Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Level 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 318 322 326 330 334 338

Assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bonus Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

313

314

Passage

Comprehension Strategies

Comprehension Questions
Antonyms big, small; good, bad; hard, soft; many, few

Key Words for Understanding

Morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots)

Antonyms, Homophones, Synonyms

Multiple Meaning Words

Word Meanings Using Context Clues

101 All About Plants (Page 2) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Title Selection • Main Topic • Author’s Purpose • Details • Cause and Effect • True/False

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Teacher Guide •

Science

stem (n.) the long part of a plant that holds up flowers and leaves; also, the thin, long part of a glass

roots stems leaves seeds Compound Words sunlight sometimes greenhouses hook swing directions

102 Mexican Hat Dance (Page 4) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Sequence of Events • Author’s Purpose • Details • Main Idea • Author’s Viewpoint

repeat (v.) to do again
Synonyms party, fiesta; hat, sombrero; many, lots; hook, link Synonyms leap, jump; great, large; grip, hold; feet, paws; quickly, fast

History/Social Studies

sombrero brim elbow heel repeat sharp trunk related graceful balance

103 Cat Families: It’s All Relative (Page 6) • Title Selection • Details • Author’s Purpose • Informational Resources • True/False • Drawing Conclusions • Title Selection • Sequence of Events • Details • Facts and Opinions • Compare and Contrast

related (adj.) things that are similar or connected in some way

Science

104 Rome Becomes an Empire (Page 8) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring

empire (n.) a group of countries controlled by one ruler or government

Noun Suffix: -er someone who (e.g., teacher)

bed spread last rocks

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

History/Social Studies • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring

105 Flying Fish (Page 10) • Main Idea • Details • Author’s Purpose • True/False • Cause and Effect

propel (v.) to push, move, or drive something forward

Antonyms under, over; out, in; long, short

spreads leaps chase

fly glide propel

Science

106 Railroads in the West (Page 12) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Determining Importance • Cause and Effect • Informational Resources • Title Selection • True/False • Details

spike (n.) a long, thin, pointed object, often made of metal

History/Social Studies

Adjective Suffix: -er used to compare two or more things, and means more (e.g., faster)

Antonyms finish, start; sold, bought; easy, hard; fast, slow; long, short

tracks hard cross spike

107 Trees: Our Helpers (Page 14) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance

Science

• Author’s Purpose • Details • Drawing Conclusions • Personal Response

oxygen (n.) a colorless gas in the air, necessary for many animals and plants to live

Antonyms die, live; many, few; dry, wet; cool, warm; sick, well Homophones wood, would; maid, made; knew, new; for, four

hives

syrup oxygen

108 The Moon: Earth’s Natural Satellite (Page 16) Antonyms smaller, bigger; hot, cold; day, night; more, less orbit reflect surface • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Details • Main Idea • True/False • Drawing Conclusions • Author’s Purpose • Compare and Contrast (v.)—to travel in a curved path around a large object, such as the earth

orbit (n.) the path of a moon, satellite, or planet circling around a planet or sun
Adjective Suffix: -er used to compare two or more things, and means more (e.g., smaller)

Level 1

Science

109 Stars and Stripes: The First American Flag (Page 18) left called stood • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Facts and Opinions • Author’s Purpose • Informational Resources • Main idea • Details • Drawing Conclusions

colony (n.) a place that is ruled by another country, usually far away
Antonyms top, bottom Homophones maid, made; there, their; read, red; won, one; knew, new

History/Social Studies

110 Gifts From the Ancient Greeks (Page 20) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Author’s Purpose • True/False • Details • Cause and Effect

History/Social Studies

trial (n.) a legal process where a judge, and often a jury, listens to evidence and decides on a case

Antonyms sad, funny; rich, poor; many, few; summer, winter Homophones see, sea; new, knew; threw, through; there, their scales saw blues

111 The Roaring ’20s: The Age of Jazz (Page 22) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Evaluating • Main Idea • Facts and Opinions • Details • Title Selection • Author’s Purpose • Personal Response

cope (v.) to deal with something sad or difficult

History/Social Studies

Antonyms old, new; right, wrong; up, down; long, short Homophones write, right; break, brake; hair, hare; where, wear

112 Hawaiian Islands (Page 24) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating • Informational Resources • Details • Sequence of Events • Author’s Purpose • Personal Response

History/Social Studies

throne (n.) the special chair of a king or queen; the position or power of a king or queen

Homophones son, sun; plane, plain; see, sea; throne, thrown; there, their Synonyms listen, hear; larger, bigger; pretty, beautiful; leave, go; farmers, growers

base watch

Idiom jumped ship

113 Oil: Black Gold (Page 26) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing

refined (v.) cleaned or purified;
(adj.) someone who is well mannered

History/Social Studies

• Details • Author’s Purpose • True/False • Main Idea • Main Topic • Drawing Conclusions • Main Idea • Cause and Effect • Author’s Purpose • Details

Antonyms heated, cooled; rich, poor; bad, good; east, west; many, few

well grade called

medicine refined search

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

114 The Sun and Energy (Page 28)

released (v.) let out or set free

Science

• Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring

Adjective Suffix: -er used to compare two or more things, and means more (e.g., colder)

Antonyms closer, farther; bigger, smaller; hotter, colder; light, dark; tall, short

explosion energy

315

316

Passage

Comprehension Strategies

Comprehension Questions
• Author’s Purpose • Main Idea • Details • Drawing Conclusions

Key Words for Understanding
minerals (n.) natural substances formed in the earth
Antonyms different, alike; many, few; short, tall; large, small spines leaves plant needle

Morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots)

Antonyms, Homophones, Synonyms

Multiple Meaning Words

Word Meanings Using Context Clues

115 Plants Are Alike and Different, Too! (Page 30) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Teacher Guide •

Science

116 Gold Rush in California (Page 32) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating • Details • Main Idea • Informational Resources • Drawing Conclusions • Cause and Effect • Making Judgments Antonyms long, short; few, many; rich, poor; hard, easy; pull, push

travel (v.) make a trip from one place to another place
Noun Suffix: -er a person who (e.g., owner) Noun Suffix: -s makes the word plural (e.g., owners)

History/Social Studies

Compound Words everything everyone sunshine

117 The Nile River in Ancient Egypt (Page 34) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Title Selection • Details • Main Idea • Cause and Effect

reed (n.) a tall, grass-like plant that grows in wet, marshy areas

rose banks duck

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

History/Social Studies

Antonyms longest, shortest; begins, ends; rises, falls Homophones four, for; reigns, rains; sale, sail; there, their

118 Log Cabins: Pioneer Homes (Page 36) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Sequence of Events • Details • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • Compare and Contrast

notched (adj.) having made a v-shaped cut

History/Social Studies

Antonyms together, apart; simple, hard; asleep, awake; bigger, smaller; few, many

notch rafters loft

119 Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin (Page 38) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Sequence of Events • Cause and Effect • Facts and Opinions • Details • Drawing Conclusions

fiber (n.) thread-like material that can be made from animal hair or plants

pods fiber slit

History/Social Studies

Antonyms white, black; narrow, wide; outside, inside Homophones made, maid; to, too, two; there, their Synonyms hard, difficult; created, made; wash, clean; many, lots

120 Alex Haley: Author (Page 40) hear came roots • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Evaluating • Title Selection • Sequence of Events • Facts and Opinions • Drawing Conclusions • True/False • Making Judgments

Level 1

History/Social Studies

roots (n.) your relationships to people and places in your past
Antonyms sell, buy; little, big; near, far; many, few; true, false Homophones see, sea; cell, sell; eight, ate; won, one

121 Earth: Hometown Planet (Page 42) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • True/False • Author’s Purpose • Compare and Contrast • Details • Making Judgments Antonyms smallest, largest; old, young; toward, away; day, night Homophones four, for

stable (adj.) not likely to move or change
Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more things, and means most (e.g., largest)

planet densest surface stable

Science

122 Bruce Lee: Martial Arts Actor (Page 44) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Inferring • Evaluating • Author’s Viewpoint • Identifying Genre • Details • Main Idea • True/False • Making Judgments

heart (n.) the part of a person that has strong emotions or feelings

fans hard back

defend master famous

History/Social Studies

Antonyms began, finished; long, short; student, master Homophones brake, break; maid, made

123 Nat King Cole: Unforgettable Singer (Page 46) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Identifying Genre • Facts and Opinions • Cause and Effect • Drawing Conclusions • Personal Response

famous (adj.) known or recognized by a lot of people

Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belonging to (e.g., Nat’s)

Antonyms poor, rich; day, night; small, big; low, high

play deep hit

History/Social Studies

124 The Secret of Silk (Page 48) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Main Idea • Sequence of Events • Cause and Effect • Informational Resources • Drawing Conclusions

History/Social Studies

dyed (v.) having made something a different color, usually by washing it in colored liquid

Adjective or Verb Prefix: unnot or opposite of (e.g., unlocked)

Antonyms weak, strong; buy, sell; cold, hot; ugly, beautiful Homophones buy, by; see, sea; died, dyed; four, for

cocoon mulberry

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

125 Native American Homes (Page 50) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing

nation (n.) a group of people with its own culture and history
• True/False • Title Selection • Details • Main Topic • Compare and Contrast • Cause and Effect

thatch nation plains

History/Social Studies

Antonyms first, last; cool, warm Homophones where, wear; plains, planes; there, their; maid, made

317

318

Passage

Comprehension Strategies

Comprehension Questions
cure (n.) a medicine or treatment that helps make a sick person healthy again
Antonyms above, below; open, close; in, out; started, ended; raised, lowered cure deal locks space Homophone sale, sail (v.)—the action of making someone well again

Key Words for Understanding

Morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots)

Antonyms, Homophones, Synonyms

Multiple Meaning Words

Word Meanings Using Context Clues

201 The Panama Canal: A Sea Path (Page 54) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • True/False • Details • Main Idea • Informational Resources • Cause and Effect • Compare and Contrast

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Teacher Guide •

History/Social Studies

202 Mars: The Red Planet (Page 56) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Author’s Purpose • Informational Resources • Details • Facts and Opinions Antonyms war, peace; bright, dull; first, last

study (v.) to learn by exploring and doing research
Adjective Suffix: -ish somewhat or like (e.g., tallish)

Science

ancient worshipped telescope clues

203 Maps: How to Read Them (Page 58) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Details • Informational Resources • Author’s Purpose • Main Idea • Drawing Conclusions

equator (n.) an imaginary line that goes around the middle of the earth

History/Social Studies

Antonyms rises, sets; east, west; top, bottom; north, south; left, right; west, east Homophones for, four; write, right; red, read

compass equator

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

204 Baseball: A National Sport (Page 60) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Determining Importance • Evaluating • Facts and Opinions • Main Idea • Sequence of Events • Main Topic • Cause and Effect • Making Judgments

league (n.) a group of sports teams that play each other to see who will win

watch play

leagues major national

History/Social Studies

Homophones bare, bear; where, wear; maid, made; too, to, two Synonyms hit, strike; rules, directions; beginning, start; made, created; big, large

205 Henry Ford: Automobile Manufacturer (Page 62) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Facts and Opinions • Details • Author’s Purpose • Identifying Genre • Cause and Effect • Drawing Conclusions

History/Social Studies

mass production (n.) the process of many workers, usually in an assembly line, producing a lot of the same product

Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belonging to (e.g., Ford’s)

Antonyms rich, poor, same, different; many, few; small, large; true, false Homophones made, maid; one, won

production model profit lots

206 The Model T: The Car That Changed America! (Page 64) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring

History/Social Studies

• Cause and Effect • Main Topic • Main Idea • Drawing Conclusions • Informational Resources • Details

cheap (adj.) something that does not cost very much money and/or something of poor quality

Antonyms easy, difficult; rich, poor; good, bad

back-seat driver road hog sight-seeing

207 Rosa Parks: Mother of the Civil Rights Movement (Page 66) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Analyzing (v.)—to challenge something that is wrong or unfair • Facts and Opinions • Author’s Purpose • Main Idea • Details • Drawing Conclusions convicted protest boycott

protest (n.) a way to show disapproval about something that is wrong or unfair
Adjective Suffix: -ful full of (e.g., joyful) Homophones fare, fair; rights, writes; their, there; sowed, sewed; weigh, way

Level 2

History/Social Studies

208 Garter Snakes (Page 68) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Informational Resources • Drawing Conclusions • Facts and Opinions • Main Idea • Details

bask (v.) to enjoy being in the warmth of the sun or a fire
Antonyms dangerous, safe; cool, warm Homophones read, red; plain, plane; two, too, to; their, there; pray, prey Synonyms narrow, thin; small, little; attack, fight; start, begin

Science

bask agile prey vibrations

209 The Ancient Kingdom of Kush (Page 70) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Evaluating • Details • Main Idea • Drawing Conclusions • Generalizing • Cause and Effect • Making Judgments

trade (v.) to buy or sell goods or services

bellows pure bronze reed

History/Social Studies

Antonyms weak, strong; beautiful, ugly; ending, beginning Homophones weak, week; wood, would; new, knew; maid, made; whole, hole Synonyms pure, clean; strong, powerful Adjective Suffix: -less without (e.g., airless) Antonyms bottom, top; longer, shorter; thin, thick; safe, dangerous; first, last

210 Thomas Edison: An American Inventor (Page 72) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating • Details • Main Idea • Main Topic • Informational Resources • Sequence of Events • Details • Cause and Effect • Main Idea • Author’s Viewpoint • Personal Response • True/False • Details • Cause and Effect • Compare and Contrast • Personal Response

inventor (n.) a person who creates new things or discovers new ways to do something

inventor globe flickered hollow

History/Social Studies

211 Boys and Girls Clubs: Great Places to Hang Out (Page 74)

roamed (v.) wandered around in no clear direction

History/Social Studies

Antonyms first, last; safe, dangerous; alone, together; more, less; open, close; boys, girls; few, many

roamed reservations staff succeed

212 The Food Chain: A Cycle of Life (Page 76) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

Science

cycle (n.) a process of related events that repeat in the same order again and again

Adjective Suffix: -er used to compare two people, places, or things, and means more (e.g., smaller)

chain cycle rot nutrients Compound Words sunlight everywhere flycatcher sometimes

319

320

Passage

Comprehension Strategies

Comprehension Questions
• Main Idea • Details • True/False • Author’s Purpose • Drawing Conclusions

Key Words for Understanding
connected (adj.) to be joined to something else
Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things, and means most (e.g., largest) banks canals rafts goods

Morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots)

Antonyms, Homophones, Synonyms

Multiple Meaning Words

Word Meanings Using Context Clues

213 Rivers and Canals: Our Water Highways (Page 78) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Summarizing/Synthesizing

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Teacher Guide •

History/Social Studies • Details • Main Idea • Generalizing • Cause and Effect • Drawing Conclusions

214 Marco Polo: A World Traveler (Page 80) Homophones sale, sail; right, write • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing

History/Social Studies

compass (n.) an instrument used for finding directions because the needle always points north
Adjective Suffix: -able capable of (e.g., buildable)

spices compass rubies

215 The Great Wall: One of the World’s Seven Wonders (Page 82) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • Details • Personal Response

wonder (n.) something that fills you with surprise and admiration

Antonyms tall, short; east, west; wide, narrow; enemies, friends; peace, war

outer space proud

Compound Words grasslands watchtowers

History/Social Studies

216 Jim Thorpe: Athlete of the Century (Page 84) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Sequence of Events • Main Idea • Main Topic • Cause and Effect • Drawing Conclusions • Informational Resources • Details • Identifying Genre • Main Idea • Cause and Effect • Making Judgments

athlete (n.) someone who is good at sports

Noun Prefix: decaten (e.g., decathlon)

Homophones one, won; four, for; maid, made

athlete semi-pro Olympics pro

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

History/Social Studies

217 The Louisiana Purchase: A Good Deal (Page 86)

deal (n.) an agreement in which goods, land, money, or services are traded

rafts ports accepted

History/Social Studies

Antonyms first, final; north, south; small, large; short, long Homophones cell, sell; knew, new; way, weigh; maid, made; there, their Noun Suffixes: -er, -or someone who does something (e.g., leader, inventor)

218 Ben Franklin: Inventor and Statesman (Page 88) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Evaluating • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Main Topic • Informational Resources • Main Idea • Drawing Conclusions • Details • Making Judgments

advice (n.) an opinion you give someone about what he or she should do

wisdom almanac bifocals public servant

History/Social Studies

219 Weather: It’s What’s Outside That Counts (Page 90)

pressure (n.) the force or weight that is put on something
• Details • True/False • Facts and Opinions • Cause and Effect • Author’s Purpose • Drawing Conclusions

weather tornadoes atmosphere

Science

Antonyms warm, cold; low, high Homophones whether, weather; son, sun; there, their; where, wear

220 Guide Dogs: Helpful Pets (Page 92) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Author’s Purpose • True/False • Title Selection • Compare and Contrast • Details • Drawing Conclusions alert nudge rely Compound Words lifelines doorbell wheelchairs Contractions don’t can’t she’ll wouldn’t scales rows type gristle denticles preys

nudge (v.) to push someone or something gently
Contractions: the shortening of two words into one; an apostrophe is used to show that one or more letters have been removed from one of the words (e.g., do not, don’t)

Level 2

History/Social Studies

221 Sharks: Amazing Fish (Page 94) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring (n.)—an animal that is hunted by another animal for food • Facts and Opinions • True/False • Main Idea • Title Selection • Author’s Purpose • Compare and Contrast

prey (v.) to hunt another animal
Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things, and means most (e.g., smallest)

Science

222 Roads and Highways (Page 96) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Main Idea • Cause and Effect • Main Topic • Sequence of Events • Facts and Opinions • Drawing Conclusions

surface (n.) the outside or top layer of something

History/Social Studies

Antonyms near, far; more, less; begin, end; good, bad; save, spend Homophones made, maid; knew, new; there, their; to, two, too Antonyms left, right; below, above Homophones sun, son; no, know; their, there; red, read

docks canals surface rutted concrete

223 The Mexican Flag: Green, White, and Red (Page 98) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Details • Main Idea • Facts and Opinions • Identifying Genre • Compare and Contrast • Personal Response

legend (n.) an old, well-known story, often about brave people or adventures

perched laurel legend

History/Social Studies

224 Harriet Tubman: Conductor of Freedom (Page 100) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Identifying Genre • Main Topic • Facts and Opinions • Main Idea • Details • Drawing Conclusions

escape (v.) to get away from something or someplace

Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belonging to (e.g., owner’s)

Antonyms south, north; slave, master; hated, loved; dangerous, safe

whipped escaped hero

History/Social Studies

225 Chinese Kite Flying: A National Pastime (Page 102) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing

culture (n.) the beliefs and way of life shared by a group of people
• Informational Resources • Details • Facts and Opinions • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • Drawing Conclusions

fly watch

reflect culture

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

History/Social Studies

Antonyms old, young; big, small; sad, happy Synonyms believe, feel; wealth, money; big, large; small, little; pretty, beautiful

321

322

Passage

Comprehension Strategies

Comprehension Questions
• Details • Text Organization • Informational Resources • True/False • Drawing Conclusions

Key Words for Understanding
mammals (n.) animals that have hair, give birth to live young, and whose mothers produce milk for their young
Homophones bares, bears; meet, meat; hare, hair; weigh, way jet seal store pounds marine hind interior

Morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots)

Antonyms, Homophones, Synonyms

Multiple Meaning Words

Word Meanings Using Context Clues

301 White, Brown, and Black: The Bear Facts (Page 106) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Teacher Guide •

Science

302 Yangtze River (Page 108) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Author’s Purpose • Facts and Opinions • True/False • Main Idea • Cause and Effect • Details Antonyms west, east; upper, lower; fast, slow Homophones see, sea; way, weigh; sale, sail

flow (v.) to move continuously from one place to another
Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things; it means most (e.g., smallest)

zigzag floods

History/Social Studies

303 Is It a Solid, a Liquid, or a Gas? (Page 110) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Details • True/False • Compare and Contrast • Main Idea • Drawing Conclusions

Science

matter (n.) the material that everything in the universe is made of; can be solid, liquid, or gas

Antonyms different, same; hard, soft; tall, short Homophones would, wood; two, too, to Adjective Prefix: multimore than one (e.g., multicellular) volume land surface

matter atoms container

304 Sponges: Simple Animals (Page 112) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Author’s Purpose • Main Idea • Details • Informational Resources • Generalizing

attach (v.) to make something stick or become connected to something else

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Science

Antonyms simple, complex; stays, moves; bottom, top; tiny, huge; thin, thick Homophones whole, hole; pores, pours; hairs, hares

305 Camels: One Hump or Two? (Page 114) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • True/False • Facts and Opinions • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • Cause and Effect • Compare and Contrast

sway (v.) to move slowly from one side to the other

kneel climates swaying

Science

Antonyms heavy, light; large, small; right, left; tall, short; curved, straight Homophones write, right; there, their; ate, eight; soles, souls

306 Seasons: Passages of Time (Page 116) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating • Determining Importance

equinox (n.) the time of the year when day and night are of equal length
• Title Selection • Text Organization • Details • Generalizing • Compare and Contrast • Personal Response

Science

Antonyms north, south; day, night; summer, winter Synonyms moving, traveling

orbit axis poles fall equinox winter solstice spring equinox summer solstice

307 Whales: Huge Marine Mammals (Page 118) story feet flukes moist vapor spout • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Facts and Opinions • Author’s Purpose • Generalizing • True/False • Sequence of Events • Details

marine (adj.) related to the sea or ocean
Homophones wail, whale; see, sea; hare, hair; there, their; tale, tail

Level 3

Science

308 Terra-Cotta Warriors (Page 120) bow well pit • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Facts and Opinions • Title Selection • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • Sequence of Events • Drawing Conclusions • True/False • Details • Author’s Purpose • Drawing Conclusions • Compare and Contrast

History/Social Studies

tomb (n.) a burial place or room, often for the body of an important person
Antonyms lived, died; small, large; poor, rich Homophones wood, would; too, two, to; made, maid; peace, piece

