Representations and Characters of Groups Now in its second edition, this text provides a modern introduction to the representation theory of ®nite groups. The authors have revised the popular ®rst edition and added a considerable amount of new material. The theory is developed in terms of modules, since this is appropriate for more advanced work, but considerable emphasis is placed upon constructing characters. The character tables of many groups are given, including all groups of order less than 32, and all simple groups of order less than 1000. Among the applications covered are Burnside's pa q b theorem, the use of character theory in studying subgroup structure and permutation groups, and a description of how to use representation theory to investigate molecular vibration. Each chapter is accompanied by a variety of exercises, and full solutions to all the exercises are provided at the end of the book. This will be ideal as a text for a course in representation theory, and in view of the applications of the subject, will be of interest to mathematicians, chemists and physicists alike.

R E P R E S E N TAT ION S AN D C H AR ACT E R S OF G ROU P S
G O R D O N JA M E S a n d M A RT I N L I E B E C K
Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London

Second Edition

PUBLISHED BY CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS (VIRTUAL PUBLISHING) FOR AND ON BEHALF OF THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 IRP 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia http://www.cambridge.org © Cambridge University Press 1993, 2001 This edition © Cambridge University Press (Virtual Publishing) 2003 First published in printed format 1993 Second edition 2001 A catalogue record for the original printed book is available from the British Library and from the Library of Congress Original ISBN 0 521 81205 4 hardback Original ISBN 0 521 00392 X paperback

ISBN 0 511 01700 6 virtual (netLibrary Edition)

Contents

Preface 1 Groups and homomorphisms 2 Vector spaces and linear transformations 3 Group representations 4 FG-modules 5 FG-submodules and reducibility 6 Group algebras 7 FG-homomorphisms 8 Maschke's Theorem 9 Schur's Lemma 10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra 11 More on the group algebra 12 Conjugacy classes 13 Characters 14 Inner products of characters 15 The number of irreducible characters 16 Character tables and orthogonality relations 17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters 18 Some elementary character tables 19 Tensor products 20 Restriction to a subgroup 21 Induced modules and characters 22 Algebraic integers 23 Real representations 24 Summary of properties of character tables 25 Characters of groups of order pq 26 Characters of some p-groups 27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 v

page vii 1 14 30 38 49 53 61 70 78 89 95 104 117 133 152 159 168 179 188 210 224 244 263 283 288 298 311

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28 Character table of GL(2, q) 322 29 Permutations and characters 337 30 Applications to group theory 348 31 Burnside's Theorem 361 32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 367 Solutions to exercises 397 Bibliography 454 Index 455

Preface

We have attempted in this book to provide a leisurely introduction to the representation theory of groups. But why should this subject interest you? Representation theory is concerned with the ways of writing a group as a group of matrices. Not only is the theory beautiful in its own right, but it also provides one of the keys to a proper understanding of ®nite groups. For example, it is often vital to have a concrete description of a particular group; this is achieved by ®nding a representation of the group as a group of matrices. Moreover, by studying the different representations of the group, it is possible to prove results which lie outside the framework of representation theory. One simple example: all groups of order p2 (where p is a prime number) are abelian; this can be shown quickly using only group theory, but it is also a consequence of basic results about representations. More generally, all groups of order pa q b ( p and q primes) are soluble; this again is a statement purely about groups, but the best proof, due to Burnside, is an outstanding example of the use of representation theory. In fact, the range of applications of the theory extends far beyond the boundaries of pure mathematics, and includes theoretical physics and chemistry ± we describe one such application in the last chapter. The book is suitable for students who have taken ®rst undergraduate courses involving group theory and linear algebra. We have included two preliminary chapters which cover the necessary background material. The basic theory of representations is developed in Chapters 3±23, and our methods concentrate upon the use of modules; although this accords with the more modern style of algebra, in several instances our proofs differ from those found in other textbooks. The main results are elegant and surprising, but at ®rst sight they sometimes have an air of mystery vii

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about them; we have chosen the approach which we believe to be the most transparent. We also emphasize the practical aspects of the subject, and the text is illustrated with a wealth of examples. A feature of the book is the wide variety of groups which we investigate in detail. By the end of Chapter 28, we have presented the character tables of all groups of order less than 32, of all p-groups of order at most p4 , and of all the simple groups of order less than 1000. Every chapter is accompanied by a set of Exercises, and the solutions to all of these are provided at the end of the book. We would like to thank Dr Hans Liebeck for his careful reading of our manuscript and the many helpful suggestions which he made.

In this second edition, we have included two new chapters; one (Chapter 28) deals with the character tables of an in®nite series of groups, and the other (Chapter 29) covers aspects of the representation theory of permutation groups. We have also added a considerable amount of new material to Chapters 20, 23 and 30, and made minor amendments elsewhere.

Preface to Second Edition

h of G to form another element of G. which we shall use extensively to illustrate the later theory. this rule must satisfy the following axioms: (1) for all g. eg ˆ ge ˆ g. h. An elementary course on abstract algebra would normally cover all the material in the chapter. ( gh)k ˆ g(hk). there exists an element gÀ1 in G such that gg À1 ˆ g À1 g ˆ eX We refer to the rule for combining elements of G as the product operation on G. One or two results which we shall use only infrequently are demoted to the exercises at the end of the chapter ± you can refer to the solutions if necessary. 1 . we introduce several examples. such as dihedral groups and symmetric groups. written gh. so we begin with a resume of facts about groups.1 Groups and homomorphisms This book is devoted to the study of an aspect of group theory. k in G. (2) there exists an element e in G such that for all g in G. together with a rule for combining any two elements g. Groups A group consists of a set G. In addition. most of which you should   know already. (3) for all g in G. and any book on basic group theory will supply you with further details.

It is elementary to see that G has just one identity element. r nÀ1 where r k is the (clockwise) rotation about the centre O through an angle 2ðkan. gg. (2) The set Z of all integers. There are n rotation symmetries: these are r0 . gÀ2 ˆ ( gÀ1 )2 . then Cn ˆ f1. Write b for the re¯ection in the . Let A be a corner of the polygon. . for two symmetries f and g. under addition. for the identity element of G. the number of elements in G is called the order of G. similarly 3 g ˆ g 2 g. This group is called the dihedral group of order 2n. and denote by C the set of all complex numbers. r1 . and an ˆ 1. X X X . If the number of elements in G is ®nite. and so on. There are also n re¯ection symmetries: these are re¯ections in the n lines passing through O and a corner or the mid-point of a side of the polygon. the element e in axiom (2) is an identity element of G. These 2n rotations and re¯ections form a group under the product operation of composition (that is. (3) Let n be an integer with n > 3. g0 ˆ 1. with the usual multiplication of complex numbers. a2 . Usually we write 1. and gÀ1 is an inverse of g in axiom (3). rather than e. is written g 2 . then we call G a ®nite group. and is written |G|. Also.2 Representations and characters of groups Axiom (1) states that the product operation is associative. It is written as Cn and is called the cyclic group of order n. a. The product of an element g with itself. and consider the rotation and re¯ection symmetries of a regular n-sided polygon. The set of nth roots of unity in C. a nÀ1 g. . and is written D2 n.1 Examples (1) Let n be a positive integer. . the product fg means `®rst do f. 1. then do g'). is a group of order n. If a ˆ e2ðia n . . is a group. and that every g in G has just one inverse.

and the n re¯ections are b. D2 n is generated by a and b. Then the n rotations are 1. It is called the symmetric group of degree n. (5) Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). While Cn and Z are abelian. n}. a nÀ1 (where 1 denotes the identity. which leaves the polygon ®xed). We use the notation H < G to indicate that H is a subgroup of G. which we denote by In or just I. b: an ˆ 1. 2. The order of Sn is n!. forms a group. a2 . . This group is called the general linear group of degree n over F. . under matrix multiplication. and hence (a i b)(a j b) ˆ a i ba j b ˆ a i aÀ j bb ˆ a iÀ j X We summarize all this in the presentation D2 n ˆ ha. and is denoted by GL(n. . . a nÀ1 bX Thus all elements of D2 n are products of powers of a and b ± that is. The set of all invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. under the product operation of composition. A group G is said to be abelian if gh ˆ hg for all g and h in G. b2 ˆ 1. is a group. Check that an ˆ 1. Subgroups Let G be a group. and write a for the rotation r1 . For example. we have ba j ˆ aÀ j b (using the relation ba ˆ aÀ1 b). ab.Groups and homomorphisms 3 line through O and A. F). a2 b. b2 ˆ 1 and bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 X These relations determine the product of any two elements of the group. A subset H of G is said to be a subgroup if H is itself a group under the product operation inherited from G. X X X . It is an in®nite group. . the set of all permutations of {1. and is written Sn . most of the other examples given above are non-abelian groups. a. X X X . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 iX (4) For n a positive integer. F) is of course the identity matrix. The identity of GL(n.

Bˆ X 0 Ài À1 0 .4 Representations and characters of groups It is easy to see that a subset H of a group G is a subgroup if and only if the following two conditions hold: (1) 1 P H. we can similarly de®ne hSi. and write H ˆ ha. and again in Example 1. then k gl is ®nite. the subgroup of G generated by S. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in C. g. In this case. If gn ˆ 1 for some n > 1.1 are cyclic. Then H is a subgroup of G. biX Given any ®nite set S of elements of G. and (2) if h. we call H the subgroup generated by a and b.5 below. k P H then hkÀ1 P H. 1. h gi ˆ f1. g rÀ1 gX We call r the order of the element g. let r be the least positive integer such that g r ˆ 1. X X X . (4) Let G ˆ GL(2. (3) Let G be a group and let a. called the cyclic subgroup generated by g. and let     i 0 0 1 Aˆ . b P G. such as general linear or symmetric groups. De®ne H to be the subset of G consisting of all elements which are products of powers of a and b ± that is. This construction gives a powerful method of ®nding new groups as subgroups of given groups. If G ˆ k gl for some g P G then we call G a cyclic group. (2) Let G be a group and g P G. C). We illustrate the construction in the next example. all elements of the form a i1 b j1 a i2 b j2 X X Xa i n b j n for some n. where ik . The subset h gi ˆ f g n : n P Zg is a subgroup of G. The groups Cn and Z in Examples 1. then r is equal to the number of elements in k gl ± indeed.2 Examples (1) For every group G. both {1} and G are subgroups of G. g 2 . jk P Z for 1 < k < n.

j. Hence H has at most eight elements. The subset An ˆ f g P Sn : g is an even permutationg is a subgroup of Sn . Direct products We describe a construction which produces a new group from given ones. 2. . and using the ®rst two relations. The above three relations determine the product of any two elements of Q8 . in fact j Hj ˆ 8. the subgroup of G generated by A and B. Since the matrices Ai B j (0 < i < 3. hh9) for all g. B: A4 ˆ I. g9 P G and all h. A2 ˆ B2 . n and ®xes the other n À 2 numbers. Let G and H be groups.Groups and homomorphisms Put H ˆ kA. we call g an even or an odd permutation. accordingly. . h): g P G and h P HgX De®ne a product operation on G 3 H by ( g. we see that every element of H has the form A i B j for some integers i. . With this product operation. . and consider G 3 H ˆ f( g. Bl. 0 < j < 1) are all distinct. called the direct product of G and H. The group H is called the quaternion group of order 8. BÀ1 AB ˆ AÀ1 iX (5) A transposition in the symmetric group Sn is a permutation which interchanges two of the numbers 1. Check that A4 ˆ I. h9 P H. BÀ1 AB ˆ AÀ1 X 5 Using the third relation. or they all have an odd number of transpositions. . and is written Q8. h9) ˆ ( gg9. G 3 H is a group. A2 ˆ B2 . called the alternating group of degree n. h)( g9. we can take 0 < i < 3 and 0 < j < 1. so we have the presentation Q8 ˆ hA. Every permutation g in Sn can be expressed as a product of transpositions. It can be shown that either all such expressions for g have an even number of transpositions.

g r g9 )X 1 r 1 r If all the groups Gi are ®nite. of order |G1 | . then G1 3 . if G1 . X X X . . X X X . we generally apply functions on the right ± that is.6 Representations and characters of groups More generally. g 2 P GX . with product operation de®ned by ( g1 . 1. An invertible function is also called a bijection. those functions from G to H which `preserve the group structure' ± the so-called homomorphisms ± are of particular importance. not as W g. . . where g P G and h P H. . h P H. g1 W ˆ g2 W for g1 . g9 ) ˆ ( g 1 g9 . X X X . We often indicate that W is a function from G to H by the notation W: G 3 H. g2 P G implies that g1 ˆ g2 ) and surjective (that is. ( gW)ö ˆ g and (hö)W ˆ hX Then ö is called the inverse of W. and is written as WÀ1 . If G and H are groups. A function W from G to H is invertible if and only if it is both injective (that is. . then the direct product G1 3 X X X 3 Gr is f( g 1 . for every h P H there exists g P G such that gW ˆ h). Gr are groups. Functions A function from one set G to another set H is a rule which assigns a unique element of H to each element of G. In this book. Homomorphisms Given groups G and H. . then a homomorphism from G to H is a function W: G 3 H which satis®es ( g1 g 2 )W ˆ ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g 1 .3 Example The group C2 3 . |Gr |. g r )( g9 . . By an expression W: g 3 h. . X X X . 3 Gr is also ®nite. g r ): g i P Gi for 1 < i < rg. A function W: G 3 H is invertible if there is a function ö: H 3 G such that for all g P G. the image of g under a function W is written as gW. we mean that h ˆ gW. 3 C2 (r factors) has order 2 r and all its nonidentity elements have order 2. . .

0 < j < 1. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. and we write G  H. 0 < j < 1. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. and suppose that H contains elements x and y which satisfy x n ˆ y 2 ˆ 1. then G and H are said to be isomorphic. j with 0 < i < n À 1.5 Example Let G ˆ S5 and let x. also. 1. Then ar bs at bu ˆ a i b j for some i. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 X Since we have x n ˆ y 2 ˆ 1. y À1 xy ˆ x À1 X We shall prove that the function W: G 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < n À 1. Suppose that 0 < r < n À 1. b: an ˆ b2 ˆ 1. 0 < t < n À 1. 0 < u < 1. Moreover. If there is an isomorphism W from G to H. and write the 2n elements of G in the form ai b j with 0 < i < n À 1. i and j are determined by repeatedly using the relations an ˆ b2 ˆ 1. y be the following permutations in G: x ˆ (1 2 3 4 5). 0 < s < 1. Let H be any group. and so W is a homomorphism. y À1 xy ˆ x À1 . (at bu )W. (ar bs at bu )W ˆ (a i b j )W ˆ x i y j ˆ x r y s x t y u ˆ (ar bs )W . y ˆ (2 5)(3 4)X .4 in action.Groups and homomorphisms 7 An invertible homomorphism is called an isomorphism. we can also deduce that xr ys xt yu ˆ x i y j X Therefore. so H  G. WÀ1 is an isomorphism from H to G.4 Example Let G ˆ D2 n ˆ ka. 1. We now demonstrate the technique of Example 1. The following example displays a technique which can often be used to prove that certain functions are homomorphisms.

the function W: D10 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 4. Using the above relations. (1 2 3 4 5) denotes the permutation 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 1.4. and let Hx1 . b: a5 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. 0 < j < 1g. For x in G. yl  D10. we see that H ˆ fx i y j : 0 < i < 4. H ˆ kx. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 iX By Example 1. every element of G is in precisely one of the cosets). and so on. y À1 xy ˆ x À1 X Let H be the subgroup kx. Hxr be all the distinct right cosets of H in G. we deduce that jGj ˆ rj HjX In particular. Since W is invertible. The distinct right cosets of H in G form a partition of G (that is. For all i. yl of G. . the subset Hx ˆ fhx: h P Hg of G is called a right coset of H in G. it is an isomorphism. we have .) Check that x 5 ˆ y 2 ˆ 1. Thus. and Hxi ’ Hxj is empty if i Tˆ j. a group of order 10. the function h 3 hxi (h P H) is a bijection from H to Hxi . Suppose now that G is ®nite. Now recall that D10 ˆ ha. and so j Hxi j ˆ j Hj. Since G ˆ Hx1 ‘ X X X ‘ Hxr . .8 Representations and characters of groups (Here we adopt the usual cycle notation ± thus. . 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. Cosets Let G be a group and let H be a subgroup of G. .

Thus jG: Hj ˆ jGjaj Hj when G is ®nite. NabgX Since (Na)2 ˆ (Nb)2 ˆ (Nab)2 ˆ N. (3) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. we have An v Sn . 1. The subgroup kal is also normal in G. h P G. but the subgroup H ˆ kbl is not normal in G.Groups and homomorphisms 1. we see that GaN  C2 3 C2 . Na. Then N v G and bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l and let Nˆ GaN ˆ fN . Suppose that N v G and let GaN be the set of right cosets of N in G. and so Sn aAn  C2 . ka2 l ˆ {1. the sub-groups {1} and G are normal subgroups of G. a . 9 The number r of distinct right cosets of H in G is called the index of H in G.7 Examples (1) For every group G. since b P H while aÀ1 ba ˆ a2 b P H. and An (1 2) ˆ f g P Sn : g oddgX Thus |Sn :An | ˆ 2. h P GX This makes GaN into a group. and is written as jG: Hj. called the factor group of G by N. Normal subgroups A subgroup N of a group G is said to be a normal subgroup of G if gÀ1 Ng ˆ N for all g P G (where gÀ1 Ng ˆ f gÀ1 ng: n P Ng). (2) For n > 1. a2 }. Nb. then j Hj divides |G|. The importance of the condition gÀ1 Ng ˆ N (for all g P G) is that it can be used to show that for all g. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. namely An ˆ f g P Sn : g eveng.6 Lagrange's Theorem If G is a ®nite group and H is a subgroup of G. If n > 2 then there are just two right cosets of An in Sn . we have fxy: x P Ng and y P Nhg ˆ NghX Hence we can de®ne a product operation on GaN by (Ng)(Nh) ˆ Ngh for all g. we write N v G to indicate that N is a normal subgroup of G.

Then GaKer W  Im WX An isomorphism is given by the function Kg 3 gW where K ˆ Ker W.) Thus. Let G and H be groups and suppose that W: G 3 H is a homomorphism. the image of W is (1X9) Im W ˆ f gW: g P Gg. with p a prime number. G is `built' out of these two smaller groups. then G has a normal subgroup N such that both N and G/N have smaller order than G. is simple. If G is a ®nite group which is not simple. Kernels and images To conclude the chapter.10 Representations and characters of groups Simple groups A group G is said to be simple if G Tˆ {1} and the only normal subgroups of G are {1} and G. (This is analogous to the fact that every positive integer is built out of its prime factors. Continuing this process with the smaller groups. We de®ne the kernel of W by (1X8) Ker W ˆ f g P G: gW ˆ 1gX Then Ker W is a normal subgroup of G. we relate normal subgroups and factor groups to homomorphisms. For example. 1. We shall give examples of non-abelian simple groups in later chapters ± the smallest one is A5 . Also. and in a sense. we eventually see that G is `built' out of a collection of simple groups. The following result describes the way in which the kernel and image of W are related.10 Theorem Suppose that G and H are groups and let W: G 3 H be a homomorphism. the cyclic group Cp . simple groups are fundamental to the study of ®nite groups. ( g P G) . and Im W is a subgroup of H.

b: a4 ˆ 1. Sn ˆ the symmetric group of degree n. and for n > 2. A normal subgroup N of G is a subgroup such that gÀ1 Ng ˆ N for all g in G. 2. . g2 in G. Ker W.7(2) that Sn /An  C2 . A homomorphism W: G 3 H is a function such that ( g1 g 2 )W ˆ ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g1 . illustrating Theorem 1. is a normal subgroup of G. with multiplication (Ng)(Nh) ˆ NghX 3. Gr . The factor group GaKer W is isomorphic to Im W. . Summary of Chapter 1 1. An ˆ the alternating group of degree n. Im W ˆ C2 . b: an ˆ b2 ˆ 1. GL(n. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. and the image. with G simple. if g is an odd permutation. Q8 ˆ ka. Show that if G is an abelian group which is simple. .10. is a subgroup of H. The kernel. . .Groups and homomorphisms 1. 11 is a homomorphism. D2 n ˆ ka. Show that either W is an isomorphism or H ˆ {1}. if g is an even permutation. and that W: G 3 H is a surjective homomorphism. . Im W. Suppose that G and H are groups. We have Ker W ˆ An .11 Example The function W: Sn 3 C2 given by & 1. W: g 3 À1. the direct product of the groups G1 . We know from Example 1. G1 3 . The factor group GaN consists of the right cosets Ng ( g P G). bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. Exercises for Chapter 1 1. a2 ˆ b2 . . C) ˆ the group of invertible n 3 n matrices over C. then G is cyclic of prime order. 2. Examples of groups are Cn ˆ ka: an ˆ 1l. 3 Gr .

Y be the 2 3 2 matrices which are given by     0 i 0 À1 X ˆ . is a homomorphism. Y i of GL(2. de®ned by ö: ar bs 3 x r y s . show that x is a power of y. 6.Y ˆ . i 0 1 0 and let L be the subgroup hX .12 Representations and characters of groups 3. y ˆ (3 4). d: c4 ˆ 1. 0 < s < 1). (c) If G is a ®nite cyclic group and x. and let n be a positive integer which divides |G|. and Ga (G ’ An )  C2 X 4. Show that just one of the functions ë: G 3 L and ì: H 3 L. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i. Prove that f g P G: g n ˆ 1g is a cylic subgroup of G of order n. Find Ker ö and Ker ø. Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ha. Prove that D4 m  D2 m 3 C2 if m is odd. d À1 cd ˆ cÀ1 iX (a) Let x. and let K be the subgroup kx. Prove that G ’ An is a normal subgroup of G. Prove that this homomorphism is an isomorphism. and that G is not contained in An . Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . (a) Show that every subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic. (b) Let X. ì: cr d s 3 X r Y s (0 < r < 3. c2 ˆ d 2 . . 0 < s < 1). and H ˆ Q8 ˆ hc. de®ned by ë: ar bs 3 X r Y s . yl of S4 . ø: cr d s 3 x r y s (0 < r < 3. 5. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. (b) Let G be a ®nite cyclic group. y are elements of G with the same order. Show that both the functions ö: G 3 K and ø: H 3 K. are homomorphisms. C). y be the permutations in S4 which are given by x ˆ (1 2).

Prove that H v G. and B2 ˆ A4 and BÀ1 AB ˆ AÀ1 X Show that the group kA. Show that the set of non-zero complex numbers. 9. is a group.) 10.2(4). (Hint: compare Q8 in Example 1. B has order 4. Show that every group of even order contains an element of order 2. under the usual multiplication. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G with |G: H| ˆ 2. . Bl has order 16. 8.Groups and homomorphisms 13 7. Prove that every ®nite subgroup of this group is cyclic. C) such that A has order 8. Find elements A and B of GL(2.

ì in F. so we omit the proofs. we gather the results from linear algebra concerning vector spaces. The elements of V are called vectors. we explain in detail how the results work. in case you have not come across projections before. (2) (ë ‡ ì)v ˆ ëv ‡ ìv. 14 . together with a rule for adding any two elements u. linear transformations and matrices which we shall use later. We write 0 for the identity element of the abelian group V under addition. where we deal with projections. (The latter rule is called scalar multiplication. An exception occurs in the last section. Vector spaces Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). For reference purposes. (b) for all u. and a rule for multiplying any element v of V by any element ë of F to form an element ëv of V. and those of F are called scalars.2 Vector spaces and linear transformations An attractive feature of representation theory is that it combines two strands of mainstream mathematics.1) (a) V is an abelian group under addition. v of V to form an element u ‡ v of V. here. (4) 1v ˆ v.) Moreover. these rules must satisfy: (2. v in V and all ë. (3) (ëì)v ˆ ë(ìv). (1) ë(u ‡ v) ˆ ëu ‡ ëv. A vector space over F is a set V. Most of the material will be familiar to you if you have taken a ®rst course on linear algebra. namely group theory and linear algebra.

. . The vectors v1 . x9 ) ˆ (x1 ‡ x9 . X X X . v n are linearly dependent if ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n v n ˆ 0 for some ë1 . . X X X . . v1 . y ‡ y9). . ë n in F.Vector spaces and linear transformations 15 2. . . . v n are linearly independent. (2) More generally. 1 n 1 n ë(x1 . X X X . Bases of vector spaces Let v1 . A vector v in V is a linear combination of v1 . . . We say that v1 . . . y) where x and y are real numbers. xn ) ˆ (ëx1 . . . . X X X . y9) ˆ (x ‡ x9. . . as above. We denote the set of all such row vectors by F n. v n form a basis of V if they span V and are linearly independent. . . X X X . The vectors v1 . . ë(x. . Throughout this book. v n . we consider row vectors (x1 . xn ‡ x9 ). ë y)X Then R2 is a vector space over R. . xn ) ‡ (x9 . for each positive integer n. . . The vector space V is n-dimensional if dim V ˆ n. we shall consider only vector spaces V which are ®nite-dimensional ± this means that V has a basis consisting of ®nitely many vectors. v n be vectors in a vector space V over F. The number of vectors in a basis of V is called the dimension of V and is written as dim V.2 Examples (1) Let R2 denote the set of all ordered pairs (x. . y) ‡ (x9. X X X . v n if v ˆ ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n v n for some ë1 . . x2 . xn belong to F. . x2 . . . . If V ˆ {0} then dim V ˆ 0. not all of which are zero. . y) ˆ (ëx. otherwise. . . v n are said to span V if every vector in V is a linear combination of v1 . . De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on R2 by (x. . ëxn )X Then F n is a vector space over F. It turns out that any two bases of V have the same number of vectors. ë n in F. . and de®ne addition and scalar multiplication on F n by (x1 . . . . . xn ) where x1 . .

. . Subspaces A subspace of a vector space V over F is a subset of V which is itself a vector space under the addition and scalar multiplication inherited from V. For a subset U of V to be a subspace. v n form a basis of V. X X X . . ur be vectors in V. . X X X . X X X . sp (u1 . it is necessary and suf®cient that all the following conditions hold: (2. v P U then u ‡ v P U. (0. . . each vector v in V can be written in a unique way as v ˆ ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n v n . 0.5). (2) Let u1 . Another basis is (1. . 0. ë n . (2. ur . with ë1 . Then (1. . 0. . ur ) ˆ fë1 u1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë r ur : ë1 . X X X . v n in V such that v1 . 0. 0.16 Representations and characters of groups 2. We de®ne sp (u1 . X X X . . sp (u1 . X X X . . (3) if ë P F and u P U then ëu P U. and it is called the subspace spanned by u1 . . 1. . . that is. 1. . ë n in F. . . Indeed. 1. 0.6 Examples (1) {0} and V are subspaces of V. . . . . . X X X . v k are linearly independent vectors in V. . (1. X X X . . . there are many bases of V. . . . . .3 Example Let V ˆ F n. . so dim V ˆ n. then there exist v k‡1 . 0. . . (1. 2. . The vector v therefore determines the scalars ë1 . 0).4) If v1 . X X X . . . 0). .5) (1) 0 P U. . 0). X X X . . . . Except in the case where V ˆ {0}. 1)X Given a basis v1 . . 1) is a basis of V. ur ) to be the set of all linear combinations of u1 . 0). the next result says that any linearly independent vectors can be extended to a basis. (2) if u. v n of a vector space V. 1. . 0. (0. . ur . ë r P FgX By (2. ur ) is a subspace of V. .

The next result is frequently useful when dealing with the direct sum of two subspaces. . then the sum U1 ‡ . . . v k be a basis of U. . . unless U is {0} or V. . ‡ Ur is de®ned by U1 ‡ X X X ‡ Ur ˆ fu1 ‡ X X X ‡ ur : ui P Ui for 1 < i < rgX By (2. Then V ˆ U1 È X X X È Un X (2) Let U be a subspace of V and let v1 .Vector spaces and linear transformations Notice that the following fact is a consequence of (2. . . . . We say that the sum U1 ‡ . . ws is a basis of V. Then V ˆ U È WX From this construction it follows that there are in®nitely many subspaces W with V ˆ U È W. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) V ˆ U È W. . . . w1.4). . . . . ‡ ur with ui P Ui for 1 < i < r. v n ). . Ur are subspaces of a vector space V. . . . . Then dim U < dim V Also. Extend v1. ‡ Ur is a subspace of V. . ur . . . (3) U ’ W ˆ {0}. v n is a basis of V. .3 and 2. and let W ˆ sp (v k‡1 . . ws is a basis of W. .8 Examples (1) Suppose that v1 . ‡ Ur is a direct sum if every element of the sum can be written in a unique way as u1 ‡ . ur is a basis of U and that w1. v n of V (see (2. only if U ˆ V. If the sum is direct. .4)). . v k to a basis v1 . (2. . . Direct sums of subspaces 17 If U1.9) Suppose that V ˆ U ‡ W. let Ui be the subspace spanned by v i. . dim U ˆ dim V if and . (2.4 if you have dif®culty with the proof. .5). . . . (2) u1 . that u1 . . . . . . . .7) Suppose that U is a subspace of the vector space V . You should consult the solutions to Exercises 2. . U1 ‡ . . and for 1 < i < n. . . then we write it as U1 È X X X È Ur X 2.

we write V ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur X Linear transformations Let V and W be vector spaces over F. Let U1. . Wb are subspaces of a vector space V. .18 Representations and characters of groups Our next result. . ur ) ˆ (ëu1 . X X X . . let (u1 . Ur. . can be deduced immediately from the de®nition of a direct sum. u9 ) ˆ (u1 ‡ u9 . . . V is a vector space over F. abusing notation slightly. (2. then V ˆ U1 È X X X È Ua È W 1 È X X X È W b X We now introduce a construction for vector spaces which is analogous to the construction of direct products for groups. X X X . . . X X X . u9 i in Ui (1 < i < r) and all ë in F. W1. we put U 9 ˆ f(0. If. Ua. . and. ur ) ‡ (u9 . for 1 < i < r. X X X . X X X . . and for all ë P F and v P V X . . 1 r 1 r ë(u1 . and W ˆ W1 È X X X È Wb . v P V . . U1. . and let V ˆ f(u1 . involving the direct sum of several subspaces. X X X . . X X X . Ur be vector spaces over F. ui . W. ëur )X With these de®nitions. . ur ‡ u9 ). A linear transformation from V to W is a function W: V 3 W which satis®es (u ‡ v)W ˆ uW ‡ vW (ëv)W ˆ ë(vW) for all u. ur ): ui P U i for 1 < i < rgX De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on V as follows: for all ui . X X X . If V ˆ U È W and also U ˆ U1 È X X X È Ua . then it is immediate that V ˆ U1 È X X X È U 9X 9 r We call V the external direct sum of U1.10) Suppose that U. 0): ui P U i g i (where the ui is in the ith position).

then for ë1 . the linear transformation ö is given by (ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n v n )ö ˆ ë1 w1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n wn X We sometimes construct a linear transformation ö: V 3 W in this way. Im W ˆ f0gX (2) If W: V 3 V is de®ned by vW ˆ 3v for all v P V. . . Their dimensions are connected by the following equation. . ë n in F we have (ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n v n )W ˆ ë1 (v1 W) ‡ X X X ‡ ë n (v n W)X Thus. which is known as the Rank±Nullity Theorem: (2X12) dim V ˆ dim (Ker W) ‡ dim (Im W)X 2. v n of V and any n vectors w1. v n is a basis of V. and Ker W ˆ f0g. .13 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW ˆ 0 for all v P V. . so a linear transformation preserves addition and scalar multiplication. W is determined by its action on a basis. given any basis v1 . and Ker W ˆ V .5). Kernels and images Suppose that W: V 3 W is a linear transformation. there is a unique linear transformation ö: V 3 W such that v i öˆ wi for all i. . . . by specifying the values of ö on a basis of V. . Notice that if W: V 3 W is a linear transformation and v1. wn in W. The kernel of W (written Ker W) and the image of W (written Im W) are de®ned as follows: (2X11) Ker W ˆ fv P V : vW ˆ 0g. then W is a linear transformation. . . . and then saying `extend the action of ö to be linear'. . . Im W ˆ fvW: v P V gX Using (2. it is easy to check that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. . then W is a linear transformation. Im W ˆ V X . Furthermore.Vector spaces and linear transformations 19 Just as a group homomorphism preserves the group multiplication. .

y. We write W2 for WW. we obtain the next result (see Exercise 2. we have Ker W ˆ sp ((7. we see that isomorphic vector spaces have the same dimension. Invertible linear transformations Again. v(ëW) ˆ ë(vW).14) Let W be a linear transformation from V to itself. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. z P R. then W is a linear transformation. (2.7) into account. Wö and ëW from V to V by (2X15) v(W ‡ ö) ˆ vW ‡ vö.2). By also taking (2. Im W ˆ R2 . and hence W is invertible precisely when W is surjective and Ker W ˆ {0}. Suppose that W and ö are endomorphisms of V and ë P F.1). v(Wö) ˆ (vW)ö. then V and W are said to be isomorphic vector spaces. Endomorphisms A linear transformation from a vector space V to itself is called an endomorphism of V. for all v P V. . y. If there exists an invertible linear transformation from V to W. Then W ‡ ö. (2) Ker W ˆ {0}. We de®ne the functions W ‡ ö.20 Representations and characters of groups (3) If W: R3 3 R2 is given by (x.12). À3. z)W ˆ (x ‡ 2 y ‡ z. By applying (2. A linear transformation W from V to W is injective if and only if Ker W ˆ {0}. It turns out that the inverse of an invertible linear transformation is also a linear transformation (see Exercise 2. let V and W be vector spaces over F. À1)). so dim (Ker W) ˆ 1 and dim (Im W) ˆ 2. (3) Im W ˆ V. À y ‡ 3z) for all x. Wö and ëW are endomorphisms of V.

where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. À2x ‡ 4 y)X Then W and ö are endomorphisms of V. Wö. If B is the basis (1. (x. for all ë P F. x À 2 y). then so is W À ë1 V . y)ö ˆ (x À 2 y.Vector spaces and linear transformations 2.16 Examples (1) The identity function 1 V de®ned by 1 V : v 3 v for all v P V 21 is an endomorphism of V. 2. y)(Wö) ˆ (Àx ‡ 5 y. (x. Àx ‡ 2 y). (2) Let V ˆ R2 and let W be the endomorphism (x. 1) of V and B 9 is the basis . 2x À 10 y). If W is an endomorphism of V. (x. Then there are scalars aij in F (1 < i < n. 3x À 6 y). y)W2 ˆ (2x À y. v n is a basis of V and call it B . (x. ö be the functions from V to V de®ned by (x. Note that Ker (W À ë1 V ) ˆ fv P V : vW ˆ ëvgX (2) Let V ˆ R2. v i W ˆ a i1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ain v n X 2.17 De®nition The n 3 n matrix (aij ) is called the matrix of W relative to the basis B . y) 3 (x ‡ y. y)(W ‡ ö) ˆ (2x À y. . . . 1 < j < n) such that for all i. and let W be an endomorphism of V. (0. and let W. y)(3W) ˆ (3x ‡ 3 y. Suppose that v1 . 3W and W2 are given by (x. and W ‡ ö. then [W]B ˆ In for all bases B of V. Àx ‡ 5 y)X Matrices Let V be a vector space over F. and is denoted by [W]B . . 0). x À 2 y) of V. y)W ˆ (x ‡ y.18 Examples (1) If W ˆ 1 V (so that vW ˆ v for all v P V).

1) of V. the product of two matrices is de®ned in a less transparent way. and for ë P F. then we describe A as a matrix over F. 2 À1 5 À2 À4 3 0 3 3 . As you know. À2  [W]B 9 ˆ  1 X À1 (1. 0).20) Suppose that B is a basis of the vector space V.19 Example Let Aˆ Then A‡ Bˆ 2 BA ˆ  À1 3   2 0 . their sum A ‡ B is the m 3 n matrix over F whose ij-entry is aij ‡ bij for all i. Then [W ‡ ö]B ˆ [W]B ‡ [ö]B . their product AB is the m 3 p matrix whose ij-entry is n ˆ kˆ1 aik bkj X 2. Bˆ 1 2 2 3  À4 X À1 2 . j. (1. AB ˆ 3 . 3A ˆ X À3 9 6 3 4 2 2 À13 À12 À5 The matrix of the sum or product of two endomorphisms (relative to some basis) is related to the matrices of the individual endomorphisms in the way you would expect: (2. and [Wö]B ˆ [W]B [ö]B X . and that W and ö are endomorphisms of V. then [W]B ˆ 1 1 0 3 If we wish to indicate that the entries in a matrix A come from F. Given an m 3 n matrix A ˆ (aij ) and an n 3 p matrix B ˆ (bij ). the matrix ëA is the m 3 n matrix over F obtained from A by multiplying all the entries by ë. Given two m 3 n matrices A ˆ (aij ) and B ˆ (bij ) over F.22 Representations and characters of groups   1 .

given a basis of V. y)W ˆ (x. if it exists. 2. is unique. an endomorphism W of V is invertible if and only if the matrix [W]B is invertible.17) how to get a matrix from an endomorphism of a vector space V.21) If A is an n 3 n matrix over F then the function . and let V ˆ F n. Write det A for the determinant of A. The following remark is easily justi®ed. y) ˆ (x ‡ 3 y. (2. and follows from (2. Suppose that A is an n 3 n matrix over F. the vector space of row vectors (x1 . [ëW]B ˆ ë[W]B X 23 We showed you in (2. where   1 À1 (x.Vector spaces and linear transformations Also.22 Example Let Aˆ  1 3  À1 X 2 Then A gives us an endomorphism W of F 2. Then for all v in V. . the matrix product vA also lies in V. xn ) with each xi in F. for all scalars ë. . and this same matrix is used to describe the way in which the matrix of an . it is called the inverse of A and is written as AÀ1 . Invertible matrices turn up when we relate two bases of a vector space. Such a matrix B. v 3 vA (v P F n ) is an endomorphism of F n.20): given a basis B of V. It is easy enough to reverse this process and use a matrix to de®ne an endomorphism. Then a necessary and suf®cient condition for A to be invertible is that det A Tˆ 0. Àx ‡ 2 y)X 3 2 Invertible matrices An n 3 n matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists an n 3 n matrix B with AB ˆ BA ˆ In . The connection between invertible endomorphisms and invertible matrices is straightforward. . . We concentrate on a particular way of doing this. An invertible matrix converts one basis into another.

then       1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 [W]B ˆ ˆ T À1 [W]B 9 T X ˆ À1 1 3 À1 1 1 1 À2 Eigenvalues Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F.25 Example Suppose that V ˆ R2. v9 ˆ t i1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ tin v n i for certain scalars tij . . . 0). Then     1 0 1 0 À1 Tˆ .24 Representations and characters of groups endomorphism depends upon the basis. and let v9 . Then for 1 < i < n. 1) of V. Such a vector v is called an eigenvector of W.T ˆ X 1 1 À1 1 If W is the endomorphism W: (x. as in Example 2. v9 1 n be a basis B 9 of V. v n be a basis B of the vector space V. (1.18(2). then [W]B ˆ T À1 [W]B 9 T . . . 1) and B 9 the basis (1. . x À 2 y) of V. 2. The n 3 n matrix T ˆ (tij ) is invertible. The inverse of T is the change of basis matrix from B 9 to B . The scalar ë is said to be an eigenvalue of W if vW ˆ ëv for some non-zero vector v in V. 0).24) below. and is called the change of basis matrix from B to B 9. (0. The precise meaning of these remarks is revealed in the de®nition (2. Let B be the basis (1. and suppose that W is an endomorphism of V. .23) and the result (2. (2. where T is the change of basis matrix from B to B 9. 2. .23 De®nition Let v1 . . y) 3 (x ‡ y.24) If B and B 9 are bases of V and W is an endomorphism of V. .

Therefore. V is a vector space over R. then the eigenvalues of W are those scalars ë in F which satisfy the equation det ([W]B À ëI n ) ˆ 0X Solving this equation involves ®nding the roots of a polynomial of degree n. then   i 0 [W]B 9 ˆ X 0 Ài (2) Let V ˆ R2 and let W again be the endomorphism which is given by (x. the element ë of F is said to be an eigenvalue of A if vA ˆ ëv for some non-zero row vector v in F n. 0). so i and Ài are the eigenvalues of W. 1) of V. (1. Then W has an eigenvalue. x)X If B is the basis (1. we deduce the following result. Note that if B 9 is the basis (1.26) Let V be a non-zero vector space over C. For an n 3 n matrix A over F. y)W ˆ (À y. Ài) and (1. and let W be an endomorphism of V. if B is a basis of V. and W has no eigenvalues in R. x)X This time. (0. which occurs if and only if W À ë1 V is not invertible. The eigenvalues of A are those elements ë of F which satisfy det (A À ëI n ) ˆ 0X .27 Examples (1) Let V ˆ C2 and let W be the endomorphism of V which is given by (x.26). Thus we depend upon F being C in result (2. (2. Since every non-constant polynomial with coef®cients in C has a root in C. 2. i). Ài). i) of V. Corresponding eigenvectors are (1. y)W ˆ (À y.Vector spaces and linear transformations 25 Now ë is an eigenvalue of W if and only if Ker (W À ë1 V ) Tˆ {0}. then   0 1 [W]B ˆ X À1 0 We have det ([W]B À ëI2 ) ˆ ë2 ‡ 1.

and since uð ˆ u for all u in U. Also. . Then v ˆ u ‡ w and v9 ˆ u9 ‡ w9 for some u.26 Representations and characters of groups 2. (ëv)ð ˆ (ëu ‡ ëw)ð ˆ ëu ˆ ë(vð)X Therefore. Further. w P W X Then ð is an endomorphism of V. Ker ð ˆ W and ð2 ˆ ðX Proof Since every vector in V has a unique expression in the form u ‡ w with u P U.28 Example We say that an n 3 n matrix A ˆ (aij ) is diagonal if aij ˆ 0 for all i and j with i Tˆ j. For this diagonal matrix A. in addition. it follows that ð is a function on V. w P W. Clearly Im ð # U. . De®ne ð: V 3 V by (u ‡ w)ð ˆ u for all u P U . Im ð ˆ U . Projections If a vector space V is a direct sum of two subspaces U and W. u9 in U and w. then we can construct a special endomorphism of V which depends upon the expression V ˆ U È W: 2. ë n . . ð is an endomorphism of V. Let v and v9 belong to V. the eigenvalues are ë1 .29 Proposition Suppose that V ˆ U È W. for ë in F. . that aii ˆ ë i for 1 < i < n. . we have Im ˆ U. We have (v ‡ v9)ð ˆ (u ‡ u9 ‡ w ‡ w9)ð ˆ u ‡ u9 ˆ (u ‡ w)ð ‡ (u9 ‡ w9)ð ˆ vð ‡ v9ðX Also. We often display such a matrix in the form H I ë1 0 f g FF Aˆd e F ën 0 which indicates. w9 in W.

27 j 2.30 De®nition An endomorphism ð of a vector space V which satis®es ð2 ˆ ð is called a projection of V. j .31 Example The endomorphism (x. and so Ker ð ˆ W. We now show that every projection can be constructed using a direct sum. y) 3 (2x ‡ 2 y. (u ‡ w)ð2 ˆ uð ˆ u ˆ (u ‡ w)ð. we have v ˆ uð for some u P V. and the second term v À vð lies in Ker ð. 2. Thus Im ð ’ Ker ð ˆ f0g. it follows that v ˆ vð ˆ 0. 2. Finally. Therefore vð ˆ uð2 ˆ uð ˆ vX Since v P Ker ð. Then V ˆ Im ð È Ker ðX Proof If v P V then v ˆ vð ‡ (v À vð). Clearly the ®rst term vð belongs to Im ð. Now suppose that v lies in Im ð ’ Ker ð. since (v À vð)ð ˆ vð À vð2 ˆ vð À vð ˆ 0X This establishes that V ˆ Im ð ‡ Ker ð. Àx À y) of R2 is a projection.9) now shows that V ˆ Im ð È Ker ð. as in Proposition 2. and so ð2 ˆ ð. and (2.29.Vector spaces and linear transformations (u ‡ w)ð ˆ 0 D u ˆ 0 D u ‡ w P W . As v P Im ð.32 Proposition Suppose that ð is a projection of a vector space V.

.33 Example If ð: (x. . Show that if V and W are vector spaces and W: V 3 W is an invertible linear transformation then WÀ1 is a linear transformation. then Im ð ˆ f(2x. y) 3 (2x ‡ 2 y. 2. Àx À y) is the projection of R2 which appears in Example 2. A projection is an endomorphism ð of V which satis®es ð2 ˆ ð. there is a correspondence between the endomorphisms W of V and the n 3 n matrices [W]B over F. ‡ ur (ui P Ui ). x n ) with each xi in F. Eigenvalues ë of an endomorphism W satisfy vW ˆ ëv for some nonzero v in V. V ˆ U È W if and only if V ˆ U ‡ W and U ’ W ˆ {0}. 5. 3. Àx): x P Rg. and every element v of V has a unique expression of the form v ˆ u1 ‡ . Also. and an endomorphism W of V. A linear transformation W: V 3 W satis®es (u ‡ v)W ˆ uW ‡ vW and (ëv)W ˆ ë(vW) for all u. Àx): x P RgX Summary of Chapter 2 1. 7. . Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. F F F . Ker ð ˆ f(x. All our vector spaces are ®nite-dimensional over F.31. and dim V ˆ dim (Ker W) ‡ dim (Im W)X 4. Exercises for Chapter 2 1. V ˆ U1 È . For example. Given two bases B and B 9 of V. A linear transformation W: V 3 W is invertible if and only if Ker W ˆ {0} and Im W ˆ W. there exists an invertible matrix T such that [W]B ˆ T À1 [W]B 9 TX 6.28 Representations and characters of groups 2. F n is the set of row vectors (x1 . v in V and all ë in F. Given a basis B of the n-dimensional vector space V. È Ur if each Ui is a subspace of V. and dimF n ˆ n. . where F ˆ C or R. .

ur . ur is a basis of U and w1. Show that the following are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. . . . but V Tˆ Im ö È Ker ö. Ur are subspaces of the vector space V. Prove that dim V ˆ dim U1 ‡ X X X ‡ dim U r X 7. Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. U2 and U3 be subspaces of a vector space V. 6. (a) Let U1. Show that V ˆ U1 È U2 È U3 D U 1 ’ (U 2 ‡ U3 ) ˆ U 2 ’ (U 1 ‡ U3 ) ˆ U 3 ’ (U 1 ‡ U2 ) ˆ f0gX (b) Give an example of a vector space V with three subspaces U1. where U ˆ fv P V : vW ˆ vg. ws is a basis of W. . . . . 9. . but V Tˆ U1 È U2 È U3. 5. Prove that V ˆ U È W if and only if V ˆ U ‡ W and U ’ W = {0}. Show that V ˆ U È W. Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V. Show that V ˆ U È W if and only if u1 . . (3) Im W ˆ V. . È Ur. . 8.Vector spaces and linear transformations 29 2. with V ˆ U1 ‡ U2 ‡ U3. w1. Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V and W2 ˆ 1 V . . Suppose that U1. Let V be a vector space and let W be an endomorphism of V. . 4. with all diagonal entries equal to ‡1 or À1. . U2 and U3 such that V ˆ U1 ‡ U2 ‡ U3 and U1 ’ U 2 ˆ U1 ’ U3 ˆ U2 ’ U 3 ˆ f0g. . Suppose that u1 . (2) Ker W ˆ {0}. Show that W is a projection if and only if there is a basis B of V such that [W]B is diagonal. Give an example of a vector space V with endomorphisms W and ö such that V ˆ Im W È Ker W. . . with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or 0. . . . and that V ˆ U1 È . . ws is a basis of V. W ˆ fv P V : vW ˆ ÀvgX Deduce that V has a basis B such that [W]B is diagonal. . . Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. 3.

Recall from the ®rst chapter that GL (n. we have 1r ˆ I n . it follows that for every representation r: G 3 GL (n. for some n. then r is a representation if and only if ( gh)r ˆ ( gr)(hr) for all g. F). h P GX Since a representation is a homomorphism. a representation is a homomorphism from G into a group of invertible matrices. 30 . We set out this idea in more detail. The degree of r is the integer n. F). To be precise. We also introduce the concept of equivalence of representations. Representations Let G be a group and let F be R or C.3 Group representations A representation of a group G gives us a way of visualizing G as a group of matrices. where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. and give some examples of representations.1 De®nition A representation of G over F is a homomorphism r from G to GL (n. and consider the kernel of a representation. 3. F). and g À1 r ˆ ( gr)À1 for all g P G. F) denotes the group of invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. Thus if r is a function from G to GL (n.

De®ne r: G 3 GL (n. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. . Then ( gh)r ˆ I n ˆ I n I n ˆ ( gr)(hr) for all g. The matrices gr for g in D8 are given in the following table: g gr  1  1 0 0 1 a  0 1 À1 0 a2  À1 0 0 À1 a3  0 À1 1 0    g gr  b  1 0 0 À1  ab  0 À1 À1 0 2  a b  À1 0 0 1 3  a b  0 1 1 0 (2) Let G be any group. so r is a representation of G.2 Examples (1) Let G be the dihedral group D8 ˆ ka. h P G. F) by gr ˆ I n for all g P G. The degree of r is 2. F) which is given by r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. Equivalent representations We now look at a way of converting a given representation into another one. This shows that every group has representations of arbitrarily large degree. where In is the n 3 n identity matrix. BÀ1 AB ˆ AÀ1 X It follows (see Example 1. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1.Group representations 31 3. Bˆ À1 0 0 À1 and check that A4 ˆ B2 ˆ I.4) that the function r: G 3 GL (2. 0 < j < 1) is a representation of D8 over F. as usual. De®ne the matrices A and B by     0 1 1 0 Aˆ .

2(1). 3. T À1 (hr)T ˆ ( gó )(hó ). Thus ar ˆ A for all g P GX . (3) if r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô.4 Examples (1) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. ( gh)ó ˆ T À1 (( gh)r)T ˆ T À1 (( gr)(hr))T ˆ T À1 ( gr)T . In other words. ó and ô of G over F. equivalence of representations is an equivalence relation. h P G. we have (T À1 AT )(T À1 BT ) ˆ T À1 (AB)TX We can use this observation to produce a new representation ó from r. and consider the representation r of G which appears in Example 3. F) and ó : G 3 GL (n.3 De®nition Let r: G 3 GL (m. and so ó is. a representation. (2) if r is equivalent to ó then ó is equivalent to r. F) be representations of G over F. 3.4): (1) r is equivalent to r. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1.32 Representations and characters of groups Let r: G 3 GL (n. we simply de®ne gó ˆ T À1 ( gr)T Then for all g. F) be a representation. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. and let T be an invertible n 3 n matrix over F. We say that r is equivalent to ó if n ˆ m and there exists an invertible n 3 n matrix T such that for all g P G. indeed. then r is equivalent to ô. we have (see Exercise 3. Note that for all n 3 n matrices A and B. gó ˆ T À1 ( gr)TX Note that for all representations r.

0 Ài 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of D8 for which     0 1 i 0 X .Group representations and br ˆ B. we have     i 0 0 1 À1 À1 T AT ˆ . bó ˆ aó ˆ 1 0 0 Ài The representations r and ó are equivalent. . Tˆ 1 À1 then T À1 AT ˆ   0 . aó ˆ 1ó ˆ 0 À1 0 1 and ó is equivalent to r. Hence r: 1 3 I. (2) Let G ˆ C2 ˆ ka: a2 ˆ 1l and let  À5 Aˆ À2  12 X 5 Check that A2 ˆ I. and de®ne 1 T ˆp 2 Then 1 i 1 T À1 ˆ p 2  In fact. . a 3 A is a representation of G. If   2 À3 . T BT ˆ . where Aˆ    1 1 . T has been constructed so that T À1 AT is diagonal. Bˆ 0 0   1 X Ài  1 Ài X 1 i  0 X À1 33 0 À1 Assume that F ˆ C. À1 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of G for which     1 0 1 0 .

.6 De®nition A representation r: G 3 GL (n. Of particular interest are those representations whose kernel is just the identity subgroup.34 Representations and characters of groups There are two easily recognized situations where the only representation which is equivalent to r is r itself. F). In agreement with De®nition 1. 3. as is shown by the following de®nition. F) which is de®ned by gr ˆ (1) for all g P G. the trivial representation of G is the representation where every group element is sent to the 1 3 1 identity matrix. To put the de®nition another way. is called the trivial representation of G. 3. these are when the degree of r is 1. this consists of the group elements g in G for which gr is the identity matrix. Kernels of representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the kernel of a representation r: G 3 GL (n. 3. that is. It can happen that the kernel of a representation is the whole of G. if the identity element of G is the only element g for which gr ˆ In . Thus Ker r ˆ f g P G: gr ˆ I n gX Note that Ker r is a normal subgroup of G. F) is said to be faithful if Ker r ˆ {1}.7 Proposition A representation r of a ®nite group G is faithful if and only if Im r is isomorphic to G. there are usually lots of representations which are equivalent to r. and when gr ˆ In for all g in G.5 De®nition The representation r: G 3 GL (1.8. However.

Representations r and ó of G are equivalent if and only if there exists an invertible matrix T such that for all g P G. if G  Im r. A representation is faithful if it is injective.8 Examples (1) The representation r of D8 given by j  i 1 0 0 1 i j (a b )r ˆ 0 À1 À1 0 as in Example 3. it follows that all representations which are equivalent to a faithful representation are faithful.10. (3) The trivial representation of a group G if faithful if and only if G ˆ {1}. and so |Ker r| ˆ 1. A representation of a group G is a homomorphism from G into GL(n.2(1) is faithful. since the identity is the only element g which satis®es gr ˆ I. (2) Since T À1 AT ˆ In if and only if A ˆ In . . r is faithful. for some n. In Chapter 6 we shall show that every ®nite group has a faithful representation.Group representations 35 Proof We know that Ker r v G and by Theorem 1. j 3. Conversely. 2. then these two groups have the same (®nite) order. Summary of Chapter 3 1. Therefore. F). gó ˆ T À1 ( gr)T X 3. that is. The group generated by the matrices     0 1 1 0 and À1 0 0 À1 is therefore isomorphic to D8. if Ker r ˆ {1} then G  Im r. The basic problem of representation theory is to discover and understand representations of ®nite groups. the factor group G/ Ker r is isomorphic to Im r.

1 0 0 eÀiða3     p 1a2 3a2 1 0 p Cˆ . b: a6 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. ó and ô are representations of G over F. (2) if r is equivalent to ó.Cˆ  0 À1 1 À1  e2ðia3 and let G ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l  C3 . D over C by     0 1 eiða3 0 Aˆ . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. Let G be the cyclic group of order m. then ó is equivalent to r. and de®ne r: G 3 GL (n.  1 0   1 0 . Show that each of the functions r j : G 3 GL (2. is a representation of G over C. Bˆ 0 1 0  . r2 : ar 3 Br . say G ˆ ka: am ˆ 1l. Let Aˆ (0 < r < m À 1)X Show that r is a representation of G over C if and only if Am ˆ I. Bˆ .36 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 3 1. Prove: (1) r is equivalent to r. and ó is equivalent to ô. b: an ˆ b2 ˆ 1. F) such that ar ˆ (1) and br ˆ (À1). given by . 2. (3) if r is equivalent to ó. then r is equivalent to ô. Which of these representations are faithful? 3. De®ne the matrices A. C). 4). Suppose that G ˆ D2 n ˆ ka. C) (1 < j < 3). Dˆ X À 3a2 1a2 0 À1 Prove that each of the functions r k : G 3 GL (2. B. 3. Suppose that A P GL (n. 5. C. C) by r: ar 3 Ar 2. de®ned by r1 : ar 3 Ar . Show that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (1. Suppose that r. 4. and F ˆ R or C. r3 : a r 3 C r (0 < r < 2). C) (k ˆ 1. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. Let G ˆ D12 ˆ ka.

0 < s < 1).Group representations r1 : ar bs 3 Ar Bs . 7. r3 : ar bs 3 (ÀA) r Bs . Give an example of a faithful representation of D8 of degree 3. Suppose that g and h are elements of G such that ( gr)(hr) ˆ (hr)( gr). 37 is a representation of G. Suppose that r is a representation of G of degree 1. r 4 : ar bs 3 C r D s (0 < r < 5. Prove that Ga Ker r is abelian. Let r be a representation of the group G. 8. Does it follow that gh ˆ hg? . r2 : ar bs 3 A3 r (ÀB) s . Which of these representations are faithful? Which are equivalent? 6.

4 FG-modules We now introduce the concept of an FG-module. First. the fact that r is a homomorphism shows that v(( gh)r) ˆ v( gr)(hr) for all v P V and all g. 38 . h P G. Finally. the vector space of all row vectors (ë1 . since 1r is the identity matrix. we have v(1r) ˆ v for all v P V. as there are several advantages to this approach to representation theory. of the row vector v with the n 3 n matrix gr. F) is a representation of G. We now list some basic properties of the multiplication v( gr). Next. For all v P V and g P G. and show that there is a close connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F. Write V ˆ F n . . ë n ) with ë i P F. . is a row vector in V (since the product of a 1 3 n matrix with an n 3 n matrix is again a 1 3 n matrix). FG-modules Let G be a group and let F be R or C. . Much of the material in the remainder of the book will be presented in terms of FG-modules. the properties of matrix multiplication give (ëv)( gr) ˆ ë(v( gr)). . the matrix product v( gr). Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n.

4. (v P V ) . we now de®ne an FG-module. (u ‡ v) g ˆ ug ‡ v g. and let r: G 3 GL (2. Àë2 ). (ëv) g ˆ ë(v g).2(1). ë2 ) P F 2 then. Note that conditions (1). h P G: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) v g P V. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. ë1 ). v(ar) ˆ (Àë2 . v1 ˆ v. ë P F and g. v(a3 r) ˆ (ë2 . v( gh) ˆ (v g)h. br ˆ ar ˆ 0 À1 À1 0 If v ˆ (ë1 . Thus     1 0 0 1 X . 39 4. for example. satisfying the following conditions for all u.1 Example Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. v P V. Àë1 )X Motivated by the above observations on the product v( gr). ë P F and g P G. We use the letters F and G in the name `FG-module' to indicate that V is a vector space over F and that G is the group from which we are taking the elements g to form the products v g (v P V). g P G) is de®ned. v(br) ˆ (ë1 .FG-modules (u ‡ v)( gr) ˆ u( gr) ‡ v( gr) for all u. F) be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. (4) and (5) in the de®nition ensure that for all g P G. the function v 3 vg is an endomorphism of V.2 De®nition Let V be a vector space over F and let G be a group. v P V. Then V is an FG-module if a multiplication v g (v P V.

and let B be a basis of V. (0. 4. X X X . if we let B be the basis (1. 1. 0. v P F n. (u ‡ v)( gr) ˆ u( gr) ‡ v( gr)X Therefore. we have v( gr) P F n . 0.40 Representations and characters of groups 4. ( g P G) . g P GX Moreover. F n becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g ˆ v( gr) for all v P F n .3 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. Then the function g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F. (ëv)( gr) ˆ ë(v( gr)). v(1r) ˆ v. 1) of F n. X X X . X X X . X X X . (0. and V ˆ F n. then gr ˆ [ g]B for all g P G. 0. Proof (1) We have already observed that for all u. F) is a representation of G over F.4 Theorem (1) If r: G 3 GL(n. 0. h P G. For each g P G. ë P F and g. The connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F is revealed in the following basic result. relative to the basis B . there is a basis B of V such that (2) Assume that V is an FG-module and let B be a basis of V. v(( gh)r) ˆ (v( gr))(hr). 0. 0). g P G)X for all g P GX Moreover. then V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne the multiplication v g by v g ˆ v( gr) gr ˆ [ g]B (v P V . let [ g]B denote the matrix of the endomorphism v 3 v g of V. 0).

bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l and let r be the representation of G over F given in Example 3.4. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. v2 . so [1]B is the identity matrix. a2 ˆ b2 .   ˆ (0. h P G and all v in the basis B of V. br ˆ X À1 0 0 À1 Write V ˆ F 2. By Theorem 4. 0)a ˆ (1. Now v1 ˆ v for all v P V. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. 0). j Our next example illustrates part (1) of Theorem 4. then the representation is just the representation r (see Theorem 4. g 3 [ g]B v1 b ˆ v1 .2(1). b: a4 ˆ 1.FG-modules 41 (2) Let V be an FG-module with basis B . g P G)X For instance. (0.4(1) again). We have proved that the function g 3 [ g]B is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. [1]B ˆ [ g]B [ g À1 ]B for all g P G. and hence is a representation of G over F. 4. v2 a ˆ Àv1 . V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g ˆ v( gr) (v P V . 1) of V. 1)X 0 (1.5 Examples (1) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. Since v( gh) ˆ (v g)h for all g. it follows that [ gh]B ˆ [ g]B [h]B X In particular. 0) À1 1 0 If v1 . Therefore each matrix [ g]B is invertible (with inverse [ gÀ1 ]B ). (2) Let G ˆ Q8 ˆ ka.4(1). F) (where n ˆ dim V ). so     0 1 1 0 ar ˆ . v2 is the basis (1. then we have v1 a ˆ v2 . In Example . v2 b ˆ Àv2 X ( g P G) If B denotes the basis v1 .

without using a representation. For instance.6 Proposition Assume that v1 . v2 b ˆ Àv1 X Notice that in the above examples. gr generate G. v n of V and then extending the action to be linear on the whole of V.4(1) we must this time take F ˆ C. that is. . . . the vectors v1 a. then the vectors v i g j (1 < i < n. F F F .42 Representations and characters of groups 1. we turn a vector space V over F into an FG-module by specifying the action of group elements on a basis v1 . To illustrate Theorem 4. . To do this. and B ˆ Aˆ À1 0 0 Ài so we already have a representation of G over C. . 4. The next result will often be used to show that our chosen multiplication turns V into an FG-module. We then obtain a CG-module with basis v1 . 1 < j < r) determine v g for all v P V and g P G. . v1 b and v2 b determine v g for all v P V and g P G. v2 a ˆ Àiv2 .5(1). (v1 ‡ 2v2 )ab ˆ v1 ab ‡ 2v2 ab ˆ v2 b À 2v1 b ˆ Àv2 À 2v1 X A similar remark holds for all FG-modules V: if v1 . Shortly. we shall show you various ways of constructing FG-modules directly. in Example 4. we ®rst de®ne v i g for each i and each g in G. v2 a. . there are restrictions on how we may de®ne the vectors v i g. . v n is a basis of a vector space V over F Suppose . . and then de®ne (ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n v n ) g to be ë1 (v1 g) ‡ X X X ‡ ë n (v n g)X As you might expect. C) generated by     0 1 i 0 . . v1 b ˆ v2 . .2(4) we de®ned Q8 to be the subgroup of GL (2. v2 such that v1 a ˆ iv1 . . v n is a basis of V and g1 . that we have a multiplication v g for all v in V and g in G which (ë i P F) .

FG-modules

43

satis®es the following conditions for all i with 1 < i < n, for all g, h P G, and for all ë1 , F F F , ë n P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) v i g P V; v i ( gh) ˆ (v i g)h; vi 1 ˆ vi ; (ë1 v1 ‡ . . . ‡ ë n v n ) g ˆ ë1 (v1 g) ‡ . . . ‡ ë n (v n g).

