networks are a powerful tool to measure the deviation between prediction and progress and thus indicate to the commander the need for control measures. But the actual exercise of control is the prerogative of the commander himself.

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CHAPTER 7 PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE MS PROJECT 2003


Introduction The computer revolution has made project management software available and affordable to smaller organizations. The computer can aid the project management by providing quick analysed information in any form required. The types of information that can be obtained by the project manager through the use of PM software are as follows:(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (j) (k) (l) Details of activities. Activity schedules & timings. Key activities. Critical activities. Critical events & milestones. Slacks. Optimum time/cost. Allocation of resources. Multi-project schedules. PERT network. Cash flows etc.

PM software is generally a combination of graphics, spreadsheet and database. The graphics is used to display Gantt Charts, PERT charts and graphs in various reports. Spreadsheet is used for displaying various forms, tables and reports. The database stores and manipulates data for calculations. There are many PM soft wares available in the market like Primavera, MS Project 2003, Scitor PS Suite etc. However, some of the main features of MS Project 2003 are only described in this chapter.

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MS Project 2003 The features provided by the MS Project 2003 software for planning and execution of projects are as follows:(a) Planning Stage. (i) (ii) Determination of project duration. Information with regard to total and free floats.

(iii) Scheduling the project for a specified start/finish date. (iv) Generation of cash flow statements based on cost information with regard to tasks and resources. Entry of resource calendars that may be distinct from the project calendar. Resource leveling.

(v) (vi)

(vii) Eight options with regard to start/finish constraints on individual activities. (viii) Designation of base line plan. (b) Execution Stage. (i) (ii) Information on cost and schedule variances. Revision of base line plans.

(iii) Extensive report generation tailored for over view / current activities / costs / assignments and workloads. Accessing the MS Project 2003. This can be achieved through one of the following:(a) (b) (c) Customised startup icon or shortcut icon if established through My Computer set up. Programs MS Project. In case, youre using the software for the first time it would help to go through the Quick Preview and Tutorial capsule displayed on the welcome screen.

Steps in Managing a Project using MS Project. While the details with regard to entry of information are detailed subsequently, the basic steps in managing a project using this package comprise:(a) (b) Entering the task names. Entering the task durations.
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(c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (j)

Entering the task relationships. Assigning resources to tasks. Analysing and fine-tuning the plan. Setting a base line. Entering actuals with regard to progress of activities. Printing and analysing reports. Adjusting the plan and proceeding to step (9) till project completion.

To Start a New Project. Launch MS Office Project 2003 by clicking Icon. Initialize the Software as per requirement of the project. Under Project menu, select Project info. From the menu to display Proj Info dialog box. In Dialog box, select one of the options schedule from project: Start date or Finish date; and accordingly enter the desired start/finish date in the appropriate box. MSP 2003 automatically computes the other date based on project information to be subsequently entered. By default, schedule from start date with current date as start date are assumed. After appropriate entries, click on Ok button. The above would result in Gantt Chart view, comprising on the left the Gantt table (Entry table by default) and Bar chart on the right. On the left of the Gantt table there are certain icons which give a direct access to some frequently used screens. Note:- Viewing of either one of these sections can be increased, by positioning the mouse arrow on the divider bar between the two, holding down the left button and moving in the required direction. Entering Task Information The following comprise the Entry Table:(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) ID Code. Indicators denoted by a small i Task Name. Duration. Start Date. Finish Date. Predecessor. Resources Names.
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ID code is the distinguishing numerical code and is automatically assigned to each successively named task and serves as the reference to the task whilst making entries in the predecessor field. Indicators are small icons which alert you to additional information about a resource or task. Select the first Task name cells (corresponding to ID code 1) and successively enter task names in this column. The first and last tasks have to be start and Finish/End. By default, task duration column will automatically read 1d (one day) for the tasks as their names are entered. A bar graph corresponding 1d will appear automatically on the Gantt Chart. Note:- To change the default unit to min/hrs/weeks/yr, same may be done under tools Options Schedule dialog box. Enter task durations in the Duration field. For Start and Finish/End tasks the duration of 0d has to be entered. By default, ASAP (as soon as possible) start of activity is assumed, and the software automatically computes start and finish dates based on the information entered. These dates get updated when predecessor relationships are further entered as below. However entry of any particular date information in start/finish date field forces the corresponding constraint on start/finish of the activity. For each task, the ID code (s) corresponding to its predecessor (s) is (are) entered in the Predecessor field as per illustration below:Illustration A (1) and B (2) start the project. C (4) follows A. D (2) follows B. E (3) follows A and D. C and E end the project. The corresponding entries in name, duration and predecessor fields would be as shown in the following table:ID Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
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Task Name Start A B C D E End


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Duration 0d 1d 2d 4d 2d 3d 0d

Predecessor 1 1 2 3 2,5 4,6


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Note:- Any activity with 0 duration is automatically designated as a milestone. Start and End activities are therefore entered with 0d duration to indicate start and end milestones. Multiple predecessors for activity E and End are indicated by using a Comma delimiter between the ID codes in the Predecessor field.12. By default, Finish to Start relationship with 0 lag is assumed. If it is desired to enter any other precedence relationship (ie F-F, S-F, S-S) or lead/lag info, double click on any of the fields of the task for which its predecessor info is to be entered. This displays Task Info dialog box. Select Predecessors. For the designated predecessors, selection of the Type field displays a pull down menu for selection of type of relationship and entry of lead/lag information. To designate a task as a milestone under Task Info Advanced Click Mark as milestone. Start/Finish Constraints on an activity Under Task Information dialog box, select advanced option. Clicking on Constraint task type pull down arrow presents the eight options in this regard. While ASAP is assumed by default, selection of any other constraint or entering specific start/finish dates in the Gantt entry table field may warrant scheduling conflict, if any, to be resolved. The description of these eight constraints are as shown below:1. 2. As soon as possible As late as possible Marks a task as essentially unconstrained. There is no constraint date for this task. Delays the task as long as possible, without holding up the finish of the project. There is no constraint date for the task. The task cant start before the defined constraint date. The task cant be finished before the constraint date. It can be finished to finish on or after that date. The task must be scheduled to start on or before the constraint date. The task cant finish any later than the defined constraint date. It can be scheduled to finish on or before that date. The task must start on the defined constraint date, not earlier or later. The task must finish exactly on the defined constraint date, not earlier or later.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Start no earlier than Finish no earlier than Start no later than Finish no later than.

7. 8.

