The following questions and answers on the API material are for memorization. The API questions will be open book on the first part of the exam and closed book during the second half. Practice remembering the lcey words as opposed to learning the entire answer.

API 510 EIGHTH ED., .JUNE, 1997 ADDENDA # 1 DEC. 1998, # 2 DEC. 2000, # 3 Dec. 2001 and Aug. 2003 REVIEW QUESTIONS Section 1 - General Application

( I .1 )

The primary code for the inspection of pressure vessels after they enter service is? The API 510 Code Relative to pressure vessels, when does API 510 apply? Only applicable to vessels after they have been placed in service. What does the API inspection code cover? Maintenance inspection, repair, alteration, and re-rating procedures for pressure vessels used by petroleum and chemical process industries"

• 2.
(I I)

(I, I)

4., What type 01 pressure vessel is exempt from periodic inspection requirements?

• • •
i I

Pressure vessels on movable structures covered by otherjurisdictional requirements. All classes listed for exemption from the inspection scope of the ASME Code Section VIII, Division L Pressure vessels that do not exceed specified volumes & pressures

Section 3 - Deflnltions

(3.1 )

What is an alteration? A physical change in any component or a re-rating which has design implications which affect pressure-containing capability beyond the scope of existing data reports.
What three situations should not be 'considered alterations?

(3.1 )

Comparable or duplicate replacement

• •

Addition of reinforced nozzle less tl1311r equal to existing reinforced nozzles o Addition of nozzles not requiring reinforcement


Rev 9


281. 482,2253



In what situation

would the term "applicable


of ASME Code" be used?

When the ASME Code cannot he followed because of its new construction orientation (new or revised material specifications. inspection requirements, certain heal treatments and pressure tests, and stamping and inspection requirements). the engineer or inspector shall conform to this inspection code rather than to the ASME Code .. If an item is covered by requirements in the ASME Code and this inspection code or if there is a conflict between the two codes, for vessels that have been placed in service, the requirements of this inspection code shall take precedence over the ASME Code As an example of the intent of this inspection code, the phrase "applicable requirements of the ASME Code" has been used in this inspection code instead of the phrase "in accordance with the ASME Code." What is an Authorized Inspector or Inspector?

(.3 J)

An employee of an Author ized Inspection inspection under this inspection code, List 4 examples of an Authorized

Agency who is qualified and certified to perform




• • • •

Inspection organization of the jurisdiction in which the pressure vessel is used or; Inspection organization of insurance company which is licensed or registered to write and actually writes pressure vessel insurance, An owner or user of pressure vessels who maintains an inspection organization for activities relating only to his equipment and not for vessels intended for sale or resale, An independent organization or individual licensed or recognized by the jurisdiction in which the pressure vessel is used and employed by or acting under the direction of the owner or user .. code".

10. Define "construction

The code or standard to which a vessel was originally built, such as APIJ ASME, API, or State Special/non-ASME


What does the term "inspection

code" refer to in API 510?


Litle Ior API 510 used in this publication.

12, Define Jurisdictions.

(3.8) • A legally constituted vessels government administration, which may adopt rules relating to pressure

r 3 Define Maximum Allowable (39) and (Sect VIII UG-98) •

W01 king Pressure (MA WP) as it relates to API 510,


The maximum gage pressure permitted at the top of a pressure vessel in its operating position for a designated temperature that is based on calculations using the minimum (or average pitted) thickness for all critical vessel elements, not including corrosion allowance or loading other than pressure,


Rev 9




14 When determining Minimum Allowable Shell Thickness. what must he considered when making calculations?

Temperature. pressure, and all loading.

(3.11 ) •

15. What type of inspection uses nondestructive examination procedures to establish the suitabil ity of pressui e vessels for continued operation?

On-stream Inspection

1G What is the key element of an On-stream inspection? (3.11 ) • Because the vessel may be in operation while an on-stream inspections being carried out the vessel is not entered for internal inspection,

(J 12) and

17. What is a Pressure Vessel? (Sect VIII U-I (a) A container designed to withstand internal or external pressure, which can he imposed by an external source, by the application of heat from a direct or indirect source, or by any combination thereof. This definition includes unfired steam generators and other vapor generating vessels, which use heat from the operation of a processing system or other indirect heat source, (Specific limits and exemptions of equipment covered by this inspection code are given in Section I and Appendix A)

18, Who shall be a pressure vessel engineer?

Shall be one or more persons OJ' organizations acceptable to the owner-user who are knowledgeable and experienced in the engineering disciplines associated with evaluating mechanical and material characteristics which affect the integrity and reliability of pressure vessels. The pressure vessel engineer, by consulting with appropriate specialists, should be regarded as a composite of all entities needed to properly assess the technical requirements, 9. What is the definition of quality assurance as given in API 51 O? All planned, systematic, and preventative actions required to determine if materials, equipment, or services will meet specified requirements so that equipment will perform satisfactorily in service, The contents of a quality assurance inspection manual are outlined in 430



20 What is a Repair?
(3 ..15)

The Walk necessary to restore a vessel to a condition suitable for safe operations at the design conditions, "IF" design temperature or pressure changes due to restoration, then re-rating requirements shall also be satisfied

08/04 Rev 9


281. 482.2253


are included.1 9) • Any welding technique used [0 obtain controlled grain refinement and tempering of the underlying heat affected zone (HAZ)in the base metal.When a re-rating is conducted in which the maximum allowable working pressure or temperature is increased or the minimum temperature is decreased so that additional mechanical tests are required.. it shall be considered an alteration.. A contractor whose qualifications are acceptable to the owner or user of pressure vessels and makes repairs in accordance with this inspection code. What is a permissible way to provide for corrosion? De-rating below original design conditions .APIEXAMS.2253 WWW. 2. What distinguishes an examiner from and inspector? • A person who assists [he API authorized pressure vessel inspector by performing specific NDE on pressure vessels but does not evaluate the results of those examinations in accordance with API 510. or a change in both. 482. A repair concern that is authorized by the legal jurisdiction 22. List the four examples of a Repair Organization (316) • • • • (3 17) The holder of a val id Code symbol stamp ASME Certificate of Authorization for the lise of an appropriate ASME An owner or user of pressure vessels who repairs his own equipment in accordance with the API 510 code.5 21. The maximum allowable working temperature and pressure of a vessel may be increased 01 decreased because of a re-rnting. Controlled-deposition welding requires control of the entire welding procedure including the joint detail.ORG . Various controlled-deposition techniques.1 (317) • (.3 J 8) 24. 25. Define Controlled-Deposition Welding 0. and sometimes a re-rating requires a cornhination of changes De-rating he low original design conditions is a permissible way to provide for corrosion . welding technique. unless speci fically trained and authorized to do so by the owner or user 'The examiner need not be certified in accordance with API 510 or be an employee of the owner or user but shall be trai ned and competent in the applicable procedures in which the examiner is involved. What is re-rnting? • A change in either the temperature ratings or the maximum allowable working pressure rating of a vessel. such as temper-bead (tempering of the layer below the current bead being deposited) and half-bead (requiring removal of one-half of the firstlayer).. and welding parameters 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. preheating and post healing.

or inspection of boilers or pressure vessels.6 Section 4 Owner-User w Inspcetion Organization 26 What me the education and experience requirements for becoming an inspector? (42 go [0 Appendix B) • • • • (44) Degree in engineering & I year experience in the design. 27 Who will be responsible to the owner-user when alterations. 2-year certificate in engineering or technology hom a technical college & 2 years of experience in the design. construction. construction. I ! 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. inspections. or inspection of boilers or pressure vessels Equivalent of a high school education plus 3 years of experience. repair.ORG . operation.2253 WWW. Five years experience in the inspection of boilers or press me vessels. (and). or repairs are performed? • The API authorized pressure vessel inspector.482. operation. repair.APIEXAMS.

Interaction of creep and fatigue.2) . At ambient tempeuuures. Creep Clack growth.2) where metals of different to what? thermal coefficients of expansion are welded together are • Thermal Fatigue. gus or vapors. including a reduction in ductility . Check all tools and safety equipment needed before inspection.APIEXAMS.2253 WWW. The actual or estimated (5. Gas test. must an inspector follow to enter a vessel that has been in service? 29 What guidelines (5.ORG . Elfect of hydrogen on creep. clean and ventilate. Locations susceptible (5.2) • • • • Time Temperature Stress Material Creep Strength 34. . When developing an inspection me inside. low alloy.1) [11 ocedures • • • • • • • 3J (5. Why are safety precautions (5.1 ) • important in pressure-vessel inspections? Because of the limited access to and (he confined spaces of pressure vessels. Warn all persons working around the vessel that inspection personnel Warn all inside the vessel of work that is done outside the vessel.7 Section 5· Inspection Practices 28. levels of what four items must be considered in any evaluation ofCreep? 33. and other ferritic steels may be susceptible to what? • Brittle Failure 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. purge. Isolate vessel from all sources of liquids.482.1) • OSHA Regulations regarding Confined and Space Entry that should be taken when performing an internal 30. Drain. (52) carbon.32. of) what things should be considered plan for vessels that operate at elevated temperatures (750 to 1000 when assessing the remaining life of the vessel? • • • • • Creep deformation and stress rupture. Weal protective equipment as required. Explain the safety precautions inspection (5. Possible metallurgical effects.

