Lab Instructions Lab 4, due 7:00 pm October 6, 2008 EES5053/GEO4093: Remote Sensing, UTSA Student Name: ___________________

Digital Image Processing I: Atmospheric Correction, Radiance, Reflectance, NDVI from Landsat Image

Objective: In this lab, you will learn something about overlaying a vector file on an
image, creating Region of Interest (ROI), making a mask based on ROI, and doing a simple atmospheric correction (DOS).

Part I: Concepts and short questions:
Refraction; Atmospheric scattering; Absorption and major atmospheric windows for remote sensing on Earth surface; Reflectance, spectral reflectance, albedo; Explain why we see blue sky in middle day and why we see orange and red sky in sunset or sunrise; Solid angle and radiance; Explain why we need to do atmospheric correction in land and ocean remote sensing;

Part II 1. Preparation:
(1). Copy the data directory Lab4 in the server (\\129.115.25.240\XIE_misc\Fall08-RS\) into your local computer under c:\UserData_ENVI\yourname. Please always remember to output your results to your lab directory (i.e. Lab4 for today’s lab) not to the default ENVI directory. (2). Today we will use a new ETM+ image (p27r40_July8_2002.img). Open this image as R(b7), G(b4), B(b2) for Display 1 and R(b3), G(b2), B(b1) for Display 2. This is the image acquired on July 8, 2002, just after the big flood event of 2002. The July 2002 floods in south Texas resulted from unprecedented precipitation rates in excess of 3 inches per hour, much like a tropical system, which resulted in 9 deaths, and over 48,000 homes and nearly one billion dollars in damage. In the succeeding labs, you will classify and compute the flooding areas.

1

indicating the location of San Antonio. however. you can see there is a dark area surrounding your image. vegetation. Click OK. which will provide you the temperature information of each pixel (we will use it later in another lab). San Antonio is in the upper left portion of the image. you should see the vector file overlaying on the image. clouds. Click Overlay -> Vectors. for example. while the image you used in Labs 2 and 3 was a subscene of a entire scene. Let’s do it from the Main window. you should select roadUTM_. Two big differences.evf. water (flooding). So if you want to do statistics or further 2 . under the Lab4. the thermal band (11.45 μm). You can see this image has the same coordinate system as the image you used for Lab 2 and 3. and (2) this image is the entire scene of a ETM+ image about 180 km x 180 km in dimension. Figure 1 To open a vector layer. are (1) this image include band 6. If you use the Cursor Location/Value tool. load RGB (742) in Display 1 and RGB (321) in Display 2.2. Use Region of Interest (ROI) tool and make a mask From the above figure 1. Now. Go to File -> Open Vector File. a new window of Vector Parameter is opened. using Link Display. Link the two images. Get a sense of the image Open the image in ENVI. which is highway vector file in ENVI vector file format. The figure below shows you a vector layer (highway) overlaying on top of the RGB (742) image. you can simply from Vector in the ENVI Main Menu or from Overlay in the Main window of your display image. you will find pixel values of the area are zero. Question 1: explore the image and give a general interpretation about what you see from the image. but in different year and time. …and their color differences in 742 image and in 321 image. 3.

you do not need to use the Zoom. a polygon type. Figure 2 is my ROI selected. Click Options -> Import ROIs. Enter output filename: mask. And show the statistics of the image. 3 . One way to do this is to make a mask to exclude the dark area for further processing.img to exclude the dark area surrounding the image. from the Main window.image processing. a new window call Mask Definition is opened. The polygon can draw either from the Image. Open the mask image into Display Window 3. The figure 3 is an example I did based on my mask. Step 1. or the Zoom window. In this window.e. so you can either select the Image or the Scroll. click Basic Tools -> Masking -> Build Mask. so your statistics might be different from what I have. a ROI tool window is opened.img should appear in the Available Bands List window. Do a statistic on your ETM+ image. click Overlay-> Region of Interest. from the ENVI Main Menu. i.img and save to your Lab4 directory. you should exclude this area. Use this tool. In this exercise. select the ROIs you just did. using the mask. Figure 2 Step 2. you can build a ROI where only cover the image area not the dark area outside the image. Scroll. Show your mask image and show the pixel values of the mask image. Use the default setting in the ROI_Type. Question 2. Your mask might differ from my mask. the Mask. Click Apply. What this value means? Question 3.

The process to remove the path radiance is called atmospheric correction.75 µm). (2) assume that its spectral reflectance should be all zero (target radiance). especially after 0. There are two types of atmospheric corrections: (1) absolute atmospheric correction: radiative transfer-based atmospheric correction and empirical line calibration and (2) relative radiometric correction: Dark Object Subtraction (DOS) and multiple-data image normalization using regression. In this lab. we will do a simple DOS correction. (4) subtract the path radiance from each pixel radiance of the image. And you know that the remotely sensed radiance includes two parts: one from the target area (which is what we want). then we should get a relatively atmospheric free image.Figure 3 4. meaning water absorbing most of light. Usually these dark objects are water bodies (see below figure 4. the other one is from the path (path radiance. (3) the measured values above zero are assumed to be the atmospheric noise (or path radiance) and uniformly distributed on the image area. The principals of DOS includes (1) find the darkest object in the image. the fresh water has very low reflectance. 4 . which is what we do not want). Atmospheric Correction In the lectures. you learn a lot about the interactions between atmosphere and EMR.

click Basic Tool -> Preprocessing -> General Purpose Utilities -> Dark Subtract -> select your ETM+ image as the input file. 5 . you need to use the minimum values you just got from question 3 (similar as figure 3). A new window called Dark Subtraction Parameters opened. The default minimum value for each band is 0. the DOS is called Dark Subtract. using the same mask image (mask. click OK. in the ENVI Main Menu. Click the User Value. Spectrum signature of different objects In ENVI. but for your image.img Question 4: Show the statistics of your new image.Figure 4.img) you created before. Save the corrected image as p27r40_July8_2002DOS.

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