309 Bridges: An Important Beginning (Page 122) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Analyzing • Sequence of Events • Details • Identifying Genre • Drawing Conclusions • Making Judgments

build (v.) to make some kind of physical structure, such as a house, shop, or bridge

History/Social Studies

Homophones maid, made; would, wood; steel, steal Synonyms stream, creek; made, built; hurry, rush; beautiful, pretty; small, little Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belongs to (e.g., Jim’s hat) star records

twisted trade travelers Romans pontoon bridges

310 Jesse Owens: Olympic Athlete (Page 124) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing

admire (v.) to regard an object or person with respect and approval

History/Social Studies

share-cropper amazed admired advice athlete

311 The Right to Read (Page 126) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Determining Importance • Facts and Opinions • Details • Main Topic • True/False

History/Social Studies

experts (n.) people who have special knowledge or skill about a specific subject

Contractions: the shortening of two words into one word, using an apostrophe (e.g., don’t, can’t)

Antonyms boys, girls; rich, poor; easier, harder Synonyms useful, helpful; test, quiz; women, female people; speak, talk

experts afford literacy celebrate

312 A Mexican Fiesta (Page 128) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Evaluating • Details • Author’s Purpose • Drawing Conclusions • Making Judgments

History/Social Studies

elaborate (adj.) something that is special because it has a lot of details

Antonyms spicy, mild; usually, rarely; simple, elaborate; many, few; joyful, sad

honor costumes decorations feast rodeos Compound Words bullfights fireworks sometime

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

313 Helen Keller: Triumph Over Tragedy (Page 130) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Evaluating

History/Social Studies

• Sequence of Events • Cause and Effect • Details • Main Topic • Drawing Conclusions • Making Judgments

turning point (idiom) an event that causes a big change, usually for the better

Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belongs to (e.g., Helen Keller’s home)

Antonyms work, play; never, always; born, died; come, go; first, last Synonyms hard, difficult

fever expert invented behave braille

323

324

Passage

Comprehension Strategies

Comprehension Questions
• Sequence of Events • Details • Cause and Effect • Drawing Conclusions

Key Words for Understanding
delta (n.) a body of land that forms where a river empties into a lake or the sea
bank Antonyms mountain, valley; begins, ends; beneath, above; small, huge; left, right Homophones write, right; see, sea; meats, meets basin tributaries riverbed delta Noun Suffix: -er someone who (e.g., teacher) free settled strike generous union strike pesticides

Morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots)

Antonyms, Homophones, Synonyms

Multiple Meaning Words

Word Meanings Using Context Clues

314 The Birth of a River (Page 132) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Teacher Guide •

Science

315 Dolores Huerta: Labor Leader (Page 134) • Sequence of Events • Details • Facts and Opinions • Drawing Conclusions • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing

generous (adj.) giving and helpful; referring to a large amount of something

History/Social Studies

316 Blackbeard: A Fierce Pirate (Page 136) • Drawing Conclusions • Main Topic • Details • True/False • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing

Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s (e.g., Blackbeard’s ship)

History/Social Studies

ransom (n.) the money paid to free someone or something held as a prisoner or hostage (v.)— to pay money to free someone or something held as a prisoner powerful (adj.) having a lot of strength or force
Adjective Suffix: -ful full of (e.g., joyful)

Homophones one, won; wood, would; sail, sale; four, for Synonyms huge, big; rope, hemp; afraid, fearful; wound, injury

hemp coast ransom pardoned arrest

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

317 Beware of Bears (Page 138) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Title Selection • Details • Cause and Effect • True/False • Drawing Conclusions

Science

Antonyms destroy, create; powerful, weak; dangerous, safe; careful, reckless Homophones bear, bare; here, hear; knight, night Homophones through, threw; steal, steel; two, to, too; no, know horn pitched type

fascinated essentials dense attempt

318 Sounds: Moving Waveforms (Page 140) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Details • Cause and Effect • Author’s Purpose • Drawing Conclusions • Details • Main Idea • Cause and Effect • Title Selection • Compare and Contrast

particles (n.) very small pieces of matter

ultrasounds vibrations particles motion

Science

319 Bones, Bones, Bones (Page 142) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance

protect (v.) to prevent someone or something from damage

Science

Antonyms strong, weak; baby, adult; alive, dead; begin, end; soft, hard

tissue cells organs

skeleton infant fusion healthy

320 Caves: Underground Rooms (Page 144) • Details • Facts and Opinions • Cause and Effect • Main Idea Homophones won, one; wear, where; see, sea Antonyms wide, narrow; small, large; quickly, slowly; warm, cold scrape narrow falls slip hollow humanity fossils glaciers • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing

form (v.) to make something start to exist
Antonyms melt, freeze; small, huge; empty, full; soft, hard

Level 3

Science

321 Glaciers: Rivers of Ice (Page 146) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Author’s Purpose • Main Topic • Cause and Effect • Details • Drawing Conclusions • Generalizing

Science

scrape (v.) to rub against a surface in a way that something is removed, damaged, or injured (n.)—a wound or injury caused by rubbing

322 The Giraffe: World’s Tallest Animal (Page 148) • Details • True/False • Author’s Purpose • Making Judgments • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating

Adjective Suffix: -ful full of (e.g., watchful)

Homophones heard, herd; flour, flower; sew, so, sow; pray, prey

Science

herd (n.) a group of animals that eats, sleeps, and moves together (v.)—to bring animals or people together in a group

predators hooves scientists mute prehensile Compound Words eyesight lookout

323 The Sioux: Buffalo Hunters (Page 150) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Main Idea • Main Topic • Details

hides (n.) animal skins that have been turned into leather

Noun Suffix: -er someone who (e.g., hunter)

Homophones whole, hole; won, one; hare, hair; maid, made

hide tan

History/Social Studies • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Identifying Genre • Title Selection • Main Idea • Facts and Opinions • Drawing Conclusions

324 Cesar Chavez: Champion of Migrant Farm Workers (Page 152)

migrant (n.) a person who moves to a different area or country, usually to find work

Noun Suffix: -er someone who (e.g., reader)

decent union strike pick

History/Social Studies

325 Scott Joplin: Father of Ragtime Music (Page 154) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

History/Social Studies

• Main Idea • Details • Main Topic • True/False • Making Judgments

composer (n.) someone who puts sounds, words, colors, or images together to form a work of art

Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s (e.g., Scott Joplin’s music) Adjective Prefix: unnot, or opposite of (e.g., unfriendly)

fiddle hard sheet

325

326

Passage

Comprehension Strategies

Comprehension Questions
• Main Topic • Cause and Effect • Details • Main Idea

Key Words for Understanding
generate (v.) to produce or create something
Adjective Suffix: -ful full of (e.g., hopeful) Antonyms hot, cold; helpful, harmful; cool, warm

Morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots)

Antonyms, Homophones, Synonyms

Multiple Meaning Words

Word Meanings Using Context Clues

401 Wind: Friend or Foe? (Page 158) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Teacher Guide •

Science

helpful harmful Compound Words windmills seawater sailboats sometimes

402 The Giant Panda: The World’s Best-Loved Animal (Page 160) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • True/False • Cause and Effect • Details • Drawing Conclusions

extinct (adj.) a type of plant or animal that has completely died out
Antonyms many, few; mountains, valleys; giant, dwarf; live, die; suddenly, slowly

watch study

bamboo extinct exist survive

Science • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing Root Word: sphere something in the shape of a ball (e.g., stratosphere) • Details • True/False • Title Selection

403 Blankets of Air Above Us (Page 162) Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belonging to (e.g., Ann’s ball)

atmosphere (n.) the mixture of gases that surround the earth

vapor ozone moisture altitude

Science

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

404 Super Waves (Page 164) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Main Idea • Main Topic • True/False • Cause and Effect • Facts and Opinions • Drawing Conclusions

Science

shoreline (n.) the place where land and water meet along an ocean, sea, or lake

Adverb Suffix: -ly how something is done (e.g., loudly)

Antonyms floor, ceiling; start, end; remove, add; big, small; strong, weak Homophones knot, not; piece, peace; seas, sees

Compound Word shoreline

405 Tigers: The Largest Cats (Page 166) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing • Author’s Viewpoint • True/False • Generalizing • Drawing Conclusions • Details • Compare and Contrast • Informational Resources • Author’s Purpose • Drawing Conclusions

endangered (adj.) something or someone in danger of being hurt or destroyed

Science

Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things, and means most (e.g., largest)

Homophones mail, male; pale, pail; there, their; weigh, way

rare left

endangered elk boar

406 The Great Wall of China: The Longest Graveyard (Page 168)

structure (n.) something that has been built

Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things, and means most (e.g., longest)

Synonyms whole, entire; extends, stretches; king, emperor; humans, people; base, bottom

base match

structure ancient complain tremendous

History/Social Studies

407 Water Bugs: Aquatic Insects (Page 170) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things, and means most (e.g., largest) Antonyms hot, cold; day, night; large, small craters atmosphere molten astronauts • Generalizing • Details • True/False • Main Topic • Compare and Contrast aquatic insects implies pests painful

aquatic (adj.) describes things that live or grow in water or involving water
Adjective Suffix: -ful full of (e.g., painful) Antonyms many, few; large, small; dark, light

Level 4

Science

408 The Moon: Is It Really Made of Green Cheese? (Page 172) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing Homophones holes, wholes; maid, made; know, no; brake, break; peace, piece Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things, and means most (e.g., smallest) Antonyms small, large; long, short Homophones week, weak; there, they’re, their Antonyms asleep, awake; day, night Homophones bear, bare; hare, hair; night, knight • Facts and Opinions • Details • Author’s Purpose • True/False • Drawing Conclusions

crater (n.) a bowl-shaped mark left when one object hits another

Science

409 Hummingbirds: Small and Fast (Page 174) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating • Author’s Purpose • True/False • Main Idea • Informational Resources • Details • Personal Response

hover nectar twigs

Science

hover (v.) to stay in one place while flying; to nervously stay in one place, often while waiting for something to happen

410 The Koala: Is It a Bear? (Page 176) • Details • Drawing Conclusions • Cause and Effect • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing

nocturnal (adj.) describing an animal that sleeps during the day and is active at night

Noun Suffix: -less without (e.g., hairless)

Science

Aboriginal marsupials exits nocturnal decrease

411 Bats: Flying Creatures of the Night (Page 178) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • True/False • Main Topic • Informational Resources • Generalizing • Details • Cause and Effect

collision (n.) an accident when two or more things crash into each other

Science

Noun Suffix: -ion, -tion, -ation an action, a state, or a result of doing something (e.g., imagination)

bat fly digits pitch

membrane echolocation supersonic

412 Hero Street U.S.A.: Home to U.S. Veterans (Page 180) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

History/Social Studies

• Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • Facts and Opinions • Details • Drawing Conclusions

monument (n.) structure or statue that honors an event or person

Verb Prefix: redo again (e.g., reread)

Antonyms small, large; short, long; west, east; separate, together

patriotic enlisted monument

413 Gabriela Mistral: Teacher and Nobel Prize-Winning Author (Page 182)

• Cause and Effect • Identifying Genre • Details • Compare and Contrast

pen name (n.) a name an author uses in place of his or her real name

Synonyms try chose, selected; teacher, instructor; afraid, scared; improve, enhance; try, attempt

poetry publish officials contest honor

327

History/Social Studies

328

Passage

Comprehension Strategies

Comprehension Questions
• Drawing Conclusions • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • Details • Generalizing

Key Words for Understanding
adaptable (adj.) able to change behavior to deal with new situations
Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things, and means most (e.g., fastest) muzzle adaptable grooming Homophones heard, herd; mail, male; there, their, they’re Synonyms resemble, match; environment, surroundings; intelligent, smart; primarily, mostly; travel, move living fly globalization

Morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots)

Antonyms, Homophones, Synonyms

Multiple Meaning Words

Word Meanings Using Context Clues

414 Baboons: The Biggest Monkeys (Page 184) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Analyzing

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Teacher Guide •

Science

415 Wilbur and Orville Wright: The Flying Brothers (Page 186) • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • Details • Sequence of Events • Drawing Conclusions • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Evaluating

data (n.) facts gathered during an experiment

History/Social Studies

Antonyms new, old; possible, impossible; short, long Synonyms places, locations; faraway, distant; invent, create; fascinated, interested; spare, extra Noun Suffixes: -ion, -tion, -ation an action, state, or result of doing something (e.g., prediction)

416 Hurricanes: Harmful Storms (Page 188) • Sequence of Events • Author’s Purpose • Details • Drawing Conclusions • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Evaluating

destructive (adj.) causing great damage or harm

moist destructive spiral predicted

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Science

417 Mexico: U.S. Neighbor (Page 190) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Sequence of Events • Identifying Genre • Informational Resources • Generalizing • Drawing Conclusions

History/Social Studies

climate (n.) the particular weather conditions of an area throughout the year

Antonyms larger, smaller; cold, hot Synonyms season, period; mild, gentle; rainy, wet; rule, control; country, nation Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things, and means most (e.g., biggest) consider

features climate Spanish century

418 The Five Oceans of the World (Page 192) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Facts and Opinions • Details • Author’s Purpose

extend (v.) to spread over an area or grow larger or longer; to reach out in time or space

continents equator surrounds coastline

Science

Synonyms separate, apart; quietest, calmest; consider, think; extends, stretches; called, named

419 The London Bridge: From England to Arizona (Page 194) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Evaluating

• Sequence of Events • Main Idea • Author’s Viewpoint • Cause and Effect • Drawing Conclusions

History/Social Studies

antique (n.) an object that is old and may have a special history (adj.)—describing something that is old and may have a special history

Verb Prefix: redo again (e.g., rebuild)

Antonyms antique, new; grow, shrink; narrow, wide; sink, rise; many, few Homophones by, bye, buy; sail, sale; knew, new; two, to, too

last fall rock

420 The Hopi: Native Americans of the Southwest (Page 196) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing • Author’s Purpose • Main Topic • Facts and Opinions • Generalizing • Drawing Conclusions Homophones meet, meat; ate, eight; there, their, they’re rocks squash plaster pueblos kernels pottery

traditional (adj.) following the same ways of living that have been done for a long time
Antonyms traditional, modern

Level 4

History/Social Studies

421 Crispus Attucks: African American Patriot (Page 198) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Informational Resources • Author’s Purpose • True/False • Main Idea • Cause and Effect • Title Selection Homophones sale, sail; dye, die

patriot (n.) a person who loves his or her country and is willing to defend it
Noun Suffix: -er someone who (e.g., player)

massacre lunged independence martyr Compound Words doormat sailboats snowballs

History/Social Studies

422 The Azores: Portuguese Islands (Page 200) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing • Sequence of Events • Facts and Opinions • Details • Generalizing • Drawing Conclusions

voyages (n.) long journeys made by ship or by spacecraft

Homophones sail, sale; meet, meat

crops bases left

History/Social Studies

voyages exploration occupied tourists extinct craters

423 Olympic Sports: An Ancient Beginning (Page 202) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing • Sequence of Events • Details • True/False • Generalizing • Compare and Contrast

ancient (adj.) very old, especially thousands of years old

Adverb Suffix: -ly how something is done (e.g., loudly)

stars matches

History/Social Studies

ancient honor sacrifices athletes festival

424 Native North Americans: The First Settlers (Page 204) • Main Topic • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • Author’s Viewpoint • Details • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing • Evaluating

treaties (n.) official written agreements made between nations

Antonyms save, lose; first, last; continue, quit; against, for; difficult, easy

reservations land lost

culture sacred treaties

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

History/Social Studies

425 Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse: The Battle of the Little Bighorn (Page 206)

• Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring

• Cause and Effect • Author’s Purpose • Facts and Opinions • Details • Title Selection

surrender (v.) to stop fighting and give in to an opponent or enemy

Noun Suffix: -ment show actions, the people who do them, or the results (e.g., enjoyment)

Homophones buy, by; cell, sell; led, lead; one, won

329

History/Social Studies

330

Passage

Comprehension Strategies

Comprehension Questions
protective (adj.) describes someone or something defending or keeping from harm
pit scales leaves Noun Suffixes: -ion, -tion, -ation a condition, action, or process of doing something (e.g., imagination) protects conditions anchor surface

Key Words for Understanding

Morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots)

Antonyms, Homophones, Synonyms

Multiple Meaning Words

Word Meanings Using Context Clues

501 All About Seeds (Page 210) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating • Details • Main Idea • Informational Resources • True/False • Personal Response

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Teacher Guide •

Science

502 Bones: Living Tissue (Page 212) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Analyzing • Details • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • True/False • Drawing Conclusions

tissue (n.) material that forms plant and animal cells
Antonyms largest, smallest; unimportant, important; infant, adult; outside, inside Synonyms makes, creates; sufficient, enough; realize, know; largest, biggest; health, wellness

tissue organs compact

Science

503 Roadrunners: Full Speed Ahead! (Page 214) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Analyzing • True/False • Author’s Purpose • Main Idea • Generalizing • Compare and Contrast • Drawing Conclusions

enable (v.) to make it possible for something to happen

Homophones tale, tail; pray, prey; four, for; one, won; too, to, two

cuckoo crowns bills lightning

distinct prey

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Science

504 Plants on the Defensive (Page 216) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Main Idea • Details • Author’s Purpose • Facts and Opinions • Title Selection • Compare and Contrast

defend (v.) to do something to protect someone or something from attack

Adjective Prefix: unnot or opposite of (e.g., unhappy)

Synonyms protect, defend; eating, grazing; smell, odor; keep, store

enemies weapons poisonous livestock

Science

505 Rome: A City Built on a Legend (Page 218) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Authors Purpose • Main Idea • Cause and Effect • Sequence of Events • Title Selection

inherit (v.) to receive something from someone after they have died

History/Social Studies

Antonyms false, true; good, evil; luckily, unfortunately; lost, found Homophones sale, sail; where, wear Synonyms true, factual; founded, started; named, called; luckily, fortunately; argued, disagreed

entertaining famous founders jealous eventually

506 Pandas: Not All Black and White (Page 220) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Analyzing • Drawing Conclusions • Author’s Purpose • True/False • Details • Compare and Contrast resembles bamboo dispositions

appearance (n.) the way someone or something looks to other people
Adjective Prefix: unnot or opposite of (e.g., unfriendly) Antonyms black, white; similarities, differences Homophones bear, bare; weigh, way; there, their spread present philosopher vegetarian slaughterhouse dynasty

Level 5

Science

507 Chopsticks: A Chinese Invention (Page 222) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Evaluating • Main Idea • Facts and Opinions • Author’s Purpose • Title Selection • Details • Personal Response

blunt (adj.) describes something rounded or flattened; not pointed or sharp
Homophones piece, peace; would, wood; maid, made Synonyms invented, created; chopped, cut; faster, quicker; inexpensive, cheap; little, small type called rocks

History/Social Studies

508 A Rock Is a Rock. Or Is It? (Page 224) • Details • True/False • Cause and Effect • Compare and Contrast • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing

determine (v.) to decide or figure out

molten minerals

Science

Antonyms different, same; beneath, above; harden, soften; older, younger; constantly, never Synonyms constantly, always; beneath, below; formed, created

509 Totem Poles: Silent Storytellers (Page 226) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating • Main Idea • Facts and Opinions • Details • Author’s Purpose • True/False • Personal Response

natural resources (n.) things in nature that are used by people

History/Social Studies

Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belonging to (e.g., Jim’s) Adjective Prefix: unnot or opposite of (e.g., unhappy)

Antonyms beautiful, ugly; huge, little; straight, zigzag; peace, war; sharp, dull Homophones piece, peace; bares, bears; tail, tale; two, too, to Adjective Suffix: -ful full of (e.g., hopeful) Antonyms larger, smaller; warmer, cooler; eastern, western shoots light asparagus preserved pickled

510 Bamboo: Useful Grass (Page 228) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing • Main Idea • Cause and Effect • Details • Identifying Genre • Drawing Conclusions • Author’s Purpose • Details • Main Idea • Facts and Opinions • Drawing Conclusions

Science

preserved (adj.) treated so that it will not decay (v.)—to treat something, usually food, so that it won’t decay expression (n.) the sharing of ideas and feelings through art, writing, and speaking

511 Paint: A Splash of Color (Page 230)

Adjective, Noun, or Verb Prefix: prebefore (e.g., prerecorded, pretest, precook)

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

History/Social Studies Science

Antonyms thick, thin; beginning, end; protect, harm; bottom, top; added, subtracted

decorative pigment container vehicle

512 Nessie: The Loch Ness Monster (Page 232)

History/Social Studies

• Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating

• Facts and Opinions • Author’s Purpose • Cause and Effect • Informational Resources • Making Judgments

evidence (n.) information or clues that prove that something is true or real

Noun Prefix: teleat or over a long distance (e.g., television)

Synonyms evidence, proof; nostrils, nose; equipment, tools; sighted, observed; gathered, collected

legend subject appeared team

331

332

Passage

Comprehension Strategies

Comprehension Questions
• Author’s Purpose • Main Idea • Details • Facts and Opinions • Personal Response

Key Words for Understanding
rely (v.) to count on someone or something for help or support
Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things, and means most (e.g., fastest) types suits Antonyms small, large; few, many; noisy, quiet Homophones to, two, too; there, their, they’re vivid cycle sculpt

Morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots)

Antonyms, Homophones, Synonyms

Multiple Meaning Words

Word Meanings Using Context Clues

513 Communities: Villages, Towns, and Cities (Page 234) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating • Cause and Effect • Main Idea • Drawing Conclusions • Title Selection

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Teacher Guide •

History/Social Studies

514 Glaciers: Nature’s Bulldozers (Page 236) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing • Main Idea • Drawing Conclusions • Author’s Purpose • Facts and Opinions

Science

nature (n.) all the animals, plants and other things in the world, such as the earth, rocks, and weather, that are not made or controlled by humans
Adjective Suffix: -ful full of (e.g., hopeful) Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belonging to (e.g., nature’s)