08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. except as modified in section 64 40. 41. . On-stream determination after 1000 hours of service using a suitable corrosion monitoring device or NDE thickness measurements (UT). What determines the parts of a vessel that should be inspected? • (55) The type of vessel and its operating conditions. What three methods may be used to determine the probable rate of corrosion? • • • Calculate rate 1'10111 data collected from same or similar service. Estimate rate from owner-user experience or from published data on comparable set vice . What is the most important and the most universally accepted method of inspection? (55) • (55) Careful visual examination 41.ORG .482. (52) • A loss of ductility and notch toughness due to PWHT or high temperature service above 700 degrees F (370 degrees C) 36 What kind of steel is prone to Temper Embrittlement? (52) • (53) Low alloy steels. or a combination of these may be required . How should the MA WP for the continued use of a pressure vessel be established? (5 A) • By using the Code to which the vessel was fabricated or by using the appropriate formulas and requirements of the latest edition of the ASME Code to establish the design temperature and pressure. but surface preparation such as wire brushing. grinding. what surface preparation is required? • The type of surface preparation depends on individual circumstances...2253 WWW. 38. In corrosive service.35 Define Temper Embrittlernent.39. chipping. the wall thickness used in the MA WP calculations shall he the actual thickness obtained by inspection minus ' (54) • Twice the estimated corrosion loss before the date of the next inspection. blasting.APIEXAMS. subsequent inspections shall be made until the corrosion rate has been established.8 . especially 2 1/4-0-1 Mo 37. For proper visual examination.

49 For a COl roded area of considerable size in which the circumferential stl esses govern. bulges.. For vessels with inside diameters greater than 60 inches. and other defects.482. cracks.7) • • FOI vessels with inside diameters less than or equal to 60 inches ( 150 centimeters). • Examine the surfaces of all man ways. one third the vessel diameter 01 40 inches (100 centimeters). whichever is less. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.9 43 If'distortion is suspected during the inspection of a pressure vessel what is the proper course of action? (55) • If any distortion of a vessel is suspected or observed. and other signs of deterioration. 46 Name two reasons why it is necessary for the API 510 inspector to examine flange faces. Any suitable nondestructive examination Measurements taken through drilled test holes Gauging fro 111 uri-corroded surfaces in the vicinity of the corroded area. one half the vessel diameter or 20 inches (50 centimeters). blisters.7) • • • To look for distortion To determine the condition of gasket-seating surfaces 47. which include the features that are common important 1110stvessels and that are most Examine the surfaces of shells and heads carefully fOI possible cracks. Name three ways the minimum thickness of a pressure vessel can be determined.7) • • (5.a general.6) • • • (5. irregular surface wastage 48. (5. if it is distorted. and other openings for distortion. nozzles. Corrosion may cause what two forms of loss? Uniform loss . the least thickness along the most critical element of the area may be averaged over a length not exceeding what? (5 . whichever is less.6) List the inspections.2253 WWW.ORG . to determine the extent and seriousness of the distortion The parts of the vessel that should be inspected most carefully depend on the type of vessel and its operating conditions 44 (55) What type of examiners shall the when the owner/user requires inspection for detection of interior surface breaking planar flaws? Indusuy-quulified UT Shear Wave examiners (0 • 45 (5.an obvious.APIEXAMS. • Examine welded joint') and the adjacent heat-affected zones for service-induced cracks or other defects. the overall dimensions of the vessel shall be checked to confirm whether or not the vessel is distorted and. relatively even wastage of a surface area Pitted appearance .

0'1 (5. Total area of pits does not exceed 7 sq. which are below the minimum required wall thicknesses.10 50 When can widely scattered pits be ignored? (57) • • • No pit depth is more than 1/2 the vessel wall thickness exclusive of corrosion allowance. are adequate for continued service. inches in any 8 inch diameter circle Sum of pit dimensions along any straight line within the circle does not exceed 2 inches" 51.g) • For this calculation . Appendix 4.7. What do you use to determine if the thickness at the weld OJ remote from the weld governs the allowable working pressure when the surface at the weld has a joint factor other than 1.the surface at a weld includes I inch (25 centimeter s) on either side of the weld. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. Or twice the minimum thickness on either side of the weld.2253 WWW.APIEXAMS.482. Division 2.. 52. of the ASME Code be used? (57) • • To determine if components with thinning. walls.ORG . When should the design by analysis methods of Section VIII. To evaluate blend ground areas where defects have been removed. whichever is greater.

11) • The equivalent spherical KI is given in Table I.Inspection and Testing of Pressure Vessels and Pressure-Relieving 58.7h) That mea located entirely within a circle whose center coincides with the center of the head and whose diameter is equal 1080% of the shell diameter 55. segment of ellipsoidal heads shall be considered to be what? • 56.7. The radius of the spherical (5.8) allowance what API document • API RP 579 Sections 4. What are the essential elements of a risk based assessment inspection? of increased 60 (6.APIEXAMS. When is un internal field inspection (6 I) of new vessels not required'? • When the manufactures' data report (U I) assuring that the vessels ale satisfactory intended service is available.1 ) • The risk associated with operational shutdown and start-up and the possibility corrosion due to exposure of vessel surfaces (0 air and moisture. 482.2253 WWW. when inspection intei vals are being determined. thickness when measuring the corroded thickness of ellipsoidal and 54.11 51 (5711) • • The thickness of the knuckle region with the head rating calculated hy the appropriate head formula The thickness of the central portion of the dished region. in which case the dished region may be considered a spherical segment whose allowable pressure is calculated hy the code formula for spherical shells.5 and 6 Devices Section 6 . Name two factors to be considered (6.ORG .2) • The combination ollikcl ihood of failure and the consequences 01 failure 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. On torispherlcul heads" what is used as the radius of the spherical segment? (57. radius KID. for their 59. What is the spherical segment of both ellipsoidal and torispherical heads"? (5. where D is the shell diameter (equal to the major axis) and 57 When evaluating metal loss in excess of a vessel's corrosion should be consulted? (5..h) • Radius of the dish. Describe [he governing torispherical heads .

whichever is less 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNIC~L 281. whichever is less 64 When making an external inspection." (62) 62. Buried vessels shall be periodically monitored to determine their external environmental condition.2253 WWW. What shall the inspection intervals be based on? (6.stream inspections Determine if pressure testing will be required based on damage or after repairs. Set the appropriate frequency for internal and external and on. What shall the inspection include? (63) • Cond ilion of the exterior insulation • • • Condition of the supports Allowance for expansion General alignment of the vessel on its supports 65. appropriateness of the design codes and standards utilized." \ 12 \ \ 6 I. 66 What is the minimum interval for checking the insulating system or outer jacketing of vessels that are known to have a remaining life of over 10 years or that are protected against external corrosion? (6. Information from representative portions of the actual vessel. Decide all prevention and mitigation steps to reduce the likelihood of a vessel failure vessel be given a visual external inspection? 63 How often should each above ground (6.3) • Each vessel aboveground shall be given a visual external inspection.APIEXAMS. effectiveness of corrosion monitoring programs. .3) • • • • Corrosion rate information obtained during maintenance on adjacent connecting piping of similar material. 67 What is the maximum period between internal or on-stream inspection? • The maximum period shall not exceed one half the estimated remaining corrosion-rate lire or 10 years.ORG . Information from the interval examination of similarly buried corrosion lest coupons of similar material. preferably while in operation.482. What other factors should be considered in a RBI program? (62) I • Appropriateness of the materials. and the quality of inspection I quality assurance and maintenance programs. What action should he taken after an effective RBI assessment has been finished? • • • • Choose the most appropriate inspection tools and methods based on the degradation expected. vessel design conditions relative to operating conditions.3) • (64) Every 5 years and repaired as needed. at least every 5 years 01 at the same interval as the required internal or en-stream inspection. Information from a vessel in similar circumstances.