Must start on Must finish on

Entering Resource Information for Tasks To begin with, under Tools Resource Leveling Select manual button under Leveling to obviate scheduling error messages whilst entering resource information.
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The elementary method to enter resource information is to select Resources option under Task Information and make necessary entries. But this is a laborious method. The easy option would be to use Resource Allocation button which presents a Resource name and quantity dialog box for making assignments to tasks successively. Project Calendar By default, the standard calendar with five working days per week and eight working hours/day (0800-1300 and 1400-1700) is assumed. To generate a new calendar, proceed as per the following steps:(a) (b) (c) (d) Under tools select Change working time. Make a copy of standard calendar by clicking on new Select this calendar. To change a particular day from working to non-working or vice versa, select the cell and click the corresponding enabled button as required. If a particular day of the week (say Saturday) is to be made globally working day, select the days label in the first column and use appropriate button. Working time for the entire days/particular cell can also be similarly changed. Save the changes under the desired project calendar name. Under Project Project info click calendar and select appropriate calendar from the menu of calendars available.

(e)

(f) (g) (h)

Project Statistics box can be accessed in a Proj Stats icon on the tracking toolbar. Project Duration This information can be accessed by selecting Project > Project Info click Statistics, to display project start / finish dates and duration for Current (i.e. present moment of planning), Base Line (base line if set), Actual (based on actual progress of date). Saving Base Lines For computation of variances during execution of the project, a base line corresponding to the frozen plan is required as a reference. Hence when a project plan is finally frozen, prior to commencement of project work, save the plan information as a base line by appropriate button selection as under:File Save Save as
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Views Various views and their important characteristics are as under:(a) Gantt Chart. A list of tasks and related information and a Gantt bar chart showing tasks and duration over time. Use to enter and schedule a list of tasks. PERT Chart. A network diagram. Use to create and fine tune schedule in a flow chart format. Calendar. A monthly calendar showing tasks and durations. Use to show the tasks scheduled in a specific range of weeks. Resource Graph. A graph showing resource allocation cost or work over time. Use to display information about a single/group of resource over time. Resource Sheet. A list of resources and related information. Use to enter and edit resource information. Resource Usage. A list of resources showing allocation, cost or work information for each resource.

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Leveling of Resources By default, unit quantum of each allocated resource is assumed to be available as can be verified from Resource Sheet view. Any over allocation of resources is immediately apparent from any of the resource views, with the information with regard to over allocated resource shown in RED. To level the project within the original project duration, make appropriate selection under Tools Resource levelling and click level now. Inability to level the resources will be displayed by appropriate message. An elementary approach in levelling is to set:(a) (b) Tools Resource Levelling Automatic. Views Resource Sheet and modify the quantum of resources till over allocation is resolved.

Assigning Costs to Resources Under View menu Resource Sheet, enter Std rate, over time rate or cost/use field for the resource. Standard rate is the cost rate to be charged for the resources was during normal working hours. Default rate is assessed by the software as hourly rate. Otherwise type the standard rate as a number followed by a forward slash and one of the following time unit abbreviations m (minute) h (hour) w (week) or y (year). Overtime rate is charged for work outside normal working hours. Cost/use field is used for costs that are charged once for each unit assigned, such as for parts or material resources (e.g. Truckload of cement). For entering the accrual method (i.e. start/end/prorated), select cell under the Accrue at column and
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make the selection. Depending upon how the resource is being changed, whether at the start of a task, prorata as it is progressing or at the end of the task, the software will calculate the cost of the resource at a given time. It is useful for generating interim report. Assigning Fixed Costs to a Task View menu Gantt chart. View menu Table Cost. In the fixed cost field, type the cost and To Find the Cost of a Task View menu Gantt chart. View menu Table Cost. Examine Fixed Cost and Total Cost Fields. Strategies for Shortening the Schedule Some of the methods are:(a) Change task relationships to allow more tasks to overlap or occur at the same time, rather than in sequence. Increase the available working time, by changing the project calendar. Reduce the scope of the project by reducing / combining the tasks. For tasks with resources assigned:(i) (ii) Increase the number of resource units. Increase resource availability by changing the resource calendar.

(b) (c) (d)

(iii) Assign overtime work hours to the resource. Assigning Overtime Work to a Resource on a Task From the View menu choose Gantt chart. From the Window menu split. Check lower pane. From the Format menu, choose Details, and then choose Resource Work. In the upper pane, select the task. In the lower pane, type number of hours under the over time work column for each driving resource and choose OK button (the driving resources work on the task the longest periods of time). From the Window menu, choose remove split. To Delay the Start of a Resource Assignment From the View Menu, Choose Gantt Chart. From the Window menu, choose split. In the Gantt table, select the task for which the resources work is to be delayed. In the lower pane, select the task form. From the Format menu, choose details, and then choose resource
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schedule. If there is no duration for the resource in the work field, enter the work duration and . In the delay field for the resource, type the delay duration. Choose OK button from the Window menu, choose remove split. In the delay field for the resource, type the delay duration. Choose OK button from the Window menu, choose remove split. To Identify the Tasks on Critical Path From the View menu, choose Gantt Chart. From the Format menu, choose text styles. In the item to change box, select critical tasks. In the colour box, select a colour for the critical tasks. Choose OK button. To Save a Base Line Plan From the Tools menu, choose tracking save base line. Make sure that the entire project option button is selected and then select OK. Entering Actual Start and Finish Dates for a Task In the Gantt table, select the task to be updated. From the Tools menu, choose tracking update tasks. Under actual dates, type dates in start and finish boxes and choose ok. Reports MS Project 2003 can list a projects resources with detailed information about their task schedules, their assigned work and their cost to a task or a project. A number of predefined reports are available and they can be customized to suit specific needs of the user. The reports are available under following broad headings. (a) Overview. This contains:(i) (ii) Project summary. Top-level tasks.

(iii) Critical tasks. (iv) (v) (b) Milestones. Working days.

Comments Activities (i) (ii) Updated tasks. Tasks Starting from.

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(iii) Tasks in Program. (iv) (v) (vi) (c) Completed tasks. Should have Started Tasks. Slipping Tasks.

Costs (i) (ii) Cash flow. Budget.

(iii) Over budget resources. (iv) (d) Earned value.

Assignments (i) (ii) Who does what? Who does what where?

(iii) To-do list. (iv) (e) Over allocated resources.

Workload (i) (ii) Task usage. Resource usage.

In addition to the above, facility exists to produce customize reports to suit the specific needs of the user. They would generally be based on one of the three report types:(a) (b) (c) Task reports Resource reports. Cost reports.

The first two namely (a) & (b) are simply lists of project data focused on either task or resource information. The cross tab reports adds a time period dimension to reports and can be focused on either task or resource information.

