EUROCODES

Background and Applications

EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges »
1

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop

Traffic Loads on Road Bridges and Footbridges

Jean-Armand Calgaro Chairman of CEN/TC250

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges »
2

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop

FOREWORD SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF ACTIONS DESIGN SITUATIONS ROAD TRAFFIC ACTIONS AND OTHER ACTIONS SPECIFICALLY FOR ROAD BRIDGES ACTIONS ON FOOTWAYS, CYCLE TRACKS AND FOOTBRIDGES RAIL TRAFFIC ACTIONS AND OTHER ACTIONS SPECIFICALLY FOR RAILWAY BRIDGES MODELS OF SPECIAL VEHICLES FOR ROAD BRIDGES FATIGUE LIFE ASSESSMENT FOR ROAD BRIDGES – ASSESSMENT METHOD BASED ON RECORDED TRAFFIC

ANNEX A (INFORMATIVE) ANNEX B (INFORMATIVE)

EUROCODES
Background and Applications

EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges »
3

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop

GENERAL ORGANISATION FOR ROAD BRIDGES Traffic load models - Vertical forces : LM1, LM2, LM3, LM4 - Horizontal forces : braking and acceleration, centrifugal, transverse Groups of loads - gr1a, gr1b, gr2, gr3, gr4, gr5 - characteristic, frequent and quasi-permanent values Combination with actions other than traffic actions

see National Annex) Load Model Nr.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 4 Brussels. 1 Concentrated and distributed loads (main model – general and local verifications) Load Model Nr. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop LOAD MODELS FOR LIMIT STATES OTHER THAN FATIGUE LIMIT STATES Field of application : loaded lengths less than 200 m (maximum length taken into account for the calibration of the Eurocode – For very long loaded lengths. 3 Set of special vehicles (general and local verifications) Load Model Nr. 4 Crowd loading : 5 kN/m2 (general verifications) . 2 Single axle load (semi-local and local verifications) Load Model Nr.

3.3).3) LM3 (4.4) LM4 (4. Basic values defined in annex A are derived from a synthesis based on various national regulations.3.3.3. see 4. Set of nominal values.3.2) Characteristic values Frequent values Quasi-permanent values LM2 (4. see 4. Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant . Nominal value deemed to represent the effects of a crowd. Calibration in accordance with definition given in EN 1990.2). 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Traffic Load Models Road bridges LM1 (4.3.2).3. 1 week return period for traffic on the main roads in Europe ( α factors equal to 1. Defined with reference to existing national standards. see 4. 1000 year return period (or probability of exceedance of 5% in 50 years) for traffic on the main roads in Europe (β factor equal to 1. see 4.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 5 Brussels.5) 1000 year return period (or probability of exceedance of 5% in 50 years) for traffic on the main roads in Europe ( α factors equal to 1.3. 1 week return period for traffic on the main roads in Europe (β factor equal to 1.3).

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Carriageway width w width measured between kerbs (height more than 100 mm – recommended value) or between the inner limits of vehicle restraint systems .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 6 Brussels.

4 m 5. for a carriageway width equal to 11m. 3 (3m) 4 – Remaining area . 2 (3m) 3 – Lane Nr. and the 3⎠ ⎝ ⎛w⎞ nl = Int ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ 3m NOTE For example.3×3 = 2m. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Division of the carriageway into notional lanes Carriageway width w w < 5.4 m ≤ w < 6 m 6m ≤ w Number of notional lanes Width of a notional lane w l 3m w 2 Width of the remaining area w − 3m nl = 1 nl = 2 0 w − 3 × nl ⎛w⎞ ⎟ = 3 . nl = Int ⎜ width of the remaining area is 11 .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 7 Brussels. 1 – Lane Nr. 1 (3m) 2 – Lane Nr.

5 kN/m2 .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 8 Brussels.5 kN/m2 qrk = 2.5 kN/m2 q1k = 9 kN/m2 q2k = 2. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop The main load model (LM1) qrk = 2.5 kN/m2 q3k = 2.

the tandems travel centrally along the axes of notional lanes For local verifications. Where two tandems on adjacent notional lanes are taken into account.50 m . a tandem system should be applied at the most unfavourable location. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop The main load model for road bridges (LM1) : diagrammatic representation For the determination of general effects. they may be brought closer. the distance between axles being not less than 0.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 9 Brussels.

