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Representations and Characters of Groups Now in its second edition, this text provides a modern introduction to the representation theory of ®nite groups. The authors have revised the popular ®rst edition and added a considerable amount of new material. The theory is developed in terms of modules, since this is appropriate for more advanced work, but considerable emphasis is placed upon constructing characters. The character tables of many groups are given, including all groups of order less than 32, and all simple groups of order less than 1000. Among the applications covered are Burnside's pa q b theorem, the use of character theory in studying subgroup structure and permutation groups, and a description of how to use representation theory to investigate molecular vibration. Each chapter is accompanied by a variety of exercises, and full solutions to all the exercises are provided at the end of the book. This will be ideal as a text for a course in representation theory, and in view of the applications of the subject, will be of interest to mathematicians, chemists and physicists alike.

**R E P R E S E N TAT ION S AN D C H AR ACT E R S OF G ROU P S
**

G O R D O N JA M E S a n d M A RT I N L I E B E C K

Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London

Second Edition

PUBLISHED BY CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS (VIRTUAL PUBLISHING) FOR AND ON BEHALF OF THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 IRP 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia http://www.cambridge.org © Cambridge University Press 1993, 2001 This edition © Cambridge University Press (Virtual Publishing) 2003 First published in printed format 1993 Second edition 2001 A catalogue record for the original printed book is available from the British Library and from the Library of Congress Original ISBN 0 521 81205 4 hardback Original ISBN 0 521 00392 X paperback

ISBN 0 511 01700 6 virtual (netLibrary Edition)

Contents

Preface 1 Groups and homomorphisms 2 Vector spaces and linear transformations 3 Group representations 4 FG-modules 5 FG-submodules and reducibility 6 Group algebras 7 FG-homomorphisms 8 Maschke's Theorem 9 Schur's Lemma 10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra 11 More on the group algebra 12 Conjugacy classes 13 Characters 14 Inner products of characters 15 The number of irreducible characters 16 Character tables and orthogonality relations 17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters 18 Some elementary character tables 19 Tensor products 20 Restriction to a subgroup 21 Induced modules and characters 22 Algebraic integers 23 Real representations 24 Summary of properties of character tables 25 Characters of groups of order pq 26 Characters of some p-groups 27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 v

page vii 1 14 30 38 49 53 61 70 78 89 95 104 117 133 152 159 168 179 188 210 224 244 263 283 288 298 311

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28 Character table of GL(2, q) 322 29 Permutations and characters 337 30 Applications to group theory 348 31 Burnside's Theorem 361 32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 367 Solutions to exercises 397 Bibliography 454 Index 455

Preface

We have attempted in this book to provide a leisurely introduction to the representation theory of groups. But why should this subject interest you? Representation theory is concerned with the ways of writing a group as a group of matrices. Not only is the theory beautiful in its own right, but it also provides one of the keys to a proper understanding of ®nite groups. For example, it is often vital to have a concrete description of a particular group; this is achieved by ®nding a representation of the group as a group of matrices. Moreover, by studying the different representations of the group, it is possible to prove results which lie outside the framework of representation theory. One simple example: all groups of order p2 (where p is a prime number) are abelian; this can be shown quickly using only group theory, but it is also a consequence of basic results about representations. More generally, all groups of order pa q b ( p and q primes) are soluble; this again is a statement purely about groups, but the best proof, due to Burnside, is an outstanding example of the use of representation theory. In fact, the range of applications of the theory extends far beyond the boundaries of pure mathematics, and includes theoretical physics and chemistry ± we describe one such application in the last chapter. The book is suitable for students who have taken ®rst undergraduate courses involving group theory and linear algebra. We have included two preliminary chapters which cover the necessary background material. The basic theory of representations is developed in Chapters 3±23, and our methods concentrate upon the use of modules; although this accords with the more modern style of algebra, in several instances our proofs differ from those found in other textbooks. The main results are elegant and surprising, but at ®rst sight they sometimes have an air of mystery vii

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Representations and characters of groups

about them; we have chosen the approach which we believe to be the most transparent. We also emphasize the practical aspects of the subject, and the text is illustrated with a wealth of examples. A feature of the book is the wide variety of groups which we investigate in detail. By the end of Chapter 28, we have presented the character tables of all groups of order less than 32, of all p-groups of order at most p4 , and of all the simple groups of order less than 1000. Every chapter is accompanied by a set of Exercises, and the solutions to all of these are provided at the end of the book. We would like to thank Dr Hans Liebeck for his careful reading of our manuscript and the many helpful suggestions which he made.

In this second edition, we have included two new chapters; one (Chapter 28) deals with the character tables of an in®nite series of groups, and the other (Chapter 29) covers aspects of the representation theory of permutation groups. We have also added a considerable amount of new material to Chapters 20, 23 and 30, and made minor amendments elsewhere.

Preface to Second Edition

h of G to form another element of G. which we shall use extensively to illustrate the later theory. so we begin with a resume of facts about groups. together with a rule for combining any two elements g. we introduce several examples.1 Groups and homomorphisms This book is devoted to the study of an aspect of group theory. this rule must satisfy the following axioms: (1) for all g. there exists an element gÀ1 in G such that gg À1 g À1 g eX We refer to the rule for combining elements of G as the product operation on G. h. An elementary course on abstract algebra would normally cover all the material in the chapter. eg ge g. and any book on basic group theory will supply you with further details. such as dihedral groups and symmetric groups. (2) there exists an element e in G such that for all g in G. most of which you should Â Â know already. (3) for all g in G. 1 . One or two results which we shall use only infrequently are demoted to the exercises at the end of the chapter ± you can refer to the solutions if necessary. k in G. Groups A group consists of a set G. ( gh)k g(hk). written gh. In addition.

for two symmetries f and g. and denote by C the set of all complex numbers. These 2n rotations and re¯ections form a group under the product operation of composition (that is. Write b for the re¯ection in the . There are n rotation symmetries: these are r0 . . 1. then Cn f1. . The product of an element g with itself.1 Examples (1) Let n be a positive integer. for the identity element of G. and consider the rotation and re¯ection symmetries of a regular n-sided polygon. and that every g in G has just one inverse. rather than e. a nÀ1 g. under addition. then we call G a ®nite group. and so on. If the number of elements in G is ®nite.2 Representations and characters of groups Axiom (1) states that the product operation is associative. and an 1. the number of elements in G is called the order of G. X X X . is a group of order n. with the usual multiplication of complex numbers. is a group. and is written D2 n. There are also n re¯ection symmetries: these are re¯ections in the n lines passing through O and a corner or the mid-point of a side of the polygon. gÀ2 ( gÀ1 )2 . . is written g 2 . the element e in axiom (2) is an identity element of G. . (3) Let n be an integer with n > 3. gg. Usually we write 1. This group is called the dihedral group of order 2n. similarly 3 g g 2 g. (2) The set Z of all integers. r1 . a2 . Also. Let A be a corner of the polygon. g0 1. r nÀ1 where r k is the (clockwise) rotation about the centre O through an angle 2ðkan. the product fg means `®rst do f. then do g'). and is written |G|. It is elementary to see that G has just one identity element. It is written as Cn and is called the cyclic group of order n. a. The set of nth roots of unity in C. If a e2ðia n . and gÀ1 is an inverse of g in axiom (3).

b: an 1. We use the notation H < G to indicate that H is a subgroup of G. forms a group. we have ba j aÀ j b (using the relation ba aÀ1 b). It is an in®nite group. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX (4) For n a positive integer. . A subset H of G is said to be a subgroup if H is itself a group under the product operation inherited from G. It is called the symmetric group of degree n. and is denoted by GL(n. Then the n rotations are 1. which leaves the polygon ®xed). The set of all invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. The order of Sn is n!. X X X . While Cn and Z are abelian. b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X These relations determine the product of any two elements of the group. a. and the n re¯ections are b. . ab. n}. . a nÀ1 (where 1 denotes the identity. . A group G is said to be abelian if gh hg for all g and h in G. (5) Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). 2. which we denote by In or just I. under the product operation of composition. and is written Sn . is a group. a2 b. F). Subgroups Let G be a group. b2 1. This group is called the general linear group of degree n over F.Groups and homomorphisms 3 line through O and A. F) is of course the identity matrix. X X X . D2 n is generated by a and b. . under matrix multiplication. a nÀ1 bX Thus all elements of D2 n are products of powers of a and b ± that is. a2 . Check that an 1. For example. The identity of GL(n. most of the other examples given above are non-abelian groups. the set of all permutations of {1. and hence (a i b)(a j b) a i ba j b a i aÀ j bb a iÀ j X We summarize all this in the presentation D2 n ha. and write a for the rotation r1 .

g. In this case. (2) Let G be a group and g P G.5 below. The subset h gi f g n : n P Zg is a subgroup of G. and let i 0 0 1 A . B X 0 Ài À1 0 . the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in C.2 Examples (1) For every group G. (3) Let G be a group and let a.4 Representations and characters of groups It is easy to see that a subset H of a group G is a subgroup if and only if the following two conditions hold: (1) 1 P H. all elements of the form a i1 b j1 a i2 b j2 X X Xa i n b j n for some n. we call H the subgroup generated by a and b. called the cyclic subgroup generated by g. We illustrate the construction in the next example. g 2 . b P G. and again in Example 1. If G k gl for some g P G then we call G a cyclic group. both {1} and G are subgroups of G. h gi f1. we can similarly de®ne hSi. Then H is a subgroup of G. C). g rÀ1 gX We call r the order of the element g.1 are cyclic. 1. biX Given any ®nite set S of elements of G. let r be the least positive integer such that g r 1. and write H ha. (4) Let G GL(2. De®ne H to be the subset of G consisting of all elements which are products of powers of a and b ± that is. jk P Z for 1 < k < n. This construction gives a powerful method of ®nding new groups as subgroups of given groups. then k gl is ®nite. The groups Cn and Z in Examples 1. k P H then hkÀ1 P H. then r is equal to the number of elements in k gl ± indeed. where ik . If gn 1 for some n > 1. X X X . the subgroup of G generated by S. and (2) if h. such as general linear or symmetric groups.

the subgroup of G generated by A and B. h)( g9. we call g an even or an odd permutation. . The group H is called the quaternion group of order 8. Hence H has at most eight elements. . or they all have an odd number of transpositions. The above three relations determine the product of any two elements of Q8 . j. h9 P H. and using the ®rst two relations. With this product operation. h9) ( gg9. A2 B2 . . . n and ®xes the other n À 2 numbers. accordingly. we see that every element of H has the form A i B j for some integers i. . A2 B2 . and is written Q8. and consider G 3 H f( g. called the direct product of G and H.Groups and homomorphisms Put H kA. Bl. The subset An f g P Sn : g is an even permutationg is a subgroup of Sn . Let G and H be groups. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 iX (5) A transposition in the symmetric group Sn is a permutation which interchanges two of the numbers 1. called the alternating group of degree n. we can take 0 < i < 3 and 0 < j < 1. 2. 0 < j < 1) are all distinct. hh9) for all g. Every permutation g in Sn can be expressed as a product of transpositions. G 3 H is a group. Direct products We describe a construction which produces a new group from given ones. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X 5 Using the third relation. Since the matrices Ai B j (0 < i < 3. in fact j Hj 8. h): g P G and h P HgX De®ne a product operation on G 3 H by ( g. It can be shown that either all such expressions for g have an even number of transpositions. Check that A4 I. so we have the presentation Q8 hA. B: A4 I. g9 P G and all h.

Homomorphisms Given groups G and H. then the direct product G1 3 X X X 3 Gr is f( g 1 . X X X . A function W: G 3 H is invertible if there is a function ö: H 3 G such that for all g P G. the image of g under a function W is written as gW. By an expression W: g 3 h. g r ): g i P Gi for 1 < i < rg. . 1. We often indicate that W is a function from G to H by the notation W: G 3 H. if G1 . h P H. . An invertible function is also called a bijection. 3 Gr is also ®nite. g9 ) ( g 1 g9 . X X X . those functions from G to H which `preserve the group structure' ± the so-called homomorphisms ± are of particular importance. ( gW)ö g and (hö)W hX Then ö is called the inverse of W. we generally apply functions on the right ± that is. we mean that h gW. g2 P G implies that g1 g2 ) and surjective (that is. g r )( g9 . . |Gr |. g1 W g2 W for g1 . g r g9 )X 1 r 1 r If all the groups Gi are ®nite. . not as W g. . A function W from G to H is invertible if and only if it is both injective (that is. . of order |G1 | . g 2 P GX . where g P G and h P H. . . .6 Representations and characters of groups More generally. Functions A function from one set G to another set H is a rule which assigns a unique element of H to each element of G. . then G1 3 . In this book.3 Example The group C2 3 . 3 C2 (r factors) has order 2 r and all its nonidentity elements have order 2. X X X . If G and H are groups. X X X . with product operation de®ned by ( g1 . for every h P H there exists g P G such that gW h). then a homomorphism from G to H is a function W: G 3 H which satis®es ( g1 g 2 )W ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g 1 . Gr are groups. and is written as WÀ1 .

1. then G and H are said to be isomorphic. 0 < j < 1. also. and write the 2n elements of G in the form ai b j with 0 < i < n À 1. WÀ1 is an isomorphism from H to G. Then ar bs at bu a i b j for some i. and we write G H. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. (ar bs at bu )W (a i b j )W x i y j x r y s x t y u (ar bs )W . If there is an isomorphism W from G to H. (at bu )W. 0 < s < 1.4 Example Let G D2 n ka. b: an b2 1.Groups and homomorphisms 7 An invertible homomorphism is called an isomorphism. Moreover. j with 0 < i < n À 1. and so W is a homomorphism. 0 < t < n À 1. and suppose that H contains elements x and y which satisfy x n y 2 1. y À1 xy x À1 . i and j are determined by repeatedly using the relations an b2 1. so H G. Suppose that 0 < r < n À 1. y À1 xy x À1 X We shall prove that the function W: G 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < n À 1. 0 < u < 1. 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. we can also deduce that xr ys xt yu x i y j X Therefore.4 in action. We now demonstrate the technique of Example 1. y be the following permutations in G: x (1 2 3 4 5).5 Example Let G S5 and let x. 0 < j < 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X Since we have x n y 2 1. The following example displays a technique which can often be used to prove that certain functions are homomorphisms. Let H be any group. y (2 5)(3 4)X .

we have . a group of order 10. . . Now recall that D10 ha. H kx. the function W: D10 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 4. . Since G Hx1 X X X Hxr . b: a5 b2 1.8 Representations and characters of groups (Here we adopt the usual cycle notation ± thus. the function h 3 hxi (h P H) is a bijection from H to Hxi . and let Hx1 . and so on. Since W is invertible. and Hxi Hxj is empty if i T j. Using the above relations. Thus.4. yl D10. every element of G is in precisely one of the cosets). and so j Hxi j j Hj. we deduce that jGj rj HjX In particular. For x in G. Hxr be all the distinct right cosets of H in G. yl of G. we see that H fx i y j : 0 < i < 4. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX By Example 1. y À1 xy x À1 X Let H be the subgroup kx. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. Cosets Let G be a group and let H be a subgroup of G. The distinct right cosets of H in G form a partition of G (that is. it is an isomorphism. (1 2 3 4 5) denotes the permutation 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 1. . For all i. 0 < j < 1g.) Check that x 5 y 2 1. the subset Hx fhx: h P Hg of G is called a right coset of H in G. Suppose now that G is ®nite.

Thus jG: Hj jGjaj Hj when G is ®nite. Normal subgroups A subgroup N of a group G is said to be a normal subgroup of G if gÀ1 Ng N for all g P G (where gÀ1 Ng f gÀ1 ng: n P Ng). we have fxy: x P Ng and y P Nhg NghX Hence we can de®ne a product operation on GaN by (Ng)(Nh) Ngh for all g.Groups and homomorphisms 1. and is written as jG: Hj. Then N v G and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let N GaN fN . h P GX This makes GaN into a group. we see that GaN C2 3 C2 . 1. a2 }. the sub-groups {1} and G are normal subgroups of G. called the factor group of G by N. and so Sn aAn C2 . The importance of the condition gÀ1 Ng N (for all g P G) is that it can be used to show that for all g. If n > 2 then there are just two right cosets of An in Sn . The subgroup kal is also normal in G.7 Examples (1) For every group G.6 Lagrange's Theorem If G is a ®nite group and H is a subgroup of G. a . since b P H while aÀ1 ba a2 b P H. Na. b: a4 b2 1. Suppose that N v G and let GaN be the set of right cosets of N in G. then j Hj divides |G|. (3) Let G D8 ka. we write N v G to indicate that N is a normal subgroup of G. we have An v Sn . but the subgroup H kbl is not normal in G. ka2 l {1. 9 The number r of distinct right cosets of H in G is called the index of H in G. NabgX Since (Na)2 (Nb)2 (Nab)2 N. namely An f g P Sn : g eveng. h P G. and An (1 2) f g P Sn : g oddgX Thus |Sn :An | 2. Nb. (2) For n > 1.

G is `built' out of these two smaller groups. For example. Also. If G is a ®nite group which is not simple. is simple. Continuing this process with the smaller groups. we relate normal subgroups and factor groups to homomorphisms. We de®ne the kernel of W by (1X8) Ker W f g P G: gW 1gX Then Ker W is a normal subgroup of G. 1.10 Representations and characters of groups Simple groups A group G is said to be simple if G T {1} and the only normal subgroups of G are {1} and G. and Im W is a subgroup of H. The following result describes the way in which the kernel and image of W are related.10 Theorem Suppose that G and H are groups and let W: G 3 H be a homomorphism. simple groups are fundamental to the study of ®nite groups. Kernels and images To conclude the chapter. the cyclic group Cp . the image of W is (1X9) Im W f gW: g P Gg. and in a sense. then G has a normal subgroup N such that both N and G/N have smaller order than G. We shall give examples of non-abelian simple groups in later chapters ± the smallest one is A5 . we eventually see that G is `built' out of a collection of simple groups. with p a prime number. Let G and H be groups and suppose that W: G 3 H is a homomorphism. (This is analogous to the fact that every positive integer is built out of its prime factors.) Thus. Then GaKer W Im WX An isomorphism is given by the function Kg 3 gW where K Ker W. ( g P G) .

is a subgroup of H. G1 3 . Im W C2 . then G is cyclic of prime order. We have Ker W An . . b: a4 1. 3 Gr .7(2) that Sn /An C2 . Show that if G is an abelian group which is simple. Show that either W is an isomorphism or H {1}. Gr . and that W: G 3 H is a surjective homomorphism. A normal subgroup N of G is a subgroup such that gÀ1 Ng N for all g in G. with G simple. We know from Example 1. C) the group of invertible n 3 n matrices over C. and the image. if g is an even permutation. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 11 is a homomorphism. . Exercises for Chapter 1 1. GL(n.10. An the alternating group of degree n. is a normal subgroup of G. with multiplication (Ng)(Nh) NghX 3. Ker W.11 Example The function W: Sn 3 C2 given by & 1. g2 in G. The kernel. The factor group GaN consists of the right cosets Ng ( g P G). 2. Q8 ka. Summary of Chapter 1 1. . Im W. b: an b2 1. . 2. if g is an odd permutation. Examples of groups are Cn ka: an 1l. D2 n ka. . . The factor group GaKer W is isomorphic to Im W. Suppose that G and H are groups. a2 b2 . illustrating Theorem 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. A homomorphism W: G 3 H is a function such that ( g1 g 2 )W ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g1 . Sn the symmetric group of degree n. W: g 3 À1. .Groups and homomorphisms 1. the direct product of the groups G1 . and for n > 2.

d À1 cd cÀ1 iX (a) Let x. de®ned by ë: ar bs 3 X r Y s . Y i of GL(2. c2 d 2 . Y be the 2 3 2 matrices which are given by 0 i 0 À1 X . Find Ker ö and Ker ø. is a homomorphism. d: c4 1. are homomorphisms. b: a4 b2 1. Prove that G An is a normal subgroup of G. 6. (a) Show that every subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic. Let G D8 ha.12 Representations and characters of groups 3. . i 0 1 0 and let L be the subgroup hX . (b) Let X. and Ga (G An ) C2 X 4. 0 < s < 1). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. 5. and let K be the subgroup kx. Prove that f g P G: g n 1g is a cylic subgroup of G of order n. Prove that this homomorphism is an isomorphism. yl of S4 . Show that both the functions ö: G 3 K and ø: H 3 K. de®ned by ö: ar bs 3 x r y s . and H Q8 hc. ø: cr d s 3 x r y s (0 < r < 3. and let n be a positive integer which divides |G|.Y . Show that just one of the functions ë: G 3 L and ì: H 3 L. 0 < s < 1). y are elements of G with the same order. y (3 4). (c) If G is a ®nite cyclic group and x. (b) Let G be a ®nite cyclic group. ì: cr d s 3 X r Y s (0 < r < 3. and that G is not contained in An . C). Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . y be the permutations in S4 which are given by x (1 2). Prove that D4 m D2 m 3 C2 if m is odd. show that x is a power of y.

8. Bl has order 16. . and B2 A4 and BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X Show that the group kA. Prove that every ®nite subgroup of this group is cyclic. C) such that A has order 8.2(4). under the usual multiplication. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G with |G: H| 2. Show that the set of non-zero complex numbers. Prove that H v G. B has order 4. 9. Show that every group of even order contains an element of order 2. Find elements A and B of GL(2. is a group.Groups and homomorphisms 13 7.) 10. (Hint: compare Q8 in Example 1.

we explain in detail how the results work. Vector spaces Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). where we deal with projections. A vector space over F is a set V. An exception occurs in the last section. we gather the results from linear algebra concerning vector spaces. (1) ë(u v) ëu ëv. (b) for all u. so we omit the proofs. namely group theory and linear algebra. For reference purposes. (4) 1v v. these rules must satisfy: (2. v of V to form an element u v of V. ì in F. in case you have not come across projections before.1) (a) V is an abelian group under addition.) Moreover. here. The elements of V are called vectors. and a rule for multiplying any element v of V by any element ë of F to form an element ëv of V. We write 0 for the identity element of the abelian group V under addition. and those of F are called scalars. linear transformations and matrices which we shall use later. 14 . v in V and all ë. (The latter rule is called scalar multiplication. (2) (ë ì)v ëv ìv. Most of the material will be familiar to you if you have taken a ®rst course on linear algebra.2 Vector spaces and linear transformations An attractive feature of representation theory is that it combines two strands of mainstream mathematics. together with a rule for adding any two elements u. (3) (ëì)v ë(ìv).

x9 ) (x1 x9 . . v n are linearly dependent if ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n 0 for some ë1 . A vector v in V is a linear combination of v1 . . v n if v ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n for some ë1 . . X X X . . . (2) More generally. v n be vectors in a vector space V over F. . . . we consider row vectors (x1 . . xn ) (x9 . . xn ) (ëx1 . De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on R2 by (x. . . ë(x. y) (ëx. . X X X . not all of which are zero. . . y) (x9. ë n in F. Bases of vector spaces Let v1 . . X X X . . v1 . y) where x and y are real numbers. . . X X X . . We say that v1 . We denote the set of all such row vectors by F n. ëxn )X Then F n is a vector space over F. xn x9 ). . y9) (x x9. x2 . . .Vector spaces and linear transformations 15 2. X X X . . . . x2 . Throughout this book. . ë n in F. . and de®ne addition and scalar multiplication on F n by (x1 . . . otherwise. . we shall consider only vector spaces V which are ®nite-dimensional ± this means that V has a basis consisting of ®nitely many vectors.2 Examples (1) Let R2 denote the set of all ordered pairs (x. . The number of vectors in a basis of V is called the dimension of V and is written as dim V. . v n form a basis of V if they span V and are linearly independent. It turns out that any two bases of V have the same number of vectors. . ë y)X Then R2 is a vector space over R. for each positive integer n. The vectors v1 . y y9). v n . v n are said to span V if every vector in V is a linear combination of v1 . 1 n 1 n ë(x1 . xn ) where x1 . . as above. . If V {0} then dim V 0. . X X X . The vector space V is n-dimensional if dim V n. The vectors v1 . . . . v n are linearly independent. . xn belong to F.

v n of a vector space V. X X X .4) If v1 . . . (1. then there exist v k1 . 1. . X X X . X X X . 0). 1.6 Examples (1) {0} and V are subspaces of V. (0. (2. v k are linearly independent vectors in V. . 1) is a basis of V. X X X .16 Representations and characters of groups 2. (2) Let u1 . X X X . 0. so dim V n. . (1. . 0. . . ur be vectors in V. (0. . sp (u1 . . X X X . ë n in F. . . 1)X Given a basis v1 . 0. it is necessary and suf®cient that all the following conditions hold: (2. there are many bases of V. . 0. (3) if ë P F and u P U then ëu P U. . .3 Example Let V F n. . . . . v P U then u v P U. . X X X . (2) if u. Then (1. . 0). 0). We de®ne sp (u1 . . v n in V such that v1 . . . .5) (1) 0 P U. . ur . ur . X X X . 1. . 0. . the next result says that any linearly independent vectors can be extended to a basis. with ë1 . Indeed. . . 0. X X X . v n form a basis of V. . 1. and it is called the subspace spanned by u1 . 2. For a subset U of V to be a subspace. . ur ) to be the set of all linear combinations of u1 . ur ) is a subspace of V. ë r P FgX By (2. ë n . Except in the case where V {0}. . . . Another basis is (1. . . sp (u1 . Subspaces A subspace of a vector space V over F is a subset of V which is itself a vector space under the addition and scalar multiplication inherited from V. 0. that is. . . . . X X X . The vector v therefore determines the scalars ë1 . 0). each vector v in V can be written in a unique way as v ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n . . . . 0.5). ur ) fë1 u1 X X X ë r ur : ë1 . .

Ur is a subspace of V. . (2. . then the sum U1 . . ws is a basis of V. U1 . . ws is a basis of W. v n is a basis of V. You should consult the solutions to Exercises 2.3 and 2. . only if U V. We say that the sum U1 . . If the sum is direct. .4 if you have dif®culty with the proof. . . . . . Then V U1 È X X X È Un X (2) Let U be a subspace of V and let v1 . . ur . . v n of V (see (2. . ur is a basis of U and that w1. . (2) u1 . Ur is de®ned by U1 X X X Ur fu1 X X X ur : ui P Ui for 1 < i < rgX By (2. v k be a basis of U.Vector spaces and linear transformations Notice that the following fact is a consequence of (2. Ur are subspaces of a vector space V. w1. .8 Examples (1) Suppose that v1 . The next result is frequently useful when dealing with the direct sum of two subspaces. . ur with ui P Ui for 1 < i < r. . . . unless U is {0} or V. .4)). (2. .4). and let W sp (v k1 . . . . . . . . . . .9) Suppose that V U W.7) Suppose that U is a subspace of the vector space V . dim U dim V if and . that u1 . . let Ui be the subspace spanned by v i. . . Then V U È WX From this construction it follows that there are in®nitely many subspaces W with V U È W. and for 1 < i < n. .5). . . v n ). Ur is a direct sum if every element of the sum can be written in a unique way as u1 . Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) V U È W. (3) U W {0}. . Then dim U < dim V Also. . Direct sums of subspaces 17 If U1. . . Extend v1. . v k to a basis v1 . . . . . . then we write it as U1 È X X X È Ur X 2.

then it is immediate that V U1 È X X X È U 9X 9 r We call V the external direct sum of U1. . W1. then V U1 È X X X È Ua È W 1 È X X X È W b X We now introduce a construction for vector spaces which is analogous to the construction of direct products for groups. A linear transformation from V to W is a function W: V 3 W which satis®es (u v)W uW vW (ëv)W ë(vW) for all u. u9 ) (u1 u9 . ur ) (u9 .18 Representations and characters of groups Our next result. V is a vector space over F. . Ur be vector spaces over F. 1 r 1 r ë(u1 . . U1. Wb are subspaces of a vector space V. . X X X . . let (u1 . . . X X X . ur u9 ). and W W1 È X X X È Wb . u9 i in Ui (1 < i < r) and all ë in F. If V U È W and also U U1 È X X X È Ua . involving the direct sum of several subspaces. . X X X . . . we put U 9 f(0. . . W. we write V U1 È X X X È Ur X Linear transformations Let V and W be vector spaces over F. v P V . and let V f(u1 . X X X . ui . If. Ur. ur ): ui P U i for 1 < i < rgX De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on V as follows: for all ui . X X X . . abusing notation slightly. can be deduced immediately from the de®nition of a direct sum. X X X . ëur )X With these de®nitions. Let U1. 0): ui P U i g i (where the ui is in the ith position).10) Suppose that U. Ua. for 1 < i < r. and for all ë P F and v P V X . X X X . . and. . (2. ur ) (ëu1 . . X X X .

. Kernels and images Suppose that W: V 3 W is a linear transformation. which is known as the Rank±Nullity Theorem: (2X12) dim V dim (Ker W) dim (Im W)X 2. . . by specifying the values of ö on a basis of V. . so a linear transformation preserves addition and scalar multiplication. Their dimensions are connected by the following equation. then for ë1 . . W is determined by its action on a basis. The kernel of W (written Ker W) and the image of W (written Im W) are de®ned as follows: (2X11) Ker W fv P V : vW 0g. . . . and then saying `extend the action of ö to be linear'. . the linear transformation ö is given by (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n )ö ë1 w1 X X X ë n wn X We sometimes construct a linear transformation ö: V 3 W in this way. given any basis v1 . . . ë n in F we have (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n )W ë1 (v1 W) X X X ë n (v n W)X Thus. Furthermore. wn in W. v n is a basis of V. v n of V and any n vectors w1. Im W fvW: v P V gX Using (2. Im W V X . it is easy to check that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. then W is a linear transformation.Vector spaces and linear transformations 19 Just as a group homomorphism preserves the group multiplication. then W is a linear transformation. .13 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW 0 for all v P V. and Ker W V . Im W f0gX (2) If W: V 3 V is de®ned by vW 3v for all v P V. . Notice that if W: V 3 W is a linear transformation and v1. . there is a unique linear transformation ö: V 3 W such that v i ö wi for all i. and Ker W f0g.5). . .

let V and W be vector spaces over F. Suppose that W and ö are endomorphisms of V and ë P F. (3) Im W V. z)W (x 2 y z. and hence W is invertible precisely when W is surjective and Ker W {0}. (2) Ker W {0}. A linear transformation W from V to W is injective if and only if Ker W {0}. y. Wö and ëW from V to V by (2X15) v(W ö) vW vö. By applying (2. Invertible linear transformations Again.1). Wö and ëW are endomorphisms of V.12). Im W R2 .14) Let W be a linear transformation from V to itself. We de®ne the functions W ö.2). By also taking (2. À3. À1)). (2. We write W2 for WW. we see that isomorphic vector spaces have the same dimension. À y 3z) for all x. . z P R. so dim (Ker W) 1 and dim (Im W) 2. we have Ker W sp ((7.7) into account.20 Representations and characters of groups (3) If W: R3 3 R2 is given by (x. y. Then W ö. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. Endomorphisms A linear transformation from a vector space V to itself is called an endomorphism of V. v(Wö) (vW)ö. for all v P V. v(ëW) ë(vW). we obtain the next result (see Exercise 2. It turns out that the inverse of an invertible linear transformation is also a linear transformation (see Exercise 2. then V and W are said to be isomorphic vector spaces. If there exists an invertible linear transformation from V to W. then W is a linear transformation.

y)ö (x À 2 y. Then there are scalars aij in F (1 < i < n. 3W and W2 are given by (x. x À 2 y). Wö. (x. y)(3W) (3x 3 y.17 De®nition The n 3 n matrix (aij ) is called the matrix of W relative to the basis B . 3x À 6 y). v n is a basis of V and call it B . y) 3 (x y. y)W2 (2x À y. (0. 1) of V and B 9 is the basis . y)W (x y. then [W]B In for all bases B of V.16 Examples (1) The identity function 1 V de®ned by 1 V : v 3 v for all v P V 21 is an endomorphism of V. ö be the functions from V to V de®ned by (x. If B is the basis (1. and let W. (2) Let V R2 and let W be the endomorphism (x. . y)(W ö) (2x À y. and is denoted by [W]B . If W is an endomorphism of V. 2x À 10 y).Vector spaces and linear transformations 2. . 0). Àx 5 y)X Matrices Let V be a vector space over F. (x.18 Examples (1) If W 1 V (so that vW v for all v P V). and let W be an endomorphism of V. (x. (x. 1 < j < n) such that for all i. then so is W À ë1 V . Suppose that v1 . and W ö. . 2. x À 2 y) of V. Note that Ker (W À ë1 V ) fv P V : vW ëvgX (2) Let V R2. where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. . Àx 2 y). y)(Wö) (Àx 5 y. v i W a i1 v1 X X X ain v n X 2. À2x 4 y)X Then W and ö are endomorphisms of V. for all ë P F.

À2 [W]B 9 1 X À1 (1. their sum A B is the m 3 n matrix over F whose ij-entry is aij bij for all i. (1. AB 3 . 3A X À3 9 6 3 4 2 2 À13 À12 À5 The matrix of the sum or product of two endomorphisms (relative to some basis) is related to the matrices of the individual endomorphisms in the way you would expect: (2. 0). B 1 2 2 3 À4 X À1 2 . and for ë P F.22 Representations and characters of groups 1 .20) Suppose that B is a basis of the vector space V.19 Example Let A Then A B 2 BA À1 3 2 0 . Then [W ö]B [W]B [ö]B . As you know. Given an m 3 n matrix A (aij ) and an n 3 p matrix B (bij ). 2 À1 5 À2 À4 3 0 3 3 . 1) of V. and [Wö]B [W]B [ö]B X . and that W and ö are endomorphisms of V. their product AB is the m 3 p matrix whose ij-entry is n k1 aik bkj X 2. then [W]B 1 1 0 3 If we wish to indicate that the entries in a matrix A come from F. the product of two matrices is de®ned in a less transparent way. then we describe A as a matrix over F. Given two m 3 n matrices A (aij ) and B (bij ) over F. j. the matrix ëA is the m 3 n matrix over F obtained from A by multiplying all the entries by ë.

20): given a basis B of V. an endomorphism W of V is invertible if and only if the matrix [W]B is invertible. Then for all v in V. v 3 vA (v P F n ) is an endomorphism of F n. the matrix product vA also lies in V.Vector spaces and linear transformations Also. Such a matrix B. 2.22 Example Let A 1 3 À1 X 2 Then A gives us an endomorphism W of F 2. y)W (x. and this same matrix is used to describe the way in which the matrix of an . . Write det A for the determinant of A. the vector space of row vectors (x1 . (2. An invertible matrix converts one basis into another. for all scalars ë. . given a basis of V. The connection between invertible endomorphisms and invertible matrices is straightforward. it is called the inverse of A and is written as AÀ1 . Suppose that A is an n 3 n matrix over F. . We concentrate on a particular way of doing this. y) (x 3 y. is unique. [ëW]B ë[W]B X 23 We showed you in (2. and let V F n. and follows from (2. Invertible matrices turn up when we relate two bases of a vector space. It is easy enough to reverse this process and use a matrix to de®ne an endomorphism. .17) how to get a matrix from an endomorphism of a vector space V. The following remark is easily justi®ed.21) If A is an n 3 n matrix over F then the function . where 1 À1 (x. Then a necessary and suf®cient condition for A to be invertible is that det A T 0. xn ) with each xi in F. if it exists. Àx 2 y)X 3 2 Invertible matrices An n 3 n matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists an n 3 n matrix B with AB BA In .

. where T is the change of basis matrix from B to B 9. and is called the change of basis matrix from B to B 9. then [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 T . The precise meaning of these remarks is revealed in the de®nition (2. v9 1 n be a basis B 9 of V.24) below. 2. . Then 1 0 1 0 À1 T . Then for 1 < i < n. . The scalar ë is said to be an eigenvalue of W if vW ëv for some non-zero vector v in V. 0). 1) and B 9 the basis (1. and let v9 . (2. y) 3 (x y.18(2). (0. v9 t i1 v1 X X X tin v n i for certain scalars tij . . and suppose that W is an endomorphism of V.23) and the result (2. . Such a vector v is called an eigenvector of W. (1.25 Example Suppose that V R2. . . 2. then 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 T X À1 1 3 À1 1 1 1 À2 Eigenvalues Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F. . x À 2 y) of V. as in Example 2.24 Representations and characters of groups endomorphism depends upon the basis.23 De®nition Let v1 .24) If B and B 9 are bases of V and W is an endomorphism of V. 1) of V. The n 3 n matrix T (tij ) is invertible. 0). v n be a basis B of the vector space V. The inverse of T is the change of basis matrix from B 9 to B .T X 1 1 À1 1 If W is the endomorphism W: (x. Let B be the basis (1. .

and let W be an endomorphism of V. then the eigenvalues of W are those scalars ë in F which satisfy the equation det ([W]B À ëI n ) 0X Solving this equation involves ®nding the roots of a polynomial of degree n. i). then i 0 [W]B 9 X 0 Ài (2) Let V R2 and let W again be the endomorphism which is given by (x. the element ë of F is said to be an eigenvalue of A if vA ëv for some non-zero row vector v in F n. (0. Thus we depend upon F being C in result (2. Therefore.27 Examples (1) Let V C2 and let W be the endomorphism of V which is given by (x. Since every non-constant polynomial with coef®cients in C has a root in C. x)X This time.Vector spaces and linear transformations 25 Now ë is an eigenvalue of W if and only if Ker (W À ë1 V ) T {0}. i) of V. so i and Ài are the eigenvalues of W. x)X If B is the basis (1. Ài) and (1. and W has no eigenvalues in R. (2. Corresponding eigenvectors are (1. we deduce the following result. (1. 1) of V. 0). Note that if B 9 is the basis (1. The eigenvalues of A are those elements ë of F which satisfy det (A À ëI n ) 0X . which occurs if and only if W À ë1 V is not invertible. Ài). then 0 1 [W]B X À1 0 We have det ([W]B À ëI2 ) ë2 1. Then W has an eigenvalue. For an n 3 n matrix A over F. V is a vector space over R. y)W (À y.26) Let V be a non-zero vector space over C. if B is a basis of V.26). y)W (À y. 2.

Let v and v9 belong to V. (ëv)ð (ëu ëw)ð ëu ë(vð)X Therefore. Further. Ker ð W and ð2 ðX Proof Since every vector in V has a unique expression in the form u w with u P U. it follows that ð is a function on V. Clearly Im ð # U. We often display such a matrix in the form H I ë1 0 f g FF Ad e F ën 0 which indicates. For this diagonal matrix A. . that aii ë i for 1 < i < n. in addition.28 Example We say that an n 3 n matrix A (aij ) is diagonal if aij 0 for all i and j with i T j. u9 in U and w. Projections If a vector space V is a direct sum of two subspaces U and W. w P W X Then ð is an endomorphism of V. ð is an endomorphism of V. and since uð u for all u in U. Then v u w and v9 u9 w9 for some u.26 Representations and characters of groups 2. . De®ne ð: V 3 V by (u w)ð u for all u P U . We have (v v9)ð (u u9 w w9)ð u u9 (u w)ð (u9 w9)ð vð v9ðX Also. . for ë in F. Also. . the eigenvalues are ë1 . w P W. Im ð U . ë n .29 Proposition Suppose that V U È W. w9 in W. then we can construct a special endomorphism of V which depends upon the expression V U È W: 2. . we have Im U.

Therefore vð uð2 uð vX Since v P Ker ð. and so ð2 ð. As v P Im ð. Then V Im ð È Ker ðX Proof If v P V then v vð (v À vð). We now show that every projection can be constructed using a direct sum. 2.32 Proposition Suppose that ð is a projection of a vector space V.Vector spaces and linear transformations (u w)ð 0 D u 0 D u w P W . 27 j 2. Clearly the ®rst term vð belongs to Im ð. Now suppose that v lies in Im ð Ker ð. (u w)ð2 uð u (u w)ð.31 Example The endomorphism (x.29. and (2. Àx À y) of R2 is a projection.30 De®nition An endomorphism ð of a vector space V which satis®es ð2 ð is called a projection of V. y) 3 (2x 2 y. as in Proposition 2. we have v uð for some u P V.9) now shows that V Im ð È Ker ð. it follows that v vð 0. and so Ker ð W. and the second term v À vð lies in Ker ð. since (v À vð)ð vð À vð2 vð À vð 0X This establishes that V Im ð Ker ð. j . 2. Finally. Thus Im ð Ker ð f0g.

F F F . Given a basis B of the n-dimensional vector space V. .28 Representations and characters of groups 2. . F n is the set of row vectors (x1 . Ker ð f(x.33 Example If ð: (x. Also. 2. V U È W if and only if V U W and U W {0}. . and dim V dim (Ker W) dim (Im W)X 4. V U1 È . Eigenvalues ë of an endomorphism W satisfy vW ëv for some nonzero v in V. ur (ui P Ui ). 5. Exercises for Chapter 2 1. there exists an invertible matrix T such that [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 TX 6. A linear transformation W: V 3 W satis®es (u v)W uW vW and (ëv)W ë(vW) for all u. . A linear transformation W: V 3 W is invertible if and only if Ker W {0} and Im W W. Àx): x P RgX Summary of Chapter 2 1. then Im ð f(2x. v in V and all ë in F. Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. For example. and an endomorphism W of V. A projection is an endomorphism ð of V which satis®es ð2 ð. x n ) with each xi in F. 3. there is a correspondence between the endomorphisms W of V and the n 3 n matrices [W]B over F. All our vector spaces are ®nite-dimensional over F. Show that if V and W are vector spaces and W: V 3 W is an invertible linear transformation then WÀ1 is a linear transformation. È Ur if each Ui is a subspace of V. . and dimF n n. 7. Àx): x P Rg. and every element v of V has a unique expression of the form v u1 . where F C or R. Given two bases B and B 9 of V.31. y) 3 (2x 2 y. Àx À y) is the projection of R2 which appears in Example 2.

. . ur . Let V be a vector space and let W be an endomorphism of V. (3) Im W V. Show that the following are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. 4. where U fv P V : vW vg. but V T Im ö È Ker ö. Suppose that u1 . . Prove that dim V dim U1 X X X dim U r X 7. Give an example of a vector space V with endomorphisms W and ö such that V Im W È Ker W. Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. . . Prove that V U È W if and only if V U W and U W = {0}. ws is a basis of V. ws is a basis of W. . . . Show that V U È W. but V T U1 È U2 È U3. . and that V U1 È . Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. ur is a basis of U and w1. 3. Show that W is a projection if and only if there is a basis B of V such that [W]B is diagonal. . . Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V and W2 1 V . . È Ur. 6. (a) Let U1. . Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V. with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or À1. . . . Ur are subspaces of the vector space V. 8. U2 and U3 be subspaces of a vector space V. . 5. . W fv P V : vW ÀvgX Deduce that V has a basis B such that [W]B is diagonal. . . .Vector spaces and linear transformations 29 2. . with V U1 U2 U3. Show that V U1 È U2 È U3 D U 1 (U 2 U3 ) U 2 (U 1 U3 ) U 3 (U 1 U2 ) f0gX (b) Give an example of a vector space V with three subspaces U1. Suppose that U1. U2 and U3 such that V U1 U2 U3 and U1 U 2 U1 U3 U2 U 3 f0g. Show that V U È W if and only if u1 . w1. 9. . (2) Ker W {0}. with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or 0.

F). for some n. and consider the kernel of a representation. h P GX Since a representation is a homomorphism.3 Group representations A representation of a group G gives us a way of visualizing G as a group of matrices. Representations Let G be a group and let F be R or C. F). 3. We also introduce the concept of equivalence of representations. F). The degree of r is the integer n. F) denotes the group of invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. We set out this idea in more detail. then r is a representation if and only if ( gh)r ( gr)(hr) for all g. Thus if r is a function from G to GL (n. Recall from the ®rst chapter that GL (n. we have 1r I n . a representation is a homomorphism from G into a group of invertible matrices. it follows that for every representation r: G 3 GL (n. and g À1 r ( gr)À1 for all g P G. To be precise. 30 . and give some examples of representations.1 De®nition A representation of G over F is a homomorphism r from G to GL (n. where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix.

F) which is given by r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X It follows (see Example 1. The degree of r is 2. b: a4 b2 1. h P G.Group representations 31 3. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. so r is a representation of G. as usual. 0 < j < 1) is a representation of D8 over F. De®ne r: G 3 GL (n.2 Examples (1) Let G be the dihedral group D8 ka. The matrices gr for g in D8 are given in the following table: g gr 1 1 0 0 1 a 0 1 À1 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 a3 0 À1 1 0 g gr b 1 0 0 À1 ab 0 À1 À1 0 2 a b À1 0 0 1 3 a b 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G be any group. F) by gr I n for all g P G. This shows that every group has representations of arbitrarily large degree. Then ( gh)r I n I n I n ( gr)(hr) for all g. where In is the n 3 n identity matrix. Equivalent representations We now look at a way of converting a given representation into another one.4) that the function r: G 3 GL (2. B À1 0 0 À1 and check that A4 B2 I. . De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 1 1 0 A .

and so ó is. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 3. T À1 (hr)T ( gó )(hó ). equivalence of representations is an equivalence relation. and let T be an invertible n 3 n matrix over F. Thus ar A for all g P GX . b: a4 b2 1. ó and ô of G over F. h P G. a representation.3 De®nition Let r: G 3 GL (m. F) be representations of G over F. 3. In other words. we have (T À1 AT )(T À1 BT ) T À1 (AB)TX We can use this observation to produce a new representation ó from r.32 Representations and characters of groups Let r: G 3 GL (n. indeed. and consider the representation r of G which appears in Example 3. we have (see Exercise 3. (3) if r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô. (2) if r is equivalent to ó then ó is equivalent to r. gó T À1 ( gr)TX Note that for all representations r. then r is equivalent to ô.2(1). we simply de®ne gó T À1 ( gr)T Then for all g. F) and ó : G 3 GL (n. Note that for all n 3 n matrices A and B. ( gh)ó T À1 (( gh)r)T T À1 (( gr)(hr))T T À1 ( gr)T . F) be a representation.4 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. We say that r is equivalent to ó if n m and there exists an invertible n 3 n matrix T such that for all g P G.4): (1) r is equivalent to r.

aó 1ó 0 À1 0 1 and ó is equivalent to r. À1 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of G for which 1 0 1 0 . bó aó 1 0 0 Ài The representations r and ó are equivalent. (2) Let G C2 ka: a2 1l and let À5 A À2 12 X 5 Check that A2 I. 0 Ài 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of D8 for which 0 1 i 0 X . T has been constructed so that T À1 AT is diagonal. we have i 0 0 1 À1 À1 T AT . and de®ne 1 T p 2 Then 1 i 1 T À1 p 2 In fact. T BT . Hence r: 1 3 I. . B 0 0 1 X Ài 1 Ài X 1 i 0 X À1 33 0 À1 Assume that F C. . T 1 À1 then T À1 AT 0 . If 2 À3 . a 3 A is a representation of G.Group representations and br B. where A 1 1 .

6 De®nition A representation r: G 3 GL (n. Kernels of representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the kernel of a representation r: G 3 GL (n. there are usually lots of representations which are equivalent to r. 3. F) is said to be faithful if Ker r {1}. Thus Ker r f g P G: gr I n gX Note that Ker r is a normal subgroup of G. 3. is called the trivial representation of G. F). F) which is de®ned by gr (1) for all g P G.34 Representations and characters of groups There are two easily recognized situations where the only representation which is equivalent to r is r itself. . if the identity element of G is the only element g for which gr In . as is shown by the following de®nition. Of particular interest are those representations whose kernel is just the identity subgroup. the trivial representation of G is the representation where every group element is sent to the 1 3 1 identity matrix.5 De®nition The representation r: G 3 GL (1. this consists of the group elements g in G for which gr is the identity matrix. and when gr In for all g in G. In agreement with De®nition 1. these are when the degree of r is 1. However. 3.7 Proposition A representation r of a ®nite group G is faithful if and only if Im r is isomorphic to G. It can happen that the kernel of a representation is the whole of G. To put the de®nition another way.8. that is.

r is faithful. (3) The trivial representation of a group G if faithful if and only if G {1}.8 Examples (1) The representation r of D8 given by j i 1 0 0 1 i j (a b )r 0 À1 À1 0 as in Example 3. and so |Ker r| 1. gó T À1 ( gr)T X 3. . Representations r and ó of G are equivalent if and only if there exists an invertible matrix T such that for all g P G. Summary of Chapter 3 1.Group representations 35 Proof We know that Ker r v G and by Theorem 1. The group generated by the matrices 0 1 1 0 and À1 0 0 À1 is therefore isomorphic to D8. In Chapter 6 we shall show that every ®nite group has a faithful representation. it follows that all representations which are equivalent to a faithful representation are faithful. that is. A representation is faithful if it is injective.10. The basic problem of representation theory is to discover and understand representations of ®nite groups. F). (2) Since T À1 AT In if and only if A In . 2. if Ker r {1} then G Im r. the factor group G/ Ker r is isomorphic to Im r. if G Im r. Conversely. j 3.2(1) is faithful. then these two groups have the same (®nite) order. A representation of a group G is a homomorphism from G into GL(n. for some n. since the identity is the only element g which satis®es gr I. Therefore.

C) (1 < j < 3). then ó is equivalent to r. 4. r3 : a r 3 C r (0 < r < 2). C). F) such that ar (1) and br (À1). r2 : ar 3 Br . Show that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (1.36 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 3 1. 1 0 1 0 . Let G D12 ka. B 0 1 0 . ó and ô are representations of G over F. 5. and de®ne r: G 3 GL (n. de®ned by r1 : ar 3 Ar .C 0 À1 1 À1 e2ðia3 and let G ka: a3 1l C3 . 3. 1 0 0 eÀiða3 p 1a2 3a2 1 0 p C . Let G be the cyclic group of order m. and ó is equivalent to ô. b: a6 b2 1. is a representation of G over C. D over C by 0 1 eiða3 0 A . say G ka: am 1l. C. (3) if r is equivalent to ó. Let A (0 < r < m À 1)X Show that r is a representation of G over C if and only if Am I. B . De®ne the matrices A. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. C) by r: ar 3 Ar 2. given by . b: an b2 1. (2) if r is equivalent to ó. 2. Suppose that A P GL (n. then r is equivalent to ô. Suppose that r. B. 4). Which of these representations are faithful? 3. Prove: (1) r is equivalent to r. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. C) (k 1. and F R or C. Show that each of the functions r j : G 3 GL (2. Suppose that G D2 n ka. D X À 3a2 1a2 0 À1 Prove that each of the functions r k : G 3 GL (2.

0 < s < 1). Which of these representations are faithful? Which are equivalent? 6. Let r be a representation of the group G. r2 : ar bs 3 A3 r (ÀB) s . Does it follow that gh hg? . 8.Group representations r1 : ar bs 3 Ar Bs . r 4 : ar bs 3 C r D s (0 < r < 5. r3 : ar bs 3 (ÀA) r Bs . 7. Give an example of a faithful representation of D8 of degree 3. 37 is a representation of G. Prove that Ga Ker r is abelian. Suppose that g and h are elements of G such that ( gr)(hr) (hr)( gr). Suppose that r is a representation of G of degree 1.

the fact that r is a homomorphism shows that v(( gh)r) v( gr)(hr) for all v P V and all g. the vector space of all row vectors (ë1 . We now list some basic properties of the multiplication v( gr). F) is a representation of G. the properties of matrix multiplication give (ëv)( gr) ë(v( gr)). Write V F n . 38 . FG-modules Let G be a group and let F be R or C.4 FG-modules We now introduce the concept of an FG-module. ë n ) with ë i P F. Much of the material in the remainder of the book will be presented in terms of FG-modules. since 1r is the identity matrix. . is a row vector in V (since the product of a 1 3 n matrix with an n 3 n matrix is again a 1 3 n matrix). we have v(1r) v for all v P V. of the row vector v with the n 3 n matrix gr. Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. the matrix product v( gr). Next. and show that there is a close connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F. For all v P V and g P G. . First. . Finally. as there are several advantages to this approach to representation theory. h P G. .

v( gh) (v g)h. (v P V ) . ë2 ) P F 2 then. ë P F and g. (4) and (5) in the de®nition ensure that for all g P G. br ar 0 À1 À1 0 If v (ë1 . v1 v. Àë1 )X Motivated by the above observations on the product v( gr). v(ar) (Àë2 . v P V. 39 4. v P V. the function v 3 vg is an endomorphism of V.2 De®nition Let V be a vector space over F and let G be a group. h P G: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) v g P V. for example. Then V is an FG-module if a multiplication v g (v P V. and let r: G 3 GL (2. Àë2 ). F) be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. g P G) is de®ned. we now de®ne an FG-module. v(br) (ë1 .FG-modules (u v)( gr) u( gr) v( gr) for all u. 4. Note that conditions (1). ë P F and g P G.1 Example Let G D8 ka. Thus 1 0 0 1 X .2(1). v(a3 r) (ë2 . (ëv) g ë(v g). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. ë1 ). (u v) g ug v g. b: a4 b2 1. We use the letters F and G in the name `FG-module' to indicate that V is a vector space over F and that G is the group from which we are taking the elements g to form the products v g (v P V). satisfying the following conditions for all u.

40 Representations and characters of groups 4. then gr [ g]B for all g P G. F n becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g v( gr) for all v P F n . then V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne the multiplication v g by v g v( gr) gr [ g]B (v P V . (u v)( gr) u( gr) v( gr)X Therefore. Then the function g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F. h P G. we have v( gr) P F n . The connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F is revealed in the following basic result. X X X . relative to the basis B . 0. 0. and let B be a basis of V. and V F n. ( g P G) . For each g P G. 0. X X X . 1) of F n. ë P F and g. g P G)X for all g P GX Moreover. X X X . Proof (1) We have already observed that for all u. F) is a representation of G over F. (0. 0). (0. 4. let [ g]B denote the matrix of the endomorphism v 3 v g of V. (ëv)( gr) ë(v( gr)). there is a basis B of V such that (2) Assume that V is an FG-module and let B be a basis of V. v(( gh)r) (v( gr))(hr). 0. v(1r) v. X X X . 0.4 Theorem (1) If r: G 3 GL(n. if we let B be the basis (1. g P GX Moreover. v P F n.3 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. 1. 0).

V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g v( gr) (v P V . then the representation is just the representation r (see Theorem 4. v2 is the basis (1. br X À1 0 0 À1 Write V F 2. Since v( gh) (v g)h for all g. v2 .4(1) again). v2 b Àv2 X ( g P G) If B denotes the basis v1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let r be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. then we have v1 a v2 . so 0 1 1 0 ar . We have proved that the function g 3 [ g]B is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Therefore each matrix [ g]B is invertible (with inverse [ gÀ1 ]B ). (0. and hence is a representation of G over F. 4. Now v1 v for all v P V.2(1). 0) À1 1 0 If v1 . By Theorem 4. g 3 [ g]B v1 b v1 . 0)a (1. g P G)X For instance. F) (where n dim V ). (2) Let G Q8 ka. 1)X 0 (1. In Example . it follows that [ gh]B [ g]B [h]B X In particular. b: a4 b2 1.4. (0.FG-modules 41 (2) Let V be an FG-module with basis B . b: a4 1. v2 a Àv1 . a2 b2 .5 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. 0). so [1]B is the identity matrix.4(1). [1]B [ g]B [ g À1 ]B for all g P G. h P G and all v in the basis B of V. j Our next example illustrates part (1) of Theorem 4. 1) of V.

we ®rst de®ne v i g for each i and each g in G. We then obtain a CG-module with basis v1 . we turn a vector space V over F into an FG-module by specifying the action of group elements on a basis v1 . and then de®ne (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n ) g to be ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g)X As you might expect. . the vectors v1 a. in Example 4.4(1) we must this time take F C. without using a representation. For instance. gr generate G.2(4) we de®ned Q8 to be the subgroup of GL (2. 1 < j < r) determine v g for all v P V and g P G. v1 b v2 . (v1 2v2 )ab v1 ab 2v2 ab v2 b À 2v1 b Àv2 À 2v1 X A similar remark holds for all FG-modules V: if v1 . . v2 b Àv1 X Notice that in the above examples. To do this. To illustrate Theorem 4. . . v1 b and v2 b determine v g for all v P V and g P G.6 Proposition Assume that v1 . 4. v n is a basis of a vector space V over F Suppose . . The next result will often be used to show that our chosen multiplication turns V into an FG-module. . v2 a Àiv2 . C) generated by 0 1 i 0 . . v n is a basis of V and g1 .42 Representations and characters of groups 1. then the vectors v i g j (1 < i < n. . that is. we shall show you various ways of constructing FG-modules directly. F F F . .5(1). . there are restrictions on how we may de®ne the vectors v i g. and B A À1 0 0 Ài so we already have a representation of G over C. v2 a. v n of V and then extending the action to be linear on the whole of V. v2 such that v1 a iv1 . . Shortly. . that we have a multiplication v g for all v in V and g in G which (ë i P F) .

FG-modules

43

satis®es the following conditions for all i with 1 < i < n, for all g, h P G, and for all ë1 , F F F , ë n P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) v i g P V; v i ( gh) (v i g)h; vi 1 vi ; (ë1 v1 . . . ë n v n ) g ë1 (v1 g) . . . ë n (v n g).

Then V is an FG-module. Proof It is clear from (3) and (4) that v1 v for all v P V. Conditions (1) and (4) ensure that for all g in G, the function v 3 v g (v P V) is an endomorphism of V. That is, vg P V, (ëv) g ë(v g), (u v) g ug v g, for all u, v P V, ë P F and g P G. Hence (4X7) (ë1 u1 X X X ë n u n )h ë1 (u1 h) X X X ë n (un h) for all ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, all u1 , . . . , un P V and all h P G. Now let v P V and g, h P G. Then v ë1 v1 . . . ë n v n for some ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, and v( gh) ë1 (v1 ( gh)) X X X ë n (v n ( gh)) (ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g))h (v g)h by condition (4)X by condition (4) ë1 ((v1 g)h) X X X ë n ((v n g)h) by condition (2) by (4X7)

We have now checked all the axioms which are required for V to be an FG-module. j Our next de®nitions translate the concepts of the trivial representation and a faithful representation into module terms. 4.8 De®nitions (1) The trivial FG-module is the 1-dimensional vector space V over F with vg v for all v P V , g P GX

44

Representations and characters of groups

(2) An FG-module V is faithful if the identity element of G is the only element g for which v g v for all v P V X For instance, the FD8 -module which appears in Example 4.5(1) is faithful. Our next aim is to use Proposition 4.6 to construct faithful FGmodules for all subgroups of symmetric groups. Permutation modules Let G be a subgroup of Sn , so that G is a group of permutations of {1, . . . , n}. Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , . . . , v n . For each i with 1 < i < n and each permutation g in G, de®ne v i g v ig X Then v i g P V and v i 1 v i . Also, for g, h in G, v i ( gh) v i( gh) v(ig) h (v i g)hX We now extend the action of each g linearly to the whole of V; that is, for all ë1 , . . . , ë n in F and g in G, we de®ne (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n ) g ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g)X Then V is an FG-module, by Proposition 4.6. 4.9 Example Let G S4 and let B denote the basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 of V. If g (1 2), then v1 g v2 , v2 g v1 , v3 g v3 , v4 g v4 X And if h (1 3 4), then v1 h v3 , v2 h v2 , v3 h v4 , v4 h v1 X We have [ g]B 0 f1 f d0 0 H 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 H I 0 0 f0 0g g, [h]B f d0 0e 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 I 0 0g gX 1e 0

FG-modules

45

4.10 De®nition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . The FG-module V with basis v1 , . . . , v n such that v i g v ig for all i, and all g P G, is called the permutation module for G over F. We call v1 , . . . , v n the natural basis of V. Note that if we write B for the basis v1 , . . . , v n of the permutation module, then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has precisely one nonzero entry in each row and column, and this entry is 1. Such a matrix is called a permutation matrix. Since the only element of G which ®xes every v i is the identity, we see that the permutation module is a faithful FG-module. If you are aware of the fact that every group G of order n is isomorphic to a subgroup of Sn , then you should be able to see that G has a faithful FG-module of dimension n. We shall go into this in more detail in Chapter 6. 4.11 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. Then G is isomorphic to the cyclic subgroup of S3 which is generated by the permutation (1 2 3). This alerts us to the fact that if V is a 3-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , then we may make V into an FG-module in which v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v3 1 v3 , v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 , v1 a2 v3 , v2 a2 v1 , v3 a2 v2 X Of course, we de®ne v g, for v an arbitrary vector in V and g 1, a or a2 , by (ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ë3 v3 ) g ë1 (v1 g) ë2 (v2 g) ë3 (v3 g) for all ë1 , ë2 , ë3 P F. Proposition 4.6 can be used to verify that V is an FG-module, but we have been motivated by the de®nition of permutation modules in our construction. FG-modules and equivalent representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the relationship between FG-modules and equivalent representations of G over F. An FG-

46

Representations and characters of groups

module gives us many representations, all of the form g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) for some basis B of V. The next result shows that all these representations are equivalent to each other (see De®nition 3.3); and moreover, any two equivalent representations of G arise from some FG-module in this way. 4.12 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B , and let r be the representation of G over F de®ned by r: g 3 [ g]B ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 ( g P G)X ( g P G) (1) If B 9 is a basis of V, then the representation of G is equivalent to r. (2) If ó is a representation of G which is equivalent to r, then there is a basis B 0 of V such that ó : g 3 [ g]B 0 ( g P G)X

Proof (1) Let T be the change of basis matrix from B to B 9 (see De®nition 2.23). Then by (2.24), for all g P G, we have [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 9 TX Therefore ö is equivalent to r. (2) Suppose that r and ó are equivalent representations of G. Then for some invertible matrix T, we have gr T À1 ( gó )T for all g P GX Let B 0 be the basis of V such that the change of basis matrix from B to B 0 is T. Then for all g P G, [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 0 T , and so gó [ g]B 0 .

j

4.13 Example Again let G C3 ka: a3 1l. There is a representation r of G which is given by

1r

1 0

FG-modules 0 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a r , ar X À1 À1 1 1 0

47

(To see this, simply note that (ar)2 a2 r and (ar)3 I; see Exercise 3.2.) If V is a 2-dimensional vector space over C, with basis v1 , v2 (which we call B ), then we can turn V into a CG-module as in Theorem 4.4(1) by de®ning v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v1 a v2 , v1 a2 Àv1 À v2 , v2 a2 v1 X À1 X 0

v2 a Àv1 À v2 ,

We then have 1 0 0 [1]B , [a]B 0 1 À1

1 À1 2 , [a ]B À1 1

Now let u1 v1 and u2 v1 v2 . Then u1 , u2 is another basis of V, which we call B 9. Since u1 1 u 1 , u2 1 u 2 , u1 a Àu1 u2 , u2 a Àu1 , u1 a2 Àu2 , u2 a2 u1 À u2 ,

we obtain the representation ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 where 1 0 À1 1 0 À1 2 [1]B 9 , [a]B 9 , [a ]B 9 X 0 1 À1 0 1 À1 Note that if T then for all g in G, we have [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 9 T , and so r and ö are equivalent, in agreement with Theorem 4.12(1).

1 0 1 1

Summary of Chapter 4 1. An FG-module is a vector space over F, together with a multiplication by elements of G on the right. The multiplication satis®es properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4.2.

48

Representations and characters of groups

2. There is a correspondence between representations of G over F and FG-modules, as follows. (a) Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n, F) is a representation of G. Then F n is an FG-module, if we de®ne v g v( gr) (v P F n , g P G)X (b) If V is an FG-module, with basis B , then r: g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F.

3. If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the permutation FG-module has basis v1 , F F F , v n , and v i g v ig for all i with 1 < i < n, and all g in G. Exercises for Chapter 4 1. Suppose that G S3 , and that V sp (v1 , v2 , v3 ) is the permutation module for G over C, as in De®nition 4.10. Let B 1 be the basis v1 , v2 , v3 of V and let B 2 be the basis v1 v2 v3 , v1 À v2 , v1 À v3 . Calculate the 3 3 3 matrices [ g]B 1 and [ g]B 2 for all g in S3 . What do you notice about the matices [ g]B 2 ? 2. Let G Sn and let V becomes an FG-module & v, vg Àv, be a vector space over F. Show that V if we de®ne, for all v in V, if g is an even permutation, if g is an odd permutation.

3. Let Q8 ka, b: a4 1, b2 a2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l, the quaternion group of order 8. Show that there is an RQ8 -module V of dimension 4 with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 such that v1 a v 2 , v1 b v 3 , v2 a Àv1 , v2 b v4 , v3 a Àv4 , v4 a v3 , and v3 b Àv1 , v4 b Àv2 X

4. Let A be an n 3 n matrix and let B be a matrix obtained from A by permuting the rows. Show that there is an n 3 n permutation matrix P such that B PA. Find a similar result for a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns.

5 FG-submodules and reducibility

We begin the study of FG-modules by introducing the basic building blocks of the theory ± the irreducible FG-modules. First we require the notion of an FG-submodule of an FG-module. Throughout, G is a group and F is R or C. FG-submodules 5.1 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. A subset W of V is said to be an FGsubmodule of V if W is a subspace and wg P W for all w P W and all g P G. Thus an FG-submodule of V is a subspace which is also an FGmodule. 5.2 Examples (1) For every FG-module V, the zero subspace {0}, and V itself, are FG-submodules of V. (2) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l, and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule de®ned in Example 4.11. Thus, V has basis v1 , v2 , v3 , and v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v3 1 v3 , v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 , v1 a2 v3 , v2 a2 v1 , v3 a2 v2 X Put w v1 v2 v3, and let W sp (w), the 1-dimensional subspace spanned by w. Since 49

50

Representations and characters of groups w1 wa wa2 w,

W is an FG-submodule of V. However, sp (v1 v2 ) is not an FGsubmodule, since (v1 v2 )a v2 v3 P sp (v1 v2 )X a Irreducible FG-modules 5.3 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be irreducible if it is non-zero and it has no FG-submodules apart from {0} and V. If V has an FG-submodule W with W not equal to {0} or V, then V is reducible. Similarly, a representation r: G 3 GL (n, F) is irreducible if the corresponding FG-module F n given by v g v( gr) (v P F n , g P G) (see Theorem 4.4(1)) is irreducible; and r is reducible if F n is reducible. Suppose that V is a reducible FG-module, so that there is an FGsubmodule W with 0 , dim W , dim V. Take a basis B 1 of W and extend it to a basis B of V. Then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has the form H I Xg 0 d e (5X4) Yg Z g for some matrices Xg , Yg and Zg , where Xg is k 3 k (k dim W). A representation of degree n is reducible if and only if it is equivalent to a representation of the form (5.4), where X g is k 3 k and 0 , k , n. Notice that in (5.4), the functions g 3 Xg and g 3 Z g are representations of G: to see this, let g, h P G and multiply the matrices [ g]B and [h]B given by (5.4). Notice also that if V is reducible then dim V > 2. 5.5 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule with basis v1 , v2 , v3 such that

FG-submodules and reducibility v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 ,

51

as in Example 4.11. We saw in Example 5.2(2) that V is a reducible FG-module, and has an FG-submodule W sp (v1 v2 v3 ). Let B be the basis v1 v2 v3 , v1 , v2 of V. Then H H I I 1 0 0 1 0 0 f f g g [1]B f 0 1 0 g, [a]B f 0 0 1 g, d d e e 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 H I 1 0 0 f g [a2 ]B f 1 À1 À1 gX d e 0 1 0 This reducible representation gives us two other representations: at the `top left' we have the trivial representation and at the `bottom right' we have the representation which is given by 0 1 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a 3 ,a3 X 13 À1 À1 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G D8 and let V F 2 be the 2-dimensional FG-module described in Example 4.5(1). Thus G ka, bl, and for all (ë, ì) P V we have (ë, ì)a (Àì, ë), (ë, ì)b (ë, Àì)X

We claim that V is an irreducible FG-module. To see this, suppose that there is an FG-submodule U which is not equal to V. Then dim U < 1, so U sp ((á, â)) for some á, â P F. As U is an FGmodule, (á, â)b is a scalar multiple of (á, â), and hence either á 0 or â 0. Since (á, â)a is also a scalar multiple of (á, â), this forces á â 0, so U {0}. Consequently V is irreducible, as claimed.

Summary of Chapter 5 1. If V is an FG-module, and W is a subspace of V which is itself an FG-module, then W is an FG-submodule of V. 2. The FG-module V is irreducible if it is non-zero and the only FGsubmodules are {0} and V.

ab ba. For (á. Find a CG-module which is neither reducible nor irreducible.52 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 5 1. b. Prove that there is a representation r of G over C such that å 0 ç 0 0 1 ar X . â)1 (á. b (4 5 6). â)a (â. Let r and ó be equivalent representations of the group G over F. Let G C2 ka: a 1l. de®ne (á. 3. cr 0 å À1 0 çÀ1 1 0 (c) For which values of å. and let G ka. b. â) P V. Verify that V is an FG-module and ®nd all the FG-submodules of V. cl. (a) Check that a3 b3 c2 1. cÀ1 ac aÀ1 and cÀ1 bc bÀ1 X Deduce that G has order 18. (b) Suppose that å and ç are complex cube roots of unity. á). Which of the four representations of D12 de®ned in Exercise 3. c (2 3)(4 5). br . De®ne the permutations a. 2 . ç is r irreducible? 5. 2. c P S6 by a (1 2 3).5 are irreducible? 4. and let V F 2. â) and (á. ç is r faithful? (d) For which values of å. Prove that if r is reducible then ó is reducible. Let G C13 .

. we shall use it to construct an important faithful representation. and we call this vector space FG. . g n as a basis. the ultimate goal of representation theory ± that of understanding all the representations of ®nite groups ± would be achieved if group algebras could be fully analysed. known as the regular representation of G. . . and let F be R or C. which will be explored in greater detail later on. Take as the elements of FG all expressions of the form ë1 g 1 X X X ë n g n (all ë i P F)X The rules for addition and scalar multiplication in FG are the natural ones: namely. The group algebra of G Let G be a ®nite group whose elements are g1 . . if u n i1 ë i g i and v n i1 ìi g i are elements of FG. After de®ning the group algebra of G. We de®ne a vector space over F with g1 . . group algebras are the source of all you need to know about representation theory.6 Group algebras The group algebra of a ®nite group G is a vector space of dimension |G| which also carries extra structure involving the product operation on G. . and ë P F. then 53 . Group algebras are therefore of great interest. . In a sense. g n . In particular.

. (ë h ì hÀ1 g ) g gPG hPG 6. FG is a vector space over F of dimension n. g n is called the natural basis of FG. in this example. we write e for the identity element of G.) The vector space CG contains u e À a 2a2 and v 1 e 5aX 2 We have u v 3 e 4a 2a2 . . 6. .1. with basis g1 .54 Representations and characters of groups uv n n (ë i ì i ) g i and ëu (ëë i ) g i X i1 i1 With these rules. ì h P F. . . The basis g1 . g n . . v are the elements of CG which appear in Example 6.hPG where all ë g . (To avoid confusion with the element 1 of F. FG carries more structure than that of a vector space ± we can use the product operation on G to de®ne multiplication in FG as follows: 3 2 32 ëg g ìh h ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. 1 u 1 e À 1 a 2 a2 X 2 3 3 3 3 Sometimes we write elements of FG in the form ë g g (ë g P F)X gPG Now.1 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 el. then uv (e À a 2a2 )(1 e 5a) 2 1 2e 5a À 1 a À 5a2 a2 10a3 2 9 a À 4a2 X 2 21 2e . .2 Example If G C3 and u. .

The group algebra FG contains an identity for multiplication.3 De®nition The vector space FG.kPG r(st)X We leave the proofs of the other equations as easy exercises.hPG 55 (ë g . (ër)s ë(rs) r(ës). gPG gPG gPG (ë g . r(s t) rs rt.Group algebras 6. r1 1r r. We write this element simply as 1. (2) Let r ë g g. s ì g g. j .h. s. t í g g. Proof (1) It follows immediately from the de®nition of rs that rs P FG. is called the group algebra of G over F. ì g .h.kPG ë g ì h í k ( gh)k ë g ì h í k g(hk) g. with multiplication de®ned by 3 2 32 ëg g ìh h ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. namely the element 1e (where 1 is the identity of F and e is the identity of G). r0 0r 0. ì h P F).4 Proposition Multiplication in FG satis®es the following properties. 6. t P FG and ë P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) rs P FG. Then (rs)t g. (r s)t rt st. r(st) (rs)t. í g P F). for all r.

We shall be concerned only with group algebras. Note that the regular FG-module has dimension equal to |G|. so g 1.4 is called an algebra.7 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 el. we have vg P V. and the result follows. The representation g 3 [ g]B obtained by taking B to be the natural basis of FG is called the regular representation of G over F. so that V is a vector space of dimension n over F. (ëv) g ë(v g).4. is called the regular FG-module. The vector space FG. h P G. 6. v1 v. (4) and (5) of Proposition 6. j 6. g P G). Therefore V is an FG-module. (u v) g ug v g.6 Proposition The regular FG-module is faithful. any vector space equipped with a multiplication satisfying properties (1)±(7) of Proposition 6. v( gh) (v g)h. but it is worth pointing out that the axioms for an algebra mean that it is both a vector space and a ring. with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. Let V FG. (2). ë P F and g. The elements of FG have the form .5 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group and F be R or C. (3). v P V. For all u. by parts (1). Then 1 g 1.56 Representations and characters of groups In fact. Proof Suppose that g P G and v g v for all v P FG. respectively. The regular FG-module We now use the group algebra to de®ne an important FG-module. 6. where n |G|.

together with a multiplication v g for v P V and g P G (and the multiplication satis®es various axioms). a. it is sometimes helpful to extend the de®nition of the multiplication so that we have an element vr of V for all elements r in the group algebra FG.9. as described in Example 4. Now. De®ne vr by vr ì g (v g)X gPG 6.8 De®nition Suppose that V is an FG-module. If r ë(1 2) ì(1 3 4) then v1 r ëv1 (1 2) ìv1 (1 3 4) ëv2 ìv3 . a 3 d 0 0 1 e.Group algebras ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 We have (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )e ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 . 6. (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )a2 ë2 e ë3 a ë1 a2 X (ë i P F)X 57 By taking matrices relative to the basis e. a2 3 d 1 0 0 eX 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 FG acts on an FG-module You will remember that an FG-module is a vector space over F. we obtain the regular representation of G: H I H I H I 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 e 3 d 0 1 0 e. and that v P V and r P FG.9 Examples (1) Let V be the permutation module for S4 . say r gPG ì g g (ì g P F). (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )a ë3 e ë1 a ë2 a2 . a2 of FG. (2v1 v2 )r ëv1 (2ë ì)v2 2ìv3 X (ë. v2 r ëv1 ìv2 . ì P F) . This is done in the following natural way.

h 2 g 3 32 ë g (v g) ìh h h by (4). v1 v. We shall give a proof of part (2). v(r s) vr vs.h g. v(rs) (vr)s. then for all v P V and r P FG. Then the following properties hold for all u. s ì h hX gPG hPG Then 2 3 v(rs) v ë g ì h ( gh) g. (6) j (vr)sX .4. Proof All parts except (2) are straightforward. given by De®nition 6.10 Proposition Suppose that V is an FG-module. (5).h ë g ì h (v( gh)) ë g ì h ((v g)h) by (4) and (6) g.3. all ë P F and all r. s P FG with r ë g g. 6. v P V. v0 0r 0. (ëv)r ë(vr) v(ër). the element vr is simply the product of v and r as elements of the group algebra.58 Representations and characters of groups (2) If V is the regular FG-module. assuming the other parts. and let r. Let v P V. Compare the next result with Proposition 6. and we leave them to you. (u v)r ur vr. s P FG: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) vr P V.

Suppose that G D8 ka. with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. . 2. and v0 0 for all v P V . What is the matrix [W]B . Exercises for Chapter 6 1. g n }. and has a natural multiplication de®ned on it. The group algebra FG of G over F consists of all linear combinations of elements of G. Work out matrices for the regular representation of C2 3 C2 over F. The regular FG-module is faithful. Assume that G is a ®nite group. . and write c n for the element i1 g i of CG. Let G C2 . where the symbol 0 is used for the zero elements of V and FG. g P G) is the regular FG-module. yx and x 2 . where B is the basis g1 . If V is an FG-module. there exists an FG-module V and elements v P V. Deduce that zr rz for all r in CG. (a) Prove that ch hc c for all h in G. 2. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. with |G| . does rs 0 imply that r 0 or s 0? 4. . (b) Deduce that c2 |G|c. . prove from the de®nition that 0r 0 for all r P FG. say G { g1 . .Group algebras Summary of Chapter 6 59 1. (b) Let z b a2 b. 1. (a) Let x and y be the following elements of CG: x a 2a2 . . 3. 3. y b ab À a2 X Calculate xy. b: a4 b2 1. . . The vector space FG. r P FG such that vr 0. Show that for every ®nite group G. but neither v nor r is 0. For r and s in CG. (c) Let W: CG 3 CG be the linear transformation sending v to vc for all v in CG. gn of CG? 5. Show that zg gz for all g in G. .

b: a3 b2 1. b ù2 ab ùa2 b). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Prove that the 2-dimensional subspace W of CG. is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CG-module.60 Representations and characters of groups 6. de®ned by W sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . Suppose that G D6 ka. and let ù e2ðia3 . .

submodule of W. The analogous functions for FG-modules are called FG-homomorphisms. 61 . then for all v P V and r gPG ë g g P FG. 7. Then Ker W is an FG-submodule of V and Im W is an FG.1 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules.7 FG-homomorphisms For groups and vector spaces. we have (vr)W (vW)r since (vr)W gPG ë g (v g)W gPG ë g (vW) g (vW)rX The next result shows that FG-homomorphisms give rise to FGsubmodules in a natural way. A function W: V 3 W is said to be an FG-homomorphism if W is a linear transformation and (v g)W (vW) g for all v P V . if W sends v to w then it sends v g to wg. and we introduce these in this chapter. FG-homomorphisms 7. group homomorphisms and linear transformations. Note that if G is a ®nite group and W: V 3 W is an FG-homomorph ism.2 Proposition Let V and W be FG-modules and let W: V 3 W be an FG-homomorphism. g P GX In other words. respectively. the `structure-preserving' functions are.

wg (vW) g (v g)W P Im W. Im W V. Let V sp (v1 .10).8). (3) Suppose that G is a subgroup of S n . i1 i1 Im W W X . and de®ne W: V 3 V by vW ëv for all v P V. we have 2 3 2 3 (v g)W ë i v ig W ë i w. and Ker W V. . Then (v g)W (vW) g 0 g 0. and 2 3 2 3 (vW) g ë i wg ë i wX Therefore W is an FG-homomorphism. Now let w P Im W. and so Im W is an FG-submodule of W. (2) Let ë P F. De®ne 2 n 3 n W: ëivi 3 ë i w (ë i P F)X i1 i1 Thus v i W w for all i. v n ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4. We construct an FG-homomorphism W from V to W. . then W is an FGhomomorphism. so vg P Ker W. . Then W is an FG-homomorphism. . since W is a linear transformation. For all g P G. and for all v ë i v i P V and all g P G. Let v P Ker W and g P G. @ n A n Ker W ëi vi : ëi 0 . Im W {0}. Then W is a linear transformation. Here. j 7. Provided ë T 0. and let W sp (w) be the trivial FG-module (see De®nition 4. we have Ker W {0}.3 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW 0 for all v P V.62 Representations and characters of groups Proof First note that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. so that w vW for some v P V. Therefore Ker W is an FG-submodule of V.

then the inverse WÀ1 : W 3 V is also an FG-isomorphism. v n W is a basis of W).4 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules.2. Proof Certainly WÀ1 is an invertible linear transformation. . Then we may use W and WÀ1 to translate back and forth between the isomorphic FGmodules V and W. . Ker W is an FG-submodule of the permutation module V.FG-homomorphisms 63 By Proposition 7. We call a function W: V 3 W an FGisomorphism if W is an FG-homomorphism and W is invertible. . Isomorphic FG-modules 7. . If there is such an FG-isomorphism. (2) V is irreducible if and only if W is irreducible (since X is an FGsubmodule of V if and only if XW is an FG-submodule of W). so we need only show that WÀ1 is an FG-homomorphism. then we say that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules and write V W. v n is a basis of V if and only if v1 W. In the next result. we check that if V W then W V. (3) V contains a trivial FG-submodule if and only if W contains a trivial FG-submodule (since X is a trivial FG-submodule of V if and only if XW is a trivial FG-submodule of W). as required. We list some examples below: (1) dim V dim W (since v1 . . j as W is an FG-homomorphism Suppose that W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. . ((wWÀ1 ) g)W ((wWÀ1 )W) g wg ((wg)WÀ1 )WX Hence (wWÀ1 ) g (wg)WÀ1 . .5 Proposition If W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. . and prove that V and W share the same structural properties. . 7. For w P W and g P G.