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The aim of the above instructions has been to introduce the participants to access and use the basic features of MS Project 2003. However, there are many other advanced features which are available. Some of these are:(a) (b) Task calendars allow you to create schedules that affect only selected tasks. Setting a deadline date that allows MS Project 2003 to alert if a task is scheduled to finish after its deadline. Task duration can be set as an estimated duration. Consumable resources like, concrete lumber etc can be tracked and assigned to tasks. In the PERT chart, greater control can be exercised over the number of fields per node; includes new node shapes & gives more node formatting options upto 16 fields/node can be specified. Work breakdown structure can be created. Like Excel MS XP, MS Project 2003 supports multiple documents on the MS Windows taskbar. More tool tips. A task can be selected by clicking on the corresponding Gantt Bar.

(c) (d) (e)

(f) (g)

(h) (j)

Indicating the Progress on a Task as a Percentage In the Gantt table, select the task to be updated, choose task information. In the percentage complete box, enter a number between 1 to 100 and choose Ok. Short Cut for the MSP 2003 are given at Appendix T.

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CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION
A significant feature of the network technique is that in all aspects of a project/operation, namely planning, scheduling and controlling, they help Commanders and Staff in making better decisions. The time has come that a more systematic approach is needed to overcome a plethora of problems. The application of techniques is only a step in that direction; it may not answer all the real world complexities, but it is better than having none. Networks provide a powerful basis to reduce complex nature of todays problems to manageable proportions. The hallmark of any Commander lies in knowing what he is doing, why he is doing and how best to do. To that extent all techniques are subject to qualitative judgment so long as the implications are clearly known. No technique is tailor-made, one has to apply within the context of his own job situation. As a Commander, one should critically examine the applicability of Network Techniques. Failure to organise the use of the techniques could result in extra clerical and planning work without commensurate benefits. Commanders must, therefore, ask and answer the following questions before introducing the Network Techniques:(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) What are the desired and expected results from their use? Who is to collect and collate the data which will go into the network? Who is to prepare the network at different levels? What existing reports, procedures and methods will be replaced/ supplemented? What will be the scope of the application? What are the limitations of these techniques in these applications? What training will be required at different levels before implementation?

For large, non-repetitive operations, CPM and PERT are useful aids for Commanders. As a summary to our exposition in this handbook, some of the features and characteristics that make them powerful and flexible tools for decision-making are listed below:They are useful at the early planning stages when various alternatives are being considered; at the scheduling phase, when time and resource schedules are laid out; and finally during the conduct phase, when used as a control device to measure actual versus planned progress.
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These are straightforward in concept and easily explainable to a layman with no background in network theory. The network graph displays in a simple and direct way the complex inter-relationship activities which comprise an operational mission. Commanders at various levels can quickly perceive from the diagram how their portion affects, and is affected by other parts of the project/ Operation. It is an effective tool of communication. Network calculations pinpoint attention to the relatively small subset of activities which are critical to its completion. Commanders action is thus focused on exceptional problems, contributing to more reliable planning and more effective control. CPM and PERT are applicable to many types of projects/ Operations - from adm inspection to division move, from maintenance jobs to mission launching. Networks help Commanders to calculate resource requirements for any given schedule and to make decisions on how best to allocate scarce resources among competing activities. These enable Commanders to look into the future and assess the effects of planned or unanticipated changes and to take appropriate action when such projections indicate the need for it. For example, the Commander can quickly study the effects of crash programmes and anticipate in advance likely bottlenecks that might result from compressing certain critical. When wisely used by a Commander who understands their strengths and limitations, CPM and PERT can be effective amplifiers of his managerial skills. There are two great fallacies in applying techniques such as these to operational projects and control. They are:(a) (b) Assuming that these methods will do everything. Assuming that they cannot help.

No management system is of value unless it provides a solution to the problem to which it is directed. But more than that, it must also provide a solution which takes into account the role and functions of the management in that particular task. In the field of project management, Network Techniques do just that.

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Appendices

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Appendix A
(Refer Chapter 2)

LIST OF ACTIVITIES ANNUAL ADM INSPECTION Ex-1: Activities and Precedence relationship Activity Description Carrying out weapon training Carry out Range firing. Carry out BPET trg Identify defects Clean & repair of weapons. Checking & sorting of Amn. Carry out repair & maint of and painting of Veh & eqpt Arrange condemnation board and replacement of clothing. Check, repair, maint, and stock unit eqpt and clothing. Carryout repair/Maint of bldgs. Improvement of unit area. Update personal record. Update store record. Update trg record. Prepare brochure and forms for Cdrs J K L M O P H D,B M.N,O H 14 3 7 21 7 4 Activity Code A B C D E F G H N H C D,B B A Preceded by Duration 14 7 14 3 14 2 30 7 10

(Contd...)
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(Contd...)
Inspection of arms Inspection of Amn Inspection of Veh. Inspection of Unit stores and documentation.. Inspections of Books by staff. Rehearsals of Qtr Guards. Rehearsals of MT inspection. Rehearsal of Ceremonial Parade and trg events. Rehearsal of Inspection for CO. Commanders Inspection. Q R S T U V W X Y Z K,L,Q,R,T, U,V,W,X Y S E F G J,N P 4 2 4 1 1 15 3 7 3 2

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Appendix B
(Refer Chapter 2)

EX-2 : ADM Network of the Annual Adm Inspection Plan of a Unit.

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Appendix C
(Refer Chapter 2)

Network for Ex-3

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Appendix D
(Refer Chapter 3)

Ex 4. Analysed Network

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Appendix D
(Refer Chapter 3)