Then V is an FG-module. Proof It is clear from (3) and (4) that v1 ˆ v for all v P V. Conditions (1) and (4) ensure that for all g in G, the function v 3 v g (v P V) is an endomorphism of V. That is, vg P V, (ëv) g ˆ ë(v g), (u ‡ v) g ˆ ug ‡ v g, for all u, v P V, ë P F and g P G. Hence (4X7) (ë1 u1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n u n )h ˆ ë1 (u1 h) ‡ X X X ‡ ë n (un h) for all ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, all u1 , . . . , un P V and all h P G. Now let v P V and g, h P G. Then v ˆ ë1 v1 ‡ . . . ‡ ë n v n for some ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, and v( gh) ˆ ë1 (v1 ( gh)) ‡ X X X ‡ ë n (v n ( gh)) ˆ (ë1 (v1 g) ‡ X X X ‡ ë n (v n g))h ˆ (v g)h by condition (4)X by condition (4) ˆ ë1 ((v1 g)h) ‡ X X X ‡ ë n ((v n g)h) by condition (2) by (4X7)

We have now checked all the axioms which are required for V to be an FG-module. j Our next de®nitions translate the concepts of the trivial representation and a faithful representation into module terms. 4.8 De®nitions (1) The trivial FG-module is the 1-dimensional vector space V over F with vg ˆ v for all v P V , g P GX

44

Representations and characters of groups

(2) An FG-module V is faithful if the identity element of G is the only element g for which v g ˆ v for all v P V X For instance, the FD8 -module which appears in Example 4.5(1) is faithful. Our next aim is to use Proposition 4.6 to construct faithful FGmodules for all subgroups of symmetric groups. Permutation modules Let G be a subgroup of Sn , so that G is a group of permutations of {1, . . . , n}. Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , . . . , v n . For each i with 1 < i < n and each permutation g in G, de®ne v i g ˆ v ig X Then v i g P V and v i 1 ˆ v i . Also, for g, h in G, v i ( gh) ˆ v i( gh) ˆ v(ig) h ˆ (v i g)hX We now extend the action of each g linearly to the whole of V; that is, for all ë1 , . . . , ë n in F and g in G, we de®ne (ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n v n ) g ˆ ë1 (v1 g) ‡ X X X ‡ ë n (v n g)X Then V is an FG-module, by Proposition 4.6. 4.9 Example Let G ˆ S4 and let B denote the basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 of V. If g ˆ (1 2), then v1 g ˆ v2 , v2 g ˆ v1 , v3 g ˆ v3 , v4 g ˆ v4 X And if h ˆ (1 3 4), then v1 h ˆ v3 , v2 h ˆ v2 , v3 h ˆ v4 , v4 h ˆ v1 X We have [ g]B 0 f1 ˆf d0 0 H 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 H I 0 0 f0 0g g, [h]B ˆ f d0 0e 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 I 0 0g gX 1e 0

FG-modules

45

4.10 De®nition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . The FG-module V with basis v1 , . . . , v n such that v i g ˆ v ig for all i, and all g P G, is called the permutation module for G over F. We call v1 , . . . , v n the natural basis of V. Note that if we write B for the basis v1 , . . . , v n of the permutation module, then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has precisely one nonzero entry in each row and column, and this entry is 1. Such a matrix is called a permutation matrix. Since the only element of G which ®xes every v i is the identity, we see that the permutation module is a faithful FG-module. If you are aware of the fact that every group G of order n is isomorphic to a subgroup of Sn , then you should be able to see that G has a faithful FG-module of dimension n. We shall go into this in more detail in Chapter 6. 4.11 Example Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l. Then G is isomorphic to the cyclic subgroup of S3 which is generated by the permutation (1 2 3). This alerts us to the fact that if V is a 3-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , then we may make V into an FG-module in which v1 1 ˆ v1 , v2 1 ˆ v2 , v3 1 ˆ v3 , v1 a ˆ v2 , v2 a ˆ v3 , v3 a ˆ v1 , v1 a2 ˆ v3 , v2 a2 ˆ v1 , v3 a2 ˆ v2 X Of course, we de®ne v g, for v an arbitrary vector in V and g ˆ 1, a or a2 , by (ë1 v1 ‡ ë2 v2 ‡ ë3 v3 ) g ˆ ë1 (v1 g) ‡ ë2 (v2 g) ‡ ë3 (v3 g) for all ë1 , ë2 , ë3 P F. Proposition 4.6 can be used to verify that V is an FG-module, but we have been motivated by the de®nition of permutation modules in our construction. FG-modules and equivalent representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the relationship between FG-modules and equivalent representations of G over F. An FG-

46

Representations and characters of groups

module gives us many representations, all of the form g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) for some basis B of V. The next result shows that all these representations are equivalent to each other (see De®nition 3.3); and moreover, any two equivalent representations of G arise from some FG-module in this way. 4.12 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B , and let r be the representation of G over F de®ned by r: g 3 [ g]B ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 ( g P G)X ( g P G) (1) If B 9 is a basis of V, then the representation of G is equivalent to r. (2) If ó is a representation of G which is equivalent to r, then there is a basis B 0 of V such that ó : g 3 [ g]B 0 ( g P G)X

Proof (1) Let T be the change of basis matrix from B to B 9 (see De®nition 2.23). Then by (2.24), for all g P G, we have [ g]B ˆ T À1 [ g]B 9 TX Therefore ö is equivalent to r. (2) Suppose that r and ó are equivalent representations of G. Then for some invertible matrix T, we have gr ˆ T À1 ( gó )T for all g P GX Let B 0 be the basis of V such that the change of basis matrix from B to B 0 is T. Then for all g P G, [ g]B ˆ T À1 [ g]B 0 T , and so gó ˆ [ g]B 0 .
j

4.13 Example Again let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l. There is a representation r of G which is given by

 1r ˆ

1 0

FG-modules     0 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a rˆ , ar ˆ X À1 À1 1 1 0 

47

(To see this, simply note that (ar)2 ˆ a2 r and (ar)3 ˆ I; see Exercise 3.2.) If V is a 2-dimensional vector space over C, with basis v1 , v2 (which we call B ), then we can turn V into a CG-module as in Theorem 4.4(1) by de®ning v1 1 ˆ v1 , v2 1 ˆ v2 , v1 a ˆ v2 , v1 a2 ˆ Àv1 À v2 , v2 a2 ˆ v1 X  À1 X 0

v2 a ˆ Àv1 À v2 ,

We then have    1 0 0 [1]B ˆ , [a]B ˆ 0 1 À1 

 1 À1 2 , [a ]B ˆ À1 1

Now let u1 ˆ v1 and u2 ˆ v1 ‡ v2 . Then u1 , u2 is another basis of V, which we call B 9. Since u1 1 ˆ u 1 , u2 1 ˆ u 2 , u1 a ˆ Àu1 ‡ u2 , u2 a ˆ Àu1 , u1 a2 ˆ Àu2 , u2 a2 ˆ u1 À u2 ,

we obtain the representation ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 where       1 0 À1 1 0 À1 2 [1]B 9 ˆ , [a]B 9 ˆ , [a ]B 9 ˆ X 0 1 À1 0 1 À1 Note that if Tˆ then for all g in G, we have [ g]B ˆ T À1 [ g]B 9 T , and so r and ö are equivalent, in agreement with Theorem 4.12(1).  

1 0 1 1

Summary of Chapter 4 1. An FG-module is a vector space over F, together with a multiplication by elements of G on the right. The multiplication satis®es properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4.2.

48

Representations and characters of groups

2. There is a correspondence between representations of G over F and FG-modules, as follows. (a) Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n, F) is a representation of G. Then F n is an FG-module, if we de®ne v g ˆ v( gr) (v P F n , g P G)X (b) If V is an FG-module, with basis B , then r: g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F.

3. If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the permutation FG-module has basis v1 , F F F , v n , and v i g ˆ v ig for all i with 1 < i < n, and all g in G. Exercises for Chapter 4 1. Suppose that G ˆ S3 , and that V ˆ sp (v1 , v2 , v3 ) is the permutation module for G over C, as in De®nition 4.10. Let B 1 be the basis v1 , v2 , v3 of V and let B 2 be the basis v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 , v1 À v2 , v1 À v3 . Calculate the 3 3 3 matrices [ g]B 1 and [ g]B 2 for all g in S3 . What do you notice about the matices [ g]B 2 ? 2. Let G ˆ Sn and let V becomes an FG-module & v, vg ˆ Àv, be a vector space over F. Show that V if we de®ne, for all v in V, if g is an even permutation, if g is an odd permutation.

3. Let Q8 ˆ ka, b: a4 ˆ 1, b2 ˆ a2 , bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l, the quaternion group of order 8. Show that there is an RQ8 -module V of dimension 4 with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 such that v1 a ˆ v 2 , v1 b ˆ v 3 , v2 a ˆ Àv1 , v2 b ˆ v4 , v3 a ˆ Àv4 , v4 a ˆ v3 , and v3 b ˆ Àv1 , v4 b ˆ Àv2 X

4. Let A be an n 3 n matrix and let B be a matrix obtained from A by permuting the rows. Show that there is an n 3 n permutation matrix P such that B ˆ PA. Find a similar result for a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns.

5 FG-submodules and reducibility

We begin the study of FG-modules by introducing the basic building blocks of the theory ± the irreducible FG-modules. First we require the notion of an FG-submodule of an FG-module. Throughout, G is a group and F is R or C. FG-submodules 5.1 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. A subset W of V is said to be an FGsubmodule of V if W is a subspace and wg P W for all w P W and all g P G. Thus an FG-submodule of V is a subspace which is also an FGmodule. 5.2 Examples (1) For every FG-module V, the zero subspace {0}, and V itself, are FG-submodules of V. (2) Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l, and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule de®ned in Example 4.11. Thus, V has basis v1 , v2 , v3 , and v1 1 ˆ v1 , v2 1 ˆ v2 , v3 1 ˆ v3 , v1 a ˆ v2 , v2 a ˆ v3 , v3 a ˆ v1 , v1 a2 ˆ v3 , v2 a2 ˆ v1 , v3 a2 ˆ v2 X Put w ˆ v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3, and let W ˆ sp (w), the 1-dimensional subspace spanned by w. Since 49

50

Representations and characters of groups w1 ˆ wa ˆ wa2 ˆ w,

W is an FG-submodule of V. However, sp (v1 ‡ v2 ) is not an FGsubmodule, since (v1 ‡ v2 )a ˆ v2 ‡ v3 P sp (v1 ‡ v2 )X a Irreducible FG-modules 5.3 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be irreducible if it is non-zero and it has no FG-submodules apart from {0} and V. If V has an FG-submodule W with W not equal to {0} or V, then V is reducible. Similarly, a representation r: G 3 GL (n, F) is irreducible if the corresponding FG-module F n given by v g ˆ v( gr) (v P F n , g P G) (see Theorem 4.4(1)) is irreducible; and r is reducible if F n is reducible. Suppose that V is a reducible FG-module, so that there is an FGsubmodule W with 0 , dim W , dim V. Take a basis B 1 of W and extend it to a basis B of V. Then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has the form H I Xg 0 d e (5X4) Yg Z g for some matrices Xg , Yg and Zg , where Xg is k 3 k (k ˆ dim W). A representation of degree n is reducible if and only if it is equivalent to a representation of the form (5.4), where X g is k 3 k and 0 , k , n. Notice that in (5.4), the functions g 3 Xg and g 3 Z g are representations of G: to see this, let g, h P G and multiply the matrices [ g]B and [h]B given by (5.4). Notice also that if V is reducible then dim V > 2. 5.5 Examples (1) Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule with basis v1 , v2 , v3 such that

FG-submodules and reducibility v1 a ˆ v2 , v2 a ˆ v3 , v3 a ˆ v1 ,

51

as in Example 4.11. We saw in Example 5.2(2) that V is a reducible FG-module, and has an FG-submodule W ˆ sp (v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 ). Let B be the basis v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 , v1 , v2 of V. Then H H I I 1 0 0 1 0 0 f f g g [1]B ˆ f 0 1 0 g, [a]B ˆ f 0 0 1 g, d d e e 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 H I 1 0 0 f g [a2 ]B ˆ f 1 À1 À1 gX d e 0 1 0 This reducible representation gives us two other representations: at the `top left' we have the trivial representation and at the `bottom right' we have the representation which is given by       0 1 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a 3 ,a3 X 13 À1 À1 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G ˆ D8 and let V ˆ F 2 be the 2-dimensional FG-module described in Example 4.5(1). Thus G ˆ ka, bl, and for all (ë, ì) P V we have (ë, ì)a ˆ (Àì, ë), (ë, ì)b ˆ (ë, Àì)X

We claim that V is an irreducible FG-module. To see this, suppose that there is an FG-submodule U which is not equal to V. Then dim U < 1, so U ˆ sp ((á, â)) for some á, â P F. As U is an FGmodule, (á, â)b is a scalar multiple of (á, â), and hence either á ˆ 0 or ⠈ 0. Since (á, â)a is also a scalar multiple of (á, â), this forces á ˆ ⠈ 0, so U ˆ {0}. Consequently V is irreducible, as claimed.

Summary of Chapter 5 1. If V is an FG-module, and W is a subspace of V which is itself an FG-module, then W is an FG-submodule of V. 2. The FG-module V is irreducible if it is non-zero and the only FGsubmodules are {0} and V.

b. ç is r faithful? (d) For which values of å. Let G ˆ C2 ˆ ka: a ˆ 1l. br ˆ . Which of the four representations of D12 de®ned in Exercise 3. Prove that there is a representation r of G over C such that       å 0 ç 0 0 1 ar ˆ X . b. Verify that V is an FG-module and ®nd all the FG-submodules of V. (b) Suppose that å and ç are complex cube roots of unity. cr ˆ 0 å À1 0 çÀ1 1 0 (c) For which values of å. (a) Check that a3 ˆ b3 ˆ c2 ˆ 1. â) and (á. á). 3. â)a ˆ (â. c P S6 by a ˆ (1 2 3). Prove that if r is reducible then ó is reducible. and let G ˆ ka. ç is r irreducible? 5. Find a CG-module which is neither reducible nor irreducible. â)1 ˆ (á. De®ne the permutations a. cl. cÀ1 ac ˆ aÀ1 and cÀ1 bc ˆ bÀ1 X Deduce that G has order 18. 2 . and let V ˆ F 2. ab ˆ ba. Let G ˆ C13 .5 are irreducible? 4. For (á. b ˆ (4 5 6). â) P V. 2. Let r and ó be equivalent representations of the group G over F. de®ne (á.52 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 5 1. c ˆ (2 3)(4 5).

. known as the regular representation of G. . Group algebras are therefore of great interest. In a sense. we shall use it to construct an important faithful representation. g n as a basis. After de®ning the group algebra of G. . The group algebra of G Let G be a ®nite group whose elements are g1 . and ë P F. . then 53 . group algebras are the source of all you need to know about representation theory. In particular. and we call this vector space FG. . . Take as the elements of FG all expressions of the form ë1 g 1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n g n (all ë i P F)X The rules for addition and scalar multiplication in FG are the natural ones: namely. . . which will be explored in greater detail later on.6 Group algebras The group algebra of a ®nite group G is a vector space of dimension |G| which also carries extra structure involving the product operation on G. and let F be R or C. We de®ne a vector space over F with g1 . if uˆ n ˆ iˆ1 ë i g i and v ˆ n ˆ iˆ1 ìi g i are elements of FG. the ultimate goal of representation theory ± that of understanding all the representations of ®nite groups ± would be achieved if group algebras could be fully analysed. g n .

1 u ˆ 1 e À 1 a ‡ 2 a2 X 2 3 3 3 3 Sometimes we write elements of FG in the form ˆ ë g g (ë g P F)X gPG Now. 6. . with basis g1 . in this example. . (To avoid confusion with the element 1 of F. ˆˆ (ë h ì hÀ1 g ) g gPG hPG 6.) The vector space CG contains u ˆ e À a ‡ 2a2 and v ˆ 1 e ‡ 5aX 2 We have u ‡ v ˆ 3 e ‡ 4a ‡ 2a2 . FG carries more structure than that of a vector space ± we can use the product operation on G to de®ne multiplication in FG as follows: 3 2ˆ 32ˆ ˆ ëg g ìh h ˆ ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g.hPG ˆ where all ë g .1 Example Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ el. .54 Representations and characters of groups u‡vˆ n n ˆ ˆ (ë i ‡ ì i ) g i and ëu ˆ (ëë i ) g i X iˆ1 iˆ1 With these rules. . v are the elements of CG which appear in Example 6. we write e for the identity element of G. . . FG is a vector space over F of dimension n. The basis g1 . ì h P F. g n is called the natural basis of FG. g n . .2 Example If G ˆ C3 and u. then uv ˆ (e À a ‡ 2a2 )(1 e ‡ 5a) 2 ˆ ˆ 1 2e ‡ 5a À 1 a À 5a2 ‡ a2 ‡ 10a3 2 ‡ 9 a À 4a2 X 2 21 2e . .1.

r(s ‡ t) ˆ rs ‡ rt. with multiplication de®ned by 3 2ˆ 32ˆ ˆ ëg g ìh h ˆ ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. j . for all r. is called the group algebra of G over F. í g P F).kPG ˆ r(st)X We leave the proofs of the other equations as easy exercises. namely the element 1e (where 1 is the identity of F and e is the identity of G). gPG gPG gPG (ë g . (2) Let ˆ ˆ ˆ rˆ ë g g. 6.Group algebras 6.h. ì g . Then (rs)t ˆ ˆ ˆ g. We write this element simply as 1. (ër)s ˆ ë(rs) ˆ r(ës).kPG ë g ì h í k ( gh)k ë g ì h í k g(hk) ˆ g. s. Proof (1) It follows immediately from the de®nition of rs that rs P FG. s ˆ ì g g. The group algebra FG contains an identity for multiplication.hPG 55 (ë g .3 De®nition The vector space FG. ì h P F). r1 ˆ 1r ˆ r. r0 ˆ 0r ˆ 0. r(st) ˆ (rs)t.4 Proposition Multiplication in FG satis®es the following properties. (r ‡ s)t ˆ rt ‡ st.h. t ˆ í g g. t P FG and ë P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) rs P FG.

6. is called the regular FG-module. g P G). any vector space equipped with a multiplication satisfying properties (1)±(7) of Proposition 6. v P V.5 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group and F be R or C. We shall be concerned only with group algebras. The elements of FG have the form . (3). For all u. where n ˆ |G|. so g ˆ 1.4 is called an algebra. Let V ˆ FG. by parts (1). The vector space FG.4. Proof Suppose that g P G and v g ˆ v for all v P FG. ë P F and g. but it is worth pointing out that the axioms for an algebra mean that it is both a vector space and a ring. Then 1 g ˆ 1. and the result follows. so that V is a vector space of dimension n over F. Therefore V is an FG-module. (4) and (5) of Proposition 6. Note that the regular FG-module has dimension equal to |G|. with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. (2). The regular FG-module We now use the group algebra to de®ne an important FG-module. 6. h P G.56 Representations and characters of groups In fact. v1 ˆ v. v( gh) ˆ (v g)h. The representation g 3 [ g]B obtained by taking B to be the natural basis of FG is called the regular representation of G over F.7 Example Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ el. j 6. (u ‡ v) g ˆ ug ‡ v g. (ëv) g ˆ ë(v g).6 Proposition The regular FG-module is faithful. we have vg P V. respectively.

If r ˆ ë(1 2) ‡ ì(1 3 4) then v1 r ˆ ëv1 (1 2) ‡ ìv1 (1 3 4) ˆ ëv2 ‡ ìv3 . Now. we obtain the regular representation of G: H I H I H I 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 e 3 d 0 1 0 e. a.8 De®nition Suppose that V is an FG-module. (ë1 e ‡ ë2 a ‡ ë3 a2 )a ˆ ë3 e ‡ ë1 a ‡ ë2 a2 . together with a multiplication v g for v P V and g P G (and the multiplication satis®es various axioms).Group algebras ë1 e ‡ ë2 a ‡ ë3 a2 We have (ë1 e ‡ ë2 a ‡ ë3 a2 )e ˆ ë1 e ‡ ë2 a ‡ ë3 a2 . v2 r ˆ ëv1 ‡ ìv2 . (2v1 ‡ v2 )r ˆ ëv1 ‡ (2ë ‡ ì)v2 ‡ 2ìv3 X (ë. it is sometimes helpful to extend the de®nition of the multiplication so that we have an element vr of V for all elements r in the group algebra FG. De®ne vr by ˆ vr ˆ ì g (v g)X gPG 6. a2 of FG. and that v P V and r P FG. This is done in the following natural way.9 Examples (1) Let V be the permutation module for S4 . (ë1 e ‡ ë2 a ‡ ë3 a2 )a2 ˆ ë2 e ‡ ë3 a ‡ ë1 a2 X (ë i P F)X 57 By taking matrices relative to the basis e. say € r ˆ gPG ì g g (ì g P F). ì P F) . a 3 d 0 0 1 e. a2 3 d 1 0 0 eX 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 FG acts on an FG-module You will remember that an FG-module is a vector space over F. 6.9. as described in Example 4.

v1 ˆ v. (5). the element vr is simply the product of v and r as elements of the group algebra. assuming the other parts. v0 ˆ 0r ˆ 0. all ë P F and all r. 6. (u ‡ v)r ˆ ur ‡ vr. v P V.58 Representations and characters of groups (2) If V is the regular FG-module. and we leave them to you. Compare the next result with Proposition 6. s P FG: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) vr P V.3.h ë g ì h (v( gh)) ë g ì h ((v g)h) by (4) and (6) ˆ g. (ëv)r ˆ ë(vr) ˆ v(ër). and let r. v(r ‡ s) ˆ vr ‡ vs. Proof All parts except (2) are straightforward. (6) j ˆ (vr)sX . given by De®nition 6. We shall give a proof of part (2). Let v P V. then for all v P V and r P FG.h 2ˆ g 3 32ˆ ë g (v g) ìh h h by (4). s ˆ ì h hX gPG hPG Then 2ˆ 3 v(rs) ˆ v ë g ì h ( gh) g.10 Proposition Suppose that V is an FG-module. v(rs) ˆ (vr)s.4. s P FG with ˆ ˆ rˆ ë g g.h ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ g. Then the following properties hold for all u.

g P G) is the regular FG-module. does rs ˆ 0 imply that r ˆ 0 or s ˆ 0? 4. g n }. . (a) Prove that ch ˆ hc ˆ c for all h in G. . say G ˆ { g1 . Suppose that G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. (c) Let W: CG 3 CG be the linear transformation sending v to vc for all v in CG. Show that for every ®nite group G. where B is the basis g1 . 2. The vector space FG.Group algebras Summary of Chapter 6 59 1. where the symbol 0 is used for the zero elements of V and FG. For r and s in CG. and has a natural multiplication de®ned on it. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. . r P FG such that vr ˆ 0. . If V is an FG-module. 1. Let G ˆ C2 . y ˆ b ‡ ab À a2 X Calculate xy. but neither v nor r is 0. . Deduce that zr ˆ rz for all r in CG. and write c €n for the element iˆ1 g i of CG. What is the matrix [W]B . and v0 ˆ 0 for all v P V . The regular FG-module is faithful. Work out matrices for the regular representation of C2 3 C2 over F. (a) Let x and y be the following elements of CG: x ˆ a ‡ 2a2 . 3. there exists an FG-module V and elements v P V. gn of CG? 5. 2. yx and x 2 . . with |G| . (b) Let z ˆ b ‡ a2 b. Exercises for Chapter 6 1. prove from the de®nition that 0r ˆ 0 for all r P FG. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. . Show that zg ˆ gz for all g in G. (b) Deduce that c2 ˆ |G|c. 3. The group algebra FG of G over F consists of all linear combinations of elements of G. . with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. Assume that G is a ®nite group. .

b ‡ ù2 ab ‡ ùa2 b). bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. and let ù ˆ e2ðia3 . Prove that the 2-dimensional subspace W of CG. Suppose that G ˆ D6 ˆ ka. de®ned by W ˆ sp (1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 . b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. .60 Representations and characters of groups 6. is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CG-module.

and we introduce these in this chapter. 7. The analogous functions for FG-modules are called FG-homomorphisms. submodule of W. A function W: V 3 W is said to be an FG-homomorphism if W is a linear transformation and (v g)W ˆ (vW) g for all v P V . if W sends v to w then it sends v g to wg.2 Proposition Let V and W be FG-modules and let W: V 3 W be an FG-homomorphism. we have (vr)W ˆ (vW)r since (vr)W ˆ ˆ gPG ë g (v g)W ˆ ˆ gPG ë g (vW) g ˆ (vW)rX The next result shows that FG-homomorphisms give rise to FGsubmodules in a natural way. Note that if G is a ®nite group and W: V 3 W is an FG-homomorph€ ism. then for all v P V and r ˆ gPG ë g g P FG.1 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules. group homomorphisms and linear transformations. respectively. the `structure-preserving' functions are. Then Ker W is an FG-submodule of V and Im W is an FG. FG-homomorphisms 7. 61 .7 FG-homomorphisms For groups and vector spaces. g P GX In other words.

and de®ne W: V 3 V by vW ˆ ëv for all v P V. so vg P Ker W. Here. Let v P Ker W and g P G. (3) Suppose that G is a subgroup of S n . .8). v n ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4. j 7. wg ˆ (vW) g ˆ (v g)W P Im W. Then W is an FG-homomorphism. and 2 3 2 3 ˆ ˆ (vW) g ˆ ë i wg ˆ ë i wX Therefore W is an FG-homomorphism. Then (v g)W ˆ (vW) g ˆ 0 g ˆ 0. we have Ker W ˆ {0}. we have 2 3 2 3 ˆ ˆ (v g)W ˆ ë i v ig W ˆ ë i w. Im W ˆ {0}. Then W is a linear transformation. (2) Let ë P F.3 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW ˆ 0 for all v P V. and Ker W ˆ V. Provided ë Tˆ 0. iˆ1 iˆ1 Im W ˆ W X . and let W ˆ sp (w) be the trivial FG-module (see De®nition 4. and so Im W is an FG-submodule of W. Let V ˆ sp (v1 . since W is a linear transformation.62 Representations and characters of groups Proof First note that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. Therefore Ker W is an FG-submodule of V.10). Now let w P Im W. and for all € v ˆ ë i v i P V and all g P G. For all g P G. De®ne 2 n 3 n ˆ ˆ W: ëivi 3 ë i w (ë i P F)X iˆ1 iˆ1 Thus v i W ˆ w for all i. . so that w ˆ vW for some v P V. @ n A n ˆ ˆ Ker W ˆ ëi vi : ëi ˆ 0 . then W is an FGhomomorphism. We construct an FG-homomorphism W from V to W. Im W ˆ V. . .

If there is such an FG-isomorphism.5 Proposition If W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. so we need only show that WÀ1 is an FG-homomorphism. . 7. then the inverse WÀ1 : W 3 V is also an FG-isomorphism. . we check that if V  W then W  V. Ker W is an FG-submodule of the permutation module V. . then we say that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules and write V  W. . We call a function W: V 3 W an FGisomorphism if W is an FG-homomorphism and W is invertible.4 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules. In the next result.FG-homomorphisms 63 By Proposition 7. v n is a basis of V if and only if v1 W. j as W is an FG-homomorphism Suppose that W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. and prove that V and W share the same structural properties. (2) V is irreducible if and only if W is irreducible (since X is an FGsubmodule of V if and only if XW is an FG-submodule of W). . Then we may use W and WÀ1 to translate back and forth between the isomorphic FGmodules V and W. Isomorphic FG-modules 7. v n W is a basis of W). as required. (3) V contains a trivial FG-submodule if and only if W contains a trivial FG-submodule (since X is a trivial FG-submodule of V if and only if XW is a trivial FG-submodule of W). ((wWÀ1 ) g)W ˆ ((wWÀ1 )W) g ˆ wg ˆ ((wg)WÀ1 )WX Hence (wWÀ1 ) g ˆ (wg)WÀ1 . .2. . Proof Certainly WÀ1 is an invertible linear transformation. . We list some examples below: (1) dim V ˆ dim W (since v1 . For w P W and g P G. .

Let W be the invertible linear transformation from V to W for which v i W ˆ w i for all i. v n W is a basis B 2 of W. . it follows that [ g]B 1 ˆ [ g]B 2 . Let g P G. Then by Theorem 4.12(1). By (7. Proof We ®rst establish the following fact: (7. then v1 W. Since (v i g)W ˆ (v i W) g for each i. . In the next result. suppose that r and ó are equivalent. and hence W is an FG-isomorphism. . Then by Theorem 4. . 7. . . . Now assume that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules.12(2). . there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 ˆ [ g]B 2 for all g P G. there is a basis B 0 of V such that gó ˆ [ g]B 0 for all g P G.6 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B . suppose that v1 . .7). De®ne a representation ö of G by ö: g 3 [ g]B 1 . Let g P G. Conversely. . and W is an FGmodule with basis B 9. w n is a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 ˆ [ g]B 2 for all g P G. Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if the representations r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 are equivalent.64 Representations and characters of groups Just as we often regard isomorphic groups as being identical.7) The FG-modules V and W are isomorphic if and only if there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 ˆ [ g]B 2 for all g P GX To see this.7). . Since [ g]B 1 ˆ [ g]B 2 . we deduce that (v i g)W ˆ (v i W) g for all i. we continue simply to emphasize the similarity between isomorphic FG-modules. suppose ®rst that W is an FG-isomorphism from V to W. ö is equivalent to both r and ó. . we show that isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. . Hence r and ó are equivalent. . . . we frequently disdain to distinguish between isomorphic FG-modules. though. This completes the proof of (7. v n is a basis B 1 of V and w1. . Conversely. and let v1 . v n be a basis B 1 of V. For the moment.

call it B 9. Then 1. a2 is a basis of W. bó ˆ Ài 1  1 X 0 (ë i P F) .9 Example Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. 7. v2 . by (7. and let W denote the regular FG-module. v2 . v2 a ˆ v3 . with basis v1 . v3 such that v1 a ˆ v2 . d d e e 0 0 1 1 0 0 H 0 0 0 1 1 0 I f [a2 ]B 9 ˆ f 1 d 0 g 0 gX e Compare the FG-module V de®ned in Example 4. In Example 3. br ˆ À1 0 0 À1 and aó ˆ  i 0   0 0 .FG-homomorphisms 65 that is. v3 a ˆ v1 X Writing B for the basis v1 . Indeed. a cyclic group of order 3. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. [a]B 9 ˆ f 0 0 1 g. j 7.4(1) we encountered two equivalent representations r and ó of G.8 Example Let G ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l. the FG-modules V and W are therefore isomorphic. v3 of V.7).7). Therefore V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. we have [ g]B ˆ [ g]B 9 for all g P GX According to (7. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l.11. We have H H I I 1 0 0 0 1 0 f f g g [1]B 9 ˆ f 0 1 0 g. a. where     0 1 1 0 ar ˆ . the function W: ë1 v1 ‡ ë2 v2 ‡ ë3 v3 3 ë1 1 ‡ ë2 a ‡ ë3 a2 is an FG-isomorphism from V to W. [ g]B 9 ˆ [ g]B 0 for all g P G.

in a similar way. . (Compare Example 3. where U and W are FG-submodules of V. B r to . and. v2 b ˆ Àv2 (see Example 4. . To verify this directly. .9).66 Representations and characters of groups Let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . then for all g P G we have r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 X According to Theorem 7. u1 . . u m be a basis B 1 of U. . then we can amalgamate B 1 . . H I 0 [ g]B 1 eX [ g]B ˆ d 0 [ g]B 2 More generally. let W be the CG-module with basis w1. w n is a basis B of V. . . if V ˆ U1 È . . v2 3 iw1 À iw2 X Then (v j a)W ˆ (v j W)a and (v j b)W ˆ (v j W)b for j ˆ 1. let W: V 3 W be the invertible linear transformation such that W: v1 3 w1 ‡ w2 . w1. Then by (2. . Let u1 . w1 b ˆ w2 . v1 b ˆ v1 . Let V be an FG-module. if we write B for the basis v1 . . . and suppose that V ˆ U È W. w2 of W.5(1)). . v2 for which v1 a ˆ v2 . .) Direct sums We conclude the chapter with a discussion of direct sums of FGmodules. w n be a basis B 2 of W. and hence W is a CG-isomorphism from V to W. and B i is a basis of Ui. v2 a ˆ Àv1 . . . since r and ó are equivalent. . w2 for which w1 a ˆ iw1 .6. . and we show that these give rise to FG-homomorphisms. w2 a ˆ Àiw2 . and for g P G. u m . .4(1). 2. . w2 b ˆ w1 Thus. v2 of V and B 9 for the basis w1. and w1. . È Ur. a direct sum of FG-submodules Ui. the CG-modules V and W are isomorphic. .

. j .12 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. and suppose that V ˆ U1 ‡ X X X ‡ Ur . and is also a projection of V . 7. sum of some of the FG-submodules Ui. and g P G. where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V Then V is a direct . vð 2 ˆ ui ð i ˆ ui ˆ vð i .30). and for g P G. ‡ ur for unique vectors ui P Ui.11 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. ‡ u r (u j P U j for all j). Thus ð i is a projection (see De®nition 2. i so ð2 ˆ ð i . and ð i is an FG-homomorphism. For v P V we have . i We now present a technical result concerning sums of irreducible FG-modules which will be used at a later stage. since for v P V with v ˆ u1 ‡ . . and suppose that V ˆ U1 È X X X È U r where each Ui is an FG-submodule of V. Proof Clearly ð i is a linear transformation.FG-homomorphisms obtain a basis B of V. 7. . we have (v g)ð i ˆ (u1 g ‡ X X X ‡ ur g)ð i ˆ ui g ˆ (vð i ) gX Also. . H [ g]B 1 f FF [ g]B ˆ d (7X10) F 67 I g eX 0 [ g]B r 0 The next result shows that direct sums give rise naturally to FGhomomorphisms. and we de®ne ð i : V 3 V (1 < i < r) by setting vð i ˆ ui X Then each ð i is an FG-homomorphism. v ˆ u1 ‡ .

2. we remark that if V1 . Then W ‡ Ui is not a direct sum. then we can make the external direct sum V1 È F F F ÈVr (see Chapter 2) into an FGmodule by de®ning (v1 . therefore W ’ Ui ˆ Ui. . so W ’ Ui Tˆ {0}. Ur so that the sum of our chosen FG-submodules is direct. . so assume that Ui P Y. . as required. But W ’ Ui a is an FG-submodule of Ui. but W 1 ‡ X X X ‡ W s ‡ U i is not direct. and Ui is irreducible. Kernels and images of FG-homomorphisms are FG-modules. . Summary of Chapter 7 1. j Finally. as claimed. . . X X X . Exercises for Chapter 7 1. and so Ui # W. . . Let U. V and W be FG-modules. v r ) g ˆ (v1 g. and let W: U 3 V and ö: V 3 W be FG-homomorphisms. Prove that Wö: U 3 W is an FG-homomorphism. X X X . . v r g) for all v i P Vi (1 < i < r) and all g P G. Since U i  W for all i with 1 < i < r. To this end.68 Representations and characters of groups Proof The idea is to choose as many as we can of the FG-submodules U1. . If V and W are FG-modules and W: V 3 W is a linear transformation which satis®es (v g)W ˆ (vW) g for all v P V. Isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. g P G. Ws } of {U1. F F F . . V r are FG-modules. Ur } which has the properties that W 1 ‡ X X X ‡ W s is direct (iXeX equal to W 1 È X X X È W s ). if Ui P Y X a Let W ˆ W1 ‡ X X X ‡ WsX We claim that Ui # W for all i. 3. . then W is an FG-homomorphism. . we have V ˆ W ˆ W 1 È F F F ÈW s . If Ui P Y this is clear. choose a subset Y ˆ {W1.

Prove that V0 and W0 are isomorphic FG-modules. 3. Prove that the permutation module for G over F is isomorphic to the regular FG-module.FG-homomorphisms 69 2. 5. Assume that V is an FG-module. (b) Prove that W2 ˆ 2W. (a) Show that the function W: á1 ‡ âx 3 (á À â)(1 À x) (á. De®ne the FGsubmodules V0 and W0 of V and W as in Exercise 3. Show that the function ˆ W: v 3 v g (v P V ) gPG is an FG-homomorphism from V to V0 . Prove that the subset V0 ˆ fv P V : v g ˆ v for all g P Gg is an FG-submodule of V. Is the permutation module for G over F isomorphic to the regular FG-module? 6. Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by (1 2) and (3 4). Let G ˆ C2 ˆ kx: x 2 ˆ 1l. (c) Find a basis B of FG such that   2 0 [W]B ˆ X 0 0 . Is it necessarily surjective? 4. Let G be the subgroup of S5 which is generated by (1 2 3 4 5). â P F) is an FG-homomorphism from the regular FG-module to itself. Suppose that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules.

only one FGsubmodule W of V with V ˆ U È W.2(2) below.1 Maschke's Theorem Let G be a ®nite group. where as usual F ˆ R or C. We shall ®nd this W in an 70 . then there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V ˆ U È WX Before proving Maschke's Theorem. v2 . v3 ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4. v3 ) and sp (v1 . A consequence of this theorem is that every FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. since ug ˆ u for all g P G. But there is. and let V be an FG-module. v2 À 2v3 ). 8. in fact.) This essentially reduces representation theory to the study of irreducible FG-modules. Maschke's Theorem 8. we illustrate it with some examples.8 Maschke's Theorem We now come to our ®rst major result in representation theory. namely Maschke's Theorem.10). There are many subspaces W of V such that V ˆ U È W.2 Examples (1) Let G ˆ S3 and let V ˆ sp (v1 . let F be R or C. for instance sp (v2 . If U is an FG-submodule of V. (The assumption on F is important ± see Example 8. Put u ˆ v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 and U ˆ sp (u)X Then U is an FG-submodule of V.

For example. . v n ). . . (2) The conclusion of Maschke's Theorem can fail if F is not R or C. We show ®rst that W is an FG-homomorphism. . let p be a prime number. v1 a j ˆ v1 . ö is a projection of V with kernel W0 and image U. U ˆ sp (v1 ) is an FG-submodule of V. Choose any subspace W0 of V such that V ˆ U È W0X (There are many choices for W0 ± simply take a basis v1 . an FG-submodule of the FG-module V. p À 1) j 1 is a representation from G to GL (2. and let W0 ˆ sp (v m‡1 . and we de®ne ö: V 3 V by setting vö ˆ u. . where. for 0 < j < p À 1. extend it to a basis v1 . We aim to modify the projection ö to create an FG-homomorphism from V to V with image U. F). . v2 ).) For v P V. v2 a j ˆ jv1 ‡ v2 X Clearly. and take F to be the ®eld of integers modulo p. (vx)W ˆ 1 ˆ (vx) gö g À1 X jGj gPG . . To this end. we have v ˆ u ‡ w for unique vectors u P U and w P W 0.Maschke's Theorem 71 example after proving Maschke's Theorem (but you may like to look for it yourself now). Check that the function   1 0 j a 3 ( j ˆ 0. . For v P V and x P G. let G ˆ C p ˆ ka: a p ˆ 1l. . de®ne W: V 3 V by (8X3) vW ˆ 1 ˆ v gö g À1 jGj gPG (v P V )X It is clear that W is an endomorphism of V and Im W # U. X X X . Proof of Maschke's Theorem 8. v n of V. By Proposition 2. . .29. as can easily be seen. 1. But there is no FGsubmodule W such that V ˆ U È W. v m of U.1 We are given U. since U is the only 1-dimensional FG-submodule of V. . The corresponding FG-module is V ˆ sp (v1 .

the FG-submodule constructed in Example 7. as claimed. First note that for u P U. Let W ˆ Ker W.) . W ˆ ë i v i : ë i ˆ 0 .2.4) shows that Im W ˆ U.2(1). Using this. 1 ˆ 1 ˆ 1 ˆ uW ˆ (8X4) ugö g À1 ˆ (ug) g À1 ˆ u ˆ uX jGj gPG jGj gPG jGj gPG Now let v P V. We have now established that W: V 3 V is a projection and an FGhomomorphism.72 Representations and characters of groups As g runs over the elements of G. Moreover. (8. g P G. so does h ˆ xg. Hence 1 ˆ (vx)W ˆ vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG 2 3 1 ˆ ˆ vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG ˆ (vW)xX Thus W is an FG-homomorphism. Consequently W2 ˆ W. We use the proof of Maschke's Theorem to ®nd an FG-submodule W of V such that V ˆ U È W. as in Example 8. v2 3 0.32. Next. we have ug P U. This completes the proof of Maschke's Theorem. we prove that W2 ˆ W.4) we have (vW)W ˆ vW. and so (ug)ö ˆ ug. let W0 ˆ sp (v1 . 2. so by (8. v3 3 v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 X Check now that the FG-homomorphism W given by (8. v2 ). Then W is an FG-submodule of V by Proposition 7.3(3). First. v2 À v3 )X Ȁ É € (In fact. The projection ö onto U is given by ö: v1 3 0. Then V ˆ U È W0 (but of course W0 is not an FG-submodule).3) is W: v i 3 1(v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 ) (i ˆ 1. so W ˆ sp (v1 À v2 . with submodule U ˆ sp (v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 ). v2 . v3 ) be the permutation module.5 Example Let G ˆ S3 and let V ˆ sp (v1 . Then vW P U. 3)X 3 The required FG-submodule W is then Ker W. and V ˆ U È W by Proposition 2. j 8.

the matrix [ g]B has the form H I j 0 0 [ g]B ˆ d j j j eX j j j The zeros re¯ect the fact that U is an FG-submodule of V (see (5. v2 À v3 as a basis B 9. v2 of V. . v2 À v3 ) is also an FG-submodule of V. if we can choose a basis B of an FGmodule V such that [ g]B has the form H I à 0 d e à à for all g P G (see (5. This example illustrates the matrix version of Maschke's Theorem: for an arbitrary ®nite group G. suppose that r is a reducible representation of a ®nite group G over F of degree n. where X g is k 3 k with 0 . then for all g P G. If instead we use v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 . v1 À v2 .4)). v1 . Then we know that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G).Maschke's Theorem 73 Note that if B is the basis v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 . 0 j j because sp (v1 À v2 . n. g 3d Yg Zg for some matrices X g . k . then we get H I j 0 0 [ g]B 9 ˆ d 0 j j e. Yg. To put this another way. Z g .4)). then we can ®nd a basis B 9 such that [ g]B 9 has the form H I à 0 d e 0 à for all g P G.

(By an irreducible FG-submodule. j Another useful consequence of Maschke's Theorem is the next proposition. V ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur È W 1 È X X X È W s .10).6 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be completely reducible if V ˆ U1 È F F F ÈU r . Then by (2. by induction. we simply mean an FG-submodule which is an irreducible FG-module.74 Representations and characters of groups Maschke's Theorem asserts further that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Ag 0 e. 8. where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V. then every non-zero FG-module is completely reducible. Proof Let V be a non-zero FG-module. Consequences of Maschke's Theorem We now use Maschke's Theorem to show that every non-zero FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. U ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur . If V is irreducible then the result holds. there is an FG-submodule W such that V ˆ U È W. dim V and dim W . dim V. Then V has an FG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. g 3d 0 Bg where A g is also a k 3 k matrix. . Since dim U .) 8. a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules. so suppose that V is reducible. we have. W ˆ W 1 È X X X È W s . By Maschke's Theorem. The proof goes by induction on dim V. since V is irreducible in this case. where each Ui and W j is an irreducible FG-module. The result is true if dim V ˆ 1.7 Theorem If G is a ®nite group and F ˆ R or C.

. 1. by Proposition 7. 2. there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V ˆ U È W. Summary of Chapter 8 Assume that G is a ®nite group and F ˆ R or C.7 tells us that every non-zero FG-module is a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules. If G ˆ C2 3 C2 . v2 x ˆ Àv1 À v2 X (This is a CG-module. and let V be the 2-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 . Every non-zero FG-module V is a direct sum of irreducible FGmodules: V ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur X Exercises for Chapter 8 1. express the group algebra RG as a direct sum of 1-dimensional RG-submodules.8 Proposition Let V be an FG-module.11. Thus.2. Then the function ð: V 3 U which is de®ned by ð: u ‡ w 3 u (u P U .) Express V as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. in order to understand FG-modules. where F ˆ R or C and G is a ®nite group. v2 . by Exercise 3. Suppose that U is an FG-submodule of V. there is an FG-submodule W with V ˆ U È WX 2. Let G ˆ kx: x 3 ˆ 1l  C3 . We begin our study of these in the next chapter. Proof By Maschke's Theorem. where v1 x ˆ v2 . Then there exists a surjective FG-homomorphism from V onto U.Maschke's Theorem 75 8. Theorem 8. we may concentrate upon the irreducible FG-modules. Maschke's Theorem says that for every FG-submodule U of an FGmodule V. w P W ) j is an FG-homomorphism onto U.

5. ] is a complex inner product.3. . (You may care to revisit Example 5.76 Representations and characters of groups 3. ] on V by ˆ [u. 5.2) for the de®nition of a complex inner product): for ë i . 4. Prove that r is irreducible. vg] ˆ [u. Suppose that G is the in®nite group &  ' 1 0 : nPZ n 1 and let V be the CG-module C2 . v P V )X xPG (1) Verify that [ . ì jv j ˆ ëi ìiX iˆ1 jˆ1 iˆ1 De®ne another complex inner product [ . 2 n 3 n n ˆ ˆ ˆ ëi vi . a CG-module V and a CG-homomorphism W: V 3 V such that V Tˆ Ker W È Im W. g P G. and de®ne U c ˆ fv P V : [u. C) be a representation of G.) 6. De®ne a complex inner product ( . v P V and g P GX (2) Suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. vx) (u. v n and suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. v] ˆ 0 for all u P U gX Show that U c is a CG-submodule of V.5(2) and Exercises 5. . with the natural multiplication by elements of G (so that for v P V. Suppose that there are elements g.1. v] for all u. ì j P C. An alternative proof of Maschke's Theorem for CG-modules. the vector vg is just the product of the row vector v with the matrix g). Show that V is not completely reducible. (This shows that Maschke's Theorem fails for in®nite groups ± compare Example 8. Let G be a ®nite group and let r: G 3 GL (2. . . v] ˆ (ux.4. Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 . h in G such that the matrices gr and hr do not commute. Find a group G. which satis®es [ug. .6 in the light of this result.) 5.2(2). 6. ) on V as follows (see (14.

) 7. there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module. (Hint: it is a standard property of complex inner products that V ˆ U È U c for all subspaces U of V.Maschke's Theorem 77 (3) Deduce Maschke's Theorem. . Prove that for every ®nite simple group G.

Schur's Lemma is fundamental to representation theory. Schur's Lemma concerns CG-modules rather than RG-modules. G denotes a ®nite group. and so Ker (W À ë1 V ) Tˆ {0}.26). the endomorphism W has an eigenvalue ë P C.9 Schur's Lemma Schur's Lemma is a basic result concerning irreducible modules. As Im W is a CG-submodule of W by Proposition 7. and we give an immediate application by determining all the irreducible representations of ®nite abelian groups.1 Schur's Lemma Let V and W be irreducible CG-modules. Ker W is a CG-submodule of V. we have Im W ˆ W. Schur's Lemma 9. (2) By (2. (2) If W: V 3 V is a CG-isomorphism. Though simple in both statement and proof. Then Im W Tˆ {0}. and W is irreducible.2. we shall deal with CG-modules for the remainder of the book (except in Chapter 23). and hence is a CG-isomorphism. Thus Ker (W À ë1 V ) is a non-zero CG-submodule 78 . Thus W is invertible. and since much of the ensuing theory depends on it. Proof (1) Suppose that vW Tˆ 0 for some v P V. then either W is a CGisomorphism. or vW ˆ 0 for all v P V. Also by Proposition 7. as Ker W Tˆ V and V is irreducible. (1) If W: V 3 W is a CG-homomorphism. Throughout. then W is a scalar multiple of the identity endomorphism 1 V .2. Ker W ˆ {0}.

Then V is irreducible. there is a CGsubmodule W of V such that V ˆ U È WX Then the projection ð: V 3 V de®ned by (u ‡ w)ð ˆ u for all u P U. Since V is irreducible. and suppose that every CG-homomorphism from V to V is a scalar multiple of 1 V . Let A be an n 3 n matrix over C. Hence V is irreducible. for all v P V X 79 j 9. j We next interpret Schur's Lemma and its converse in terms of representations. w P W is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7.4(1). W ˆ ë1 V . Therefore v(W À ë1 V ) ˆ 0 That is. By Maschke's Theorem. 9.11). so that V has a CG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. for all g P G . Ker (W À ë1 V ) ˆ V. Then r is irreducible if and only if every n 3 n matrix A which satis®es ( gr)A ˆ A( gr) has the form A ˆ ëI n with ë P C. and is not a scalar multiple of 1 V .Schur's Lemma of V.3 Corollary Let r: G 3 GL (n. Part (2) of Schur's Lemma has the following converse. which is a contradiction. g P G. as required. g P G. The endomorphism v 3 vA of C n is a CG-homomorphism if and only if (v g)A ˆ (vA) g for all v P C n . regard C n as a CG-module by de®ning v g ˆ v( gr) for all v P C n . Proof Suppose that V is reducible.2 Proposition Let V be a non-zero CG-module. Proof As in Theorem 4. C) be a representation of G.

bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. and let ù ˆ e2ðia5 .3 implies that r is reducible. and let r: G 3 GL (2.3. b: a5 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. C) for which  ar ˆ Assume that the matrix  Aˆ á ã â ä  ù 0  0 . Corollary 9. Hence  Aˆ á 0 0 á  ˆ áIX Consequently r is irreducible.2. j 9. and then (br)A ˆ A(br) gives á ˆ ä.2). if and only if ( gr)A ˆ A( gr) for all g P GX The result now follows from Schur's Lemma 9.1 and Proposition 9.80 Representations and characters of groups that is. C) be the representation for which  ar ˆ 0 À1 1 À1  (see Exercise 3. ùÀ1  br ˆ 0 1  1 X 0 commutes with both ar and br. (2) Let G ˆ D10 ˆ ka. by Corollary 9. Check that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (2. Since the matrix  0 À1 1 À1  commutes with all gr ( g P G). . The fact that (ar)A ˆ A(ar) forces ⠈ 㠈 0.4 Examples (1) Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l.

The next result is a major structure theorem for ®nite abelian groups. We shall determine the irreducible representations of all direct products C n1 3 C n2 3 X X X 3 C n r where n1 . 9.6 Theorem Every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. Since G is abelian. Pick x P G. Thus we have proved 9. jX Now let r: G 3 GL (n. say ë x 1 V . then every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. ci . g r i.6. . and for 1 < i < r. we deduce that dim V ˆ 1. X X X . . n r are positive integers. let c i be a generator for C n i . and hence the endomorphism v 3 vx of V is a CG-homomorphism. this endomorphism is a scalar multiple of the identity 1 V . Write g i ˆ (1. with g in i ˆ 1 and g i g j ˆ g j g i for all i. . . and let V be an irreducible CGmodule. v gx ˆ vxg for all g P G. X X X . We shall not prove it here. As V is irreducible. . B. 1) Then G ˆ h g1 . 3 C n r .5 Proposition If G is a ®nite abelian group. this covers the irreducible representations of all ®nite abelian groups. C) be an irreducible representation of G (ci in ith position)X . X X X . Thus vx ˆ ë x v for all v P V X This implies that every subspace of V is a CG-submodule. . By Schur's Lemma 9. but refer you to Chapter 9 of the book of J.Schur's Lemma Representation theory of ®nite abelian groups 81 Let G be a ®nite abelian group. By Theorem 9.1(2). Let G ˆ C n1 3 . Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography.

v2 g 1 ˆ v2 . There are n1 n2 . V4 . .8 Theorem Let G be the abelian group C n1 3 . g irr for some integers i1 . . we have ë in i ˆ 1. The n irreducible representations of G over C are rù j (0 < j < n À 1). and then (9X7) i i gr ˆ ( g 11 X X X g irr )r ˆ (ë11 X X Xë irr )X For a representation r of G satisfying (9. . v3 g 2 ˆ v3 . The representations rë1 . v3 g 1 ˆ Àv3 . V2 . where ak rù j ˆ (ù jk ) (0 < k < n À 1)X (2) The four irreducible CG-modules for G ˆ C2 3 C2 ˆ k g1 . 2. . Also. v1 g 2 ˆ v2 .XXX. i r . 3 C n r . . 9. the values ë1 . where Vi is a 1-dimensional space with basis v i (i ˆ 1. ë r i determine r. . . . given any n i th roots of unity ë i (1 < i < r). and no two of them are equivalent.ë r X Conversely. . .ë r of G constructed above are irreducible and have degree 1. .XXX. n r such representations. the function i i g 11 X X X g irr 3 (ë11 X X Xë irr ) is a representation of G. 9. v4 g 2 ˆ Àv4 X .5. ë i is an n i th root of unity. 3. V3 .7) for all i1 . . Then n ˆ 1 by Proposition 9. since for g P G.82 Representations and characters of groups over C. . As g i has order n i . . . write r ˆ rë1 . . so for 1 < i < r. and put ù ˆ e2ðia n . We have proved the following theorem. i r .9 Examples (1) Let G ˆ C n ˆ ka: a n ˆ 1l. that is. 4) and v1 g 1 ˆ v1 . . g2 l are V1 . there exists ë i P C such that g i r ˆ (ë i ) (where of course (ë i ) is a 1 3 1 matrix). v2 g 2 ˆ Àv2 . There are |G| of these representations. and every irreducible representation of G over C is equivalent to precisely one of them. . we have g ˆ g11 . v4 g 1 ˆ Àv4 .

As V is also a C H-module.Schur's Lemma Diagonalization 83 Let H ˆ k gl be a cyclic group of order n. 9.12 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group.5). Put ù ˆ e2ðia n . V ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur . For abelian groups G. there exists an integer m i such that ui g ˆ ù m i u i X Thus if B is the basis u1 . . by Proposition 9.10). Proof Let H ˆ k gl. let u i be a vector spanning Ui.7. then there is a basis B of V such that the matrix [ g]B is diagonal. . the centre Z(CG) is the whole group algebra. a direct sum of irreducible C H-submodules Ui of V. then the entries on the diagonal of [ g]B are nth roots of unity. it is easy to check that Z(CG) is a subspace of CG. the result follows from (9. then H m1 I ù 0 f g FF (9X10) [ g]B ˆ d eX F 0 ù mr The following useful result is an immediate consequence of this. written Z(CG). is de®ned by Z(CG) ˆ fz P CG: zr ˆ rz for all r P CGgX Using (2. If g P G. Each Ui has dimension 1. . . j Some further applications of Schur's Lemma Our next application concerns an important subspace of the group algebra CG. The centre of the group algebra CG. 9. If g has order n. For arbitrary groups G. Then for each i. By Theorem 8. u r of V.11 Proposition Let G be a ®nite group and V a CG-module. we shall see that Z(CG) plays a crucial role in .5. and let V be a non-zero C H-module.

Consequently zr ˆ rz for all r P CG. Then there exists ë P C such that vz ˆ ëv for all v P V X Proof For all r P CG and v P V. its dimension is equal to the number of irreducible representations of G ± see Chapter 15). if H is any normal subgroup of G. 1 ‡ a ‡ a2 and 1 ‡ a ‡ a2 ‡ b ‡ ab ‡ a2 b lie in Z(CG). hP H hP H hP H € hP H and so zg ˆ gz. . which we now de®ne. We use Schur's Lemma to prove the following important property of the elements of Z(CG). so the elements 1. write z ˆ h.1(2). if G ˆ D6 ˆ ka. By Schur's Lemma 9. 9.84 Representations and characters of groups the study of representations of G (for example. kal and G are normal subgroups of G.14 Proposition Let V be an irreducible CG-module. and hence the function v 3 vz is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. For example. and the result follows. Then for all g P G. Indeed. j Some elements of the centre of CG are provided by the centre of G. we have vrz ˆ vzr. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. and let z P Z(CG). then {1}. ˆ ˆ g À1 zg ˆ g À1 hg ˆ h ˆ z. then ˆ h P Z(CG)X To see this. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. We shall see later that these elements in fact form a basis of Z(CG).13 Example € The elements 1 and gPG g lie in Z(CG). 9. this CG-homomorphism is equal to ë1 V for some ë P C.

we give an example of a group G such that Z(G) is cyclic but there exists no faithful irreducible CG-module. they . Indeed. it is not necessarily the case that there is a faithful irreducible CG-module. C2 3 C2 has no faithful irreducible representation (compare Example 9. is de®ned by Z(G) ˆ fz P G: zg ˆ gz for all g P GgX 85 Clearly Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G. For example. and is a subset of Z(CG). since in Exercise 25. Therefore Z(G)  {ë z : z P Z(G)}. is cyclic (see Exercise 1.Schur's Lemma 9. In particular. the following result shows that the existence of a faithful irreducible CG-module imposes a strong restriction on the structure of G.17 Example If G is an abelian group. there exists ë z P C such that vz ˆ ë z v for all v P V X Since V is faithful. which. written Z(G).9(2)). 9. Although we have seen in Proposition 6.16 is false. If z P Z(G) then z lies in Z(CG). Proof Let V be a faithful irreducible CG-module. 9. j We remark that the converse of Proposition 9. The irreducible representations of non-abelian groups are more dif®cult to construct than those of abelian groups.15 De®nition The centre of G.16 Proposition If there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module. then G ˆ Z(G).14.16. there is no faithful irreducible CG-module unless G is cyclic. and hence by Proposition 9.7). then Z(G) is cyclic. being a ®nite subgroup of Cà .6 that for every ®nite group G there is a faithful CG-module.6. the function z 3 ëz (z P Z(G)) is an injective homomorphism from Z(G) into the multiplicative group Cà of non-zero complex numbers. and so by Proposition 9.

as required. Then dim Vi ˆ 1 for all i. where each Vi is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule CG. the only CG-homomorphisms from an irreducible CG-module to itself are scalar multiples of the identity.7.6). we can write CG ˆ V1 È X X X È Vn . Exercises for Chapter 9 1. call it B . C3 and C2 3 C2 . For 1 < i < n. The centre Z(CG) of the group algebra CG consists of those elements which commute with all elements of CG. 9. and there are precisely |G| of them.18 Proposition Suppose that G is a ®nite group such that every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. . Proof By Theorem 8. and hence they commute. Hence G is abelian. 2.5. Then G is abelian.86 Representations and characters of groups do not all have degree 1. 3. as is shown by the following converse to Proposition 9. Then v1 . All irreducible CG-modules for a ®nite abelian group G have dimension 1. . j Summary of Chapter 9 1. the matrices [x]B and [ y]B are diagonal. . . v n is a basis of CG. since we are assuming that all irreducible CG-modules have dimension 1. . Schur's Lemma states that every CG-homomorphism between irreducible CG-modules is either zero or a CG-isomorphism. Also. we deduce that x and y commute. The elements of Z(CG) act as scalar multiples of the identity on all irreducible CGmodules. Since the representation g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) of G is faithful (see Proposition 6. let v i be a vector spanning V i . For all x. y P G. Write down the irreducible representations over C of the groups C2 .

.6). and let W be the irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule de®ned by W ˆ sp (1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 . (Compare Proposition 9. Let G ˆ D6 ˆ ka. . Can G have a faithful representation of degree less than r? 4. 3 C n r . Let G be the ®nite abelian group C n1 3 . Write ù ˆ e2ðia3 . (a) Show that a ‡ aÀ1 P Z(CG).14. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. (b) Prove that there is no irreducible representation ó of G such that gó ˆ (À1) for all elements g of order 2 in G. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. Suppose that G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. (b) Find ë P C such that w(a ‡ aÀ1 ) ˆ ëw for all w P W.) . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. Check that there is a representation r of G over C such that     À7 10 À5 6 ar ˆ . bó 4 À5 M( gr) ˆ ( gr)M for all g P G. Prove that G has a faithful representation of degree r. then there exists ë P C such that 2ˆ 3 v g ˆ ëv for all v P V X gPG 6. br ˆ X À5 7 À4 5 Find all 2 3 2 matrices M such that Hence determine whether or not r is Do the same for the representation   5 À6 aó ˆ . where   À5 6 ˆ X À4 5 5. ó of G.Schur's Lemma 87 2. 3. (a) Find a non-trivial irreducible representation r of G such that g2 r ˆ (1) for all g P G. b ‡ ù2 ab ‡ ùa2 b) (see Exercise 6. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. Let G ˆ C4 3 C4 . irreducible. Show that if V is an irreducible CG-module.

88 Representations and characters of groups 7. (c) C2 3 D8 . Which of the following groups have a faithful irreducible representation? (a) C n (n a positive integer). (b) D8 . (d) C3 3 D8. .

we can write CG ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module.7.8). Ur.10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra Let G be a ®nite group and CG be the group algebra of G over C. Also.1 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules and let W: V 3 W be a CG-homomorphism. to ®nd all irreducible CG-modules. . in theory. . Irreducible submodules of CG We begin with another consequence of Maschke's Theorem. there is by Maschke's Theorem a CG-submodule U of V such that V ˆ Ker W È U . . 10. However. this is not really a practical way of ®nding the irreducible CG-modules. By Theorem 8. it is suf®cient to decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. . De®ne a function W: U 3 Im W by uW ˆ uW (u P U )X 89 . Then there is a CG-submodule U of V such that V ˆ Ker W È U and U  Im W. Proof Since Ker W is a CG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (a result which has already been established for abelian groups in Theorem 9. We shall show in this chapter that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules U1. Consider CG as the regular CG-module. unless G is a small group.2. As a consequence.