515 Break Dancing: High-Energy Moves (Page 238) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating

evolved (adj.) to have changed gradually over time

History/Social Studies

Homophones break, brake; beets, beats Synonyms create, make; combine, mix; select, choose; mock, pretend; tournament, contest

acrobatic pantomime evolved Compound Words sideways superstar freestyle backspins

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

516 Martin Luther King: A Man of Peace (Page 240) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Evaluating • Cause and Effect • Identifying Genre • Sequence of Events • Details • Personal Response

Adjective Prefix: unnot or opposite of (e.g., unfair)

faucets minister boycott

History/Social Studies

segregation (n.) the process of setting apart; also a system of keeping people of different races, genders, or religions apart in order to treat them differently majestic (adj.) very big, impressive, or beautiful

Antonyms different, same; many, few; violent, peaceful; give, take; unfair, fair Homophones writes, rights; knot, not; one, won; would, wood Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belonging to (e.g., eagle’s)

517 The Bald Eagle: America’s National Bird (Page 242) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Main Idea • Details • True/False • Title Selection

represent majestic streaked soars

History/Social Studies Science • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • Details • Facts and Opinions • Personal Response

Homophones high, hi; pear, pair; tale, tail Synonyms soars, flies; chosen, selected; powerful, strong; bald, hairless; story, tale

518 Are Giant Squids Really Giant? (Page 244) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating

tentacles (n.) arm-like limbs used by some sea animals to grab things

feet can

creatures portrayed tentacles

Science

Antonyms giant, small; visible, invisible; attack, defend; easy, difficult; hard, soft Homophones see, sea; eight, ate; site, sight

519 Bessie Coleman: First Female African American Aviator (Page 246) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing bears share-croppers stunt performer pioneering • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Evaluating • Sequence of Events • Details • Cause and Effect • Author’s Viewpoint • Identifying Genre • Drawing Conclusions

Level 5

History/Social Studies

sharecroppers (n.) farmers who raise crops on land owned by others and give the owners a share of the crops
Noun Suffix: -er someone who (e.g., player) Homophones tails, tales; would, wood; won, one; for, four

520 The Metric System: Counting by Ten (Page 248) pole units yard • Facts and Opinions • Details • Author’s Purpose • Main Idea • Drawing Conclusions • Compare and Contrast

exact (adj.) very accurate or correct
Noun Suffix: -ment the act of (e.g., argument)

exact equator container confusing

Science

521 Sacajawea: Native American Guide (Page 250) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Details • Sequence of Events • Main Idea • Drawing Conclusions

grateful (adj.) thankful toward some person or event

History/Social Studies

Antonyms cross sold, bought; right remembered, forgot; made west, east; peace, war; son, daughter Adjective Prefix: unnot or opposite of (e.g., unable) Antonyms less, more; indoor, outdoor; same, opposite; over, under

kidnap trapper pilot presence

522 Volleyball: Up and Over (Page 252) • Title Selection • True/False • Informational Resources • Cause and Effect • Details

opponent (n.) someone you play against in a game

History/Social Studies

opponents contact leather defending

523 September 16: Mexican Independence Day (Page 254) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Main Idea • Facts and Opinions • True/False • Details • Compare and Contrast

History/Social Studies • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Cause and Effect • Details • Identifying Genre • Main Idea • Drawing Conclusions

revolt (n.) a refusal to accept someone’s authority or obey rules or laws (v.)—refusing to obey authority, rules, or laws czar (n.) a male ruler of Russia before 1917; a powerful person

Synonyms battle, fight; executed, killed; captured, caught; celebration, party

top race ruled

celebrated caste famine revolt

524 Peter the Great: Russian Czar (Page 256)

backward introduced historians monuments

History/Social Studies

Antonyms strong, weak; cruel, kind Homophones reign, rain; won, one; serfs, surfs; new, knew Synonyms modeled, designed; cruel, mean; czars, kings; serfs, slaves; fascinated, interested

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

525 Chinese Railroad Workers: Men of Steel (Page 258) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Evaluating

History/Social Studies

• Details • Title Selection • Generalizing • Author’s Purpose • Making Judgments

extreme (adj.) very intense or unusual

Antonyms building refused, accepted; rose east, west; cold, heat white Homophone weather, whether Synonyms created, built; dangers, threats

suspended endure transcontinental

333

334

Passage

Comprehension Strategies

Comprehension Questions
• Details • Main Idea • Facts and Opinions • Author’s Purpose • Personal Response

Key Words for Understanding
conserve (v.) to protect or save
Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belonging to (e.g., Maria’s) Synonyms survive, live; precipitation, rain; conserve, save; quick, fast; limit, reduce save cycle mean

Morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots)

Antonyms, Homophones, Synonyms

Multiple Meaning Words

Word Meanings Using Context Clues

601 Water: What Would We Do Without It? (Page 262) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Evaluating

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Teacher Guide •

Science

602 Granite: It’s More Than Just a Rock (Page 264) • Details • Cause and Effect • Main Idea • Drawing Conclusions • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing

unique (adj.) very special or one of a kind
Antonyms colorful, colorless; hardened, softened; smooth, rough; perfect, flawed; unique, common Homophones whether, weather; piece, peace Noun Suffix: -ist someone who (e.g., a colonist) Adjective Prefix: unnot or opposite of (e.g., unhappy) Homophones write, right; there, their, they’re

rock grain

obtain unique polished erode

Science

603 The Road to Freedom: America’s Journey (Page 266) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Evaluating • Sequence of Events • Author’s Purpose • Cause and Effect • Facts and Opinions • Personal Response

permanent (adj.) lasting a long time; not changing

called permanent compact country

History/Social Studies

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

604 The Great Lakes: North America’s Freshwater Lakes (Page 268) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Author’s Purpose • True/False • Details • Main Idea • Drawing Conclusions

volume (n.) the total amount of something

Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things, and means most (e.g., largest)

Antonyms shallowest, deepest; southern, northern; hottest, coldest; winter, summer

drains products volume

Science

605 Organizing Our Planet (Page 270) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Drawing Conclusions • Details • Main Idea • Cause and Effect

Science

devised (adj.) to have thought of or created a new way of doing something

Antonyms failed, succeeded; different, similar; always, never; beginning, end; living, dead

group one

version structures devised scientist

606 Bats: Misunderstood Mammals (Page 272) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing

Science

• Facts and Opinions • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • Generalizing • Details

misconception (n.) a wrong or untrue idea that people believe because they do not understand the subject

Verb Prefix: misbad, wrong, or lack of (e.g., misunderstood) Noun Suffixes: -ion, -tion, -ation an action, a state, or a result of doing something (e.g., echolocation)

Antonyms blind, sighted; large, small; night, day; excellent, poor Synonyms assists, helps; nearly, almost

607 The Printing Press (Page 274) rare spent way • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing • Main Idea • True/False • Sequence of Events • Drawing Conclusions • Details

Level 6

History/Social Studies

parchment (n.) a kind of stiff, off-white paper; older parchment was made of animal skins
Adjective Suffix: -ful full of (e.g., meaningful) Homophones made, maid; peace, piece; would, wood Antonyms expensive, cheap; same, different Synonyms invented, created; entire, all; called, named Synonyms haul, pull; estimate, guess; abandoned, left; discovered, found; dangerous, unsafe

608 Klondike Gold Rush: A Tale of Two Trails (Page 276) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Evaluating • Main Idea • Identifying Genre • Details • Generalizing • Making Judgments

History/Social Studies

supplies (n.) things that are necessary for a particular purpose, such as equipment and/ or food
Adjective Prefix: unnot or opposite of (e.g., unfair)

Idioms all walks of life had a thirst for heart of gold backbreaking experience

609 Cells: Basic Units of Life (Page 278) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Facts and Opinions • Main Idea • Cause and Effect • Author’s Purpose • Drawing Conclusions • Compare and Contrast

specialize (v.) to focus your study or work on a particular subject or activity
Possessive Suffix (plural): -s’ belonging to (e.g., horses’ )

magnified cork complicated elongated

Science

Antonyms dangerous, safe; narrow, wide; elongated, shortened; expand, contract; alike, different

610 Salmon: Uphill Fighters (Page 280) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • True/False • Details • Drawing Conclusions • Generalizing • Facts and Opinions • Sequence of Events • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • Compare and Contrast

Science

instinct (n.) the natural tendency that a person or animal has to behave or react in a particular way

Adverb Suffix: -ly how something is done (e.g., loudly)

Synonyms called, named; journey, trip; purpose, reason; embark, begin; battle, fight

store fry trip back

611 The Constitution: America’s Most Important Document (Page 282)

delegates (n.) people elected or selected to represent others

Noun Suffixes: -ion, -tion, -ation, an action, a state, or a result of doing something (e.g., delegation)

Antonyms favor, oppose; detailed, vague; first, last; same, different; strong, weak

constitution convention compromise

History/Social Studies

612 Leonardo da Vinci (Page 284) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Facts and Opinions • Main Idea • Generalizing • True/False • Details

Noun Suffix: -ist someone who (e.g.,artist)

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

History/Social Studies

renaissance (n.) rebirth in French; a period in Europe from about 1300–1600 that featured exciting developments in art and science

Synonyms entire, whole; wealthy, rich; military, army; fascinated, interested; disciples, followers

famous mysterious disciples detailed talents Simile wings that flapped like a bird

613 All That Glitters Might Be Gold (Page 286)

prospectors (n.) people who search for gold, diamonds, and other valuable natural resources
• Main Idea • Sequence of Events • True/False • Cause and Effect • Details • Making Judgments

Possessive Suffix (plural): -s’ belonging to (e.g., prospectors’ )

History/Social Studies

• Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Evaluating

Antonyms valuable, cheap; war, peace; beautiful, ugly; heavy, light; sunk, floated; positive, negative; rich, poor

rushed quest civilizations Idiom wiped out

335

336

Passage

Comprehension Strategies

Comprehension Questions
• Facts and Opinions • Details • True/False • Main Idea • Cause and Effect Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belonging to (e.g., athlete’s)

Key Words for Understanding
absolute (adj.) complete or total
Adjective Suffix: -less without (e.g., cloudless) sanctuaries attributing personality

Morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots)

Antonyms, Homophones, Synonyms

Multiple Meaning Words

Word Meanings Using Context Clues

614 Zeus: Father of the Greek Gods (Page 288) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Teacher Guide •

History/Social Studies

Antonyms please, offend; punish, reward; different, same Synonyms highest, top; games, competitions; angry, mad

615 King Salmon and Friends (Page 290) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Details • True/False • Main Idea

plentiful (adj.) more than enough of

Compound Words freshwater upriver humpback

Science

Antonyms addition, subtraction; near, far; largest, smallest; completed, started; die, live Homophones weigh, way; for, four; red, read; mail, male; cell, sell Adjective, Noun, or Verb Prefix: transacross or beyond, or to move from one place to another (e.g., transmit) Antonyms visible, unclear; opposed, for; sending, receiving; separate, together; different, same record

616 Alexander Graham Bell: Telephone Inventor (Page 292) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Analyzing • Cause and Effect • Main Idea • True/False • Details • Drawing Conclusions

vibrations inventor exposition advocate

History/Social Studies • True/False • Author’s Purpose • Identifying Genre • Sequence of Events • Drawing Conclusions

transmit (v.) to communicate or send; to send messages or images using electronic signals, to pass disease from one person to the next dialects (n.) local styles of the same language

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

617 Estevanico and the Seven Cities of Gold (Page 294) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing

History/Social Studies

Synonyms harsh, difficult; survived, lived; helped, assisted; traveled, journeyed; tiers, levels Antonyms found, lost; survived, died Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belonging to (e.g., chef’s) Noun Suffix: -ist someone who (e.g., violinist) Antonyms hot, cold; closer, farther; higher, lower; strong, weak

rafts dialects expedition mythical Compound Words faraway shipwrecked inland southwest

618 The Thermometer: A Measure of Many Things (Page 296) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Details • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • Personal Response

rely (v.) to depend upon something or someone

Science • Author’s Purpose • Sequence of Events • Informational Resources • Details • Compare and Contrast

619 Rap Music: Its Historical Beat (Page 298) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Evaluating

lyrics (n.) words that are set to music

Adjective Suffix: -ful full of (e.g., hopeful)

roots rap fans

rituals critics lyrics

History/Social Studies

620 Balance of Power: Three Branches of Government (Page 300) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Analyzing • True/False • Details • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose article charge mean branches military veto treaties intention

intention (n.) a plan or desire to do something
Noun Suffix: -ment to show actions, the people who do them, or their results (e.g., argument)

Level 6

History/Social Studies • Facts and Opinions • Identifying Genre • Drawing Conclusions • Main Idea • Personal Response

621 Maria Tallchief: Prima Ballerina (Page 302) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Evaluating

History/Social Studies

accomplished (adj.) someone who is highly trained or very skilled at something
Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belonging to (e.g., Maria’s) Synonyms started, began; gifted, talented; little, small; roles, parts; prima, first

ballerina choreographer artistic version magical

622 Sequoya: Inventor of the Cherokee Alphabet (Page 304) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing • Details • Facts and Opinions • Main Idea • Drawing Conclusions • Cause and Effect

literate (adj.) having the ability to read and write

system realized syllables constitution

History/Social Studies

Synonyms apparent, obvious; create, make; laws, rules; published, printed; finished, completed Homophones write, right; wood, would; there, their; weigh, way Verb Prefix: rerepeat, do again (e.g., refillI ) Antonyms defeat, triumph; local, national; few, many general spite

623 Cinco de Mayo: A Celebration of Spirit (Page 306) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing • Details • Main Topic • Facts and Opinions • Generalizing • Cause and Effect • Facts and Opinions • Informational Resources • Main Topic • Details • Drawing Conclusions

History/Social Studies

overwhelming (adj.) referring to something that is to deal with or fight against

624 George Washington: America’s First President (Page 308) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing

elected (v.) chosen based on a vote

quarter

History/Social Studies

Adjective Prefix: unnot or opposite of (e.g., unfriendly) Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belonging to (e.g., general’s)

625 The Cherokee Nation (Page 310) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing

hardships (n.) big problems that make life very difficult
• Author’s Purpose • Details • Main Idea • Sequence of Events • Drawing Conclusions

bill reservations declared

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

History/Social Studies

Synonyms treaty, agreement; diseases, sicknesses; colonists, settlers; difficulties, hardships; survived, lived Homophones there, their, they’re; won, one

337

338

Passage

Comprehension Strategies

Comprehension Questions
distances (n.) lengths, or amounts of space, between one place and another
light feet fly Antonyms different, same; small, large; warm, cool; dry, wet; light, dark Homophones their, there; won, one; weigh, way; to, too, two

Key Words for Understanding

Morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots)

Antonyms, Homophones, Synonyms

Multiple Meaning Words

Word Meanings Using Context Clues

Assessment Level 1 Birds: Our Feathered Friends (Page A2) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Analyzing • Title Selection • Main Idea • True/False • Cause and Effect • Author’s Purpose • Compare and Contrast

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence Assessments Levels 1–6

Teacher Guide •

Science

Assessment Level 2 Fish Facts (Page A4) Possessive Suffix (singular): -’s belonging to (e.g., fish’s) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Details • Main Idea • Facts and Opinions • Drawing Conclusions • True/False • Cause and Effect Synonyms many, lots; fast, quick; large, huge; small, tiny Antonyms big, small; thin, fat

Science

organs (n.) parts of the body, like the heart and lungs, which are mostly located inside the body

fins gills propel steer

Assessment Level 3 Reptiles: Cold-Blooded Animals (Page A6) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing • Generalizing • Cause and Effect • Title Selection • True/False • Main Idea • Compare and Contrast

energy (n.) power needed to do things
Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things, and means most (e.g., longest)

Antonyms less, more; lived, died; cold, hot; dry, wet; protects, harms

mammals scaly shell included

Science

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence

Assessment Level 4 Marsupials (Page A8) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Analyzing • Author’s Purpose • Text Organization • Drawing Conclusions • Cause and Effect • Compare and Contrast • Drawing Conclusions

originated (v.) started, began, or arose

Adjective Prefix: unnot or opposite of (e.g., unmarked)

Homophones weigh, way; whole, hole; know, no

leaves pouches feet

Idiom playing possum

Science

Assessment Level 5 Insects (Page A10) • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Evaluating • Sequence of Events • Title Selection • Main Idea • True/False • Author’s Viewpoint • Drawing Conclusions

stage sections change

Science

molts (v.) sheds or casts off an animal’s exoskeleton, hair, or feathers (n.)—the act or process of an animal shedding or casting off its exoskeleton, hair, or feathers

Antonyms hard, soft; smallest, biggest Synonyms abdomen, stomach; section, part; discovered, found; several, a few; types, kinds

thorax larva pupa emerges

Assessment Level 6 Mammals: The Highest Animal Class (Page A12) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Analyzing

nourish (v.) to provide food and other essential nutrients to help something grow
• Generalizing • Author’s Purpose • Details • Drawing Conclusions • Main Idea • Compare and Contrast

Science

Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things, and means most (e.g., fastest)

Homophones their, there; hare, hair; four, for; meet, meat

fall remains class

Passage

Comprehension Strategies

Comprehension Questions
• Main Idea • Cause and Effect • Author’s Purpose • Author’s Viewpoint • Compare and Contrast

Key Words for Understanding
business (n.) the activity of making money by producing goods or services and selling them
hard can run Antonyms easy, hard; hot, cold; big, little; less, more; Homophones maid, made; their, there; plains, planes; new, knew

Morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots)

Antonyms, Homophones, Synonyms

Multiple Meaning Words

Word Meanings Using Context Clues

Bonus Passage 113B Black Gold: Can We Live Without It? (Page A14) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Inferring • Determining Importance

History/Social Studies

Bonus Passage 222B American Roads: A Rough Ride (Page A16) • Cause and Effect • Author’s Viewpoint • Author’s Purpose • Compare and Contrast • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Monitoring Comprehension • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Summarizing/Synthesizing • Analyzing • Facts and Opinions • Main Idea • Sequence of Events • Cause and Effect • Compare and Contrast

condition (n.) the state something is in; it usually refers to the physical state
Antonyms worse, better; safe, dangerous Homophones break, brake; their, there

jams shape poor

traffic pollution accidents highways

History/Social Studies

Bonus Passage 302B Wall Across the Yangtze: Three Gorges Dam (Page A18)

benefits (n.) advantages or improvements
Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things, and means most (e.g., largest)

reduces pollution habitats benefits

History/Social Studies

Antonyms build, destroy; many, few; killed, saved; safe, dangerous; reduce, expand Homophones there, their; weigh, way; would, wood; new, knew Synonyms harmful, dangerous

Bonus Passage 411B Vampire Bats: Bloodsucking Mammals (Page A20) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Analyzing • Main Idea • Cause and Effect • Details • Generalizing • Compare and Contrast

pierce (v.) make a small hole in something using a sharp point

vampire victims razor rabies clotting

Science

Adjective, Noun, or Verb Prefix: transacross or beyond; move from one place to another (e.g., transatlantic) Adjective Suffix: -est used to compare three or more people, places, or things, and means most (e.g., smallest)

Bonus Passage 512B Loch Ness Monster: Fact or Fiction? (Page A22) • Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Evaluating

• Author’s Viewpoint • Cause and Effect • Generalizing • Author’s Purpose • Making Judgments

myth (n.) an idea or a story that people believe that is not true

Vocabulary and Comprehension Scope and Sequence Bonus Passages Levels 1–6

History/Social Studies

Adjective Suffix: -ful full of (e.g., powerful) Noun Suffix: -ist someone who (e.g., tourist)

interest fresh water

hoax myth monster existence

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

Bonus Passage 610B Salmon: A Bleak Future? (Page A24)

• Cause and Effect • Generalizing • Main Idea • Author’s Purpose • Drawing Conclusions

Science

• Monitoring Comprehension • Activating Background Knowledge • Questioning • Visualizing • Inferring • Determining Importance • Analyzing • Evaluating

bleak (adj.) describing something that is without much hope; also means cold or uncomfortable

Noun Suffixes: -ion, -tion, -ation an action, a state, or a result of doing something (e.g., population)

current case

pollution toxic irrigation population

339

Appendix

Assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A2 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6

Birds: Our Feathered Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A2 Fish Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A4 Reptiles: Cold-Blooded Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6 Marsupials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A8 Insects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A10 Mammals: The Highest Animal Class . . . . . . . . . . . . A12

Bonus Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A14 113B 222B 302B 411B 512B 610B

Black Gold: Can We Live Without It? . . . . . . . . . . . . A14 American Roads: A Rough Ride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A16 Wall Across the Yangtze: Three Gorges Dam . . . . . . . . . A18 Vampire Bats: Bloodsucking Mammals . . . . . . . . . . . A20 Loch Ness Monster: Fact or Fiction? . . . . . . . . . . . . . A22 Salmon: A Bleak Future? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A24

Guide to Genres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A27 Common English Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots . . . . . A28 Hasbrouk-Tindal Table of Oral Reading Fluency Norms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A30 San Diego Quick Assessment of Reading Ability . . . . A31 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A35 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A38

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A1

Assessment Level 1

Assessment Level 1

Birds: Our Feathered Friends
Comprehension
In answering these questions, students use the following strategies: monitoring comprehension, activating background knowledge, questioning, visualizing, inferring, analyzing.
1 Title Selection
■■■ Read

Birds: Our Feathered Friends 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 There are thousands of different birds. Birds have two legs and two wings. Some birds are very small. Others are large. Birds are the only animals that have feathers. Feathers can be any color. They keep birds warm and dry. Flight feathers are very smooth. Most birds can fly . Birds can fly because they have very light bones. Their strong muscles move the wings. The tail helps the bird to steer in the sky. Different birds have different shaped wings. This is because birds live in different places. Most birds live in trees. Other birds live high in the hills. Some live on the ground. Some birds fly long distances . They live one place in the summer. They live someplace else in the winter. Some birds cannot fly. They are too big. The biggest bird is an ostrich. It can grow to be 8 feet tall and can weigh 300 pounds. An ostrich has strong legs. It can run very fast. Some birds are good swimmers. Penguins are birds that can swim. They can swim very fast. They use their wings to swim.

the passage. ■■■ Ask, “What is this passage mostly about?” ■■■ Eliminate the answer choices that are too broad, covering more information than is in the passage, or too narrow, covering only a small part of what is in the passage. ■■■ Select the answer that would be another good title for this passage.
2 Main Idea
■■■ Read

the third paragraph. Pay special attention to the first sentence of the paragraph, called the topic sentence. It often has useful clues about the main idea of the paragraph. ■■■ Say the following phrase before each possible answer: “This passage is mostly about ___.” ■■■ Select the answer that makes the most sense.
3 True/False
■■■ Read
e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 1

451

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

the instructions carefully, paying attention to the words not true. ■■■ Read each sentence. All information in the sentence must be true for the sentence to be true. ■■■ Refer to the passage, as needed. Eliminate the answer choices that are true. ■■■ Select the sentence that is false.
4 Cause and Effect
■■■ Read

Assessment Level 1

Birds: Our Feathered Friends

Comprehension
1

Another good title for this passage would be A “Birds, Snakes, and Dogs.” B “All About Birds.” C “Feathers.” D “Ostriches and Penguins.”