NET WORK TECHNIQUES EX SQUADRON ACTIVATION


You are the Squadron Commander of a MiG-21 BIS Squadron based at AF Stn Naroda. Your Ops Location is AF Stn Baliya which has no fighter Sqn at present. Your plans based on Stn War Orders and Command Ops Instructions require you to move eight ac to Ops loc, four for AD and four for strike role. All ferries, however, are to be undertaken only in the AD configuration. For the purpose of the move 3 x AN-32 ac will be made available. The first will arrive at AF Stn Naroda at H plus 3 (H being the time of receipt of code word signifying imminence/ commencement of the hostilities. The other two AN-32 ac will arrive at H plus 6 hrs. An IL-76 ac will be positioning R-60 AAMs at various bases. It is expected at Naroda at H plus 10 hrs. From Naroda it will proceed to Baliya. This ac may be utilised to carry awkward load (which does not fit into AN-32 and is essential for preparing fighters for strike missions). AF Stn Baliya being an FBSU (Forward Base Support Unit) can only provide minimum support facilities like refuellers and APPAs (generating set mounted on vehicles required for starting up MIG-21 ac). Consequently your plans call for moving four refuellers, four APPAs and some common user/light vehicles by road. Preparation of all eight fighters may start simultaneously but the practice has been to concentrate on getting two fighters ready in 2:30 hrs and the remaining six in activity timings compressed further with available resources. The two ac readied early are to proceed to Baliya to activate the ORP. IL-76 can land at Baliya only if live ORP is being manned there. Such restrictions do not apply to AN-32 ac which carry out the ferry at low levels. As it is essential for technicians to be available to receive incoming fighters, the SOP stipulates that the captain of the tpt support ac gives an RT call to Naroda half an hour before reaching Baliya. This call is taken as clearance for the fighters to take off from Naroda. Operations at Baliya will be conducted from the two ORPs at either ends of the run way and the loop dispersal. Therefore, the technical manpower at one location cannot be utilised at another location. The Sqn manning is as per TBM (to be manned) levels. As a rough guide it may be assumed that each AN-32 takes sufficient personnel to look after two ac. The remaining personnel will have to move by IL-76. Weather conditions are reported to be fair and are not likely to hamper operations. The ferry timing indicated includes time consumed for start up, switch off and taxiing. In the case of AN-32 it also includes loading/off-loading time. The DSS (Daily Servicing Section) and Fit Cdrs complex can be fully setup only after arrival of the main air party by three AN-32s. The initial phase of activation is considered complete when the Sqn launches a four ac strike mission escorted by two ac in the AD configuration from Baliya. The remaining two ac continue
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on ORP standby. This mission can be launched only after all previous activities have been completed. On their return trips tpt ac are considered safe hr outbound from Baliya. Plan this operational activation of the Sqn with the help of a network. Necessary details may be indicated on the network. Activity durations, are given at Table-1. Other relevant assumptions, if necessary, may be made. In the event of actual operations only two changes take place as follows:(a) The IL-76 will land at Naroda at H Plus 5 hrs. (The load or the number of your Sqn personnel it can carry to Baliya remains unchanged). The refueliers/APPAs and common user/light vehicles for your Sqn will be provided by AF Stn Ramnagar. This convoy will arrive at AF Stn Baliya at H Plus 10 hrs.

(b)

What effect do these changes have on your Sqn activation plan? List of Activities and their durations Table-1 Activity A B C D E F G H J K L M N O Description A-General Recall B-AOCS Briefing C-Sqn Cdrs Briefing D-Prep Of 2 X Mig Ac For Orp At Baliya E-Preparation For Road Move F-1st An 32 Ferry In To Naroda G-Preparation Of 6 X MiG Ac H-Road Move To Op Location J-Ferry In Of 2nd / 3rd An 32 Ac K-In Bound Flt Of Il 76 Ac L-Loading Of Il 76 Ac M-Il- 76 Ac Flying To Baliya N1 - 1st An-32 Flying Naroda To Baliya O1-2nd /3rd An-32 Flying Naroda To Baliya Duration in Hrs & Min 01:00 00:15 00:15 02:30 04:00 03:00 04:00 14:00 06:00 10:00 01:00 01:30 02:00 02:00

(Contd...)
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(Contd...)
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA P-Obtaining Clearance For 2X Fighters To Proceed To Baliya Q-Obtaining Clearance For 6XFighters To Proceed To Baliya R-Ferry 2 X Fighters Naroda To Baliya S-Ferry 6 X Fighters Naroda T-Activate 1st Orp At Baliya U-Activate 2nd Orp At Baliya V-Set Up DSS / Flt Cdr Complex W-Prepare 4 X Mig Ac For Strike Msn X-Launch / Recover 4 X MiG ac Mission With 2 X Ad Escorts IL-76 Flight Baliya-Ram Nagar An 32 outbound ferry from Baliya- Bodhpur AA-Unloading Of Il 76 Ac End EXERCISE: SQUADRON ACTIVATION Introduction This is an exercise for mobilising 8 x MIG 21Bis aircraft detachment of a squadron, based at Naroda, to Baliya on receipt of codeword signifying imminence/commencement of hostilities. One IL-76 and three AN-32 aircraft will support the squadron. In addition the required ground support equipment will move from Naroda by road. List of activities and their predetermined durations as per the Exercise, are placed at Appendix A. Assumptions/Constraints The following assumptions and constraints have been taken into account while preparing and analysing the network: (a) Briefings of AOC to Sqn Cdr and then Sqn Cdr to his staff are completed after the General Recall.
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01:30 01:30 01:00 01:00 01:00 01:00 02:00 04:00 01:00 01:00 03:00 01:00

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(b)

All fighter aircraft are to ferry down to Baliya in AD configuration with 23mm guns and R 60 missiles loaded. These stores are also available at Baliya as WWR. The activity of flight clearance for fighters commences each time when an AN-32 ac takes off from Naroda for Baliya Road move consists of six APPAs, four re-fuellers, one gypsy, one crew van and one DCPT. Air Force Station Baliya provides two APPAs, two re-fuellers, one light and one 3tonne vehicle to the squadron till their own vehicles reach by road. Manpower transported by three AN-32 aircraft is used for preparing 2 x fighters ac and setting up of offices. The manpower brought by IL-76 ac will augment the fighter ac readiness programme. The timings of transport aircraft to ferry out of Baliya have not been considered while preparing the network as it does not affect the readiness time of the MIG-21 BIS ac. Certain activities have been segmented as required.

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

Network Considerations Activities A, F, K and J i.e., General Recall, and taking off of all support transport aircraft commences/can be considered from H hours as given in the Exercise. The activities at the Sqn commence at H+1 hr (on completion of recall). Preparation of eight aircraft commences together at H+1 hr, however priority is given to make two aircraft ready in 2:30 hrs i.e., H+3:30 hrs. Simultaneously, preparation for road move and obtaining flight clearance commences. So it will take off from Naroda at H+3 hrs. After first An 32 has completed 1 hrs 30 Min of flight and is 30 min away from Baliya, the captain of the AN 32 will give R/T call to Naroda. On obtaining indication from first AN-32 ac 0:30 hr short of Baliya, the first two MIG 21 BIS take off from Naroda. (Since It is expected that after I hr when fighters are on approach to Baliya, Gnd party is ready to receive them.) Similarly, 2nd and 3rd AN-32 ac give clearance for commencement of ferry of 6 x MIG-21 BIS ac to Baliya. The manpower received from all the three AN 32 ac will be utilised in preparing both 4 x AD and 4 x strike role ac in a staggered manner. In addition, the same manpower will be utilised to set up the DSS and Flt Cdr complex. Two AD mission ac will be made ready before IL-76 ac ferries in at Baliya. On receipt of manpower from IL-76 ac, the manpower is utilised in manning all eight ac independently.