7 α qi i≥2 1 1 α qr 1 1 .9 α Qi i≥2 1 0. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop The main load model (LM1) Example of values for α factors (National Annexes) 1st class : international heavy vehicle traffic 2nd class : « normal » heavy vehicle traffic Classes 1 st class 2 nd class α Q1 1 0.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 10 Brussels.8 α q1 1 0.

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Examples of influence surfaces (transverse bending moment) for a deck slab .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 11 Brussels.

EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 12 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Example of application of LM1 to the concrete slab of a composite bridge .

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Load model Nr. 2 (LM2) Recommended value : β Q = α Q 1 (National Annex) .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 13 Brussels.

EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 14 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Dispersal of concentrated loads a) Pavement and concrete slab 1 Wheel contact pressure 2 Pavement 3 Concrete slab 4 Middle surface of concrete slab b) Pavement and orthotropic deck 1 Wheel contact pressure 2 Pavement 3 Bridge floor 4 Middle surface of the bridge floor 5 Transverse member .

2 m Qlk = 360 + 2.7L For L > 1.7L For 0 ≤ L ≤ 1.10α q1q1k w1 L 180α Q 1 kN ≤ Q k ≤ 900 kN αQ1 = αq1 = 1 Qlk = 180 + 2. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop HORIZONTAL FORCES : Braking and acceleration (Lane Nr.6α Q 1 ( 2Q1k ) + 0.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 15 Brussels. 1 ) Q k = 0.2 m .

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop HORIZONTAL FORCES : Centrifugal forces Qtk = 0.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 16 Brussels.2Qv (kN) Qtk = 40Qv / r (kN) Qtk = 0 if r < 200 m if 200 ≤ r ≤ 1500 m if r > 1500 m r : horizontal radius of curvature of the carriageway centreline [m] Qv : total maximum weight of vertical concentrated loads of the tandem systems of LM1 ∑α i Qi ( 2Qik ) .

frequent values of LM1 .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 17 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Groups of loads Group of loads gr1a : LM1 + « reduced » value of pedestrian load on footways or cycle tracks (3 kN/m2) Group of loads gr1b : LM2 (single axle load) Group of loads gr2 : characteristic values of horizontal forces.

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Group of loads gr3 : loads on footways and cycle tracks Group of loads gr4 : crowd loading Group of loads gr5 : special vehicles (+ special conditions for normal traffic) .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 18 Brussels.

3. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Table 4.2.3. .3.4b – Assessment of groups of traffic loads (frequent values of the multi-component action) CARRIAGEWAY Load type Reference EN 1991-2 Load system gr1a Groups of loads a) FOOTWAYS AND CYCLE TRACKS Vertical forces 4.3. One footway only should be considered to be loaded if the effect is more unfavourable than the effect of two loaded footways.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 19 Brussels.2(1) Uniformly distributed load gr1b gr3 See 5.2 LM1 (TS and UDL systems) Frequent values Frequent values Frequent value a) 4.3 LM2 (single axle) 5.1(3).

4 (FLM4) : Set of « equivalent » lorries Load Model Nr.3 x qrk Load Model Nr. 1 (FLM1) : Similar to characteristic Load Model Nr. 1 0.0. 2 (FLM2) : Set of « fequent » lorries Load Model Nr.3 x qik .7 x Qik . 5 (FLM5) : Recorded traffic .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 20 Brussels.0. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop FATIGUE LOAD MODELS Load Model Nr. 3 (FLM3) : Single vehicle Load Model Nr.

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Table 4.5 × 10 6 2 3 4 6 0.125 × 10 0.0 × 10 0.5 .05 × 10 6 6 .Indicative number of heavy vehicles expected per year and per slow lane (FLM3 and FLM4 Models) Traffic categories 1 Roads and motorways with 2 or more lanes per direction with high flow rates of lorries Roads and motorways with medium flow rates of lorries M ain roads with low flow rates of lorries Local roads with low flow rates of lorries N obs per year and per slow lane 2.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 21 Brussels.