2

The third paragraph is mostly about A feathers. B how birds fly. C where birds live. D birds that cannot fly.

the sentence stem. ■■■ Consider what the ostrich’s legs allow it to do. ■■■ Select the answer that correctly completes the sentence. ■■■ Refer to the passage for more information, as needed.
5 Author’s Purpose
■■■ Reread

3

Select the sentence that is not true. A Some birds are very small. B Birds are the only animals with feathers. C All birds can fly. D Most birds live in trees.

the passage. ■■■ Ask, “Is the author telling me facts, trying to convince me to do something, or trying to entertain me?” ■■■ Select the answer that best describes what the author is trying to do.
6 Compare and Contrast
■■■ Read

4

Because the ostrich has strong legs, it can A swim well. B fly far. C run fast. D jump high.

the instructions, paying attention to the words alike and different. ■■■ Visualize a penguin and an ostrich. ■■■ Ask, “How are they alike? How are they different?” ■■■ Use two or three facts from the passage in your answer. ■■■ Answer in complete sentences. QAR Key
A2
Right There Think & Search Author & Me On My Own

5

The author probably wrote this passage to A share information about birds. B sell bird cages. C get people to buy a book about birds. D tell funny stories about birds.

6

How are penguins and ostriches alike? How are they different? Answer using complete sentences. (Answers will vary.)
Both penguins and ostriches are birds that can’t fly. Ostriches are very big and can run fast. Penguins are smaller and are good swimmers.

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 1

452

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Assessment Level 1

Assessment Level 1

Birds: Our Feathered Friends

Birds: Our Feathered Friends
Vocabulary

Vocabulary
7

Select the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence. a. Because birds have very light bones, they can fly through the air. A not heavy B something bright in color b. An ostrich can grow to be 8 feet tall. A body parts used for walking. B units used for measuring length c. Most birds can fly in the sky. A an insect with two wings B to move through the air

The word is distances Distances are lengths, or amounts of space, between one place and another. Some birds are famous for the great distances they can fly. Marathon runners run long distances without stopping. If what I say is an example of distances, say “distances.” If not, say, “no.” Early explorers traveled across oceans, deserts, and mountains to discover the world. The referee kept track of the time left in the game.

8

Circle the homophone that correctly completes each sentence. Write the word on the line. a. Birds use b. Some birds live in c. An ostrich can d. All birds have
their one weigh two

strong wings to fly.

(their, there) (won, one) (weigh, way)

place all year. up to 300 pounds. wings.

(to, too, two)

9

Read each word in the left column. Find its antonym in the right column. Write the capital letter on the line beside the word.
B C D E A

a. different b. small c. warm d. dry e. light

A dark B same C large D cool E wet

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 1

453

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

7

Multiple Meaning Words
■■■ Multiple

9

Antonyms
■■■ Antonyms ■■■ Read

meaning words are words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. ■■■ Identify the multiple meaning word in each sentence. ■■■ Look for context clues that help determine which meaning of the word makes sense in the sentence. ■■■ Check the answer by replacing the underlined word with the definition to see if it makes sense in the sentence.
8 Homophones
■■■ Homophones

are words that have opposite meanings. the first word in the left column. ■■■ Visualize the word’s meaning. ■■■ Read the words in the right column. Select the word that means the opposite of the word in the left column. ■■■ Repeat the process with the rest of the words in the left column.

are words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings. They are usually spelled differently. ■■■ Read each sentence. ■■■ Pay attention to the spelling of each word. ■■■ Visualize what each homophone means. ■■■ Select the word that fits with the context of the sentence.

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A3

Assessment Level 2

Assessment Level 2

Fish Facts
Comprehension
In answering these questions, students use the following strategies: monitoring comprehension, activating background knowledge, questioning, visualizing, inferring.
1 Details
■■■ Read

Fish Facts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 There are many kinds of fish. They come in many colors, shapes, and sizes. Some fish are as small as tadpoles. Others are larger than crocodiles. Some fish are thin, while others are fat. All fish have three important things in common. They all live in water. All fish have fins to control the direction of their movement. They all use gills to get oxygen from the water. Some fish live in the ocean. They are saltwater fish. Other fish live in rivers and lakes. These fish are freshwater fish. Fish are good swimmers. They propel themselves through the water by moving their tails from side to side. Fish use their fins to steer . Some fish have only one fin. But most fish have more than one fin. Gills are water-breathing organs . They are located in the fish’s mouth. The fish takes in water through its mouth. The water goes through gill slits. These help the fish to get oxygen from the water as it passes through.

the question, paying attention to the question words what is the same. ■■■ Read the answer choices. ■■■ Reread the passage to find the correct answer.
2 Main Idea
■■■ Read

the last paragraph. Pay special attention to the first sentence of the paragraph, called the topic sentence. It often has useful clues about the main idea of the paragraph. ■■■ Say the following phrase before each possible answer: “This paragraph is mostly about ____.” ■■■ Select the answer that makes the most sense.
3 Facts and Opinions
■■■ A

fact is information that can be proven to be true. opinion is a feeling, personal view, or belief. Words that make judgments often indicate a sentence is an opinion. ■■■ Read each sentence and decide whether it is a fact or an opinion.
■■■ An

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 2

454

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Assessment Level 2

Fish Facts

Comprehension
1

4

Drawing Conclusions
■■■ Read

What is the same about all fish? A All fish have gills, fins, and live in water. B All fish have gills, fins, and can live on land or in water. C All fish start out as tadpoles. D All fish live in salt water.

the question. ■■■ Pay attention to the word conclude. ■■■ In order to draw a conclusion, you have to put together information you have read with what you already know. The information isn’t always directly stated in the text. ■■■ Select the answer choice that draws the most appropriate conclusion.
5 True/False
■■■ Read

2

The last paragraph is about A where fish live. B why fish are good swimmers. C how fish use their gills to breathe oxygen. D why some fish live in freshwater.

3

Decide whether each sentence is a fact or an opinion. Fill in the correct bubble. Fact Opinion a. All fish are beautiful. b. Fish come in different sizes and colors. c. Fish use their fins to control their direction in the water. d. Fish are fun to watch. e. Fish use gills to get oxygen from water.

the instructions carefully, paying attention the words not true. ■■■ Read each sentence. All information in the sentence must be true for the sentence to be true. ■■■ Refer to the passage, as needed. Eliminate the answer choices that are true. ■■■ Select the answer choice that is false.
6 Cause and Effect
■■■ Read

4

What could readers conclude after reading the passage? A There is a lot to learn about fish. B Many people like to catch fish. C Some people like to eat fish. D There are only a few kinds of fish.

the question. ■■■ Consider what a fish uses to swim. ■■■ Refer back to the passage, as needed. ■■■ Use information from the passage in the answer. ■■■ Answer in complete sentences. QAR Key
A4
Right There Think & Search Author & Me On My Own

5

Select the sentence that is not true. A All fish have fins and gills. B Fish are good swimmers. C Fish use their gills to get oxygen from the water. D Freshwater fish live in the ocean.

6

What causes a fish to move through the water? (Answers will vary.)
Fish move through water by moving their tails from side to side. They use their fins to steer.

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 2

455

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Assessment Level 2

Assessment Level 2

Fish Facts

Fish Facts
Vocabulary

Vocabulary
7

Write the word from the passage that matches each definition. a. body parts fish use to swim b. body parts that fish use to breathe c. move or push something
propel steer fins gills

(Line 5) (Line 6) (Line 9) (Line 10)

d. control the direction of something
8

Read each word in the left column. Find its synonym in the right column. Write the capital letter on the line beside the word.
B C D A

The word is organs Organs are parts of the body, like the heart and lungs. They are mostly located inside the body. In science class, we looked at the hearts of frogs and other organs. The kidneys are very important organs in the body.
10

a. many b. fast c. large d. small

A tiny B lots C quick D huge

9

Create the singular possessive form of each word in parentheses. Write the new word in the blank. a. A b. A c. A
fish’s crocodile’s frog’s

tail moves it through the water. mouth is full of very large teeth.

(fish) (crocodile)

babies are called tadpoles. (frog)

If what I say is an example of organs, say “organs.” If not, say “no.” I wear athletic shoes to protect my feet when I am running. I felt my heart pumping and my lungs expanding as I hiked up the steep hill.

Circle the pair of antonyms in each sentence. Write the antonyms on the lines below the sentence. a. Some fish are big, and other fish are small.
big

and

small

b. Some fish are thin, while others are fat.
thin

and

fat

c. Saltwater fish live in the ocean, while freshwater fish live in rivers and lakes.
saltwater

and

freshwater

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 2

456

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

7

Definitions: Context Clues
■■■ Read

9

Possessive Suffix: -’s
■■■ Adding

each definition. Pay attention to words or context clues that give hints about the word that best matches the definition. ■■■ Use the line number to help you locate the word in the passage. ■■■ Note that the part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, or adverb) of the target word in the definition will often match the part of speech of the correct answer. For example, move through the air: fly.
8 Synonyms
■■■ Synonyms

the suffix -’s to a noun shows singular possession and means belonging to. For example, Kim’s bicycle means the bicycle belongs to Kim. ■■■ Identify the noun in parentheses that will take the possessive form. ■■■ Write the singular possessive form of the noun in the blank. ■■■ Read the completed sentence aloud to be sure it makes sense.
10 Antonyms
■■■ Antonyms ■■■ Read

are words that have similar meanings. ■■■ Read the first word in the left column. ■■■ Visualize the word’s meaning. ■■■ Read the words in the right column. Select the word that has the most similar meaning. ■■■ Repeat the process with the rest of the words in the left column.

are words that have opposite meanings. the sentence. Circle the two words that mean the opposite of each other. ■■■ Write each antonym on an answer line.

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A5

Assessment Level 3

Assessment Level 3

Reptiles: Cold-Blooded Animals
Comprehension
In answering these questions, students use the following strategies: monitoring comprehension, questioning, visualizing, inferring, determining importance, summarizing/synthesizing, analyzing.
1 Generalizing
■■■ Generalizations

Reptiles: Cold-Blooded Animals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Reptiles have lived on Earth for a long time. They have been here for more than 300 million years. Reptiles are animals. They are coldblooded. This means that their body temperature changes. When it is cold outside, reptiles are cold. When it is hot outside, reptiles are hot. Reptiles eat 30 to 50 times less food than mammals . This is because they do not have to burn fuel for energy . Reptiles have dry, scaly skin. Their skin protects them from drying out. There are many kinds of reptiles. More than 8,000 types of reptiles live on Earth. Reptiles live all over the world. Some reptiles live on land. Others live in the water. Living reptiles fall into four classes. Turtles are one class of reptiles. They are reptiles with a shell . Turtles are the oldest living reptile group. Crocodiles are another class of reptiles. Alligators are included in this group. Lizards are a type of reptile. Snakes are reptiles, too.

are broad statements about something. They may not be true in every case, but they are true most of the time. A specific fact or detail is not a generalization. ■■■ Look for words like most, often, and all. These words often indicate a sentence is a generalization. ■■■ Read the answer choices. ■■■ Ask, “Is this a simple fact, or is it a generalization?” ■■■ Select the answer that offers a generalization about reptiles.
2 Cause and Effect
■■■ Read ■■■ Ask,

the answer choices. “What heats up cold-blooded animals?” ■■■ Refer to the passage for more information, as needed.
3 Title Selection
■■■ Reread
e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 3

457

the title. Visualize what you would expect in a passage with this title. ■■■ Read the answer choices and eliminate those that are clearly incorrect. ■■■ Select the answer that best summarizes how the title helps the reader know what the passage is about.
4 True/False
■■■ Read

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Assessment Level 3

Reptiles: Cold-Blooded Animals

Comprehension
1

Based on the passage, what generalization can be made about reptiles? A Reptiles belong to four classes and they are all cold-blooded. B Some reptiles live in water. C Scales protect reptiles from the sun. D Lizards are a kind of reptile.

the instructions, paying attention to the word except. This means to look for the exception—the sentence that is not true. ■■■ Read each sentence. Eliminate the answer choices that are true. ■■■ Select the answer choice that is false.
5 Main Idea
■■■ Read

2

What causes reptiles to get hot? A They eat a lot and the food keeps them warm. B They have lived on the earth for a long time. C Warm temperatures around them make them warm, too. D Their thick scales make them hot.

3

How does the title help the reader know what the passage is about? A It makes the reader guess the main topic. B It tells the reader the main topic will be reptiles and that they are cold-blooded. C It describes how reptiles and mammals are different. D It lets readers know that reptiles have been around for a long time.

the second paragraph. ■■■ Say the following phrase before each possible answer: “This paragraph is mostly about ____.” ■■■ Select the answer that makes the most sense.
6 Compare and Contrast

4

All of these sentences about reptiles are true, except: A Reptiles have lived on Earth for more than 300 million years. B When temperatures are high, cold-blooded animals are hot. C There are more than 8,000 different kinds of reptiles. D Turtles are not a kind of reptile.

the question. ■■■ Think about how turtles and snakes are similar. ■■■ Refer to the passage for more information, as needed. ■■■ Answer in a complete sentence.

■■■ Read

5

The second paragraph mainly tells A how crocodiles and alligators are in the same class of reptiles. B where reptiles can be found. C how the 8,000 different types of reptiles are grouped into four classes. D how long reptiles have lived on Earth.

6

According to this passage, how are turtles and snakes alike? (Answers will vary.)
Turtles and snakes are alike because they are both reptiles.

QAR Key
A6

Right There

Think & Search

Author & Me

On My Own

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 3

458

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Assessment Level 3

Assessment Level 3

Reptiles: Cold-Blooded Animals

Reptiles: Cold-Blooded Animals
Vocabulary

Vocabulary
7

Write the word from the passage that matches each definition. a. animals that have hair or fur
mammals

(Line 5)
scaly

b. describing plates of skin that are dry and rough c. a hard outer covering on a turtle d. contained, to have been part of a group
8

(Line 6)

shell included

(Line 11) (Line 13)

Circle the word in each row that does not belong. a. mammals Earth turtles years millions planet crocodiles months thousands world fish days hundreds class lizards temperatures

The word is energy Energy is power needed to do things. Food provides animals with energy to live and grow. We use oil, gas, wind, and the sun to produce energy for our daily lives. Sometimes I run out of energy if I don’t eat breakfast. Most cars get their energy from gasoline. If what I say is an example of energy, say “energy.” If not, say “no.” When the wind died, the kite tumbled from the air. Mr. Jones filled up his car with gas so he could go on vacation.

b. c. d.
9

Add the suffix -est to each word. Use the new word to complete the sentence. a. old est b. long est c. cold est Spot is the Sarah has the The gym is the
oldest longest coldest

of our three dogs. hair in our class. room in the school.

10

Read each word in the left column. Find its antonym in the right column. Write the capital letter on the line beside the word.
C D E B A

a. less b. lived c. cold d. dry e. protects

A harms B wet C more D died E hot

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 3

459

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

7

Definitions: Context Clues
■■■ Read

9

Adjective Suffix: -est
■■■ When

each definition. Pay attention to words or context clues that give hints about the word that best matches the definition. ■■■ Use the line number to help you locate the word in the passage. ■■■ Note that the part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, or adverb) of the target word in the definition will often match the part of speech of the correct answer. For example, power to be active or to do work: energy.
8 Categories and Classification
■■■ Read

the suffix -est is added to an adjective, it is used to compare three or more people, places, or things. It means most. For example, if no one can run as fast as Tamara, then Tamara is the fastest runner. ■■■ Add the suffix to each word. ■■■ Use the new word to complete the sentence.
10 Antonyms
■■■ Antonyms ■■■ Read

across each row of words. what each word means. ■■■ Identify the word that is least similar in terms of meaning to the other words and circle it. ■■■ Check the answer by identifying the category for the remaining words.
■■■ Visualize

are words that have opposite meanings. the first word in the left column. ■■■ Visualize the word’s meaning. ■■■ Read the words in the right column. Select the word that means the opposite of the word in the left column. ■■■ Repeat the process with the rest of the words in the left column.

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A7

Assessment Level 4

Assessment Level 4

Marsupials
Comprehension
In answering these questions, students use the following strategies: monitoring comprehension, questioning, visualizing, inferring, determining importance, analyzing.
1 Author’s Purpose
■■■ Read

Marsupials 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 A marsupial is a type of mammal. Unlike other mammals, marsupials have pouches. They carry their babies in their pouches . Most of the marsupials in the world live in Australia. Kangaroos are marsupials. They have strong back legs and can jump long distances. Kangaroos have strong tails. Their tail is used for balance. The red kangaroo can grow to be about seven feet tall. They can weigh more than 200 pounds. They move fast. Sometimes, they travel at 40 miles per hour. Another Australian marsupial is the koala. Koalas live in trees. They have thick, gray fur, a black nose, and no tail. Koalas look very cuddly. They only eat leaves from a gum tree. The leaves are juicy. Koalas do not drink water. Wombats are also marsupials. They are Australian rodents. Wombats live in holes in the ground. They sleep during the day and come out at night. Wombats’ diet consists of grass and plant roots. Opossums are the only marsupials that live outside Australia. Opossums look like large rats. They have long faces and tails. Opossums eat eggs, fruit, insects, and small animals. When they are scared, they fall to the ground and pretend to be dead. This is how the term “playing possum” originated .

the passage. ■■■ Ask, “Is the author telling me facts, trying to convince me of something, or trying to entertain me?” ■■■ Read the answer choices and eliminate the choices that are clearly incorrect. ■■■ Select the correct answer.
2 Text Organization
■■■ Read

the question, paying attention to the words how and organized. ■■■ Compare the passage to the types of organization listed in the answer choices. ■■■ Select the answer that best describes how the passage is organized.
3 Drawing Conclusions
■■■ Read ■■■ Pay

the question and the answer choices. attention to the word conclusion. ■■■ In order to draw a conclusion, you have to put together information you have read with what you already know. The information isn’t always directly stated in the text. ■■■ Select the answer choice that draws the most appropriate conclusion about opossums.
4 Cause and Effect
■■■ Read

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 4

460

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Assessment Level 4

Marsupials

Comprehension
1

Why did the author most likely write this passage? A to tell amusing tales about marsupials B to convince people that they shouldn’t be scared of marsupials C to encourage people to go see marsupials at the zoo D to share information about marsupials

the answer choices. what feature allows kangaroos to escape. ■■■ Refer to the passage for more information, as needed.
■■■ Consider

2

How is this passage organized? A It gives a cause and then describes an effect. B It states main ideas followed by supporting details. C It shares different people’s opinions. D It offers a series of steps in a process.

5

Compare and Contrast
■■■ Read

the question. a kangaroo and a koala. ■■■ Ask, “How are they similar?” ■■■ Read the answer choices. ■■■ Refer back to the passage, as needed.
■■■ Visualize

3

Based on the passage, one conclusion readers could make about opossums would be: A People can be fooled into thinking an opossum is dead. B Opossums look like large bears. C Some opossums live in trees and do not drink water. D Opossums can grow to be as large as kangaroos.

4

What gives kangaroos the ability to escape trouble? A They are very big and scary. B They have powerful legs that allow them to jump far. C They don’t need to drink water. D They can climb trees quickly.

6

Drawing Conclusions
■■■ Read

the question, paying attention to the question words what would you expect. ■■■ Use a fact from the passage to support the answer. ■■■ Answer in a complete sentence.

5

How are kangaroos and koalas alike? A They both live in trees. B They both can jump long distances. C They both carry their babies in their pouches. D Neither one drinks water.

6

If you scared an opossum, what would you expect it to do? (Answers will vary.)
I would expect the opossum to fall over and play dead.

QAR Key
A8

Right There

Think & Search

Author & Me

On My Own

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 4

461

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Assessment Level 4

Assessment Level 4

Marsupials

Marsupials
Vocabulary

Vocabulary
7

Select the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence. a. Koalas only eat leaves from a gum tree. A parts of a plant
B goes away

b. Marsupials carry their babies in their pouches. A a small bag used for carrying things B a pocket of skin on the belly of certain animals c. A red kangaroo can grow to be about seven feet tall. A a unit for measuring length B body parts used for standing and walking

The word is originated. Say the word. Originated means started, began, or arose. The company originated in Texas but now has offices in other states. Potatoes originated in South America but today people grow them almost everywhere. If what I say is an example of originated, say “originated.” If not, say “no.” The game of basketball began in the United States. I began to write my research paper last night.

8

Circle the homophone that correctly completes each sentence. Write the word on the line. a. A red kangaroo can
weigh

more than two hundred pounds. (weigh, way)
hole no

b. A wombat lives in an underground c. Koalas have gray fur, a black nose, and
9

. (whole, hole) tail. (know, no)

Complete each sentence using a word with the prefix un-. a. Something that is not marked is b. Something that is not tied is c. Something that is not true is
unmarked untied untrue

. . .