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The first 2 x fighter ac are made ready at H+3:30 hrs (D). Before that, first AN-32 ac lands at Naroda at H+3 hrs and moves to Baliya. At H+4:30 (Take off time = H+3 hrs +Flight time =1hr 30 min , 30 min short of Baliya) the first AN-32 while in air gives indication to Naroda to give clearance to 2 x ac fighters to take off for Baliya On arrival of these two fighters (at H+ 5:30 hrs) the turn round servicing (TRS) is done by the manpower brought by the first AN-32 ac and both ac are made ready for ORP at H+6:00 hrs and the ORP is manned thereafter.(Assuming TRS time 30 Min) The 2nd and 3rd AN-32 ac land at Naroda at H+6 hrs and reach Baliya at H+8:00 hrs. During the sortie, indication is given to permit ferry out of balance six ac from Baliya at H+7:30 hrs. The manpower brought by 2nd and 3rd AN-32 ac is utilised to receive 6 x fighters and thereafter setting up of DSS and Flt Cdrs office. Fighter ac will arrive at Baliya at H+8:30 Now the det is ready to receive IL-76 ac load as a 2 x AD mission is already being manned from H+6:00 hrs and ac support vehicles by road. On arrival of IL-76 ac at H+13:30 hrs (H+10 hrs landing at Naroda+ 1 Hrs Loading Time+ Ferry time from Naroda to Baliya 1:30 + Off Loading at Baliya =13.30 hrs) and road convoy at H+19:30 hrs the entire resource in terms of manpower and ac support vehicles is pressed into action in preparing four ac for strike mission and 2 ac for AD mission and ready for launching/recovering 4x ac mission with 2 x AD escorts with 2 x AAD mission ac at ORP at H+20:30 hrs. The assigned task of mobilising the dett and getting it prepared for eventualities completes at H+20:30 hrs. Based on above considerations the activities details including their precedence relationships are listed at Table-2. Table-2: Showing Various Activities and Their Precedence Relationships ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION A B C D E F G H J K A-GENERAL RECALL B-AOCS BRIEFING C-SQN CDRS BRIEFING D-PREP OF 2 x MiG ac FOR ORP AT BALIYA E-PREPARATION FOR ROAD MOVE F-1ST AN 32 FERRY IN TO NARODA G-PREPARATION OF 6 x MiG ac H-ROAD MOVE TO OP LOCATION J-FERRY IN OF 2ND / 3RD AN 32 ac K-IN BOUND FLT OF IL 76 ac Duration 01:00:00 00:15:00 00:15:00 02:30:00 04:00:00 03:00:00 04:00:00 14:00:00 06:00:00 10:00:00 PRECEDENCE A B C C D E

(Contd...)

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(Contd...)
L M N1 N2 O1 O2 P L-LOADING OF IL 76 ac M-IL- 76 ac FLYING TO BALIYA N1 - 1ST AN-32 FLYING NARODA TO BALIYA LESS 30 MINUTES N2doFINAL APPROACH TO BALIYA O1-2ND /3RD AN-32 FLYING NARODA TO BALIYA LESS 30 MINUTES O2doFINAL APPROACH TO BALIYA P-OBTAINING CLEARANCE FOR 2 x FIGHTERS TO PROCEED TO BALIYA Q-OBTAINING CLEARANCE FOR 6 x FIGHTERS TO PROCEED TO BALIYA R-FERRY 2 x FIGHTERS NARODA TO BALIYA S-FERRY 6 x FIGHTERS NARODA T-ACTIVATE 1ST ORP AT BALIYA U-ACTIVATE 2ND ORP AT BALIYA V-SET UP DSS / FLT CDR COMPLEX W-PREPARE 4 x MiG ac FOR STRIKE MSN X-LAUNCH / RECOVER 4 x MiG ac MISSION WITH 2 X AD ESCORTS AA-UNLOADING OF IL 76 ac 01:00:00 01:30:00 01:30:00 K T,L F

00:30:00 01:30:00

N1 J

00:30:00 01:30:00

O1 C

01:30:00

R S T U V W X

01:00:00 01:00:00 01:00:00 01:00:00 02:00:00 04:00:00 01:00:00

D, N 1, P G,O1,Q N2,R O 2, S O 2, S O 2, S, AA H,U,V,W

AA

01:00:00

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ADM Network emerges out is shown in Fig -1 (Original Plan)

Fig 1

The critical activities of the project/Mission are: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) General Recall (A) AOCs Briefing (B) Sqn Cdrs Briefing (C) Preparation for road move (E) Road Movement of convoy (H) Launch/recovery 4 x ac mission with 2 x AAD escort (X)

Total duration of the project is 20hrs .30 Min

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Contingencies When IL-76 ac is available at Naroda at H+ 5 hrs, (Activity K) Alone. When IL-76 ac is available at Naroda at H+ 5 hrs, (Activity K) in place of H+10 hrs as per original Plan, there is no change to the critical path and the first ORP is still can be manned (Activity T) from H+ 6:30 hrs at Baliya. Hence, the duration for full activation remains unchanged at 20hrs:30 min. This is analysed through following network. (Fig 2).

Fig 2 When Specialist Vehicle are obtained from RamNagar. When the road move takes place form Ramnagar, it reaches Baliya at H+10 hrs. The critical path will become (a) (b) K-IN BOUND FLT OF IL 76 ac L-LOADING OF IL 76 ac
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(c) (d) (e) (f)

M-IL- 76 ac FLYING TO BALIYA AA-UNLOADING OF IL 76 ac W-PREPARE 4 x MiG ac FOR STRIKE MSN X-LAUNCH / RECOVER 4 x MiG ac MISSION WITH 2 X AD ESCORTS

While the first ORP is manned from H+ 06:30. The duration gets reduced by 5:30 hrs and becomes to 18:30 hrs. When both changes take place together, the duration is reduced to 14:00 hrs. The Network will as shown below:-

Fig 3 The analysis on the network shows that the critical activities are:(a) (b) A-GENERAL RECALL B-AOCS BRIEFING

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(c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l)

C-SQN CDRS BRIEFING D-PREP OF 2 x MiG ac FOR ORP AT BALIYA G-PREPARATION OF 6 x MiG ac S-FERRY 6 x FIGHTERS NARODA W-PREPARE 4 x MiG ac FOR STRIKE MSN F-1ST AN 32 FERRY IN TO NARODA N1 - 1ST AN-32 FLYING NARODA TO BALIYA LESS 30 MINUTES R-FERRY 2 x FIGHTERS NARODA TO BALIYA T-ACTIVATE 1ST ORP AT BALIYA M-IL- 76 ac FLYING TO BALIYA

(m) AA-UNLOADING OF IL 76 ac (n) X-LAUNCH / RECOVER 4 x MiG ac MISSION WITH 2 X AD ESCORTS

Control By Squadron Commander SITUATION 1 (a) (b) (c) Hourly review preparation for road move to ensure move by h + 4. Delegate authority to o i/c detachment at base to co-ordinate. Close monitoring of unloading of il - 76 ac at Baliya.