There are two kinds of corrosion vessel What are these types? (6A) • Short Term and Long Term rates.13 68.ORG . No questionable condition is disclosed by the external inspection specified in 62.2253 WWW.4) If the remaining safe operating life of a vessel is less than 4 years. has been established by at least 5 years of the same OJ comparable service experience with the type of contents being handled. in inches (millimeters). a RBI assessment. for the limiting section or zone rates to be considered when calculating the remaining life of a 71. Under what conditions would a vessel with a corrosion rate less than 0. including.:------------------Corrosion rate • Where: tactual e the thickness. (6.005 inch (0.APIEXAMS. Alternatively. The operating temperature of the steel vessel shell does not exceed the lower temperature limits for [he creep-rupture range of the vessel material. or lack of access makes vessel entry for internal inspection physically impossible. When the general corrosion rate of a vessel is known to be less [han 0. in inches millimeters). and all of the following conditions me met: The corrosive character of the contents. configuration.. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.12:5 millimeter) per year and an estimated remaining life greater than 10 years be exempt from an internal inspection and inspected externally instead? (6A) • • When size.005 inch (0" 125 millimeter) per year and the estimated remaining life is greater than J 0 years. what is inspection interval? • 69 Interval may be the full remaining safe operating life up to a maximum of 2 years. the effect oftrace components. measured at the lime of inspection for the" limiting section used to determine the minimum allowable thickness. t actual=-t required Life Yrs . t minimum ::::the minimum allowable thickness... as permitted in can be performed to determine that the risk associated environmental cracking or hydrogen damage is acceptably low and that the effectiveness of external inspection techniques is adequate for the damage mechanism" This assessment should include a review of past conditions and likely future process conditions" The vessel is not strip-lined • • • • • or plate-lined. the safe remaining life of a vessel 70 Write the formula to be used when determining (64) Rernaning. The vessel is not considered to be subject to environmental cracking or hydrogen damage from the fluid being handled. 482.

2253 WWW.APIEXAMS. 73 When should pneumatic account? that a lower lest temperature is acceptable or a testing be done and what are some of the considerations to be taken into (65) • Pneumatic testing may be used when hydrostatic testing is impracticable because of temperature.482. What things are included in these records? (6.6) • Testing and repairs shall be made by a repair organization experienced in valve maintenance. Should safety relief valves ever be removed hom a vessel during pressure testing? (65) • Yes. and re-rating informution. the potential personnel and property risks should be considered. and progressive records of 77 Pressure vessel owners and users are required to maintain permanent their pressure vessels. Test of inspection intervals on pressure-relieving devices in typical process services should not exceed 5 years. Fitness-for-service assessment documentation 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. who is allowed to make this repair? 75 (6. or 100 F (-12°C) above for vessels that have a thickness of 2 inches or less The lest temperature need not exceed 120 <IF(50"C) unless there is information on the brittle characteristics of the vessel material indicating higher test temperature is needed. foundation or process reasons. be during the test? what shall (he shell temperature (6. alteration. however.5) • To minimize the risk of brittle fracture during the lest the metal temperature should be maintained at least 30 0 F (-1°C) above the minimum design metal temperature for vessels that are more than 2 inches thick. ) 6 • The intervals between pressure relieving device testing or inspection should be determined by the performance of the devices in the particular service concerned. 74. Repair. non-corrosive SCI vices. unless service experience indicates that a longer interval is acceptable For clean (non-routing).7) • • • • Construction and design information Opeuning and inspection history.. maximum intervals may be increased to 10 years. 76 How often shall a safety relief valve be tested? (6 . if a pressure lest is being conducted in which the test pressure will exceed the set pressure of the safety relief valve with the lowest setting When a pressure relief valve requires repair.14 72 When conducting a pressure test as part of a periodic inspection.QRG . The repair 01 ganization shall have a written quality control system with the minimum requirements as listed in 45 of the API 510 code and maintain a training program to insure the qualifications of the repair personnel.

8.2253 WWW. Group I and 2 (excluding Mn-Mo steels in GIOUp 2) 84. The authorized pressure vessel inspector mny give prior general authorization for limited or routine repairs as long as the inspector is sure that the repairs are the kind that will not require pressure tests 79 Who shall approve all specified repair and alterution work? (7 12) • The API author ized pressure vessel inspector. and Re-rating of Pressure Vessels 78. .m Code may not he given until a pressure vessel engineer experienced in pressure vessel design has been consulted about the alterations and repairs and has approved them The authorized pressure vessel inspector will designate the fabrication approvals that are required. I Group 1. P-No.2..15 Section 7. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. Who must upprove any repairs or alterations? (71 I) • All repair and alteration work must be authorized by the authorized pressure vessel inspector before the work is started by a repair organization (see 3. Name the materials allowed fOi use with the Controlled-Deposition Welding Method (723.APIEXAMS.13). after the and any required pressure test has been witnessed WOl k has been proven to be satisfactory 80 What must be removed from base material prior to welding? (71 J) • Surface irregularities and contamination 81. Division 2. Divisions I and 2.ORG . 482. except as permitted in 7. P-No 3 and P·No 4.2 and 3 and P-No 3. Authorization for alterations to pressure vessels that comply with Section VUI.Repairs. Alterations. All repair and alteration welding shall he in accordance with what code? (72) • ASME Code. of the ASME. II 820 What must be done before Preheat or Controlled Deposition Welding is used in lieu ofPWHT? (7L3) • Prior to using any alternative method a metallurgical review must be conducted to determine if the proposed alternative is suitable for the application. of the ASr-. I. Code and for repairs to pressure vessels that comply with Section VIII.l Name the materials allowed when using the alternative preheating method when notch toughness testing is not required.2) • The materials shall he limited to P-No. (723 • I) The materials shall be limited to P-Nos.

Fillet Weld Patches. NEW CONNECTIONS . possible previously dissolved hydrogen. etc) are considered Preheat of 300 degree or higher per WPS is maintained. Flush parches OZ. and a need for future periodic examination. In evaluating the suitability of a procedure.require special design considerations. the following result: • • The allowable membrane stress is not exceeded in the vessel parts or the patches . SCI vice environment.2253 WWW. deterioration of base metal properties (by temper ernbriulement of chromiummolybdenum alloys). they are temporary repairs Also it must be true that.16 85. minimum pressurization temperatures. The strain in the patches does not result in fillet-weld stresses that exceed allowable stresses for such welds. New Connections. (a) TIle fillet-welded • • OVERLAY PATCHES .APIEXAMS.Heat is applied to any nozzle or other attachment in PWHT area What considerations 86 (72. PWI-lT temperature is maintained for distance not less than 2 limes base metal thickness measured hom weld A minimum of 2 thermocouples is used.5) • • YES provided the following conditions be substituted for 360 degree banding? are met: • • • Application is reviewed and procedure developed by engineer experienced in pressure vessel design &. location. Replacement Parts..QRG . 87 Per API 510.6) must be given to the repair of stainless steel overlay and claddings? • Consideration shall be given to factors which may augment the repair sequence such us stress level. and method of attachment shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements of the appropriate code. REPLACEMENT PARTS . P number of base material.482.shall have rounded corners. type of Iining. state the design I equirernents for: Butt Joints. Overlay Parches. material properties.design. all applicable factors (base metal thickness.shall be fubricated in accordance with the applicable requirements of the appropriate code. FLUSH (insert) PATCHES shall have rounded comers and be installed with full penetration joints butt 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. (h) The fillet-welded patches are designed to absorb the membrane strain of the parts so that in accordance with the rules or tile applicable section ofthe ASME Code.7) • • • • BUTT JOINTS .shall have complete penetration and fusion. FILLET WELDED PATCHES . PWHT requirements. patches provide design safety equivalent to reinforced openings designed according to the applicable section of the ASME Code. Can local post weld heat treatment (PWHT) (71.

After repairs or alterations. When making a repair or alteration... and documented by the pressure vessel engineer and the authorized API pressure vessel inspector and the following requirements are met: The repair is 1101 being made to a crack in the vessel shell.pressure test only applied if inspector believes one is necessary • Altcrntlonspressure test are normally required . Non-penetrating nozzles (including pipe caps attached as nozzles) may be used as long term repairs for other than cracks when the design and method of attachment comply with the applicable requirements of the appropriate code . appropriate nondestructive examinations shall be required where a pressure test is not performed Substituting nondestructive examination procedures for a pressure test after an alteration may be done only after a pressure vessel engineer experienced in pressure vessel design and the authorized pressure vessel inspector have been consulted 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.2. should he considered if applicable The band material and weld metal me suitable for contact with the contained fluid at the design conditions and an appropriate corrosion allowance is provided in the band. (7. (729) a NDE techniques that are ill accordance appl icable vessel rating code. with the appl icable sections of the ASME Code or another 91 .The design and reinforcement of such nozzles shall consider the loss of the original shell material enclosed by the nozzle The nozzle material shall be suitable for contact with the contained fluid at the design conditions and an appropriate corrosion allowance shall be provided. All longitudinal seams in the repair band are full penetration butt welds with the design joint efficiency and inspection consistent with the appropriate code.17 88. • A full encirclement lap band repair may he considered a long term repair if the design is approved.2 10) a is a pressure test required? Repnlrs . the material suitable for making repairs or alterations. without counting on the integrity of the original shell mates lal covered by the band.482. The band alone is designed to contain the full design pressure. such as fatigue resulting from differential expansion of the band relative to the vessel shell. Summarize (7. be of known weldable quality and be compatible with the original material.APIEXAMS.35 percent shall nOI be welded what should the acceptance criteria include? 90.ORG . The degradation mechanism leading to the need for repair shall be considered in determining the need for any additional monitoring and future inspection of the repair. The circumferential fillet welds attaching the band to the vessel shell are designed to transfer the full longitudinal load in the vessel shell.2253 WWW.Subject to the approval of the Jurisdiction (where the jurisdiction'S approval is required). Carbon or allow steel with a carbon content over 0..7) the rules for the use of a hill encirclement lap band on a pressure vessel. • • a • a • • 89 Describe (728) a Shall conform to the applicable section of the ASME Code. using ajoiut efficiency of 045. Fatigue of the attachment welds.