10

Find the idiom in the passage that means “pretending to be dead or asleep.” Write the idiom on the answer line.
playing possum

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 4

462

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

7

Multiple Meaning Words
■■■ Multiple

10

Idioms
■■■ An

meaning words are words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. ■■■ Identify the multiple meaning word in each sentence. ■■■ Look for context clues that help determine which meaning of the word makes sense in the sentence. ■■■ Check the answer by replacing the underlined word with the definition to see if it makes sense in the sentence.
8 Homophones
■■■ Homophones

idiom is a common expression that cannot be understood by the literal meaning of the separate words. It has a special meaning that can only be understood as an entire phrase. For example, the idiom a piece of cake refers to something that is easy to do. ■■■ Find the idiom in the passage. ■■■ Write the idiom on the answer line.

are words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings. They are usually spelled differently. ■■■ Read each sentence. ■■■ Pay attention to the spelling of each word. ■■■ Visualize what each homophone means. ■■■ Select the word that fits with the context of the sentence.
9 Adjective Prefix: un-

prefix un- means not or opposite of. For example, if a dog is not friendly, then it is unfriendly. ■■■ Read each sentence stem. ■■■ Complete each sentence using a word with the prefix un-.

■■■ The

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A9

Assessment Level 5

Assessment Level 5

Insects
Comprehension
In answering these questions, students use the following strategies: monitoring comprehension, questioning, visualizing, inferring, determining importance, summarizing/synthesizing, evaluating.
1 Sequence of Events
■■■ Review

Insects 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Insects belong to a huge group of animals. This group is called arthropods. All arthropods have a hard outer coat called an exoskeleton. This exoskeleton protects the soft insides of an arthropod’s body. An adult insect’s body is divided into three sections : a head, a thorax , and an abdomen. The insect’s head contains mouthparts, eyes, and antennae. The thorax is the middle part of an insect’s body. Three pairs of jointed legs are found on the thorax. Insects have six legs. Two pairs of wings are also attached to the thorax. The abdomen is the bottom part of an insect. It is the biggest part of the body. Most insects undergo a change . This change is called a metamorphosis. The metamorphosis has four stages : egg, larva , pupa , and adult. Most insects lay eggs. Each egg then turns into a larva. After several molts , the larva enters the pupa stage. During this stage, it does not eat or move. When the pupa stage ends, the adult insect emerges . There are thousands of insects in the world. More than 900,000 kinds have been found. That is more than three times as many other animal types put together. Many more new insects are discovered every year.

the passage. ■■■ Ask, “Which stage of metamorphosis happens first?” ■■■ Ask, “Which stage happens next?” ■■■ Number the stages from first to last. ■■■ Refer to the passage for more information, as needed.
2 Title Selection
■■■ Reread ■■■ Ask,

the passage. “What is this passage mostly about?” ■■■ Eliminate the answer choices that are too broad, covering more information than is in the passage, or too narrow, covering only a small part of what is in the passage. ■■■ Select the answer that would be another good title for the passage.
3 Main Idea
■■■ Read
e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 5

463

the second paragraph. ■■■ Say the following phrase before each possible answer: “This paragraph is mostly about ____.” ■■■ Select the answer that makes the most sense.
4 True/False
■■■ Read

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Assessment Level 5

Insects

Comprehension
1

List the stages of insect metamorphosis in the correct order from “1” to “5.”
4 1 3 5 2

a. b. c. d. e.

The larva enters the pupa stage. An insect lays its eggs. Each larva has several molts. An adult insect emerges. Eggs turn into larva.

the instructions carefully, paying attention to the word except. This means to look for the exception—the sentence that is not true. ■■■ Read each sentence. All information in the sentence must be true for the sentence to be true. ■■■ Select the answer choice that is false.
5 Author’s Viewpoint
■■■ Think

2

Another good title for this passage would be A “Insects and Metamorphosis.” B “Insects and Animals.” C “The World of Insects.” D “Exoskeletons and Arthropods.”

about the author’s tone and the information in the passage. ■■■ Read the answer choices. ■■■ Ask, “Does the author sound positive, neutral, or negative about the subject?” ■■■ Select the answer choice that the author would likely disagree with.
6 Drawing Conclusions
■■■ Read

3

The second paragraph mainly tells about the A different body parts of insects. B change called metamorphosis. C numbers of different insects in the world. D discovery of new insects.

4

According to the passage, all of these sentences are true, except: A Arthropod is another name for insect. B The bottom section of an insect is called the abdomen. C During the pupa stage, the insect will eat five times its weight. D There are more than 900,000 different kinds of insects.

the question, paying attention to the question word why. ■■■ Use a fact from the passage to support the answer. ■■■ Answer in complete sentences. QAR Key
A10
Right There Think & Search Author & Me On My Own

5

Which sentence would the author probably disagree with? A Metamorphosis is an amazing process of change. B Arthropods are very interesting creatures. C Insects are creepy and not worth studying. D Arthropods are the largest animal group in the world.

6

Why do you think scientists continue to discover new kinds of insects every year? (Answers will vary.) Many insects are small and live in hard-to-find places. There are so
many kinds of insects that there must always be new types to find.

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 5

464

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Assessment Level 5

Assessment Level 5

Insects

Insects
Vocabulary

Vocabulary
7

Write the word from the passage that matches each definition. a. the middle part of an insect’s body
thorax

(Line 5)
larva

b. a stage when young insects have a soft tube-shaped body c. a stage when a larva sheds its outer skin d. appears after being hidden
8

(Line 11)

pupa

(Line 11)

emerges

(Line 14)

Circle the pair of antonyms in each sentence. Write the antonyms on the lines below the sentence. a. The hard exoskeleton protects the soft insides of an arthropod’s body.
hard

The word is molts Molts is what an animal does when it sheds or casts off the exoskeleton, hair, or feathers. A molt is the act or process of an animal molting. My pet snake molts its skin about twice a year. A chicken’s molt usually happens after they stop laying their eggs. If what I say is an example of molts, say “molts.” If not, say “no.” The grasshopper grows larger after shedding its shell. The team members changed into their uniforms for the game.
10

and

soft

b. The smallest part of an insect is usually the head, while the abdomen is the biggest section.
smallest

and

biggest

9

Read each word in the left column. Find its synonym in the right column. Write the capital letter on the line beside the word.
C D B E A

a. abdomen b. section c. discovered d. several e. types

A kinds B found C stomach D part E a few

Select the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence. a. After the larva molts, the insect will enter the pupa stage. A a period or phase in a process B a raised platform in a theater b. There are three sections of an insect’s body. A parts of an object B different seating areas in a stadium c. Most insects undergo a change called metamorphosis. A coins B the process of becoming something different
e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 5

465

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

7

Definitions: Context Clues
■■■ Read

10

Multiple Meaning Words
■■■ Multiple

each definition. Pay attention to words or context clues that give hints about the word that best matches the definition. ■■■ Use the line number to help you locate the word in the passage. ■■■ Note that the part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, or adverb) of the target word in the definition will often match the part of speech of the correct answer. For example, move through the air: fly.
8 Antonyms
■■■ Antonyms ■■■ Read

meaning words are words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. ■■■ Identify the multiple meaning word in each sentence. ■■■ Look for context clues that help determine which meaning of the word makes sense in the sentence. ■■■ Check the answer by replacing the underlined word with the definition to see if it makes sense in the sentence.

are words that have opposite meanings. each sentence. Circle the two words that mean the opposite of each other. ■■■ Write each antonym on an answer line.
9 Synonyms
■■■ Synonyms ■■■ Read

are words that have similar meanings. the first word in the left column. ■■■ Visualize the word’s meaning. ■■■ Read the words in the right column. Select the word that has the most similar meaning. ■■■ Repeat the process with the rest of the words in the left column.

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A11

Assessment Level 6

Assessment Level 6

Mammals: The Highest Animal Class
Comprehension
In answering these questions, students use the following strategies: monitoring comprehension, activating background knowledge, questioning, visualizing, inferring, determining importance, analyzing.
1 Generalizing
■■■ Generalizations

Mammals: The Highest Animal Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Mammals are the highest class of animals. There are about 5,000 living mammal species. Mammals have several characteristics in common. All mammals are warm-blooded. That means that their body temperature remains constant regardless of the temperature of their environment. The majority of all mammals have bodies partially or wholly covered with hair. Most female mammals give birth to live young. They nourish their offspring with milk secreted by mammary glands. Mammals have hearts with four chambers. They have three middle-ear bones: the malleus, incus, and stapes. Mammals have four kinds of diets. Herbivores are plant-eaters. This group includes beavers, cows, horses, and pandas. Carnivores are meat-eaters. Whales, dolphins, dogs, tigers, and lions fall into this group. Omnivores eat plants and meat. Humans, raccoons, and some bears fall into this category. Insectivores eat insects. Aardvarks and anteaters are examples of insectivores. There are many different kinds of mammals. The blue whale is the largest of all mammals. African elephants are the largest land mammals. In terms of speed, the cheetah is the fastest mammal, while the sloth is the slowest. The giraffe is the tallest mammal. Pygmy shrews and bumblebee bats are the smallest mammals. The striped skunk is the smelliest mammal of all.

are broad statements about something. They may not be true in every case, but they are true most of the time. A specific fact or detail is not a generalization. ■■■ Read the answer choices. ■■■ Select the answer that offers a generalization about mammals.
2 Author’s Purpose
■■■ Read ■■■ Ask,

the passage. “Is the author telling me facts, trying to convince me to do something, or trying to entertain me?” ■■■ Select the answer that best describes what the author is trying to do.
3 Details
■■■ Read ■■■ Find

the instructions. the information in the passage related to animal diets. ■■■ Write the answers on the lines.
4 Drawing Conclusions
■■■ Read

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 6

466

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Assessment Level 6

Mammals: The Highest Animal Class

Comprehension
1

the instructions, paying attention to the suffix -vore. ■■■ In order to draw a conclusion, you have to put together information you have read with what you already know. ■■■ Ask, “What do the words herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, and insectivore have in common?” (Answer: They all describe kinds of animal diets.) ■■■ Select the answer that would be the best meaning.
5 Main Idea
■■■ Read

What generalization could readers make after reading this passage? A All mammals are warm-blooded. B While mammals have some common characteristics, there are many different kinds of mammals. C Mammals have four types of diets. D The blue whale is the largest of all mammals.

2

Why did the author most likely write this passage? A to provide a general overview of mammals B to persuade the reader to learn more about mammals C to encourage readers to check out a book about mammals from the library D to provide entertaining stories about mammals

3

Write the name of the kind of mammal that would have the following diets. a. plants b. meat and plants c. insects d. only meat
herbivore omnivore insectivore carnivore

the first paragraph. ■■■ Say the following phrase before each possible answer: “This paragraph is mostly about how ____.” ■■■ Select the answer that makes the most sense.
6 Compare and Contrast
■■■ Read

4

After reading the second paragraph, what would be the best definition for the suffix -vore? A a place to eat B teeth C eating, feeding on D swirling

the instructions. Pay attention to the words compare and contrast. Compare means to decide how things are alike, and contrast means to decide how things are different. ■■■ Visualize a dog and an aardvark. ■■■ Using complete sentences, write about how the two animals are similar and how they are different. QAR Key
A12
Right There Think & Search Author & Me On My Own

5

What is the main idea of the first paragraph? A There many different kinds of animals. B Mammals have four kinds of diets. C All mammals share certain characteristics. D There are many differences between mammals.

6

Compare and contrast dogs and aardvarks, based on information in the passage. (Answers will vary.) Dogs and aardvarks are both mammals, which means they both have
fur, give birth to live babies, and produce milk for their babies. But dogs are carnivores, while aardvarks are insectivores.

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 6

467

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Assessment Level 6

Assessment Level 6

Mammals: The Highest Animal Class

Mammals: The Highest Animal Class
Vocabulary

Vocabulary
7

Circle the homophone that correctly completes each sentence. Write the word on the line.
their temperature remains constant a. Mammals are warm-blooded and regardless of the temperature around them. (their, there)

b. Almost all mammals have c. The hearts of mammals have d. For some mammals,
8

hair four meat

on most of their bodies. chambers. (four, for)

(hare, hair)

is the only food they eat.

(meet, meat)

Add the suffix -est to each word. Use the new word to complete the sentence. a. fast est b. large st c. tall est Cheetahs are the
fastest largest

The word is nourish Nourish means to provide food and other essential nutrients to help something grow. My grandma uses special plant food to nourish her flowers. What foods help nourish a growing child?

mammals. land mammals.

African elephants are the Giraffes are the
tallest

mammals.

9

Select the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence. a. Some bears fall into the category of omnivores. A are included, belong B the season of the year that follows summer b. The body temperature of mammals remains the same regardless of their environment. A leftovers, scraps B stays c. Mammals are considered to be the highest class of animals.

If you’re going to nourish a pet cat, what would you feed it? What kinds of foods probably won’t nourish a healthy body?

A a group of students who are taught together B a group of animals based on similarities

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Student Level 6

468

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

7

Homophones
■■■ Homophones

9

Multiple Meaning Words
■■■ Multiple

are words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings. They are usually spelled differently. ■■■ Read each sentence. ■■■ Pay attention to the spelling of each word. ■■■ Visualize what each homophone means. ■■■ Select the word that fits with the context of the sentence.
8 Adjective Suffix: -est
■■■ When

meaning words are words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. ■■■ Identify the multiple meaning word in each sentence. ■■■ Look for context clues that help determine which meaning of the word makes sense in the sentence. ■■■ Check the answer by replacing the underlined word with the definition to see if it makes sense in the sentence.

the suffix -est is added to an adjective, it is used to compare three or more people, places, or things. It means most. For example, if no one in the class can run as fast as Alfonse, then Alfonse is the fastest runner. ■■■ Add the suffix to each word. For words that end in e, remember to just add -st. ■■■ Use the new word to complete the sentence.

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A13

Bonus Passage 113 B

Bonus Passage 113B

Black Gold: Can We Live Without It?
Comprehension
In answering these questions, students use the following strategies: monitoring comprehension, activating background knowledge, questioning, inferring, determining importance.
1 Main Idea
■■■ Read ■■■ Say

Black Gold: Can We Live Without It? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 It is hard to think about a world without oil. Oil is often called black gold. That is because oil is worth a lot of money. Oil can make people rich. Countries want to have oil on their land. People are willing to go to war over oil. Oil is used for many things. Plastic, soap, and glue are made from oil. Oil is used to heat homes. Oil is used for gas. We need gas for cars, buses, trains, and planes. Oil is a big business . People need more and more oil. But oil is not easy to get. It has to be drilled from oil wells. Drilling for oil is a hard job. Many of the oil wells are used up. The U.S. spends a lot of money looking for new ways to find oil. Every year there is a 2 percent rise in the need for oil. This is a problem. There is not enough oil for all the needs. Someday we may run low on oil. Some people think we could run low in the year 2030. In the meantime, we need to find ways to use less oil. We also need to find other ways to run our cars and heat our homes. Someday we may live in a world without oil.

the second paragraph. the following phrase before each possible answer: “This paragraph is mostly about ___.” ■■■ Select the answer that makes the most sense.
2 Cause and Effect
■■■ Read

the question and the answer choices. the effect of the increased use of oil. ■■■ Refer back to the passage for more information, as needed.
■■■ Consider

3

Author’s Purpose
■■■ Read ■■■ Ask,

the passage. “Is the author telling me facts, trying to convince me to do something, or trying to entertain me?” ■■■ Select the answer that best describes what the author is trying to do.
4 Author’s Viewpoint
■■■ Read

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

469

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Bonus Passage 113B

Black Gold: Can We Live Without It?

the instruction, paying attention to the word not. ■■■ Think about the author’s tone and what the author would likely not say. ■■■ Select the correct answer.
5 Cause and Effect
■■■ Read

Comprehension
1

The second paragraph is mostly about A how oil makes people rich. B why people want and need more and more oil. C how hard it is to drill for oil. D what life would be like without oil.

2

According to the passage, what could be the effect of the increased use of oil? A The U.S. may plant more trees in the forests. B More people may take car trips around the U.S. C More people may start to take trains and planes. D People may need to find new ways to live without oil.

the question and the answer choices. ■■■ Think of reasons why the U.S. continues to look for ways to find oil. ■■■ Select the answer that best answers the question.
6 Compare and Contrast
■■■ Read

3

The author probably wrote this passage to A encourage people to buy solar-powered cars. B inform people about the need to use less oil. C tell people not to buy plastic and soap made from oil. D get people to heat their homes with wood.

the questions. ■■■ Refer back to Passage 113, “Oil: Black Gold,” as needed. ■■■ Think of the main topics for each passage. How are they alike? How are they different? ■■■ Answer in complete sentences.

4

The author of this passage probably would not say: A Oil is worth a lot of money. B People should try to use less oil. C People should work on ways to live without oil. D There will always be enough oil for everyone.

5

What causes the U.S. to continue to look for ways to find oil? A Everyone wants to know if they have oil on their land. B Due to the many ways that oil is used, oil wells will soon be drained. C Larger cars need more oil. D More people are moving to Alaska.

6

Compare this Bonus Passage to Passage 113, “Oil: Black Gold.” How are the two passages alike? How are they different? (Answers will vary.)
Both passages are about oil. The first passage tells why oil is worth a lot of money. The Bonus Passage is about how we are using up all the oil.

QAR Key
A14

Right There

Think & Search

Author & Me

On My Own

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

470

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Bonus Passage 113 B

Bonus Passage 113B

Black Gold: Can We Live Without It?

Black Gold: Can We Live Without It?
Vocabulary

Vocabulary
7

Circle the homophone that correctly completes each sentence. Write the word on the line. a. Many things are
made

from oil. (maid, made)
their

b. Many people would be happy to find oil on c. Oil is used for cars,
planes

land. (their, there)

, and trains.
new

(plains, planes) ways to find oil.

d. People spend a lot of money looking for (new, knew)
8

Select the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence. a. It is hard to drill for oil.

The word is business. Say the word. Business refers to the activity of making money by producing goods or services and selling them. My father works in the car-selling business. The ice cream store down the street has a lot of business If what I say is an example of business, say “business.” If not, say “no.” They sold a lot of tickets on the first day We donated cans of food and some
10

A a solid firm surface B a difficult task b. Oil can make some people very rich. A a metal container often used to hold food or liquid B the ability to do something c. People need to find other ways to run their cars and heat their homes. A use machinery to do work B use feet to move quickly on the ground
9

Circle the word in each row that does not belong. a. b. c. d. war horses world gold fight buses moon diamonds peace cars Earth oil argue trucks planet sand

Read each word in the left column. Find its antonym in the right column. Write the capital letter on the line beside the word.
B D C A

a. easy b. hot c. big d. less

A more B hard C little D cold

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

471

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

7

Homophones
■■■ Homophones

10

Antonyms
■■■ Antonyms ■■■ Read

are words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings. They are usually spelled differently. ■■■ Read each sentence. ■■■ Pay attention to the spelling of each word. ■■■ Visualize what each homophone means. ■■■ Select the word that fits with the context of the sentence.
8 Multiple Meaning Words
■■■ Multiple

are words that have opposite meanings. the first word in the left column. ■■■ Visualize the word’s meaning. ■■■ Read the words in the right column. Select the word that means the opposite of the word in the left column. ■■■ Repeat the process with the rest of the words in the left column.

meaning words are words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. ■■■ Identify the multiple meaning word in the sentence. ■■■ Look for context clues that help determine which meaning of the word makes sense in the sentence. ■■■ Check the answer by replacing the underlined word with the definition to see if it makes sense in the sentence.
9 Categories and Classification
■■■ Read

across each row of words. what each word means. ■■■ Identify the word that is least similar in terms of meaning to the other words and circle it. ■■■ Check the answer by identifying the category for the remaining words.
■■■ Visualize
e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A15

Bonus Passage 222 B

Bonus Passage 222B

American Roads: A Rough Ride
Comprehension
In answering these questions, students use the following strategies: monitoring comprehension, activating background knowledge, questioning, visualizing, inferring, determining importance, summarizing/synthesizing.
1 Cause and Effect
■■■ Read

American Roads: A Rough Ride 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 U.S. roads and highways are in bad shape . Many of them are falling apart. This is a big problem. First of all, it is dangerous to drive on bad roads. Poor roads can cause accidents in which people are hurt or killed. Second, driving on poor roads is not good for cars. Cars may break down. Then they need to be fixed. This costs money and takes time. Third, when roads are bad, it takes longer to drive on them. This can cause traffic jams . Traffic jams waste gas. They also cause pollution . Why are America’s roads in such poor condition ? There are many reasons. One reason is that road traffic keeps growing. There are more cars on the roads today. But there are even more trucks. Heavy trucks cause damage to our roads. Another reason is that the U.S. is not taking care of its roads. The U.S. does not have a big plan for fixing its roads. It costs a lot of money each year to fix the roads. We need to put more money into fixing our roads. Having better roads will make driving safer. Traffic will move better. The U.S. needs better roads.

the answer choices. ■■■ Ask, “What is one effect of traffic jams?” ■■■ Refer back to the passage for more information, as needed.
2 Cause and Effect
■■■ Read

the answer choices. what would most likely happen if more money were spent on taking care of roads. ■■■ Refer back to the passage, as needed.
■■■ Consider

3

Author’s Viewpoint
■■■ Read

the passage. about the author’s tone. ■■■ Ask, “Does the author sound positive, neutral, or negative about the subject?” ■■■ Select the sentence that the author is most likely to agree with.
■■■ Think

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

472

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Bonus Passage 222B

American Roads: A Rough Ride

4

Author’s Purpose
■■■ Reread ■■■ Ask,

Comprehension
1

the passage. “Is the author telling me facts, trying to convince me to do something, or trying to entertain me?” ■■■ Select the answer that best describes what the author is trying to do.
5 Compare and Contrast
■■■ Read

According to this passage, what is one effect of traffic jams? A People honk at each other. B They cause pollution. C They encourage people to drive to more places. D People can relax and drive more slowly.