Proof For u P U. and write V ˆ U1 È X X X È Us .3 Example Let G be any group and let V be a 2-dimensional CG-module. È Us (each Ui irreducible) without U being equal to any Ui. such that v g ˆ v for all v P V and g P G. Thus U  Im W. We have now established that W: U 3 Im W is an invertible CG-homomorphism. then we say that U is a composition factor of V if V has a CG-submodule which is isomorphic to U. 10. 10. Write v ˆ k ‡ u with k P Ker W. Choosing i such that ui Tˆ 0 for some u P U.90 Representations and characters of groups We show that W is a CG-isomorphism from U to Im W. If U is any irreducible CG-submodule of V. . . . Now let w P Im W. 10. hence Ker W ˆ {0}. and ð i Tˆ 0. u P U. then U  Ui for some i. U ˆ sp (v1 ‡ v2 ) is an irreducible CG-submodule which is not equal to U1 or U2. As U and Ui are irreducible. Now ð i is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. as required. v2 . Then w ˆ vW ˆ kW ‡ uW ˆ uW ˆ uWX Therefore Im W ˆ Im W. ‡ us for unique vectors ui P Ui (1 < i < s). where U1 ˆ sp (v1 ) and U2 ˆ sp (v2 ) are irreducible CG-submodules. Therefore U  Ui. with basis v1 . De®ne ð i : U 3 Ui by setting uð i ˆ ui . Schur's Lemma 9. we have u ˆ u1 ‡ . Then V ˆ U1 È U2 . However.4 De®nitions (1) If V is a CG-module and U is an irreducible CG-module.2 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. we have ð i Tˆ 0. since W is a CG-homomorphism. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui.11). .1(1) implies that ð i is a CG-isomorphism. as the following example shows. j Of course it can happen that U is an irreducible CG-submodule of U1 È . . If u P Ker W then u P Ker W ’ U ˆ {0}. Clearly W is a CG-homomorphism. so w ˆ vW for some v P V.

so is U.Irreducible modules and the group algebra 91 (2) Two CG-modules V and W are said to have a common composition factor if there is an irreducible CG-module which is a composition factor of both V and W.1. Observe that {wr: r P CG} is a CG-submodule of W. 10. since for r. since W is irreducible. 10. j Theorem 10. We record this fact in the following corollary. W is a CG-homomorphism. then W  Ui. it follows that (10X6) W ˆ fwr: r P CGgX Now de®ne W: CG 3 W by rW ˆ wr (r P CG)X Clearly W is a linear transformation. which shows that every irreducible CG-module is a composition factor of the regular CG-module.5 Theorem Regard CG as the regular CG-module.6). and write CG ˆ U 1 È X X X È U r .2 we have U  Ui for some i. then there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Proof Let W be an irreducible CG-module. (rs)W ˆ w(rs) ˆ (wr)s ˆ (rW)sX By Proposition 10. and choose a non-zero vector w P W.5 shows that there is a ®nite set of irreducible CGmodules such that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of them. . and Im W ˆ W by (10. s P CG. We now come to the main result of the chapter. By Proposition 10. there is a CG-submodule U of CG such that CG ˆ U È Ker W and U  Im W ˆ W X As W is irreducible. Then every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules Ui. and the result is proved. Moreover.7 Corollary If G is a ®nite group.

v1 ˆ 1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 . w2 b ˆ v1 X . however. and similarly vi a ˆ ùi vi for i ˆ 0. U1 or U2. v1 . v2 ˆ 1 ‡ ùa ‡ ù2 a2 . and so sp (v i ) and sp (wi ) are Ckal-modules. (2) Let G ˆ D6 ˆ ka. 1. note that v0 b ˆ w 0 . this is not a practical method for studying CG-modules in general. 10. v2 P CG by v0 ˆ 1 ‡ a ‡ a2 . every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to U0. By Theorem 10. 2. v2 b ˆ w1 . 1. The irreducible representation of G corresponding to Ui is the representation rù i of Example 9.8 Examples (1) Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l. w1 b ˆ v2 . v1 . Let ù ˆ e2ðia3 and de®ne v0 ˆ 1 ‡ a ‡ a2 . b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1.92 Representations and characters of groups According to Theorem 10. v i a ˆ ù i v i for i ˆ 0. and let Ui ˆ sp (v i ) for i ˆ 0. w0 ˆ bv0 w1 ˆ bv1 . w2 ˆ bv2 X (ˆ b ‡ ba ‡ ba2 ). to ®nd all the irreducible CG-modules we need only decompose the regular CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. 1. De®ne v0 . v2 ˆ 1 ‡ ùa ‡ ù2 a2 . Then v1 a ˆ a ‡ ù2 a2 ‡ ù1 ˆ ùv1 . v2 is a basis of CG. As in (1) above. 2. and write ù ˆ e2ðia3 .5. It is easy to check that v0 . v1 ˆ 1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 . and hence CG ˆ U0 È U 1 È U2 . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui.5. v1 b ˆ w2 . Next. 2. We now do this for a couple of examples. 1. 2X Hence Ui is a CG-submodule of CG for i ˆ 0. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. w0 b ˆ v0 . We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.9(1).

8(1).Irreducible modules and the group algebra 93 Therefore. and U1 is not isomorphic to U2. Find a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module. as U 1 ˆ sp(v0 ‡ w0 ) and U2 ˆ sp(v0 À w0 ) are CG-submodules. Exercises for Chapter 10 1. sp(v0 . every irreducible representation of D6 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r1 : a 3 (1).5(2). Is there only one such CGsubmodule? 2. However. and hence CG ˆ U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 . Express CG as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules. w1 ) are irreducible. Now v0. sp (v0 . w0 ) is reducible. sp (v1 . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Let G ˆ C4 . w2 3 v2 ). w2 is a basis of CG. w0 ).) . and hence are CG-submodules of CG. v1 . the other 1-dimensional Ui. Let G be a ®nite group. w2 ) and sp (v2 . the CG-submodules U3 ˆ sp (v1 . We conclude from Theorem 10. w1. By the argument in Example 5. namely U1. r2 : a 3 (1). U2 and U3. 2. There are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules.b3 X 1 0 0 ùÀ1 Summary of Chapter 10 1. w0. Every irreducible CG-module occurs as a composition factor of the regular CG-module. Correspondingly. v2 . (Hint: copy the method of Example 10. w2 ) and U4 ˆ sp (v2 .5 that there are exactly three nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules.     0 1 ù 0 r3 : a 3 . b 3 (À1). Note that U1 is the trivial CG-module. b 3 (1). w1 ) are Ckbl-modules. But U3  U4 (there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1 .

Suppose that V is a where U1 and U2 are CG-submodule U of isomorphic to both of non-zero CG-module such that V ˆ U1 È U2. . Let G ˆ Q8 ˆ ka. sp (u2 ) and sp (u3 ). b: a4 ˆ 1.94 Representations and characters of groups 3. sp (u1 ) say. v2 b ˆ Àv1 X Show that V is irreducible. but is them. 6. 5. and let V be the CG-module given in Example 4. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. v2 a ˆ Àiv2 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. and u3 b ˆ Àu3 X 4. and ®nd a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. such that u2 a ˆ Àu2 . u3 a ˆ Àu3 . v2 and v1 a ˆ iv1 . of CG such that u1 a ˆ u1 .8(2) to ®nd all the irreducible representations of D8 over C. isomorphic CG-modules. Thus V has basis v1 .5(2). b2 ˆ a2 . u2 b ˆ u2 . b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. Find a 1-dimensional CG-submodule. Show that there is a V which is not equal to U1 or U2. Use the method of Example 10. u1 b ˆ Àu1 X Find also 1-dimensional CG-submodules. v1 b ˆ v2 .

W ) and ë P C. Then W ‡ ö. We begin our study of the vector space HomCG (V.11 More on the group algebra We now go further into the structure of the group algebra CG of a ®nite group G. W ) is a vector space over C. W ).5 we proved that every irreducible CG-module U is isomorphic to one of the Ui. W ) for the set of all CG-homomorphisms from V to W. As in Chapter 10. Our proof of Theorem 11.9 is based on a study of the vector space of CG-homomorphisms from one CG-module to another. we write CG ˆ U 1 È X X X È U r . v(ëW) ˆ ë(vW) for all v P V . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui. The question arises: how many of the Ui are isomorphic to U ? There is an elegant and signi®cant answer to this question: the number is precisely dim U (see Theorem 11. 95 . W ) as follows: for W.9). de®ne W ‡ ö and ëW by v(W ‡ ö) ˆ vW ‡ vö. De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on HomCG (V . We write HomCG (V . In Theorem 10. it is easily checked that HomCG (V. W) with an easy consequence of Schur's Lemma.1 De®nition Let V and W be CG-modules. ëW P HomCG (V . With these de®nitions. The space of CG-homomorphisms 11. ö P HomCG (V .

2 Proposition Suppose that V and W are irreducible CG-modules. W )) ˆ 0. V2 and W .96 Representations and characters of groups 11. W)) ‡ dim (HomCG (V2 .4 Proposition Let V . W ). W2 )). 11. Proof Let W be a non-zero element of HomCG (V .4. If ö P HomCG (V . Then V ˆ Ker W È U for some non-zero CG-module U. W )). there exists ë P C such that öWÀ1 ˆ ë1 V X Then ö ˆ ëW. j For the next result. W ). Then V and W have a common composition factor. V1 . . dim (HomCG (V . Then (1) dim (HomCG (V. and so HomCG (V . Since XW Tˆ {0}. Then & 1. Schur's Lemma 9. then öWÀ1 is a CG-isomorphism from V to V. W ) Tˆ f0g. if V T W X Proof If V T W then this is immediate from Schur's Lemma 9. W1 È W2 )) ˆ dim (HomCG (V. so by Schur's Lemma 9. recall the de®nition of a composition factor of a CG-module from 10. and suppose that HomCG (V . W ) in general. a 1-dimensional space. W )) ˆ dim (HomCG (V1 .3 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules. W 2 be CG-modules.1(1) implies that XW  X. if V  W . Let X be an irreducible CG-submodule of U. Therefore X is a common composition factor of V and W. The key step is the following proposition.1(2). Now suppose that V  W. W ) ˆ fëW: ë P Cg. 11. j The next few results show how to calculate the dimension of HomCG (V . (2) dim (HomCG (V1 È V2 . W 1 . and let W: V 3 W be a CG-isomorphism.1(1). W1 )) ‡ dim (HomCG (V. by Maschke's Theorem.

Given ö i P HomCG (V. W ) and has image (ö1 . W1 È W2 ). W1 ) È HomCG (V. that is. and the image of ö under f is (ö1 . We show that f is invertible.1). w2 P W 2 . If W P HomCG (V . Now let h be the function from HomCG (V1 È V2 . W ) for i ˆ 1.More on the group algebra Proof (1) De®ne W 1 È W 2 3 W 2 by the functions ð1 : W1 È W2 3 W1 (w1 ‡ w2 )ð2 ˆ w2 and 97 ð2 : (w1 ‡ w2 )ð1 ˆ w1 . W 1 È W 2 ). 2). W 1 ) and Wð2 P HomCG (V. By Proposition 7. 2). (2) For W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . and (1) follows. ð1 and ð2 are CG-homomorphisms. Wi ) (i ˆ 1. W2 ). W ) HomCG (V1 . W 1 È W 2 ))X Clearly f is a linear transformation. 2) to be the restriction of W to V i . W ) (i ˆ 1. the function ö: v1 ‡ v2 3 v1 ö1 ‡ v2 ö2 öi P (v i P Vi for i ˆ 1. W2 ) (see Exercise 7. then vWð1 ˆ 0 and vWð2 ˆ 0 for all v P V. for all w1 P W 1 . If W P Ker f. W2 ) by f : W 3 (Wð1 . ö2 ) under h.11. W Vi is the function v i W Vi ˆ v i W (v i P Vi )X to Then W Vi P HomCG (V i . then Wð1 P HomCG (V . We now de®ne a function f from HomCG (V. W1 ) and HomCG (V. j . We have shown that h is an invertible linear transformation. W ))X transformation. We have established that f is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (V. Hence f is surjective. Wð2 ) (W P HomCG (V . W V2 ) (W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . Given Clearly h is an injective linear HomCG (Vi . ö2 ). W ) which is given by h: W 3 (W V1 . Hence h is surjective. W ) È HomCG (V2 . and (2) follows. W1 È W2 ) to HomCG (V. W ). so Ker f ˆ {0} and f is injective. de®ne W Vi : Vi 3 W (i ˆ 1. 2. 2) lies in HomCG (V1 È V2 . Consequently these two vector spaces have equal dimensions. W1 È W2 ) to the (external) direct sum of HomCG (V. Therefore W ˆ 0. so vW ˆ vW(ð1 ‡ ð2 ) ˆ 0. the function ö: v 3 vö1 ‡ vö2 (v P V ) lies in HomCG (V.

By an obvious induction using Proposition 11. .5).5) (1) dim (HomCG (V. W. dim (HomCG (V . . . W )) ˆ dim (HomCG (W . 1 < j < s).6 Corollary Let V be a CG-module with V ˆ U1 È X X X È Us .2. W1 È . (2) dim(HomCG (V1 È F F F ÈV r . V )) ˆ s ˆ iˆ1 s ˆ iˆ1 dim (HomCG (Ui . .98 Representations and characters of groups Now suppose that we have CG-modules V. Proof By (11. and dim (HomCG (W . and using Proposition 11. These in turn imply (3) dim (HomCG (V1 È . W )) ˆ r ˆ iˆ1 dim (HomCG (Vi. Then the dimensions of HomCG (V . È Ws )) ˆ r s ˆˆ iˆ1 jˆ1 dim (HomCG (Vi. W1 È . È Ws )) ˆ s ˆ jˆ1 dim (HomCG (V. V ) are both equal to the number of CG-modules Ui such that Ui  W.4. . 11. By applying (3) when all Vi and Wj are irreducible. W )). È Vr . Vi. Wj )). In the following corollary we single out the case where one of the CGmodules is irreducible. Wj )). we have (11. W)). Wj (1 < i < r. W ) and HomCG (W . we can ®nd dim (HomCG (V. . U i ))X . Let W be any irreducible CG-module. where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. W )) in general.

. for all r P CG we have . . dim (HomCG (Ui . U )) ˆ dim U X Proof Let d ˆ dim U. s P CG. .2. . When combined with Corollary 11. Ui )) ˆ The result follows. Since ö is a CG-homomorphism. U3 )) ˆ dim (HomCG (U3 . Thus by Corollary 11. 11. For 1 < i < d. we have dim (HomCG (CG.More on the group algebra And by Proposition 11. . U ). then dim (HomCG (CG. The next proposition investigates the space of CG-homomorphisms from the regular CG-module to any other CG-module.7 Example For G ˆ D6.8(2) that CG ˆ U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 . 0. it will give the main result of this chapter.6.6. (rs)ö i ˆ ui (rs) ˆ (ui r)s ˆ (rö i )sX We shall prove that ö1 . U) since for all r.8 Proposition If U is a CG-module. Suppose that ö P HomCG (CG. W )) ˆ dim (HomCG (W . de®ne ö i : CG 3 U by rö i ˆ ui r (r P CG)X Then ö i P HomCG (CG.5 to ®nd bases for these two vector spaces of CG-homomorphisms. U ). & 99 1. CG)) ˆ 2X You are asked in Exercise 11. . . Choose a basis u1 . . if U i  W . if U i T W X j a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. ud of U. ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. Then 1ö ˆ ë1 u1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë d u d for some ë i P C. 11. we saw in Example 10. with U3  U4 but U3 not isomorphic to U1 or U2.

which tells us how often each irreducible CG-module occurs in the regular CGmodule. this is equal to the number of Ui with Ui  U. . 11. U ). .9 Theorem Suppose that CG ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur .10 Example Recall again from Example 10.8(2) that if G ˆ D6 then CG ˆ U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.8. U ). . ‡ ë d ö d . U )). then the number of CG-modules Ui with Ui  U is equal to dim U. ö d span ë1 ö1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë d ö d ˆ 0 (ë i P C)X Evaluating both sides at the identity 1. . . If U is any irreducible CG-module. j We now come to the main theorem of the chapter. U2 are non-isomorphic 1-dimensional CG-modules. which forces ë i ˆ 0 for all i. Hence ö1 . and by Corollary 11. . where U1. Proof By Proposition 11. dim U ˆ dim (HomCG (CG.6. . j 11. . Now assume that Therefore ö1 .100 Representations and characters of groups rö ˆ (1r)ö ˆ (1ö)r ˆ ë1 u1 r ‡ X X X ‡ ë d u d r ˆ r(ë1 ö1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë d ö d )X Hence ö ˆ ë1 ö1 ‡ . HomCG (CG. . we have 0 ˆ 1(ë1 ö1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë d ö d ) ˆ ë1 u1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë d u d . which therefore has dimension d. ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. and . .

X X X . By Theorem 11. and let d1. 11.9: U1 occurs once. for each i.13 Example Let G be a group of order 8. . For 1 < i < k. the result follows. V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. dk be the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. 11.More on the group algebra 101 U3. U2 occurs once. This illustrates Theorem 11. Therefore dim CG ˆ dim U 1 ‡ X X X ‡ dim Ur ˆ k ˆ iˆ1 k ˆ iˆ1 d i (dim Vi ) ˆ d2X i j As dim CG ˆ |G|. X X X .9 concerning the dimensions of all irreducible CG-modules. (By Corollary 10. for any ®nite group G there exists a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.) 11.12.9. È Ur. dim U3 ˆ 2X We conclude the chapter with a signi®cant consequence of Theorem 11. k ˆ iˆ1 d 2 ˆ 8X i . write d i ˆ dim V i . V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules if every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to some V i . X X X .11 De®nition We say that the irreducible CG-modules V1 . By Theorem 11. dim U2 ˆ 1. the number of CG-modules Uj with Uj  Vi is equal to di . . . U3 occurs twice. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.12 Theorem Let V1 . V k are isomorphic.7. and no two of V1 . Then k ˆ (dim Vi )2 ˆ jGjX iˆ1 Proof Let CG ˆ U1 È . U4 are isomorphic irreducible 2-dimensional CG-modules. . . dim U1 ˆ 1. .

and the second when G ˆ D8 (see Exercise 10. U )) ˆ dim U . 4. 1. W 1 È X X X È W s )) ˆ r s ˆˆ iˆ1 jˆ1 and dim (HomCG (Vi . and let U be any irreducible CG-module.102 Representations and characters of groups Observe that the trivial CG-module is irreducible of dimension 1. . dk are 1.12.5). X X X . 2X Both these possibilities do occur: the ®rst holds when G is an abelian group (see Proposition 9. 1. 1. 1. If G is a group of order 12. 2. . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. . . CG). dim (HomCG (V1 È X X X È V r . Let G be a ®nite group. We shall see later that dim Vi divides |G| for all i. If V1 . Let CG ˆ U1 È . 1. combined with Theorem 11. 1. Then the number of Ui with Ui  U is equal to dim U. If G is a non-abelian group of order 6. W j ))X 2. then k ˆ (dim Vi )2 ˆ jGjX iˆ1 Exercises for Chapter 11 1. dim (HomCG (CG. 3. È Ur. Summary of Chapter 11 1. V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. Find a basis for HomCG (CG. 1 1. and so di ˆ 1 for some i.4). 1. . . ®nd the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules.3. . 1. Hence the possibilities for d1. what are the possible degrees of all the irreducible representations of G? Find the degrees of the irreducible representations of D12. is quite a powerful tool in ®nding the dimensions of irreducible CG-modules. and this fact. (Hint: use Exercise 5. 1.) 3.

d i ˆ dim (HomCG (V . W )) ˆ iˆ1 d i ei . U) has dimension 1. Let G ˆ D6 and let CG ˆ U1 È U2 È U3 È U4. . show that HomCG (V. Vi ))X €k Show that dim (HomCG (V . Assume that for 1 < i < k. 6.8(2). and let V. 5. as in Example 10.10. If U is the trivial CGmodule. Suppose that G ˆ Sn and V is the n-dimensional permutation module for G over C. X X X . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. W be arbitrary CG-modules. as de®ned in 4. V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. U3 ) and a basis for HomCG (U3. Find a basis for HomCG (CG. Vi )) and ei ˆ dim (HomCG (W .More on the group algebra 103 4. CG). Let V1 .

Throughout the chapter. then either x G ˆ y G or x G ’ y G is empty. y P G. Proof Suppose that x G ’ y G is not empty. At the end of the chapter we prove a result linking the conjugacy classes of a group to the structure of its group algebra.12 Conjugacy classes We take a break from representation theory to discuss some topics in group theory which will be relevant in our further study of representations. and pick z P x G ’ y G.1 De®nition Let x. We say that x is conjugate to y in G if y ˆ g À1 xg for some g P GX The set of all elements conjugate to x in G is x G ˆ f g À1 xg: g P Gg.2 Proposition If x. symmetric and alternating groups. we develop enough theory to determine the conjugacy classes of dihedral. After de®ning conjugacy classes. y P G. h P G such that z ˆ gÀ1 xg ˆ hÀ1 yhX 104 . Our ®rst result shows that two distinct conjugacy classes have no elements in common. and is called the conjugacy class of x in G. G is a ®nite group. Then there exist g. 12. Conjugacy classes 12.

. x G are l l distinct. ab. fb. a2 bgX . then we call x1 . a2 . a2 g. a2 gX Also.5 Examples (1) For every group G. ab. aÀi ba i ˆ aÀ2i b for all integers i. Another way of seeing this Corollary 12. ‘ x G . 12. . G is the union of its conjugacy classes and so we deduce immediately 12. .4 De®nition G G If G ˆ x1 ‘ . where k ˆ hgÀ1 . j Since every element x of G lies in the conjugacy class x G (as x ˆ 1À1 x1 with 1 P G). 1 G ˆ {1} is a conjugacy class of G. and that the conjugacy classes are the equivalence classes. so bG ˆ fb. and bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 . . 12. a. and so xG ˆ yG . (2) Let G ˆ D6 ˆ ka. a2 bgX Thus the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. . ab. a2 b. Since gÀ1 ag is a or a2 for every g P G. we have aG ˆ fa. and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. So a P x G A a ˆ bÀ1 xb A a ˆ cÀ1 yc AaP y X G 105 for some b P G where c ˆ kb A a ˆ bÀ1 k À1 ykb Therefore x G # y G. . . where the conjugacy classes x1 . The elements of G are 1. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. Similarly y G # x G (using y ˆ kxkÀ1 ).3 is to observe that conjugacy is an equivalence relation.3 Corollary Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. fa. . . xl representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l.Conjugacy classes Hence x ˆ ghÀ1 yhgÀ1 ˆ kÀ1 yk. b.

Then the size of the conjugacy class x G is given by jx G j ˆ jG: CG (x)j ˆ jGjajCG (x)jX In particular. CG (x) ˆ f g P G: xg ˆ gxgX (So also CG (x) ˆ { g P G: gÀ1 xg ˆ x}. The centralizer of x in G.106 Representations and characters of groups (3) If G is abelian then gÀ1 xg ˆ x for all x. Let x have order m. . 12.7 De®nition Let x P G. so y also has order m. is the set of elements of G which commute with x. and so x G ˆ {x}. m. Then y n ˆ gÀ1 x n g and therefore x n is conjugate to y n in G.8 Theorem Let x P G.1). and for 0 . |x G | divides |G|. The next proposition is often useful when calculating conjugacy classes. Observe that x P CG (x) and indeed. Proof Observe that for a. j Conjugacy class sizes The next theorem determines the sizes of the conjugacy classes in G in terms of certain subgroups which we now de®ne. we have gÀ1 abg ˆ ( g À1 ag)( g À1 bg)X Hence gÀ1 x n g ˆ ( gÀ1 xg) n . kxl # CG (x) for all x P G. 12. b P G. g P G. If x is conjugate to y in G. Hence every conjugacy class of G consists of just one element. so that y ˆ gÀ1 xg for some g P G. that is. Then y m ˆ gÀ1 x m g ˆ 1. y r ˆ gÀ1 x r g Tˆ 1. 12.6 Proposition Let x. and x and y have the same order. written CG (x). r .) It is easy to check that CG (x) is a subgroup of G (Exercise 12. y P G. then x n is conjugate to y n in G for every integer n. Suppose that x is conjugate to y in G.

the dihedral group of order 2n. Then ˆ jx G j. . We have now proved all parts of the following result. we may de®ne an injective function f from x G to the set of right cosets of CG (x) in G by f : g À1 xg 3 CG (x) g ( g P G)X Clearly f is surjective.Conjugacy classes Proof Observe ®rst that for g.15. . xl be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. j Before summarizing our results on conjugacy classes. we have g À1 xg ˆ hÀ1 xh D hg À1 x ˆ xhg À1 D hg À1 P CG (x) D CG (x) g ˆ CG (x)hX 107 By dint of this. and both | Z(G)| and |x G | divide |G|. h P G. Thus G ˆ ha. . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 iX In ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. Since CG (ai ) contains kal. i Conjugacy classes of dihedral groups We illustrate the use of Theorem 12. 12. as de®ned in 9. . (1) n odd First consider ai (1 < i < n À 1). we make the observation that (12X9) jx G j ˆ 1 D g À1 xg ˆ x D x P Z(G). jG: CG (ai )j < jG: haij ˆ 2X .8 by ®nding the conjugacy classes of all dihedral groups. jGj ˆ j Z(G)j ‡ i xiP Z(G) a for all g P G where |x G | i ˆ |G:CG (xi )|. Let G ˆ D2 n. Hence f is a bijection. where Z(G) is the centre of G. b: an ˆ b2 ˆ 1.10 The Class Equation Let x1 . proving that |x G | ˆ |G:CG (x)|.

8. . and so |(ai ) G | > 2. |bG | ˆ n.8. so {ai . and as bÀ1 ai b ˆ aÀi . {a( nÀ1)a2 . a j baÀ j ˆ a2 j b. As bÀ1 am b ˆ aÀ m ˆ am . {a2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1}. . we have 2 > jG: CG (ai )j ˆ j(ai ) G j > 2X Hence equality holds here. {a m }. n ˆ 2m) has precisely m ‡ 3 conjugacy classes: {1}. . (ai ) G ˆ {ai . and CG (ai ) ˆ hai. As in case (1). aÀi } for 1 < i < m À 1. ab. a j (ab)aÀ j ˆ a2 j‡1 bX It follows that bG ˆ fa2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1g. . b}. {a. no element ai or ai b (with 1 < i < n À 1) commutes with b. As n is odd. Therefore the conjugacy class of am in G is just fam g. aÀ1 }. aÀi gX Next. .108 Representations and characters of groups Also bÀ1 ai b ˆ aÀi . For every integer j. X X X . ab.12) The dihedral group D2 n (n even. {a2 j‡1 b: 0 < j < m À 1}. . {a mÀ1 . a nÀ1 b}. {a. bG ˆ fb. . aÀ1 }. (2) n even Write n ˆ 2m. . aÀi } # (ai ) G . CG (b) contains {1. Since all the elements ai have been accounted for. (ai ) G ˆ fai . . That is. a nÀ1 bgX We have shown (12. . . Thus CG (b) ˆ f1. the centralizer of am in G contains both a and b. ai Tˆ aÀi . aÀ( nÀ1)a2 }.11) The dihedral group D2 n (n odd) has precisely 1(n ‡ 3) con2 jugacy classes: {1}. . aÀ m‡1 }. bgX Therefore by Theorem 12. bG must consist of the remaining n elements of G. . {b. (ab) G ˆ fa2 j‡1 b: 0 < j < m À 1gX Hence (12. Using Theorem 12. and hence CG (am ) ˆ G.

. 1 k 1 k (products of disjoint cycles). .14) g À1 xg ˆ g À1 (a1 X X X a k 1 ) gg À1 (b1 X X X b k 2 ) g X X X g À1 (c1 X X X ck s ) g ˆ (a1 g X X X a k 1 g)(b1 g X X X b k 2 g) X X X (c1 g X X X c k s g)X We call (k1 . ir g( g À1 xg) ˆ i r xg ˆ i r‡1 g (or i1 g if r ˆ k)X Also. Our ®rst observation is simple but crucial. Now consider an arbitrary permutation x P Sn . y ˆ (a9 X X X a9 1 ) X X X (c9 X X X c9 s ). . . > ks . . say x ˆ (a1 X X X a k 1 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). y of the same cycle-shape. Then gÀ1 xg is the k-cycle (i1 g i2 g .Conjugacy classes Conjugacy classes of S n 109 We shall later need to know the conjugacy classes of the symmetric group Sn . ik g). 12. . . . there a1 3 a9 . for 1 < i < n and i P A. . . and note that x and gÀ1 xg have the same cycle-shape. .13 Proposition Let x be a k-cycle (i1 i2 . . ik }. . .14). 1 k g À1 xg ˆ yX We have proved the following result. a ig( gÀ1 xg) ˆ ixg ˆ igX Hence gÀ1 (i1 i2 . . ik ) g ˆ (i1 g i2 g . . and so by (12. with k1 > k2 > . ks ) the cycle-shape of x. a product of disjoint cycles. as required.13. and let g P Sn . Proof Write A ˆ {i1 . for g P Sn we have (12. exists g P Sn sending j . . . . ik ) in Sn . given any two permutations x. . On the other hand. Write x ˆ (a1 X X X ak 1 )(b1 X X X bk 2 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). . ck s 3 c9 s . By Proposition 12. . ik g). For ir P A.

ÀÁ which is 4 ˆ 6. 4}.8) are as follows: Representative Class size g | gG | |CG ( g)| 1 1 24 (1 2) 6 4 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 3 8 (1 2 3 4) 6 4 We check our arithmetic by noting that jS4 j ˆ 1 ‡ 6 ‡ 8 ‡ 3 ‡ 6X . (1 3). Similarly. (1 3)(2 4). we simply count the number of 2-cycles. (1 2)(3 4). (1 3 2)} Cycle-shape (1) (2) (3) (2) The conjugacy class of (1 2)(3 4) in S4 consists of all the elements of cycle-shape (2. the conjugacy class representatives g. Thus for G ˆ S4 .) The number of 3-cycles is 4 3 2 (4 for the choice of ®xed point and 2 because there are two 3-cycles ®xing a given point). The number of 2-cycles is equal to the number of pairs that can be chosen from {1. 3. the conjugacy class x Sn of x in Sn consists of all permutations in Sn which have the same cycle-shape as x. (1 2). 2) and there are six 4-cycles. (1 2 3). 12. 2) and is f(1 2)(3 4). the conjugacy class sizes | gG | and the centralizer orders |CG ( g)| (obtained using Theorem 12. (1 4)(2 3)gX (3) There are precisely ®ve conjugacy classes of S4 . with representatives (see De®nition 12. there are three elements of cycle-shape (2.110 Representations and characters of groups 12.4): 1.15 Theorem For x P Sn .16 Examples (1) The conjugacy classes of S3 are Class {1} {(1 2). 3-cycles. and so on. (1 2 3 4)X To calculate the sizes of the conjugacy classes. (The notation … n † means the binomial coef®cient 2 r n3a(r3(n À r)3). 2. (2 3)} {(1 2 3).

17 Proposition Let x P An with n . x À1 }. (2) If x does not commute with any odd permutation in Sn then x Sn splits into two conjugacy classes in An of equal size.Conjugacy classes (4) Similarly. (1) If x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . Proof (1) Assume that x commutes with an odd permutation g. and if h is odd then gh P An and y ˆ hÀ1 xh ˆ hÀ1 g À1 xgh ˆ ( gh)À1 x( gh). The next result determines precisely when x An and x Sn are equal. consider x ˆ (1 2 3) P A3 . Let y P x S n . we have seen in Theorem 12. however. g 1 (1 2) | gG | 1 10 |CG ( g)| 120 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 20 15 6 8 (1 2 3 4) 30 4 111 (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 24 6 5 Conjugacy classes of A n Given an even permutation x P A n . while x S3 ˆ {x. 1. If h is even then y P x An . then x Sn ˆ x An . x A n might not be equal to x S n . the corresponding table for G ˆ S5 is Rep. with representatives x and (1 2)À1 x(1 2). here x A3 ˆ fxg. and so x Sn ˆ x An . so that y ˆ hÀ1 xh for some h P Sn . For an easy example where equality does not hold. Then CSn (x) ˆ CAn (x)X . 12. is of course contained in x S n . given by x A n ˆ f g À1 xg: g P An g. and what happens when equality fails. Thus x Sn # x An .15 that the conjugacy class x S n consists of all permutations in S n which have the same cycle-shape as x. The conjugacy class x A n of x in A n . so again y P x An . (2) Assume that x does not commute with any odd permutation.

13. (1 3)(2 4).17 implies that (1 2)(3 4) A4 ˆ (1 2)(3 4) S4 ˆ f(1 2)(3 4). so g is 1. Proposition 12. (1 4)(2 3)gX However. with representatives (1 2 3) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3)(1 2) ˆ (1 3 2).8. (2.112 Representations and characters of groups Hence by Theorem 12. 2) and (5). as we wished to show.) Hence by Proposition 12. an even permutation. but (1 2 3 4 5) commutes with no odd permutation. j 12. Thus the conjugacy classes of A4 are Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 12 (1 2)(3 4) 3 4 (1 2 3) 4 3 (1 3 2) 4 3 (as jAn j ˆ 1jSn j) 2 (2) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A5 . The elements (1 2 3) and (2 3)(4 5) commute with the odd permutation (4 5).17. the . The elements of A4 are the identity. the 3-cycle (1 2 3) commutes with no odd permutation: for if gÀ1 (1 2 3) g ˆ (1 2 3) then (1 2 3) ˆ (1 g 2 g 3 g) by Proposition 12. jx An j ˆ jAn : CAn (x)j ˆ 1jSn : CAn (x)j 2 ˆ 1jSn : CSn (x)j ˆ 1jx Sn jX 2 2 Next. Hence by Proposition 12.17.18 Examples (1) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A4 . the conjugacy classes x An and ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An must 2 be disjoint and of equal size. Since (1 2)(3 4) commutes with the odd permutation (1 2). 2) and (3). we observe that fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg ˆ ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An since every odd permutation has the form (1 2)a for some a P An . (1 2 3) S4 splits into two conjugacy classes in A4 of size 4. together with the permutations of cycle-shapes (2. (1 2 3) or (1 3 2). The non-identity even permutations in S5 are those of cycle-shapes (3). (Check this by using the argument in (1) above. Now x Sn ˆ fhÀ1 xh: h is eveng ‘ fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg ˆ x An ‘ ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An X Since |x An | ˆ 1|x Sn |.

Thus H v G. (1 2 3). 3. Conversely. (1 2)(3 4). and 1 P H. Proof If H is a union of conjugacy classes.Conjugacy classes 113 conjugacy classes of A5 are represented by 1. these conjugacy classes have sizes 1.19 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G.20 Example We ®nd all the normal subgroups of S4 . g P G A g À1 hg P H. As we saw in Example 12. Then by Proposition 12. 6.16(3).17(2). there are just four possibilities: j Hj ˆ 1. (1 2 3 4 5) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3 4 5)(1 2) ˆ (1 3 4 5 2). then h P H.19. g P G. Let H v S4 . Then H v G if and only if H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. if H v G then for all h P H. Therefore ‘ Hˆ hG . Since j Hj divides 24 by Lagrange's Theorem. 1 ‡ 3. we have gÀ1 hg P H. H is a union of conjugacy classes of S4 . and so hG # H. 8. j 12. 12. 6. we see that the class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows: Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 60 (1 2 3) 20 3 (1 2)(3 4) 15 4 (1 2 3 4 5) 12 5 (1 3 4 5 2) 12 5 Normal subgroups Normal subgroups are related to conjugacy classes by the following elementary result. hP H and so H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. Using Proposition 12. 1 ‡ 8 ‡ 3 or 1 ‡ 6 ‡ 8 ‡ 3 ‡ 6X . so gÀ1 Hg # H.

hÀ1 C i h ˆ r ˆ jˆ1 r ˆ jˆ1 yÀ1 gyj X j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj hX j . 12. Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G. (1 2)(3 4). (1 3)(2 4). . S4 . . . . meaning `four-group').114 Representations and characters of groups In the ®rst case H ˆ {1}. de®ne ˆ Ci ˆ g P CGX gPCi The elements C1 . . C l form a basis of Z(CG). . In the case where j Hj ˆ 1 ‡ 3. yÀ1 gyr of an element g. We have now shown that S4 has exactly four normal subgroups: f1g. . (1 4)(2 3)gX This is easily checked to be a subgroup of S4 .22 Proposition The class sums C1 . (1 3)(2 4). Let Ci consist of the r distinct conjugates yÀ1 gy1.21 De®nition Let C1 . 12. . . so 1 r Ci ˆ For all h P G. . (1 2)(3 4). C l of CG are called class sums. . . .12 that the centre of CG is Z(CG) ˆ fz P CG: zr ˆ rz for all r P CGgX We know that Z(CG) is a subspace of the vector space CG. There is a convenient basis for this subspace which can be described in terms of the conjugacy classes of G. and in the third case H ˆ A4 . (1 4)(2 3)gX The centre of a group algebra In this ®nal section we link the conjugacy classes of the group G to the centre of the group algebra CG. we write it as V4 (V stands for `Viergruppe'. Proof First we show that each C i belongs to Z(CG). . . Recall from De®nition 9. . For 1 < i < l. A4 and V4 ˆ f1. we have H ˆ 1 S4 ‘ (1 2)(3 4) S4 ˆ f1. in the last case H ˆ S4 .

16(1). a ‡ a3 . That is. a basis for Z(CS3 ) is 1. For h P G. It remains to show that C1 .Conjugacy classes 115 As j runs from 1 to r. . then all ë i ˆ 0 as the classes C1 . . . since j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h ˆ hÀ1 yÀ1 gyk h D yÀ1 gyj ˆ yÀ1 gyk X j k j k Hence r ˆ jˆ1 À1 hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h ˆ C i . and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. . b ‡ a2 b. Cl are pairwise disjoint by Corollary 12. the function g 3 ë g is constant on €l conjugacy classes of G. 2. (1 2 3) ‡ (1 3 2)X (2) From (12. the centralizer CG (x) is the set of .12). That is to say. .23 Examples (1) From Example 12. . we have rh ˆ hr. Next. C l are linearly independent: for if €l iˆ1 ë i C i ˆ 0 (ë i P C). Let r ˆ € À1 gPG ë g g P Z(CG). ˆ ˆ ë g hÀ1 gh ˆ ë g gX gPG gPG So for every h P G. ab ‡ a3 bX Summary of Chapter 12 1. the elements hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h run through Ci . hence with all € hPG ë h h P CG. Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. 12. That is. and so C i P Z(CG). C l span Z(CG). For an element x of a group G. a basis for Z(CD8 ) is 1. observe that C1 . (1 2) ‡ (1 3) ‡ (2 3). It follows that r ˆ iˆ1 ë i C i where ë i is the j coef®cient ë gi for some gi P Ci . j and so h C i h ˆ C i .3. the coef®cient ë g of g is equal to the coef®cient ë hÀ1 gh of hÀ1 gh. a2 . . . so h rh ˆ r. C i h ˆ hC i X Therefore each C i commutes with all h P G. This completes the proof. . . . .

and the number of elements in the conjugacy class x G is equal to |G:CG (x)|. Prove that G has a conjugacy class of size p. Show that j(1 2 3)(4 5 6) G j ˆ 40 and j(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G j ˆ 15. It is a subgroup of G. Let G ˆ Sn . 3. Prove that the conjugacy classes gG and ( gz) G have the same size. 2.20. 5. n (a) Prove that j(1 2) G j ˆ …2 † and ®nd CG ((1 2)). show that CG (x) is a subgroup of G which contains Z(G). . n n (b) Show that j(1 2 3) G j ˆ 2…3 † and j(1 2)(3 4) G j ˆ 3…4 †. 4. (a) Use the Class Equation 12. Let G be a ®nite group and suppose that g P G and z P Z(G). (Hint: use the method of Example 12. (b) Suppose that n > 3 and that | Z(G)| ˆ p. Let p be a prime number. The class sums in CG form a basis for the centre of CG. (c) Now let n ˆ 6. (There are 11 conjugacy classes in all.10 to show that Z(G) Tˆ {1}.) 4. 3. If x P An then x Sn ˆ x An if and only if x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . What are the cycle-shapes of those permutations x P A6 for which x A6 Tˆ x S6 ? 5. Verify that your solution satis®es Theorem 12. and ®nd the sizes of the other conjugacy classes of S6 . If G is a group and x P G. Find the conjugacy classes of the quaternion group Q8. and let n be a positive integer. Exercises for Chapter 12 1. Show that A5 is a simple group.) 6.8. Suppose that G is a group of order pn .116 Representations and characters of groups elements of G which commute with x. Give a basis of the centre of the group algebra CQ8. 7. The conjugacy classes of Sn correspond to the cycle-shapes of permutations in Sn .

such as deciding whether or not a given representation is irreducible. and they are the fundamental tools for performing calculations in representation theory. written tr A. Moreover. we shall show later that two representations have the same character if and only if they are equivalent. Characters of representations have many remarkable properties. With each n 3 n matrix gr ( g P G) we associate the complex number given by adding all the diagonal entries of the matrix.1 De®nition If A ˆ (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix. The theory of characters will occupy a considerable portion of the rest of the book. These facts are surprising. and call this number ÷( g). C) is a representation of the ®nite group G. In this chapter we present some basic properties and examples. C). For example. since from the de®nition of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. is given by tr A ˆ n ˆ iˆ1 aii X That is. basic problems. the trace of A is the sum of the diagonal entries of A. it appears that we must keep track of all the n2 entries in each matrix gr. The trace of a matrix 13. The function ÷: G 3 C is called the character of the representation r.13 Characters Suppose that r: G 3 GL(n. 117 . whereas the character records just one number for each matrix. can be resolved by doing some easy arithmetic with the character of the representation. then the trace of A.

tr (AB) need not equal (tr A)(tr B). if T is an invertible n 3 n matrix. the trace function is not multiplicative. then tr (T À1 AT ) ˆ tr AX Proof The ii-entry of A ‡ B is aii ‡ bii . that is. then [ g]B 9 ˆ T À1 [ g]B T . aij bji ˆ n n ˆ ˆ jˆ1 iˆ1 bji aij ˆ tr (BA)X Notice that. unlike the determinant function.3 De®nition Suppose that V is a CG-module with a basis B . and tr (AB) ˆ tr (BA)X Moreover. since if B and B 9 are bases of V. and the ii-entry of AB is €n jˆ1 aij bji. Then tr (A ‡ B) ˆ tr A ‡ tr B.2 Proposition Let A ˆ (aij ) and B ˆ (bij ) be n 3 n matrices.118 Representations and characters of groups 13. Characters 13. Then the character of V is the function ÷: G 3 C de®ned by ÷( g) ˆ tr [ g]B ( g P G)X The character of V does not depend on the basis B . Therefore tr (A ‡ B) ˆ and tr (AB) ˆ For the last part. tr (T À1 AT ) ˆ tr ((T À1 A)T ) ˆ tr (T (T À1 A)) ˆ tr AX (by the second part ) j n n ˆ ˆ iˆ1 jˆ1 n ˆ iˆ1 (aii ‡ bii ) ˆ n ˆ iˆ1 aii ‡ n ˆ iˆ1 bii ˆ tr A ‡ tr B.

we have tr [x]B ˆ tr [ y]B . ÷ is an irreducible character of G if ÷ is the character of an irreducible CG-module. Further. where ÷ is the character of V.2. and so V and W have the same character. That is. Therefore ÷(x) ˆ ÷( y). 13. and so by Proposition 13.Characters 119 for some invertible matrix T (see (2. You will have noticed that we are writing characters as functions on the left. .7). Let V be a CG-module.24)). (2) If x and y are conjugate elements of the group G.5 Proposition (1) Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. Then by (7. tr [ g]B 9 ˆ tr [ g]B for all g P GX Naturally enough. we de®ne the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. j The result corresponding to Proposition 13. we write ÷( g) and not g÷. there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 ˆ [ g]B 2 for all g P GX Consequently tr [ g]B 1 ˆ tr [ g]B 2 for all g P G.2. so that x ˆ gÀ1 yg for some g P G. namely ÷( g) ˆ tr ( gr) ( g P G)X 13. (2) Assume that x and y are conjugate elements of G.5(1) for representations is that equivalent representations have the same character. and let B be a basis of V. Then [x]B ˆ [ g À1 yg]B ˆ [ g]À1 [ y]B [ g]B X B Hence by Proposition 13. and ÷ is reducible if it is the character of a reducible CG-module.4 De®nition We say that ÷ is a character of G if ÷ is the character of some CGmodule. C) to be the character ÷ of the corresponding CGmodule C n . then ÷(x) ˆ ÷( y) for all characters ÷ of G. Proof (1) Suppose that V and W are isomorphic CG-modules.

br ˆ ar ˆ 0 À1 À1 0 (see Example 3. Let ÷ be the character of this representation. and take V to be the 3-dimensional permutation module for G over C (see De®nition 4. (We obtain ÷( g) by adding the two entries on the diagonal of gr. The matrices [ g]B ( g P G) are given by Exercise 4. g [ g]B ÷( g) 1 (1 2) (1 3) H 1 d0 0 0 0 1 0e 0 1 3 I H 0 d1 0 1 0 0 0e 0 1 1 I H 0 0 d0 1 1 0 1 I 1 0e 0 . together with the character ÷ of V.120 Representations and characters of groups Later. v3 .5(1): if two CG-modules have the same character. Let B be the natural basis of V. gr and ÷( g) as g runs through G. C) be the representation for which     1 0 0 1 .10). and let r: G 3 GL(2.2(1)).) g gr ÷( g) 1 1 0 0 1 2 a 0 1 À1 0 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 À2 a3 0 À1 1 0 0         g gr ÷( g)  b 1 0 0 À1 0   ab 0 À1 0 À1 0   a2 b À1 0 0 1 0   a3 b 0 1 0 1 0  (2) Let G ˆS3 . 13. v2 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l.6 Examples (1) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. We record these matrices. The following table records g. we shall prove an astonishing converse of Proposition 13. where v i g ˆ v ig for 1 < i < 3 and all g P G. then they are isomorphic.1. thus B is the basis v1 .

G has just three irreducible characters ÷1 . the characters given take few distinct values. ÷3 . Thus if ÷ i is the character of Ui for 1 < i < 3. Nevertheless. ÷2 and ÷3 . U2. (4) Let G ˆ D6 ˆ ka. the character encapsulates a great deal of information about the representation. Moreover. with values g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù where ù ˆ e2ðia3 . it is much quicker to write down the single complex number ÷( g) for the group element g than to record the matrix which corresponds to g. and they are as follows: g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Notice that in all the above examples. The values of these characters on the elements of G can be calculated from the corresponding representations r1 . . U3.8(2). ÷2 . By Theorem 9.5(2). bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l (so G  S3 ). This will become clear as the theory of characters develops.8.Characters g [ g]B ÷( g) H (2 3) I H (1 2 3) I H (1 3 2) I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 0 121 1 0 0 d0 0 1e 0 1 0 1 0 1 d0 0 1 0 0 0 1e 0 0 d1 0 (3) Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ha: a3 ˆ 1 i. r3 given in Example 10. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1.8(2). In Example 10. then the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . we found a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules U1. This re¯ects the fact that by Proposition 13. r2 . every character is constant on conjugacy classes of G.

122 Representations and characters of groups 13. Every linear character of G is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers.7 De®nition If ÷ is the character of the CG-module V. We denote it by 1 G . of course. then the dimension of V is called the degree of ÷. they are. In fact. Suppose that g P G and g has order m. 13.8 Examples (1) In Example 13. we therefore know at least one of the irreducible characters of G.9 Proposition Let ÷ be the character of a CG-module V. they are all linear characters. (3) The character of the trivial CG-module (see De®nition 4.6(1) we gave a character of D8 of degree 2. Thus 1 G : g 3 1 for all g P GX Given any group G. namely the trivial character.4). 1 and 2. irreducible characters. in particular. Characters of degree 1 are called linear characters. then for each g P G there is a complex number ë g such that v g ˆ ë gv The character ÷ of V is given by ÷( g) ˆ ë g ( g P G) and ÷ has degree 1. and in 13. where ÷ is a character of G and g P G.8(1)) is a linear character.6(4) we saw that the irreducible characters of D6 have degrees 1. these are the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms (see Exercise 13. Observe that Theorem 9. The values of a character The next result gives information about the complex numbers ÷( g). 13. in 13.6(2) we gave a character of S3 of degree 3. (2) If V is any 1-dimensional CG-module. called the trivial character of G. Then for all v P V X . Finding all the irreducible characters is usually dif®cult.8 gives all the irreducible characters of ®nite abelian groups.

÷( g) is a sum of mth roots of unity. and so ÷(1) ˆ dim V.Characters (1) (2) (3) (4) ÷(1) ˆ dim V. . and let B be a basis of V. Therefore ÷( g) ˆ ù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù n . (eiW )À1 ˆ eÀiW . ÷( g) is j real. When the element g of G has order 2. Therefore ÷( g À1 ) ˆ ù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù n ˆ ÷( g)X (4) If g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) ˆ ÷( gÀ1 ) by Proposition 13. which is the complex conjugate of eiW . (3) We have H f [ gÀ1 ]B ˆ d ùÀ1 1 0 FF 0 F ùÀ1 n I g e and so ÷( gÀ1 ) ˆ ùÀ1 ‡ . since for all real W. the n 3 n identity matrix. Consequently ÷(1) ˆ tr [1]B ˆ tr I n ˆ n.5(2). Then the matrix [1]B of the identity element 1 relative to B is equal to In . (2) By Proposition 9. Every complex mth root of unity ù 1 n satis®es ùÀ1 ˆ ù. ÷( gÀ1 ) ˆ ÷( g). Also ÷( gÀ1 ) ˆ ÷( g) by (3). ‡ ùÀ1 . ÷( g) is a real number if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . and so ÷( g) ˆ ÷( g). 123 Proof (1) Let n ˆ dim V.11 there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B ˆ d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. that is. we can be much more speci®c about the possibilities for ÷( g): . a sum of mth roots of unity. .

and let ÷ be the character of r.11 Theorem Let r: G 3 GL(n. there is a basis B of C n such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B ˆ d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. and ÷( g) ˆ në. 13. Then each ù i is ‡1 or À1. (1) For g P G. If gr ˆ ëIn with ë P C. so that ÷( g) ˆ r À s.124 Representations and characters of groups 13. Conversely.9. suppose that |÷( g)| ˆ ÷(1). and suppose that g has order m.10 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G. and let g be an element of order 2 in G. and since r À s ˆ r ‡ s À 2s  r ‡ s mod 2. j Our next result gives the ®rst inkling of the importance of characters. we have ÷( g) ˆ ù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù n . showing that we can determine the kernel of a representation just from knowledge of its character. so |÷( g)| ˆ n ˆ ÷(1). Proof (1) Let g P G. Then ÷( g) is an integer. and s are À1. Suppose r of them are ‡1. j÷( g)j ˆ ÷(1) D gr ˆ ëI n (2) Ker r ˆ { g P G: ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1)}. ÷( g) P Z. and ÷(1) ˆ r ‡ sX Certainly then. By Proposition 9.11. we have ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod 2. where n ˆ ÷(1) and each ù i is a square root of unity. and ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod 2X Proof By Proposition 13. Then (13X12) j÷( g)j ˆ jù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù n j ˆ ÷(1) ˆ nX for some ë P CX . then ë is an mth root of unity. C) be a representation of G.

Characters Note now that for any complex numbers z1 .11(2). zn . Therefore gr ˆ In . with the following values: . Thus H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B ˆ d e ˆ ù1 I n X F ù1 0 Hence for all bases B 9 of C n we have [ g]B 9 ˆ ù1 In .) Since |ù i | ˆ 1 for all i. we deduce from (13. consider the picture in the Argand diagram. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. This completes the proof of (1).11(2). Then by (1).14 Examples (1) According to Example 13. the irreducible characters of the group G ˆ D6 ˆ ka. 13. we have jz1 ‡ X X X ‡ zn j < jz1 j ‡ X X X ‡ jzn j. (To see this. and so gr ˆ ù1 In . 125 with equality if and only if the arguments of z1 . . . then the kernel of ÷. Conversely. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l are ÷1 . . is de®ned by Ker ÷ ˆ f g P G: ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1)gX By Theorem 13. suppose that ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1). We call ÷ a faithful character if Ker ÷ ˆ {1}. we have gr ˆ ëIn for some ë P C.6(4). and so g P Ker r. . Ker ÷ v G. In particular.13 De®nition If ÷ is a character of G. . then Ker r ˆ Ker ÷. and so ÷( g) ˆ n ˆ ÷(1). ÷2 . This implies that ÷( g) ˆ ë÷(1). j. whence ë ˆ 1. we de®ne the kernel of a character as follows. . 13. written Ker ÷. Part (2) follows. . if r is a representation of G with character ÷. . zn are all equal. ÷3 .12) that ù i ˆ ù j for all i. (2) If g P Ker r then gr ˆ In . j Motivated by Theorem 13.

11(1) implies that if r: G 3 GL(2. For a character ÷ of G. and let ÷ be the character of G given in Example 13. so ÷ is a faithful character. Ker ÷2 ˆ kal and Ker ÷3 ˆ {1}. then we de®ne A to be the n 3 n matrix (a ij ). In particular. then so is ÷. Then ÷ is a character of G. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. 13.15 Proposition Let ÷ be a character of G. ÷3 is a faithful irreducible character of D6.6(1): g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 Then Ker ÷ ˆ {1}. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. (2) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. If ÷ is irreducible. We next prove a result which is sometimes useful for constructing a new character from a given one. then a2 r ˆ ÀI. then (13X16) (AB) ˆ A B. And since |÷(a2 )| ˆ |À2| ˆ ÷(1). . C). C) is a representation with character ÷. Theorem 13. Proof Suppose that ÷ is the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. Observe that if A ˆ (aij ) and B ˆ (bij ) are n 3 n matrices over C.126 g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 Representations and characters of groups a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Then Ker ÷1 ˆ G. de®ne ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ˆ ÷( g) ( g P G)X Thus the values of ÷ are the complex conjugates of the values of ÷. Thus ÷( g) ˆ tr ( gr) ( g P G)X If A ˆ (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix over C.

19 Theorem Let V1 . . In Theorem 13.16) that the function r: G 3 GL(n. V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11. It follows from (13. . X X X . .11). First we need a preliminary result. Proof This is immediate from (7. We write the regular character as ÷reg . 13. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui. and suppose that V ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur . k let ÷ i be the character of Vi and di ˆ ÷ i (1). and for i ˆ 1. .Characters since the ij-entry of A B is n ˆ kˆ1 127 a ik b kj . j The regular character 13. C) de®ned by gr ˆ ( gr) is a representation of G. . €n which is equal to the complex conjugate of kˆ1 aik bkj . . we shall express the regular character in terms of the irreducible characters of G. the ij-entry of AB.18 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible. It is clear that if r is reducible then r is reducible. the character of the representation r is ÷. Since tr ( gr) ˆ tr ( gr) ˆ tr ( gr) ˆ ÷( g) ( g P G).17 De®nition The regular character of G is the character of the regular CG-module. . Then ÷reg ˆ d 1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ d k ÷ k X . . Then the character of V is equal to the sum of the characters of the CG-modules U1. Ur.10).19. j ( g P G) 13.

9(1). and are given in the next result. Now the result follows from Proposition 13. the ii-entry is zero for all i.18.128 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Theorem 11. Then for 1 < i < n. j The values of ÷reg on the elements of G are easily described.20 Proposition If ÷reg is the regular character of G. . . .6(4). ÷reg (1) ˆ dim CG ˆ |G|. By Proposition 13. ÷ 3 : g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 We calculate ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ 2÷3 : (÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ 2÷3 )( g) 6 0 0 0 0 0 . Now let g P G with g Tˆ 1. . . It follows that ÷reg ( g) ˆ tr [ g]B ˆ 0X j 13. By Example 13.19 and Proposition 13. we have gi g ˆ gj for some j with j Tˆ i. 13.21 Example We illustrate Theorem 13.20 for the group G ˆ D6 . in particular.9. . and ÷reg ( g) ˆ 0 if g Tˆ 1X Proof Let g1 . gn of CG. Therefore the ith row of the matrix [ g]B has zeros in every place except column j. and let B be the basis g1 . . CG  (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). ÷2 . . where for each i there are di factors V i . then ÷reg (1) ˆ jGj. the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . gn be the elements of G.

n}. illustrating Proposition 13. Let B denote the basis v1 . . (1 2 3). and it takes the value |G| on 1. .19.16(3). . . v i g ˆ v ig (1 < i < n) (see De®nition 4. v n .10). G has ®ve conjugacy classes. . and we now describe this. (1 2 3 4)X The permutation character ð takes the values gi ð( gi ) 1 4 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 1 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . . . . Then the iientry in the matrix [ g]B is 0 if ig Tˆ i. (1 2). .20. Therefore the character ð of the permutation module V is given by ð( g) ˆ (the number of i such that ig ˆ i)X For g P G. Permutation characters In the case where G is a subgroup of the symmetric group Sn . so that G is a group of permutations of {1. by Theorem 13. there is an easy construction using the permutation module which produces a character of degree n. . and is 1 if ig ˆ i. 13.Characters 129 This is the regular character of G. where for all g P G. . . Then by Example 12. let fix ( g) ˆ fi: 1 < i < n and ig ˆ igX Then (13X22) ð( g) ˆ jfix( g)j ( g P G)X We call ð the permutation character of G. Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . with representatives 1. v n .23 Example Let G ˆ S4 . and the value 0 on all non-identity elements of G. (1 2)(3 4). The permutation module V for G over C has basis v1 .

and let u ˆ v1 ‡ X X X ‡ v n . so |®x( g)| ˆ 1 ‡ í( g) for all g P G.130 Representations and characters of groups 13. a subgroup of S4 . (1 3 2)X The values of the character í of G are gi í( gi ) 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 3 2) 0 Summary of Chapter 13 1. .18(1). (1 2)(3 4). . there is a CG-submodule W of V such that V ˆ U È WX Let í be the character of W. . Then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) ˆ jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. so the character of U is the trivial character 1 G (see Example 13. Indeed. so U is a CG-submodule of V. By Maschke's Theorem 8. (1 2 3). and therefore í( g) ˆ jfix( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X j ( g P G) 13.24 Proposition Let G be a subgroup of Sn .1.8(3)). v n be the basis of the permutation module V as above. By Example 12. Then ð ˆ 1 G ‡ í. . Characters are constant on conjugacy classes. . the conjugacy classes of G are represented by 1. A character is obtained from a representation by taking the trace of each matrix. Proof Let v1 . 2. and U ˆ sp (u)X Observe that ug ˆ u for all g P G.25 Example Let G ˆ A4 . U is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module.

2. Assume that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. and all g P G. then Z(G) ˆ { g P G: |÷( g)| ˆ ÷(1)}. the complex number ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity. 3. The character of a representation determines the kernel of the representation. Prove that if ÷ is a faithful irreducible character of the group G. Find also Ker r1 and Ker r2 . br2 ˆ 1 0  0 X À1 ( g P G) Find the characters of r1 and r2 . Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. . Find ÷(x) for x ˆ (1 2) and for x ˆ (1 6)(2 3 5). Find all the irreducible characters of C4 . b: a6 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. For all characters ÷ of G. Suppose that z P Z(G) and that z has order m. Let G ˆ D12 ˆ ka. Prove that there exists an mth root of unity ë P C such that for all g P G. Prove that the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms are the linear characters. 7. 5. br1 ˆ (where ù ˆ e2ðia3 ) 0 ùÀ1 1 0 and ar2 ˆ  À1 0   0 1 .11. Write the regular character of C4 as a linear combination of these. The regular character ÷reg of G takes the value |G| on the identity and the value 0 on all other elements of G. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. If G is a subgroup of Sn . and ÷( gÀ1 ) ˆ ÷( g). 5. Exercises for Chapter 13 1. and let r1 . then the function í which is given by í( g) ˆ jfix( g)j À 1 is a character of G. check that your answers are consistent with Theorem 13. 4. 131 4. r2 be the representations of G for which     ù 0 0 1 ar1 ˆ .Characters 3. 6. ÷(zg) ˆ ë÷( g)X 6. Let ÷ be the character of the 7-dimensional permutation module for S7 .

(Compare Corollary 13. Let ÷ be a character of a group G.) 10. 9. (b) Prove that G/Ker ä is abelian. Prove that if x is a non-identity element of the group G. . show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2. and let g be an element of order 2 in G. Show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2. 8. or (2) G has a normal subgroup of index 2. By considering the regular representation of G. then ÷(x) Tˆ ÷(1) for some irreducible character ÷ of G. Hint: use Exercise 7. Let g be a group of order 2k.132 Representations and characters of groups 7. (a) Show that ä: g 3 det ( gr) ( g P G) is a linear character of G. Show that either (1) ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod 4.10. (c) Assume that ä( g) ˆ À1 for some g P G. where k is an odd integer. Let r be a representation of the group G over C.

ö are functions from G to C.1 Example Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l. using characters. The proofs rely on an inner product involving the characters of a group. then we de®ne W ‡ ö: G 3 C by (W ‡ ö)( g) ˆ W( g) ‡ ö( g) and we de®ne ëW: G 3 C by ëW( g) ˆ ë(W( g)) ( g P G)X ( g P G) (We write these functions on the left to agree with our notation for characters. we describe a method for decomposing a given CG-module as a direct sum of CG-submodules. if we adopt the natural rules for adding functions and multiplying functions by complex numbers. Also. and ë P C. and in particular we prove the striking result (Theorem 14.) 14. Inner products The characters of a ®nite group G are certain functions from G to C. That is. and we describe this ®rst. The set of all functions from G to C forms a vector space over C. if W.14 Inner products of characters We establish some signi®cant properties of characters in this chapter. and suppose that W: G 3 C and ö: G 3 C are given by 133 .21) that if two CG-modules have the same character then they are isomorphic.

W2 . (c) kW. 0 if W Tˆ 0. Then W ‡ ö and 3W are given by 1 W ‡ö 3W 3 6 a 1‡i 3i a2 0 À3 We shall often think of functions from G to C as row vectors. The vector space of all functions from G to C can be equipped with an inner product in a way which we shall describe shortly. W(a) ˆ i. ö. öl ˆ ë1 kW1 . ë1 è1 ‡ ë2 W2 i ˆ ë1 hö. as in this example. ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . there is associated a complex number kW. With every ordered pair of vectors W. ö.2) (a) kW.134 Representations and characters of groups 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 This means that W(1) ˆ 2. öl for all ë1 . öl ˆ hö. öl which satis®es the following conditions: (14. De®ne 1 ˆ hW. Wi for all W. and that conditions (a) and (b) give hö. ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . öi ˆ W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG . W(a2 ) ˆ À1 and ö(1) ˆ ö(a) ˆ ö(a2 ) ˆ 1. Notice that condition (a) implies that kW. Wl . This will be of basic importance in our study of characters. ö in the vector space. 14. We now introduce an inner product on the vector space of all functions from G to C. Wl is always real. öl ‡ ë2 kW2 . The de®nition of an inner product on a vector space over C runs as follows. W1 i ‡ ë2 hö. ö.3 De®nition Suppose that W and ö are functions from G to C. (b) kë1 W1 ‡ ë2 W2 . W2 i for all ë1 . W2 .

9(3). ÷i ˆ ÷( g)ø( g À1 ).1. 1 À 1 . 1 ˆ (1) h÷. suppose that G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l and that W and ö are given by 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 Then hè. øi ˆ ÷( g)ø( g À1 )X jGj gPG . and this is a real numberX jGj gPG (2) h÷. with representatives g1 . øi ˆ hø. 1 ‡ 1 . öi ˆ 1(1 . by Proposition 13. Therefore 1 ˆ h÷. . 1 ‡ 1 . 1 ‡ i . 1) ˆ 1X 3 Inner products of characters We can exploit the fact that characters are constant on conjugacy classes to simplify slightly the calculation of the inner product of two characters. 1) ˆ 1(1 ‡ i). øi ˆ l ˆ ÷( g i )ø( g i ) iˆ1 jCG ( g i )j X Proof (1) We have ø( g) ˆ ø( gÀ1 ) for all g P G.4 Example As in Example 14.2) hold. i ‡ (À1) . 14. . 3 hö. . gl .Inner products of characters 135 It is transparent that the conditions of (14. 2 ‡ i . . 3 3 hè. öi ˆ 1(2 . l is an inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C.5 Proposition Assume that G has exactly l conjugacy classes. 14. (À1)) ˆ 2. èi ˆ 1(2 . so k . Let ÷ and ø be characters of G.