20 1.8) A B FLM2 Set of « frequent » lorries 4.5 3 Frequent axle loads (kN) 90 190 4 Wheel type (see Table 4.20 1.60 4.00 1.40 1.30 1.30 80 140 140 90 180 120 120 120 90 190 140 140 90 180 120 110 110 A B B A B C C C A B B B A B C C C 3.20 5.30 3.80 3.40 6. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop 1 LORRY SILHOUETTE 2 Axle spacing (m) 4.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 22 Brussels.80 4.30 .

8) A X L E /W H E E L TY PES G E O M E T R IC A L D E F IN IT IO N A B C . 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop FLM2 : Definition of wheels and axles (Table 4.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 23 Brussels.

3 (FLM3) A second vehicle may be taken into account : Recommended axle load value Q = 36 kN Minimum distance between vehicles : 40 m . 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Fatigue Load Model Nr.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 24 Brussels.

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Verification procedure with Load Model FLM 3 Determination of the maximum and minimum stresses resulting from the transit of the model along the bridge Δσ LM = Maxσ LM − Min σ LM The stress variation is multiplied by a local dynamic amplification factor in the vicinity of expansion joints Δϕ fat The model is normally centered in every slow lane defined in the project specification.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 25 Brussels. But where the transverse position is important. a statistical distribution of this position should be taken into account. Finally : Δσ fat = λΔϕ fatΔσ LM .

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Frequency distribution of transverse location of a vehicle (Models 3 to 5) .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 26 Brussels.

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Fatigue Load Models for road bridges Representation of the additional amplification factor Δϕfat : Additional amplification factor D : Distance of the cross-section under consideration from the expansion joint .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 27 Brussels.

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Principle of the fatigue verification with FLM 3 .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 28 Brussels.

30 3.0 A B 4.30 1.0 10.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 29 Brussels.00 1.0 30.80 4. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop VEHICLE TYPE 1 2 3 TRAFFIC TYPE 4 Long distance Lorry persentage 5 Medium distance Lorry percentage 6 Local traffic Lorry percentage Wheel type 7 FLM4 Set of « equivalent» lorries.20 1.0 15.0 A B B A B C C C A B B B A B C C C 3.0 10.30 50. LORRY Axle spacing (m) Equivalent axle loads (kN) 4.0 40.60 4.20 5.80 3.0 5.5 70 130 20.30 70 120 120 70 150 90 90 90 70 140 90 90 70 130 90 80 80 5.40 1.0 .0 15.0 5.20 1.0 5.40 6.0 5.0 5.0 80.

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 30 Brussels.

EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 31 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop .

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop ACTIONS FROM VEHICLES ON THE BRIDGE – Vehicles on footways and cycle tracks – Impact forces on kerbs – Impact forces on safety barriers .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 32 Brussels.

EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 33 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop .

2 Concentrated load Qfwk (10 kN recommended) LOAD MODEL Nr.3 Service vehicle Qserv .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 34 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop LOAD MODELS FOR FOOTWAYS AND FOOTBRIDGES (Section 5) LOAD MODEL Nr.1 Uniformly distributed load qfk LOAD MODEL Nr.

footways and cycle tracks on road bridges.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 35 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Recommended characteristic value for : .0 + L + 30 qfk ≥ 2.0 kN/m 2 L is the loaded length [m] .short or medium span length footbridges : q fk = 5.0 kN/m 2 Recommended expression for long span length footbridges : 120 q fk = 2.5 kN/m 2 kN/m 2 q fk ≤ 5. .

a horizontal force should be taken into account. is equal to the higher of the two following values : • 10% of the total uniformly distributed load as defined in 5. which may be altered in the National Annex. The horizontal force is applied simultaneously with the vertical load.2. . 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop For footbridges only.3. but not with the concentrated load. Its characteristic value. • 60% of the total service vehicle load where relevant (5.2.3(1)P). to be applied along the deck axis at the surfacing level Qflk.1.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 36 Brussels.3.

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Groups of loads for footbridges Group of loads gr1 Group of loads gr2 .EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 37 Brussels.

EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1991-2 « Traffic Loads on Bridges » 38 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Thank you for your attention .

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