SITUATION 2 (a) In the event of actual operations, following:(i) (ii) IL-76 ac will land at baroda at H plus 5 hrs. Refuellers / Appa and user / light vehicles will be provided at Baliya by af station Ramnagar by H plus 10 hrs.

(b)

Squadron Commander to ensure :(i) (ii) Close monitoring- arrival / dep of first an-32 ac. Detail sqn eng offr to monitor il-76 ac unloading at naliya.
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(iii) Close monitoring of strike mission. (iv) Detail flt cdr at base to monitor fighter ac movement.

Recommendation .The reduction in arrival time of IL-76 ac and road move duration will reduce the overall duration time of the project. Conclusion The resources are optimised to complete the assigned task in H+24 hrs with critical activities of General recall, road move preparation, road move itself, preparation of 4 x ac for strike role and launching /recovering of 4 x ac mission with two ac escorts.

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Appendix E
(Refer Chapter 4)
ILLUSTRATION-PRECEDENCE NETWORK AN INFANTRY BATTALION LAUNCHING A QUICK ATTACK The salient activities in a quick attack launched by an infantry battalion and a precedence network diagram of the same are illustrated in Table -1 and at sketch P.

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MSP 2003. A print out of the network for above problem using MSP 2003 is attached at page no.

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Appendix F
(Refer Chapter 4)

PRECEDENCE DAIGRAMING METHOD (PDM) Table-1 Showing Precedence Relationship with delays. Activity A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Duration (Days) 1 6 2 4 5 1 1 1 2 4 1 4 4 1 Precedence B A B,D E A D, G A E, H, I C,F,J K CK L Finish to Start Finish to Start Start of B leads by 4 days; Finish to Start with D Finish to Start Finish to Start Start of D leads by 2 days; Finish to Start with G Finish to Start Finish of J lags finish of E by 2 days. Finish to Start with H with a delay of 3 days. Finish to start with I Finish to Start with C,F and J Finish to Start Finish to Start with C. Finish of M lags, finish of K by 3 days. Finish to Start Relationship

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Appendix G
(Refer Chapter 4)

Relationship in different manner. (PDM Notations) A and B start the project, M and N finishes the project.

FBSC FASD SBSE FDSE FESF FASG SDSH FGSH FAS I FEFJ FHS J FCSK FFSK FJSK FKSL FIS J FCSM FKFM FLSN

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

0 0 4 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 H I J K L M N 1 2 4 1 4 4 1 DURATIONS A B C D E F G 1 6 2 4 5 1 1

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Appendix H
(ReferChapter 4)

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Appendix J
(ReferChapter 5)

ADM NETWORK WHICH NEEDS TO BE CONVERTED IN TO A SQUARED NETWORK

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Appendix K
(Refer Chapter 5)

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Appendix L
(Refer Chapter 5)

Illustration of Graphical Method for scheduling through an Example


Table 1. Project Activity Relationships and details

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Appendix M
(Refer Chapter 5)

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Appendix N
(Refer Chapter 5)

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Appendix P
(Refer Chapter 5)

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Appendix Q
(Refer Chapter 5)

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Appendix R
(Refer Chapter 5)

BRIEF STEPS FOR RESOURCE LEVELLING & SCHEDULING USING MSP 2003. Initialize the Software as per the data given in the Problem/Project. (a) Project Information (i) (ii) (b) Selecting Project to start from Start or finish date. Assigning Start or finish date

Tool Options: (i) View : (aa) Default View Gantt Chart (ab) Date format- Choose from Drop down menu (ac) Select all options below Show (already selected by default. (ad) Currency option for Project Symbol Type Rs. (ae) Decimal Digit Select 0 (af) Outline options for Project let it be as per default settings. (ii) Schedule (aa) Show scheduling message be selected. (ab) Show assignment units as Decimal (ac) Scheduling option s for Project New Task: Start on Project Start date. Duration is entered in : Days

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Work is entered as days Default task type : Fixed Duration (ad) De-select Auto link inserted or moved tasks. & Split in Progress Tasks (iii) Save: Auto save every 5 minutes. (iv) (c) Click OK and come out from Options.

Tools- Change Working Time. (i) Making holiday as working day. (aa) Select the date on which working day is to be declared. (ab) Select Radio button non default working time. Both morning & Afternoon timing will be displayed. In case a half wkg day is required then delete the bottom afternoon timings. The date fig gets underlined. (ac) Working day in to a holiday. Select the date. Select radio button non working time. The date gets underlined nd the sqr gets meshed. (ad) Declaring full wkg day in to half day. : Select the date. Select the radio button non default wkg time. Delete the unwanted time duration. The sqr becomes 45 degree hashed line and figure gets underlined. (ae) Editing all days in the calendar. Select Heading of the day.

From drop down Menu of View- Resource Sheet. Fill up Resource Sheet of software. Back to Table: Entry format (View-Table: Entry): Fill the activity details, using split windows. Find out following without Levelling, and fill in the Resource Card. (a) (b) (c) PD, PD Start and PD finish dates. ESTs & LFTs Dur & WF of each activity.

Pick up Work Force data from Resource graph w/o Leveling (View- Resource Graph) & fill in the resource card (Row against Manpower w/o leveling. Also look for resource overloading Blue and red portions of Histogram in resource graphs.