The increased thickness of the repair shall have rounded comers and shall be blended into the base metal using a 3 to I taper. or the vessel integrity is maintained hy special nondestructive evaluation inspection techniques in lieu of tes ti ng. or inspection shall justify re-rating. 482. The thickness of the repair weld shall be increased by a ratio of minimum specified tensile strength of the base metal and minimum specified tensile of the filler metal used for the repair. the following shall be met: The repair thickness shall not be more than 50 percent of the required base metal thickness. excluding corrosion allowance. the compatibility of the filler metal chemistry with the base metal chemistry shall be considered regarding weld ability and service degradation. An increase in allowable working pressure or temperature shall be based on thickness data obtained hom a recent internal or on-stream inspection. If a filler metal is used that has a minimum specified tensile strength lower than the minimum specified tensile strength of the base metal. it may be re-rated to the latest edition/addendum of the ASME Code if permitted by Figure 7Current inspection records verify that the pressure vessel is satisfactory for the proposed service conditions and that the corrosion allowance provided is appropriate. fabrication. In addition. • • Calculations f101neither the manufacturer or an owner-user pressure vessel engineer (or his designated representative) experienced in pressure vessel design.ORG . List the requirements associated with re-ratlng a pressure vessel.2253 WWW. The pressure vessel has at some time been pressure tested in accordance with the new service conditions. List the minimum tensile strength requirements for filler metals used on vessels weld repairs and the details of this method of repair (7211 ) • The filler metal used for weld repairs should have minimum specified tensile strength equal to 01 greater than the minimum specified tensile strength of the base metal. • • • • (7J) 94. The repair shall be made with a minimum of two passes.10 • Test Pressure « I 3 MA \VP X Stress at Test Temp/Stress at Design Temp 93. Write the API 510 Test pressure formula 72.APIEXAMS. A re-rating shall be established in accordance with the requirements of the construction code to which the pressure vessel was built or by computations that are determined using the appropriate Formulas in the latest edition of the ASME Code if ail of the essential details comply with the applicable requirements of the code being used. If the vessel was designed to an edition or addendum of the ASME Code earlier than the 1999 Addenda and was not designed to Code Case 2290 or 2278. • • • 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.18 92. The pressure vessel inspection and re-rating is acceptable 10 the authorized pressure vessel inspector.

08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.ORG .References 2 (1) • RP What document should be referenced device? to determine the appropriate size for a pressure relief 5. (I) What is the general scope of API RP576? To describe inspection and repair practices for automatic used in the oil and petrochemical industries pressure-relieving • devices commonly Section 2 .APIEXAMS.20 Sizing. Willil is a huddling chamber? An annular pressure chamber located downstream of the seat of a pressure rei ief valve for the purpose of assisting the valve in lifting 5 Describe "rated relieving capacity" • (336) • determined The relieving capacity us co as the husis for the npplicut ion 01 a pressure vessel relief device using the applicable code or regulation. and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries Seetlon S>.19 95 When is the re-uuing of a pressure vessel considered complete? (7 J) • When the API authorized pressure vessel inspector oversees the attachment of an additional nameplate or additional stamping that carries the following information: Rerated by: _ Maximum Allowable Working Pressure __ psi at degrees F Date _ API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 576 SECOND EDITION. (322) A non-reclosing pressure relief device actuated by static pressure and designed to function by buckling or breaking a pin. DECEMBER 2000 REVIEW QUESTIONS Section I ~General 1.1. which holds a piston or plug in place. 482" 2253 WWW. Desci ibe a pin-actuated device. (3.13) • 4.Definitions . Selection.

Name the five types of pressure relief valves (4. Lifts in proportion [0 the increase in pressure. Any hack pressure service.1) Devices devices? What is the function of pressm e-relieving • 7 (4) • • • • • To protect refinery equipment and personnel hy automatically opening at predetermined pressures..Pressure-Rellevlng 6.2. Usually I eaches full lift at either 10% or 25% over pressure 12.4. toxic. 10 Safety valves should not be used in what situations? (42. (4.4..2253 WWW. Balanced Safely Relief Valve Pilot-operated safety relief valve 9 (4.APIEXAMS. 482. Descr ibe a relief valve.43. flammable or expensive fluids 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. Where discharge is' piped to remote locations Where escape of lading fluid around blowing valves is not desirable In l iquid service As pressure control or bypass valves I I .4.47) • • • • • Safely valve Relief valve Safety relief valve .20 Section 4 . Why do relief valves have closed bonnets? (43) • To prevent the release of corrosive.ORG . VIII UG-126 foot notes) (43)(Seclion • • • Actuated by static pressure upstream of a valve. Name common examples of pressure relieving devices Direct spt ing loaded Pilot PRY Rupture disks Weight loaded devices Pressure/Vacuum vent valves 8. VIII UG-126 foot notes) Actuated by static pressure upsn earn of a valve Spring fully exposed outside casing to protect from escaping steam. Normally not pressure tight on their downstream side.2)(Section • • • Describe a surety val "e.2) • • • • • • Corrosive refinery services.6..

or vapor service In services piped to an enclosed header unless the effects of any constant or variable backpressure have been accounted for.. Where are conventional safety relief valves used'? (451) • Refinery process industries that handle flammable. 14.482. What is a pilot-operated (4. or toxic materials. hot.. where high pressures are present at the discharge of the valve hot or toxic 20. Maya conventional (452) • (4.APIEXAMS. Describe (45) & Balanced safety relief valve.21 13 Relief valves should not be used in what situations? (432) • • • In steam. What are the proper appl icntions for these pressure balanced a bellows or other means to safety relief devices: (4.61) • Balance safety rei ief valves are normally used in applications with flammable. 16. What are these two types? (4..2253 WWW. air.5. closing pressure and relieving capacity are affected by back pressure Has a closed bonnet The bonnet cavity is vented to the downstream side. a conventional • • • Opening pressure.46) • Conventional 15.6) • No 18.7)(Section • safety relief valve? VllI UG-126 foot notes) with and is controlled by a A pressure-relief valve in which the major relieving device is comhined self-uctuatcd pressure relief valve (called a pilot valve) . As pressure control or bypass valves. Describe safety relief valve be used on boiler steam di urns or super heaters? a balanced safety rei ief valve. 17. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. gas. There are two types of safety relief valves. Balanced safely rei ief valves are direct spring loaded and incorporate minimize the effects 01 backpressure 19.ORG .. materials.

27 What is one advantage of the graphite disk over metal disks? . • • • • • (4915) Conventional Rupture Disk. (49) • (4. 23. Where back pressure is very high and a balanced design is required. in-service. High COli osion resistance 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.APIEXAMS.9) The c?mbinatioll 01' a rupture disk and rupture disk holder is known as a rupture disk device. Composite Rupture disk.. Thick or viscous fluid service. 26 Name the types of rupture disks. What are the applications and limitations of pressure and/or vacuum vent valves? and 2 • They ale designed to protect atmospheric and low pressure storage tanks and are not generally used in applications requiring set pressures above ]5 Ibf/in2 25..22 21 What are some applications of pilot-operated (471) safety relief val ves? . Where in-situ. • • • (4. Where the process requires the sensing of pressure at one location and the relief of fluid at another.. • (48 I Where fluids are dirty. Describe the parts of a Rupture Disk Device. 482.ORG . Scored Tension-Loaded Rupture Disk. Reverse-Acting Rupture Disk Graphite Rupture Disk.. Where inlet and outlet frictional losses are high. 22 Name some limitations on the use of pilot-operated safety relief valves .8) . I • • • • It • • • (472) Where a large relief area and/or a high pressure is required Where a low differential exists between normal vessel pressure and set pressure of valves On large low-pressure storage tanks (See API Std 620) Where very short blow down required. What are the three basic categories of pressure and/or vacuum vent valves? Weight-loaded pallet vent valve Pilot-operated vent valve Spring and weight-loaded vent valve 24. set pressure verification is desired.2253 WWW. With vapors which polymerize in the valve.. .