This completes the proof of (7. w n is a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P G. . though. . . . Then by Theorem 4. then v1 W. . Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if the representations r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 are equivalent. Let g P G.64 Representations and characters of groups Just as we often regard isomorphic groups as being identical. Hence r and ó are equivalent. suppose ®rst that W is an FG-isomorphism from V to W. suppose that r and ó are equivalent. ö is equivalent to both r and ó. Proof We ®rst establish the following fact: (7. Conversely. . v n is a basis B 1 of V and w1.7). there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P G. and W is an FGmodule with basis B 9. . . v n be a basis B 1 of V. For the moment.12(1). and hence W is an FG-isomorphism. De®ne a representation ö of G by ö: g 3 [ g]B 1 . we continue simply to emphasize the similarity between isomorphic FG-modules. . and let v1 . . . By (7. there is a basis B 0 of V such that gó [ g]B 0 for all g P G. 7. . . we deduce that (v i g)W (v i W) g for all i. Conversely. . we frequently disdain to distinguish between isomorphic FG-modules.6 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B . Now assume that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. Let W be the invertible linear transformation from V to W for which v i W w i for all i. suppose that v1 . it follows that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 . Let g P G. v n W is a basis B 2 of W.7). we show that isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations.12(2). Since [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 . Then by Theorem 4. Since (v i g)W (v i W) g for each i. . .7) The FG-modules V and W are isomorphic if and only if there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P GX To see this. . In the next result.

7. We have H H I I 1 0 0 0 1 0 f f g g [1]B 9 f 0 1 0 g.7). call it B 9. In Example 3. bó Ài 1 1 X 0 (ë i P F) . v3 a v1 X Writing B for the basis v1 . the function W: ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ë3 v3 3 ë1 1 ë2 a ë3 a2 is an FG-isomorphism from V to W. v2 . by (7. we have [ g]B [ g]B 9 for all g P GX According to (7. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. [ g]B 9 [ g]B 0 for all g P G. a cyclic group of order 3.7). and let W denote the regular FG-module. a.9 Example Let G D8 ka. j 7.11.8 Example Let G ka: a3 1l. b: a4 b2 1. Therefore V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. a2 is a basis of W. br À1 0 0 À1 and aó i 0 0 0 .4(1) we encountered two equivalent representations r and ó of G. v3 of V. v2 a v3 . d d e e 0 0 1 1 0 0 H 0 0 0 1 1 0 I f [a2 ]B 9 f 1 d 0 g 0 gX e Compare the FG-module V de®ned in Example 4. Then 1. with basis v1 . the FG-modules V and W are therefore isomorphic. v3 such that v1 a v2 . v2 . Indeed.FG-homomorphisms 65 that is. [a]B 9 f 0 0 1 g. where 0 1 1 0 ar .

and. and for g P G. v2 b Àv2 (see Example 4. . let W: V 3 W be the invertible linear transformation such that W: v1 3 w1 w2 . . . B r to .5(1)). v2 of V and B 9 for the basis w1. . . . since r and ó are equivalent. and w1. Then by (2. where U and W are FG-submodules of V. let W be the CG-module with basis w1. v2 for which v1 a v2 . v2 3 iw1 À iw2 X Then (v j a)W (v j W)a and (v j b)W (v j W)b for j 1. . w2 b w1 Thus. and hence W is a CG-isomorphism from V to W. w n be a basis B 2 of W. and suppose that V U È W. w2 for which w1 a iw1 . w1 b w2 . w2 a Àiw2 . v2 a Àv1 . . if V U1 È . .6. and we show that these give rise to FG-homomorphisms. To verify this directly. then we can amalgamate B 1 . È Ur. the CG-modules V and W are isomorphic. w2 of W. 2. . . . (Compare Example 3. . w n is a basis B of V. . u m be a basis B 1 of U. u1 . . . H I 0 [ g]B 1 eX [ g]B d 0 [ g]B 2 More generally. .4(1).9). . u m . a direct sum of FG-submodules Ui. if we write B for the basis v1 . and B i is a basis of Ui. Let V be an FG-module. Let u1 . in a similar way. then for all g P G we have r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 X According to Theorem 7.) Direct sums We conclude the chapter with a discussion of direct sums of FGmodules. . w1.66 Representations and characters of groups Let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . v1 b v1 . . . .

v u1 . and ð i is an FG-homomorphism. . we have (v g)ð i (u1 g X X X ur g)ð i ui g (vð i ) gX Also. i so ð2 ð i . 7. where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V Then V is a direct . and suppose that V U1 X X X Ur . H [ g]B 1 f FF [ g]B d (7X10) F 67 I g eX 0 [ g]B r 0 The next result shows that direct sums give rise naturally to FGhomomorphisms.11 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. ur for unique vectors ui P Ui.30). 7. . sum of some of the FG-submodules Ui. and we de®ne ð i : V 3 V (1 < i < r) by setting vð i ui X Then each ð i is an FG-homomorphism. and is also a projection of V .12 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. and g P G. .FG-homomorphisms obtain a basis B of V. i We now present a technical result concerning sums of irreducible FG-modules which will be used at a later stage. and suppose that V U1 È X X X È U r where each Ui is an FG-submodule of V. . vð 2 ui ð i ui vð i . u r (u j P U j for all j). j . since for v P V with v u1 . Thus ð i is a projection (see De®nition 2. Proof Clearly ð i is a linear transformation. For v P V we have . and for g P G.

F F F . . Exercises for Chapter 7 1. . Ur so that the sum of our chosen FG-submodules is direct. . g P G. so W Ui T {0}. and so Ui # W. . if Ui P Y X a Let W W1 X X X WsX We claim that Ui # W for all i. but W 1 X X X W s U i is not direct. . j Finally. If Ui P Y this is clear. Prove that Wö: U 3 W is an FG-homomorphism. . 2. then we can make the external direct sum V1 È F F F ÈVr (see Chapter 2) into an FGmodule by de®ning (v1 . choose a subset Y {W1. V r are FG-modules. X X X . v r ) g (v1 g. . Then W Ui is not a direct sum. X X X . as required. and Ui is irreducible. therefore W Ui Ui. Ur } which has the properties that W 1 X X X W s is direct (iXeX equal to W 1 È X X X È W s ). To this end. Since U i W for all i with 1 < i < r. so assume that Ui P Y. then W is an FG-homomorphism. But W Ui a is an FG-submodule of Ui. we have V W W 1 È F F F ÈW s . as claimed. v r g) for all v i P Vi (1 < i < r) and all g P G. Kernels and images of FG-homomorphisms are FG-modules. Ws } of {U1. . Let U. . . . V and W be FG-modules. we remark that if V1 .68 Representations and characters of groups Proof The idea is to choose as many as we can of the FG-submodules U1. Summary of Chapter 7 1. . and let W: U 3 V and ö: V 3 W be FG-homomorphisms. 3. If V and W are FG-modules and W: V 3 W is a linear transformation which satis®es (v g)W (vW) g for all v P V. Isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. .

Suppose that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. Prove that V0 and W0 are isomorphic FG-modules. Assume that V is an FG-module. Show that the function W: v 3 v g (v P V ) gPG is an FG-homomorphism from V to V0 . 5. De®ne the FGsubmodules V0 and W0 of V and W as in Exercise 3. Prove that the permutation module for G over F is isomorphic to the regular FG-module. Let G be the subgroup of S5 which is generated by (1 2 3 4 5).FG-homomorphisms 69 2. (c) Find a basis B of FG such that 2 0 [W]B X 0 0 . Is the permutation module for G over F isomorphic to the regular FG-module? 6. Prove that the subset V0 fv P V : v g v for all g P Gg is an FG-submodule of V. (a) Show that the function W: á1 âx 3 (á À â)(1 À x) (á. Let G C2 kx: x 2 1l. (b) Prove that W2 2W. â P F) is an FG-homomorphism from the regular FG-module to itself. Is it necessarily surjective? 4. 3. Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by (1 2) and (3 4).

namely Maschke's Theorem. for instance sp (v2 . We shall ®nd this W in an 70 .2(2) below. since ug u for all g P G. But there is. Put u v1 v2 v3 and U sp (u)X Then U is an FG-submodule of V. (The assumption on F is important ± see Example 8. A consequence of this theorem is that every FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. let F be R or C. If U is an FG-submodule of V. Maschke's Theorem 8.1 Maschke's Theorem Let G be a ®nite group.) This essentially reduces representation theory to the study of irreducible FG-modules. v3 ) and sp (v1 . and let V be an FG-module.8 Maschke's Theorem We now come to our ®rst major result in representation theory. where as usual F R or C. v2 . only one FGsubmodule W of V with V U È W. v3 ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4.10). v2 À 2v3 ).2 Examples (1) Let G S3 and let V sp (v1 . in fact. we illustrate it with some examples. There are many subspaces W of V such that V U È W. 8. then there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È WX Before proving Maschke's Theorem.

But there is no FGsubmodule W such that V U È W. where. (2) The conclusion of Maschke's Theorem can fail if F is not R or C. de®ne W: V 3 V by (8X3) vW 1 v gö g À1 jGj gPG (v P V )X It is clear that W is an endomorphism of V and Im W # U.Maschke's Theorem 71 example after proving Maschke's Theorem (but you may like to look for it yourself now). and we de®ne ö: V 3 V by setting vö u. .) For v P V. . an FG-submodule of the FG-module V. v m of U. F). and take F to be the ®eld of integers modulo p. v n of V. . p À 1) j 1 is a representation from G to GL (2.1 We are given U. For v P V and x P G. as can easily be seen. (vx)W 1 (vx) gö g À1 X jGj gPG . X X X . since U is the only 1-dimensional FG-submodule of V. For example. . By Proposition 2. Proof of Maschke's Theorem 8. . . . . We show ®rst that W is an FG-homomorphism. and let W0 sp (v m1 . extend it to a basis v1 . We aim to modify the projection ö to create an FG-homomorphism from V to V with image U. The corresponding FG-module is V sp (v1 . 1. . . let G C p ka: a p 1l. let p be a prime number. v2 a j jv1 v2 X Clearly. for 0 < j < p À 1. . v n ). v1 a j v1 . we have v u w for unique vectors u P U and w P W 0. v2 ). Check that the function 1 0 j a 3 ( j 0. ö is a projection of V with kernel W0 and image U. . To this end. Choose any subspace W0 of V such that V U È W0X (There are many choices for W0 ± simply take a basis v1 .29. U sp (v1 ) is an FG-submodule of V.

First note that for u P U. Then W is an FG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. so does h xg. we have ug P U.5 Example Let G S3 and let V sp (v1 . g P G. 2. as in Example 8. Let W Ker W. so W sp (v1 À v2 . let W0 sp (v1 . The projection ö onto U is given by ö: v1 3 0. This completes the proof of Maschke's Theorem. j 8. Consequently W2 W. v2 À v3 )X È É (In fact. Then V U È W0 (but of course W0 is not an FG-submodule). W ë i v i : ë i 0 . Moreover.3) is W: v i 3 1(v1 v2 v3 ) (i 1. and so (ug)ö ug. We use the proof of Maschke's Theorem to ®nd an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È W. v2 . so by (8. we prove that W2 W.4) shows that Im W U.) . with submodule U sp (v1 v2 v3 ).72 Representations and characters of groups As g runs over the elements of G. 1 1 1 uW (8X4) ugö g À1 (ug) g À1 u uX jGj gPG jGj gPG jGj gPG Now let v P V. v2 ). as claimed. First.32.4) we have (vW)W vW. v2 3 0. the FG-submodule constructed in Example 7. and V U È W by Proposition 2. Using this. (8. Then vW P U. 3)X 3 The required FG-submodule W is then Ker W. Hence 1 (vx)W vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG 2 3 1 vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG (vW)xX Thus W is an FG-homomorphism. We have now established that W: V 3 V is a projection and an FGhomomorphism.3(3).2(1). Next.2. v3 3 v1 v2 v3 X Check now that the FG-homomorphism W given by (8. v3 ) be the permutation module.

v2 À v3 as a basis B 9. v1 . This example illustrates the matrix version of Maschke's Theorem: for an arbitrary ®nite group G. then we can ®nd a basis B 9 such that [ g]B 9 has the form H I Ã 0 d e 0 Ã for all g P G. n. . then we get H I j 0 0 [ g]B 9 d 0 j j e. suppose that r is a reducible representation of a ®nite group G over F of degree n. v2 À v3 ) is also an FG-submodule of V. the matrix [ g]B has the form H I j 0 0 [ g]B d j j j eX j j j The zeros re¯ect the fact that U is an FG-submodule of V (see (5. Z g . where X g is k 3 k with 0 . if we can choose a basis B of an FGmodule V such that [ g]B has the form H I Ã 0 d e Ã Ã for all g P G (see (5. Then we know that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G). Yg. If instead we use v1 v2 v3 . v2 of V. g 3d Yg Zg for some matrices X g . k .Maschke's Theorem 73 Note that if B is the basis v1 v2 v3 . 0 j j because sp (v1 À v2 . v1 À v2 . then for all g P G. To put this another way.4)).4)).

The result is true if dim V 1. V U1 È X X X È Ur È W 1 È X X X È W s . W W 1 È X X X È W s . The proof goes by induction on dim V. Since dim U . Then by (2. we simply mean an FG-submodule which is an irreducible FG-module. where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V. a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules.10). g 3d 0 Bg where A g is also a k 3 k matrix. by induction. j Another useful consequence of Maschke's Theorem is the next proposition.) 8. If V is irreducible then the result holds. . we have. (By an irreducible FG-submodule. so suppose that V is reducible. then every non-zero FG-module is completely reducible. since V is irreducible in this case. Consequences of Maschke's Theorem We now use Maschke's Theorem to show that every non-zero FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. dim V and dim W . there is an FG-submodule W such that V U È W. 8. By Maschke's Theorem.6 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be completely reducible if V U1 È F F F ÈU r . Proof Let V be a non-zero FG-module.7 Theorem If G is a ®nite group and F R or C. U U1 È X X X È Ur .74 Representations and characters of groups Maschke's Theorem asserts further that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Ag 0 e. where each Ui and W j is an irreducible FG-module. dim V. Then V has an FG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V.

7 tells us that every non-zero FG-module is a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules. If G C2 3 C2 . Every non-zero FG-module V is a direct sum of irreducible FGmodules: V U1 È X X X È Ur X Exercises for Chapter 8 1.8 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. 2. Summary of Chapter 8 Assume that G is a ®nite group and F R or C. We begin our study of these in the next chapter. Maschke's Theorem says that for every FG-submodule U of an FGmodule V. Then the function ð: V 3 U which is de®ned by ð: u w 3 u (u P U . Thus. Suppose that U is an FG-submodule of V.Maschke's Theorem 75 8. there is an FG-submodule W with V U È WX 2. express the group algebra RG as a direct sum of 1-dimensional RG-submodules. v2 x Àv1 À v2 X (This is a CG-module.11. where v1 x v2 . Then there exists a surjective FG-homomorphism from V onto U.) Express V as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.2. there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È W. w P W ) j is an FG-homomorphism onto U. v2 . we may concentrate upon the irreducible FG-modules. . Proof By Maschke's Theorem. and let V be the 2-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 . in order to understand FG-modules. Theorem 8. by Proposition 7. by Exercise 3. Let G kx: x 3 1l C3 . where F R or C and G is a ®nite group. 1.

Find a group G.4. v n and suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. ] on V by [u. ì jv j ëi ìiX i1 j1 i1 De®ne another complex inner product [ . with the natural multiplication by elements of G (so that for v P V. An alternative proof of Maschke's Theorem for CG-modules. Let G be a ®nite group and let r: G 3 GL (2. and de®ne U c fv P V : [u. (This shows that Maschke's Theorem fails for in®nite groups ± compare Example 8. ] is a complex inner product. 4.) 5. vg] [u. . v P V and g P GX (2) Suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. De®ne a complex inner product ( .3. C) be a representation of G. a CG-module V and a CG-homomorphism W: V 3 V such that V T Ker W È Im W. ì j P C.76 Representations and characters of groups 3. Suppose that G is the in®nite group & ' 1 0 : nPZ n 1 and let V be the CG-module C2 . ) on V as follows (see (14. g P G. the vector vg is just the product of the row vector v with the matrix g).2) for the de®nition of a complex inner product): for ë i .5(2) and Exercises 5. 5.6 in the light of this result. . .) 6. Suppose that there are elements g. Prove that r is irreducible. 5. which satis®es [ug. . v P V )X xPG (1) Verify that [ . 2 n 3 n n ëi vi . Show that V is not completely reducible. .2(2). 6. v] (ux.1. (You may care to revisit Example 5. v] 0 for all u P U gX Show that U c is a CG-submodule of V. vx) (u. Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 . h in G such that the matrices gr and hr do not commute. v] for all u.

Prove that for every ®nite simple group G.) 7. (Hint: it is a standard property of complex inner products that V U È U c for all subspaces U of V. there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module. .Maschke's Theorem 77 (3) Deduce Maschke's Theorem.

Though simple in both statement and proof. Schur's Lemma is fundamental to representation theory.2. As Im W is a CG-submodule of W by Proposition 7. Thus W is invertible. we have Im W W. then W is a scalar multiple of the identity endomorphism 1 V . Also by Proposition 7. Thus Ker (W À ë1 V ) is a non-zero CG-submodule 78 . the endomorphism W has an eigenvalue ë P C. and hence is a CG-isomorphism.1 Schur's Lemma Let V and W be irreducible CG-modules. we shall deal with CG-modules for the remainder of the book (except in Chapter 23). Schur's Lemma 9. G denotes a ®nite group. Then Im W T {0}. (2) If W: V 3 V is a CG-isomorphism. Ker W is a CG-submodule of V. Schur's Lemma concerns CG-modules rather than RG-modules. Throughout. Ker W {0}.2. or vW 0 for all v P V.9 Schur's Lemma Schur's Lemma is a basic result concerning irreducible modules. and W is irreducible. and we give an immediate application by determining all the irreducible representations of ®nite abelian groups. (2) By (2. then either W is a CGisomorphism. and so Ker (W À ë1 V ) T {0}.26). and since much of the ensuing theory depends on it. as Ker W T V and V is irreducible. Proof (1) Suppose that vW T 0 for some v P V. (1) If W: V 3 W is a CG-homomorphism.

and suppose that every CG-homomorphism from V to V is a scalar multiple of 1 V . Part (2) of Schur's Lemma has the following converse.2 Proposition Let V be a non-zero CG-module.Schur's Lemma of V. as required. C) be a representation of G. Then r is irreducible if and only if every n 3 n matrix A which satis®es ( gr)A A( gr) has the form A ëI n with ë P C. By Maschke's Theorem. Since V is irreducible. Hence V is irreducible.4(1). w P W is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. The endomorphism v 3 vA of C n is a CG-homomorphism if and only if (v g)A (vA) g for all v P C n . j We next interpret Schur's Lemma and its converse in terms of representations. Proof As in Theorem 4.11). Proof Suppose that V is reducible. 9. so that V has a CG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. Then V is irreducible. for all v P V X 79 j 9. regard C n as a CG-module by de®ning v g v( gr) for all v P C n . Let A be an n 3 n matrix over C. and is not a scalar multiple of 1 V . there is a CGsubmodule W of V such that V U È WX Then the projection ð: V 3 V de®ned by (u w)ð u for all u P U. Ker (W À ë1 V ) V. which is a contradiction. W ë1 V .3 Corollary Let r: G 3 GL (n. g P G. g P G. Therefore v(W À ë1 V ) 0 That is. for all g P G .

3. C) for which ar Assume that the matrix A á ã â ä ù 0 0 . if and only if ( gr)A A( gr) for all g P GX The result now follows from Schur's Lemma 9. and let r: G 3 GL (2. and then (br)A A(br) gives á ä. The fact that (ar)A A(ar) forces â ã 0. (2) Let G D10 ka. Corollary 9. j 9. Since the matrix 0 À1 1 À1 commutes with all gr ( g P G). C) be the representation for which ar 0 À1 1 À1 (see Exercise 3.2. . Hence A á 0 0 á áIX Consequently r is irreducible.80 Representations and characters of groups that is.2). and let ù e2ðia5 . by Corollary 9.3 implies that r is reducible. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.1 and Proposition 9. b: a5 b2 1. Check that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (2. ùÀ1 br 0 1 1 X 0 commutes with both ar and br.4 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l.

B. X X X . say ë x 1 V . Thus vx ë x v for all v P V X This implies that every subspace of V is a CG-submodule. Thus we have proved 9. we deduce that dim V 1.6. and for 1 < i < r. with g in i 1 and g i g j g j g i for all i. . . X X X . jX Now let r: G 3 GL (n.1(2). Since G is abelian.6 Theorem Every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. 3 C n r . n r are positive integers. . We shall determine the irreducible representations of all direct products C n1 3 C n2 3 X X X 3 C n r where n1 . Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. As V is irreducible. We shall not prove it here. Let G C n1 3 . . Write g i (1. . C) be an irreducible representation of G (ci in ith position)X . 1) Then G h g1 . The next result is a major structure theorem for ®nite abelian groups. X X X . then every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. Pick x P G. ci . let c i be a generator for C n i .5 Proposition If G is a ®nite abelian group. By Theorem 9. this endomorphism is a scalar multiple of the identity 1 V . but refer you to Chapter 9 of the book of J. v gx vxg for all g P G. g r i. and hence the endomorphism v 3 vx of V is a CG-homomorphism. and let V be an irreducible CGmodule. By Schur's Lemma 9.Schur's Lemma Representation theory of ®nite abelian groups 81 Let G be a ®nite abelian group. . this covers the irreducible representations of all ®nite abelian groups. 9.

. v3 g 1 Àv3 . There are |G| of these representations. . . i r . v4 g 2 Àv4 X . . v1 g 2 v2 . . write r rë1 . . 4) and v1 g 1 v1 . . V2 . 2. . v2 g 1 v2 . ë i is an n i th root of unity.ë r X Conversely. . . Then n 1 by Proposition 9.ë r of G constructed above are irreducible and have degree 1. v2 g 2 Àv2 . and no two of them are equivalent. there exists ë i P C such that g i r (ë i ) (where of course (ë i ) is a 1 3 1 matrix). . There are n1 n2 . and put ù e2ðia n . 9. g2 l are V1 . where ak rù j (ù jk ) (0 < k < n À 1)X (2) The four irreducible CG-modules for G C2 3 C2 k g1 . .XXX. where Vi is a 1-dimensional space with basis v i (i 1. i r .9 Examples (1) Let G C n ka: a n 1l.XXX. ë r i determine r. Also.8 Theorem Let G be the abelian group C n1 3 . since for g P G. . V4 . We have proved the following theorem. we have ë in i 1. and then (9X7) i i gr ( g 11 X X X g irr )r (ë11 X X Xë irr )X For a representation r of G satisfying (9. the values ë1 . The n irreducible representations of G over C are rù j (0 < j < n À 1). v3 g 2 v3 . so for 1 < i < r. the function i i g 11 X X X g irr 3 (ë11 X X Xë irr ) is a representation of G. 9. given any n i th roots of unity ë i (1 < i < r). . 3. v4 g 1 Àv4 . . .5. 3 C n r . As g i has order n i . we have g g11 . V3 . . and every irreducible representation of G over C is equivalent to precisely one of them. g irr for some integers i1 .7) for all i1 . . that is.82 Representations and characters of groups over C. n r such representations. The representations rë1 .

we shall see that Z(CG) plays a crucial role in . it is easy to check that Z(CG) is a subspace of CG. As V is also a C H-module.12 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group. 9.7. For arbitrary groups G. j Some further applications of Schur's Lemma Our next application concerns an important subspace of the group algebra CG. If g P G. then there is a basis B of V such that the matrix [ g]B is diagonal. For abelian groups G. the result follows from (9. . written Z(CG). and let V be a non-zero C H-module.Schur's Lemma Diagonalization 83 Let H k gl be a cyclic group of order n. . Put ù e2ðia n . there exists an integer m i such that ui g ù m i u i X Thus if B is the basis u1 . Proof Let H k gl. The centre of the group algebra CG.11 Proposition Let G be a ®nite group and V a CG-module.5). let u i be a vector spanning Ui. If g has order n. Then for each i. then H m1 I ù 0 f g FF (9X10) [ g]B d eX F 0 ù mr The following useful result is an immediate consequence of this. By Theorem 8. u r of V.5. the centre Z(CG) is the whole group algebra.10). by Proposition 9. is de®ned by Z(CG) fz P CG: zr rz for all r P CGgX Using (2. Each Ui has dimension 1. 9. . then the entries on the diagonal of [ g]B are nth roots of unity. . a direct sum of irreducible C H-submodules Ui of V. V U1 È X X X È Ur .

. Consequently zr rz for all r P CG. if H is any normal subgroup of G. which we now de®ne. For example. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.1(2). By Schur's Lemma 9. j Some elements of the centre of CG are provided by the centre of G. and hence the function v 3 vz is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. We use Schur's Lemma to prove the following important property of the elements of Z(CG). so the elements 1. if G D6 ka. g À1 zg g À1 hg h z. Then there exists ë P C such that vz ëv for all v P V X Proof For all r P CG and v P V. b: a3 b2 1. We shall see later that these elements in fact form a basis of Z(CG). its dimension is equal to the number of irreducible representations of G ± see Chapter 15). then h P Z(CG)X To see this.13 Example The elements 1 and gPG g lie in Z(CG). Indeed. kal and G are normal subgroups of G. this CG-homomorphism is equal to ë1 V for some ë P C. 9. 9. 1 a a2 and 1 a a2 b ab a2 b lie in Z(CG). then {1}.14 Proposition Let V be an irreducible CG-module. and the result follows.84 Representations and characters of groups the study of representations of G (for example. Then for all g P G. write z h. hP H hP H hP H hP H and so zg gz. we have vrz vzr. and let z P Z(CG).

and so by Proposition 9. then Z(G) is cyclic. the following result shows that the existence of a faithful irreducible CG-module imposes a strong restriction on the structure of G. the function z 3 ëz (z P Z(G)) is an injective homomorphism from Z(G) into the multiplicative group CÃ of non-zero complex numbers. written Z(G).6.7). it is not necessarily the case that there is a faithful irreducible CG-module. and is a subset of Z(CG). j We remark that the converse of Proposition 9.15 De®nition The centre of G. The irreducible representations of non-abelian groups are more dif®cult to construct than those of abelian groups.16 Proposition If there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module.16. If z P Z(G) then z lies in Z(CG). then G Z(G). C2 3 C2 has no faithful irreducible representation (compare Example 9. Proof Let V be a faithful irreducible CG-module. we give an example of a group G such that Z(G) is cyclic but there exists no faithful irreducible CG-module. and hence by Proposition 9. Indeed. Although we have seen in Proposition 6. being a ®nite subgroup of CÃ . which. is de®ned by Z(G) fz P G: zg gz for all g P GgX 85 Clearly Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G.Schur's Lemma 9.16 is false. 9.17 Example If G is an abelian group. Therefore Z(G) {ë z : z P Z(G)}. since in Exercise 25. For example. In particular.6 that for every ®nite group G there is a faithful CG-module.14. there exists ë z P C such that vz ë z v for all v P V X Since V is faithful. there is no faithful irreducible CG-module unless G is cyclic. 9.9(2)). is cyclic (see Exercise 1. they .

as is shown by the following converse to Proposition 9. since we are assuming that all irreducible CG-modules have dimension 1. . The elements of Z(CG) act as scalar multiples of the identity on all irreducible CGmodules. . Then v1 . the matrices [x]B and [ y]B are diagonal. Also. Then dim Vi 1 for all i.7. C3 and C2 3 C2 .18 Proposition Suppose that G is a ®nite group such that every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. we can write CG V1 È X X X È Vn . y P G. For 1 < i < n. Write down the irreducible representations over C of the groups C2 . and there are precisely |G| of them. Exercises for Chapter 9 1. . v n is a basis of CG. All irreducible CG-modules for a ®nite abelian group G have dimension 1.5.6). call it B . Proof By Theorem 8. Hence G is abelian. 2. Since the representation g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) of G is faithful (see Proposition 6. we deduce that x and y commute. .86 Representations and characters of groups do not all have degree 1. j Summary of Chapter 9 1. as required. The centre Z(CG) of the group algebra CG consists of those elements which commute with all elements of CG. the only CG-homomorphisms from an irreducible CG-module to itself are scalar multiples of the identity. . 3. 9. Schur's Lemma states that every CG-homomorphism between irreducible CG-modules is either zero or a CG-isomorphism. where each Vi is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule CG. For all x. let v i be a vector spanning V i . Then G is abelian. and hence they commute.

Let G C4 3 C4 .Schur's Lemma 87 2. (b) Find ë P C such that w(a aÀ1 ) ëw for all w P W. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. b: a4 b2 1. Prove that G has a faithful representation of degree r. Show that if V is an irreducible CG-module. 3. br X À5 7 À4 5 Find all 2 3 2 matrices M such that Hence determine whether or not r is Do the same for the representation 5 À6 aó .14. Check that there is a representation r of G over C such that À7 10 À5 6 ar .) . (Compare Proposition 9. bó 4 À5 M( gr) ( gr)M for all g P G. and let W be the irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule de®ned by W sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 .6). Suppose that G D8 ka. (b) Prove that there is no irreducible representation ó of G such that gó (À1) for all elements g of order 2 in G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Write ù e2ðia3 . ó of G. irreducible. . (a) Show that a aÀ1 P Z(CG). b: a3 b2 1. Let G D6 ka. where À5 6 X À4 5 5. 3 C n r . b ù2 ab ùa2 b) (see Exercise 6. (a) Find a non-trivial irreducible representation r of G such that g2 r (1) for all g P G. Let G be the ®nite abelian group C n1 3 . . then there exists ë P C such that 2 3 v g ëv for all v P V X gPG 6. Can G have a faithful representation of degree less than r? 4.

Which of the following groups have a faithful irreducible representation? (a) C n (n a positive integer). (b) D8 . (d) C3 3 D8.88 Representations and characters of groups 7. . (c) C2 3 D8 .

Then there is a CG-submodule U of V such that V Ker W È U and U Im W.1 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules and let W: V 3 W be a CG-homomorphism. By Theorem 8. we can write CG U1 È X X X È Ur where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. .2. unless G is a small group. We shall show in this chapter that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules U1. to ®nd all irreducible CG-modules. As a consequence. . De®ne a function W: U 3 Im W by uW uW (u P U )X 89 . Proof Since Ker W is a CG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. this is not really a practical way of ®nding the irreducible CG-modules. there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (a result which has already been established for abelian groups in Theorem 9. . . in theory. there is by Maschke's Theorem a CG-submodule U of V such that V Ker W È U . Also.8). Irreducible submodules of CG We begin with another consequence of Maschke's Theorem. 10. Consider CG as the regular CG-module. Ur.7. it is suf®cient to decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. However.10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra Let G be a ®nite group and CG be the group algebra of G over C.

hence Ker W {0}. then U Ui for some i. we have ð i T 0.90 Representations and characters of groups We show that W is a CG-isomorphism from U to Im W. If U is any irreducible CG-submodule of V. since W is a CG-homomorphism. 10. Choosing i such that ui T 0 for some u P U. . us for unique vectors ui P Ui (1 < i < s). u P U. Then w vW kW uW uW uWX Therefore Im W Im W. we have u u1 . Schur's Lemma 9. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. Now ð i is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. and ð i T 0. We have now established that W: U 3 Im W is an invertible CG-homomorphism. De®ne ð i : U 3 Ui by setting uð i ui . Then V U1 È U2 . .2 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. then we say that U is a composition factor of V if V has a CG-submodule which is isomorphic to U. Proof For u P U. so w vW for some v P V. Therefore U Ui. and write V U1 È X X X È Us . If u P Ker W then u P Ker W U {0}. Now let w P Im W. as the following example shows. . . as required. However. such that v g v for all v P V and g P G. Thus U Im W. As U and Ui are irreducible.4 De®nitions (1) If V is a CG-module and U is an irreducible CG-module. È Us (each Ui irreducible) without U being equal to any Ui. v2 . 10. 10.1(1) implies that ð i is a CG-isomorphism. with basis v1 . Clearly W is a CG-homomorphism.11). where U1 sp (v1 ) and U2 sp (v2 ) are irreducible CG-submodules. .3 Example Let G be any group and let V be a 2-dimensional CG-module. U sp (v1 v2 ) is an irreducible CG-submodule which is not equal to U1 or U2. j Of course it can happen that U is an irreducible CG-submodule of U1 È . Write v k u with k P Ker W.

it follows that (10X6) W fwr: r P CGgX Now de®ne W: CG 3 W by rW wr (r P CG)X Clearly W is a linear transformation.Irreducible modules and the group algebra 91 (2) Two CG-modules V and W are said to have a common composition factor if there is an irreducible CG-module which is a composition factor of both V and W. Observe that {wr: r P CG} is a CG-submodule of W. Then every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules Ui. . We record this fact in the following corollary. since for r.7 Corollary If G is a ®nite group.1. which shows that every irreducible CG-module is a composition factor of the regular CG-module. and the result is proved. j Theorem 10. since W is irreducible. then W Ui.5 Theorem Regard CG as the regular CG-module. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.2 we have U Ui for some i.6). Moreover. there is a CG-submodule U of CG such that CG U È Ker W and U Im W W X As W is irreducible.5 shows that there is a ®nite set of irreducible CGmodules such that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of them. 10. and Im W W by (10. and choose a non-zero vector w P W. By Proposition 10. Proof Let W be an irreducible CG-module. W is a CG-homomorphism. and write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . (rs)W w(rs) (wr)s (rW)sX By Proposition 10. so is U. then there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. s P CG. 10. We now come to the main result of the chapter.

however. 2X Hence Ui is a CG-submodule of CG for i 0. v1 . b: a3 b2 1. to ®nd all the irreducible CG-modules we need only decompose the regular CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. v2 b w1 . As in (1) above. 10. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. De®ne v0 . We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 . v2 P CG by v0 1 a a2 . (2) Let G D6 ka. every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to U0. v2 is a basis of CG. 1. and hence CG U0 È U 1 È U2 .92 Representations and characters of groups According to Theorem 10. 2.5. note that v0 b w 0 . The irreducible representation of G corresponding to Ui is the representation rù i of Example 9. Let ù e2ðia3 and de®ne v0 1 a a2 . U1 or U2. w2 b v1 X . w1 b v2 . Then v1 a a ù2 a2 ù1 ùv1 . v2 1 ùa ù2 a2 .8 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. and write ù e2ðia3 .5. Next. and similarly vi a ùi vi for i 0. v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 . w0 bv0 w1 bv1 . It is easy to check that v0 . 2. and let Ui sp (v i ) for i 0.9(1). 2. w0 b v0 . We now do this for a couple of examples. w2 bv2 X ( b ba ba2 ). 1. this is not a practical method for studying CG-modules in general. v1 b w2 . 1. v i a ù i v i for i 0. v2 1 ùa ù2 a2 . and so sp (v i ) and sp (wi ) are Ckal-modules. By Theorem 10. v1 . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. 1.

5 that there are exactly three nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules. w1. w2 ) and U4 sp (v2 . b 3 (À1). as U 1 sp(v0 w0 ) and U2 sp(v0 À w0 ) are CG-submodules. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. and hence CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 . w0 ). Note that U1 is the trivial CG-module. Every irreducible CG-module occurs as a composition factor of the regular CG-module.5(2). and hence are CG-submodules of CG. (Hint: copy the method of Example 10. w2 ) and sp (v2 . v1 . U2 and U3. Find a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module. sp (v1 .b3 X 1 0 0 ùÀ1 Summary of Chapter 10 1. Correspondingly. namely U1. w2 is a basis of CG. Let G be a ®nite group. Is there only one such CGsubmodule? 2. b 3 (1). 2.Irreducible modules and the group algebra 93 Therefore. But U3 U4 (there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1 . By the argument in Example 5. w0 ) is reducible. sp(v0 . w1 ) are irreducible. and U1 is not isomorphic to U2. Express CG as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules. every irreducible representation of D6 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r1 : a 3 (1). w1 ) are Ckbl-modules.8(1). w2 3 v2 ). v2 . Now v0.) . sp (v0 . Let G C4 . w0. r2 : a 3 (1). 0 1 ù 0 r3 : a 3 . We conclude from Theorem 10. the CG-submodules U3 sp (v1 . There are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. Exercises for Chapter 10 1. the other 1-dimensional Ui. However.

Let G Q8 ka. sp (u2 ) and sp (u3 ). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.94 Representations and characters of groups 3. such that u2 a Àu2 . Thus V has basis v1 . u2 b u2 . . 6. Let G D8 ka. of CG such that u1 a u1 . u1 b Àu1 X Find also 1-dimensional CG-submodules. v2 a Àiv2 .5(2). isomorphic CG-modules. b2 a2 .8(2) to ®nd all the irreducible representations of D8 over C. Suppose that V is a where U1 and U2 are CG-submodule U of isomorphic to both of non-zero CG-module such that V U1 È U2. Show that there is a V which is not equal to U1 or U2. v2 and v1 a iv1 . Find a 1-dimensional CG-submodule. b: a4 1. v2 b Àv1 X Show that V is irreducible. and ®nd a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. and let V be the CG-module given in Example 4. 5. u3 a Àu3 . and u3 b Àu3 X 4. b: a4 b2 1. Use the method of Example 10. sp (u1 ) say. but is them. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. v1 b v2 .

The space of CG-homomorphisms 11. we write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui. ö P HomCG (V . de®ne W ö and ëW by v(W ö) vW vö. Then W ö. W ) and ë P C. In Theorem 10. W ) is a vector space over C. The question arises: how many of the Ui are isomorphic to U ? There is an elegant and signi®cant answer to this question: the number is precisely dim U (see Theorem 11. v(ëW) ë(vW) for all v P V . ëW P HomCG (V . We begin our study of the vector space HomCG (V.11 More on the group algebra We now go further into the structure of the group algebra CG of a ®nite group G. De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on HomCG (V . it is easily checked that HomCG (V.9 is based on a study of the vector space of CG-homomorphisms from one CG-module to another. Our proof of Theorem 11. We write HomCG (V .1 De®nition Let V and W be CG-modules. W ) as follows: for W. W ) for the set of all CG-homomorphisms from V to W. 95 .5 we proved that every irreducible CG-module U is isomorphic to one of the Ui. As in Chapter 10. With these de®nitions. W) with an easy consequence of Schur's Lemma. W ).9).

W 2 be CG-modules. Proof Let W be a non-zero element of HomCG (V . Let X be an irreducible CG-submodule of U. The key step is the following proposition. Then V and W have a common composition factor. j The next few results show how to calculate the dimension of HomCG (V . 11.4.3 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules. if V T W X Proof If V T W then this is immediate from Schur's Lemma 9. Now suppose that V W. W ). by Maschke's Theorem. W )). dim (HomCG (V . a 1-dimensional space. if V W . there exists ë P C such that öWÀ1 ë1 V X Then ö ëW. Since XW T {0}. W ). recall the de®nition of a composition factor of a CG-module from 10.1(1) implies that XW X. 11. W ) T f0g. so by Schur's Lemma 9.2 Proposition Suppose that V and W are irreducible CG-modules. W)) dim (HomCG (V2 . and let W: V 3 W be a CG-isomorphism. Then & 1.1(2). If ö P HomCG (V .1(1). Then V Ker W È U for some non-zero CG-module U. (2) dim (HomCG (V1 È V2 . Therefore X is a common composition factor of V and W. W )) dim (HomCG (V1 . j For the next result.96 Representations and characters of groups 11. and so HomCG (V . V1 . . W ) fëW: ë P Cg. V2 and W . W1 È W2 )) dim (HomCG (V. and suppose that HomCG (V . W )) 0. W2 )). W 1 . Then (1) dim (HomCG (V. W ) in general. then öWÀ1 is a CG-isomorphism from V to V. Schur's Lemma 9.4 Proposition Let V . W1 )) dim (HomCG (V.

W ) for i 1. then Wð1 P HomCG (V . that is. W ) È HomCG (V2 . de®ne W Vi : Vi 3 W (i 1. then vWð1 0 and vWð2 0 for all v P V.1). for all w1 P W 1 . so Ker f {0} and f is injective. W ))X transformation. Wð2 ) (W P HomCG (V . If W P Ker f. W 1 È W 2 ). If W P HomCG (V . and the image of ö under f is (ö1 . W ) which is given by h: W 3 (W V1 . We show that f is invertible. 2) lies in HomCG (V1 È V2 . Hence f is surjective. Wi ) (i 1. W1 ) and HomCG (V. Therefore W 0. W 1 È W 2 ))X Clearly f is a linear transformation.More on the group algebra Proof (1) De®ne W 1 È W 2 3 W 2 by the functions ð1 : W1 È W2 3 W1 (w1 w2 )ð2 w2 and 97 ð2 : (w1 w2 )ð1 w1 . W ) (i 1. We have established that f is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (V. and (2) follows. 2. By Proposition 7. Given ö i P HomCG (V. (2) For W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . w2 P W 2 . so vW vW(ð1 ð2 ) 0. ö2 ). ð1 and ð2 are CG-homomorphisms. Consequently these two vector spaces have equal dimensions. 2). and (1) follows. the function ö: v 3 vö1 vö2 (v P V ) lies in HomCG (V. We have shown that h is an invertible linear transformation. Hence h is surjective.11. W1 È W2 ). 2). W ). W V2 ) (W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . 2) to be the restriction of W to V i . ö2 ) under h. the function ö: v1 v2 3 v1 ö1 v2 ö2 öi P (v i P Vi for i 1. W ) HomCG (V1 . W2 ). W2 ) by f : W 3 (Wð1 . We now de®ne a function f from HomCG (V. Now let h be the function from HomCG (V1 È V2 . W1 È W2 ) to HomCG (V. W1 È W2 ) to the (external) direct sum of HomCG (V. j . W 1 ) and Wð2 P HomCG (V. W2 ) (see Exercise 7. W1 ) È HomCG (V. W ) and has image (ö1 . W Vi is the function v i W Vi v i W (v i P Vi )X to Then W Vi P HomCG (V i . Given Clearly h is an injective linear HomCG (Vi .

W )) in general. . Proof By (11. By an obvious induction using Proposition 11. These in turn imply (3) dim (HomCG (V1 È . V )) s i1 s i1 dim (HomCG (Ui .5) (1) dim (HomCG (V. W1 È . . where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. dim (HomCG (V . . Wj )). and using Proposition 11. 1 < j < s).5). By applying (3) when all Vi and Wj are irreducible. . W )) dim (HomCG (W .4. Let W be any irreducible CG-module.2. (2) dim(HomCG (V1 È F F F ÈV r . we can ®nd dim (HomCG (V. Then the dimensions of HomCG (V . U i ))X . Wj )). 11. In the following corollary we single out the case where one of the CGmodules is irreducible.6 Corollary Let V be a CG-module with V U1 È X X X È Us . .98 Representations and characters of groups Now suppose that we have CG-modules V. W)). È Vr . and dim (HomCG (W . È Ws )) r s i1 j1 dim (HomCG (Vi. È Ws )) s j1 dim (HomCG (V. W )) r i1 dim (HomCG (Vi. . Wj (1 < i < r. W. Vi. W1 È . W )). W ) and HomCG (W . V ) are both equal to the number of CG-modules Ui such that Ui W. we have (11.

if U i T W X j a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. U3 )) dim (HomCG (U3 . U ). if U i W . with U3 U4 but U3 not isomorphic to U1 or U2. Thus by Corollary 11. ud of U. Ui )) The result follows. For 1 < i < d. CG)) 2X You are asked in Exercise 11. . 0. W )) dim (HomCG (W . Suppose that ö P HomCG (CG. we saw in Example 10.8 Proposition If U is a CG-module. dim (HomCG (Ui . U) since for all r. s P CG. The next proposition investigates the space of CG-homomorphisms from the regular CG-module to any other CG-module. 11. . . then dim (HomCG (CG. we have dim (HomCG (CG. U )) dim U X Proof Let d dim U.5 to ®nd bases for these two vector spaces of CG-homomorphisms. 11. .7 Example For G D6. . . . When combined with Corollary 11.More on the group algebra And by Proposition 11. . de®ne ö i : CG 3 U by rö i ui r (r P CG)X Then ö i P HomCG (CG. Then 1ö ë1 u1 X X X ë d u d for some ë i P C.2. ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. U ).8(2) that CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 .6.6. it will give the main result of this chapter. Choose a basis u1 . Since ö is a CG-homomorphism. for all r P CG we have . & 99 1. (rs)ö i ui (rs) (ui r)s (rö i )sX We shall prove that ö1 .

which forces ë i 0 for all i. . this is equal to the number of Ui with Ui U. and . . HomCG (CG. . Now assume that Therefore ö1 . which therefore has dimension d. dim U dim (HomCG (CG. . then the number of CG-modules Ui with Ui U is equal to dim U. we have 0 1(ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d ) ë1 u1 X X X ë d u d .9 Theorem Suppose that CG U1 È X X X È Ur . ö d span ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d 0 (ë i P C)X Evaluating both sides at the identity 1. j We now come to the main theorem of the chapter. . .8(2) that if G D6 then CG U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . U ). ë d ö d .6. Proof By Proposition 11. ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG.10 Example Recall again from Example 10. and by Corollary 11. j 11. . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Hence ö1 . . U )). If U is any irreducible CG-module. U ).8. U2 are non-isomorphic 1-dimensional CG-modules. which tells us how often each irreducible CG-module occurs in the regular CGmodule. . where U1. 11.100 Representations and characters of groups rö (1r)ö (1ö)r ë1 u1 r X X X ë d u d r r(ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d )X Hence ö ë1 ö1 . .

V k are isomorphic.13 Example Let G be a group of order 8. and let d1. V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. 11.12 Theorem Let V1 . write d i dim V i . È Ur. X X X . k i1 d 2 8X i . . Then k (dim Vi )2 jGjX i1 Proof Let CG U1 È . the number of CG-modules Uj with Uj Vi is equal to di . This illustrates Theorem 11. for any ®nite group G there exists a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.) 11. for each i. dk be the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules.9: U1 occurs once.More on the group algebra 101 U3. Therefore dim CG dim U 1 X X X dim Ur k i1 k i1 d i (dim Vi ) d2X i j As dim CG |G|.9 concerning the dimensions of all irreducible CG-modules. (By Corollary 10. . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.11 De®nition We say that the irreducible CG-modules V1 . V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules if every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to some V i . X X X . By Theorem 11. By Theorem 11. dim U2 1. . For 1 < i < k. . U3 occurs twice.12. U4 are isomorphic irreducible 2-dimensional CG-modules.9. and no two of V1 . dim U3 2X We conclude the chapter with a signi®cant consequence of Theorem 11. . X X X . the result follows.7. U2 occurs once. dim U1 1. 11. .

È Ur. . ®nd the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. Find a basis for HomCG (CG. dim (HomCG (V1 È X X X È V r . 1. dk are 1.12. W 1 È X X X È W s )) r s i1 j1 and dim (HomCG (Vi . V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. what are the possible degrees of all the irreducible representations of G? Find the degrees of the irreducible representations of D12. Then the number of Ui with Ui U is equal to dim U. then k (dim Vi )2 jGjX i1 Exercises for Chapter 11 1. X X X . (Hint: use Exercise 5. 4. 1. 1. 2X Both these possibilities do occur: the ®rst holds when G is an abelian group (see Proposition 9.5). . .) 3. Summary of Chapter 11 1. Hence the possibilities for d1. CG). . 1. If G is a group of order 12. dim (HomCG (CG. 1. If G is a non-abelian group of order 6. If V1 . and so di 1 for some i. Let G be a ®nite group. and the second when G D8 (see Exercise 10. U )) dim U . . . . 1.4). and let U be any irreducible CG-module. 1. 3.3. Let CG U1 È . 1. 1. and this fact.102 Representations and characters of groups Observe that the trivial CG-module is irreducible of dimension 1. W j ))X 2. 2. is quite a powerful tool in ®nding the dimensions of irreducible CG-modules. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. We shall see later that dim Vi divides |G| for all i. 1 1. combined with Theorem 11.

U3 ) and a basis for HomCG (U3. show that HomCG (V. and let V. CG). U) has dimension 1. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. 5. Assume that for 1 < i < k. . W )) i1 d i ei . 6. X X X .10. Suppose that G Sn and V is the n-dimensional permutation module for G over C. as in Example 10. Vi ))X k Show that dim (HomCG (V .8(2). V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. If U is the trivial CGmodule. Let G D6 and let CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4. Let V1 . Vi )) and ei dim (HomCG (W . d i dim (HomCG (V . Find a basis for HomCG (CG. W be arbitrary CG-modules.More on the group algebra 103 4. as de®ned in 4.

Conjugacy classes 12. and is called the conjugacy class of x in G. Our ®rst result shows that two distinct conjugacy classes have no elements in common. At the end of the chapter we prove a result linking the conjugacy classes of a group to the structure of its group algebra. y P G.1 De®nition Let x. y P G. symmetric and alternating groups. then either x G y G or x G y G is empty. G is a ®nite group.12 Conjugacy classes We take a break from representation theory to discuss some topics in group theory which will be relevant in our further study of representations. After de®ning conjugacy classes.2 Proposition If x. and pick z P x G y G. Proof Suppose that x G y G is not empty. Then there exist g. 12. h P G such that z gÀ1 xg hÀ1 yhX 104 . We say that x is conjugate to y in G if y g À1 xg for some g P GX The set of all elements conjugate to x in G is x G f g À1 xg: g P Gg. Throughout the chapter. we develop enough theory to determine the conjugacy classes of dihedral.

. and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. 1 G {1} is a conjugacy class of G. . then we call x1 . xl representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. aÀi ba i aÀ2i b for all integers i. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 12. ab. The elements of G are 1. a. so bG fb.3 is to observe that conjugacy is an equivalence relation. where k hgÀ1 . a2 b. . a2 . 12. a2 bgX . and bÀ1 ab a2 . . and so xG yG . ab. Another way of seeing this Corollary 12. So a P x G A a bÀ1 xb A a cÀ1 yc AaP y X G 105 for some b P G where c kb A a bÀ1 k À1 ykb Therefore x G # y G.3 Corollary Every group is a union of conjugacy classes.5 Examples (1) For every group G. b. . and that the conjugacy classes are the equivalence classes. G is the union of its conjugacy classes and so we deduce immediately 12. b: a3 b2 1. .Conjugacy classes Hence x ghÀ1 yhgÀ1 kÀ1 yk. we have aG fa. Since gÀ1 ag is a or a2 for every g P G. x G .4 De®nition G G If G x1 . j Since every element x of G lies in the conjugacy class x G (as x 1À1 x1 with 1 P G). x G are l l distinct. a2 bgX Thus the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. Similarly y G # x G (using y kxkÀ1 ). ab. . fa. a2 gX Also. . (2) Let G D6 ka. where the conjugacy classes x1 . . a2 g. fb.

y r gÀ1 x r g T 1. and for 0 . Then y m gÀ1 x m g 1. 12. The next proposition is often useful when calculating conjugacy classes.) It is easy to check that CG (x) is a subgroup of G (Exercise 12. |x G | divides |G|. so that y gÀ1 xg for some g P G. we have gÀ1 abg ( g À1 ag)( g À1 bg)X Hence gÀ1 x n g ( gÀ1 xg) n . .1). Suppose that x is conjugate to y in G. r . The centralizer of x in G. that is. is the set of elements of G which commute with x. g P G. so y also has order m.7 De®nition Let x P G. CG (x) f g P G: xg gxgX (So also CG (x) { g P G: gÀ1 xg x}. b P G. If x is conjugate to y in G. written CG (x). kxl # CG (x) for all x P G.6 Proposition Let x. j Conjugacy class sizes The next theorem determines the sizes of the conjugacy classes in G in terms of certain subgroups which we now de®ne. Hence every conjugacy class of G consists of just one element. then x n is conjugate to y n in G for every integer n. Observe that x P CG (x) and indeed. 12. y P G.8 Theorem Let x P G. and so x G {x}. 12. Then the size of the conjugacy class x G is given by jx G j jG: CG (x)j jGjajCG (x)jX In particular. Proof Observe that for a. and x and y have the same order. Then y n gÀ1 x n g and therefore x n is conjugate to y n in G. m.106 Representations and characters of groups (3) If G is abelian then gÀ1 xg x for all x. Let x have order m.

Since CG (ai ) contains kal. jGj j Z(G)j i xiP Z(G) a for all g P G where |x G | i |G:CG (xi )|.10 The Class Equation Let x1 . we make the observation that (12X9) jx G j 1 D g À1 xg x D x P Z(G).Conjugacy classes Proof Observe ®rst that for g. Then jx G j. as de®ned in 9. We have now proved all parts of the following result. Let G D2 n. proving that |x G | |G:CG (x)|. jG: CG (ai )j < jG: haij 2X . xl be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Hence f is a bijection. we have g À1 xg hÀ1 xh D hg À1 x xhg À1 D hg À1 P CG (x) D CG (x) g CG (x)hX 107 By dint of this. . b: an b2 1.15. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX In ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. . 12. the dihedral group of order 2n. . i Conjugacy classes of dihedral groups We illustrate the use of Theorem 12. Thus G ha. it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. where Z(G) is the centre of G. (1) n odd First consider ai (1 < i < n À 1). j Before summarizing our results on conjugacy classes. . we may de®ne an injective function f from x G to the set of right cosets of CG (x) in G by f : g À1 xg 3 CG (x) g ( g P G)X Clearly f is surjective. h P G.8 by ®nding the conjugacy classes of all dihedral groups. and both | Z(G)| and |x G | divide |G|.

. {a2 j1 b: 0 < j < m À 1}. . . no element ai or ai b (with 1 < i < n À 1) commutes with b. a nÀ1 b}. As bÀ1 am b aÀ m am .108 Representations and characters of groups Also bÀ1 ai b aÀi . n 2m) has precisely m 3 conjugacy classes: {1}. . . (ai ) G {ai . a j baÀ j a2 j b. |bG | n. aÀ1 }. b}. so {ai . bG fb. and as bÀ1 ai b aÀi . As n is odd. aÀi gX Next. . aÀ1 }. . and hence CG (am ) G. aÀ( nÀ1)a2 }.11) The dihedral group D2 n (n odd) has precisely 1(n 3) con2 jugacy classes: {1}. Using Theorem 12. (ab) G fa2 j1 b: 0 < j < m À 1gX Hence (12. bG must consist of the remaining n elements of G. aÀi } # (ai ) G . a j (ab)aÀ j a2 j1 bX It follows that bG fa2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1g. {a. Since all the elements ai have been accounted for. . ab. For every integer j. {a m }. Therefore the conjugacy class of am in G is just fam g. (2) n even Write n 2m. That is.8.12) The dihedral group D2 n (n even. {a mÀ1 . . ai T aÀi . As in case (1). {a. and CG (ai ) hai. Thus CG (b) f1. bgX Therefore by Theorem 12. CG (b) contains {1. we have 2 > jG: CG (ai )j j(ai ) G j > 2X Hence equality holds here. {a2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1}. aÀ m1 }. X X X . the centralizer of am in G contains both a and b. . ab.8. {b. {a( nÀ1)a2 . . (ai ) G fai . . . aÀi } for 1 < i < m À 1. a nÀ1 bgX We have shown (12. and so |(ai ) G | > 2.

ik ) in Sn . . 1 k g À1 xg yX We have proved the following result. 1 k 1 k (products of disjoint cycles). . given any two permutations x. a product of disjoint cycles. 12. exists g P Sn sending j . . . Then gÀ1 xg is the k-cycle (i1 g i2 g . . . for 1 < i < n and i P A. there a1 3 a9 .Conjugacy classes Conjugacy classes of S n 109 We shall later need to know the conjugacy classes of the symmetric group Sn . ck s 3 c9 s . ik g). For ir P A. . and so by (12. Our ®rst observation is simple but crucial. . .14) g À1 xg g À1 (a1 X X X a k 1 ) gg À1 (b1 X X X b k 2 ) g X X X g À1 (c1 X X X ck s ) g (a1 g X X X a k 1 g)(b1 g X X X b k 2 g) X X X (c1 g X X X c k s g)X We call (k1 . Proof Write A {i1 . . On the other hand. Now consider an arbitrary permutation x P Sn . and let g P Sn . . and note that x and gÀ1 xg have the same cycle-shape. . ik ) g (i1 g i2 g . . > ks . Write x (a1 X X X ak 1 )(b1 X X X bk 2 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). By Proposition 12. . . . ir g( g À1 xg) i r xg i r1 g (or i1 g if r k)X Also. ik }. . with k1 > k2 > . ks ) the cycle-shape of x. .13. say x (a1 X X X a k 1 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). y of the same cycle-shape. a ig( gÀ1 xg) ixg igX Hence gÀ1 (i1 i2 .13 Proposition Let x be a k-cycle (i1 i2 . . .14). y (a9 X X X a9 1 ) X X X (c9 X X X c9 s ). . . for g P Sn we have (12. as required. ik g).

16 Examples (1) The conjugacy classes of S3 are Class {1} {(1 2). 2.15 Theorem For x P Sn . with representatives (see De®nition 12. 12. the conjugacy class representatives g. Thus for G S4 . (1 3 2)} Cycle-shape (1) (2) (3) (2) The conjugacy class of (1 2)(3 4) in S4 consists of all the elements of cycle-shape (2. The number of 2-cycles is equal to the number of pairs that can be chosen from {1. 2) and is f(1 2)(3 4).4): 1. (1 4)(2 3)gX (3) There are precisely ®ve conjugacy classes of S4 .) The number of 3-cycles is 4 3 2 (4 for the choice of ®xed point and 2 because there are two 3-cycles ®xing a given point). the conjugacy class x Sn of x in Sn consists of all permutations in Sn which have the same cycle-shape as x. there are three elements of cycle-shape (2. 3-cycles. 4}. ÀÁ which is 4 6. (1 2). Similarly. 3. and so on. the conjugacy class sizes | gG | and the centralizer orders |CG ( g)| (obtained using Theorem 12. (1 2)(3 4). (1 3)(2 4). (1 2 3 4)X To calculate the sizes of the conjugacy classes.8) are as follows: Representative Class size g | gG | |CG ( g)| 1 1 24 (1 2) 6 4 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 3 8 (1 2 3 4) 6 4 We check our arithmetic by noting that jS4 j 1 6 8 3 6X . (1 3). (1 2 3). 2) and there are six 4-cycles.110 Representations and characters of groups 12. we simply count the number of 2-cycles. (2 3)} {(1 2 3). (The notation n means the binomial coef®cient 2 r n3a(r3(n À r)3).

the corresponding table for G S5 is Rep. x À1 }. here x A3 fxg. so again y P x An . consider x (1 2 3) P A3 . (2) Assume that x does not commute with any odd permutation. so that y hÀ1 xh for some h P Sn .Conjugacy classes (4) Similarly. If h is even then y P x An . we have seen in Theorem 12. while x S3 {x. and if h is odd then gh P An and y hÀ1 xh hÀ1 g À1 xgh ( gh)À1 x( gh). g 1 (1 2) | gG | 1 10 |CG ( g)| 120 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 20 15 6 8 (1 2 3 4) 30 4 111 (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 24 6 5 Conjugacy classes of A n Given an even permutation x P A n . Then CSn (x) CAn (x)X . The conjugacy class x A n of x in A n . Thus x Sn # x An . (1) If x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn .15 that the conjugacy class x S n consists of all permutations in S n which have the same cycle-shape as x. (2) If x does not commute with any odd permutation in Sn then x Sn splits into two conjugacy classes in An of equal size. Proof (1) Assume that x commutes with an odd permutation g. then x Sn x An . and so x Sn x An . given by x A n f g À1 xg: g P An g. Let y P x S n . For an easy example where equality does not hold. 12. The next result determines precisely when x An and x Sn are equal. and what happens when equality fails. is of course contained in x S n . with representatives x and (1 2)À1 x(1 2).17 Proposition Let x P An with n . however. 1. x A n might not be equal to x S n .

18 Examples (1) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A4 . but (1 2 3 4 5) commutes with no odd permutation. jx An j jAn : CAn (x)j 1jSn : CAn (x)j 2 1jSn : CSn (x)j 1jx Sn jX 2 2 Next. as we wished to show. so g is 1. (1 2 3) or (1 3 2). the conjugacy classes x An and ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An must 2 be disjoint and of equal size. Hence by Proposition 12. (Check this by using the argument in (1) above.) Hence by Proposition 12. Thus the conjugacy classes of A4 are Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 12 (1 2)(3 4) 3 4 (1 2 3) 4 3 (1 3 2) 4 3 (as jAn j 1jSn j) 2 (2) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A5 . together with the permutations of cycle-shapes (2. the 3-cycle (1 2 3) commutes with no odd permutation: for if gÀ1 (1 2 3) g (1 2 3) then (1 2 3) (1 g 2 g 3 g) by Proposition 12. Since (1 2)(3 4) commutes with the odd permutation (1 2). the . an even permutation.17. The elements of A4 are the identity.112 Representations and characters of groups Hence by Theorem 12. (1 2 3) S4 splits into two conjugacy classes in A4 of size 4.17 implies that (1 2)(3 4) A4 (1 2)(3 4) S4 f(1 2)(3 4). 2) and (5). j 12. with representatives (1 2 3) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3)(1 2) (1 3 2).8. (1 4)(2 3)gX However. (1 3)(2 4). The non-identity even permutations in S5 are those of cycle-shapes (3). The elements (1 2 3) and (2 3)(4 5) commute with the odd permutation (4 5). (2. Proposition 12. Now x Sn fhÀ1 xh: h is eveng fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg x An ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An X Since |x An | 1|x Sn |. 2) and (3). we observe that fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An since every odd permutation has the form (1 2)a for some a P An .13.17.

19.19 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. g P G. Conversely. (1 2)(3 4). Then by Proposition 12.16(3). we see that the class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows: Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 60 (1 2 3) 20 3 (1 2)(3 4) 15 4 (1 2 3 4 5) 12 5 (1 3 4 5 2) 12 5 Normal subgroups Normal subgroups are related to conjugacy classes by the following elementary result. 6. so gÀ1 Hg # H.Conjugacy classes 113 conjugacy classes of A5 are represented by 1. and 1 P H. 3.17(2).20 Example We ®nd all the normal subgroups of S4 . Let H v S4 . (1 2 3). j 12. (1 2 3 4 5) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3 4 5)(1 2) (1 3 4 5 2). 6. H is a union of conjugacy classes of S4 . these conjugacy classes have sizes 1. Proof If H is a union of conjugacy classes. g P G A g À1 hg P H. As we saw in Example 12. 1 3. hP H and so H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. 12. Therefore H hG . Then H v G if and only if H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. if H v G then for all h P H. and so hG # H. 8. Since j Hj divides 24 by Lagrange's Theorem. then h P H. 1 8 3 or 1 6 8 3 6X . there are just four possibilities: j Hj 1. Using Proposition 12. we have gÀ1 hg P H. Thus H v G.

(1 2)(3 4). . . For 1 < i < l. A4 and V4 f1.114 Representations and characters of groups In the ®rst case H {1}. . . yÀ1 gyr of an element g. . . Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G. 12. . in the last case H S4 . . We have now shown that S4 has exactly four normal subgroups: f1g. .22 Proposition The class sums C1 . .12 that the centre of CG is Z(CG) fz P CG: zr rz for all r P CGgX We know that Z(CG) is a subspace of the vector space CG.21 De®nition Let C1 . C l of CG are called class sums. Recall from De®nition 9. hÀ1 C i h r j1 r j1 yÀ1 gyj X j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj hX j . . Proof First we show that each C i belongs to Z(CG). de®ne Ci g P CGX gPCi The elements C1 . (1 4)(2 3)gX The centre of a group algebra In this ®nal section we link the conjugacy classes of the group G to the centre of the group algebra CG. In the case where j Hj 1 3. (1 4)(2 3)gX This is easily checked to be a subgroup of S4 . (1 3)(2 4). (1 3)(2 4). we write it as V4 (V stands for `Viergruppe'. C l form a basis of Z(CG). Let Ci consist of the r distinct conjugates yÀ1 gy1. (1 2)(3 4). and in the third case H A4 . . . S4 . we have H 1 S4 (1 2)(3 4) S4 f1. . There is a convenient basis for this subspace which can be described in terms of the conjugacy classes of G. . 12. . meaning `four-group'). so 1 r Ci For all h P G.

Next.Conjugacy classes 115 As j runs from 1 to r. That is to say. the elements hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h run through Ci . the coef®cient ë g of g is equal to the coef®cient ë hÀ1 gh of hÀ1 gh.12). It follows that r i1 ë i C i where ë i is the j coef®cient ë gi for some gi P Ci . . . the centralizer CG (x) is the set of . and so C i P Z(CG). . .23 Examples (1) From Example 12. since j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h hÀ1 yÀ1 gyk h D yÀ1 gyj yÀ1 gyk X j k j k Hence r j1 À1 hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h C i . a2 . C l are linearly independent: for if l i1 ë i C i 0 (ë i P C). ë g hÀ1 gh ë g gX gPG gPG So for every h P G. ab a3 bX Summary of Chapter 12 1. For h P G. 2. . a basis for Z(CS3 ) is 1.16(1). . . C i h hC i X Therefore each C i commutes with all h P G. we have rh hr. j and so h C i h C i . . b a2 b. hence with all hPG ë h h P CG. and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. so h rh r. That is. 12. That is. a a3 . . . observe that C1 . C l span Z(CG). For an element x of a group G. the function g 3 ë g is constant on l conjugacy classes of G. This completes the proof. . Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. It remains to show that C1 . Let r À1 gPG ë g g P Z(CG). (1 2 3) (1 3 2)X (2) From (12. a basis for Z(CD8 ) is 1.3. then all ë i 0 as the classes C1 . Cl are pairwise disjoint by Corollary 12. (1 2) (1 3) (2 3). .

and ®nd the sizes of the other conjugacy classes of S6 . (b) Suppose that n > 3 and that | Z(G)| p. . (c) Now let n 6. show that CG (x) is a subgroup of G which contains Z(G). What are the cycle-shapes of those permutations x P A6 for which x A6 T x S6 ? 5. (Hint: use the method of Example 12. The class sums in CG form a basis for the centre of CG. If x P An then x Sn x An if and only if x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn .8. n (a) Prove that j(1 2) G j 2 and ®nd CG ((1 2)). Give a basis of the centre of the group algebra CQ8.10 to show that Z(G) T {1}. 5. (a) Use the Class Equation 12. Show that j(1 2 3)(4 5 6) G j 40 and j(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G j 15. Prove that the conjugacy classes gG and ( gz) G have the same size. Suppose that G is a group of order pn . (There are 11 conjugacy classes in all. If G is a group and x P G. and let n be a positive integer. Exercises for Chapter 12 1.) 6.20. n n (b) Show that j(1 2 3) G j 2 3 and j(1 2)(3 4) G j 3 4 . Let p be a prime number. Show that A5 is a simple group. Verify that your solution satis®es Theorem 12.) 4. Find the conjugacy classes of the quaternion group Q8. 7. Let G Sn .116 Representations and characters of groups elements of G which commute with x. Let G be a ®nite group and suppose that g P G and z P Z(G). It is a subgroup of G. 3. 2. The conjugacy classes of Sn correspond to the cycle-shapes of permutations in Sn . and the number of elements in the conjugacy class x G is equal to |G:CG (x)|. 4. Prove that G has a conjugacy class of size p. 3.

and they are the fundamental tools for performing calculations in representation theory. the trace of A is the sum of the diagonal entries of A. The trace of a matrix 13. In this chapter we present some basic properties and examples. whereas the character records just one number for each matrix. written tr A. and call this number ÷( g). is given by tr A n i1 aii X That is.13 Characters Suppose that r: G 3 GL(n. since from the de®nition of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. Moreover. The function ÷: G 3 C is called the character of the representation r. we shall show later that two representations have the same character if and only if they are equivalent. C) is a representation of the ®nite group G. can be resolved by doing some easy arithmetic with the character of the representation. C). For example. Characters of representations have many remarkable properties. then the trace of A. such as deciding whether or not a given representation is irreducible. basic problems. The theory of characters will occupy a considerable portion of the rest of the book. it appears that we must keep track of all the n2 entries in each matrix gr. 117 . These facts are surprising. With each n 3 n matrix gr ( g P G) we associate the complex number given by adding all the diagonal entries of the matrix.1 De®nition If A (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix.

aij bji n n j1 i1 bji aij tr (BA)X Notice that. the trace function is not multiplicative. and the ii-entry of AB is n j1 aij bji. since if B and B 9 are bases of V.2 Proposition Let A (aij ) and B (bij ) be n 3 n matrices. unlike the determinant function. Characters 13. tr (T À1 AT ) tr ((T À1 A)T ) tr (T (T À1 A)) tr AX (by the second part ) j n n i1 j1 n i1 (aii bii ) n i1 aii n i1 bii tr A tr B. Therefore tr (A B) and tr (AB) For the last part.3 De®nition Suppose that V is a CG-module with a basis B . tr (AB) need not equal (tr A)(tr B). then [ g]B 9 T À1 [ g]B T . that is.118 Representations and characters of groups 13. if T is an invertible n 3 n matrix. Then tr (A B) tr A tr B. and tr (AB) tr (BA)X Moreover. then tr (T À1 AT ) tr AX Proof The ii-entry of A B is aii bii . Then the character of V is the function ÷: G 3 C de®ned by ÷( g) tr [ g]B ( g P G)X The character of V does not depend on the basis B .

Characters 119 for some invertible matrix T (see (2. Then by (7. ÷ is an irreducible character of G if ÷ is the character of an irreducible CG-module. You will have noticed that we are writing characters as functions on the left. Further. Therefore ÷(x) ÷( y). j The result corresponding to Proposition 13. Let V be a CG-module. we de®ne the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. namely ÷( g) tr ( gr) ( g P G)X 13. . we have tr [x]B tr [ y]B . so that x gÀ1 yg for some g P G.2. we write ÷( g) and not g÷.5(1) for representations is that equivalent representations have the same character. (2) Assume that x and y are conjugate elements of G.24)). 13.5 Proposition (1) Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. Proof (1) Suppose that V and W are isomorphic CG-modules.4 De®nition We say that ÷ is a character of G if ÷ is the character of some CGmodule. Then [x]B [ g À1 yg]B [ g]À1 [ y]B [ g]B X B Hence by Proposition 13. and so by Proposition 13. (2) If x and y are conjugate elements of the group G. and let B be a basis of V. and so V and W have the same character. tr [ g]B 9 tr [ g]B for all g P GX Naturally enough. and ÷ is reducible if it is the character of a reducible CG-module.2. there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P GX Consequently tr [ g]B 1 tr [ g]B 2 for all g P G. then ÷(x) ÷( y) for all characters ÷ of G. That is. C) to be the character ÷ of the corresponding CGmodule C n .7). where ÷ is the character of V.

g [ g]B ÷( g) 1 (1 2) (1 3) H 1 d0 0 0 0 1 0e 0 1 3 I H 0 d1 0 1 0 0 0e 0 1 1 I H 0 0 d0 1 1 0 1 I 1 0e 0 . gr and ÷( g) as g runs through G. br ar 0 À1 À1 0 (see Example 3. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. We record these matrices.1. Let ÷ be the character of this representation. Let B be the natural basis of V. The matrices [ g]B ( g P G) are given by Exercise 4.6 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka.5(1): if two CG-modules have the same character. where v i g v ig for 1 < i < 3 and all g P G.) g gr ÷( g) 1 1 0 0 1 2 a 0 1 À1 0 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 À2 a3 0 À1 1 0 0 g gr ÷( g) b 1 0 0 À1 0 ab 0 À1 0 À1 0 a2 b À1 0 0 1 0 a3 b 0 1 0 1 0 (2) Let G S3 .2(1)). b: a4 b2 1. 13. v2 .10). together with the character ÷ of V. and take V to be the 3-dimensional permutation module for G over C (see De®nition 4.120 Representations and characters of groups Later. thus B is the basis v1 . The following table records g. v3 . (We obtain ÷( g) by adding the two entries on the diagonal of gr. we shall prove an astonishing converse of Proposition 13. and let r: G 3 GL(2. C) be the representation for which 1 0 0 1 . then they are isomorphic.

5(2). Thus if ÷ i is the character of Ui for 1 < i < 3. (4) Let G D6 ka. U3. By Theorem 9. . This re¯ects the fact that by Proposition 13. it is much quicker to write down the single complex number ÷( g) for the group element g than to record the matrix which corresponds to g. we found a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules U1.8(2). ÷3 .Characters g [ g]B ÷( g) H (2 3) I H (1 2 3) I H (1 3 2) I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 0 121 1 0 0 d0 0 1e 0 1 0 1 0 1 d0 0 1 0 0 0 1e 0 0 d1 0 (3) Let G C3 ha: a3 1 i. G has just three irreducible characters ÷1 . the character encapsulates a great deal of information about the representation. Nevertheless. and they are as follows: g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Notice that in all the above examples. r3 given in Example 10. ÷2 and ÷3 . b: a3 b2 1. with values g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . the characters given take few distinct values. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l (so G S3 ). U2. r2 . The values of these characters on the elements of G can be calculated from the corresponding representations r1 . Moreover.8(2). In Example 10. This will become clear as the theory of characters develops. then the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . every character is constant on conjugacy classes of G. ÷2 .8.

Every linear character of G is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers. Then for all v P V X . of course. and in 13. in particular. Characters of degree 1 are called linear characters. 13. they are all linear characters. these are the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms (see Exercise 13.8 Examples (1) In Example 13. in 13. (3) The character of the trivial CG-module (see De®nition 4.122 Representations and characters of groups 13.7 De®nition If ÷ is the character of the CG-module V. Thus 1 G : g 3 1 for all g P GX Given any group G.9 Proposition Let ÷ be the character of a CG-module V. 13.6(4) we saw that the irreducible characters of D6 have degrees 1. Finding all the irreducible characters is usually dif®cult. they are. then for each g P G there is a complex number ë g such that v g ë gv The character ÷ of V is given by ÷( g) ë g ( g P G) and ÷ has degree 1. called the trivial character of G. then the dimension of V is called the degree of ÷. In fact. (2) If V is any 1-dimensional CG-module. where ÷ is a character of G and g P G. Suppose that g P G and g has order m. We denote it by 1 G . irreducible characters. we therefore know at least one of the irreducible characters of G. Observe that Theorem 9.8(1)) is a linear character.8 gives all the irreducible characters of ®nite abelian groups. 1 and 2. namely the trivial character.6(2) we gave a character of S3 of degree 3. The values of a character The next result gives information about the complex numbers ÷( g).4).6(1) we gave a character of D8 of degree 2.

(2) By Proposition 9. 123 Proof (1) Let n dim V.5(2). which is the complex conjugate of eiW . since for all real W. and let B be a basis of V. ÷( g) is j real.11 there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. . ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g). Then the matrix [1]B of the identity element 1 relative to B is equal to In . and so ÷(1) dim V. we can be much more speci®c about the possibilities for ÷( g): . ÷( g) is a sum of mth roots of unity. Every complex mth root of unity ù 1 n satis®es ùÀ1 ù. When the element g of G has order 2. and so ÷( g) ÷( g). a sum of mth roots of unity. .Characters (1) (2) (3) (4) ÷(1) dim V. that is. Consequently ÷(1) tr [1]B tr I n n. Also ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g) by (3). (3) We have H f [ gÀ1 ]B d ùÀ1 1 0 FF 0 F ùÀ1 n I g e and so ÷( gÀ1 ) ùÀ1 . Therefore ÷( g À1 ) ù1 X X X ù n ÷( g)X (4) If g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) ÷( gÀ1 ) by Proposition 13. (eiW )À1 eÀiW . Therefore ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù n . the n 3 n identity matrix. ÷( g) is a real number if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . ùÀ1 .

Conversely. 13. Proof (1) Let g P G. j Our next result gives the ®rst inkling of the importance of characters. and ÷( g) në.9. Suppose r of them are 1.124 Representations and characters of groups 13. showing that we can determine the kernel of a representation just from knowledge of its character.11. so that ÷( g) r À s. and s are À1. and since r À s r s À 2s r s mod 2. we have ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 2. then ë is an mth root of unity. By Proposition 9. and let ÷ be the character of r. ÷( g) P Z. so |÷( g)| n ÷(1).11 Theorem Let r: G 3 GL(n. Then (13X12) j÷( g)j jù1 X X X ù n j ÷(1) nX for some ë P CX . and suppose that g has order m. and let g be an element of order 2 in G. and ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 2X Proof By Proposition 13. and ÷(1) r sX Certainly then. (1) For g P G. where n ÷(1) and each ù i is a square root of unity. there is a basis B of C n such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. suppose that |÷( g)| ÷(1). If gr ëIn with ë P C. j÷( g)j ÷(1) D gr ëI n (2) Ker r { g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)}. Then each ù i is 1 or À1.10 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G. C) be a representation of G. Then ÷( g) is an integer. we have ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù n .