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Find out availabilities of floats on various activities. Write these values, if asked. (ViewTable - Schedule.) Carryout Levelling.(Tools-Level Resources-Resource Levelling dialog box- button Level Now- Dialog Box Level Now- Select Entire Pool- if Dialog Box Microsoft Office Project appears - Skip all. Increase Max units in Resource sheet. Again repeat the above steps till the entry in red Colour in Resource Sheet turns black. (Indicative of the Levelling achieved). Check PD, EST, LFTs, Dur, Floats. Fill up the RL & S Sheet, in similar way we filled for without Leveling. Clear leveling. In Table Entry Mode Select tool and from its drop down menu, select level recourses and select Clear Leveling. Adjustment to see resource graph. In resource graph, right click on time scale. Select Time scale. Look for Size %. Adjust the % to suit your requirement. Resource card Filling. (Annexure-I) Top row Date: date of commencement, various dates, date of finish, also mark holidays. Days: 1,2,3 . till the day of completion of project. These are already printed. Below days: Fill up project activities details. (Name of Activity, EST, LFT, Duration, WF/ resources. From MSP 2003) Manpower w/o Levellin: Here fill up the no. of WF needed on daily basis from the resource Graph of MSP 2003 before going ahead for levelling the resources. Manpower after leveling: Fill up the daily WF needed after the leveling has been achieved. Total mandays : Sum of the daily WF for the entire duration of the project. This can also be picked up from Project Information- Statistics. Min WF= Mandays/PD Initial EFR= Mandays/(Initial Peak WF* PD) Final EFR =Mandays/(Final Peak WF* PD) Draw Resource histogram both before and after RL (Use different colour)

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Annexure I to Appendix R

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Appendix S
(Refer Chapter 4)
CASESTUDY ON RESOURSE LEVELLING & SCHEDULING You are responsible for work at the Fitting Out Jetty (FOJ) of GRSE. Presently a LST is undergoing completion. The activities involved, their relationships, durations and number of welders required is given below:Activities A B C D E F G H I J Duration (days) 9 10 5 10 5 15 10 5 5 10 Welders 6 4 4 2 7 5 6 2 2 8 A B B C D,E G F, H, I Predecessor

For the above network, level the resources and find out following:(a) There are only 11 welders available at the FOJ. Can the task be completed without any increase in the project duration? Why? What is the minimum number of welders required to complete the project without changing the project duration. What are the Initial and Final EFR? Draw the Initial and Final resource graph?

(b)

(c) (d)

Assume the project is to start on 01 Feb 09. The work is on a 08 hours per day, 05 days a week basis with Sat and Sun being holidays.

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Solution: Step 1. Network

Fig 1

Step 2. Initialise the MSP 2003 Software as per the setting of the Case. Step 3. Assign the Project Start date as 01 Feb 09. Make the project Calendar as per laid out working hours/days and name it as Welder. Attach it to the project. In resource Sheet Book Resources Welders as shown below:Step 4 Using Split windows feed the input data on Name of activities, their durations, Precedence relationships and welders needed.

Fig 2

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Screen as shown in Fig 3 will appear in the Gantt chart view. Step 5. Find out Information on project from Project Statistics as shown in Fig 4.

Fig 4

This gives following data:(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Project Start date -02 Feb 09 Project Completion Date -20 Mar 09 Project Duration 35 days (Clear Working Days) Work Content =404 Welders days Payment to Welders = Rs. 40,400.

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Situation before carrying out Resource Levelling & Smoothening. Activities details and the Gantt chart of the case

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Fig 3

Step 6. Float on Various activities in this conditions are as given at Table -1.(FF=Free Floats, TF=Total Floats) Activities A B C D E F G H I J Start 02 Feb 09 02 Feb 09 02 Feb 09 13 Feb 09 16 Feb 09 16 Feb 09 09 Feb 09 27 Feb 09 23 Feb 09 09 Mar 09 Finish 12 Feb 09 13 Feb 09 06 Feb 09 26 Feb 09 20 Feb 09 06 Mar 09 20 Feb 09 05 Mar 09 27 Feb 09 20 Mar 09 Late Start 03 Feb 09 02 Feb 09 09 Feb 09 16 Feb 09 23 Feb 09 16 Feb 09 16 Feb 09 02 Mar 09 02 Mar 09 09 Mar 09 Table -1 Late Finish 13 Feb 09 13 Feb 09 13 Feb 09 27 Feb 09 27 Feb 09 06 Mar 09 27 Feb 09 06 Mar 09 06 Mar 09 20 Mar 09 FF 0d 0d 0d 1d 4d 0d 0d 1d 5d 0d TF 1d 0d 5d 1d 5d 0d 5d 1d 5d 0d

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Step 7 Resource Histogram

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Fig 5

Critical activities. Critical activities of the project as seen from Gantt chart are B, F and J. Step 8 Minimum Welders Needed are given by Formula

Minimum Welders =

Weldersday s 404 = = 11.54 12 Project Duration 35

Are 11 Welders Sufficient? Available Work force is only 11welders, whereas the Minimum WF required for the project works out to be 11.54 (Avg Fig) H 12 welders. The resource histogram (graph) (without Levelling), indicates the peak requirement of the welders as 20 on 5 days (16 Feb to 20 Feb). In addition more than 12 welders are needed on 10 days (from 02 Feb to 13 Feb 09) during the project period of 35 days. Hence, the project can not be completed in 35 days with only 11 welders. Situation after carrying out Resource Levelling & Smoothening. Step 9. Carry out resource levelling. During levelling process, assuming availability of 12 welders, the software conveys that from 02 Feb to 8th Feb 12 welders would do but from 9th Feb to 27 Feb one would need more than 12 welders. The resource histogram also gives number of welders needed on each day. Hence the project cannot be completed in scheduled time of 35 days if we have only 12 welders for this project. Minimum Welders needed. The resources finally gets levelled out with welders strength of 16. The resource graph also shows that with this available strength, no welders are overloaded on any day. Hence the minimum number of welders needed will be 16. Refer Fig 6. Initial Effective Force Ratio: Initial EFR is given by =

No. of Mandays Required Number of mandays available


Mandays

= Project Duration * Peak Number of resource available w/o Levelling = {404/(35*20)}=0.577 This means that without levelling the resources, if want to complete the project within 35 days, we need 20 welders on 5 different occasions. If we do not do this then activities on these days will slip and the duration will exceed 35 days. Thus it will call for employing 20 welders per day to ensure stable employment. But if we continue to higher 20 welders for the balance 30 days, most of them will be sitting idle. Thus effective utilization of this 20 Welders will be only 57.7% and for the rest of the time =43.3% they will be sitting idle. Hence it will result loss to the organisation and demonstrate poor management of human resource. We must ensure that this figure (EFR) be kept as high as possible. (Ideally =1). This can be achieved by resource levelling & scheduling.
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The software does this for us. The Resource histogram after Levelling (Fig 6) now tells us that the peak numbers of welders needed would be 16. Critical Activities The new list of critical activities can be read from Gantt Chart View are B, E, F, J and H. Resource Histogram after levelling

