DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CONTENTS S. No DESCRIPTION PAGE NO 1. Report writing 3-4 2. Abrasion (hardness) test of aggregate 5-7 3.

Impact (toughness) value of road aggregate 8-9 4. Crushing value of Aggregate 10-11 5. Flakiness and Elongation Indices of the aggregate 12-15 6. Softening point of bitumen 16-17 7. Ductility Test of bitumen 18-19 8. Flash and fire point of bitumen 20-21 9. Viscosity of given bitumen /road tar 22-23 10. Bitumen Penetration value 24-25 11. Bitumen content by Centrifuge extractor test 26-27 12. Marshall Stability and flow index value test 28-32 13. Benkelman beam test 33-37 14. References 38

INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY REPORT WRITING A full report is an extensive account of experiment, such as may be required for external readers. It should be a stand alone document and so is likely to include a description of the apparatus and a summery of the experimental procedure. A full report is not to exceed 1500 words (excluding Tables and Diagrams). It is to be organized under the following headings: · OBJECTIVE/OBJECTIVES · EXPERIMENTAL SETUP WITH DIAGRAM · THEORY TO BE USED FOR EXPERIMENT · EXPERIMENTAL METHOD · OBSERVATIONS/DATA COLLECTED · SAMPLE CALCULATIONS · EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS · DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS (Including that of errors) · ERROR ANALYSIS · COMMENTS OBJECTIVES It contains the aim of the experiment and how the author is going to achieve his aim.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP WITH DIAGRAM Write every experimental setup and instruments you used with their dimensions. Draw a neat sketch of experimental setup. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD It should contain a brief description of experimental method, a neat sketch of experimental setup. THEORY TO BE USED FOR EXPERIMENT Write theory behind your experiment briefly. OBSERVATIONS/DATA COLLECTED Write down all data collected by you and also attached the signed lab data sheet. SAMPLE CALCULATIONS Give the sample calculations. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Represent experimental results in tabulated form and diagrams. DISCUSSIONS/ CONCLUSIONS Compare your results with available reported results from standard literature. Give the reason of departure of your results from reported results. The conclusions contains a summary (what has been done and what are the main results) and in addition to that some future prospective. ERROR ANALYSIS Analyze error associated with your experiment. COMMENTS Substantiate the error associated with your experiment.

75 mm and 1.5 cm diameter and weighing 390grams to 445 grams. Resistance to wear or hardness is hence an essenti al property for road aggregates especially when used in wearing course. 5. Balance of capacity 10 kg. the road stones used in the surfacing course ar e subjected to wearing action at the top. mounted on supports so that it may rotate about its horizontal axis. Sieves of size 80 4. Steel spherical balls 4. The weight and number of balls per charge of aggregate depends upon the grading of aggregate sample. Theory: Due to the movements of traffic. Objective: To determine the Abrasion (Hardness)) value of aggregates by the Los Angeles Abr asion test method 2. It consists of a hollow cylindrical machine closed at both ends having 70 cm int ernal diameter and 50 cm long.NB: Failure to submit the report and attend the viva voce willresult in a zero m ark. 3. 2. Apparatus/Equipments Required: 1. Thus road stones sho uld be hard enough ton resist the abrasion due to the traffic. EXPERIMENT NO 1 LOS ANGELES ABRASION TEST Ref: IS: 2386 (Part IV) 1963 1. Tray LOS ANGELES ABRASION TESTING MACHINE SET OF SIEVES 3. Procedure: .7 mm 4. 4.

Grading = 2.1. for the specified number of revolutions (500 to 1000) depending on the grading of aggregate.7 mm I.7 mm sieve is determined.P. Sieve and the weight of aggregate passing through 1. Observation: Type of aggregate = 1. 5. Aggregate sample weighing 5 kg or 10 kg depending on the grading is put in the machine along with the abrasive charge. Number of revolution = Observations Sample 1 Sample 2 . Now the sample is taken out of the machine and sieved through 1.S. Weight of charge = 4.M. 3. The machine is rotated at a speed of 30 to 33 R. Number of spheres used = 3. 2.