13. Part (2) follows. is de®ned by Ker ÷ f g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)gX By Theorem 13. the irreducible characters of the group G D6 ka.11(2). . zn are all equal. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l are ÷1 . with the following values: .14 Examples (1) According to Example 13.Characters Note now that for any complex numbers z1 . We call ÷ a faithful character if Ker ÷ {1}. if r is a representation of G with character ÷. . Then by (1). . j. 13. and so gr ù1 In .11(2). . b: a3 b2 1. (To see this. ÷3 . then the kernel of ÷.13 De®nition If ÷ is a character of G. . we have gr ëIn for some ë P C. . then Ker r Ker ÷. j Motivated by Theorem 13. and so ÷( g) n ÷(1). we have jz1 X X X zn j < jz1 j X X X jzn j. This implies that ÷( g) ë÷(1). In particular. written Ker ÷. and so g P Ker r.6(4). ÷2 . we deduce from (13. This completes the proof of (1). suppose that ÷( g) ÷(1).) Since |ù i | 1 for all i. (2) If g P Ker r then gr In . Thus H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e ù1 I n X F ù1 0 Hence for all bases B 9 of C n we have [ g]B 9 ù1 In . zn . . . whence ë 1. consider the picture in the Argand diagram. Ker ÷ v G. Therefore gr In . Conversely. 125 with equality if and only if the arguments of z1 .12) that ù i ù j for all i. we de®ne the kernel of a character as follows.

. de®ne ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ÷( g) ( g P G)X Thus the values of ÷ are the complex conjugates of the values of ÷. Then ÷ is a character of G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Thus ÷( g) tr ( gr) ( g P G)X If A (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix over C. then (13X16) (AB) A B. then we de®ne A to be the n 3 n matrix (a ij ).15 Proposition Let ÷ be a character of G. 13.126 g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 Representations and characters of groups a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Then Ker ÷1 G. C). Theorem 13. And since |÷(a2 )| |À2| ÷(1). Proof Suppose that ÷ is the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. For a character ÷ of G. so ÷ is a faithful character. then a2 r ÀI. If ÷ is irreducible. b: a4 b2 1. and let ÷ be the character of G given in Example 13. then so is ÷. ÷3 is a faithful irreducible character of D6. We next prove a result which is sometimes useful for constructing a new character from a given one. Observe that if A (aij ) and B (bij ) are n 3 n matrices over C.11(1) implies that if r: G 3 GL(2.6(1): g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 Then Ker ÷ {1}. (2) Let G D8 ka. Ker ÷2 kal and Ker ÷3 {1}. C) is a representation with character ÷. In particular.

j The regular character 13. 13. and for i 1. n which is equal to the complex conjugate of k1 aik bkj . First we need a preliminary result.Characters since the ij-entry of A B is n k1 127 a ik b kj . . In Theorem 13. and suppose that V U1 È X X X È Ur . Then the character of V is equal to the sum of the characters of the CG-modules U1.19 Theorem Let V1 . C) de®ned by gr ( gr) is a representation of G. . Since tr ( gr) tr ( gr) tr ( gr) ÷( g) ( g P G). Proof This is immediate from (7. k let ÷ i be the character of Vi and di ÷ i (1). the character of the representation r is ÷. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui. .11).10). We write the regular character as ÷reg . Ur.17 De®nition The regular character of G is the character of the regular CG-module.16) that the function r: G 3 GL(n. the ij-entry of AB. V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11. It follows from (13. j ( g P G) 13. X X X . It is clear that if r is reducible then r is reducible. Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible. we shall express the regular character in terms of the irreducible characters of G.19. . Then ÷reg d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k X . . .18 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. . .

.20 for the group G D6 . j The values of ÷reg on the elements of G are easily described. ÷reg (1) dim CG |G|. the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . gn of CG.9.6(4). CG (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). . .21 Example We illustrate Theorem 13. Now the result follows from Proposition 13. . ÷2 . then ÷reg (1) jGj. and ÷reg ( g) 0 if g T 1X Proof Let g1 . 13. By Proposition 13.19 and Proposition 13. gn be the elements of G. .128 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Theorem 11. By Example 13.20 Proposition If ÷reg is the regular character of G. Now let g P G with g T 1.9(1).18. in particular. . . Then for 1 < i < n. the ii-entry is zero for all i. and are given in the next result. where for each i there are di factors V i . we have gi g gj for some j with j T i. . ÷ 3 : g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 We calculate ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 : (÷1 ÷2 2÷3 )( g) 6 0 0 0 0 0 . Therefore the ith row of the matrix [ g]B has zeros in every place except column j. It follows that ÷reg ( g) tr [ g]B 0X j 13. and let B be the basis g1 .

Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . . G has ®ve conjugacy classes. there is an easy construction using the permutation module which produces a character of degree n. and we now describe this. n}.23 Example Let G S4 . . and the value 0 on all non-identity elements of G. . Let B denote the basis v1 . v i g v ig (1 < i < n) (see De®nition 4. The permutation module V for G over C has basis v1 . let fix ( g) fi: 1 < i < n and ig igX Then (13X22) ð( g) jfix( g)j ( g P G)X We call ð the permutation character of G. (1 2). (1 2)(3 4). with representatives 1. v n .20. (1 2 3 4)X The permutation character ð takes the values gi ð( gi ) 1 4 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 1 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . . . Therefore the character ð of the permutation module V is given by ð( g) (the number of i such that ig i)X For g P G. Then by Example 12. where for all g P G. . . Then the iientry in the matrix [ g]B is 0 if ig T i. by Theorem 13. . and it takes the value |G| on 1. and is 1 if ig i. illustrating Proposition 13. (1 2 3). . . 13.10).16(3).19. .Characters 129 This is the regular character of G. so that G is a group of permutations of {1. v n . Permutation characters In the case where G is a subgroup of the symmetric group Sn . .

. 2. there is a CG-submodule W of V such that V U È WX Let í be the character of W. so |®x( g)| 1 í( g) for all g P G. so U is a CG-submodule of V. so the character of U is the trivial character 1 G (see Example 13. and therefore í( g) jfix( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X j ( g P G) 13.130 Representations and characters of groups 13. U is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module. . Proof Let v1 . Indeed.18(1). v n be the basis of the permutation module V as above.25 Example Let G A4 . . a subgroup of S4 .8(3)). (1 3 2)X The values of the character í of G are gi í( gi ) 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 3 2) 0 Summary of Chapter 13 1. . By Maschke's Theorem 8. and U sp (u)X Observe that ug u for all g P G. (1 2 3). the conjugacy classes of G are represented by 1. By Example 12. (1 2)(3 4).1. Then ð 1 G í. A character is obtained from a representation by taking the trace of each matrix. and let u v1 X X X v n . Then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. .24 Proposition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . Characters are constant on conjugacy classes.

Characters 3. the complex number ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity.11. Find ÷(x) for x (1 2) and for x (1 6)(2 3 5). 2. Prove that if ÷ is a faithful irreducible character of the group G. The character of a representation determines the kernel of the representation. Let ÷ be the character of the 7-dimensional permutation module for S7 . then Z(G) { g P G: |÷( g)| ÷(1)}. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. then the function í which is given by í( g) jfix( g)j À 1 is a character of G. 4. Prove that the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms are the linear characters. 7. and ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g). Let G D12 ka. and let r1 . 6. Prove that there exists an mth root of unity ë P C such that for all g P G. ÷(zg) ë÷( g)X 6. br2 1 0 0 X À1 ( g P G) Find the characters of r1 and r2 . Find all the irreducible characters of C4 . Write the regular character of C4 as a linear combination of these. Suppose that z P Z(G) and that z has order m. Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. 5. The regular character ÷reg of G takes the value |G| on the identity and the value 0 on all other elements of G. For all characters ÷ of G. check that your answers are consistent with Theorem 13. r2 be the representations of G for which ù 0 0 1 ar1 . . If G is a subgroup of Sn . br1 (where ù e2ðia3 ) 0 ùÀ1 1 0 and ar2 À1 0 0 1 . Assume that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. 3. 5. and all g P G. b: a6 b2 1. Exercises for Chapter 13 1. 131 4. Find also Ker r1 and Ker r2 .

. Hint: use Exercise 7. Show that either (1) ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 4. (c) Assume that ä( g) À1 for some g P G. show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2.132 Representations and characters of groups 7. 9. then ÷(x) T ÷(1) for some irreducible character ÷ of G. or (2) G has a normal subgroup of index 2.) 10. (b) Prove that G/Ker ä is abelian. (Compare Corollary 13. Let ÷ be a character of a group G. By considering the regular representation of G. Show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2. (a) Show that ä: g 3 det ( gr) ( g P G) is a linear character of G. Prove that if x is a non-identity element of the group G. and let g be an element of order 2 in G. Let g be a group of order 2k. Let r be a representation of the group G over C. 8. where k is an odd integer.10.

if we adopt the natural rules for adding functions and multiplying functions by complex numbers. and we describe this ®rst. ö are functions from G to C. Inner products The characters of a ®nite group G are certain functions from G to C. Also. The proofs rely on an inner product involving the characters of a group. The set of all functions from G to C forms a vector space over C.14 Inner products of characters We establish some signi®cant properties of characters in this chapter.) 14.21) that if two CG-modules have the same character then they are isomorphic. and suppose that W: G 3 C and ö: G 3 C are given by 133 . That is. using characters.1 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. then we de®ne W ö: G 3 C by (W ö)( g) W( g) ö( g) and we de®ne ëW: G 3 C by ëW( g) ë(W( g)) ( g P G)X ( g P G) (We write these functions on the left to agree with our notation for characters. if W. and ë P C. and in particular we prove the striking result (Theorem 14. we describe a method for decomposing a given CG-module as a direct sum of CG-submodules.

Wl .134 Representations and characters of groups 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 This means that W(1) 2. ë1 è1 ë2 W2 i ë1 hö. as in this example. We now introduce an inner product on the vector space of all functions from G to C. W2 i for all ë1 . With every ordered pair of vectors W. Notice that condition (a) implies that kW.2) (a) kW. W1 i ë2 hö. öl ë2 kW2 . ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . öl for all ë1 . ö in the vector space. The vector space of all functions from G to C can be equipped with an inner product in a way which we shall describe shortly. öl which satis®es the following conditions: (14. ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . W2 . Wl is always real. The de®nition of an inner product on a vector space over C runs as follows. De®ne 1 hW. Wi for all W. 0 if W T 0. W(a) i. there is associated a complex number kW. ö. 14. W2 . W(a2 ) À1 and ö(1) ö(a) ö(a2 ) 1. and that conditions (a) and (b) give hö. ö. öl ë1 kW1 . This will be of basic importance in our study of characters. Then W ö and 3W are given by 1 W ö 3W 3 6 a 1i 3i a2 0 À3 We shall often think of functions from G to C as row vectors. öi W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG . (b) kë1 W1 ë2 W2 . (c) kW. ö. öl hö.3 De®nition Suppose that W and ö are functions from G to C.

5 Proposition Assume that G has exactly l conjugacy classes. l is an inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C. . 1 i . with representatives g1 . . gl . ÷i ÷( g)ø( g À1 ). 1 À 1 . suppose that G C3 ka: a3 1l and that W and ö are given by 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 Then hè. 1 1 . 14.4 Example As in Example 14.2) hold. Let ÷ and ø be characters of G. . 2 i . i (À1) . 1) 1(1 i). 1 (1) h÷. øi hø.9(3). (À1)) 2. öi 1(1 .Inner products of characters 135 It is transparent that the conditions of (14. 3 hö.1. øi l ÷( g i )ø( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j X Proof (1) We have ø( g) ø( gÀ1 ) for all g P G. Therefore 1 h÷. 1 1 . . so k . 1) 1X 3 Inner products of characters We can exploit the fact that characters are constant on conjugacy classes to simplify slightly the calculation of the inner product of two characters. øi ÷( g)ø( g À1 )X jGj gPG . 3 3 hè. èi 1(2 . by Proposition 13. and this is a real numberX jGj gPG (2) h÷. 14. öi 1(2 .

øi is real.136 Representations and characters of groups Since { gÀ1 : g P G} G. (We shall prove later that h÷. g 3 (1 2 3). in fact. it follows that h÷. an integer.6 Example The alternating group A4 has four conjugacy classes. øi l 1 1 ÷( g)ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) jGj gPG jGj i1 G gP g i l j gGj i1 l i1 jGj i ÷( g i )ø( g i ) j 1 ÷( g i )ø( g i )X jCG ( g i )j 14. ÷l h÷. g 2 (1 2)(3 4).18(1)). øi ÷( g À1 )ø( g) hø. ÷( g)ø( g) j g G j÷( g i )ø( g i )X i gP g G i Now G l i1 g G and j g G j jGjajCG ( g i )j. øi is. øi. we also have 1 h÷. with representatives g 1 1.) (2) Recall that g G denotes the conjugacy class of G which contains i gi . We shall see in Chapter 18 that there are characters ÷ and ø of A4 which take the following values on the representatives gi : gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø g1 12 1 4 g2 4 1 0 g3 3 ù ù2 g4 3 ù2 ù . Since characters are constant on conjugacy classes. ÷iX jGj gPG Since kø. g 4 (1 3 2) (see Example 12. Hence h÷. i i by Corollary 12.8.3 and Theorem 12.

. 4 1 .5. We shall investigate some consequences of writing CG like this.7 Hypothesis Let CG W 1 È W 2 . Write 1 e1 e2 where e1 P W1 and e2 P W2. ÷i 1 and h÷.12) that the irreducible characters of G form an orthonormal set of vectors in the vector space of functions from G to C. Recall from Chapter 10 that the regular CG-module is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Ur. . 12 4 3 3 4 . say CG U 1 È X X X È U r . 0 ù 2 . ù2 ù . therefore. Among other results. we have 1 . we have h÷. and that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CGmodules U1. øi 137 We advise you to check also that k÷.Inner products of characters (where ù e2ðia3 ). There are several ways of choosing CG-submodules W1 and W2 of CG such that CG W1 È W2 and W1 and W2 have no common composition factor (see De®nition 10. that is. and then let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-modules U i . ù2 ù2 . We are now going to pave the way to proving the key fact (Theorem 14. where W1 and W2 are CG-submodules which have no common composition factor. ù hø. ù 0. For example. we may take W1 to be the sum of those irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to a given irreducible CG-module.4). for distinct irreducible characters ÷ and ø of G. . we shall derive a formula for e1 in terms of the character of W 1 . . 4 0 . øi 0. ÷l 1. 0 ù . We ®rst look at the effect of applying the elements e1 and e2 of CG to W1 and W 2 . Using part (2) of Proposition 14. . and to ®nd the inner products of ÷ and ø with the trivial character (which takes the value 1 on all elements of A4 ). we temporarily adopt the following Hypothesis: 14. øi 2X 12 4 3 3 h÷.

The function W: w 3 we1 x À1 (w P CG) is an endomorphism of CG. w2 e1 0. Similarly w2 w1 0.138 Representations and characters of groups 14. 14.7. we have e2 e1 . we have w1 e1 w1 . Then 1 e1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Proof Let x P G. w2 P W 2 . We shall calculate the trace of W in two ways. we evaluate e1 . In particular. by Proposition 11. take w1 e1 and w2 e2 . w2 e 2 w2 X Proof If w1 P W1 then the function w2 3 w1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to W 1 . j 14. Next.8.7. and w2 w2 1 w2 (e1 e2 ) w2 e2 . e2 e2 and e1 e2 e2 e1 0X 1 2 Proof In Proposition 14.10. j .9 Corollary For the elements e1 and e2 of CG which appear in Hypothesis 14.8 Proposition For all w1 P W1 and w2 P W2. But W2 and W1 have no common composition factor. Therefore w1 w2 0 for all w1 P W 1 . w1 e2 0. and this completes the proof. w1 e2 w2 e1 0. Now w1 w1 1 w1 (e1 e2 ) w1 e1 .3. Proposition Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14. so every CG-homomorphism from W2 to W1 is zero.

8. Hence. ë x ÷(x À1 )ajGjX Therefore e1 1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG j 14. ÷iX ÷( g À1 )÷( g) jGj2 gPG jGj . so e1 gPG ëg g for some ë g P C. w2 W w2 e1 x À1 0X Thus W acts on W1 by w1 3 w1 x À1 and on W2 by w2 3 0.20. the endomorphism w1 3 w1 x À1 of W1 has trace equal to ÷(x À1 ). we see that for all x P G.7. we deduce from Proposition 14. By the de®nition of the character ÷ of W 1 . Then h÷. e1 P CG. for w1 P W1 and w2 P W2 we have. as W: w 3 w gPG ë g gx À1 . we have tr W ë x jGjX Comparing our two expressions for tr W.11 Corollary Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14. Therefore tr W ÷(x À1 )X Secondly. and of course the endomorphism w2 3 0 of W2 has trace 0.3 of the multiplication in CG. the endomorphism w 3 wgx À1 (w P CG) of CG has trace 0 if g T x and has trace |G| if g x. w1 W w1 e1 x À1 w1 x À1 . in view of Proposition 14. By Proposition 13.10 that the coef®cient of 1 in e2 is 1 1 1 h÷. ÷i ÷(1)X Proof Using the de®nition 6.Inner products of characters 139 First.

and the 1 coef®cient of 1 in e1 is ÷(1)/|G|. and no composition factor of X is isomorphic to U. The character of W is m÷. and de®ne W to be the sum of the m irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U. Then CG W È X X Moreover. øi 0X Proof Recall from Theorem 11. since W is the direct sum of m CG-submodules. Let m dim U. with characters ÷ and ø. we know from Corollary 14. as required. .9 that e2 e1 . ÷l ÷(1). each of which has character ÷. say CG U1 È X X X È Ur . this yields h÷. j We can now prove the main theorem concerning the inner product k . let Y be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui of CG which are isomorphic to either U or V. 14. m÷i m÷(1)X As ÷(1) dim U m. W and X have no common composition factor.12 Theorem Let U and V be non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. l. and obtain hm÷. In particular.9 that CG is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.11 to the character of W. Next. Hence k÷. every composition factor of W is isomorphic to U.140 Representations and characters of groups On the other hand. respectively. and let Z be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. ÷i 1. Then CG Y È Z. Then h÷. We now apply Corollary 14. ÷i 1. and h÷. let X be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. where the number of CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U is dim U.

. . X X X .13). ÷ j i ä ij for all i. ÷ k are all distinct. and hence k÷. By Corollary 14.Inner products of characters 141 and Y and Z have no common composition factor. ø(1) n. In particular. m÷(1) nø(1) hm÷ nø. Each of these is isomorphic to some V i .5(1).12. øi d 2 X X X d 2 X 1 k Summarizing. . . If ÷ i is the character of Vi (1 < i < k).11). and hø. so there are non-negative integers d1. and let V1 . there are d i factors Vi X Therefore the character ø of V is given by (14X15) ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k X Using (14. we have . where ä ij is the Kronecker delta function (that is. j Applications of Theorem 14. . øi mn(h÷.7. and ÷(1) m. øl 0. øi hø. where n dim V. where for each i. by the part of the theorem which we have already proved. Therefore h÷. . this implies that the irreducible characters ÷1 . V k be a complete set of nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11. øi d i for 1 < i < k. we obtain from this (14X16) hø. øi 1. ÷l. øl kø. ÷ i i h÷ i . ÷i)X Now h÷. Now let V be a CG-module. V is equal to a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.11. k÷. The character of Y is m÷ nø. we have (14X13) h÷ i . . By Theorem 8. ÷i hø. m÷ nøi m2 h÷. ä ij is 1 if i j and is 0 if i T j). dk such that (14X14) V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ).12 Let G be a ®nite group. ÷i n2 hø. . ÷i 0X By Proposition 14. øi hø. j. then by Theorem 14.

. If ø is any character of G. hø. By Example 13.1 0 1X 6 2 Similarly.18 Example Recall from Example 13. taking the following values on the conjugacy class representatives 1. ÷3 .6(2). ø ÷1 ÷3 X (This can of course be checked immediately by comparing the values of ø and ÷1 ÷3 on each conjugacy class representative.17 Theorem Let ÷1 . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. Thus by Theorem 14. (1 2 3): Now let ø be the character of the 3-dimensional permutation module gi |CS3 ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 for S3 . Moreover. ø(1 2) 1. ø(1 2 3) 0X Therefore. . by Proposition 14. ÷1 i 3. (1 2). .6(4) that the irreducible characters of S3 D6 are ÷1 .5(2). øi k i1 for 1 < i < k. ÷2 . . we know that ø(1) 3. and d2X i 14. then ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers d1. . .1 1. kø.142 Representations and characters of groups 14. d i hø. dk . ÷3 l 1.) A more substantial calculation along these lines is given in Example 15. .7.17. ÷ i i hø. . . ÷2 l 0 and kø.

19 De®nition Suppose that ø is a character of G. . øl 1.5 we proved the elementary fact that if V W then ÷ ø. for it means that many questions about CG-modules can be answered using character theory.12. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Then by (14. j We are now in a position to prove the remarkable result that `a CGmodule is determined by its character'. Then V is irreducible if and only if kø. 14.Inner products of characters 143 We shall see many more applications of the important Theorem 14. respectively. and so V is irreducible. It gives us a quick and effective method of determining whether or not a given CG-module is irreducible. 1 hø. with characters ÷ and ø. . øi d 2 X X X d 2 X 1 k It follows that one of the integers di is 1 and the rest are zero.14). Thus. V Vi for some i. ÷l T 0. and by (14. The next result is another signi®cant consequence of Theorem 14. We say that ÷ is a constituent of ø if kø. 14. assume that kø.21 Theorem Suppose that V and W are CG-modules.17.20 Theorem Let V be a CG-module with character ø. Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if ÷ ø. 14. øl 1. .12.16). øl 1 by Theorem 14. It is the converse which is the substantial part of this theorem. Conversely. It is this fact which motivates our study of characters in much of the rest of the book. dk ÷ k is non-zero. the constituents of ø are the irreducible characters ÷ i of G for which the integer di in the expression ø d1 ÷1 . Proof If V is irreducible then kø. We have ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers di. Proof In Proposition 13.

. the representations r2 and r3 are equivalent. Vk be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules with characters ÷1 . 4) are 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 2 2 2 2 a 2ù À1 À1 1ù a2 2ù2 À1 À1 1 ù2 Hence by Theorem 14. ci h÷. ÷ k . r4 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 ù 0 ù 0 . By (14.16).14) that there are non-negative integers ci . j 14. r2 . ÷ i i. it follows that ci di for all i. di (1 < i < k) such that V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. 3. r3 and r4 . X X X . d i hø. r2 . ÷ i i (1 < i < k)X Since ÷ ø. The characters ø i of the representations r i (i 1. 2. and let r1 .21. and hence V W. . r3 .22 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. .144 Representations and characters of groups Thus. The next theorem is another consequence of Theorem 14. ar2 0 ù 0 ùÀ1 2 3 2 3 0 1 1 ùÀ1 ar3 .12. but there are no other equivalences among r1 . ar4 À1 À1 0 ù (ù e2ðia3 ). . We know by (14. ar1 . Again let V1 . suppose that ÷ ø. . and W (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i.

14) that there are non-negative integers ci . By Proposition 11. . . and W (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i. W )) h÷.13) we have 0 hë1 ÷1 X X X ë k ÷ k . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G.2. ÷ k are linearly independent vectors in the vector space of all functions from G to C. ÷ i i ë i X Therefore ÷1 . respectively. øiX Proof We know from (14. .24 Theorem Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. . Vj )) ä ij X Hence. using (11. . . for any i. Then ÷1 . using (14. j We now relate inner products of characters to the spaces of CGhomomorphisms which we constructed in Chapter 11. . 14. . . . di (1 < i < k) such that V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. ÷ k are linearly independent. j we have dim (HomCG (Vi . Then dim (HomCG (V . . Proof Assume that ë1 ÷1 X X X ë k ÷ k 0 (ë i P C)X Then for all i.23 Theorem Let ÷1 .Inner products of characters 145 14.5)(3) we see that dim (HomCG (V . . W )) k i1 ci d i X .

25 Proposition With the above notation. j 14. v2 e1 0. Once more we adopt Hypothesis 14.26 Proposition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Since W2 and V1 have no common composition factor.13) implies that h÷. and V is any CG-module. Decomposing CG-modules It is sometimes of practical importance to be able to decompose a given CG-module into a direct sum of CG-submodules. Let V be any CG-module. where the CG-modules W1 and W2 have no common composition factor. e2 P W 2 .146 Representations and characters of groups k i1 k i1 On the other hand. and 1 e1 e2 with e1 P W 1 .7: CG W 1 È W 2 .8. 14. for all v1 P V1 and v2 P V2 we have v1 e1 v1 . where every composition factor of V1 is a composition factor of W1 and every composition factor of V2 is a composition factor of W2. then 2 3 À1 V ÷( g ) g gPG . øi The result follows. v 2 e2 v 2 X k i1 j ci d i X Proof If v1 P V1 then the function w2 3 v1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to V1. and we now describe a process for doing this. v1 e2 0. we deduce the stated results just as in the proof of Proposition 14. ÷ ci ÷ i and ø di÷i and so (14. We can write V V1 È V2 .

a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. Clearly we may omit the constant multiplier m/|G|. Proof Write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . Let W1 be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui which have character ÷. by Theorem 11. The character of V÷ is a multiple of ÷. Then Proposition 14. (3) Then V is the direct sum of the CG-modules V÷ as ÷ runs over the irreducible characters of G.27) (1) Choose a basis v1 .28 Examples (1) Let G be any ®nite group and let V be any non-zero CG-module. (2) For each irreducible character ÷ of G. . and let V÷ be the subspace of V spanned by these vectors. . . Taking ÷ to be the trivial character of G in Proposition 14. calculate the vectors v i ( gPG ÷( gÀ1 ) g) for 1 < i < n.9.26 provides a useful practical tool for ®nding CG-submodules of a given CG-module V.10. Proposition 14. The procedure is as follows: (14. we see that . v n of V. Some more complicated uses of the method can be found in Chapter 32. we de®ne Vr fvr: v P V g). so 2 3 À1 V1 V ÷( g ) g X gPG j Once the irreducible characters of our group G are known. We illustrate this method with a couple of simple examples. the element e1 of W1 is given by m e1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Let V1 be the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷. Also W1 and W2 satisfy Hypothesis 14.Inner products of characters 147 is equal to the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷ (where for r P CG. and let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. Then the character of W1 is m÷ where m ÷(1). and by Proposition 14. .7. 14.25 shows that Ve1 V1.26.

. . v2 .5). Here is a list of the irreducible characters ÷1 . Ve2 0.3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 Let V be the permutation module for G. with basis v1 . Then 2 3 V g sp (v1 X X X v n )X gPG Hence V has a unique trivial CG-submodule. (2) Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by a (1 2 3 4) and b (1 2)(3 4)X Then G D8 (compare Example 1. . v4 such that v i g v ig for all i and all g P G. let ÷ i (1) ei ÷ i ( g À1 ) gX 8 gPG For example. Ve5 sp (v1 À v3 . v3 . . v n such that v i g v ig for all i and all g P G. . Ve4 sp (v1 À v2 v3 À v4 ). . . ÷5 of D8 (see Example 16. let G Sn and let V be the permutation module. For 1 < i < 5. For example. Then 2 Ve1 sp (v1 v2 v3 v4 ). with basis v1 . e5 1(1 À a2 ).148 Representations and characters of groups 2 3 V g gPG is the sum of all the trivial CG-submodules of V. . v2 À v4 )X . Ve3 0.

. then ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k where d i hø. ÷ i iX Each di is a non-negative integer. h÷ i . that is. . The irreducible characters ÷1 .27) does not in general enable us to write a given CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules (since V÷ is not in general irreducible). and ø is any character. ÷ j i ä ij for all i. respectively. 149 and so we have expressed V as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules whose characters are ÷1 . . ÷4 and ÷5 . . e2 ei for 1 < i < 5. If ÷1 . Also. . You might like to check that e1 X X X e5 1. öi W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG 2. j. 4. øl 1. Every CG-module is determined by its character. Note that the procedure described in (14. . 3.9.Inner products of characters We have V Ve1 È Ve4 È Ve5 . Summary of Chapter 14 1. The inner product of two functions W. . . . ø is irreducible if and only if kø. ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. ö from G to C is given by 1 hW. i ei ej 0 for i T jX Compare these results with Corollary 14. ÷ k of G form an orthonormal set.

non-trivial character of G. b: a4 1. and that for each g in G there is an invertible matrix Tg such that gó T À1 ( gr)Tg X g Prove that there is an invertible matrix T such that for all g in G. Let G S4 . and let r1 . ÷i ÷(1)X . Suppose that ÷ is a non-zero. If ÷ is a character of G. 5. øi and hø.150 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 14 1. but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. i 0 1 0 2 3 2 3 À1 0 1 0 ar3 . br1 . b2 a2 . Let G Q8 ka. r3 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 ar1 . and that ÷( g) is a non-negative real number for all g in G. r2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. ÷i. øi. show that h÷reg . We shall see in Chapter 18 that G has characters ÷ and ø which take the following values on the conjugacy classes: Class representative |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø 1 24 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 Calculate h÷. Which of ÷ and ø is irreducible? 2. h÷. br2 . Prove that ÷ is reducible. gó T À1 ( gr)TX 4. 3. 0 Ài À1 0 2 3 2 3 0 i 0 À1 ar2 . Suppose that r and ó are representations of G. br3 X 0 1 0 À1 Show that r1 and r2 are equivalent.

Inner products of characters 6. 3 or 4? 8. If ð is the permutation character of Sn . prove that hð. . ÷( g) is an even integer. øl 1. .4 relevant. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of the group G. 1 S n i 1X (Hint: you may ®nd Exercise 11. . Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and that for every g P G. Let ÷1 . What can you say about the integers di in the cases kø. .) 151 7. and suppose that ø d 1 ÷1 X X Xd k ÷ k is a character of G. Does it follow that ÷ 2ö for some character ö? . 2.

3 Theorem The number of irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. Together with the material from Chapter 14. By Proposition 13.1 De®nition A class function on G is a function ø: G 3 C such that ø(x) ø( y) whenever x and y are conjugate elements of G (that is. the theorem provides machinery for investigating characters which is used in the remainder of the book. then (15X2) dim C lX 15. if l is the number of conjugacy classes of G.15 The number of irreducible characters We devote this chapter to the theorem which states that the number of irreducible characters of a ®nite group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group.5(2). 152 . Class functions 15. and to some consequences of this theorem. The set C of all class functions on G is a subspace of the vector space of all functions from G to C. ø is constant on conjugacy classes). G is as usual a ®nite group. A basis of C is given by those functions which take the value 1 on precisely one conjugacy class and zero on all other classes. Throughout. the characters of G are class functions on G. Thus.

By (15. X X X . . . . ÷ k are linearly independent elements of C. Since Z(CG) has dimension l by Proposition 12.7 that CG W 1 È X X X È W k . we can write 1 f1 X X X fk with f i P W i for 1 < i < k.2) implies that k < l. Proof Since ÷1 . f iz ëi f i It follows that z 1z ( f 1 X X X f k )z f 1 z X X X f k z ë1 f 1 X X X ë k f k X This shows that Z(CG) is contained in the subspace of CG spanned by f 1 . . V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. W i is isomorphic to a direct sum of copies of V i . we know from Theorem 8. vz ë i vX Hence wz ë i w for all w P W i . ÷ i l for 1 < i < k. X X X . By Theorem 14. the centre of CG. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. we consider the regular CG-module. . if ø is a class function. By Proposition 9. Since CG contains the identity element 1. so (15. for each i there exists ë i P C such that for all v P Vi. ÷ k are linearly independent. and in particular.22. If V1 . then ø where ë i kø. j (1 < i < k)X 15. ÷1 . . which is equal to k by k i1 ëi÷i . . . f k . and let l be the number of conjugacy classes of G.14. ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. X X X .The number of irreducible characters 153 Proof Let ÷1 . In order to prove the reverse inequality l < k. .4 Corollary The irreducible characters ÷1 . where for each i. Indeed.2). . they span a subspace of C of dimension k. Now let z P Z(CG). This completes the proof that k l. . we deduce that l < k.23. . dim C l.

The last part follows. g6 (where g1 1). we regard a character ÷ of G as a row vector. the result follows immediately from Proposition 15. . Then ø( g) ø(h) 1. . and so g is conjugate to h. j Corollary 15.13). by Proposition 13.4 that there is a certain group G of order 12 which has exactly six conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . suppose that ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷. this is true for the class function ø which takes the value 1 on the conjugacy class of g and takes the value 0 elsewhere. Then g is conjugate to h if and only if ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. .154 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 15. .7 Example We shall see in Section 18.4. ø( g) ø(h) for all class functions ø on G. . In particular. .5(2). and six irreducible characters ÷1 . 15. 15. h P G. whose k entries are the values of ÷ on the k conjugacy classes of G. and so they form a basis of C.9(3)). ÷6 given as follows: . j 15. using (14. Proof Since ÷( g) is real if and only if ÷( g) ÷( gÀ1 ) (see Proposition j 13. Hence ÷1 . . ÷ k span C.5. .3. Then by Corollary 15. Conversely. . . We conclude the chapter with an example illustrating some practical methods of expressing characters and class functions of a group as combinations of irreducible characters.4 has the following useful consequence. .5 Proposition Suppose that g. Then g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G.6 Corollary Suppose that g P G. As in previous examples. . Proof If g is conjugate to h then ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G.

and the entries in the column corresponding to g1 1 are positive integers (indeed. The reason for this is that the required coef®cients are known to be non-negative integers. ì of G as combinations of ÷1 . they are the degrees of the ÷ i ). ÷4 and ÷6 . ø ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 X For example. In fact. given any character ö of G whose degree is not large compared with the degrees of the ÷ i . we see that ÷ must be a combination of ÷2 . . the second entry in the row vector for ÷ is equal to minus the ®rst entry. . Inspecting the values of the irreducible characters ÷ i . it is not hard to use tactical guesswork to express ö as a combination of the irreducible characters. We suggest that you use the `guesswork method' to express the following characters ë. . . ÷6 : g1 ë ì 2 4 g2 À2 4 g3 À2 1 g4 2 1 g5 0 0 g6 0 0 . The correct answer now comes quickly to mind.The number of irreducible characters gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 g3 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g4 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 155 g6 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 Suppose we are given characters ÷ and ø of G as follows: g1 ÷ ø 3 4 g2 À3 0 g3 0 0 g4 0 4 g5 i 0 g6 Ài 0 Then it is easy to spot that ÷ ÷2 ÷6 .

(Ài) hö. ÷1 i and similarly kö. (À1) 5 . 1 5 . 1 (À1 2i) . ÷3 i 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . 1 À3 . we calculate these inner products: 11 . 1 3 . (À1) 2. Therefore ö ÷1 3÷2 2÷3 ÷4 2÷5 X Summary of Chapter 15 1.156 Representations and characters of groups How do we cope with a class function or with a more dif®cult character. 4 hö. 1 À3 . 1 (À1 2i) . . (À1) hö. i 3.5(2).4 that the coef®cients ë i in the expression ö ë1 ÷1 X X X ë6 ÷6 are given by ë i hö. 1 3 . (À1) (À3) . 1 1. 1 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . ÷6 l 0. ÷5 l 2 and kö. l. 1 3 . ÷ i i (1 < i < 6)X Using Proposition 14. We know from Corollary 15. like the following one? g1 ö 11 g2 3 g3 À3 g4 5 g5 À1 2i g6 À1 À 2i The answer is to use the inner product k . 1 (À1 2i) . 1 5 . 4 11 . ÷2 i 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . The number of irreducible characters of a group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. kö. ÷4 l 1. 4 11 .

If ø is a class function. The irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷2 and ÷3 . . ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. ÷3 : 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 Let ÷ be the class function on S3 with the following values: 1 ÷ 19 (1 2) À1 (1 2 3) À2 Express ÷ as a linear combination of ÷1 . ÷2 . ø2 and ø3 be the class functions on S3 taking the following values: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 0 0 (1 2) 0 1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 1 Express ø1 . ø2 and ø3 as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷2 and ÷3 of S3 . ÷ i iX Exercises for Chapter 15 1. The three irreducible characters of S3 are ÷1 . . then ø k i1 ë i ÷ i where ë i hø. Let ø1 .The number of irreducible characters 157 2. . . . Is ÷ a character of S3 ? 2.

.2. .) (b) Using the solution to Exercise 11. Find groups G in which each of these possibilities is realized. . (Hint: show that Z(G) cannot have order 6.7.158 Representations and characters of groups 3. . Let ø be the class function on G taking the following values: g1 ø 6 g2 0 g3 3 g4 À3 g5 À1 À i g6 À1 i Express ø as a linear combination of ÷1 . . (a) Show that G cannot have exactly 9 conjugacy classes. 6 or 12 conjugacy classes. . . . Is ø a character of G? 4. . g6 and irreducible characters ÷1 . . . . prove that G has 4. Let G be a group of order 12. . Suppose that G is the group of order 12 in Example 15. ÷6 as in that example. with conjugacy class representatives g1 . ÷6 .

The motivation for this is Theorem 14. 159 . by conjugacy class representatives). the identity element of G. X X X . j with 1 < i < k. Thus. the numbering is arbitrary. the trivial character. the rows are indexed by the irreducible characters of G and the columns are indexed by the conjugacy classes (or. The k 3 k matrix whose ij-entry is ÷ i ( g j ) (for all i.21.1 De®nition Let ÷1 . 1 < j < k) is called the character table of G. in practice. The entries in a character table are related to each other in subtle ways. which tells us that every CG-module is determined by its character. Beyond this. many of which are encapsulated in the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16. This matrix is called the character table of G. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let g 1 . X X X . g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. many problems in representation theory can be solved by considering characters. Character tables 16. and g1 1. Much of the later material in the book will be devoted to understanding character tables. It is usual to number the irreducible characters and conjugacy classes of G so that ÷1 1 G .16 Character tables and orthogonality relations The irreducible characters of a ®nite group G are class functions. It is therefore convenient to record all the values of all the irreducible characters of G in a square matrix. and the number of them is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. Note that in the character table.4).

the character table of C2 ha: a2 1i is 1 ÷1 ÷2 1 1 a 1 À1 and the character table of C3 ka: a3 1l is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù (ù e2ðia3 ) (3) Let G D8 ka.23). The conjugacy classes .2 Proposition The character table of G is an invertible matrix. are linearly independent (Theorem 14. You found all the irreducible representations of G in Exercise 10.6(4).8. a. For example. We take 1. and hence also the rows of the character table. j 16. b as representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. b: a3 b2 1. The irreducible characters of G are given in Example 13. and then the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 (2) We can write down the character table of any ®nite abelian group using Theorem 9.3 Examples (1) Let G D6 ka.160 Representations and characters of groups 16. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.4. Proof This follows immediately from the fact that the irreducible characters of G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. b: a4 b2 1.

. (1) The row orthogonality relations: k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs X (2) The column orthogonality relations: k i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs jCG ( g r )jX .Character tables and orthogonality relations 161 of G are given by (12. k}. g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. . a. . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. The orthogonality relations We have already seen many uses for the relations (14. a2 . .13). These relations can be expressed in terms of the rows of the character table.12). among the irreducible characters ÷1 . X X X . ab. ÷ s i ä rs . . and let g 1 . Hence the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 The character tables of all dihedral groups will be found in Chapter 18. . 16. .4 Theorem Let ÷1 . and representatives are 1. . Similar relations exist between the columns of the character table. ÷ k of G. h÷ r . b. . s P {1. and these are given by part (2) of our next result. Then the following relations hold for any r. . by writing them as k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) ä rs jCG ( g i )j i1 (see Proposition 14. .5(2)). .

16.4.5 Examples We illustrate the column orthogonality relations. (1) Let G D6. We copy the character table of G from Example 16. so ë i hø s . j and the column orthogonality relations follow.8. ÷ j i ä ij . say øs ëi ÷i (ë i P C)X We know that h÷ i . . by Theorem 12. also there are jGjajC G ( g s )j elements of G which are conjugate to g s . and ø s ( g) 0 otherwise. ø s is a linear combination of ÷1 . . . They are recorded here merely for comparison with the column relations. let ø s be the class function which satis®es ø s ( g r ) ä rs k i1 (1 < r < k)X By Corollary 15. Hence ëi Therefore ä rs ø s ( g r ) k i1 1 ÷ i ( gs ) ø s ( g)÷ i ( g) X jGj gP g G jCG ( g s )j s ëi ÷i ( gr ) k ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) i1 jCG ( g s )j . .3(1).162 Representations and characters of groups Proof The row orthogonality relations have already been proved. For 1 < s < k. ÷ k . and this time we record the order of the centralizer C G ( g i ) next to each conjugacy class representative gi : gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 a 3 1 1 À1 b 2 1 À1 0 . ÷ i i 1 ø s ( g)÷ i ( g)X jGj gPG Now ø s ( g) 1 if g is conjugate to g s .

The sum of the products is 0 if r T s. 1 3x 0X Therefore x À1. (2) Suppose we are given the following part of the character table of a group G of order 12 which has exactly four conjugacy classes: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 12 1 1 1 g2 4 1 1 1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 g4 3 1 ù2 ù (where ù e2ðia3 ). The column orthogonality relation 4 i1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives 1 . taking the products of the numbers which appear.Character tables and orthogonality relations Consider the sums 3 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) for various cases: i1 r 1. (À1) 0. 1 . and is the number at the top of the column (that is. 1 2 . 1 (À1) . r 2. The entries in the ®rst column of the character table are the degrees of the irreducible characters. Hence the last entry in the ®rst column is 3. 1 1 . 1 .12). s 2: s 2: s 3: 1 . r 1. (À1) 3. By considering the orthogonality relations between the ®rst column and columns 3 and 4. 1 1 . 0 0X 163 In each case. Let x denote the number at the foot of the second column. We shall use the column orthogonality relations to determine the last row of the character table. we obtain the complete character table as . By the column orthogonality relations with r s 1. 1 1 . 1 1 . the order of the centralizer of g r ) if r s. (À1) 2 . we read down columns r and s of the character table. 1 1 . so they are positive integers. the sum of the squares of these numbers is 12 (this also follows from Theorem 11.

For example. where d i ÷ i (1). d i ÷ i ( g) X i1 0. 4 i1 4 i1 4 i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 1 . if g T 1. 1 (À1) . By taking the complex conjugate of each side of this equation.164 follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 Representations and characters of groups g1 12 1 1 1 3 g2 4 1 1 1 À1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 0 g4 3 1 ù2 ù 0 Notice that the orthogonality relations hold between all pairs of columns. 1 1 . Those column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column of the character table were proved in Chapter 13. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 3 ) 1 . we get V ` jGj. 0 3. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 1 . 1 ù . although our calculation has used only those relations which involve the ®rst column. ù 0 . if g 1. 0 0X We shall see later that the character table which we have constructed here is that of A4 . if g T 1.19 and Proposition 13. since Theorem 13. .20 give V k ` jGj. ù ù2 . 1 1 . ù2 0 . k ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) X i1 0. 1 ù . if g 1. ù2 ù2 . (À1) 4.

jCG ( g r )j1a2 jCG ( g s )j1a2 i1 by the column orthogonality relations. the equation M M t I is just another way of expressing the row orthogonality relations. Although the calculation with the column orthogonality relations was easier to perform.Character tables and orthogonality relations 165 and these are just the column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column. Indeed. the rs-entry in M t M is k 1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs . On the other hand. An alternative approach would have been to use the row orthogonality relations h÷ i . The character table of G is a k 3 k matrix. it is a fact that the column orthogonality relations contain precisely the same information as the row orthogonality relations. we calculated the values of the last character one at a time using the column orthogonality relations. by the row orthogonality relations. by letting the ij-entry of M be ÷ i ( gj ) X jCG ( g j )j1a2 Let M t denote the transpose of the complex conjugate of M. . we see that the row and column orthogonality relations are equivalent. ÷4 i ä i4 to obtain four equations in the four unknown values ÷4 ( g j ) (1 < j < 4). and we adjust the entries ÷ i ( g j ) in this matrix to obtain another k 3 k matrix M. so M M t I. Since the properties M t M I and M M t I of a square matrix M are equivalent to each other. the row and column orthogonality relations encapsulate the same information. where we were given three of the four irreducible characters of G. so M t M I. Now the rs-entry in M M t is k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs . Rows versus columns Notice that in Example 16. as we shall now show.5(2). More importantly. We could have used the above argument to deduce the column orthogonality relations from the row ones.

. s. 2. The column orthogonality relations state that for all r. 2. . The character table of G is the k 3 k matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( g j ). with representatives g1 . . . g4 . 1. . and has irreducible characters ÷1 . There exists a group G of order 10 which has precisely four conjugacy classes. s. . . . 3. . . Summary of Chapter 16 Let G be a ®nite group with irreducible characters ÷1 . with representatives g1 . g5 . The row orthogonality relations state that for all r. . A certain group G of order 8 is known to have a total of ®ve conjugacy classes. . . . Write down the character table of C2 3 C2 .166 Representations and characters of groups so when we are working with character tables. . . k i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs jCG ( g r )jX Exercises for Chapter 16 1. ÷ k and conjugacy class representatives g1 . . we can deduce exactly the same results using either set of relations. and four linear characters ÷1 . ÷4 taking the following values: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 8 1 1 1 1 g2 8 1 1 1 1 g3 4 1 1 À1 À1 g4 4 1 À1 1 À1 g5 4 1 À1 À1 1 Find the complete character table of G. k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs X 3. . . ÷2 as follows: . . gk .

. Let ÷1 . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. . g k and character table C. Let G be a ®nite group with conjugacy class representatives g1 . (Hint: ®rst ®nd the values of the remaining irreducible characters on g1 . X X X . Show that det C is either real or purely imaginary. Find the complete character table of G. 5.10. k i1 jCG ( g i )jX . (a) Find æ. then on g4 ± use Corollary 13. (b) Find another column of the character table. Show that @ A k Z(G) g P G: ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) jGj X i1 6. A certain group G has two columns of its character table as follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 g1 21 1 1 1 3 3 g2 7 1 1 1 æ æ where g1 1 and æ P C. .) 4. and that jdet Cj2 Find Æ(det C) when G C3 . .Character tables and orthogonality relations gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 g1 10 1 2 g2 5 1 á g3 5 1 â g4 2 1 0 167 p p where á (À1 5)a2 and â (À1 À 5)a2.

in particular. 17. by a process which is known as lifting. and ÷ and ~ have the same degree. we can use the characters of GaN to get some of the characters of G.7. can be used to get new irreducible characters from a given irreducible character. In the opposite direction. C) be a representation of GaN with 168 . it is also true that the character table of G enables us to ®nd the normal subgroups of G.1 Proposition Assume that N v G. in turn. In fact. Lifted characters We begin by constructing a character of G from a character of GaN . it is easy to tell from the character table whether or not G is simple. ÷ ~ Proof Let r: GaN 3 GL (n. normal subgroups help us to ®nd characters of G. and N T {1}. the characters of degree 1) are obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaN in the case where N is the derived subgroup of G. in a way which we shall describe.e. De®ne ÷ ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ( g P G)X ÷ Then ÷ is a character of G. then the factor group GaN is smaller than G. The linear characters of G (i. and let ~ be a character of GaN . Thus.17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters If N is a normal subgroup of the ®nite group G.) The linear characters. The characters of GaN should therefore be easier to ®nd than the characters of G. (The derived subgroup is de®ned below in De®nition 17.

r r ( g P G)X ( g P G) . Also. ÷(1) ~(N). so ( g1 gÀ1 )r I. and hence 2 2 ~ g1 r g2 r.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 169 character ~. The function r: G 3 GL (n. Now let ÷ be a character of G with N < Ker ÷. g2 P G and Ng1 Ng2 then g1 gÀ1 P N. C) by (Ng)~ gr r Then for all g.2 De®nition If N v G and ~ is a character of GaN . ÷ ÷ so N < Ker ÷. If g 1 . so ÷ and ~ have the same ÷ ÷ degree. we obtain a bijective correspondence between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters ÷ of G which satisfy N < Ker ÷. and ÷ is the lift of ~ to G.3 Theorem Assume that N v G. C). j 17. C) is a representation of G with character ÷. ÷ 17. Irreducible characters of GaN correspond to irreducible characters of G which have N in their kernel. ~ Proof If ÷ is a character of GaN . The character ÷ of r satis®es ÷( g) tr ( gr) tr ((Ng)~) ~(Ng) r ÷ for all g P G. then ÷ ~(N) ÷(1). By associating each character of GaN with its lift to G. C) which is given by the ÷ composition g 3 Ng 3 (Ng)~ r ( g P G) is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. then the character ÷ of G ÷ which is given by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ÷ is called the lift of ~ to G. We may therefore de®ne a function r: GaN 3 GL (n. Thus r is a representation of G. Moreover. h P G we have ((Ng)(Nh))~ (Ngh)~ ( gh)r ( gr)(hr) r r ((Ng)~)((Nh)~). Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. if k P N then ÷ ÷(k) ~(Nk) ~(N ) ÷(1).

Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ~ is irreducible. To see this. We have now established that the function which sends each character of GaN to its lift to G is a bijection between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters of G which have N in their kernel.20). (1 2)(3 4). let U be a subspace of C n . ÷ j If we know the character table of GaN for some normal subgroup N of G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . and note that u( gr) P U for all u P U D u(Ng)~ P U for all u P U X r Thus. 17. (1 3)(2 4). so GaN D6 . It remains to show that irreducible characters correspond to irreducible characters.3(1) that the character table of GaN is N ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 2 N (1 2) 1 À1 0 N(1 2 3) 1 1 À1 .170 Representations and characters of groups ~ ~ so r is a representation of GaN . (1 4)(2 3)g. then Theorem 17. The representation r is therefore irreducible if and ~ only if the representation r is irreducible. We know from Example 16. If we put a N(1 2 3) and b N(1 2) then GaN ha. If ~ is the character of r then ÷ ~(Ng) ÷( g) ( g P G)X ÷ ~ Thus ÷ is the lift of ÷. bi and a3 b2 N .3 enables us to write down as many irreducible characters of G as there are irreducible characters of GaN . so that N v G (see Example 12.4 Example Let G S4 and N V4 f1. U is a CG-submodule of C n if and only if U is a C(GaN )submodule of C n .

~3 are ÷1 . since Ker ÷ f g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)g (see De®nition 13. so g 1 by Proposition 15. The following proposition shows that every normal subgroup arises in this way. we note that ÷ ÷((1 2)(3 4)) ~(N ) since (1 2)(3 4) P N . ÷2 . ÷ ÷((1 2 3 4)) ~(N (1 3)) since N (1 2 3 4) N (1 3)X ÷ Hence the lifts of ~1 .5 Proposition If N v G then there exist irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷3 are irreducible characters of G. any subgroup which is the intersection of the kernels of irreducible characters is a normal subgroup too. since ~1 . First we shall show how to ®nd all the normal subgroups of G. Hence the intersection of the kernels of all the irreducible characters of G is {1}. ~2 . ÷3 .5. ~3 are ÷ ÷ ÷ irreducible characters of GaN . then ÷( g) ÷(1) for all characters ÷. X X X . Finding normal subgroups The character table contains accessible information about the structure of a group.13). which are given by ÷ ÷ ÷ 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 171 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 Then ÷1 . as our next two propositions will demonstrate. ÷2 . ~2 . Recall that we can easily locate the kernel of an irreducible character ÷ from the character table. Also Ker ÷ v G. ÷ s of G such that N s i1 Ker ÷ i X Proof If g belongs to the kernel of each irreducible character of G. .Normal subgroups and lifted characters To calculate the lift ÷ of a character ~ of GaN . 17. once the character table of G is known. Of course.

. then Ker ÷ Ker r by Theorem 13. let ÷ i be the lift to G of ~ i . Conversely. Ker r T G. since the . ~ s be the irreducible characters of GaN . hence Ker ÷ T G. and taking 1 T g P Ker ÷.6 Proposition The group G is not simple if and only if ÷( g) ÷(1) for some non-trivial irreducible character ÷ of G. As Ker ÷ T G. ÷ ÷ and so Ng P Ker ~ i. and some nonidentity element g of G.11(2). . Therefore if g P Ker ÷ i then Ng P Ker ~ i ÷ ÷ {N}. Thus Ker ÷ is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to {1} of G. . We shall show how to ®nd all linear characters of any group G. . we have ÷( g) ÷(1). Proof Suppose there is a non-trivial irreducible character ÷ such that ÷( g) ÷(1) for some non-identity element g.172 Representations and characters of groups Now let ~1 . By the ÷ ÷ above observation. Then by Proposition 17. If g P Ker ÷ i then ÷ ~ i (N ) ÷ i (1) ÷ i ( g) ~ i (Ng). If r is a representation of G with character ÷. Then g P Ker ÷. so that there is a normal subgroup N of G with N T {1} and N T G.5. suppose that G is not simple. Hence N s i1 Ker ÷ i X j It is particularly easy to tell from the character table of G whether or not G is simple: 17. and so g P N. j Linear characters Recall that a linear character of a group is a character of degree 1. Since ÷ is non-trivial and irreducible. ÷ is non-trivial. s i1 Ker ~ i fN gX ÷ For 1 < i < s. and so G is not simple. so Ker ÷ T {1}. there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that Ker ÷ is not {1} or G.

÷( g À1 hÀ1 gh) ÷( g)À1 ÷(h)À1 ÷( g)÷(h) 1X Hence G9 < Ker ÷. 17. h] (1 2 3). Then ÷ is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers. which is de®ned in the following way.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 173 ®rst move in constructing the character table of G is often to write down the linear characters.9 Proposition If ÷ is a linear character of G. We abbreviate gÀ1 hÀ1 gh as [ g. so G9 {1}. . Proof Let ÷ be a linear character of G. j Next. then G9 < Ker ÷. h P GiX 17. Hence G9 h(1 2 3)i A3 . (2) Let G S3 . 17. h] 1 for all g. As a preliminary step. h] is always an even permutation. h]. so G9 < A3 . Thus G9 h[ g. If g (1 2) and h (2 3) then [ g. Clearly [ g. h P G. we explore some group-theoretic properties of the derived subgroup. for all g. h P G. h]: g. Therefore.8 Examples (1) If G is abelian then [ g. One step is provided by the following proposition. We are going to show that G9 v G and that the linear characters of G are the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. it is necessary to determine the derived subgroup of G. h P G)X Then G9 is called the derived subgroup of G.7 De®nition For a group G. let G9 be the subgroup of G which is generated by all elements of the form g À1 hÀ1 gh ( g.

3 they are precisely the irreducible characters ÷ of G . . we can obtain the linear characters of G by applying the next theorem. h. Since GaG9 is abelian. h]x x À1 g À1 hÀ1 ghx (x À1 gx)À1 (x À1 hx)À1 (x À1 gx)(x À1 hx) [x À1 gx. the number of distinct linear characters of G is equal to jGaG9j. and so divides |G|. . all of degree 1. Therefore. x À1 hx]X Therefore G9 v G. We have ghgÀ1 hÀ1 P N D Ngh Nhg D (Ng)(Nh) (Nh)(Ng)X Hence G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian.8 shows that GaG9 has exactly m irreducible characters ~1 . (2) G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian.10 Proposition Assume that N v G. Theorem 9. .11 Theorem The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. Proof (1) Note that for all a. to prove that G9 v G it is suf®cient by the ®rst sentence to prove that x À1 [ g. we have x À1 (ab)x (x À1 ax)(x À1 bx). x P G. b. . h]x P G9 for all g. Since we have proved that G9 v G. and by Theorem 17. j It follows from Proposition 17. . Proof Let m jGaG9j. ÷ ÷ The lifts ÷1 . In particular. (2) Let g. (1) G9 v G. Given the derived subgroup G9. and x À1 aÀ1 x (x À1 ax)À1 X Now G9 consists of products of elements of the form [ g. ÷ m of these characters to G also have degree 1. In particular. we deduce that GaG9 is abelian. h P G. ~ m .10 that G9 is the smallest normal subgroup of G with abelian factor group.174 Representations and characters of groups 17. GaG9 is abelian. . h] and their inverses. . x P G. . 17. But x À1 [ g.

as the next result shows. a 3-cycle or an element of cycle-shape (2.12 Example Let G S n . we have G9 < A n by Proposition 17. 2). From the last example.15. An (1 2)g C2 .9. k] (1 4)(2 3)X Since G9 v G. where ÷ ÷ n ~1 (An (1 2)) 1. if g P An X a À1. Therefore. Therefore A n < G9. each of which is the product of an even number of transpositions. by Theorem 12. ÷ m are therefore all the linear characters of G. 2). all the elements in (1 2 3) G and (1 4)(2 3) G belong to G9. so G9 {1} A n . Since Sn aS9 fAn . . j 17.8(2). [h. As S n aA n C2 . but they can also be used to construct new irreducible characters from old. If g (1 2). S n has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . 17. But every product of two transpositions is equal to the identity. and A n consists of permutations. . We shall show that G9 An . Not only are the linear characters of G important in being irreducible characters. . then [ g. h (2 3) and k (1 2)(3 4). . ÷ ~2 (An (1 2)) À1X ÷ Therefore by Theorem 17. the characters ÷1 . . the group n n S n aS9 has two linear characters ~1 and ~2. if g P An . G9 contains all 3-cycles and all elements of cycle-shape (2. If n 1 or 2 then S n is abelian. In view of Proposition 17.13 Example We ®nd the linear characters of S n (n > 2).Normal subgroups and lifted characters 175 such that G9 < Ker ÷. We proved that S9 A3 in Example 3 17. we know that S9 An .10(2). which are given by ÷1 1 Sn . We have now proved that G9 A n . h] (1 2 3). ÷2 . @ ÷2 ( g) 1. so we assume that n > 4.11.

de®ned by ÷ë( g) ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G) is a character of G. Then the product ÷ë. which is ë( g)÷( g). j The general case of a product of two characters will be discussed in Chapter 19. De®ne rë: G 3 GL (n. C) be a representation with character ÷.20. if ÷ is irreducible. The matrix g(rë) has trace ë( g) tr ( gr). The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. and is given by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ( g P G). C) by g(rë) ë( g)( gr) ( g P G)X Thus g(rë) is the matrix gr multiplied by the complex number ë( g). ÷ ÷ 2. 3. Summary of Chapter 17 1. . Since r and ë are homomorphisms it follows easily that rë is a homomorphism. Therefore 1 h÷ë. the complex number ë( g) is a root of unity.14 Proposition Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and ë is a linear character of G. Now for all g P G. so ë( g)ë( g) 1. Hence rë is a representation of G with character ÷ë. Characters of GaN correspond to characters ÷ of G for which N < Ker ÷. Proof Let r: G 3 GL (n. The normal subgroups of G can be found from the character table of G. then so is ÷ë. The character of G which corresponds to the character ~ ÷ of GaN is the lift of ~. ÷ëi ÷( g)ë( g)÷( g)ë( g) jGj gPG 1 ÷( g)÷( g) h÷. ÷iX jGj gPG By Theorem 14.176 Representations and characters of groups 17. it follows that ÷ë is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible. Moreover.

3(3)). Check that a7 b3 1. b: a4 1. b (2 3 5)(4 7 6)X Let G ka. The character table of D8 is as shown (see Example 16. and construct all the linear characters of G.3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a. (b) Find the conjugacy classes of G. . . with representatives g1 . (c) Find the character table of G. 4 or 12 linear characters. ö with values as follows: g1 ÷ ö 1 2 g2 Ài 0 g3 i 0 g4 1 À1 g5 À1 À1 g6 À1 2 Use Proposition 17. (b) Find G9. Compare your table with the character table of D8 (Example 16. What are the sizes of the conjugacy classes of G? 5. (c) Complete the character table of G. bÀ1 ab a2 X (a) Show that G has order 21.14 to complete the character table of G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.Normal subgroups and lifted characters Exercises for Chapter 17 177 1. and hence cannot be simple. (a) Find the ®ve conjugacy classes of G. b2 a2 . 3. a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 . 2. and has irreducible characters ÷. . a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab. 4. g6 (where g1 1). a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b. A certain group G of order 12 has precisely six conjugacy classes. Show that every group of order 12 has 3. Let a and b be the following permutations in S7 : a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). Let G Q8 ka. . bl.

7. The group V8 n ha. as in Proposition 17. then there is a representation of T4 n over C which sends å 0 0 1 a3 . For n > 1. the group U6 n ha. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i has order 4n. b: a2 n b3 1.b3 å 0 0 ù2 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of U6 n. (It is known as a dicyclic group. aÀ1 ba bÀ1 i has order 6n. You are given that the group T4 n ha. Let n be an odd positive integer.178 Representations and characters of groups Express each normal subgroup of D8 as an intersection of kernels of irreducible characters. 6. b: a2 n 1. bÀ1 a aÀ1 bi has order 8n. (a) Show that if å is any nth root of unity in C. . 8. then there is a representation of U6n over C which sends 0 å ù 0 X a3 .b3 0 Àå À1 À1 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of V8 n .5. an b2 . b: a2 n b4 1. then there is a representation of V8 n over C which sends å 0 0 1 X a3 .b3 X 0 å À1 ån 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of T4 n. ba aÀ1 bÀ1 . Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C.) (a) Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. (a) Let ù e2ðia3 .

By Proposition 17. which deals with the product of a character with a linear character.18 Some elementary character tables We now illustrate the techniques we have presented so far by constructing the character tables of several groups. we produced three irreducible characters ÷1 . the product ÷4 ÷2 is also a character of S4 . ÷2 .1 The group S4 In Example 17. The values of ÷2 . We shall now use Proposition 17. 18. ÷4 and ÷4 ÷2 are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷2 ÷4 ÷4 ÷2 1 24 1 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 1 Note that h÷4 .14. ÷3 of S4 by lifting characters of the factor group S4 aV4 .24. Let ÷4 be the character ÷4 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P S4 ) which is given in Proposition 13. 24 4 8 4 179 .4. ÷4 i 9 1 1 1 1. to complete the character table of S4 . and all dihedral groups. including the groups S4 and A4 .14.

(1 2 3). Since S4 has ®ve conjugacy classes. and the sum of the squares of their degrees is 12. and G has four conjugacy classes. The values of í are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| í 1 12 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 (1 3 2) 3 0 Note that hí. as shown. íi 9 1 1.11. 12 4 so í is an irreducible character of G of degree 3. either by using the same calculation or by quoting the result of Proposition 17.2 The group A4 Let G A4 . It is not dif®cult to con®rm this by showing that . Thus jGaG9j 3 by Theorem 17. The character ÷4 ÷2 is also irreducible. so that í( g) |®x ( g)| À 1 for all g P A4 . Since G has four irreducible characters.18(1)).180 Representations and characters of groups so ÷4 is irreducible. Character table of S4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 18. and we have produced ®ve irreducible characters. Let ÷5 ÷4 ÷2 .24. Let í be the character of A4 given by Proposition 13.14. with representatives 1. Then |G| 12. (1 2)(3 4). (1 3 2) (see Example 12. there must be exactly three linear characters of G. the alternating group of degree 4. we have now found the complete character table of S4 .

b: an b2 1. we obtain a representation r j of G for each j with 1 < j . Bj X 1 0 0 åÀ j Check that A n B2 I. na2. The lifts of ÷1 . BÀ1 Aj Bj AÀ1 X j j j j It follows that by de®ning r j : G 3 GL(2. (1 3)(2 4). and the character table of GaG9 is G9 ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 1 G9(1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 G9(1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù ~ ÷ ÷ (where ù e2ðia3 ). na2. C) by (ar bs )r j (Aj ) r (Bj ) s (r. G9(1 2 3). (1 4)(2 3)gX 181 Now GaG9 fG9. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX We shall derive the character table of G. . s P Z). G9(1 3 2)g C3. (1 2)(3 4).3 The dihedral groups Let G be the dihedral group D2 n of order 2n. give the complete character table of A4 : Character table of A4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 18. Write å e2ðia n . ~3 to G. ~2 . so that G ha. with n > 3. de®ne j 0 1 å 0 Aj . For each integer j with 1 < j . together with the character ÷4 í.Some elementary character tables G9 V4 f1.

11) the conjugacy classes of D2 n (n odd) are f1g. there are two more to be found. As G has (n 3)/2 irreducible characters in all. At this point it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. far . aÀ r g(1 < r < (n À 1)a2). na2. we have proved that D9 n kal for n odd.182 Representations and characters of groups Each r j is an irreducible representation. we obtain two linear characters ÷1 . one for each j which satis®es 1 < j . These characters ÷1 and ÷2 are given by ÷1 1 G and & 1 if g ar for some r.11. We have now constructed distinct irreducible characters ø j of G. ÷2 ( g) À1 if g ar b for some rX We have now found all the irreducible characters of D2 n (n odd). in view of 2 Theorem 17. Therefore there is no matrix T with ar i T À1 (ar j )T. either by the proof of Example 5.5(2) or by applying the result of Exercise 8. ÷2 of G by lifting the irreducible characters of Gahai to G. na2. ø( nÀ1)a2 each have degree 2. (Incidentally. Let ø j be the character of r j . The (n À 1)a2 irreducible characters ø1 . fas b: 0 < s < n À 1gX Thus there are (n 3)a2 conjugacy classes. Case 1: n odd By (12.) The character table of D2 n (n odd) is therefore as follows (where å e2ðia n ): gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 øj (1 < j < (n À 1)/2) 1 2n 1 1 2 ar (1 < r < (n À 1)/2) n 1 1 å À jr b 2 1 À1 0 å jr . and so r i and r j are not equivalent. then å i T å j and å i T å À j . If i and j are distinct integers with 1 < i . so ar i and ar j have different eigenvalues. na2 and 1 < j . ø2 . Since kal v G and Gahai C2.4. X X X .

12). X X X . å e2ðia n ).4 Another group of order 12 We shall now describe a non-abelian group G of order 12 which is not isomorphic to either A4 or D12. It is in fact known that every non-abelian group of order . and we shall construct the character table of G. we ®rst note that ha2 i fa j : j eveng is a normal subgroup of G and Gaha2 i fha2 i. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (1 < j < m À 1) 1 2n 1 1 1 1 2 am 2n 1 1 (À1) m (À1) m 2(À1) j a r (1 < r < m À 1) n 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r jr å å À jr b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 18. fam g. ha2 iabg C2 3 C2 X Therefore G has four linear characters ÷1 . far . ha2 ia. and their values appear in the following complete character table of D2 n (n even. as supplied by (12. of which m À 1 are given by ø1 . ø2 . ø mÀ1 X To ®nd the remaining four irreducible characters. they are easy to calculate. n 2m. fas b: s eveng. fas b: s oddgX Hence G has m 3 irreducible characters. ha2 ib. aÀ r g(1 < r < m À 1). say n 2m. ÷2 . are f1g. Since these linear characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of G/ka2 l. then the conjugacy classes of D2 n. ÷4 (and G9 ka2 l). ÷3 .Some elementary character tables 183 Case 2: n even If n is even.

and Gaha2 i fha2 i. aÀ2 } {b. ÷4 of G given below: . a4 } v G. a the group G has at least 12 elements. ha2 iabgX Since ka2 la ka2 lb2 . ÷3 . bl. a subgroup of S12 . a3 bgX These. a3 b. 0 < s < 1 as given above. a2 b. which are tabulated below: Conjugacy class {1} {a3 } {a. b (1 7 4 10)(2 12 5 9)(3 11 6 8). we have Gaha2 i C4 . CG (a3 ) G. ha2 ia. aÀ1 } {a2 . namely ar . ar b (0 < r < 5)X Check that a and b satisfy a6 1. and similar facts. By lifting the irreducible characters of C4 to G. and let G ka. a4 b} {ab. Let a and b be the following permutations in S12 : a (1 2 3 4 5 6)(7 8 9 10 11 12). The relations further imply that CG (a) hai. D12 or G. a3 b2 . ha2 ib. a3 . ÷2 . and so |G| 12. Observe that ka2 l {1. but we shall not prove this result here.184 Representations and characters of groups 12 is isomorphic to A4 . b. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X It follows from these relations that every element of G has the form ar bs with 0 < r < 5. help us to ®nd the conjugacy classes of G. Since a has order 6 and b P kal. we obtain the linear characters ÷1 . a2 . a5 b} Representative gi 1 a3 a a2 b ab |CG ( gi )| 12 12 6 6 4 4 Therefore G has six irreducible characters. CG (b) f1.

â1 are positive integers. By the column orthogonality relations applied to columns 1 and 2. 2á5 À 2â5 0. also a3 is an element of order 2. so á2 and â2 are integers by Corollary 13. so they are positive integers. the column orthogonality relations 6 i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 1 ) 0 and 6 i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 now give us two equations involving 2á r 2â r and 2á r À 2â r . The other two equations then imply that á2 Àâ2 Æ2. respectively. 2á6 À 2â6 0X . 2á5 2â5 0. â1 are the degrees of ÷5 . For r . Explicitly: r 3: r 4: r 5: r 6: 2á3 2â3 0. ÷6 .4(2). we have 4 á2 â2 12. so we can solve them for á r and â r . the ®rst equation gives á1 â1 2. For this. 2 2 á1 á2 â1 â2 0X Since á1 . 2. 2á6 2â6 0. we shall use the column orthogonality relations. 4 2á4 2â4 0. 2á4 À 2â4 0. 1 1 4 á2 â2 12. Observe that á1 . 4 2á3 À 2â3 0.10. we may take á2 2 and â2 À2.Some elementary character tables gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 á1 â1 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 á2 â2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 á3 â3 a2 6 1 1 1 1 á4 â4 b 4 1 i À1 Ài á5 â5 185 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i á6 â6 It remains to ®nd the values á r . Since we have not yet distinguished between ÷5 and ÷6 . ÷6 . Theorem 16. â r taken by the last two irreducible characters ÷5 .

á5 0. 1. 3.3: the dihedral groups. as follows. .1: the group S4 . â3 1. Section 18. á6 0.6. Section 18. without constructing the corresponding CG-modules. á4 À1. â6 0X The complete character table of G is therefore as follows: gi CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 We can deduce that G is not isomorphic to A4 or D12 from the fact that the character table of G is different from those of A4 and D12.2: the group A4 . 2. it is not hard to construct the representations of the above group G with characters ÷5 and ÷6 ± see Exercise 17.) Summary of Chapter 18 In this chapter we gave the character tables of various groups. â5 0. It is instructive to note that we produced the last two irreducible characters of G by simply using the orthogonality relations. and illustrates the fact that it is usually much easier to construct an irreducible character of a group than to obtain an irreducible representation. This is typical of more advanced calculations.186 Hence Representations and characters of groups á3 À1. â4 À1. (In fact. Section 18.

Let G U6 n ka.1(3). (Hint: use Proposition 17. 5. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. Use the character table to ®nd seven distinct normal subgroups of D12. as in Exercise 17. It is a good idea to do the cases n odd and n even separately.5.6. Write down explicitly the character table of D12. an b2 . as in Exercise 17.8. Let G V8 n ha.) 3. ba aÀ1 bÀ1 . Let ð be the corresponding permutation character of D8. as in Exercise 17. 2. bÀ1 a aÀ1 bi. b: a2n b4 1. aÀ1 ba bÀ1 l. b: a2 n 1. and express ð as a sum of irreducible characters. Find the character table of G. Find the character table of G.6.Some elementary character tables Exercises for Chapter 18 187 1. Regard D8 as a subgroup of S4 permuting the four corners of a square. with n odd. b: a2n b3 1. (Hint: use the result of Exercise 17. as in Example 1.7. Find the values of ð on the elements of D8. Find the character table of G. Let G T 4n ha. and show that all its entries are integers.) 4.

and so on. X X X . . The plan is to take CG-modules V and W with characters ÷ and ø respectively. . . so we consider the character ÷ 2 . . j with 1 < i < m. increase. . given those of G and H. wn . We shall illustrate this by constructing the character tables of S5 and S6 . and by taking successive powers of ÷ we obtain arbitrarily many new characters. and indeed. Potentially. we introduce a symbol v i wj. ÷ 4 .19 Tensor products The idea of multiplying a character of a group G by a linear character of G was introduced at the end of Chapter 17. but a little ingenuity is required in order to justify the conclusion that the product ÷ø is a character of G. and more generally ÷ 3 . to ®nd all the irreducible characters of a direct product G 3 H. If ÷ is not linear. It is therefore straightforward to calculate the product. we apply tensor products in a different way. we have a chance of getting a large proportion of the character table of G from just one non-linear character ÷ of G. which has character ÷ø. and it can be extended to include the product of any pair of characters ÷ and ø. called the tensor product of V and W. and to put them together to form a new CG-module. An important special case of the product ÷ø occurs when ÷ ø. 1 < j < n. ÷ 2 . respectively. products of characters provide a very good source of new characters from given ones. Tensor product spaces Let V and W be vector spaces over C with bases v1 . At the end of the chapter. then the degrees of ÷. The value of the product ÷ø on an element g of G is simply ÷( g)ø( g). v m and w1 . then. For each i. The tensor product space V W is de®ned to be the mn-dimensional vector space over C with a basis given by 188 . . .

1 < j < ngX Thus V W consists of all expressions of the form ë ij (v i wj ) (ë ij P C)X m For v P V and w P W with v i1 ë i v i and (ë i . ë(v w) ë i. it is impossible to express v1 w1 v2 w2 in the form v w. xa P V and y1. . w P W and ë P C. ì j P C). . then v (ëw) (ëv) w ë(v w)X (2) If x1 . j i. . yb P W. . . .Tensor products fv i wj : 1 < i < m. j i. 19. j ëë i ì j (v i wj ). then 2 a 3 H b I xi d yj e xi yj X i1 j1 i. i j i. because this is not the case. For instance. j ë i ì j (v i wj ) ëë i ì j (v i wj )X . . j m Proof (1) Let v i1 ë i v i and w n ì j w j. we de®ne v w P V W by vw ë i ì j (v i wj )X i. j 189 w n j1 ì j wj For example.1 Proposition (1) If v P V. Then j1 2 3 2 3 v (ëw) ëi vi ëì j w j ëë i ì j (v i wj ). . (2v1 À v2 ) (w1 w2 ) 2v1 w1 2v1 w2 À v2 w1 À v2 w2 X Do not be misled by the notation into believing that every element of V W has the form v w. j (ëv) w 2 i 3 ëë i v i 2 j 3 ì jw j i.

1 < l < n) V W has dimension mn. Since elements ek fl are v i wj (1 < i < m. .2 Proposition If e1 . The multiplication of v i wj by an element of . 19. so we are now in a position to de®ne the tensor product of two CG-modules. it follows that the also a basis of V W. ì jl P C)X Then by Proposition 19. . . j Our construction of V W depended upon choosing a basis of V and a basis of W at the beginning. v m and w1 . Proof Write vi m k1 ë ik ek . 1 < j < n) give a basis of V W. wj n l1 ì jl f l (ë ik .1. and we leave it as an exercise. . . 1 < j < ng give a basis of V W. . . and hence span V W. em is a basis of V and f1 . respectively. . the next proposition shows that other bases of V and W work equally well. . l Now the elements V W . . Tensor product modules We have introduced the tensor product of two vector spaces. 1 < j < n) are a basis of the mn elements ek fl (1 < k < m. then the elements in fei f j : 1 < i < m.190 Representations and characters of groups Therefore v (ëw) (ëv) w ë(v w). w n. we have v i wj ë ik ì jl (ek f l )X k. The proof of part (2) is equally straightforward. X X X . . . We know that the elements v i wj (1 < i < m. Let G be a ®nite group and let V and W be CG-modules with bases v1 . fn is a basis of W.

4 Proposition For all v P V. 19.3. given in De®nition 19. 19. For all i. 19. we have (v w) g v g wgX Proof Let v ë i v i and w n ì j wj. de®ne (v i wj ) g v i g w j g and.Tensor products 191 G is de®ned in the following simple way. w P W and all g P G. For example. j m 2 i. j for arbitrary complex numbers ë ij . j. consider what happens when r is a scalar multiple of g. more generally. makes the vector space V W into a CGmodule. . j ë i ì j (v i g wj g) 3 ëivi g 2 j j i 3 ì j wj g by Proposition 19X1 v g wgX You should be warned that (v w)r T vr wr for most elements r in CG.3 De®nition Let g P G. j i. which is then extended linearly to a multiplication on the whole of V W.5 Proposition The rule for multiplying an element of V W by an element of G. let 2 3 ë ij (v i wj ) g ë ij (v i g wj g) i. Then j1 2 3 (v w) g ë i ì j (v i wj ) g by Proposition 19X1 i1 i.

11 we can choose a basis e1 . j We now calculate the character of V W. . . Then (v i wj ) g v i g wj g P V W . ø( g) ì jX Now for 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. and 2 i. where ÷ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) for all g P GX Proof Let g P G. . . j by Proposition 19X4 3 ë ij (v i wj ) g ë ij ((v i wj ) g)X i. j Therefore all the conditions of Proposition 4. and g. Then ÷( g) ë i . . fn of W such that ei g ë i e i (1 < i < m) and f j g ì j f j m i1 n j1 (1 < j < n) for some complex numbers ë i . By Proposition 9.2. em of V and a basis f1 . .6 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø.192 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let 1 < i < m. h P G. respectively. .6 are ful®lled. 19. and V W is a CG-module. and by Proposition 19. (v i wj )( gh) v i ( gh) wj ( gh) (v i g)h (wj g)h (v i g wj g)h ((v i wj ) g)h. (v i wj )1 v i wj . (ei f j ) g ei g f j g ë i ì j (ei f j ). Then the character of the CG-module V W is the product character ÷ø. these vectors ei fj form a basis of V W. if ö is the character of V W then . . Hence. ì j . 1 < j < n.