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Fig 6

Step 10. Final EFR={(404/(36 * 16)}= 72.15%. This means that by employing 16 Welders (peak requirement after Levelling), throughout the project duration, their effective utilization will 72.15% .They will be idle only for 100-72.15% =27.85%. This will also give a stable employment. Floats & Critical Activities after Levelling. (a) Floats Table-2 Compare the ESTs/LFTs of various activities in both the cases: Activities A B C D E F G H I J (a) Start 02 Feb 09 02 Feb 09 02 Feb 09 13 Feb 09 23 Feb 09 16 Feb 09 09 Feb 09 02 Mar 09 23 Feb 09 09 Mar 09 Finish 12 Feb 09 13 Feb 09 06 Feb 09 26 Feb 09 27 Feb 09 06 Mar 09 20 Feb 09 06 Mar 09 27 Feb 09 20 Mar 09 Late Start 03 Feb 09 02 Feb 09 09 Feb 09 16 Feb 09 23 Feb 09 16 Feb 09 16 Feb 09 02 Mar 09 02 Mar 09 09 Mar 09 Late Finish 13 Feb 09 13 Feb 09 13 Feb 09 27 Feb 09 27 Feb 09 06 Mar 09 27 Feb 09 06 Mar 09 06 Mar 09 20 Mar 09 FF 0d 0d 0d 1d 0d 0d 0d 0d 5d 0d TF 1d 0d 5d 1d 0d 0d 5d 0d 5d 0d

Activity E: Its EST was 16 Feb 09, after levelling it has shifted to 23 Feb 09. Its floats before levelling were FF=4 & TF =5 days. After levelling these are 0/0. However, its LFT remains the same. It has now become a critical activity. (Refer Table -1 & 2) Activity H Its EST was 27 Feb 09, after levelling it has shifted to 02 Mar 09. Its floats before levelling were FF= 1, TF = 1 day. After levelling these are 0/0. However, its LFT remains the same. It has also become a critical activity. (Refer Table -1 & 2).

(b)

Conclusion The above case gives glimpse of one of the features of the MSP 2003 for finding out optimum resources for a given operation. For the sake of making it simple only one resource was taken. However, the Software has the potential to provide pragmatic solutions for situations in an operational project where one would be using multi-resources of both types, viz- Working and material Resources. It can also be exploited to find project duration under resource crunch and many other practical situations.
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Appendix T
(Refer para 40 Sec 7)

Microsoft Project How to create a Project, Define WBS, Define Resources, Assign Resources, Reports and Filters 1. 2. 3. Create a New Project Define the Start date Project Menu, Project Information, Define Start Date Define a New Calendar Tools Menu, Change Working Time, Click on New Tab, Define the Calendar name, OK Define the Working days by selecting the row, define holidays, Click on Options, Define the number of days in the week, define, no of days in a month, OK, Ok How to attach a calendar to the project Project Menu, Project definition, select the calendar tab, pick the appropriate calendar, OK How to define the screen double click mouse on holiday (Sunday/Saturday), Select the Calendar tab, Pick up the appropriate Calendar, OK Define the WBS of the Project Define relationships as FS, SS, FF with leas and lag period (for eg. Task no, then relationship type and then lag (+) number of days/weeks/Months or (-) no of days/weeks/months Define the duration of the tasks (m-minutes, h-hours, d-days, w-weeks, Mo-months) Fine tune your durations & relationships if necessary

4.

5.

6. 7.

8. 9.

10. Define resources in the Resource View 11. Define their Resource Types 12. Define Max Units 13. Define Std. Rate / Cost/Use 14. Define Calendar for the resource 15. Assignment of Resources 16. Click on Gantt view, Gantt view will be displayed.

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17. Split the screen Windows menu, Click on Split, Window gets split, take the vertical split bar to the left (middle of then screen) 18. Open Resource Assignment window (Tools Assign Resources) or click on Assign resources icon 19. Take the assign resource dialogue box to the left of the screen 20. Click on the task on which you want to assign the resource 21. Then select the resource from the assign resources dialog box and define the units of work in the unit column (50% - if resource I working for 4 hrs per day till the completion task) 22. Format spreadsheet add columns Fixed Cost & Cost columns. Select any column, right click the mouse, select Insert column dialogue box will appear, select fixed cost and say OK. Do the same procedures for Cost field also. 23. Apply the appropriate cost to the appropriate task in the Fixed Cost field. It will be rolled up in the Cost column 24. Save the project into baseline. Tools Tracking Save Baseline entire project - OK 25. Click on the Tracking Gantt. Now you will be able to see the baseline for each task 26. Tracking project. Tools Tracking Update Task Define the Actual Start Date & then put some percentage as the progess. When the task is finished provide the Finish Task. This way single task updating takes Place 27. For Multi Task updation Tools Tracking Update Project. In this MS Project assumes that every task is starting as per schedule. There are 2 options. Update complete 0% 100%. This option updates the task with some % till the date of updation given by you. 28. The second option updates those activities which are finishing before the date and will not update with %, those tasks which are finishing later. 29. Reschedule uncompleted work to start later option provides the option of rescheduling the project once there is no work for a certain period of time. Here in this option provide the date from which the project work is again starting. 30. Progress Lines shows the progress against the planned project. 31. Reports can be seen from View Menu Reports. There are 7 8 reports which are useful to any organization at any point of time.

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SUGGESTED READING
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Martino R.L. Project Management & Control Finding the Critical Path. New York: American Management Association, 1st Printing 1964. Martino R.L. Project Management& Control Vol 11- Applied Operational Planning. New York: American Management Association,2nd Printing 1964 Hira D.S. Project Management with PERT & CPM. Ludhiana: SK Kataria & Sons, 2nd Edition 1994. Chandra Prasanna. Project Planning Analysis Selection & Review. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co., 4th Edition 1996. Bhattacharya A. Management by Network Analysis. Calcutta: The Institution of Engineers(India),4th Printing 1973 Weist J.D., Levi EK. A Management Guide to PERTICPM. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., 2nd Edition 2001. Gray C.E, Larson E.W. Project Management The Management Process. International Edition: Irwin/McGraw-Hili Publishers, 1st. Edition 2000. Lock Dennis. The Essentials of Project Management. Gower Publishing Inc., 1st Edition 1996. Eliyahu M. Goldratt & Jeff Cox. The Goal, 3rd revised Edition, Productivity and Quality Publishing Pvt Ltd, 38, Thanikachalam Road, T. Nagar, Madras. 600 017ISBN-13:978-81-85984-13-1, ISBN-10:81-85984-13-1

9.

10. 11. 12.

A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), Third Edition, Published by: Project Management Institute, Inc.
Carl Chatfield, PMP and Timothy Johnson, MCP. Step by Step MSP 2003, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi ISBN : 81-203-2541-9 Eric Verzuh. The Portable MBA, The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management, John Wiley & Sons Inc Edition 1999 ISBN : 0-471-32546.5

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