Aggregate abrasion value = (A-B)/B x 100%. 1. % = Percentage wear = ´100 W1 7. 8.70mm IS Sieve should be washed dried in an oven a t a temperature of 100 to 110oC to a constant weight and weighed (Weight B ). Result For test sample = Standard value = %age error = . . This value should be reported as. Calculation i) The material coarser than 1.Let the original weight of aggregate = 11W g Weight of aggregate retained on 1. (W1 -W2 ) Los Angles abrasion value. Precautions: 9. ii) The proportion of loss between weight A and weight B of the test sample should b e expressed as a percentage of the original weight of the test sample. Remarks: 10. Objective: To determine the toughness (impact value) of aggregates. Discussions: EXPERIMENT NO 2 AGGREGATE IMPACT VALUE TEST IS: 2386 (Part IV) 1963.7 mm IS sieve after the test = W2 g Loss in weight due to wear = W1 -W2 g Percentage wear = ( ) 100 1 21 ´W WW Average Value = 6. .

2. Apparatus/Equipments Required: .

Balance 6.36 mm sieve after the test = W2 g 3. Oven (thermostatically) 3. Now the aggregate sample is sieved through 2. 5. Total weight of aggregate sample filling the cylindrical measure = 1W g 2.36 mm.5 mm sieve and retained on 10 mm sieve is filled in three equal layers by 25 blows with the help of tamping rod and weighe d. Observation: Serial Details Trial No. Sieve 12. Weight of aggregate passing 2. 3.5. Tamping rod 4.36 mm I. the road stones are subjected to the pounding action or impact and there is possibility of stone s breaking into smaller pieces. 2. Calculation and Reporting of Results . 1 2 1. The sample is now transferred to the cup of the impact test apparatus and compacted by tamping rod 25 times. 4. Let the weight of this fraction be W2 Kg. Theory: Toughness is the property of a material to resist impact. 10.36 mm sieve after the test = W3 g 6. Weight of aggregate retained on 2. No. 4. Impact testing machine 2. 5. Dry aggregate specimen passing 12. Procedure: 1. The road stones should therefore be tough enough to resist fract ure under impact. Now the hammer is raised to a height of 38 cm above the surface of the aggregate in the cup and is allowed to fall freely in the specimen. Cylindrical measure 3. Sieve and the fraction passing through this sieve is weighed. In this 15 blows are give n to the aggregate specimen.1.S. and 2. Due to traffic loads. Let the weight of sample be W1 Kg.

3.5 cm.36 mm. The fracti on passing through should be weighed (Weight B ). Remarks: 9.. ii) The ratio of the weight of the fines formed to the total sample weight shoul d be expressed as a percentage. at a uniform r ate of loading of 4 tons per minute. Discussion: EXPERIMENT NO 3 AGGREGATE CRUSHING VALUE TEST IS: 2386 (Part IV) 1963. Cylindrical measure of internal diameter 11.36mm IS Sieve. the result should be discarded and a fresh test done. Balance of cap.. Sieves of 12. 2. The fraction retained on the sieve s hould also be weighed (Weight C ) and if the total weight (B+C) is less than the initial weight (A) by more than one gram. Apparatus/Equipments Required: 1. Steel tamping rod 45 to60 cm. long and 1.i) The sample should be removed and sieved through a 2.6 cm. The thickness of cylinder walls may b e 1.5 mm. . 10 mm and 2. Precautions: 8. The hei ght of the cylinder may vary from 13 to 14 cm. 4. W Aggregate impact value = percent fines = 2 ´100 W1 (i) For sample 1 (ii) For sample 2 7. and height18 cm. Compression testing machine capable of applying load of 40 tones. 1. 3 kg with accuracy up to 1 g 6. Objective: To determine the crushing value of road aggregates. 2. Steel cylinder of 15.2 cm internal diameter with base plate and plunger. 5.6 cm diameter having a pointed end. . COMPRESSION TESTING MACHINE .