2

What would most likely happen if more money were spent on taking care of roads? A There would be fewer accidents. B People would take more plane flights. C There would not be any trucks on the roads. D It would take longer to drive somewhere.

the questions. ■■■ Refer back to Passage 222, “Roads and Highways,” as needed. ■■■ Think of the important points made in each passage. How are they alike? How are they different? ■■■ Answer in complete sentences.

3

Which sentence would the author of this passage probably agree with? A The roads in the U.S. are just fine and should be left alone. B The U.S. spends too much money on fixing roads. C To keep people off the roads, the U.S. should build more airports. D The U.S. should spend more money on roads.

4

The author probably wrote this passage to A encourage people to take trains and planes. B explain the causes of pollution. C inform people that U.S. roads are in bad shape. D get people to drive more slowly.

5

After reading this Bonus Passage and Passage 222, “Roads and Highways,” compare and contrast the important points made in both passages. How are they alike? How are they different? (Answers will vary.)
The two passages are alike in that they both describe the importance of roads and highways in the U.S. Passage 222 tells the history of building roads and highways in the U.S. Passage 222B makes the point that today the U.S. roads and highways are in bad shape. More money needs to be spent on fixing the roads.

QAR Key
A16

Right There

Think & Search

Author & Me

On My Own

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

473

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Bonus Passage 222 B

Bonus Passage 222B

American Roads: A Rough Ride

American Roads: A Rough Ride
Vocabulary

Vocabulary
6

Write the word from the passage that matches each definition. a. movement of cars and trucks from one place to another (Line 7) b. harmful matter in the air, water, or soil
pollution traffic

(Line 7)
accidents

c. crashes or collisions involving a moving car, truck, or bus (Line 3) d. main roads between towns or cities
7

highways

(Line 1)

Circle the homophone that best completes each sentence. Write the word on the line. a. Rough roads can cause cars to (break, brake) b. In the U.S. (their, there)
there break

The word is condition. Say the word. A condition is the state something is in; it usually refers to the physical state. The patient’s condition is improving every day. The stormy weather conditions are not allowing planes to land at
9 8

down or get in accidents.

are many roads that are in poor condition.

Circle the pair of antonyms in each sentence. Write the antonyms on the lines below the sentence. a. The roads and highways in the U.S. are getting worse, not better.
worse

and

better

b. Poor road conditions are dangerous, not safe.
dangerous

and

safe

Select the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence. a. Traffic jams can waste gasoline and take up a lot of time.

If what I say is an example of condition, say “condition.” If not, say “no.” She was very happy after she finished the race. He wasn’t in good enough shape to run in the race.

A fruits that are crushed and often used on bread B stops or blocks so that nothing can move b. Roads and highways in the U.S. are in bad shape. A outline of something B general condition of something c. Driving on poor roads can cause many problems. A to have little or no money B in need of repair
e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

474

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

6

Definitions: Context Clues
■■■ Read

9

Multiple Meaning Words
■■■ Multiple

each definition. Pay attention to words or context clues that give hints about the word that best matches the definition. ■■■ Use the line number to help you locate the word in the passage. ■■■ Note that the part of speech (noun, adjective, verb, or adverb) of the target word in the definition will often match the part of speech of the correct answer. For example, power to be active or to do work: energy.
7 Homophones
■■■ Homophones

meaning words are words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. ■■■ Identify the multiple meaning word in each sentence. ■■■ Look for context clues that help determine which meaning of the word makes sense in the sentence. ■■■ Check the answer by replacing the underlined word with the definition to see if it makes sense in the sentence.

are words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings. They are usually spelled differently. ■■■ Read each sentence. ■■■ Pay attention to the spelling of each word. ■■■ Visualize what each homophone means. ■■■ Select the word that fits with the context of the sentence.
8 Antonyms
■■■ Antonyms ■■■ Read

are words that have opposite meanings. each sentence. Circle the two words that mean the opposite of each other. ■■■ Write each antonym on an answer line.

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A17

Bonus Passage 302 B

Bonus Passage 302B

Wall Across the Yangtze: Three Gorges Dam
Comprehension
In answering these questions, students use the following strategies: monitoring comprehension, questioning, visualizing, inferring, determining importance, summarizing/synthesizing, analyzing.
1 Facts and Opinions
■■■ A

Wall Across the Yangtze: Three Gorges Dam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 The Three Gorges Dam is in China. It is the largest dam in the world. The dam took many years to build. The work began in 1993. It ended in 2009. The dam cost billions of dollars to build. The dam was built for many reasons. The main one was to stop flooding on the Yangtze River. Along the river, floods had killed thousands of people. Millions more had lost their homes. Also, the dam was made to help traffic on the river. It made it easier and safer to travel. Finally, the dam runs a power plant. It provides clean energy. This reduces pollution . On the other hand, many people did not think the dam was a good idea. The dam cost a lot of money to build. More than 1.2 million people had to move to make way for the dam. Farmland was lost. Animal habitats were hurt. Fisheries were also hurt. Historical sites were ruined. People are worried about new landslides. They are also worried about water pollution. Are the benefits of the dam worth the cost? Only time will tell.

fact is information that can be proven to be true. Facts often include statistical information, such as numbers, times, and dates. ■■■ An opinion is a feeling, personal view, or belief. Words that express emotion or make judgments often indicate a sentence is an opinion. ■■■ Read each sentence and decide whether it is a fact or an opinion.
2 Main Idea
■■■ Read

the second paragraph. Pay attention to the first sentence of the paragraph, called the topic sentence. It often has useful clues about the main idea of the paragraph. ■■■ Say the following phrase before each answer choice: “This paragraph is mostly about ___.” ■■■ Select the answer that makes the most sense.
3 Sequence of Events
■■■ Review

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

475

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Bonus Passage 302B

Wall Across the Yangtze: Three Gorges Dam

the passage. ■■■ Ask, “What happened before the Three Gorges Dam was built?” ■■■ Ask, “What happened after the dam was built?” ■■■ Label each event accordingly.
4 Cause and Effect
■■■ Read

Comprehension
1

Decide whether each sentence is a fact or an opinion. Fill in the correct bubble. Fact Opinion a. The Three Gorges Dam is the largest dam in the world. b. China started to build the Three Gorges Dam in 1993. c. It was a good idea to build the Three Gorges Dam. d. The Three Gorges Dam runs a power plant. e. The Three Gorges Dam is worth the cost.

the question. ■■■ Consider the reasons why the Chinese decided to dam the Yangtze River. ■■■ Select all the answer choices that apply. ■■■ Refer back to the passage, as needed.
5 Compare and Contrast
■■■ Read

2

The second paragraph is mostly about A the reasons the Chinese decided to build the Three Gorges Dam. B pollution of the Yangtze River. C floods along the Yangtze River. D how the dam was constructed.

3

Write “B” if an event happened before the Three Gorges Dam was built. Write “A” if an event happened after the Chinese started building the dam.
B A A B

the questions. ■■■ Refer back to Passage 302, “Yangtze River,” as needed. ■■■ Think of the important points and key details in each passage. How are the alike? How are they different? ■■■ Answer in complete sentences.

a. b. c. d.

Due to great floods, millions of people lost their homes from time to time. Because water would fill the dam, people had to move to other locations. The Three Gorges Dam provides clean energy and reduces pollution. Water traffic was not always easy or safe.

4

What caused the Chinese to decide to dam the Yangtze River? Select all that apply. A Floods often caused people to lose their homes. B River traffic sometimes was not easy or safe. C Farmers needed new farmland. D There were too many old villages along the river. E China needed more clean electrical energy.

5

After reading this Bonus Passage and Passage 302, “Yangtze River,” compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in both passages. How are they alike? How are they different? (Answers will vary.)
Passage 302 is about the Yangtze River and its importance to the Chinese people. The key details in this passage include the three different parts of the river. Passage

QAR Key
A18

Right There

Think & Search

Author & Me

On My Own

302B is about the Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River. The key details in this passage include the reasons why the dam was built.

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

476

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Bonus Passage 302 B

Bonus Passage 302B

Wall Across the Yangtze: Three Gorges Dam

Wall Across the Yangtze: Three Gorges Dam
Vocabulary

Vocabulary
6

Write the word from the passage that matches each definition. a. makes smaller or less
reduces

(Line 9)

b. the process of making air, water, or soil dirty or harmful
pollution

(Line 9)
habitats

c. the natural places where animals and plants live (Line 13) d. advantages or improvements
7

benefits

(Line 16)

Add the suffix -est to each word. Use the new word to complete the sentence. a. large
st

The word is benefits. Say the word. Benefits are advantages or improvements.
8

Three Gorges Dam is the Even the
smallest

largest

dam in the world.

b. small est c. tall
est

homes are now safe.
tallest

The dam may even be the

dam in the world.

Circle the homophone that correctly completes each sentence. Write the word on the line. a. Millions of people lost (there, their)
their

There are many health benefits to exercising regularly. The benefits of attending college usually outweigh the costs. If what I say is an example of benefits, say “benefits.” If not, say “no.” I was sorry that I couldn’t play in the concert last night. There are lots of advantages to getting a
9

homes when the river flooded.
way

b. More than one million people moved to make covered their land. (weigh, way) c. People who lived in low lands (would, wood) d. Some people worried that the (new, knew)
would

for the water that

be safer from floods.

new

dam would cause problems.

Read each word in the left column. Find its antonym in the right column. Write the capital letter on the line beside the word.
C D E B A

a. build b. many c. killed d. safe e. reduce

A expand B dangerous C destroy D few E saved
e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

477

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

6

Definitions: Context Clues
■■■ Read

■■■ Visualize ■■■ Select

the definition. Pay attention to words or context clues that give hints about the word that best matches the definition. ■■■ Use the line number to help you locate the word in the passage. ■■■ Note that the part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, or adverb) of the target word in the definition will often match the part of speech of the correct answer. For example, fast movement or action: rapid.
7 Adjective Suffix: -est
■■■ When

what each homophone means. the word that fits with the context of the sentence.

9

Antonyms
■■■ Antonyms ■■■ Read

are words that have opposite meanings. the first word in the left column. ■■■ Visualize the word’s meaning. ■■■ Read the words in the right column. Select the word that means the opposite of the word in the left column. ■■■ Repeat the process with the rest of the words in the left column.

the suffix -est is added to an adjective, it is used to compare three or more people, places, or things. It means most. For example, if no one in school can run as fast as Aisha, then Aisha is the fastest runner. ■■■ Add the suffix to each word. For words that end in e, remember to just add st. ■■■ Use the new word to complete the sentence.
8 Homophones
■■■ Homophones

are words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings. They are usually spelled differently. ■■■ Read each sentence. ■■■ Pay attention to the spelling of each word.

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A19

Bonus Passage 411 B

Bonus Passage 411B

Vampire Bats: Bloodsucking Mammals
Comprehension
In answering these questions, students use the following strategies: monitoring comprehension, activating background knowledge, questioning, visualizing, inferring, determining importance, analyzing.
1 Main Idea
■■■ Read

Vampire Bats: Bloodsucking Mammals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Vampire bats are the only mammals that feed on blood. They can be found in Mexico. They also live in South and Central America. These small animals are hunters during the darkest part of the night. Their victims are usually cattle and horses. However, vampire bats have been known to attack humans as well. Vampire bats land on the ground near their sleeping victims. The bats creep toward them on all fours. Vampire bats have heat sensors on their noses. These sensors help them to find the perfect spot on their victim’s body. That is the spot where warm blood flows just beneath the skin. Vampire bats bite the skin with their razor-sharp teeth. They are able to pierce the skin so gently that the victim does not awaken. The bats then lap up the blood with their tongues. Vampire bats continue drinking the victim’s blood for about 30 minutes. The saliva in the bat’s mouth prevents the blood from clotting . The quantity of blood vampire bats drink is not enough to harm a victim. But the bite of a vampire bat is very dangerous to animals and humans for other reasons. Vampire bats often carry rabies , which can be transmitted to their victims. Their bites can also cause a serious infection.

the second paragraph. ■■■ Say the following phrase before each possible answer: “This paragraph is mostly about how ____.” ■■■ Select the answer that best summarizes the paragraph.
2 Cause and Effect
■■■ Read ■■■ Ask,

the answer choices. “What causes the animal’s blood to continue to flow, rather than clotting?” ■■■ Refer back to the passage for more information, as needed.
3 Details
■■■ Read

the question, paying attention to the words does not…occur. ■■■ Read the answer choices. ■■■ Eliminate the answer choices that name things that do occur when a vampire bat attacks its victim. ■■■ Reread the passage to find the correct answer.
4 Generalizing
■■■ Generalizations

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

478

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Bonus Passage 411B

Vampire Bats: Bloodsucking Mammals

Comprehension
1

Which sentence best summarizes the second paragraph? A Vampire bats hunt in the middle of the night. B Vampire bats are known to carry rabies. C Vampire bats bite their victims and then drink the flowing blood. D Vampire bats have razor-sharp teeth.

are broad statements about something. They may not be true in every case, but they are true most of the time. A specific fact or detail is not a generalization. ■■■ Look for words like most, mostly, and often. These words often indicate a sentence is a generalization. ■■■ Read the answer choices. ■■■ Ask, “Is this a simple fact, or is it a generalization?” ■■■ Select the answer that offers a generalization about vampire bats.
5 Compare and Contrast
■■■ Read

2

What causes the animal’s blood to continue to flow instead of clotting? A the bat’s razor-sharp teeth B the bat’s gentle bite C the saliva in the bat’s mouth D the bat’s tongue laps up the blood quickly

3

What does not usually occur when a vampire bat attacks a victim? A The bat bites the animal with razor-sharp teeth. B The vampire bat drinks the animal’s blood. C The animal’s blood flows and does not clot. D The animal wakes up.

the instructions. ■■■ Consider what causes bats to change their course when flying. Also think about how vampire bats use their noses to find the best place on the body to feed on their prey. ■■■ Refer to both passages for more information, as needed. ■■■ Use information from both passages in the answer. ■■■ Answer in complete sentences. QAR Key
A20

4

Which sentence is a generalization about vampire bats? A A vampire bat will drink the victim’s blood for about 30 minutes. B Most often, vampire bats attack animals rather than people. C Vampire bats live in Mexico, as well as Central and South America. D Vampire bats have heat sensors on their noses.

5

After reading this Bonus Passage and Passage 411, “Bats: Flying Creatures of the Night,” use information from both passages to describe some different sensor systems in bats that help them survive. (Answers will vary.)
Bats use some unique sensor systems to survive. They have a way of navigating called echolocation that allows them to hunt at night. Bats make high-pitched sounds as they fly. In flight, they are able to avoid objects by listening to the echoes that bounce off objects. In making these sounds, they can also locate prey. In addition, vampire bats

Right There

Think & Search

Author & Me

On My Own

have heat sensor systems located on their noses. These sensors allow them to locate spots where warm blood is flowing close to the skin of animals. These two unique sensor systems help bats survive.

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

479

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Bonus Passage 411 B

Bonus Passage 411B

Vampire Bats: Bloodsucking Mammals

Vampire Bats: Bloodsucking Mammals
Vocabulary

Vocabulary
6

Write the word from the passage that matches each definition. a. a mammal that licks the blood of humans or animals
vampire

(Line 1)
victims

b. people or things that have been hurt or killed by something else (Line 4) c. a very sharp cutting edge
razor

(Line 10)

d. a disease that can kill animals and humans when bitten by an infected animal
rabies

(Line 17)
clotting

e. becoming thicker or almost solid

(Line 14)

The word is pierce. Say the word. To pierce is to make a small hole in something using a sharp point. The pin pierced the balloon and made it burst. Some women pierce If what I say is an

7

Add the prefix trans- to each word. Use the new word to complete the sentence. a.
trans

continental port

It was a The truck will

transcontinental transport

airplane flight. a shipment of food.

b. trans
8

Add the suffix -est to each word. Use the new word to complete the sentence. a. small est
est est

Vampire bats are among the bat family. The bats attack in the Some of the
meanest

smallest

members of the

b. dark c. mean
9

darkest

part of the night.

animals are very small.

example of pierce stick.

I made a hole in the beehive with a He wound the string into a ball.

Circle the pair of synonyms in the sentence. Write the synonyms on the lines below the sentence. Although the amount of blood that a vampire bat drinks from its victims is not harmful, the bite of a vampire bat could be dangerous.
harmful

and

dangerous

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

480

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

6

Definitions: Context Clues
■■■ Read

9

Synonyms
■■■ Synonyms ■■■ Read

each definition. Pay attention to words or context clues that give hints about the word that best matches the definition. ■■■ Use the line number to help you locate the word in the passage. ■■■ Note that the part of speech (noun, adjective, verb, or adverb) of the target word in the definition will often match the part of speech of the correct answer. For example, almost but not quite finished: nearly.
7 Adjective, Noun, or Verb Prefix: trans■■■ The

are words that have similar meanings. the sentence. Circle the two words that have similar meanings. ■■■ Write each synonym on an answer line.

prefix trans- means across or beyond, or to move from one place to another. For example, the word transatlantic means across the Atlantic Ocean. ■■■ Add the prefix to each word. ■■■ Use the new word to complete the sentence.
8 Adjective Suffix: -est
■■■ When

the suffix -est is added to an adjective, it is used to compare three or more people, places, or things. It means most. For example, if no one in the neighborhood has a smaller dog than Carmen, then Carmen has the smallest dog. ■■■ Add the suffix to each word. ■■■ Use the new word to complete the sentence.

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A21

Bonus Passage 512 B

Bonus Passage 512B

Loch Ness Monster: Fact or Fiction?
Comprehension
In answering these questions, students use the following strategies: monitoring comprehension, activating background knowledge, questioning, visualizing, inferring, determining importance, evaluating.
1 Author’s Viewpoint
■■■ Read

Loch Ness Monster: Fact or Fiction? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Loch Ness is a lake in Scotland. The Loch Ness monster is thought to be a creature that lives in fresh water. The existence of the monster is part of the local folklore. Popular interest and belief in this myth began in 1933. Some people reported that they saw a monster in the lake. Others also claimed to have seen a creature in the lake mist. Many people traveled to Loch Ness in hopes of seeing the monster. No one seemed to be able to have a clear view of the monster. The descriptions of the monster varied from one account to another. Older reports indicated that the monster looked like a horse. Others stated it was a sea dragon. Then people claimed that the monster looked more like a dinosaur or ancient reptile. The reports may have been wishful thinking. From time to time, people tried to prove that the Loch Ness monster actually existed. Photographers tried to use underwater cameras to take photos. However, no one was able to get a clear photo in the muddy lake. Scientists tried to use sonar, or sound waves, to find the monster. They could not say for sure that they found a living creature. They may have found a set of logs and rocks in the form of a monster lying on the bottom of the lake. No one has been able to prove that the Loch Ness monster exists. It may have been a hoax designed to get tourists to visit Loch Ness. The hoax then became a modern-day myth.

the passage. ■■■ Think about the author’s tone. ■■■ Ask, “Does the author sound positive, neutral, or negative about the subject?” ■■■ Read the answer choices and eliminate the choices that are not what the author would likely say. ■■■ Select the correct answer.
2 Cause and Effect
■■■ Read ■■■ Ask,

the answer choices. “What caused the photographers to take photos and the scientists to use sonar to look for the Loch Ness monster?” ■■■ Refer back to the passage for more information.
3 Generalizing
■■■ Generalizations

are broad statements about something. They may not be true in every case, but they are true most of the time. A specific fact or detail is not a generalization. ■■■ Read the answer choices. ■■■ Ask, “Is this a simple fact, or is it a generalization?” ■■■ Select the answer that offers a generalization about the Loch Ness monster.
4 Author’s Purpose
■■■ Read ■■■ Ask,

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

481

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Bonus Passage 512B

Loch Ness Monster: Fact or Fiction?

Comprehension
1

The author of this passage would probably say: A People should travel to Loch Ness to search for the monster. B A monster lives deep in the muddy waters of Loch Ness. C One day someone will prove that there really is a Loch Ness monster. D There is no Loch Ness monster.

the passage. “Is the author telling me facts, trying to convince me to do something, or trying to entertain me?” ■■■ Select the answer that best describes what the author is trying to do.
5 Making Judgments
■■■ Read

2

What caused photographers to take photos and scientists to use sonar to look for the Loch Ness monster? A Someone wanted to write a book about freshwater animals. B People wanted to know if the Loch Ness monster really existed. C Photographers wanted to try out the new underwater cameras. D They wanted to take a trip to the Scottish Highlands.

3

Based on the passage, which sentence is a good generalization about the Loch Ness monster? A Popular interest in the Loch Ness monster began in 1933. B Many people like to read and think about the Loch Ness monster. C Underwater photography was used as a means to find the monster. D Sonar uses sound to detect and locate objects under water.

the question. ■■■ In order to make a judgment, you have to put together information you have read with what you already know. ■■■ Consider the evidence in both passages, anything else you have read about the monster, and your own beliefs about whether the Loch Ness monster might exist. ■■■ Respond directly to the question, giving reasons for your answer. ■■■ Answer in complete sentences. QAR Key
A22
Right There Think & Search Author & Me On My Own

4

The author probably wrote this passage to A provide an exciting story about an unusual freshwater creature. B encourage people to take a tour to the Scottish Highlands. C share factual information about the Loch Ness monster. D sell underwater photography equipment.

5

After reading this Bonus Passage and Passage 512, “Nessie: The Loch Ness monster,” do you believe there is a monster living at the bottom of Loch Ness? Give reasons for your answer, using information from both texts. (Answers will vary.)
After reading both passages, I do not believe there is a monster living at the bottom of Loch Ness. Scientists have tried to find the monster using sonar and underwater photography, but they have not found any real proof of a monster. The story of the monster has been told over the years. Perhaps at one time someone saw something in the mist and thought it might be a monster. The story grew and grew. If there really were an unusual creature in the lake, scientists would have found it by now.

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

482

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Bonus Passage 512 B

Bonus Passage 512B

Loch Ness Monster: Fact or Fiction?