.10 below. as can be seen from Theorem 19. j i j 193 as required. More generally. the powers of ÷ carry a lot of information about the whole character table of G. 19.8 Example The character table of S4 was given in Section 18. for every nonnegative integer n. the product of ÷ with itself. We reproduce it here. and calculate ÷3 ÷4 and ÷4 ÷4 .7 shows that ÷ n is a character of G.7 Corollary The product of two characters of G is again a character of G. we de®ne ÷ n by ÷ n ( g) (÷( g)) n 0 for all g P GX Thus ÷ 1 G . j 19.1. An inductive proof using Corollary 19. Ker {1}).7 shows that if ÷ is a character of G then so is ÷ 2 . gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷4 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 6 9 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 We see that ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷5 . i.Tensor products 2 32 3 ö( g) ëi ì j ëi ì j ÷( g)ø( g). where ÷ 2 ÷÷. When ÷ is a faithful character (that is. and ÷4 ÷4 ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 X Powers of characters Corollary 19.

. . and so on. and consider H rÀ1 I 1 x1 x2 X X X x1 1 f 1 x x2 X X X x rÀ1 g 2 f g 2 2 Ä detf gX dX X X XXX X e 1 xr x2 r XXX x rÀ1 r If i T j and xi xj then two rows of the given matrix are equal.10. j . x2 from the second row. Hence rÀ1 rÀ2 the coef®cient of x1 x2 . . we must take x1 from the rÀ2 ®rst row of the matrix. x rÀ1 in Ä is Æ1. the term x1 must come from all rÀ2 the factors in the ®rst row. . then the matrix rÀ1 I á2 X X X á1 1 rÀ1 á2 X X X á2 g g 2 g X XXX X e á2 r XXX á rÀ1 r ár 3 (x2 À x3 ) X X X (x2 À xr ) F F F 3 (x rÀ1 À xr )X rÀ1 rÀ2 Now the coef®cient of x1 x2 X X Xx rÀ1 in this product is 1: for in the rÀ1 way we have displayed the product. . . j complex numbers. . . x2 must come from all the factors in the rÀ1 rÀ2 second row. We ®rst sketch a proof of this result. so Ä 0. to obtain x1 x2 X X X x rÀ1 rÀ1 in the expansion of the determinant Ä. Suppose that x1 . It follows that Ä is divisible by (xi À x j ) (x1 À x2 )(x1 À x3 ) X X X (x1 À xr ) i. . xr are indeterminates. á r are distinct H 1 á1 f1 á 2 f Af dX X 1 is invertible. .194 Representations and characters of groups In the course of the proof of Theorem 19. On the other hand. (19. we shall need the following result concerning the so-called `Vandermonde matrix'. and so on. It follows that ÄÆ (xi À xj )X i.9) If á1 .

9). . â r )X Now A is invertible by (19. j 19. .20). We must show that h÷ j . let âi ø( g). ÷ rÀ1 . á r . øi r 1 1 (÷( g)) j ø( g) (á i ) j â i X jGj gPG jGj i1 Let A be the r 3 r matrix with ij-entry (á i ) jÀ1 . Then every irreducible character of G is a constituent of one of the powers ÷ 0 . øi. by Theorem 10. Then for all j > 0.8. For 1 < i < r. Proof Let the r values taken by ÷ be á1 . and for 1 < i < r. as we wished to prove. X X X . and b T 0 since â1 T 0. we substitute á i for xi (1 < i < r). and suppose that ÷( g) takes precisely r different values as g varies over all the elements of G. We have seen that ÷ 2 ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 . and deduce that the matrix A is invertible since its determinant is non-zero.9).11 Examples (1) If G T {1} and ÷ is the regular character of G. gPG i and note that â1 ø(1) T 0. ÷ 1 . . .Tensor products 195 To obtain (19. . . Then ÷( g) takes four different values. then ÷( g) takes just two different values (see Proposition 13. øi T 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. and let b be the row vector which is given by b (â1 . øi T 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1.10 Theorem Let ÷ be a faithful character of G.10 says that every irreducible character of G is a constituent of 1 G or ÷. de®ne Gi f g P G: ÷( g) á i gX Take á1 ÷(1). . (2) Let G S4 . . 19. Now let ø be an irreducible character of G. and thus h÷ j . But the ( j 1)th entry in the row vector bA is equal to jGjh÷ j . h÷ j .5. and refer to Example 19. hence bA T 0. so Theorem 19. we know this already. G1 {1}. As ÷ is faithful. so that G1 Ker ÷. Let ÷ ÷4 .

.6. and de®ne a linear transformation T: V V 3 V V by (v i v j )T v j v i for all i. Let v1 . 2 3 ë ij (v i v j ) T ë ij (v j v i )X i. v n be a basis of V. it is of some importance to be able to decompose powers of a character ÷ into sums of irreducible characters. the square of ÷. as we shall see. The subspace S(V V) is called the symmetric part of V V. it is easy to see that S(V V) and A(V V) are subspaces of V V (indeed. Since T is linear. Decomposing ÷ 2 In view of Theorem 19. illustrating Theorem 19. . ÷ 3 (indeed. j and extending linearly ± that is. ÷2 i 1X and we ®nd that Thus ÷ 0 . ÷ 2 . . and the subspace A(V V ) is known as the antisymmetric part of V V. Now de®ne subsets of V V as follows: S(V V ) fx P V V : xT xg. ÷5 of G. j Check that for all v.196 Representations and characters of groups h÷ 3 .12 Proposition The subspaces S(V V) and A(V V) are CG-submodules of V V. Also. just ÷ 2 . we have (v w)T w vX Hence T is independent of the choice of basis. 19. ÷ 3 ) have between them as constituents all the irreducible characters ÷1 . We are going to provide a method for decomposing ÷ 2 . .10. the module V V has character ÷ 2 . A(V V ) fx P V V : xT Àxg. they are eigenspaces of T). . j i. By Proposition 19. ÷ 1 . . . . V V S(V V ) È A(V V )X . in this case. This special case is particularly useful in ®nding irreducible characters.10. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. w P V.

for x P S(V V). . w P V. Hence. and ( yg)T ( yT ) g À yg. j i. Thus S(V V) and A(V V) are CG-submodules of V V. j ë ij (v i g v j g)T 3 ë ij (v i v j ) gT X 2 i. . If x P S(V V) A(V V) then x xT Àx. 1 2(x xT ) P S(V V ) and 1 2(x À xT ) P j V V S(V V ) È A(V V )X Note that the symmetric part of V V contains all vectors which have the form v w w v with v. 2 3 ë ij (v i v j ) Tg ë ij (v j g v i g) i.13 Proposition Let v1 . We now present bases of the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of V V which consist of elements like these. so x 0. j < n) form a basis of A(V V). while the antisymmetric part of V V contains all vectors of the form v w À w v. A(V V ). The dimension of A(V V ) is n(n À 1)a2. v n be a basis of V. so xg P S(V V) and yg P A(V V). 19. . (2) The vectors v i v j À v j v i (1 < i . .Tensor products Proof For all ë ij P C and g P G. j 197 i. (1) The vectors v i v j v j v i (1 < i < j < n) form a basis of S(V V ). Therefore. The dimension of S(V V ) is n(n 1)a2. Further. for all x P V we have x 1(x xT ) 1(x À xT )X 2 2 Since T 2 is the identity. . we have (xg)T (xT ) g xg. j Therefore T is a CG-homomorphism from V V to itself. y P A(V V) and g P G.

12. which implies that ÷ S ( g) ÷ 2 ( g) À ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 ))X 2 j . and 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Proof By Proposition 9. Hence dim S(V V ) > n(n 1)a2. . and the result follows.14 Proposition For g P G. j < n) are linearly independent elements of A(V V ). ÷ A ( g) ëi ë j X Now e i g so ÷( g) i ë i and ÷( g2 ) i ë2 . and ÷ A to be the character of the CG-module A(V V ). and hence from Proposition 19. By Proposition 19.198 Representations and characters of groups Proof Clearly the vectors v i v j v j v i (1 < i < j < n) are linearly independent elements of S(V V ). Therefore i 2 ÷ 2 ( g) (÷( g))2 ëi 2 ë i ë j ÷( g 2 ) 2÷ A ( g)X 2 ë2 ei. we have ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). and the vectors v i v j À v j v i (1 < i . j dim A(V V ) > n(n À 1)a2X De®ne ÷ S to be the character of the CG-module S(V V ). By Proposition 19. dim S(V V ) dim A(V V ) dim V V n2 X Hence the above inequalities are equalities.13(2). j Hence ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Also.11 we can choose a basis e1 . . .12. ÷2 ÷S ÷ AX The next result gives the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A . Then (ei ej À ej ei ) g ë i ë j (ei ej À ej ei ). en of V such that e i g ë i e i (1 < i < n) for some complex numbers ë i . . 19. j i i. ÷ 2 ÷ S ÷ A . i i.

obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaG9.13.15 Example Let G S4 . Let ÷ ÷4 .Tensor products 199 19. The character table of G is given in Example 19.16 Example The character table of S5 Let G S5 . 19. ÷2 . The strategy is simple: (1) Given a character ÷. (a) Linear characters By Example 17. G9 A5 and G has exactly two linear characters ÷1 .14. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷S ÷A 1 24 3 6 3 (1 2) 4 1 2 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 À1 2 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 0 1 We ®nd that ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 and ÷ A ÷5 . The techniques which we have developed so far give a useful method for ®nding new irreducible characters of a group.16(4). G has conjugacy class representatives gi . given by Proposition 19.8. conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders |CG ( gi )| as follows: gi Class size |CG ( gi )| 1 1 120 (1 2) 10 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 15 30 20 24 6 8 4 6 5 Thus G has exactly seven irreducible characters. We illustrate this strategy with two examples. appear below. and use inner products to analyse ÷ S and ÷ A for new irreducible characters. form ÷ S and ÷ A . (2) If ø is a new character found in (1). The values of ÷. By Example 12. We have . and the values of ÷ S and ÷ A . given one or two irreducible characters to start with. then form ø S and ø A and repeat. the symmetric group of degree 5.

24 gives us a character ÷3 (b) Permutation character of G with values Observe that h÷3 . . and 1.200 Representations and characters of groups & ÷2 ( g) ÷1 1 G . Next. if g is an even permutation.14 shows that ÷4 ÷3 ÷2 is also an irreducible character. ÷3 i ÷3 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X 42 22 12 (À1)2 (À1)2 1X 120 12 6 6 5 Hence ÷3 is irreducible. Write ÷ ÷3 . At this point we have the following portion of the character table of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 120 1 1 4 4 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 À1 (c) Tensor products We now use tensor products to construct the last three irreducible characters of G. By Proposition 19.20. if g is an odd permutationX Proposition 13.14 the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷S ÷A 1 120 10 6 (1 2) 12 4 0 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 0 2 À2 0 0 1 0 0 1 Thus. À1. Proposition 17. by Theorem 14.

120 12 6 8 6 40 8 1 1 h÷ S . ÷ A i 36 4 1 1. we use techniques similar to those of the previous example to ®nd 8 of the 11 irreducible characters of the symmetric group S6 . we then ®nd the last three irreducible characters by using the orthogonality relations. 120 12 6 8 6 h÷ S . ÷1 i Therefore. where ø is an irreducible character of degree 5. Next. Character table of S5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 120 1 1 4 4 6 5 5 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 À2 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 19. Let ÷6 ø. ÷7 ÷6 ÷2 is a different irreducible character of degree 5. For ease of printing.Tensor products h÷ A . of order 720. ÷3 i À 1. 10 4 1 2 1 1. it is convenient to label each conjugacy class by the cycle-shape of its elements. Let G S6 . 120 8 5 201 and so ÷ A is a new irreducible character. Finally. so that ÷6 ÷ S À ÷1 À ÷3 . which we call ÷5 . and 120 12 6 6 100 16 1 4 1 h÷ S . Using . ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ø. ÷ S i 3. The character table of S5 is as shown.17 Example The character table of S6 In this example. We have now found all seven irreducible characters of S5 .

3) (4.2) (3. (b) Permutation character and tensor products is given by ÷3 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 The function ÷3 which ÷1 1 G .24. by Proposition 13. h÷ S .2) 45 16 (4) 90 8 (3.2) (3. ÷1 i 1. (a) Linear characters As with all symmetric groups Sn (n > 2).2. h÷ S . ÷3 i 1. the conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows (see Exercise 12. h÷ S .2) (6) 48 18 8 6 À1 3 À2 À1 0 1 À1 1 0 À1 0 1 We calculate that h÷3 . ÷ S i 3X h÷ A . 1.13). and we get exactly two linear characters ÷1 and ÷2 .2) 6 0 1 À1 (5) 5 0 0 0 (2. À1.3): Cycle-shape Class size |CG ( gi )| (1) (2) 1 15 720 48 (3) 40 18 (2. . where & ÷2 ( g) (see Example 17.202 Representations and characters of groups this notation. if g is even. ÷ A i 1. Let ÷ ÷3 .2) 16 1 3 À2 (4) 8 1 1 0 (3.2. the derived subgroup is An . ÷ S and ÷ A are as follows: Class |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷3 ÷S ÷A (1) (2) 720 48 5 15 10 3 7 2 (3) 18 2 3 1 (2. The values of ÷. if g is odd ( g P G) is a character of G.2) (5) (2.3) (4. ÷3 i 1. it has 11 irreducible characters.2) (6) 120 144 15 40 90 120 6 5 48 18 8 6 Since G has 11 conjugacy classes.

2) (6) 48 18 8 6 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 (c) Orthogonality relations We now use the column orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. Thus the conjugacy classes of s and t correspond to the second and fourth columns of the character table.10). The column orthogonality relations give 11 i1 ÷ i (s)2 48X . ÷8 ÷7 ÷2 is also irreducible. Further. . ÷5 ÷ A is irreducible. respectively.16) that all the entries in the character tables of all symmetric groups are integers.2. so that we can guarantee that the solutions to the equations which we deal with are integers. in the ordering which we have adopted. Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 (2. It will be shown later (Corollary 22.10 we know that ÷(s) and ÷(t) are integers for all characters ÷ of G.2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 (3. From Corollary 13. . Also.2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 (2.3) (4. . Ingeniously. ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ÷7 .Tensor products 203 Therefore ÷3 is irreducible. ÷10 and ÷11 . Let s denote the permutation (1 2) and t denote the permutation (1 2)(3 4). as is ÷6 ÷5 ÷2 . of degree 9. but for the moment we know for certain only that ÷( g) is an integer if g2 1 (see Corollary 13. Finally. The irreducible characters ÷1 . where ÷7 is another irreducible character. ÷8 are recorded in the following portion of the character table of G. so is ÷4 ÷3 ÷2 . It is therefore convenient ®rst to concentrate on elements of order 2. we call the three irreducible characters of G which have yet to be found ÷9 . .2) (3.

10. d. ÷8 . f 0. and is not equal to any of ÷1 . we see that ÷9 ÷2 is not ÷9 or ÷11 . since ÷9 ÷2 (s) À÷9 (s).204 Hence Representations and characters of groups ÷9 (s)2 ÷10 (s)2 ÷11 (s)2 2X We can assume. 0 and b . c. ÷11 (s)2 0X Now ÷9 ÷2 is an irreducible character. Therefore. . without loss of generality. d 2 e 2 f 2 2. 0 is d e 1. d À e 0.2) d e f The column orthogonality relations give 11 i1 11 i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i (s) 0. we lose no generality in assuming that ÷9 (s) 1. 11 i1 11 i1 ÷ i (s)÷ i (t) 0. f in the following portion of the character table: Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) a b c s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2. ad be cf 10X The only solution to these equations in integers with a . that ÷9 (s)2 ÷10 (s)2 1. a b 5X . That is. ÷ i (t)÷ i (t) 16. ÷ i (1)÷ i (t) 0. 11. whence a À b 0. . ÷9 ÷2 ÷10 X Once more. . b. . we aim to evaluate the integers a. e. Moreover. ÷10 (s) À1X The plan is now to ®nd ÷ i (1) and ÷ i (t) for i 9.

Character table of S6 Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 5 5 16 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 1 À1 0 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 À1 À1 À2 (2.2) (6) 18 8 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 2 2 À2 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 Direct products We conclude the chapter by showing that tensor products can be used to determine the character table of a direct product G 3 H.2) 1 1 0 We can now determine the three unknown entries in each further column. .2.Tensor products Finally. v m . .2) 48 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 À3 3 0 (3. . Let V be a CG-module. since the column orthogonality relations will give three independent equations in these unknowns (as the above 3 3 3 matrix is invertible). Having done these calculations. . given the character tables of G and H.2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 1 1 0 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 0 (3. and let W be a . with basis v1 . we ®nd that c 16 by using the relation 11 i1 205 ÷ i (1)2 720X The above portion of the character table is therefore Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) 5 5 16 s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2.2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 (2. we ®nd that the complete character table of S6 is as shown.3) (4.

y P H.206 Representations and characters of groups C H-module. Let ÷ be the character of V and ø be the character of W.18 Theorem Let ÷1 . w P W. ÷ k 3 ÷ l i G3 H 1 ÷ i ( g)ø j (h)÷ k ( g)ø l (h) jG 3 Hj gPG 2 3 32 1 1 ÷ i ( g)÷ k ( g) ø j (h)ø l (h) jGj gPG j Hj hP H hP H h÷ i . For all i. l. By the proof of Proposition 19. . G and H. de®ne (v i wj )( g. y À1 hy)X . Next. Then G 3 H has precisely ab distinct irreducible characters. h) ÷( g)ø(h) ( g P G. and these are ÷ i 3 ø j (1 < i < a. h÷ i 3 ø j . the character of V W is ÷ 3 ø. . h) ë ij (v i g wj h)X i. . we have (x. j. 1 < j < b)X Proof For all i. . x P G and h.) Thus the ab characters ÷ i 3 ø j are distinct and irreducible. . respectively. . . . note that for all g. ø l i H ä ik ä jl X (Here the subscripts G 3 H. . h) v g wh. wn. j As in Proposition 19. h P H. j i. h) v i g wj h and extend this de®nition linearly to the whole of V W. ÷ k i G hø j . h P H)X 19.6. G and H indicate inner products of characters of G 3 H. that is. k. for ë ij P C. with basis w1. j with 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. . where (÷ 3 ø)( g. h)(x. . ø b be the distinct irreducible characters of H. y)À1 ( g.4. 2 3 ë ij (v i wj ) ( g. ÷ a be the distinct irreducible characters of G and let ø1 .5 shows that V W is a C(G 3 H)-module. we ®nd that (v w)( g. y) (x À1 gx. Then a proof similar to that of Proposition 19. and all g P G. . for all v P V.

h9) of G 3 H are conjugate if and only if the elements g and g9 are conjugate in G and the elements h and h9 are conjugate in H. . . À1). h) and ( g9. À1) ((1 2).19 Example The character table of S3 3 C2 The character table of S3 ( D6 ) is given in Example 16. G 3 H has exactly ab irreducible characters. Consequently. then the elements ( g i . ((1 2). 1). . . alongside the character table of C2 . À1) ((1 2 3). so the irreducible characters ÷ i 3 ø j which we have found must be all the irreducible characters of G 3 H. . if g1 . hb are representatives of the conjugacy classes of H. 1). hj ) (1 < i < a. . G 3 H has precisely ab conjugacy classes. j 19. 1) ((1 2 3). By Theorem 15.3. . Character table of S3 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 Character table of C2 hi |CH (hi )| ø1 ø2 1 2 1 1 À1 2 1 À1 The conjugacy classes of S3 3 C2 are represented by (1. ((1 2 3). Character table of S3 3 C2 ( gi .3(1). 1 < j < b) are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G 3 H. We reproduce it here. À1). ((1 2). ((1 2 3). . and by Theorem 19.18. (1. In particular. À1) 12 4 6 12 4 6 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 . hj ) |CG3 H ( g i . 1) (1. ga are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G and h1 . À1). 1) ((1 2). the character table of S3 3 C2 is as shown. 1).Tensor products 207 Hence elements ( g. hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ø1 ø1 ø1 ø2 ø2 ø2 (1.

øl 0 for all integers n with n > 0.5 shows that D12 S3 3 C2 ). h÷ø. Exercises for Chapter 19 1. The product of any two characters of G is a character of G. where ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). Show that h÷ø. øöi hø. if ÷ T øX 3. if ÷ ø.13 of the next chapter we shall show that there exist irreducible characters ÷ and ö of A5 which take the following values: . Suppose that ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of G. 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 )) 2 for all g P G.) 4. Let ÷ be a character of G which is not faithful.2. h P H. Summary of Chapter 19 1. Show that there is some irreducible character ø of G such that k÷ n . Let ÷.10. 3. If ÷ is a character of G. (This shows that the hypothesis that ÷ is faithful cannot be dropped from Theorem 19. where we give the character table of D12 (Exercise 1. 1 G i 0. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ø is an irreducible character of H. The irreducible characters of G 3 H are those characters ÷ 3 ø. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A . In Example 20. The values of ÷ 3 ø are given by (÷ 3 ø)( g. h) ÷( g)ø(h) for all g P G. ø and ö be characters of the group G.208 Representations and characters of groups Compare the solution to Exercise 18. öi h÷. ÷öiX 2. Prove that & 1. 2.

g2 . ÷ A . 5. g4 . respectively. . ø5 of A5 which are given in Example 20. . . . A certain group G or order 24 has precisely seven conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . . 6. Find ÷ S and ÷ A . ®nd the character table of G. g2 are con1 2 3 4 5 6 7 jugate to g1 . . g2 . Write down the character table of D6 3 D6. . g4 . g2 . g2 . G has a character ÷ with values as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ g1 24 2 g2 24 À2 g3 4 0 g4 6 Àù2 g5 6 Àù g6 6 ù g7 6 ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . Express these characters as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ø1 . . Moreover. and show that both are irreducible. g7 . g5 . g2 . ö S and ö A . g1 . further. g2 .Tensor products 1 ÷ ö 5 3 (1 2 3) À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) (1 0 p 5)a2 (1 3 4 5 2) (1 À 0 p 5)a2 209 Calculate the values of ÷ S . . g5 . By forming products of the irreducible characters found so far. g2 .13.

20 Restriction to a subgroup In this chapter and the next. The character of V 5 H is obtained from the character ÷ of V by evaluating ÷ on the elements of H only. This simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module is known as restricting from G to H. v2 b Àv2 X 210 . and call it the restriction of V to H. We write this character of H as ÷ 5 H. since properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4. we are going to look at ways of relating the representations of a group to the representations of its subgroups. Here. then f 5 H denotes the restriction of f to H (so that ( f 5 H)(h) f (h) for all h P H). if f: G 3 C is any function. The case where H is a normal subgroup of G is of particular interest. As in Example 4. when G S n and H A n . We apply this result in the situation where H is of index 2 in G. and illustrate its use. let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . If V is a CG-module. b: a4 b2 1.1 Example Let G D8 ka. v1 b v1 . If V is a CG-module then we write the corresponding C H-module as V 5 H.8 gives important information in this case. then V is also a C H-module. we introduce the elementary idea of restricting a CG-module to a subgroup H of G. 20. Restriction Let H be a subgroup of the ®nite group G. h P H if they hold for all g. h P G.5(1). More generally. and Clifford's Theorem 20.2 certainly hold for all g. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. v2 for which v1 a v2 . Then C H is a subset of CG. which occurs. v2 a Àv1 . for example. and refer to it as the restriction of ÷ to H.

it might be the case that V is an irreducible CG-module while V 5 H is not an irreducible C H-module. v2 for which v1 a2 Àv1 . 3. v2 a2 Àv2 . then U 5 H is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. then dim V dim (V 5 H). 20. On the other hand.2 Example Let G S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G consisting of all even permutations of {1.Restriction to a subgroup 211 If H is the subgroup {1. The character ÷ of V is given by g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 v1 b v1 .1 illustrates this fact. then V 5 H is the C Hmodule with basis v1 . However. if V 5 H is an irreducible C H-module then V is an irreducible CG-module. 2.2. 4} ®xing 5. v2 b Àv2 X and the character ÷ 5 H of V 5 H is given by h ÷(h) 1 2 a2 À2 b 0 a2 b 0 If V is a CG-module and H is a subgroup of G. By 18. the character table of H is gi jC H ( g i )j ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 . a2 b} of G. a2 . Example 20. b. for if U is a CG-submodule of V.

jGj gPG . ÷7 . W2 i G W1 ( g)W2 ( g).16 we see that ÷1 5 H ÷2 5 H. ÷5 5 H and ÷6 5 H. with irreducible characters labelled ÷1 . l H is the inner product on the vector space of functions from H to C. l G is the inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C which we have de®ned earlier.3 De®nitions The inner product k . de®ned similarly.212 Representations and characters of groups (where ù e2ðia3 ). . . and k . 20. if W1 and W2 are functions from G to C. . we calculate the character ÷ i 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters ø j . we introduce the following notation. These have values 1 ÷1 5 ÷3 5 ÷5 5 ÷6 5 H H H H 1 4 6 5 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 À2 1 (1 2 3) (1 3 2) 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 À1 It is easy to spot that ÷ 1 5 H ø1 . The character table of G is given in Example 19. Thus. ÷3 5 H ÷4 5 H and ÷6 5 H ÷7 5 HX Therefore we need only consider ÷1 5 H. ÷ 6 5 H ø2 ø 3 ø 4 X Constituents of a restricted character To help us discuss the way in which a restricted character ÷ 5 H can be expressed in terms of the irreducible characters of H. ÷ 3 5 H ø1 ø 4 . . then 1 hW1 . ÷5 5 H 2ø4 . ÷3 5 H. From Example 19.16. For each i with 1 < i < 7.

20. Then there exists an irreducible character ÷ of G such that h÷ 5 H. . Recall from Theorem 13. then 1 hö1 . øi H ÷ i (1)h÷ i 5 H.20 that the regular character ÷reg of G satis®es & k jGj if g 1.17. The best . . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. ø i i H X We say that ø i is a constituent of ÷ 5 H if the coef®cient d i in the above expression is non-zero. it may be very dif®cult in practice to write down the restrictions ÷ 5 H in terms of irreducible characters of H. Unfortunately. . øi H T 0 for some i.4 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G and let ø be a non-zero character of H. ö2 i H ö1 (h)ö2 (h)X j Hj hP H 213 If ÷ is a character of G and ø1 . . In the light of Proposition 20. øi H T 0X Proof Let ÷1 . d r which are given by d i h÷ 5 H.4. X X X . we could hope to ®nd the character table of the subgroup H by restricting the irreducible characters ÷ of G to H. . øi H X j Hj i1 j Therefore h÷ i 5 H. ø r are the irreducible characters of the subgroup H of G. then by Theorem 14. The next proposition shows that every irreducible character of H is a constituent of the restriction of some irreducible character of G.19 and Proposition 13. ÷reg ( g) and ÷reg ÷ i (1)÷ i X 0 if g T 1. .Restriction to a subgroup and if ö1 and ö2 are functions from H to C. i1 Now 0 T k jGj ø(1) h÷reg 5 H. Suppose that we know the character table of G. ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r for some non-negative integers d 1 . . .

Then ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r . d r satisfy (20X6) r i1 d 2 < jG: HjX i Moreover. 20. we have equality in (20. For example. and let ø1 . since ÷ is irreducible. F F F . and K 0 if and only P if ÷( g) 0 for all g with g P H.6) if and only if ÷( g) 0 for all elements g of G which lie outside H. ÷i G 1 ÷( g)÷( g) jGj gPG 1 ÷(h)÷(h) K jGj hP H r j Hj 2 d K. let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. j We can say more about the constituents of ÷ 5 H in the case where H is a normal subgroup of G. jGj i1 i where K (1ajGj) ga H ÷( g)÷( g)X Now K > 0. ø r be the irreducible characters of H. ÷ 5 Hi H i 1 ÷(h)÷(h)X j Hj hP H Also. The way to exploit the fact that H v G us revealed in the following proposition. X X X . we have r i1 d 2 h÷ 5 H. where the non-negative integers d 1 . since the restrictions ÷ 5 H then do not have many constituents. 1 h÷.214 Representations and characters of groups chance of doing this occurs when the index jG: Hj( jGjaj Hj) is small.17. as the following result shows. we will see that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. .5 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. Proof By Theorem 14. The conclusions of the proposition a follow at once.

as claimed. Ug is an irreducible C H-module. (2) As a C H-module. Then gh h9 g for some h9 P H. Therefore. (2) The sum of all the subspaces Ug with g P G is a CG-submodule of V. For every g P G let Ug fug: u P U g. so (ug)h u( ghg À1 ) g P Ug (u P U). V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. Proof (1) Clearly. and the proof of the proposition is complete. Further. j .12.Restriction to a subgroup 215 20. g P G and Ug1 and Ug2 are isomorphic C H-modules. Then (1) The set Ug is an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H and dim Ug dim U . we have V UgX gPG Then by Proposition 7.7 Proposition Suppose that H v G. u 3 ug (u P U) is an invertible linear transformation from U to Ug. so dim U dim Ug. (3) Now let ö be a C H-isomorphism from Ug1 to Ug2 . then WgÀ1 is a C H-submodule of U. è is a C H-isomorphism. since U is irreducible. (3) If g1 . V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. Moreover. and since H v G we have ghgÀ1 P H for all h P H. then Ug1 g and Ug2 g are isomorphic C H-modules. Let V be an irreducible CG-module and U be an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H. whence W {0} or Ug. WgÀ1 {0} or U. and (wgh)è (wh9 g)è (wh9ö) g (wö)h9 g (wö) gh (wgè)hX Therefore. if W is a C Hsubmodule of Ug. since V is irreducible. proving that Ug is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. g2 . Suppose that h P H. Ug is a subspace of V. De®ne è : Ug1 g 3 Ug2 g by è : wg 3 (wö) g (w P Ug 1 )X Then è is clearly an isomorphism of vector spaces. Therefore.

and Xi T X j if i T j. ÷ 5 H e(ø1 X X X ø m )X j Our main applications of Clifford's Theorem will concern the case where jG: Hj 2. Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. .7(2). Then V contains a C H-module X1 whose character is eø1 . that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. ø1 i. jG: Hj 2). . 20. Then it follows from Proposition 20.216 Representations and characters of groups We now come the fundamental theorem on the restriction of a character to a normal subgroup. but you might like to look at Corollary 22. . by Proposition 20. if g P G then X1 g is a direct sum of isomorphic C H-modules. then ÷ 5 H e(ø1 X X X ø m ) for some positive integer e. Examples where this happens are G Sn . say X 1 U1 È X X X È U e X By Proposition 20. and (2) if ø1 . Hence V has the form V X1 È X X X È X m where each Xi is a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules. Normal subgroups of index 2 We are shortly going to give more precise information about the constituents of ÷ 5 H when H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2 (that is.7. Let e h÷ 5 H. ø m are the constituents of ÷ 5 H. On the other hand. and which is therefore a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules. each having character ø1 . .8 Clifford's Theorem Suppose that H v G and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. V is a sum of C Hmodules of the form X1 g. Then (1) all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. Therefore.14 in Chapter 22 to see an advanced use of the theorem. . parts (1) and (2).7(3).

if H is a subgroup of index 2 in G. 2 where i1 d i < 2.9.13) below. j with i T j. or G D2 n ha. it is often desirable to have more details about the two cases in Proposition 20. or (2) ÷ 5 H is the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. Then either (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. ÷ and ÷ë are irreducible characters of the same degree (see Proposition 17. Since d 1 . In fact. then by Proposition 20. b: a n b2 1. or ÷ 5 H ø i ø j for some i.8 j r ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r . by Clifford's Theorem 20.Restriction to a subgroup 217 H A n . 20. In the latter case. . Proof If ø1 . For practical purposes. d r are non-negative integers. Also. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i.10 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. then H must be normal in G (see Exercise 1. since ë(h) 1 for all h P H. ø r are the irreducible characters of H.14). . H hai. X X X . we may lift the non-trivial linear character of GaH to obtain a linear character ë of G which satis®es @ 1 if g P H.9 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. . the character tables of G and H are closely related. We describe this relationship in (20. Since GaH C2 . and we shall supply these next. ë( g) À1 if g P HX a Note that for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. we deduce that either ÷ 5 H ø i for some i. ÷ 5 H ÷ë 5 H. and that ÷ is . 20. and we then illustrate the results by ®nding the character table of A5 from that of S5 (which we have already obtained in Example 19.5.10). ø i and ø j have the same degree. When H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G.16). .

a j According to Proposition 20. 20.218 Representations and characters of groups an irreducible character of G. ÷ë( g) À÷( g) if g P H.9. Proof We use Proposition 20. ÷ 5 H is irreducible if and only if the inequality in (20.11 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. and this happens if and only if ÷( g) T 0 for some g P G with g P H. To see that (2) is equivalent to (3). (2) ÷( g) T 0 for some g P G with g P H. then either ö ÷ or ö ÷ë. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. If ö is an irreducible character of G which satis®es ö 5 H ÷ 5 H. Thus (1) is equivalent to a (2). a (3) the characters ÷ and ÷ë of G are not equal. if g P HX a . since jG: Hj 2. then ÷ 5 H is the sum of one or two irreducible characters of H. In the next proposition we consider the ®rst possibility. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible. if H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2.5. a so ÷( g) T 0 for some g with g P H if and only if ÷ë T ÷. observe that @ ÷( g) if g P H. Proof We have (÷ ÷ë)( g) Hence @ 2÷( g) 0 if g P H. and ÷ is an irreducible character of G.6) is strict.

then hö 5 H. a Therefore. 20. since ÷ 5 H is irreducible and ö 5 H ÷ 5 H. 20.Restriction to a subgroup h÷ ÷ë. G. so kö.10.13) Let H be a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group G.10. ÷( g) 0 for all g with g P H. and that ÷ is the sum of two ö is an irreducias a constituent. ÷ 5 Hi H X 2 If ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 as a constituent. Finally. and hence ö ÷. ÷l G T 0. If ble character of G such that ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 then ö ÷. say ÷ 5 H ø1 ø2. by explaining how to list the irreducible characters of H on the assumption that we know the character table of G.12 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible characters of H. Such characters of G occur in pairs (÷ and ÷ë) which have the same restriction to H (Propositions 20. Therefore k÷ ÷ë. (1) Each irreducible character ÷ of G which is nonzero somewhere outside H restricts to be an irreducible character of H.11). ÷ 5 Hi H T 0. 1 1 hö. öi G 1 2÷( g)ö( g) jGj gP H 1 ÷( g)ö( g) j Hj gP H 219 h÷ 5 H. j We summarize our results on subgroups of index 2. ÷i G ö( g)÷( g) ö( g)÷( g) jGj gPG jGj gP H 1hö 5 H. ö 5 Hl H 1. (20. we look at the case where ÷ 5 H is reducible. . and so either ö ÷ or j ö ÷ë. öl G 1. ö 5 Hi H X Now k÷ 5 H. Proof In view of Proposition 20.

÷5 ( g) 0 for all g P H. Note that ÷2 5 H ÷1 5 H. . ÷3 5 H and ÷6 5 H are irreducible characters of H.13)(2).220 Representations and characters of groups (2) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G which is zero everywhere outside H. . .18(2).13) of facts about characters of subgroups of index 2. We have established that the character table of H is gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 á2 â2 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 á3 â3 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á4 â4 (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 á5 â5 . ÷4 5 H ÷3 5 H and ÷7 5 H ÷6 5 H. ÷7 of S5 can be found in Example 19. then ÷ restricts to be the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. . . ÷3 and ÷6 are non-zero somewhere outside H. Fortunately.13)(3).9. The two characters of H which we get from ÷ in this way come from no other irreducible character of G (Propositions 20. In case (2) of (20. Also. (3) Every irreducible character of H appears among those obtained by restricting irreducible characters of G. a so by (20.14 Example The character table of A5 Write H A5 . The results we have obtained so far have been deduced from our summary (20. . ÷5 5 H ø4 ø5 where ø4 and ø5 are distinct irreducible characters of H of degree 3. respectively.13).4).16. ÷1 5 H. . 20. extra work is needed to calculate the values taken by the two constituents of ÷ 5 H. as in parts (1) and (2) (Proposition 20. . and the irreducible characters ÷1 .10. and hence ø1 . 20.13)(1). Call them ø1 . ø2 and ø3 .12). and note that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group S5 . They can also be veri®ed by calculating inner products. ø5 are the distinct irreducible characters of H by (20. 20. in practice case (1) occurs more frequently than case (2). so by (20. Observe that ÷1 . The conjugacy classes of H and their sizes are given in Example 12.

3 3 5 2 á2 â2 2 á2 â2 X 4 4 5 5 Hence á2 â2 0. . By the orthogonality relation for column i with itself (2 < i < 5). á3 â3 À2.Restriction to a subgroup 221 We use the column orthogonality relations to calculate the unknowns á i and â i . we have 2 p p á5 1(1 À 5). â 1(1 À 2 p 5). Hence by Proposition 13. we obtain 3 3 á2 â2 . á5 and â5 are 1(1 Æ 5). we see that each element of A5 is conjugate to its inverse. á3 â3 À1. all the numbers in the character table are real. â4 1(1 À 5)X 2 2 p Similarly. Since ø4 T ø5 . 2 2 4 2 á2 â2 .9(4). â5 1(1 5)X 2 2 Thus the character table of A5 is as shown. We get á2 â2 0. á4 â4 á5 â5 1X Using Proposition 12. Since we have not yet distinguished between ø4 and ø5 . The values of á i â i for 2 < i < 5 are given by noting that ø4 ø5 ÷5 5 H (or by using the column orthogonality relations for column 1 and column i).13. and we ®nd that á4 and â4 are the solutions of the quadratic x 2 À x À 1 0. Character table of A5 gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 â á where á 1(1 2 p 5). we may take p p á4 1(1 5).

then ÷ 5 H is a character of H. then all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. 2 or 3X Give examples to show that each possibility can occur.17.222 Representations and characters of groups Proposition 17. 2. The number of irreducible constituents of ÷ 5 H is bounded above by jG : Hj. and ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r. express ÷ 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters of H. to ®nd the character table of A6 . and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. (b) For each irreducible character ÷ of G (given in Section 18. Indeed. 2. Use the restrictions of the irreducible characters of S6 .4. Let G be a group with an abelian subgroup H of index n. The values of ÷ 5 H are given by (÷ 5 H)(h) ÷(h) for all h P H. if ø1 . . (The seven conjugacy classes of A6 can be found by consulting the solutions to Exercises 12. Let G S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3 4). In particular. If ÷ is a character of G. ÷ and ÷ 5 H have the same degree. Summary of Chapter 20 Assume throughout that H is a subgroup of G. Prove that h÷ 5 H.6 allows us to deduce from the character table that A5 is a simple group. Prove that ÷(1) < n for every irreducible character ÷ of G. ÷ 5 Hi H 1. 4.3 and 12.1). Suppose that G is a group with a subgroup H of index 3. If H v G and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. 1. given in Example 19. then r i1 d 2 < jG : HjX i 3. (1 3)l of G. Exercises for Chapter 20 1.) 3. X X X . ø r are the irreducible characters of H. (a) Show that H D8.

21. A7 has nine conjugacy classes. 14. 6. 1. 14. 14. 6.Restriction to a subgroup 223 5. 35X Also. 35. 20. 15. It is known that the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of S7 is 1. . Find the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of A7 . 15. 21. 14.

C H-homomorphisms and CG-homomorphisms Let U be a C H-submodule of the regular C H-module C H. We shall see many applications of this method in later chapters. If r P CG. Much more subtle than this is the process of induction. We saw in the last chapter that restriction gives a simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module.21 Induced modules and characters Throughout this chapter we assume that H is a subgroup of the ®nite group G. it is usually the case that C H-modules are easier to understand and construct than CG-modules. we require some results which connect C H-homomorphisms with CG-homomorphisms. (us)W rus (uW)s.1 Proposition Assume that H < G. If W is a C H-homomorphism from U to CG. Before describing the process of induction. and induction is the main concern of this chapter. 21. As H is smaller than G. since for all s P C H. so induction can often give us an important handle on the representations of a group if we know some representations of its subgroups. which constructs a CG-module from a given C H-module. and let U be a C H-submodule of C H. then there exists r P CG such that uW ru for all u P U X 224 . We now prove the striking fact that every C Hhomomorphism from U to CG has this simple form. then W: u 3 ru (u P U ) de®nes a C H-homomorphism from U to CG.

v P V ) is a function. v P V. If x P U V then rx x and rx 0. moreover. v P V. there is a C H-submodule W of C H such that C H U È W. 21. De®ne ö: C H 3 CG by ö: u w 3 uW (u P U. For u P U. ru u and rv 0X Proof Assume that U V {0}. Let r 1ö.2 Corollary Let U be a CG-submodule of CG. 21. Then every CG-homomorphism from U to CG has the form u 3 ru (u P U ) for some r P CG. j We give two corollaries of Proposition 21. uW uö (1u)ö (1ö)u ru.Induced modules and characters 225 Proof By Maschke's Theorem 8. so uv3 u (u P U . j . it is a CG-homomorphism from U È V to CG (see Proposition 7. Conversely. and rv 0 if v P V. Then the following two statements are equivalent: (1) U V {0}. and so W is of the required form. assume that for some r P CG we have ru u and rv 0 for all u P U.1.11). Therefore by Corollary 21. Consequently U V {0}. and so x 0.2. w P W )X Then ö is easily seen to be a C H-homomorphism. there exists r P CG such that for all u P U. r(u v) uX Then ru u if u P U.3 Corollary Let U and V be CG-submodules of CG. (2) there exists r P CG such that for all u P U. the ®rst of which is just the case H G of the proposition. v P V.1. Then the sum U V is a direct sum.

W 1 4 G U3 . W 1 4 G sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . 21. W 2 sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 )X These are C H-submodules of C H (see Example 10. b: a3 b2 1. 21. Remember that H is a subgroup of G. X(CG) is then a CG-submodule of CG.5 Example Let G D6 ka. W 1 sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 ).8(2) that CG U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . and de®ne W 0 sp (1 a a2 ). U4 sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 . W 2 4 G sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 . b ù2 ab ùa2 b). where U1 sp (1 a a2 b ab a2 b). That is. Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. b ab a2 b). X (CG) sp fxg: x P X . and let H kal.4 De®nition Assume that H is a subgroup of G. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules U i . Let ù e2ðia3 . U2 sp (1 a a2 À b À ab À a2 b). Clearly. U3 sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 .8(1)). we write X(CG) for the subspace of CG which is spanned by all the elements xg with x P X. g P G. b ùab ù2 a2 b)X Thus W 0 4 G U1 È U2 . Then U 4 G is called the CG-module induced from U. so C H is a subset of CG. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.226 Representations and characters of groups Induction from H to G For any subset X of CG. b ùab ù2 a2 b)X Recall from Example 10. g P GgX Clearly. and let U 4 G denote the CG-module U(CG). b ù2 ab ùa2 b). W 0 4 G sp (1 a a2 . W 2 4 G U4 X . a cyclic subgroup of G of order 3.

Induced modules and characters 227 In particular. Moreover. Therefore ö is a CG-isomorphism. j The next proposition and its corollary enable us to de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C H-module U. proving that U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G.1. By Proposition 21. Consequently sru u and rsv v for all u P U . ö is a CG-homomorphism. v P V X If a P U 4 G then a is a linear combination of elements ug (u P U. while W 1 4 G and W 2 4 G are irreducible. rsb b Hence the function b 3 sb (b P V 4 G) is the inverse of ö. 21. W 0 4 G is reducible. We now show that isomorphic C H-modules give isomorphic induced CG-modules. so ra is a linear combination of elements rug. and also there exists s P CG such that vWÀ1 sv for all v P V. for all a P U 4 G. and hence ra P V 4 G. g P G).7 Proposition Assume that U and V are C H-submodules of C H with U V {0}. as (aö) g rag (ag)ö (a P U 4 G. there exists r P CG such that uW ru for all u P U. 21. we have sra a. Therefore ö: a 3 ra (a P U 4 G) is a function from U 4 G to V 4 G. v P V. Since sru u and rsv v for all u P U. Suppose that U and V are C H-submodules of C H and that U is C H-isomorphic to V. Then (U 4 G) (V 4 G) f0g. g P G). Then U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. Proof Let W: U 3 V be a C H-isomorphism.6 Proposition Assume that H < G. b P V 4 GX .

Then for all u P U. a direct sum of C H-submodules U i . using (2. rv9 0 for all v9 P V 4 GX j for all u9 P U 4 G. Then U 4 G (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Proof We prove this by induction on m.228 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Corollary 21. U U1 È X X X È Um . The de®nition of U 4 G implies that U 4 G (U1 4 G) (V 4 G)X Therefore by Proposition 21. rug ug and rvg 0X Since U 4 G is spanned by elements of the form ug (u P U. Therefore (U 4 G) (V 4 G) f0g by Corollary 21. v P V and all g P G. 21. j We can now de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C Hmodule U (where U is not necessarily a C H-submodule of C H).9 De®nition Let U be a C H-module. we obtain U 4 G (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G). It is trivial for m 1. as required. Now U U1 È V. there exists r P CG such that ru u and rv 0 for all u P U. g P G). Then (by Theorems 8. and hence.7 and 10.10). where V U2 È X X X È U m .5). U 4 G (U1 4 G) È (V 4 G)X By induction. and suppose that U U1 È X X X È Um . v P V. 21. V 4 G (U 2 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G).8 Corollary Let U be a C H-submodule of C H.7. this implies that ru9 u9 and similarly.3.3.

Then . If U is a C H-module. k P K. Now let U be an arbitrary C H-module.4. k P K)X Therefore. Then U(CK) is spanned by elements of the form uk ukg (21X12) (u P U .9) that (21X10) (U1 È X X X È Um ) 4 G (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Our ®rst major result on general induced modules is known as `the transitivity of induction'.Induced modules and characters 229 for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. U 4 K (U1 4 K) È X X X È (Um 4 K)X Since K < G.11 Theorem Suppose that H and K are subgroups of G such that H < K < G.10). g P G)X (U 4 K) 4 G U 4 GX U U1 È X X X È Um for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. 21. That is. We emphasize that the de®nition of the induced module U 4 G in the case where U is a C H-submodule of C H is a natural one: U 4 G U (CG)X We shall always prove results for general induced modules U 4 G by ®rst dealing with the special case where U is a C H-submodule of C H. (U(CK))(CG) is spanned by elements of the form (u P U . then (U 4 K) 4 G U 4 GX Proof Assume ®rst that U is a C H-submodule of C H. it follows that (U(CK))(CG) U(CG).8 ensure that this de®nition is consistent with De®nition 21. De®ne U 4 G to be the following (external) direct sum: U 4 G (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G)X Proposition 21.6 and Corollary 21. and then applying the fact (which is immediate from De®nition 21. By (21.

as in Example 20. . ÷5 5 H 2ø4 .13 De®nition If ø is the character of a C H-module U. ø j i H for appropriate i.16).17. The next example illustrates an important relationship between induced characters and restrictions of characters.9. ÷7 are the irreducible characters of G (given in Example 19. . the coef®cients which appear here are the values of h÷ i 5 H. ÷ 6 5 H ø 2 ø 3 ø4 . .2) then ÷ 1 5 H ø1 . j.14 Example Let G S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G. . and is called the character induced from ø. .2. ÷ 7 5 H ø 2 ø 3 ø4 X By Theorem 14. . by (21X12) j Induced characters 21. . then the character of the induced CG-module U 4 G is denoted by ø 4 G. We record these coef®cients in a . ÷ 4 5 H ø1 ø4 . and ø1 .230 Therefore Representations and characters of groups (U 4 K) 4 G (U1 4 K) 4 G È X X X È (Um 4 K) 4 G by (21X10) (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G) U4G by Definition 21. We showed in that example that if ÷1 . ÷ 3 5 H ø1 ø4 . 21. . ÷ 2 5 H ø1 . ø4 are the irreducible characters of H (given in 18.

and let V be a CG-submodule of CG. V 5 H) have equal dimensions. it turns out that the columns of the matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of H induce to G. ø 4 Gi G h÷ 5 H. To be precise. Then the vector spaces HomCG (U 4 G. ÷1 1 . In fact. For example. ÷4 0 . øi H for all characters ÷ of G and ø of H. it is true that h÷. and ø4 4 G ÷3 ÷4 2÷5 ÷6 ÷7 X Thus the ij-entry in our matrix. ÷7 X Similarly. ø2 0 . row 3 gives ÷3 5 H 1 . ø j i H . ø2 4 G ø3 4 G ÷6 ÷7 .15 Proposition Assume that H < G. the seven integers in column 1 give ø1 4 G 1 . ø4 X Remarkably. . ø j 4 Gi G . ø1 0 . ø j i H : ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 H ø1 1 f 1 f f 1 f f 1 f f 0 f d 0 0 ø2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø4 I 0 0 g g 1 g g 1 g g 2 g g 1 e 1 231 The rows of this matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of G restrict to H. ÷6 0 . 21. The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Before proving the theorem. and we devote the next section to a proof of this result. ÷5 0 . ÷2 1 . ÷3 1 . we need the following preliminary result.Induced modules and characters matrix whose ij-entry is h÷ i 5 H. which is known as the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. which we already know to be equal to h÷ i 5 H. V ) and HomC H (U . ø3 1 . is also equal to h÷ i .

÷ 5 Hi H dim (HomC H (U . Then by Corollary 21. as required. and so it is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. Hence the function W 3 W is injective. g P G.2. Then by Proposition 21. r2 P CG and r1 u r2 u for all u P U. there is an element r P CG such that sW rs for all s P U 4 GX De®ne W: U 3 CG to be the restriction of W to U. there exists r P CG such that uö ru for all u P U. V 5 H))X . V ) to HomC H (U . and there is a CG-submodule V of CG which has character ÷. V 5 H). Moreover. Let ö P HomC H (U . that is. ÷i G dim (HomCG (U 4 G. V ). V 5 H). and hø. V ). We shall show that this linear transformation is invertible. By Theorem 14.232 Representations and characters of groups Proof Suppose that W P HomCG (U 4 G. V 5 H). note that if r1. ÷ 5 Hi H X Proof First assume that the characters ÷ and ø are irreducible. Finally.1. V 5 H). These two vector spaces therefore have the same dimension. Thus the function W3W is a linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. Therefore the function W 3 W is surjective. De®ne W from U 4 G to CG by sW rs (s P U 4 G)X Then W P HomCG (U 4 G. we have hø 4 G. then r1 s r2 s for all s P U 4 G. ö W.16 The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Assume that H < G. Then there is a C H-submodule U of C H which has character ø. V ) to HomC H (U . uW ru for all u P U X Then W P HomC H (U .24. V )). j 21. ÷i G hø. since s is a linear combination of elements ug with u P U. Then hø 4 G. Let ÷ be a character of G and let ø be a character of H.

. . then hø 4 G.15.4. f i G hø. For the general case. let ÷1 . ø m be the irreducible characters of H. namely when ÷ and ø are irreducible. .Induced modules and characters From Proposition 21. ÷ 5 Hi H X This completes the proof of the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. . hø. ÷i G hø. and for convenience of notation. f 5 Hi H X Proof This follows at once from the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. ÷ i 5 Hi H k i1 by (21X17) B j1 i1 m j1 C di÷i 5 H H ej ø j . and ø is a character of H. j The values of induced characters We now show how to evaluate induced characters.18 Corollary If f is a class function on G. the characters of G span the vector space of class functions on G. . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let ø1 . ÷ 5 Hi H 233 in the special case we are considering. ÷ i i G ej d i hø j . we therefore deduce that (21X17) hø 4 G. ÷i G k i1 d i ÷ i and ø m j1 ej ø j X C B m j1 ej ø j 4 G. Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G. 21. ej we have ÷ Therefore hø 4 G. k i1 d i ÷i G m k j1 i1 m k ej d i hø j 4 G. de®ne the j . . Then for some integers di . since by Corollary 15. . .

÷i G for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. ÷i G hø 4 G. Therefore f is a class function. if g P HX a 21.234 Representations and characters of groups @ function ø: G 3 C by ø( g) ø( g) 0 if g P H. and so by Corollary 15. ÷i G f ( g)÷( g) jGj gPG Put x y À1 gy. Proof Let f: G 3 C be the function given by 1 f ( g) ø( y À1 gy) ( g P G)X j Hj yPG We aim to prove that f ø 4 G.4. it is suf®cient to show that h f . If w P G then 1 f (w À1 gw) ø( y À1 w À1 gwy) f ( g) j Hj yPG since wy runs through G as y runs through G. Then 1 h f . Then h f .19 Proposition The values of the induced character ø 4 G are given by 1 (ø 4 G)( g) ø( y À1 gy) j Hj yPG for all g P G. ÷i G 1 1 ø(x)÷( yxy À1 )X jGj j Hj xPG yPG 1 ø(x)÷(x) j Hj xP H 1 1 ø( y À1 gy)÷( g)X jGj j Hj gPG yPG .

23 below).19. h f .20 Corollary If ø is a character of the subgroup H of G. so the proof is complete. For x P G. the stated degree of ø 4 G can be found using just the de®nition of induced modules (see Exercise 21. a formula for the values of induced characters different from that given in Proposition 21. ÷i G hø.19 is more useful.21 Proposition If ÷ is a character of G and x P G. j 21. ÷i G hø 4 G.Induced modules and characters 235 since ø(x) 0 if x P H. then h÷. j For practical purposes.3). and we shall derive this next (it is given in Proposition 21. Therefore a h f . 21. then the degree of ø 4 G is given by (ø 4 G)(1) jGj ø(1)X j Hj Proof This follows immediately by evaluating (ø 4 G)(1) using Proposition 21. de®ne the class function f G on G by x & 1 if y P x G f G ( y) ( y P G)X x 0 if y P x G a Thus f is the characteristic function of the conjugacy class x G . ÷i G X This was the equation required to show that f ø 4 G. ÷ 5 Hi H and so by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. and ÷( yxy À1 ) ÷(x) for all y P G. f G i G x ÷(x) X jCG (x)j . Alternatively.

then f G 5 H 0. . with representatives x1 .21 and Corollary 21.22)). f G 5 Hi H X x x jCG (x)j . we have: (21. f G i G hø. 2 or more conjugacy classes of H. (2) If some element of x G lies in H.4. .236 Proof We have Representations and characters of groups 1 ÷( g) f G ( g) x jGj gPG 1 jx G j ÷(x) ÷( g) jGj gPx G jGj ÷(x) jCG (x)j by Theorem 12X8X j h÷. X X X .18. 21. (1) If no element of x G lies in H. but if g P G then g G may contain 0. then there are elements x1 . f G i G x Note that a result similar to Proposition 21. 1.22) Suppose that x P G.21 was used in the proof of Theorem 16. . xm P H such that H H f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m X x Statement (2) just says that H x G breaks up into m conjugacy classes of H. To put this another way. . we have (ø 4 G)(x) hø 4 G. then ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)(x) jCG (x)j X X X . (1) If no element of x G lies in H. jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where x1 . x m . x Proof By Proposition 21. If H < G and h P H then h H h G . . and suppose that x P G.23 Proposition Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G. x (2) If some element of x G lies in H. . then (ø 4 G)(x) 0. xm P H and f G 5 H f x1 F F F f x m (as in (21. . .

We have G H f1 5 H f1 . where a (1 2 3 4). the statement G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H f (1 3)(2 4) f (1 2)(3 4) records the fact that the G-conjugacy class (1 2)(3 4) G contains exactly two H-conjugacy classes.22)(2). bl. f x1 X X X f x m i H jCG (x)j H H hø.24 Example Let G S4 and let H ka. since a4 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . G H f (1 3) 5 H f (1 3) . with representatives (1 3)(2 4) and (1 2)(3 4). then f G 5 H 0.Induced modules and characters 237 If no element of x G lies in H. a2 b (2 4)g. By (12. b (1 3)X Then H D8. and G H f (1 2 3 4) 5 H f (1 2 3 4) X For example.12). G f (1 2 3) 5 H 0. fb (1 3). G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H f (1 3)(2 4) f (1 2)(3 4) . and H H f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m as in (21. 21. f x1 i H X X X hø. . the conjugacy classes of H are f1g. fa2 (1 3)(2 4)g. and hence x (ø 4 G)(x) 0. And if some element of x G lies in H. a3 (1 4 3 2)g. fa (1 2 3 4). then x (ø 4 G)(x) H H hø. f x m i H ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) X X X jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j by Proposition 21X21X j The result follows.

8 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3 4)) 4 ø((1 2 3 4)) X 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3)) 0. 8 ø((1 3)) (ø 4 G)((1 3)) 4 . . we use induced characters to ®nd the character table of a group of order 21. . we therefore have 1 ÷1 4 G ÷2 4 G ÷3 4 G ÷4 4 G ÷5 4 G 3 3 3 3 6 (1 2) 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À1 À1 3 À2 (1 2 3 4) 1 1 À1 À1 0 In the next example. ÷5 of H D8. . Exercise 17.2) De®ne permutations a. b (2 3 5)(4 7 6) . 21.25 Example (cf. Referring to Example 16.3(3) for the irreducible characters ÷1 .23.238 Representations and characters of groups The orders of the centralizers of the elements of H are as follows: h |CG (h)| |C H (h)| 1 24 8 (1 3)(2 4) 8 8 (1 2 3 4) 4 4 (1 3) 4 4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 4 Suppose that ø is a character of H. we have (ø 4 G)(1) 24 ø(1) . 4 ø((1 3)(2 4)) ø((1 2)(3 4)) (ø 4 G)((1 2)(3 4)) 8 . Then according to Proposition 21. . b in S7 by a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7).

fa. 21. we obtain three linear characters ÷1 . First we ®nd the conjugacy classes. Hence jC G (a)j 7. a jC G (a)j . b and b2 to be representatives of the conjugacy classes. fai b: 0 < i < 6g. We aim to ®nd the character table of G. bl of S7 . Check that a7 b3 1. Since hai < C G (a). Since kal v G and Gahai C3. ÷3 of G as the lifts of the linear characters of Gahai. Their values are shown below: g |CG ( g)| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 .23 for calculating ø k 4 G. a6 g. 0 < j < 2. a4 g. a2 . there is a character ø k of H given by ø k (a j ) ç jk (0 < j < 6)X To use the formula in Proposition 21. fai b2 : 0 < i < 6gX We take 1. we see that the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. G has order 21. For 1 < k < 6. a3 . 7 divides jC G (a)j. fa3 . a5 . We shall obtain the last two irreducible characters of G by inducing linear characters of H. and similarly jC G (b)j 3. Also. bÀ1 ab a2 X 239 It follows from these relations that the elements of G are all of the form ai bj with 0 < i < 6. Using this.Induced modules and characters and let G be the subgroup ka. and since b P C G (a). Let ç e2ðia7 . a. ÷2 . Let H kal. note that H H H f G 5 H f a f a2 f a4 a . Notice that G has exactly ®ve irreducible characters.

. (ø1 4 G)(a) ç ç2 ç4 and similarly (ø1 4 G)(a3 ) ç3 ç5 ç6 .240 Representations and characters of groups since no two of the elements a. (ø1 4 G)(1) 3X And since no G-conjugate of b or b2 lies in H. Hence by Proposition 21. . Thus ÷4 and ÷5 are our last two irreducible characters. Therefore ÷4 T ÷5 . ÷5 i G 1. (ø3 4 G)(a3 ) ç ç2 ç4 . (ø1 4 G)(b) (ø1 4 G)(b2 ) 0X Similarly (ø3 4 G)(1) 3. b: a7 b3 1. bÀ1 ab a2 i g |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 21 1 1 1 3 3 a 7 1 1 1 ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 a3 7 1 1 1 ç3 ç5 ç6 ç ç2 ç4 b 3 1 ù ù2 0 0 b2 3 1 ù2 ù 0 0 . (ø3 4 G)(a) ç3 ç5 ç6 . ÷4 i G 9 2 2 0 0 1. .23. and (ø3 4 G)(b) (ø3 4 G)(b2 ) 0X Thus if we write ÷4 ø1 4 G and ÷5 ø3 4 G. and the character table of G is as shown. then the values of ÷4 and ÷5 are 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 a3 ç3 ç5 ç6 ç ç2 ç4 b 0 0 b2 0 0 Now ÷4 5 H ø1 ø2 ø4 and ÷5 5 H ø3 ø5 ø6 . since ø1 . 21 7 7 3 3 and similarly h÷5 . ø6 are linearly independent. . Character table of ha. a4 are conjugate in H. a2 . We now calculate that h÷4 .

241 1. If ø is a character of H then the induced character ø 4 G is given by 1 (ø 4 G)( g) ø( y À1 gy)X j Hj yPG In particular. where ø is a character of H and ÷ is a character of G. then U 4 G is simply U(CG). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let H be the subgroup ka2 . g 4. (b) Find a basis of the induced CG-module U 4 G. Let G S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3)l C3 . (c) Write down the character of the C H-module U and the character of the CG-module U 4 G. . then (ø 4 G)( g) 0X If some element of g G lies in H. . as given in . (a) If ÷1 . For each C H-module U. ÷ 5 Hi H . De®ne U to be the 1-dimensional subspace of C H spanned by 1 À a2 b À a2 bX (a) Check that U is a C H-submodule of C H. 3. ÷i G hø. an induced CG-module U 4 G can be de®ned. Let G D8 ka. Is U 4 G irreducible? 2. Exercises for Chapter 21 1. The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem states that hø 4 G. then ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)( g) jCG ( g)j X X X jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m . bl. ÷5 are the irreducible characters of G. the degree of ø:G is |G: H|ø(1). b: a4 b2 1. If U is a C H-module of C H. If no element of g G lies in H. .Induced modules and characters Summary of Chapter 21 Assume that H is a subgroup of G. . 2.

ø2 . which are given by ø 4 G d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷k . let ø be a character of H.5. Let H be a subgroup of G. satisfy k i1 d 2 < jG : HjX i (Compare Proposition 20.1. Let G S7 and let H ka. You are given that jC G (a)j 7 and jC G (b)j 18. Let ø be an irreducible character of H. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G. 3. Calculate the values of the induced characters ö 4 G and ø 4 G. where a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). then jGj (ø 4 G)(1) ø(1)X j Hj 4. ø3 of C3 . 6. and use the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. work out the restrictions ÷ i 5 H (1 < i < 5) as sums of the irreducible characters ø1 . d k . and let ÷ be a character of G. and let ÷1 . b (2 3 5)(4 7 6).25. as in Example 21.) . . . Let ö and ø be the irreducible characters of H which are given by gi |C H ( g i )| ö ø 1 21 1 3 a 7 a3 7 b 3 1 0 b2 3 1 0 1 1 ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 where ç e2ðia7 (see Example 21. . . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. Show that the integers d 1 .242 Representations and characters of groups Section 18. bl.) 5. (b) Calculate the induced characters ø j 4 G (1 < j < 3) as sums of the irreducible characters ÷ i of G.25). Prove that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G (ø 4 G)÷X (Hint: consider the inner product of each side with an arbitrary irreducible character of G. Show direct from the de®nition that if H < G and ø is a character of H. X X X .

Discover and prove results for ø 4 G which are similar to those presented in Chapter 20 for the restriction of irreducible characters of G to H.Induced modules and characters 243 7. Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. and let ø be an irreducible character of H. .

We discuss properties of a group element g P G which ensure that ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. And we prove some useful congruence properties. Equivalently. we have uA ëu for some non-zero row vector u. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod p for any character ÷ of G for which ÷( g) is an integer. all of whose entries are integers. we require that det (A À ëI) 0 for some square matrix A with integer entries. Most of the results concern arithmetic properties of character values.1 De®nition A complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is an eigenvalue of some matrix. for ë to be an algebraic integer. perhaps the most opaque is that which states that the degree of an irreducible character of a ®nite group G must divide the order of G. for the same matrix A. Algebraic integers 22.22 Algebraic integers Among the properties of characters which may be regarded as fundamental. for example. if p is a prime number and g P G is an element of order pr for some r. Thus. using algebraic integers. This is one of several results which we shall prove in this chapter. We remark that ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form 244 .

then so are Àë and the complex conjugate ë of ë. such that uA ëu. then u(ÀA) (Àë)u and uA ëu. vB ìvX Suppose that A is an m 3 m matrix and B is an n 3 n matrix. p (2) 2 is an algebraic integer. a nÀ1 are integers (see Exercise 22. and non-zero row vectors u and v. then ëì and ë ì are also algebraic integers. . where u is the row vector obtained from u by replacing each entry by its complex conjugate. 1) ùuX This shows that every nth root of unity is an algebraic integer. ù2 . In fact. since it is an eigenvalue of the 0 1 matrix X 2 0 (3) If ë is an algebraic integer. X X X . . ù.Algebraic integers x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 245 where a0 . ù nÀ1 ). and let u be the row vector (1.3 Theorem If ë and ì are algebraic integers. all of whose entries are integers. algebraic integers are usually de®ned in this way.7). To see this. (4) Let A be the n 3 n matrix H 0 0 f1 0 f f0 1 Af f f d0 0 0 0 given by 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 1 0 0g g 0 0g gX g g 0 0e 1 0 Suppose that ù is an nth root of unity. . ù nÀ1 . Proof There exist square matrices A and B. Then uA (ù. . . 22. X X X . since n is an eigenvalue of the 1 3 1 matrix (n). 22.2 Examples (1) Every integer n is an algebraic integer. note that if A is an integer matrix and u is a row vector with uA ëu. ù2 .

. j Theorem 22. by Example 22. X X X .4 that for all vectors x P C m . Then (u v)(A I n I m B) uA vI n uI m vB ëu v u ìv (ë ì)(u v). extending linearly (that is. 22.5 Proposition If ë is both a rational number and an algebraic integer. Proof By Proposition 13. Each root of unity is an algebraic integer. ( ë ij (ei f j ))(A B) ë ij (ei A f j B)). respectively.9. Then the vectors ei fj (1 < i < m. It is easy to check as in the proof of Proposition 19. we have (x y)(A B) xA yBX Hence (u v)(A B) uA vB ëu ìv ëì(u v)X Therefore ëì is an eigenvalue of A B.4 Corollary If ÷ is a character of G and g P G. 1 < j < n). so any sum of roots of unity is an algebraic integer by Theorem 22.246 Representations and characters of groups Let e1 . and we deduce as above that ë ì is an algebraic integer. 1 < j < n) has integer entries. De®ne an endomorphism A B of V by (ei f j )(A B) ei A f j B (1 < i < m. 1 < j < n) form a basis of the tensor product space V C m C n. it follows that ëì is an algebraic integer.2(4). The next result provides a link between algebraic integers and characters. then ë is an integer. f n be a basis of C n . . Hence ÷( g) is an algebraic integer.3. . em be a basis of C m and f 1 . Let Im and In denote the identity m 3 m and n 3 n matrices. j 22. . y P C n.3 shows that the set of all algebraic integers forms a subring of C. . Since the matrix of A B relative to the basis ei fj (1 < i < m. then ÷( g) is an algebraic integer. ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity.

In passing.5. 22. s and hence ë is not an algebraic integer.2(2) shows p that 2 is an algebraic integer. note that we have.5. Let U be an irreducible CG-module. then ÷( g) is an integer. where r and s are coprime integers and s T Æ1. the entries of sA À rI which are not on the diagonal are divisible by s. For every n 3 n matrix A of integers. Write ë ras. with character ÷.21 that if C is a conjugacy class of G.4 and Proposition 22. we establish two preliminary lemmas. We shall show that ë is not an algebraic integer. Therefore det (sA À rI) (Àr) n mp for some integer m. as a special case of Proposition 22. p the well known result that 2 is irrational. (Example 22. which is enough to establish the proposition.6 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G and let g P G.Algebraic integers 247 Proof Suppose that ë is a rational number which is not an integer.) The degree of every irreducible character divides |G| To prepare for the proof that |G| is divisible by the degree of each irreducible character of G. then C x P CGX xPC 22. As p does not divide r (since r and s are coprime). and hence also by p. Thus n 1 det (A À ëI) det (sA À rI) T 0. If ÷( g) is a rational number. we deduce that det (sA À rI) T 0.7 Lemma Suppose that g P G and that C is the conjugacy class of G which contains g. j The next result is an immediate consequence of Corollary 22. Recall from De®nition 12. Then . Let p be a prime number which divides s.

. Suppose that u is a non-zero element of CG such that ur ëu. As |C| |G:CG ( g)| by Theorem 12. . that is. u x ëu for all u P U X xPC Consequently if B is a basis of U. Then ë is an algebraic integer. where each á g is an integer. where ë jGj ÷( g) X jCG ( g)j ÷(1) Proof Since C lies in the centre of CG (see Proposition 12. where ë P C.248 Representations and characters of groups uC ëu for all u P U . j 22.22). gn be the elements of G.8 Lemma Let r gPG á g g P CG.14 that there exists ë P C such that uC ëu for all u P U. we have gi r n j1 aij g j . the result follows.8. Proof Let g1 . xPC and since ÷ is constant on the conjugacy class C. then [x]B ëIX xPC Taking the traces of both sides of this equation. this yields jCj÷( g) ë÷(1)X Thus ë jCj÷( g)a÷(1). Then for 1 < i < n. . we know by Proposition 9. we obtain ÷(x) ë÷(1). .

10 and 22. j 22. Proof Let g1 . both jGj ÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) and ÷( g i ) jGj ÷( g) jCG ( g)j ÷(1) are algebraic integers. Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. Then for all i. aij á g where g gÀ1 gj . then ÷(1) divides |G|. gk be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. and let C be the sum of the elements in the conjugacy class of G which contains g. j 22.) The i statement that ur ëu (with u T 0) says that ë is an eigenvalue of the integer matrix A (aij ).10 Corollary If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and g P G. .7. Proof Let U be an irreducible CG-submodule of CG with character ÷. . Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. by Lemma 22.3. Notice that this example is just a reworking of Example 22. Then ux ùu and so Lemma 22. by Lemma 22. by Corollaries 22. k i1 jGj ÷( g i )÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) .4.9 Example Let G Cn kx: x n 1l. where ù is an nth root of unity.8. . .2(4). Hence by Theorem 22. and de®ne u 1 ùx À1 ù2 x À2 X X X ù nÀ1 x P CG.Algebraic integers 249 for certain integers aij . Then uC ëu for all u P U. (In fact. 22.8 con®rms that ù is an algebraic integer.11 Theorem If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. then ë is an algebraic integer.

11 also has the following interesting consequences concerning irreducible characters of simple groups. then ÷(1) is a power of p for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. or they are 1.12 Examples (1) If p is a prime number and G is a group of order pn for some n. Therefore by Theorem 17. j 22. C) be a representation of G with character ÷.11. Since Ker r v G and G is simple. we have Ker r f1g. Hence. the number of linear characters of G divides |G|.5 now implies that jGja÷(1) is an integer. where p is prime.13 Corollary No simple group has an irreducible character of degree 2. In particular. By Theorem 22. As jGja÷(1) is a rational number. as the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is equal to |G|. Theorem 16. X X X . (Recall that a group G is simple if it has no normal subgroups apart from {1} and G. and hence satis®es p < n. First. using Proposition 9. That is. by Proposition 9. (2) Let G be a group of order 2 p. we recover the well known result that groups of order p2 are abelian.7(a)). But g 3 det ( gr) is a linear character of G (see Exercise 13. ÷(1) divides |G|.250 Representations and characters of groups is an algebraic integer.18. (Note that ÷(1) . observe that G is non-abelian. if jGj p2 then ÷(1) 1 for all irreducible characters ÷. and so G9 G as G is simple. Let r: G 3 GL(2. either the degrees of the irreducible characters of G are all 1. 1. By Theorem 17.) Hence. 2. the degree of each irreducible character of G is 1 or 2 (it cannot be p for the reason noted in (1) above).11. G has no non-trivial linear characters.5. p. Theorem 22. and this implies that det ( gr) 1 for all g P GX .) 22. and so r is injective. by the row orthogonality relations. Hence G9 T 1.11. Proposition 22. 2 (with ( p À 1)a2 degrees 2)X (3) If G Sn then every prime p which divides the degree of an irreducible character of G also divides n!. Proof Suppose that G is a simple group which has an irreducible character ÷ of degree 2.4(1). This algebraic integer is equal to jGja÷(1).

8). ÷(1) . Proof The result is correct if G is abelian (see Theorem 9.12 and 17. we assume that every irreducible character of G has degree a power of a prime p. Theorems 11. N is an abelian normal subgroup of G. Therefore G contains an element x of order 2 (see Exercise 1. Consider the 2 3 2 matrix xr. Since det (xr) 1. the sum being over the irreducible characters ÷ of G for which ÷(1) . so we assume that G is non-abelian.11 give us the equation jGj jGaG9j ÷(1)2 .14 Corollary Suppose that p is a prime and the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p. that is. by our hypothesis.6). and hence hxi v GX This is a contradiction. 1 for some irreducible character ÷ of G. 22. this means that xg gx for all g P G. xr has order 2. G is not simple unless G has prime order. while jG: N j is a power of p. and by Proposition 9. 1. there is a 2 3 2 matrix T such that T À1 (xr)T is a diagonal matrix with diagonal entries Æ1.11. As r is injective.11. Since G is non-abelian.Algebraic integers 251 Now G has even order. and jN j is coprime to p. by Theorem 22. In particular. This time. we conclude that À1 0 À1 T (xr)T X 0 À1 Thus xr T(ÀI)T À1 ÀIX Consequently (xr)( gr) ( gr)(xr) for all g P G. as G is simple. As r is injective. Then ÷(1) is divisible by p. Then G has an abelian normal p-complement. j Our next result again shows that information about character degrees can sometimes be used to learn about the structure of a group. and we deduce that G has an abelian normal pcomplement N. so p divides |G| by .

Hence N consists of those elements of G whose order is coprime to p.11. Then h÷ 5 H. 22.16. then we denote their highest common factor by (a. This result implies.17). Finally. G has prime order.8 shows that ø(1) divides ÷(1). we have Z(G) G. But an abelian simple group has prime order. b). Then g P H. j A condition which ensures that ÷( g) is an integer In Theorem 22. Therefore. because G is simple. so either N {1} or N G. since otherwise p divides the order of gH which in turn divides the order of g. If N f1g then G is a p-group so Z(G) T {1} (see Exercise 12. by Exercise 1. Bearing in mind the dif®culties we encountered in constructing the character tables of Sn for small values of n (we reached n 6 in Example 19.16 is evidently a useful result. Let ø be an irreducible character of H. Also.252 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 22. a similar argument shows that g P N. Next. if N G then G is again abelian. Clifford's Theorem 20. Before proving Theorem 22. Theorem 22. We have that |N| is coprime to p and jG : N j is a power of p. assume that G is simple.7). we require a preliminary lemma concerning roots of unity. every entry in the character table of Sn is an integer (see Corollary 22. so G is abelian.1. for integers d and n. by Proposition 20. On the other hand. øi T 0 for some irreducible character ø of H.15 Lemma If ù is an nth root of unity. that for all n. then . it follows that GaG9 has a subgroup of index p. so ø(1) is a power of p. and we deduce from the equation above that p divides the order of the abelian group GaG9. so it remains to prove that N v G. for example. If a and b are positive integers. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is coprime to p. Since every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. We may now apply induction on |G| to deduce that H has an abelian normal p-complement N.16 below we give a group-theoretic condition on an element g of G which implies that ÷( g) is an integer for every character ÷ of G. we write d|n to denote the fact that d divides n.4. Hence G has a normal subgroup H of index p. and from this fact it follows easily that N v G.17).

By Proposition 9. Then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. 1. if ù 1 then the result is immediate. Also.nad)1 j as required. Then ù is a root of the polynomial n (x n À 1)a(x À 1) x nÀ1 X X X x 1X Therefore i1 ù i 0. 22.11. So suppose that ù is an nth root of unity and ù T 1.nad)1 If djn then ù d is an (nad)th root of unity.n)1 ùi n i1 ùi À ù dj P Z.n)d ùi ù dj X dj n 1< j< nad. and if in addition d . d .nad)1 It follows that 1<i< n. (i. 1 ( j. (i. It is trivial for n 1.16 Theorem Let g be an element of order n in G. then by our induction hypothesis. ( j.Algebraic integers ùi 1<i< n. ù dj P ZX 1< j< nad.n)1 253 is an integer. ( j. Suppose that g is conjugate to gi for all i with 1 < i < n and (i. n) 1. 1< j< nad. dj n. n i Now we partition the sum i1 ù according to the highest common factor d of i and n: 0 n i1 ùi dj n 1<i< n (i. there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùm 0 . Proof We prove the result by induction on n. Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷ of degree m.

. ÷( g i ) P ZX 1<i< n. one particularly useful consequence of our results is that if p is a prime number. j The p9-part of a group element The rest of the chapter is devoted to some important congruence properties of character values. . and so i ÷( g i ) ù1 X X X ù im X Therefore by Lemma 22. we need to de®ne the p9-part of a group element. . and hence are conjugate by Theorem 12. . then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod p. For 1 < i < n. 22. Proof If g P Sn and i is coprime to the order of g. we have ÷( g i ) ÷( g) for such i. ù m are nth roots of unity. j We remark that using Galois theory it is possible to prove the converse of Theorem 22. Before going into the character theory. and ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z. and hence s÷( g) P Z. then the permutations g and g i have the same cycle-shape.6. The de®nition will emerge from the following lemma.16. . and so ÷( g) is an integer by Corollary 22. g is an element of G of order pr for some r.15. . namely that if ÷( g i ) P Z for all characters ÷ of G. .15. Consequently ÷( g) is a rational number. For example. then g is conjugate to g i whenever i is coprime to n. n) 1.n)1 As g is conjugate to gi if 1 < i < n and (i. . ù im .254 Representations and characters of groups where ù1 .16. . The result now follows from Theorem 22. where s is the number of integers i with 1 < i < n and (i. n) 1. (i. the matrix i [ g i ]B has diagonal entries ù1 .17 Corollary All the character values of symmetric groups are integers.