) (2) Recall that g G denotes the conjugacy class of G which contains i gi . øi is real. Hence h÷.136 Representations and characters of groups Since { gÀ1 : g P G} ˆ G. it follows that h÷.18(1)).6 Example The alternating group A4 has four conjugacy classes. (We shall prove later that h÷. øi is. i i by Corollary 12. with representatives g 1 ˆ 1.8. Since characters are constant on conjugacy classes. an integer. g 3 ˆ (1 2 3). ÷l ˆ h÷. g 4 ˆ (1 3 2) (see Example 12. øi ˆ ÷( g À1 )ø( g) ˆ hø. øi ˆ l 1 ˆ 1 ˆˆ ÷( g)ø( g) ˆ ÷( g)ø( g) jGj gPG jGj iˆ1 G gP g i ˆ ˆ l ˆ j gGj iˆ1 l ˆ iˆ1 jGj i ÷( g i )ø( g i ) j 1 ÷( g i )ø( g i )X jCG ( g i )j 14. øi. in fact. We shall see in Chapter 18 that there are characters ÷ and ø of A4 which take the following values on the representatives gi : gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø g1 12 1 4 g2 4 1 0 g3 3 ù ù2 g4 3 ù2 ù .3 and Theorem 12. ÷iX jGj gPG Since kø. we also have 1 ˆ h÷. g 2 ˆ (1 2)(3 4). ˆ ÷( g)ø( g) ˆ j g G j÷( g i )ø( g i )X i gP g G i Now Gˆ l ‘ iˆ1 g G and j g G j ˆ jGjajCG ( g i )j.

We shall investigate some consequences of writing CG like this. . where W1 and W2 are CG-submodules which have no common composition factor. and that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CGmodules U1. Recall from Chapter 10 that the regular CG-module is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. ù ‡ ‡ ˆ 0. we may take W1 to be the sum of those irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to a given irreducible CG-module. ÷l ˆ 1. . ÷i ˆ 1 and h÷. we temporarily adopt the following Hypothesis: 14. and then let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-modules U i . . that is. . 4 0 . ‡ 12 4 3 3 4 . We are now going to pave the way to proving the key fact (Theorem 14.4).5. and to ®nd the inner products of ÷ and ø with the trivial character (which takes the value 1 on all elements of A4 ). ù2 ù . we shall derive a formula for e1 in terms of the character of W 1 . øi ˆ 0. . therefore.Inner products of characters (where ù ˆ e2ðia3 ). øi ˆ ‡ ‡ ˆ 2X ‡ 12 4 3 3 h÷. 0 ù 2 . ù hø. ù2 ù2 . 0 ù . 4 1 . say CG ˆ U 1 È X X X È U r . Using part (2) of Proposition 14. Among other results. For example. There are several ways of choosing CG-submodules W1 and W2 of CG such that CG ˆ W1 È W2 and W1 and W2 have no common composition factor (see De®nition 10. for distinct irreducible characters ÷ and ø of G.7 Hypothesis Let CG ˆ W 1 È W 2 . we have 1 .12) that the irreducible characters of G form an orthonormal set of vectors in the vector space of functions from G to C. We ®rst look at the effect of applying the elements e1 and e2 of CG to W1 and W 2 . Ur. øi ˆ 137 We advise you to check also that k÷. we have h÷. Write 1 ˆ e1 ‡ e2 where e1 P W1 and e2 P W2.

j . we have e2 ˆ e1 .7. we have w1 e1 ˆ w1 .8 Proposition For all w1 P W1 and w2 P W2. Next. so every CG-homomorphism from W2 to W1 is zero. Proposition Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14.8. w1 e2 ˆ 0. 14. and this completes the proof. Therefore w1 w2 ˆ 0 for all w1 P W 1 . take w1 ˆ e1 and w2 ˆ e2 . Then 1 ˆ e1 ˆ ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Proof Let x P G. by Proposition 11. and w2 ˆ w2 1 ˆ w2 (e1 ‡ e2 ) ˆ w2 e2 . w2 e1 ˆ 0. The function W: w 3 we1 x À1 (w P CG) is an endomorphism of CG. Now w1 ˆ w1 1 ˆ w1 (e1 ‡ e2 ) ˆ w1 e1 . we evaluate e1 .9 Corollary For the elements e1 and e2 of CG which appear in Hypothesis 14. Similarly w2 w1 ˆ 0. w2 P W 2 .138 Representations and characters of groups 14.3. In particular. j 14.7. w1 e2 ˆ w2 e1 ˆ 0. e2 ˆ e2 and e1 e2 ˆ e2 e1 ˆ 0X 1 2 Proof In Proposition 14. We shall calculate the trace of W in two ways. But W2 and W1 have no common composition factor.10. w2 e 2 ˆ w2 X Proof If w1 P W1 then the function w2 3 w1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to W 1 .

7. in view of Proposition 14. Therefore tr W ˆ ÷(x À1 )X Secondly.Inner products of characters 139 First.20. so e1 ˆ ˆ gPG ëg g for some ë g P C. for w1 P W1 and w2 P W2 we have. and of course the endomorphism w2 3 0 of W2 has trace 0. By the de®nition of the character ÷ of W 1 . ÷iX ÷( g À1 )÷( g) ˆ jGj2 gPG jGj . we have tr W ˆ ë x jGjX Comparing our two expressions for tr W. ë x ˆ ÷(x À1 )ajGjX Therefore e1 ˆ 1 ˆ ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG j 14. we deduce from Proposition 14. the endomorphism w1 3 w1 x À1 of W1 has trace equal to ÷(x À1 ). € Hence.11 Corollary Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14. By Proposition 13. e1 P CG.8. w2 W ˆ w2 e1 x À1 ˆ 0X Thus W acts on W1 by w1 3 w1 x À1 and on W2 by w2 3 0.10 that the coef®cient of 1 in e2 is 1 ˆ 1 1 h÷. Then h÷.3 of the multiplication in CG. ÷i ˆ ÷(1)X Proof Using the de®nition 6. as W: w 3 w gPG ë g gx À1 . the endomorphism w 3 wgx À1 (w P CG) of CG has trace 0 if g Tˆ x and has trace |G| if g ˆ x. we see that for all x P G. w1 W ˆ w1 e1 x À1 ˆ w1 x À1 .

j We can now prove the main theorem concerning the inner product k . m÷i ˆ m÷(1)X As ÷(1) ˆ dim U ˆ m.9 that e2 ˆ e1 . 14. we know from Corollary 14. and obtain hm÷. ÷i ˆ 1. this yields h÷. let Y be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui of CG which are isomorphic to either U or V. Then CG ˆ Y È Z. with characters ÷ and ø. The character of W is m÷. Then CG ˆ W È X X Moreover.11 to the character of W. since W is the direct sum of m CG-submodules. where the number of CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U is dim U. let X be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui.12 Theorem Let U and V be non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. and de®ne W to be the sum of the m irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U. l. and let Z be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. every composition factor of W is isomorphic to U.140 Representations and characters of groups On the other hand. Let m ˆ dim U. say CG ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur . øi ˆ 0X Proof Recall from Theorem 11. and no composition factor of X is isomorphic to U. each of which has character ÷. ÷i ˆ 1. respectively. ÷l ˆ ÷(1). as required. Then h÷. W and X have no common composition factor. We now apply Corollary 14. Hence k÷. and h÷. Next. In particular.9 that CG is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. . and the 1 coef®cient of 1 in e1 is ÷(1)/|G|.

j. we have . Therefore h÷. m÷(1) ‡ nø(1) ˆ hm÷ ‡ nø. V k be a complete set of nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11. øl ˆ 0. . .Inner products of characters 141 and Y and Z have no common composition factor.11. and hø. by the part of the theorem which we have already proved. If ÷ i is the character of Vi (1 < i < k). øi ˆ 1. and hence k÷. øi ‡ hø. X X X . ÷i ‡ n2 hø. . ÷i)X Now h÷.12. j Applications of Theorem 14. Each of these is isomorphic to some V i . øi ˆ d 2 ‡ X X X ‡ d 2 X 1 k Summarizing. . then by Theorem 14. and ÷(1) ˆ m. ÷i ˆ hø. this implies that the irreducible characters ÷1 . we obtain from this (14X16) hø. . ä ij is 1 if i ˆ j and is 0 if i Tˆ j). where for each i. Now let V be a CG-module. By Theorem 8. By Corollary 14. there are d i factors Vi X Therefore the character ø of V is given by (14X15) ø ˆ d 1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ d k ÷ k X Using (14. The character of Y is m÷ ‡ nø. V is equal to a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. In particular. where ä ij is the Kronecker delta function (that is.11). . ÷ j i ˆ ä ij for all i.12 Let G be a ®nite group. ÷i ˆ 0X By Proposition 14. . ø(1) ˆ n. ÷l. dk such that (14X14) V  (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). so there are non-negative integers d1. ÷ k are all distinct. and let V1 . ÷ i i ˆ h÷ i .5(1). where n ˆ dim V. øi ˆ d i for 1 < i < k. øi ‡ hø. m÷ ‡ nøi ˆ m2 h÷. . øi ‡ mn(h÷.13). we have (14X13) h÷ i . øl ˆ kø. k÷.7.

ø ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 X (This can of course be checked immediately by comparing the values of ø and ÷1 ‡ ÷3 on each conjugacy class representative.17 Theorem Let ÷1 . hø. ÷2 l ˆ 0 and kø. (1 2). . By Example 13.5(2). . ÷3 l ˆ 1.) A more substantial calculation along these lines is given in Example 15. we know that ø(1) ˆ 3.6(4) that the irreducible characters of S3  D6 are ÷1 .6(2). ÷2 . ÷3 . by Proposition 14. and d2X i 14. taking the following values on the conjugacy class representatives 1. dk . . (1 2 3): Now let ø be the character of the 3-dimensional permutation module gi |CS3 ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 for S3 .17. . kø. ÷ i i hø. Moreover.1 ‡ ‡ 0 ˆ 1X 6 2 Similarly. øi ˆ k ˆ iˆ1 for 1 < i < k. ø(1 2 3) ˆ 0X Therefore. . d i ˆ hø. Thus by Theorem 14.18 Example Recall from Example 13.1 1. . ø(1 2) ˆ 1. . ÷1 i ˆ 3. . then ø ˆ d 1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers d1.142 Representations and characters of groups 14. If ø is any character of G. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G.7. .

12. We say that ÷ is a constituent of ø if kø. Thus. It gives us a quick and effective method of determining whether or not a given CG-module is irreducible. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. We have ø ˆ d 1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers di. the constituents of ø are the irreducible characters ÷ i of G for which the integer di in the expression ø ˆ d1 ÷1 ‡ . . 14.14). for it means that many questions about CG-modules can be answered using character theory. and by (14. The next result is another signi®cant consequence of Theorem 14. assume that kø. øl ˆ 1 by Theorem 14.12. It is this fact which motivates our study of characters in much of the rest of the book. . and so V is irreducible.19 De®nition Suppose that ø is a character of G. Conversely. Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if ÷ ˆ ø.21 Theorem Suppose that V and W are CG-modules. Proof If V is irreducible then kø. øl ˆ 1. respectively. ‡ dk ÷ k is non-zero.16). 14. with characters ÷ and ø. øl ˆ 1. Then by (14. Proof In Proposition 13. 14. j We are now in a position to prove the remarkable result that `a CGmodule is determined by its character'. . V  Vi for some i. ÷l Tˆ 0.Inner products of characters 143 We shall see many more applications of the important Theorem 14. Then V is irreducible if and only if kø.5 we proved the elementary fact that if V  W then ÷ ˆ ø.17. It is the converse which is the substantial part of this theorem. øi ˆ d 2 ‡ X X X ‡ d 2 X 1 k It follows that one of the integers di is 1 and the rest are zero.20 Theorem Let V be a CG-module with character ø. 1 ˆ hø.

÷ i i (1 < i < k)X Since ÷ ˆ ø. 2. di (1 < i < k) such that V  (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. but there are no other equivalences among r1 .14) that there are non-negative integers ci . . and W  (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i. it follows that ci ˆ di for all i. ar4 ˆ À1 À1 0 ù (ù ˆ e2ðia3 ). ÷ i i. The next theorem is another consequence of Theorem 14. d i ˆ hø. and hence V  W. . r3 . 3.22 Example Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l. . ci ˆ h÷. X X X . . j 14.144 Representations and characters of groups Thus. ÷ k . r4 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 ù 0 ù 0 . By (14. 4) are 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 2 2 2 2 a 2ù À1 À1 1‡ù a2 2ù2 À1 À1 1 ‡ ù2 Hence by Theorem 14. the representations r2 and r3 are equivalent. The characters ø i of the representations r i (i ˆ 1. Again let V1 . r3 and r4 . r2 . r2 . ar2 ˆ 0 ù 0 ùÀ1 2 3 2 3 0 1 1 ùÀ1 ar3 ˆ . We know by (14.12. suppose that ÷ ˆ ø. ar1 ˆ . and let r1 .21. .16). Vk be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules with characters ÷1 .

14) that there are non-negative integers ci . . . respectively. . j We now relate inner products of characters to the spaces of CGhomomorphisms which we constructed in Chapter 11. . øiX Proof We know from (14. ÷ i i ˆ ë i X Therefore ÷1 . W )) ˆ h÷. By Proposition 11. Vj )) ˆ ä ij X Hence. .Inner products of characters 145 14. Proof Assume that ë1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë k ÷ k ˆ 0 (ë i P C)X Then for all i. 14. . . ÷ k are linearly independent vectors in the vector space of all functions from G to C. di (1 < i < k) such that V  (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. using (14.2.5)(3) we see that dim (HomCG (V . for any i. ÷ k are linearly independent. . . . and W  (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i. . Then dim (HomCG (V .13) we have 0 ˆ hë1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë k ÷ k .23 Theorem Let ÷1 . j we have dim (HomCG (Vi . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. . W )) ˆ k ˆ iˆ1 ci d i X .24 Theorem Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. Then ÷1 . using (11.

and we now describe a process for doing this. and 1 ˆ e1 ‡ e2 with e1 P W 1 . Once more we adopt Hypothesis 14. Let V be any CG-module.146 Representations and characters of groups k ˆ iˆ1 k ˆ iˆ1 On the other hand.7: CG ˆ W 1 È W 2 . Since W2 and V1 have no common composition factor. v2 e1 ˆ 0. v 2 e2 ˆ v 2 X k ˆ iˆ1 j ci d i X Proof If v1 P V1 then the function w2 3 v1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to V1. and V is any CG-module. where every composition factor of V1 is a composition factor of W1 and every composition factor of V2 is a composition factor of W2. We can write V ˆ V1 È V2 . e2 P W 2 . ÷ˆ ci ÷ i and ø ˆ di÷i and so (14. v1 e2 ˆ 0.8. Decomposing CG-modules It is sometimes of practical importance to be able to decompose a given CG-module into a direct sum of CG-submodules. 14. where the CG-modules W1 and W2 have no common composition factor. øi ˆ The result follows. we deduce the stated results just as in the proof of Proposition 14. j 14.25 Proposition With the above notation.13) implies that h÷.26 Proposition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. then 2ˆ 3 À1 V ÷( g ) g gPG . for all v1 P V1 and v2 P V2 we have v1 e1 ˆ v1 .

Then the character of W1 is m÷ where m ˆ ÷(1). we de®ne Vr ˆ fvr: v P V g). The procedure is as follows: (14. we see that . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui.27) (1) Choose a basis v1 .9.Inner products of characters 147 is equal to the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷ (where for r P CG. Let W1 be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui which have character ÷. calculate the vectors € v i ( gPG ÷( gÀ1 ) g) for 1 < i < n.26. . Taking ÷ to be the trivial character of G in Proposition 14. Clearly we may omit the constant multiplier m/|G|. . 14. (2) For each irreducible character ÷ of G. and by Proposition 14.25 shows that Ve1 ˆ V1. the element e1 of W1 is given by m ˆ e1 ˆ ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Let V1 be the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷. so 2ˆ 3 À1 V1 ˆ V ÷( g ) g X gPG j Once the irreducible characters of our group G are known. Also W1 and W2 satisfy Hypothesis 14.10. Then Proposition 14. The character of V÷ is a multiple of ÷. Proof Write CG ˆ U 1 È X X X È U r . .7. .28 Examples (1) Let G be any ®nite group and let V be any non-zero CG-module. and let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. v n of V. (3) Then V is the direct sum of the CG-modules V÷ as ÷ runs over the irreducible characters of G.26 provides a useful practical tool for ®nding CG-submodules of a given CG-module V. by Theorem 11. We illustrate this method with a couple of simple examples. Some more complicated uses of the method can be found in Chapter 32. and let V÷ be the subspace of V spanned by these vectors. Proposition 14.

Then 2 Ve1 ˆ sp (v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 ‡ v4 ). Then 2ˆ 3 V g ˆ sp (v1 ‡ X X X ‡ v n )X gPG Hence V has a unique trivial CG-submodule. (2) Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by a ˆ (1 2 3 4) and b ˆ (1 2)(3 4)X Then G  D8 (compare Example 1. .3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 Let V be the permutation module for G. . v2 À v4 )X . . v4 such that v i g ˆ v ig for all i and all g P G. let G ˆ Sn and let V be the permutation module. . e5 ˆ 1(1 À a2 ). v3 .148 Representations and characters of groups 2ˆ 3 V g gPG is the sum of all the trivial CG-submodules of V. Ve4 ˆ sp (v1 À v2 ‡ v3 À v4 ). let ÷ i (1) ˆ ei ˆ ÷ i ( g À1 ) gX 8 gPG For example. Here is a list of the irreducible characters ÷1 . . . For 1 < i < 5. For example.5). Ve2 ˆ 0. Ve3 ˆ 0. with basis v1 . v2 . Ve5 ˆ sp (v1 À v3 . ÷5 of D8 (see Example 16. with basis v1 . . v n such that v i g ˆ v ig for all i and all g P G. .

The irreducible characters ÷1 . and ø is any character. ÷ k of G form an orthonormal set. . . You might like to check that e1 ‡ X X X ‡ e5 ˆ 1. Note that the procedure described in (14. ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. . 149 and so we have expressed V as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules whose characters are ÷1 . i ei ej ˆ 0 for i Tˆ jX Compare these results with Corollary 14. öi ˆ W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG 2. 4. 3. ÷4 and ÷5 . then ø ˆ d 1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ d k ÷ k where d i ˆ hø. ö from G to C is given by 1 ˆ hW. .9. If ÷1 . . j. Also. that is. . øl ˆ 1. .Inner products of characters We have V ˆ Ve1 È Ve4 È Ve5 . ÷ j i ˆ ä ij for all i. e2 ˆ ei for 1 < i < 5. . respectively. ø is irreducible if and only if kø. ÷ i iX Each di is a non-negative integer. .27) does not in general enable us to write a given CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules (since V÷ is not in general irreducible). h÷ i . Summary of Chapter 14 1. The inner product of two functions W. Every CG-module is determined by its character.

3. r2 . and that ÷( g) is a non-negative real number for all g in G. Let G ˆ Q8 ˆ ka. non-trivial character of G. br1 ˆ . h÷. b2 ˆ a2 . 0 Ài À1 0 2 3 2 3 0 i 0 À1 ar2 ˆ . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. If ÷ is a character of G. gó ˆ T À1 ( gr)TX 4. br3 ˆ X 0 1 0 À1 Show that r1 and r2 are equivalent. Let G ˆ S4 . Suppose that r and ó are representations of G. 5. øi. øi and hø. ÷i ˆ ÷(1)X . r3 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 ar1 ˆ . Suppose that ÷ is a non-zero. br2 ˆ . ÷i. We shall see in Chapter 18 that G has characters ÷ and ø which take the following values on the conjugacy classes: Class representative |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø 1 24 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 Calculate h÷.150 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 14 1. and let r1 . b: a4 ˆ 1. Which of ÷ and ø is irreducible? 2. i 0 1 0 2 3 2 3 À1 0 1 0 ar3 ˆ . and that for each g in G there is an invertible matrix Tg such that gó ˆ T À1 ( gr)Tg X g Prove that there is an invertible matrix T such that for all g in G. show that h÷reg . Prove that ÷ is reducible. but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2.

1 S n i ˆ 1X (Hint: you may ®nd Exercise 11. What can you say about the integers di in the cases kø. Does it follow that ÷ ˆ 2ö for some character ö? . 3 or 4? 8. . prove that hð.Inner products of characters 6. and suppose that ø ˆ d 1 ÷1 ‡ X X Xd k ÷ k is a character of G.4 relevant. Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and that for every g P G. øl ˆ 1.) 151 7. . . . 2. ÷( g) is an even integer. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of the group G. If ð is the permutation character of Sn . Let ÷1 .

if l is the number of conjugacy classes of G.15 The number of irreducible characters We devote this chapter to the theorem which states that the number of irreducible characters of a ®nite group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. the characters of G are class functions on G.5(2). Together with the material from Chapter 14. Throughout. Thus. ø is constant on conjugacy classes). and to some consequences of this theorem. By Proposition 13.1 De®nition A class function on G is a function ø: G 3 C such that ø(x) ˆ ø( y) whenever x and y are conjugate elements of G (that is. The set C of all class functions on G is a subspace of the vector space of all functions from G to C. Class functions 15. then (15X2) dim C ˆ lX 15.3 Theorem The number of irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. 152 . G is as usual a ®nite group. A basis of C is given by those functions which take the value 1 on precisely one conjugacy class and zero on all other classes. the theorem provides machinery for investigating characters which is used in the remainder of the book.

By (15. If V1 . the centre of CG. Proof Since ÷1 . In order to prove the reverse inequality l < k. X X X . and in particular. Now let z P Z(CG).22. if ø is a class function. . f k . . where for each i.4 Corollary The irreducible characters ÷1 . By Theorem 14. we can write 1 ˆ f1 ‡ X X X ‡ fk with f i P W i for 1 < i < k. ÷ k are linearly independent elements of C. X X X .The number of irreducible characters 153 Proof Let ÷1 . j (1 < i < k)X 15.23. X X X .14. for each i there exists ë i P C such that for all v P Vi. and let l be the number of conjugacy classes of G. dim C ˆ l. By Proposition 9.7 that CG ˆ W 1 È X X X È W k . . ÷ k are linearly independent. Indeed. This completes the proof that k ˆ l. . W i is isomorphic to a direct sum of copies of V i . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G.2). then øˆ where ë i ˆ kø. . . . V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. vz ˆ ë i vX Hence wz ˆ ë i w for all w P W i . Since Z(CG) has dimension l by Proposition 12.2) implies that k < l. Since CG contains the identity element 1. f iz ˆ ëi f i It follows that z ˆ 1z ˆ ( f 1 ‡ X X X ‡ f k )z ˆ f 1 z ‡ X X X ‡ f k z ˆ ë1 f 1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë k f k X This shows that Z(CG) is contained in the subspace of CG spanned by f 1 . ÷1 . we consider the regular CG-module. we deduce that l < k. . ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. which is equal to k by k ˆ iˆ1 ëi÷i . they span a subspace of C of dimension k. . so (15. we know from Theorem 8. . . ÷ i l for 1 < i < k. .

Then g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G. . g6 (where g1 ˆ 1). ø( g) ˆ ø(h) for all class functions ø on G. . We conclude the chapter with an example illustrating some practical methods of expressing characters and class functions of a group as combinations of irreducible characters. and so they form a basis of C. by Proposition 13. Then g is conjugate to h if and only if ÷( g) ˆ ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. . ÷6 given as follows: . . Proof Since ÷( g) is real if and only if ÷( g) ˆ ÷( gÀ1 ) (see Proposition j 13. . and six irreducible characters ÷1 . . . .13).4.6 Corollary Suppose that g P G. and so g is conjugate to h.3.5.4 that there is a certain group G of order 12 which has exactly six conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . Proof If g is conjugate to h then ÷( g) ˆ ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. this is true for the class function ø which takes the value 1 on the conjugacy class of g and takes the value 0 elsewhere. whose k entries are the values of ÷ on the k conjugacy classes of G. As in previous examples. the result follows immediately from Proposition 15. ÷ k span C.154 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 15. Conversely.4 has the following useful consequence. . . In particular.9(3)). . . j 15.5(2). j Corollary 15. 15. Hence ÷1 . we regard a character ÷ of G as a row vector.5 Proposition Suppose that g. The last part follows. 15. Then by Corollary 15. Then ø( g) ˆ ø(h) ˆ 1. suppose that ÷( g) ˆ ÷(h) for all characters ÷. h P G. using (14.7 Example We shall see in Section 18.

. it is not hard to use tactical guesswork to express ö as a combination of the irreducible characters. ì of G as combinations of ÷1 . given any character ö of G whose degree is not large compared with the degrees of the ÷ i . and the entries in the column corresponding to g1 ˆ 1 are positive integers (indeed. We suggest that you use the `guesswork method' to express the following characters ë. In fact. we see that ÷ must be a combination of ÷2 .The number of irreducible characters gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 g3 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g4 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 155 g6 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 Suppose we are given characters ÷ and ø of G as follows: g1 ÷ ø 3 4 g2 À3 0 g3 0 0 g4 0 4 g5 i 0 g6 Ài 0 Then it is easy to spot that ÷ ˆ ÷2 ‡ ÷6 . . they are the degrees of the ÷ i ). The reason for this is that the required coef®cients are known to be non-negative integers. ø ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 X For example. . the second entry in the row vector for ÷ is equal to minus the ®rst entry. ÷4 and ÷6 . ÷6 : g1 ë ì 2 4 g2 À2 4 g3 À2 1 g4 2 1 g5 0 0 g6 0 0 . The correct answer now comes quickly to mind. Inspecting the values of the irreducible characters ÷ i . .

÷1 i ˆ and similarly kö. 1 3 . 1 (À1 ‡ 2i) . 4 hö.5(2). ÷2 i ˆ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . i ˆ 3. ÷ i i (1 < i < 6)X Using Proposition 14. We know from Corollary 15.156 Representations and characters of groups How do we cope with a class function or with a more dif®cult character. . 1 3 . 1 (À1 ‡ 2i) . ÷4 l ˆ 1. 1 3 . 1 5 . ‡ 4 11 . 4 11 . like the following one? g1 ö 11 g2 3 g3 À3 g4 5 g5 À1 ‡ 2i g6 À1 À 2i The answer is to use the inner product k . 1 À3 . 1 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . 1 (À1 ‡ 2i) . Therefore ö ˆ ÷1 ‡ 3÷2 ‡ 2÷3 ‡ ÷4 ‡ 2÷5 X Summary of Chapter 15 1.4 that the coef®cients ë i in the expression ö ˆ ë1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë6 ÷6 are given by ë i ˆ hö. 1 5 . 1 À3 . l. (À1) 5 . (À1) (À3) . (À1) hö. The number of irreducible characters of a group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. (Ài) hö. we calculate these inner products: 11 . 1 ‡ ˆ 1. ÷6 l ˆ 0. ÷5 l ˆ 2 and kö. kö. (À1) ‡ ˆ 2. ÷3 i ˆ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) .

÷ i iX Exercises for Chapter 15 1. If ø is a class function. ø2 and ø3 as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ÷1 .The number of irreducible characters 157 2. The three irreducible characters of S3 are ÷1 . ÷3 : 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 Let ÷ be the class function on S3 with the following values: 1 ÷ 19 (1 2) À1 (1 2 3) À2 Express ÷ as a linear combination of ÷1 . then øˆ k ˆ iˆ1 ë i ÷ i where ë i ˆ hø. . . ÷2 . ÷2 and ÷3 . Is ÷ a character of S3 ? 2. . . Let ø1 . ø2 and ø3 be the class functions on S3 taking the following values: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 0 0 (1 2) 0 1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 1 Express ø1 . The irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. . ÷2 and ÷3 of S3 .

÷6 as in that example.158 Representations and characters of groups 3. Is ø a character of G? 4. . . prove that G has 4. . . Find groups G in which each of these possibilities is realized. . Let G be a group of order 12. . . g6 and irreducible characters ÷1 . .) (b) Using the solution to Exercise 11. . . 6 or 12 conjugacy classes. (a) Show that G cannot have exactly 9 conjugacy classes. Suppose that G is the group of order 12 in Example 15.2.7. . . with conjugacy class representatives g1 . ÷6 . Let ø be the class function on G taking the following values: g1 ø 6 g2 0 g3 3 g4 À3 g5 À1 À i g6 À1 ‡ i Express ø as a linear combination of ÷1 . . (Hint: show that Z(G) cannot have order 6.

and g1 ˆ 1. many problems in representation theory can be solved by considering characters. 1 < j < k) is called the character table of G. It is therefore convenient to record all the values of all the irreducible characters of G in a square matrix. the rows are indexed by the irreducible characters of G and the columns are indexed by the conjugacy classes (or. X X X . the trivial character. Character tables 16. in practice. The k 3 k matrix whose ij-entry is ÷ i ( g j ) (for all i. g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G.1 De®nition Let ÷1 . which tells us that every CG-module is determined by its character.4). Thus.16 Character tables and orthogonality relations The irreducible characters of a ®nite group G are class functions. This matrix is called the character table of G. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let g 1 . the numbering is arbitrary. j with 1 < i < k. The entries in a character table are related to each other in subtle ways. Much of the later material in the book will be devoted to understanding character tables. 159 .21. the identity element of G. It is usual to number the irreducible characters and conjugacy classes of G so that ÷1 ˆ 1 G . The motivation for this is Theorem 14. X X X . Beyond this. Note that in the character table. and the number of them is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. by conjugacy class representatives). many of which are encapsulated in the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16.

23). bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. You found all the irreducible representations of G in Exercise 10. a. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. The conjugacy classes . For example. b as representatives of the conjugacy classes of G.160 Representations and characters of groups 16. and hence also the rows of the character table. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1.3 Examples (1) Let G ˆ D6 ˆ ka. We take 1.4.8. are linearly independent (Theorem 14.2 Proposition The character table of G is an invertible matrix. Proof This follows immediately from the fact that the irreducible characters of G.6(4). b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. the character table of C2 ˆ ha: a2 ˆ 1i is 1 ÷1 ÷2 1 1 a 1 À1 and the character table of C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù (ù ˆ e2ðia3 ) (3) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. j 16. and then the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 (2) We can write down the character table of any ®nite abelian group using Theorem 9. The irreducible characters of G are given in Example 13.

a. .13). Similar relations exist between the columns of the character table. and representatives are 1. k}. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. These relations can be expressed in terms of the rows of the character table. h÷ r . .Character tables and orthogonality relations 161 of G are given by (12. . (1) The row orthogonality relations: k ˆ ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) iˆ1 jCG ( g i )j ˆ ä rs X (2) The column orthogonality relations: k ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ˆ ä rs jCG ( g r )jX .4 Theorem Let ÷1 . g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. and these are given by part (2) of our next result.5(2)). among the irreducible characters ÷1 . by writing them as k ˆ ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) ˆ ä rs jCG ( g i )j iˆ1 (see Proposition 14. ab. . . a2 . . X X X . b. . . ÷ k of G. . Hence the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 The character tables of all dihedral groups will be found in Chapter 18. 16. . . . and let g 1 . The orthogonality relations We have already seen many uses for the relations (14.12). ÷ s i ˆ ä rs . s P {1. Then the following relations hold for any r.

4. ÷ j i ˆ ä ij .8. We copy the character table of G from Example 16. For 1 < s < k. . by Theorem 12. Hence ëi ˆ Therefore ä rs ˆ ø s ( g r ) ˆ k ˆ iˆ1 1 ˆ ÷ i ( gs ) ø s ( g)÷ i ( g) ˆ X jGj gP g G jCG ( g s )j s ëi ÷i ( gr ) ˆ k ˆ ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) iˆ1 jCG ( g s )j . and this time we record the order of the centralizer C G ( g i ) next to each conjugacy class representative gi : gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 a 3 1 1 À1 b 2 1 À1 0 . . and ø s ( g) ˆ 0 otherwise. . ø s is a linear combination of ÷1 . let ø s be the class function which satis®es ø s ( g r ) ˆ ä rs k ˆ iˆ1 (1 < r < k)X By Corollary 15. They are recorded here merely for comparison with the column relations. also there are jGjajC G ( g s )j elements of G which are conjugate to g s . j and the column orthogonality relations follow. (1) Let G ˆ D6. ÷ i i ˆ 1 ˆ ø s ( g)÷ i ( g)X jGj gPG Now ø s ( g) ˆ 1 if g is conjugate to g s . .3(1).162 Representations and characters of groups Proof The row orthogonality relations have already been proved. say øs ˆ ëi ÷i (ë i P C)X We know that h÷ i . 16.5 Examples We illustrate the column orthogonality relations. ÷ k . so ë i ˆ hø s .

so they are positive integers. 1 ‡ 1 . (À1) ˆ 3. 1 ‡ 1 . the order of the centralizer of g r ) if r ˆ s. 1 ‡ 1 . By considering the orthogonality relations between the ®rst column and columns 3 and 4. we obtain the complete character table as . taking the products of the numbers which appear. 1 ‡ 2 . 0 ˆ 0X 163 In each case. The column orthogonality relation 4 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) ˆ 0 gives 1 . r ˆ 2. 1 ‡ 1 . 1 ‡ 1 . we read down columns r and s of the character table.12). (À1) ˆ 0. r ˆ 1. Hence the last entry in the ®rst column is 3. (2) Suppose we are given the following part of the character table of a group G of order 12 which has exactly four conjugacy classes: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 12 1 1 1 g2 4 1 1 1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 g4 3 1 ù2 ù (where ù ˆ e2ðia3 ). 1 . 1 ‡ 3x ˆ 0X Therefore x ˆ À1. 1 ‡ (À1) . Let x denote the number at the foot of the second column. and is the number at the top of the column (that is. s ˆ 2: s ˆ 2: s ˆ 3: 1 . We shall use the column orthogonality relations to determine the last row of the character table. By the column orthogonality relations with r ˆ s ˆ 1. The entries in the ®rst column of the character table are the degrees of the irreducible characters. the sum of the squares of these numbers is 12 (this also follows from Theorem 11.Character tables and orthogonality relations € Consider the sums 3 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) for various cases: iˆ1 r ˆ 1. The sum of the products is 0 if r Tˆ s. 1 . (À1) ‡ 2 .

1 ‡ ù . if g Tˆ 1.19 and Proposition 13. ù ‡ ù2 . since Theorem 13. For example. 1 ‡ ù . ˆ d i ÷ i ( g) ˆ X iˆ1 0. if g ˆ 1. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) ˆ 1 . ù2 ‡ ù2 . if g ˆ 1. 4 ˆ iˆ1 4 ˆ iˆ1 4 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 2 ) ˆ 1 . ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 3 ) ˆ 1 . .164 follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 Representations and characters of groups g1 12 1 1 1 3 g2 4 1 1 1 À1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 0 g4 3 1 ù2 ù 0 Notice that the orthogonality relations hold between all pairs of columns.20 give V k ` jGj. if g Tˆ 1. although our calculation has used only those relations which involve the ®rst column. 0 ˆ 3. Those column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column of the character table were proved in Chapter 13. (À1) ˆ 4. k ˆ ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) ˆ X iˆ1 0. By taking the complex conjugate of each side of this equation. 1 ‡ 1 . we get V ` jGj. 1 ‡ 1 . where d i ˆ ÷ i (1). 0 ˆ 0X We shall see later that the character table which we have constructed here is that of A4 . ù2 ‡ 0 . 1 ‡ (À1) . ù ‡ 0 .

as we shall now show. by the row orthogonality relations. so M M t ˆ I. Since the properties M t M ˆ I and M M t ˆ I of a square matrix M are equivalent to each other. An alternative approach would have been to use the row orthogonality relations h÷ i . The character table of G is a k 3 k matrix. we see that the row and column orthogonality relations are equivalent. where we were given three of the four irreducible characters of G. it is a fact that the column orthogonality relations contain precisely the same information as the row orthogonality relations. Rows versus columns Notice that in Example 16. so M t M ˆ I. ÷4 i ˆ ä i4 to obtain four equations in the four unknown values ÷4 ( g j ) (1 < j < 4). Indeed. Now the rs-entry in M M t is k ˆ ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) iˆ1 jCG ( g i )j ˆ ä rs .5(2). . We could have used the above argument to deduce the column orthogonality relations from the row ones. More importantly.Character tables and orthogonality relations 165 and these are just the column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column. the equation M M t ˆ I is just another way of expressing the row orthogonality relations. we calculated the values of the last character one at a time using the column orthogonality relations. the rs-entry in M t M is k ˆ 1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ˆ ä rs . the row and column orthogonality relations encapsulate the same information. jCG ( g r )j1a2 jCG ( g s )j1a2 iˆ1 by the column orthogonality relations. by letting the ij-entry of M be ÷ i ( gj ) X jCG ( g j )j1a2 Let M t denote the transpose of the complex conjugate of M. and we adjust the entries ÷ i ( g j ) in this matrix to obtain another k 3 k matrix M. Although the calculation with the column orthogonality relations was easier to perform. On the other hand.

Write down the character table of C2 3 C2 . s. . A certain group G of order 8 is known to have a total of ®ve conjugacy classes. 2. we can deduce exactly the same results using either set of relations. There exists a group G of order 10 which has precisely four conjugacy classes. and four linear characters ÷1 . ÷2 as follows: . g5 .166 Representations and characters of groups so when we are working with character tables. The column orthogonality relations state that for all r. with representatives g1 . . . . ÷ k and conjugacy class representatives g1 . k ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ˆ ä rs jCG ( g r )jX Exercises for Chapter 16 1. . . . . 1. . . 3. . . The row orthogonality relations state that for all r. k ˆ ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) iˆ1 jCG ( g i )j ˆ ä rs X 3. . g4 . . with representatives g1 . . . gk . and has irreducible characters ÷1 . Summary of Chapter 16 Let G be a ®nite group with irreducible characters ÷1 . s. . 2. . ÷4 taking the following values: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 8 1 1 1 1 g2 8 1 1 1 1 g3 4 1 1 À1 À1 g4 4 1 À1 1 À1 g5 4 1 À1 À1 1 Find the complete character table of G. . . The character table of G is the k 3 k matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( g j ).

A certain group G has two columns of its character table as follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 g1 21 1 1 1 3 3 g2 7 1 1 1 æ æ where g1 ˆ 1 and æ P C.) 4.10. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. 5. . .Character tables and orthogonality relations gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 g1 10 1 2 g2 5 1 á g3 5 1 â g4 2 1 0 167 p p where á ˆ (À1 ‡ 5)a2 and ⠈ (À1 À 5)a2. Show that @ A k ˆ Z(G) ˆ g P G: ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) ˆ jGj X iˆ1 6. (b) Find another column of the character table. (Hint: ®rst ®nd the values of the remaining irreducible characters on g1 . . . X X X . Let ÷1 . then on g4 ± use Corollary 13. (a) Find æ. g k and character table C. k ‰ iˆ1 jCG ( g i )jX . Find the complete character table of G. and that jdet Cj2 ˆ Find Æ(det C) when G ˆ C3 . Show that det C is either real or purely imaginary. Let G be a ®nite group with conjugacy class representatives g1 .

) The linear characters. De®ne ÷ ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ˆ ~(Ng) ( g P G)X ÷ Then ÷ is a character of G. In the opposite direction. The characters of GaN should therefore be easier to ®nd than the characters of G. Lifted characters We begin by constructing a character of G from a character of GaN . we can use the characters of GaN to get some of the characters of G. and ÷ and ~ have the same degree. can be used to get new irreducible characters from a given irreducible character.7. The linear characters of G (i. C) be a representation of GaN with 168 . and let ~ be a character of GaN .1 Proposition Assume that N v G. ÷ ~ Proof Let r: GaN 3 GL (n. in a way which we shall describe.e. (The derived subgroup is de®ned below in De®nition 17. the characters of degree 1) are obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaN in the case where N is the derived subgroup of G. in turn. in particular. In fact. normal subgroups help us to ®nd characters of G.17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters If N is a normal subgroup of the ®nite group G. 17. then the factor group GaN is smaller than G. and N Tˆ {1}. it is also true that the character table of G enables us to ®nd the normal subgroups of G. it is easy to tell from the character table whether or not G is simple. by a process which is known as lifting. Thus.

~ Proof If ÷ is a character of GaN .Normal subgroups and lifted characters 169 character ~. so ( g1 gÀ1 )r ˆ I. C). then ÷ ~(N) ˆ ÷(1). and ÷ is the lift of ~ to G. g2 P G and Ng1 ˆ Ng2 then g1 gÀ1 P N. Also. By associating each character of GaN with its lift to G. if k P N then ÷ ÷(k) ˆ ~(Nk) ˆ ~(N ) ˆ ÷(1). Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. The function r: G 3 GL (n. ÷ 17. Thus r is a representation of G. ÷(1) ˆ ~(N).2 De®nition If N v G and ~ is a character of GaN . h P G we have ((Ng)(Nh))~ ˆ (Ngh)~ ˆ ( gh)r ˆ ( gr)(hr) r r ˆ ((Ng)~)((Nh)~). Now let ÷ be a character of G with N < Ker ÷. we obtain a bijective correspondence between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters ÷ of G which satisfy N < Ker ÷. C) by (Ng)~ ˆ gr r Then for all g. r r ( g P G)X ( g P G) . then the character ÷ of G ÷ which is given by ÷( g) ˆ ~(Ng) ÷ is called the lift of ~ to G. Irreducible characters of GaN correspond to irreducible characters of G which have N in their kernel. Moreover. and hence 2 2 ~ g1 r ˆ g2 r. so ÷ and ~ have the same ÷ ÷ degree. If g 1 . j 17. The character ÷ of r satis®es ÷( g) ˆ tr ( gr) ˆ tr ((Ng)~) ˆ ~(Ng) r ÷ for all g P G. C) is a representation of G with character ÷. ÷ ÷ so N < Ker ÷.3 Theorem Assume that N v G. We may therefore de®ne a function r: GaN 3 GL (n. C) which is given by the ÷ composition g 3 Ng 3 (Ng)~ r ( g P G) is a homomorphism from G to GL (n.

170 Representations and characters of groups ~ ~ so r is a representation of GaN . We have now established that the function which sends each character of GaN to its lift to G is a bijection between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters of G which have N in their kernel. let U be a subspace of C n . U is a CG-submodule of C n if and only if U is a C(GaN )submodule of C n . It remains to show that irreducible characters correspond to irreducible characters. so that N v G (see Example 12. We know from Example 16. (1 4)(2 3)g. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 . To see this.4 Example Let G ˆ S4 and N ˆ V4 ˆ f1. ÷ j If we know the character table of GaN for some normal subgroup N of G. Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ~ is irreducible. bi and a3 ˆ b2 ˆ N . then Theorem 17. The representation r is therefore irreducible if and ~ only if the representation r is irreducible. If ~ is the character of r then ÷ ~(Ng) ˆ ÷( g) ( g P G)X ÷ ~ Thus ÷ is the lift of ÷. (1 3)(2 4). If we put a ˆ N(1 2 3) and b ˆ N(1 2) then GaN ˆ ha.20). and note that u( gr) P U for all u P U D u(Ng)~ P U for all u P U X r Thus. (1 2)(3 4). so GaN  D6 .3 enables us to write down as many irreducible characters of G as there are irreducible characters of GaN .3(1) that the character table of GaN is N ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 2 N (1 2) 1 À1 0 N(1 2 3) 1 1 À1 . 17.

17. ~2 . so g ˆ 1 by Proposition 15.13). Of course.Normal subgroups and lifted characters To calculate the lift ÷ of a character ~ of GaN . once the character table of G is known. ÷3 . ~3 are ÷1 . any subgroup which is the intersection of the kernels of irreducible characters is a normal subgroup too. ÷ ÷((1 2 3 4)) ˆ ~(N (1 3)) since N (1 2 3 4) ˆ N (1 3)X ÷ Hence the lifts of ~1 . ~2 . First we shall show how to ®nd all the normal subgroups of G. as our next two propositions will demonstrate. The following proposition shows that every normal subgroup arises in this way. Also Ker ÷ v G. since Ker ÷ ˆ f g P G: ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1)g (see De®nition 13. . ÷2 . ÷ s of G such that Nˆ s ’ iˆ1 Ker ÷ i X Proof If g belongs to the kernel of each irreducible character of G.5. then ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1) for all characters ÷. since ~1 . we note that ÷ ÷((1 2)(3 4)) ˆ ~(N ) since (1 2)(3 4) P N . which are given by ÷ ÷ ÷ 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 171 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 Then ÷1 . ÷2 . X X X . ~3 are ÷ ÷ ÷ irreducible characters of GaN . Finding normal subgroups The character table contains accessible information about the structure of a group. Hence the intersection of the kernels of all the irreducible characters of G is {1}.5 Proposition If N v G then there exist irreducible characters ÷1 . Recall that we can easily locate the kernel of an irreducible character ÷ from the character table. ÷3 are irreducible characters of G.

6 Proposition The group G is not simple if and only if ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1) for some non-trivial irreducible character ÷ of G. Then by Proposition 17. we have ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1). ÷ ÷ „ „ and so Ng P Ker ~ i. If r is a representation of G with character ÷. so that there is a normal subgroup N of G with N Tˆ {1} and N Tˆ G. Proof Suppose there is a non-trivial irreducible character ÷ such that ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1) for some non-identity element g. . As Ker ÷ Tˆ G. . suppose that G is not simple. and so G is not simple. ÷ is non-trivial. .5. If g P Ker ÷ i then ÷ ~ i (N ) ˆ ÷ i (1) ˆ ÷ i ( g) ˆ ~ i (Ng). let ÷ i be the lift to G of ~ i . Since ÷ is non-trivial and irreducible. Hence Nˆ s ’ iˆ1 Ker ÷ i X j It is particularly easy to tell from the character table of G whether or not G is simple: 17. so Ker ÷ Tˆ {1}. . there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that Ker ÷ is not {1} or G. By the ÷ ÷ above observation. Ker r Tˆ G.172 Representations and characters of groups Now let ~1 . Therefore if g P Ker ÷ i then Ng P Ker ~ i ˆ ÷ ÷ {N}. then Ker ÷ ˆ Ker r by Theorem 13. j Linear characters Recall that a linear character of a group is a character of degree 1. Thus Ker ÷ is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to {1} of G. and so g P N. hence Ker ÷ Tˆ G. and some nonidentity element g of G. ~ s be the irreducible characters of GaN .11(2). and taking 1 Tˆ g P Ker ÷. Conversely. We shall show how to ®nd all linear characters of any group G. since the . s ’ iˆ1 Ker ~ i ˆ fN gX ÷ For 1 < i < s. Then g P Ker ÷.

If g ˆ (1 2) and h ˆ (2 3) then [ g. We abbreviate gÀ1 hÀ1 gh as [ g. h] ˆ 1 for all g. then G9 < Ker ÷. 17.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 173 ®rst move in constructing the character table of G is often to write down the linear characters. Clearly [ g. Proof Let ÷ be a linear character of G. We are going to show that G9 v G and that the linear characters of G are the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. so G9 ˆ {1}.9 Proposition If ÷ is a linear character of G. Therefore. which is de®ned in the following way. Hence G9 ˆ h(1 2 3)i ˆ A3 . let G9 be the subgroup of G which is generated by all elements of the form g À1 hÀ1 gh ( g. One step is provided by the following proposition. . h P G.8 Examples (1) If G is abelian then [ g. ÷( g À1 hÀ1 gh) ˆ ÷( g)À1 ÷(h)À1 ÷( g)÷(h) ˆ 1X Hence G9 < Ker ÷. Then ÷ is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers. 17. (2) Let G ˆ S3 .7 De®nition For a group G. h]. h P GiX 17. j Next. h P G)X Then G9 is called the derived subgroup of G. Thus G9 ˆ h[ g. h] is always an even permutation. for all g. we explore some group-theoretic properties of the derived subgroup. it is necessary to determine the derived subgroup of G. As a preliminary step. h]: g. h P G. h] ˆ (1 2 3). so G9 < A3 .

. the number of distinct linear characters of G is equal to jGaG9j. x P G. ~ m . Theorem 9. GaG9 is abelian. ÷ ÷ The lifts ÷1 . ÷ m of these characters to G also have degree 1. and so divides |G|. (1) G9 v G. 17. (2) G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. x À1 hx]X Therefore G9 v G. all of degree 1.174 Representations and characters of groups 17.10 that G9 is the smallest normal subgroup of G with abelian factor group. h]x ˆ x À1 g À1 hÀ1 ghx ˆ (x À1 gx)À1 (x À1 hx)À1 (x À1 gx)(x À1 hx) ˆ [x À1 gx. . b.3 they are precisely the irreducible characters ÷ of G . We have ghgÀ1 hÀ1 P N D Ngh ˆ Nhg D (Ng)(Nh) ˆ (Nh)(Ng)X Hence G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. . . In particular. But x À1 [ g.11 Theorem The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. (2) Let g. In particular. we have x À1 (ab)x ˆ (x À1 ax)(x À1 bx). x P G. j It follows from Proposition 17. and by Theorem 17.10 Proposition Assume that N v G. . Given the derived subgroup G9. h]x P G9 for all g. to prove that G9 v G it is suf®cient by the ®rst sentence to prove that x À1 [ g. and x À1 aÀ1 x ˆ (x À1 ax)À1 X Now G9 consists of products of elements of the form [ g. Since we have proved that G9 v G. . . Since GaG9 is abelian. h. Proof Let m ˆ jGaG9j. h] and their inverses. h P G. Proof (1) Note that for all a. we deduce that GaG9 is abelian. we can obtain the linear characters of G by applying the next theorem.8 shows that GaG9 has exactly m irreducible characters ~1 . . Therefore.

Normal subgroups and lifted characters 175 such that G9 < Ker ÷. An (1 2)g  C2 . . a 3-cycle or an element of cycle-shape (2. Therefore A n < G9. j 17. h] ˆ (1 2 3).10(2). we have G9 < A n by Proposition 17. so G9 ˆ {1} ˆ A n . As S n aA n  C2 . where ÷ ÷ n ~1 (An (1 2)) ˆ 1. 2). and A n consists of permutations.12 Example Let G ˆ S n . all the elements in (1 2 3) G and (1 4)(2 3) G belong to G9. From the last example.15. S n has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . then [ g. . each of which is the product of an even number of transpositions. ÷ m are therefore all the linear characters of G. which are given by ÷1 ˆ 1 Sn . Since Sn aS9 ˆ fAn .8(2).11. h ˆ (2 3) and k ˆ (1 2)(3 4). 17. if g P An .9. Therefore. [h. 2). the characters ÷1 . so we assume that n > 4. k] ˆ (1 4)(2 3)X Since G9 v G. if g P An X a À1. but they can also be used to construct new irreducible characters from old. If g ˆ (1 2). If n ˆ 1 or 2 then S n is abelian. the group n n S n aS9 has two linear characters ~1 and ~2. ÷ ~2 (An (1 2)) ˆ À1X ÷ Therefore by Theorem 17. In view of Proposition 17. . We have now proved that G9 ˆ A n . Not only are the linear characters of G important in being irreducible characters. we know that S9 ˆ An . We proved that S9 ˆ A3 in Example 3 17. @ ÷2 ( g) ˆ 1. But every product of two transpositions is equal to the identity. ÷2 . as the next result shows. . G9 contains all 3-cycles and all elements of cycle-shape (2. by Theorem 12. . We shall show that G9 ˆ An .13 Example We ®nd the linear characters of S n (n > 2).

then so is ÷ë. C) be a representation with character ÷. . j The general case of a product of two characters will be discussed in Chapter 19. ÷ëi ˆ ÷( g)ë( g)÷( g)ë( g) jGj gPG ˆ 1 ˆ ÷( g)÷( g) ˆ h÷. The matrix g(rë) has trace ë( g) tr ( gr). The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9.14 Proposition Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and ë is a linear character of G. C) by g(rë) ˆ ë( g)( gr) ( g P G)X Thus g(rë) is the matrix gr multiplied by the complex number ë( g). Summary of Chapter 17 1. and is given by ÷( g) ˆ ~(Ng) ( g P G). 3. Then the product ÷ë. de®ned by ÷ë( g) ˆ ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G) is a character of G. De®ne rë: G 3 GL (n. the complex number ë( g) is a root of unity. Now for all g P G. Hence rë is a representation of G with character ÷ë. it follows that ÷ë is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible. The normal subgroups of G can be found from the character table of G. so ë( g)ë( g) ˆ 1. Moreover. which is ë( g)÷( g).176 Representations and characters of groups 17. Since r and ë are homomorphisms it follows easily that rë is a homomorphism. if ÷ is irreducible. The character of G which corresponds to the character ~ ÷ of GaN is the lift of ~. ÷ ÷ 2. Therefore 1 ˆ h÷ë.20. Characters of GaN correspond to characters ÷ of G for which N < Ker ÷. ÷iX jGj gPG By Theorem 14. Proof Let r: G 3 GL (n.

14 to complete the character table of G. with representatives g1 .3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a. 2. (c) Find the character table of G. ö with values as follows: g1 ÷ ö 1 2 g2 Ài 0 g3 i 0 g4 1 À1 g5 À1 À1 g6 À1 2 Use Proposition 17. Let G ˆ Q8 ˆ ka. a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 .Normal subgroups and lifted characters Exercises for Chapter 17 177 1. (b) Find G9. Compare your table with the character table of D8 (Example 16. a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab. 4. g6 (where g1 ˆ 1). Check that a7 ˆ b3 ˆ 1. (a) Find the ®ve conjugacy classes of G. and hence cannot be simple.3(3)). What are the sizes of the conjugacy classes of G? 5. . b2 ˆ a2 . . and has irreducible characters ÷. . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. The character table of D8 is as shown (see Example 16. A certain group G of order 12 has precisely six conjugacy classes. 4 or 12 linear characters. (b) Find the conjugacy classes of G. b ˆ (2 3 5)(4 7 6)X Let G ˆ ka. and construct all the linear characters of G. Let a and b be the following permutations in S7 : a ˆ (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). bl. bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 X (a) Show that G has order 21. . (c) Complete the character table of G. 3. b: a4 ˆ 1. Show that every group of order 12 has 3. a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b.

bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i has order 4n. (a) Let ù ˆ e2ðia3 . bÀ1 a ˆ aÀ1 bi has order 8n. (a) Show that if å is any nth root of unity in C. b: a2 n ˆ b4 ˆ 1. as in Proposition 17. b: a2 n ˆ b3 ˆ 1. 7. b: a2 n ˆ 1. then there is a representation of T4 n over C which sends     å 0 0 1 a3 . (It is known as a dicyclic group.b3 å 0 0 ù2 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of U6 n. Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. aÀ1 ba ˆ bÀ1 i has order 6n.178 Representations and characters of groups Express each normal subgroup of D8 as an intersection of kernels of irreducible characters. .) (a) Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C.b3 0 Àå À1 À1 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of V8 n . For n > 1.b3 X 0 å À1 ån 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of T4 n. then there is a representation of V8 n over C which sends     å 0 0 1 X a3 . 6. The group V8 n ˆ ha. Let n be an odd positive integer.5. ba ˆ aÀ1 bÀ1 . 8. an ˆ b2 . You are given that the group T4 n ˆ ha. the group U6 n ˆ ha. then there is a representation of U6n over C which sends     0 å ù 0 X a3 .

1 The group S4 In Example 17.24. Let ÷4 be the character ÷4 ( g) ˆ jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P S4 ) which is given in Proposition 13. ÷3 of S4 by lifting characters of the factor group S4 aV4 . ÷4 and ÷4 ÷2 are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷2 ÷4 ÷4 ÷2 1 24 1 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 1 Note that h÷4 . We shall now use Proposition 17. The values of ÷2 . which deals with the product of a character with a linear character.14. we produced three irreducible characters ÷1 . and all dihedral groups.18 Some elementary character tables We now illustrate the techniques we have presented so far by constructing the character tables of several groups.14. ÷2 . 18. including the groups S4 and A4 .4. to complete the character table of S4 . ÷4 i ˆ 9 1 1 1 ‡ ‡ ‡ ˆ 1. 24 4 8 4 179 . By Proposition 17. the product ÷4 ÷2 is also a character of S4 .

The values of í are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| í 1 12 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 (1 3 2) 3 0 Note that hí. and G has four conjugacy classes.14. Character table of S4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 18. Let ÷5 ˆ ÷4 ÷2 .18(1)).24. The character ÷4 ÷2 is also irreducible. there must be exactly three linear characters of G. (1 2 3). Let í be the character of A4 given by Proposition 13. íi ˆ 9 1 ‡ ˆ 1.2 The group A4 Let G ˆ A4 . as shown. Since G has four irreducible characters. with representatives 1. 12 4 so í is an irreducible character of G of degree 3. the alternating group of degree 4. and we have produced ®ve irreducible characters. and the sum of the squares of their degrees is 12. Since S4 has ®ve conjugacy classes. Thus jGaG9j ˆ 3 by Theorem 17. (1 2)(3 4). either by using the same calculation or by quoting the result of Proposition 17. so that í( g) ˆ |®x ( g)| À 1 for all g P A4 . Then |G| ˆ 12. (1 3 2) (see Example 12. It is not dif®cult to con®rm this by showing that .11.180 Representations and characters of groups so ÷4 is irreducible. we have now found the complete character table of S4 .

Write å ˆ e2ðia n . C) by (ar bs )r j ˆ (Aj ) r (Bj ) s (r. The lifts of ÷1 . together with the character ÷4 ˆ í. .Some elementary character tables G9 ˆ V4 ˆ f1. Bj ˆ X 1 0 0 åÀ j Check that A n ˆ B2 ˆ I. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 iX We shall derive the character table of G. (1 3)(2 4). G9(1 2 3). ~3 to G.3 The dihedral groups Let G be the dihedral group D2 n of order 2n. give the complete character table of A4 : Character table of A4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 18. so that G ˆ ha. na2. and the character table of GaG9 is G9 ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 1 G9(1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 G9(1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù ~ ÷ ÷ (where ù ˆ e2ðia3 ). with n > 3. s P Z). (1 4)(2 3)gX 181 Now GaG9 ˆ fG9. na2. b: an ˆ b2 ˆ 1. BÀ1 Aj Bj ˆ AÀ1 X j j j j It follows that by de®ning r j : G 3 GL(2. For each integer j with 1 < j . (1 2)(3 4). G9(1 3 2)g  C3. ~2 . we obtain a representation r j of G for each j with 1 < j . de®ne  j    0 1 å 0 Aj ˆ .

If i and j are distinct integers with 1 < i . we obtain two linear characters ÷1 . We have now constructed distinct irreducible characters ø j of G.11) the conjugacy classes of D2 n (n odd) are f1g. so ar i and ar j have different eigenvalues.5(2) or by applying the result of Exercise 8. na2. ÷2 ( g) ˆ À1 if g ˆ ar b for some rX We have now found all the irreducible characters of D2 n (n odd). either by the proof of Example 5. far . Case 1: n odd By (12.) The character table of D2 n (n odd) is therefore as follows (where å ˆ e2ðia n ): gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 øj (1 < j < (n À 1)/2) 1 2n 1 1 2 ar (1 < r < (n À 1)/2) n 1 1 ‡ å À jr b 2 1 À1 0 å jr . na2. These characters ÷1 and ÷2 are given by ÷1 ˆ 1 G and & 1 if g ˆ ar for some r. we have proved that D9 n ˆ kal for n odd. X X X . ø2 . fas b: 0 < s < n À 1gX Thus there are (n ‡ 3)a2 conjugacy classes.11. one for each j which satis®es 1 < j . ÷2 of G by lifting the irreducible characters of Gahai to G. The (n À 1)a2 irreducible characters ø1 . and so r i and r j are not equivalent. Therefore there is no matrix T with ar i ˆ T À1 (ar j )T. At this point it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. in view of 2 Theorem 17. Let ø j be the character of r j . then å i Tˆ å j and å i Tˆ å À j . aÀ r g(1 < r < (n À 1)a2). Since kal v G and Gahai  C2. there are two more to be found. na2 and 1 < j .4. ø( nÀ1)a2 each have degree 2. (Incidentally. As G has (n ‡ 3)/2 irreducible characters in all.182 Representations and characters of groups Each r j is an irreducible representation.

and their values appear in the following complete character table of D2 n (n even.Some elementary character tables 183 Case 2: n even If n is even. ø mÀ1 X To ®nd the remaining four irreducible characters. n ˆ 2m. ÷2 .4 Another group of order 12 We shall now describe a non-abelian group G of order 12 which is not isomorphic to either A4 or D12. fas b: s oddgX Hence G has m ‡ 3 irreducible characters. fas b: s eveng. Since these linear characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of G/ka2 l. ÷4 (and G9 ˆ ka2 l). X X X . gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (1 < j < m À 1) 1 2n 1 1 1 1 2 am 2n 1 1 (À1) m (À1) m 2(À1) j a r (1 < r < m À 1) n 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r jr å ‡ å À jr b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 18. ha2 iabg  C2 3 C2 X Therefore G has four linear characters ÷1 .12). then the conjugacy classes of D2 n. say n ˆ 2m. ø2 . å ˆ e2ðia n ). as supplied by (12. far . aÀ r g(1 < r < m À 1). and we shall construct the character table of G. ha2 ia. fam g. are f1g. they are easy to calculate. ha2 ib. ÷3 . we ®rst note that ha2 i ˆ fa j : j eveng is a normal subgroup of G and Gaha2 i ˆ fha2 i. It is in fact known that every non-abelian group of order . of which m À 1 are given by ø1 .

Let a and b be the following permutations in S12 : a ˆ (1 2 3 4 5 6)(7 8 9 10 11 12). ÷4 of G given below: . 0 < s < 1 as given above. bl. CG (a3 ) ˆ G. ar b (0 < r < 5)X Check that a and b satisfy a6 ˆ 1. b ˆ (1 7 4 10)(2 12 5 9)(3 11 6 8). ÷2 . b. and Gaha2 i ˆ fha2 i. a4 b} {ab. a subgroup of S12 . we obtain the linear characters ÷1 . ha2 iabgX Since ka2 la ˆ ka2 lb2 .184 Representations and characters of groups 12 is isomorphic to A4 . aÀ2 } {b. By lifting the irreducible characters of C4 to G. and so |G| ˆ 12. D12 or G. ha2 ib. a4 } v G. namely ar . a3 . a the group G has at least 12 elements. a3 b. a5 b} Representative gi 1 a3 a a2 b ab |CG ( gi )| 12 12 6 6 4 4 Therefore G has six irreducible characters. a2 b. The relations further imply that CG (a) ˆ hai. Observe that ka2 l ˆ {1. a3 bgX These. ha2 ia. help us to ®nd the conjugacy classes of G. and similar facts. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 X It follows from these relations that every element of G has the form ar bs with 0 < r < 5. a2 . and let G ˆ ka. CG (b) ˆ f1. a3 ˆ b2 . aÀ1 } {a2 . Since a has order 6 and b P kal. we have Gaha2 i  C4 . which are tabulated below: Conjugacy class {1} {a3 } {a. but we shall not prove this result here. ÷3 .