482.2) Corrosion 32. history. what must be maintained in the flatness of seating surfaces on pressure relief valves'? (52) • An optical precision on the Older of 3 light heads/hands.9 J) • The exact percentage depends on the disk's type.APIEXAMS. List the major causes of improper performance in pressure-rei ieving devices. • Corrosion • • • • • • • • • Damaged sealing surfaces Failed springs Improper seating ~ adjustments Plugging and sticking Misapplication of materials Improper location. or identification Rough handling Improper differential between operating and set pressures Improper piping test procedures 34. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. To prevent leakage of the lading fluid. 29 Normally the operating pressure of a system protected by a pre-bulged rupnu e disk is from 65% to 85% of the disk's predetermined bursting pressure.I) • (5. What effect can the severe over sizing of a relief valve have'! • (5) Damaged valve seats.2253 WWW.ORG .. What determines this pressure range? (4. 3~.23 28. What is usually the service life of pre-bulged metal rupture disks installed so that pressure acts against the concave side'? (493) • One year" If not replaced periodically they can rupture under normal pressures without warning.Causes of improper Performance 31 What is the basic cause of many the difficulties encountered with pressure relief devices? (5 . What precaution should be taken when a rupture disk is used in combination with another relief device and removed for any reason and will be reused? (493) • They should be handled with care to avoid damage which might cause premature rupture Section 5 . 33.

steam but air may be used if suitable corrections service valves .24 35. Leakage past the seating surfaces of a valve after it has been installed. what should he considered relieving devices? in determining the materia! to be used for pressure- • • • • Temperature Pressure Corrosion resistance requirements Atmospheric conditions 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. service valves .ORG .2253 WWW.surface & stress) 37.. Spring coaled by a coating that can withstand the operating temperature and environment. What chemical frequently causes stress-corrosion (53) spring failure in petrochemical plants'? • Hydrogen sulfide (I-US) 38 What may he done to prevent spring failure due to corrosion'? (53) • • • Spring material which can resist the action of the corrosive agent Spring isolated by a bellows . 40. What almost always causes broken springs in pressure relief valves? (53) • Con os ion (Note: two types . Severe over sizing..water.APIEXAMS.air or other gas. What lire some reasons for damaged (52) valve seats? • It • • • • • Corrosion Forei gn particles getting into val ve Improper or lengthy piping to the valve inlet or obstructions in the line Careless handling during maintenance. What medium should be used to set the following pressure relief devices? (54) • • • • Safety Vapor Stearn Liquid relief valve . 36 . service valve .. Improper blow down ring settings. 482. 39. are applied. What is recommended for lubricating (55) • Valve purts should be lubricated temperature 41 (56) sliding parts and threads on valves to prevent fouling? with a material that is compatible with the sei vice and In general.air or inert gas ..

ORG . After a PRY has been reinstalled for internal deposits and recoi ds made of their what should be checked? (62 I) • After reinstalling.25 42 (58 I) Why should I elief valves be shipped in an upright position? • When relief valves are laid on their sides. The extent of any leakage that has occurred in operation Any other evidence of malfunctioning. A complete operating include what? histoi y of each pressure relief valve should be maintained and should (623) • • • Information on upsets and theii effects 011 the valve. Section 6 .2253 WWW.1 ) • Shop inspections/ overhauls and visual on-stream inspections 47.3.APIEXAMS. If RV inlets and outlets are not covered (583) D during shipment what provisions should he made? Provision should be made for such covering during all future shipments test of discharge piping for a PRD is performed? 45. 48. the springs may not exert the same force all around the seating surface 4. Name two types of inspections. the related piping should be checked to ensure that it is not imposing loads that would cause problems with the pressure relief valve's body such as distortion leading to in-service leakage. 49.482. What risks are incurred when a hydrostatic (510) • • • The disk. What is one important aspect of [he work done to PRDs in the maintenance shop? (581) • Rough handling type valves should he avoided such as the application of excessive backpressure to bellows 44. When a relief valve is removed for inspection made? (62) or overhauls what additional inspection should be • Inlet ami outlet piping should be inspected conditions. spring and body area on the discharge side of valve Can be fouled. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. (6. The bellows of a balanced relief valve can be damaged by excessive back pressure. The dome area and/or the pilot assembly of a pilot-operated pressure RV are fouled and damaged by the hack flow of the fluid.Inspection and Testing 46.

6) Radiographic Inspection .APIEXAMS.6) • (62.2253 WWW.8) Prevent auxiliary piping and pilot assemblies from being damaged.482.. 51 What must be done to valves in hydrofluoric acid service as soon as they are removed'? (625 • They must be correctly neutralized immedlately after removal. 53.. Prior to performing the as received pop test on a PRD what should be inspected and checked? • (6.ORG . 52 . Why should caution be used with the rigging to remove a large PRD for maintenance? • (6<2.. Since inspection of RV piping cannot he done when removing the valve while Lhesystem is in service what alternative inspection can be done to check for line any major blockage or fouling'? (62. What can visual inspection of the piping after the removal of a PRD indicate? • (6.27) The condition of the process piping whose interior is not visible . (624) • The space between the rel ief valve and the adjacent block valve should be vented to release all pressure. 54.. 55. deposits. When a relief device is removed hom a system that is in operation.26 50.2 . or conditions are noted upon receipt of a PRD at the shop what should be done? (6. 5]. ) 9 • (6210) The inspector should participate in the shop inspection of the PRD 58 When is it not necessary to disassemble at PRD at the shop? • If the valve has been tested at the appropriate API 5 J 0 interval and the as received pop test shows the valve to be operating properly d isassernbly is not mandatory 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. When unusual corrosion.28) Check that the seals are intact on the pressure set screw and the blow down ling screw cover 56 When may the as received pop pressure test be waived by the owner/user'? • When the valve is extremely fouled and the test may damage the valve. name a necessary step to prevent an unexpected pressure release.

Check components for wear or corrosion. 01 damage 60.ORG .2253 WWW. The nozzle and seating surfaces should never be oiled.14) • It is believed that the first pop test helps to align all of the components and that the successive tests verify the actual set pressure.APIEXAMS. Why do some manufactures recommend at least three pop tests before releasing a relief device for installation? (62.27 59. at least four of the steps in the inspection of a relief valve upon disassembly (6211) • • • • Measure each part's dimensions. After re-assembly of a reIief device how should any hiow down rings be set? 62.482. 61.2-13) • In accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. List. During re-assembly of a pressure relief valve what should never he done? (6212) • (6. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. Seating surfaces should be checked for roughness Springs should be checked for cracking.

that there are not any blinds or ~lst. ( .. Also bellows if so equipped are connected and clear and vent piping is routed to a safe location.28 63.ORG . API 510 establishes the maximum interval between device inspections or tests of 10 years. 68. Possible release of process material to the atmosphere . Possible introduction of foreign material into the valve seat me from popping . Where is a weight loaded pressure and/or a vacuum vent used? (6220) • (62 . what else should be considered when setting the frequency of inspection and testing? (64) • The perfor mance of the device in a particular service 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNIC. .' 70. 64 When applying the hydraulic test method to ASME Section VIII pressure relief valves while on equipment..AL 281. that the correct pressure can he determined. Any heat tracing or insulation required is in good condition and operational and if a rupture disk is installed it is properly oriented. that the seals are intact and that the valve is not leaking." ! t: I.2253 WWW.alled.17) • • • The potential for failure ofthe rupture disk in disk/relief valve combinations.APIEXAMS. it may not be possible to get a tight seal and unrel iable performance is probable. L 69.482. valve body drains and vent stacks are open.221) Sticking. What are the objectives of a visual on-stream inspection of rei ief devices? • Make sure the correct device is installed. what precautions should be taken? (62.. Is it permissible to reinstall a rupture disk once it has been unbolted and removed from its holder? • (63) No.. Any upstream or downstream block valves are sealed or chained in the proper position That dischar ge piping is supported. any required lifting lever is present and properly positioned. 0) 2 On pressure storage tanks 67. Once the valve is set to pop at its CDTP (cold differential test piessm e) it should be checked for _? (62IS) • Leakage ami seal tightness by increasing the pressure on the test block to 90% of the CDTP. 65 Maya pilot opel ated pressure relief val ve be tested in place if no block valve exists beneath it? (6219) • No. 66. it may be inspected and repaired only while the vessel is out of service. . What type of failure me pressure and/or vacuum vent valves prone to? • (6.

2253 WWW.ORG .2) • Its specification data and a continuously accumulating record of its tests and inspections results.APIEXAMS. Which of [he following per API 576 might be expected to initiate a work request on a PRD? The API inspector or the Process Unit Operator? (73) • Process Unit Operator 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNlr~L 281.29 71.. What should the record for a pressure-reliving device include? (7. How is the frequency of shop inspection or overhaul normally determined? (641. What is the principal Objective in keeping records on pressure-relieving devices? (7 I) • To make available the information needed to ensure the performance of the devices meets the requirements of their various installations.corrosion service would be more frequent for example Section 7wRecords and Reports 72. 482.1 ) • By the operating experience in the valve's present service . 74. 73.

• • .ORG . Reasons for inspection Causes or deterioration. Frequency & methods of inspection. Methods of repair. 5 and 6 contain duplicate information read these sections however. (7 I) What are the basic reasons for inspection? To determine the physical condition of the vessel. FEBRUARY 2001 REVIEW QUESTIONS Section 1 . Standards for construction. 482. Determine the type.Causes of Deterioration List the 4 general forms of deterioration. Electrochemical Chemical Mechanical Combination of all three • • • • 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. 01 ~ Future repair and replacement requirements estimated t (J C".3 List at least four additional reasons for inspections.3. Section 7 . 4. Section 8 . (7.7.APIEXAMS. Tate and causes of deterioration . '.2253 WWW.Reasons for Inspection 2. at least once.2) • • • 4 (8-1 ) • Safety maintained Periods of operation without shutdown extended .30 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE S72 SECOND EDITION.General L (I 1) What are the main points covered in API RP 572'1 Descriptions of the various types of pressure vessels. You should still • • • • • • • Sections. Prepnration of records and reports.1.well planned maintenance program Rate of deterioration often reduced r. to that found in the API 510.