Moreover. j v v v v v . Now suppose that x9. where u. hence also with gau x. g x9 y9 y9x9. p) 1. Therefore x and y satisfy conditions (1)±(3).18 Lemma Let p be a prime number and let g P G. y P G such that (1) g xy yx. so x À1 x9 y( y9)À1 X If z x À1 x9 y( y9)À1 . Then xy yx g aubp g. We have x9 g x9 y9x9 gx9. Therefore z 1. and so x x9 and y y9. y9 commutes with y and y( y9)À1 has order coprime to p. it follows that x À1 x9 has order a power of p. b such that au bpv 1X Put x gau and y gbp . We must show that x x9 and y y9. that is. Similarly. Finally.Algebraic integers 255 22. the elements x and y of G which satisfy conditions (1)±(3) are unique. y u g bup 1X Hence the order of x is a power of p and the order of y divides u. xy g x9 y9. (2) the order of x is a power of p. Then there exist x. v P Z and (u. so is coprime to p. as required. Proof Let the order of g be upv . the order of x9 is a power of p and the order of y9 is coprime to p. so x9 commutes with g. x p g aup 1. then we have shown that the order of z is both a power of p and coprime to p. Then there exist integers a. Since both x and x9 have order a power of p. y9 P G also satisfy (1)±(3). and (3) the order of y is coprime to p.

we need a few basic facts about a certain subring of C in which all our character values will lie. By de®nition.19 De®nition We call the element y which appears in Lemma 22. æ. æ nÀ1 . and choose integers a. a principal ideal of Z[æ]. Z[æ] f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x]gX Clearly. 0 < ai < p À 1 for all iX As there are only ®nitely many such elements. p) 1. b with au bpv 1.18. we conclude that Z[æ]a pZ[æ] is ®nite. then the p9-part of g is g . every element of Z[æ] is an integer combination of the powers 1. if p 2 and g has order 6. The ideals of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ] are in . this has as its elements all the cosets pZ[æ] r with r P Z[æ]. .256 Representations and characters of groups 22. À2 A little ring theory To prepare for our main result on congruence properties of character values. y gÀ2 . the expression g xy in Lemma 22. that is.part of g is gbp . Let n be a positive integer and let æ e2ðia n . Every such coset contains an element of the form a0 a1 æ X X X a nÀ1 æ nÀ1 . æ2 . 22. with ai P Z.20) Let the order of g be upv .18 has x g3 . where u. so in fact Z[æ] f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x] of degree < n À 1gX Now let p be a prime number and let pZ[æ] f pr: r P Z[æ]g.21 Proposition There are only ®nitely many ideals I of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ]. (22. .18 the p9-part of g. For example. v Then the p9. v P Z and (u. De®ne Z[æ] to be the subring of C generated by Z and æ. . We extract the following statement from the proof of Lemma 22. Proof Consider the factor ring Z[æ]a pZ[æ]. .

which is false. In particular. Proof Assume that rs P P and r P P. b with j am bp 1. we also have pZ P Z.22 Proposition If r. Since n r rr nÀ1 . 22. since P T Z[æ]. but this implies that 1 P P. there exist a P Z[æ]. we conclude that r P P. we therefore have rZ[æ] P Z[æ]X Consequently. As P is a maximal. then either r P P or s P P. P is a proper ideal which is contained in no larger proper ideal of Z[æ]. which establishes that P Z pZ. j . and the proof is complete. s P Z[æ] and rs P P. Therefore there are only ®nitely many such ideals. j We deduce from Proposition 22. If p B m then there are integers a. the ideal rZ[æ] P of Z[æ] strictly contains P. as required. For the last statement of the proposition. We must show that s P P. j 22.23 Proposition We have P Z pZ.Algebraic integers 257 bijective correspondence with the ideals of Z[æ]a pZ[æ] (the correspondence being I 3 Ia pZ[æ]). Since p P P. Repeating this argument. then r P P.21 that there is a maximal ideal of P of Z[æ] which contains pZ[æ]. (A proper ideal of Z[æ] is an ideal which is not equal to Z[æ].) We now prove two easy results about the maximal ideal P. if r n P P for some positive integer n. it follows that s P P. b P P such that 1 ra bX Then s rsa sbX As rs P P and b P P. a Since r P P. this implies that either r P P or r nÀ1 P P. Thus pjm. assume that r n P P. Proof Let m P P Z. that is.

so ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both sums of nth roots of unity. pv . If ÷ is any character of G. let p be a prime number and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing pZ[æ]. if p 2.11). and hence lie in Z[æ]. The orders of g and of y divide n |G|.258 Representations and characters of groups Congruences At last we are ready to prove our results on congruences of character values. where á P Z[æ].24 Theorem Let g P G and let y be the p9.part of g. The ring Z[æ] is of interest because all the character values of G lie in Z[æ] (see Proposition 9. Then y g bp (see (22. if p T 2. pv pv bp2v ù (À1) ù pv 2ù . p) 1. v P Z and v (u. Then v ù ù aubp . Application of Proposition 22. b with au bpv 1. where u. Now let ù be an mth root of unity (so ù P Z[æ] as mjn). ù bp ù bp X Consider the number (ù À ù bp ) p . As in the previous section. By the Binomial Theorem. r .20)). 22. then ÷( g) À ÷( y) P PX Proof Suppose that g has order m upv . Let G be a group of order n and let æ e2ðia n . Choose integers a. so it follows that (ù À ù bp ) p P pZ[æ]X Thus (ù À ù bp ) p lies in the maximal ideal P. v vÀ r v p bpv pv pv v pvÀ1 bpv (ù À ù ) ù À p ù ù X X X Æ ù p ù rbp r X X X (À1) p ù bp X For 0 . since ù p ù bp . Hence (ù À ù bp ) p ù p (À1) p ù bp pá. Moreover. the binomial coef®cient ( rp ) is divisible by p. we have @ 0.22 now forces v v v v v 2v v v v v 2v v v 2v v v . and so v v 2v 2v ù p ù aup .

25).23 give ÷( g) À ÷( y) P P Z pZX Therefore ÷( g) ÷( y) mod p.27 Corollary Let p be a prime number. lies in P. Suppose that g P G and that y is the p9. We shall use the congruence results 22. the p9-part of g is 1.24±22. .27 extensively in our character calculations in Chapters 25±7. there are mth roots of unity ù1 .10 is the special case of Corollary 22. by (22. then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod pX Proof As ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers. so the result is immediate from Corollary 22.27 in which g has order 2. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers. For the moment.26 Corollary Let p be a prime number. .Algebraic integers (22X25) (ù À ù bp ) P PX v 259 By Proposition 9. ù d such that bp ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù d and ÷( y) ù1 X X X ù bp X d v v Then bp ÷( g) À ÷( y) (ù1 À ù1 ) X X X (ù d À ù bp ). If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z. j Notice that Corollary 13.11. . j 22. j 22. Theorem 22. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is a power of p. .26.part of g. . d v v which.24 and Proposition 22. we just illustrate the results with reference to some character tables which we already know. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod pX Proof As the order of g is a power of p.

That is. Thus the corresponding entries in columns 1 and 2 Character table of A5 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 1 À1 0 â á of the character table are congruent modulo 3. The degree of every irreducible character of G divides |G|.24 for this a value. then the p9-part of g is 1. p p where á (1 5)a2. Since â P Z[æ] (see p Proposition 9. 1(1 À 5) â 5X 2 Put æ e2ðia60 . and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing 5Z[æ]. If we take p 5 and g (1 2 3 4 5). .26 implies that ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 3 whenever ÷( g) P Z. Also ÷ i ((1 2 3 4 5)) ÷ i (1) mod 5 for i 1.11). Similarly the entries in columns 1 and 3 are congruent modulo 2. If g (1 2 3) then Corollary 22. Character values are algebraic integers. ÷4 ((1 2 3 4 5)) á P Z.260 Representations and characters of groups 22. ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) P PX This illustrates Theorem 22.24. and p ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) á À 3 1(1 5 À 6) 2 p p p 5 .22. 3X However. Summary of Chapter 22 1. 2.14 that the character table of A5 is as shown. we have â 5 P P. so 5 P P by Proposition 22. p p Then ( 5)2 P P. â (1 À 5)a2. as can be seen by inspecting the table.28 Example Recall from Example 20. We illustrate Theorem 22. 2.

(b) Now let ÷ be an irreducible character of G with ÷ ÷. (c) Deduce that ÷ 1 G . (b) Show that |G9| p. Prove that the number of conjugacy classes in a group of order 16 is 7. Exercises for Chapter 22 1. . 1 G i 1 (÷(1) 2á). (b) Show that a b and a b|G| are integers. then b÷(1) is an integer. (a) Prove that if g P G and g gÀ1 . Prove that h÷. 4. If g P G and y is the p9-part of g. b P C. q. jGj where á is an algebraic integer. 10 or 16. Let p be a prime number. (a) Find the degrees of all the irreducible characters of G. 4. and let G be a nonabelian group of order pq. This exercise shows that the only irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷ ÷ is the trivial character. (c) Show that q divides p À 1 and that G has q (( p À 1)aq) conjugacy classes. Suppose that G is a group of odd order. then g 1. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . If g is conjugate to g i for all integers i which are coprime to the order of g.11 to show that every irreducible character of G has degree 1. Let G be a group and let ö be a character of G such that ö( g) ö(h) for all non-identity elements g and h of G. (c) Show that if ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G. 5.11 and 22.Algebraic integers 261 3. for all characters ÷. Deduce that G is abelian. then ÷( g) is an integer.12. (d) Deduce that both a and b are integers. then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod p for all characters ÷ of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are integers. 17. Use Theorems 11. 2. (a) Show that ö a1 G b÷reg for some a. 3. Let G be a group of order 15.

Prove that a complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 . . g3 and g4 are conjugate in G. It is often possible to calculate the character table from limited arithmetic information about the group G. This exercise illustrates this point with the group G S5 . (b) Use Corollary 22.262 Representations and characters of groups 6. g. (c) Find ÷(1) and ÷( g) for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. Moreover. ÷( g) is 0. and that the conjugacy classes of G have representatives g1 . g2 . and contains an element g of order 5 such that jCG ( g)j 5.27 to deduce that G has two irreducible characters of degree 5. where each ar (0 < r < n À 1) is an integer. 1 or À1. . . g7 with orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 120 g2 2 12 g3 2 8 g4 3 6 g5 4 4 g6 6 6 g7 5 5 Using Corollary 22. A certain group G of order 120 has exactly seven conjugacy classes. 7. (d) You are given that all entries in the character table of G are integers. . (a) Show that for every irreducible character ÷ of G. ®nd the character table of G.26 and the column orthogonality relations. .

which consist largely of the calculation of character tables and applications of character theory. If all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. Various criteria for whether or not a character corresponds to a representation over R lead us to the remarkable Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. Often. The material in this chapter is perhaps at a slightly more advanced level than that in the rest of the book. characters of CG-modules are real-valued. Nevertheless. and is not used in the ensuing chapters. Let r be a representation of G. we have always taken our representations to be over the ®eld C of complex numbers. However. which we shall explore in this chapter. This is used in the last section to prove a famous result of Brauer and Fowler concerning centralizers of involutions in ®nite simple groups. while there is no representation ó equivalent to r with all the matrices gó having real entries.23 Real representations Since Chapter 9. the subject of real representations not only is elegant and interesting. and the ®rst main result of the chapter describes the number of real-valued irreducible characters of G. but also gives delicate information about characters which often comes into play in more dif®cult calculations. and if g is real. However. There is a subtle interplay between representations over C and representations over R. then of course the character of r is real-valued. the converse is not true: it can happen that the character of r is realvalued. Real characters An element g of the ®nite group G is said to be real if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . some results in representation theory work equally well for the ®eld R of real numbers. then the conjugacy class g G is also said to be 263 .

1 Theorem The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. the conjugacy class {1} of G is real. Therefore Q X À1 X X À1 PX X Consequently P and Q have the same trace. Notice that if a conjugacy class is real. and let X denote the complex conjugate of the matrix X. and so there is a permutation matrix Q such that XQ X By Proposition 16. For every irreducible character ÷ of G. 23. Part of the following corollary was obtained by a different method in Exercise 22. and the number of real conjugacy classes of G is tr (Q)X j As these numbers are equal. so X can be obtained from X by permuting the rows. and the trivial character of G is real. the entries in the column of X which corresponds to g G are the complex conjugates of the entries in the column of X which corresponds to ( g À1 ) G . On the other hand. For every conjugacy class g G of G. by Proposition 13. the complex conjugate ÷ is also an irreducible character (see Proposition 13. Proof Let X denote the character table of G. Hence there is a permutation matrix P such that PX X (see Exercise 4.5.264 Representations and characters of groups real.2. . Therefore X can be obtained from X be permuting the columns. the result is proved.15). then it contains the inverse of each of its elements. Thus for example. we have the number of real irreducible characters of G is tr (P). since ( g À1 ) G fx À1 : x P g G g. X is invertible. Since the trace of a permutation matrix is equal to the number of points ®xed by the corresponding permutation.4). a character ÷ of G is real if ÷( g) is real for all g P G.2.

1. and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Exercise 17. v n of V. and there is a basis v1 . Then ÷ can be realized over R. .2 Corollary The group G has a non-trivial real irreducible character if and only if the order of G is even.3 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. . such that all the entries in each matrix gr ( g P G) are real. j Characters which can be realized over R Let ÷ be a character of the group G. We say that ÷ can be realized over R if there is a representation r: G 3 GL (n. . since À1 0 0 1 . 23. the only real character of G is the trivial character. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. v i g is a linear combination of v1 . . (2) Let G Q8 ka.Real representations 265 23. G has an element g of order 2. The values of ÷ are as follows: 1 ÷ 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 . then no non-identity element of G is real (see the solution to Exercise 23. br ar 0 1 À1 0 provides a representation r of G with character ÷ such that all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries.8.3(3)). Therefore by Theorem 23. . C) with character ÷. . . b: a4 1. If G has even order. .1). and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Example 16. v n with real coef®cients. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.1. This is the same as saying that there is some CG-module V with character ÷. such that for all g P G and 1 < i < n. b: a4 b2 1. and so G has at least two real irreducible characters by Theorem 23. b2 a2 . Proof If G has odd order. Hence G has at least two real conjugacy classes.1). then by Exercise 1. {1} and g G.

where C3 kx: x 3 1l. v2 x Àv1 À v2 X 0 1 (This gives the representation x 3 of Exercise 3. v n of the RG-module. . . v1 b Àv1 . v n . .266 Representations and characters of groups Thus ÷ is real. Therefore we obtain a representation r: G 3 GL (n.2. (We shall eventually establish this in Example 23. . In fact. where F is R or C. v2 b v2 (compare Example 23. 23. C). . but it is at the moment unclear how to prove this.4 Examples Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over R. (2) V becomes an RC3 -module. the matrix gr has its entries in R.18(3) below. Example 23. Simply take a basis v1 . ÷ cannot be realized over R. Notice that a character ÷ of G can be .) À1 À1 Every RG-module can easily be converted into a CG-module. . if we de®ne v1 x v2 . . R) is a representation then for each g P G.3(1)). v2 a Àv1 . v2 . (1) V becomes an RD8 -module if we de®ne v1 a v2 . and hence also in C. Thus an RG-module is a vector space over R.) Although every character which can be realized over R is perforce a real character.2. and consider the vector space over C with basis v1 .3(2) tells us that the converse is false. with basis v1 . with a multiplication by elements of G satisfying the conditions of De®nition 4. This new vector space is clearly a CG-module (with v i g de®ned as before). The construction is even easier to understand in terms of representations: if r: G 3 GL (n. . In this section we shall study the relationship between RG-modules and CGmodules. RG-modules Recall that in Chapter 4 we de®ned an FG-module.

. evaluated at g. X X X . We de®ne a multiplication of VR by g by putting (23X5) vj g (iv j ) g n k1 n k1 (xjk v k yjk (iv k )). and (À yjk v k xjk (iv k )) (1 < j < n). Rather more subtle than this is the construction of an RG-module from a given CG-module. If ÷ is the character of V. and let g P G. v n . In this way we de®ne v g for all v P VR and all g P G. .Real representations 267 realized over R if and only if there exists an RG-module with character ÷. . X X X . we see that (23. then ÷( g) n k1 zkk X The character of VR . Regarding v j as an element of the CG-module V. and extending linearly to de®ne v g for all v P VR . Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 . .5) makes VR into an RGmodule. v n . . regarding v j and iv j as elements of VR . y jk P R. we have (v j g)h v j ( gh) and ((iv j ) g)h (iv j )( gh)X Hence using Proposition 4. iv1 . We summarize the basic properties of VR in the next proposition. h P G. we have (v j g)h v j ( gh) for all g. is 2 n k1 xkk ÷( g) ÷( g)X Hence the character of VR is ÷ ÷. There exist complex numbers z jk such that vj g n k1 zjk v k (1 < j < n)X Now let VR be the vector space over R with basis v1 . iv n X Write z jk x jk iyjk with x jk .6. 1 < j < nX It follows easily that.

v2 b v1 X Then VR has basis v1 . Proof We have already proved part (1). VR U È W where U is an RG-module with character ÷ and W is an RG-module with character ÷. dim VR 2 dim V.268 Representations and characters of groups 23. we obtain the representation r. v2 such that v1 a iv1 . v3 . j 23. and let V be the 1-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 such that p v1 x 1(À1 i 3)v1 2 p (note that 1(À1 i 3) e2ðia3 ). with character ÷. (2) If V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RGmodule. iv1 . Therefore the character of V can be realized over R. (1) The RG-module VR has character ÷ ÷. v2 . and so ÷ can be realized over R. where H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f 0 0 0 À1 g f g g. br f 1 0 0 0 gX ar f d À1 0 0 e d0 0 0 1e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 The subspace of VR which is spanned by v1 v4 and v2 v3 is an RG-submodule. v1 b v2 . Thus there is an RG-module. where v3 iv1 . and with 2 respect to this basis. v4 iv2 . b: a4 b2 1. . in particular.7 Examples (1) Let G C3 kx: x 3 1l. With respect to this basis. then ÷ can be realized over R. Then by part (1). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Then VR has basis v1 . suppose that V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RG-module. and let V be the 2dimensional CG-module with basis v1 . x is represented by the matrix p À1a2 3a2 p X À 3a2 À1a2 (2) Let G D8 ka. v4 .6 Proposition Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. namely U. v2 a Àiv2 . For part (2).

v. v) ë2 â(u2 . then there exists a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V such that â(v. v P V X And the bilinear form â is skew-symmetric if â(u.6. v) Àâ(v. A bilinear form â on V is a function which associates with each ordered pair (u. A similar result for CG-modules was given in Exercise 8. u) for all u. we already know this from Example 23. u2 . u1 . ë2 P F. v) and y 3 â(u. v. v) for all u. In fact. v) of vectors in V an element â(u. u) for all u. â(u. v).3(1). ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ) ë1 â(u.6(2). v) â(v. v P V and g P GX Our next result shows that every RG-module has a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form with a strong positivity property. 23. y) are both linear ± hence the term bilinear. for all u. vg) â(u. v2 P V and ë1 . then a bilinear form â on V is said to be Ginvariant if â(ug.Real representations 269 by Proposition 23. v) ë1 â(u1 . v1 ) ë2 â(u. v) of F.) The bilinear form â is symmetric if â(u. the functions x 3 â(x.8 Theorem If V is an RG-module. 0 for all non-zero v P V X . (Thus for ®xed u. where F is R or C. and which has the following properties: â(ë1 u1 ë2 u2 . v1 . Bilinear forms The question of whether or not a given character can be realized over R turns out to be related to the existence of a certain bilinear form on the corresponding CG-module. v2 ). v) . v P V X If V is an FG-module. Let V be a vector space over F.

wgg À1 ) â(ug À1 . 0. Proof Let v1 . v P V )X Again. For u n j1 ì j v j P V with ë j . ã(v. and that there exist u. Moreover. Then V is a reducible RG-module. vx) (u. . Now let w P W and g P G. 0X j xPG ã(ux. â is a symmetric bilinear form on V. j 23. v gx) â(u. w) 0X Thus wg P W. v) n j1 v ë j ì jX Then ã is a symmetric bilinear form on V. . so W is an RG-submodule of V. then gx runs through G as x runs through G. For all u P U. v) . and â(v. . W fw P V : â(u. j 23. . v) n j1 ì2 . so â(u. de®ne ã(u. . for non-zero v P V. v n be a basis of V. w) 0 for all u P U gX Proof It is easy to see that W is a subspace of V. If g P G. vg) ã(ugx.9 Proposition Let V be an RG-module and let â be a G-invariant bilinear form on V. we have ugÀ1 P U. and hence â(ug. ì j P R. v P V with â(u. v) Now let â(u. 0 and â(v.270 Representations and characters of groups n j1 ë j v j .10 Proposition Suppose that â is a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the RGmodule V. wg) â(ug À1 . v) . u) . v)X xPG Therefore â is G-invariant and the theorem is proved. 0 for all non-zero v P V. If U is an RG-submodule of V then so is .

0. v1 ) ë1 ã(v1 . . v2 ) . (2) there exists a CG-module V with character ÷. 0X Let â(v1 . and a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on V . v1 ) x. Moreover. We can now relate bilinear forms to the question of whether or not a given character of G can be realized over R. The following two conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ can be realized over R. for all i.11 Theorem Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. v1 ) 0X Therefore. v) â1 (u. v2 ) . w) 0 for all v P V g. w) .Real representations 271 Proof Theorem 23.7). then W is non-zero. Therefore V is a reducible RG-module. and is an RG-submodule of V by Proposition 23. v n of V such that â1 (v i . v) À â(u.8 supplies us with a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â1 on V such that â1 (w. there is a basis v1 . 0. v2 ) 1 À â(v2 . j if i T j.9. so is ã. . . x so W T V. 23. v P V )X x Since â and â1 are G-invariant symmetric bilinear forms on V. 1 ã(v2 . 0 for all non-zero w P V X By a general result on bilinear forms (see Exercise 23. . v j ) 0 and â1 (v i . . v j ) â(v i . v i ) 1 â(v1 . and de®ne ã by 1 ã(u. n But for all v i1 ë i v i P V (ë i P R). if we de®ne W fw P V : ã(v. v) (u. v1 ) . â(v2 . we have ã(v.

6(2) that ÷ can be realized over R. . . X X X . Then v1 . iv1 . . iv n is a basis of the RG-module VR . Notice that ~ ~ â(v1 . w) T 0. . . v P V with â(u. using the properties (23. . Let â(w. v n of V. By Theorem 23. v n . . u v) â(u. As explained earlier. iv1 ) À1X Therefore VR is a reducible RG-module. . Since â(u v. vW) (u. Conversely. suppose that ÷ can be realized over R. This establishes that (2) implies (1) in the theorem. v1 ) 1 and â(iv1 . by Proposition 23. X X X .12). u k ) j1 k1 j1 k1 . ìk uk ë j ì k ã(u j . w2 . . we have (23X12) (w1 w2 )W w1 W w2 W. It now follows from Proposition 23. and let U be an RG-module with character ÷. and suppose that â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. . v) 2â(u. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. De®ne a function W from VR to V by n n n W: ë jv j ì j (iv j ) 3 (ë j iì j )v j (ë j . De®ne ã on V by 2 n 3 n n n ã ë j u j. u) â(v. v) the real part of â(uW. ì j P R)X j1 j1 j1 Then W is a bijection. all ë P R and all g P G. There exist u. w) z and v1 z À1a2 w. v P VR )X ~ You can readily check. (v g)W (vW) gX ~ Now de®ne a function â on ordered pairs of elements of VR by ~ â(u.10. there exists w P V with â(w. u n be a basis of U. Then â(v1 . u) T 0. and for all w1 . . u n . v1 ) 1X Extend v1 to a basis v1 . v) â(v. Let u1 .8. and let V be the vector space over C with basis u1 . v P VR . (ëv)W ë(vW).272 Representations and characters of groups Proof We ®rst show that (2) implies (1). there is a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form ã on U. . that â is a Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on VR . v). V is a CG-module (with u i g de®ned as for U).

Observe that 1 h÷ 2 . Recall from Chapter 19 that ÷ 2 is the character of the CG-module V V. where ÷ S is the character of the symmetric part of V V. ÷iX jGj gPG Therefore. Thus (1) implies (2). . 1 G i 1. 1 G i 1. j The indicator function We now associate with each irreducible character ÷ of G a certain number.Real representations 273 (where ë j . 1 G i ÷( g)÷( g) h÷. then we de®ne the indicator é÷ of ÷ by V if ÷ is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A . b ` é÷ 1. if ÷ is not real. if ÷ is realX Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. relating it to the internal structure of the group G. and ÷ A is the character of the antisymmetric part of V V. 1 or À1. Note that é÷ T 0 if and only if ÷ is real. The next result gives a signi®cant property of the indicator function. b b X À1. if 1G is a constituent of ÷ A X We call é the indicator function on the set of irreducible characters of G. and the proof of the theorem is complete. then precisely one of ÷ S and ÷ A has 1 G as a constituent.13 De®nition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. b 0. for irreducible characters ÷. and V has character ÷. We shall see later that this number tells us whether or not ÷ can be realized over R. we have @ 0. Hence if h÷ 2 . called the indicator of ÷. 2 h÷ . 23. which is always 0. if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . ì k P C). and ÷2 ÷S ÷ A . Then ã is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the CG-module V.

4.15 Example Let G S3 . since for g P G we have y 2 x D ( g À1 yg)2 g À1 xgX Therefore by Corollary 15. and the result follows. W (é÷)÷. The de®nition of é÷ gives é÷ h÷ S À ÷A .274 23.14 Theorem For all x P G. ÷ where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. Proof De®ne a function W: G 3 C by W(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj (x P G)X Note that W is a class function on G. 1 G i 1 ÷( g 2 ) by Proposition 19X14 jGj gPG 1 ÷( g 2 ) jGj xPG gPG: g2 x 1 W(x)÷(x) jGj xPG hW. W is a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G. Representations and characters of groups (é÷)÷(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj. ÷iX Therefore. 23. The character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 j .

and hence the CG-module V V has a trivial CG-submodule. Using this. we show that the indicator of an irreducible character determines whether or not it can be realized over R. 23. and hence there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism W from V V onto the trivial CG-module C. (3) There exists a non-zero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ À1. namely 1.Real representations 275 Using Proposition 19. and one element. Back to reality We now relate the indicator function to the previous material on bilinear forms. in accordance with Theorem 23. (2) There exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ 1. there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V V onto this trivial CG-submodule. four elements of G square to be 1.16 Theorem Let V be an irreducible CG-module with character ÷. (1 3) and (2 3). which takes the following values: 1 ÷ 1 ÷2 ÷3 4 (1 2) 0 (1 2 3) 1 Sure enough. (1 3 2). g P G)X In this way. and deduce the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. so (é÷)÷ ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 . no elements square to be (1 2). .14.14 we calculate that é÷ 1 for each irreducible character ÷ of G. (1) There exists a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ T 0. C becomes a trivial CG-module. By Proposition 8. squares to be (1 2 3). Proof In this proof we regard C as a 1-dimensional vector space over C.8. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ 2 . (1) Suppose that é÷ T 0. (1 2). and de®ne a multiplication of C by elements of G by ëg ë (ë P C.

and de®ne W: S(V V) 3 C by putting (v i v j v j v i )W â(v i . Let v1 . Thus. v)X Thus â is G-invariant. suppose that there is a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form â on V. we have ((v i v j ) g)W (v i g v j g)W â(v i g. . v j ) as â is G-invariant (v i v j )WX Hence W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V V onto the trivial CG-module C. V V has a trivial CGsubmodule. 1 < j < n) form a basis of V V. Since â is symmetric. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S .8 that there is a non-zero CGhomomorphism W from S(V V) onto the trivial CG-module C. which is the character of the CG-module S(V V). v n be a basis of V. vg) (ug v g)W ((u v) g)W ((u v)W) g (u v)W â(u. Conversely. De®ne W: V V 3 C by putting (v i v j )W â(v i . De®ne â(u. (2) Suppose that é÷ 1. we have â(ug. Conversely. v) (u v v u)W (u. v P V and g P G. . j < n) and extending linearly. v P V )X Then â is a non-zero bilinear form on V. 1 < j < n) and extending linearly to the whole of V V. and therefore é÷ T 0. v j ) (1 < i < n. If follows that ÷ 2 has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent. X X X . v j ) (1 < i. W is well-de®ned. v) (u v)W (u. v P V )X Then â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. v j g) â(v i . For g P G. and W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from S(V V) onto the trivial CG- . the symmetric part of V V. and for u. suppose that there exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V. Let v1 . As in (1). so that v i v j (1 < i < n. . . by Proposition 10.276 Representations and characters of groups Now de®ne â by â(u. it follows by Proposition 8.1. v n be a basis of V.

Real representations

277

module C. Hence ÷ S has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent, and so é÷ 1. (3) The proof of (3) is very similar to that of (2), and is omitted. j We can now relate real representations of G to involutions in G, where by an involution we mean an element of order 2. 23.17 Corollary (The Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions) For each irreducible character ÷ of G, we have V if ÷ is not real, b 0, b ` é÷ 1, if ÷ can be realized over R, b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but ÷ cannot be realized over RX Moreover, for all x P G, (é÷)÷(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj,

÷

**where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. In particular, (é÷)÷(1) 1 t,
**

÷

where t is equal to the number of involutions in G. Proof When we de®ned the indicator function, we showed that é÷ T 0 if and only if ÷ is real. And Theorems 23.11 and 23.16(2) show that ÷ can be realized over R if and only if é÷ 1. This proves that é÷ is determined as in the statement of the corollary. The expression for ÷ (é÷)÷(x) was obtained in Theorem 23.14. Putting x 1, we see that ÷ (é÷)÷(1) is equal to the number of elements y of G satisfying y 2 1. These elements are just the involutions in G, together with the identity, so the number of them is precisely 1 t. j We conclude with some examples illustrating the use of Corollary 23.17. 23.18 Examples (1) Let ÷ be a linear character. Then é÷ 1 if ÷ is real, and é÷ 0 if ÷ is non-real.

278

Representations and characters of groups

For an abelian group, the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions shows that the number of real irreducible (linear) characters is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes, since in this case g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if g2 1. This special case of Theorem 23.1 can be proved directly without much dif®culty (see Exercise 23.2). (2) We know that all the irreducible characters of D8 ka, b: a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l can be realized over R (see Example 23.3(1), and note that all four linear characters are real). Thus é÷ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of D8, and so (é÷)÷(1) 1 1 1 1 2 6X

÷

The ®ve involutions in D8 which are predicted by the Frobenius± Schur Count of Involutions are a2 , b, ab, a2 b and a3 b. (3) In the group Q8 ka, b: a4 1, a2 b2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l, there is just one involution, namely a2 . Now é÷ 1 for each of the four linear characters, and (é÷)÷(1) 2

÷

by the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. Therefore, if ø is the irreducible character of degree 2, then éø À1. In particular ø cannot be realized over R. (4) The symmetric group S4 has ten elements whose square is 1, namely the identity, the six elements which are conjugate to (1 2), and the three elements which are conjugate to (1 2)(3 4). Since the degrees 1, 1, 2, 3, 3 of the irreducible characters of S4 sum to be 10 (see Section 18.1), we see that all the characters of S4 can be realized over R. The Brauer±Fowler Theorem We now apply Corollary 23.17 to give a proof of a famous theorem of Brauer and Fowler. 23.19 Brauer±Fowler Theorem Let n be a positive integer. Then there exist only ®nitely many nonisomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with centralizer of order n.

Real representations

279

Despite its fairly elementary proof, this result is of great historical importance in ®nite group theory. It led Brauer to propose the programme of determining, for each ®nite group C, all the simple groups G possessing an involution u with CG (u) C. This programme was the start of the modern attempt to classify all ®nite simple groups, which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s. For further information about this, see the book by D. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography. In Exercise 10 at the end of the chapter you are asked to carry out Brauer's programme in the case where C C2 . This should not trouble you too much. In Chapter 30, Theorem 30.8, you will ®nd a much more sophisticated case, in which C D8. For proof of Theorem 23.19 we require two preliminary lemmas. 23.20 Lemma If a1 , . . . , a n are real numbers, then a2 >
a i 2 an. i Proof This follows from the Cauchy±Schwarz inequality kvk kwk > jvXwj, taking v (a1 , . . . , a n ) and w (1, . . . , 1). j 23.21 Lemma Let G be a group of even order m, and let t be the number of involutions in G (so t . 0 by Exercise 8 of Chapter 1). Write a (m À 1)at. Then G contains a non-identity element x such that jG : C G (x)j < a2 . Proof By Corollary 23.17, we have t< ÷(1)

÷

where the sum is over all non-trivial irreducible characters ÷ of G. Writing k for the number of irreducible characters of G, we deduce using Lemma 23.20 and Theorem 11.12 that t2 < ( ÷(1))2 < (k À 1) ÷(1)2 (k À 1)(m À 1),

÷

and hence m À 1 < (k À 1)(m À 1)2 at 2 (k À 1)a2 . Now k À 1 is the number of non-identity conjugacy classes of G. If every nonidentity conjugacy class has size more then a2 , then (k À 1)a2 .

280

Representations and characters of groups

jGj À 1 m À 1, a contradiction. Therefore some non-identity class x G has size at most a2 . Then jG : C G (x)j < a2 , giving the result. j Proof of Theorem 23.19 Suppose G is simple and contains an involution u such that jC G (u)j n. Let jGj m, and let t be the number of involutions in G. By Proposition 12.6, every element of the conjugacy class u G is an involution, and hence t > ju G j jG : C G (u)j manX Therefore (m À 1)at , n, and so by Lemma 23.21, there is a nonidentity element x P G such that jG : C G (x)j , n2 . Let H C G (x). If H G then x lies in Z(G), the centre of G, which is a normal subgroup of G. Since G is simple it follows that G Z(G), so G is abelian and therefore G C2 . Now suppose that H T G. Write r jG : Hj, so r , n2 . By Exercise 9 at the end of the chapter, there is a non-trivial homomorphism è from G to the symmetric group S r . As G is simple, the normal subgroup Ker è f1g. Thus G is isomorphic to a subgroup of S r , hence of S n2 . In particular, given n, there are only ®nitely many possibilities for G. j

Summary of Chapter 23 1. The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. Let é be the indicator function, and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. V if ÷ is non-real, b 0, b b b 1, ` if there exists an RG-module U with character ÷, 2X é÷ with character ÷ b b b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but there does not exist an RG-moduleX V if 1 G is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A , b 0, ` 3X é÷ 1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S , b X À1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ A X 2 4. ÷ (é÷)÷(1) |{ g P G: g 1}|.

Real representations Exercises for Chapter 23

281

1. Prove that if G is a group of odd order then no non-identity element of G is real. 2. Let G be a ®nite abelian group. Use the description of the irreducible characters of G, given in Theorem 9.8, to prove directly that the number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of elements g in G for which g2 1. 3. Let G D2 n and consult Section 18.3 for the character table of G. How many elements g of G satisfy g2 1? Deduce that é÷ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. 4. Let r be an irreducible representation of degree 2 of a group G, and let ÷ be the character of r. Prove that ÷ A ( g) det ( gr) for all g P G. Deduce that é÷ À1 if and only if det ( gr) 1 for all g P G. 5. Let G T 4 n ha, b: a2 n 1, a n b2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i, as in Exercise 17.6. Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 , v2 and let å be a (2n)th root of unity in C with å T Æ1. Exercise 17.6 shows that V becomes an irreducible CG-module if we de®ne v1 a åv1 , v2 a å À1 v2 , v1 b v2 , v2 b å n v1 X

Let ÷ be the character of this CG-module V. (a) Note that å n Æ1. Use Exercise 4 to show that é÷ 1 if å n 1 and é÷ À1 if å n À1. (b) Let â be the bilinear form on V for which â(v1 , v1 ) â(v2 , v2 ) 0, â(v1 , v2 ) 1, â(v2 , v1 ) å n X Prove that the bilinear form â is G-invariant, and use Theorem 23.16 to provide a second proof that é÷ 1 if å n 1 and é÷ À1 if å n À1. (c) Prove that a n is the only element of order 2 in T4 n. (d) Use the character table of G, which appears in the solution to Exercise 18.3, to ®nd é÷ for each irreducible character ÷ of G. Check that

282

**Representations and characters of groups (é÷)÷(1) 2,
**

÷

in agreement with the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 6. Prove that if ÷ is an irreducible character of a group G, and é÷ À1, then ÷(1) is even. (Hint: the solution uses a well known result about skew-symmetric bilinear forms.) 7. Suppose that V is a vector space over R and that â1 and â are symmetric bilinear forms on V. Assume that â1 (w, w) . 0 for all non-zero w in V. Prove that there is a basis e1 , X X X , e n of V such that â1 (ei , ei ) 1 for all i, and â1 (ei , ej ) â(ei , ej ) 0 for all i T jX 8. Schur's Lemma is crucial for the development of the theory of CG-modules. This exercise indicates the extent to which results like Schur's Lemma hold for RG-modules. Let V and W be irreducible RG-modules. (a) Prove that if W: V 3 W is an RG-homomorphism then either W is an RG-isomorphism or vW 0 for all v P V. (b) Prove that if W: V 3 V is an RG-isomorphism and V remains irreducible as a CG-module, then W ë1 V for some real number ë. . (c) Give an example of a group G, an irreducible RG-module V and an RG-homomorphism W: V 3 V which is not a multiple of 1 V . 9. Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. Let Ù be the set of n right cosets Hx of H in G. For g P G, de®ne a function r g : Ù 3 Ù by ( Hx)r g Hxg for all x P G. Prove that r g is a permutation of Ù, and that the function r : g 3 r g is a homomorphism from G to the symmetric group on Ù. Show that the kernel of r is xPG x À1 Hx. Deduce that if a group G has a subgroup H of index n, then there is a homomorphism G 3 S n with kernel contained in H. 10. Suppose that G is a ®nite group containing and involution t with CG (t) C2 . Prove that |G : G9| 2. Deduce that if G is simple, then G C2 .

24 Summary of properties of character tables

In this short chapter we present no new results, but instead we gather together from previous chapters various properties which are helpful when we try to ®nd the character table of a particular group. In the next four chapters we shall calculate several character tables in detail. Usually we begin by working out the conjugacy classes and centralizer orders of our given ®nite group G. The size of the character table is determined by the number k of conjugacy classes of G; the character table is then a k 3 k matrix, with columns indexed by the conjugacy classes of G (the ®rst column corresponding to the conjugacy class {1}), and with rows indexed by the irreducible characters of G. When doing calculations, we commonly come across a new character ÷, which may or may not be irreducible. We can then calculate h÷, ÷i, which is given by h÷, ÷i 1 ÷( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG

The character ÷ is irreducible if and only if h÷, ÷i 1 (see Theorem 14.20). If ÷ is reducible then we calculate h÷, ÷ i i for each of the irreducible characters ÷ i which we already know, and then ÷À h÷, ÷ i i÷ i

i

will also be a character. We can thus determine whether ÷ is a linear combination of the irreducible characters we already know; and if it is not, then we can obtain from ÷ a linear combination of irreducible characters, all of which are new. We have developed a number of methods for producing characters ÷ 283

284

Representations and characters of groups

on which to perform such calculations. For example, every subgroup of Sn has a permutation character (see (13.22)); the product of two characters is again a character (Proposition 19.6); given a character ø we can form the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of its square, ø S and ø A (see Proposition 19.14); and if H is a subgroup of G then we can restrict characters of G to H, and induce characters of H to G. These and other properties of characters are summarized in the following list.

Properties of characters Assume that ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. (1) (Example 13.8(3)) There is a (trivial) character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) 1 for all g P GX (2) (Theorem 17.11) The group G has precisely jGaG9j linear characters. These are the characters ÷ given by ÷( g) ø( gG9) ( g P G) as ø varies over the irreducible (linear) characters of GaG9. (3) (Theorem 17.3) As a generalization of (2), if N v G and ø is an irreducible character of GaN , then we get an irreducible character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) ø( gN ) ( g P G) (÷ is the lift of ø). This method gives precisely those irreducible characters of G which have N contained in their kernel. (4) (Theorem 19.18) If G G1 3 G2 then all the irreducible characters ÷ of G are given by ÷( g1 , g 2 ) ö1 ( g 1 )ö2 ( g 2 ) ( g 1 P G1 , g 2 P G2 ), as ö i varies over the irreducible characters of Gi (i 1, 2). (5) (Proposition 13.24) If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. ( g P G)

Summary of properties of character tables

285

(6) (Theorems 11.12 and 22.11) The entries ÷ i (1) (1 < i < k) in the ®rst column of the character table of G are positive integers, and satisfy

k i1

÷ i (1)2 jGjX

Moreover, each integer ÷ i (1) divides |G|. (7) (Row orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(1)) For all i, j, we have h÷ i , ÷ j i ä ij . (8) (Column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2)) For all g, h P G, we have @ k jCG ( g)j, if g and h are conjugate, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (h) 0, otherwiseX i1 (9) (Exercise 13.5) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and z P Z(G), then there exists a root of unity å such that for all g P G, ÷(zg) å÷( g)X (10) (Proposition 13.9(2)) If g is an element of order n in G, and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g) is a sum of nth roots of unity. Moreover, |÷( g)| < ÷(1). (11) (Proposition 13.9(3, 4)) If g P G and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g À1 ) ÷( g)X In particular, if g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G. (12) (Corollary 15.6) If g P G and g is not conjugate to gÀ1 , then ÷( g) is non-real for some character ÷ of G. (13) (Theorem 22.16) Let g P G. If g is conjugate to gi for all positive integers i which are coprime to the order of g, then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. (14) (Corollary 22.26) Suppose that p is a prime number and that y is the p9-part of the element g of G. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers, then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod pX

then so is ÷.14) If ÷ is a character of G.286 Representations and characters of groups In particular.5). The derived subgroup G9 consists of those elements g in G which satisfy ÷( g) 1 for all linear characters ÷ of G. then ø 4 G is a character of G.6) If ÷ and ø are characters of G. then so is the product ÷ø. ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). Two important normal subgroups are G9 and Z(G). where for all g P G. The centre Z(G) can be found by noting which elements g of G satisfy . then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod pX (15) (Proposition 13. 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 (20) (De®nition 21. where ÷( g) ÷( g) ( g P G)X (16) (Theorem 23. where ÷ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) ( g P G)X (19) (Proposition 19. (17) (Proposition 17. these can be determined in the following ways. We can see from the character table whether or not G is simple (Proposition 17. the ®rst column determines |G| and jGaG9j (by (6) and (2)). (21) (Chapter 20) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of G.13.23. then ø 5 H is a character of H. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A . we can ®nd all the normal subgroups of G (Proposition 17.15) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Proposition 21.23) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of H.14) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ë is a linear character of G. where (ø 5 H)(h) ø(h) (h P H)X We have seen that the character table of a group G gives grouptheoretic information about G. with values given by Proposition 21.6). if the order of g is a power of p. indeed.1) The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. For example. where ÷ë( g) ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G)X (18) (Proposition 19. then ÷ë is an irreducible character of G.

however. the converse is false: in Exercise 17. D8 and Q8 .Summary of properties of character tables 287 ÷( g)÷( g) |G|. As a ®nal remark. the sum being over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. it is of course true that isomorphic groups have the same character table.1 we gave examples of non-isomorphic groups. In Chapter 30 we shall see some more impressive results about subgroups of G. with the same character table. which can be deduced from the character table. .

A number of these groups are so-called Frobenius groups. We shall not provide a proof of Theorem 25. there exists an integer n p such that n pÀ1 1 mod p. Throughout the chapter. generated by 1. that is. with addition and multiplication modulo p. Primitive roots modulo p Recall that the set Z p f0. In particular. we shall have determined the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. X X X . this will give the character tables of all groups whose order is the product of two prime numbers. and ZÃ Z p À f0g is an abelian group p under multiplication. r .25 Characters of groups of order pq By the end of the next chapter. p À 1g. Clearly Z p is a cyclic group under addition. Z p is an abelian group under addition. and n r T 1 mod p for 0 . is a ®eld.1 Theorem The multiplicative group ZÃ is cyclic. It is also true. but not at all obvious. p will denote a prime number. 1. that is. and in this chapter we shall describe a class of Frobenius groups and ®nd the character tables of the groups in this class. that ZÃ is cyclic: p 25. p À 1X An integer n of order p À 1 in ZÃ is called a primitive root modulo p p.1. but for a good 288 .

B. we see that every element of F is of the form A i B j with 0 < i < p À 1.3 Proposition If q| p À 1 then there is an integer u such that u has order q modulo p ± that is.1). the subgroup of G generated by A and B. Then 1 u À1 B AB Au .1 we have 25. As an immediate consequence of Theorem 25. y P Z X : xPZp p x Under matrix multiplication. De®ne p 1 1 1 0 A . we refer you to Theorem 45. r . 0 1 0 u and let F hA. but not modulo 7. 25. B . 0 < j < q À 1. and u r T 1 mod p for 0 . where q| p 2 1 25.3 of the book by J. qX Frobenius groups of order pq. G is a group of order p( p À 1) (see Exercise 25.4 Example De®ne G & 1 0 ' y Ã.Characters of groups of order pq 289 account. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. 11 and 13. Bi. These pq elements are dis- . and let u be an element of order q in the multiplicative group ZÃ . Now let q| p À 1. BÀ1 AB Au X Using these relations.2 Example The number 2 is a primitive root modulo 3. 5. such that u q 1 mod p. and 3 is a primitive root modulo 7. 0 1 and so we have the relations (25X5) Ap Bq I.

7 Proposition Suppose that G is a group of order pq. B. then we write F p. it follows that b has order q. Passman listed in the Bibliography. Moreover the relations (25. the interested reader can ®nd more information in the book by D. q. The groups F p. 25. Proof Assume that G is non-abelian. up to isomorphism. (Alternatively. where u is an element of order q in ZÃ .q for the group of order pq with presentation F p. F p. S. It follows from Exercise 22.) Both H and Ga H are cyclic. as we shall only be dealing with F p. where p and q are prime numbers with p . p . Suppose that H kal and Ga H h Hbi.q belong to a wider class of groups known as Frobenius groups.5) determine all products in F.3). then G is generated by a and b.6 De®nition If p is a prime and q| p À 1. We shall not give the general de®nition of these here. these facts follow readily from Sylow's Theorems (see Chapter 18 of the book by J. Thus the order of u in the group ZÃ divides q. p It is not hard to show that. a bÀq abq a u q and so u q 1 mod p. since they have prime order. Since bq P H but b does not have order pq (as G is non-abelian). B: Ap Bq I. Now H v G. Then either G is abelian.q .q does not depend on which integer u of order q we choose (see Exercise 25. bÀ1 ab au i.q ha. or q divides p À 1 and G F p. BÀ1 AB Au iX 25.q . b: a p b q 1. The next result classi®es all groups whose order is the product of two distinct prime numbers.290 Representations and characters of groups tinct. so we have the presentation F hA. so jFj pq. Further. so bÀ1 ab au for some integer u.3 that q divides p À 1 and G has a normal subgroup H of order p. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography).

3. Thus p jSj q. and G would be abelian.Characters of groups of order pq 291 If the order of u were 1 then we would have bÀ1 ab a. bÀ1 ab au i where p is prime. Hence (av i ) G has size q. b: ap bq 1. and since kal < CG (av i ). and choose coset representatives v1 .q are f1g.25 we dealt with F7. We have now established that a p b q 1.7. v r for S in ZÃ .3 . We now construct the character table of F p. isomorphic to C3 3 C5 ).8 Example By Proposition 25. this size is at most q.q We have. Let S be the subgroup of ZÃ consisting of the powers of u. every group of order 15 is abelian (indeed. p 25. bÀ1 ab au . j 25.q in general. order of u in ZÃ is qX p Hence G F p. and in Example 21.q ha.9 Proposition The conjugacy classes of G F p. already found the character tables of certain of the groups F p. in fact. and has the form stated in the proposition. q| p À 1 (q not necessarily prime). and u has order q modulo p. also the size of this conjugacy class is equal to |G: CG (av i )|. (av i ) G fav i s : s P Sg (1 < i < r). X X X . Thus let G Fp. Therefore the order of u is q. and the groups of order 21 are C3 3 C7 and F7. (bn ) G fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g (1 < n < q À 1)X Proof The equation bÀ j av b j avu j shows that av is conjugate to avs for all s P S. Write r ( p À 1)aq.q : the dihedral group of order 2 p is the case where q 2. The character table of F p.q . . Therefore the conjugacy class of av i has size at least q.

where ÷ n (a x b y ) e2ði nyaq (0 < x < p À 1.9. Hence (bn ) G fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g and the proof is complete.16. and kbl has index p in G. observe that the derived subgroup G9 kal. These are given by ÷ n (0 < n < q À 1). j By Proposition 25. G has precisely q linear characters. let p ö j øv j 4 GX We now prove that each ö j is irreducible. so we seek q r irreducible characters. every conjugate of bn has the form am bn for some m. hö j 5 hai. and so the conjugacy class of bn has size p. we have |CG (bn )| q. Let å e2ðia p . denote by øv the character of kal which p is given by øv (ax ) å vx (0 < x < p À 1)X We calculate the values of the induced character øv 4 G. øv j s 4 Gi G hö j . G has q r conjugacy classes. For v P ZÃ . . By the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. øv j s ihai hö j . and øv 4 G øvs 4 G if s P SX For each coset representative v j (1 < j < r) of S in ZÃ . and (øv 4 G)(ax ) å vsx (0 < x < p À 1)X sPS Note that øv 4 G has degree q. 0 < y < q À 1)X We shall show that G has r irreducible characters of degree q. so GaG9 has order q and therefore by Theorem 17.23. On the other hand. it follows that for n T 0 mod q. for all s P S.11. using Proposition 21. ö j i G X Hence ö j 5 hai hö j . First. as Gahai is abelian. ö j i G sPS øv j s ÷. We obtain (øv 4 G)(ax by ) 0 if 1 < y < q À 1.292 Representations and characters of groups Since CG (bn ) contains kbl.

sPS for 1 < j < r. Taking degrees. bÀ1 ab au i . and also that ö j 5 hai hö j . This proves that ö j is irreducible. . ö j of G (0 < n < q À 1. ö j i G øv j s X sPS By Theorem 14. 25. pÀ1 ha. 0 < y < q À 1g has q r irreducible characters.10 Theorem Let p be a prime number. b: a p b pÀ1 1. so we have the complete character table of G. . q| p À 1 and r ( p À 1)aq.Characters of groups of order pq 293 where ÷ is either 0 or a character of kal. the characters øv (v P ZÃ ) are linearly indepenp dent. 1 < j < r).q ha.23. q have degree 1 and are given by ÷ n (ax by ) e2ði nyaq (0 < n < q À 1) and r have degree q and are given by ö j (ax by ) 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. . . 25. it follows that ö j (1) > jSjhö j .10 in some examples. . We conclude by illustrating Theorem 25. and hence ö1 5 kal. We summarize in the following theorem. v r S are the cosets in ZÃ of the p subgroup S generated by u. Of these. .11 Example Let G F p. we deduce that kö j . Then the group F p. . We have now found q r distinct irreducible characters ÷ n . X X X . b: a p bq 1. ö r are distinct. ö r 5 kal are distinct. ö j (ax ) e2ðiv j sxa p . ö j i G X Since ö j (1) q jSj. Consequently the irreducible characters ö1 . . ö j l G 1. bÀ1 ab au i fax by : 0 < x < p À 1. where v1 S.

and one irreducible character ö of degree p À 1.4 .4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö 1 20 1 1 1 1 4 a 5 1 1 1 1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 x if 1 < y < p À 2. Character table of F5. and let á å å 5 å 8 å 12 .294 Representations and characters of groups where u is a primitive root modulo p. bl.13 Example We consider the case p 13. b (2 3 5 4)X Check that a5 b4 1. bÀ1 ab a5 iX Write å e2ðia13 .10.25 we found the character table of F7. ã å4 å6 å7 å9 X By Theorem 25. Then G has p À 1 linear characters. with values given by ö(ax by ) 0 ö(a ) À1 25. b: a13 b4 1. then G F5. bÀ1 ab a2 X Hence if G ka. â å 2 å 3 å 10 å 11 . q 4. if 1 < x < p À 1X 25.12 Example Let a. b P S5 be the permutations a (1 2 3 4 5).4 ha.3. You may like .4 is as shown opposite. In Example 21. Here F13. and so by the previous example the character table of G is as shown. the character table of F13.

2. with p prime and q| p À 1.5 of order 55. Let u be an element of order q in ZÃ .4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö1 ö2 ö3 1 52 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 a 13 1 1 1 1 á â ã a2 13 1 1 1 1 â ã á a4 13 1 1 1 1 ã á â b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 0 Summary of Chapter 25 1. and de®ne . 3. b: ap bq 1. is a group of order p( p À 1). p 0 x under matrix multiplication.q are described in Theorem 25. then either G is abelian or G F p. Character table of F13. Let p be a prime number. Write down the character table of the non-abelian group F11. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . Exercises for Chapter 25 1. q. Prove that & ' 1 y : x P ZÃ .Characters of groups of order pq 295 to check that this agrees with the description of the character table provided by Theorem 25. Let p and q be positive integers. bÀ1 ab au iX The irreducible characters of Fp. 2.10. Suppose that p is prime and q divides p À 1.10. Then p Fp.q.q ha. y P Z p . If G has order pq. Let u and v be two integers which are of order q modulo p.

q ha. but E has no faithful irreducible representation. Let E be the group of order 18 which is given by E ha. 6.) 7.296 Representations and characters of groups G1 ha. b: ap bq 1. (c) Using the orthogonality relations. b. c: a3 b3 c2 1.6.16. (This justi®es the comment which follows the de®nition of Fp. Q f12 . Suppose that p is a prime number. show that the two irreducible characters ö1 . bl is a normal subgroup of E which is isomorphic to C3 3 C3 . where u is an element of order q modulo p. (Thus. cÀ1 ac aÀ1 . bÀ1 ab au i.) 4. (( p À 1)a2)2 g). G2 ha. X X X .q in 25. bÀ1 ab au i. Show that the group E of Exercise 5 has the properties that Z(E) is cyclic. Note that ka. 5. and ä À1 if p À1 mod 4. (b) Deduce that a is conjugate to aÀ1 if and only if p 1 mod 4. where ä 1 if p 1 mod 4. 22 . ab ba. cÀ1 bc bÀ1 i. b: ap bq 1. as in Exercise 5. E provides a counterexample to the converse of Proposition 9. (d) Deduce that if å e2ðia p then p å s (À1 Æ (ä p)). (a) Show that there exists an integer m such that u m À1 mod p if and only if p 1 mod 4. By inducing linear characters of this subgroup. bÀ1 ab av iX Prove that G1 G2 . b: ap bq 1. Let q ( p À 1)a2 and let G Fp. obtain the character table of E. sPQ where Q is the set of quadratic residues modulo p (that is. with p T 2.4. (a) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are . ö2 of G of degree q have values p 1 (ä p)) 2(À1 Æ on the element a.

1. 3. 3. 3. 3. 6. 6. 3X (b) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 3. 2. 2. 1. 297 . 3. 3. 3. 3. 1. bÀ1 ab a2 iX Find the character table of G.Characters of groups of order pq 1. 3. 1. 3. 3. 1. 3. 1. 3. b: a9 b6 1. 3X (c) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 6X 8. 3. Let G be the group of order 54 which is given by G ha. 6. 1. 1. 1. 2. 3. 1. 1. 3. 1. 3.

(3) If n < 2 then G is abelian. Z(G) T {1}. indeed. Elementary properties of p-groups A p-group is a group whose order is a power of the prime number p. 26. We later give explicitly the irreducible characters of all groups of order p3 and of all groups of order 16. H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. p will be a prime number. We shall show how to obtain the character tables of all groups of order pn for n < 4. with references. we show that all groups of order pn with 1 < n < 4 do. that we have found the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. At the end of the chapter we point out. all of which have size a power of p. have an abelian subgroup of index p. Recall that Z(G) denotes the centre of G (see De®nition 9. The method consists of examining the characters of those p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. (1) If {1} T H v G then H Z(G) T {1}.26 Characters of some p-groups Throughout this chapter. Proof (1) Since H v G. In the ®rst lemma we collect several well known properties of pgroups. (2) If K < Z(G) and GaK is cyclic.15). and before explaining the method. and H Z(G) consists of those conjugacy classes in H which have size 1. In particular. then G is abelian.1 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with n > 1. Therefore 298 .

(2) Suppose that GaK is cyclic. j Hj jGjajx G j p3 . Z(G) and kxl are distinct nonidentity subgroups of Z( H). k2 P Z(G).8. Hence if n < 2 then Ga Z(G) is j cyclic and so G is abelian by (2). Ha Z( H) is not of order p. by Lemma 26. Then by Theorem 12. Then G contains an abelian subgroup of index p.2 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with 1 < n < 4. so suppose that 2 < n < 4. Let x1 . we deduce that H Z(G) T {1}.3 Lemma Let G be a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p. and H is an abelian subgroup of index p. Since Z(G) T f1g by Lemma 26. Therefore G is abelian. Assume that Z(G) contains a subgroup K of order p nÀ2 .1(1). 26. x2 P G.1(2). Since k1 . Let H CG (x).Characters of some p-groups j Hj j H Z(G)j (a multiple of p)X 299 As | H| is a multiple of p and | H Z(G)| T 0. recall that the derived subgroup of G is denoted by G9 (see De®nition 17. 26. Then by Exercise 12. k2 P K. the only possibility is that |G| p4 and | Z(G)| p. j and some k1 .7. As K < Z( H) and. Now assume that Z(G) has no subgroup of order p nÀ2 . we deduce that Z( H) H.7). jGa Z(G)j < p nÀ1 . Therefore H is an abelian subgroup of index p in G. Then x1 g i k 1 . G has an element x whose conjugacy class x G is of size p. j For our ®nal result on the structure of p-groups. x2 g j k 2 for some integers i. Hence again Z( H) H by Lemma 26. it follows that x1 x2 x2 x1 . (3) By (1).1(2). and so Z( H) > p2 . Moreover. Then we can ®nd a subgroup H of G such that K < H and j Hj p nÀ1 . Proof The result is immediate if n 1. generated by gK. Then there exists a normal subgroup K of G such that K < H G9 Z(G) and jKj pX .

(Ã ) we shall then have obtained all the irreducible characters of G. This establishes (26X5) if ÷(1) p and K T< Ker ÷. for some linear character ø of H which satis®es K T< Ker ø. j Characters of p-groups with an abelian subgroup of index p In view of Lemma 26. Since p nÀ1 ( p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 ) p2 pn jGj. Then every irreducible character of G is given by either (1) the lift of an irreducible character of GaK. each of degree p. 26.2. Let Ö denote the set of linear . First note that if ÷ is a character of G of degree p.1(1). h P H}).300 Representations and characters of groups Proof Since G is non-abelian. the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p). In the latter case. By Theorem 17. as G9 is in the kernel of every linear character. Proof Let |G| pn .4 Theorem Assume that G is a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p. the irreducible characters of GaK lift to give precisely those irreducible characters of G which have K in their kernel. then ÷ is irreducibleX We know by Theorem 9. the next theorem provides us with all the irreducible characters of non-abelian groups of order p3 or p4 . we have KH H. We shall construct p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 further irreducible characters of G. again by Theorem 11. we have {1} T G9 v G.3. Since G is non-abelian and |G: H| p. The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters obtained in this way is jGaKj p nÀ1 . and therefore K < H.12. and hence K < G9 < Ker ÷.3.12.11. then either ÷ is irreducible or ÷ is a sum of linear characters (since by Theorem 22. Now K < Z(G) implies that K v G and that KH is an abelian subgroup of G (where KH {kh: k P K. or (2) ø 4 G. Let K be a subgroup of order p in G9 Z(G). and hence G9 Z(G) T {1} by Lemma 26. Let K be a normal subgroup of G as in Lemma 26.8 that all the p nÀ1 irreducible characters of the abelian group H are linear. by Theorem 11. we have G9 < Ker ÷.

Since the linear characters of H which do have K in their kernel are precisely the lifts of linear characters of HaK. and the proof is complete. since K < Z(G).4 further by constructing the character tables of all the non-abelian groups of order 16.6. ø 4 G is an irreducible character of G.8. ø1 i H X Since (ø 4 G) 5 H has degree p.23. ø1 4 Gi G h(ø 4 G) 5 H. Now let G be a non-abelian group of order p3 . Therefore fø 4 G: ø P Ög consists precisely of the p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 irreducible characters we seek. this implies that there are at most p elements ø1 of Ö such that ø1 4 G ø 4 G.Characters of some p-groups 301 characters of H which do not have K in their kernel. bZi. G has at most p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 such characters.4 to give an explicit construction of the irreducible characters of the non-abelian groups of order p3 . the abelian groups of order p3 are C p3 .16. 1 hø 4 G. It follows that fø 4 G: ø P Ög gives at least jÖja p ( p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 )a p distinct irreducible characters of G of degree p which do not have K in their kernel. (ø 4 G)(k) pø(k) for all k P KX Thus ø 4 G has degree p and does not have K in its kernel. Therefore by (26. Write Z Z(G). Then by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. Then . We shall then illustrate Theorem 26. Choose aZ. Hence Ga Z Cp 3 Cp and Z kzl Cp . Suppose now that ø1 is a linear character of H such that ø 4 G ø1 4 G. bZ such that Ga Z haZ. By Proposition 21.1. As we saw in (Ã ).5). Z T {1} and Ga Z is non-cyclic. Groups of order p3 By Theorem 9. By Lemma 26. j We now use Theorem 26. we have jÖj p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 X Let ø P Ö. C p2 3 Cp and Cp 3 Cp 3 Cp X The character tables of these groups are given by Theorem 9.

as above.v is the linear character ÷ u.8. and (1 < u < p À 1). Let H ka. Then the irreducible characters of G are ÷ u. på . every element of G is of the form ar bs z t for some r. 0 < v < p À 1).v (0 < u. otherwiseX (0 < u < p À 1. then ar Z is conjugate to gZ in the abelian group Ga Z. Let r be an integer with 1 < r < p À 1. If ar is conjugate to an element g of G. s. For 1 < u < p À 1. a the conjugacy class (ar ) G does not have size 1.v (ar bs z t ) å rusv . t with 0 < r. t < p À 1} be a non-abelian group of order p3 . ÷ u. where ø u. v < p À 1).v öu where for all r.v which appears in the statement of the theorem.302 Representations and characters of groups Ga Z far bs Z: 0 < r < p À 1. zl. ö u (ar bs z t ) 0. 0 < s < p À 1g and in particular. Since ar P Z. Proof By Theorem 9. the irreducible characters of Ga Z are ø u. @ ut if r s 0.v (ar bs Z) å rusv X The lift to G of ø u. and hence (ar ) G far z t : 0 < t < p À 1gX . t < p À 1. and therefore g ar z t for some t. s. so ar Z gZ. t. Write å e2ðia p . choose a character ø u of H which satis®es ø u (z t ) å ut (0 < t < p À 1)X We shall calculate ø u 4 G. 26. so that H is an abelian subgroup of order p2 . s. s.6 Theorem Let G {ar bs z t : 0 < r.

And if p is odd. and the sum of the squares of their degrees is p2 . (ø u 4 G)(z t ) pø u (z t ) på ut . then ö u takes the values stated in the theorem. j Notice that the calculation in the proof of Theorem 26.23. they are D8 and Q8. 12 ( p À 1) . p2 jGjX Hence we have found all the irreducible characters of G. Clearly the irreducible characters ÷ u. If p 2. v < p À 1) and ö u (1 < u < p À 1) are all distinct. and (ø u 4 G)( g) 0 if g P HX a pÀ1 s0 pÀ1 s0 303 ø u (z s ) å us We have now established that if ö u ø u 4 G. they are . there are precisely two non-abelian groups of order p3 . (ø u 4 G)(ar z t ) ø u (ar ) ø u (ar z) X X X ø u (ar z pÀ1 ) ø u (ar ) ø u (ar ) 0X Also. up to isomorphism.Characters of some p-groups Then by Proposition 21.6 is a special case of the proof of Theorem 26.v (0 < u. We ®nd that 1 hö u . ö u i G 3 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p gPG 1 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p3 gP Z 1 2 p p3 gP Z 1X Therefore ö u is irreducible.4 (with K Z(G)). In fact.

up to isomorphism. and it is not Q8 by Exercise 26. the abelian groups of order 16 are C16 . . C4 3 C2 3 C2 and C2 3 C2 3 C2 3 C2 . (A) There are three non-abelian groups GaK D8 . bz zb. G9 given below do indeed have order 16. G2 ha.304 (26X7) Representations and characters of groups H 1 ha. b: a8 b2 1. using Exercise 26.5. it is possible to see.6. The elements a.1(2). bÀ1 ab a p1 i. according to these three possibilities for GaK. b chosen in the statement of Theorem 26. and their character tables are given by Theorem 9. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. C4 3 C2 or C2 3 C2 3 C2 X We shall divide our descriptions into three parts.7). . It is not C8 by Lemma 26. that all the nine groups G1 . bÀ1 ab aziX 2 We have Z( H1 ) ka p l. . Z( H2 ) kzl. b2 a4 . 26. G3 ha. C8 3 C2 .8 The groups of order 16 It is known that. b in H1 and H2 will serve for the elements a. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i D16 . b: a p b p 1. These are G of order 16 with G1 ha. By Theorem 9. 134 of the book by Coxeter and Moser listed in the Bibliography).6. b: a8 b2 1. there are precisely fourteen groups of order 16 (see p. and H 2 ha. z: a p b p z p 1.8. C4 3 C4 . Our descriptions will be in terms of presentations. so the subgroup K described in Lemma 26. For each of the nine non-abelian groups G of order 16 it is the case that |G9 Z(G)| 2 (see Exercise 26. We shall describe all these groups and their character tables. .8. b: a8 1.3 is given by K G9 Z(G)X Now GaK is a group of order 8. bÀ1 ab a3 iX . az za. b. Hence GaK D8 .

b2 z. a3 C5 a3 . and these are given in the following table. G2 and G3 : Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 2 À2 À2 C3 8 1 1 1 1 À2 0 0 C4 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 á â C5 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 â á C6 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 C7 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 where á 2 Àâ for G1 . K G9 Z(G).4(2) as induced characters ø 4 G. a6 a2 . hence the values in the columns C4 and C5 are all real for G1 and G2 . of order 2). b2 z 2 1. G6 ha. as before. a7 C6 ai b (i even) ai b (i even) C7 ai b (i odd) ai b (i odd) Using Theorem 26. az za.Characters of some p-groups 305 In each case K ka4 l. z: a4 z. Each of the groups has seven conjugacy classes C1 . alternatively. b. . z: a4 1. b. C1 G1 . bz zbiX . where ø is a linear character of the abelian subgroup kal of index 2.6). bÀ1 ab az. C7 . but not in G3 . bÀ1 ab azi. These are G4 ha. G2 G3 1 1 C2 a4 a4 C3 a2 . p á i 2 Àâ for G3 X p The ®rst ®ve characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of GaK D8 . we obtain the character tables of G1 . (B) There are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK C4 3 C2 (where. . Note that a is conjugate to aÀ1 in G1 and G2 . G5 ha. b2 z 2 1. they can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. The last two characters can be obtained as in Theorem 26.4. bÀ1 ab azi. but not for G3 (see Corollary 15. a6 C4 a. . a7 a. b. G2 . z 2 1. . z: a4 1. a5 a5 .

G6 X (C) Finally. but they are in a form which allows us to describe the conjugacy classes C1 . a2 b2 . abz C10 a3 b.306 Representations and characters of groups The given presentations are somewhat cumbersome (for example. since a4 z in G4 . G5 and G6 can again be found using Theorem 26. az a3 . G6 simultaneously: C1 1 C2 z C3 a2 C4 a2 z C5 C6 C7 C8 a2 b. bz zbi Q8 3 C2 . b. K kzl. a3 z b. bz zbi D8 3 C2 . az za. z: a4 b2 z 2 1. bz In each case. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . bÀ1 ab az 2 . z is redundant). az za. G9 ha. z: a2 b2 z 4 1. b. . The character tables of G4 . a3 bz a.4: Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 á â C4 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 â á C5 8 1 i À1 Ài 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 C6 8 1 Ài À1 i 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 C7 8 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 i À1 Ài À1 Ài 1 i 0 0 C10 8 1 Ài À1 i À1 i 1 Ài 0 0 where á 2i Àâ á 2 Àâ for G4 . a2 bz C9 ab. of order 2). . az za. z: a4 z 2 1. G8 ha. C10 of all three groups G4 . for G5 . bz zbiX . These are G7 ha. there are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK C2 3 C2 3 C2 (where K G9 Z(G). . G5 . b. .

G8 G9 1 a2 1 z2 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 307 z a2 z a. a3 az. Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 á â C4 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 â á C5 8 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 0 0 C6 8 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 C7 8 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 C10 8 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 0 0 where á 2 Àâ á 2i Àâ for G7 . abz3 We have K @ ha2 i hz 2 i for G7 . abz 2 abz. G8 . bz 3 ab.4. with references for their character tables. we have in fact found the character tables of all groups of order 31 or less. a3 b abz. and the character tables of G7 . whose character tables are given by Theorem 9.8 and Section 18. Apart from abelian groups and dihedral groups.Characters of some p-groups Each of these groups has ten conjugacy classes. bz 2 bz.9 The groups of order less than 32 At this point. for G9 . which are given by C1 C2 C3 C4 G7 . for G9 X 26. given by Theorem 26. a2 bz ab. G8 . a2 b bz. a3 z z z 3 a. a3 bz b. G8 and G9 . az 3 b. are as follows.3. az 2 az. are as follows: . the groups.

Show that for some integer m > 2. D6 3 C4 S4 SL (2.10 Theorem 19.4: p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p.4 F7.3 Theorem 19. H2 T28 D6 3 C5 .1 Section 18.18 Theorem 19. .6 Exercise 18.1 Exercise 27. . Suppose that G is a group of order pn ( p prime. Section 26. A4 3 C2 . T12 3 C2 D8 3 C3 .8 Theorem 19. we gave the irreducible characters of various nonabelian p-groups G.3 Theorem 25. with an abelian subgroup H of index p. as follows. .8: groups of order 16. G9 D6 3 C3 E T20 F5. Theorem 26. 2. Q8 3 C3 .5 Exercise 18.18 27 28 30 Summary of Chapter 26 In this chapter.3 D12 3 C2 . 3.18 Exercise 25. .2 Exercise 18. 3) T24 U24 V24 H1 .18 Section 18. D10 3 C3 Reference for character table Exercise 17. n > 2).3 Exercise 18. G has pm linear characters and p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 irreducible characters of degree p.6: groups of order p3 .10 Theorem 25. Theorem 26.2 Exercise 18. 1.308 |G| 8 12 16 18 20 21 24 Representations and characters of groups G Q8 A4 T12 G1 .4 Exercise 18. Exercises for Chapter 26 1.5 Theorem 26.3 Section 26. .

G6 . G7 and G8 have no faithful irreducible representations? . fi 0 1 0g 0 0 e d 0 0 0 0 Ài À1 0 I 0 f f0 f Df f0 d 1 H 0 Ài 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 0 g Ài g g g.6 to write down the character table of H. C. b. G9 be the non-abelian groups of order 16 with presentations as given in the text. Let A. and deduce that G9 h Zi. Let G be the group of order 32 which is given by G ha. b2 a8 . 4.Characters of some p-groups 2. (b) Why do the remaining groups G5 . Find the conjugacy classes of H. (Hint: use Corollary 9. (a) Find faithful irreducible representations of degree 2 for G1 . z: a3 b3 z 3 1. g 2 P h Zi.7)). (b) Show that for all g in G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX Using Theorem 26. Let G1 . and use Theorem 26. Write Z ÀI. Ài g e 0 g 0g g g. bÀ1 ab azi 309 (see (26. or otherwise. Let H be the group of order 27 which is given by H ha. and ®nd all the irreducible representations of G. B. . 0g e 0 and let G kA. ®nd the character table of G. 5. . and deduce that G is a 2group of order at most 32. Dl.3.4. (a) Prove that all pairs of generators commute modulo h Zi. bz zb.) (d) Show that |G| 32. G2 . . C. b: a16 1. 3. G3 . B. G4 and G9 . (c) Prove that the given representation of G of degree 4 is irreducible. . D H À1 f f 0 f Af f 0 d 0 f fi f Cf f0 d 0 H i 0 0 0 be the following 4 3 4 matrices: I H 0 0 0 0 0 i g f f0 1 0 0g 0 0 g f Bf g. 0g e 0 I g 0g g g. az za.

G9 are isomorphic. 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 eX 0 0 1 (d) Find faithful representations of degree 3 for G7 D8 3 C2 and G8 Q8 3 C2 . . . 0 0 1 H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 G6 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 mod Zi. .) (b) Deduce from the result of Exercise 7 that if G is a group of order 16. (Hint: assume that Ga Z haZ.) 6. (a) Prove that | Z(G)| p or p2 . . (b) Prove that |G9| p or p2 . 7. G9 given in the text do indeed give groups of order 16. Let G be a non-abelian group of order p4 . bZ: a4 P Z. Prove that no two of the groups G1 . . (c) Deduce that |G9 Z(G)| p. then Ga(G9 Z(G)) T Q8 . a2 b2 mod Z. b 3 d 1 0 0 e. . . 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 e. . and hence that a2 P Z. (Note: This exercise can be used to con®rm that the presentations of G1 . b 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. (a) Prove that if G is any group. and that if |G9| p2 then G has 2 p2 À 1 conjugacy classes. and that if | Z(G)| p2 then G has p3 p2 À p conjugacy classes. 8.310 (c) Representations and characters of groups Check that the following give faithful representations of G5 and G6 : H I H I 0 1 0 i 0 0 G5 : a 3 d 1 0 0 e. Prove that a2 commutes with b. then Ga Z(G) T Q8 .

p) the set of all 2 3 2 matrices M with entries in Z p such that det M 1. and in this chapter we shall describe this group and ®nd its character table. d P Z p . Then SL (2. . Examples of simple groups which we have met so far are cyclic groups of prime order. In fact the group A5 . d 311 . and we begin with a description of this family. b are arbitrary. A5 and A6 . then there are p( p À 1) choices for a. d which make ad À bc 1 (since a. Special linear groups Let p be a prime number. b. p) is a group under matrix multiplication. we count the matrices a b (a. of order 60. ad À bc 1)X c d If c 0.27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 Recall that a simple group is a non-trivial group G such that the only normal subgroups of G are f1g and G itself. b. To calculate the order of the group SL (2. and recall that Z p is the ®eld which consists of the numbers 0. b. p). We discussed brie¯y in Chapter 1 the signi®cance of simple groups in the theory of ®nite groups. c. and is called the 2-dimensional special linear group over Z p. p À 1. . Denote by SL (2. . The next smallest is a certain group of order 168. is the smallest non-abelian simple group. . And there are p2 ( p À 1) choices for a. except that a T 0. with addition and multiplication modulo p. c. and d is determined by a). The group belongs to a whole family of simple groups.

J. Thus PSL (2. The simple group G PSL (2. ÀIg (where I is the 2 3 2 identity matrix). p)afÆIgX Since |SL (2. The conjugacy classes of PSL (2. PSL (2. and we shall construct the character table of this group. Rotman listed in the Bibliography). p) is simple (see Theorem 8.1. d may be chosen arbitrarily.4) and congruence properties (Corollary 22. and the size of the conjugacy class containing gi . and is written as PSL (2. we indicate other ways of obtaining characters of G. so assume that p is an odd prime.312 Representations and characters of groups with c T 0. and then b is determined). p)j p( p2 À 1)a2X It is known that PSL (2. The following table records representatives gi (1 < i < 6) for the conjugacy classes. 7) has order 168. p)j p( p À 1) p2 ( p À 1) p( p2 À 1)X If p 2 then SL (2. we shall ®nd the character table using only numerical calculations. and it is easy to see that this group is isomorphic to S3 . 7) has exactly six conjugacy classes. . Therefore jSL (2. using information about subgroups.19 of the book by J. 3) A4 . In the exercises. together with the order of gi . notably the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16.26). p) has order 6.1 Lemma The group PSL (2. The power of these techniques is therefore well illustrated. and that for p > 5. The factor group SL (2. p) is Z fI. the order of CG ( gi ). 7) 27. By Exercise 27. p) SL (2. such that ad À bc 1 (since a. we have jPSL(2. After ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. p)a Z is called the 2-dimensional projective special linear group. the centre of SL (2. the group PSL (2. p)| p( p2 À 1). 5) A5 . p). c is any non-zero element of Z p .

Consequently & 1 0 2 Z. X 3 À2 4 À2 À2 2 2 2 Also. . . MZ: M À2 4 2 4 1 0 0 1 ' 2 3 2 4 2 2 2 À2 . . we verify that gi has the stated order. . g4 . d ' Z X 4 0 0 2 3 À2 3 2 0 À1 1 0 . CG ( g 4 ) 0 1 0 Similarly CG ( g2 ) & 0 4 0 4 Z. . Then a b 2 0 2 Æ c d 0 4 0 and hence b c 0. and then use direct calculation to ®nd all the elements of G which commute with g i . the only elements with the same order are g5 .Character table of the simple group of order 168 Order of gi g1 g2 g3 g4 g5 g6 1 0 0 1 Z Z 2 4 3 7 7 8 4 3 7 7 21 42 56 24 24 1 168 |CG ( gi )| | gG | i 1 313 0 1 À1 0 2 2 2 0 1 0 1 0 À2 Z 2 0 Z 4 1 Z 1 À1 Z 1 Proof For each i. Among g1 . Consider. . for example. . Suppose that a b Z c d commutes with g4 . CG ( gi ) k gi l for i 3. a c b . 6. g6 . . 5. .

since any normal subgroup is a union of conjugacy classes (see Proposition 12. Proof (1) By Lemma 27. ÷6 be the irreducible characters of G.1.314 Representations and characters of groups and g6 . .2 Corollary (1) If 1 < i < 4 and ÷ is a character of G. these exhaust the conjugacy i classes of G. gi is conjugate to ( gi ) k whenever gi and ( gi ) k have the same order. The size of the conjugacy class g G is obtained by dividing 168 by i |CG ( gi )| (Theorem 12. . . a T 0. j Notice that using Lemma 27. Let ÷1 . so g5 is not conjugate to its inverse. Suppose that gÀ1 g6 g g5 with a b g Z P GX c d Then gg5 g6 g. Hence the conclusion follows from Theorem 22. g6 are conjugate. Since the sum of the sizes of the six conjugacy classes g G (1 < i < 6) is 168.19). . . . .8). for 1 < i < 4. then ÷( gi ) is an integer. 7) Since G has six conjugacy classes. which is impossible for a P Z7 . . it is easy to check that G is indeed simple. so no two of these six elements are conjugate. Thus g5 is not conjugate to g6 . ÷( g5 ) is non-real.1. d aÀ1 and a ab a b À aÀ1 X 0 aÀ1 0 aÀ1 Therefore a2 À1. where ÷1 is the .6. (2) For some character ÷ of G. j The character table of G PSL (2. and we have established that no two of the elements g1 . 5 Therefore (2) follows from Corollary 15. and so a ab aÀc Æ c cd c bÀd d with ad À bc 1X It follows that c 0. it also has six irreducible characters.16. except possibly g5 and g6 . 27. (2) Notice that g6 gÀ1 .

for which the character values are known to be integers. with a suitable ordering of ÷2 . part of the character table of G is as follows: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 We shall determine the signs later. and so ÷( g 2 ) ÷( g 3 ) mod 2X Since we also know that 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 0. 0. by Corollary 27. The entries in the column of g4 are integers. Now for all characters ÷ of G. Æ1. g4 . we have by Corollary 22. (We know that the entry in the ®rst row is ÷1 ( g4 ) 1. and the congruence properties given by Corollaries 22.27 for the elements g2 .) Similarly the entries in the column of g3 are 1. 0. . Æ1. .2.4(2). ÷( g 2 ) ÷(1) mod 2. Æ1. Theorem 16. . and the entries in column g2 are 1. Æ2. and ÷( g 3 ) ÷(1) mod 2. We shall repeatedly exploit the column orthogonality relations. The entries must therefore be 1. 0 in some order. By . . so di is the entry on row i of column 1. Æ1.e. For the moment we concentrate on the entries in the ®rst column of the character table (i. Æ1. 0 in some order. 0 in some order. Æ1.27.26 and 22. the degrees ÷ i (1)). Recall that the character table is the 6 3 6 matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( gj ). ÷6 . 0. and the sum of the squares of these integers is equal to |CG ( g4 )| 3. Æ1. Let di ÷ i (1). g3 . we see that. Æ1.Character table of the simple group of order 168 315 trivial character (so that ÷1 ( g) 1 for all g P G).

d 4 1 mod 2.11 and the fact that i1 d i 168.Representations and characters of groups 6 2 Corollary 22. But 0 6 i1 316 and and ÷ i ( g 2 )d i 1 Æ d 2 Æ 3 Æ 3 Æ 2d 6 . d 4 divides jGj 168. We have now found the ®rst column of the character table. In the same way. The only solutions to this equation with d2. we have d6 T 12. Since d 2 1 mod 2. d 2 < 168X 6 Therefore d6 is 6 or 12. and have the following portion: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 . we have d 4 0 mod 3. d5 3. 2 3 so d 2 d 2 113. 8 in some order. Next. and hence d6 6. d 6 0 mod 2. d 2 < 168X 4 The only positive integer d4 which satis®es these conditions is d4 3. d 6 0 mod 3. d3 equal to 7. 2 Now 1 d 2 d 2 32 32 62 168.27. so as d 2 < 168. we have d2 7 and d3 8. Theorem 22. d 6 divides 168. d3 2 3 positive integers have d2.