For this. we have 4 ‡ á2 ‡ â2 ˆ 12. â r taken by the last two irreducible characters ÷5 . 2á6 ‡ 2â6 ˆ 0. The other two equations then imply that á2 ˆ Àâ2 ˆ Æ2. the column orthogonality relations 6 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 1 ) ˆ 0 and 6 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 2 ) ˆ 0 now give us two equations involving 2á r ‡ 2â r and 2á r À 2â r . 2á5 ‡ 2â5 ˆ 0. By the column orthogonality relations applied to columns 1 and 2.Some elementary character tables gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 á1 â1 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 á2 â2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 á3 â3 a2 6 1 1 1 1 á4 â4 b 4 1 i À1 Ài á5 â5 185 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i á6 â6 It remains to ®nd the values á r . â1 are the degrees of ÷5 . 2 2 á1 á2 ‡ â1 â2 ˆ 0X Since á1 . respectively. the ®rst equation gives á1 ˆ â1 ˆ 2.4(2). Since we have not yet distinguished between ÷5 and ÷6 . Theorem 16. ÷6 . 4 ‡ 2á4 ‡ 2â4 ˆ 0. 2á6 À 2â6 ˆ 0X . Observe that á1 . we shall use the column orthogonality relations. For r . also a3 is an element of order 2. ÷6 . 4 ‡ 2á3 À 2â3 ˆ 0. 1 1 4 ‡ á2 ‡ â2 ˆ 12. so they are positive integers. Explicitly: r ˆ 3: r ˆ 4: r ˆ 5: r ˆ 6: 2á3 ‡ 2â3 ˆ 0. we may take á2 ˆ 2 and â2 ˆ À2. so á2 and â2 are integers by Corollary 13. 2á5 À 2â5 ˆ 0. 2. â1 are positive integers. so we can solve them for á r and â r . 2á4 À 2â4 ˆ 0.10.

3: the dihedral groups. . â4 ˆ À1. as follows. This is typical of more advanced calculations. and illustrates the fact that it is usually much easier to construct an irreducible character of a group than to obtain an irreducible representation. (In fact. Section 18. Section 18. á5 ˆ 0.) Summary of Chapter 18 In this chapter we gave the character tables of various groups.1: the group S4 .186 Hence Representations and characters of groups á3 ˆ À1. Section 18. 1. â5 ˆ 0. It is instructive to note that we produced the last two irreducible characters of G by simply using the orthogonality relations. â3 ˆ 1. 3. á6 ˆ 0. 2. á4 ˆ À1. it is not hard to construct the representations of the above group G with characters ÷5 and ÷6 ± see Exercise 17.6. without constructing the corresponding CG-modules. â6 ˆ 0X The complete character table of G is therefore as follows: gi CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 We can deduce that G is not isomorphic to A4 or D12 from the fact that the character table of G is different from those of A4 and D12.2: the group A4 .

b: a2n ˆ b3 ˆ 1. as in Exercise 17. bÀ1 a ˆ aÀ1 bi. Find the values of ð on the elements of D8. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i. (Hint: use Proposition 17. Use the character table to ®nd seven distinct normal subgroups of D12. Let G ˆ T 4n ˆ ha. and show that all its entries are integers. It is a good idea to do the cases n odd and n even separately.1(3). Write down explicitly the character table of D12.5. Find the character table of G. (Hint: use the result of Exercise 17.7. aÀ1 ba ˆ bÀ1 l. ba ˆ aÀ1 bÀ1 . 5. Find the character table of G. . b: a2 n ˆ 1.6. 2.6. Let ð be the corresponding permutation character of D8. as in Example 1. Regard D8 as a subgroup of S4 permuting the four corners of a square. Let G ˆ U6 n ˆ ka. with n odd. and express ð as a sum of irreducible characters. Let G ˆ V8 n ˆ ha. as in Exercise 17. an ˆ b2 . as in Exercise 17. b: a2n ˆ b4 ˆ 1.Some elementary character tables Exercises for Chapter 18 187 1.) 4.) 3.8. Find the character table of G.

1 < j < n. and to put them together to form a new CG-module. An important special case of the product ÷ø occurs when ÷ ˆ ø. ÷ 2 . increase. . to ®nd all the irreducible characters of a direct product G 3 H. . We shall illustrate this by constructing the character tables of S5 and S6 .19 Tensor products The idea of multiplying a character of a group G by a linear character of G was introduced at the end of Chapter 17. ÷ 4 . . For each i. The tensor product space V  W is de®ned to be the mn-dimensional vector space over C with a basis given by 188 . we introduce a symbol v i  wj. Potentially. . X X X . which has character ÷ø. we have a chance of getting a large proportion of the character table of G from just one non-linear character ÷ of G. and more generally ÷ 3 . then the degrees of ÷. At the end of the chapter. then. called the tensor product of V and W. . The plan is to take CG-modules V and W with characters ÷ and ø respectively. . If ÷ is not linear. respectively. v m and w1 . and so on. given those of G and H. The value of the product ÷ø on an element g of G is simply ÷( g)ø( g). so we consider the character ÷ 2 . and by taking successive powers of ÷ we obtain arbitrarily many new characters. wn . and indeed. j with 1 < i < m. It is therefore straightforward to calculate the product. and it can be extended to include the product of any pair of characters ÷ and ø. we apply tensor products in a different way. Tensor product spaces Let V and W be vector spaces over C with bases v1 . products of characters provide a very good source of new characters from given ones. . but a little ingenuity is required in order to justify the conclusion that the product ÷ø is a character of G.

then 2 a 3 H b I ˆ ˆ ˆ xi  d yj e ˆ xi  yj X iˆ1 jˆ1 i. 19. . Then jˆ1 2 3 2 3 ˆ ˆ ˆ v  (ëw) ˆ ëi vi  ëì j w j ˆ ëë i ì j (v i  wj ). .1 Proposition (1) If v P V. j €m € Proof (1) Let v ˆ iˆ1 ë i v i and w ˆ n ì j w j. . j 189 wˆ €n jˆ1 ì j wj For example. j ëë i ì j (v i  wj ). . it is impossible to express v1  w1 ‡ v2  w2 in the form v  w. . i j i. . j ë i ì j (v i  wj ) ˆ ëë i ì j (v i  wj )X . yb P W. . 1 < j < ngX Thus V  W consists of all expressions of the form ˆ ë ij (v i  wj ) (ë ij P C)X €m For v P V and w P W with v ˆ iˆ1 ë i v i and (ë i . (2v1 À v2 )  (w1 ‡ w2 ) ˆ 2v1  w1 ‡ 2v1  w2 À v2  w1 À v2  w2 X Do not be misled by the notation into believing that every element of V  W has the form v  w. ì j P C). For instance. because this is not the case. w P W and ë P C. j i. xa P V and y1. then v  (ëw) ˆ (ëv)  w ˆ ë(v  w)X (2) If x1 . ë(v  w) ˆ ë ˆ i. j ˆ ˆ i. j (ëv)  w ˆ 2 ˆ i 3 ëë i v i  2ˆ j 3 ì jw j ˆ i. . we de®ne v  w P V  W by ˆ vwˆ ë i ì j (v i  wj )X i.Tensor products fv i  wj : 1 < i < m.

and hence span V  W. w n. We know that the elements v i  wj (1 < i < m. ì jl P C)X Then by Proposition 19. wj ˆ n ˆ lˆ1 ì jl f l (ë ik . 1 < j < ng give a basis of V  W. the next proposition shows that other bases of V and W work equally well. . so we are now in a position to de®ne the tensor product of two CG-modules. and we leave it as an exercise. The multiplication of v i  wj by an element of . . Since elements ek  fl are v i  wj (1 < i < m. . X X X . 1 < l < n) V  W has dimension mn. 19. j Our construction of V  W depended upon choosing a basis of V and a basis of W at the beginning. em is a basis of V and f1 . 1 < j < n) are a basis of the mn elements ek  fl (1 < k < m.2 Proposition If e1 . then the elements in fei  f j : 1 < i < m. . . . .1.190 Representations and characters of groups Therefore v  (ëw) ˆ (ëv)  w ˆ ë(v  w). we have ˆ v i  wj ˆ ë ik ì jl (ek  f l )X k. . respectively. Let G be a ®nite group and let V and W be CG-modules with bases v1 . 1 < j < n) give a basis of V  W. fn is a basis of W. . v m and w1 . . Tensor product modules We have introduced the tensor product of two vector spaces. l Now the elements V  W . The proof of part (2) is equally straightforward. . it follows that the also a basis of V  W. Proof Write vi ˆ m ˆ kˆ1 ë ik ek . .

5 Proposition The rule for multiplying an element of V  W by an element of G. Then jˆ1 2ˆ 3 (v  w) g ˆ ë i ì j (v i  wj ) g by Proposition 19X1 iˆ1 i. j i. makes the vector space V  W into a CGmodule. de®ne (v i  wj ) g ˆ v i g  w j g and.Tensor products 191 G is de®ned in the following simple way. For all i. consider what happens when r is a scalar multiple of g. j. 19. let 2ˆ 3 ˆ ë ij (v i  wj ) g ˆ ë ij (v i g  wj g) i. . j €m ˆ ˆ ˆ 2 i. j ë i ì j (v i g  wj g) 3 ëivi g  2ˆ j j ˆ i 3 ì j wj g by Proposition 19X1 ˆ v g  wgX You should be warned that (v  w)r Tˆ vr  wr for most elements r in CG.3 De®nition Let g P G.3.4 Proposition For all v P V. For example. we have (v  w) g ˆ v g  wgX Proof Let v ˆ € ë i v i and w ˆ n ì j wj. 19. more generally. 19. given in De®nition 19. w P W and all g P G. which is then extended linearly to a multiplication on the whole of V  W. j for arbitrary complex numbers ë ij .

. . Hence. (v i  wj )( gh) ˆ v i ( gh)  wj ( gh) ˆ (v i g)h  (wj g)h ˆ (v i g  wj g)h ˆ ((v i  wj ) g)h.6 are ful®lled. and by Proposition 19. By Proposition 9. where ÷ø( g) ˆ ÷( g)ø( g) for all g P GX Proof Let g P G. . j Therefore all the conditions of Proposition 4. em of V and a basis f1 . and 2ˆ i. if ö is the character of V  W then .2. (ei  f j ) g ˆ ei g  f j g ˆ ë i ì j (ei  f j ). ì j . these vectors ei  fj form a basis of V  W. 19. ø( g) ˆ ì jX Now for 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n.6 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. Then the character of the CG-module V  W is the product character ÷ø. and V  W is a CG-module. . j We now calculate the character of V  W. .11 we can choose a basis e1 . . respectively. fn of W such that ei g ˆ ë i e i (1 < i < m) and f j g ˆ ì j f j m ˆ iˆ1 n ˆ jˆ1 (1 < j < n) for some complex numbers ë i . . . and g. Then ÷( g) ˆ ë i . h P G. Then (v i  wj ) g ˆ v i g  wj g P V  W .192 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let 1 < i < m. (v i  wj )1 ˆ v i  wj . 1 < j < n. j by Proposition 19X4 3 ˆ ë ij (v i  wj ) g ˆ ë ij ((v i  wj ) g)X i.

Tensor products 2 32 ˆ ˆ ˆ 3 ö( g) ˆ ëi ì j ˆ ëi ì j ˆ ÷( g)ø( g). j 19.7 shows that ÷ n is a character of G.1. we de®ne ÷ n by ÷ n ( g) ˆ (÷( g)) n 0 for all g P GX Thus ÷ ˆ 1 G . where ÷ 2 ˆ ÷÷. and ÷4 ÷4 ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 ‡ ÷5 X Powers of characters Corollary 19. . Ker ˆ {1}). for every nonnegative integer n. as can be seen from Theorem 19. An inductive proof using Corollary 19. When ÷ is a faithful character (that is.7 Corollary The product of two characters of G is again a character of G.7 shows that if ÷ is a character of G then so is ÷ 2 .8 Example The character table of S4 was given in Section 18. the product of ÷ with itself. and calculate ÷3 ÷4 and ÷4 ÷4 . j i j 193 as required. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷4 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 6 9 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 We see that ÷3 ÷4 ˆ ÷4 ‡ ÷5 . We reproduce it here. i. 19.10 below. the powers of ÷ carry a lot of information about the whole character table of G. More generally.

Suppose that x1 . so Ä ˆ 0. we shall need the following result concerning the so-called `Vandermonde matrix'.9) If á1 . . . . then the matrix rÀ1 I á2 X X X á1 1 rÀ1 á2 X X X á2 g g 2 g X XXX X e á2 r XXX á rÀ1 r ár 3 (x2 À x3 ) X X X (x2 À xr ) F F F 3 (x rÀ1 À xr )X rÀ1 rÀ2 Now the coef®cient of x1 x2 X X Xx rÀ1 in this product is 1: for in the rÀ1 way we have displayed the product. (19. the term x1 must come from all rÀ2 the factors in the ®rst row. . á r are distinct H 1 á1 f1 á 2 f Aˆf dX X 1 is invertible. xr are indeterminates. . It follows that Ä is divisible by ‰ (xi À x j ) ˆ (x1 À x2 )(x1 À x3 ) X X X (x1 À xr ) i. we must take x1 from the rÀ2 ®rst row of the matrix. j . j complex numbers. and so on. x2 must come from all the factors in the rÀ1 rÀ2 second row. . and consider H rÀ1 I 1 x1 x2 X X X x1 1 f 1 x x2 X X X x rÀ1 g 2 f g 2 2 Ä ˆ detf gX dX X X XXX X e 1 xr x2 r XXX x rÀ1 r If i Tˆ j and xi ˆ xj then two rows of the given matrix are equal. x rÀ1 in Ä is Æ1. We ®rst sketch a proof of this result. It follows that ‰ ÄˆÆ (xi À xj )X i.194 Representations and characters of groups In the course of the proof of Theorem 19. and so on. to obtain x1 x2 X X X x rÀ1 rÀ1 in the expansion of the determinant Ä. . x2 from the second row. . .10. Hence rÀ1 rÀ2 the coef®cient of x1 x2 . On the other hand. .

Then ÷( g) takes four different values. and refer to Example 19. We must show that h÷ j . . and thus h÷ j . . so Theorem 19. Now let ø be an irreducible character of G. we know this already. so that G1 ˆ Ker ÷. let ˆ âi ˆ ø( g). hence bA Tˆ 0.9). and let b be the row vector which is given by b ˆ (â1 . . øi. Then every irreducible character of G is a constituent of one of the powers ÷ 0 . . For 1 < i < r.8. â r )X Now A is invertible by (19. øi Tˆ 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. gPG i and note that â1 ˆ ø(1) Tˆ 0. Proof Let the r values taken by ÷ be á1 . X X X . then ÷( g) takes just two different values (see Proposition 13.10 says that every irreducible character of G is a constituent of 1 G or ÷. and for 1 < i < r. øi ˆ r 1 ˆ 1 ˆ (÷( g)) j ø( g) ˆ (á i ) j â i X jGj gPG jGj iˆ1 Let A be the r 3 r matrix with ij-entry (á i ) jÀ1 . We have seen that ÷ 2 ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 ‡ ÷5 . ÷ 1 . 19. j 19. But the ( j ‡ 1)th entry in the row vector bA is equal to jGjh÷ j . by Theorem 10. de®ne Gi ˆ f g P G: ÷( g) ˆ á i gX Take á1 ˆ ÷(1). Let ÷ ˆ ÷4 . . we substitute á i for xi (1 < i < r).20). G1 ˆ {1}. and deduce that the matrix A is invertible since its determinant is non-zero. As ÷ is faithful. and b Tˆ 0 since â1 Tˆ 0. and suppose that ÷( g) takes precisely r different values as g varies over all the elements of G.5. as we wished to prove. ÷ rÀ1 . .11 Examples (1) If G Tˆ {1} and ÷ is the regular character of G.Tensor products 195 To obtain (19. á r .10 Theorem Let ÷ be a faithful character of G. . h÷ j . (2) Let G ˆ S4 . .9). øi Tˆ 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. Then for all j > 0.

and de®ne a linear transformation T: V  V 3 V  V by (v i  v j )T ˆ v j  v i for all i. . . Let v1 . A(V  V ) ˆ fx P V  V : xT ˆ Àxg. ÷5 of G. . j and extending linearly ± that is. We are going to provide a method for decomposing ÷ 2 . 19. . it is of some importance to be able to decompose powers of a character ÷ into sums of irreducible characters. ÷ 2 . By Proposition 19.10. The subspace S(V  V) is called the symmetric part of V  V. just ÷ 2 . j i. the square of ÷. ÷2 i ˆ 1X and we ®nd that Thus ÷ 0 .10. 2ˆ 3 ˆ ë ij (v i  v j ) T ˆ ë ij (v j  v i )X i. Now de®ne subsets of V  V as follows: S(V  V ) ˆ fx P V  V : xT ˆ xg. This special case is particularly useful in ®nding irreducible characters. Also. Decomposing ÷ 2 In view of Theorem 19. . . the module V  V has character ÷ 2 . V  V ˆ S(V  V ) È A(V  V )X . they are eigenspaces of T).196 Representations and characters of groups h÷ 3 . illustrating Theorem 19. ÷ 1 . it is easy to see that S(V  V) and A(V  V) are subspaces of V  V (indeed. . we have (v  w)T ˆ w  vX Hence T is independent of the choice of basis. Since T is linear. ÷ 3 (indeed. ÷ 3 ) have between them as constituents all the irreducible characters ÷1 . as we shall see. and the subspace A(V  V ) is known as the antisymmetric part of V  V. w P V. . Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. v n be a basis of V.12 Proposition The subspaces S(V  V) and A(V  V) are CG-submodules of V  V. j Check that for all v. in this case.6.

Tensor products Proof For all ë ij P C and g P G. so xg P S(V  V) and yg P A(V  V). . 1 2(x ‡ xT ) P S(V  V ) and 1 2(x À xT ) P j V  V ˆ S(V  V ) È A(V  V )X Note that the symmetric part of V  V contains all vectors which have the form v  w ‡ w  v with v. . so x ˆ 0. We now present bases of the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of V  V which consist of elements like these. j 197 ˆ ˆ ˆ i. and ( yg)T ˆ ( yT ) g ˆ À yg. The dimension of S(V  V ) is n(n ‡ 1)a2. If x P S(V  V) ’ A(V  V) then x ˆ xT ˆ Àx. j Therefore T is a CG-homomorphism from V  V to itself. 19. (2) The vectors v i  v j À v j  v i (1 < i . while the antisymmetric part of V  V contains all vectors of the form v  w À w  v. y P A(V  V) and g P G. j ë ij (v i g  v j g)T 3 ë ij (v i  v j ) gT X 2ˆ i. v n be a basis of V.13 Proposition Let v1 . for all x P V we have x ˆ 1(x ‡ xT ) ‡ 1(x À xT )X 2 2 Since T 2 is the identity. j < n) form a basis of A(V  V). (1) The vectors v i  v j ‡ v j  v i (1 < i < j < n) form a basis of S(V  V ). Therefore. we have (xg)T ˆ (xT ) g ˆ xg. . . Further. for x P S(V  V). 2ˆ 3 ˆ ë ij (v i  v j ) Tg ˆ ë ij (v j g  v i g) i. Hence. The dimension of A(V  V ) is n(n À 1)a2. Thus S(V  V) and A(V  V) are CG-submodules of V  V. A(V  V ). . w P V. j i.

. and ÷ A to be the character of the CG-module A(V  V ). i € i. By Proposition 19. en of V such that e i g ˆ ë i e i (1 < i < n) for some complex numbers ë i . ÷2 ˆ ÷S ‡ ÷ AX The next result gives the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A . and 2 ÷ A ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Proof By Proposition 9. and the vectors v i  v j À v j  v i (1 < i . Hence dim S(V  V ) > n(n ‡ 1)a2.13(2). ˆ ÷ A ( g) ˆ ëi ë j X Now e i g ˆ € so ÷( g) ˆ i ë i and ÷( g2 ) ˆ i ë2 . and hence from Proposition 19. . By Proposition 19.14 Proposition For g P G. dim S(V  V ) ‡ dim A(V  V ) ˆ dim V  V ˆ n2 X Hence the above inequalities are equalities. Then (ei  ej À ej  ei ) g ˆ ë i ë j (ei  ej À ej  ei ). j i i. which implies that ÷ S ( g) ˆ ÷ 2 ( g) À ÷ A ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) ‡ ÷( g 2 ))X 2 j . and the result follows.12. j dim A(V  V ) > n(n À 1)a2X De®ne ÷ S to be the character of the CG-module S(V  V ). we have ÷ S ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) ‡ ÷( g 2 )).12.198 Representations and characters of groups Proof Clearly the vectors v i  v j ‡ v j  v i (1 < i < j < n) are linearly independent elements of S(V  V ). . 19. j < n) are linearly independent elements of A(V  V ). j Hence ÷ A ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Also. Therefore i ˆ 2 ˆ ÷ 2 ( g) ˆ (÷( g))2 ˆ ëi ‡ 2 ë i ë j ˆ ÷( g 2 ) ‡ 2÷ A ( g)X 2 ë2 ei. ÷ 2 ˆ ÷ S ‡ ÷ A . .11 we can choose a basis e1 .

16(4). the symmetric group of degree 5. conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders |CG ( gi )| as follows: gi Class size |CG ( gi )| 1 1 120 (1 2) 10 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 15 30 20 24 6 8 4 6 5 Thus G has exactly seven irreducible characters. (2) If ø is a new character found in (1). form ÷ S and ÷ A . obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaG9. Let ÷ ˆ ÷4 .8.14. ÷2 .13. and the values of ÷ S and ÷ A . appear below. and use inner products to analyse ÷ S and ÷ A for new irreducible characters. The character table of G is given in Example 19.15 Example Let G ˆ S4 . given by Proposition 19. G has conjugacy class representatives gi . The strategy is simple: (1) Given a character ÷. By Example 12.Tensor products 199 19. The values of ÷. given one or two irreducible characters to start with. then form ø S and ø A and repeat. (a) Linear characters By Example 17. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷S ÷A 1 24 3 6 3 (1 2) 4 1 2 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 À1 2 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 0 1 We ®nd that ÷ S ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 and ÷ A ˆ ÷5 . We have . G9 ˆ A5 and G has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . We illustrate this strategy with two examples. The techniques which we have developed so far give a useful method for ®nding new irreducible characters of a group.16 Example The character table of S5 Let G ˆ S5 . 19.

Proposition 17. À1.20. and 1.14 shows that ÷4 ˆ ÷3 ÷2 is also an irreducible character.200 Representations and characters of groups & ÷2 ( g) ˆ ÷1 ˆ 1 G . By Proposition 19. Next. At this point we have the following portion of the character table of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 120 1 1 4 4 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 À1 (c) Tensor products We now use tensor products to construct the last three irreducible characters of G. ÷3 i ˆ ÷3 ( g) ˆ jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X 42 22 12 (À1)2 (À1)2 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ˆ 1X 120 12 6 6 5 Hence ÷3 is irreducible. Write ÷ ˆ ÷3 . . by Theorem 14. if g is an even permutation.24 gives us a character ÷3 (b) Permutation character of G with values Observe that h÷3 . if g is an odd permutationX Proposition 13.14 the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷S ÷A 1 120 10 6 (1 2) 12 4 0 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 0 2 À2 0 0 1 0 0 1 Thus.

17 Example The character table of S6 In this example. of order 720. Let G ˆ S6 . it is convenient to label each conjugacy class by the cycle-shape of its elements. For ease of printing. Using . which we call ÷5 . 10 4 1 2 1 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ˆ 1. Let ÷6 ˆ ø. ÷ A i ˆ 36 4 1 ‡ ‡ ˆ 1. ÷3 i ˆ ‡ ‡ À ˆ 1. we then ®nd the last three irreducible characters by using the orthogonality relations. The character table of S5 is as shown. so that ÷6 ˆ ÷ S À ÷1 À ÷3 . 120 12 6 8 6 h÷ S . and 120 12 6 6 100 16 1 4 1 h÷ S . Next. ÷7 ˆ ÷6 ÷2 is a different irreducible character of degree 5. ÷ S i ˆ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ˆ 3. Finally. where ø is an irreducible character of degree 5. ÷1 i ˆ Therefore. 120 8 5 201 and so ÷ A is a new irreducible character.Tensor products h÷ A . 120 12 6 8 6 40 8 1 1 h÷ S . we use techniques similar to those of the previous example to ®nd 8 of the 11 irreducible characters of the symmetric group S6 . ÷ S ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ø. We have now found all seven irreducible characters of S5 . Character table of S5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 120 1 1 4 4 6 5 5 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 À2 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 19.

if g is odd ( g P G) is a character of G.2) 6 0 1 À1 (5) 5 0 0 0 (2.2) (5) (2. where & ÷2 ( g) ˆ (see Example 17. h÷ S . ÷3 i ˆ 1.3) (4.2. ÷ A i ˆ 1. 1. ÷ S and ÷ A are as follows: Class |CG ( gi )| ÷ ˆ ÷3 ÷S ÷A (1) (2) 720 48 5 15 10 3 7 2 (3) 18 2 3 1 (2.2) 16 1 3 À2 (4) 8 1 1 0 (3.2) (3. (a) Linear characters As with all symmetric groups Sn (n > 2). and we get exactly two linear characters ÷1 and ÷2 . it has 11 irreducible characters.202 Representations and characters of groups this notation.2. h÷ S .24.3) (4. The values of ÷.2) (3. h÷ S . Let ÷ ˆ ÷3 .2) (6) 120 144 15 40 90 120 6 5 48 18 8 6 Since G has 11 conjugacy classes.2) (6) 48 18 8 6 À1 3 À2 À1 0 1 À1 1 0 À1 0 1 We calculate that h÷3 .13). the conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows (see Exercise 12. . ÷1 i ˆ 1. if g is even. (b) Permutation character and tensor products is given by ÷3 ( g) ˆ jfix ( g)j À 1 The function ÷3 which ÷1 ˆ 1 G . by Proposition 13.2) 45 16 (4) 90 8 (3. À1. ÷3 i ˆ 1. ÷ S i ˆ 3X h÷ A . the derived subgroup is An .3): Cycle-shape Class size |CG ( gi )| (1) (2) 1 15 720 48 (3) 40 18 (2.

so that we can guarantee that the solutions to the equations which we deal with are integers. From Corollary 13. It will be shown later (Corollary 22.10). ÷5 ˆ ÷ A is irreducible. Also. Further.2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 (3.2) (3. in the ordering which we have adopted. Let s denote the permutation (1 2) and t denote the permutation (1 2)(3 4). we call the three irreducible characters of G which have yet to be found ÷9 . ÷ S ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷7 . so is ÷4 ˆ ÷3 ÷2 . . ÷10 and ÷11 .2. as is ÷6 ˆ ÷5 ÷2 . . . ÷8 are recorded in the following portion of the character table of G. of degree 9. respectively.Tensor products 203 Therefore ÷3 is irreducible. The irreducible characters ÷1 . but for the moment we know for certain only that ÷( g) is an integer if g2 ˆ 1 (see Corollary 13. Finally.3) (4. ÷8 ˆ ÷7 ÷2 is also irreducible.2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 (2. . Ingeniously. Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 (2.2) (6) 48 18 8 6 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 (c) Orthogonality relations We now use the column orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G.16) that all the entries in the character tables of all symmetric groups are integers. The column orthogonality relations give 11 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i (s)2 ˆ 48X . It is therefore convenient ®rst to concentrate on elements of order 2. Thus the conjugacy classes of s and t correspond to the second and fourth columns of the character table. where ÷7 is another irreducible character.10 we know that ÷(s) and ÷(t) are integers for all characters ÷ of G.

that ÷9 (s)2 ˆ ÷10 (s)2 ˆ 1. ÷11 (s)2 ˆ 0X Now ÷9 ÷2 is an irreducible character. we see that ÷9 ÷2 is not ÷9 or ÷11 . 0 and b . we aim to evaluate the integers a. d 2 ‡ e 2 ‡ f 2 ˆ 2. Therefore. since ÷9 ÷2 (s) ˆ À÷9 (s). . and is not equal to any of ÷1 .2) d e f The column orthogonality relations give 11 ˆ iˆ1 11 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i (1)÷ i (s) ˆ 0. d À e ˆ 0. c. That is. 11. 0 is d ˆ e ˆ 1. whence a À b ˆ 0. without loss of generality. d. ÷9 ÷2 ˆ ÷10 X Once more.204 Hence Representations and characters of groups ÷9 (s)2 ‡ ÷10 (s)2 ‡ ÷11 (s)2 ˆ 2X We can assume. b. ÷ i (1)÷ i (t) ˆ 0. we lose no generality in assuming that ÷9 (s) ˆ 1. f in the following portion of the character table: Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) a b c s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2. a ˆ b ˆ 5X . f ˆ 0. . ÷ i (t)÷ i (t) ˆ 16. Moreover. . 11 ˆ iˆ1 11 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i (s)÷ i (t) ˆ 0. e. ÷8 . ÷10 (s) ˆ À1X The plan is now to ®nd ÷ i (1) and ÷ i (t) for i ˆ 9. 10. ad ‡ be ‡ cf ˆ 10X The only solution to these equations in integers with a . .

. since the column orthogonality relations will give three independent equations in these unknowns (as the above 3 3 3 matrix is invertible). given the character tables of G and H. we ®nd that c ˆ 16 by using the relation 11 ˆ iˆ1 205 ÷ i (1)2 ˆ 720X The above portion of the character table is therefore Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) 5 5 16 s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2.2) 1 1 0 We can now determine the three unknown entries in each further column.2) (6) 18 8 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 2 2 À2 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 Direct products We conclude the chapter by showing that tensor products can be used to determine the character table of a direct product G 3 H. we ®nd that the complete character table of S6 is as shown. with basis v1 .2.2) 48 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 À3 3 0 (3. Having done these calculations. Character table of S6 Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 5 5 16 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 1 À1 0 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 À1 À1 À2 (2.2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 1 1 0 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 0 (3. and let W be a .3) (4. v m . . .2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 (2.Tensor products Finally. . Let V be a CG-module.

G and H indicate inner products of characters of G 3 H. By the proof of Proposition 19. j. de®ne (v i  wj )( g. . l. j i. j with 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. and all g P G. the character of V  W is ÷ 3 ø. ÷ k i G hø j . G and H. h) ˆ v i g  wj h and extend this de®nition linearly to the whole of V  W. h P H)X 19. with basis w1.) Thus the ab characters ÷ i 3 ø j are distinct and irreducible. ÷ k 3 ÷ l i G3 H ˆ ˆ 1 ÷ i ( g)ø j (h)÷ k ( g)ø l (h) jG 3 Hj gPG 2 ˆ 3 32 1 ˆ 1 ˆ ÷ i ( g)÷ k ( g) ø j (h)ø l (h) jGj gPG j Hj hP H hP H ˆ h÷ i .6. . Then G 3 H has precisely ab distinct irreducible characters. and these are ÷ i 3 ø j (1 < i < a. . For all i. for ë ij P C. j As in Proposition 19. y) ˆ (x À1 gx. ø b be the distinct irreducible characters of H. .5 shows that V  W is a C(G 3 H)-module. ø l i H ˆ ä ik ä jl X (Here the subscripts G 3 H.18 Theorem Let ÷1 . h÷ i 3 ø j . for all v P V. . Next. .4. that is. h)(x. note that for all g. w P W. x P G and h. h) ˆ ë ij (v i g  wj h)X i. 1 < j < b)X Proof For all i. y)À1 ( g. . h P H. . we ®nd that (v  w)( g. y P H. wn. . we have (x. Let ÷ be the character of V and ø be the character of W. k. ÷ a be the distinct irreducible characters of G and let ø1 . . where (÷ 3 ø)( g. . Then a proof similar to that of Proposition 19. . y À1 hy)X . 2ˆ 3 ˆ ë ij (v i  wj ) ( g. h) ˆ v g  wh.206 Representations and characters of groups C H-module. h) ˆ ÷( g)ø(h) ( g P G. respectively.

hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ø1 ø1 ø1 ø2 ø2 ø2 (1. ga are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G and h1 . Character table of S3 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 Character table of C2 hi |CH (hi )| ø1 ø2 1 2 1 1 À1 2 1 À1 The conjugacy classes of S3 3 C2 are represented by (1. (1.19 Example The character table of S3 3 C2 The character table of S3 ( D6 ) is given in Example 16.18. hj ) (1 < i < a. . À1) ((1 2 3). ((1 2 3). 1) ((1 2 3).3(1). . 1) (1. the character table of S3 3 C2 is as shown. À1) ((1 2). then the elements ( g i . À1) 12 4 6 12 4 6 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 . G 3 H has exactly ab irreducible characters. Consequently. ((1 2). so the irreducible characters ÷ i 3 ø j which we have found must be all the irreducible characters of G 3 H. .Tensor products 207 Hence elements ( g. Character table of S3 3 C2 ( gi . We reproduce it here. 1). 1 < j < b) are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G 3 H. h) and ( g9. G 3 H has precisely ab conjugacy classes. . 1). hj ) |CG3 H ( g i . . if g1 . 1) ((1 2). À1). ((1 2 3). alongside the character table of C2 . h9) of G 3 H are conjugate if and only if the elements g and g9 are conjugate in G and the elements h and h9 are conjugate in H. . . and by Theorem 19. À1). ((1 2). hb are representatives of the conjugacy classes of H. By Theorem 15. In particular.3. À1). . 1). j 19.

1 G i ˆ 0. öi ˆ h÷. The values of ÷ 3 ø are given by (÷ 3 ø)( g. Suppose that ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of G. ÷öiX 2. 2 ÷ A ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 )) 2 for all g P G. If ÷ is a character of G. h) ˆ ÷( g)ø(h) for all g P G. if ÷ ˆ ø. The irreducible characters of G 3 H are those characters ÷ 3 ø. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ø is an irreducible character of H. Exercises for Chapter 19 1. The product of any two characters of G is a character of G. Show that h÷ø.) 4. Prove that & 1. h÷ø. øöi ˆ hø. if ÷ Tˆ øX 3. Show that there is some irreducible character ø of G such that k÷ n . 3. Let ÷.10.208 Representations and characters of groups Compare the solution to Exercise 18. øl ˆ 0 for all integers n with n > 0. ø and ö be characters of the group G. where ÷ S ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) ‡ ÷( g 2 )). then so are ÷ S and ÷ A .5 shows that D12  S3 3 C2 ). 2. Let ÷ be a character of G which is not faithful. Summary of Chapter 19 1. (This shows that the hypothesis that ÷ is faithful cannot be dropped from Theorem 19. where we give the character table of D12 (Exercise 1.2. In Example 20.13 of the next chapter we shall show that there exist irreducible characters ÷ and ö of A5 which take the following values: . h P H.

A certain group G or order 24 has precisely seven conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . 5. g2 are con1 2 3 4 5 6 7 jugate to g1 . . g2 . g5 . ®nd the character table of G. g1 . . g2 . g2 .Tensor products 1 ÷ ö 5 3 (1 2 3) À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) (1 ‡ 0 p 5)a2 (1 3 4 5 2) (1 À 0 p 5)a2 209 Calculate the values of ÷ S . g5 . Find ÷ S and ÷ A . . . g2 .13. ö S and ö A . By forming products of the irreducible characters found so far. 6. g7 . g4 . Express these characters as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ø1 . . G has a character ÷ with values as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ g1 24 2 g2 24 À2 g3 4 0 g4 6 Àù2 g5 6 Àù g6 6 ù g7 6 ù2 where ù ˆ e2ðia3 . g4 . . ÷ A . g2 . respectively. Write down the character table of D6 3 D6. . . and show that both are irreducible. ø5 of A5 which are given in Example 20. Moreover. further. . g2 . g2 .

when G ˆ S n and H ˆ A n . and call it the restriction of V to H. The case where H is a normal subgroup of G is of particular interest. Then C H is a subset of CG.20 Restriction to a subgroup In this chapter and the next. If V is a CG-module. Restriction Let H be a subgroup of the ®nite group G. v2 for which v1 a ˆ v2 . b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. for example. h P H if they hold for all g.1 Example Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. If V is a CG-module then we write the corresponding C H-module as V 5 H. v2 a ˆ Àv1 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l.5(1). and refer to it as the restriction of ÷ to H. As in Example 4. h P G. v1 b ˆ v1 . then V is also a C H-module. if f: G 3 C is any function. and Clifford's Theorem 20. We write this character of H as ÷ 5 H. since properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4. We apply this result in the situation where H is of index 2 in G. we introduce the elementary idea of restricting a CG-module to a subgroup H of G. which occurs. then f 5 H denotes the restriction of f to H (so that ( f 5 H)(h) ˆ f (h) for all h P H). Here. and illustrate its use. More generally. v2 b ˆ Àv2 X 210 . This simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module is known as restricting from G to H. we are going to look at ways of relating the representations of a group to the representations of its subgroups. 20.2 certainly hold for all g. let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . The character of V 5 H is obtained from the character ÷ of V by evaluating ÷ on the elements of H only.8 gives important information in this case.

20.2. for if U is a CG-submodule of V. 3. Example 20. v2 b ˆ Àv2 X and the character ÷ 5 H of V 5 H is given by h ÷(h) 1 2 a2 À2 b 0 a2 b 0 If V is a CG-module and H is a subgroup of G. On the other hand. 2. By 18. v2 for which v1 a2 ˆ Àv1 .1 illustrates this fact.2 Example Let G ˆ S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G consisting of all even permutations of {1. v2 a2 ˆ Àv2 . The character ÷ of V is given by g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 v1 b ˆ v1 . a2 . then V 5 H is the C Hmodule with basis v1 . the character table of H is gi jC H ( g i )j ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 .Restriction to a subgroup 211 If H is the subgroup {1. then dim V ˆ dim (V 5 H). b. 4} ®xing 5. a2 b} of G. if V 5 H is an irreducible C H-module then V is an irreducible CG-module. However. then U 5 H is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. it might be the case that V is an irreducible CG-module while V 5 H is not an irreducible C H-module.

jGj gPG . then 1 ˆ hW1 . ÷5 5 H and ÷6 5 H. if W1 and W2 are functions from G to C. ÷3 5 H. The character table of G is given in Example 19. . we calculate the character ÷ i 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters ø j . de®ned similarly. . . l H is the inner product on the vector space of functions from H to C. and k . ÷3 5 H ˆ ÷4 5 H and ÷6 5 H ˆ ÷7 5 HX Therefore we need only consider ÷1 5 H. Thus. From Example 19.3 De®nitions The inner product k . ÷ 3 5 H ˆ ø1 ‡ ø 4 . For each i with 1 < i < 7. W2 i G ˆ W1 ( g)W2 ( g). ÷ 6 5 H ˆ ø2 ‡ ø 3 ‡ ø 4 X Constituents of a restricted character To help us discuss the way in which a restricted character ÷ 5 H can be expressed in terms of the irreducible characters of H.16. ÷7 . 20. l G is the inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C which we have de®ned earlier. .16 we see that ÷1 5 H ˆ ÷2 5 H. ÷5 5 H ˆ 2ø4 . with irreducible characters labelled ÷1 . we introduce the following notation.212 Representations and characters of groups (where ù ˆ e2ðia3 ). These have values 1 ÷1 5 ÷3 5 ÷5 5 ÷6 5 H H H H 1 4 6 5 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 À2 1 (1 2 3) (1 3 2) 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 À1 It is easy to spot that ÷ 1 5 H ˆ ø1 .

Then there exists an irreducible character ÷ of G such that h÷ 5 H.4.17. Suppose that we know the character table of G. ÷ 5 H ˆ d 1 ø1 ‡ X X X ‡ d r ø r for some non-negative integers d 1 . ø r are the irreducible characters of the subgroup H of G. . 20.Restriction to a subgroup and if ö1 and ö2 are functions from H to C.19 and Proposition 13. øi H ˆ ÷ i (1)h÷ i 5 H. . øi H Tˆ 0X Proof Let ÷1 . . Recall from Theorem 13. The best . øi H Tˆ 0 for some i. then 1 ˆ hö1 . . . ö2 i H ˆ ö1 (h)ö2 (h)X j Hj hP H 213 If ÷ is a character of G and ø1 . d r which are given by d i ˆ h÷ 5 H. ÷reg ( g) ˆ and ÷reg ˆ ÷ i (1)÷ i X 0 if g Tˆ 1. then by Theorem 14. Unfortunately. The next proposition shows that every irreducible character of H is a constituent of the restriction of some irreducible character of G. . . we could hope to ®nd the character table of the subgroup H by restricting the irreducible characters ÷ of G to H. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. X X X . . ø i i H X We say that ø i is a constituent of ÷ 5 H if the coef®cient d i in the above expression is non-zero. In the light of Proposition 20.20 that the regular character ÷reg of G satis®es & k ˆ jGj if g ˆ 1. øi H X j Hj iˆ1 j Therefore h÷ i 5 H. it may be very dif®cult in practice to write down the restrictions ÷ 5 H in terms of irreducible characters of H.4 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G and let ø be a non-zero character of H. iˆ1 Now 0 Tˆ k ˆ jGj ø(1) ˆ h÷reg 5 H.

. Proof By Theorem 14. let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. since ÷ is irreducible. For example. and K ˆ 0 if and only P if ÷( g) ˆ 0 for all g with g P H. and let ø1 . 20. we have r ˆ iˆ1 d 2 ˆ h÷ 5 H. d r satisfy (20X6) r ˆ iˆ1 d 2 < jG: HjX i Moreover. The conclusions of the proposition a follow at once. The way to exploit the fact that H v G us revealed in the following proposition. Then ÷ 5 H ˆ d 1 ø1 ‡ X X X ‡ d r ø r .214 Representations and characters of groups chance of doing this occurs when the index jG: Hj(ˆ jGjaj Hj) is small.6) if and only if ÷( g) ˆ 0 for all elements g of G which lie outside H. we will see that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree.17. since the restrictions ÷ 5 H then do not have many constituents. we have equality in (20. 1 ˆ h÷. ø r be the irreducible characters of H. where the non-negative integers d 1 . as the following result shows. jGj iˆ1 i € where K ˆ (1ajGj) ga H ÷( g)÷( g)X Now K > 0.5 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. j We can say more about the constituents of ÷ 5 H in the case where H is a normal subgroup of G. ÷ 5 Hi H ˆ i 1 ˆ ÷(h)÷(h)X j Hj hP H Also. ÷i G ˆ ˆ ˆ 1 ˆ ÷( g)÷( g) jGj gPG 1 ˆ ÷(h)÷(h) ‡ K jGj hP H r j Hj ˆ 2 d ‡ K. F F F . X X X .

Then gh ˆ h9 g for some h9 P H. then WgÀ1 is a C H-submodule of U. (3) Now let ö be a C H-isomorphism from Ug1 to Ug2 . whence W ˆ {0} or Ug. For every g P G let Ug ˆ fug: u P U g. Therefore. as claimed. since V is irreducible. Then (1) The set Ug is an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H and dim Ug ˆ dim U . Let V be an irreducible CG-module and U be an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H. è is a C H-isomorphism. WgÀ1 ˆ {0} or U. (2) As a C H-module. g2 . proving that Ug is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. and since H v G we have ghgÀ1 P H for all h P H. and the proof of the proposition is complete.12. Moreover. V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. so dim U ˆ dim Ug.7 Proposition Suppose that H v G. Further. (2) The sum of all the subspaces Ug with g P G is a CG-submodule of V. Suppose that h P H. u 3 ug (u P U) is an invertible linear transformation from U to Ug.Restriction to a subgroup 215 20. j . Proof (1) Clearly. Therefore. Ug is an irreducible C H-module. and (wgh)è ˆ (wh9 g)è ˆ (wh9ö) g ˆ (wö)h9 g ˆ (wö) gh ˆ (wgè)hX Therefore. V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. Ug is a subspace of V. we have ˆ Vˆ UgX gPG Then by Proposition 7. then Ug1 g and Ug2 g are isomorphic C H-modules. (3) If g1 . so (ug)h ˆ u( ghg À1 ) g P Ug (u P U). De®ne è : Ug1 g 3 Ug2 g by è : wg 3 (wö) g (w P Ug 1 )X Then è is clearly an isomorphism of vector spaces. g P G and Ug1 and Ug2 are isomorphic C H-modules. if W is a C Hsubmodule of Ug. since U is irreducible.

and Xi T X j if i Tˆ j.14 in Chapter 22 to see an advanced use of the theorem. . . say X 1 ˆ U1 È X X X È U e X By Proposition 20. V is a sum of C Hmodules of the form X1 g. . Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. by Proposition 20. Hence V has the form V ˆ X1 È X X X È X m where each Xi is a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules.7(2). each having character ø1 . Examples where this happens are G ˆ Sn . .8 Clifford's Theorem Suppose that H v G and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. then ÷ 5 H ˆ e(ø1 ‡ X X X ‡ ø m ) for some positive integer e. ø1 i. Then V contains a C H-module X1 whose character is eø1 . Normal subgroups of index 2 We are shortly going to give more precise information about the constituents of ÷ 5 H when H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2 (that is. and which is therefore a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules. . but you might like to look at Corollary 22.7(3). and (2) if ø1 . On the other hand. Therefore. jG: Hj ˆ 2). ø m are the constituents of ÷ 5 H. ÷ 5 H ˆ e(ø1 ‡ X X X ‡ ø m )X j Our main applications of Clifford's Theorem will concern the case where jG: Hj ˆ 2.216 Representations and characters of groups We now come the fundamental theorem on the restriction of a character to a normal subgroup.7. Then (1) all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. 20. Let e ˆ h÷ 5 H. parts (1) and (2). Then it follows from Proposition 20. if g P G then X1 g is a direct sum of isomorphic C H-modules.

bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i. Since GaH  C2 . .Restriction to a subgroup 217 H ˆ A n . if H is a subgroup of index 2 in G. ÷ and ÷ë are irreducible characters of the same degree (see Proposition 17.9. . ø i and ø j have the same degree. it is often desirable to have more details about the two cases in Proposition 20.13) below.9 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. by Clifford's Theorem 20. For practical purposes. the character tables of G and H are closely related. we deduce that either ÷ 5 H ˆ ø i for some i. ø r are the irreducible characters of H. d r are non-negative integers. Also. H ˆ hai.10). .14). Proof If ø1 . then H must be normal in G (see Exercise 1.8 j €r ÷ 5 H ˆ d 1 ø1 ‡ X X X ‡ d r ø r .16). Since d 1 . ë( g) ˆ À1 if g P HX a Note that for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. or G ˆ D2 n ˆ ha. 2 where iˆ1 d i < 2. then by Proposition 20. or (2) ÷ 5 H is the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree.5.10 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. or ÷ 5 H ˆ ø i ‡ ø j for some i. and that ÷ is . ÷ 5 H ˆ ÷ë 5 H. 20. j with i Tˆ j. 20. In the latter case. since ë(h) ˆ 1 for all h P H. b: a n ˆ b2 ˆ 1. we may lift the non-trivial linear character of GaH to obtain a linear character ë of G which satis®es @ 1 if g P H. Then either (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. . and we shall supply these next. and we then illustrate the results by ®nding the character table of A5 from that of S5 (which we have already obtained in Example 19. In fact. When H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. We describe this relationship in (20. X X X .

Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. and this happens if and only if ÷( g) Tˆ 0 for some g P G with g P H. a so ÷( g) Tˆ 0 for some g with g P H if and only if ÷ë Tˆ ÷.9. if g P HX a . To see that (2) is equivalent to (3). ÷ 5 H is irreducible if and only if the inequality in (20. Proof We use Proposition 20. observe that @ ÷( g) if g P H. If ö is an irreducible character of G which satis®es ö 5 H ˆ ÷ 5 H.6) is strict. then ÷ 5 H is the sum of one or two irreducible characters of H. Thus (1) is equivalent to a (2).11 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. then either ö ˆ ÷ or ö ˆ ÷ë. In the next proposition we consider the ®rst possibility. ÷ë( g) ˆ À÷( g) if g P H.5. a (3) the characters ÷ and ÷ë of G are not equal. and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible. (2) ÷( g) Tˆ 0 for some g P G with g P H. since jG: Hj ˆ 2.218 Representations and characters of groups an irreducible character of G. Proof We have (÷ ‡ ÷ë)( g) ˆ Hence @ 2÷( g) 0 if g P H. a j According to Proposition 20. if H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2. 20.

and hence ö ˆ ÷. ö 5 Hi H X Now k÷ 5 H. Proof In view of Proposition 20.Restriction to a subgroup h÷ ‡ ÷ë. a Therefore. so kö. ÷ 5 Hi H X 2 If ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 as a constituent. j We summarize our results on subgroups of index 2. say ÷ 5 H ˆ ø1 ‡ ø2. and so either ö ˆ ÷ or j ö ˆ ÷ë.13) Let H be a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group G. 20. öl G ˆ 1. ö 5 Hl H ˆ 1. then hö 5 H.11). 20. öi G ˆ ˆ 1 ˆ 2÷( g)ö( g) jGj gP H 1 ˆ ÷( g)ö( g) j Hj gP H 219 ˆ h÷ 5 H. Such characters of G occur in pairs (÷ and ÷ë) which have the same restriction to H (Propositions 20. by explaining how to list the irreducible characters of H on the assumption that we know the character table of G. (20. since ÷ 5 H is irreducible and ö 5 H ˆ ÷ 5 H. we look at the case where ÷ 5 H is reducible. . If ble character of G such that ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 then ö ˆ ÷.12 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible characters of H. ÷l G Tˆ 0. 1 ˆ 1 ˆ hö. ÷i G ˆ ö( g)÷( g) ˆ ö( g)÷( g) jGj gPG jGj gP H ˆ 1hö 5 H. ÷( g) ˆ 0 for all g with g P H. and that ÷ is the sum of two ö is an irreducias a constituent. (1) Each irreducible character ÷ of G which is nonzero somewhere outside H restricts to be an irreducible character of H. ÷ 5 Hi H Tˆ 0. Therefore k÷ ‡ ÷ë.10.10. Finally. G.

.13)(3).13)(2).9. . . . respectively. The two characters of H which we get from ÷ in this way come from no other irreducible character of G (Propositions 20. Observe that ÷1 . a so by (20. Also. They can also be veri®ed by calculating inner products. We have established that the character table of H is gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 á2 â2 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 á3 â3 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á4 â4 (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 á5 â5 . 20. so by (20. Note that ÷2 5 H ˆ ÷1 5 H. Fortunately.12).16.18(2).13) of facts about characters of subgroups of index 2. The results we have obtained so far have been deduced from our summary (20. . ÷5 5 H ˆ ø4 ‡ ø5 where ø4 and ø5 are distinct irreducible characters of H of degree 3. 20. ÷5 ( g) ˆ 0 for all g P H. . . ø2 and ø3 . and note that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group S5 . ÷3 and ÷6 are non-zero somewhere outside H. (3) Every irreducible character of H appears among those obtained by restricting irreducible characters of G.14 Example The character table of A5 Write H ˆ A5 . in practice case (1) occurs more frequently than case (2). ÷7 of S5 can be found in Example 19.13)(1). ÷4 5 H ˆ ÷3 5 H and ÷7 5 H ˆ ÷6 5 H. as in parts (1) and (2) (Proposition 20. extra work is needed to calculate the values taken by the two constituents of ÷ 5 H.13). The conjugacy classes of H and their sizes are given in Example 12. ø5 are the distinct irreducible characters of H by (20. In case (2) of (20. then ÷ restricts to be the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. and hence ø1 . 20. and the irreducible characters ÷1 . . ÷1 5 H.220 Representations and characters of groups (2) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G which is zero everywhere outside H. ÷3 5 H and ÷6 5 H are irreducible characters of H.10.4). Call them ø1 .

⠈ 1(1 À 2 p 5). á4 ‡ â4 ˆ á5 ‡ â5 ˆ 1X Using Proposition 12. The values of á i ‡ â i for 2 < i < 5 are given by noting that ø4 ‡ ø5 ˆ ÷5 5 H (or by using the column orthogonality relations for column 1 and column i). We get á2 ‡ â2 ˆ 0. á5 and â5 are 1(1 Æ 5). we may take p p á4 ˆ 1(1 ‡ 5). all the numbers in the character table are real. â4 ˆ 1(1 À 5)X 2 2 p Similarly. we see that each element of A5 is conjugate to its inverse. . 3 3 5 ˆ 2 ‡ á2 ‡ â2 ˆ 2 ‡ á2 ‡ â2 X 4 4 5 5 Hence á2 ˆ â2 ˆ 0. á3 ‡ â3 ˆ À2. Character table of A5 gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 â á where á ˆ 1(1 ‡ 2 p 5). 2 2 4 ˆ 2 ‡ á2 ‡ â2 . we have 2 p p á5 ˆ 1(1 À 5). â5 ˆ 1(1 ‡ 5)X 2 2 Thus the character table of A5 is as shown.9(4). we obtain 3 ˆ 3 ‡ á2 ‡ â2 . á3 ˆ â3 ˆ À1. Hence by Proposition 13. Since ø4 Tˆ ø5 . By the orthogonality relation for column i with itself (2 < i < 5).13. Since we have not yet distinguished between ø4 and ø5 . and we ®nd that á4 and â4 are the solutions of the quadratic x 2 À x À 1 ˆ 0.Restriction to a subgroup 221 We use the column orthogonality relations to calculate the unknowns á i and â i .

Exercises for Chapter 20 1. In particular. The values of ÷ 5 H are given by (÷ 5 H)(h) ˆ ÷(h) for all h P H. Let G be a group with an abelian subgroup H of index n. 2. and ÷ 5 H ˆ d 1 ø1 ‡ X X X ‡ d r ø r. given in Example 19. Use the restrictions of the irreducible characters of S6 . X X X .1).4. ÷ 5 Hi H ˆ 1. Prove that h÷ 5 H.6 allows us to deduce from the character table that A5 is a simple group. if ø1 . The number of irreducible constituents of ÷ 5 H is bounded above by jG : Hj. Suppose that G is a group with a subgroup H of index 3. (a) Show that H  D8. (1 3)l of G. to ®nd the character table of A6 .17. If H v G and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. then ÷ 5 H is a character of H. express ÷ 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters of H. .3 and 12. 1. 2 or 3X Give examples to show that each possibility can occur.222 Representations and characters of groups Proposition 17.) 3. Summary of Chapter 20 Assume throughout that H is a subgroup of G. Indeed. then r ˆ iˆ1 d 2 < jG : HjX i 3. 2. then all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. ÷ and ÷ 5 H have the same degree. and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. ø r are the irreducible characters of H. Let G ˆ S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3 4). (b) For each irreducible character ÷ of G (given in Section 18. 4. If ÷ is a character of G. Prove that ÷(1) < n for every irreducible character ÷ of G. (The seven conjugacy classes of A6 can be found by consulting the solutions to Exercises 12.

35X Also. . 14. 21.Restriction to a subgroup 223 5. 35. A7 has nine conjugacy classes. 15. It is known that the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of S7 is 1. 14. 20. 6. 21. 14. 15. 14. Find the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of A7 . 6. 1.

21. Much more subtle than this is the process of induction. We shall see many applications of this method in later chapters. then there exists r P CG such that uW ˆ ru for all u P U X 224 . since for all s P C H. then W: u 3 ru (u P U ) de®nes a C H-homomorphism from U to CG. C H-homomorphisms and CG-homomorphisms Let U be a C H-submodule of the regular C H-module C H.1 Proposition Assume that H < G. If W is a C H-homomorphism from U to CG. We saw in the last chapter that restriction gives a simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module. (us)W ˆ rus ˆ (uW)s. so induction can often give us an important handle on the representations of a group if we know some representations of its subgroups. which constructs a CG-module from a given C H-module. we require some results which connect C H-homomorphisms with CG-homomorphisms. If r P CG.21 Induced modules and characters Throughout this chapter we assume that H is a subgroup of the ®nite group G. it is usually the case that C H-modules are easier to understand and construct than CG-modules. We now prove the striking fact that every C Hhomomorphism from U to CG has this simple form. and let U be a C H-submodule of C H. and induction is the main concern of this chapter. As H is smaller than G. Before describing the process of induction.

and so x ˆ 0.2 Corollary Let U be a CG-submodule of CG. 21. r(u ‡ v) ˆ uX Then ru ˆ u if u P U. ru ˆ u and rv ˆ 0X Proof Assume that U ’ V ˆ {0}. Therefore by Corollary 21. the ®rst of which is just the case H ˆ G of the proposition. and rv ˆ 0 if v P V. If x P U ’ V then rx ˆ x and rx ˆ 0. Conversely. uW ˆ uö ˆ (1u)ö ˆ (1ö)u ˆ ru. j . Then the following two statements are equivalent: (1) U ’ V ˆ {0}. v P V ) is a function. Let r ˆ 1ö. v P V. assume that for some r P CG we have ru ˆ u and rv ˆ 0 for all u P U. j We give two corollaries of Proposition 21. it is a CG-homomorphism from U È V to CG (see Proposition 7. w P W )X Then ö is easily seen to be a C H-homomorphism.2. 21.3 Corollary Let U and V be CG-submodules of CG. Then the sum U ‡ V is a direct sum. and so W is of the required form. v P V. For u P U. Consequently U ’ V ˆ {0}.1. moreover.1. so u‡v3 u (u P U . (2) there exists r P CG such that for all u P U. De®ne ö: C H 3 CG by ö: u ‡ w 3 uW (u P U. v P V. there exists r P CG such that for all u P U.Induced modules and characters 225 Proof By Maschke's Theorem 8. Then every CG-homomorphism from U to CG has the form u 3 ru (u P U ) for some r P CG.11). there is a C H-submodule W of C H such that C H ˆ U È W.

and let H ˆ kal. we write X(CG) for the subspace of CG which is spanned by all the elements xg with x P X. g P G.5 Example Let G ˆ D6 ˆ ka. W 1 4 G ˆ U3 . so C H is a subset of CG. a cyclic subgroup of G of order 3. where U1 ˆ sp (1 ‡ a ‡ a2 ‡ b ‡ ab ‡ a2 b). U3 ˆ sp (1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 . b ‡ ùab ‡ ù2 a2 b)X Thus W 0 4 G ˆ U1 È U2 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. W 2 4 G ˆ U4 X . That is. Let ù ˆ e2ðia3 . b ‡ ù2 ab ‡ ùa2 b). b ‡ ab ‡ a2 b). b ‡ ùab ‡ ù2 a2 b)X Recall from Example 10. Let U be a C H-submodule of C H.8(1)). g P GgX Clearly. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules U i .4 De®nition Assume that H is a subgroup of G. b ‡ ù2 ab ‡ ùa2 b). U4 ˆ sp (1 ‡ ùa ‡ ù2 a2 . and let U 4 G denote the CG-module U(CG). W 2 4 G ˆ sp (1 ‡ ùa ‡ ù2 a2 . X(CG) is then a CG-submodule of CG. Then U 4 G is called the CG-module induced from U. and de®ne W 0 ˆ sp (1 ‡ a ‡ a2 ). Remember that H is a subgroup of G. Clearly. W 1 4 G ˆ sp (1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 . W 0 4 G ˆ sp (1 ‡ a ‡ a2 . 21.226 Representations and characters of groups Induction from H to G For any subset X of CG.8(2) that CG ˆ U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . U2 ˆ sp (1 ‡ a ‡ a2 À b À ab À a2 b). X (CG) ˆ sp fxg: x P X . W 2 ˆ sp (1 ‡ ùa ‡ ù2 a2 )X These are C H-submodules of C H (see Example 10. W 1 ˆ sp (1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 ). 21.

Therefore ö: a 3 ra (a P U 4 G) is a function from U 4 G to V 4 G. and hence ra P V 4 G. g P G). for all a P U 4 G. g P G).1. j The next proposition and its corollary enable us to de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C H-module U. ö is a CG-homomorphism. we have sra ˆ a. there exists r P CG such that uW ˆ ru for all u P U. By Proposition 21. proving that U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. so ra is a linear combination of elements rug. 21. rsb ˆ b Hence the function b 3 sb (b P V 4 G) is the inverse of ö. Proof Let W: U 3 V be a C H-isomorphism. v P V X If a P U 4 G then a is a linear combination of elements ug (u P U. Suppose that U and V are C H-submodules of C H and that U is C H-isomorphic to V.6 Proposition Assume that H < G. W 0 4 G is reducible. We now show that isomorphic C H-modules give isomorphic induced CG-modules. Moreover. Then U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. Therefore ö is a CG-isomorphism. while W 1 4 G and W 2 4 G are irreducible. and also there exists s P CG such that vWÀ1 ˆ sv for all v P V. b P V 4 GX . Then (U 4 G) ’ (V 4 G) ˆ f0g.Induced modules and characters 227 In particular. as (aö) g ˆ rag ˆ (ag)ö (a P U 4 G. v P V. Since sru ˆ u and rsv ˆ v for all u P U.7 Proposition Assume that U and V are C H-submodules of C H with U ’ V ˆ {0}. 21. Consequently sru ˆ u and rsv ˆ v for all u P U .

It is trivial for m ˆ 1.7 and 10.3. where V ˆ U2 È X X X È U m . 21. V 4 G ˆ (U 2 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G).5). The de®nition of U 4 G implies that U 4 G ˆ (U1 4 G) ‡ (V 4 G)X Therefore by Proposition 21. Therefore (U 4 G) ’ (V 4 G) ˆ f0g by Corollary 21.3. v P V. U 4 G ˆ (U1 4 G) È (V 4 G)X By induction. rug ˆ ug and rvg ˆ 0X Since U 4 G is spanned by elements of the form ug (u P U. this implies that ru9 ˆ u9 and similarly.8 Corollary Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. as required.10). Now U ˆ U1 È V. Then for all u P U. g P G).9 De®nition Let U be a C H-module. we obtain U 4 G ˆ (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G). and hence. 21.7. U  U1 È X X X È Um . and suppose that U ˆ U1 È X X X È Um . a direct sum of C H-submodules U i .228 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Corollary 21. using (2. Then (by Theorems 8. j We can now de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C Hmodule U (where U is not necessarily a C H-submodule of C H). Then U 4 G ˆ (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Proof We prove this by induction on m. v P V and all g P G. there exists r P CG such that ru ˆ u and rv ˆ 0 for all u P U. rv9 ˆ 0 for all v9 P V 4 GX j for all u9 P U 4 G.

8 ensure that this de®nition is consistent with De®nition 21. it follows that (U(CK))(CG) ˆ U(CG). (U(CK))(CG) is spanned by elements of the form (u P U . Then .4.Induced modules and characters 229 for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. 21. Now let U be an arbitrary C H-module.9) that (21X10) (U1 È X X X È Um ) 4 G  (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Our ®rst major result on general induced modules is known as `the transitivity of induction'.11 Theorem Suppose that H and K are subgroups of G such that H < K < G. That is. k P K)X Therefore. By (21. De®ne U 4 G to be the following (external) direct sum: U 4 G ˆ (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G)X Proposition 21. and then applying the fact (which is immediate from De®nition 21. Then U(CK) is spanned by elements of the form uk ukg (21X12) (u P U . k P K.10). g P G)X (U 4 K) 4 G ˆ U 4 GX U  U1 È X X X È Um for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. then (U 4 K) 4 G  U 4 GX Proof Assume ®rst that U is a C H-submodule of C H. We emphasize that the de®nition of the induced module U 4 G in the case where U is a C H-submodule of C H is a natural one: U 4 G ˆ U (CG)X We shall always prove results for general induced modules U 4 G by ®rst dealing with the special case where U is a C H-submodule of C H.6 and Corollary 21. If U is a C H-module. U 4 K  (U1 4 K) È X X X È (Um 4 K)X Since K < G.