Observation: Serial Details Trial No. CYLINDRICAL MEASURE. TAMPING ROD AND PLUNGER 3. Procedure: 1.STEEL CYLINDER. Total weight of aggregate sample filling the cylindrical measure = 1W g 2.36 mm sieve after the test = W2 g 3.5 mm I. 4. No. Let the weight be W2 Kg. Also surface stresses under rigid tyre rims of heavily loaded and drawn vehicle are high enough to consider the crushing strength of road aggregates as essentia l requirements in India. the total load s reached in 10 minutes in the compression machine. . Weight of aggregate retained on 2. .36 mm sieve after the test = W3 g 6.. The material passed through the 2. 2..S. Calculation Aggregate crushing value = percent fines = W2 ´100 W1 (i) For sample 1 (ii) For sample 2 7. sieve and retained on 10 mm sieve is taken and dried. Now the plunger is placed on the top of the test specimen and whole apparatus is put in the compression testing machine.e. 4. 5. 3.. Weight of aggregate passing 2. 5. Now the test sample is weighed and filled in the test cylinder in three equal la yers and tamped each layer 25 times. Aggregate passing 12. Result: for test sample = .36 mm sieve. Now the test cylinder is removed from the compression machine and aggregate sieved through 2. Let the weight of aggregate be W1 Kg. Theory: The principal mechanical properties required inroad stones are (i) satisfactory resistance to crushing under the roller during construction and (ii) adequate resistance to su rface abrasion under traffic. Now the specimen is loaded to a total load of 40 tones at the rate of 4 tons per minute i.36 mm sieve is weighed. 1 2 1. This aggregate filled in the cylindrical measure in three equal layers an d each layer tamped 25 times by the tamping rod.

Angular shapes of particles are desirable for granular base course due to increa se stability divided from the better interlocking. the v oid content in aggregate of any specified size increases and hence the grain size distributi on of a graded aggregate has to be suitable altered in order to obtain minimum voids in the dry mix of the highest dry density. 20. 10 and 6. In the case of gravel it is determined by its angulari ty number.5.25. Precautions: 9. 31. flaky and elongated aggregate. A standard thickness gauge. The evaluation of shape of the particles. 40. the presen ce of flaky and elongated particles are considered undesirable as they may cause inher ent weakness with possibilities of breaking down under heavy loads. 16.Standard value = %age error = . IS sieves of sizes 63. SET OF SIEVES THICHNESS GAUGE Theory: - . Thus angularity number has considerable importance in the gradation requirements of v arious types of mixes such as bituminous concrete and soil-aggregate mixes. 50. elongation an angularity is necessary. Introduction: The particle shape of aggregates is determined by the percentages of flaky and e longated particle contained in it. When the shape of aggregates deviates more from the spherical shape. Test for Determinations of Flakiness Index Apparatus: The apparatus consists of 1.5. For base course and construction of bituminous and cement concrete types. . Remarks: 10. particularly with reference to flakine ss. 3. Rounded aggregat es are preferred in cement concrete road construction as the work ability concrete impr oves. as in the case of angular. 8. The angularity number denotes the void content of single si zed aggregates in excess of that obtained with spherical aggregates of the same size . A balance to weigh the samples. Objective: To determine the flakiness and elongation indices of the given aggregates sample 2. Discussion: EXPERIMENT NO 4 FLAKINESS AND ELONGATION INDICES TEST 1.3 mm and 3. 2. 12.


0 mm 50. The flakiness index is taken as the total weight of the material passing the var ious thickness gauges expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample tak en.6 times the mean sieve) mm Length gauge (1.00 . Each fraction is gauged in turn for thickness on the meal gauge.0 mm 50mm 40 mm 25 mm 25 mm 20 mm 16mm 12.90 27.5 mm 10.3 mm.1per cent o f the weight of the samples taken.5mm 10. Table 1 shows the standard dimensions of thickness and Length gauges.6) of their mean dimension.0 mm 20.5 mm 25. A sufficient quantity of aggregate is taken such that a minimum number of 200 pi eces of any fraction can be tested.0 mm 40. 2. 1. Procedure: This testis conducted by using a metal thickness gauge.3 mm Passing Through IS sieve mm Retained on IS sieve mm 63.0 mm 31.The flakiness index of aggregates is the percentage by weight of particles whose least dimension (thickness) is less than three-fifths (0. The total amount passing in the gauge is weighed to an accuracy of 0. Table 1 Shows Thickness and length gauges(IS: 2386 (Part 1) -1963) Size of Aggregate Thickness gauge (0.0 mm 6.0 mm 12.8 times the mean sieve). 4.0 mm 16. 3. T he test is not applicable to sizes smaller than 6.