Thus the column for g5 is . (Note that ÷2 ( g5 ) ÷2 (1) mod 7. Hence ÷4 and ÷5 (being the only two irreducible characters with the same degree) must be complex conjugates of each other. For this character ÷. Let ÷4 ( g5 ) ÷5 ( g 5 ) z. 0 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 4 )÷ i ( g j ) 1 À ÷3 ( g j ) and so ÷3 ( g5 ) ÷3 ( g6 ) 1.Character table of the simple group of order 168 The equations 6 i1 317 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g j ) 0 for j 2. 3. 4 now enable us to determine the signs in the columns for g2 . We obtain Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 Next. the equation 1 h÷2 . g4 . but we could not use this fact as we were not sure that ÷2 ( g5 ) was an integer. there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷( g5 ) is non-real. 6. ÷2 i 6 ÷2 ( g i )÷2 ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j 7X7 1 1 1 ÷2 ( g 5 )÷2 ( g 5 ) ÷2 ( g 6 )÷2 ( g 6 ) 168 8 4 3 7 7 gives ÷2 ( g5 ) ÷2 ( g6 ) 0. g3 .2. the complex conjugate ÷ will be a different character of the same degree.) Also. for j 5. and let ÷6 ( g5 ) t. By Corollary 27.

÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 1 z z. g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 1 0 1 á á À1 It is known that there are precisely ®ve non-abelian simple groups of order less than 1000. we have ÷( g6 ) ÷( g 5 ) for all characters ÷ of G. Character table of PSL (2.318 Representations and characters of groups Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g5 7 1 0 1 z z t Now 0 0 7 6 i1 6 i1 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 1 À z À z 2t. 5 We have now completely determined the character table of G PSL (2. z (À1 Æ i 7)a2X Since g6 gÀ1 . ÷ i ( g 5 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 2 2zz ttX Solving these equations. 7) Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. we obtain p t À1. . as shown. 7). We give you the character tables of all of these.

2. . d jSL (2.1. 7). b. c. p)j p( p2 À 1).3 Exercise 27. p) a c Summary of Chapter 27 ' b : a. 2. We constructed the character table of PSL (2. (a) De®ne the subgroup T of G. PSL (2. In this exercise we present an alternative construction of the character table of G PSL (2. 3). 4.Character table of the simple group of order 168 as follows: G A5 PSL (2. jPSL (2. the simple group of order 168. as follows: & ' a b T Z : a P ZÃ . Prove that Z(SL (2. p)afÆIg. as in Lemma 27. 7) A6 PSL (2. 3.13 This chapter Exercise 20. ad À bc 1 . and show that (1 T ) 4 G 1 G ÷.2 Exercise 28. 3. p)j p( p2 À 1)a2 ( p odd). p) SL (2. 7). SL (2. of order 21. given the conjugacy classes of G. Exercises for Chapter 27 1. Calculate the values of the induced character (1 T ) 4 G. 11) Order of G 60 168 360 504 660 319 Reference for character table Example 20. 8) PSL (2. p)) fÆIg. Find the character table of SL (2. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. 7) that this group is simple. b P Z7 7 0 aÀ1 (where Z {ÆI}).6 & 1. Deduce directly from the character table of PSL (2. d P Z p .

(c) By considering ÷ S (see Proposition 19. 7. (c). with entries in the ®eld Z7 .14). (a) Show that G has 11 conjugacy classes with representatives gi as follows: gi g1 g2 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 8 8 3 6 7 14 7 14 336 336 8 8 8 6 6 14 14 14 14 1 1 42 42 42 56 56 24 24 24 24 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i À1 0 0 À1 0 1 g3 À1 0 2 À2 g4 2 2 À2 2 g5 À2 À2 2 0 g6 0 4 À2 0 g7 0 À4 1 1 g8 0 1 À1 À1 g9 0 À1 1 À1 g 10 0 1 À1 1 g 11 0 À1 . Use orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. 7).320 Representations and characters of groups (b) Let ë be a non-trivial linear character of T. The character table of SL (2. we now have irreducible characters of G of degrees 1. Calculate the values of ë 4 G and prove that this is an irreducible character of G. Let G SL (2. (b). 7). obtain an irreducible character of G of degree 6. 5. 8 and 6. the group of all 2 3 2 matrices of determinant 1. (d) From (a).

we have ÷ j ( g) À÷ j (À g). (d) Prove that ÷ j ( g3 ) 0 for 7 < j < 11. 6. . gÀ1 . respec5 6 7 8 tively. g6 . g8 having orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 660 g2 2 12 g3 3 6 g4 6 6 g5 5 5 g6 5 5 g7 11 11 g8 11 11 Also. Let G PSL (2. (g) Complete the character table of G. (f) Let ø be one of the irreducible characters of degree 4. 4. Deduce the values of the irreducible characters of degree 4 on all gi . and congruences modulo 3. This group has eight conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . g7 . gÀ1 are conjugate to g5 . Show that for any j with 7 < j < 11 and any g P G. By considering the values of ø A on g1 . . . gÀ1 . 6. . . ÷11 are 4. ÷9 .Character table of the simple group of order 168 321 (b) Use the character table of PSL (2. and ®nd ÷ j ( g6 ) for 7 < j < 11.7) to write down the six irreducible characters of G with kernel containing Z {ÆI}. 6. ÷10 . . The character table of PSL (2. . (e) By considering the column of g6 in the character table. . 8. prove that ø A is equal to the irreducible character of G of degree 6 whose kernel contains Z. g2 . g8 . (c) Let ÷7 . ÷11 be the remaining irreducible characters of G. show that the degrees of ÷7 . . Find the character table of G. gÀ1 . 11). and deduce that ÷ j (1) is even. g3 and g6 (see Proposition 19. 11).14). ÷8 .

that is (a b)c ac bc for all a. 3) is a set F with two binary operations and 3 such that the following properties hold. c P F. (F. Secondly. For example. Consequently. At ®rst sight. with identity element 0.28 Character table of GL(2. we shall see that the conjugacy classes of our groups fall into four families. as do the irreducible characters. Finally. with the usual de®nitions of and 3. and we shall tell you which properties of these ®elds we will use. R. this is a daunting task. with identity element 1. ) is an abelian group. q) We are now going to calculate the character tables of an important in®nite series of groups. Recall that a ®eld (F. . we found the character tables of certain groups of 2 3 2 matrices with entries in Z7 and Z11 . First. However. since the number of irreducible characters increases with the size of the ®eld. The ®elds F q and F q 2 We consider ®nite ®elds. 3) is an abelian group. The basic properties of ®nite ®elds which we will use without proof are these: 322 . b. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. C and Z p ( p prime) are ®elds. We shall determine the character tables of some matrix groups with entries from an arbitrary ®nite ®eld. if we write F Ã Fnf0g. if you are unfamiliar with ®nite ®elds then you might like to consult the book by J. then (F Ã . In the last chapter and its exercises. we can display the character values in a 4 3 4 matrix. and one of the exercises will show you how to use the results of this chapter to determine the character tables of in®nitely many simple groups. the distributive law holds. B.

You are now in a position to appreciate the statement of the main result of this chapter. Suppose that r P FÃ2 . every irreducible character of FÃ2 has the form q r 3 r j for some integer j. This implies that (r r ) r r r r and (r 1q ) q j r 1q . For every s P F q the sum of s with itself p times is zero. q) (28. (2) If r P F then r r q . Then (s t) q s q t q s t. Then r 3 r is an irreducible character of FÃ2 . 28. so S is a ®eld. We use this remark in the proof of the next proposition. it follows that (s t) p s p t p for all s. we see that r q r for all q q q q q2 q r P F. t P S. Then there exists a ®eld F q of order q and every ®eld of order q is isomorphic to F q . and hence S F q .1) Let p be a prime and n be a positive integer. so r r q . 3) is cyclic. q 323 Notice that the binomial coef®cients ( ip ) with 1 < i < p À 1 are all divisible by p. (28. ps 0. .2 with the ®eld F q . It is now easy to check that (S.2 Proposition Let F F q 2 and S fs P F : s q sg. r 1q P S. We may write q r å m for some m and we let r ù m . r 1q P S.Character table of GL(2. t P F q .5. in short. ) and (Snf0g. The group (FÃ . (1) The set S is a sub®eld of F of order q. Moreq over. Hereafter. and write q pn . so s t P S.3) Let å be a generator of the cyclic group FÃ2 and let q 2 ù e(2ðia(q À1)) . and k k k hence (s t) p s p t p for all positive integers k. 2 (2) Since FÃ2 is a group of order q 2 À 1. We introduce the following useful notation. 3) are abelian groups. we shall identify the sub®eld S of F q 2 in Proposition 28. Proof (1) Suppose that s. namely Theorem 28.

q) is de®ned to be the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in F q . The matrices s 0 sI (s P FÃ ) q 0 s belong to the centre of G. b) has been chosen. q) The general linear group GL(2. jGj (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q(q À 1)2 (q 1)X There are four families of conjugacy classes of G. and we talked about some special linear groups in the last chapter. q). consider the matrices s us 0 Let give us q À 1 conjugacy classes of 1 s (s P FÃ )X q . giving us q 2 À 1 choices. q). we are going to calculate the character table of GL(2. a b 0 c can be conjugate to a9 0 b9 c9 only if fa. and once (a. The subgroup consisting of all matrices of determinant 1 is the special linear group SL(2. First. b). Therefore. (c. cg fa9. Let G GL(2. q). b) can be any non-zero row vector. They size 1. and remember that the matrix a b c d belongs to G if and only if its rows are linearly independent.324 Representations and characters of groups The conjugacy classes of GL(2. of which three are easy to describe. Next. since conjugate matrices have the same eigenvalues. Keep this in mind during the following discussion. Here. d) can be any row vector which is not a multiple of (a. giving us q 2 À q choices. The number of such matrices is found by noting that (a. c9g.

t P FÃ ) q 0 t and note that 0 1 1 0 À1 d s. The characteristic polynomial of v r is det(xI À v r ) x(x À (r r q )) r 1q (x À r)(x À r q ). s T t) give us q (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes. v r P G. then we have that gd s. so v r has eigenvalues r and r q. let s 0 d s.Character table of GL(2. t d s. Now. if s T t. Finally. 2 3 Àbr 1q a b(r r q ) gv r and Àdr 1q c d(r r q ) 2 3 c d vr g X Àar 1q c(r r q ) Àbr 1q d(r r q ) . consider 0 1 vr (r P F q 2 nF q )X Àr 1q r r q By Proposition 28. t 0 1 1 0 d t. the matrices d s. the matrices us (s P FÃ ) give us q À 1 conjugacy classes. Now. Since r P F q we see that v r lies in a none of the conjugacy classes we have constructed so far. t P G (s. each conjugacy class contains q 2 À 1 elements. Thus. t (s. by Theorem 12. t P FÃ . the q centralizer order is (q À 1)q.s X On the other hand. so.2. Thus. t g if and only if b c 0. so each conjugacy class contains q(q 1) elements. the centralizer order is (q À 1)2 . q) a b P GX g c d Then gus and us g 325 as cs a bs c ds as cs d bs ds so g belongs to the centralizer of us if and only if c 0 and a d.8.

r q g. t is indexed by unordered pairs fs. 28. so it is not conjugate to v r unless t r or t r q. t (q À 1)2 (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 vr q2 À 1 (q 2 À q)a2 The families of conjugacy class representatives sI and us are indexed by elements s of FÃ . If these conditions hold. and the conjugacy class containing v r has size q 2 À q. so we have found all the conjugacy classes. q The family of conjugacy class representatives v r is indexed by unordered pairs fr. g P CG (v r ) if and only if a b g X Àbr 1q a b(r r q ) Thus. Therefore. jCG (v r )j q 2 À 1. g sI |CG ( g)| (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) No. We therefore partition F q 2 nF q into subsets fr. r q P F q. q q Proof The conjugacy classes we have found account for (q À 1) (q À 1)(q 2 À 1) (q À 1)(q À 2)q(q 1)a2 (q 2 À q)(q 2 À q)a2 elements altogether. j . we see that a br and a br q a are non-zero.4 Proposition There are q 2 À 1 conjugacy classes in GL(2. 0) and r. But this sum is equal to the order of GL(2. q). Class rep. then ad À bc a2 ab(r r q ) b2 r 1q (a br)(a br q )X Since (a. q The family of conjugacy class representatives d s. tg of distinct elements of FÃ . of classes qÀ1 us (q À 1)q qÀ1 d s. q). We have now found all the conjugacy classes of G. r q g of elements of FÃ2 nFÃ .326 Representations and characters of groups Hence gv r v r g only if c Àbr 1q and d a b(r r q ). The matrix v t has eigenvalues t and t q. described as follows. each subset gives us a conjugacy class representative v r and different subsets give us representatives of different conjugacy classes. b) T (0.

q) We are now in a position to describe the character table of G. each of degree q. we ®rst consider the set of integers j with 0 < j < q 2 À 1 and (q 1) T j j. Before we embark upon the task of calculating the irreducible characters of G. each of degree 1. and of the remaining q 2 À q elements of K. there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 characters ø i. (d) For ÷ i. j we have 0 < i . Thus. each of degree q 1. ÷ i as follows. j . Then jKj q 2 À 1. there are q À 1 characters ø i .6 Proposition Let K hvå i. Hence.5 Theorem Label the conjugacy classes of GL(2. we present a proposition which will be useful later. there are q À 1 characters ë i . there are (q 2 À q)a2 characters ÷ i . j . t (st) i (st) i si t j s j t i 0 vr r i(1q) Àr i(1q) 0 À(r i r iq ) Here. (a) For ë i we have 0 < i < q À 2. . if j1 and j2 belong to this set and j1 j2 q mod (q 2 À 1) then we choose precisely one of j1 and j2 to belong to the indexing set for the characters ÷ i . Thus.4. j ÷i s 2i qs 2i (q 1)s i j (q À 1)s i us s 2i 0 s i j Às i d s. (c) For ø i. q) as in Proposition 28. The group K contains the q À 1 scalar matrices sI in G. ø i . each of degree q À 1. sI ëi øi ø i. and let r 3 r be the function from FÃ2 to C described in (28.Character table of GL(2. q) are given by ë i . 1 X vå å åq Àå 1q 28. 327 28. q) The characters of GL(2. ø i. we have the following restrictions on the subscripts. Recall that å is our chosen generator for FÃ2 and q 0. Then the q irreducible characters of GL(2.3). Thus. (b) For ø i we have 0 < i < q À 2. j < q À 2.

5. sI ø i. whose values appear in Theorem 28. j We shall construct. i i i If å i å iq then vå å i I. i iq The eigenvalues of vå and of vå are å i and å iq . j We will see later that the linear characters ë i (0 < i < q À 2) which appear in Proposition 28. since vå has eigenvalues in F q and vå is diagonalizable. Hence two elements a of K belong to the conjugacy class of vå i . j there is a character ø i. so vå has order q 2 À 1. Proof The map det : g 3 det g is a homomorphism from G onto FÃ . the irreducible characters ë i . and this case accounts for the q À 1 scalar matrices. q As i varies between 0 and q À 2 inclusive. are as follows.7 are all the linear characters of G. q q Proof The eigenvalues of vå are å and å q.7 Proposition There are q À 1 linear characters ë i of G. t si t j s j t i vr 0 .4.5. j (q 1)s i j us s i j d s. j and ÷ i which appear in Theorem 28.8 Proposition For all integers i. 28. as described in Proposition 28.328 Representations and characters of groups precisely two belong to each of the conjugacy classes represented by v r with r P FÃ2 nFÃ . the functions ë i : g 3 (det g) i ( g P G) give q À 1 distinct linear characters of G.5. and they are given in Theorem 28. 28. j of G whose values on the conjugacy class representatives. ø i . If å i T å iq then i i iq å P F q and vå and vå must be conjugate to vå i . ø i. in turn.

j ( g9) ø i. we calculate hø i. q) Proof Let B & ' PG X 329 a 0 b c Then B is a subgroup of G with jBj (q À 1)2 q.i . De®ne ë i. the ®rst term corresponds to the conjugacy classes of elements 4 (q À 1)(q À 2) (q À 1)2 2 . j ( g) ø i. there is an irreducible character ø i of G whose values are given in Theorem 28. To this end. as follows. j ( g) jC B ( g)j jC G ( g)j ë i. Remember that the complex conjugate of s i is s Ài . We have hø i. j are as stated in the proposition. where g9 d t. ø i. j ( g) jC G ( g)j . the values of ø i. 28.i which appears in Proposition 28. g sI : g us : g d s.i . j : 3 s i t jX 0 t Then ë i.9 Proposition For each integer i. j ( g) jC B ( g)j ë i. We let ø i. j ëi. The characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. j ( g) jC G ( g)j ë i.5. ø i.8 gives us ø i. We use Proposition 21. j is a character of B. j ( g) ë i. Proof We shall demonstrate that the character ø i.i i and hø i.Character table of GL(2.i ë i ø i .23 to calculate ø i. j 4 G.s jC B ( g)j jC B ( g9)j ø i. j ( g) 0X j Hence.i i (q 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 2X Here. t : g vr : ø i. j : B 3 C by s r ë i. ë i i. j ( g) for each conjugacy class representative g.i .

8. The remaining terms in hø i. B 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 1 1 i j C (s t s j t i )(s Ài t À j s À j t Ài )X (q À 1)2 2 sT t A and 2 (q À 1)(q À 2) 2 (q À 1) 2 The coef®cent 1 appears in C because we have just one conjugacy 2 class for each unordered pair fs. Using the values of ø i. t 3 s i t j s j t i then ó is a sum of two .i . ø i. j i 1. Let s be an element of FÃ of order q À 1.5. t : s. ø i.i to get the values of ø i as given in Theorem 28. ø i. and the calculation of this ®rst term involves the following three observations.10 Proposition Suppose that 0 < i . hø i. Proof We shall show that hø i. q To evaluate C.330 Representations and characters of groups sI. t P FÃ g is an abelian group of q order (q À 1)2. j i A B C. we obtain hø i. tg of distinct elements of FÃ . Then the character ø i. ë i i (q 1) 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q 1X The facts that hø i.i . Subtract ë i from ø i. where (q 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1). q Hence the characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different.i . note that fd s. j which are given in Proposition 28. and if ó : d s. Then ø i : d s. (2) jC G (sI)j (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q)X (3) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the forms sI. (1) ø i. ë i i 1 and hø i.1 3 s i . j < q À 2.i i are calculated in a similar fashion.8 is irreducible.i i 2 imply that ø i.i (sI) (q 1)2 . ø i. j 28. j .i .i (sI)ø i. j which appears in Proposition 28. Next. j .i ë i ø i for some irreducible character ø i.

j is irreducible. j9 . hó . j9 ë j9. j which were used in the proof of Proposition 28. C qÀ3 X qÀ1 And now we ®nd that A B C 1. Thus. j9 < q À 2. sI öi q(q À 1)s i us 0 d s.Character table of GL(2.i9 . j < q À 2 and 0 < i9 . j . j9 on a conjugacy class j of G.11 Corollary The characters ø i. j9 . we see that ø i. j i 1. j T ø i9. ó i 2X That is. In either case. j 28. We must prove that ø i. and (i. q) 331 inequivalent irreducible characters of this group. j T ø i9. ø i. there exists a character ö i of G which takes the following values. 28. there exists complex (q À 1)th roots of unity s and t such that either s T t and s i t j s j t i T s i9 t j9 s j9 t i9 or s t and s i j T s i9 j9 . j ë j. for 0 < i . j) T (i9. Therefore.12 Proposition For each integer i. ø i.i : 3 s i t j s j t iX 0 t Since ë i.8. We have s b ë i. j < q À 2 are distinct irreducible Proof Suppose that 0 < i . j characters of G. Consider the group B and its linear characters ë i. j9). hø i.i T ë i9. t 0 vr r i r iq . Therefore. 2 3 1 i j j i Ài À j À j Ài 4(q À 1) (s t s t )(s t s t ) 2X (q À 1)2 sT t Hence. j differs from ø i9. j ë j. and ø i.

by Proposition 28. Thus. Also. respectively. . ö i has the values stated in the proposition. If g sI with s P FÃ then g P K and q ö i ( g) jC G ( g)j á i ( g) q(q À 1)s i X jC K ( g)j Suppose that r P F q 2 nF q . v r is conjugate to an element of g of K. and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i . Suppose that g P K and g is conjugate in G to v r . á i ( g) ái( g q) ö i ( g) jC G ( g)j jC K ( g)j jC K ( g)j á i ( g) á i ( g q ) r i r iq X Thus. t (s T t). j To be able to work out certain inner products involving our characters ö i . Then g has eigenvalues r and r q . as in Proposition 28.332 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let K hvå i.6. by Proposition 28.13 Lemma Assume that i is an integer and (q 1) T j i. Now.6.6. we shall the use the following lemma. In order to calculate ö i . 28. Hence á i ( g) r i or r iq and á i ( g) á i ( g q ) r i r iq X Let ö i á i 4 G. ®rst recall that á i 4 G is zero on all elements which are not conjugate to an element of K. Then (r i r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2(q À 1)2 X rPF q 2 nF q Proof Note that & r G1 0 0 rq : r P FÃ2 q ' and G2 & r 0 0 rq : r P FÃ q ' are abelian groups of orders q 2 À 1 and q À 1. Then. ö i is zero on the elements of the form u s and d s.

8.9 and 28. Now. 28.Ài ø i À ø0. we get 1 i (r r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 4X qÀ1 Ã rPF q Hence rPF q 2 nF q (r i r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2(q 2 À 1) À 4(q À 1) 2(q À 1)2 X j 28.12. Recall the characters ø i. Proof We can justify the manoeuvre which we now perform only by saying that it gives the correct answer. the character ÷ is a sum of two inequivalent irreducible characters. Taking the inner product of the q character ÷ of G1 with itself. sI ÷i (q À 1)s i us Às i d s. ø i and ö i given in Propositions 28. since r q r for r P FÃ.14 Proposition For each integer i. and for G2. the character ÷ is twice an irreducible character. since (q 1) T j i implies that å i T å iq . For G1. ÷ i is the class function on G which is given by ÷ i ø0.i À ö i X .Character table of GL(2. t 0 vr À(r i r iq ) If (q 1) T j i then ÷ i is an irreducible character of G. we get 1 i (r r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2 2À1 q rPFÃ 2 q and doing the same for the character ÷ of G2 . let ÷ i be the class function on G with the following values. j . q) r 0 3 r i r iq 0 rq 333 gives a character ÷ of degree 2 for each group.

as we wished to show. it follows that ÷ i is an irreducible character of G. Therefore. j 28. q) to ®nd the . so either s i T s j for some s P FÃ or q r i r iq T r j r jq for some r P F q 2 nF q .334 Representations and characters of groups The table below allows us to verify this. 0. iq mod(q 2 À 1). j We have now completed the proof of Theorem 28. t s Ài t Ài (st) i i s ti si t i 0 0 vr 0 Àr i(1q) 0 0 r i r iq À(r i r iq ) Next. and h÷ i . and the number of them is q 2 À 1. ÷ i i (q À 1)2 1 (q À 1)2 (q À 1) 2 (q À 1) 2 1X q Àq (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q À1 Since ÷ i is a linear combination of irreducible characters of G. as in Proposition 28.i öi ÷i (q 1)s Ài qs 2i q(q 1)s i (q 1)s i q(q À 1)s i (q À 1)s i us s Ài 0 0 si 0 Às Ài d s. since we have shown that the class functions given in the theorem are inequivalent irreducible characters.Ài øi ø0.Ài ø i ø0. If g sI where s P FÃ then (á i á iq )( g) 2s i . and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i . Since j T i. q If g is conjugate to v r where r P F q 2 nF q then (á i á iq )( g) r i r iq .15 Proposition Suppose that i and j are integers with (q 1) T j i and (q 1) T j j and j T i.6. Suppose that g P K. We work out h÷ i . Proof Let K hvå i. ÷ i i using Lemma 28. sI ø0. ÷ i i 1 and ÷ i (1) .13. assume that (q 1) T j i. h÷ i . ÷ i T ÷ j . iq mod(q 2 À 1). with integer coef®cients. It is possible to use the character table of GL(2. which is the same as the number of conjugacy classes of G.5. Then the characters ÷ i and ÷ j of G are different. the characters á i á iq and á j á jq of K are different.

q) was ®rst given in 1907. q) for all positive integers n. q). since the answers are quite complicated. q). though. q). and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of 0 s degree 1. (b) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form s 1 us . q).Character table of GL(2. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of degree 0 s q. this gives the character tables of an in®nite series of simple groups PSL(2. q) when q 1 mod 4 or q 3 mod 4 from the character table of GL(2. q) 335 character table of SL(2. since most of the irreducible characters remain irreducible when restricted. t (s T t). Since SL(2. q) has the following properties. We do not go fully into this. q) when q is a power of 2. (c) There are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives s 0 of the form d s. Summary of Chapter 28 The character table of GL(2.2. Then. q). (d) There are (q 2 À q)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives of the . namely that where q is a power of 2. you are asked to consider the easiest case. in 1955. q) ± compare Chapter 27 ± and so the character table of PSL(2. Although the character table of GL(2. J. A. Among the characters of SL(2. and they depend upon whether q is a power of 2 or q 1 mod 4 or q 3 mod 4. q) is rather easier to ®nd than that of SL(2. and there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 0 t irreducible characters of degree q 1. A challenging exercise is to determine the character table of PSL(2. those with kernel containing the centre of SL(2. q) provide the characters of the groups PSL(2. In Exercise 28. q) PSL(2. (a) Thereare q 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form À s 0 sI . Green determined the character table of GL(n. q) was found. it was not until the 1950's that the character table of GL(3.

Prove that if q T 2 then SL(2. q)X Deduce the character table of SL(2. . Exercises for Chapter 28 1. q). Use your solution to Exercise 28. Prove that q GL(2. q) is simple. q) Z 3 SL(2. Use Theorem 28. Let Z fsI : s P FÃ g. and there are (q 2 À q)a2 irreducible form v r Àr 1q r r q characters of degree q À 1.5 to write down explicitly the character table of GL(2. 2. q) from that of GL(2.2 to write down explicitly the character table of PSL(2. Suppose that q is a power of 2.336 Representations and characters of groups 0 1 . 3. 8). 3).

particularly about irreducible characters of symmetric groups (see Theorem 29.12 below). denote by Sym(Ù) the group of all permutations of Ù. 3g 3 f2. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting fi. ng. 3g. (2) Let G Sn and let Ù be the set consisting of all pairs fi. F F F . then G has a permutation character ð de®ned by ð( g) jfix( g)j for g P G. if Ù f1. Group actions We begin with a more general notion than that of a permutation group. jg( gö) fig. 2. and develop some useful results. ng then Sym(Ù) Sn . it is called the action of Sn on pairs. (1 2)ö sends f1. a subgroup of Sn for some n.e.) Check that ö is an action of Sn . (So for example. F F F . j < n. In this chapter we take the theory of permutation groups and characters somewhat further. De®nition Let G be a group and Ù a set. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism ö: G 3 Sym(Ù). We also say that G acts on Ù (via ö). In particular. 337 . F F F . 29. ng.1 Examples (1) If G < Sn then the identity map is an action of G on f1. If Ù is a set. jg of elements of f1. jgg for all g P Sn and 1 < i . i. a fact which proved useful in many of our subsequent character table calculations.29 Permutations and characters We have already seen in Chapter 13 that if G is a permutation group.

To simplify notation. The group G is said to be transitive on Ù if orb(G. Let V be the 2-dimensional vector space over F q consisting of all row vectors (a. For example. there exists g P G such that á g â. Ù) 1. as de®ned in Chapter 28.2 Examples (1) Let G C4 . g P G. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting hvi( gö) hv gi for all hvi P Ù and g P G. q). in other words. b P F q . a b)iX Then ö is an action of G on Ù. and let Ù be the set of all right cosets Hx of H in G (so jÙj n). for ù P Ù and g P G we usually just write ù g instead of ù( gö). given any á. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by ( Hx)( gö) Hxg for all x. 29. and let Ù be the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces hvi of V. Ù) for the number of orbits of G on Ù. Then by Exercise 9 of Chapter 23. With this notation.338 Representations and characters of groups (3) Let G GL(2. â P Ù. Write orb(G. b) with a. G is transitive if. h P G. ö is an action of G. we have á $ â if and only if there exists g P G such that á g â. de®ne a relation $ on Ù as follows: for á. if 1 1 g 0 1 then gö sends h(a. and Ker ö xPG x À1 Hx < H. say. b)i 3 h(a. and let ö: G 3 S8 be the action . It is easy to see that $ is an equivalence relation on Ù. if ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) is an action. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices over the ®nite ®eld F q. â P Ù. The equivalence classes are called the orbits of G on Ù. Thus Ù is the disjoint union of the orbits of G. Adopting this notation. generated by x. the fact that ö is a homomorphism simply says that ù( gh) (ù g)h for all ù P Ù and g. (4) Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n.

Gù x Gù y D xy À1 P Gù D ùxy À1 ù D ùx ù yX Hence we can de®ne an injective function ã : Ä 3 ù G by ã(Gù x) ùx for all x P G. w P V there is an invertible 2 3 2 matrix A P GL(2. j Permutation characters Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. (2) The group G is transitive on the set Ù in each of Examples 29. 8g. h P Gù then ù( gh) (ù g)h ùh ù. simply observe that.Permutations and characters 339 de®ned by xö (1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8) (and of course x k ö ((1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8)) k for any k). For ù P Ù. namely f1.1(2. and de®ne Gù f g P G : ù g ùgX We call Gù the stabilizer of ù in G. Hy P Ù. Denote by CÙ the vector space over C for which Ù is a basis. CÙ consists of all expressions of the form . given two right cosets Hx. and in Example (4). 4). q) such that vA w. In other words. and Gù contains the identity. 4g. Observe that for x. so Gù is a subgroup. that is.3 Proposition The stabilizer Gù is a subgroup of G. Clearly ã is also surjective. This is clear in Example (2). Also gÀ1 P Gù . 6g and f7. 2. jù G j jG : Gù jX Proof If g. so ù G fù g : g P Gg. y P G. 29. and hence jÄj jù G j. F F F . Then G has three orbits on Ù f1. write ù G for the orbit of G which contains ù. hence gh P Gù . 3. as required. the element g x À1 y P G has the property that ( Hx) g Hy. to verify it for Example (3) you need to convince yourself that for any two non-zero row vectors v. Let G be a group acting on a set Ù. 8g. f5. Now let Ä be the set of right cosets Gù x of Gù in G. the size of the orbit ù G is equal to the index of Gù in G. 3. Moreover.

First. 1 G i jfixÙ ( g)j orb(G. Ä t be the orbits of G on Ù.340 Representations and characters of groups ëù ù (ëù P C) ùPÙ with the obvious addition and scalar multiplication. then for g P G. 1 G i 1 1 ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)jX jGj gPG jGj gPG Let Ä1 . for each g. Ù)X jGj gPG Proof First note that hð. We call ð the permutation character of G on Ù.3. and provides a basic link between the permutation character and the action of G.4 Proposition Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. pick ù i P Ä i . for 1 < i < t we have jÄ i j jù G j jG : Gù i jX i Hence jÄ i j jGù i j jGj. and let ð be the permutation character. called the permutation module. 129) that if ð is the character of this permutation module. We see just as in Chapter 13 (p. It is often referred to as ``Burnside's Lemma''. Now de®ne Ö f(ù. As in Chapter 13. F F F . 29. though elementary. ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)j. we can make CÙ into a CG-module. where fixÙ ( g) fù P Ù : ù g ùg. is rather famous. and for each i. g) : ù P Ù. The next result. ù g ùg. the number of ù P Ù such that ù g ù is equal to jfixÙ ( g)j. by de®ning 2 3 ëù ù g ëù (ù g) for all g P G. hence . Then 1 hð. but is in fact due to Cauchy and Frobenius. We calculate jÖj in two different ways. By Proposition 29. g P G.

ð2 i orb(G. Ù1 3 Ù2 ) by Proposition 29.6 Proposition Let G act on Ù1 and Ù2 . Then we can de®ne an action of G on the Cartesian product Ù1 3 Ù2 by setting (ù1 . Then hð1 .6 in a number of situations. g P G. Ù1 3 Ù2 )X Proof We have hð1 . 1 G i 1. In the rest of the chapter we apply Proposition 29. . 29. It is clear that fixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g) fixÙ1 ( g) 3 fixÙ2 ( g) for any g P G. with permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively. and the conclusion follows. then ð( g) ð1 ( g)ð2 ( g) for all g P G.5 Corollary G is transitive on Ù if and only if hð. Hence if ð is the permutation character of G on Ù1 3 Ù2 . hence jÖj Therefore gPG ùPÙ jGù j t i1 jÄ i j jGù i j t 1 jGj tjGjX j jfixÙ ( g)j tjGj. the number of g P G such that ù g ù is equal to jGù j. ù2 ) g (ù1 g. jGj gPG jGj gPG j which is equal to orb(G. ð2 i 1 1 jfixÙ1 ( g)kfixÙ2 ( g)j jfixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g)j. the ®rst being the case where Ù1 Ù2 .Permutations and characters jÖj jfixÙ ( g)jX gPG 341 Secondly. and suppose that G acts on two sets Ù1 and Ù2 . ù2 g) for all ù i P Ù i . for each ù. with corresponding permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively. 29. Now let G be a group.4.

â2 ) in Ù 3 Ù. j .6. 29.8 Proposition Let G act on Ù. á2 ) and (â1 . Ù) hð. ù2 ) g (ù1 g. ù2 g) for all ù1 . The result follows. g P G.7 De®nition The number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù is called the rank of G on Ù. and hð. Ù).8. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. then ð 1 G ÷. Then Ä f(ù. with á1 T á2 .342 Representations and characters of groups Suppose G acts on Ù. Then G is said to be 2-transitive on Ù if r(G. namely (ù1 . ðiX Now suppose G is transitive on Ù and jÙj . Thus r(G.9 De®nition Let G be transitive on Ù. 1 G i 1 by Corollary 29. with permutation character ð. The case where equality holds is of particular interest. written r(G. for any ordered pairs (á1 . G is 2-transitive if. Ù) > 2. ù) : ù P Ùg is an orbit of G on Ù 3 Ù. 29. and hence certainly r(G.10 Corollary If G is 2-transitive on Ù. ù2 P Ù. 29. 1. Then r(G. using Theorem 14. 29. with permutation character ð.5.17. Ù) 2. In other words. ði 2 by Proposition 29. Ù 3 Ù)X The next result is immediate from Proposition 29. there exists g P G such that á1 g â1 and á2 g â2 . Then G also acts on Ù 3 Ù in the way de®ned above. Proof We have hð. â1 T â2 . Ù) orb(G.

Permutations and characters 343 29. 4g) to (f1.11 Examples (1) The symmetric group Sn is 2-transitive on f1. the irreducible character ÷ of G given by Corollary 29. F F F . 2g. F F F . hv2 i) and (hw1 i. (3) Consider the action of Sn on pairs de®ned in Example 29. giving an element of GL(2. Ä2 f(fi. jg. We claim that G is 2-transitive on Ù. Hence these groups have an irreducible character ÷ given by ÷( g) jfix( g)j À 1X We have seen this irreducible character in a number of previous examples (see 18.1(2). (2) Consider the action of G GL(2. This action is not 2-transitive. ë s ) of positive integers ë i such that ë1 > ë2 > F F F > ë s and ë1 F F F ë s n. and so ð 1 G ÷ ø. By Theorem 15. 2g. To see this.16. for example. there is no element of Sn which sends (f1.1(3).3. with n > 4. ði r(G. where ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of Sn . ng. an irreducible character ÷ ë . Also An is 2-transitive. the irreducible characters of Sn are also in bijective correspondence with the partitions ë of n. lgj 0gX Thus hð. for each partition ë. v2 and w1. fk. jg fk. Since jÙj q 1 (see Exercise 1 at the end of the chapter).15 we know that the conjugacy classes of Sn are in bijective correspondence with the set of all possible cycle-shapes of permutations. since. 3g). In fact it is easy to see that the orbits of G Sn on Ù 3 Ù are Ä. as claimed. Ù) 3. jg. lgj 1g. lg) : jfi. hv2 i 3 hw2 i. and we call such a sequence a partition of n.5. w2 are both bases of V. 19. The linear transformation from V to V which sends v1 3 w1 . hw2 i) be two pairs of distinct 1-spaces in Ù. fk. Some irreducible characters of S n By Theorem 12. jg fk. q) given in Example 29. Then v1 . provided n > 4.17). Here Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of the 2-dimensional vector space V. lg) : jfi. and Ä1 f(fi. v2 3 w2 is therefore invertible. Each cycle-shape (including 1-cycles) is a sequence ë (ë1 . where Ä is as above. Ä1 and Ä2 . f2.1.10 is the character ø0 of degree q in Theorem 28. A key aim is therefore to construct. q) which sends hv1 i 3 hw1 i. 19. f3. Hence G is 2-transitive on Ù. let (hv1 i.

and m (n À 1)a2 if n is odd. F F F . ÷ ( nÀ2. B) P I k 3 I l : jA Bj sgX Hence orb(G.13 below). ð l i l 1.1) . ik g P I k and any g P G. ÷ ( nÀ k. I k 3 I l ). I k 3 I l ) l 1. Observe that n ð k (1) jI k j X k 29.12 Proposition If l < k < na2.1) . The ideas can be developed to carry out the aim in general. k) such that ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. F F F . ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. F F F . Proof We prove the existence of irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . Just as in Example 29. k) X In particular. The orbits of G Sn on I k 3 I l are easily seen to be J 0 . ÷ ( nÀ1.2) .344 Representations and characters of groups of Sn . by induction on k. ik ggX Let ð k be the permutation character of G in its action on I k . 2.10. in a natural way. j 29. let Ag fi1 g. Let G Sn and I f1. Then . k). J 1 . James listed in the Bibliography. ÷ ( nÀ1. k) .13 Theorem Let m na2 if n is even. Proof By Proposition 29. de®ne I k to be the set consisting of all subsets of I of size k. For an integer k < na2. ð l i orb(G. and much more. if you want to see this. ÷ ( nÀ m. Now assume the statement holds for all values less than k. hð k .6. ng. J s f(A. F F F . Then Sn has distinct irreducible characters ÷ ( n) 1 G . ÷ ( nÀ k. a 2-part partition (see Theorem 29. F F F J l . giving the conclusion. we refer you to the book by G. but we do not do this.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. k) ð k À ð kÀ1 . F F F . This holds for k 1 by Corollary 29. on the character theory of Sn .1(2) we can de®ne an action of G on I k as follows: for any subset A fi1 . We shall apply the material of this chapter to carry out this aim in the case where ë (n À k. where for 0 < s < l.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. m) such that for all k < m. then hð k .

kÀ1) such that ð i ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1.14 Examples (1) The formula ÷ ( nÀ k. ÷7 . and r(G. k. ÷9 are equal to ÷ (6) .i) for all i . hð k . respectively. The orbits are the equivalence classes in Ù of the relation de®ned by á $ â D á g â for some g P G. F F F . If G is 2-transitive then r(G. we have ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. 4.Permutations and characters 345 there exist irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . ði. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù). the degree is n n ( nÀ k. Ù) 2 and ð 1 G ÷ with ÷ irreducible. Ù) is the number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù.12. For example. Now by Proposition 29. ÷ (5. ÷ (3.3) . The rank r(G. F F F . where ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)j. k) . hð k . ð1 i 2. ÷ ( nÀ1. hð k . suppose n 7 and let us calculate the value of the irreducible character ÷ (5. 1 G i. If G acts on Ù then CÙ is the permutation module. ð k i k 1X It follows that ð k ð kÀ1 ÷ for some irreducible character ÷.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀi. k) ð k À ð kÀ1 makes it easy to calculate the values of the characters ÷ ( nÀ k. ÷ (4. k) . k) ÷ (1) ð k (1) À ð kÀ1 (1) À X k kÀ1 As another example. ÷ ( nÀ k1. ð kÀ1 i k. The number of orbits is equal to hð. and the corresponding character of G is ð. Ù) hð.2) (123) ð2 (123) À ð1 (123) jfix I 2 (123)j À jfix I 1 (123)j 6 À 4 2X (2) In the character table of S6 given in Example 19.1) . 2. Summary of Chapter 29 1. ÷3 . k) corresponding to 2-part partitions have values given by Theorem 29. . 1 G i 1. The irreducible characters of Sn are in bijective correspondence with partitions of n.1) . as required.13. the irreducible characters ÷1 .1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. 3.2) on a 3-cycle: ÷ (5.17. k) . hð k . The size of the orbit ù G containing ù is jù G j jG : Gù j. j 29.2) . The irreducible characters ÷ ( nÀ k. Writing ÷ ÷ ( nÀ k.

) 4. H 2 be subgroups of G. Let G be a ®nite group. Decompose ð as a sum of irreducible characters of GL(2. then H 1 H 2 X Give an example to show that this need not be the case in general. q) and let V F2 as in Example 29. ( Hint: one way to do this is to write down the values of ð on the conjugacy classes of G. where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. and let H 1 . and ®nd the kernel of ö.) . and de®ne an action ö : G 3 Sym(V Ã ) by v( gö) v g for v P V Ã. and de®ne a function ö : G 3 G 3 Sym(G) by x(( g. and ÷ 3 ÷ is the irreducible character of G 3 G given by Theorem 19. 3. 2 de®ne Ù i to be the set of right cosets of H i in G. 5. so that G acts on Ù i as in Example 29. and the permutation character ð is ð ÷ ÷ 3 ÷. Let q V Ã V À f0g. (a) Show that ö is an action of G 3 G on G. G) is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. which is transitive. g.1(4). Let ð be the permutation character of G in this action.1(3)).5. let ð i be the permutation character of G in the action on Ù i . (Such an element is called a ®xed-point-free element of G. h)ö) g À1 xh for all x. then jÙj q 1. (c) Show that the rank of this action r(G 3 G. 2. Show that if Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of a 2dimensional vector space over F q (as in Example 29. q) (the latter are given by Theorem 28. For i 1. (b) Find the stabilizer (G 3 G)1 of the identity 1 P G. Suppose that ð1 ð2 . Prove that if G is abelian. g P G. Prove that G contains an element g such that jfixÙ ( g)j 0.18. Let G be a ®nite group. Let G GL(2. and take inner products with the irreducible characters of G given in 28.346 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 29 1.1(2). h P G. Let G be a ®nite group acting transitively on a set Ù of size greater than 1.5).

F F F .Permutations and characters 347 6.1) ÷ ( nÀ2. j) g (ig.1) .1. Let Sn act on Ù in the obvious way (namely.17. By considering inner products as in the proof of Theorem 29.1.13. where ÷ is an irreducible character. j P f1. In the character table of S6 given in Example 19.1.1.2) ÷. j) with i. jg) for g P Sn ).1) ? . (i. and let Ù be the set of all ordered pairs (i. Let n be a positive integer. and calculate its value on the elements (12) and (123) of Sn . and let the permutation character of Sn in this action be ð( nÀ2.1) .1) .1. which irreducible character is equal to ÷ (4.1) 1 2÷ ( nÀ1. prove that ð( nÀ2. Writing ÷ ÷ ( nÀ2. calculate the degree of ÷ ( nÀ2. ng and i T j.

. known as the class algebra constants. C l form a basis for the centre of the group algebra CG (where C i gPC i g). The second application takes this much further: the Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23. . These constants carry information about the multiplication in G. In this chapter we present some rather deeper applications. . . .19 motivates the study of simple groups containing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to a given group C. . Class algebra constants Let G be a ®nite group and let C1 . . as we shall demonstrate.30 Applications to group theory There are several ways of using the character theory of a group to determine information about the structure of the group. the dihedral group of order 8. and so on ± require little calculation. Recall from Proposition 12. Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G. The examples which we have come across so far ± ®nding the centre of the group. Using a little group theory and a lot of character theory we shall carry out such a study in the case where C D8 . 30. and they can be used to investigate the subgroup structure of G. . 348 .22 that the class sums C1 . The ®rst involves doing arithmetic with character values to determine certain numbers. seeing whether or not the group is simple.1 Proposition There exist non-negative integers aijk such that for 1 < i < l and 1 < j < l.

As the centre of the group algebra plays an important role in representation theory. and is independent of the chosen element g of Ck . . Then for all i. 30. . b P Cj and ab gX Also. you might suspect that the class algebra constants are determined by the character table of G. . j Another way of looking at Proposition 30. . b P Cj and ab g.1 is to note that C i C j belongs to Z(CG). This number is a non-negative integer. k. the constants aijk determine the product of any two elements in the centre Z(CG) of the group algebra. Our next theorem shows that this is indeed the case. From their very de®nition.4 Theorem Let gi P Ci for 1 < i < l. 30. b) with a P Ci . j. so it must be a linear combination of C1 .Applications to group theory Ci C j l k1 349 aijk C k X Proof For g P Ck the coef®cient of g in the product C i C j is equal to the number of pairs (a. C l . . C l is a basis of Z(CG). j we have aijk the number of pairs (a. b) with a P Ci . we have aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all the irreducible characters ÷ of G. . . The result follows. the numbers aijk carry information about the multiplication in G: (30X3) For all g P Ck and all i. . .2 De®nition The integers aijk in the formula Ci C j l k1 aijk C k are the class algebra constants of G. since C1 .

and let U be a CGmodule with character ÷. these results can readily be proved directly.350 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. the character table of G is as shown: .1.4(2). but they serve as a useful illustration of the method. By Section 18. Let G S4 . Theorem 16. Multiply both sides of equation (30. for all u P U we have uC i Therefore uC i C j and l m1 jGj÷( g i ) uX jCG ( g i )j÷(1) ÷( g i )÷( g j ) jGj2 u jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j (÷(1))2 aijm uC m l m1 aijm jGj÷( g m ) uX jCG ( g m )j÷(1) Since C i C j (30X5) m aijm C m .5) by ÷( g k ) and sum over all irreducible characters ÷ of G.6 Example In this example we shall use the class algebra constants to prove some facts about the elements and subgroups of the symmetric group S4 . Then by Lemma 22. we deduce that l m1 aijm ÷( g i )÷( g j ) ÷( g m ) jGj X jCG ( g m )j jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷(1) Pick k with 1 < k < l.7. to obtain l m1 aijm ÷( g m )÷( g k ) ÷ jCG ( g m )j ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) By the column orthogonality relations. this yields aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) j Examples 30.

by (30. We deduce the fact (which we already know from Exercise 18. 43 so S4 has elements a of order 2 and b of order 3 with ab of order 4.3). We deduce from this that S4 does not have a subgroup which is isomorphic to the quaternion group Q8 : for Q8 does have two elements of order 4 with product of order 4. it can be shown that S4 has a presentation as follows: S4 ha. we have x 4 1. (2) By Theorem 30.1) that S4 has a subgroup which is isomorphic to D8. In fact. b of order 2 such that ab has order 4. b of order 4 such that the product ab also has order 4. S4 is generated by a and b. S4 does not possess elements a. (3) Finally. so ka. 24 a235 X (1 1) 4. and all products of elements of S4 are determined by the given relations. Writing x ab. aÀ1 xa ba (ab)À1 x À1 .4 to calculate the class algebra constant a555 : 24 1 À1 0 À1 1 0X a555 X 44 1 1 2 3 3 Hence.Applications to group theory Character table of S4 Class Ci gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 C1 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 C2 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 C3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 C4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 351 C5 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 (1) We use Theorem 30. bl D8. We supply a . b: a2 b3 (ab)4 1iX In other words. 24 1 1 a245 X 11 2X 48 3 3 Hence S4 has elements a.4.

7) Class rep. We found in Chapter 27 that the character table of G PSL (2. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. 7) with H isomorphic to S4 . and it is quite tricky to construct directly.6 ± in the meantime. you may wish to puzzle out the relevance of the ®gure above. Character table of PSL (2.7 Example We use Theorem 30. g1 1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 . 7) is as follows. That such a subgroup exists is not obvious.4 to ®nd a subgroup H of the simple group PSL (2.352 Representations and characters of groups proof in the solution to Exercise 30. 30.

S4 aKer ö H. is {1}. By Theorem 30. This fact led Brauer to initiate a programme to ®nd. Since H has an element of order 4. The next result carries out part of Brauer's programme in the case where C D8 . Then G has order 168 or 360. namely xy. A4 or S4 (see Example 12. y has order 3 and xy has order 4. being a normal subgroup of S4 .6. G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2. We have chosen to present this result because it provides a wonderful illustration of the use of character theory in the service of group theory.4. Let H be the subgroup kx.19 states that there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with a given centralizer. b: a2 b3 (ab)4 1iX Hence there is a homomorphism ö from S4 onto H (ö sends a to x and b to y). by (30. we know that S4 ha.20). Now Ker ö. 168 1 a243 X 1 0 0 0 0 8X 83 7 353 Hence. C2 or {1}.8 Theorem Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group which has an involution t such that C G (t) D8 . S3 . The Brauer programme The Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23. given a ®nite group C. 7) has a subgroup which is isomorphic to S4 . all ®nite simple groups G possessing an involution t such that C G (t) C. . 30.10.Applications to group theory We calculate the class algebra constant a243 . a dihedral group of order 8. we conclude that H S4 X Thus we have shown that PSL (2. yl of G. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography). By Theorem 1. It determines the possible orders of simple groups G having an involution t such that C G (t) D8 . V4 .3). From Example 30. an effort which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s (see the book by D. so H is isomorphic to S4 . This programme formed an important part of the effort of many mathematicians to classify all the ®nite simple groups.

and let G be a ®nite group of order p a b. then there is a Sylow p-subgroup of G containing R. 7) is a simple group of order 168 having an involution with centralizer D8 (see Lemma 27. we require a couple of preliminary results.e.354 Representations and characters of groups Observe that PSL(2.9 Sylow's Theorem Let p be a prime number. Before embarking upon the proof of Theorem 30. Then (1) G contains a subgroup of order p a. Proof Suppose u is not conjugate to an element of Q. and de®ne an action of G on Ù by (Qx) g Qxg for x. then there exists g P G such that Q g Pg). b are positive integers and p T j b.10 Lemma Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. Suppose Q is a subgroup of P with jP : Qj 2.4 of the book by J. Using some rather more sophisticated group theory than that covered in this book. such a subgroup is call a Sylow p-subgroup of G. If u is an involution in G. Hence the subgroup f g P G : g acts as an even permutation on Ùg . À1 subgroups. Observe that jÙj 2jG : Pj 2m.3 and 18. then Qxu Qx and hence xux À1 P Q. 30. Let Ù be the set of right cosets Qx of Q in G.2(4)). the involution u is a product of m disjoint 2-cycles. We shall not prove this. g P G (see Example 29. and let P be a Sylow 2subgroup of G. (3) if R is a subgroup of G with jRj p c for some c. then u is conjugate to an element of Q. hence is an odd permutation. one can show that PSL(2. Now consider fixÙ (u) fù P Ù : ùu ùg If Qx P fixÙ (u). 7) and A6 are the only simple groups of order 168 or 360. The ®rst is Sylow's Theorem.1). a basic result in ®nite group theory. (2) all Sylow p-subgroups are conjugate in G (i. where a.8. but refer you to Theorems 18. 30. and A6 is a simple group of order 360 with this property (see Exercise 7 at the end of the chapter). Hence fixÙ (u) Æ. contrary to assumption. This means that in its action on Ù. if P Q are Sylow p. where m is odd since P is a Sylow 2-subgroup.

8 Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group with an involution t such that C G (t) D D8 .20 hold for generalized characters ø. This is impossible since G is non-abelian and simple. we have t P Z(D). if H is a subgroup of a group G. By Theorem 30. we de®ne the induced generalized character ø 4 G by ø 4 G (á 4 G) À ( â 4 G) where ø á À â as above. â À n÷ ÷X n÷ >0 n÷ . It is clear from this de®nition that the formulae for the values of ø 4 G given in Proposition 21. and hence Z(D) hti. This contradiction completes the proof. Certainly t commutes with itself. This is simply a class function of the form ø n÷ ÷ x where the sum is over all the irreducible characters of H.12)). By Lemma 26.0 Finally.19 and Corollary 21. øi n2 ÷ for a generalized character ø as above. but this need not be the case for a generalized character. and each n÷ P Z. The generalized character ø can be expressed as a difference á À â. and hence Z(P) hti.Applications to group theory 355 is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. If n÷ > 0 for all ÷ then of course ø is a character. there is a Sylow 2-subgroup P of G such that D < P. Then Z(P) < C G (t) D. Notice also that the orthogonality relations give the usual inner products hø. hø. j We also need to introduce the idea of a generalized character of a group H.9(3). and as t commutes with all elements of D. In particular. ÷i n÷ . The centre of D8 is a cyclic group of order 2 (see (12.1(1) we have Z(P) T 1. so Z(P) < Z(D) hti. the degree ø(1) can be 0 or negative for a generalized character ø. so t P D. Therefore P < . where á and â are characters of H: take á n÷ ÷. the centre of D. Proof of Theorem 30.

11). whence y À1 cy cÆ1 and è( y À1 cy) è(c). Then è takes the value 2 on a. And if y À1 cy P D À C then è( y À1 cy) 0. let g P G and suppose that g À1 cg P C for some non-identity element c P C. Next. Proposition 21. It follows that (è 4 G)(c) è(c). giving (30. è 4 Gi 3X To see this. we therefore have h(è 4 G) 5 D. (In particular. Write D ha. we have è ÷1 ÷2 À ÷5 . Let ë be the linear character of C such that ë(a) i.12). èi 3. As t a2 is the only such involution. for any g P G we have C gÀ1 Cg f1g or C. This is all the group theory we will need for the proof. Let C hai be the cyclic subgroup of index 2 in D. We summarise what we have proved so far: (30. and if C g À1 Cg C then g P D.12) that . hè 4 G. and so P D. The rest is character theory. we conclude that t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. every involution of G is conjugate to an involution in C. In other words.356 Representations and characters of groups C G (t) D. By Lemma 30. bi where a4 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . if y À1 cy P C then y P D.11) D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. and so it follows from (30. We next establish (30X12) hè 4 G. Referring to the character table of D8 in Example 16.3(3). èi Now for 1 T c P C. Since è vanishes on D À C. Now hè 4 G. èi 3. Also (è 4 G)(1) 0 (see Corollary 21. è 4 Gi h(è 4 G) 5 D. a generalized character of D. 1 G i h1 C À ë. aÀ1 .10. 1 C i 1.) Hence hè.19 gives 1 À1 (è 4 G)(c) è( y cy)X 8 yPG By (30. t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. and 0 elsewhere. èi hè. the value 4 on t. è(1) 0.20). observe ®rst that by Frobenius reciprocity. D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. we must have g À1 tg t. and de®ne è (1 C 4 D) À (ë 4 D). Then t a2 . hence g P C G (t) D and so g À1 Cg C. Since t c or c2.

then ã( g) a iik in the notation of (30. If we write t G C i and g lies in the conjugacy class C k of G. We shall calculate the inner product of ã and è 4 G in two ways. y P t G . ãi h1 C À ë. For g P G. where á. then x À1 cx yx cÀ1 . jDj2 ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G.15) we deduce 2 3 á(t)2 â(t)2 jGj 1 (30X16) À 28 X á(1) â(1) This equation gives us enough number-theoretic information about jGj to ®nish the proof fairly quickly. de®ne ã( g) to be number of ordered pairs (x. Since we have shown that (è 4 G)(t) è(t) 4.11). y) P t G 3 t G such that g xy. â are irreducible.3).13) We have è 4 G 1 G á À â. If c xy with x. â are irreducible characters of G. First. ã 5 Ci 1 X4X((1 À i) 2 (1 i)) 4X jCj Hence from (30.10. By (30.13) and (30. Write d á(1) and e á(t) P Z. á(t) and â(t) are integers. hè 4 G. Therefore h1 C À ë.14) we have 2 3 jGj á(t)2 â(t)2 hè 4 G. ã 5 Ci. Now calculation in D8 shows that ã(c) 4. (30. 1 á(1) À â(1) 0 and 1 á(t) À â(t) 4. (30. by Frobenius Reciprocity. Note that by Corollary 13. from (30. we have now proved the following. We now introduce another class function of G into the picture. Consider ã(c) for 1 T c P C. Hence Theorem 30.14) We have ã jGj ÷(t)2 ÷.13) we have .4 yields the following. and hence x P D by (30. similarly y P D. ãi 1 (30X15) À X 64 á(1) â(1) On the other hand. 357 where á.Applications to group theory è 4 G 1 G á À â.

Then (30. suppose that e 2. giving d 6 and jGj 168. â(t) e À 3X From the column orthogonality relations 16. Then (30. d) 1. Given groups G and H.4(2). and so d À 1 2 r with r < 5. giving jGj 360. Finally. j Summary of Chapter 30 1.16) yields jGj 28 d(d 1) X (d 2)2 Reasoning as above. The class algebra constants aijk are given by Ci C j aijk C k X k They can be calculated from the character table.8. Hence (d À 1)2 must divide 210 . d 1) is 1 or 2. from which it follows that e 1 or 2. we deduce that d 2 23 . . a Sylow 2-subgroup of G has order 8. It follows that r 3 and d 9.8. and hcf (d À 1. one of the possibilities in the conclusion of Theorem 30. by using the formula aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) 2. Moreover.358 Representations and characters of groups â(1) d 1.16) gives 1 4 jGj 1 À 28 . the class algebra constants of G can sometimes be used to determine whether or not G has a subgroup which isomorphic to H. d d1 whence jGj 28 d(d 1) X (d À 1)2 Now the highest common factor hcf (d À 1. Suppose now that e 1. This completes the proof of Theorem 30. we have 8 jC G (t)j > 1 á(t)2 â(t)2 1 e 2 (e À 3)2 .

(a) Show that G is a simple group of order 360. it can be shown that any simple group possessing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 must have order 168 or 360. if G is a group with the same character table as A5 (see Example 20. (ab)7 1l. given at the end of Chapter 27. 7) contain a subgroup isomorphic to D14 ? (Hint: D14 ka. The character table of PSL (2. Suppose that G is a group. 11) contain a subgroup which is isomorphic to A5 ? 4. b: a2 b3 (ab)5 1iX 3. together with lots of ingenious character theory.6. then G A5 . Use the character table of PSL (2. Using Sylow's Theorem.Applications to group theory 359 3.) For the next three exercises. Prove that A5 is characterized by its character table ± that is. and that A5 has the following presentation: A5 ha. to prove that PSL (2. you may assume that A5 is a simple group. 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2. 7). â (1 À 5. g4 1 2 À1 À1 À1 0 1 g5 1 À1 2 À1 À1 0 1 g6 1 0 0 á â À1 0 g7 1 0 0 â á À1 0 where á (1 5)a2. Exercises for Chapter 30 1. (b) Use the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions to obtain an . b: a2 b2 1. b has order 3 and ab has order 7. 2.13). Does PSL (2. Does PSL (2. g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 5 5 8 8 9 10 p g2 1 1 1 0 0 1 À2 g3 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 0 p 5)a2. and that G has the character table shown. 11) is given in the solution to Exercise 27.

(c) Prove that G has a subgroup H which is isomorphic to A5 . Find a simple group G having an involution C G (t) D16 .9. 360 respectively. both of which contain an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 . show that G A6 . 8. p).6(3) to show that every group G which is generated by two elements a and b which satisfy a2 b3 (ab)4 1 has order at most 24. (Hint: look for a suitable simple group PSL(2. 7) and A6 are simple groups of order 168. Use the ®gure which appears in Example 30.360 Representations and characters of groups upper bound for the number of involutions in G. 6. and deduce that g2 has order 2 and g3 has order 4.) t such that . (d) Using Exercise 23. 7. Prove that PSL(2.

which states that if p and q are prime numbers and a and b are positive integers. b.31 Burnside's Theorem One of the most famous applications of representation theory is Burnside's Theorem. An algebraic number is a complex number which is a root of some non-zero polynomial over Q. if ù is an nth root of unity then the minimal poly361 . Bender found one in 1972. which we now describe. many later attempts to ®nd a proof which does not use representation theory were unsuccessful. The roots of p(x) are called the conjugates of á. For example.2) which is concerned with character values. A preliminary lemma We prepare for the proof of Burnside's Theorem with a lemma (31. until H. and let p(x) be a monic polynomial over Q of smallest possible degree having á as a root. We call a polynomial in x monic if the coef®cient of the highest power of x in it is 1. it is called the minimal polynomial of á. We omit proofs of these ± for a good account. Then p(x) is unique and irreducible. Burnside presented group-theoretic arguments which proved the theorem for many special choices of the integers a. Let á be an algebraic number. Indeed. see for instance the book by Pollard and Diamond listed in the Bibliography. but it was only after studying Frobenius's new theory of group representations that he was able to prove the theorem in general. In order to establish this lemma we require some basic facts about algebraic integers and algebraic numbers. then no group of order pa q b is simple. In the ®rst edition of his book Theory of groups of ®nite order (1897).

For an elementary proof of this. Write ã ÷( g)a÷(1). Now suppose that ÷( g)a÷(1) is an algebraic integer and j÷( g)a÷(1)j . . see Pollard and Diamond.2 Lemma Let ÷ be a character of a ®nite group G. |ù d | d. and let g P G. .1) can be proved easily using some Galois theory. . each conjugate of ã is of the form (ù9 X X X ù9 )ad 1 d where ù9 . . Proof Let ÷(1) d. Chapter V. then á is a root of a monic polynomial with integer coef®cients (see Chapter 22). . We shall require the following fact about conjugates: (31. . ù d | < |ù1 | . . and so every conjugate of ù is also an nth root of unity. Section 3. and it turns out that the minimal polynomial of á also has integer coef®cients. Alternatively. 31. and let p(x) be the minimal polynomial of ã. . Then every conjugate of á â is of the form á9 â9.1). so ÷( g)a÷(1) (ù1 X X X ù d )adX Since |÷( g)| |ù1 . . If á is an algebraic integer. ù9 are roots of unity. ù d . and if 0 . where each ù i is a root of unity. By Proposition 13. . if r P Q then every conjugate of rá is of the form rá9. so that p(x) x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 where ai P Z for all i. where á9 is a conjugate of á.9 we have ÷( g) ù1 .1) Let á and â be algebraic numbers.362 Representations and characters of groups nomial of ù divides x n À 1. We prove that ÷( g) 0. j÷( g)a÷(1)j . where á9 is a conjugate of á and â9 is a conjugate of â. By (31. Hence each conjugate of ã has 1 d . Then j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1. (31. 1. Moreover. it follows that j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1. 1 then ÷( g)a÷(1) is not an algebraic integer.

Burnside's Theorem

363

modulus at most 1. It follows that if ë is the product of all the conjugates of ã (including ã), then jëj , 1X But the conjugates of ã are, by de®nition, the roots of the polynomial p(x), and the product of all these roots is equal to Æa0 . Thus ë Æa0 X Since a0 P Z and |ë| , 1, it follows that a0 0. As p(x) is irreducible, this implies that p(x) x, which in turn forces ã 0. Thus ÷( g) 0, and the proof is complete.

j

Burnside's p a q b Theorem We deduce the main result, Theorem 31.4, from another interesting theorem of Burnside. 31.3 Theorem Let p be a prime number and let r be an integer with r > 1. Suppose that G is a ®nite group with a conjugacy class of size pr . Then G is not simple. Proof Let g P G with | gG | pr . Since pr . 1, G is not abelian and g T 1. As usual, denote the irreducible characters of G by ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k , and take ÷1 to be the trivial character. The column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2), applied to the columns corresponding to 1 and g in the character table of G, give 1 Therefore

k i2 k i2

÷ i ( g)÷ i (1) 0X

÷ i ( g) .

÷ i (1) 1 À X p p

Now À1a p is not an algebraic integer, by Proposition 22.5. Therefore, for some i > 2, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer (see Theorem 22.3). Since ÷ i ( g) is an algebraic integer (Corollary 22.4), it follows

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Representations and characters of groups

that ÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer; in other words, p does not divide ÷ i (1). Thus ÷ i ( g) T 0 and p T j ÷ i (1)X As | gG | pr , this means that ÷ i (1) and | gG | are coprime integers, and so there are integers a and b such that ajG:CG ( g)j b÷ i (1) 1X Hence a jGj÷ i ( g) ÷ i ( g) b÷ i ( g) X jCG ( g)j÷ i (1) ÷ i (1)

By Corollaries 22.10 and 22.4, the left-hand side of this equation is an algebraic integer; and since ÷ i ( g) T 0, it is non-zero. Now Lemma 31.2 implies that j÷ i ( g)a÷ i (1)j 1X Let r be a representation of G with character ÷ i . By Theorem 13.11(1), there exists ë P C such that gr ëIX Let K Ker r, so that K is a normal subgroup of G. Since ÷ i is not the trivial character, K T G. If K T {1} then G is not simple, as required; so assume that K {1}, that is, r is a faithful representation. Since gr is a scalar multiple of the identity, gr commutes with hr for all h P G. As r is faithful, it follows that g commutes with all h P G; in other words, g P Z(G)X Therefore Z(G) T {1}. As Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G and Z(G) T G, we conclude that G is not simple. j We now come to the main result of the chapter, Burnside's Theorem. 31.4 Burnside's paqb Theorem Let p and q be prime numbers, and let a and b be non-negative integers with a b > 2. If G is a group of order pa q b , then G is not simple. Proof First suppose that either a 0 or b 0. Then the order of G is a power of a prime, so by Lemma 26.1(1) we have Z(G) T {1}.

Burnside's Theorem

365

Choose g P Z(G) of prime order. Then k gl v G and k gl is not equal to {1} or G. Hence G is not simple. Now assume that a . 0 and b . 0. By Sylow's Theorem 30.9, G has a subgroup Q of order q b . We have Z(Q) T {1} by Lemma 26.1(1). Let g P Z(Q) with g T 1. Then Q < CG ( g), so j g G j jG:CG ( g)j pr for some r. If pr 1 then g P Z(G), so Z(G) T {1} and G is not simple as before. And if pr . 1 then G is not simple, by Theorem 31.3. j In fact Burnside's pa q b Theorem leads to a somewhat more informative result about groups of order pa q b : (31.5) Every group of order p a q b is soluble. Here, by a soluble group we mean a group G which has subgroups G0 , G1 , . . . , Gr with 1 G 0 , G1 , X X X , G r G such that for 1 < i < r, GiÀ1 v Gi and the factor group Gi aG iÀ1 is cyclic of prime order. We sketch a proof of (31.5), using induction on a b. The result is clear if a b < 1, so assume that a b > 2 and let G be a group of order pa q b . By Burnside's Theorem 31.4, G has a normal subgroup H such that H is not {1} or G. Both H and the factor group Ga H have order equal to a product of powers of p and q, and these orders are less than pa q b . Hence by induction, H and Ga H are both soluble. Therefore there are subgroups 1 G0 v G1 v X X X v Gs H, 1 Gs a H v G s1 a H v X X X v Gr a H Ga H with all factor groups Gi aG iÀ1 of prime order. Then the series 1 G0 v G 1 v X X X v G r G shows that G is soluble. Summary of Chapter 31 1. If G has a conjugacy class of size pr ( p prime, r > 1), then G is not simple.

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Representations and characters of groups

2. If |G| pa q b ( p, q primes, a b > 2), then G is not simple. Exercises for Chapter 31 1. Show that a non-abelian simple group cannot have an abelian subgroup of prime power index. 2. Prove that if G is a non-abelian simple group of order less than 80, then |G| 60. (Hint: use Exercise 13.8.)

32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration

Representation theory is used extensively in many of the physical sciences. Such applications come about because every physical system has a symmetry group G, and certain vector spaces associated with the system turn out to be RG-modules. For example, the vibration of a molecule is governed by various differential equations, and the symmetry group of the molecule acts on the space of solutions of these equations. It is on this application ± the theory of molecular vibrations ± that we concentrate in this ®nal chapter. In order to keep our treatment elementary, we stay within the framework of classical mechanics throughout. (Quantum mechanical effects can be incorporated subsequently, but we shall not go into this ± for an account, consult the book by D. S. Schonland listed in the Bibliography.)

Symmetry groups Let V be R2 or R3, and for v, w P V, let d(v, w) denote the distance between v and w ± in other words, if v (x1 , x2 , . . .) and w ( y1, y2, . . .), then 3 r2 2 d(v, w) (xi À yi ) X An isometry of V is an invertible endomorphism W of V such that d(vW, wW) d(v, w) for all v, w P V X The set of all isometries of V forms a group under composition, called the orthogonal group of V, and denoted by O(V). Any rotation of R3 about an axis through the origin is an example 367

368

Representations and characters of groups

of an isometry; so is any re¯ection in a plane through the origin. The endomorphism À1R3 which sends every vector v to Àv is another example of an element in the orthogonal group O(R3 ). It turns out that the composition of two rotations is again a rotation, and that for every isometry g in O(R3 ), either g or À g is a rotation (see Exercise 32.1). The orthogonal group O(R3 ) therefore contains a subgroup of index 2 which consists of the rotations. The same is true of the group O(R2 ). If Ä is a subset of V , where V R2 or R3, then we de®ne G(Ä) to be the set of isometries which leave Ä invariant ± that is, G(Ä) f g P O(V ): Ä g Äg (where Ä g {v g: v P Ä}). Then G(Ä) is a subgroup of called the symmetry group of Ä. The subgroup of G(Ä) the rotations in G(Ä) is called the rotation group of Ä. the rotation group of Ä in the symmetry group G(Ä) is 1 O(V ), and is consisting of The index of or 2.

32.1 Example Let V R2, and let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon, with n > 3, centred at the origin. The symmetry group of Ä is easily seen to be the dihedral group D2n , which was de®ned as a group of n rotations and n re¯ections preserving Ä (see Example 1.1(3)). Now let V R3, and again let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon (n > 3) centred at the origin. This time, G(Ä) D2 n 3 C2 ; the extra elements arise because there is an isometry which ®xes all points of Ä, namely the re¯ection in the plane of Ä. 32.2 Example Let Ä be a regular tetrahedron in R3 centred at the origin:

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 369 Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1, 2, 3, 4. We claim that each permutation of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry of Ä. For example, the 2-cycle (1 2) corresponds to a re¯ection in the plane which contains the origin and the edge 34; similarly each 2-cycle corresponds to a re¯ection. Since S4 is generated by the 2-cycles, each of the 24 permutations of 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry, as claimed. No non-identity endomorphism of R3 ®xes all the corners of Ä, since Ä contains three linearly independent vectors. Therefore we have found all the isometries, and G(Ä) S4 . Notice that the rotation group of Ä is isomorphic to A4 ; for example, (1 2)(3 4) corresponds to a rotation through ð about the axis through the mid-points of the edges 12 and 34, and (1 2 3) corresponds to a rotation through 2ða3 about the axis through the origin and the corner 4. Finally, observe that the group G(Ä) is unchanged if we take Ä to consist of just the four corners of the tetrahedron. 32.3 Example In this example we describe the symmetry groups of the molecules H2 O (water), CH3 Cl (methyl chloride) and CH4 (methane). The symmetry group of a molecule is de®ned to be the group of isometries which not only preserve the position of the molecule in space, but also send each atom to an atom of the same kind. The shapes of the three molecules are as follows.

370

Representations and characters of groups

We always assume that the centroid of our molecule lies at the origin in R3 . The CH4 molecule has four hydrogen atoms at the corners of a regular tetrahedron, and a carbon atom at the centre of the tetrahedron. So the symmetry group of the molecule CH4 is equal to the symmetry group of the tetrahedron, as given in Example 32.2. This group is isomorphic to S4 , permuting the four hydrogen atoms among themselves and ®xing the carbon atom. As for the CH3 Cl molecule, this possesses a rotation symmetry a of order 3 about the vertical axis, and three re¯ection symmetries in the planes containing the C, Cl and one of the H atoms. If b is one of these re¯ections, then the symmetry group is f1, a, a2 , b, ab, a2 bg and is isomorphic to S3 , permuting the three H atoms and ®xing the C and Cl atoms. Finally, the H2 O molecule possesses two re¯ection symmetries, one in the plane of the molecule, and one in a plane perpendicular to this one passing through the O atom; and it has a rotation symmetry of order 2. Hence the symmetry group is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . Vibration of a physical system We prepare for a description of the general problem with an example. 32.4 Example Suppose we have a spring stretched between two points P and Q on a smooth horizontal table, with equal masses m attached at the points of trisection of the spring:

The masses are displaced slightly, and released. What can we say about the subsequent motion of the system? To investigate this problem, we let x1 and x2 be the displacements of the two masses at time t. We measure x1 from left to right, and x2 from right to left, as indicated in the ®gure above. Let k be the

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 371 stiffness of the spring ± in other words, if the extension in the spring is x, then the restoring force is kx. The spring pulls the left-hand mass towards P with force kx1 and towards Q with force Àk(x1 x2 ). By dealing with the right-hand mass similarly, we obtain the following equations of motion of the system: m1 Àkx1 À k(x1 x2 ) À2kx1 À kx2 , x m2 Àkx2 À k(x1 x2 ) Àkx1 À 2kx2 , x where xi denotes the second derivative of xi with respect to t. These are second order linear differential equations in two unknowns x1 and x2 , so the general solution involves four arbitrary constants. We shall ®nd the general solution, using a method which can be applied in a much wider context. Write x (x1 , x2 ), x (1 , x2 ) and q kam. Then the equations of x motion are equivalent to the matrix equation À2q Àq x xA, where A (32X5) X Àq À2q Notice that A is symmetric. Hence the eigenvalues of A are real, and A has two linearly independent eigenvectors. It is this property which we wish to emphasize and exploit in the present example. Before we explicitly ®nd the eigenvectors of A, let us explain why they allow us to solve the equation of motion (32.5). Suppose that u is an eigenvector of A, with eigenvalue Àù2 . For an arbitrary constant â, let x sin (ùt â) uX Then x Àù2 sin (ùt â) u sin (ùt â) uA xAX Thus x is a solution of the equation of motion. If u1 and u2 are linearly independent eigenvectors of A, with eigenvalues Àù2 and 1 Àù2 , respectively, then 2 á1 sin (ù1 t â1 ) u1 á2 sin (ù2 t â2 ) u2 (since uA Àù2 u)

we assign three coordinate axes. â1 .) Here x is the displacements of all the atoms. that x xAX row vector in R3 n which measures the and A is a 3n 3 3n matrix with real the internal forces.5). At the equilibrium position of each atom. á2 . We assume that the internal forces are linear functions of the displacements. 1) á2 sin ( q . For the matrix given in (32. Thus. They are as follows. 1) and (1. with corresponding eigenvectors (1. we obtain equations which may be expressed in the form (32X6) (Compare (32. x1 Àx2 sin ( q . Therefore the general solution of the equation of motion (32. the state of the molecule at a given time is described by a vector in the 3n-dimensional vector space R3 n . x1 x2 sin ( (3q) t â1 ) and the vibration is p Here. À1) The general molecular vibration problem Suppose we have a molecule consisting of n atoms which vibrate under internal forces. t â2 ) (1. We now adopt this line of attack in the problem to hand. p sin ( (3q) t â1 ) (1.372 Representations and characters of groups is a solution of the equation of motion which involves four arbitrary constants á1 .5). for the moment. which we use to measure the displacement of the atom. À1)X The solutions which involve just one eigenvector of A are called the normal modes of vibration. t â2 ) and the vibration is Mode 2: p sin ( q . À1). t â2 ) (1. entries which are determined by Assume. â2 . at each atom the three coordinate axes .5) is p p á1 sin ( (3q) t â1 ) (1. 1) Mode 1: p Here. the eigenvalues are À3q and Àq. It follows that when we apply Newton's Second Law of Motion. so it is the general solution.