9. ÷7 are the irreducible characters of G (given in Example 19. . then the character of the induced CG-module U 4 G is denoted by ø 4 G. . ÷ 2 5 H ˆ ø1 . ø4 are the irreducible characters of H (given in 18. . ÷ 4 5 H ˆ ø1 ‡ ø4 . . and is called the character induced from ø.16). ÷5 5 H ˆ 2ø4 . The next example illustrates an important relationship between induced characters and restrictions of characters. by (21X12) j Induced characters 21.13 De®nition If ø is the character of a C H-module U.2) then ÷ 1 5 H ˆ ø1 . ÷ 6 5 H ˆ ø 2 ‡ ø 3 ‡ ø4 . j. .17.2. as in Example 20. . and ø1 . . We record these coef®cients in a . . the coef®cients which appear here are the values of h÷ i 5 H. ø j i H for appropriate i.14 Example Let G ˆ S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G. 21. ÷ 3 5 H ˆ ø1 ‡ ø4 . ÷ 7 5 H ˆ ø 2 ‡ ø 3 ‡ ø4 X By Theorem 14. We showed in that example that if ÷1 .230 Therefore Representations and characters of groups (U 4 K) 4 G  (U1 4 K) 4 G È X X X È (Um 4 K) 4 G by (21X10) ˆ (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G) U4G by Definition 21.

Induced modules and characters matrix whose ij-entry is h÷ i 5 H. ÷7 X Similarly. V 5 H) have equal dimensions. which is known as the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. ø3 ‡ 1 . row 3 gives ÷3 5 H ˆ 1 . In fact. ø j 4 Gi G . Then the vector spaces HomCG (U 4 G. ÷4 ‡ 0 . The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Before proving the theorem. . ÷1 ‡ 1 . and we devote the next section to a proof of this result. ø1 ‡ 0 . ÷5 ‡ 0 . ÷6 ‡ 0 . and let V be a CG-submodule of CG. øi H for all characters ÷ of G and ø of H. ø j i H . it is true that h÷. V ) and HomC H (U . Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. 21. ø2 ‡ 0 . ø j i H : ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 H ø1 1 f 1 f f 1 f f 1 f f 0 f d 0 0 ø2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø4 I 0 0 g g 1 g g 1 g g 2 g g 1 e 1 231 The rows of this matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of G restrict to H. we need the following preliminary result. ø 4 Gi G ˆ h÷ 5 H. ø2 4 G ˆ ø3 4 G ˆ ÷6 ‡ ÷7 . and ø4 4 G ˆ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 ‡ 2÷5 ‡ ÷6 ‡ ÷7 X Thus the ij-entry in our matrix. ÷3 ‡ 1 . ø4 X Remarkably. it turns out that the columns of the matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of H induce to G. ÷2 ‡ 1 .15 Proposition Assume that H < G. To be precise. is also equal to h÷ i . the seven integers in column 1 give ø1 4 G ˆ 1 . For example. which we already know to be equal to h÷ i 5 H.

Hence the function W 3 W is injective. then r1 s ˆ r2 s for all s P U 4 G. Then by Proposition 21.2. there exists r P CG such that uö ˆ ru for all u P U. V 5 H).1. V ) to HomC H (U . as required. Then hø 4 G. ÷ 5 Hi H ˆ dim (HomC H (U . V ) to HomC H (U . V 5 H). that is. By Theorem 14. V )).16 The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Assume that H < G. j 21. and hø. Thus the function W3W is a linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. De®ne W from U 4 G to CG by sW ˆ rs (s P U 4 G)X Then W P HomCG (U 4 G. uW ˆ ru for all u P U X Then W P HomC H (U .232 Representations and characters of groups Proof Suppose that W P HomCG (U 4 G. V ). Let ö P HomC H (U . and there is a CG-submodule V of CG which has character ÷. Moreover. These two vector spaces therefore have the same dimension. there is an element r P CG such that sW ˆ rs for all s P U 4 GX De®ne W: U 3 CG to be the restriction of W to U. ÷ 5 Hi H X Proof First assume that the characters ÷ and ø are irreducible. ÷i G ˆ hø. g P G. Then by Corollary 21. Let ÷ be a character of G and let ø be a character of H. r2 P CG and r1 u ˆ r2 u for all u P U.24. We shall show that this linear transformation is invertible. Then there is a C H-submodule U of C H which has character ø. ÷i G ˆ dim (HomCG (U 4 G. V 5 H))X . Finally. we have hø 4 G. and so it is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. V ). since s is a linear combination of elements ug with u P U. ö ˆ W. note that if r1. V 5 H). V 5 H). Therefore the function W 3 W is surjective.

÷i G ˆ hø. For the general case. ÷i G ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ k ˆ iˆ1 d i ÷ i and ø ˆ m ˆ jˆ1 ej ø j X C B m ˆ jˆ1 ej ø j 4 G. Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G. . let ÷1 . de®ne the j . ˆ hø. f 5 Hi H X Proof This follows at once from the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. ÷ 5 Hi H 233 in the special case we are considering. . f i G ˆ hø. we therefore deduce that (21X17) hø 4 G. the characters of G span the vector space of class functions on G.4. ej we have ÷ˆ Therefore hø 4 G. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let ø1 .18 Corollary If f is a class function on G. . and ø is a character of H. Then for some integers di . since by Corollary 15. . ÷ 5 Hi H X This completes the proof of the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem.15. . namely when ÷ and ø are irreducible. 21. . k ˆ iˆ1 d i ÷i G m k ˆˆ jˆ1 iˆ1 m k ˆˆ ej d i hø j 4 G. ÷ i 5 Hi H k ˆ iˆ1 by (21X17) B jˆ1 iˆ1 m ˆ jˆ1 C di÷i 5 H H ej ø j . ø m be the irreducible characters of H. ÷ i i G ej d i hø j . j The values of induced characters We now show how to evaluate induced characters. . . and for convenience of notation.Induced modules and characters From Proposition 21. then hø 4 G.

if g P HX a 21. ÷i G ˆ hø 4 G. Proof Let f: G 3 C be the function given by 1 ˆ • f ( g) ˆ ø( y À1 gy) ( g P G)X j Hj yPG We aim to prove that f ˆ ø 4 G.4. If w P G then 1 ˆ • f (w À1 gw) ˆ ø( y À1 w À1 gwy) ˆ f ( g) j Hj yPG since wy runs through G as y runs through G. Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. and so by Corollary 15. it is suf®cient to show that h f .19 Proposition The values of the induced character ø 4 G are given by 1 ˆ • (ø 4 G)( g) ˆ ø( y À1 gy) j Hj yPG for all g P G. Therefore f is a class function. Then 1 ˆ h f . ÷i G ˆ ˆ 1 1 ˆˆ • ø(x)÷( yxy À1 )X jGj j Hj xPG yPG 1 ˆ ø(x)÷(x) j Hj xP H 1 1 ˆˆ • ø( y À1 gy)÷( g)X jGj j Hj gPG yPG . ÷i G for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. ÷i G ˆ f ( g)÷( g) jGj gPG ˆ Put x ˆ y À1 gy. Then h f .234 Representations and characters of groups @ • function ø: G 3 C by • ø( g) ˆ ø( g) 0 if g P H.

÷ 5 Hi H and so by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. h f .19 is more useful.Induced modules and characters 235 • since ø(x) ˆ 0 if x P H. a formula for the values of induced characters different from that given in Proposition 21. so the proof is complete. Therefore a h f . then the degree of ø 4 G is given by (ø 4 G)(1) ˆ jGj ø(1)X j Hj Proof This follows immediately by evaluating (ø 4 G)(1) using Proposition 21. ÷i G ˆ hø.21 Proposition If ÷ is a character of G and x P G. and ÷( yxy À1 ) ˆ ÷(x) for all y P G. ÷i G X This was the equation required to show that f ˆ ø 4 G. For x P G. the stated degree of ø 4 G can be found using just the de®nition of induced modules (see Exercise 21. ÷i G ˆ hø 4 G. j For practical purposes. then h÷.3). Alternatively. j 21. de®ne the class function f G on G by x & 1 if y P x G f G ( y) ˆ ( y P G)X x 0 if y P x G a Thus f is the characteristic function of the conjugacy class x G .23 below).19. f G i G ˆ x ÷(x) X jCG (x)j . and we shall derive this next (it is given in Proposition 21.20 Corollary If ø is a character of the subgroup H of G. 21.

.18. (1) If no element of x G lies in H. (2) If some element of x G lies in H. then f G 5 H ˆ 0. . x m . f G i G ˆ x ˆ ˆ Note that a result similar to Proposition 21. jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where x1 . .236 Proof We have Representations and characters of groups 1 ˆ ÷( g) f G ( g) x jGj gPG 1 ˆ jx G j ÷(x) ÷( g) ˆ jGj gPx G jGj ÷(x) jCG (x)j by Theorem 12X8X j h÷. . then (ø 4 G)(x) ˆ 0. but if g P G then g G may contain 0. we have: (21. xm P H and f G 5 H ˆ f x1 ‡ F F F ‡ f x m (as in (21. with representatives x1 . xm P H such that H H f G 5 H ˆ f x1 ‡ X X X ‡ f x m X x Statement (2) just says that H ’ x G breaks up into m conjugacy classes of H. (1) If no element of x G lies in H. . x (2) If some element of x G lies in H. then   ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)(x) ˆ jCG (x)j ‡X X X‡ . 2 or more conjugacy classes of H. f G i G ˆ hø. and suppose that x P G. X X X . 1. f G 5 Hi H X x x jCG (x)j .22)).23 Proposition Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G. x Proof By Proposition 21. To put this another way. .22) Suppose that x P G.21 and Corollary 21. we have (ø 4 G)(x) ˆ hø 4 G. 21. . then there are elements x1 .4. .21 was used in the proof of Theorem 16. If H < G and h P H then h H  h G .

b ˆ (1 3)X Then H  D8. f x m i H ˆ ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) ‡X X X‡ jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j by Proposition 21X21X j The result follows. We have G H f1 5 H ˆ f1 . bl.Induced modules and characters 237 If no element of x G lies in H. since a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1 and bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 . and H H f G 5 H ˆ f x1 ‡ X X X ‡ f x m as in (21. fa ˆ (1 2 3 4).24 Example Let G ˆ S4 and let H ˆ ka. By (12. G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H ˆ f (1 3)(2 4) ‡ f (1 2)(3 4) . and G H f (1 2 3 4) 5 H ˆ f (1 2 3 4) X For example. with representatives (1 3)(2 4) and (1 2)(3 4). a3 ˆ (1 4 3 2)g. f x1 i H ‡ X X X ‡ hø.12). the statement G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H ˆ f (1 3)(2 4) ‡ f (1 2)(3 4) records the fact that the G-conjugacy class (1 2)(3 4) G contains exactly two H-conjugacy classes. then f G 5 H ˆ 0. . G H f (1 3) 5 H ˆ f (1 3) . where a ˆ (1 2 3 4). fa2 ˆ (1 3)(2 4)g. a2 b ˆ (2 4)g. the conjugacy classes of H are f1g. then x (ø 4 G)(x) H H ˆ hø. G f (1 2 3) 5 H ˆ 0. And if some element of x G lies in H. and hence x (ø 4 G)(x) ˆ 0. fb ˆ (1 3).22)(2). 21. f x1 ‡ X X X ‡ f x m i H jCG (x)j H H ˆ hø.

Then according to Proposition 21. b ˆ (2 3 5)(4 7 6) . . Referring to Example 16.25 Example (cf. Exercise 17. 4   ø((1 3)(2 4)) ø((1 2)(3 4)) (ø 4 G)((1 2)(3 4)) ˆ 8 ‡ . we use induced characters to ®nd the character table of a group of order 21. . we have (ø 4 G)(1) ˆ 24 ø(1) . .2) De®ne permutations a. 21. we therefore have 1 ÷1 4 G ÷2 4 G ÷3 4 G ÷4 4 G ÷5 4 G 3 3 3 3 6 (1 2) 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À1 À1 3 À2 (1 2 3 4) 1 1 À1 À1 0 In the next example. 8 ø((1 3)) (ø 4 G)((1 3)) ˆ 4 . ÷5 of H  D8.23.3(3) for the irreducible characters ÷1 .238 Representations and characters of groups The orders of the centralizers of the elements of H are as follows: h |CG (h)| |C H (h)| 1 24 8 (1 3)(2 4) 8 8 (1 2 3 4) 4 4 (1 3) 4 4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 4 Suppose that ø is a character of H. 8 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3 4)) ˆ 4 ø((1 2 3 4)) X 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3)) ˆ 0. . b in S7 by a ˆ (1 2 3 4 5 6 7).

Using this. We shall obtain the last two irreducible characters of G by inducing linear characters of H. and similarly jC G (b)j ˆ 3. Their values are shown below: g |CG ( g)| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù ˆ e2ðia3 . bl of S7 . fa. Hence jC G (a)j ˆ 7. 21. Notice that G has exactly ®ve irreducible characters. Since kal v G and Gahai  C3. ÷3 of G as the lifts of the linear characters of Gahai. 0 < j < 2. b and b2 to be representatives of the conjugacy classes. Check that a7 ˆ b3 ˆ 1. 7 divides jC G (a)j. First we ®nd the conjugacy classes. we see that the conjugacy classes of G are f1g.23 for calculating ø k 4 G. a5 . G has order 21. a jC G (a)j . ÷2 . Also. note that H H H f G 5 H ˆ f a ‡ f a2 ‡ f a4 a . fai b: 0 < i < 6g. a4 g. a. Let H ˆ kal. a3 .Induced modules and characters and let G be the subgroup ka. fai b2 : 0 < i < 6gX We take 1. For 1 < k < 6. We aim to ®nd the character table of G. there is a character ø k of H given by ø k (a j ) ˆ ç jk (0 < j < 6)X To use the formula in Proposition 21. we obtain three linear characters ÷1 . Let ç ˆ e2ðia7 . Since hai < C G (a). a2 . and since b P C G (a). fa3 . bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 X 239 It follows from these relations that the elements of G are all of the form ai bj with 0 < i < 6. a6 g.

Hence by Proposition 21. (ø3 4 G)(a3 ) ˆ ç ‡ ç2 ‡ ç4 . We now calculate that h÷4 . . ø6 are linearly independent.240 Representations and characters of groups since no two of the elements a. a2 . (ø1 4 G)(b) ˆ (ø1 4 G)(b2 ) ˆ 0X Similarly (ø3 4 G)(1) ˆ 3. . (ø1 4 G)(1) ˆ 3X And since no G-conjugate of b or b2 lies in H. Therefore ÷4 Tˆ ÷5 . since ø1 . and (ø3 4 G)(b) ˆ (ø3 4 G)(b2 ) ˆ 0X Thus if we write ÷4 ˆ ø1 4 G and ÷5 ˆ ø3 4 G. . Character table of ha. Thus ÷4 and ÷5 are our last two irreducible characters. and the character table of G is as shown. 21 7 7 3 3 and similarly h÷5 . . (ø3 4 G)(a) ˆ ç3 ‡ ç5 ‡ ç6 . then the values of ÷4 and ÷5 are 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a ç ‡ ç2 ‡ ç4 ç3 ‡ ç5 ‡ ç6 a3 ç3 ‡ ç5 ‡ ç6 ç ‡ ç2 ‡ ç4 b 0 0 b2 0 0 Now ÷4 5 H ˆ ø1 ‡ ø2 ‡ ø4 and ÷5 5 H ˆ ø3 ‡ ø5 ‡ ø6 . a4 are conjugate in H. ÷5 i G ˆ 1. b: a7 ˆ b3 ˆ 1.23. (ø1 4 G)(a) ˆ ç ‡ ç2 ‡ ç4 and similarly (ø1 4 G)(a3 ) ˆ ç3 ‡ ç5 ‡ ç6 . ÷4 i G ˆ 9 2 2 0 0 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ˆ 1. bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 i g |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 21 1 1 1 3 3 a 7 1 1 1 ç ‡ ç2 ‡ ç4 ç3 ‡ ç5 ‡ ç6 a3 7 1 1 1 ç3 ‡ ç5 ‡ ç6 ç ‡ ç2 ‡ ç4 b 3 1 ù ù2 0 0 b2 3 1 ù2 ù 0 0 .

÷ 5 Hi H .Induced modules and characters Summary of Chapter 21 Assume that H is a subgroup of G. De®ne U to be the 1-dimensional subspace of C H spanned by 1 À a2 ‡ b À a2 bX (a) Check that U is a C H-submodule of C H. . then U 4 G is simply U(CG). The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem states that hø 4 G. (b) Find a basis of the induced CG-module U 4 G. (c) Write down the character of the C H-module U and the character of the CG-module U 4 G. If no element of g G lies in H. If ø is a character of H then the induced character ø 4 G is given by 1 ˆ • (ø 4 G)( g) ˆ ø( y À1 gy)X j Hj yPG In particular. then (ø 4 G)( g) ˆ 0X If some element of g G lies in H. an induced CG-module U 4 G can be de®ned. Let G ˆ S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3)l  C3 . the degree of ø:G is |G: H|ø(1). Is U 4 G irreducible? 2. If U is a C H-module of C H. as given in . where ø is a character of H and ÷ is a character of G. For each C H-module U. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l and let H be the subgroup ka2 . b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. . . Exercises for Chapter 21 1. . then   ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)( g) ˆ jCG ( g)j ‡X X X‡ jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where f G 5 H ˆ f x1 ‡ X X X ‡ f x m . 3. 241 1. ÷5 are the irreducible characters of G. g 4. 2. ÷i G ˆ hø. Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. (a) If ÷1 . bl.

) 5. (b) Calculate the induced characters ø j 4 G (1 < j < 3) as sums of the irreducible characters ÷ i of G. Show that the integers d 1 . Let G ˆ S7 and let H ˆ ka. Let ø be an irreducible character of H. Calculate the values of the induced characters ö 4 G and ø 4 G. Show direct from the de®nition that if H < G and ø is a character of H. . Let ö and ø be the irreducible characters of H which are given by gi |C H ( g i )| ö ø 1 21 1 3 a 7 a3 7 b 3 1 0 b2 3 1 0 1 1 ç ‡ ç2 ‡ ç4 ç3 ‡ ç5 ‡ ç6 where ç ˆ e2ðia7 (see Example 21. d k .1. Let H be a subgroup of G. You are given that jC G (a)j ˆ 7 and jC G (b)j ˆ 18. which are given by ø 4 G ˆ d 1 ÷1 ‡ X X X d k ÷k . bl.5. let ø be a character of H. . . 6. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. b ˆ (2 3 5)(4 7 6). ø2 . then jGj (ø 4 G)(1) ˆ ø(1)X j Hj 4. X X X . satisfy k ˆ iˆ1 d 2 < jG : HjX i (Compare Proposition 20. work out the restrictions ÷ i 5 H (1 < i < 5) as sums of the irreducible characters ø1 . and let ÷1 . . where a ˆ (1 2 3 4 5 6 7).) . and let ÷ be a character of G. ø3 of C3 .242 Representations and characters of groups Section 18. Prove that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G ˆ (ø 4 G)÷X (Hint: consider the inner product of each side with an arbitrary irreducible character of G.25. 3. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G. as in Example 21. and use the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem.25).

. Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. and let ø be an irreducible character of H. Discover and prove results for ø 4 G which are similar to those presented in Chapter 20 for the restriction of irreducible characters of G to H.Induced modules and characters 243 7.

using algebraic integers. for ë to be an algebraic integer. And we prove some useful congruence properties. Thus.1 De®nition A complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is an eigenvalue of some matrix.22 Algebraic integers Among the properties of characters which may be regarded as fundamental. This is one of several results which we shall prove in this chapter. for the same matrix A. perhaps the most opaque is that which states that the degree of an irreducible character of a ®nite group G must divide the order of G. if p is a prime number and g P G is an element of order pr for some r. we have uA ˆ ëu for some non-zero row vector u. Algebraic integers 22. for example. then ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod p for any character ÷ of G for which ÷( g) is an integer. We discuss properties of a group element g P G which ensure that ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. all of whose entries are integers. we require that det (A À ëI) ˆ 0 for some square matrix A with integer entries. Most of the results concern arithmetic properties of character values. We remark that ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form 244 . Equivalently.

all of whose entries are integers. a nÀ1 are integers (see Exercise 22. and let u be the row vector (1. 1) ˆ ùuX This shows that every nth root of unity is an algebraic integer. ù nÀ1 ).2 Examples (1) Every integer n is an algebraic integer. In fact. . (4) Let A be the n 3 n matrix H 0 0 f1 0 f f0 1 Aˆf f f d0 0 0 0 given by 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 1 0 0g g 0 0g gX g g 0 0e 1 0 Suppose that ù is an nth root of unity. ù. . ù nÀ1 . then ëì and ë ‡ ì are also algebraic integers. ù2 .3 Theorem If ë and ì are algebraic integers.7). 22. . vB ˆ ìvX Suppose that A is an m 3 m matrix and B is an n 3 n matrix. where u is the row vector obtained from u by replacing each entry by its complex conjugate. 22. . p (2) 2 is an algebraic integer. such that uA ˆ ëu. X X X . Proof There exist square matrices A and B. since it is an eigenvalue of the 0 1 matrix X 2 0 (3) If ë is an algebraic integer. X X X . ù2 . algebraic integers are usually de®ned in this way. since n is an eigenvalue of the 1 3 1 matrix (n). then u(ÀA) ˆ (Àë)u and uA ˆ ëu. then so are Àë and the complex conjugate ë of ë. .Algebraic integers x n ‡ a nÀ1 x nÀ1 ‡ X X X ‡ a1 x ‡ a0 245 where a0 . Then uA ˆ (ù. note that if A is an integer matrix and u is a row vector with uA ˆ ëu. To see this. and non-zero row vectors u and v.

De®ne an endomorphism A  B of V by (ei  f j )(A  B) ˆ ei A  f j B (1 < i < m. respectively. Since the matrix of A  B relative to the basis ei  fj (1 < i < m.3. ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity. 1 < j < n).246 Representations and characters of groups Let e1 .4 Corollary If ÷ is a character of G and g P G. Let Im and In denote the identity m 3 m and n 3 n matrices. em be a basis of C m and f 1 . It is easy to check as in the proof of Proposition 19. ( ë ij (ei  f j ))(A  B) ˆ ë ij (ei A  f j B)). .3 shows that the set of all algebraic integers forms a subring of C.4 that for all vectors x P C m . then ë is an integer. X X X . y P C n. so any sum of roots of unity is an algebraic integer by Theorem 22. The next result provides a link between algebraic integers and characters. Proof By Proposition 13. by Example 22. f n be a basis of C n . Hence ÷( g) is an algebraic integer. Then the vectors ei  fj (1 < i < m. . j 22. € € extending linearly (that is. . then ÷( g) is an algebraic integer. Then (u  v)(A  I n ‡ I m  B) ˆ uA  vI n ‡ uI m  vB ˆ ëu  v ‡ u  ìv ˆ (ë ‡ ì)(u  v).9. 22. .5 Proposition If ë is both a rational number and an algebraic integer. Each root of unity is an algebraic integer.2(4). 1 < j < n) form a basis of the tensor product space V ˆ C m  C n. it follows that ëì is an algebraic integer. j Theorem 22. we have (x  y)(A  B) ˆ xA  yBX Hence (u  v)(A  B) ˆ uA  vB ˆ ëu  ìv ˆ ëì(u  v)X Therefore ëì is an eigenvalue of A  B. and we deduce as above that ë ‡ ì is an algebraic integer. 1 < j < n) has integer entries. .

6 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G and let g P G. For every n 3 n matrix A of integers. j The next result is an immediate consequence of Corollary 22. as a special case of Proposition 22. p the well known result that 2 is irrational. s and hence ë is not an algebraic integer. We shall show that ë is not an algebraic integer. Write ë ˆ ras. we deduce that det (sA À rI) Tˆ 0. Therefore det (sA À rI) ˆ (Àr) n ‡ mp for some integer m. Then . If ÷( g) is a rational number. In passing.5. Thus  n 1 det (A À ëI) ˆ det (sA À rI) Tˆ 0. and hence also by p.7 Lemma Suppose that g P G and that C is the conjugacy class of G which contains g. we establish two preliminary lemmas.5. 22. note that we have. Recall from De®nition 12.2(2) shows p that 2 is an algebraic integer. with character ÷.Algebraic integers 247 Proof Suppose that ë is a rational number which is not an integer. Let p be a prime number which divides s.4 and Proposition 22.) The degree of every irreducible character divides |G| To prepare for the proof that |G| is divisible by the degree of each irreducible character of G. the entries of sA À rI which are not on the diagonal are divisible by s. where r and s are coprime integers and s Tˆ Æ1. then ÷( g) is an integer. Let U be an irreducible CG-module.21 that if C is a conjugacy class of G. which is enough to establish the proposition. then ˆ Cˆ x P CGX xPC 22. (Example 22. As p does not divide r (since r and s are coprime).

14 that there exists ë P C such that uC ˆ ëu for all u P U.8 Lemma € Let r ˆ gPG á g g P CG.22). where ëˆ jGj ÷( g) X jCG ( g)j ÷(1) Proof Since C lies in the centre of CG (see Proposition 12. Then for 1 < i < n. then ˆ [x]B ˆ ëIX xPC Taking the traces of both sides of this equation.8. . Suppose that u is a non-zero element of CG such that ur ˆ ëu. this yields jCj÷( g) ˆ ë÷(1)X Thus ë ˆ jCj÷( g)a÷(1).248 Representations and characters of groups uC ˆ ëu for all u P U . . Then ë is an algebraic integer. we know by Proposition 9. . ˆ u x ˆ ëu for all u P U X xPC Consequently if B is a basis of U. Proof Let g1 . the result follows. that is. xPC and since ÷ is constant on the conjugacy class C. gn be the elements of G. where each á g is an integer. we obtain ˆ ÷(x) ˆ ë÷(1). where ë P C. j 22. As |C| ˆ |G:CG ( g)| by Theorem 12. we have gi r ˆ n ˆ jˆ1 aij g j . .

Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. j 22.9 Example Let G ˆ Cn ˆ kx: x n ˆ 1l.11 Theorem If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Proof Let U be an irreducible CG-submodule of CG with character ÷. j 22.8. . aij ˆ á g where g ˆ gÀ1 gj . Then uC ˆ ëu for all u P U.) The i statement that ur ˆ ëu (with u Tˆ 0) says that ë is an eigenvalue of the integer matrix A ˆ (aij ). Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. Then ux ˆ ùu and so Lemma 22. 22. and de®ne u ˆ 1 ‡ ùx À1 ‡ ù2 x À2 ‡ X X X ‡ ù nÀ1 x P CG.3. both jGj ÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) and ÷( g i ) jGj ÷( g) jCG ( g)j ÷(1) are algebraic integers.10 and 22. by Corollaries 22. . .2(4). where ù is an nth root of unity. Then for all i.8 con®rms that ù is an algebraic integer. k ˆ iˆ1 jGj ÷( g i )÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) . by Lemma 22.10 Corollary If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and g P G.Algebraic integers 249 for certain integers aij . . Hence by Theorem 22.4. Proof Let g1 . (In fact. and let C be the sum of the elements in the conjugacy class of G which contains g. then ëˆ is an algebraic integer. by Lemma 22. then ÷(1) divides |G|. Notice that this example is just a reworking of Example 22. gk be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G.7.

if jGj ˆ p2 then ÷(1) ˆ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷. But g 3 det ( gr) is a linear character of G (see Exercise 13. Hence G9 Tˆ 1. Theorem 22.5.7(a)). By Theorem 22. Hence. and so G9 ˆ G as G is simple. p.13 Corollary No simple group has an irreducible character of degree 2. First. by Proposition 9. By Theorem 17. (Recall that a group G is simple if it has no normal subgroups apart from {1} and G.5 now implies that jGja÷(1) is an integer. and hence satis®es p < n. (Note that ÷(1) . C) be a representation of G with character ÷. and so r is injective. ÷(1) divides |G|. and this implies that det ( gr) ˆ 1 for all g P GX . j 22.250 Representations and characters of groups is an algebraic integer. Therefore by Theorem 17.11 also has the following interesting consequences concerning irreducible characters of simple groups.4(1). as the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is equal to |G|. In particular.) Hence. then ÷(1) is a power of p for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. That is.11. This algebraic integer is equal to jGja÷(1). where p is prime.12 Examples (1) If p is a prime number and G is a group of order pn for some n. As jGja÷(1) is a rational number. (2) Let G be a group of order 2 p. either the degrees of the irreducible characters of G are all 1.) 22.11. Since Ker r v G and G is simple. Theorem 16. the number of linear characters of G divides |G|. 2. observe that G is non-abelian. the degree of each irreducible character of G is 1 or 2 (it cannot be p for the reason noted in (1) above). Let r: G 3 GL(2.18. X X X . we recover the well known result that groups of order p2 are abelian. Proposition 22. we have Ker r ˆ f1g. G has no non-trivial linear characters.11. Proof Suppose that G is a simple group which has an irreducible character ÷ of degree 2. 1. by the row orthogonality relations. 2 (with ( p À 1)a2 degrees 2)X (3) If G ˆ Sn then every prime p which divides the degree of an irreducible character of G also divides n!. using Proposition 9. or they are 1.

11. and by Proposition 9. as G is simple. while jG: N j is a power of p. the sum being over the irreducible characters ÷ of G for which ÷(1) . Then ÷(1) is divisible by p. Proof The result is correct if G is abelian (see Theorem 9. This time.8). Therefore G contains an element x of order 2 (see Exercise 1. ÷(1) . we conclude that   À1 0 À1 T (xr)T ˆ X 0 À1 Thus xr ˆ T(ÀI)T À1 ˆ ÀIX Consequently (xr)( gr) ˆ ( gr)(xr) for all g P G. N is an abelian normal subgroup of G. we assume that every irreducible character of G has degree a power of a prime p.14 Corollary Suppose that p is a prime and the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p. 22. and jN j is coprime to p. G is not simple unless G has prime order. by Theorem 22. 1 for some irreducible character ÷ of G.11. this means that xg ˆ gx for all g P G. so p divides |G| by . Consider the 2 3 2 matrix xr. Since det (xr) ˆ 1. by our hypothesis. that is. xr has order 2. so we assume that G is non-abelian. Since G is non-abelian.11 give us the equation ˆ jGj ˆ jGaG9j ‡ ÷(1)2 . As r is injective.6). Theorems 11. 1. j Our next result again shows that information about character degrees can sometimes be used to learn about the structure of a group. and hence hxi v GX This is a contradiction. Then G has an abelian normal p-complement. there is a 2 3 2 matrix T such that T À1 (xr)T is a diagonal matrix with diagonal entries Æ1. As r is injective. In particular.Algebraic integers 251 Now G has even order.12 and 17. and we deduce that G has an abelian normal pcomplement N.

16. We may now apply induction on |G| to deduce that H has an abelian normal p-complement N. and we deduce from the equation above that p divides the order of the abelian group GaG9. because G is simple. j A condition which ensures that ÷( g) is an integer In Theorem 22. On the other hand.252 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 22. if N ˆ G then G is again abelian.7). Suppose that g P G and the order of g is coprime to p. This result implies. Therefore. If a and b are positive integers. so ø(1) is a power of p. every entry in the character table of Sn is an integer (see Corollary 22. it follows that GaG9 has a subgroup of index p. for integers d and n. 22.4.17).15 Lemma If ù is an nth root of unity. a similar argument shows that g P N. so it remains to prove that N v G.1. so either N ˆ {1} or N ˆ G.16 is evidently a useful result. G has prime order. for example. Theorem 22. we require a preliminary lemma concerning roots of unity. Also.16 below we give a group-theoretic condition on an element g of G which implies that ÷( g) is an integer for every character ÷ of G. assume that G is simple. since otherwise p divides the order of gH which in turn divides the order of g. But an abelian simple group has prime order. then we denote their highest common factor by (a.11. then . øi Tˆ 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. we have Z(G) ˆ G.8 shows that ø(1) divides ÷(1). Finally. Since every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. so G is abelian. We have that |N| is coprime to p and jG : N j is a power of p. b). that for all n. Clifford's Theorem 20. Bearing in mind the dif®culties we encountered in constructing the character tables of Sn for small values of n (we reached n ˆ 6 in Example 19.17). Then h÷ 5 H. Before proving Theorem 22. by Proposition 20. by Exercise 1. If N ˆ f1g then G is a p-group so Z(G) Tˆ {1} (see Exercise 12. Hence N consists of those elements of G whose order is coprime to p. Next. Hence G has a normal subgroup H of index p. Let ø be an irreducible character of H. we write d|n to denote the fact that d divides n. and from this fact it follows easily that N v G. Then g P H.

nad)ˆ1 It follows that ˆ 1<i< n. there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B ˆ d e F ùm 0 .n)ˆ1 253 is an integer. ( j. So suppose that ù is an nth root of unity and ù Tˆ 1. if ù ˆ 1 then the result is immediate.nad)ˆ1 j as required.Algebraic integers ˆ ùi 1<i< n. 22. (i.n)ˆ1 ùi ˆ n ˆ iˆ1 ùi À ˆ ˆ ù dj P Z. 1. By Proposition 9. 1< j< nad.nad)ˆ1 If djn then ù d is an (nad)th root of unity. then by our induction hypothesis. Proof We prove the result by induction on n. ( j.16 Theorem Let g be an element of order n in G. n) ˆ 1. dj n. Then ù is a root of the polynomial €n (x n À 1)a(x À 1) ˆ x nÀ1 ‡ X X X ‡ x ‡ 1X Therefore iˆ1 ù i ˆ 0. It is trivial for n ˆ 1. Suppose that g is conjugate to gi for all i with 1 < i < n and (i. and if in addition d . ˆ ù dj P ZX 1< j< nad. Then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷ of degree m. d . (i.11. 1 ( j. €n i Now we partition the sum iˆ1 ù according to the highest common factor d of i and n: 0ˆ n ˆ iˆ1 ùi ˆ ˆ ˆ dj n 1<i< n (i.n)ˆd ùi ˆ ˆ ˆ ù dj X dj n 1< j< nad. Also.

15. and hence s÷( g) P Z. and so ÷( g) is an integer by Corollary 22. ù m are nth roots of unity. . Consequently ÷( g) is a rational number.15. j We remark that using Galois theory it is possible to prove the converse of Theorem 22. . (i. For example. .17 Corollary All the character values of symmetric groups are integers. n) ˆ 1. then g is conjugate to g i whenever i is coprime to n. we need to de®ne the p9-part of a group element. 22. . the matrix i [ g i ]B has diagonal entries ù1 . namely that if ÷( g i ) P Z for all characters ÷ of G.16. j The p9-part of a group element The rest of the chapter is devoted to some important congruence properties of character values. then the permutations g and g i have the same cycle-shape. we have ÷( g i ) ˆ ÷( g) for such i. and so i ÷( g i ) ˆ ù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù im X Therefore by Lemma 22. . ˆ ÷( g i ) P ZX 1<i< n. where s is the number of integers i with 1 < i < n and (i.n)ˆ1 As g is conjugate to gi if 1 < i < n and (i. . n) ˆ 1. then ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod p. and ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z.6. g is an element of G of order pr for some r. . The de®nition will emerge from the following lemma. Before going into the character theory. . and hence are conjugate by Theorem 12.16. . The result now follows from Theorem 22. ù im . For 1 < i < n. one particularly useful consequence of our results is that if p is a prime number. Proof If g P Sn and i is coprime to the order of g.254 Representations and characters of groups where ù1 .

y9 P G also satisfy (1)±(3). p) ˆ 1. that is. j v v v v v . Now suppose that x9. We must show that x ˆ x9 and y ˆ y9. We have x9 g ˆ x9 y9x9 ˆ gx9. g ˆ x9 y9 ˆ y9x9. so x9 commutes with g. Therefore x and y satisfy conditions (1)±(3).18 Lemma Let p be a prime number and let g P G. then we have shown that the order of z is both a power of p and coprime to p. Moreover. Since both x and x9 have order a power of p. the elements x and y of G which satisfy conditions (1)±(3) are unique. Finally. it follows that x À1 x9 has order a power of p. x p ˆ g aup ˆ 1. as required. y u ˆ g bup ˆ 1X Hence the order of x is a power of p and the order of y divides u. Then there exist x. Proof Let the order of g be upv .Algebraic integers 255 22. Similarly. (2) the order of x is a power of p. v P Z and (u. the order of x9 is a power of p and the order of y9 is coprime to p. so x À1 x9 ˆ y( y9)À1 X If z ˆ x À1 x9 ˆ y( y9)À1 . so is coprime to p. Then xy ˆ yx ˆ g au‡bp ˆ g. where u. Therefore z ˆ 1. xy ˆ g ˆ x9 y9. b such that au ‡ bpv ˆ 1X Put x ˆ gau and y ˆ gbp . and so x ˆ x9 and y ˆ y9. y P G such that (1) g ˆ xy ˆ yx. Then there exist integers a. y9 commutes with y and y( y9)À1 has order coprime to p. and (3) the order of y is coprime to p. hence also with gau ˆ x.

Z[æ] ˆ f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x]gX Clearly. . æ. Let n be a positive integer and let æ ˆ e2ðia n . . . æ2 .18.19 De®nition We call the element y which appears in Lemma 22. if p ˆ 2 and g has order 6. 0 < ai < p À 1 for all iX As there are only ®nitely many such elements. that is. (22. The ideals of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ] are in . b with au ‡ bpv ˆ 1. v P Z and (u. De®ne Z[æ] to be the subring of C generated by Z and æ. 22.20) Let the order of g be upv . then the p9-part of g is g . æ nÀ1 . Proof Consider the factor ring Z[æ]a pZ[æ].part of g is gbp . We extract the following statement from the proof of Lemma 22.256 Representations and characters of groups 22. with ai P Z. . this has as its elements all the cosets pZ[æ] ‡ r with r P Z[æ]. every element of Z[æ] is an integer combination of the powers 1. y ˆ gÀ2 . a principal ideal of Z[æ]. Every such coset contains an element of the form a0 ‡ a1 æ ‡ X X X ‡ a nÀ1 æ nÀ1 . we conclude that Z[æ]a pZ[æ] is ®nite.18 the p9-part of g. so in fact Z[æ] ˆ f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x] of degree < n À 1gX Now let p be a prime number and let pZ[æ] ˆ f pr: r P Z[æ]g. the expression g ˆ xy in Lemma 22. For example. where u.21 Proposition There are only ®nitely many ideals I of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ]. À2 A little ring theory To prepare for our main result on congruence properties of character values. p) ˆ 1. v Then the p9. we need a few basic facts about a certain subring of C in which all our character values will lie. By de®nition.18 has x ˆ g3 . and choose integers a.

as required. assume that r n P P. we therefore have rZ[æ] ‡ P ˆ Z[æ]X Consequently. we also have pZ  P ’ Z. j . Therefore there are only ®nitely many such ideals. (A proper ideal of Z[æ] is an ideal which is not equal to Z[æ]. if r n P P for some positive integer n. 22.22 Proposition If r.) We now prove two easy results about the maximal ideal P. since P Tˆ Z[æ]. In particular. Repeating this argument.Algebraic integers 257 bijective correspondence with the ideals of Z[æ]a pZ[æ] (the correspondence being I 3 Ia pZ[æ]). a Since r P P. but this implies that 1 P P. which establishes that P ’ Z  pZ. As P is a maximal. If p B m then there are integers a. we conclude that r P P. then r P P. the ideal rZ[æ] ‡ P of Z[æ] strictly contains P. it follows that s P P. Proof Assume that rs P P and r P P. that is. We must show that s P P. which is false. and the proof is complete. then either r P P or s P P. b with j am ‡ bp ˆ 1.23 Proposition We have P ’ Z ˆ pZ. P is a proper ideal which is contained in no larger proper ideal of Z[æ]. j 22. b P P such that 1 ˆ ra ‡ bX Then s ˆ rsa ‡ sbX As rs P P and b P P.21 that there is a maximal ideal of P of Z[æ] which contains pZ[æ]. Since p P P. there exist a P Z[æ]. Proof Let m P P ’ Z. Thus pjm. this implies that either r P P or r nÀ1 P P. s P Z[æ] and rs P P. For the last statement of the proposition. j We deduce from Proposition 22. Since n r ˆ rr nÀ1 .

ù bp ˆ ù bp X Consider the number (ù À ù bp ) p .  v vÀ r v p bpv pv pv v pvÀ1 bpv (ù À ù ) ˆ ù À p ù ù ‡ X X X Æ ù p ù rbp r ‡ X X X ‡ (À1) p ù bp X For 0 . Application of Proposition 22.258 Representations and characters of groups Congruences At last we are ready to prove our results on congruences of character values. pv . Choose integers a. and so v v 2v 2v ù p ˆ ù aup . Hence (ù À ù bp ) p ˆ ù p ‡ (À1) p ù bp ‡ pá. 22. v P Z and v (u. p) ˆ 1. Moreover. where u. then ÷( g) À ÷( y) P PX Proof Suppose that g has order m ˆ upv .11).20)). the binomial coef®cient ( rp ) is divisible by p. where á P Z[æ]. we have @ 0. and hence lie in Z[æ]. so ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both sums of nth roots of unity. By the Binomial Theorem.22 now forces v v v v v 2v v v v v 2v v v 2v v v . since ù p ˆ ù bp . let p be a prime number and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing pZ[æ]. b with au ‡ bpv ˆ 1. if p ˆ 2. pv pv bp2v ù ‡ (À1) ù ˆ pv 2ù . if p Tˆ 2.24 Theorem Let g P G and let y be the p9. The orders of g and of y divide n ˆ |G|. Let G be a group of order n and let æ ˆ e2ðia n . The ring Z[æ] is of interest because all the character values of G lie in Z[æ] (see Proposition 9. so it follows that (ù À ù bp ) p P pZ[æ]X Thus (ù À ù bp ) p lies in the maximal ideal P. As in the previous section.part of g. If ÷ is any character of G. Then y ˆ g bp (see (22. Then v ù ˆ ù au‡bp . Now let ù be an mth root of unity (so ù P Z[æ] as mjn). r .

then ÷( g)  ÷( y) mod pX Proof As ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers. We shall use the congruence results 22. then ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod pX Proof As the order of g is a power of p. Suppose that g P G and that y is the p9. j Notice that Corollary 13.27 Corollary Let p be a prime number.24±22. .23 give ÷( g) À ÷( y) P P ’ Z ˆ pZX Therefore ÷( g)  ÷( y) mod p. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z.26 Corollary Let p be a prime number. by (22. we just illustrate the results with reference to some character tables which we already know. d v v which. . there are mth roots of unity ù1 . If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers. lies in P. . . so the result is immediate from Corollary 22. the p9-part of g is 1. j 22. For the moment.part of g.27 extensively in our character calculations in Chapters 25±7. ù d such that bp ÷( g) ˆ ù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù d and ÷( y) ˆ ù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù bp X d v v Then bp ÷( g) À ÷( y) ˆ (ù1 À ù1 ) ‡ X X X ‡ (ù d À ù bp ).10 is the special case of Corollary 22. .11.27 in which g has order 2.26.25). Suppose that g P G and the order of g is a power of p.24 and Proposition 22. j 22.Algebraic integers (22X25) (ù À ù bp ) P PX v 259 By Proposition 9. Theorem 22.

⠈ (1 À 5)a2. That is. then the p9-part of g is 1. 3X However. If g ˆ (1 2 3) then Corollary 22. ÷4 ((1 2 3 4 5)) ˆ á P Z. . Also ÷ i ((1 2 3 4 5))  ÷ i (1) mod 5 for i ˆ 1. 2. If we take p ˆ 5 and g ˆ (1 2 3 4 5). we have â 5 P P. Thus the corresponding entries in columns 1 and 2 Character table of A5 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 1 À1 0 â á of the character table are congruent modulo 3. p p where á ˆ (1 ‡ 5)a2. and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing 5Z[æ]. The degree of every irreducible character of G divides |G|. Summary of Chapter 22 1.22.260 Representations and characters of groups 22. so 5 P P by Proposition 22.14 that the character table of A5 is as shown.24 for this a value. We illustrate Theorem 22. ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) P PX This illustrates Theorem 22.24. Since â P Z[æ] (see p Proposition 9. Character values are algebraic integers. p p Then ( 5)2 P P.11). 2. Similarly the entries in columns 1 and 3 are congruent modulo 2.28 Example Recall from Example 20.26 implies that ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod 3 whenever ÷( g) P Z. and p ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) ˆ á À 3 ˆ 1(1 ‡ 5 À 6) 2 p p p ˆ 5 . 1(1 À 5) ˆ â 5X 2 Put æ ˆ e2ðia60 . as can be seen by inspecting the table.

1 G i ˆ 1 (÷(1) ‡ 2á). 3. Use Theorems 11. (c) Deduce that ÷ ˆ 1 G . jGj where á is an algebraic integer. Let p be a prime number. (b) Show that |G9| ˆ p. Suppose that G is a group of odd order.11 to show that every irreducible character of G has degree 1.Algebraic integers 261 3. 4. If g P G and y is the p9-part of g. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . q. (c) Show that q divides p À 1 and that G has q ‡ (( p À 1)aq) conjugacy classes. 17.12. . then ÷( g) is an integer. 5. This exercise shows that the only irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷ ˆ ÷ is the trivial character. Let G be a group of order 15. for all characters ÷. Prove that the number of conjugacy classes in a group of order 16 is 7. 2. Let G be a group and let ö be a character of G such that ö( g) ˆ ö(h) for all non-identity elements g and h of G. (b) Now let ÷ be an irreducible character of G with ÷ ˆ ÷. (c) Show that if ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G. (b) Show that a ‡ b and a ‡ b|G| are integers. 10 or 16. If g is conjugate to g i for all integers i which are coprime to the order of g. then b÷(1) is an integer. Exercises for Chapter 22 1. Deduce that G is abelian. (a) Find the degrees of all the irreducible characters of G. then g ˆ 1. b P C. then ÷( g)  ÷( y) mod p for all characters ÷ of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are integers. Prove that h÷. (d) Deduce that both a and b are integers.11 and 22. (a) Prove that if g P G and g ˆ gÀ1 . (a) Show that ö ˆ a1 G ‡ b÷reg for some a. and let G be a nonabelian group of order pq. 4.

A certain group G of order 120 has exactly seven conjugacy classes. g7 with orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 120 g2 2 12 g3 2 8 g4 3 6 g5 4 4 g6 6 6 g7 5 5 Using Corollary 22. and contains an element g of order 5 such that jCG ( g)j ˆ 5. (c) Find ÷(1) and ÷( g) for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. (b) Use Corollary 22. g. g2 .26 and the column orthogonality relations. 7. where each ar (0 < r < n À 1) is an integer. ÷( g) is 0. (a) Show that for every irreducible character ÷ of G. ®nd the character table of G. Prove that a complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form x n ‡ a nÀ1 x nÀ1 ‡ X X X ‡ a1 x ‡ a0 . 1 or À1.262 Representations and characters of groups 6. (d) You are given that all entries in the character table of G are integers. and that the conjugacy classes of G have representatives g1 . g3 and g4 are conjugate in G. This exercise illustrates this point with the group G ˆ S5 . . . . It is often possible to calculate the character table from limited arithmetic information about the group G. . . Moreover.27 to deduce that G has two irreducible characters of degree 5.

Real characters An element g of the ®nite group G is said to be real if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . then of course the character of r is real-valued. then the conjugacy class g G is also said to be 263 . characters of CG-modules are real-valued. However. we have always taken our representations to be over the ®eld C of complex numbers. Let r be a representation of G. If all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. and the ®rst main result of the chapter describes the number of real-valued irreducible characters of G. Nevertheless. but also gives delicate information about characters which often comes into play in more dif®cult calculations. while there is no representation ó equivalent to r with all the matrices gó having real entries. There is a subtle interplay between representations over C and representations over R. and if g is real. However. the converse is not true: it can happen that the character of r is realvalued. and is not used in the ensuing chapters. which we shall explore in this chapter. This is used in the last section to prove a famous result of Brauer and Fowler concerning centralizers of involutions in ®nite simple groups. the subject of real representations not only is elegant and interesting.23 Real representations Since Chapter 9. Various criteria for whether or not a character corresponds to a representation over R lead us to the remarkable Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. which consist largely of the calculation of character tables and applications of character theory. some results in representation theory work equally well for the ®eld R of real numbers. Often. The material in this chapter is perhaps at a slightly more advanced level than that in the rest of the book.

the entries in the column of X which corresponds to g G are the complex conjugates of the entries in the column of X which corresponds to ( g À1 ) G . Part of the following corollary was obtained by a different method in Exercise 22. the result is proved. the complex conjugate ÷ is also an irreducible character (see Proposition 13. For every conjugacy class g G of G. and the number of real conjugacy classes of G is tr (Q)X j As these numbers are equal.264 Representations and characters of groups real.4). and so there is a permutation matrix Q such that XQ ˆ X By Proposition 16. On the other hand. Therefore X can be obtained from X be permuting the columns. For every irreducible character ÷ of G. Notice that if a conjugacy class is real. . the conjugacy class {1} of G is real. we have the number of real irreducible characters of G is tr (P).1 Theorem The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G.2. and the trivial character of G is real. since ( g À1 ) G ˆ fx À1 : x P g G g.2. Proof Let X denote the character table of G. 23. and let X denote the complex conjugate of the matrix X. Hence there is a permutation matrix P such that PX ˆ X (see Exercise 4. Since the trace of a permutation matrix is equal to the number of points ®xed by the corresponding permutation. so X can be obtained from X by permuting the rows. Therefore Q ˆ X À1 X ˆ X À1 PX X Consequently P and Q have the same trace. a character ÷ of G is real if ÷( g) is real for all g P G.15). Thus for example. by Proposition 13. X is invertible.5. then it contains the inverse of each of its elements.

1). bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. j Characters which can be realized over R Let ÷ be a character of the group G.1. Hence G has at least two real conjugacy classes.3(3)). b2 ˆ a2 . Therefore by Theorem 23. (2) Let G ˆ Q8 ˆ ka. such that for all g P G and 1 < i < n. since     À1 0 0 1 .8. . . {1} and g G. and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Example 16. . . 23. If G has even order.Real representations 265 23. then no non-identity element of G is real (see the solution to Exercise 23. C) with character ÷. Then ÷ can be realized over R. the only real character of G is the trivial character. and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Exercise 17. G has an element g of order 2. then by Exercise 1. . and so G has at least two real irreducible characters by Theorem 23. We say that ÷ can be realized over R if there is a representation r: G 3 GL (n. v i g is a linear combination of v1 .3 Examples (1) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. This is the same as saying that there is some CG-module V with character ÷. . . b: a4 ˆ 1.1. v n with real coef®cients. .2 Corollary The group G has a non-trivial real irreducible character if and only if the order of G is even. The values of ÷ are as follows: 1 ÷ 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 . v n of V.1). and there is a basis v1 . br ˆ ar ˆ 0 1 À1 0 provides a representation r of G with character ÷ such that all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. such that all the entries in each matrix gr ( g P G) are real. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. Proof If G has odd order.

. and hence also in C. (1) V becomes an RD8 -module if we de®ne v1 a ˆ v2 . In this section we shall study the relationship between RG-modules and CGmodules. if we de®ne v1 x ˆ v2 . (2) V becomes an RC3 -module.) À1 À1 Every RG-module can easily be converted into a CG-module. ÷ cannot be realized over R. 23. v2 x ˆ Àv1 À v2 X   0 1 (This gives the representation x 3 of Exercise 3. and consider the vector space over C with basis v1 . Therefore we obtain a representation r: G 3 GL (n.) Although every character which can be realized over R is perforce a real character. .4 Examples Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over R.18(3) below. In fact. Example 23.3(1)). v2 . v1 b ˆ Àv1 . Thus an RG-module is a vector space over R. This new vector space is clearly a CG-module (with v i g de®ned as before). .2. . but it is at the moment unclear how to prove this. . Simply take a basis v1 . R) is a representation then for each g P G. v n of the RG-module.266 Representations and characters of groups Thus ÷ is real. C). The construction is even easier to understand in terms of representations: if r: G 3 GL (n. .2. Notice that a character ÷ of G can be . . with a multiplication by elements of G satisfying the conditions of De®nition 4. . where C3 ˆ kx: x 3 ˆ 1l. (We shall eventually establish this in Example 23. where F is R or C. v n . the matrix gr has its entries in R. v2 b ˆ v2 (compare Example 23.3(2) tells us that the converse is false. v2 a ˆ Àv1 . with basis v1 . RG-modules Recall that in Chapter 4 we de®ned an FG-module.

5) makes VR into an RGmodule. In this way we de®ne v g for all v P VR and all g P G. . X X X . we have (v j g)h ˆ v j ( gh) and ((iv j ) g)h ˆ (iv j )( gh)X Hence using Proposition 4. iv1 . Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 . iv n X Write z jk ˆ x jk ‡ iyjk with x jk . Regarding v j as an element of the CG-module V. h P G. then ÷( g) ˆ n ˆ kˆ1 zkk X The character of VR . we have (v j g)h ˆ v j ( gh) for all g. y jk P R. is 2 n ˆ kˆ1 xkk ˆ ÷( g) ‡ ÷( g)X Hence the character of VR is ÷ ‡ ÷. . We summarize the basic properties of VR in the next proposition. Rather more subtle than this is the construction of an RG-module from a given CG-module.Real representations 267 realized over R if and only if there exists an RG-module with character ÷. X X X . v n . 1 < j < nX It follows easily that. . We de®ne a multiplication of VR by g by putting (23X5) vj g ˆ (iv j ) g ˆ n ˆ kˆ1 n ˆ kˆ1 (xjk v k ‡ yjk (iv k )). and extending linearly to de®ne v g for all v P VR . we see that (23. and let g P G. regarding v j and iv j as elements of VR . v n . There exist complex numbers z jk such that vj g ˆ n ˆ kˆ1 zjk v k (1 < j < n)X Now let VR be the vector space over R with basis v1 . . evaluated at g. and (À yjk v k ‡ xjk (iv k )) (1 < j < n). If ÷ is the character of V. .6.

where H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f 0 0 0 À1 g f g g. j 23. VR ˆ U È W where U is an RG-module with character ÷ and W is an RG-module with character ÷. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. we obtain the representation r. and so ÷ can be realized over R. then ÷ can be realized over R. br ˆ f 1 0 0 0 gX ar ˆ f d À1 0 0 e d0 0 0 1e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 The subspace of VR which is spanned by v1 ‡ v4 and v2 ‡ v3 is an RG-submodule. v2 b ˆ v1 X Then VR has basis v1 . and let V be the 1-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 such that p v1 x ˆ 1(À1 ‡ i 3)v1 2 p (note that 1(À1 ‡ i 3) ˆ e2ðia3 ). in particular. . v2 . v1 b ˆ v2 . (1) The RG-module VR has character ÷ ‡ ÷. With respect to this basis. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. (2) If V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RGmodule. v2 a ˆ Àiv2 .6 Proposition Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. Then by part (1). Thus there is an RG-module. with character ÷. where v3 ˆ iv1 . namely U. v3 . suppose that V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RG-module.7 Examples (1) Let G ˆ C3 ˆ kx: x 3 ˆ 1l. Therefore the character of V can be realized over R. x is represented by the matrix   p À1a2 3a2 p X À 3a2 À1a2 (2) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. For part (2). iv1 . v2 such that v1 a ˆ iv1 . Then VR has basis v1 . Proof We have already proved part (1). dim VR ˆ 2 dim V. and let V be the 2dimensional CG-module with basis v1 .268 Representations and characters of groups 23. v4 . v4 ˆ iv2 . and with 2 respect to this basis.

v1 . ë2 P F. vg) ˆ â(u. where F is R or C. 23.8 Theorem If V is an RG-module. v) .3(1). and which has the following properties: â(ë1 u1 ‡ ë2 u2 . then a bilinear form â on V is said to be Ginvariant if â(ug.6(2). v P V X If V is an FG-module. v) ‡ ë2 â(u2 . u1 . v. ë1 v1 ‡ ë2 v2 ) ˆ ë1 â(u. v2 ). we already know this from Example 23.Real representations 269 by Proposition 23. v) ˆ â(v. then there exists a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V such that â(v. Bilinear forms The question of whether or not a given character can be realized over R turns out to be related to the existence of a certain bilinear form on the corresponding CG-module. v). v) of F. A similar result for CG-modules was given in Exercise 8. v P V X And the bilinear form â is skew-symmetric if â(u. v) ˆ ë1 â(u1 . A bilinear form â on V is a function which associates with each ordered pair (u. y) are both linear ± hence the term bilinear. Let V be a vector space over F. u2 . v) of vectors in V an element â(u. v1 ) ‡ ë2 â(u. the functions x 3 â(x. v) for all u. (Thus for ®xed u. v2 P V and ë1 . v) ˆ Àâ(v. â(u. In fact. v) and y 3 â(u.6. for all u.) The bilinear form â is symmetric if â(u. v. v P V and g P GX Our next result shows that every RG-module has a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form with a strong positivity property. u) for all u. u) for all u. 0 for all non-zero v P V X .

For all u P U. v) ˆ n ˆ jˆ1 ì2 .10 Proposition Suppose that â is a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the RGmodule V. Then V is a reducible RG-module. v n be a basis of V.9 Proposition Let V be an RG-module and let â be a G-invariant bilinear form on V. vx) (u. If g P G. so â(u. v P V )X Again. ì j P R. 0X j ˆ xPG ã(ux. Proof Let v1 . 0 and â(v. Moreover.270 Representations and characters of groups €n jˆ1 ë j v j . j 23. . w) ˆ 0 for all u P U gX Proof It is easy to see that W is a subspace of V. so W is an RG-submodule of V. . and that there exist u. then gx runs through G as x runs through G. for non-zero v P V. . and â(v. v) . v) ˆ Now let â(u. â is a symmetric bilinear form on V. Now let w P W and g P G. w) ˆ 0X Thus wg P W. v gx) ˆ â(u. W ˆ fw P V : â(u. If U is an RG-submodule of V then so is . . vg) ˆ ã(ugx. . v) ˆ n ˆ jˆ1 vˆ ë j ì jX Then ã is a symmetric bilinear form on V. v)X xPG Therefore â is G-invariant and the theorem is proved. de®ne ã(u. wg) ˆ â(ug À1 . wgg À1 ) ˆ â(ug À1 . u) . 0 for all non-zero v P V. For u ˆ €n jˆ1 ì j v j P V with ë j . ã(v. and hence ˆ â(ug. we have ugÀ1 P U. 0. v) . v P V with â(u. j 23.

. v n of V such that â1 (v i . and a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on V . 23. Moreover. j if i Tˆ j. v j ) ˆ â(v i . if we de®ne W ˆ fw P V : ã(v. â(v2 . v1 ) ˆ x.9. v2 ) ˆ 1 À â(v2 . for all i. . 0. v2 ) . v) (u. then W is non-zero. v2 ) . 1 ã(v2 . v) À â(u. €n But for all v ˆ iˆ1 ë i v i P V (ë i P R). 0X Let â(v1 .Real representations 271 Proof Theorem 23. x so W Tˆ V. we have ã(v. v P V )X x Since â and â1 are G-invariant symmetric bilinear forms on V. (2) there exists a CG-module V with character ÷. w) . and is an RG-submodule of V by Proposition 23. there is a basis v1 . v i ) ˆ 1 â(v1 . v1 ) ˆ ë1 ã(v1 . v1 ) . 0 for all non-zero w P V X By a general result on bilinear forms (see Exercise 23. v1 ) ˆ 0X Therefore. The following two conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ can be realized over R. and de®ne ã by 1 ã(u. v j ) ˆ 0 and â1 (v i . . w) ˆ 0 for all v P V g. so is ã. 0.8 supplies us with a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â1 on V such that â1 (w. .7). Therefore V is a reducible RG-module. We can now relate bilinear forms to the question of whether or not a given character of G can be realized over R. v) ˆ â1 (u. .11 Theorem Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G.

12). . . and let V be the vector space over C with basis u1 . and suppose that â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. v) ˆ â(v. iv1 . By Theorem 23. v) ˆ the real part of â(uW. w2 . and let U be an RG-module with character ÷.8. v1 ) ˆ 1X Extend v1 to a basis v1 . It now follows from Proposition 23. there exists w P V with â(w. Let u1 .272 Representations and characters of groups Proof We ®rst show that (2) implies (1). v P V with â(u. .10. iv1 ) ˆ À1X Therefore VR is a reducible RG-module. . . Then v1 . v n . we have (23X12) (w1 ‡ w2 )W ˆ w1 W ‡ w2 W. u n be a basis of U. v1 ) ˆ 1 and â(iv1 . . vW) (u. . Conversely. Notice that ~ ~ â(v1 . As explained earlier. w) ˆ z and v1 ˆ z À1a2 w. u) Tˆ 0. that â is a Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on VR . This establishes that (2) implies (1) in the theorem. v). De®ne a function W from VR to V by n n n ˆ ˆ ˆ W: ë jv j ‡ ì j (iv j ) 3 (ë j ‡ iì j )v j (ë j . Since â(u ‡ v. X X X . ” De®ne ã on V by 2 n 3 n n n ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ” ã ë j u j. u) ‡ â(v. Then â(v1 . u ‡ v) ˆ â(u. ìk uk ˆ ë j ì k ã(u j . . using the properties (23. There exist u. iv n is a basis of the RG-module VR . . v) ‡ 2â(u. . suppose that ÷ can be realized over R. and for all w1 . v n of V. v P VR . all ë P R and all g P G. v P VR )X ~ You can readily check. . there is a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form ã on U. u n . V is a CG-module (with u i g de®ned as for U). . (ëv)W ˆ ë(vW). ì j P R)X jˆ1 jˆ1 jˆ1 Then W is a bijection. w) Tˆ 0. (v g)W ˆ (vW) gX ~ Now de®ne a function â on ordered pairs of elements of VR by ~ â(u. X X X . by Proposition 23. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷.6(2) that ÷ can be realized over R. u k ) jˆ1 kˆ1 jˆ1 kˆ1 . Let â(w.

if 1G is a constituent of ÷ A X We call é the indicator function on the set of irreducible characters of G. b b X À1. 2 h÷ . 1 or À1. ì k P C).13 De®nition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. 1 G i ˆ 1. and ÷2 ˆ ÷S ‡ ÷ A . Thus (1) implies (2). We shall see later that this number tells us whether or not ÷ can be realized over R. we have @ 0. j The indicator function We now associate with each irreducible character ÷ of G a certain number. Recall from Chapter 19 that ÷ 2 is the character of the CG-module V  V. ÷iX jGj gPG Therefore. called the indicator of ÷.Real representations 273 ” (where ë j . if ÷ is realX Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. 1 G i ˆ ÷( g)÷( g) ˆ h÷. where ÷ S is the character of the symmetric part of V  V. Then ã is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the CG-module V. Hence if h÷ 2 . and ÷ A is the character of the antisymmetric part of V  V. for irreducible characters ÷. if ÷ is not real. b ` é÷ ˆ 1. 23. if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . then we de®ne the indicator é÷ of ÷ by V if ÷ is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A . and the proof of the theorem is complete. relating it to the internal structure of the group G. which is always 0. The next result gives a signi®cant property of the indicator function. and V has character ÷. 1 G i ˆ 1. . Observe that 1 ˆ h÷ 2 . then precisely one of ÷ S and ÷ A has 1 G as a constituent. b 0. Note that é÷ Tˆ 0 if and only if ÷ is real.