Loch Ness Monster: Fact or Fiction?
Vocabulary

Vocabulary
6

Write the word from the passage that matches each definition. a. an attempt to make people believe something that is not true
hoax

(Line 21)
myth

b. an idea or a story that people believe that is not true (Line 3) c. a scary, imaginary creature d. the state of existing
7

monster existence

(Line 1) (Line 2)

Select the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence. a. The Loch Ness monster became a worldwide interest in 1933. A curiosity that attracts the attention of many people B additional money earned on a savings account; a charge for borrowing money b. The Loch Ness monster is a creature that lives in fresh water. A not salty B not spoiled

The word is myth. Say the word. A myth is an idea or a story that people believe that is not true. The Greeks told many myths about their gods and goddesses. It is a myth that elephants are the only animals that can’t jump. (Sloths and rhinos also can’t jump.)
8

Add the suffix -ful to each word. Use the new word to complete the sentence. a. wonder ful
ful

It would be Ness, Scotland.

wonderful

to go to Loch
powerful

b. power
9

The monster appears to be a

creature.

Add the suffix -ist to the word. Use the new word to complete the sentence. tour
ist

Yesterday we read the story of how the We follow the scientific method when we do science experiments.
10

Someone who tours different places, like Scotland, is a
tourist

.

Circle the word in each row that does not belong. a. b. c. d. popular photo mist dinosaur legend picture fog reptile folktale creature haze boat myth drawing sonar dragon
483

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

6

Definitions: Context Clues
■■■ Read

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

each definition. Pay attention to words or context clues that give hints about the word that best matches the definition. ■■■ Use the line number to help you locate the word in the passage. ■■■ Note that the part of speech (noun, adjective, verb, or adverb) of the target word in the definition will often match the part of speech of the correct answer. For example, power to be active or to do work: energy.
7 Multiple Meaning Words
■■■ Multiple

9

Noun Suffix: -ist
■■■ When

the suffix -ist is added to a verb, it changes the verb into a noun that means someone who. For example, a guitarist is someone who plays the guitar. ■■■ Add the suffix to the word, and visualize its meaning. ■■■ Use the new word to complete the sentence.
10 Categories and Classification
■■■ Read

meaning words are words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. ■■■ Identify the multiple meaning word in each sentence. ■■■ Look for context clues that help determine which meaning of the word makes sense in the sentence. ■■■ Check the answer by replacing the underlined word with the definition to see if it makes sense in the sentence.
8 Adjective Suffix: -ful
■■■ When

across each row of words. what each word means. ■■■ Identify the word that is least similar in terms of meaning to the other words and circle it. ■■■ Check the answer by identifying the category for the remaining words.
■■■ Visualize

the suffix -ful is added to a noun, it changes the noun into an adjective and means full of. For example, the word beautiful means full of beauty. ■■■ Add the suffix to each word. ■■■ Use the new word to complete the sentence.

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A23

Bonus Passage 610 B

Bonus Passage 610B

Salmon: A Bleak Future?
Comprehension
In answering these questions, students use the following strategies: monitoring comprehension, activating background knowledge, questioning, visualizing, inferring, determining importance, analyzing, evaluating.
1 Cause and Effect
■■■ Read

Salmon: A Bleak Future? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 More and more people are eating tasty, wild salmon. At the same time, the number of wild salmon is decreasing. There are reasons for the decline in the number of salmon. Some reasons are: overfishing, dams, farming, and pollution . Overfishing has been a major problem. Salmon tend to travel up rivers in schools so they can reproduce. In many rivers, fishermen catch more than half of the total population each year. If fishermen would limit themselves by taking 50% or less of the salmon population each year, the future of wild salmon would not be so bleak . However, this is not the case . Salmon are caught each year to supply restaurants and grocery markets. Dams are another problem. Dams are built to provide water for farms and for energy sources. However, dams get in the way of wild salmon migration from the river beds out to sea and back. Dams do not provide the strong current the salmon need to survive. Many young salmon do not have the strength needed to make it to the larger ocean waters. Also, irrigation kills many young salmon. Irrigation ditches carry young fish and eggs out of the rivers. The runoff from farms can bury salmon eggs. The farm runoff may also have toxic chemicals that flow into the rivers. These pollutants can kill the salmon. Humans have tried to save wild salmon by establishing fish farms and hatcheries. The idea is to hatch and raise some salmon in cages. This would increase the overall salmon population. Fishermen would not have to worry about overfishing. Wild fish could climb special ladders to get over the dams. However, salmon raised in hatcheries can become infected with diseases. When these fish escape into the wild, these diseases can spread to the wild salmon. Some people believe that the dams should be destroyed and fishing should be carefully regulated. Others believe that more dams are needed for farms and for energy. Some people believe there should be a combination of fish farms and wild rivers for salmon. To date, not everyone has come to an agreement about the fate of the wild salmon.
e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

the answer choices. ■■■ Ask, “What is the effect of overfishing and dams on salmon populations?” ■■■ Refer back to the passage for more information, as needed.
2 Generalizing
■■■ Generalizations

are broad statements about something. They may not be true in every case, but they are true most of the time. A specific fact or detail is not a generalization. ■■■ Read the answer choices. ■■■ Ask, “Is this a simple fact, or is it a generalization?” ■■■ Select the answer that offers a generalization about salmon.
3 Main Idea
■■■ Read ■■■ Say

484

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

the last paragraph. the following phrase before each possible answer: “This paragraph is mostly used to ___.” ■■■ Select the answer that makes the most sense.
4 Author’s Purpose
■■■ Read

Bonus Passage 610B

Salmon: A Bleak Future?

Comprehension
1

What is the effect of overfishing and dams on salmon populations? A The salmon population continues to grow. B The number of salmon remains about the same each year. C No one knows what the effect of overfishing and dams has on salmon. D The salmon population is decreasing each year.

the passage. ■■■ Ask, “Is the author telling me facts, trying to convince me to do something, or trying to entertain me?” ■■■ Read the answer choices and eliminate the choices that are clearly incorrect. ■■■ Select the correct answer.
5 Drawing Conclusions
■■■ Read

2

Based on reading this passage, what generalization can you make about salmon? A People need to work together to save the wild salmon. B Salmon is often found on restaurant menus. C Dams get in the way of salmon when they travel up the rivers to reproduce. D It is not unusual for young fish to get lost and die in irrigation ditches.

3

The author uses the last paragraph to A let people know reasons why dams should be destroyed. B explain that the decline of the salmon population has not been solved. C get people to build safer fish farms and hatcheries. D tell people not to eat salmon in restaurants or at home.

the question. ■■■ Consider what you think should be done to protect wild salmon. ■■■ Refer to both passages for more information, as needed. ■■■ Use information from both passages in the answer. ■■■ Answer in complete sentences.

4

Why did the author most likely write this passage? A to get people to sign a petition to build more fish hatcheries B to sell a book titled Protecting the Rights of the Salmon C to share information about the declining number of wild salmon D to get researchers to find a cure for diseases that affect salmon

5

After reading this Bonus Passage and Passage 610, “Salmon: Uphill Fighters,” what do you think should be done to protect wild salmon? Give reasons for your answer, using information from both texts. (Answers will vary.)
Rivers are important to wild salmon, so rivers that salmon use to migrate should be protected. Dams should be limited on these rivers, and salmon should have water ladders to go over the dams. The water in these rivers should be free of pollution caused by farming. Also, the limit should be 40%, instead of 50%, of the wild salmon

QAR Key
A24

Right There

Think & Search

Author & Me

On My Own

population that is taken by fishermen every year. Fishermen, farmers, and all of us must work together to save the wild salmon.

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

485

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

Bonus Passage 610 B

Bonus Passage 610B

Salmon: A Bleak Future?

Salmon: A Bleak Future?
Vocabulary

Vocabulary
6

Write the word from the passage that matches each definition. a. the process of making air, water, or soil dangerously dirty (Line 4) b. poisonous or containing poison c. the process of supplying crops with water
toxic irrigation pollution

(Line 18) (Line 15)

d. the number of people or animals living in a particular area or space
population
7

(Line 7)

Complete each sentence using the word on the left with the suffix -ion, -tion, or -ation. a. populate The wild salmon several reasons.
migration population

The word is bleak. Say the word. Something that is bleak is without much hope. Bleak can also mean cold or uncomfortable. Antarctica is a bleak landscape unless you are a penguin. Since time was running out in the game and they hadn’t scored one point, their chances of winning were bleak. If what I say is an The store ran out of chocolate ice
9 8

is declining for

b. migrate

The birthplace is an annual event. Sometimes younger salmon enter and die. Salmon live in a

of salmon back to their freshwater
irrigation

c. irrigate

ditches

d. combine

combination

of fresh and salt water.

Select the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence. a. Salmon migrate in schools against a strong river current to reproduce. A something that is happening right now and may not last a long time B a continuous movement of water or air in a particular direction C the flow of electricity through a wire b. Salmon fishing should be limited to 50% of the population; however, this is not the case. A a container for storing something B an event or a situation that police investigate and deal with to solve a crime C a particular situation that exists Circle the word in each row that does not belong. a. b. c. d. decline migrate finish overfishing decrease remain establish farming reduce travel start sharks grow move begin polluting
486

example of bleak

When I looked out the window in the morning, everything was covered with snow, and the sky was gray and cold.

e  SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension  •  Bonus Passages

© 2012 Cambium Learning® Sopris. Permission is granted to copy this page for student use in accordance with the licensing agreement.

6

Definitions: Context Clues
■■■ Read

■■■ Look

each definition. Pay attention to words or context clues that give hints about the word that best matches the definition. ■■■ Use the line number to help you locate the word in the passage. ■■■ Note that the part of speech (noun, adjective, verb, or adverb) of the target word in the definition will often match the part of speech of the correct answer. For example, move through the air: fly.
7 Noun Suffixes: -ion, -tion, and -ation
■■■ When

for context clues that help determine which meaning of the word makes sense in the sentence. ■■■ Check the answer by replacing the underlined word with the definition to see if it makes sense in the sentence.
9 Categories and Classification
■■■ Read

added to verbs, the suffixes -ion, -tion, and -ation change the verb into a noun to show an action, a state, or a result of doing something. For example, the word imagination means the act of imagining. ■■■ Read each sentence. ■■■ Use the word on the left to complete the sentence with the proper form of the suffix. For words that end in e, remember to drop the final e before adding the suffix.
8 Multiple Meaning Words
■■■ Multiple

across each row of words. what each word means. ■■■ Identify the word that is least similar in terms of meaning to the other words and circle it. ■■■ Check the answer by identifying the category for the remaining words.
■■■ Visualize

meaning words are words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. ■■■ Identify the multiple meaning word in each sentence.
e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A25

Intermediate

Guide to Genres
Genre comes from the French word for type. There are two main forms of text: prose and poetry.
Forms of Text Prose Poetry Definition Written language in its ordinary form Literary work characterized by an expression of feelings or ideas using rhythm, imagery, and often a special poetic form, such as a limerick or a quatrain

There are two main types of prose: fiction and nonfiction.
Type of Prose Fiction Author’s Purpose To tell an imaginative story, teach a lesson, give an insight, and/or entertain Examples folktales legends myths novels science fiction short stories Expository text: informational, descriptive, persuasive, narrative

Nonfiction

To inform, describe, convince, tell a story, and/or entertain using factual information or based on factual events

This program provides students with practice in Expository Text. The following chart defines several types of this text.
Expository Text Informational Text Author’s Purpose To inform through the objective presentation of factual information Examples directions encyclopedias informational Web sites research reports textbooks character sketches descriptive essays travel articles advertisements book and movie reviews letters to the editor persuasive essays autobiographies biographies blogs personal narratives

Descriptive Text

To describe a real thing, an experience, or an event using precise language that appeals to the senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell) To convince of a viewpoint using logic, facts, and emotion

Persuasive Text

Narrative Text

To tell a story of an actual event or experience, either one’s own (personal narrative) or that of another person; may also entertain with the use of humor, unique expression, and insight

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A27

Intermediate

Common English Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots
Common English Prefixes
Prefix Meaning not, in, on, without away, apart, not in, within, onto, cause to be ten in, into, not wrong, lack of more than one before in favor of, before do again at or over a long distance across or beyond not, opposite of Examples atypical discover, disable enable, empower decade incorrect, insert misunderstood multicellular pretest, precook protect rewrite, reread telephone, television transmit, transcontinental unlock, unfriendly

adisen-, emdecain-, immismultipreproreteletransun-

Common English Suffixes
Suffix Meaning capable of related to, like, action action or result of doing something in the past, quality or state someone who, more most full of when you do something, quality, state somewhat or like a person who uses or does something without how something is done shows action or the results of the action more than one belonging to Examples buildable fictional, rehearsal echolocation walked teacher, faster highest, largest hopeful walking tallish colonist, artist airless slowly, loudly enjoyment, government owners Ann’s ball

-able, -ible -al, -ial -ation, -ion, -sion, -tion -ed -er, -or -est -ful -ing -ish -ist -less -ly -ment -s, -es -’s, -s’

A28

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

Intermediate

Common English Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots
Common Greek and Latin Roots
Root aqua astro aud auto biblio bio chrono corp demo dict dorm geo graph hydro ject logy mega meter min mit, mis path ped phila phono photo port scope spect sphere sol struct tele terra Meaning water star hearing self book life time body the people speak, tell sleep earth write, draw water throw study great, large measure small, little send feeling, suffering foot love, friendship sound light carry look at see round sun build, form distant land Origin Greek Greek Latin Greek Greek Greek Greek Latin Greek Latin Latin Greek Greek Greek Latin Greek Greek Greek Latin Latin Greek Latin Greek Greek Greek Latin Greek Latin Greek Latin Latin Greek Latin Examples aquarium, aquaduct astronomy, astrology audio, audition autograph, autobiography bibliography biography, biology chronology corporation, corps democracy, demography dictate, predict dormant, dormitory geology, geography autobiography, biography dehydrate, hydroelectric reject, project biology megaphone, megabyte metric, meteorology minimize, minimum mission, transmit pathology pedestrian, pedal philanthropist, philanthropy phonograph, microphone photograph, photosynthesis transport, portable microscope, telescope inspect, spectator stratosphere solar, solstice instruction, construction telephone, television territory, terrestrial

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A29

Intermediate

Hasbrouk-Tindal Table of Oral Reading Fluency Norms
2005 Hasbrouck and Tindal Oral Reading Fluency Data
This table summarizes the results of a well-known study of oral reading fluency conducted by Jan Hasbrouck and Gerald Tindal. The technical report of their study, Oral Reading Fluency: 90 Years of Measurement, is available online at brtprojects.org/publications/technical-reports. The table details the oral reading fluency means for students in grades 1 through 8. Use this data, along with eSolution Fluency Assessment Passages and the San Diego Quick Assessment of Reading Ability or other reading inventory, to place students in eSolution at an appropriate level and monitor student progress. Fall cwpm* Winter cwpm* 81 47 23 12 6 106 79 51 25 11 128 99 71 44 21 125 100 72 42 18 146 120 92 62 36 Spring cwpm* 111 82 53 28 15 142 117 89 61 31 162 137 107 78 48 Grade Percentile 90 75 Fall cwpm* 145 119 94 68 45 166 139 110 85 61 177 153 127 98 68 180 156 128 102 79 185 161 133 106 77 Winter cwpm* 166 139 112 87 61 182 156 127 99 74 195 167 140 111 82 192 165 136 109 88 199 173 146 115 84 Spring cwpm* 180 152 123 98 72 194 168 139 109 83 204 177 150 122 93 202 177 150 123 98 199 177 151 124 97

4

50 25 10 90 75

5

50 25 10 90 75

Grade Percentile 90 75

1

50 25 10 90 75

6

50 25 10 90 75

2

50 25 10 90 75

7

50 25 10 90 75

3

50 25 10

8

50 25 10

*cwpm = Correct Words Per Minute

A30

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

Intermediate

San Diego Quick Assessment of Reading Ability
Directions: This is an individually administered sight-word reading assessment. Because this is a measure of sight-word knowledge, students need to recognize the words very quickly. Give a copy of the Student Form to the student to read. Choose a word list that is two to three grade levels below the student’s current grade level as the starting point. Ask the student to read each word aloud. Keep the student moving down the lists. Do not allow more than three to five seconds on any word. Rather, tell the student to go on to the next word. Mark the word skipped as incorrect. Stop the assessment when the student has missed three or more words in a list. Record the highest grade level for each of the three levels (independent, instructional, and frustration) in the Errors & Reading Levels table when testing is completed.

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A31

Intermediate

San Diego Quick Assessment of Reading Ability
Class Record Form

Errors & rEaDing LEvELs
reading Level student name independent (1 error) instructional (2 errors) Frustration (3+ errors)

66

The Six-Minute Solution: A Reading Fluency Program (Intermediate Level)

A32

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

Intermediate

San Diego Quick Assessment of Reading Ability
Student Record Form
NAMe: __________________________________________________

San Diego Quick Assessment of Reading Ability
DATe: _________________

Record the highest grade level for each:
INDePeNDeNT _______ INSTRucTIoNAL _______ FRuSTRATIoN _______

Preprimer see play me at run go and look can here Primer you come not with jump help is work are this grade one road live thank when bigger how always night spring today grade Two our please myself town early send wide believe quietly carefully

grade Three city middle moment frightened exclaimed several lonely drew since straight grade Four decided served amazed silent wrecked improved certainly entered realized interrupted grade Five scanty business develop considered discussed behaved splendid acquainted escaped grim grade six bridge commercial abolish trucker apparatus elementary comment necessity gallery relativity

grade seven amber dominion sundry capillary impetuous blight wrest enumerate daunted condescend grade Eight capacious limitation pretext intrigue delusion immaculate ascent acrid binocular embankment grade nine conscientious isolation molecule ritual momentous vulnerable kinship conservatism jaunty inventive grade Ten zany jerkin nausea gratuitous linear inept legality aspen amnesty barometer

grade Eleven galore rotunda capitalism prevaricate visible exonerate superannuate luxuriate piebald crunch

From “The Graded Word List: Quick Gauge of Reading Ability” by Margaret LaPray and Ramon Royal Ross, in Journal of Reading, 12, 305–307 (January, 1969) Copyright © by Margaret LaPray and the International Reading Association. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission.

© 2007 Sopris West Educational Services. All rights reserved.

Assessments e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

67 A33

Intermediate

San Diego Quick Assessment of Reading Ability
San Diego Quick Assessment of Reading Ability
Student Assessment see play me at run go and look can here you come not with jump help is work are this road live thank when bigger how always night spring today our please myself town early send wide believe quietly carefully city middle moment frightened exclaimed several lonely drew since straight decided served amazed silent wrecked improved certainly entered realized interrupted scanty business develop considered discussed behaved splendid acquainted escaped grim bridge commercial abolish trucker apparatus elementary comment necessity gallery relativity amber dominion sundry capillary impetuous blight wrest enumerate daunted condescend capacious limitation pretext intrigue delusion immaculate ascent acrid binocular embankment conscientious isolation molecule ritual momentous vulnerable kinship conservatism jaunty inventive zany jerkin nausea gratuitous linear inept legality aspen amnesty barometer galore rotunda capitalism prevaricate visible exonerate superannuate luxuriate piebald crunch

A34

68 The Six-Minute Solution: Teacher Guide • Appendix

A Reading Fluency Program (Intermediate Level)

© 2007 Sopris West Educational Services. All rights reserved.

Intermediate

Glossary
Activating background knowledge. Comprehension strategy where students connect new knowledge to knowledge they already have. Adjective. A word used to describe nouns and pronouns. Example: The sombrero has a wide brim. Adverb. A word used to describe verbs and adjectives. Example: Cats are able to run quickly and make great leaps. Affix. A morpheme or meaningful part of a word attached before or after a root to modify its meaning; a category that includes prefixes and suffixes. Analyzing. Comprehension strategy where students examine details of information or the structure of text to discover meaning. Antonyms. Words that have opposite meanings. Examples: hard, soft; different, same. Base word. A word that can stand on its own and to which prefixes or suffixes can be added. Examples: open, reopen, opening. Categorization and classification. A category is a group of people, animals, or things that all have something in common. To classify means to put things into groups or categories according to their similarities. Cause and effect. A stated or an implied relationship between an outcome and the events which brought it about. OR A series of events with an action-reaction combination. The cause is the reason something happens, and the effect is what happens as a result. Cloze question. Question that includes a sentence or paragraph in which one word is deleted, and the student is required to fill in the missing word. Sometimes several possible answer choices are presented and the student must choose the correct or the best possible choice. Compare and contrast. Showing or describing how two things are alike and different. Compound word. A word made up of two words that together create a third word. Examples: sunlight, sometimes, freestyle. Comprehension (see Reading comprehension). Context clues. The pieces of text that surround a word, phrase, or line that help explain or clarify its meaning. Contractions. A contraction is the shortening of two words into one word. The words do not can be formed into the contraction don’t. Descriptive text. Writing used to describe a real thing, an experience, or an event using precise language that appeals to the senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell). Examples: descriptive essays, travel articles, character sketches. Determining importance. Comprehension strategy where students identify the key ideas that are important to remember. DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) or DIBELS Next. A set of standardized measures designed to assess the mastery of literacy skills in students from kindergarten to sixth grade. Evaluating. Comprehension strategy where students determine the significance, worth, or merit of some idea or action based on the text and personal experience. Expository text. Writing that explains, informs, compares, or describes something. Examples: reports, articles, essays. Fact. Something known to be true, to exist, or to have happened. Nonfiction is made up of facts.