6). Now. where our chosen coordinate axes are not necessarily at right angles to each other. from physical considerations. we look for normal modes of the system. that in this special case the matrix A is symmetric.8 De®nition A normal mode of vibration for our molecule is a vector in R3 n of one of the following forms: (1) sin (ùt â) u ( â constant) where Àù2 is a non-zero eigenvalue of A and u is a corresponding eigenvector. which we de®ne next. then x 0 (t â)uA xAX This proves that the normal modes of vibration are solutions of the . 32.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 373 which we have chosen are at right angles to each other. A has real eigenvalues. the effect of changing coordinate axes is merely to replace A by a matrix which is conjugate to A.9 Proposition Each normal mode of vibration is a solution of the equation of motion (32. To solve the equation of motion (32. Proof If uA Àù2 A and x sin (ùt â) u. 32.7 Proposition All the eigenvalues of A are real. 32. then x Àù2 sin (ùt â) u sin (ùt â) uA xAX If uA 0 and x (t â)u. In particular. Therefore we have the following proposition. for the general case. and for this solution all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency. It can be shown. The general solution of the equation of motion is a linear combination of the normal modes of vibration. (2) (t â) u ( â constant) where u is an eigenvector of A corresponding to the eigenvalue 0. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors.6). and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors.

and for 1 < i < 9. this can be a huge and unwieldy task if it is attempted directly ± even writing down the matrix A for a given molecule can be a painful operation! The symmetry group of the molecule and its representation theory can often be used to simplify greatly the calculation of the eigenvectors of A. However. let v i denote a unit vector along coordinate axis i. which is nonsense. with eigenvector u. Thus. for if ë were p such an eigenvalue.9 reduces the problem of solving the equations of motion to that of ®nding all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the 3n 3 3n matrix A.374 Representations and characters of groups equation of motion (32. the general linear combination of normal modes involves 6n arbitrary constants. and we shall describe a method for doing this. each element of G acts as an endomorphism of the space R3 n of displacement vectors.10 Example Let g be the rotation of order 2 of the H2 O molecule: Assign coordinate axes at the initial positions of each atom as shown. interchanges v4 and v7. then x e ë t u would be a solution to the equation of motion. negates v2 and v3. 32.6). By construction. Therefore there exist 3n linearly independent normal modes. Since each normal mode involves an arbitrary constant. Since G permutes the atoms among themselves. so it is the general solution to the equation of motion (32. ù or 0) in a normal mode. Note that A can have no strictly positive eigenvalue.6) (as (32. R3 n is an RG-module.7. all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency (namely. and . by Proposition 32.6) consists of second order differential equations in 3n unknowns). Let G be the symmetry group of the molecule in question. j Proposition 32. Use of the symmetry group We continue the discussion of the previous section. Then g ®xes v1 .

Àx3 . x4 . j The idea now is to use representation theory to express the RGmodule R3n as a direct sum of irreducible RG-submodules. Àx2 . and the eigenspaces of A are RG-submodules of R3 n . x7 . by de®nition. The equations of motion are x xA. x7 . x5 . it tells us that the function x 3 xA (x P R3 n ) is an RG-homomorphism from R3 n to itself. 32. Àx9 . fx P R3 n : xA ëxgX We can now present the crucial proposition which allows us to exploit the symmetry group G of our molecule. and we are trying to ®nd the eigenvectors of A. v g is an eigenvector of A.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 375 interchanges v5 and v6 with the negatives of v8 and v9 .11 Proposition For all g P G and x P R3 n . and let g P G. x4 . and let v be a corresponding eigenvector. and (v g)A ë(v g) (ëv) g (vA) gX Hence (xg)A (xA) g for all x P R3 n . with eigenvalue Àù2 . Then v speci®es the directions and relative magnitudes of the displacements of the atoms from the equilibrium position when the molecule is vibrating in a normal mode of frequency ù. and hence . (xg)A (xA) g. The eigenspace for the eigenvalue ë of A is. This shows that the eigenspace for Àù2 is an RG-submodule of R3 n . Therefore g acts on R9 as follows: (x1 . Therefore. For all vectors v in the basis. Proof Let Àù2 be a non-zero eigenvalue of A. A similar argument applies to the eigenspace for the eigenvalue 0. x8 . Àx5 .7). For all g in G. since the relative con®guration of the atoms is unaltered by applying g. Àx6 )X We return to the general set-up. x6 . Àx8 . x3 . x9 ) g (x1 . Choose a basis of R3 n which consists of eigenvectors of A (see Proposition 32. In effect. vA ëv for some ë P R. x2 . v g must also specify the directions and relative magnitudes of displacements in a normal mode of frequency ù.

13 Proposition Each homogeneous component V÷ of R3 n is A-invariant ± that is.376 Representations and characters of groups to determine the eigenspaces of A.3 is stated in terms of CG-modules. problems like this are uncommon. The function å: v w 3 w (v P V÷ . 32.) j . by Proposition 32. xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ X Proof By Maschke's Theorem we may write R3n V÷ È W for some RG-module W. and the normal modes of the molecule. (This procedure sometimes needs to be modi®ed. We can use character theory to see which irreducible RG-modules are contained in R3 n . We call V÷ a homogeneous component of R3 n . The problem of ®nding the eigenspaces of A is considerably simpli®ed as a consequence of our next proposition.12 De®nition Suppose that ÷ is the character of an irreducible RG-module. w P W ) (x P V÷ ) is an RG-homomorphism. Therefore. its proof works equally well for RG-modules ± compare Exercise 23.27)). and if ÷ is the character of an irreducible RGmodule which occurs.3.11. this function is zero. By Proposition 11. so xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ . since the character of the RG-module R3 n might contain an irreducible character which cannot be realized over R ± but in practice. the function x 3 (xA)å is an RG-homomorphism from V÷ into W. Let V÷ denote the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷. (Although Proposition 11.8. then the element ÷( g À1 ) g gPG sends R3 n onto the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷ (see (14.) 32. and no RG-submodule of W has character ÷.

This involves no extra work if V÷ i is irreducible (see Corollary 32. then all the non-zero vectors in V÷ are eigenvectors of A. . where â is an arbitrary constant.14 Corollary If V÷ is an irreducible RG-module. 32. with eigenvalue ë. If V÷ i is reducible. and ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i (see Proposition 32. we may choose v P V÷ such that v is an eigenvector of A. Then the intersection of V÷ with the eigenspace for ë is a non-zero RG-submodule of V÷ . so it must equal V÷ . or by some other method. It is usually necessary to know the equations of motion in order to determine the frequency ù. with eigenvalue Àù2 . then sin (ùt â) v (or (t â)v if ù 0) is a normal mode.) Since V÷ is A-invariant. j We now summarize the steps in the procedure for ®nding the normal modes of vibration of a given molecule.13). (4) Express R3 n as a direct sum of homogeneous components. to obtain R3n . This programme can often be successfully completed.7.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 377 32. then see Remark 32. (6) If v is an eigenvector of A. to make further progress. This can À1 3n be done by applying the element for each gPG ÷ i ( g ) g to R irreducible character ÷ i of G which appears in ÷.19 below. in turn.14). (3) Calculate the character ÷ of the RG-module R3 n and express ÷ as a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G. or Exercise 32.15 Summary (1) Assign three coordinate axes at each of the n atoms of the molecule. (5) Consider. say. each homogeneous component V÷ i of R3 n . as we shall illustrate in the examples which make up the rest of this chapter. Proof (Compare the proof of Schur's Lemma. (2) Calculate the symmetry group G of the molecule. Then R3 n is an RG-module.

17 Example Consider a hypothetical triatomic molecule. sin (ù2 t â2 )(1. where g is the re¯ection in the mid-point of PQ. x2 ) form an RG-module R2 . where the three identical atoms are at the corners of an equilateral triangle. where â1 . . u2 (1. We choose to take our axes along the edges of the triangle. À1)X It follows that the normal modes of the system are given by sin (ù1 t â1 )(1. . as this eases the calculations: Thus the position of the molecule is given by a vector (x1 . The symmetry group (in two dimensions) of the molecule is the dihedral group D6. The displacement vectors (x1 . so we assign two displacement coordinates to each atom. where u1 (1. 32. . This agrees with the conclusion of Example 32. x2 ) g (x2 . as shown. with the spring and two vibrating masses: The symmetry group of this system is G h g: g 2 1i.16 Example We ®rst return to Example 32. the RG-submodules of R2 are sp (u1 ) and sp (u2 ). â2 are constants and ù1 . 1). where xi is the displacement along axis i (1 < i < 6). À1). 1). . ù2 are the frequencies. x6 ) in R6 .4. For simplicity. x1 ). we consider only vibrations of the molecule in the plane. Notice that we have determined the normal modes of vibration (but not their frequencies) using the symmetry group alone.4.378 Representations and characters of groups 32. Since (x1 . generated by a rotation a of order 3 and a re¯ection .

x4 . For example. v3 ) P R6 pictorially by the diagram We ®rst calculate the normal modes of the form (t â)v. which occur for every molecule.1). x5 . And from the action of b given above. v3 are 2-dimensional displacement vectors for the three atoms. v2 . x6 )b (x2 . ÷(a) 0.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 379 b (see Example 32. x6 . x3 . v2 . corresponding to the eigenspace of A for eigenvalue 0. then we represent the displacement vector (v1 . ÷2 . x5 . we seek to express R6 as a direct sum of RD6 -submodules with characters ÷1 . we see that ÷(b) 0.3. Thus. . x3 )X We want to express the RD6 -module R6 as a direct sum of irreducible RD6 -modules. x1 . It is easy to work out the action of each element of D6 on R6 . As a matter of notation. ÷3 and ÷3 . if b is the re¯ection which ®xes the top atom. Thus the values of ÷ are 1 ÷ 6 a 0 b 0 By Section 18. we ®rst calculate the character ÷ of the module. then (x1 . x4 . if v1 . Since the rotation a does not ®x any of the atoms. These include the rotation and translation modes. x2 . To do this. the character table of D6 is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 Hence ÷ ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 .

We call sp (v) the rotation submodule of R6 . Thus the character of the translation submodule is part of ÷ À ÷2 ÷1 2÷3 . 1. À1. it does not contain the rotation submodule. then ÷ R (1) 1. and is called the translation submodule. À1. the subspace sp (v1 . À1). 0. À1. Since v1 v2 v3 0. À1. v3 (0. ÷ R (b) À1. v2 . À1. these vectors being given pictorially by (thus v1 (À1. 1. À1. 1. 0. The mode is given by (t â)v. where v (1. and so ÷ R ÷2 . sp (v) R6 å2 . v2 (1. 0). the molecule rotates with constant angular velocity about the centre. 1)).27)).380 Representations and characters of groups Rotation mode In this mode. À1). Translation modes These are modes in which all atoms move in the same constant direction with the same constant speed. where å2 ÷2 ( g À1 ) g 1 a a2 À b À ab À a2 b gP D6 (compare (14. ÷ R (a) 1. If ÷ R is the character of sp (v). 1. 1. v2 and v3. so the character must be ÷3 . 0. 0. pictorially. Indeed. The modes are of the form (t â)v. 1. v3 ) has dimension 2. It is clearly an RD6 -submodule of R6 . where v is a vector in the span of v1 . .

These constraints imply three independent linear equations in the coordinates of the vectors in R6 . with character ÷vib . u2 . u1 À u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 . u2 . so that total moment of each vector in R6 about the vib centre is zero.18(3)) below). and are called vibratory modes. u3 . Since no mode in R6 can have vib vib any translation component. Finally. The sum of these eigenspaces forms an RD6 -submodule R6 of R6 (by Proposition 32. Its character is ÷3 and it gives us the last eigenspace for the vib matrix A. u3 among themselves. . since D6 permutes the vectors u1 . and we summarize our ®ndings below. and since R6 has vib vib dimension 3. R6 has dimension 3.11). R6 does not contain the rotation vib submodule. if w P R6 then the total component of w vib in each direction is zero. Therefore a basis of R6 is u1 . moreover. every vector in R6 which satis®es these equations lies in R6 . The vibratory mode given by u1 u2 u3 is sometimes called the expansion±contraction mode (you will see the reason for this name in the picture in (32. Our calculation of the normal modes is now complete. where vib ÷vib ÷ À (÷2 ÷3 ) ÷1 ÷3 X In particular. where vib vib Clearly sp (u1 u2 u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 with characvib ter ÷1 . it is easy to see that sp (u1 À u2 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 381 Vibratory modes The remaining normal modes correspond to eigenspaces of the matrix A with non-zero eigenvalues.

18) Representations and characters of groups (1) Rotation mode: (2) Translation modes: linear combinations of (3) Vibratory mode: expansion±contraction mode (4) Vibratory modes: linear combinations of (We have chosen 2u2 À u1 À u3 .382 (32. In order to .) We emphasize that we have found the normal modes of vibration without explicit knowledge of the equations of motion. 2u1 À u2 À u3 as the basis for the vibratory modes in (4) merely because these modes look simpler than u1 À u2 . u1 À u3 pictorially.

For a general displacement (x1 . denote the new positions of the atoms by P9. and assume that the magnitude of the force between two atoms is k times the decrease in distance between them. R9. x4 . x5 . x6 ). Let m be the mass of each atom. x3 . m x1 À(x1 x6 ) À 1(x2 x5 )X 2 k m x2 À(x2 x3 ) À 1(x1 x4 ). From the diagram. the difference in length between QR and Q9R9 is (x4 x5 ) 1(x3 x6 )X 2 (We always assume that x1 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 383 check our results.) Similarly. so that we may ignore second order terms. 2 PQ À P9Q9 (x2 x3 ) 1(x1 x4 )X 2 Hence the force on the molecule at P in the direction of the ®rst coordinate axis is Àk(PR À P9R9) Àk(x1 x6 ) À 1 k(x2 x5 )X 2 Therefore. we now calculate the equations of motion. . X X X . x6 are small compared with the distance between the atoms. x2 . 2 k In the same way. PR À P9R9 (x1 x6 ) 1(x2 x5 ). Q9.

x6 . since these homogenous components were irreducible (see Corollary 32. .18)(2) and (4)) because V÷3 R6 vib was an A-invariant RG-submodule of V÷3 different from {0} and V÷3 . but we were able to write it as a sum of two subspaces of eigenvectors (those appearing in (32. the character ÷ of the RG-module R6 was given by ÷ ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 X All the non-zero vectors in the homogeneous components for ÷1 and ÷2 gave normal modes. This illustrates a method which sometimes helps to deal with reducible homogeneous components.18) are indeed eigenvectors of A. 32. We determined the symmetry group G of this molecule in Example 32. . The matrix A for which x xA is therefore given by H I 1 1a2 1a2 0 0 1 f 1a2 1 1 0 0 1a2 g f g Àk f 0 1 1 1a2 1a2 0 g f gX A 1a2 1a2 1 1 0 g m f 0 f g d 1a2 0 0 1 1 1a2 e 1 0 0 1a2 1a2 1 You should check that the vectors which we gave in (32.20 Example We analyse the normal modes for the methane molecule CH4 . In our next example.2.14). 32. .19 Remark In Example 32.384 Representations and characters of groups and we obtain similar equations for x3. Label the corners of . . the situation is more complicated. where we found that G is isomorphic to S4 . The homogeneous component V÷3 for ÷3 was reducible.17.

The action of G on V is easy to describe. the rotations about the vertical axis through 1 are written as 1. W R3 and V and W are RG-modules. v21 . and so on. 4. for g in G. let v21 . 3. v24 be unit vectors at corner 2 in the directions of the edges 21. v41 . v14 be unit vectors at corner 1 in the directions of the edges 12. respectively. 14. v23 . for example. we have v ij g v ig. Let V be the vector space over R with basis v12 . v43 . v32 . We now introduce a new idea. these four vectors span a 3-dimensional space.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 385 the tetrahedron 1. w3. v34 . v23 . v13 . thus. Then V R12. v31 . giving twelve vectors v ij . 24. v13 . Our main task is to ®nd RG-submodules of R15 V È W. (2 4 3)X In order fully to exploit the symmetry of the methane molecule. and let W be the vector space over R spanned by w1. and we can quickly calculate the character ÷ of V: 1 ÷ 12 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . v14 . w2. w4. w3 and w4 at the carbon atom. v42 . by taking four unit vectors w1. 2. and identify G with S4 . jX Thus. similarly. (2 3 4). Let v12 . at each hydrogen atom we choose displacement axes along the edges of the tetrahedron. in all.jg for all i. 13. with w i pointing towards corner i (1 < i < 4). 23. Since w1 w2 w3 w4 0. w2. G permutes our twelve basis vectors of V. v24 . as shown below.

5. w4 0. . . 3. The RG-submodule W1 with character ÷1 is spanned by v ij i. We ®nd that ÷ ÷1 ÷3 2÷4 ÷5 .27)). ÷3 . 4) to R15 . we can ®nd RG-submodules with characters ÷1 . we have wi g wig (1 < i < 4)X After recalling that w1 . (1 2) ®xes the basis vectors v34 and v43 only. for g in G. Let p1 (v23 À v32 ) (v34 À v43 ) (v42 À v24 ).386 Representations and characters of groups For example. and so on. all the basis vectors are moved by (1 2 3). ÷5 and 3÷4 (see (14. j and this gives the expansion±contraction normal mode: We next describe the RG-submodule W5 with character ÷5 . The group G acts on W as follows. 387. it is easy to calculate the character ö of W ± it is 1 ö 3 (1 2) 1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3 4) À1 By Section 18. . ö ÷4 X By applying the elements ÷ i ( g À1 ) g gPG (i 1. the character table of S4 is as shown at the top of p.1. p2 (v31 À v13 ) (v14 À v41 ) (v43 À v34 ).

p4 (v21 À v12 ) (v13 À v31 ) (v32 À v23 )X The vector pi gives a rotation about the axis through the corner i and the centroid of the tetrahedron. It should be clear from the pictures that for all i with 1 < i < 4 and .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 387 Character table of S4 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 À1 1 p3 (v12 À v21 ) (v41 À v14 ) (v24 À v42 ).

so dim W5 3. then W5 is an RG-submodule of V. p3 . Let W3 sp (q1 .) Now we construct the RG-submodule W3 of V with character ÷3 . for example. Then W3 is an RG-submodule of V. the picture for p4 with the picture for the rotation vector v in Example 32. . Let q1 (v12 v21 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v24 v42 ). we have pi g Æ p j for some j. Now p1 p2 p3 p4 0. if we let W 5 sp ( p1 .) For all i with 1 < i < 4 and g in G. Check that the character of W5 is ÷5 .388 Representations and characters of groups all g in G. q3 (v14 v41 ) (v23 v32 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v34 v43 )X (Each q i is associated with an `opposite pair of edges'. Since q1 q2 q3 0. its character is ÷3 . The RG-module W5 is the rotation submodule. the dimension of W3 is 2. p2 . p4 ). q2 . we have q i g Æq j for some j. q3 ). Therefore. q2 (v13 v31 ) (v24 v42 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 ).17. (Compare.

r3 (v13 v31 ) (v23 v32 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v24 v42 ). by Corollary 32.14. r3. De®ne the vectors r1. We now come to the homogeneous component (V È W)÷4 of R15 . r2 (v12 v21 ) (v23 v32 ) (v24 v42 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v34 v43 ). all the non-zero vectors are eigenvectors of A. r4 (v14 v41 ) (v24 v42 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v23 v32 )X (The vector ri is associated with corner i. r4 by r1 (v12 v21 ) (v13 v31 ) (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 ) À (v24 v42 ) À (v34 v43 ).An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 389 In the RG-submodules W 1 .) . W 5 and W3 which we have found so far. r2.

s2 .24). Note that r1 r2 r3 r4 0. s1 s2 s3 s4 0. s3 (v31 v32 v34 ) À (v13 v23 v43 ). r3. Thus G permutes the vectors r1. s2 (v21 v23 v24 ) À (v12 v32 v42 ). r4 among themselves. r2. The character of W4 is ÷4 (see Proposition 13. de®ne the vectors s1 . s3 . 1 < i < 4). r3. s4 by s1 (v12 v13 v14 ) À (v21 v31 v41 ). Next.390 Representations and characters of groups For each g in G and i with 1 < i < 4. s4 (v41 v42 v43 ) À (v14 v24 v34 )X We have si g sig ( g P G. so r1. . we have ri g rig. r4 span a 3-dimensional RGsubmodule W4 of V. r2.

r4 span the subspace V÷4 R12 of V÷4 . the space W does not enter our calculations.21) (1) The vectors r1 À 2s1 . and let U1 fv P (V È W )÷4 : vh v for all h P HgX Since (vh)A (vA)h for all v P V÷4 and all h P H. so we cannot complete the work using only representation theory. so 9 (V È W )÷4 W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 We now break off temporarily from studying the methane molecule. We shall therefore press on and explain how to reduce the dif®culty to that of calculating the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. and so they give the ®nal 3-dimenvib sional space of eigenvectors (see Remark 32. in order to deal with the easier case of a molecule with identical atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron. (2) The vectors r1. r3. and we can decompose V÷4 W 4 È W 4 in the following way. 1 < i < 4). Since dim (V È W )÷4 9. 9 (32. In this case.19). r2 À 2s2 . w2 . r3 À 2s3 . Now recall that w1 . s2 . r4 À 2s4 span the 3-dimensional space of translation modes.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 391 and s1 . w4 span W. in fact. s3 . it follows that U1 is A-invariant. look at the picture of the vector r1 ! We return now to the methane molecule. To see why. Let H be the subgroup of S4 consisting of those permutations which ®x the number 1. w3 . . The task in front of us is to ®nd the eigenvectors of A which lie in (V È W )÷4 W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 The solution of this problem depends. w1 w2 w3 w4 0. s4 span a 3-dimensional RG-submodule W9 of V with 4 character ÷4 . and the character of W is ÷4 . we have wi g wig ( g P G. W 4 and W is direct. it is very dif®cult to calculate the eigenvectors of A in (V È W )÷4 directly. The sum of W 4 . and no central atom. The normal mode (sin ùt)r1 is sometimes called an `umbrella mode'. upon the constants which appear in the equations of motion. r2.

Therefore U 1 sp (r1 . It is hard to imagine a more spectacular application of representation theory with which to conclude our text. But for all h P H. . r3 À 2s3 3 cos Ww3 ). where U 3 sp (r3 . w2 ) is A-invariant. and hence the matrix A. de®ned by U2 sp (r2 . s1 . The eigenvectors of B then give three eigenvectors of A. Better still. w3 )X Therefore. and so dim U1 3. By means of representation theory. w1 )X Once the equations of motion. where W is the angle between an edge of the tetrahedron and the line joining a corner on the edge to the centroid. and the matrix of A acting on r2. s1 . s2 .392 We ®nd that Representations and characters of groups h3÷4 5 H. we have therefore reduced the initial problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of a 15 3 15 matrix A to that of calculating two of the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. s2 . r1 h r1. it is possible to calculate the 3 3 3 matrix B of the action of A on r1. A similar remark applies to U3. namely the translation vector r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 . s1 (1 2) s2 .5). s1 . r1 (1 2) r2 . s3 . s1 h s1 and w1 h w1 . the process of calculating the eigenvectors of the 3 3 3 matrix B gives nine eigenvectors of A which form a basis of (V È W )÷4 . Thus we obtain the translation submodule sp (r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 . One eigenvector of A acting on r1. w1 (1 2) w2 . have been calculated. and since A commutes with the action of G. w1 (see Exercise 32. the space U 2 . 1 H i H 3. r2 À 2s2 3 cos Ww2 . w1 is easy to ®nd. w2 is again B.

The space R3n of displacement vectors is an RG-module. If u is an eigenvector of A. and Àb is a rotation otherwise. 4. Suppose that G is the symmetry group of some molecule in R3 . then tr B 1 2 cos ö. and is called a normal mode. Deduce that det B Æ1. then x sin (ùt â)u (or x (t â)u if ù 0) is a solution of the equations of motion. 0). Exercises for Chapter 32 1. (c) Deduce from (a) and (b) that b is a rotation if det B 1. (b) Let C (det B)B. (a) Show that the matrix B of b with respect to the basis e1 . The symmetry group G of a molecule with n atoms consists of those distance-preserving endomorphisms of R3 which send each atom to an atom of the same kind. 1. . e3 (0. (d) Show that if b is a rotation through an angle ö about some axis. 3. 0. then all non-zero vectors in V÷ i are eigenvectors of A. e3 of R3 satis®es BBt I (where Bt denotes the transpose of B). where x P R3 n and the 3n 3 3n matrix A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. Prove successively that (i) C has a real eigenvalue. 0). e2 . it is suf®cient to ®nd the eigenvectors of A restricted to each homogeneous component V÷ i of the RG-module R3 n . 2. The action of any g P G on R3 n commutes with A. The equations of motion of the molecule have the form x xA. (ii) C has a positive eigenvalue. and let e1 (1. If V÷ i is irreducible. 5. 2. To determine the eigenvectors of A (and hence all solutions of the equations of motion). e2 (0. All solutions are linear combinations of normal modes. (iii) 1 is an eigenvalue of C. 0. Suppose that b P O(R3 ).An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 393 Summary of Chapter 32 1. with eigenvalue Àù2 . 1).

b b X 0. and verify that A is symmetric. The purpose of this exercise is to derive the equations of motion of the methane molecule. v13 . Consider the space spanned by the vectors r1. 3. r4 given in Example 32.20. w3 as described in Example 32. r3. Find a basis for this space which is simpler than the one which we have used. r2.394 Representations and characters of groups Show that the sum of the character ÷ T of the translation submodule and the character ÷ R of the rotation submodule has value at g P G given by V b 2(1 2 cos ö). 2. . w2 . Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1. r3. (See the paragraph before Proposition 32. r4 prompted us to use these vectors? 5. 4 and let 0 denote the centroid of the tetrahedron. What property of r1.17. w1 . X X X . Work with 15 unit displacement vectors v12 .7. v43 . if g is not a rotationX 3.20. Consider the triatomic molecule studied in Example 32.) 4.20. and let the position vector of the molecule be iT j xij v ij p 3 i1 yi wi X (a) Prove that cos (/ 012) (2a3) and cos (/ 102) À1a3. and so ®nd explicitly the 3 3 3 matrix B which appears at the end of Example 32. r2. if g is a rotation b ` through angle ö (÷ T ÷ R )( g) about some axis. Take the axes for the displacement coordinates as shown below: Calculate the equations of motion x xA with respect to these axes.

i. 3 3 with similar expressions for x13. Also. x23 . 14. 2 with similar expressions for the edges 13. x21 . p3 . 3 with similar expressions for the edges 02. show that the length of the edge 01 has decreased by p (2a3)(x12 x13 x14 ) y1 À 1( y2 y3 ). q2 . and the magnitude of the force between a hydrogen atom and a carbon atom is k2 times the decrease in distance between them. 23. x14 . 03. 3 with similar expressions for x42 and x43 . j . Also. 3 with similar expressions for y2 and y3 . Assume that the magnitude of the force between hydrogen atoms is k1 times the decrease in distance between them. 24. 34. x24 . x34 . (d) The equations in part (c) determine the 15 3 15 matrix A in the equations of motion x xA. show m1 x41 À k 1 [x14 x41 1(x42 x43 x12 x13 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x41 x42 x43 À 1 (3a2)( y1 y2 y3 )]. show that the length of the edge 04 has decreased by p (2a3)(x41 x42 x43 ) À 1( y1 y2 y3 )X 3 (c) Let m1 denote the mass of a hydrogen atom. and m2 the mass of a carbon atom. p2 . p1 . Finally. Finally. Prove that m1 x12 À k 1 [x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x12 x13 x14 (3a2)( y1 À 1 y2 À 1 y3 )]. x31 . x32 . Verify that the vectors v ij .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 395 (b) Show that the decrease in the length of the edge 12 from its original length is x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 ). show p m2 y1 Àk 2 [ (2a3)(x12 x13 x14 À x41 À x42 À x43 ) 4 y1 ]. q1 .

indeed. and use Exercise 23. (b) Calculate the equations of motion. . (e) Find the entries b ij in the 3 3 3 matrix B which are given by r1 A b11 r1 b12 s1 b13 w1 .15(5). (a) Find the normal modes of the molecule. uW m ) with respect to the basis uW1 . Suppose that V÷ i U1 È . x xA. X X X .396 Representations and characters of groups which appear in Example 32.) (b) Let A u denote the matrix of the endomorphism w 3 wA of sp (uW1 .8. In this exercise. 6. . let W i be an RG-isomorphism from U1 to Ui . À2. 6) is an eigenvector of B. . where the vectors r1. (Hint: compose the function w 3 wA with a projection. . are eigenvectors of A. eigenvectors of A. For 1 < i < m. uW m ) is an A-invariant vector space of dimension m.20. (c) Assume that the eigenvectors of the m 3 m matrix A u are known. s1 A b21 r1 b22 s1 b23 w1 . uW m . (See 32. . a sum of m isomorphic irreducible RG-modules.) We assume that ÷ i is the character of an irreducible RG-module which remains irreducible as a CGmodule. . È Um. (a) Prove that for all non-zero u in U1. and check that the vectors you found in part (a) are. sp (uW1 . Show how to ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i . Prove that if u and v are non-zero elements of U1. . w1 are as in Example 32. then Au Av . Assume that the only internal forces are along the sides of the square. we derive a method for simplifying the problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of A when the homogeneous component V÷ i is reducible. 7. w1 A b31 r1 b32 s1 b33 w1 . Consider a hypothetical molecule in which there are four identical atoms at the corners of a square. We reduce our problem to that of ®nding the eigenvectors of an m 3 m matrix. (f) Verify that p (1.20. . s1 . . . .

(a) Using the method of Example 1. 1). the function W: D4 m 3 D2 m 3 C2 de®ned by 397 . (À1) k ) for 0 < i < m À 1. and G T {1} since G is simple. and D2 m hc. If G were in®nite. Then h g p i is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to G. Let g be a non-identity element of G. À1) and y (d. Since G An T G. hence G is ®nite. 5. For all odd g in G. Therefore g p 1. First. Therefore G An and (G An )h are the only right cosets of G An in G. and if Ker W G then H f1g. since G is abelian. 0 < j < 1. Then kgl is a normal subgroup of G. y À1 xy x À1 X By Example 1. Check using the method of Example 1.4. we have g a (ghÀ1 )h P (G An )h. so G An v G. b: a2 m b2 1. If Ker W f1g then W is an isomorphism. (b) Since b2 ë I but (bë)2 Y 2 ÀI. it is routine to verify that ö and ø are homomorphisms. so ì is an isomorphism. 0 < k < 1. so kgl G. and so G is cyclic of prime order. Check that x 2 m y 2 1. 4. Since G is simple and Ker W v G. Let D4 m ha. Note that all subgroups of G are normal. either Ker W f1g or Ker W G. and Ga(G A n ) C2 .4. a2 } and Ker ø {1. Let x (c( m1)a2 .Solutions to exercises Chapter 1 1. Also Ker ì {1} and Im ì L. then h g 2 i would be a normal subgroup different from G and {1}. d À1 cd cÀ1 i. Ker ö {1. 2.4 again that ì is a homomorphism. Let p be a prime number which divides |G|. it follows that ë is not a homomorphism. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. The elements of D2 m 3 C2 are (c i d j . d: cm d 2 1. we may choose h P G with h P An . where m is odd. G An f g P G: g is even}. 3. c2 }.

0 < k < 1. If g P G and g n 1. Moreover. Therefore a j a kq and so H kak l. we conclude that W is an isomorphism. (a) Let G kal and suppose that 1 T H < G. If g. g À1 g has size 1. It follows that f g P G: g n 1g had i. . g À1 g ( g P G). kA. k. Choose k as small as possible such that k . Since r . These relations show that every element of the group kA. k. Bl has the form A j B k with 0 < j < 7. with 0 < j < 7. Finally. Let G be the set of non-zero complex numbers. which is a cyclic group of order n. and the identity element is in a subset of size 1. if jGj is even then there exists g P G such that g T 1 and the subset f g. Partition G into subsets f g. 0 eÀiða4 B 1 X 0 0 À1 Check that A8 I. are all distinct. h P G then gh T 0. it follows that H ke2ðia n l. Since Im W kx. ei jða4 0 0 ei jða4 j j . so g gÀ1 and g has order 2. then x. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. by Lagrange's Theorem). Each such subset has size 1 or 2. If g. k P G then (gh)k g(hk). so dj j. As |D4 m | |D2 m 3 C2 |. yl. We deduce that hxi H h yiX Thus x P h yi. we have r 0. then h n 1 for all h P H (since the order of h divides n. then g a j for some integer j and dnj jn.398 Representations and characters of groups W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 2m À 1. where H { g P G: gn 1}. hence g P kad l. À1) and hence Im W D2 m 3 C2 . and gÀ1 g ggÀ1 1. 6. r with 0 < r . 0 such that ai P H. B2 A4 and BÀ1 AB AÀ1 . If 1 T a j P H then j qk r for some integers q. also H has order n. it contains x 2 (c. if g P G then g À1 1a g P G. 7. Therefore H < f g P G: g n 1g he2ðia n iX Since j Hj n jhe2ðia n ij. (c) If x and y are elements of order n in the ®nite cyclic group G. 1) and x m (1. De®ne matrices A. 0 and a k P H. Thus G is a group under multiplication. Now kxl and k yl have order n. also 1 P G and 1g g1 g for all g P G. A B A X 0 eÀi jða4 ÀeÀi jða4 0 Since these matrices. y P H. B as follows: eiða4 0 A . Hence a r a j aÀqk a j (a k )Àq P H. If H is a subgroup of G of order n. and so x is a power of y. (b) Assume that G hai and jGj dn. 8. First observe that there exists i . 9. by part (b). thus H is cyclic. so gh P G. Hence. h. Bl has order 16.

. This shows that V U È W. . similarly ì i 0 for all i. Ker W {0}. since u1 . . . (1) A (2): If W is invertible then W is injective. this forces ë i 0 for all i. . Therefore Hg gH. . . . Hence H v G. then u1 À u2 w2 À w1 P U W {0}. Therefore u1 . . ì s ws for some ë i . . .12)). v 0. gH are a the two left cosets. w1 . 4. . (ë(wWÀ1 ))W ë(wWÀ1 )W ëwX Hence (u w)WÀ1 uWÀ1 wWÀ1 and (ëw)WÀ1 ë(wWÀ1 ). . the expression 0 0 0 is the unique expression for 0 as the sum of vectors in U and W. . If u. . . ws are linearly independent. Hg are the two right cosets of H in G. . u2 P U and w1. ws are linearly independent. . And if g P H then H. so WÀ1 is a linear transformation. ur . and so u v. suppose that u1 . v P V and uW vW then (u À v)W 0.12). Suppose jG: Hj 2 and let g P G. It is easy to see that V U W. 5. ws span V. ë r ur ì1 w1 . Thus W is injective. Thus U W {0}. (2) A (3): If Ker W {0} then dim (Im W) dim V (by (2. . Assume ®rst that V U È W. hence they form a basis of V. . .7)). w2 P W. If g P H then gÀ1 Hg H. ì j in F. ws is a basis of V. . while H. . . . (3) A (1): Assume that Im W V. and so gÀ1 Hg H again. Since u1 0 0 0 u2 u3 and the sum U1 U2 U3 is direct. F F F . . First suppose that V U È W. W is invertible. . . ur . hence u1 u2 and w1 w2. since u is a linear combination of u1 . ur are linearly independent. w1. it follows that v is a linear combination of u1 . ur . so Ker W {0}. j. . Now suppose that V U W and U W {0}. we have u1 . . If v P U W then v ë1 u1 . . Let u. this gives ë i ì j 0 for all i. Since W is a linear transformation. . Chapter 2 1. so Im W V (by (2. (a) Assume ®rst that V U1 È U2 È U3. If v P V then v u w for some u P U and w P W. so u À v P Ker W {0}. As W is surjective and injective. . If u1 w1 u2 w2 with u1 . u r . . 2. F F F . ur . Let u P U1 (U2 U3 ). Then V U W. . V U È W. ì j P F. . w1. . . Then v v 0 0 v and this gives us two expressions for v as the sum of an element in U and an element in W. w1. Therefore u1 . w P W and ë P F. . so W is surjective. Conversely.Chapter 2 399 10. Then u u1 u2 u3 for some ui P Ui (1 < i < 3). . w s . Since V U È W. . F F F . By (2. ur and w is a linear combination of w1 . and so ë1 u1 X X X ë r ur ì1 w1 X X X ì s ws 0X As u1 . we have (uWÀ1 wWÀ1 )W (uWÀ1 )W (wWÀ1 )W u w. . Suppose that ë1 u1 X X X ë r ur ì1 w1 X X X ì s ws 0 with all ë i . . so by Exercise 3. w1. Let v P U W. 3. Thus v 0 and so U W {0}. Since such expressions are unique. w s . .

then clearly W2 W. . . Let v P V. so dim V dim U1 . dim Ur. by Exercise 3. Let V R2. Conversely. È Ur then V U1 È (U2 È . . if [W]B has the given form.400 Representations and characters of groups u2 u3 0. . . of V. Thus V U W. . First. . y) 3 (x. De®ne W. 1)). More generally. (a i a j )r (a i j )r A i j A i A j (a i r)(a j r). . suppose that r is a representation of G. so v 0. and so r is a representation. . . . u9 P Ui (1 < i < 3) and i u1 u2 u3 u9 u9 u9 . Therefore V U1 È U2 È U3. the matrix [W]B is diagonal. each r j is a representation. Therefore U1 (U2 U3 ) {0}. the diagonal entries being r 1's followed by s 0's. Then (ai )r Ai for all integers i (including i . . Then V Im W È Ker W by Proposition 2. and Im ö Ker ö sp ((1. Ker W sp ((0. By Exercise 4. U3 sp ((1. If v P U W then v vW Àv. 0). 0)). by Exercise 4. . U2 (U1 U3 ) U 3 (U1 U2 ) f0g. u2 u9 and u3 u9 . m À 1 and i . Take a basis u1 . Therefore V U È W. 1 2(v Chapter 3 1. 2 3 (b) Let V R2. . ö: V 3 V by W: (x. and U1 sp ((1. j.10)). if V U1 È . 0) and ö: (x. if V U È W then dim V dim U dim W. . Then I 1r (am )r (ar) m Am X Conversely. The representations r2 and r3 are faithful. say B. Assume that ui . 0)). 0)). U2 sp ((0. ur for Im W and a basis w1. . The construction of the basis B is similar to that in Solution 8. Similarly. Similarly. Then 1 2 3 u1 À u9 (u9 À u2 ) (u9 À u3 ) P U1 (U2 U3 ) {0}. 1 2 3 1 Similarly. 8. so W is a projection. Check that A3 B3 C 3 I. ws for Ker W. . 1)). but r1 is not.32. Since ui W ui for all i and wj W 0 for all j. 6. 0)X Then Im W sp ((1. . . so u1 u9 . È Ur ) dim U2 . . 7. 2. so V Im W È Ker W. assume that Am I. Now suppose that U1 (U2 U3 ) U2 (U1 U3 ) U3 (U1 U2 ) {0}. 9. 2 2 2 À vW) P W. . Therefore for all integers i. . . so 1(v vW) P U. . y) 3 ( y. dim Ur. ur . Then u1 . . È Ur ) (see (2. so V T Im ö È Ker ö. Then v 1(v vW) 1(v À vW)X 2 2 Observe that 1(v vW)W 1(vW v). Hence by Exercise 1. dim (U2 È . . by induction on r. w1. Suppose ®rst that W is a projection. 1)). . ws is a basis.

But Im r < GL (1. GaKer r Im r. so r is equivalent to ô. But r2 and r3 are not faithful.2(1). The representations r1 and r4 are equivalent: to see this. F) and GL (1.4). Therefore GaKer r is abelian. By Theorem 1. then gr (T À1 )À1 (gó)T À1. Compare Example 3. hence r2 is not equivalent to any of the others. (4) S C. hence r is equivalent to r. 0 < j < 1)X 401 It is easy to check that r is a representation of G.) If j T 2. then a2 r j T I. 5. The matrices A r Bs (0 < r < 5. De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 A d À1 0 H I 1 0 0 0 e. we have S 6 T 2 I. let T 1 1 X Ài i Then T À1 (gr4 )T gr1 for all g P G. then a3 r j T I. T À1 ST S À1 X It follows that each r k is a representation (see Example 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. so ó is equivalent to r. IÀ1 (gr)I gr. then gô (ST)À1 (gr)(ST). 0 1 1 B d0 0 H I 0 0 À1 0 eX 0 1 Then the function r: a r b s 3 A r Bs (0 < r < 3. (3) If r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô. T B. 6. And if j T 3. (2) If r is equivalent to ó then there is an invertible matrix T such that gó T À1 ( gr)T for all g P G. since a2 r2 I and a3 r3 I. b: a4 b2 1. (1) For all g P G. 0 < s < 1) are all different. hence r3 is not equivalent to any of the others. F) is abelian. 0 < s < 1) is a faithful representation of D8 ka. (2) S A3 . Similarly r4 is faithful. T ÀB. then there are invertible matrices S and T such that gó SÀ1 ( gr)S and gô T À1 (gó)T for all g P G. 4. De®ne r by (a i b j )r (À1) j (0 < i < n À 1. (3) S ÀA.10.Chapter 3 3. . 8. No: let G be any non-abelian group and let r be the trivial representation. 7. T D. so r1 is faithful. T B. (To ®nd T. Check that in each of the cases (1) S A. ®rst work out the eigenvectors of C.

(ëv) g ë(v g). since either vg v vh (if g. and (vg)h v. h P An ) or vg Àv vh (if g.2.2. V becomes an RQ8 -module if we de®ne vg v( gr) for all v P V. H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f À1 0 0 f 0 0g 0 0 1g g f g. a a Then v(gh) Àv. Then v(gh) v.402 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 4 1. By Theorem 4. g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 H (1 2) 1 0 0 0e 0 1 I 0 0 À1 0 e À1 1 I 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 H (1 3) I 0 1 1 0e 0 0 I 0 0 1 À1 e 0 À1 [ g]B 2 g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 (2 3) 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I H (1 2 3) 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1e 0 0 I 0 0 À1 1 e À1 0 I H (1 3 2) 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 I 0 0 0 À1 e 1 À1 [ g]B 2 All the matrices [g]B 2 have the form H I 1 0 0 d 0 j j eX 0 j j 2. v in V and ë in F. h P An ). B2 A2 . Let g P Sn . Assume ®rst that gh P An . If we put . Let A f d 0 0 0 À1 e and B d À1 0 0 0e 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 0 Check that A4 I. For all u. 0 < j < 1) is a representation of Q8 over R. h P Sn . we have v g P V . since one of g. Let V R4.4(1). g P Q8. We have now checked all the conditions in De®nition 4. so V is an FG-module. h is in An and the other is not. 3. v1 v. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X Hence r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. and (vg)h Àv. Let v P V and g. (u v) g ug v gX It remains to check (2) of De®nition 4. Next. assume that gh P An .

we deduce that (1. Then (á. 0. â) À (á. k . 0g g g g g e 1 I 0 then MA is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two rows. j X k1 Hence PA B. Since at least one of á â and á À â is non-zero. 1) or (1. â) P U with (á. Hence the FG-submodules of V are {0}. if j T igX Then P is a permutation matrix. â)a (á â. Suppose that r has degree n and r is reducible. 1)). . and let (á. 1. . You may ®nd it helpful ®rst to check that if H 0 1 f1 0 f f 1 M f FF f d F 403 v1 (1. and (á. row i of B row ig of AX Let P be the n 3 n matrix ( pij ) de®ned by V if j ig. 0. 0). â)a (á À â. the proof is similar to that for the rows. then C AQ for some permutation matrix Q. 0). 0). 0. 0. ` 1. 0). v4 (0. . v i a and v i b are as required in the question. v2 (0. r4 be the representations of G de®ned in Exercise 3. let g be the permutation in Sn which has the property that for all i. sp ((1. since ó is equivalent to r. where vg v(gr1 ) for . Therefore ó is reducible. À1) belongs to U. 2. 3. pij X 0. 4. To solve the exercise. 0. À1)) and V. Let U be a non-zero FGsubmodule of V. 1.5.Chapter 5 then for all i. If C is a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns. It is easy to verify that V is an FG-module. Then r is equivalent to a representation ô of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G) ô: g 3 d Yg Zg where X g is a k 3 k matrix and 0 . â) (á. â À á) P U. Let G D12 and let r1 . á â) P U. and AM is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two columns. First consider the FG-module V F 2. â) T (0. and the ij-entry of PA is n pik akj a ig. 0. Chapter 5 1. Then ó is equivalent to ô. v3 (0. sp ((1. . n. 1).

(b) Let å 0 ç A . bl T G. 0 0 . if either å T 1 or ç T 1 then dim U 2 and so r is irreducible. Now u and ua are linearly independent unless å 1. Hence sp ((1. À1) lies in U. and u and ub are linearly independent unless ç 1. accordingly.5(2) for an alternative argument. 5. bl with g1 r g2 r. Finally. it is clear Hence.404 Representations and characters of groups v P V. yx À2X1 À a3 b 2a2 b 3a3 b. there exists a cube root î of unity such that î 0 gr À1 X 0 î But there are only three distinct cube roots of unity. (a) It is easy to check the given relations. Let V {0} and let 0 g 0 for all g P G. Chapter 6 1X (a) xy À2X1 À a3 ab 3a2 b 2a3 b. 1)a are linearly independent. jGj Therefore jGj 18. 1) (1. by the solution to Exercise 1. g P G. À1) (so that u P U). 0 < j < 2. Now let V F 2 with vg v(gr2 ) for v P V. 1)) is an FG-submodule of V and r2 is reducible.) Therefore r1 is irreducible. by an argument similar to that for r1. Suppose that U is a non-zero FG-submodule of V.C çÀ1 1 1 X 0 Thus jGj < 18. is a multiple of 9 and jGj . (d) Let V C2 be the CG-module obtained by de®ning vg v(gr) for all v P C2 . 1) or (1. g P G. where H is the subgroup {1. 1) or (1. either (1. À1) lies in U. c}. 1)a À(1. 1) and (1. If U is a non-zero CG-submodule of V. Then U is an FH-module. Hence either (1. À1)a are linearly independent. if å ç 1 then sp ((1. b}. Consequently U V and so V is irreducible. 1)) is a CG-submodule of V. Hence. bl. 4. 0 < k < 1)X that |ka. g P G. by Lagrange's Theorem.4). also r4 is irreducible. Since (1. However. B 0 å À1 0 Check that A3 B3 C 2 I. g2 P ka. let u be (1. 1) or (1. then U is a CHsubmodule. Therefore r is never faithful. AB BA. À1) and (1. so there exist distinct g1 . 1)b. since r1 and r4 are equivalent. r3 is irreducible. C À1 AC AÀ1 and C À1 BC BÀ1 . so r is reducible. By the solution to Exercise 1. On the other hand. 9. (See Example 5. and also (1. Using the relations. bl| 9 and ka. Then (1. Hence r is a representation (compare Example 1. we may write every element of G in the form ai b j c k (0 < i < 2. where H is the subgroup {1. it follows that dim U > 2. (c) For every element g of ka. Then V is neither reducible nor irreducible. x 2 4X1 a2 4a3 X .

there exists a unique h in G such that gi h gj . Hence a i b j z za i b j for all i. and v0 v(0 0) v0 v0. so do gh and hg. b. g.3 to prove that W is irreducible. ë P F and g P G. j and so gz zg for all g P G. Let x P G. the regular representation r is given by H I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 f1 0 0 0g f0 1 0 0g f g f g 1r f g. . 6. a. v2 a ù2 v2 . Relative to the basis 1. and take r 1 a. ar f d0 0 0 1e d0 0 1 0e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 H I H I 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 f0 0 1 0g f0 0 0 1g f g f g br f gX g. Check that v1 a ùv1 . . 4. v5 be the natural basis for the permutation module for G over F. (c) All the entries in [W]B are 1 (compare the solution to Exercise 2). j. (ëu1 )Wö (ë(u1 W))ö ë(u1 (Wö)). (b) c2 c hPG h hPG ch jGjc. ab of F(C2 3 C2 ). s 1 À a. Use the argument of either Example 5. Let a (1 2 3 4 5) and let v1 . Then .Chapter 7 405 (b) az ab a3 b a2 ba ba za. ab bal. Note ®rst that if u is an element of a vector space. It is easy to show that V0 is an FG-submodule of V. (ab)r f d0 1 0 0e d1 0 0 0e 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3.) 3. then u 0. so rz 2. u2 P U. then vr 0 and neither v nor r is 0. . g ë g g with ë g P C. (a) As g runs through G. Let C2 3 C2 ka. Hence ch hc c. Hence W is a CG-submodule of CG. . and u u u. so (v i a)W v i1 W a i1 (v i W)a. For all u1 . we have (u1 u2 )Wö (u1 W u2 W)ö u1 (Wö) u2 (Wö). Chapter 7 1. Then W: ë1 v1 X X X ë5 v5 3 ë1 1 ë2 a ë3 a2 ë4 a3 ë5 a4 is the required FG-isomorphism. (u1 g)Wö ((u1 W) g)ö ((u1 W)ö) g (u1 (Wö)) gX 2. Let V be the trivial FG-module and let 0 T v P V and 1 T g P G. If r P CG then r ë g gz ë g zg zr. If r 1 À g. and bz 1 a2 zb. Let v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 and v2 b ù2 ab ùa2 b. Now 0r (0 0)r 0r 0r. The reason is that for all i. hence W is an FG-homomorphism. No: let G ka: a2 1l.5(2) or the solution to Exercise 5. b: a2 b2 1. hence 0r v0 0. (Note that v i W ai . 5. v1 b v2 and v2 b v1.

Let G be any group. v3 v4 ) and (FG)0 sp g X gPG Since V0 and (FG)0 have different dimensions. Suppose that ö: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. Let G {1. . V sp (Àùv1 v2 ) È sp (Àù2 v1 v2 ). v2 . 4. is an FG-isomorphism from V0 to W 0 . this makes V into a CGmodule. Then RG sp (1 a b ab) È sp (1 a À b À ab) È sp (1 À a b À ab) È sp (1 À a À b ab)X 3. r is equivalent to a representation ó of the form ëg 0 gó (ë g . and Ker W Im W sp (v2 ). 6. hence W is surjective. (b) (á À â)(1 À x)W ((á À â) À (â À á))(1 À x) 2(á À â)(1 À x). g P G. Let g P G. Then by Maschke's Theorem. .) 2. De®ne vg v for all v P V. (wöÀ1 )g (wg)öÀ1 wöÀ1 . . ì P C) then W is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. For all v P V0 . 5. Hence W2 2W. since all diagonal matrices . and so V0 ö W 0 . (Find eigenvectors for x. If we let W: ëv1 ìv2 3 ëv2 (ë. 4. ì g P C)X 0 ìg Then (gó)(hó) (hó)(gó) for all g. Suppose r is reducible. If v P V0 then (vajGj)W v. . 1 x. v4 be the natural basis of the permutation module V for G over F. (a) W is easily seen to be a linear transformation. noting that V W V0 . (c) Let B be the basis 1 À x. so W 0 öÀ1 V0 . Chapter 8 1. restricted to V0 . For all w P W 0 . 2 3 V0 sp (v1 v2 . (vö)g (vg)ö vö.406 Representations and characters of groups gPG vxg gPG vg gPG v gxX Hence (vx)W vW (vW)x. it follows from Exercise 4 that V and FG are not isomorphic FG-modules. In the notation of Exercise 3. where ù e2ðia3 . No: let v1 . and let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 . ab} C2 3 C2 (so a2 b2 1. h P G. a. we see that W is an FGhomomorphism from V to V0 . b. ab ba). Also (á1 âx)xW (â1 áx)W (â À á)(1 À x) (á À â)(1 À x)x (á1 âx)WxX Hence W is an FG-homomorphism. Hence the function ö.

ux) . For example. v]X xPG xPG (2) It is easy to prove that U c is a subspace of V. . Chapter 9 1. . 1). Irreducible representations r1 . Then for all u P U.Chapter 9 407 commute with each other. if u T 0 then (ux. v gg À1 ] by part (1) [ug À1 . U sp ((1. Let C2 ka: a2 1l. (1. 0 for all x P G. Let v P U c and g P G. bi r2 (ù i ). r2 . r2 : 1r1 ar1 (1). v g] [ug À1 . v] 0 since ug À1 P U X Therefore vg P U c. 1). hence also (gr)(hr) (hr)(gr) for all g. Irreducible representations r1 . vx) [u. y)}. . (3) Let W U c. u] . where U1. y). 1r2 (1). This is a contradiction. r2 . Since G a is simple. we must therefore have K {1}. 7. 0)) is the only 1-dimensional CG-submodule of V. 5. v g] (ugx. Then V U È W. . r4 : 3 . so [u. 0. v gx) (ux. [u. ] the axioms of a complex inner product. È Ur. . . Irreducible representations r1 . Ur are irreducible CG-submodules of CG. h P G. r3 : 1r1 br1 b2 r1 (1). Let CG U1 È . r} and g P G such that ug T u for some u P Ui (otherwise vg v for all v P CG). This means that Ui is a faithful irreducible CG-module. . where x 2 y 2 1. . (x. . Also [ug. Then there exist i P {1. and W is a CG-submodule of V by part (2). Therefore r is irreducible. . 6.6). also K T G since g P K. (x. so there is no CG-submodule W of V with V U È W. De®ne K fx P G: vx v for all v P Ui gX Check that K is a normal subgroup of G. (1) It is straightforward to verify for [ . r3 . bi r3 (ù2i )X Let C2 3 C2 {(1. and so U c is a CG-submodule of V. We know that the regular CG-module CG is faithful (Proposition 6. ar2 (À1)X Let C3 kb: b 1l and let ù e2ðia3 .

. Yes: if r 2.408 Representations and characters of groups gr1 (1) for all g P C2 3 C2 . and let å j e2ðia n j . similarly for ó. let gj generate Cn j . Therefore Proposition 9. (b) Check that w(a aÀ1 ) Àw for all w P W. so is not cyclic. g2 and g1 g2 all have order 2. b3 (b) r: a 3 À1 0 0 À1 gives a faithful irreducible representation of D8 (see Example 5. (b) If g1 (x 2 .3). Then xz z zx for all x P G. we cannot have (g1 g2 )ó g1 ó g2 ó (À1). and the result follows from Proposition 9. Check that 0 ù ù 0 r: (x. (a) Let Cn kx: x n 1l. Also bÀ1 (a aÀ1 )b aÀ1 a. Let z gPG g. (1. (a) r: (x i . then M ëI for some ë P C. y 2 ) then g1 . 1). . Since (g1 g2 )ó (g1 ó)(g2 ó) for all representations ó. Check that A4 B2 I. b) 3 Àù 0 0 Àù . 1) and g2 (1. 7. For 1 < j < r. Hence r gives a representation. y j )r3 (À1) i . y j ) 3 (À1) i . X X X .3). (x i . (a) Clearly a commutes with a aÀ1 . y j )r4 (À1) i j X 2. y j )r2 (À1) j . (x i . 5. n1 2. 3 C n r of degree r. Then H i I å11 f g i FF g r: ( g 11 . (x i . 0 1 1 0 . y): x 4 y 4 1l. Let C4 3 C4 k(x. Hence z P Z(CG). (c) The centre of C2 3 D8 is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . (d) Let C3 kx: x 3 1l and let ù e2ðia3 .16 shows that C2 3 D8 has no faithful irreducible representation. Then r: x j 3 (e2ði ja n ) is a faithful irreducible representation of Cn . hence ó is reducible (Corollary 9. r. 3. If M(gr) (gr)M for g a and for g b.5(2)). g 22 ) 3 (å11 å22 ) is a faithful representation of degree 1 . 4. n2 3. (x. so b commutes with a aÀ1 . BÀ1 AB AÀ1 when A ar and B br.14. Notice that the matrix 5 À6 4 À5 commutes with gó for all g P G. then i i i i ó : ( g 11 . a) 3 . g irr ) 3 f d e F ir år 0 0 is a faithful representation of C n1 3 . Hence r is irreducible (Corollary 9. 6.

v2 1 À a a2 À a3 . b 3 (1) r1 : a 3 (1). sp (v2 . Then. Now suppose that U is an arbitrary trivial CG-submodule CG. It is irreducible (see for example Exercise 8. v1 1 ia À a2 À ia3 . Let u1 1 a a2 a3 À b À ab À a2 b À a3 b. w1 ) are CG-submodules of CG. namely U0 . w3 ). U4 and U5 are irreducible CG-modules. u3 1 À a a2 À a3 À b ab À a2 b a3 bX 4. and so CG has exactly one trivial CGsubmodule. b 3 (1) r3 : a 3 (À1). w1 ).5 now shows that there are exactly ®ve non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. Theorem 10. sp (v1 . since there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1. namely V. the subspaces sp (v0 . Let V sp ( gPG g).Chapter 10 gives a representation of C3 3 D8. U3 and U4 . while u0 gPG g. Moreover U4 U5. sp (v2 . 409 1. v3 1 À ia À a2 ia3 Chapter 10 (compare the solution to Exercise 2). w2 ) and sp (v3 . so |G|u u( gPG g) ( gPG g)u P V. as in Example 10.8(2). where Ui sp (ui ) (0 < 3) and u1 . let wj bv j. w2 ) U2 È U3 .4). u3 are as in the solution to i< Exercise 3. w3 ). Let G kx: x 4 1l. u2 1 À a a2 À a3 b À ab a2 b À a3 b. For 0 < j < 3. Let U4 sp (v1 . U2 . w0 ). 2. We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.b3 X 0 Ài 1 0 . w0 ) U0 È U1 .4) and faithful. Then V is a trivial CG-submodule of CG. As in Example 5. u2 . so U sp (u) of for some u. Therefore every irreducible representation of D8 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r0 : a 3 (1). Then CG sp (1 x x 2 x 3 ) È sp (1 ix À x 2 À ix 3 ) È sp (1 À x x 2 À x 3 ) È sp (1 À ix À x 2 ix 3 )X 3. Thus U V. b 3 (À1) r2 : a 3 (À1).5(2) (or see Exercise 8. w3 3 v3. b 3 (À1) 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 r4 : a 3 . U1 . Then ug u for all g P G. Let v0 1 a a2 a3 . We have sp (v0 . U5 sp (v3 .

uö2 bu (u P U3 ). u2 b À iab À a2 b ia3 b. Then by (11. È Xr and W Y1 È . 2. Therefore.5(2) or by Exercise 8. u2 ) is a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. b): X a Yb Vi gjX Now the number of integers a with X a V i is dim (HomCG (V . 1. ö2 by uö1 u. dim (HomCG (V. 18 2 means eight 1s and one 2. 6. V is irreducible. 17. Let V X1 È .6. W2 is a basis of HomCG (CG. Since G is non-abelian.410 Representations and characters of groups 5. either by the method of Example 5. de®ne the function öë : U1 3 V by öë : u 3 u ëuW (u P U 1 )X Then öë is easily seen to be a CG-homomorphism. 2. Also. Then sp (v1 . and similarly the number of integers b with Y b V i is k e i . CG). v2 3 u2 . 4.5)(3) and Proposition 11. . W)) i1 d i e i .8). . For ë P C. De®ne W1 and W2 by rW1 v1 r.18). Hence the answer for D12 is 14 22 .3) that 18 2 cannot occur. rW2 w2 r (r P CG). U3 ).4. It will be shown later (Exercises 15. . equals k i1 jf(a. Compare Example 11. Let v1 . w2 be the basis of U3 described in Example 10. 6. Chapter 11 1. A CG-isomorphism is given by v1 3 u1 . Then sp (u1 . dim (HomCG (V.8(2). v n be the natural basis of V. since the sum U1 U2 is direct. U)) 1. by Corollary 11. dim (HomCG (V. By Exercise 5.8. . This. 14 22 and 13 3 (where 112 means twelve 1s. It is easy to check that if ë T ì then Im öë T Im ö ì . W)) is equal to the number of ordered pairs (a. and so on). by the proof of Proposition 11. . D12 has at least two inequivalent irreducible representations of degree 2. Then W1 . . u P Ker öë D u ëuW 0 D u 0. CG) (compare the proof of Proposition 11. Hence. Then ö1 . where each Xa and each Yb is an irreducible CG-module. v n ) is the unique trivial CG-submodule of V (compare Exercise 10. V i )) d i . b) such that X a Y b . by Theorem 11. de®ne ö g : CG 3 CG by rö g gr (r P CG). not all the dimensions are 1 (see Proposition 9. the dimensions are 1. Let v1 . For each g P G. Let u1 1 À ia À a2 ia3 .2. ö2 is a basis of HomCG (U3. .13 to see that the possible answers are 112 . Let W: U1 3 U2 be a CG-isomorphism. moreover. 3.4. Therefore we have constructed in®nitely many CG-submodules Im öë of the required form.3.6. . . 18 2. de®ne ö1 . Thus U1 Im öë . in turn. . È Ys. .12. 5. Hence by Corollary 11. Then {ö g : g P G} gives a basis of HomCG (CG.1).

where x is a permutation ®xing 1 and 2. The sizes of the conjugacy classes of S6 are given in the following table: Cycle-shape (1) Class size 1 (2) 15 (3) 40 (22 ) 45 (4) (3. j. in agreement with Theorem n 12. the conjugacy classes of A5 have sizes 1. Also 1x x1. The centralizer CG ((1 2)) consists of all elements x and (1 2)x. j. k. If H is a normal subgroup of A5 then j Hj divides 60. 2) (6) 40 90 120 4. By Example 12. and 1 P H. 5. The elements of (1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G have the form (1 i)( j k)(l m). so hÀ1 x xhÀ1 and ghÀ1 x gxhÀ1 xghÀ1 . ( j l )(k m) and ( j m)(k l ) of cycle shape (2. a2 bg. namely (i j k) and (i k j). 2. 20. a a3 . a3 g. There are (4 ) choices for the numbers i. namely (i j)(k l ). a2 .18(2). and a basis of Z(CQ8 ) is 1. with i. Thus |CG ((1 2))| 2´(n À 2)!. Hence |(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G | 5 . fa. a3 bg. j. so 1 P CG (x). then we can make three permutations ( j k)(l m). l. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. We have Q8 ka. If z P Z(G) then zg gz for all g P G. An element x of cycle-shape (5) has CS6 (x) kxl (note that |x S6 | 144 and use Theorem 12. k. fb. There are ®ve choices for i. b a2 b. The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. then four choices for j. fa2 g. 2) (5) 90 120 144 (23 ) 15 (32 ) (4. (c) Every element of (1 2 3)(4 5 6) G has the form (1 i j)(k l m). Assume that g.8 (since (2 ) n3a(2X(n À 2)3)). Now the required result follows from Theorem 12. and three permutations for each choice. b2 a2 . l (unordered). 15. Therefore CG (x) is a subgroup of G. 12.8). n 3. (i k)( j l ) and (i l )( j k). ab a3 bX 7. Hence j Hj 1 or 60. n G (b) (1 2 3) consists of all 3-cycles (i j k). so zx xz and z P CG (x). 12. g A6 g S6 . 2 40 elements in all.8. thus ghÀ1 P CG (x). b: a4 1. and H is a union of conjugacy classes of A5 . m distinct. Note that x P CG (g) D x P CG ( gz). l distinct. then we can make two different 3-cycles (k l m) and (k m l ) from the remaining numbers. h P CG (x). n k. (1 2)(3 4) G consists of all permutations of the form (i j)(k l ) with i. x A6 T x S6 . 3 15. 4 . Then gx xg and hx xh. Each choice gives exactly two 3-cycles. therefore A5 is simple. This gives 5 . j. fab. For elements g of other cycle-shapes. There are (3 ) choices for the numbers i. (a) (1 2) G {(i j): 1 < i . 6.17. Hence by Proposition 12. The class equation gives . k (unordered).Chapter 12 Chapter 12 411 1. j < n} and this set has size (2 ). There are ®ve choices for i. 2) from the remaining numbers.

. p2 divides a |Z(G)|. a3 b. i (b) If no conjugacy class of G has size p. Let C4 kx: x 4 1l. 2. and hence g P Z(G) since r is faithful. The required result now follows from Theorem 13.14. .8 and (12. Thus. Moreover. by Proposition 9. Hence g 3 (det (gr)) is a representation of G over C of degree 1. then p2 divides |x G | for all i xi P Z(G). a4 À1 2 b. if gr ëI for some ë P C. 3. (a) For all g. in addition. The characters ÷ i of r i (i 1.10. . Conversely. a4 b ab. 7. (b) GaKer ä Im ä by Theorem 1. 5. This is a contradiction. Chapter 13 1. We have now proved that gr ëI for some ë P C if and only if g P Z(G). If g P Z(G) then gr ëI for some ë P C. so ë m 1. then by the class equation. The irreducible characters ÷1 .11(1). det ((gh)r) det ((gr)(hr)) det (gr) det (hr). by Proposition 9. (zg)r (zr)(gr) ë(gr). If ÷ is a non-zero character which is a homomorphism. a4 }. ÷4 of C4 are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 x 1 i À1 Ài x2 1 À1 1 À1 x3 1 Ài À1 i We have ÷reg ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 . Since ÷(g) |®x (g)|. If.412 Representations and characters of groups jGj j Z(G)j xiP Z(G) a jx G jX i (a) For xi P Z(G). Hence p divides |Z(G)|. |G| > p3 . we have ÷((1 2)) 5 and ÷((1 6)(2 3 5)) 2. a5 b 0 0 0 À2 Also Ker r1 {1. Let r be a representation with character ÷. a3 } and Ker r2 {1. . 2) are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 2 2 a3 2 0 a. |x G | divides pn and |x G | T 1 by Theorem 12. so ÷(1) 1. and Im ä is a subgroup of the .9). 4. so Z(G) T f1g. a i i Therefore p divides |x G |. and hence ÷(zg) ë÷(g). h PG. for all g in G. 6. Then zr ëI for some ë P C. Let r be a representation with character ÷. a2 b. I 1r z m r (zr) m ë m I. a5 À1 0 a2 .14. then ( gr)(hr) (hr)(gr) for all h P G. a2 . then ÷(1) ÷(12 ) (÷(1))2 . and so ä is a linear character of G.

3). 24 4 8 4 3 . Hence Im ä contains a subgroup H of index 2. (À1) (À1)(À1) h÷. 10. which is abelian.20). 2.Chapter 14 413 multiplicative group CÃ of non-zero complex numbers. a2 b 0 0 0 ab.3 1. so Im ä has even order. by Exercise 1. Thus ä(x) À1.19. 10 Chapter 14 1. g2 k of CG so as to obtain a basis B in which g and gx are adjacent for all g P G. The required result now follows from Exercise 7.10)).8. det ([x]B ) (À1) k À1. As x T 1. øi 0 0. . Let r be the regular representation of G. 9. Order the natural basis g1 . And if s is even then Às s mod 4. If s is odd then ä( g) À1. It is easy to check that {g P G: ä(g) P H} is a normal subgroup of G of index 2. By Exercise 1.5(2). a3 0 0 0 b.1 (À1)(À1) (À1)(À1) hø.7. The values of these characters are as follows: Conjugacy class ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 2 2 2 a2 À2 À2 2 a. Therefore GaKer ä is abelian. Also À1 P Im ä. so ÷ i (x) T ÷ i (1) for some irreducible character ÷ i of G. Then I H 0 1 g f1 0 g f g f 0 1 [x]B f gX g f 1 0 e d FF F 0 0 There are k blocks and since k is odd. a3 b 0 0 À2 . (0 1 ). so ÷( g) r À s r s ÷(1) mod 4. Let ÷ i be the character of r i (i 1. 3 (À1)(À1) 3 . We may choose a basis B of V so that [g]B is diagonal with all diagonal entries Æ1 (see (9. De®ne ä as in Exercise 7. hence is cyclic. 8. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷.20 (but ÷ is not). ÷i 0 2. 1 3 . . 3 (À1)(À1) h÷. and de®ne the character ä as in Exercise 7. Say there are r entries 1 and s entries À1. 3 (À1) . øi 0 1X 24 4 8 4 Hence ø is irreducible by Theorem 14. we have ÷reg (x) T ÷reg (1) (see Proposition 13. we obtain 3 . . 24 4 8 4 3. and G has a normal subgroup of index 2 by Exercise 7. . G has an element x of order 2. by Theorem 13. 2. (c) Im ä is a ®nite subgroup of CÃ . Using Proposition 14.

1 3 . We have h÷reg . 4. 6 h÷. then i exactly a of the integers di are 1 and the rest are 0. ø is not a character of G. ÷l ÷(1). 6 Hence ÷ 2÷1 3÷2 7÷3 . we have k÷. Therefore the centre of a group G never has index 2 in G. by Theorem 14. The representations r and ó have the same character.21. Since all the coef®cients here are non-negative integers. If |G| 12 . Since the coef®cient of ÷2 is a negative integer. (À2) . ÷1 i 1(19 . Chapter 15 1X h÷. we obtain ø 1 1 ÷1 1 ÷2 1 ÷3 . 2. but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. (À2) . Hence if kø. r1 and r2 are equivalent. by Proposition 13. 0 and by hypothesis ÷(g) > 0 for all g P G.24. Recall that hø. 2 0 2 . ÷3 i 1(19 . This follows at once from Exercise 11. øl a where a 1. 6. 1) 2. Let ÷1 be the trivial character of G. If kø. 1) 3. 8. 2 or 3. if G Z(G) Z(G)x then G Z(G). and this gives the required matrix T. Then 1 h÷. Every abelian group of order 12 has 12 conjugacy classes. 5.414 Representations and characters of groups By Theorem 14. øi i1 d 2 . ÷1 l T 0. øl 4. 1 3 . ÷i 1 ÷reg ( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG But ÷reg (g) is |G| if g 1 and is 0 if g T 1. hence r and ó are equivalent. (a) For all groups G. 4.2. By the method used in the solution to Exercise 1. We ®nd that ø À÷2 ÷3 ÷5 2÷6 . No: let G C2 and ÷ ÷reg . or exactly one of the di is 2. 1 2 . ÷1 i ÷( g)X jGj gPG Since ÷(1) . Hence. 6 6 3 ø 2 1 ÷1 À 1 ÷2 . ÷2 i 1(19 . As ÷ T ÷1 . 3. (À1) . Theorem 14. 2 2 ø 3 1 ÷1 1 ÷2 À 1 ÷3 X 3 3 3 3.21.4 and Theorem 14. the rest are 0. then either exactly four of the di are 1. the regular character of C2 . (À2)(À1)) 7X 6 h÷. it follows that ÷ is a character of S3 . (À1)(À1) 2 . if x P G then the subgroup generated by x and the elements of Z(G) is abelian (since the elements of Z(G) commute with powers of x).17 shows that ÷ is reducible. k 7. Hence k÷reg .

then |Z(G)| divides 12 and |Z(G)| T 6 or 12. The complete character table of G is gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 10 1 2 1 2 g2 5 1p (À1 5)a2 1p (À1 À 5)a2 g3 5 1p (À1 À 5)a2 1p (À1 5)a2 g4 2 1 0 À1 0 The two unknown degrees ÷3 (1).18(1)). Let C2 3 C2 {(1. y) 1 À1 1 À1 (x. y) 1 À1 À1 1 2. i1 Because g4 has order 2. Therefore. 6 or 12 conjugacy classes. y).10.1) (1. 1) ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 (x. at most 4 conjugacy classes of G have size 1 (see (12. The character table of C2 3 C2 is (cf. Chapter 16 1.Chapter 16 415 and G is non-abelian.g. The last row of the character table is (cf. 1). Then i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 0 gives ÷3 ( g2 ) 1. so |Z(G)| < 4. y): x 2 y 2 1}. If G is abelian (e. (1. G C4 3 C3 ) then G has 12 conjugacy classes. Example 16.2 and part (a) that G has 4.12)). . and if G A4 then G has 4 conjugacy classes (see Example 12.9)). (x. if G D12 then G has 6 conjugacy classes (see (12. ÷4 (1) are 1. 1) 1 1 À1 À1 (1. 2 since 4 ( ÷ i (1))2 10. similarly ÷4 ( g3 ) (À1 5)a2.5(2)) g1 ÷5 2 g2 À2 g3 0 g4 0 g5 0 3. (b) Since the number of irreducible representations is equal to the number of conjugacy classes. together with the relation 4 4 i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 4 ) 0. Corollary 13. the remaining conjugacy classes have size at least 2. 1). Finally. gives the values on g4 . it follows from the solution to Exercise 11. so there cannot be as many as 9 conjugacy classes in total. (x. 4 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives i1 p p ÷4 ( g 2 ) (À1 À 5)a2. Exercise 9. similarly ÷3 (g3 ) 1.

1. a3 bg. Let g P G. (b) The column which corresponds to the conjugacy class containing gÀ1 2 has values which are the complex conjugates of those in the column of g2 (see Proposition 13.13 to see quickly that bÀ1 ab a2 . Hence the linear characters of G are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 8 1 1 1 1 a2 8 1 1 1 1 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 (c) Using the column orthogonality relations. (a) The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. which occurs if and only if g P Z(G). The character table of C2 3 C2 is given in the solution to Exercise 16. (a) 5 Representations and characters of groups i1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives 3 3æ 3æ 0. 6.9(3)). fa2 g. every element of G has the form am bn with .416 4. Hence jdet Cj2 jC G ( g i )j. (a) Using the relations. fa. p Hence æ (À1 Æ i 7)a2. fb. (The sign depends upon the ordering of rows and columns. and if det C Àdet C then det C is purely imaginary. It is easy to see that a7 b3 1. C t C is the k 3 k diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are |CG ( gi )| (1 < i < k). By the column orthogonality relations applied to the column k corresponding to g. G9a. if det C det C then det C is real. we have i1 ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) jC G ( g)j. Therefore det C Ædet C. G9abg C2 3 C2 . and 5 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g2 ) 7 i1 gives 3 2ææ 7. a3 g. Use Proposition 12. The matrix C is obtained from C by rearranging the columns (see Proposition 13. a2 g and GaG9 fG9.9(3)). By the column orthogonality relations.) Chapter 17 1. G9b. a2 bg and fab. 2. This number is equal to |G| if and only if CG (g) G. p If G C3 then det C Æi3 3. (b) G9 f1. 5. since æ is non-real. the last irreducible character of G is 1 ÷5 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 The character table of Q8 is the same as that of D8. this is a different column of the character table of G.

2 to see that there are 3.6). In the character table below. all of these are irreducible characters by Proposition 17.8). so 21 divides jGj by Lagrange's Theorem. Applying the column orthogonality relations. (b) The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. so G is certainly not simple. 4 or 12 linear characters. Therefore jGj 21. But a has order 7 and b has order 3. ÷5 ö.18). 4. If there are 12. fa m b: 0 < m < 6g and fa m b2 : 0 < m < 6g. hence jGj < 21. ÷6 ö÷.Chapter 17 417 0 < m < 6. The number of linear characters of G divides jGj by Theorem 17. The centralizer orders are obtained by using the orthogonality relations. ÷3 ÷ 2 . (c) First. then G is abelian (see Proposition 9. i gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 4 3 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 g3 4 3 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 g4 6 2 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 6 2 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g6 12 1 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 . and the class sizes j g G j come from the equations i jGj jC G ( g i )jj g G j (Theorem 12. a2 . a5 . Hence ÷4 and ÷5 must be complex conjugates of each other. 3. ÷2 ÷. we obtain 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a á á a3 á á b 0 0 b2 0 0 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. we note that a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . fa. G9 kal.11. a4 g. Now consult the solution to Exercise 11. 0 < n < 2. therefore for some irreducible character ÷. To ®nd the two remaining irreducible characters ÷4 and ÷5 . so we get three linear characters of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . a6 g. we have ÷1 1 G . fa3 .14. If G has 3 or 4 linear characters then jGaG9j 3 or 4 and again G is not simple as G9 v G. we have ÷(a) T ÷(a) (see Corollary 15. ÷4 ÷2 ÷3 .

Example 1.418 Representations and characters of groups D8 Ker ÷1 . For å e2ði ra2 n . 12 6n. no two of which are equivalent. Moreover. note that the structure of GaG9 depends upon whether n is even or odd. so jGaG9j 4 and there are four representations of degree 1 (see Theorem 17. hai Ker ÷2 . . abi Ker ÷4 . Also G9 kbl.) 7. by Exercise 8. (For further details on the representations of degree 1. We get further representations by ç 0 0 1 a3 . Note that b2 does not belong to the kernel of any of these representations. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations.3. 2.12. are irreducible (by Exercise 8. by Theorem 11. since they have distinct characters. The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found is n . n À 1. these representations are irreducible and inequivalent. 0 å À1 0 1 0 å À1 ån 0 32 3À1 2 3À1 2 3 2 0 1 å 0 0 1 å 0 X ån 0 0 å À1 ån 0 0 å À1 Hence we have representations of T4 n (cf.4). Moreover G9 ka2 l. (b) The given representations.4) and inequivalent (their characters are distinct).4. and inequivalent (consider the character values on a2 ). . they are not equivalent to any representation found earlier. so jGaG9j 2n and there are 2n representations of degree 1. for å e2ði ja n with 0 < j < n À 1. f1g Ker ÷5 X 5. 8. For ç e2ði ja2 n with 1 < j < n À 1. . 22 4 . ha2 i Ker ÷2 Ker ÷3 . (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations: 2 32 n 2 3n 2 3 2 32 å 0 1 0 å 0 0 1 . are irreducible (by Exercise 8. (b) The representations in part (a) are irreducible unless å Æ1. ha2 . Now the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found so far is (n À 1) . (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations.b3 . The normal subgroups of D8 are 6. 22 2n . . we get n À 1 irreducible representations. (b) The given representations. bi Ker ÷3 . 0 çÀ1 1 0 where ç is any (2n)th root of unity in C. with r 1.11). 12 4nX Hence we have found all the irreducible representations. . for å e2ði ka2 n with 0 < k < n À 1. since b2 is in the kernel of each of these representations. .4). so we have obtained all the irreducible representations. ha2 . see the solution to Exercise 18.

using Section 18.28(2). The character table of D8 is as shown. so we get four representations of degree 1. b2 l and GaG9 C2 3 C2.) Regarding D8 as the symmetry group of a square. Character table of D12 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 À2 2 a 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 . (Compare Example 14. ù2 ùÀ2 ù4 ùÀ4 À1.) 2.3(3) or Section 18. We have now found all the irreducible representations. since the sum of the squares of the irreducible representations given above is n . G9 ka2 .3. take b to be a re¯ection in a diagonal of the square. Character table of D8 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 a2 8 1 1 1 1 À2 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (See Example 16. Hence. where we took b to be a different re¯ection. Then ð takes the following values: 1 ð 4 a2 0 a 0 b 2 ab 0 Hence ð ÷1 ÷3 ÷5 . 22 4 . 22 (n À 1) .3. Then ù ùÀ1 1.Chapter 18 419 Finally. the character table of D12 is as shown. Let ù e2ðia6 . 12 8nX Chapter 18 1.

a2 r1 b. for 0 < r < n À 1. Hence we get 2n linear characters ÷ j (0 < j < 2n À 1). . T8 Q8 and T12 is the Example in Section 18. Exercise 17. fa2 r1 .4. The 3n conjugacy classes of G are. then GaG9 hG9bi C4 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 À1 1 À1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 (À1) r 1 (À1) r b 1 i À1 Ài ab 1 Ài À1 i If n is even. fan g. a2 r1 b2 gX We have G9 hbi and GaG9 hG9ai C2 n . ka2 l Ker ÷3 Ker ÷4 . abl Ker ÷4 . The remaining four irreducible characters of G are linear. fa2 r g. kal Ker ÷2 . bl Ker ÷3 . 3. If n is odd. ka2 . then GaG9 C2 3 C2 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 1 1 1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r b 1 À1 1 À1 ab 1 À1 À1 1 Note that T4 C4 . fa2 r b.420 Representations and characters of groups Seven normal subgroups of D12 are G Ker ÷1 . aÀ r g(1 < r < n À 1).7 gives us n irreducible characters ø k (0 < k < n À 1). ka3 l Ker ÷6 and {1} Ker ÷5 . fa2 j1 b: 0 < j < n À 1gX We get n À 1 irreducible characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) of G from Exercise 17.6 as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| øj 1 4n 2 an 4n 2(À1) j ar (1 < r < n À 1) 2n ù rj ùÀ rj b 4 0 ab 4 0 where ù e2ðia2 n . fa2 j b: 0 < j < n À 1g. far . The n 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. a2 r b2 g. 4. ka2 . as shown.

aÀ2s b2 g(1 < s < (n À 1)a2). the character table of V24 is given at the top of p. and a further n À 1 characters ö j (1 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. k 1 or 3g. For example. . . fb2 g. fa2s . The 2n 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. fa2 r1 . and faj bk : j odd. aÀ2s g. n characters ø j (0 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. . 5. U12 T12 and U18 D6 3 C3 . as shown below.8. k 1 or 3gX a2 r 6n ù2 jr 2ù2 kr a2 r b 3n ù2 jr Àù2 kr a2 r1 2n ù j(2 r1) 0 421 Using Exercise 17. Observe that U6 D6. fa2s b2 .Chapter 18 Character table of U6 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷j (0 < j < 2n À 1) øk (0 < k < n À 1) Note: ù e2ðia2 n . aÀ2 rÀ1 b2 g(0 < r < n À 1). 422. ÷4 . . we get four linear characters ÷1 . faj bk : j even. Character table of V8 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (0 < j < n À 1) öj (1 < j < n À 1) 1 8n 1 1 1 1 2 2 a2 r1 (0 < r < n À 1) 8n 4n 1 1 1 1 À2 2 1 1 À1 À1 b2 a2s a2s b2 (1 < s < (n À 1)a2) 4n 4n 1 1 1 1 ù4 js ùÀ4 js ù2 js ùÀ2 js 1 1 1 1 Àù4 js ÀùÀ4 js ù2 js ùÀ2 js b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 ù2 j(2 r1) ÀùÀ2 j(2 r1) ù j(2 r1) ùÀ j(2 r1) Note: ù e2ðia2 n .