4.274 23. ÷iX € Therefore. The character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 j . 1 G i 1 ˆ ˆ ÷( g 2 ) by Proposition 19X14 jGj gPG ˆ ˆ 1 ˆ ˆ ÷( g 2 ) jGj xPG gPG: g2 ˆx 1 ˆ W(x)÷(x) jGj xPG ˆ hW. The de®nition of é÷ gives é÷ ˆ h÷ S À ÷A . and the result follows. ÷ where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. W ˆ (é÷)÷. W is a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G. Proof De®ne a function W: G 3 C by W(x) ˆ jf y P G: y 2 ˆ xgj (x P G)X Note that W is a class function on G. Representations and characters of groups ˆ (é÷)÷(x) ˆ jf y P G: y 2 ˆ xgj.15 Example Let G ˆ S3 .14 Theorem For all x P G. since for g P G we have y 2 ˆ x D ( g À1 yg)2 ˆ g À1 xgX Therefore by Corollary 15. 23.

which takes the following values: 1 ÷ 1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ ÷3 4 (1 2) 0 (1 2 3) 1 Sure enough. By Proposition 8. g P G)X In this way.14 we calculate that é÷ ˆ 1 for each irreducible € character ÷ of G. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ 2 . there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V  V onto this trivial CG-submodule. (1 2). Using this. no elements square to be (1 2). (1 3 2). and de®ne a multiplication of C by elements of G by ëg ˆ ë (ë P C. 23. (1) Suppose that é÷ Tˆ 0. and hence there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism W from V  V onto the trivial CG-module C.16 Theorem Let V be an irreducible CG-module with character ÷.8.Real representations 275 Using Proposition 19. Back to reality We now relate the indicator function to the previous material on bilinear forms. we show that the indicator of an irreducible character determines whether or not it can be realized over R. and hence the CG-module V  V has a trivial CG-submodule.14. and deduce the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. . namely 1. and one element. Proof In this proof we regard C as a 1-dimensional vector space over C. (1 3) and (2 3). (2) There exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ ˆ 1. (1) There exists a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ Tˆ 0. four elements of G square to be 1. in accordance with Theorem 23. so (é÷)÷ ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ ÷3 . C becomes a trivial CG-module. (3) There exists a non-zero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ ˆ À1. squares to be (1 2 3).

v j ) as â is G-invariant ˆ (v i  v j )WX Hence W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V  V onto the trivial CG-module C. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . v)X Thus â is G-invariant. and de®ne W: S(V  V) 3 C by putting (v i  v j ‡ v j  v i )W ˆ â(v i .276 Representations and characters of groups Now de®ne â by â(u. v) ˆ (u  v)W (u. v P V )X Then â is a non-zero bilinear form on V. De®ne W: V  V 3 C by putting (v i  v j )W ˆ â(v i . Conversely. 1 < j < n) and extending linearly to the whole of V  V. v j ) (1 < i < n. 1 < j < n) form a basis of V  V. . v P V and g P G. v j g) ˆ â(v i . v n be a basis of V. the symmetric part of V  V. As in (1). vg) ˆ (ug  v g)W ˆ ((u  v) g)W ˆ ((u  v)W) g ˆ (u  v)W ˆ â(u. and W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from S(V  V) onto the trivial CG- . v n be a basis of V.8 that there is a non-zero CGhomomorphism W from S(V  V) onto the trivial CG-module C. . so that v i  v j (1 < i < n. v) ˆ (u  v ‡ v  u)W (u. by Proposition 10. which is the character of the CG-module S(V  V). suppose that there exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V.1. v P V )X Then â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. W is well-de®ned. If follows that ÷ 2 has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent. (2) Suppose that é÷ ˆ 1. suppose that there is a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form â on V. De®ne â(u. Let v1 . V  V has a trivial CGsubmodule. Conversely. v j ) (1 < i. Thus. and therefore é÷ Tˆ 0. j < n) and extending linearly. Since â is symmetric. For g P G. we have ((v i  v j ) g)W ˆ (v i g  v j g)W ˆ â(v i g. it follows by Proposition 8. . . Let v1 . X X X . and for u. we have â(ug.

Real representations

277

module C. Hence ÷ S has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent, and so é÷ ˆ 1. (3) The proof of (3) is very similar to that of (2), and is omitted. j We can now relate real representations of G to involutions in G, where by an involution we mean an element of order 2. 23.17 Corollary (The Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions) For each irreducible character ÷ of G, we have V if ÷ is not real, b 0, b ` é÷ ˆ 1, if ÷ can be realized over R, b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but ÷ cannot be realized over RX Moreover, for all x P G, ˆ (é÷)÷(x) ˆ jf y P G: y 2 ˆ xgj,
÷

where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. In particular, ˆ (é÷)÷(1) ˆ 1 ‡ t,
÷

where t is equal to the number of involutions in G. Proof When we de®ned the indicator function, we showed that é÷ Tˆ 0 if and only if ÷ is real. And Theorems 23.11 and 23.16(2) show that ÷ can be realized over R if and only if é÷ ˆ 1. This proves that é÷ is determined as in the statement of the corollary. € The expression for ÷ (é÷)÷(x) was obtained in Theorem 23.14. € Putting x ˆ 1, we see that ÷ (é÷)÷(1) is equal to the number of elements y of G satisfying y 2 ˆ 1. These elements are just the involutions in G, together with the identity, so the number of them is precisely 1 ‡ t. j We conclude with some examples illustrating the use of Corollary 23.17. 23.18 Examples (1) Let ÷ be a linear character. Then é÷ ˆ 1 if ÷ is real, and é÷ ˆ 0 if ÷ is non-real.

278

Representations and characters of groups

For an abelian group, the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions shows that the number of real irreducible (linear) characters is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes, since in this case g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if g2 ˆ 1. This special case of Theorem 23.1 can be proved directly without much dif®culty (see Exercise 23.2). (2) We know that all the irreducible characters of D8 ˆ ka, b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1, bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l can be realized over R (see Example 23.3(1), and note that all four linear characters are real). Thus é÷ ˆ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of D8, and so ˆ (é÷)÷(1) ˆ 1 ‡ 1 ‡ 1 ‡ 1 ‡ 2 ˆ 6X
÷

The ®ve involutions in D8 which are predicted by the Frobenius± Schur Count of Involutions are a2 , b, ab, a2 b and a3 b. (3) In the group Q8 ˆ ka, b: a4 ˆ 1, a2 ˆ b2 , bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l, there is just one involution, namely a2 . Now é÷ ˆ 1 for each of the four linear characters, and ˆ (é÷)÷(1) ˆ 2
÷

by the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. Therefore, if ø is the irreducible character of degree 2, then éø ˆ À1. In particular ø cannot be realized over R. (4) The symmetric group S4 has ten elements whose square is 1, namely the identity, the six elements which are conjugate to (1 2), and the three elements which are conjugate to (1 2)(3 4). Since the degrees 1, 1, 2, 3, 3 of the irreducible characters of S4 sum to be 10 (see Section 18.1), we see that all the characters of S4 can be realized over R. The Brauer±Fowler Theorem We now apply Corollary 23.17 to give a proof of a famous theorem of Brauer and Fowler. 23.19 Brauer±Fowler Theorem Let n be a positive integer. Then there exist only ®nitely many nonisomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with centralizer of order n.

Real representations

279

Despite its fairly elementary proof, this result is of great historical importance in ®nite group theory. It led Brauer to propose the programme of determining, for each ®nite group C, all the simple groups G possessing an involution u with CG (u)  C. This programme was the start of the modern attempt to classify all ®nite simple groups, which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s. For further information about this, see the book by D. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography. In Exercise 10 at the end of the chapter you are asked to carry out Brauer's programme in the case where C  C2 . This should not trouble you too much. In Chapter 30, Theorem 30.8, you will ®nd a much more sophisticated case, in which C  D8. For proof of Theorem 23.19 we require two preliminary lemmas. 23.20 Lemma € € If a1 , . . . , a n are real numbers, then a2 > … a i †2 an. i Proof This follows from the Cauchy±Schwarz inequality kvk kwk > jvXwj, taking v ˆ (a1 , . . . , a n ) and w ˆ (1, . . . , 1). j 23.21 Lemma Let G be a group of even order m, and let t be the number of involutions in G (so t . 0 by Exercise 8 of Chapter 1). Write a ˆ (m À 1)at. Then G contains a non-identity element x such that jG : C G (x)j < a2 . Proof By Corollary 23.17, we have ˆ t< ÷(1)
÷

where the sum is over all non-trivial irreducible characters ÷ of G. Writing k for the number of irreducible characters of G, we deduce using Lemma 23.20 and Theorem 11.12 that ˆ ˆ t2 < ( ÷(1))2 < (k À 1) ÷(1)2 ˆ (k À 1)(m À 1),
÷

and hence m À 1 < (k À 1)(m À 1)2 at 2 ˆ (k À 1)a2 . Now k À 1 is the number of non-identity conjugacy classes of G. If every nonidentity conjugacy class has size more then a2 , then (k À 1)a2 .

280

Representations and characters of groups

jGj À 1 ˆ m À 1, a contradiction. Therefore some non-identity class x G has size at most a2 . Then jG : C G (x)j < a2 , giving the result. j Proof of Theorem 23.19 Suppose G is simple and contains an involution u such that jC G (u)j ˆ n. Let jGj ˆ m, and let t be the number of involutions in G. By Proposition 12.6, every element of the conjugacy class u G is an involution, and hence t > ju G j ˆ jG : C G (u)j ˆ manX Therefore (m À 1)at , n, and so by Lemma 23.21, there is a nonidentity element x P G such that jG : C G (x)j , n2 . Let H ˆ C G (x). If H ˆ G then x lies in Z(G), the centre of G, which is a normal subgroup of G. Since G is simple it follows that G ˆ Z(G), so G is abelian and therefore G  C2 . Now suppose that H Tˆ G. Write r ˆ jG : Hj, so r , n2 . By Exercise 9 at the end of the chapter, there is a non-trivial homomorphism è from G to the symmetric group S r . As G is simple, the normal subgroup Ker è ˆ f1g. Thus G is isomorphic to a subgroup of S r , hence of S n2 . In particular, given n, there are only ®nitely many possibilities for G. j

Summary of Chapter 23 1. The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. Let é be the indicator function, and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. V if ÷ is non-real, b 0, b b b 1, ` if there exists an RG-module U with character ÷, 2X é÷ ˆ with character ÷ b b b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but there does not exist an RG-moduleX V if 1 G is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A , b 0, ` 3X é÷ ˆ 1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S , b X À1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ A X € 2 4. ÷ (é÷)÷(1) ˆ |{ g P G: g ˆ 1}|.

Real representations Exercises for Chapter 23

281

1. Prove that if G is a group of odd order then no non-identity element of G is real. 2. Let G be a ®nite abelian group. Use the description of the irreducible characters of G, given in Theorem 9.8, to prove directly that the number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of elements g in G for which g2 ˆ 1. 3. Let G ˆ D2 n and consult Section 18.3 for the character table of G. How many elements g of G satisfy g2 ˆ 1? Deduce that é÷ ˆ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. 4. Let r be an irreducible representation of degree 2 of a group G, and let ÷ be the character of r. Prove that ÷ A ( g) ˆ det ( gr) for all g P G. Deduce that é÷ ˆ À1 if and only if det ( gr) ˆ 1 for all g P G. 5. Let G ˆ T 4 n ˆ ha, b: a2 n ˆ 1, a n ˆ b2 , bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i, as in Exercise 17.6. Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 , v2 and let å be a (2n)th root of unity in C with å Tˆ Æ1. Exercise 17.6 shows that V becomes an irreducible CG-module if we de®ne v1 a ˆ åv1 , v2 a ˆ å À1 v2 , v1 b ˆ v2 , v2 b ˆ å n v1 X

Let ÷ be the character of this CG-module V. (a) Note that å n ˆ Æ1. Use Exercise 4 to show that é÷ ˆ 1 if å n ˆ 1 and é÷ ˆ À1 if å n ˆ À1. (b) Let â be the bilinear form on V for which â(v1 , v1 ) ˆ â(v2 , v2 ) ˆ 0, â(v1 , v2 ) ˆ 1, â(v2 , v1 ) ˆ å n X Prove that the bilinear form â is G-invariant, and use Theorem 23.16 to provide a second proof that é÷ ˆ 1 if å n ˆ 1 and é÷ ˆ À1 if å n ˆ À1. (c) Prove that a n is the only element of order 2 in T4 n. (d) Use the character table of G, which appears in the solution to Exercise 18.3, to ®nd é÷ for each irreducible character ÷ of G. Check that

282

Representations and characters of groups ˆ (é÷)÷(1) ˆ 2,
÷

in agreement with the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 6. Prove that if ÷ is an irreducible character of a group G, and é÷ ˆ À1, then ÷(1) is even. (Hint: the solution uses a well known result about skew-symmetric bilinear forms.) 7. Suppose that V is a vector space over R and that â1 and â are symmetric bilinear forms on V. Assume that â1 (w, w) . 0 for all non-zero w in V. Prove that there is a basis e1 , X X X , e n of V such that â1 (ei , ei ) ˆ 1 for all i, and â1 (ei , ej ) ˆ â(ei , ej ) ˆ 0 for all i Tˆ jX 8. Schur's Lemma is crucial for the development of the theory of CG-modules. This exercise indicates the extent to which results like Schur's Lemma hold for RG-modules. Let V and W be irreducible RG-modules. (a) Prove that if W: V 3 W is an RG-homomorphism then either W is an RG-isomorphism or vW ˆ 0 for all v P V. (b) Prove that if W: V 3 V is an RG-isomorphism and V remains irreducible as a CG-module, then W ˆ ë1 V for some real number ë. . (c) Give an example of a group G, an irreducible RG-module V and an RG-homomorphism W: V 3 V which is not a multiple of 1 V . 9. Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. Let Ù be the set of n right cosets Hx of H in G. For g P G, de®ne a function r g : Ù 3 Ù by ( Hx)r g ˆ Hxg for all x P G. Prove that r g is a permutation of Ù, and that the function r : g 3 r g is a homomorphism from G to the symmetric group on Ù. „ Show that the kernel of r is xPG x À1 Hx. Deduce that if a group G has a subgroup H of index n, then there is a homomorphism G 3 S n with kernel contained in H. 10. Suppose that G is a ®nite group containing and involution t with CG (t)  C2 . Prove that |G : G9| ˆ 2. Deduce that if G is simple, then G  C2 .

24 Summary of properties of character tables

In this short chapter we present no new results, but instead we gather together from previous chapters various properties which are helpful when we try to ®nd the character table of a particular group. In the next four chapters we shall calculate several character tables in detail. Usually we begin by working out the conjugacy classes and centralizer orders of our given ®nite group G. The size of the character table is determined by the number k of conjugacy classes of G; the character table is then a k 3 k matrix, with columns indexed by the conjugacy classes of G (the ®rst column corresponding to the conjugacy class {1}), and with rows indexed by the irreducible characters of G. When doing calculations, we commonly come across a new character ÷, which may or may not be irreducible. We can then calculate h÷, ÷i, which is given by h÷, ÷i ˆ 1 ˆ ÷( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG

The character ÷ is irreducible if and only if h÷, ÷i ˆ 1 (see Theorem 14.20). If ÷ is reducible then we calculate h÷, ÷ i i for each of the irreducible characters ÷ i which we already know, and then ÷À ˆ h÷, ÷ i i÷ i
i

will also be a character. We can thus determine whether ÷ is a linear combination of the irreducible characters we already know; and if it is not, then we can obtain from ÷ a linear combination of irreducible characters, all of which are new. We have developed a number of methods for producing characters ÷ 283

284

Representations and characters of groups

on which to perform such calculations. For example, every subgroup of Sn has a permutation character (see (13.22)); the product of two characters is again a character (Proposition 19.6); given a character ø we can form the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of its square, ø S and ø A (see Proposition 19.14); and if H is a subgroup of G then we can restrict characters of G to H, and induce characters of H to G. These and other properties of characters are summarized in the following list.

Properties of characters Assume that ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. (1) (Example 13.8(3)) There is a (trivial) character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) ˆ 1 for all g P GX (2) (Theorem 17.11) The group G has precisely jGaG9j linear characters. These are the characters ÷ given by ÷( g) ˆ ø( gG9) ( g P G) as ø varies over the irreducible (linear) characters of GaG9. (3) (Theorem 17.3) As a generalization of (2), if N v G and ø is an irreducible character of GaN , then we get an irreducible character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) ˆ ø( gN ) ( g P G) (÷ is the lift of ø). This method gives precisely those irreducible characters of G which have N contained in their kernel. (4) (Theorem 19.18) If G ˆ G1 3 G2 then all the irreducible characters ÷ of G are given by ÷( g1 , g 2 ) ˆ ö1 ( g 1 )ö2 ( g 2 ) ( g 1 P G1 , g 2 P G2 ), as ö i varies over the irreducible characters of Gi (i ˆ 1, 2). (5) (Proposition 13.24) If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) ˆ jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. ( g P G)

Summary of properties of character tables

285

(6) (Theorems 11.12 and 22.11) The entries ÷ i (1) (1 < i < k) in the ®rst column of the character table of G are positive integers, and satisfy
k ˆ iˆ1

÷ i (1)2 ˆ jGjX

Moreover, each integer ÷ i (1) divides |G|. (7) (Row orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(1)) For all i, j, we have h÷ i , ÷ j i ˆ ä ij . (8) (Column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2)) For all g, h P G, we have @ k ˆ jCG ( g)j, if g and h are conjugate, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (h) ˆ 0, otherwiseX iˆ1 (9) (Exercise 13.5) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and z P Z(G), then there exists a root of unity å such that for all g P G, ÷(zg) ˆ å÷( g)X (10) (Proposition 13.9(2)) If g is an element of order n in G, and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g) is a sum of nth roots of unity. Moreover, |÷( g)| < ÷(1). (11) (Proposition 13.9(3, 4)) If g P G and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g À1 ) ˆ ÷( g)X In particular, if g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G. (12) (Corollary 15.6) If g P G and g is not conjugate to gÀ1 , then ÷( g) is non-real for some character ÷ of G. (13) (Theorem 22.16) Let g P G. If g is conjugate to gi for all positive integers i which are coprime to the order of g, then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. (14) (Corollary 22.26) Suppose that p is a prime number and that y is the p9-part of the element g of G. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers, then ÷( g)  ÷( y) mod pX

6).5).6) If ÷ and ø are characters of G. these can be determined in the following ways. then ø 5 H is a character of H. We can see from the character table whether or not G is simple (Proposition 17. Two important normal subgroups are G9 and Z(G). then ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod pX (15) (Proposition 13. The centre Z(G) can be found by noting which elements g of G satisfy . The derived subgroup G9 consists of those elements g in G which satisfy ÷( g) ˆ 1 for all linear characters ÷ of G.14) If ÷ is a character of G.23) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of H.23. if the order of g is a power of p.286 Representations and characters of groups In particular. then so is ÷.15) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G.14) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ë is a linear character of G. where ÷ø( g) ˆ ÷( g)ø( g) ( g P G)X (19) (Proposition 19. then ø 4 G is a character of G.13. where for all g P G. with values given by Proposition 21. where (ø 5 H)(h) ˆ ø(h) (h P H)X We have seen that the character table of a group G gives grouptheoretic information about G. (21) (Chapter 20) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of G. the ®rst column determines |G| and jGaG9j (by (6) and (2)). where ÷ë( g) ˆ ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G)X (18) (Proposition 19. For example. then ÷ë is an irreducible character of G. then so is the product ÷ø. ÷ S ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) ‡ ÷( g 2 )). (17) (Proposition 17. indeed. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A . Proposition 21. we can ®nd all the normal subgroups of G (Proposition 17. where ÷( g) ˆ ÷( g) ( g P G)X (16) (Theorem 23. 2 ÷ A ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 (20) (De®nition 21.1) The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G.

with the same character table. the converse is false: in Exercise 17. which can be deduced from the character table. . the sum being over all irreducible characters ÷ of G.1 we gave examples of non-isomorphic groups. it is of course true that isomorphic groups have the same character table. As a ®nal remark. D8 and Q8 . however.Summary of properties of character tables 287 € ÷( g)÷( g) ˆ |G|. In Chapter 30 we shall see some more impressive results about subgroups of G.

Primitive roots modulo p Recall that the set Z p ˆ f0. is a ®eld. X X X . and n r T 1 mod p for 0 . and Zà ˆ Z p À f0g is an abelian group p under multiplication. p À 1X An integer n of order p À 1 in Zà is called a primitive root modulo p p. that is. generated by 1. this will give the character tables of all groups whose order is the product of two prime numbers. we shall have determined the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. p À 1g. 1. Z p is an abelian group under addition. with addition and multiplication modulo p.25 Characters of groups of order pq By the end of the next chapter. and in this chapter we shall describe a class of Frobenius groups and ®nd the character tables of the groups in this class. p will denote a prime number. but not at all obvious. It is also true. that Zà is cyclic: p 25.1 Theorem The multiplicative group Zà is cyclic. that is. but for a good 288 . We shall not provide a proof of Theorem 25. Clearly Z p is a cyclic group under addition. In particular. there exists an integer n p such that n pÀ1  1 mod p. r . A number of these groups are so-called Frobenius groups.1. Throughout the chapter.

De®ne p     1 1 1 0 Aˆ . 5. As an immediate consequence of Theorem 25. 0 1 and so we have the relations (25X5) Ap ˆ Bq ˆ I. B. r . These pq elements are dis- . and 3 is a primitive root modulo 7. the subgroup of G generated by A and B.3 of the book by J. such that u q  1 mod p. Now let q| p À 1. we refer you to Theorem 45. 11 and 13. Bˆ . where q| p 2 1 25. 25.4 Example De®ne Gˆ & 1 0  ' y Ã. 0 < j < q À 1. BÀ1 AB ˆ Au X Using these relations.3 Proposition If q| p À 1 then there is an integer u such that u has order q modulo p ± that is. we see that every element of F is of the form A i B j with 0 < i < p À 1. and let u be an element of order q in the multiplicative group Zà . 0 1 0 u and let F ˆ hA.2 Example The number 2 is a primitive root modulo 3. but not modulo 7. y P Z X : xPZp p x Under matrix multiplication. and u r T 1 mod p for 0 . G is a group of order p( p À 1) (see Exercise 25. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography.1 we have 25.Characters of groups of order pq 289 account. Bi. qX Frobenius groups of order pq. Then   1 u À1 B AB ˆ ˆ Au .1).

where p and q are prime numbers with p . B: Ap ˆ Bq ˆ I. so jFj ˆ pq.q for the group of order pq with presentation F p. S.6 De®nition If p is a prime and q| p À 1. F p. The groups F p. since they have prime order. Passman listed in the Bibliography. It follows from Exercise 22. these facts follow readily from Sylow's Theorems (see Chapter 18 of the book by J. b: a p ˆ b q ˆ 1. Since bq P H but b does not have order pq (as G is non-abelian). Suppose that H ˆ kal and Ga H ˆ h Hbi. 25. Proof Assume that G is non-abelian. or q divides p À 1 and G  F p. Thus the order of u in the group Zà divides q. q.q belong to a wider class of groups known as Frobenius groups. bÀ1 ab ˆ au i.7 Proposition Suppose that G is a group of order pq. B. Now H v G.q does not depend on which integer u of order q we choose (see Exercise 25. then we write F p. Further.290 Representations and characters of groups tinct.5) determine all products in F. p . Then either G is abelian. p It is not hard to show that. a ˆ bÀq abq ˆ a u q and so u q  1 mod p. then G is generated by a and b. We shall not give the general de®nition of these here.3 that q divides p À 1 and G has a normal subgroup H of order p.3). it follows that b has order q. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography).q ˆ ha.q . (Alternatively. so bÀ1 ab ˆ au for some integer u. Moreover the relations (25. The next result classi®es all groups whose order is the product of two distinct prime numbers. up to isomorphism. where u is an element of order q in Zà .q . BÀ1 AB ˆ Au iX 25.) Both H and Ga H are cyclic. the interested reader can ®nd more information in the book by D. so we have the presentation F ˆ hA. as we shall only be dealing with F p.

in fact. order of u in Zà is qX p Hence G  F p. . j 25.9 Proposition The conjugacy classes of G ˆ F p. and since kal < CG (av i ). and has the form stated in the proposition.3. (av i ) G ˆ fav i s : s P Sg (1 < i < r). Thus let G ˆ Fp. this size is at most q.q are f1g. Let S be the subgroup of Zà consisting of the powers of u. Therefore the order of u is q.q . and choose coset representatives v1 . Thus p jSj ˆ q.7. bÀ1 ab ˆ au . The character table of F p. We have now established that a p ˆ b q ˆ 1. Write r ˆ ( p À 1)aq. Therefore the conjugacy class of av i has size at least q. and the groups of order 21 are C3 3 C7 and F7.25 we dealt with F7.q : the dihedral group of order 2 p is the case where q ˆ 2. p 25.q We have.q ˆ ha.8 Example By Proposition 25. bÀ1 ab ˆ au i where p is prime. and u has order q modulo p. b: ap ˆ bq ˆ 1. X X X . isomorphic to C3 3 C5 ). and in Example 21. v r for S in Zà .q in general. already found the character tables of certain of the groups F p. and G would be abelian. q| p À 1 (q not necessarily prime). Hence (av i ) G has size q.3 .Characters of groups of order pq 291 If the order of u were 1 then we would have bÀ1 ab ˆ a. every group of order 15 is abelian (indeed. also the size of this conjugacy class is equal to |G: CG (av i )|. We now construct the character table of F p. (bn ) G ˆ fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g (1 < n < q À 1)X Proof The equation bÀ j av b j ˆ avu j shows that av is conjugate to avs for all s P S.

and øv 4 G ˆ øvs 4 G if s P SX For each coset representative v j (1 < j < r) of S in Zà . using Proposition 21. every conjugate of bn has the form am bn for some m. where ÷ n (a x b y ) ˆ e2ði nyaq (0 < x < p À 1. For v P Zà . By the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. First. hö j 5 hai. so we seek q ‡ r irreducible characters. øv j s ihai ˆ hö j . These are given by ÷ n (0 < n < q À 1).292 Representations and characters of groups Since CG (bn ) contains kbl.16. observe that the derived subgroup G9 ˆ kal. as Gahai is abelian. we have |CG (bn )| ˆ q.9. G has precisely q linear characters. Let å ˆ e2ðia p . for all s P S. On the other hand. 0 < y < q À 1)X We shall show that G has r irreducible characters of degree q. and kbl has index p in G. and so the conjugacy class of bn has size p. øv j s 4 Gi G ˆ hö j .23. denote by øv the character of kal which p is given by øv (ax ) ˆ å vx (0 < x < p À 1)X We calculate the values of the induced character øv 4 G. ö j i G ˆ sPS øv j s ‡ ÷. and ˆ (øv 4 G)(ax ) ˆ å vsx (0 < x < p À 1)X sPS Note that øv 4 G has degree q. . We obtain (øv 4 G)(ax by ) ˆ 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. ö j i G X Hence ö j 5 hai ˆ hö j . let p ö j ˆ øv j 4 GX We now prove that each ö j is irreducible. it follows that for n T 0 mod q. Hence (bn ) G ˆ fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g and the proof is complete.11. j By Proposition 25. so GaG9 has order q and therefore by Theorem 17. G has q ‡ r conjugacy classes.

v r S are the cosets in Zà of the p subgroup S generated by u. Consequently the irreducible characters ö1 . q have degree 1 and are given by ÷ n (ax by ) ˆ e2ði nyaq (0 < n < q À 1) and r have degree q and are given by ö j (ax by ) ˆ 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. Then the group F p.11 Example Let G ˆ F p.23. . ˆ ö j (ax ) ˆ e2ðiv j sxa p . b: a p ˆ b pÀ1 ˆ 1. 0 < y < q À 1g has q ‡ r irreducible characters. ö r 5 kal are distinct. X X X . Taking degrees. ö j i G øv j s X sPS By Theorem 14. b: a p ˆ bq ˆ 1. ö j of G (0 < n < q À 1. . where v1 S.q ˆ ha.10 Theorem Let p be a prime number.10 in some examples. . we deduce that kö j . ö j l G ˆ 1. 25. We conclude by illustrating Theorem 25. We have now found q ‡ r distinct irreducible characters ÷ n . This proves that ö j is irreducible. it follows that ö j (1) > jSjhö j . ö j i G X Since ö j (1) ˆ q ˆ jSj. bÀ1 ab ˆ au i ˆ fax by : 0 < x < p À 1. bÀ1 ab ˆ au i . 1 < j < r). pÀ1 ˆ ha. Of these.Characters of groups of order pq 293 where ÷ is either 0 or a character of kal. We summarize in the following theorem. sPS for 1 < j < r. . 25. . and hence ö1 5 kal. ö r are distinct. the characters øv (v P Zà ) are linearly indepenp dent. q| p À 1 and r ˆ ( p À 1)aq. . and also that ˆ ö j 5 hai ˆ hö j . so we have the complete character table of G. . .

Character table of F5.294 Representations and characters of groups where u is a primitive root modulo p. 㠈 å4 ‡ å6 ‡ å7 ‡ å9 X By Theorem 25. q ˆ 4. and one irreducible character ö of degree p À 1.3. b: a13 ˆ b4 ˆ 1. b P S5 be the permutations a ˆ (1 2 3 4 5). bl. In Example 21.4 . Then G has p À 1 linear characters.10. ⠈ å 2 ‡ å 3 ‡ å 10 ‡ å 11 . Here F13.4 ˆ ha. bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 X Hence if G ˆ ka. the character table of F13. bÀ1 ab ˆ a5 iX Write å ˆ e2ðia13 . You may like .12 Example Let a.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö 1 20 1 1 1 1 4 a 5 1 1 1 1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 x if 1 < y < p À 2.13 Example We consider the case p ˆ 13.25 we found the character table of F7. and so by the previous example the character table of G is as shown. then G  F5. b ˆ (2 3 5 4)X Check that a5 ˆ b4 ˆ 1. if 1 < x < p À 1X 25.4 is as shown opposite. and let á ˆ å ‡ å 5 ‡ å 8 ‡ å 12 . with values given by ö(ax by ) ˆ 0 ö(a ) ˆ À1 25.

Suppose that p is prime and q divides p À 1. Then p Fp. 2. 3. Exercises for Chapter 25 1.10. y P Z p . is a group of order p( p À 1). p 0 x under matrix multiplication. then either G is abelian or G  F p.10. Let p be a prime number. Write down the character table of the non-abelian group F11. Let p and q be positive integers.q. 2.q ˆ ha. bÀ1 ab ˆ au iX The irreducible characters of Fp. Let u be an element of order q in Zà . Character table of F13. Prove that  & ' 1 y : x P Zà . Let u and v be two integers which are of order q modulo p. b: ap ˆ bq ˆ 1.5 of order 55. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . q.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö1 ö2 ö3 1 52 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 a 13 1 1 1 1 á â ã a2 13 1 1 1 1 â ã á a4 13 1 1 1 1 ã á â b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 0 Summary of Chapter 25 1. If G has order pq. and de®ne .q are described in Theorem 25.Characters of groups of order pq 295 to check that this agrees with the description of the character table provided by Theorem 25. with p prime and q| p À 1.

and ä ˆ À1 if p  À1 mod 4. (This justi®es the comment which follows the de®nition of Fp. bÀ1 ab ˆ au i. By inducing linear characters of this subgroup. show that the two irreducible characters ö1 .q ˆ ha. G2 ˆ ha. Note that ka. Suppose that p is a prime number.16. ab ˆ ba. X X X . b. b: ap ˆ bq ˆ 1. cÀ1 bc ˆ bÀ1 i.q in 25. 22 .296 Representations and characters of groups G1 ˆ ha. (c) Using the orthogonality relations. as in Exercise 5. c: a3 ˆ b3 ˆ c2 ˆ 1. with p Tˆ 2. Let q ˆ ( p À 1)a2 and let G ˆ Fp.) 7. ö2 of G of degree q have values p 1 (ä p)) 2(À1 Æ on the element a. (a) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are .4. 6. (d) Deduce that if å ˆ e2ðia p then ˆ p å s ˆ (À1 Æ (ä p)). E provides a counterexample to the converse of Proposition 9. but E has no faithful irreducible representation. Q ˆ f12 . b: ap ˆ bq ˆ 1.6. (( p À 1)a2)2 g). Show that the group E of Exercise 5 has the properties that Z(E) is cyclic. b: ap ˆ bq ˆ 1. (Thus. bl is a normal subgroup of E which is isomorphic to C3 3 C3 .) 4. where ä ˆ 1 if p  1 mod 4. 5. sPQ where Q is the set of quadratic residues modulo p (that is. Let E be the group of order 18 which is given by E ˆ ha. bÀ1 ab ˆ au i. (a) Show that there exists an integer m such that u m  À1 mod p if and only if p  1 mod 4. cÀ1 ac ˆ aÀ1 . where u is an element of order q modulo p. (b) Deduce that a is conjugate to aÀ1 if and only if p  1 mod 4. obtain the character table of E. bÀ1 ab ˆ av iX Prove that G1  G2 .

3. 3. 3. 1. 1. 3. 3. bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 iX Find the character table of G. 2. 2. 1. 1. 3. 3. 3. 3. 6. 3. 1. Let G be the group of order 54 which is given by G ˆ ha. 3. 1.Characters of groups of order pq 1. b: a9 ˆ b6 ˆ 1. 1. 1. 3X (b) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 3. 6. 3. 6. 3. 6X 8. 1. 3. 3. 1. 2. 3. 1. 297 . 1. 3X (c) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 3.

We later give explicitly the irreducible characters of all groups of order p3 and of all groups of order 16. At the end of the chapter we point out. we show that all groups of order pn with 1 < n < 4 do. with references. The method consists of examining the characters of those p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. and before explaining the method.15). Therefore 298 . Recall that Z(G) denotes the centre of G (see De®nition 9. In particular. p will be a prime number. indeed.26 Characters of some p-groups Throughout this chapter. and H ’ Z(G) consists of those conjugacy classes in H which have size 1. all of which have size a power of p.1 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with n > 1. Z(G) Tˆ {1}. (2) If K < Z(G) and GaK is cyclic. We shall show how to obtain the character tables of all groups of order pn for n < 4. (3) If n < 2 then G is abelian. have an abelian subgroup of index p. (1) If {1} Tˆ H v G then H ’ Z(G) Tˆ {1}. In the ®rst lemma we collect several well known properties of pgroups. Proof (1) Since H v G. then G is abelian. that we have found the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. 26. Elementary properties of p-groups A p-group is a group whose order is a power of the prime number p.

by Lemma 26. Then x1 ˆ g i k 1 . Then G contains an abelian subgroup of index p.1(1). and H is an abelian subgroup of index p. 26. x2 ˆ g j k 2 for some integers i.1(2). jGa Z(G)j < p nÀ1 .7). Now assume that Z(G) has no subgroup of order p nÀ2 . we deduce that H ’ Z(G) Tˆ {1}. k2 P K. Then we can ®nd a subgroup H of G such that K < H and j Hj ˆ p nÀ1 . j Hj ˆ jGjajx G j ˆ p3 .8. Since k1 . 26.3 Lemma Let G be a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p. Therefore G is abelian. so suppose that 2 < n < 4. Z(G) and kxl are distinct nonidentity subgroups of Z( H). generated by gK. Hence again Z( H) ˆ H by Lemma 26. it follows that x1 x2 ˆ x2 x1 . x2 P G.Characters of some p-groups j Hj ˆ j H ’ Z(G)j ‡ (a multiple of p)X 299 As | H| is a multiple of p and | H ’ Z(G)| Tˆ 0. Let H ˆ CG (x). Let x1 . (2) Suppose that GaK is cyclic.2 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with 1 < n < 4. (3) By (1).1(2). Assume that Z(G) contains a subgroup K of order p nÀ2 . and so Z( H) > p2 . As K < Z( H) and. we deduce that Z( H) ˆ H. Ha Z( H) is not of order p. Since Z(G) Tˆ f1g by Lemma 26. G has an element x whose conjugacy class x G is of size p. k2 P Z(G).7. j and some k1 . Then by Theorem 12. Moreover. Then by Exercise 12. the only possibility is that |G| ˆ p4 and | Z(G)| ˆ p. Hence if n < 2 then Ga Z(G) is j cyclic and so G is abelian by (2). j For our ®nal result on the structure of p-groups. Then there exists a normal subgroup K of G such that K < H ’ G9 ’ Z(G) and jKj ˆ pX . Proof The result is immediate if n ˆ 1. recall that the derived subgroup of G is denoted by G9 (see De®nition 17. Therefore H is an abelian subgroup of index p in G.

each of degree p.300 Representations and characters of groups Proof Since G is non-abelian. 26. and therefore K < H. and hence G9 ’ Z(G) Tˆ {1} by Lemma 26. and hence K < G9 < Ker ÷. In the latter case.11. This establishes (26X5) if ÷(1) ˆ p and K T< Ker ÷. (à ) we shall then have obtained all the irreducible characters of G. By Theorem 17. Let K be a subgroup of order p in G9 ’ Z(G). First note that if ÷ is a character of G of degree p. The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters obtained in this way is jGaKj ˆ p nÀ1 . Let K be a normal subgroup of G as in Lemma 26. the irreducible characters of GaK lift to give precisely those irreducible characters of G which have K in their kernel. again by Theorem 11.2. the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p). h P H}).1(1).8 that all the p nÀ1 irreducible characters of the abelian group H are linear. we have G9 < Ker ÷. we have {1} Tˆ G9 v G. We shall construct p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 further irreducible characters of G. by Theorem 11. Then every irreducible character of G is given by either (1) the lift of an irreducible character of GaK. Since G is non-abelian and |G: H| ˆ p.4 Theorem Assume that G is a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p. as G9 is in the kernel of every linear character. j Characters of p-groups with an abelian subgroup of index p In view of Lemma 26. Let Ö denote the set of linear . Since p nÀ1 ‡ ( p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 ) p2 ˆ pn ˆ jGj. we have KH ˆ H. for some linear character ø of H which satis®es K T< Ker ø. the next theorem provides us with all the irreducible characters of non-abelian groups of order p3 or p4 .12. then ÷ is irreducibleX We know by Theorem 9.12.3. or (2) ø 4 G.3. Proof Let |G| ˆ pn . Now K < Z(G) implies that K v G and that KH is an abelian subgroup of G (where KH ˆ {kh: k P K. then either ÷ is irreducible or ÷ is a sum of linear characters (since by Theorem 22.

8. since K < Z(G). (ø 4 G)(k) ˆ pø(k) for all k P KX Thus ø 4 G has degree p and does not have K in its kernel.16. Groups of order p3 By Theorem 9. bZi.6. It follows that fø 4 G: ø P Ög gives at least jÖja p ˆ ( p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 )a p distinct irreducible characters of G of degree p which do not have K in their kernel. this implies that there are at most p elements ø1 of Ö such that ø1 4 G ˆ ø 4 G. Since the linear characters of H which do have K in their kernel are precisely the lifts of linear characters of HaK.Characters of some p-groups 301 characters of H which do not have K in their kernel.5). ø 4 G is an irreducible character of G. Suppose now that ø1 is a linear character of H such that ø 4 G ˆ ø1 4 G. Choose aZ.4 to give an explicit construction of the irreducible characters of the non-abelian groups of order p3 . G has at most p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 such characters. Therefore fø 4 G: ø P Ög consists precisely of the p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 irreducible characters we seek. Then . Therefore by (26. Z Tˆ {1} and Ga Z is non-cyclic. 1 ˆ hø 4 G. We shall then illustrate Theorem 26. C p2 3 Cp and Cp 3 Cp 3 Cp X The character tables of these groups are given by Theorem 9. As we saw in (à ). Now let G be a non-abelian group of order p3 . By Proposition 21. Then by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21.1.23. and the proof is complete. Write Z ˆ Z(G). bZ such that Ga Z ˆ haZ. j We now use Theorem 26. ø1 i H X Since (ø 4 G) 5 H has degree p. the abelian groups of order p3 are C p3 . we have jÖj ˆ p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 X Let ø P Ö. By Lemma 26. ø1 4 Gi G ˆ h(ø 4 G) 5 H.4 further by constructing the character tables of all the non-abelian groups of order 16. Hence Ga Z  Cp 3 Cp and Z ˆ kzl  Cp .

so ar Z ˆ gZ. s. 26. Let r be an integer with 1 < r < p À 1. ö u (ar bs z t ) ˆ 0. på . otherwiseX (0 < u < p À 1. Proof By Theorem 9. as above. the irreducible characters of Ga Z are ø u.v (ar bs Z) ˆ å ru‡sv X The lift to G of ø u. t < p À 1} be a non-abelian group of order p3 .302 Representations and characters of groups Ga Z ˆ far bs Z: 0 < r < p À 1. Then the irreducible characters of G are ÷ u. every element of G is of the form ar bs z t for some r. s. v < p À 1).v (0 < u. t with 0 < r. Write å ˆ e2ðia p . t < p À 1.6 Theorem Let G ˆ {ar bs z t : 0 < r. and therefore g ˆ ar z t for some t. Let H ˆ ka.8. where ø u. ÷ u. s. 0 < s < p À 1g and in particular. and hence (ar ) G ˆ far z t : 0 < t < p À 1gX .v is the linear character ÷ u. so that H is an abelian subgroup of order p2 . Since ar P Z. s. zl. t. If ar is conjugate to an element g of G.v öu where for all r. 0 < v < p À 1). For 1 < u < p À 1.v which appears in the statement of the theorem. @ ut if r ˆ s ˆ 0.v (ar bs z t ) ˆ å ru‡sv . choose a character ø u of H which satis®es ø u (z t ) ˆ å ut (0 < t < p À 1)X We shall calculate ø u 4 G. a the conjugacy class (ar ) G does not have size 1. then ar Z is conjugate to gZ in the abelian group Ga Z. and (1 < u < p À 1).

and the sum of the squares of their degrees is p2 .4 (with K ˆ Z(G)). then ö u takes the values stated in the theorem. ö u i G ˆ 3 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p gPG ˆ ˆ 1 ˆ ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p3 gP Z 1 ˆ 2 p p3 gP Z ˆ 1X Therefore ö u is irreducible. In fact. If p ˆ 2. And if p is odd. (ø u 4 G)(ar z t ) ˆ ø u (ar ) ‡ ø u (ar z) ‡ X X X ‡ ø u (ar z pÀ1 ) ˆ ø u (ar ) ˆ ø u (ar ) ˆ 0X Also. Clearly the irreducible characters ÷ u. j Notice that the calculation in the proof of Theorem 26. and (ø u 4 G)( g) ˆ 0 if g P HX a pÀ1 ˆ sˆ0 pÀ1 ˆ sˆ0 303 ø u (z s ) å us We have now established that if ö u ˆ ø u 4 G. We ®nd that 1 ˆ hö u . they are D8 and Q8. there are precisely two non-abelian groups of order p3 .Characters of some p-groups Then by Proposition 21. up to isomorphism. p2 ˆ jGjX Hence we have found all the irreducible characters of G.23.v (0 < u. 12 ‡ ( p À 1) .6 is a special case of the proof of Theorem 26. v < p À 1) and ö u (1 < u < p À 1) are all distinct. they are . (ø u 4 G)(z t ) ˆ pø u (z t ) ˆ på ut .

bÀ1 ab ˆ a3 iX . according to these three possibilities for GaK. b chosen in the statement of Theorem 26. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i. . b in H1 and H2 will serve for the elements a. G9 given below do indeed have order 16. b: a8 ˆ 1. and it is not Q8 by Exercise 26.8 The groups of order 16 It is known that.8. up to isomorphism. It is not C8 by Lemma 26. and their character tables are given by Theorem 9. For each of the nine non-abelian groups G of order 16 it is the case that |G9 ’ Z(G)| ˆ 2 (see Exercise 26. b: a8 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. using Exercise 26. 26. . 134 of the book by Coxeter and Moser listed in the Bibliography).1(2). G2 ˆ ha. C4 3 C2 3 C2 and C2 3 C2 3 C2 3 C2 . az ˆ za. C4 3 C4 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aziX 2 We have Z( H1 ) ˆ ka p l. bÀ1 ab ˆ a p‡1 i. Our descriptions will be in terms of presentations. bz ˆ zb.304 (26X7) Representations and characters of groups H 1 ˆ ha.3 is given by K ˆ G9 ’ Z(G)X Now GaK is a group of order 8.5. (A) There are three non-abelian groups GaK  D8 . b: a p ˆ b p ˆ 1. b.7). z: a p ˆ b p ˆ z p ˆ 1.8. the abelian groups of order 16 are C16 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i ˆ D16 . C4 3 C2 or C2 3 C2 3 C2 X We shall divide our descriptions into three parts. b: a8 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. G3 ˆ ha. . there are precisely fourteen groups of order 16 (see p. Z( H2 ) ˆ kzl. By Theorem 9. . that all the nine groups G1 . We shall describe all these groups and their character tables. Hence GaK  D8 . it is possible to see. so the subgroup K described in Lemma 26.6. The elements a. b2 ˆ a4 . These are G of order 16 with G1 ˆ ha.6. C8 3 C2 . and H 2 ˆ ha.

G2 and G3 : Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 2 À2 À2 C3 8 1 1 1 1 À2 0 0 C4 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 á â C5 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 â á C6 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 C7 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 where ሠ2 ˆ Àâ for G1 . K ˆ G9 ’ Z(G). . . of order 2). G2 G3 1 1 C2 a4 a4 C3 a2 . z 2 ˆ 1. a6 C4 a. bÀ1 ab ˆ az. a7 a. . and these are given in the following table. G2 . b. we obtain the character tables of G1 . where ø is a linear character of the abelian subgroup kal of index 2. C7 . as before. Note that a is conjugate to aÀ1 in G1 and G2 . bÀ1 ab ˆ azi. alternatively.6). bz ˆ zbiX . b. az ˆ za. The last two characters can be obtained as in Theorem 26. These are G4 ˆ ha. Each of the groups has seven conjugacy classes C1 . z: a4 ˆ z. bÀ1 ab ˆ azi.Characters of some p-groups 305 In each case K ˆ ka4 l. but not in G3 . b2 ˆ z 2 ˆ 1. hence the values in the columns C4 and C5 are all real for G1 and G2 . a3 C5 a3 . a5 a5 . b.4. a7 C6 ai b (i even) ai b (i even) C7 ai b (i odd) ai b (i odd) Using Theorem 26. they can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. b2 ˆ z 2 ˆ 1. (B) There are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK  C4 3 C2 (where. b2 ˆ z. p á ˆ i 2 ˆ Àâ for G3 X p The ®rst ®ve characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of GaK  D8 . . G5 ˆ ha. but not for G3 (see Corollary 15. z: a4 ˆ 1. a6 a2 . C1 G1 . z: a4 ˆ 1. G6 ˆ ha.4(2) as induced characters ø 4 G.

bz ˆ zbi  D8 3 C2 . K ˆ kzl. a3 bz a. there are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK  C2 3 C2 3 C2 (where K ˆ G9 ’ Z(G). G6 X (C) Finally. G9 ˆ ha. a2 bz C9 ab. . bz In each case. .306 Representations and characters of groups The given presentations are somewhat cumbersome (for example. az ˆ za. a3 z b. bz ˆ zbi  Q8 3 C2 . of order 2). z: a4 ˆ z 2 ˆ 1. since a4 ˆ z in G4 . z: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ z 2 ˆ 1. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 . bz ˆ zbiX . az a3 . These are G7 ˆ ha. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 . G6 simultaneously: C1 1 C2 z C3 a2 C4 a2 z C5 C6 C7 C8 a2 b. a2 ˆ b2 . . az ˆ za.4: Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 á â C4 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 â á C5 8 1 i À1 Ài 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 C6 8 1 Ài À1 i 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 C7 8 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 i À1 Ài À1 Ài 1 i 0 0 C10 8 1 Ài À1 i À1 i 1 Ài 0 0 where á ˆ 2i ˆ Àâ á ˆ 2 ˆ Àâ for G4 . G5 . C10 of all three groups G4 . z: a2 ˆ b2 ˆ z 4 ˆ 1. abz C10 a3 b. but they are in a form which allows us to describe the conjugacy classes C1 . b. bÀ1 ab ˆ az 2 . . The character tables of G4 . z is redundant). G5 and G6 can again be found using Theorem 26. b. G8 ˆ ha. az ˆ za. b. for G5 .

are as follows. G8 and G9 .3. and the character tables of G7 . a2 b bz.9 The groups of order less than 32 At this point. whose character tables are given by Theorem 9. we have in fact found the character tables of all groups of order 31 or less. a2 bz ab. bz 2 bz. G8 . Apart from abelian groups and dihedral groups.4. a3 b abz. a3 az. given by Theorem 26. for G9 X 26. bz 3 ab. a3 bz b. az 2 az.Characters of some p-groups Each of these groups has ten conjugacy classes. Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 á â C4 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 â á C5 8 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 0 0 C6 8 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 C7 8 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 C10 8 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 0 0 where á ˆ 2 ˆ Àâ á ˆ 2i ˆ Àâ for G7 . G8 G9 1 a2 1 z2 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 307 z a2 z a. for G9 . abz 2 abz. the groups. with references for their character tables. az 3 b. a3 z z z 3 a. G8 .8 and Section 18. which are given by C1 C2 C3 C4 G7 . abz3 We have Kˆ @ ha2 i hz 2 i for G7 . are as follows: .

18 27 28 30 Summary of Chapter 26 In this chapter.6 Exercise 18. 1.3 Theorem 25.10 Theorem 25.18 Exercise 25.1 Section 18. . Q8 3 C3 . we gave the irreducible characters of various nonabelian p-groups G.5 Theorem 26. as follows. G has pm linear characters and p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 irreducible characters of degree p. . 3. H2 T28 D6 3 C5 . A4 3 C2 . n > 2).4: p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. Section 26. G9 D6 3 C3 E T20 F5. Exercises for Chapter 26 1. with an abelian subgroup H of index p.2 Exercise 18. D10 3 C3 Reference for character table Exercise 17.308 |G| 8 12 16 18 20 21 24 Representations and characters of groups G Q8 A4 T12 G1 .3 Exercise 18.18 Section 18.1 Exercise 27.3 Section 26. D6 3 C4 S4 SL (2.3 Theorem 19.4 Exercise 18.3 D12 3 C2 . Suppose that G is a group of order pn ( p prime. Theorem 26. 2. T12 3 C2 D8 3 C3 .2 Exercise 18. 3) T24 U24 V24 H1 .8: groups of order 16. Show that for some integer m > 2. .8 Theorem 19. . .10 Theorem 19.18 Theorem 19.5 Exercise 18.4 F7.6: groups of order p3 . Theorem 26.

0g e 0 and let G ˆ kA. b2 ˆ a8 .3. B. (c) Prove that the given representation of G of degree 4 is irreducible.) (d) Show that |G| ˆ 32. . g 2 P h Zi. D H À1 f f 0 f Aˆf f 0 d 0 f fi f Cˆf f0 d 0 H i 0 0 0 be the following 4 3 4 matrices: I H 0 0 0 0 0 i g f f0 1 0 0g 0 0 g f Bˆf g. (a) Find faithful irreducible representations of degree 2 for G1 . az ˆ za. (b) Show that for all g in G. 4. Let G1 . Let H be the group of order 27 which is given by H ˆ ha.7)). . (Hint: use Corollary 9. Let A. bÀ1 ab ˆ azi 309 (see (26. 3.6 to write down the character table of H. G2 .Characters of some p-groups 2. . Ài g e 0 g 0g g g. G7 and G8 have no faithful irreducible representations? . and use Theorem 26. G6 . G4 and G9 . B. b: a16 ˆ 1. or otherwise. (b) Why do the remaining groups G5 . Find the conjugacy classes of H. (a) Prove that all pairs of generators commute modulo h Zi. ®nd the character table of G. 5. Let G be the group of order 32 which is given by G ˆ ha. G3 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 iX Using Theorem 26. and deduce that G9 ˆ h Zi. 0g e 0 I g 0g g g. and ®nd all the irreducible representations of G. z: a3 ˆ b3 ˆ z 3 ˆ 1. Write Z ˆ ÀI. C. G9 be the non-abelian groups of order 16 with presentations as given in the text. C. fi 0 1 0g 0 0 e d 0 0 0 0 Ài À1 0 I 0 f f0 f Dˆf f0 d 1 H 0 Ài 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 0 g Ài g g g. b. and deduce that G is a 2group of order at most 32. . Dl.4. bz ˆ zb.

. G9 are isomorphic. (c) Deduce that |G9 ’ Z(G)| ˆ p. 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 eX 0 0 1 (d) Find faithful representations of degree 3 for G7  D8 3 C2 and G8  Q8 3 C2 . 8. . . Prove that no two of the groups G1 . . a2  b2 mod Z. Prove that a2 commutes with b.310 (c) Representations and characters of groups Check that the following give faithful representations of G5 and G6 : H I H I 0 1 0 i 0 0 G5 : a 3 d 1 0 0 e. . Let G be a non-abelian group of order p4 . bÀ1 ab  aÀ1 mod Zi. bZ: a4 P Z. . (b) Prove that |G9| ˆ p or p2 . 0 0 1 H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 G6 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. . b 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. (Note: This exercise can be used to con®rm that the presentations of G1 . (a) Prove that if G is any group. .) (b) Deduce from the result of Exercise 7 that if G is a group of order 16. 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 e. then Ga(G9 ’ Z(G)) T Q8 . . then Ga Z(G) T Q8 . and that if | Z(G)| ˆ p2 then G has p3 ‡ p2 À p conjugacy classes. b 3 d 1 0 0 e. and that if |G9| ˆ p2 then G has 2 p2 À 1 conjugacy classes. (Hint: assume that Ga Z ˆ haZ.) 6. G9 given in the text do indeed give groups of order 16. 7. (a) Prove that | Z(G)| ˆ p or p2 . and hence that a2 P Z.

is the smallest non-abelian simple group. c. The next smallest is a certain group of order 168. p À 1.27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 Recall that a simple group is a non-trivial group G such that the only normal subgroups of G are f1g and G itself. of order 60. with addition and multiplication modulo p. We discussed brie¯y in Chapter 1 the signi®cance of simple groups in the theory of ®nite groups. d 311 . except that a Tˆ 0. and in this chapter we shall describe this group and ®nd its character table. d P Z p . Then SL (2. and d is determined by a). c. The group belongs to a whole family of simple groups. p) the set of all 2 3 2 matrices M with entries in Z p such that det M ˆ 1. we count the matrices   a b (a. p). And there are p2 ( p À 1) choices for a. and recall that Z p is the ®eld which consists of the numbers 0. and is called the 2-dimensional special linear group over Z p. d which make ad À bc ˆ 1 (since a. b are arbitrary. p) is a group under matrix multiplication. . Denote by SL (2. . To calculate the order of the group SL (2. and we begin with a description of this family. . b. . Examples of simple groups which we have met so far are cyclic groups of prime order. Special linear groups Let p be a prime number. A5 and A6 . b. then there are p( p À 1) choices for a. In fact the group A5 . b. ad À bc ˆ 1)X c d If c ˆ 0.

312 Representations and characters of groups with c Tˆ 0. ÀIg (where I is the 2 3 2 identity matrix). 5)  A5 . and the size of the conjugacy class containing gi . together with the order of gi . Thus PSL (2.1 Lemma The group PSL (2. p) is simple (see Theorem 8. and it is easy to see that this group is isomorphic to S3 . p)j ˆ p( p À 1) ‡ p2 ( p À 1) ˆ p( p2 À 1)X If p ˆ 2 then SL (2. p)a Z is called the 2-dimensional projective special linear group. the order of CG ( gi ). J. the centre of SL (2.4) and congruence properties (Corollary 22. d may be chosen arbitrarily. p) has order 6. 7) has order 168. In the exercises. 7) 27. such that ad À bc ˆ 1 (since a. 7) has exactly six conjugacy classes. 3)  A4 . p). PSL (2. we have jPSL(2. notably the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16. and that for p > 5. The conjugacy classes of PSL (2. we indicate other ways of obtaining characters of G. p) is Z ˆ fI. using information about subgroups. The power of these techniques is therefore well illustrated. p)| ˆ p( p2 À 1). the group PSL (2. and we shall construct the character table of this group. we shall ®nd the character table using only numerical calculations. The simple group G ˆ PSL (2. and then b is determined). p)j ˆ p( p2 À 1)a2X It is known that PSL (2. . The factor group SL (2. Rotman listed in the Bibliography). By Exercise 27. Therefore jSL (2.19 of the book by J.1. After ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. so assume that p is an odd prime. p) ˆ SL (2.26). The following table records representatives gi (1 < i < 6) for the conjugacy classes. p)afÆIgX Since |SL (2. c is any non-zero element of Z p . and is written as PSL (2.

we verify that gi has the stated order. .  a c  b . the only elements with the same order are g5 . g4 . d  ' Z X  4 0 0 2        3 À2 3 2 0 À1 1 0 . Consequently &   1 0 2 Z. . . . 6. and then use direct calculation to ®nd all the elements of G which commute with g i . CG ( g 4 ) ˆ 0 1 0 Similarly CG ( g2 ) ˆ &  0 4 0 4  Z. 5. Suppose that   a b Z c d commutes with g4 . . . X 3 À2 4 À2 À2 2 2 2 Also. . for example. MZ: M ˆ À2 4 2 4 1 0 0 1        ' 2 3 2 4 2 2 2 À2 . g6 .Character table of the simple group of order 168 Order of gi  g1 ˆ  g2 ˆ  g3 ˆ  g4 ˆ  g5 ˆ  g6 ˆ 1 0 0 1  Z  Z 2 4 3 7 7 8 4 3 7 7 21 42 56 24 24 1 168 |CG ( gi )| | gG | i 1 313 0 1 À1 0 2 2 2 0 1 0 1 0  À2 Z 2  0 Z 4  1 Z 1  À1 Z 1 Proof For each i. Among g1 . . . Consider. Then     a b 2 0 2 ˆÆ c d 0 4 0 and hence b ˆ c ˆ 0. CG ( gi ) ˆ k gi l for i ˆ 3.

a Tˆ 0.1. . . it also has six irreducible characters.6. Suppose that gÀ1 g6 g ˆ g5 with   a b gˆ Z P GX c d Then gg5 ˆ g6 g. where ÷1 is the . so no two of these six elements are conjugate.1. so g5 is not conjugate to its inverse. (2) Notice that g6 ˆ gÀ1 . gi is conjugate to ( gi ) k whenever gi and ( gi ) k have the same order. d ˆ aÀ1 and     a a‡b a b À aÀ1 ˆ X 0 aÀ1 0 aÀ1 Therefore a2 ˆ À1. . ÷( g5 ) is non-real. Hence the conclusion follows from Theorem 22. these exhaust the conjugacy i classes of G.8). ÷6 be the irreducible characters of G. and we have established that no two of the elements g1 . Since the sum of the sizes of the six conjugacy classes g G (1 < i < 6) is 168. 27. 7) Since G has six conjugacy classes.19). The size of the conjugacy class g G is obtained by dividing 168 by i |CG ( gi )| (Theorem 12. for 1 < i < 4. . j Notice that using Lemma 27. j The character table of G PSL (2. and so    a a‡b aÀc ˆÆ c c‡d c bÀd d  with ad À bc ˆ 1X It follows that c ˆ 0.16. which is impossible for a P Z7 . Let ÷1 .2 Corollary (1) If 1 < i < 4 and ÷ is a character of G. . . g6 are conjugate. Thus g5 is not conjugate to g6 . 5 Therefore (2) follows from Corollary 15.314 Representations and characters of groups and g6 . . Proof (1) By Lemma 27. . (2) For some character ÷ of G. except possibly g5 and g6 . then ÷( gi ) is an integer. since any normal subgroup is a union of conjugacy classes (see Proposition 12. it is easy to check that G is indeed simple.

The entries in the column of g4 are integers. We shall repeatedly exploit the column orthogonality relations. By . we have by Corollary 22. we see that. 0 in some order. Æ1. 0. The entries must therefore be 1. g4 .2.27. and so ÷( g 2 )  ÷( g 3 ) mod 2X Since we also know that 6 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) ˆ 0. part of the character table of G is as follows: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 We shall determine the signs later. ÷6 . Æ1. and the sum of the squares of these integers is equal to |CG ( g4 )| ˆ 3. the degrees ÷ i (1)). g3 . Æ1. . 0 in some order. Æ1. Recall that the character table is the 6 3 6 matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( gj ).4(2). Æ1.e. 0. . Theorem 16. by Corollary 27. Æ1.27 for the elements g2 . 0 in some order.) Similarly the entries in the column of g3 are 1. . and the congruence properties given by Corollaries 22. and the entries in column g2 are 1. so di is the entry on row i of column 1. ÷( g 2 )  ÷(1) mod 2. Æ2. For the moment we concentrate on the entries in the ®rst column of the character table (i. (We know that the entry in the ®rst row is ÷1 ( g4 ) ˆ 1.26 and 22. Let di ˆ ÷ i (1). Now for all characters ÷ of G. Æ1. with a suitable ordering of ÷2 . Æ1.Character table of the simple group of order 168 315 trivial character (so that ÷1 ( g) ˆ 1 for all g P G). and ÷( g 3 )  ÷(1) mod 2. . 0. for which the character values are known to be integers.

11 and the fact that iˆ1 d i ˆ 168. d5 ˆ 3. we have d2 ˆ 7 and d3 ˆ 8. d 6 divides 168. d 4  1 mod 2. d 2 < 168X 4 The only positive integer d4 which satis®es these conditions is d4 ˆ 3. Since d 2  1 mod 2. we have d 4  0 mod 3. d 2 < 168X 6 Therefore d6 is 6 or 12. 2 Now 1 ‡ d 2 ‡ d 2 ‡ 32 ‡ 32 ‡ 62 ˆ 168. so as d 2 < 168. d 6  0 mod 3. In the same way.Representations and characters of groups €6 2 Corollary 22. 2 3 so d 2 ‡ d 2 ˆ 113. d 4 divides jGj ˆ 168.27. we have d6 Tˆ 12. 8 in some order. and hence d6 ˆ 6. But 0ˆ 6 ˆ iˆ1 316 and and ÷ i ( g 2 )d i ˆ 1 Æ d 2 Æ 3 Æ 3 Æ 2d 6 . d3 2 3 positive integers have d2. The only solutions to this equation with d2. We have now found the ®rst column of the character table. d 6  0 mod 2. Theorem 22. and have the following portion: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 . Next. d3 equal to 7.

6. the equation 1 ˆ h÷2 . 3. g4 .) Also. Let ÷4 ( g5 ) ˆ ÷5 ( g 5 ) ˆ z.Character table of the simple group of order 168 The equations 6 ˆ iˆ1 317 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g j ) ˆ 0 for j ˆ 2. We obtain Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 Next. By Corollary 27. 4 now enable us to determine the signs in the columns for g2 . Hence ÷4 and ÷5 (being the only two irreducible characters with the same degree) must be complex conjugates of each other. g3 . the complex conjugate ÷ will be a different character of the same degree.2. ÷2 i ˆ ˆ 6 ˆ ÷2 ( g i )÷2 ( g i ) iˆ1 jCG ( g i )j 7X7 1 1 1 ÷2 ( g 5 )÷2 ( g 5 ) ÷2 ( g 6 )÷2 ( g 6 ) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 168 8 4 3 7 7 gives ÷2 ( g5 ) ˆ ÷2 ( g6 ) ˆ 0. and let ÷6 ( g5 ) ˆ t. (Note that ÷2 ( g5 )  ÷2 (1) mod 7. there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷( g5 ) is non-real. for j ˆ 5. For this character ÷. Thus the column for g5 is . but we could not use this fact as we were not sure that ÷2 ( g5 ) was an integer. 0ˆ 6 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g 4 )÷ i ( g j ) ˆ 1 À ÷3 ( g j ) and so ÷3 ( g5 ) ˆ ÷3 ( g6 ) ˆ 1.