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A35

Intermediate

Glossary
Fiction. The genre of literature that includes made-up or imaginary stories, sometimes based upon real people, places, or events. Examples: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Charlotte’s Web. Fluency. The speed and accuracy of oral reading; the ability to read text with sufficient speed to support comprehension. Frustration reading level. When passages are simply too difficult for students to read and little or no learning will occur. Text-reading accuracy is below 90 percent correct. Genre. A literary category, such as fiction, nonfiction, and mystery. Also, a text category, such as prose and poetry. Graphic organizer. A visual aid that provides a way for students to analyze the structure of different kinds of informational text. Homographs (see Multiple meaning words). Homophones. Words that are pronounced the same but have a different meaning and usually are spelled differently. Examples: sea, see; would, wood. Idiom. A common phrase or expression that cannot be understood by the meanings of its separate words—only by the entire phrase. Examples: jumped ship, a piece of cake, turning point. Independent reading level. When passages can be easily read without teacher assistance or frustration. Textreading accuracy is at 97 percent correct or better. Inferring. Comprehension strategy where students draw conclusions based on information in a text. Informational text. Writing used to inform through the objective presentation of factual information. Examples: research reports, directions, encyclopedias. Instructional reading level. When material can be read by the student at a rate of about 95 percent accuracy, but some teacher guidance and instruction are necessary for content comprehension. Main idea. The central idea or thought in a passage, paragraph, or sentence. Monitoring comprehension. Comprehension strategy where students reflect on what they know and do not know about a topic. Morpheme. The smallest unit of a word that contains meaning; includes prefixes, suffixes, and roots. Example: un/pack/ed. Multiple choice question. Question that is composed of a stem, which can be a question, a statement, or an incomplete sentence, followed by a list of three to five items. Multiple meaning words. Words that are spelled the same and pronounced the same but have different meanings depending upon how they are used in the context. Also known as homographs. Examples: free, cells, light, bears. Narrative text. Writing used to tell a story of an actual event or experience, either one’s own (personal narrative) or that of another person; may also entertain with the use of humor or insight. Examples: personal narratives, blogs, biographies. Nonfiction. The genre of literature that has content containing facts and real events. Examples: biography, history, science. Noun. A word that is a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. Examples: man, New York City, wish. Opinion. A person’s feelings, personal views, or beliefs about a particular subject. Words like every, all, best, and better often indicate that a statement is an opinion.

A36

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

Intermediate

Glossary
Persuasive text. Writing used to convince the reader of a viewpoint using logic, facts, and emotion. Examples: persuasive essays, letters to the editor, book reviews, advertisements. Poetry. A literary work characterized by an expression of feelings or ideas using rhythm, imagery, and often a special poetic form, such as a limerick or a quatrain. Prefix. A letter or group of letters added to the beginning of a word that can change the word’s meaning. Example: rebuild. Prose. Written language in its ordinary form. Question-Answer relationship (QARs). According to Raphael (1988), a way to clarify how students approach the tasks of reading texts and answering questions. Students use four question-answer relationships to find the information needed to answer a specific question. QARs include Right There, Think & Search, Author & Me, and On My Own. Questioning. Comprehension strategy where students ask questions before, during, and after reading to deepen meaning. Question word. A word that typically begins a question. Examples: who, what, when, where, how, why. Reading comprehension. A reader’s ability to construct meaning from text. Root. A word or word part to which prefixes and suffixes can be added to make a word. Example: astronomy. Scope and sequence. An educational plan that lists what is to be taught and in what order. Sentence. A group of words with at least one noun and one verb that conveys a complete thought. Example: Dan ran. Sequence of events. The order in which events take place in a story or passage. Short answer question. Question that typically asks a student to directly answer a question clearly and concisely, usually in a couple of sentences. Similes. Phrases that compare two things using the word like or as. Example: Jake can swim like a fish. Suffix. A letter or group of letters added to the end of a word that can change a word’s meaning and/or part of speech. Example: building. Summarizing/Synthesizing. Comprehension strategy where students restate the main ideas in the text and/or create additional or new ideas. Synonyms. Words that have similar meanings. Examples: small, little; hurry, rush. Tier 2 words. According to Beck (2002), words that are likely to appear frequently in a wide variety of texts and in the written and oral language of mature language users. Examples: cope, empire, refine. Venn diagram. An illustration showing the relationship between two things by using circles that partly overlap. Verb. A word that describes an action or a state of being. Examples: run, sleep, jump. Visualizing. Comprehension strategy where students create mental images to deepen meaning.

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A37

Intermediate

References
Adams, G., Brown, S., & Van Zant, S. (1999). Summer reading intervention program prepares fifth grade students for middle school reading challenges. Educational Research Service Successful School Practices, 22(1), 6–8. Arlington, VA: Educational Research Service. Adams, G., Brown, S., & Van Zant, S. (2000). Working with words: A summer reading intervention program. Principal, 80(1), 59–60. Alexandria, VA: National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP). Allington, R. L. (1977). If they don’t read much, how they ever gonna get good? Journal of Reading, 21, 57–61. Allington, R. L. (1983). Fluency: The neglected reading goal in reading instruction. The Reading Teacher, 36, 556–561. Archer, A. L., & Gleason, M. M. (2002). Skills for school success. North Billerica, MA: Curriculum Associates, Inc. Archer, A. L., Gleason, M. M., & Vachon, V. L. (2002). REWARDS: Reading excellence, word attack, and rate development strategies. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services. Archer, A. L., & Hughes, C. A. (2011). Explicit instruction: Effective and efficient teaching. New York: Guilford Press. Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: Guilford Press. Becker, W. C. (1977). Teaching reading and language to the disadvantaged: What we have learned from research. Harvard Educational Review, 47, 518–543. Block, C. C., & Pressley, M. (2002). Comprehension instruction: Research-based practices. New York: Guilford Press. Butler, Y. G., & Hakuta, K. (2006). Cognitive factors in children’s L1 and L2 reading. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 10(1), 23–27. Carnine, D., Silbert, J., & Kame’enui, E. J. (1997). Direct instruction reading (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Carpenter, P. A., & Just, M. A. (1983). What your eyes do while your mind is reading. In K. Rayner (Ed.), Eye movements in reading: Perceptual and language processes (pp. 275–307). New York: Academic Press. Carroll, J., Davies, P., & Richman, B. (1971). The American heritage word frequency book. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, American Heritage Publishing. Chall, J. S., & Jacobs, V. A. (2003, Spring). Poor children’s fourth-grade slump. American Educator, Spring. Common Core State Standards, English Language Arts. Retrieved from www.corestandards.org. Consortium on Reading Excellence (CORE). (1999). Assessing reading: Multiple measures. Novato, CA: Arena Press. Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (1998). What reading does for the mind. American Educator, 22(1–2), 8–15. Cunningham, P. (2000). Phonics they use. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Dowhower, S. L. (1987). Effects of repeated reading on second-grade transitional readers’ fluency and comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 389–406. Dowhower, S. L. (1994). Repeated reading revisited: Research into practice. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 10, 343–358. Echevarria, J., Vogt, M. J., & Short, D. J. (2008). Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP model. Boston: Pearson. Farstrup, A. E., & Samuels, S. J. (Eds.). (2002). What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed.). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Feldman, K., & Kinsella, K. (2009). Narrowing the language gap: The case for explicit vocabulary instruction. New York: Scholastic. Foorman, B. R., & Mehta, P. (2002, November). Definitions of fluency: Conceptual and methodological challenges. PowerPoint® presentation at A Focus on Fluency forum, San Francisco, CA. Fountas, I. C., & Pinnell, G. S. (2001). Guiding readers and writers, grades 3–6. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Kazdan, S., & Allen, S. (1999). Effects of peer-assisted learning strategies in reading with and without training in elaborated help giving. Elementary School Journal, 99(3), 201–220. Gerhard, C. (1975). Making sense: Reading comprehension improved through categorization. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

A38

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

Intermediate

References
Good, R. H., & Kaminski, R. A. (2002). DIBELS: Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services. Greenwood, C. R., Delquadri, J. C., & Hall, R. V. (1989). Longitudinal effects of classwide peer tutoring. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 371–383. Haager, D., Klingner, J., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Evidence-based reading practices for response to intervention. Baltimore: Paul Brookes Publishing. Harcourt, Inc. (2001). Stanford achievement test series (9th ed.) (SAT-9). San Antonio, TX: Author. Hasbrouck, J. E., & Tindal, G. A. (2005). Oral reading fluency: 90 years of measurement (Tech. Rep. No. 33, Behavioral Research and Teaching [BRT]). Eugene: University of Oregon, College of Education. Retrieved January 24, 2006, from http://www.readnaturally.com/pdf/oralreadingfluency.pdf. Hasbrouck, J. E., & Tindal, G. A. (2006). Oral reading fluency norms: A valuable assessment tool for reading teachers. The Reading Teacher, 59(7), 636–644. Herrera, S. G., Perez, D. R., & Escamilla, K. (2010). Teaching reading to English learners. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Honig, B., Diamond, L., & Gutlohn, L. (2008). Teaching reading sourcebook. Berkeley, CA: Arena Press. Hudson, R. F., Lane, H. B., & Pullen, P. C. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702–714. Johns, J. L., & Lenski, S. D. (2001). Improving reading: A handbook of strategies (2nd ed., p. 164). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. Kamil, M. L., Borman, G. D., Dole, J., Kral, C. C., Salinger, T., & Torgesen, J. (2008). Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A practical guide (NCEE #2008-4027). National Center for Educational Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc. Karlsen, B., & Gardner, E. F. (1995). Stanford diagnostic reading test (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt, Inc. Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., & Schumm, J. S. (1998). Collaborative strategic reading during social studies in heterogeneous fourthgrade classrooms. Elementary School Journal, 99(1), 3–21. LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. J. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 293–323. La Pray, M., & Ross, R. R. (1969). The graded word list: Quick gauge of reading ability. Journal of Reading, 12(4), 305–307. Levy, B. A. (2001). Moving the bottom: Improving reading fluency. In M. Wolf (Ed.), Dyslexia, fluency, and the brain (pp. 357– 379). Timonium, MD: York Press. Levy, B. A., Nicholls, A., & Kroshen, D. (1993). Repeated readings: Process benefits for good and poor readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 56, 303–327. Lyon, G. R., & Chhabra, V. (2004). The science of reading research. Educational Leadership, 61, 12–17. MacGinitie, W., MacGinitie, R., Maria, K., & Dreyer, L. (2003). Gates-MacGinitie reading tests. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing. Mercer, C. D., Campbell, K. U., Miller, M. D., Mercer, K. D., & Lane, H. B. (2001). Effects of a reading fluency intervention for middle schoolers with specific learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15(4), 179–189. Meyer, M. S., & Felton, R. H. (1999). Repeated reading to enhanced fluency: Old approaches and new directions. Annals of Dyslexia, 49, 263–306. Moats, L. C. (2001, March). When older kids can’t read. Educational Leadership Report. Nagy, W. (1988). Teaching reading to improve reading comprehension. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Nagy, W., Anderson, R. C., Schommer, M., Scott, J. A., & Stallman, A. C. (1989). Morphological families in the internal lexicon. Reading Research Quarterly, 24(3), 262–282. Nagy, W., Herman, P. A., & Anderson, R. C. (1985). Learning words from context. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 233–253.

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A39

Intermediate

References
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Put reading first: Helping your child learn to read. Retrieved May 1, 2011, from www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.htm. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the national reading panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Retrieved May 1, 2011, from www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.htm. Palumbo, A., & Sanacore, J. (2009). Helping struggling middle school literacy learners achieve success. The Clearing House, 82(6), 275–280. Pinnell, G. S., Piluski, J. J., Wixson, K. K., Campbell, J. R., Gough, P. B., & Beatty, A. S. (1995). Listening to children read aloud: Data from NAEP’s integrated reading performance record (IRPR) at grade 4 (Report No. 23–FR–04). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Pressley, M., El-Dinary, P. B., Gaskins, I., Schuder, T., Bergman, J. L., Almasi, J., et al. (1992). Beyond direct explanation: Transactional instruction of reading comprehension strategies. Elementary School Journal, 92, 511–554. Raphael, T. E. (1982). Questioning answering strategies for children. Reading Teacher, 36, 186–190. Raphael, T. E. (1986). Teaching questions/answers relationships revisited. Reading Teacher, 39, 516–522. Raphael, T. E., & Au, K. H., (2005, November). QAR: Enhancing comprehension and test taking across grades and content areas. Reading Teacher, 59(3), 206–221. Reardon, S. J. (1990). Putting reading tests in their place. The New Advocate, 3, 29–37. Rosenshine, B., & Meister, C. (1994). Reciprocal teaching: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 64(4), 479– 530. Samuels, S. J. (1979). The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher, 32, 403–408. Scholastic, Inc. (2003). Scholastic reading inventory (SRI). New York: Author. Shapiro, E. S. (1996). Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360–407. Stanovich, K. E. (1990). Concepts in developmental theories of reading skill: Cognitive resources, automaticity, and modularity. Developmental Review, 10, 72–100. Stevens, R. J., Madden, N. A., Slavin, R. E., & Famish, A. M. (1987). Cooperative integrated reading and composition: Two field experiments. Reading Research Quarterly, 22(4), 433–454. Stieglitz, E. (2002). The Stieglitz informal reading inventory: Assessing reading behaviors from emergent to advanced levels (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Swanborn, M. S. L., & de Glopper, K. (1999). Incidental word learning while reading: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 69(3), 261–285. Topping, K. (1987). Paired reading: A powerful technique for parent use. The Reading Teacher, 40, 608–614. Torgesen, J. K. (2002). The prevention of reading difficulties. Journal of School Psychology, 40, 7–26. Torgesen, J. K., Houston, D. D., Rissman, L. M., Decker, S. M., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., et al. (2007). Academic literacy instruction for adolescents: A guidance document from the Center on Instruction. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation. Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., & Alexander, A. (2001). Principles of fluency instruction in reading: Relationships with established empirical outcomes. In M. Wolf (Ed.), Dyslexia, fluency, and the brain (pp. 333–355). Timonium, MD: York Press. Wolf, M. (Ed.) (2001). Dyslexia, fluency, and the brain. Timonium, MD: York Press. Wood, E., Woloshyn V., & Willoughby, T. (Eds.). (1995). Cognitive strategy instruction for middle and high schools. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books. Woodcock, R. W. (2000). Woodcock reading mastery test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

A40

Teacher Guide •

Appendix

Intermediate

Photo/Illustration Credits

Cover, title page: Girl. © iStockphoto.com/Sean Locke. Boy. © iStockphoto.com/Catalin Petolea. Tiger. © Jim Johnson. Hummingbird. Ernst Haeckel. Olives. © iStockphoto.com/susib. Statue. © iStockphoto.com/Timur Kulgarin. Paints. © Jennifer Rensel. Model T. Used by permission, Utah State Historical Society, all rights reserved. Whale. U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Great Wall. © Jupiter Images. F1: © iStockphoto.com/stphillips. F2: © iStockphoto.com/Lisa F. Young. F4: © iStockphoto.com/Sean Locke. F6: © Jim Johnson. F10: © iStockphoto.com/Timur Kulgarin. F11: © iStockphoto.com/Thomas Perkins. F13: © iStockphoto.com/claudiobaba. F16: Girl. © iStockphoto.com/skynesher. Woman. © iStockphoto.com/ fjdelvalle. F18: © iStockphoto.com/Jaroslaw Wojcik. F20: © iStockphoto.com/zhang bo. F23: © iStockphoto.com/quavondo. F26: © iStockphoto.com. F27: © iStockphoto.com/nano. F28: © Jim Johnson. F29: Isaac Basire. F32: © iStockphoto.com/PeskyMonkey. F39: © Punchstock. F41: Adolphe Millot. F44: © iStockphoto.com/ arekmalang. F46: © iStockphoto.com/AVAVA. F48: © iStockphoto.com/laflor. 3: © iStockphoto.com/digihelion. 5: © Jupiter Images. 7: © PhotoDisc. 9: © iStockphoto. com/Timur Kulgarin. 11: Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission, Vol. XXIII, for 1903. Part I. P. 574, Plate III. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 13: © Jim Johnson. 17: © iStockphoto.com/parameter. 19: Makaristos. 21: © iStockphoto.com/susib. 23: The Robert Runyon Photograph Collection, image number, 05020, courtesy of The Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin. 25: © iStockphoto.com/bacalao64. 27: © Digital Stock. 29: © Jupiter Images. 31: © iStockphoto.com/McKevin. 33: L. C. McClure. 35: © iStockphoto.com/PeskyMonkey. 37: © iStockphoto.com/Paul Tessier. 39: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-DIG-npcc-20403. 43: © Digital Stock. 45: © Jupiter Images. 47: William P. Gottlieb/Ira and Leonore S. Gershwin Fund Collection, Music Division, Library of Congress. 49: © Jupiter Images. 55: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-DIG-npcc-19345. 57: Viking Project, Viking 1 Orbiter, MG07S078-334SP, NASA. 59: © iStockphoto.com/Classix. 61: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-98072. 65: Used by permission, Utah State Historical Society, all rights reserved. 67: USIA (http://course.cas.sc.edu/germanyk/post1945/The-Southern_Problem_Confronting.html)/National Archives and Records Administration Records of the U.S. Information Agency Record Group 306. 69: © iStockphoto.com/Christine Glade. 71: © iStockphoto.com/ Linda Steward. 73: Victor Daireaux. 75: © iStockphoto.com/laflor. 77: Greg Wilker/USFWS. 79: © Corel. 81: © Jupiter Images. 83: © Jupiter Images. 85: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-11967. 87: United States Department of the Interior Geological Survey, The National Atlas of the United States of America, Washington, D.C.: 1970. 89: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-25564. 91: © iStockphoto.com/konradlew. 93: © iStockphoto.com/Lisa Fletcher. 95: Sharkdiver68. 101: National Portrait Gallery, Harriet Tubman. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. 107: Simm. 109: © iStockphoto.com/rest. 111: © iStockphoto.com/mrloz. 113: © iStockphoto.com/EXTREME-PHOTOGRAPHER. 115: © PhotoDisc. 117: © iStockphoto.com/rotofrank. 119: U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 121: Robin Chen. 123: Fg2. 127: © iStockphoto.com/Jaroslaw Wojcik. 133: © iStockphoto.com/gaspr13. 135: © Eric Guo. 137: Isaac Basire. 139: © PhotoDisc. 141: Kieff. 145: Valroe. 147: © Rob Carson. 149: John Walker. 151: Illustration by Karl Bodmer, Indians Hunting the Bison (1839). 159: © iStockphoto.com/Ron and Patty Thomas Photography. 161: Sheilalau. 163: Image courtesy of the Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center. Photo by William L. Stefanov, NASA-JSC, ISS023-E-57948. 165: © iStockphoto.com/Shannon Stent. 167: © Jim Johnson. 169: Ahazan. 171: Illustration from W L Distant, Fauna of British India, Rhynchota. 175: Ernst Haeckel. 177: © iStockphoto.com/Andras Deak. 179: © iStockphoto.com/Michael Lynch. 181: © iStockphoto.com/Anton Seleznev. 185: © iStockphoto.com/Craig Dingle. 187: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-6166A. 189: © iStockphoto.com/Arkadi Bojarsinov. 193: Mdf. 195: Jon Sullivan. 197: John K. Hillers, 1879. American Indian Select List number 79. National Archives. 201: © iStockphoto.com/ruivalesousa. 205: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-111147. 207: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZC4-7160. 211: © PhotoDisc. 213: Stevenfruitsmaak. 215: Mark A. Wilson. 217: Ernst Haeckel. 221: © iStockphoto.com/Mendelewski. 223: © iStockphoto.com/ Ursula Alter. 225: © iStockphoto.com/AlasdairJames. 227: © iStockphoto.com/Pgiam. 229: © iStockphoto.com/enjoynz. 231: © Jennifer Rensel. 233: © Jim Johnson. 235: Arpingstone. 237: © Ian Morris. 239: © Cam Vilay. 243: Dave Menke/USFWS. 245: A. E. Verrill. 247: National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, 80-12873. 253: Photographer’s Mate 2nd Class Terry Spain, U.S. Navy. 255: Gengiskanhg. 257: Illustration of Russian Czar Peter I (the Great) by Godfrey Kneller (1698).263: © iStockphoto.com/morkeman. 265: © iStockphoto.com/JOE CICAK. 267: Illustration by John Trumbull, Declaration of Independence (1818). 269: The SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE. 271: © iStockphoto.com/cobalt. 273: Ernst Haeckel. 275: Jost Amman. 277: Library and Archives Canada / C-004490. 279: © iStockphoto.com/ktsimage. 281: © iStockphoto.com/Lee Sutterby. 283: Signed copy of the Constitution of the United States; Miscellaneous Papers of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789; Records of the Continental and Confederation Congresses and the Constitutional Convention, 1774-1789, Record Group 360; National Archives. 289: Jastrow from Bibliotheque nationale de France, Paris. 291: U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Great Lakes Enviornmental Research Laboratory. 293: Moffett Studio / Library and Archives Canada / C-017335. 297: Gringer. 301: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. 305: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-DIG-highsm-02779. 307: © iStockphoto.com/cristianl. 309: Illustration by Gilbert Stuart, Portrait of George Washington (The Constable-Hamilton Portrait) (1797). 313: © iStockphoto.com/VikramRaghuvanshi. A3: © iStockphoto.com/Qualisule. A5: Timothy Knepp/USFWS. A7: Adolphe Millot. A9: © iStockphoto.com/Andras Deak. A11: © iStockphoto.com/tzara. A13: Donna Dewhurst/USFWS. A15: © Digital Stock. A17: © Jupiter Images. A19: © iStockphoto.com/Robert Morton. A21: © iStockphoto.com/Michael Lynch. A23: © Jim Johnson. A25: © iStockphoto. com/Lee Sutterby.

e SOLUTION: Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

A41

Intermediate Level
Powerful Instruction in Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

All New Updated and Expanded Six-Minute Solution

What Is eSolution? • ore than 150 engaging informational M passages at six different reading levels (grades 1– 6) • ngoing fluency practice to build speed, accuracy, O and reader confidence • xplicit instruction in comprehension strategies to E promote deep reading • Proven methods for developing vocabulary • Digital learning opportunities for students • nline data management for teachers to track O student progress • nteractive whiteboard activities including all I passages and student exercises Who Needs the Intermediate Level? All students, including ELs, in grades 3–8 who need to: • accelerate and strengthen their reading development • prepare for curriculum and standardized achievement tests Interactive • Motivating • Effective www.soprislearning.com

(800) 547- 6747 • www.soprislearning.com

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.