5 there is an irreducible character ø of G such that ø(g) T ø(1). ö A ø4 X . Hence ö( g) ö(1) for all irreducible characters ö for which k÷ n . øl. øl 0. The result now follows from Proposition 13. öi 1 1 ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) h÷. 2. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. k÷ø. ÷ A ø2 ø4 ø5 . 1 G l k÷. Therefore k÷ n .13). By Proposition 15.422 Representations and characters of groups Character table of V24 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ø0 ø1 ø2 ö1 ö2 1 24 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 b2 24 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 À2 2 2 a 12 1 1 À1 À1 p0 ip 3 Ài 3 1 À1 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 À2 2 a5 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 p Ài 3 p i 3 1 À1 a2 12 1 1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 À1 a2 b2 12 1 1 1 1 À2 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Chapter 19 1X h÷ø.14 we obtain 1 ÷S ÷A öS öA 15 10 6 3 (1 2 3) 0 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À2 2 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 0 0 1 p (1 3 4 5 2) 0 0 1 p (1 5)a2 (1 À 5)a2 Then ÷ S ø1 ø2 2ø3 . Since ÷ is not faithful. øöiX jGj gPG jGj gPG Similarly. öl T 0. ÷öl. Let n be an integer with n > 0. by Exercise 1. . V (n factors). Then wg w for all w P V . öl kø. . there exists 1 T g P G with vg v for all v P V. Note that (1 2 3 4 5)2 is conjugate to (1 3 4 5 2) in A5 . ö S ø1 ø3 . Using Proposition 19.15 and (14. k÷ø. 4. 3.

Character table of G (cf. ÷6 ÷5 and ÷7 ÷2 ÷5 . Exercise 27. hj ) |CG ( gi . Take b to be the re¯ection in the axis shown: . b: a3 b2 1. below. b) 36 18 12 18 9 6 12 6 4 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 2 2 À2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 2 À2 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 0 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 0 0 0 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 Àù2 Àù À1 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 Àù Àù2 À1 g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 ù ù2 1 g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 ù2 ù 1 Chapter 20 1. as in Example 1. hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 (1. ÷ i l 1 for i 2. 5. b) (b.2) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù e2ðia3 6. these characters are irreducible. the character table is complete. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. b) (a. 1) (1.1(3). ÷3 ÷2 .15 and 17. the character table of D6 3 D6 is as shown. We have recorded ÷ as ÷5 . Taking D6 ka. a) (a. ÷ S as ÷4 and ÷ A as ÷2 . 1) (b. Since k÷ i . Since G has seven conjugacy classes.Chapter 20 423 5. (a) Regard D8 as the subgroup of S4 which permutes the four corners of a square. 4. a) (b. The table also records the trivial character ÷1 . a) (1. Character table of D6 3 D6 ( gi . 1) (a. these are irreducible by Propositions 13.14.

dr ø r for some non-negative integers di . . ÷11 be the irreducible characters of S6 . Write d k÷ 5 H. . and take the character table of H to be gi |CH ( gi )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 (1 3)(2 4) 8 1 1 1 1 À2 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 (1 3) 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (see Example 16. H V4 and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree 3 (see Section 18.14. 7. . . For an example with d 3. we ®nd that the characters ÷ i 5 A6 (i 1. For examples with d 1 or 2. â (1 À 1 0 0 À1 0 á â p 5)a2 1 0 0 À1 0 â á 1 À1 1 0 2 À1 À1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 0 Note: á (1 3.6) gives ÷(1) d 1 X X X d r < d 2 X X X d 2 < nX 1 r 4.424 Representations and characters of groups Then a 3 (1 2 3 4). 9) are distinct irreducible characters of A6 . Let ø1 . or using (20. k÷11 5 A6 . we obtain from ÷11 5 A6 the two irreducible characters which we have called ø6 and ø7 .5. 3. . . Either by direct calculation. . . ÷3 5 H ø1 ø4 . these give the characters ø1 . . ø5 in our character table below.17. ÷4 5 H ø3 ø5 . Then ÷ 5 H d1 ø1 . ÷2 5 H ø4 . .1. ÷5 5 H ø2 ø5 X 2. take G S3 and H a subgroup of order 2. ÷5 of S4 as in Section 18. . . . ø r be the irreducible characters of H. Arguing as in Example 20. as in Example 19. . Also. .13). ÷ 5 Hl H < 3 follows at once from Proposition 20. ÷ 5 Hl H . take G A4 . Let ÷1 . 5.3). We obtain ÷1 5 H ø1 .3(3) or Section 18. . . Since each ø i has degree 1. Character table of A6 gi 1 (1 2 3) |C A6 ( g i )| 360 9 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 ø6 ø7 1 5 10 9 5 8 8 1 2 1 0 À1 À1 À1 p (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4 5) (1 3 4 5 2) (1 2 3)(4 5 6) (1 2 3 4)(5 6) 8 5 5 9 4 1 1 À2 1 1 0 0 5)a2.2). and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree d. . (b) Take the irreducible characters ÷1 . b 3 (1 3) gives the required isomorphism. ÷11 5 A6 l 2. the inequality (20. . The inequality k÷ 5 H.

(a) Let u 1 À a2 b À a2 b. upon restriction to A7 we get at least seven irreducible characters of A7 . It is suf®cient to prove that if U is a CH-submodule of CH then dim (U 4 G) jG : Hjdim U . From the remaining fourteen irreducible characters of S7 . Hence sp (u) is a C H-submodule of CH. 2. Since 20 occurs only once in the list of degrees for S7 . ÷4 5 H ÷5 5 H ø1 ø2 ø3 . 35X Chapter 21 1. 14. 6. 10.Chapter 21 425 5. 10. We are told that A7 has exactly nine conjugacy classes. Let Hgj (1 < j < m) be the distinct right . the induced module U 4 G is irreducible. the elements u and ua form a basis of U 4 G.13). ø2 4 G ø3 4 G ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 X 3. Label the characters of H as follows: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 1 1 (1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 (1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . Hence the irreducible characters of A7 have degrees 1. (a) ÷1 5 H ÷2 5 H ø1 . (b) Using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. (c) The character ø of U and the character ø 4 G of U 4 G are given by 1 ø 1 a2 À1 b 1 a2 b À1 1 ø4G 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 Since hø 4 G. 21. Then ua2 Àu and ub u. and we get precisely seven if and only if the restriction of each of the fourteen characters is irreducible. ÷3 5 H ø2 ø3 . ø 4 Gi 1. 14. 15. the restriction of the irreducible character of degree 20 to A7 must be the sum of two different irreducible characters of degree 10. (b) Since every element of G belongs to H or to Ha. See (20. we obtain ø1 4 G ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 ÷5 .

we deduce from Theorem 14. and on all other elements the values are zero. Cycle-shape ö4G ø4G (1) 240 720 (7) 2 À1 (3. that either (1) ø 4 G is irreducible. . 5. the values are as follows. We have hø9 4 G. ÷ i 5 Hi H . We have |G: H|ø(1) d1 ÷1 (1) . Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H. ö 5 Hi H hø. ÷ i 5 H di ø â where either â is a character of H or â 0. where d i hø 4 G. Also. . .23. say ø 4 G ÷. ÷i G T 0 D hø9.1 (also twice). By applying the result of Exercise 6. since ø is irreducible. (Compare Proposition 20. 4. Hence dim(U 4 G) dim(U (CG)) m dim U . Then ÷(1) 2ø(1) and k÷ 5 H. (÷ö) 5 Hi H hø 4 G. Ugm . dk ÷ k (1). The values of ö 4 G and ø 4 G are given by Proposition 21. where Ugj {ugj : u P U}. 3) 12 0 6.9. By using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem twice.) . On elements of cycle-shapes (1). 3).17 that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G (ø 4 G)÷. as in the proof of Proposition 20. ÷ i i G hø. hence ÷ 5 H is reducible. 7. (7) and (3. we obtain h(ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G. Hence. Thus ÷ i (1) > di ø(1). öi G X Since this holds for all irreducible characters ö of G. Suppose ®rst that ø 4 G is irreducible. Ug m is direct (since the elements in Ugj are linear combinations of elements in the right coset Hgj ). then for precisely one other irreducible character ö of H we have ø 4 G ö 4 G. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. öi G hø(÷ 5 H).11.426 Representations and characters of groups cosets of H in G. ÷öi G h(ø 4 G)÷. . dim (Ugj ) dim U (since u 3 ugj (u P U) is a vector space isomorphism). together with the result of Exercise 19. . ÷ 5 Hi H T 0 D ø9 ø or öX Thus If ø 4 G is irreducible. . say ÷ 5 H ø ö. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. and therefore jG: Hjø(1) > (d 2 X X X d 2 )ø(1)X 1 k The required result follows. or (2) ø 4 G is the sum of two different irreducible characters of the same degree. The sum Ug1 . Then U(CG) Ug1 . øl H 1. Let ö be an irreducible character of G. we deduce.

each degree divides 15 (Theorem 22. since both sides of this equation take the same values on all elements of G. ÷l kb÷reg . The degree of each irreducible character is 1 or 2. Then ö a1 G b÷reg . We have hø9 4 G. 2.11. and ø9 is an irreducible character of H such that ø9 4 G has ÷1 or ÷2 as a constituent. then kö. Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H. then ø9 ø. 3. and so G is abelian by Proposition 9. (Compare Proposition 20.Chapter 22 427 Suppose next that ø 4 G is reducible.12.11 show that there are r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree q. ÷l P Z. moreover.12. This time. The number of linear characters divides 15 (Theorem 17. Then ÷1 (1) ø(1) and k÷1 5 H. Use Theorems 11. say ø 4 G ÷1 ÷2. (a) By hypothesis. (b) jG9j p by Theorem 17.11 and 22.11 and 22. b P C such that ö(g) a for all g T 1 and ö(1) a bjGj. (a) Since G is non-abelian. (b) We have h1 G . .18). Hence every irreducible character has degree 1. (c) The number of conjugacy classes of G is r s.11). (For more information on groups of order pq.11 again. Theorems 11. ÷1 i G T 0 D hø9. where r divides pq. öl and k÷reg . and the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is 15 (Theorem 11. and r s 7 or 10 or 16. ÷l 0.) Chapter 22 1. 17. 17.12. and r . öi h÷reg . 12 s . see Chapter 25. öi 1 (a bjGj (jGj À 1)a) a b.18. Hence kö À a1 G . and jGj 1 jGj(a bjGj) a bjGjX jGj Since ö is a character. not every irreducible character has degree 1 (Proposition 9. and if there are r characters of degree 1 and s of degree 2. 1 < s and r sq 2 pqX Hence r q and s ( p À 1)/q. there exist a. ÷l P Z and k1 G . But kö À a1 G . hence ÷1 5 H ø.12). ÷1 5 Hi H T 0 D ø9 øX Thus If ø 4 G ÷1 ÷2 where ÷1 and ÷2 are irreducible characters of G. both k1 G . öl are integers. (c) If ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G.11). 22 16X Hence r 4 or 8 or 16. øl H 1. then r divides 16. ÷l bjGj÷(1)ajGj b÷(1).) 4.

1 and Corollary 23. part (c) implies that b|G| is an integer. 1. and hence á À÷(1)a2. and ÷ i (g) Æ1 for 4 < i < 7. with ÷1 1 G . ÷ i (1) ÷ i ( g) mod 5 for all i. 1). and hence also b. Æ1 for all i. if g2 1 then g 1. (b) We deduce from part (a) that ÷ i (g) 0 for two values of i. The only possibility which is consistent with equation (IV) is that the values of ÷ i (1) for 4 < i < 7 are 1. 3. and (II) 1 7 i2 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) 0X From equation (I) we deduce that either ÷ i ( g) 0. we have ÷( g) ÷( g À1 ) ÷( g) ÷( g) 2÷( g). say i 2. or ÷ i (g) Æ2 for exactly one i and ÷ i (g) 0 for all other i . ÷2 (1) ÷3 (1) 0 mod 5. (a) By Theorem 22. . we have (I) 1 7 i2 (÷ i ( g))2 5. and from equation (III) we have (IV) 7 (÷ i (1))2 69X i4 Hence the possibilities for the pairs of integers (÷ i (1). The stated result follows. is an integer. Therefore.5. À1). 1). (Further information about the number of characters ÷ such that ÷ ÷ appears in Theorem 23. But À÷(1)a2 is a rational number which is not an integer (since ÷(1) divides jGj. 4. and ÷(g) is an algebraic integer. hence is odd). then k÷. By the column orthogonality relations. Partition Gnf1g into subsets by putting each element with its inverse. 120.27. ÷7 be the irreducible characters of G. Let ÷1 .428 Representations and characters of groups (d) Since ÷(1) divides jGj. 6 in some order. Also (III) 2 2 7 i1 (÷ i (1))2 120X Since 5 10 . a. the second possibility is ruled out by equation (II).27. 5. 1 G l 0. . Hence ÷( g) ÷(1) 2á gPG for some algebraic integer á. (6. Thus ÷ 1 G . Therefore. (a) If g P G then g has odd order. . 1 G i ÷( g)X jGj gPG (c) If ÷ T 1 G in part (b). since 1 h÷.) 6. ÷ i ( g)) with 4 < i < 7 are (1. (b) For all g P G. By Corollary 22. ÷(g) is an integer for all characters ÷. by part (a). we deduce that ÷2 (1) ÷3 (1) 5.2. by Lagrange's Theorem.16. . 4. by part (b). (c) By Corollary 22. (d) We now have the following part of the character table of G: . (4. This contradicts Proposition 22. Each such subset has size 2.

i1 we deduce that ÷4 ( g5 ) À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷2 (g5 ) À÷3 (g5 ) 1.Chapter 22 gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 g3 2 8 1 g4 3 6 1 g5 4 4 1 g6 6 6 1 429 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 We successively calculate the ®ve remaining columns of the character table. These can be obtained from the column orthogonality relations. The character table of G is as shown. 1. 5 and 7 we obtain ÷2 (g6 ) À÷3 (g6 ) ÷4 (g6 ) À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷5 (g6 ) À÷6 (g6 ) 1. ÷ i ( g4 ) ÷ i (1) mod 3 and 7 (÷ i ( g4 ))2 6. By applying the column orthogonality relations involving column 6 and columns 3. Since 7 ÷ i (1)÷ i (g5 ) 0. (3) Since ÷ i (g3 ) ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g3 ))2 8. Also i1 ÷ i (g3 )÷ i ( gr ) 0 for r 4. from which 7 we see that ÷ i (g3 ) 1 for 1 < i < 4. 7. 0. 1. From the relation i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 3 ) 0 we now deduce that the entries in column 3 are 1. (4) We have ÷ i (g6 ) ÷ i (g4 ) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g6 ))2 6. 1. we deduce that i1 ÷ i (g3 ) Æ1 for 1 < i < 4 and the values of ÷ i ( g3 ) for 5 < i < 7 are that 7 0. À1. 0. 1. À2 in order from the top. Hence the values of i1 ÷ i (g4 ) for 1 < i < 7 are 1. Hence ÷ i (g5 ) Æ1 i1 for 1 < i < 4 and ÷ i (g5 ) 0 for 5 < i < 7. 0. j. We are told that ÷ i (gj ) is integer for all i. Therefore i1 ÷ i (g6 ) Æ1 for 1 < i < 6 and ÷7 (g6 ) 0. 4. (5) Only the entries in column 2 remain to be calculated. respectively. (2) Next. ÷ i (g5 ) ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g5 ))2 4. À1. an (1) First. 1. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 À1 1 À1 À2 2 0 g3 2 8 1 1 1 1 0 0 À2 g4 3 6 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 0 g5 4 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 g6 6 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 . Æ2 in some order. 0. 1.

either i j 0 or n j is even and i j n j a2. summing over all the irreducible characters ÷. Since x 2 1 and x has odd order. which is of the form x n anÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 (ar P Z)X Conversely. m 2n 1 for some integer n. ë is therefore an algebraic integer. a i b (0 < i < n À 1) (and also a na2 if n is even)X This gives n 1 elements if n is odd. Hence the number of real irreducible characters is 2 m . .14). The character ÷ of G C n1 3 . it follows that ë is an eigenvalue of A. assume that ë is a root of the polynomial p(x) a0 a1 x . 4.13 of é÷ that é÷ À1 if and only if ÷ A 1 G . 3. by Lagrange's Theorem. However. . Now the ni th root of unity ë i can be À1 if and only if ni is even. Therefore x À1 gÀ1 xg x. the elements g of G which satisfy g2 1 are i precisely those elements g11 . Adopt the notation of Theorem 9. Suppose ®rst that ë is an eigenvalue of an n 3 n matrix A. a nÀ1 x nÀ1 x n (a r P Z). Chapter 23 1. Since A has integer entries. . . Let m be the order of g. The result follows. . 3 C n r which is given by i i ÷( g 11 X X X g irr ) ë11 X X X ë irr is real if and only if ë i Æ1 for all i with 1 < i < r. Since ÷(1) 2 we have ÷ A (1) 1. Hence gÀ2 xg2 x. all of whose entries are integers. The number of such elements is also 2 m . it follows that x 1. g irr where for each j. Let ë1 and ë2 be the eigenvalues of gr. The elements g of D2 n for which g2 1 are 1. Then ÷ A (g) 1 2 2 2 2((ë1 ë2 ) À (ë1 ë2 )) ë1 ë2 det (gr) (see Proposition 19. . and n 2 elements if n is even. . . As p(ë) 0. 2.8. nr which are even. Since é÷ < 1 for all ÷. and hence ë is a root of the polynomial det (xIn À A). Then det (A À ëIn ) 0. . Then gÀ1 xg x À1 for some g P G. It now follows from the De®nition 23. These numbers coincide with ÷(1). Then g g2( n1) P CG (x). Let I H 0 1 0 XXX 0 f 0 0 1 0 g g f f 0 0 0 0 g f F Af F F gX F g F g f F d 0 0 0 1 e Àa0 Àa1 Àa2 XXX Àa nÀ1 Check that det (xIn À A) p(x). Assume that x P G and x is real. . Since jGj is odd. . so g2 P CG (x). it follows from the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions that we must have é÷ 1 for all ÷. where m is the number of the integers n1 .430 Representations and characters of groups 7.

Let r be the representation obtained by using the basis v1 . hence det (gr) 1 for all g P G if and only if å n À1. v j ). å n v2 ) â(v1 .e. according to whether n is odd or even. the subspace {u P V: â(u. QQt I) such that Q(PBPt )QÀ1 is diagonal. It follows that n is even. as n ÷(1) the result is proved. and é÷2 é÷4 0 or 1. . so é÷ Æ1. according to whether j is odd or even. we have At ÀA. j P {1. v j g À1 )X For example. f 9 of V such that â1 ( f 9.Chapter 23 431 5. . The de®nition of â shows that â is symmetric if å n 1 and â is skew-symmetric if å n À1. By part (a) (or part (b)) and the construction of the characters ø j in Exercise 17. Since é÷ À1. . Clearly é÷1 é÷3 1. v1 ) â(v2 . respectively. The result now follows from Theorem 23. there is an orthogonal matrix Q (i. . Hence ÷ (é÷)÷(1) 2. according to whether n is odd or even. Hence â is G-invariant. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. X X X . By a well known property of symmetric matrices. . (a) First. Hence an is the only element of order 2. b ij â( f i . v1 bÀ1 ). .3 for the characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) and ÷ j (1 < j < 4) of T4 n. . it is easy to check that ÷( g) is real for all g P G. . f 9) ä ij for all i. Write Q (q ij ). . 6. v2 of V. there exists a nonzero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form â on V. j. â(v1 b. Since â is skew-symmetric. so det A (À1) n det A. fn of V and de®ne the symmetric n 3 n matrices A (aij ) and B (bij ) by aij â1 ( f i . The result now follows from Exercise 4. (d) Refer the Exercise 18. v n of V and let A be the n 3 n matrix with ij-entry â(v i . . (c) The elements of T4 n are ai and ai b (0 < i < 2n À 1). f j )X By applying the Gram±Schmidt orthogonalization process. As â is G-invariant. Also A is invertible by (Ã ). we get éø j À1 or 1.16. v1 ) å n â(v1 . since V is irreducible it follows that fu P V : â(u. respectively. . Then det (ar) 1 and det (br) Àå n . respectively. Therefore det (At ) (À1) n det A. 2} then â(v i g. Let 9 n i j P ( pij ) be the n 3 n matrix which is given by f9 pij f j X i j Then PAP I n and PBP is symmetric. so det A T 0. en of V by ei qij f 9 X j j t t . and de®ne the basis e1 . 7. v) 0 for all v P V} is a CGsubmodule of V. v) 0 for all v P V g f0gX (Ã ) Pick a basis v1 .6. we may construct a basis f 1 . (b) It is easy to check that if g a or b and i. a has order 2n and ai b has order 4. Choose a basis f1 . . v j ) â(v i . f j ). nÀ1 Therefore j1 (éø j )ø j (1) 0 or À2.

0 x 0 x9 0 xx9 associativity is a property of matrix multiplication. . and consider the vector space V9 over C with basis v1 . i. and since QPBPt Qt is diagonalX â(ei . ÷1 and ÷2 are the only linear characters. note that 1 y 1 y9 1 y9 yx . inverse of is . Chapter 25 1. (c) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. if G is simple then since G9 v G. Then V9 is a CG-module. By Schur's Lemma there exists ë P C such that vW ëv for all v P V9. we have G9 1. â å 2 å 6 å 7 å 8 å 10 X . But v1 W ëv1 P V. and let V be the RG-submodule of the regular RG-module which is spanned by 1 À a and 1 À a2 . By the orthogonality relation for c2 we have ÷ i (t)2 |CG (t)| 2 (the sum over all irreducible characters ÷ i . Call it G. For closure. and r is a homomorphism as (Hx)(r gh ) Hxgh (Hx)(r g )(r h ). so ë P R. c2 be the columns of the character table of G corresponding to the classes {1} and t G . so we may take ÷1 (t) 1. . Hence |G : G9| 2 by Theorem 17. Vx P G D g P xPG xÀ1 HxX Finally.11. Hx. (a) The proof is similar to that of part (1) of Schur's Lemma 9. 10. For the last part. . since a linear character must take the value Æ1 on t. with ÷1 1 G ). It is clear that the given set of matrices has size p( p À 1). . Let ç e2ðia5 and å e2ðia11 . and write á å å 3 å 4 å 5 å 9 . Let c1 . Further.1. 0 1 0 x 0 x À1 Therefore G is a group. . (b) Let v1 . 8. ej ) ä ij . ej ) 0 if i T j. r is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù) S n with kernel which is contained in H. as Hxg Hyg A Hx Hy. . G is abelian. 9. r g is a permutation. 2. We have g P ker r D Hxg Hx. since QPAPt Qt I n . . xgx À1 Vx P G D xPG x À1 P H. Then V is an irreducible RG-module.e.432 Then Representations and characters of groups â1 (ei . De®ne W: V 3 V by vW av (v P V). . v n be a basis of the RG-module V. Now the orthogonality of c1 and c2 gives ÷1 (1) ÷2 (1) 1 and ÷2 (t) À1. ÷2 (t) Æ1 and ÷ i (t) 0 for i > 3. v n . identity is 1 0 1 y 1 À yx À1 . Hence G C2 . which we are assuming to be an irreducible CG-module.

4.Chapter 25 Character table of F11. Therefore aÀ1 P aG D u m À1 mod p for some m D p 1 mod 4X (c) ÷ i (a) 1 for all the q linear characters ÷ i of G. and we ®nd that p ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are (À1 Æ i p)a2. so by Exercise 1. . (a) Note that À1 is the only element of order 2 in ZÃ. If p 1 mod 4. b9À1 ab9 av iX Hence G1 G2 . so p ÷(a)÷(a) q ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ö2 (a)ö2 (a)X ÷ Hence ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ö2 (a)ö2 (a) ( p 1)a2. Also. Hence ö2 (a) ö1 (a). Hence bm has order q. since both m and v have u order q modulo p. there exists an integer m p such that u m v mod p. Hence 0 ÷(1)÷(a) q qö1 (a) qö2 (a)X ÷ irred m Therefore ö1 (a) ö2 (a) À1.6 that ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are not both real. bÀ m abm au av . This time. Also. 2ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ( p 1)a2. aG {au : m P Z}. are (À1 Æ p)a2. Then G1 ha.6(c). then a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . Hence p u m À1 mod p for some m D the element u of ZÃ has even order p D q is even D p 1 mod 4X (b) By Proposition 25. Also. If p À1 mod 4.9. Recall that ZÃ is cyclic. Hence ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) ÷. 5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 55 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 a 11 1 1 1 1 1 á â a2 11 1 1 1 1 1 â á b 5 1 ç ç2 ç3 ç4 0 0 b2 5 1 ç2 ç4 ç ç3 0 0 b3 5 1 ç3 ç ç4 ç2 0 0 433 b4 5 1 ç4 ç3 ç2 ç 0 0 3. |CG (a)| p. Let b9 bm. m is coprime to q. and it follows from Corollary 15. b9: ap b9q 1. then a is conjugate to aÀ1 and so ÷(a) is real for all characters p so (ö1 (a))2 (ö2 (a))2 ( p 1)a2.

Character table of E gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 18 1 1 2 2 2 2 a 9 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 b 9 1 1 À1 2 À1 À1 ab 9 1 1 À1 À1 2 À1 a2 b 9 1 1 À1 À1 À1 2 c 2 1 À1 0 0 0 0 6. 7. Then ÷8 ÷7 ÷2 and ÷9 ÷7 ÷3 are also irreducible. E9 H. All the elements outside H form a single conjugacy class of E. Let H ka. Let H2 ka3 . The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. as shown. Since ZÃ is cyclic of order p p À 1 and u has order ( p À 1)a2. (b) C2 3 F13. fa r : 3 B rg. and for all i with 1 < i < 6. so E has exactly two linear characters. 3. ÷5 and ÷6 are obtained similarly. . fa r b2 : r 0. Z(E) {1}. . fa r b4 : r 0. H 2 bi D6 . fa3 . the conjugacy class hE consists of h and hÀ1 .10). ö1 (a) m1 å u . it follows that {u. fa r b3 : 0 < r < 8g. there exist gi P E such that gi T 1 but ÷ i (gi ) ÷ i (1) (so gi P Ker ÷ i ). fa r b5 : 0 < r < 8gX Let H1 kal. (a) F13. 5. a6 g. . fa r b4 : 3 B rg. ÷6 of G. b2 l. The result now follows from part (c). fa r b2 : 3 B rg. 3.18). . u 2 . say ÷1 and ÷2 . bl.3 (see Theorem 25. 8.434 Representations and characters of groups ( pÀ1)a2 m (d) By Theorem 25. The ®nal irreducible character ÷10 can be found by using the column orthogonality relations.18). . Then for all h P H. A typical non-trivial linear character of H is 1 ÷ 1 a 1 a2 1 b ù b2 ù2 ab ù ab2 ù2 a2 b ù a2 b2 ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . Also. Lift the irreducible character of D6 of degree 2 to obtain ÷7 in the table below.10. Hence we get six linear characters ÷1 . Then H1 v G and Ga H 1 C6 . 6g. Then H2 v G and Ga H 2 h H 2 a. . (c) D6 3 F13. fa r b: 0 < r < 8g. u ( pÀ1)a2 } is precisely the set of quadratic residues modulo p. . The characters ÷4 . . .3 (see Theorem 19. Then ÷ 4 E is the irreducible character ÷3 given in the table which follows. 6g.3 (see Theorem 19.

by Theorem 11X12X Since s p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 and s is an integer. by Corollary 21. by Theorem 17X11. Then r pm for some m. b: a9 b6 1. øl H T 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. Assume that G has r linear characters and s irreducible characters of degree p. ø 4 Gi G T 0 by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. But ø(1) 1. hz 2 }. since H is abelian. hz. {z} and {z 2 } are conjugacy classes of H.20. Character table of H (a non-abelian group of order 27) gi |C H ( g i )| ÷00 ÷01 ÷02 ÷10 ÷11 ÷12 ÷20 ÷21 ÷22 ö1 ö2 1 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 z 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù 3ù2 z2 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù2 3ù a 9 1 1 1 ù ù ù ù2 ù2 ù2 0 0 a2 9 1 1 1 ù2 ù2 ù2 ù ù ù 0 0 b 9 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 0 0 ab 9 1 ù ù2 ù ù2 1 ù2 1 ù 0 0 a2 b 9 1 ù ù2 ù2 1 ù ù ù2 1 0 0 b2 9 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 0 0 ab2 9 1 ù2 ù ù 1 ù2 ù2 ù 1 0 0 a2 b2 9 1 ù2 ù ù2 ù 1 ù 1 ù2 0 0 Note: ù e2ðia3 . Then k÷ 5 H. and so ÷(1) 1 or p by Theorem 22. the conjugacy class hH {h.Chapter 26 Character table of G ka. {1}. Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. Hence ÷(1) < p. and (ø 4 G)(1) p. For all other elements h of H. m is at least 2. 2. and r sp2 pn . bÀ1 ab a2 l gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 Note: ù e2ðia3 1 54 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 6 a3 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 À3 a 9 ab2 9 ab4 9 b 6 b2 18 b3 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 b4 18 435 b5 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 ù2 ù Àù ù2 1 ù ù2 ù2 ù 1 1 1 À1 1 1 ù2 ù ù ù2 1 ù ù2 Àù2 ù À1 À1 À1 0 2 À1 Àù2 Àù 0 2ù2 À1 Àù Àù2 0 2ù 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ù Àù2 ù2 ù 1 À1 ù ù2 ù2 Àù 2 0 2ù 0 2ù2 0 0 0 Chapter 26 1. Therefore h÷.11.

the given representation is irreducible. By lifting the irreducible characters of D16. (c) A routine calculation shows that every matrix which commutes with each of A. l. C and D has the form ëI for some ë P C. BC CB. 3. (a) Check that AB ÀBA. u) with r. the group K which appears in Theorem 26. BD ÀDB. ÷7 of G as shown in the table at the top of this page. {ar b: r even}. j. we get a representation A i B j C k D l Z m 3 (À1) ir js kt lu X Together with the irreducible representation of degree 4. u P {0. Here. . 5. these are all the irreducible representations of G. (d) Since G has irreducible representations of degrees 1 and 4. Therefore G9 h Zi (see Proposition 17. {ar b: r odd}. Since Gah Zi is abelian.12. Hence by Corollary 9. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 øj ( j 1. . 7) come from inducing to G those linear characters ÷ of kal for which ÷(a8 ) À1. 1 32 a8 32 a 16 a2 16 a3 16 a4 16 a5 16 a6 16 a7 16 b 4 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 2 2 p0 À2 0 2 0 0 p p À2 p0 2 2 2 0 Àp2 À2 Àp2 0 2 0 p p 2 2 À 2 0 2 À2 2 0 À 2 0 2 À2 cj c2 j c3 j c4 j c5 j c6 j c7 j 0 5. {ar . The character table of D16 is given in Section 26. aÀ r } (1 < r < 7). m P f0. B. t. 5. it follows that g 2 P h Zi for all g P G. {a8 }. s. this shows that jGj 32.8 (D16 G1 ) and in Section 18. and GaK D16 .4 is {1. so jGj < 32. .3. Hence Z P G. s. 1g. Combined with part (b). b2 a8 . We obtain representations as follows: . also G is a 2-group. G has 11 conjugacy classes: {1}. Then the four characters ø j ( j 1. CD ÀDC. b: a16 1.436 Representations and characters of groups Character table of G ka. and Gah Zi is abelian while G is non-abelian. 7) Note: cm e2ði ma16 eÀ2ði ma16 2 cos (mð/8) 3.10). jGj > 12 42 17. by Theorem 11.3. Since G9 h Zi. These are as follows: for each (r. 1}. AC ÀCA. since g4 1 for all g P G. Hence every element of G has the form A i B j C k D l Z m for some i. (a) Let å e2ðia8 . k. 4. we obtain the characters ÷1 . G has precisely 16 representations of degree 1. (b) A2 ÀB2 ÀC2 D2 I. a8 }. . AD DA. t. 3.

z 3 d 0 1 0 e. Therefore j Z(G)j p or p2 . b 3 d 1 0 0 e. The following table records the numbers of elements of orders 1. b 3 d À1 0 0 e.b3 3 . . G9 : G1 Order Order Order Order 1 2 4 8 1 9 2 4 G2 1 1 10 4 G3 1 5 6 4 G4 1 3 4 8 G5 1 3 12 0 G6 1 7 8 0 G7 1 11 4 0 G8 1 3 12 0 G9 1 5 10 0 Therefore no two of G1 . Hence a .16. 7. so G5 T G8 . (c) Check that the matrices satisfy the required relations.b3 2 2 Chapter 26 0 1 1 0 0 1 3 . (a) By Lemma 26.b3 . But G5 aG5 9 C2 3 C4 . Gj has no faithful irreducible representation.1(1) we have {1} T Z(G) T G. i f G8 : a 3 d 0 0 H 0 0 0 À1 H I 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 g f g f g Ài 0 e. G9 are isomorphic. .z3 X À1 1 0 0 i (b) If j 5. 6. z 3 d 0 1 0 eX I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 1 0 0 1 6. so the representations are faithful. . . except possibly G5 and G8 . . Assume that j Z(G)j p2 .b3 . 3 437 0 å 0 0 å À1 2 3 å 0 2 0 å 0 1 0 . and g P CG ( g). while G8 aG8 9 C2 3 C2 3 C2 . . 7 or 8 then Z(Gj ) {1. À1 0 2 3 0 1 .b3 . . 4 and 8 in G1 . a2 .1(2). 1 0 å3 3 2 3 0 0 1 . z. . If g P Z(G) then Z(G) < CG (g) T G. It is easy to see that the matrices generate groups with more than eight elements. 2.2 G1 : a 3 2 G2 : a 3 G3 : a 3 G4 : a 3 2 G5 : a 3 å å 0 À1 3 . by Proposition 9. å5 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 0 0 1 i 0 . so give representations. Also jGa Z(G)j T p by Lemma 26. a2 z} C2 3 C2 . Since Z(Gj ) is not cyclic. (d) The following give faithful representations: H I H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 f g f g f g G7 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e.

b and all elements in Z.1(1). bÀ1 abZ aÀ1 ZX Then a2 b2 z for some z P Z. either G9 Z(G) G9. Part (b) follows. Chapter 27 1. p))X 1 z A c 0. (b) Assume that G has r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree p. (b) If G is a non-abelian group of order 16. and if r p2 then r s 2 p2 À 1. then by Exercise 7. 8. (a) Let Z Z(G). 3) of order 3 which are not conjugate to each other. p). 2. we have a2 1. Check that and 1 0 1 1 1 À1 0 1 are elements of G SL (2. The element À1 0 0 À1 lies in Z(G).12). a dX 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 z À1 0 À1 z Therefore z aI. Since ÷(1)2 p4 (Theorem 11. Hence |G9 Z(G)| p. Assume that z Then a c b d P Z(SL (2. if |Z(G)| p2 then |G9| p. and 1 1 z A c Àb. in which case Ga(G9 Z(G)) T Q8 by part (a). in which case Ga(G9 Z(G)) is abelian. (c) Note that G9 Z(G) T {1} by Lemma 26. Therefore. and since z P SL (2. a2 Z b2 Z. with a4 P Z. G has p2 ( p4 À p2 )a p conjugacy classes. Since a2 commutes with a. so r sp2 p4 . bZi. there are no irreducible characters of degree greater than p. so a Æ1. By parts (a) and (b). and hence ba2 b3 z b2 zb a2 b. and if |G9| p2 then |Z(G)| p. and assume that Ga Z haZ.438 Representations and characters of groups jC G ( g)j p3 and j gG j p. or G9 Z(G) Z(G). as r s is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. Therefore jGaG9j r p2 or p3 . we have a2 P Z. Therefore Ga Z T Q8 . and .

The values of ÷5 . The group G permutes these subspaces among themselves. Hence GafÆIg Im ö. without loss of generality. namely the spans of the vectors (0. Finally. The equation j ÷ j (g4 )÷ j ( g 4 ) 6 gives áá 1. ÷4 of G are obtained by lifting to G the irreducible characters of A4 (which are given in Section 18.1. á Æ1. one of ÷5 . 6.2). The characters ÷1 . that ÷5 is real. therefore GafÆIg A4 . where á is real. ÷2 . Exercise 13. ÷3 . ÷(g5 ) ÷( g4 ) and ÷(g6 ) ÷( g7 ) for all ÷.Chapter 27 0 À1 1 0 439 has order 4. whose values on g4 are áù and áù2 . so by Theorem 23. g2 . Since ÷5 ÷2 and ÷5 ÷3 are irreducible characters of G of degree 2.27. Assume. 7.5 implies that ÷ j ( g7 ) À÷ j ( g4 ). ÷6 and ÷7 must be real. Then ÷5 ( g4 ) á. Also á T 0. which is given below. 0). ÷6 . (2. by Corollary 22. they must be ÷6 and ÷7 in some order. Check that Ker ö {ÆI}. so we obtain a homomorphism ö: G 3 S4 . ÷7 on the elements g1 . . 1) and (1. 1). Then á À1 since ÷5 ( g4 ) ÷5 (1) mod 3. say ÷5 ÷2 ÷6 and ÷5 ÷3 ÷7 . g3 can be deduced from the column orthogonality relations. Hence the following are conjugacy class representatives: g1 1 0 1 24 0 1 g2 À1 0 0 À1 2 24 g3 0 À1 4 4 1 0 g4 1 1 0 1 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| 3 6 g5 1 0 À1 1 3 6 g6 À1 1 0 À1 6 6 g7 À1 À1 0 À1 6 6 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| We now describe how to construct the character table of G. a subgroup of S4 of order 12. Since á is real. Now note that for j 5. (1. 1). First observe that the vector space (Z3 )2 has exactly four 1-dimensional subspaces. Note that G has three real conjugacy classes.

25. . . 1 G l 1. kë : G. . Hence 1 T : G 1 G ÷. . h3 Z. 0 1 0 4 0 2 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 À1 h4 Z. (a) For the character table of T. . Also.23): gi |CG ( g i )| 1T 4 G ë4G g1 168 8 8 g2 8 0 0 g3 4 0 0 g4 3 2 À1 g5 7 1 1 g6 7 1 1 We ®nd that k1 T : G. Apply Proposition 17. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. ë : Gl 1. h2 Z.440 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. 3) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù e2ðia3 3. so ë : G is irreducible. write ö ë : G. notice that T is isomorphic to the group of order 21 whose character table is found in Exercise 17. where 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 0 2 0 4 0 h1 Z. 4. h5 . h5 ZX 0 1 0 1 Two of the linear characters of T are hi |CT (h i )| 1T ë h1 21 1 1 h2 3 1 ù h3 3 1 ù2 h4 7 1 1 h5 7 1 1 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 À1 Àù Àù2 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 À1 Àù2 Àù g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 1 ù2 ù g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 1 ù ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . The values of 1 T : G and ë : G are as follows (see Proposition 21. Representatives of the conjugacy classes of T are h1 .6. 1 T : Gl 2 and k1 T : G.2 and Example 21.

÷5 can readily be calculated using the column orthogonality relations (noting that gi is real if and only if 1 < i < 4). the (d) Since 11 ÷ j (g3 )÷ j ( g3 ) 8. ÷11 . ÷l 1. Æ1. 0. by Corollary 22.5 (noting that ÷ j (ÀI) T ÷ j (I) for 7 < j < 11. By Corollary 22. ÷ j (1) is even. The only possibility is that two of ÷7 (1). since ÀI is not in kernel of these characters). 1 G l k÷ S . and so æ 2ø with ø irreducible.27 again. ÷3 . . and none is a constituent of æ.16. 2 2 j1 (÷ j (1)) 168. æ cannot therefore be the sum of four irreducible characters. so either æ 2ø for some irreducible character ø. . we deduce that ÷ j (g3 ) 0 for 7 < j < 11. . (a) Compare the proof of Lemma 27. Since there are only six irreducible characters in all. Note that because g2 lies in Z(G). or æ is the sum of four distinct irreducible characters (cf. respectively. ÷6 in the character table shown below.14. we obtain the characters ÷1 . ÷11 (1). g3 and g6 : g1 øA 6 g2 6 g3 2 g6 0 .14): gi |CG ( g i )| ÷ ÷S æ ø g1 168 7 28 12 6 g2 8 À1 4 4 2 g3 4 À1 0 0 0 g4 3 1 1 0 0 g5 7 0 0 À2 À1 g6 7 0 0 À2 À1 441 We ®nd that k÷ S . The remaining irreducible characters ÷4 .7).Chapter 27 (c) The values of ÷ and ÷ S are as shown below (see Proposition 19. Æ1. . Further. gi and gi g2 have the same centralizer for all i. Next. The congruences ÷(1) ÷(g6 ) mod 3 now give the remaining values on g6 . Use part (c) to ®ll in the values on g2 and g7 . so ÷9 (1) ÷10 (1) 6. ÷7 (1)2 ÷8 (1)2 ÷11 (1)2 96. æl 4. apply part (c). öl k÷ S . ÷(g6 ) P Z for all characters ÷. ö and ÷ are three of the six irreducible characters of G. and ÷11 (1) 8. ÷8 (1). Hence there is a character æ of G such that ÷ S 1 G ö ÷ æX The values of æ are as shown above. ø A has the following values on g1 . We calculate that kæ. 5.27. ö. . . two of ÷7 .) Also. The values of ø are as shown above. ÷2 and ÷6 . are equal to 4. 11 say ÷9 and ÷10 . j1 (Alternatively. Exercise 14. in the character table of G given at the end of Chapter 27. ÷ and ø are the characters ÷1 . . in some order. (e) Theorem 22. . 168. 0. Since By 11 2 j1 (÷ j (g6 )) 6. have degrees 2divisible by 6. (b) By lifting. Now 1 G . and 12 6 . say ÷7 (1) and ÷8 (1). the values of ÷ j (g6 ) for 7 < j < 11 must be Æ1. (f ) By Proposition 19.1. (d) The characters 1 G . (c) Use Exercise 13. g2 .

ø(g5 ) 0. of order 55. Now g2 is conjugate to g3 . and therefore. ÷(g4 ) is real for all ÷. Then 4 11 and 11 ÷ j ( g 4 )2 8 imply that j1 ÷ j ( g 1 )÷ j ( g 4 ) 0 p j1 p ÷9 (g4 ) À÷10 (g4 ) Æ 2. Say ÷9 (g4 ) 2. ÷5 and ÷6 . we have 11 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g 6 ) 0. ÷4 . ®nally. the value on g3 forces ø A ÷6 . This allows us to ®ll in the j1 values of ÷11 . Therefore x (1 Æ i 7)a2.bPZ T Z: a P Z 11 11 X 0 aÀ1 Then T is generated by 1 1 2 0 x Z and y Z. Since g2 is conjugate to g8 . The column orthogonality relations now let us ®nd the remaining values of ÷9 and ÷10 . ÷( g 10 ) ÷(g8 ). ø(g4 ) 0. 6. thereby completing the character table of G. Then ÷8 ÷7 . we get 8 p (x 2 À x)a2 øp( g8 ) À1. Hence 4 (ø( g4 )2 À ø( g 3 ))a2 ø A ( g4 ) ÷6 ( g 4 ) 0. 0 1 0 6 and T has ®ve linear characters æ j (0 < j < 4). using this fact and part (c).442 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. Then the value of ø A on g6 shows that ÷1 is not a constituent of ø A . where æ j : x u y v 3 e2ði jva5 X . Let Z {ÆI} and de®ne the subgroup T of G. 7) gi g1 Order of g i 1 |CG ( g i )| 336 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 7 8 3 3 6 4 4 6 6 8 g2 2 336 1 7 8 3 3 6 À4 À4 À6 À6 À8 g3 4 8 g4 8 8 g5 8 8 g6 3 6 g7 6 6 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 g8 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g9 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 g10 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g11 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 p p 0 0 p 2 Àp 2 0 À 2 2 0 0 0 0 À1 p Note: á (À1 i 7)a2 The values of ø A on g1 and g2 show that ø A is a linear combination of ÷1 . by & ' a b Ã. (g) For i T 6. we ®ll in the values of ÷7 and ÷8 . For all ÷. Similarly. Let x ø(g8 ). Since g4 is conjugate to gÀ1 . Say A ÷7 ( g 8 ) (1 À i 7)a2.

respectively.Chapter 27 443 The characters æ1 4 G and æ2 4 G are irreducible. and ÷5 (g2 ). æ0 4 Gi 2. the j1 values of ÷ j (g3 ) (5 < j < 8) are as shown. 11) gi Order of g i |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 Note: á (À1 p g1 1 660 1 11 12 12 10 10 5 5 g2 2 12 1 À1 0 0 2 À2 1 1 g3 3 6 1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 p g4 6 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 1 1 g5 5 5 1 1 á â 0 0 0 0 g6 5 5 1 1 â á 0 0 0 0 g7 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã g8 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã 5)a2. 8. ÷6 (1). But 8 (÷ j (1))2 250. By Corollary 22. and 8 ÷ j (g3 )2 6. ÷5 (g2 ) 2 À÷6 ( g2 ). ÷4 . so ÷ j (g4 ) Æ1 for 5 < j < 8. note that e2ðia5 eÀ2ðia5 (À1 5)a2X) Let ÷1 1 G . hence. we j1 can complete column 4. By considering 8 ÷ j (1)÷ j (g2 ) 0. ÷1 i 1 and hæ0 4 G. Character table of PSL (2. ÷7 . 5. (In calculating ÷3 (g5 ). without loss j5 of generality. 8 2 Now ÷(g4 ) ÷(g3 ) mod 2 for all ÷. . j1 hence |÷( g2 )| . ÷6 (g2 ) have opposite signs. We have now found four of the eight irreducible characters of G. by Theorem 22. ÷8 take the value 0 on g5 . Note that ÷(gj ) is an integer for 1 < j < 4 and all characters ÷. and 8 ÷ j ( g2 )2 12. 3 for all irreducible ÷. Next. The column orthogonality relations now enable us to ®nish the character table. j1 ÷ j (g2 ) 12. â (À1 À p 5)a2 and ã (À1 i 11)a2 Since 8 ÷ j (g5 )÷ j ( g 5 ) 5. we j1 see that ÷7 (g2 ) ÷8 (g2 ) 1. without loss of generality. namely ÷1 . We have now completed columns 1. ÷5 (1). ÷6 . Hence æ0 4 G ÷1 ÷2 for an irreducible character ÷2 of G. Since ÷(1) ÷(g3 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. We may now conclude from the facts 8 2 that ÷(g2 ) ÷(g1 ) mod 2 and that ÷ j (g2 ) Æ2 for j 5. 5. ÷8 (1) are 10.27. and 8 ÷ j (g4 )2 6.16. Since ÷(g4 ) ÷(g2 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. ÷7 (1). ÷(g2 ) ÷(g4 ) mod 3 for all ÷. 3 and 5 of the character table. We have hæ0 4 G. 10. they are ÷3 and ÷4 in the p table. ÷ j (1) 0 mod 5 for 5 < j < 8. 6 and ÷ j (g2 ) Æ1 for j 7. ÷2 . 2. ÷3 . we deduce that the remaining irreducible j1 characters ÷5 . and j1 ÷ j (g4 ) 6.

q) have representatives as follows.444 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 28 1. indexed by unordered pairs fs. X 2 1 g1 0 2 1 g5 0 X X . 0 1 (c) There are (q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives s 0 d s. 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 g2 g3 g4 1 0 2 0 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 g6 g7 g8 2 2 0 1 2 1 where 3 1 2 1 1 3 X The character table of GL(2. (a) The identity I has centralizer of order q 3 À q. Every element r of F q can be expressed as a square. 1 1 (b) The matrix u1 has centralizer of order q. q) Z 3 SL(2. gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ë1 ø0 ø1 ø0. It now follows easily that GL(2. q).1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 48 1 1 3 3 4 2 2 2 g2 48 1 1 3 3 À4 À2 2 À2 g3 6 1 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 À1 g4 6 1 1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 g5 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 g6 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 2 0 g7 8 1 À1 À1 1 p0 i 2 0 p Ài 2 g8 8 1 À1 À1 1 0 p Ài 2 p0 i 2 2. a b Suppose that P GL(2. q). . We take g 1 . We may write ad À bc as s 2 for some c d Ã . s À1 g of elements 0 s À1 from F q nF2 . g8 as representatives of the conjugacy classes. q You should have no dif®culty in proving that the conjugacy classes of SL(2. 3) is then as follows. since r r q and q is even. Then s in F q a b s 0 aas bas X 0 s cas das c d The ®rst matrix in the product is sI and the second belongs to SL(2.s À1 . q) where Z fsI : s P FÃ g. Each such element has centralizer of order q À 1.

q) to SL(2. Each such element has centralizer of order q 1. q) is simple. 1 ç ç2 g. g 9 of the conjugacy classes of SL(2. 2 3 2 3 1 0 1 1 g1 g2 0 1 0 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 ç 0 1ç 0 0 ç2 g3 g4 g5 0 1 ç2 0 ç ç2 0 1 ç ç2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 g6 g9 X g7 g8 1 1 1 ç 1 ç2 1 ç ç2 We may choose a generator å of FÃ so that å 7 å À7 ç. g4 . g 5 below. 1 ç2 g. The irreducible monic quadratics over F8 with constant term 1 are x 2 x 1.i ÷i 1 q q1 qÀ1 u1 1 0 1 À1 d s.s À1 1 1 s i s Ài 0 vr 1 À1 0 À(r i r Ài ) Here. indexed by unordered pairs fr. 8) SL(2. g9 below We can now list representatives g 1 . If q T 2 then the kernel of every non-trivial character is the identity subgroup. q) you will quickly be able to prove that the character table of SL(2. The subscripts for ø0. and therefore SL(2. we have used the function r 3 r de®ned in (28. ç ç2 gX These give us the conjugacy class representatives g3 . X X X . g8 . By restricting characters from GL(2. b.3). c P F2 and ç3 1 çgX The pairs fs. and the subscripts for ÷ i satisfy 1 < i < qa2. Then 64 .i satisfy 1 < i < (q À 2)a2. 8). q) is as follows.Chapter 28 445 (d) There are qa2 conjugacy classes with representatives 0 1 vr . 3. f1 ç. g 7 . as follows. x 2 ç2 x 1. 8). x 2 (ç ç2 )x 1X The companion matrices for these quadratics give use the conjugacy class representatives g 6 . fç2 . Note ®rst that PSL(2. I ë0 ø0 ø0. Hence we may write F8 fa bç cç2 : a. The polynomial x 3 x 1 is irreducible over F2. s À1 g of elements from F8 nF2 are fç. x 2 çx 1. r À1 g of elements 1 r r À1 from F q 2 nF q such that r 1q 1.

446

Representations and characters of groups

**å 14 å À14 ç2 , å 21 å À21 1 and å 28 å À28 ç4 ç ç2 . The character table of SL(2, 8) is then as follows.
**

gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ø0 ø0,1 ø0,2 ø0,3 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 504 1 8 9 9 9 7 7 7 7 g2 8 1 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 g3 7 1 1 g4 7 1 1 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 g5 7 1 1 g6 9 1 À1 0 0 0 À2 1 1 1 g7 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 g8 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 B g9 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1

Here, the 3 3 3 submatrices A and B are given by H I 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) f g A d 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) e 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) H À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) I

f g B d À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) eX À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9)

Chapter 29

1. (a) It is straightforward to check that ö is a homomorphism. For x, y P G, the element (x, y) P G 3 G sends x to y, so that action is transitive. (b) (G 3 G)1 f( g, g) : g P Gg, and ker ö f(z, z) : z P Z(G)g. (c) Every orbit of G 3 G on G 3 G contains an ordered pair of the form (1, x), and if ( g, h) sends (1, x) to (1, y) then g h and y g À1 xg. Hence if C1 , X X X , C k are the conjugacy classes of G, and xi P C i, then (1, xi ) (1 < i < k) are orbit representatives for the action of G 3 G on G 3 G, and so the rank is equal to k. Since x(( g, h)ö) x if and only if xhx À1 g, we see that ð( g, h) jfix G ( g, h)j is equal to 0 if g is not conjugate to h, and is equal to jC G (x)j if g is conjugate to h (since in the latter case, if xhx À1 g then an arbitrary element y P G such that yhy À1 g is of the form y xc with c P (x)). Hence using the column orthogonality relations we see CG that ð ÷ 3 ÷. 2. There are q 2 À 1 non-zero vectors in V, and each 1-dimensional subspace

Chapter 29

447

contains q À 1 of them; also two 1-dimensional subspaces have no non-zero vectors in common. Hence jÙj (q 2 À 1)a(q À 1) q 1. 3. Use the notation for the conjugacy classes and irreducible characters of GL(2, q) given in Proposition 28.4 and Theorem 28.5. It is easy to check that ð takes the values q 2 À 1, q À 1, q À 1 on the classes with representatives I, u1 , d 1, t respectively, and takes the value 0 on all other classes. Taking inner products we ®nd hð, 1 G i hð, ø0 i hð, ø0, j i 1 (1 < j < q À 2)X qÀ2 As 1 G ø0 1 ø0, j has degree q 2 À 1 ð(1), we conclude that qÀ2 ð 1 G ø0 1 ø0, j . 4. Observe that the coset H 1 x is ®xed by g if and only if xgx À1 P H 1 . If G is abelian this amounts to g P H 1 , and hence we see that ð1 ( g) 0 if g P H 1 a and ð1 ( g) jG : H 1 j if g P H 1 . Thus H 1 f g P G : ð1 ( g) T 0g. Likewise for H 2 ; since ð1 ð2 we deduce that H 1 H 2 . As a counterexample for G non-abelian, take G D8 ha, b : a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i with H 1 hbi, H 2 ha2 bi. Then ð1 ð2 but H 1 T H 2 . 1 5. By Proposition 29.4 we have 1 jGj gPG jfixÙ ( g)j, hence jfixÙ ( g)j jGj. Since jfixÙ ( g)j is a non-negative integer for each g, and jfixÙ (1)j jÙj . 1, we must have jfixÙ ( g)j 0 for some g. 6. Write ð ð( nÀ2,1,1) . Calculating inner products using Proposition 29.6, as in the proof of Theorem 29.13, we ®nd hð, ði 7, hð, 1i 1, hð, ð( nÀ1,1) i 3, hð, ð( nÀ2,2) i 4X Using Theorem 29.13 it follows that ð( nÀ2,1,1) 1 2÷ ( nÀ1,1) ÷ ( nÀ2,2) ÷ with ÷ irreducible. Hence ÷ 1 ð À ð( nÀ1,1) À ð( nÀ2,2) , from which it is easy to calculate that ÷(1) 1(n À 1)(n À 2), 2 ÷(12) 1(n À 2)(n À 5), ÷(123) 1(n À 4)(n À 5). For n 6, ÷ (4,1,1) is the 2 2 character ÷5 in Example 19.17.

Chapter 30

1. By Theorem 30.4, a245 168/(8´3) 7. Hence, by (30.3), PSL (2, 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2, b has order 3 and ab has order 7. p p 2. No: a225 (1 (À1 i 7)a6 (À1 À i 7)a6 À 4a6)168a(8X8) 0, and similarly a226 0. Hence PSL (2,7) does not contain two involutions whose product has order 7. 3. Yes. Number the conjugacy classes of PSL (2, 11) as in the solution to Exercise 27.6. Then 660 1 a235 X 1 10X 12 6 11 Therefore PSL (2, 11) contains elements x and y such that x, y and xy have orders 2, 3 and 5, respectively. Let H be the subgroup kx, yl of PSL (2, 11).

448

Representations and characters of groups

There is a homomorphism W from A5 onto H (W sends a 3 x, b 3 y). Since Ker W 3 A5 and A5 is simple, we deduce that H A5 . 4. Suppose that G is a group whose p character table is p where á (1 5)a2, â (1 À 5)a2.

g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 g2 1 1 À1 0 0 g3 1 0 1 À1 À1 g4 1 À1 0 á â g5 1 À1 0 â á

For 1 < i < 5 we have jC G ( g i )j 5 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g i ). Therefore the j1 centralizers of g1 , g2 , g3 , g4 , g5 have orders 60, 3, 4, 5, 5, respectively. Hence the orders of g2 , g4 and g5 are 3, 5 and 5; also the order of g3 must be 2, since for no other i (except i 1) is |CG (g i )| even. Now a324 60a(4 . 3). Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, G has a subgroup H with H A5 . Since jGj 60, we have G A5 . 5. (a) Using the fact that 7 ÷ j (g i )÷ j ( g i ) |CG (g i )|, we ®nd that the j1 centralizer orders and class sizes are as follows:

g1 |CG ( g i )| | gG | i 360 1 g2 8 45 g3 4 90 g4 9 40 g5 9 40 g6 5 72 g7 5 72

Hence jGj 360. Also G is simple, by Proposition 17.6. (b) By the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions (Corollary 23.17), the number of involutions t in G is bounded by 1 t <

7 j1

÷ j (1) 46X

By considering jC G ( g i )j, we see that g i has even order only for i 2 and 3. Since t < 45, only g2 can be an involution. Hence g3 has order 4. (This information about the orders of g2 and g3 can also be deduced using Sylow's Theorem.) (c) Clearly g6 and g7 have order 5, and at least one of g4 and g5 has order 3. If j 4 or 5 and k 6 or 7 then

Chapter 30

a2 jk ÷( g2 )÷( g j )÷ ( g k ) jGj jCG ( g 2 )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1)

449

360 5X 8.9 Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, the subgroup H kx, yl of G is isomorphic to A5 . (d) If g, h P G then ( gh)r: Hx 3 Hxgh, and ( gr)(hr): Hx 3 Hxg 3 HxghX Hence r is a homomorphism. (e) Since G is simple, Ker r {1}. Hence G is isomorphic to a subgroup K of S6 . Since jS6 : Kj 63a360 2, K must be A6 . 6. Consider the ®gure in Example 30.6(3). We shall explain how to label the vertices by elements of G. Choose a vertex and label it 1. Label the vertices according to the following inductive rule. Assume that v is a vertex and an adjacent vertex u is labelled by g. Then label v by ga gb gb

À1

if the edge uv has no arrow, if the edge uv has an arrow from u to v, if the edge uv has an arrow from v to uX

For example, if you decided to label the bottom left-hand vertex by 1, then part of the labelling would be

The relation a2 1 ensures that the labelling is consistent along unmarked edges; since b3 1, the labelling is consistent around triangles; and the relation abababab 1 deals with the octagons. Every element in G has the form given by the label of one of the 24 vertices, so jGj < 24. 7. The conjugacy classes of PSL(2, 7) are given in Lemma 27.1 The element g 2 is an involution with centralizer of order 8 given in the proof of 2 2 2 4 Lemma 27.1. Letting a , b , we see that the À2 2 4 À2 centralizer is generated by a and b, and a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 À, hence the centralizer is isomorphic to D8 . As in Exercises 12.3 and 12.4, we see that C A6 ((12)(34)) has order 8 and is generated by (1324) and (13)(24), hence as above is isomorphic to D8 .

450

Representations and characters of groups

8. Let G be the simple group PSL(2, 17). In the ®eld Z17 the element 4 is a 4 0 fourth root of unity, so t Z is an involution. Calculate that 0 À4 C G (t) is generated by the group of diagonal matrices together with 0 1 3 0 b Z, hence is generated by b and a Z. As À1 0 0 6 a 8 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1, we have C G (t) D16 .

Chapter 31

1. Assume that G has an abelian subgroup H of index p r ( p prime), and that |G| . p. If H {1} then |G| p r and so G is not simple (see Lemma 26.1(1)). So assume that H T {1}; pick 1 T h P H. Then H < CG (h) as H is abelian, so |G:CG (h)| is a power of p. If |G:CG (h)| 1 then khl v G and G is not simple. And if |G:CG (h)| . 1, then G is not simple by Theorem 31.3. 2. By Burnside's Theorem, jGj is divisible by at least three distinct primes. Since 3 . 5 . 7 . 80, jGj is even. Then by Exercise 13.8, |G| is divisible by 4. Since 4 . 3 . 7 . 80, the only possibility is that jGj 4 . 3 . 5 60.

Chapter 32

1. (a) The fact that BB I follows from the observation that for all i, j, d(ei b, ej b) d(ei , ej ) ä ij X Since 1 det I (det B)(det Bt ) (det B)2 , we have det B Æ1. (b) (i) The eigenvalues of C are the roots of det (C À xI), which is a cubic polynomial over R. Therefore, C has one or three real eigenvalues. (ii) Moreover, the product of the eigenvalues of C is det C 1. If C has three real eigenvalues, then they cannot all be negative; and if C has one real eigenvalue ë and a pair of conjugate non-real eigenvalues ì, ì, then ë ìì 1, and hence ë . 0. Therefore C has a real positive eigenvalue, say ë. (iii) Let v be an eigenvector for ë. Then d(v, v) d(vC, vC) d(ëv, ëv) ë2 d(v, v), and so ë 1. (c) Let c be the isometry v 3 vC. By (b), c ®xes a vector v; it is now easy to convince yourself that c must be a rotation about the axis through v. The required result for b follows from the de®nition of c. (d) Take three orthogonal axes, one of which is the axis of the rotation b. With respect to these axes, the matrix of b is H I 1 0 0 d 0 cos ö sin ö eX 0 Àsin ö cos ö Hence tr B 1 2 cos ö.

t

Chapter 32

451

2. We regard G as a subgroup of O(R3 ). It is easy to see that the translation submodule T (which consists of all the translation modes) is isomorphic to the RG-module given by the natural action of G on R3 . Hence by part (d) of Exercise 1, V if g is a rotation through ö, about some b 1 2 cos ö, b b b b axis, b ` ÷ T ( g) b À(1 2 cos ö), if the element À g of O(R3 ) is a rotation b b b b b X through öX Now consider the rotation submodule R, which consists of all the rotation modes. A rotation mode is speci®ed by a 3-dimensional vector öv, where v is a unit vector along the axis of the rotation and ö denotes the angle of rotation, taken positive in the right-hand screw sense. Let g P G, and consider g acting on öv. It sends v to vg, and if g is a rotation, it preserves the sense of the rotation; however, if g is a re¯ection then it transforms a right-hand screw to a left-hand screw, and hence sends öv to (Àö)(vg). Therefore @ if g is a rotation, ÷ T ( g), ÷ R ( g) À÷T ( g), if g is not a rotation, and so ÷ T ÷ R has the required form. 3. The matrix A is I H p p À3a2 0 3a4 À 3a4 p3a4 3a4 p f 0 À1a2 À 3a4 p1a4 3a4 1a4 g g f p k f 3a4 À 3a4 À3a4 3a4 0 0 g gX f p p 3a4 À5a4 0 1 g m f À 3a4 p1a4 g f p d 3a4 3a4 0 0 À3a4 À 3a4 e p p 3a4 1a4 0 1 À 3a4 À5a4 4. A simpler basis is given by

1 2(r1 1 2(r1 1 2(r1

r2 ) (v12 v21 ) À (v34 v43 ), r3 ) (v13 v31 ) À (v24 v42 ), r4 ) (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 )X

We chose r1, r2, r3, r4 to be the images of w1, w2, w3, w4 under an RGisomorphism. (Compare the construction of the matrix B, towards the end of Example 32.20.) 5. (a) This is a routine geometrical exercise. (b) Let the displaced positions of the atoms be 09, 19, 29, 39, 49. The distance of 19 from the plane through 1 perpendicular to 12 is x12 1(x13 x14 ). Similarly, the distance of 29 from the plane through 2 2 perpendicular to 12 is x21 1(x23 x24 ). Therefore 12 has decreased by 2 x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 ). The other calculations can be done in 2 the same way. (c) We express the force at each atom as a vector, and then write this vector

452

**Representations and characters of groups
**

as a linear combination of our three chosen unit vectors at the initial position of the atom. Let d ij denote the decrease in the length ij, as calculated in part (b). Then, for example, at vertex 1, the contributions to the component of the force vector in the direction 12 are as follows: Àk1 d12 from the force between atoms 1 and 2; zero from the force between atoms 1 and 3 and from the force between atoms 1 and 4; and Àk2 d10 sec (/012) from the force between atoms 1 and 0. Hence p m1 12 Àk 1 d 12 À 1 (3a2)k 2 d 10 X x 3

Upon substituting for d12 and d10 from part (b), we obtain the given expression for 12. x The other accelerations are calculated in the same way. (d) The entries in the 15 3 15 matrix A are the coef®cients which appear in the equations of motion xA. If you write down the matrix A, then x you will easily verify that the given vectors are eigenvectors of A (with eigenvalues À(4k 1 k 2 )am1 , 0, 0, 0, Àk 1 am1 , Àk 1 am1 , p p I À2k 2 a3m1 À4k 2 p 2a(m2 p3) À2k 2 a3m1 p À4k 2 2a(m2 3) eX p À2k 2 3a(9m1 2) À4k 2 a3m2 p (f ) You will ®nd that (1, À2, 6) is an eigenvector of B, with eigenvalue 0. This agrees with the statement in Example 32.20 that the translation vector r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 is an eigenvector of A. 6. (a) Assign coordinate axes along the edges of the square, as shown below. respectively). (e) The matrix B is H À(6k 1 k 2 )a3m1 d À(3k 1 k 2 )a3m1 p p Àk 2 3a(9m1 2)

The symmetry group is G D8. Let a denote the rotation sending P 3 Q 3 R 3 S 3 P, and let b denote the re¯ection in the axis PR. The character ÷ of the RG-module R8 is

1 ÷ 8

a2 0

a 0

b 0

ab 0

Chapter 32

453

We refer to the character table of D8 which is given in Example 16.3(3), and see that ÷ ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 2÷5 X The rotation mode is (t â)v, where v (1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1) P V÷2 X The translation modes are (t â)v, where v is in the span of v1 , v2 and v1 (1, 0, 0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1), v2 (0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1, 1, 0)X The homogeneous components V÷1, V÷3 and V÷4 are spanned by the vectors (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), (1, 1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1) and (1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1, 1), respectively. The ®nal set of eigen-vectors is given by V÷5 R8 which is spanned by vib (1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0, 0, 1) and (0, 1, 1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0)X (b) The matrix A is 1 f0 f f0 f k f0 À f mf0 f f0 f d0 1 H 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 I 1 0g g 0g g 0g gX 0g g 0g g 0e 1

7. (a, b) Let å i (1 < i < m) be the projection which is given by å i : u1 X X X um 3 ui (where u k P Uk for all k). Then w 3 wAå j WÀ1 W i j (w P Ui ) gives an RG-homomorphism from Ui to Ui. By Exercise 23.8, there exist ë ij P R such that for all w P Ui, Since m wAå j ë ij wWÀ1 W j X i is the identity endomorphism of U1 È . . . È Um, we have m ë ij wWÀ1 W j for all w P Ui X wA i

j1 j1 å j

Now take in turn w uW i and w vW i to obtain the results of parts (a) and (b) of the question. (c) Take a basis u1 , . . . , u n of U1. Assume that the eigenvectors of A u are known. For all k with 1 < k < n, the eigenvectors of A in sp (u k W1 , . . . , u k W m ) are given by the eigenvectors of A u (see part (b)). Hence we know all the eigenvectors of A in U1 È . . . È Um.

Bibliography

**Books mentioned in the text
**

H. S. M. Coxeter and W. J. O. Moser, Generators and Relations for Discrete Groups (Fourth Edition), Springer-Verlag, 1980. J. B. Fraleigh, A First Course in Abstract Algebra (Third Edition), AddisonWesley, 1982. D. Gorenstein, Finite Simple Groups: An Introduction to their Classi®cation, Plenum Press, New York, 1982. G. D. James, The Representation Theory of the Symmetric Groups, Lecture Notes in Mathematics No. 682, Spring-Verlag, 1978. D. S. Passman, Permutation Groups, Benjamin, 1968. H. Pollard and H. G. Diamond, The Theory of Algebraic Numbers (Second Edition), Carus Mathematical Monographs No. 9, Mathematical Association of America, 1975. J. J. Rotman, An Introduction to the Theory of Groups (Third Edition), Allyn and Bacon, 1984. D. S. Schonland, Molecular Symmetry ± an Introduction to Group Theory and its uses in Chemistry, Van Nostrand, 1965.

**Suggestions for further reading
**

M. J. Collins, Representations and Characters of Finite Groups, Cambridge University Press, 1990. C. W. Curtis and I. Reiner, Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I, Wiley-Interscience, 1981. W. Feit, Characters of Finite Groups, Benjamin, 1967. I. M. Isaacs, Character Theory of Finite Groups, Academic Press, 1976. W. Ledermann, Introduction to Group Characters (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press, 1987. J. P. Serre, Linear Representations of Finite Groups, Springer-Verlag, 1977.

454

360 A7 . 298 of group algebra. 122.q). 56 algebraic integer. 222. 160 D8. 234.7). 119 kernel of. 236 integer-valued. 420 455 . 2 Cn . 153 change of basis. 2. 161 D10. 116. 119 regular. 416 S4 . 230. 127. 415 Cn .7). 172. 174 permutation. 269 skew-symmetric. 111.3. 423 E. 443 Q8 . 196. 150 trivial. 82 action. 359 A6 . 5. 445 PSL(2. 81. 269 symmetric. 419 D2n ( n odd). 125. 11. of order 18. 412 C2 3 C2 . 82 D6. 181.q). 340 Burnside's Theorem. 55. 129 product. 106 centre of group. 364 C.8). 125 linear. 278 Burnside's Lemma. 3.Index A4 . 440 SL(2. 201. 445 T12. 182 D2n ( n even). 434 F7. 122 character table. 265 reducible. 354. 45. 159 A4 . 273 associative. 107. 114. 11. 112. 85. 312. 6 bilinear form. 9. 122. 88 centralizer. 223 An . 54 bijection. 116.5 . 308 A5 . 82. 181 A5 . 318 PSL(2. 359. 176. 361 alternating group. 240. 343 abelian group.11). 327 PSL(2. 253 irreducible. 192 real. 247 faithful. 244. 337 algebra. 118 degree. 5. 220. 24 character. 363. 10. 262 S6 . 433 Fp.3). 269 Brauer±Fowler Theroem. 2 basis. 424 C2 . 183 D6 3 D6. 291 GL(2.q . 263 realized over R. 205 SL(2. 83. 442 SL(2. 160 C3 . 415 D12 S3 3 C2 . 221. 160 C4 . 111 antisymmetric part. 355 induced. 186 T4 n. 112. 15 natural. 359 A6 . 116. 136. 207. 180 S5 . 130. 128. 195 generalized. 11. 417 F11. 9. 362 algebraic number.

376 homomorphism. 249 derived subgroup. 2. 20. 353. 4. 61 ideal. 143. 234. 343 general linear group. 6 injective. 90 common. 353 irreducible character. 8 cycle-shape. 30. 421 V24 . 109 cyclic group. 301 order pq. 3 H v G. 101 completely reducible. 79. 152 class sum. 257 proper. 2. 7. 18 F R or C. 206 order 16. 250. 53 factor group. 12. 50. 422 V8 n . 12. 88 D2n. 307 order 27. 74 composition. 367 projective special linear. 2 composition factor. 15 Fp. 116. 213 coset. 5. 187. 311 symmetric. 421 direct product. 300 class algebra constants. 9 faithful character. 5. 278. 236 induced module. 206 direct sum. 420 dihedral group. 3. 114 Clifford's Theorem. 107. 256 maximal. 6 invertible. 305. 111 cyclic. 1 abelian. 259 conjugacy class. 55 H < G. 3 order. 312 quaternion. 20 equivalent. 44. 4. 2 order p3 . 119 irreducible module. 104. 302. 6. 63 Frobenius group. 85 faithful representation. 12. 3 F n. 107 class function.F). 173 diagonalization. 83 dicyclic group T4 n. 134 involution. 24 eigenvector. 2 general linear. 82. 3 GL(2.q). 91. 24 endomorphism. 18 eigenvalue. 79 isomorphism. 56. 12. 88 dicyclic. 435 order . 66 external. 3. 381 external direct sum. 178. 46 even permutation. 17. 324. 254 symmetry. 365 special linear. 34 FG-module. 125. 9 HomCG (V W). 9 ®nite.456 Representations and characters of groups FG-submodule. 5 rotation. 61 FG-isomorphism. 308 order p3 . 304 orthogonal. 364 soluble. 318. 10. 50. 49 FG-homomorphism. 178 dihedral. 181 factor. 226. 175. 363. 2. 82 alternating. 96 congruences. homogeneous component. 9. 2. 277. 91 irreducible representation. 8 cycle notation. 107. 6 GL(n. 216 complete set. 107.q . see module . 5 expansion±contraction mode. 2. 96 . 12. 230. 361 constituent. 10. 281. 368 simple. 122. 9 indicator function. 15 direct product. 368 group algebra. 63 U6n. 6 bijective. 3 group. 11. 349 class equation. 277 function. 32. 81. 290 Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 109. 82. 95. 290 FG. 11. 257 index of subgroup. 232 Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 306. 104 conjugate. 195 faithful module. 181 degree. 273 induced character. 74. 228 inner product. 6 surjective. 311. 32. 291 p-group. 181 dimension.

23 permutation. 109. 113. 254. 56 trivial. 56. 174 linear transformation. 110. 3. 150 regular module. 216. 4 cyclic. 250. 269 special linear group. 340 permutation character. 50. 50 regular character. 43 natural normal normal normal 217 basis. 45. 45 methane. 338 order of G. 201. 39 completely reducible. 312. 34 representatives. 284 product of characters. 394 S4 . 359. 56 representation. 50 regular. projection. 56 trivial. 62 reducible. 318. 10. 4 normal. 19. 180. 21 invertible. 5 orbit. 3. 10. 217 submodule. 74 Sylow's Theorem. 372. 319. 32. 442 SL(2. 113. 5 odd. 15 linearly independent. 311 stabilizer. 384 minimal polynomial. 258 permutation. 367 orthogonality relations. 67 projective special linear group. 30.Index kernel. 311. 175. 119 reducible module. 127. 50 reducible representation. 85 irreducible. 74 faithful. 173. 15 Maschke's Theorem. 2 order of g. 4 derived. p). 19 real character. 192 . 76 matrix. 62. 365 symmetric bilinear form. 173 generated. 122. 319.q). 50 regular. 116. 364 skew-symmetric bilinear form. 79 kernel of. 344 SL(2. 262 S6 . 340 permutation matrix. 343. 373 p-complement. 263 real element. 361 module. 354. 263 reducible character. 440 SL(2. 339 subgroup.7).7). 116. 105 restriction. 124 reducible. 320. 85 permutation. 318. 215. 360 PSL(2. 215. 171. 249 equivalent. 50. p). 44. 177. 416 quaternion group. 3 primitive root. 27. 275 S5 . 111. 78 simple group. 45. 18 linearly dependent. 278.11). 342 Rank±Nullity Theorem. 45. 46 faithful. 124. 278. 359 PSL(2. 4 orthogonal group. 416 R. 70. 363. 113. 354. 269 odd permutation. 368 rotation mode. 44. 169 linear character. 3. 321. 5 even. 256. 298 p9-part. 251 subgroup. 79. 312 457 Q8 . 161 PSL(2. 312 p-group. 380. 54 modes of vibration. 116. 311 SL(2. 216. 9. 223 Sn . 379 rotation submodule. 128. 5. 263 real conjugacy class. 49 irreducible. 176. 210 rotation group. 45 powers of characters. 30 degree. 177. 5 permutation module. 336. 171. 193 presentation. 24 diagonal. 205 S7 . 26 identity. 129. 21 change of basis. 9. 445 Schur's Lemma. 3 rank. 34. 34 irreducible. 34. 116. 56 regular representation. 125 Lagrange's Theorem. 9 lift. 3.3). 5. 278.

338. 341 transitivity of induction. 281. 368 T4 n. 188 trace. 421 V8n. 381 water. 187. 369. 175. 394 transposition. 187. 117 transitive. 34 U6n. 116. 109. 194 vibratory modes. 196. 2 symmetric group. 421 Vandermonde matrix. 43 representation. 3. 178. 190 tensor product space. 178. 178. 374 Z. 379 translation submodule. 187. 380. 254 symmetric part.458 Representations and characters of groups trivial character. 122 module. 5 . 420 tensor product module. 273 symmetry group. 229 translation mode.

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