• The removal of surface material caused hy numerous individual impacts of solid or I iquid particles or cavitation.22) Sulfur Salt/Chloride compounds Define erosion. (8 1) List the 4 general classifications vessel surface of things that cause deterioration upon coming.ORG . (82) • 8.2253 WWW. into contact with a • • Organic & inorganic compounds Contaminated Or fresh water Steam Atmosphere Name 6 factors.APIEXAMS.482. . which accelerate the rate of deterioration • • 6 (8 I) • Ternperature • • • • Stress Fatigue Impingement High velocity Irregularity of now What is the prime cause of deterioration in a pressure vessel? • 7. such as impingement baffles...22) . (82) Corrosion What are the most common internal corrodents in refineries? • • 9 (8. Downstream Downstream of control valves of orifices • • Downstream ofpump discharges At any point of flow direction change.31 5. Erosion is typically found where in a vessel? (8. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. 10.

In the absence of -"-_. Wet hydrogen sulfide stress cracking. Corrosion beneath (824) • Bulging of the refractory 1. the rate of metallic 18.2253 WWW.3) Problems with environmental cracking have been experienced stress or both.J '. What does fatigue cracking in a vessel result from? (825) • • • • Excessive cyclic stresses the are often below the yield strength of the material Stich as. Pressure stresses Mechanical stresses Thermal stresses _ 14. . refractory linings can cause what? 12....32 II (82. (0· 15 What factor increases susceptibility (82.. 482 .. Examples of this include __ of high hardness.. below _("-I . and hydrogen blistering.:'~ (828) • • Water 450 OF with adequate cathodic protection when will excavation be 17. areas of high • • • • • • Chloride stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels due to moisture under insulation Poly thionic acid stress corrosion cracking (PSCC) Caustic stress con os ion also know as caustic embriulement Amine stress conosion Clacking in non-stress relieved vessels Carbonate stress corrosion Clacking in alkaline systems..7) • Increasing car bon content of the materials rates of are relatively low at metal temperatures [6.APIEXAMS.9) • When evidence of coating or wrapping damage is I eveuled . --l.:.26) • Significant damage has occured to high temperature hydrogen attack in a vessel's material? '.. Creep damage may be di tficult to detect until (8. hydrogen induced cracking..ORG .1. Whal are the most important microorganisms that directly influences cnnosion? (lU. When buried vessels are equipped required for inspection? (82. sulfide corrosion .'._. 'I_.IO) • Sulfate reducing bacteria found in may soils 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.

Many • the problems that may develop in pressure vessels are traceable to what? Faulty material or fabrication ASME Code.5 4) • (85.7) causes titnuium alloys to lose ductility? • (85) Absorption of hydrogen of 20. and assembly of flanged or threaded joints are examples of what problem? Faull y fabrication 21. Poor welding.. • • • • • • Incomplete penetration Lack of fusion Cracking Undercutting Slag inclusion Porous welds metal is caused by 13 High residual stresses near welds affecting the physical properties and corrosion resistance of the what? (85.5 1) 21.482.APIEXAMS. fabrication with dimensions outside tolerances allowed by (851) • (8.ORG . improper installation of internal equipment. What are the consequences of improper installation of internal equipment} • • Inefficient operation Blockage of passages • Displacement of internal equipment with pressure surges 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.5) Stress concentrations and subsequent failures 15.3) • Improper heat treatment 14 Dimensional intolerance can lead to what? (8. What (1U.33 19. improper heat treatment.2253 WWW. List several consequences of improper welding techniques.

2. Before starting inspection of a pressure vessel.32) • External inspection should start with ladders stairways.2253 WWW.3) What are the most important • Safety and reliability Section III Inspection Methods and Limitations . or walkways connected bearing on the vessel The condition or most parts can be determined by hammering to or 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.31.ORG .Frequency and Time of Inspection 27.2) • • • • • • • • . platforms. what are some basic things the inspector should do? (10 I) • • Determine pressure and temperature conditions under which the vessel has operated since last inspection Ascertain the character of the vessel contents and the function the vessel serves in the process Name at least 8 types of tools required by an inspector to inspect a pressure vessel. (10. What event can provide and opportunity (92) • An unscheduled shutdown 29 (92) What occasional • check may locale the cause of functional deterioration? operating record issues when schedul ing a unit for inspections? A check of a vessel's 30 (9.34 26.n Portable lights Thin bladed knife Broad chisel Or scraper Minors Calipers Steel tape measm e(50 feel) Hammer Notebooks and pencils inspection start? 33. Improper fitting Of' tightening (856) • Leaks and possible failure of flanges or threaded joints may lead to what? Section 9 .APIEXAMS.482. What are the important should be inspected? • • factors when determining the frequency with which a pressure vessel The rate of deterioration The remaining corrosion allowance for an inspection? 28. Where should the external ( 10.

What types of corrosion me found on external surfaces of vessel? 1I0.482.8 • (10 J9) Nozzles for 44. 08/04 Rev 9 -j FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.APIEXAMS. If no history exists for a vessel. BIisters are normally on the inside.ORG I I . Fatigue failure II) 46 What type of inspection is usually sufficient for protective coatings and insulation? • Visual 47.36 4J. not to exceed 25 ohms 45 Unchecked vibrations on auxiliary equipment such as gauge connectors can cause what type of failure? (103 10) • (103.313) • • • • Atmospheric Caustic Embrittlernent Hydrogen blistering Soil corrosion blistei ing 50 Vessels containing acidic corrodents are subject to hydrogen found in the vessel? (103. What is the recommended resistance • 5 ohms grounding connections? 01 less.311) • (103. at least one measurement in each shell ring and one on each head. what should be checked for distortion and cracks? (103. the vessel should he checked for caustic embriulement.12) Between 25 to 250" F 48 What are the normally required measurements on external metal surfaces of a vessel? • Under normal conditions. then get a reading in each quadrant of each shell ring 49.13) Where is this normally • Those areas below the Iiquid level in vessels containing acidic corrodents are more likely than other tu eas to be subject to hydrogen blistering.. If settling of a vessel has occurred.2253 WWW.. but can OCCUI on the outside surface as well 51 What should a vessel be checked lor if a caustic is stored in it? (10313) • If a caustic material is stored or used in a vessel. At what operating temperature does CU1 become a concern on externally insulated vessels subject to moisture ingress? (10.

ORG . 58. Profiles at e made hy taking measurements hom a line parallel to the vessel wall. leaks are best found by what means? (IOJ 13) • Pressure or Vacuum testing how you would determine the extent of bulging or buckling on a vessel ill service.43) • In places where there ale sharp changes stress is applied .4.3 13) • By measuring the changes in circumferences or by making profiles of the vessel wall.APIEXAMS. The degree of surface preparation Foremost among these are: ( 10. 54 Describe (10.313) of white salts seeping through cracks will indicate what type or material? • Caustic material 51 Unless readily visible. especially if a high 57 (J043) reveal? • Unsafe conditions. such as those due to loose internals Lim! may fall or due to badly corroded or broken internul ladders or platforms. Evidence ([0. Some limes the depth of (1044) • Extending pit can be estimated by using what simple method? the lead of a mechanical pencil 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.1) • • Type of deterioration expected Location of any deterioration 56 Cracks in vessels are most likely to occur where? ( 10..4.4) • A systematic procedure to avoid overlooking obscure but important for? items.2253 WWW.482. A surveyor's transit or a 180 degree optical plummet may also he used needed for internal inspection will vary with several factors 55. A detailed inspection include what? should start at one end of the vessel and work toward the other end and ( 10.37 52. What should all parts of a vessel be inspected (lOA 4) • • • • • Corrosion Erosion Hydrogen blistering Cracking Laminations (I 60. What may preliminary inspections in shape or size 01 near welded seams. 59.

and metal loss. 65. That the linings are properly installed. 482. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. (1045) • • • That there is no corrosion. What is the most sensitive method of locating surface cracking? (1044) • Fluorescent Magnetic Particle Method.measuring the changes in circumference or by profile (measuring from a line strung parallel to the vessel).4.by placing a straight edge against a vessel. What is the difference (l044) • • (is. Explain the difference (10.. bright appearance: marked by the absence of the erosion product.44) • between erosion and corrosion Erosion is characterized hy a smooth. How do you check for (a) small distortions.ORG .38 61. What is the best method of locating suspected deformations? (10. Name three important factors in the inspection of metallic linings. Bulging/buckling .. Out-of' round/bulge . and on the 66. Shells and heads 01 vessels should be inspected for deformation 1 (\ / (8-A:4. • The shell of a vessel or 64. Laminations run at a slant to the plate surface. Cracks run at right angles to the surface.2253 WWW. between cracks and laminations? 67. That no holes or cracks exist. What types of methods are used for determining (1044) • • • Dye penetrant Magnetic-particle (wet or dry) Ultrasonic shear-wave in appearance the extent of cracks? 62. (b) bulging or buckling (e) out-or-roundness bulging? (1044) • • • Small distortions . • 111 Corroded areas are not often smooth or bright Which is more likely to suffer deformation? 63. is usually confined to a clearly marked local area.4) • Dit ect a flnshlight beam parallel 10 the surface to check for shadows in depressions non-light sides of internal bulges.APIEXAMS.by measuring the minimum and maximum internal deviation at the cross sectional area and comparing the two .