89 81.6 20.50 16.5 32.7 4.80 8.75 4.19.55 6.4 25. Test for Determination of Elongation Index Apparatus .5 40.0 58.95 13.50 10.2 14.

The presence of elongated particles in excess of 10 to 15 per cent is generally considered undesirable.3 mm Procedure: This test is conducted by using metal length gauge of the description. However.The apparatus consists of the length gauge. The ga uge length used shall be that specified in column of table 3. 4.British standard BS 882 of 1992 limits the flakiness index of the coarse aggregate to 50 for natural gravel and to 40 for rushed coar se aggregate. The total amount retained by the gauge length shall be weighed to an accuracy of at least 0.8 times their mean dimension . The elongation index s the total ei ght of the material retained on the various length gauges expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged. but no recognized limits are laid down. gm Thickness gauge size mm Weight of aggregates in each fraction passing . sieves of the sizes specified in tab le and a balance. Observation sheet Flakiness index and Elongation index Size of aggregate Weight of the fraction consisting of at least 200 pieces. A suffici ent quantity of aggregate is taken to provide minimum number of 200 piece of any fraction to be tested.The elongation index is not applicable to sizes smaller then 6.1 per cent of the weight o the test samples taken. LENGTH GAUGE SET OF SIEVES Theory: The elongation index on an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles wh ose greatest dimension (Length) is greater than 1. Each fraction shall be gauged individually for length on the metal gauge.18 for the appropriate size of material. for wearing surfaces lower values of flakiness index are required. Indian standard explain only the method of calculating both flakiness index and elongation index . But the specifications do not specify the limits .

mm Retained on IS sieve. mm Weight of aggregates in each fraction retained on length gauge.thickness gauge.0 x1 = 40 31.00 w2 = 81.5 25 W4 = 16. gm Length gauge size.5 W3 = 19.90 w1 = -50 40 W2 = 27.0 x2 = 31. mm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 63 50 W1 = 23. gm Passing through is sieve.95 w4 = -- .50 w3 = 58.

0 6.. 2..55 w7 = 25..5 10.. ..5 x3 = 20 16 W6 = 10... Result: For test sample = 1 ..Calculations: ( w1 + w2 + w 3 + .. ) 100 w Flakiness index = 100 percent = percent (W + W + W + ..5 W7 = 8..5 x5 = 12.....0 W8 = 6..7 x7 = Total W = w = x = 5.3 x6 = 10.. . ) W 123 ( + + + ) x x x x . ) W 7..50 w5 = 40.25 20 W5 = 13...75 w8 = 20...4 x4 = 16 12..3 W9 = 4. Standard value = 1 2.89 w9 = 14....80 w6 = 32. 100 112 3 Elongation index = 100 percent = percent (W1 + W2 + W3 + ...

2. Discussion: EXPERIMENT NO 5 SOFTENING POINT TEST (Ref: . 1. Water bath and stirrer. 2. . To 2. 1978). . Apparatus/Equipments required: A brass ring and steel ball. Objective: determine the softening point of bitumen.IS: 1205 1. Precautions: 9. Remarks: 10.%age error = 1 8.

3. 4.. Liquid used in the bath: . 4. 3. minutes = . Period of air cooling. 4.. harder the grade of the bitume n. Usually softening point for different grades of bitumen used for pavements varies from 35°C to 70°C. Approximate softening point: . 5. Bitumen grade: 2.. Period of cooling in water bath. 4. 5. The bitumen test sample is placed in the brass ring and the ring is suspended in water at a given temperature. Rate of heating: Time Temperature Time Temperature ( minutes) (°C) (minutes) (°C) 1 11 2 12 . Theory: Softening point is defined as the temperature at which a substance attains a par ticular degree of softening under specified conditions of test. A steel ball is put on the bitumen and the water bath is heated such that the temperature of water bath rises by 5°C per minute. 2. Sample material is heated to a temperature between 75 and 100°C above the approximate softening point until it is completely fluid. The temperature at which the softened bitumen touches the metal plate placed at a specified distance below the ring is noted. minutes: . Procedure: 1. This temperature is called the softe ning point of the bitumen. Metallic support RING & BALL APPARATUS 3. Thermometer. Observation: 1. Higher the softening point. 3.

2. Objective: To determine the Ductility of bituminous material. 7. 1 Sample No.3 13 4 14 5 15 6 16 7 17 8 18 9 19 10 20 Observation Table: Test property Sample No. Precautions: 8. Ball No. As per I.S. It is expressed as the distance in centimeters to which a standard briquette of bitumen can be stretche d before the thread breaks. (i) (ii) (i) (ii) Temperature(°C) at which sample touches bottom plate Repeatability Oducibility 6. the test should be conducted at 27° C and th e pull . Remarks: 9. %age error = . Calculations & Results: For test sample = Standard value = . 1208-1958. Discussion: EXPERIMENT NO 6 DUCTILITY TEST (Ref:-IS: 1208 1978) 1. 2 Mean value softening point Ball No. Theory: Ductility is a measure of elasticity of adhesiveness of bitumen.

3. Knife. Briquette of standard dimensions. 6. Test temperature (same for all samples) = . Glycerin. The whole assembly now is kept in a water bath maintained at 27°C for about 85 to 95 minutes. 3. The side of the mould removed .the clips hooked on the machine and the pointer adjusted to zero value or initial reading noted. rate of pulling etc. test temperature. 7. 2. DUCTILITY TEST APPARATUS 4. 3. Apparatus /Equipments required: 1. Heating mental. 2. The bitumen sample is heated to bring it in fluid state and poured in the brique tte assembly and placed on a brass plate. . 5. Ductility of bitumen is in fluenced by pouring temperature. 7. 4. 4. Water bath arrangement. and th e distance up to the point of breaking of thread is noted.should be applied at the rate of 50 mm per minute. Grade of bitumen (same for all samples) = . 5. 3. Weight of sample (same for all samples) = . The ductility of bitumen may vary from 5 to 100 for different bitumen grades. 2. Now the clips are pulled apart horizontally at the rate of 50 mm per min. Procedure: 1. The whole assembly including bitumen briquette along with brass plate is allowed to cool in air. This distance in centim eter gives the value of ductility of bitumen. Pulling device with distance measuring dial. dimensions of brique tte. Observation: 1. 5. The minimum width of cross-se ction should be 10×10 mm. 6. Thermometer. The excess bitumen is cut and surface is leveled with the help of a hot knife. bu t for satisfactory performance it should not be less than 50. 8..

Ductility in cm . Ductility in cm. Sample No.4.

. Flash point: . Discussion: EXPERIMENT NO 7 FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST . cover. flame. Pensky-Martens closed tester consists of cup. Calculation: Average ductility in cm. shutt er.The flash point of a material is the lowest temperature at which th e vapor of substance momentarily takes fire in the room of a flash under specified condition of test .. 2..% 8.(Ref:-IS: 1209 1978) 1. Precautions: 9. stirring device. Pensky-Martens open tester as above with the modification. Objective: To determine the flash and fire point of given bitumen sample.. 2. that the cover of the cup is replaced by a clip which encircles the upper rim of the cup and carries therm ometer and test flame. lid. 3. . = 7. Theory: 1. Remarks: 10. Result: Ductility value For test sample Average ductility = Standard value = %age error = . . . Apparatus/Equipments required: 1. exposure device etc.1 2 3 6.

5. The temperature at which the application of flame causes a bright flash inside t he cup in the closed cup system is taken as the flash point. 7. Procedure: 1. Observation 1. 4. Fire point 3. the temperature at which the material gets ignited and conti nuous to burn for 5 seconds. 8. 5. Variations from mean value 6. the instance when flash appears first at any point on the surface of the material is called flash point. 2.The fire point is the lowest temperature at which the material gets ignited and burns under specified condition of test . The test flame is brought near the heated specimen at intervals depending upon t he expected flash and fire points. is called the fire point. First application of flame is made at least 17C below the flash point is then at every 1C to 3C rise in temperature. 3. The bitumen specimen is heated at the rate of 5C per minute and stirred well dur ing the heating period. For open cup system. Thermometer of specified range and other accessories are suitably fixed. Bitumen grade /cutback type and grade: 2. Calculations & Result For test sample = Standard value = %age error = .°C Test property Test Number Mean value 1 2 3 1. On further heating.2. The material to be tested is filled in the cup up to a definite mark called fill ing mark and the lid is placed to close the cup in closed cup apparatus. Fire point: . The minimum specified flash poi nt for bitumen in closed cup type system is 175°C. 6. All parts of the cup are cleaned and dried thoroughly before the test is started . . Flash point 2. Type of equipment: Closed cup/Open cup: Rate of heating Time in minutes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Temparature. 4. .