& rubber Iining the spark tester method is used to locate holidays . bolls.J To analyze defects in welded seams that are not visible methods are used? ( 106) the surface of the metal. 482. "Tlghtness". and. (104. plastic.6) • • For the most Specific: part all of the above will be visually inspected for discontinuities or physical damage. Time available.39 69 Explain how the Corrosive Tab Method is used to determine the metal loss on vessel linings. heads.Remove scale accumulations for spot inspections 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. • For paint. glass. brackets.ORG .2253 WWW. 011 7. Desire for NDE methods. plastic.Check for tightness of rivets. 70 What is the principle method used to inspect nonmetallic linings like glass. Economy 71 (105) • • • • • (105) 72 What is the primary means of obtaining thickness measurements? • Ultrasonic instruments.. what two • • Radiography. "Scale" . concrete.For concrete. Shear-wave Ultrasonic. brick. Accuracy desired. rubber. (1045) • Small I by 2 inch tabs of lining that form a right angle are welded onto the lining with one leg extended into the vessel.Locate thin sections in vessel walls. for 74 How does the Hammer Test function in supplementing visual examination of a vessel inspector? (JO 8 I) the • • • • "Thin" . or refractory lining the hammer testing method is used to locate lack of bond Name the factors to consider When selecting tools for thickness measurements Accessibility from both sides. since both sides of the leg are exposed to corrosive action. DUling inspections the thickness of the protruding leg is measured. "Cracks and Lack of Bond" • Check for cracks in metallic linings and lack of bond in concrete linings. and attachments.APIEXAMS. tile. the loss in thickness would be twice that of the lining. and carbon block 01 brick.

what is a possible way to detect a leak? (1083) • It may be possible to assess the hydrocarbon content upstream and downstream of the suspect exchanger. (1083) • 78. With vacuum testing you will know if there ale leaks.APIEXAMS. When taking credit for this excess thickness What must always be considered'?" ( 10.9) • In some cases the excess thickness 01 the shell or head plates was used by the designer to compensate for nozzle openings. pressure or vacuum testing.. What is pressure testing? • (10. to be sure there is sufficient wall thickness to withstand external 79 In lin exchanger where the cooling water is the lower pressure stream and a hydrocarbon is the higher pressure stream. Leaks from an internal pressure source me more easily located.8. but the location is not evident. 80 Name the two most 1imits of corrosion or other deterioration that must be known by inspection.40 75. What should an inspector examine before applying test pressure to the shell side of an exchanger? He should inspect the tube walls pressure. 82. 76. When is lise of the Hammer Test not recommended? \ lOS I) • • (1082) When vessels are under pressure.2253 WWW. and why? Pressure testing. ( 109) • • The retiring thickness of the part considered The rate of deterioration.482. On piping upstream from a catalyst bed. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. 81.QRG . for pressure. Before determining the limiting or retiring thicknesses of parts of any pressure vessel. what must be known? ( 109) • • Which Code and edition of that Code it ili to be ruted under.2) • Filling a vessel with liquid or gas and building up an internal pressure to a desired level 77. Often vessels have excess thickness above that required. Which is the preferred method. Are there specific regulations regarding limits and allowable repairs.

... • Appendix A . When is a pressure test of a vessel normally a requirement? . Reports should include the location. and reasons for recommended repair .1 When is it required that a repair concern making welded repairs to a vessel have a National Board R stamp? (II) .manufacturer's drawings. corrosion rate tables.482. Ferriferrocyanlde what API Recommended Practice? 89 Coils in open condenser boxes and double-pipe exchanger shells should be inspected according to (A 10) .41 Section 11 . design information.Methods of Repair 8. type.1) . operation. This would n01 mally include engineering. and maintenance departments..2253 WWW.APIEXAMS. amount. A distinctive Prussian blue on bundle lubes indicates the presence of what? (A.. Field notes . data reports and specifications.Records and Reports 85 A complete record file should contain what three types of information? (111) .. who should receive these reports? All management groups.Exchangers 870 Why should bundles be checked when they ale first pulled flam the shells? (A91) • The color. problems. Continuous file .. RP574 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. results of any material tests. extent. • • Basic data . After an alteration Section 12 .notes and measurements recorded on site including record of condition of all parts inspected and repairs required.2) When making reports recommending repairs. and locution of scales and deposits often help to pinpoint corrosion 88.ORG . 86" ( 12. ([1 ) When the jurisdiction dictates that the these repairs HI e to made by only R stamp holders 84.9. records of repairs and replacements.all information on the vessel's operating history. previous inspections.

42 CHAPTER II CONDITIONS CAUSING DETERIORA nON SECOND EDITION.may result in failure if remaining wall thickness gets below safety valve settings.. WIHlt do all CHide oils contain? (202. & organic sulfur compounds. When does it become a corrosion problem in process streams? 4. Organic acids. 3.01) • • • • • • Hydrogen Chloride and organic/inorganic chloride Hydrogen sulfide.) Excessive Metal Loss . Carbon dioxide Dissolved oxygen and water.APIEXAMS. (A number of tank failures have been attributed 10 the brittle condition of steel at low temperatures. (At high temperatures the metal becomes weaker and distortion occurs which may result in failure) Brittle Fracture . What is hydrogen chloride? (202022) • A dry hydrochloric acid (normally not corrosive water is available to form hydrochloric acid.Corrosion 2. Nitrogen compounds.occurs when equipment is subjected La temperatures above design temperature. (In machinery these cracks start at the surface and progress with each stress reversal) Distortion Failure . Name the corrosion compounds (202. This is a rare occurrence. Corrosion from chemical used in refinery processes.What are the moues of failure that can he found in refinery equipment? (20L2) • • Fatigue Failures . found in crude oil. Wrong Mnterial or Wrong Gasl{cts . combined with high loads that have been imposed by thermal stress set lip rapid temperature changes . Environmental corrosion.caused by stress reversals. It becomes corrosive when 5.2253 WWW. What are these Corrosion from components present in crude oil. 1973 201 General OR FAILURES I . in process streams).ORG .482.carbon steels are susceptible to brittle fracture at ambient temperatures and below. Corrosion groups? (2021 ) • • • problems in refining operations can he divided into three major groups.Illay lead (0 failure • • • 202 .022) i \ • Salt J 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. mercaptans.

2253 WWW. severe corrosion in three 1'0. /' 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.. The most severe form of corrosion occurs lipan condensation cracking 12.3) • Hydrogen Sulfide in causing corrosion in refinery equipment? 7 At what temperature (202. problem in what equipment? 10.Used in refinery operations in the manufacture oflubricnting oils and aromatics. What two forms of corrodents unit? (202.024) • When it is combined with water. m of general metal loss and stress corrosion cracking will OCCtlL How may this attack be identified? (202.02.APIEXAMS.482.037) • By the appem ance of a blue salt deposit 011 the metal's surface. Dissol ved oxygen and water is a corrosion (201. it becomes carbonic acid.QRG .43 6 What is the most active of the sui fur compounds (202. 14 What is caustic and what is it used for in refinery operations? (2020]5) • Sodium Hydroxide .025) • Storage tanks II When are organic acids very corrosive? (202026) • At their boiling temperatures.0 and above. Where is corrosion (202-024) • In hydrogen by carbon dioxide found to he most severe? plants. . 9. When ammonia is permitted to contact copper base alloys in pH ranges of 8.0.027)] are formed when nitrogen is cracked in a cracking or catalytic • Ammonia & Cyanide 11..Used for the neutralization of acid components and for grease manufacture .. Between 450 an~ 900 of • 8 What makes carbon dioxide corrosive? (202. 15.33) • Carbolic acid .023) range does accelerated hydrogen sulfide corrosion occur in refinery equipment'? . What is phenol and what is it used fOJ? (202.