7. Precautions: .

water bath. The apparatus consists of main part like cup. During this the material is continuously. The sample material is heated at the temperature 20°C above the specified test temperature. until the leveling peg on the valve rod is just immersed. The time is recorded for flow up to a mark of 75ml. stirred. 45. 4. Apparatus/Equipments Required: Ten millimeter orifice viscometer is specified for testing road tar and is calle d tar viscometer. 4. In the graduated receiver (cylinder). When material reaches slightly above test temperature. 0 and 1 and 10 mm orifice to test all other grades. Stirring is also c ontinued. Procedure: The tar cup is properly leveled and water in the bath is heated to the temperatu re specified for the test and is maintained throughout the test. and 55°C re spectively. The stop watch is started. It is measured by recording the time in seconds taken by 50 c. 40.8. RT2. When the sample material reaches the specified testing temperature within ± 0. 3. and the material is allowed to cool. Theory: Viscosity is the measure of resistance to flow. Objective: To determine the viscosity of road tar. .e. RT3. stirrer. valve. receiver and thermometers. and RT4 are 35. Discussion: EXPERIMENT NO 8 VISCOSITY TEST 1.c.0 mm orifice is used to test cutback grades. 2. sleeves . when cylinder records 25ml. Remarks: 9. the same is poured in tar cup. of the material to flow through a specified orifice of standard dimension into a receiver at specified temperature. The receiver is placed under the orifice.1°C and is maintained for 5 minutes.. etc. the valve I opened. 50ml of test sample t o flow through the orifice). 20 ml of mineral oil or one percent by wei ght solution of soft soap is poured. (i. The viscosity test on road tar is carried out using 10 mm orifice and the standa rd test temperature for road tar grades RT1.

35°C. if the time taken for 50ml of the tar sample to flow through the 1 0 mm orifice is .In case the viscosity test is being carried out to classify a given sample of ro ad tar of to find its grade. i.e. then the test should be first conducted at the lowest temperature of testing road tar.

Discussion: EXPERIMENT NO 9 PENETRATION TEST (Ref: -IS: 1203 1978) .MC 1. is to be determined. if the viscosity of an unknown grade of cutbacks. 2. Size of orifice. Specified temperature. test should be repeated by alteri ng the test temperature or orifice size of both suitably.1 a.0 mm orifice for gr ades 0 and 1 (SC 0. Material: .MC 0. Precautions: 9. Remarks: 10. If the viscosity va lue of the trial test does not fall within the specified range.more than 55 secs. . °C = 4. Actual test temperature. . 5. th e orifice size and the trial test temperature may be chosen using judgment. till the viscosity value falls in the specified range. . 3. Calculations: 7. Grade: .RC 1. percent 6.SC 1.Thetestforcutbackgrades2 and 3 are carried out at 25°C using 10 mm orifice and those for grades 4 and 5 are carried out at 40°C using 10 mm orifice. Observation: 1. °C Test Property Test run Mean value 1 2 3 Viscosity in seconds Repeatability. For details of requirements of cutbacks see Table s 23. of if the sample does not flow freely test may be repeated at the next higher temperature.at25°C). Results For test sample = Standard value = %age error = 8. b & c. mm = 5.RC 0. The viscosity test on cutback bitumen is carried out using 4.