For neuu alization of acidic components in overhead streams.44 16. At what temperature does hidden corrosion take place under insulation and fireproofing if moisture penetrates through cracks in the insulation? (202042) • (202052) In vessels and piping operating below approximately 250 "F..482. Aluminum Chloride .ORG . What is needed to prevent atmospheric corrosion? (202. and catalytic cracking units.3.It forms hydrochloric acid in the presence of water. When does oxygen become destructive'? • At high temperatures oxygen reacts with steel to cause scaling (iron oxide). What are the primary uses of ammonia in the refining industry! (202.39) • Used as a catalyst in isomer ization units . What is chlorine used for in refinery operations and when does it become very corrosive? (202038) • Used for treating cooling water and for the manufacture of sodium hypochlorite for treating oils It becomes very corrosive in contact with small amounts of moisture 19.041 ) • Eliminate water hom the surface of the metal by means of a protective barrier or coating.37} • • As a refrigerant. Hydrochloric acid causes severe pitting COli osion in cat bon steel and intergrnnular and stress corrosion cracking in stainless 20.APIEXAMS. What materials is ammonia harmful to? (202037) • Copper base alloys 18.What is it used for? What does it form in the presence of water? How does it affect carbon steel and stainless steels? (202. 2. Why may steam at high temperatures cause seal ing? (202053) • Because the steam may be decomposed to hydt ogen and oxygen. . 17.041 ) • Galvanic 21.0. 24. 22. and the flee oxygen may cause severe scaling 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.0. What is the term applied to atmospheric corrosion? (202.2253 WWW. from pipe stills.

failure of metals by Clacking underthe combined action of cormsion and tensile 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.ORG . temperature. What is graphitic corrosion? (202063) • Low temperature corrosion of gray cast irons in which metallic iron is converted products. and oxidizing power of the environment in extreme brittleness. hydi ogen sulfide} depends on 26 The extent corrosive what three things? (202055) • Concentration. Vanadium (202054) • oxide corrosion does not take place below what temperature? LfOQ"F attack by hot sulfur compounds (sulfur dioxide. Growth of cast iron results hom what two things? (202056) • Graphitization & infiltration of corrosive gases into tile structure.45 25. resulting strength.2253 WWW.063) • In cast iron at temperatures does it OCClll't below the dew point of water. scaling. (202064) • The spontaneous stress. and growth? (102056) 28. 31 How can you recognize (202063) graphitic corrosion? • By the soft porous structure that remains in the areas where it oC9U1s is mercury harmful to'? 32 What materials (202064) • • Monel and copper based alloys (stress corrosion Aluminum alloys. cracking) 31 Define Stress Corrosion Cracking.482. leaving the graphite intact and at what temperature into corrosion 30 In what material do you find graphitic corrosion (202.APIEXAMS. loss of 27 At what temperature does all gray cast iron begin to deteriorate. 29.

(202 . What method of deteriouniou (203022) • Erosion.069) • Corrosion influenced by primitive organisms that directly influence the rate of metal I ic con-asian'? 40. such as a powder.069) • Sulfate reducing bacteria microorganisms found in many soils 203 " Erosion 41 Erosion is prj nci pie'? (20302) n equently a problem in equipment utilizing the fluidized ..068) • A type of corrosion that occurs at the point of contact or in a crevice between a metal and nonmetal or between two pieces of metal in the presence of a corrodent. the muss ofparticles will behave vCIY much like a true liquid does cavitation induce? 42. Layer . antimony. What is galvanic (202.occurs along grain boundaries brasses? 36.zinc alloys (brasses) containing copper and used in water service.46 34 What is dezinciflcation? (202066) • A lype of corrosion that can occur in copper .covers large areas. corrosion? or phosphorus to inhibit dezinciflcation. What is this • If a gas stream of sufficient velocity is passed through a mass of finely divided sol ids. less than 85% 35.APIEXAMS. Cavitations erosion is associated at the metal to liquid interface with the formation and collapse of cavities in a liquid 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.ORG .solids principle. What are inhibited (202066) • Brasses which have been alloyed with arsenic.occurs in localized areas . What are the most important (202. either by direct contact or by an electrical conductor. and are in contact with an electrical solution called an "electrolyte" What is contact corrosion (crevice corrosion)? 38. 37. corrosion? 39 What is biological (202. lntercrystalline . 482" 2253 WWW.067) • An electrochemical type corrosion that occurs when two different metals are electrically connected. What are three types of dezincification? (202066) • • • Plug .

intergranular corrosion takes place.APIEXAMS. 47 What is incipient melting (burning)? (204022) • When fenitic steels are heated above approximately 2. When Ierritic steels are heated above a certain temperature (above 1.graphite distributed uniformly throughout the steel. What are the two general types of Graphitization? (204. 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.600 OF. • • Random Graphitization .rupture (204013) • A hriule type failure .400 F. melting and oxidation will begin at the grain boundaries.Effects of High Temperatures 43 Define creep (204012) • The flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods normal yield strength is what type of failure? of lime at stress lower than the 44 .2253 WWW.022) • When Austenitic stainless steels are exposed La temperatures of 750 to 1650 OF. When the sensitized steel is exposed to corrodents. What is Sensitlzatlon? (204. Localized Graphitization .022) • A su uctural change in certain feuitic steels that have operated for a long period of time between 825 and 1.650 OF. When austenitic stainless steels are heated or cooled in the tempe: ature range of 750 to 1. Carbide is unstable in that temperature range and may decompose into iron (ferrite) and graphite (carbon).graphite highly concentrated in local regions What happens to sensitized steel when exposed to conodents? 50. 0 .482.47 204 . The steel is called "burned" and will he very weak and brittle upon cooling. 48. .ORG . how does this affect the material? (204. What is Graphltlzatlon? (204.022) .9. what does this make the matei ial susceptible to? {204m2) • Intergrnnulai corrosion 46. A stress . precipitation of complex chromium carbides at the grain boundaries takes place.D12) • Leads 10 general lowering of the tensile strength.100 n F for mild steel).. 45.stress rupture relates the time to failure with temperature and stress.

Brittle fracture call be recognized (20501 ) • • • • Cracks propagate at high speed.ORG . 206. by several characteristics. Excessive Pressure 56. What is excessive (206. 206. Name four causes of excessive pressure.482.01) • pressure? Those in excess of the MA WP of the equipment under consideration.025) • • • • a b c d Added heat in excess of normal Blocking off against a pressure Thermal expansion of a trapped Hydraulic hummer or resonant operations source liquid. hardness .022. (206021: 206. What are these characteristics? 55. This results in lower tensile strength.At what temperature (204035) • Above 450 "F steel/temperature limits for hydrogen service? 53 What curve shows the different (204035) • Nelson Chart and Ambient Temperature Effects 205· Subnormal 54. vibration 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281. does hydrogen have a very destructive effect on steels? 52 . There may be a loud report or shar p rending sound There is almost a complete lack of ductility.024. 206 . 57. Define notch toughness (0501) • (a property of metals) The amount energy necessary La cause fracture in the presence of a sharp notch or stress concentrator . The fractured surface has a brittle or faceted surface..023: 206. It can only be found by metallurgical examination.2253 WWW. and fatigue strength.APIEXAMS.48 51 What is decarburization? (204034) • The loss of cal bon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium that reacts with carbon.

Change of position. 66.49 207 • Overloading 58 What are some indications (20702) of overloading of equipment! • • • Appendix Visible distortion Change of shape. corrosion 65.A) • 0. Steels for welding (App l.35%) 60.7 % (Max. What are the major uses of commercially (App l B) pure copper in refineries? • Eleen ical conductors. What are the major uses of aluminum (App [B) and its alloys in refineries? • Corrosion Iesistuuce and fot structures which lightweight is a necessity" 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.APIEXAMS.2253 WWW. and corrosion resistance. What is the only common copper .J5% 62. CUI bon content 01 weld able steels for Code plllposes steels have less than what percent em bon? is 0.482. low and intermediate (straight chromium) Austenitic . and high alloy steels 63 Nonferrous (App [ B) • Less than 50% 64.ORG . . have a maximum of what percent carbon content? 61.ordinary carbon steel.nickel stainless steels metals and alloys contain what percent iron? alloy steels. 1 alloy) is an alloy of iron and carbon What is the carbon content range? 59 Steel (ferrous (App LA) ~ OJ)! % to 1.nickel alloy and what is (App I B) • Monel It is used for relatively low temperature it used for? resistance.chromium . Usually lor refinery construction (App [A) • Less than 1 %.. gaskets. There are two general types of steels (App IA) • • What are these? Fcrrltlc Steel.

used for the manufacture of lubricating oils and aromatic hydrocarbons used for a catalyst in polymerization Hydroxide) units. (Sodium .used in alkylation's units as a catalyst 85% to 95% for sulfuric acid and above 65% for hydrogen fluoride Phenol (Carbolic Phosphoric Caustic Mercury Ammonia Chlorine Acid· Concentrations of • • • • • • Acid) .50 CORROSIVE • MATERIALS AND THEIR USES IN THE PETRQCHEM INDUSTRY Sullurlc Acid and Hydrogen Fluoride .ORG .used as a ref igerant and for tile neutral ization of acidic components .used to treat cooling tower water and for the manufacture of sodium hypochlorite used to treating oils Aluminum Chloride .used as a catalyst for isomerization units.used for neutral ization of acidic components .used in instruments . • 08/04 Rev 9 FAST TRACK TECHNICAL 281.482.APIEXAMS.2253 WWW.

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