size of needle. After each test. Penetration test is applied exclusively to bitumen. 4. . penetration test on these materials can not be carried out. Apparatus/Equipments required: 1. 3. 2. when the needle is in contact with the sur face of the sample. Objective: To determine the Penetration value of the Bitumen. The mean value of three measurements is reported as penetration test. Now the needle is released and the needle is allowed to penetrate for 5 seconds and the final reading is recorded on the same sample at least three penetration observations should be taken at distances at least 10 mm apart. Water bath 4. The bitumen is softening to a pouring consistency. 5. 2. For tars. The accuracy of the test depends upon pouring temperature. Procedure: 1. stirred well and poured into the test containers. the sample needle is disengaged. and test temperature. The sample now the sample containers are placed in a temperature controlled water bath at a temperature of 25°C for one hour. Transfer tray 3. The depth of bitumen in containers is kept at least 15 mm more than the excepted penetration. This test determines the hardness or softness of bitumen b y measuring the depth in millimeter to which a standard loaded needle will penetra te vertically in 5 seconds while the temperature of the bitumen sample is maintained at 25°C. The grade of bitumen is specified in terms of penetration value. cutback and emulsions o ther consistency are used. the sample is taken out of water bath and needle is brought in contact with the surface of bitumen sample and the reading of dial is set at zero or the reading of dial noted. 30/40 grade bitumen indicates the penetration value of the bitumen in the range of 30 to 40 at standard test conditions. 7. Needle 3. 6. Theory: This test is applied almost exclusive bitumen. Container 2. 4. Penetrometer 5.1. weight placed on needle. wiped wit benzene and dried. At the end of one hour. Ta rs being soft.

. essentially as a field test to exercise qu ality control and ensure that the specified amount of bitumen has been used. °C = .5. Results For test sample = Standard value = %age error = . iii) Filter paper. . percent 6. Actual test temperature. iv) Balance and v) Commercial benzene. CONCEPT AND SIGNIFICANCE The Centrifuge Extractor is used for the quantitative determination of bitumen i n hot-mixed paving mixtures and pavement samples. Room temperature. 8. °C = 2.. vi) A sample of 1000g is taken. Readings Sample No. The bitumen conte nt is . Pouring temperature.. °C = . Sample No. APPARATUS i) Centrifuge extractor ii) Bowl. minutes = 3.. Period of cooling in water bath. Observation: 1. Calculations: 7. Precautions: 9. 1 2 3 Mean value 1 2 3 Mean value Penetrometer dial reading (i) initial (ii) final Penetration value Repeatability. Remarks: EXPERIMENT NO 10 CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTOR TEST OBJECTIVE To determine quantity of bitumen in hot mix paving mixtures and pavement samples . minutes = 5. Period of cooling in atmosphere. . 4.


10. 7. Stop the centrifuge. g AFTER TEST 4. g 2. g 6. 9. 2.Obtain the weight of the filter and bowl with dry aggregates RECORD OF OBSERVATIONS Sl No Particulars Sample1 Sample2 Sample3 BEFORE TEST 1. moisture conten t and ash from the weight of the sample taken for the test. add 200 ml of trichloromethane or benzene and rotate it aga in.Brush the loose particles from the filter into the bowl 13. 11. Weigh filter paper. Weigh a 1000 gms sample of asphalt/bitumen mix. Start the centrifuge extractor. 12. 6. Repeat the procedure (not less than 3 washings) until the extract is no longer c loudy and is fairly light in color. Weight of bowl (W2) g 3. Weight of filter (W3). Place the sample in the bowl and weigh it. 8. PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE BITUMEN CONTENT 1. place 1000g of it i n a large pan and warm upto 100oC to separate the particles of the mixture uniformly. 5. 4. revolving slowly and gradually increase the spee d until the solvent ceases to flow from the outlet. 3.Remove the filter paper from the bowl and dry in air. Weight of bowl + sample (W1). 14. Dry the filter to constant weight in an oven at 980 C to 105o C. g 7. Place the bowl in a centrifuge extractor. If the mixture is not soft enough to separate with a trowel. place it around the edge of the bowl and clamp a lid on the bowl. Place a beaker under the outlet. Weight of aggregates in bowl (W4-W2). Weight of bowl + sample (W4). g . Weight of sample (W1-W2). Cover the sample in the bowl with benzene or trichloromethane and allow it to so ak for one hour.g 5.calculated by difference of the weight of the extract aggregate. Weight of filter (W5).

Weight of aggregates in filter (W5-W3). g 9. WB = (W1-W2) .8.WA 11. Weight of aggregates WA = (W4-W2) + (W5W3) 10. Weight of bitumen. Bitumen content = x100% W W A B .

The cover plate should be fixed tightly on the bowl. 2. REMARKS DISCUSSION .REPORTING OF RESULTS Bitumen content = [(A-B)/B] ×100 % Repeat the test thrice and average the results. Separate the particles of the mixture as uniformly as possible taking care not t o fracture the mineral particles. PRECAUTIONS 1.

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