.318 Representations and characters of groups Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g5 7 1 0 1 z z t Now 0ˆ 0ˆ 7ˆ 6 ˆ iˆ1 6 ˆ iˆ1 6 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 5 ) ˆ 1 À z À z ‡ 2t. 7) Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á ˆ (À1 ‡ i 7)a2. 7). We give you the character tables of all of these. as shown. we have ÷( g6 ) ˆ ÷( g 5 ) for all characters ÷ of G. z ˆ (À1 Æ i 7)a2X Since g6 ˆ gÀ1 . ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 5 ) ˆ 1 ‡ z ‡ z. Character table of PSL (2. ÷ i ( g 5 )÷ i ( g 5 ) ˆ 2 ‡ 2zz ‡ ttX Solving these equations. we obtain p t ˆ À1. 5 We have now completely determined the character table of G ˆ PSL (2. g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 1 0 1 á á À1 It is known that there are precisely ®ve non-abelian simple groups of order less than 1000.

. jPSL (2. and show that (1 T ) 4 G ˆ 1 G ‡ ÷. p)afÆIg. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. 3. ad À bc ˆ 1 . p)) ˆ fÆIg. d P Z p . SL (2. 7). 8) PSL (2. as in Lemma 27.Character table of the simple group of order 168 as follows: G A5 PSL (2. 2. 3. b P Z7 7 0 aÀ1 (where Z ˆ {ÆI}). p) ˆ a c Summary of Chapter 27  ' b : a. 2.1. 11) Order of G 60 168 360 504 660 319 Reference for character table Example 20. 3). d jSL (2. c. Deduce directly from the character table of PSL (2. Calculate the values of the induced character (1 T ) 4 G. of order 21. 7) that this group is simple. the simple group of order 168. 7) A6 PSL (2. b. p)j ˆ p( p2 À 1). Prove that Z(SL (2.2 Exercise 28. as follows: &  ' a b Tˆ Z : a P Zà . given the conjugacy classes of G.3 Exercise 27.13 This chapter Exercise 20.6 & 1. Find the character table of SL (2. In this exercise we present an alternative construction of the character table of G ˆ PSL (2. p) ˆ SL (2. 4. We constructed the character table of PSL (2. Exercises for Chapter 27 1. 7). (a) De®ne the subgroup T of G. PSL (2. p)j ˆ p( p2 À 1)a2 ( p odd).

5. 7. (d) From (a). (a) Show that G has 11 conjugacy classes with representatives gi as follows: gi  g1 ˆ  g2 ˆ 1 0 0 1  1 2 4 8 8 3 6 7 14 7 14 336 336 8 8 8 6 6 14 14 14 14 1 1 42 42 42 56 56 24 24 24 24 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i  À1 0 0 À1   0 1 g3 ˆ À1 0   2 À2 g4 ˆ 2 2   À2 2 g5 ˆ À2 À2   2 0 g6 ˆ 0 4   À2 0 g7 ˆ 0 À4   1 1 g8 ˆ 0 1   À1 À1 g9 ˆ 0 À1   1 À1 g 10 ˆ 0 1   À1 1 g 11 ˆ 0 À1 . we now have irreducible characters of G of degrees 1. Use orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. 7).320 Representations and characters of groups (b) Let ë be a non-trivial linear character of T.14). Let G ˆ SL (2. (c). the group of all 2 3 2 matrices of determinant 1. with entries in the ®eld Z7 . 8 and 6. obtain an irreducible character of G of degree 6. 7). (c) By considering ÷ S (see Proposition 19. (b). Calculate the values of ë 4 G and prove that this is an irreducible character of G. The character table of SL (2.

and ®nd ÷ j ( g6 ) for 7 < j < 11. 8. and congruences modulo 3. . Find the character table of G. g3 and g6 (see Proposition 19. g2 . ÷10 . respec5 6 7 8 tively. show that the degrees of ÷7 . (f) Let ø be one of the irreducible characters of degree 4. gÀ1 . g6 . Deduce the values of the irreducible characters of degree 4 on all gi . ÷11 are 4. 6. . . and deduce that ÷ j (1) is even. 6. . g8 . ÷11 be the remaining irreducible characters of G. Show that for any j with 7 < j < 11 and any g P G. . (d) Prove that ÷ j ( g3 ) ˆ 0 for 7 < j < 11. 11).14). (g) Complete the character table of G. 4. The character table of PSL (2. gÀ1 are conjugate to g5 .Character table of the simple group of order 168 321 (b) Use the character table of PSL (2. . prove that ø A is equal to the irreducible character of G of degree 6 whose kernel contains Z. This group has eight conjugacy classes with representatives g1 .7) to write down the six irreducible characters of G with kernel containing Z ˆ {ÆI}. 11). we have ÷ j ( g) ˆ À÷ j (À g). (e) By considering the column of g6 in the character table. . ÷8 . g8 having orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 660 g2 2 12 g3 3 6 g4 6 6 g5 5 5 g6 5 5 g7 11 11 g8 11 11 Also. By considering the values of ø A on g1 . gÀ1 . (c) Let ÷7 . . g7 . 6. . Let G ˆ PSL (2. ÷9 . gÀ1 .

‡) is an abelian group.28 Character table of GL(2. and one of the exercises will show you how to use the results of this chapter to determine the character tables of in®nitely many simple groups. The basic properties of ®nite ®elds which we will use without proof are these: 322 . Secondly. However. b. The ®elds F q and F q 2 We consider ®nite ®elds. For example. with identity element 0. if you are unfamiliar with ®nite ®elds then you might like to consult the book by J. that is (a ‡ b)c ˆ ac ‡ bc for all a. with identity element 1. At ®rst sight. C and Z p ( p prime) are ®elds. q) We are now going to calculate the character tables of an important in®nite series of groups. with the usual de®nitions of ‡ and 3. we shall see that the conjugacy classes of our groups fall into four families. we found the character tables of certain groups of 2 3 2 matrices with entries in Z7 and Z11 . and we shall tell you which properties of these ®elds we will use. B. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. In the last chapter and its exercises. 3) is a set F with two binary operations ‡ and 3 such that the following properties hold. 3) is an abelian group. c P F. R. this is a daunting task. then (F à . we can display the character values in a 4 3 4 matrix. ‡. the distributive law holds. Consequently. We shall determine the character tables of some matrix groups with entries from an arbitrary ®nite ®eld. Finally. First. Recall that a ®eld (F. since the number of irreducible characters increases with the size of the ®eld. if we write F à ˆ Fnf0g. as do the irreducible characters. (F.

namely Theorem 28. and hence S  F q .3) Let å be a generator of the cyclic group FÃ2 and let q 2 ù ˆ e(2ðia(q À1)) .1) Let p be a prime and n be a positive integer. (28. We introduce the following useful notation. ps ˆ 0.2 with the ®eld F q . 2 (2) Since FÃ2 is a group of order q 2 À 1. For every s P F q the sum of s with itself p times is zero. so r ‡ r q . q) (28. Suppose that r P FÃ2 .2 Proposition Let F ˆ F q 2 and S ˆ fs P F : s q ˆ sg. Hereafter. Then (s ‡ t) q ˆ s q ‡ t q ˆ s ‡ t. This implies that (r ‡ r ) ˆ r ‡ r ˆ r ‡ r and (r 1‡q ) q ˆ j r 1‡q . Then there exists a ®eld F q of order q and every ®eld of order q is isomorphic to F q .5.Character table of GL(2. (2) If r P F then r ‡ r q . Moreq over. Then r 3 r is an irreducible character of FÃ2 . 3) is cyclic. 28. r 1‡q P S. every irreducible character of FÃ2 has the form q r 3 r j for some integer j. . It is now easy to check that (S. and write q ˆ pn . t P F q . (1) The set S is a sub®eld of F of order q. r 1‡q P S. so S is a ®eld. 3) are abelian groups. We use this remark in the proof of the next proposition. so s ‡ t P S. it follows that (s ‡ t) p ˆ s p ‡ t p for all s. ‡) and (Snf0g. and k k k hence (s ‡ t) p ˆ s p ‡ t p for all positive integers k. t P S. The group (Fà . q 323 Notice that the binomial coef®cients ( ip ) with 1 < i < p À 1 are all divisible by p. We may write q r ˆ å m for some m and we let r ˆ ù m . we shall identify the sub®eld S of F q 2 in Proposition 28. You are now in a position to appreciate the statement of the main result of this chapter. we see that r q ˆ r for all q q q q q2 q r P F. in short. Proof (1) Suppose that s.

(c. jGj ˆ (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) ˆ q(q À 1)2 (q ‡ 1)X There are four families of conjugacy classes of G.   a b 0 c can be conjugate to  a9 0 b9 c9  only if fa. c9g. b) can be any non-zero row vector. q). The matrices   s 0 sI ˆ (s P Fà ) q 0 s belong to the centre of G. and once (a. since conjugate matrices have the same eigenvalues. Next. cg ˆ fa9. b) has been chosen. d) can be any row vector which is not a multiple of (a. of which three are easy to describe. giving us q 2 À q choices. The subgroup consisting of all matrices of determinant 1 is the special linear group SL(2. Here. The number of such matrices is found by noting that (a. and we talked about some special linear groups in the last chapter. b). we are going to calculate the character table of GL(2.324 Representations and characters of groups The conjugacy classes of GL(2. and remember that the matrix   a b c d belongs to G if and only if its rows are linearly independent. Therefore. consider the matrices  s us ˆ 0 Let give us q À 1 conjugacy classes of  1 s (s P Fà )X q . Let G ˆ GL(2. q) The general linear group GL(2. First. q) is de®ned to be the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in F q . They size 1. q). Keep this in mind during the following discussion. q). giving us q 2 À 1 choices.

The characteristic polynomial of v r is det(xI À v r ) ˆ x(x À (r ‡ r q )) ‡ r 1‡q ˆ (x À r)(x À r q ). so. by Theorem 12.2. Thus. q)   a b P GX gˆ c d Then gus ˆ   and us g ˆ   325 as cs a ‡ bs c ‡ ds as cs d ‡ bs ds so g belongs to the centralizer of us if and only if c ˆ 0 and a ˆ d. the matrices d s.s X On the other hand. consider   0 1 vr ˆ (r P F q 2 nF q )X Àr 1‡q r ‡ r q By Proposition 28. Now. t 0 1 1 0  ˆ d t. each conjugacy class contains q 2 À 1 elements. Since r P F q we see that v r lies in a none of the conjugacy classes we have constructed so far. v r P G. t g if and only if b ˆ c ˆ 0. t ˆ d s. Thus. t P Fà ) q 0 t and note that  0 1 1 0 À1  d s. the centralizer order is (q À 1)2 . Finally. then we have that gd s. t (s.Character table of GL(2. t P Fà . let   s 0 d s. if s Tˆ t. so each conjugacy class contains q(q ‡ 1) elements. the q centralizer order is (q À 1)q. the matrices us (s P Fà ) give us q À 1 conjugacy classes.8. t ˆ P G (s. s Tˆ t) give us q (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes. 2 3 Àbr 1‡q a ‡ b(r ‡ r q ) gv r ˆ and Àdr 1‡q c ‡ d(r ‡ r q ) 2 3 c d vr g ˆ X Àar 1‡q ‡ c(r ‡ r q ) Àbr 1‡q ‡ d(r ‡ r q ) . so v r has eigenvalues r and r q. Now.

The matrix v t has eigenvalues t and t q.4 Proposition There are q 2 À 1 conjugacy classes in GL(2. 0) and r. then ad À bc ˆ a2 ‡ ab(r ‡ r q ) ‡ b2 r 1‡q ˆ (a ‡ br)(a ‡ br q )X Since (a. t (q À 1)2 (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 vr q2 À 1 (q 2 À q)a2 The families of conjugacy class representatives sI and us are indexed by elements s of Fà .326 Representations and characters of groups Hence gv r ˆ v r g only if c ˆ Àbr 1‡q and d ˆ a ‡ b(r ‡ r q ). j . tg of distinct elements of Fà . If these conditions hold. so we have found all the conjugacy classes. r q g. q The family of conjugacy class representatives d s. described as follows. Class rep. r q P F q. jCG (v r )j ˆ q 2 À 1. we see that a ‡ br and a ‡ br q a are non-zero. q q Proof The conjugacy classes we have found account for (q À 1) ‡ (q À 1)(q 2 À 1) ‡ (q À 1)(q À 2)q(q ‡ 1)a2 ‡ (q 2 À q)(q 2 À q)a2 elements altogether. b) Tˆ (0. But this sum is equal to the order of GL(2. q). q The family of conjugacy class representatives v r is indexed by unordered pairs fr. each subset gives us a conjugacy class representative v r and different subsets give us representatives of different conjugacy classes. g P CG (v r ) if and only if   a b gˆ X Àbr 1‡q a ‡ b(r ‡ r q ) Thus. 28. t is indexed by unordered pairs fs. so it is not conjugate to v r unless t ˆ r or t ˆ r q. g sI |CG ( g)| (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) No. r q g of elements of FÃ2 nFà . and the conjugacy class containing v r has size q 2 À q. Therefore. of classes qÀ1 us (q À 1)q qÀ1 d s. We therefore partition F q 2 nF q into subsets fr. We have now found all the conjugacy classes of G. q).

t (st) i (st) i si t j ‡ s j t i 0 vr r i(1‡q) Àr i(1‡q) 0 À(r i ‡ r iq ) Here. there are (q 2 À q)a2 characters ÷ i . j ÷i s 2i qs 2i (q ‡ 1)s i‡ j (q À 1)s i us s 2i 0 s i‡ j Às i d s.4. each of degree q ‡ 1. ø i. The group K contains the q À 1 scalar matrices sI in G. (a) For ë i we have 0 < i < q À 2.Character table of GL(2. Thus. (b) For ø i we have 0 < i < q À 2. and of the remaining q 2 À q elements of K. Then jKj ˆ q 2 À 1. each of degree 1. there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 characters ø i. Thus.3). j . Recall that å is our chosen generator for FÃ2 and q   0. q) as in Proposition 28. ø i . there are q À 1 characters ø i . we have the following restrictions on the subscripts. ÷ i as follows.q) We are now in a position to describe the character table of G. 1 X vå ˆ å ‡ åq Àå 1‡q 28. 327 28. each of degree q À 1. (d) For ÷ i. j we have 0 < i . we ®rst consider the set of integers j with 0 < j < q 2 À 1 and (q ‡ 1) T j j. (c) For ø i. q) The characters of GL(2. sI ëi øi ø i.5 Theorem Label the conjugacy classes of GL(2. Thus. and let r 3 r be the function from FÃ2 to C described in (28. q) are given by ë i . j . Then the q irreducible characters of GL(2. Before we embark upon the task of calculating the irreducible characters of G. . Hence. there are q À 1 characters ë i . j < q À 2. we present a proposition which will be useful later.6 Proposition Let K ˆ hvå i. if j1 and j2 belong to this set and j1  j2 q mod (q 2 À 1) then we choose precisely one of j1 and j2 to belong to the indexing set for the characters ÷ i . each of degree q.

since vå has eigenvalues in F q and vå is diagonalizable. and this case accounts for the q À 1 scalar matrices. as described in Proposition 28. Proof The map det : g 3 det g is a homomorphism from G onto Fà . t si t j ‡ s j t i vr 0 .5. the irreducible characters ë i .4. j of G whose values on the conjugacy class representatives. j and ÷ i which appear in Theorem 28. j (q ‡ 1)s i‡ j us s i‡ j d s. whose values appear in Theorem 28. and they are given in Theorem 28. sI ø i. q q Proof The eigenvalues of vå are å and å q.7 Proposition There are q À 1 linear characters ë i of G. ø i.5.5. j We shall construct.7 are all the linear characters of G. in turn. i i i If å i ˆ å iq then vå ˆ å i I.8 Proposition For all integers i. j there is a character ø i. the functions ë i : g 3 (det g) i ( g P G) give q À 1 distinct linear characters of G. If å i Tˆ å iq then i i iq å P F q and vå and vå must be conjugate to vå i . 28. j We will see later that the linear characters ë i (0 < i < q À 2) which appear in Proposition 28. i iq The eigenvalues of vå and of vå are å i and å iq . ø i . so vå has order q 2 À 1. 28. Hence two elements a of K belong to the conjugacy class of vå i . q As i varies between 0 and q À 2 inclusive.328 Representations and characters of groups precisely two belong to each of the conjugacy classes represented by v r with r P FÃ2 nFà . are as follows.

5.i . t : g ˆ vr : ø i. Proof We shall demonstrate that the character ø i. we calculate hø i.i i ˆ (q ‡ 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) ‡ 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q ‡ ˆ 2X Here.i . j are as stated in the proposition. j ( g) ë i. j 4 G.i . the values of ø i. j ( g) ˆ jC G ( g)j ‡ . there is an irreducible character ø i of G whose values are given in Theorem 28.s jC B ( g)j jC B ( g9)j ø i. j ( g) ˆ ø i. ë i i. j ( g) jC B ( g)j   ë i. j ( g) ˆ 0X j Hence. We use Proposition 21. j ( g) ˆ jC G ( g)j ë i. j ˆ ëi. j ( g) jC B ( g)j jC G ( g)j ë i. De®ne ë i. q) Proof Let Bˆ &  ' PG X 329 a 0 b c Then B is a subgroup of G with jBj ˆ (q À 1)2 q.8 gives us ø i. j ( g9) ø i. The characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. j ( g) for each conjugacy class representative g. ø i. where g9 ˆ d t.Character table of GL(2.i i and hø i. ø i. j is a character of B. j : B 3 C by   s r ë i. as follows. g ˆ sI : g ˆ us : g ˆ d s. the ®rst term corresponds to the conjugacy classes of elements 4 (q À 1)(q À 2) (q À 1)2 2 .9 Proposition For each integer i.23 to calculate ø i.i which appears in Proposition 28. We let ø i. j : 3 s i t jX 0 t Then ë i. We have hø i. Remember that the complex conjugate of s i is s Ài . To this end.i ˆ ë i ‡ ø i . 28.

j i ˆ A ‡ B ‡ C.5.8. t P Fà g is an abelian group of q order (q À 1)2. t : s. j which appears in Proposition 28. ø i. Bˆ 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 1 1ˆ i j Cˆ (s t ‡ s j t i )(s Ài t À j ‡ s À j t Ài )X (q À 1)2 2 sTˆ t Aˆ and 2 (q À 1)(q À 2) 2 (q À 1) 2 The coef®cent 1 appears in C because we have just one conjugacy 2 class for each unordered pair fs. j . ø i. ë i i ˆ (q ‡ 1) 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) ‡ (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q ‡ ˆ 1X The facts that hø i.i i ˆ 2 imply that ø i.i .i ˆ ë i ‡ ø i for some irreducible character ø i.i .8 is irreducible. Using the values of ø i. t 3 s i t j ‡ s j t i then ó is a sum of two .10 Proposition Suppose that 0 < i .i . and the calculation of this ®rst term involves the following three observations. j i ˆ 1. tg of distinct elements of Fà . where (q ‡ 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1). j . Proof We shall show that hø i. and if ó : d s.i (sI)ø i. (2) jC G (sI)j ˆ (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q)X (3) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the forms sI. Then the character ø i. j which are given in Proposition 28. we obtain hø i. ë i i ˆ 1 and hø i. hø i. note that fd s. Let s be an element of Fà of order q À 1. Then ø i : d s.1 3 s i .330 Representations and characters of groups sI. j 28. ø i.i i are calculated in a similar fashion. q Hence the characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. Subtract ë i from ø i. ø i.i to get the values of ø i as given in Theorem 28. The remaining terms in hø i. (1) ø i. q To evaluate C.i .i (sI) ˆ (q ‡ 1)2 . Next. j < q À 2.

i Tˆ ë i9. ø i. Consider the group B and its linear characters ë i. there exists a character ö i of G which takes the following values. Therefore. j < q À 2 and 0 < i9 . j9 on a conjugacy class j of G. j Tˆ ø i9. j which were used in the proof of Proposition 28. for 0 < i . there exists complex (q À 1)th roots of unity s and t such that either s Tˆ t and s i t j ‡ s j t i Tˆ s i9 t j9 ‡ s j9 t i9 or s ˆ t and s i‡ j Tˆ s i9‡ j9 . we see that ø i. 28. j9 . j Tˆ ø i9. Thus. We have   s b ë i.Character table of GL(2. ó i ˆ 2X That is. and ø i. j differs from ø i9. ø i.i9 . In either case.i : 3 s i t j ‡ s j t iX 0 t Since ë i. j 28. j ‡ ë j. t 0 vr r i ‡ r iq . hø i. j9 ‡ ë j9. sI öi q(q À 1)s i us 0 d s. Therefore. hó . j < q À 2 are distinct irreducible Proof Suppose that 0 < i . Cˆ qÀ3 X qÀ1 And now we ®nd that A ‡ B ‡ C ˆ 1. j characters of G. j9). j) Tˆ (i9. We must prove that ø i. j9 < q À 2. j ‡ ë j. j i ˆ 1. q) 331 inequivalent irreducible characters of this group.11 Corollary The characters ø i. j .8. j9 . j is irreducible. 2 3 ˆ 1 i j j i Ài À j À j Ài 4(q À 1) ‡ (s t ‡ s t )(s t ‡ s t ) ˆ 2X (q À 1)2 sTˆ t Hence.12 Proposition For each integer i. and (i.

®rst recall that á i 4 G is zero on all elements which are not conjugate to an element of K. Then ˆ (r i ‡ r iq )(r Ài ‡ r Àiq ) ˆ 2(q À 1)2 X rPF q 2 nF q Proof Note that & r G1 ˆ 0 0 rq  : r P FÃ2 q ' and G2 ˆ & r 0 0 rq  : r P Fà q ' are abelian groups of orders q 2 À 1 and q À 1. v r is conjugate to an element of g of K. 28.6. Also. If g ˆ sI with s P Fà then g P K and q ö i ( g) ˆ jC G ( g)j á i ( g) ˆ q(q À 1)s i X jC K ( g)j Suppose that r P F q 2 nF q . Then g has eigenvalues r and r q . Then. respectively. ö i has the values stated in the proposition. Hence á i ( g) ˆ r i or r iq and á i ( g) ‡ á i ( g q ) ˆ r i ‡ r iq X Let ö i ˆ á i 4 G. and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i .332 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let K ˆ hvå i. Suppose that g P K and g is conjugate in G to v r .13 Lemma Assume that i is an integer and (q ‡ 1) T j i. by Proposition 28. Now. we shall the use the following lemma. Thus.   á i ( g) ái( g q) ö i ( g) ˆ jC G ( g)j ‡ jC K ( g)j jC K ( g)j ˆ á i ( g) ‡ á i ( g q ) ˆ r i ‡ r iq X Thus. j To be able to work out certain inner products involving our characters ö i . t (s Tˆ t). by Proposition 28. as in Proposition 28.6.6. ö i is zero on the elements of the form u s and d s. In order to calculate ö i . .

t 0 vr À(r i ‡ r iq ) If (q ‡ 1) T j i then ÷ i is an irreducible character of G. Proof We can justify the manoeuvre which we now perform only by saying that it gives the correct answer. since r q ˆ r for r P FÃ. the character ÷ is twice an irreducible character.Ài ø i À ø0.8. j . and for G2. 28.9 and 28. we get 1 ˆ i (r ‡ r iq )(r Ài ‡ r Àiq ) ˆ 4X qÀ1 à rPF q Hence ˆ rPF q 2 nF q (r i ‡ r iq )(r Ài ‡ r Àiq ) ˆ 2(q 2 À 1) À 4(q À 1) ˆ 2(q À 1)2 X j 28. Now. sI ÷i (q À 1)s i us Às i d s. let ÷ i be the class function on G with the following values. ø i and ö i given in Propositions 28. ÷ i is the class function on G which is given by ÷ i ˆ ø0. Taking the inner product of the q character ÷ of G1 with itself. Recall the characters ø i.Character table of GL(2.12. we get 1 ˆ i (r ‡ r iq )(r Ài ‡ r Àiq ) ˆ 2 2À1 q rPFà 2 q and doing the same for the character ÷ of G2 . For G1.i À ö i X . since (q ‡ 1) T j i implies that å i Tˆ å iq . q)   r 0 3 r i ‡ r iq 0 rq 333 gives a character ÷ of degree 2 for each group.14 Proposition For each integer i. the character ÷ is a sum of two inequivalent irreducible characters.

i öi ÷i (q ‡ 1)s Ài qs 2i q(q ‡ 1)s i (q ‡ 1)s i q(q À 1)s i (q À 1)s i us s Ài 0 0 si 0 Às Ài d s. which is the same as the number of conjugacy classes of G.334 Representations and characters of groups The table below allows us to verify this.15 Proposition Suppose that i and j are integers with (q ‡ 1) T j i and (q ‡ 1) T j j and j T i. t s Ài ‡ t Ài (st) i i s ‡ ti si ‡ t i 0 0 vr 0 Àr i(1‡q) 0 0 r i ‡ r iq À(r i ‡ r iq ) Next. j 28. Since j T i. ÷ i Tˆ ÷ j . it follows that ÷ i is an irreducible character of G. q If g is conjugate to v r where r P F q 2 nF q then (á i ‡ á iq )( g) ˆ r i ‡ r iq . q) to ®nd the . assume that (q ‡ 1) T j i. with integer coef®cients. sI ø0. ÷ i i using Lemma 28. and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i . Therefore. ÷ i i ˆ 1 and ÷ i (1) . the characters á i ‡ á iq and á j ‡ á jq of K are different.Ài øi ø0. 0.5. since we have shown that the class functions given in the theorem are inequivalent irreducible characters. and the number of them is q 2 À 1. j We have now completed the proof of Theorem 28. and h÷ i . Proof Let K ˆ hvå i. ÷ i i ˆ (q À 1)2 1 (q À 1)2 (q À 1) ‡ 2 (q À 1) ‡ 2 ˆ 1X q Àq (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q À1 Since ÷ i is a linear combination of irreducible characters of G. h÷ i . as we wished to show. iq mod(q 2 À 1). as in Proposition 28. If g ˆ sI where s P Fà then (á i ‡ á iq )( g) ˆ 2s i . It is possible to use the character table of GL(2. Then the characters ÷ i and ÷ j of G are different.13. Suppose that g P K.Ài ø i ø0.6. We work out h÷ i . iq mod(q 2 À 1). so either s i Tˆ s j for some s P Fà or q r i ‡ r iq Tˆ r j ‡ r jq for some r P F q 2 nF q .

Green determined the character table of GL(n. this gives the character tables of an in®nite series of simple groups PSL(2. q) when q is a power of 2. q) when q  1 mod 4 or q  3 mod 4 from the character table of GL(2. you are asked to consider the easiest case. q). those with kernel containing the centre of SL(2. J. though. q). (c) There are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives   s 0 of the form d s. q) is rather easier to ®nd than that of SL(2. Since SL(2. Summary of Chapter 28 The character table of GL(2. A challenging exercise is to determine the character table of PSL(2. q) ± compare Chapter 27 ± and so the character table of PSL(2. (d) There are (q 2 À q)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives of the . and they depend upon whether q is a power of 2 or q  1 mod 4 or q  3 mod 4. Then.2. q) provide the characters of the groups PSL(2. q) was found. Although the character table of GL(2. q). q) for all positive integers n. since the answers are quite complicated. q) 335 character table of SL(2. q)  PSL(2. In Exercise 28. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of degree 0 s q. in 1955. q) has the following properties. q). (a) Thereare q  1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form À s 0 sI ˆ . A. and there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 0 t irreducible characters of degree q ‡ 1. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of 0 s degree 1.Character table of GL(2. (b) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form   s 1 us ˆ . q) was ®rst given in 1907. namely that where q is a power of 2. Among the characters of SL(2. q). We do not go fully into this. since most of the irreducible characters remain irreducible when restricted. it was not until the 1950's that the character table of GL(3. t ˆ (s Tˆ t).

q)X Deduce the character table of SL(2. q) from that of GL(2. .5 to write down explicitly the character table of GL(2.2 to write down explicitly the character table of PSL(2. 8). Use Theorem 28. q)  Z 3 SL(2. Use your solution to Exercise 28. and there are (q 2 À q)a2 irreducible form v r ˆ Àr 1‡q r ‡ r q characters of degree q À 1. q). Let Z ˆ fsI : s P Fà g. Exercises for Chapter 28 1. Suppose that q is a power of 2. q) is simple. 3.336 Representations and characters of groups   0 1 . Prove that q GL(2. Prove that if q Tˆ 2 then SL(2. 3). 2.

F F F . it is called the action of Sn on pairs. ng. a fact which proved useful in many of our subsequent character table calculations. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism ö: G 3 Sym(Ù). (2) Let G ˆ Sn and let Ù be the set consisting of all pairs fi. a subgroup of Sn for some n. jgg for all g P Sn and 1 < i . j < n. F F F . ng. 2. ng then Sym(Ù) ˆ Sn . and develop some useful results. denote by Sym(Ù) the group of all permutations of Ù. 3g 3 f2. then G has a permutation character ð de®ned by ð( g) ˆ jfix( g)j for g P G. (So for example. 29. De®nition Let G be a group and Ù a set.29 Permutations and characters We have already seen in Chapter 13 that if G is a permutation group. 3g. (1 2)ö sends f1. 337 . De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting fi. If Ù is a set.1 Examples (1) If G < Sn then the identity map is an action of G on f1. In this chapter we take the theory of permutation groups and characters somewhat further. Group actions We begin with a more general notion than that of a permutation group. In particular. We also say that G acts on Ù (via ö).) Check that ö is an action of Sn . i.12 below). jg( gö) ˆ fig. jg of elements of f1.e. particularly about irreducible characters of symmetric groups (see Theorem 29. F F F . if Ù ˆ f1.

De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting hvi( gö) ˆ hv gi for all hvi P Ù and g P G. and let ö: G 3 S8 be the action . and Ker ö ˆ xPG x À1 Hx < H. b) with a. in other words. for ù P Ù and g P G we usually just write ù g instead of ù( gö). For example. â P Ù. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by ( Hx)( gö) ˆ Hxg for all x. generated by x. Ù) ˆ 1. h P G. we have á $ â if and only if there exists g P G such that á g ˆ â. a ‡ b)iX Then ö is an action of G on Ù. Let V be the 2-dimensional vector space over F q consisting of all row vectors (a. as de®ned in Chapter 28. Adopting this notation. Thus Ù is the disjoint union of the orbits of G. g P G. It is easy to see that $ is an equivalence relation on Ù. Write orb(G. b)i 3 h(a.2 Examples (1) Let G ˆ C4 . (4) Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n.338 Representations and characters of groups (3) Let G ˆ GL(2. ö is an action of „ G. To simplify notation. b P F q . the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices over the ®nite ®eld F q. given any á. The equivalence classes are called the orbits of G on Ù. and let Ù be the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces hvi of V. and let Ù be the set of all right cosets Hx of H in G (so jÙj ˆ n). The group G is said to be transitive on Ù if orb(G. Ù) for the number of orbits of G on Ù. there exists g P G such that á g ˆ â. â P Ù. if ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) is an action. de®ne a relation $ on Ù as follows: for á. 29. if   1 1 gˆ 0 1 then gö sends h(a. With this notation. Then by Exercise 9 of Chapter 23. the fact that ö is a homomorphism simply says that ù( gh) ˆ (ù g)h for all ù P Ù and g. G is transitive if. say. q).

f5. 29. Now let Ä be the set of right cosets Gù x of Gù in G.3 Proposition The stabilizer Gù is a subgroup of G. 2. simply observe that. write ù G for the orbit of G which contains ù. (2) The group G is transitive on the set Ù in each of Examples 29. Let G be a group acting on a set Ù. and hence jÄj ˆ jù G j. 3. 4g. 4). y P G. that is. 6g and f7. Moreover. h P Gù then ù( gh) ˆ (ù g)h ˆ ùh ˆ ù. as required. In other words. so ù G ˆ fù g : g P Gg.Permutations and characters 339 de®ned by xö ˆ (1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8) (and of course x k ö ˆ ((1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8)) k for any k). Gù x ˆ Gù y D xy À1 P Gù D ùxy À1 ˆ ù D ùx ˆ ù yX Hence we can de®ne an injective function ã : Ä 3 ù G by ã(Gù x) ˆ ùx for all x P G. F F F . and Gù contains the identity. the element g ˆ x À1 y P G has the property that ( Hx) g ˆ Hy. Clearly ã is also surjective. and de®ne Gù ˆ f g P G : ù g ˆ ùgX We call Gù the stabilizer of ù in G. q) such that vA ˆ w. and in Example (4). Denote by CÙ the vector space over C for which Ù is a basis. 8g. 3. Then G has three orbits on Ù ˆ f1. Also gÀ1 P Gù . j Permutation characters Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. to verify it for Example (3) you need to convince yourself that for any two non-zero row vectors v. given two right cosets Hx.1(2. hence gh P Gù . 8g. CÙ consists of all expressions of the form . jù G j ˆ jG : Gù jX Proof If g. the size of the orbit ù G is equal to the index of Gù in G. This is clear in Example (2). namely f1. Hy P Ù. Observe that for x. so Gù is a subgroup. For ù P Ù. w P V there is an invertible 2 3 2 matrix A P GL(2.

and let ð be the permutation character. and for each i. but is in fact due to Cauchy and Frobenius. and provides a basic link between the permutation character and the action of G. F F F .340 Representations and characters of groups ˆ ëù ù (ëù P C) ùPÙ with the obvious addition and scalar multiplication.4 Proposition Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. is rather famous. As in Chapter 13. the number of ù P Ù such that ù g ˆ ù is equal to jfixÙ ( g)j. We see just as in Chapter 13 (p. 129) that if ð is the character of this permutation module. 1 G i ˆ jfixÙ ( g)j ˆ orb(G. where fixÙ ( g) ˆ fù P Ù : ù g ˆ ùg. then for g P G. by de®ning 2 3 ˆ ˆ ëù ù g ˆ ëù (ù g) for all g P G. hence .3. for 1 < i < t we have jÄ i j ˆ jù G j ˆ jG : Gù i jX i Hence jÄ i j jGù i j ˆ jGj. called the permutation module. By Proposition 29. The next result. pick ù i P Ä i . Ù)X jGj gPG Proof First note that hð. We call ð the permutation character of G on Ù. g) : ù P Ù. we can make CÙ into a CG-module. 1 G i ˆ 1 ˆ 1 ˆ ð( g) ˆ jfixÙ ( g)jX jGj gPG jGj gPG Let Ä1 . It is often referred to as ``Burnside's Lemma''. Now de®ne Ö ˆ f(ù. First. 29. We calculate jÖj in two different ways. ð( g) ˆ jfixÙ ( g)j. Then 1 ˆ hð. though elementary. for each g. g P G. ù g ˆ ùg. Ä t be the orbits of G on Ù.

Now let G be a group.6 in a number of situations. the ®rst being the case where Ù1 ˆ Ù2 . 1 G i ˆ 1. Then hð1 . ð2 i ˆ 1 ˆ 1 ˆ jfixÙ1 ( g)kfixÙ2 ( g)j ˆ jfixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g)j. .6 Proposition Let G act on Ù1 and Ù2 . 29.Permutations and characters ˆ jÖj ˆ jfixÙ ( g)jX gPG 341 Secondly. Hence if ð is the permutation character of G on Ù1 3 Ù2 . and suppose that G acts on two sets Ù1 and Ù2 . 29.5 Corollary G is transitive on Ù if and only if hð. with corresponding permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively. then ð( g) ˆ ð1 ( g)ð2 ( g) for all g P G. In the rest of the chapter we apply Proposition 29. ù2 ) g ˆ (ù1 g. the number of g P G such that ù g ˆ ù is equal to jGù j. and the conclusion follows. g P G. It is clear that fixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g) ˆ fixÙ1 ( g) 3 fixÙ2 ( g) for any g P G. with permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively. ù2 g) for all ù i P Ù i . Ù1 3 Ù2 ) by Proposition 29. Then we can de®ne an action of G on the Cartesian product Ù1 3 Ù2 by setting (ù1 . jGj gPG jGj gPG j which is equal to orb(G. ð2 i ˆ orb(G. Ù1 3 Ù2 )X Proof We have hð1 . for each ù. hence jÖj ˆ Therefore € gPG ˆ ùPÙ jGù j ˆ t ˆ iˆ1 jÄ i j jGù i j ˆ t ˆ 1 jGj ˆ tjGjX j jfixÙ ( g)j ˆ tjGj.4.

namely (ù1 . Ù) ˆ 2. Ù).17. with permutation character ð. In other words. Ù) ˆ hð. with permutation character ð.8. ðiX Now suppose G is transitive on Ù and jÙj . 29. G is 2-transitive if. and hð. á2 ) and (â1 . Thus r(G. Ù) ˆ orb(G. â1 Tˆ â2 . 29. 1 G i ˆ 1 by Corollary 29. ù2 P Ù. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. and hence certainly r(G. 29. there exists g P G such that á1 g ˆ â1 and á2 g ˆ â2 . â2 ) in Ù 3 Ù. Ù) > 2. for any ordered pairs (á1 . j . Then r(G.9 De®nition Let G be transitive on Ù. Then Ä ˆ f(ù.6. ù2 g) for all ù1 .7 De®nition The number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù is called the rank of G on Ù. ù2 ) g ˆ (ù1 g. written r(G. 1. 29. The case where equality holds is of particular interest.5. The result follows. ù) : ù P Ùg is an orbit of G on Ù 3 Ù. Then G also acts on Ù 3 Ù in the way de®ned above. ði ˆ 2 by Proposition 29. Ù 3 Ù)X The next result is immediate from Proposition 29. Proof We have hð. g P G. Then G is said to be 2-transitive on Ù if r(G. using Theorem 14.8 Proposition Let G act on Ù. with á1 Tˆ á2 .10 Corollary If G is 2-transitive on Ù. then ð ˆ 1 G ‡ ÷.342 Representations and characters of groups Suppose G acts on Ù.

lgj ˆ 1g. fk. Each cycle-shape (including 1-cycles) is a sequence ë ˆ (ë1 . jg.1.17). The linear transformation from V to V which sends v1 3 w1 . there is no element of Sn which sends (f1. with n > 4. for each partition ë. Some irreducible characters of S n By Theorem 12. By Theorem 15. 4g) to (f1. w2 are both bases of V.3. an irreducible character ÷ ë . where ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of Sn . jg ’ fk. ði ˆ r(G. 3g). Here Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of the 2-dimensional vector space V. ë s ) of positive integers ë i such that ë1 > ë2 > F F F > ë s and ë1 ‡ F F F ‡ ë s ˆ n. hv2 i) and (hw1 i. v2 and w1. In fact it is easy to see that the orbits of G ˆ Sn on Ù 3 Ù are Ä. for example. lg) : jfi.16. We claim that G is 2-transitive on Ù. 2g. Since jÙj ˆ q ‡ 1 (see Exercise 1 at the end of the chapter).Permutations and characters 343 29. the irreducible character ÷ of G given by Corollary 29. where Ä is as above. F F F . jg. lg) : jfi. q) which sends hv1 i 3 hw1 i.5.15 we know that the conjugacy classes of Sn are in bijective correspondence with the set of all possible cycle-shapes of permutations. f3. provided n > 4. (3) Consider the action of Sn on pairs de®ned in Example 29. jg ’ fk. Ù) ˆ 3. q) given in Example 29. as claimed. v2 3 w2 is therefore invertible. the irreducible characters of Sn are also in bijective correspondence with the partitions ë of n.1(3). let (hv1 i. and Ä1 ˆ f(fi. A key aim is therefore to construct. To see this. lgj ˆ 0gX Thus hð. ng. F F F . Ä1 and Ä2 . 19. This action is not 2-transitive. f2. Hence these groups have an irreducible character ÷ given by ÷( g) ˆ jfix( g)j À 1X We have seen this irreducible character in a number of previous examples (see 18. hw2 i) be two pairs of distinct 1-spaces in Ù. and we call such a sequence a partition of n. giving an element of GL(2. Then v1 . Ä2 ˆ f(fi. fk. Hence G is 2-transitive on Ù.1(2).11 Examples (1) The symmetric group Sn is 2-transitive on f1. Also An is 2-transitive. 2g. and so ð ˆ 1 G ‡ ÷ ‡ ø. hv2 i 3 hw2 i.10 is the character ø0 of degree q in Theorem 28. since. 19. (2) Consider the action of G ˆ GL(2.

F F F . j 29. in a natural way. 2. The orbits of G ˆ Sn on I k 3 I l are easily seen to be J 0 . F F F . k). ÷ ( nÀ1. but we do not do this. Now assume the statement holds for all values less than k.6.344 Representations and characters of groups of Sn . ÷ ( nÀ k. I k 3 I l ). F F F . k) ˆ ð k À ð kÀ1 . Then . ÷ ( nÀ1.1) .2) . k) . ð l i ˆ orb(G. J 1 .13 below). ng. For an integer k < na2. and m ˆ (n À 1)a2 if n is odd. and much more. m) such that for all k < m. ð k ˆ ÷ ( n) ‡ ÷ ( nÀ1. J s ˆ f(A. James listed in the Bibliography. F F F . ð l i ˆ l ‡ 1. ÷ ( nÀ k. let Ag ˆ fi1 g. we refer you to the book by G.1(2) we can de®ne an action of G on I k as follows: for any subset A ˆ fi1 . ÷ ( nÀ2. de®ne I k to be the set consisting of all subsets of I of size k. by induction on k. hð k . Then Sn has distinct irreducible characters ÷ ( n) ˆ 1 G . The ideas can be developed to carry out the aim in general. F F F J l . a 2-part partition (see Theorem 29.1) ‡ F F F ‡ ÷ ( nÀ k. where for 0 < s < l. This holds for k ˆ 1 by Corollary 29. ik ggX Let ð k be the permutation character of G in its action on I k . F F F . k) such that ð k ˆ ÷ ( n) ‡ ÷ ( nÀ1. giving the conclusion.13 Theorem Let m ˆ na2 if n is even. ik g P I k and any g P G. k) X In particular.1) .10. if you want to see this. on the character theory of Sn . then hð k . I k 3 I l ) ˆ l ‡ 1.12 Proposition If l < k < na2. ÷ ( nÀ m. We shall apply the material of this chapter to carry out this aim in the case where ë ˆ (n À k. Proof By Proposition 29. Observe that   n ð k (1) ˆ jI k j ˆ X k 29. B) P I k 3 I l : jA ’ Bj ˆ sgX Hence orb(G. Just as in Example 29. Proof We prove the existence of irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . Let G ˆ Sn and I ˆ f1.1) ‡ F F F ‡ ÷ ( nÀ k.

k) ÷ (1) ˆ ð k (1) À ð kÀ1 (1) ˆ À X k kÀ1 As another example. ð kÀ1 i ˆ k. as required. k) . we have ð k ˆ ÷ ( n) ‡ ÷ ( nÀ1. The irreducible characters ÷ ( nÀ k. If G is 2-transitive then r(G. The number of orbits is equal to hð. 1 G i ˆ 1. ÷ ( nÀ1. hð k . Ù) ˆ 2 and ð ˆ 1 G ‡ ÷ with ÷ irreducible. The size of the orbit ù G containing ù is jù G j ˆ jG : Gù j. . hð k . ÷3 . and the corresponding character of G is ð. F F F . Ù) is the number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù. respectively.3) . For example. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù).12. k) ˆ ð k À ð kÀ1 makes it easy to calculate the values of the characters ÷ ( nÀ k. kÀ1) such that ð i ˆ ÷ ( n) ‡ ÷ ( nÀ1. Ù) ˆ hð.2) on a 3-cycle: ÷ (5. The rank r(G.1) ‡ F F F ‡ ÷ ( nÀ k. ÷ (4. hð k .i) for all i . F F F . the degree is     n n ( nÀ k. ÷ ( nÀ k‡1. ÷ (3. Now by Proposition 29.2) (123) ˆ ð2 (123) À ð1 (123) ˆ jfix I 2 (123)j À jfix I 1 (123)j ˆ 6 À 4 ˆ 2X (2) In the character table of S6 given in Example 19. ð1 i ˆ 2. Writing ÷ ˆ ÷ ( nÀ k.Permutations and characters 345 there exist irreducible characters ÷ ( n) .13. where ð( g) ˆ jfixÙ ( g)j. Summary of Chapter 29 1.1) . k) corresponding to 2-part partitions have values given by Theorem 29. 3.2) . ÷7 .14 Examples (1) The formula ÷ ( nÀ k. 4. and r(G. k) . hð k . 2.17. suppose n ˆ 7 and let us calculate the value of the irreducible character ÷ (5. ði. k. ÷9 are equal to ÷ (6) .1) .1) ‡ F F F ‡ ÷ ( nÀi. If G acts on Ù then CÙ is the permutation module. ð k i ˆ k ‡ 1X It follows that ð k ˆ ð kÀ1 ‡ ÷ for some irreducible character ÷. k) . The irreducible characters of Sn are in bijective correspondence with partitions of n. The orbits are the equivalence classes in Ù of the relation de®ned by á $ â D á g ˆ â for some g P G. ÷ (5. j 29. 1 G i. the irreducible characters ÷1 .

let ð i be the permutation character of G in the action on Ù i . h P G.18. and de®ne an action ö : G 3 Sym(V à ) by v( gö) ˆ v g for v P V Ã.) . G) is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G.1(4). Let G ˆ GL(2. then H 1 ˆ H 2 X Give an example to show that this need not be the case in general. Suppose that ð1 ˆ ð2 . and take inner products with the irreducible characters of G given in 28. q) (the latter are given by Theorem 28. h)ö) ˆ g À1 xh for all x.1(2). and ®nd the kernel of ö.) 4. Let G be a ®nite group. and let H 1 . and ÷ 3 ÷ is the irreducible character of G 3 G given by Theorem 19.1(3)). (a) Show that ö is an action of G 3 G on G. then jÙj ˆ q ‡ 1.5). For i ˆ 1. q) and let V ˆ F2 as in Example 29. (b) Find the stabilizer (G 3 G)1 of the identity 1 P G. 2 de®ne Ù i to be the set of right cosets of H i in G.346 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 29 1. 3. Prove that if G is abelian. and de®ne a function ö : G 3 G 3 Sym(G) by x(( g. Let q V à ˆ V À f0g. Let ð be the permutation character of G in this action. which is transitive. and the permutation character ð is ðˆ ˆ ÷ ÷ 3 ÷. Let G be a ®nite group acting transitively on a set Ù of size greater than 1. H 2 be subgroups of G. Decompose ð as a sum of irreducible characters of GL(2. 2.5. 5. (c) Show that the rank of this action r(G 3 G. g P G. Prove that G contains an element g such that jfixÙ ( g)j ˆ 0. (Such an element is called a ®xed-point-free element of G. so that G acts on Ù i as in Example 29. Show that if Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of a 2dimensional vector space over F q (as in Example 29. Let G be a ®nite group. where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. g. ( Hint: one way to do this is to write down the values of ð on the conjugacy classes of G.

By considering inner products as in the proof of Theorem 29. j) with i. and let Ù be the set of all ordered pairs (i.1. ng and i Tˆ j. In the character table of S6 given in Example 19.1) ‡ ÷ ( nÀ2.13.Permutations and characters 347 6.1) ? . prove that ð( nÀ2. Writing ÷ ˆ ÷ ( nÀ2. j P f1. which irreducible character is equal to ÷ (4.1) ˆ 1 ‡ 2÷ ( nÀ1. calculate the degree of ÷ ( nÀ2.17.1) . and calculate its value on the elements (12) and (123) of Sn .1.1) . Let n be a positive integer.1. jg) for g P Sn ).1.1) . and let the permutation character of Sn in this action be ð( nÀ2. where ÷ is an irreducible character. F F F . (i. j) g ˆ (ig.2) ‡ ÷.1. Let Sn act on Ù in the obvious way (namely.

Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G. . . The second application takes this much further: the Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23.30 Applications to group theory There are several ways of using the character theory of a group to determine information about the structure of the group. 348 . . as we shall demonstrate.19 motivates the study of simple groups containing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to a given group C. . In this chapter we present some rather deeper applications. 30. . Using a little group theory and a lot of character theory we shall carry out such a study in the case where C ˆ D8 . Recall from Proposition 12. The examples which we have come across so far ± ®nding the centre of the group. and they can be used to investigate the subgroup structure of G. The ®rst involves doing arithmetic with character values to determine certain numbers. the dihedral group of order 8. C l form a basis for the centre of the group algebra CG € (where C i ˆ gPC i g). . .22 that the class sums C1 .1 Proposition There exist non-negative integers aijk such that for 1 < i < l and 1 < j < l. Class algebra constants Let G be a ®nite group and let C1 . and so on ± require little calculation. These constants carry information about the multiplication in G. seeing whether or not the group is simple. . known as the class algebra constants.

the constants aijk determine the product of any two elements in the centre Z(CG) of the group algebra. 30. This number is a non-negative integer. Our next theorem shows that this is indeed the case. 30. Then for all i. k. b P Cj and ab ˆ g. . the numbers aijk carry information about the multiplication in G: (30X3) For all g P Ck and all i.4 Theorem Let gi P Ci for 1 < i < l. b) with a P Ci .1 is to note that C i C j belongs to Z(CG). From their very de®nition. so it must be a linear combination of C1 . you might suspect that the class algebra constants are determined by the character table of G. we have aijk ˆ ˆ ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all the irreducible characters ÷ of G. since C1 . . j. .2 De®nition The integers aijk in the formula Ci C j ˆ l ˆ kˆ1 aijk C k are the class algebra constants of G. C l is a basis of Z(CG). . The result follows. b) with a P Ci . . C l . . .Applications to group theory Ci C j ˆ l ˆ kˆ1 349 aijk C k X Proof For g P Ck the coef®cient of g in the product C i C j is equal to the number of pairs (a. j Another way of looking at Proposition 30. j we have aijk ˆ the number of pairs (a. b P Cj and ab ˆ gX Also. . and is independent of the chosen element g of Ck . As the centre of the group algebra plays an important role in representation theory. .

5) by ÷( g k ) and sum over all irreducible characters ÷ of G.6 Example In this example we shall use the class algebra constants to prove some facts about the elements and subgroups of the symmetric group S4 . the character table of G is as shown: . these results can readily be proved directly.4(2).7. this yields aijk ˆ ˆ ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) j Examples 30. for all u P U we have uC i ˆ Therefore uC i C j ˆ and l ˆ mˆ1 jGj÷( g i ) uX jCG ( g i )j÷(1) ÷( g i )÷( g j ) jGj2 u jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j (÷(1))2 aijm uC m ˆ l ˆ mˆ1 aijm jGj÷( g m ) uX jCG ( g m )j÷(1) Since C i C j ˆ (30X5) € m aijm C m . but they serve as a useful illustration of the method. to obtain l ˆ mˆ1 aijm ˆ ÷( g m )÷( g k ) ÷ jCG ( g m )j ˆ ˆ ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) By the column orthogonality relations. and let U be a CGmodule with character ÷. Let G ˆ S4 . Multiply both sides of equation (30. we deduce that l ˆ mˆ1 aijm ÷( g i )÷( g j ) ÷( g m ) jGj ˆ X jCG ( g m )j jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷(1) Pick k with 1 < k < l. Then by Lemma 22. By Section 18. Theorem 16.1.350 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G.

  24 1 1 a245 ˆ X 1‡1‡ ‡ ˆ 2X 48 3 3 Hence S4 has elements a. so ka.Applications to group theory Character table of S4 Class Ci gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 C1 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 C2 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 C3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 C4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 351 C5 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 (1) We use Theorem 30. We deduce from this that S4 does not have a subgroup which is isomorphic to the quaternion group Q8 : for Q8 does have two elements of order 4 with product of order 4. it can be shown that S4 has a presentation as follows: S4 ˆ ha.3). 43 so S4 has elements a of order 2 and b of order 3 with ab of order 4.4. 24 a235 ˆ X (1 ‡ 1) ˆ 4. We deduce the fact (which we already know from Exercise 18. b: a2 ˆ b3 ˆ (ab)4 ˆ 1iX In other words. (2) By Theorem 30. bl  D8. (3) Finally.4 to calculate the class algebra constant a555 :   24 1 À1 0 À1 1 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ˆ 0X a555 ˆ X 44 1 1 2 3 3 Hence. We supply a . and all products of elements of S4 are determined by the given relations. aÀ1 xa ˆ ba ˆ (ab)À1 ˆ x À1 . S4 does not possess elements a. S4 is generated by a and b. by (30. Writing x ˆ ab. b of order 4 such that the product ab also has order 4. we have x 4 ˆ 1.1) that S4 has a subgroup which is isomorphic to D8. b of order 2 such that ab has order 4. In fact.

7) Class rep. you may wish to puzzle out the relevance of the ®gure above. 7) is as follows. 7) with H isomorphic to S4 . 30.7 Example We use Theorem 30. That such a subgroup exists is not obvious. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á ˆ (À1 ‡ i 7)a2.6 ± in the meantime.352 Representations and characters of groups proof in the solution to Exercise 30. Character table of PSL (2. g1 1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 . We found in Chapter 27 that the character table of G ˆ PSL (2. and it is quite tricky to construct directly.4 to ®nd a subgroup H of the simple group PSL (2.

19 states that there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with a given centralizer. V4 . we conclude that H  S4 X Thus we have shown that PSL (2. 7) has a subgroup which is isomorphic to S4 .8 Theorem Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group which has an involution t such that C G (t)  D8 . so H is isomorphic to S4 . namely xy.6. . b: a2 ˆ b3 ˆ (ab)4 ˆ 1iX Hence there is a homomorphism ö from S4 onto H (ö sends a to x and b to y). given a ®nite group C. an effort which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s (see the book by D. all ®nite simple groups G possessing an involution t such that C G (t)  C. By Theorem 30. This fact led Brauer to initiate a programme to ®nd. A4 or S4 (see Example 12. Now Ker ö. yl of G. The next result carries out part of Brauer's programme in the case where C ˆ D8 . is {1}. G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2. From Example 30. The Brauer programme The Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23.4. by (30. S4 aKer ö  H. a dihedral group of order 8.3). Since H has an element of order 4. being a normal subgroup of S4 .Applications to group theory We calculate the class algebra constant a243 . We have chosen to present this result because it provides a wonderful illustration of the use of character theory in the service of group theory. Let H be the subgroup kx. y has order 3 and xy has order 4. we know that S4 ˆ ha.10. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography).   168 1 a243 ˆ X 1 ‡ ‡ 0 ‡ 0 ‡ 0 ‡ 0 ˆ 8X 83 7 353 Hence. 30. S3 . It determines the possible orders of simple groups G having an involution t such that C G (t)  D8 . This programme formed an important part of the effort of many mathematicians to classify all the ®nite simple groups.20). C2 or {1}. Then G has order 168 or 360. By Theorem 1.

Observe that jÙj ˆ 2jG : Pj ˆ 2m. where a. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography.1). if P Q are Sylow p. then u is conjugate to an element of Q. À1 subgroups.2(4)). one can show that PSL(2. Now consider fixÙ (u) ˆ fù P Ù : ùu ˆ ùg If Qx P fixÙ (u).9 Sylow's Theorem Let p be a prime number. then Qxu ˆ Qx and hence xux À1 P Q. Then (1) G contains a subgroup of order p a. then there exists g P G such that Q ˆ g Pg).10 Lemma Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group. Let Ù be the set of right cosets Qx of Q in G. Hence the subgroup f g P G : g acts as an even permutation on Ùg . 7) is a simple group of order 168 having an involution with centralizer D8 (see Lemma 27. where m is odd since P is a Sylow 2-subgroup. b are positive integers and p T j b. then there is a Sylow p-subgroup of G containing R. contrary to assumption.e. 30. we require a couple of preliminary results. and de®ne an action of G on Ù by (Qx) g ˆ Qxg for x. 7) and A6 are the only simple groups of order 168 or 360. This means that in its action on Ù. (2) all Sylow p-subgroups are conjugate in G (i.8. We shall not prove this. the involution u is a product of m disjoint 2-cycles. (3) if R is a subgroup of G with jRj ˆ p c for some c. The ®rst is Sylow's Theorem.4 of the book by J. Using some rather more sophisticated group theory than that covered in this book. g P G (see Example 29. Hence fixÙ (u) ˆ Æ. hence is an odd permutation.354 Representations and characters of groups Observe that PSL(2. and let P be a Sylow 2subgroup of G. but refer you to Theorems 18. If u is an involution in G. Proof Suppose u is not conjugate to an element of Q.3 and 18. and let G be a ®nite group of order p a b. 30. Before embarking upon the proof of Theorem 30. Suppose Q is a subgroup of P with jP : Qj ˆ 2. a basic result in ®nite group theory. such a subgroup is call a Sylow p-subgroup of G. and A6 is a simple group of order 360 with this property (see Exercise 7 at the end of the chapter).

12)). Therefore P < . ⠈ À n÷ ÷X n÷ >0 n÷ . there is a Sylow 2-subgroup P of G such that D < P. It is clear from this de®nition that the formulae for the values of ø 4 G given in Proposition 21. ÷i ˆ n÷ . By Lemma 26. øi ˆ n2 ÷ for a generalized character ø as above. so t P D. The centre of D8 is a cyclic group of order 2 (see (12. so Z(P) < Z(D) ˆ hti. hø. the degree ø(1) can be 0 or negative for a generalized character ø. but this need not be the case for a generalized character. and hence Z(P) ˆ hti.1(1) we have Z(P) Tˆ 1. the centre of D. Certainly t commutes with itself. we de®ne the induced generalized character ø 4 G by ø 4 G ˆ (á 4 G) À ( â 4 G) where ø ˆ á À â as above.Applications to group theory 355 is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G.8 Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group with an involution t such that C G (t) ˆ D  D8 .9(3). we have t P Z(D). and hence Z(D) ˆ hti. and as t commutes with all elements of D. and each n÷ P Z. Proof of Theorem 30. The generalized character ø can be expressed as a difference á À â. This is simply a class function of the form ˆ øˆ n÷ ÷ x where the sum is over all the irreducible characters of H. This contradiction completes the proof. By Theorem 30. where á and â are characters of H: take ˆ ˆ ሠn÷ ÷. If n÷ > 0 for all ÷ then of course ø is a character. if H is a subgroup of a group G. Then Z(P) < C G (t) ˆ D. This is impossible since G is non-abelian and simple. j We also need to introduce the idea of a generalized character of a group H. In particular.0 Finally.20 hold for generalized characters ø.19 and Corollary 21. Notice also that the orthogonality relations give the usual inner products ˆ hø.

a generalized character of D. Referring to the character table of D8 in Example 16. 1 C i ˆ 1. and so it follows from (30. èi Now for 1 Tˆ c P C. bi where a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1 and bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 . Now hè 4 G. It follows that (è 4 G)(c) ˆ è(c). t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. 1 G i ˆ h1 C À ë. Then t ˆ a2 . observe ®rst that by Frobenius reciprocity. and so P ˆ D. This is all the group theory we will need for the proof. for any g P G we have C ’ gÀ1 Cg ˆ f1g or C. we therefore have h(è 4 G) 5 D. è 4 Gi ˆ h(è 4 G) 5 D. è(1) ˆ 0.12) that .11) D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G.356 Representations and characters of groups C G (t) ˆ D. D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. As t ˆ a2 is the only such involution. every involution of G is conjugate to an involution in C. èi ˆ hè.12). èi ˆ 3. and de®ne è ˆ (1 C 4 D) À (ë 4 D). let g P G and suppose that g À1 cg P C for some non-identity element c P C. And if y À1 cy P D À C then è( y À1 cy) ˆ 0. hè 4 G. and if C ’ g À1 Cg ˆ C then g P D. The rest is character theory.19 gives 1 ˆ • À1 (è 4 G)(c) ˆ è( y cy)X 8 yPG By (30. Let C ˆ hai be the cyclic subgroup of index 2 in D. Write D ˆ ha. hence g P C G (t) ˆ D and so g À1 Cg ˆ C. we conclude that t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. whence y À1 cy ˆ cÆ1 and è( y À1 cy) ˆ è(c). Next. Also (è 4 G)(1) ˆ 0 (see Corollary 21.11). We next establish (30X12) hè 4 G.20). aÀ1 . and 0 elsewhere. we must have g À1 tg ˆ t.10. we have è ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 À ÷5 . By Lemma 30. Proposition 21. We summarise what we have proved so far: (30. Then è takes the value 2 on a. giving (30. if y À1 cy P C then y P D. the value 4 on t. Since è vanishes on D À C. (In particular.3(3). In other words. Let ë be the linear character of C such that ë(a) ˆ i.) Hence hè. è 4 Gi ˆ 3X To see this. Since t ˆ c or c2. èi ˆ 3.

15) we deduce 2 3 á(t)2 â(t)2 jGj 1 ‡ (30X16) À ˆ 28 X á(1) â(1) This equation gives us enough number-theoretic information about jGj to ®nish the proof fairly quickly.14) We have ㈠jGj ˆ ÷(t)2 ÷.13) We have è 4 G ˆ 1 G ‡ á À â. We shall calculate the inner product of ã and è 4 G in two ways. ãi ˆ h1 C À ë. de®ne ã( g) to be number of ordered pairs (x. then x À1 cx ˆ yx ˆ cÀ1 . By (30. â are irreducible. For g P G.13) and (30. from (30. If c ˆ xy with x. Consider ã(c) for 1 Tˆ c P C.Applications to group theory è 4 G ˆ 1 G ‡ á À â. First. ã 5 Ci.3). Write d ˆ á(1) and e ˆ á(t) P Z. If we write t G ˆ C i and g lies in the conjugacy class C k of G. (30.13) we have . and hence x P D by (30. then ã( g) ˆ a iik in the notation of (30. 357 where á.14) we have 2 3 jGj á(t)2 â(t)2 hè 4 G. similarly y P D. Since we have shown that (è 4 G)(t) ˆ è(t) ˆ 4. jDj2 ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. ã 5 Ci ˆ 1 X4X((1 À i) ‡ 2 ‡ (1 ‡ i)) ˆ 4X jCj Hence from (30.4 yields the following. Note that by Corollary 13. Therefore h1 C À ë.10. where á. y P t G . (30. Hence Theorem 30. y) P t G 3 t G such that g ˆ xy. by Frobenius Reciprocity. We now introduce another class function of G into the picture. ãi ˆ 1‡ (30X15) À X 64 á(1) â(1) On the other hand. Now calculation in D8 shows that ã(c) ˆ 4. á(t) and â(t) are integers. hè 4 G. 1 ‡ á(1) À â(1) ˆ 0 and 1 ‡ á(t) À â(t) ˆ 4. â are irreducible characters of G.11). we have now proved the following.

one of the possibilities in the conclusion of Theorem 30. . Then (30. Hence (d À 1)2 must divide 210 . Then (30.16) gives   1 4 jGj 1 ‡ À ˆ 28 . we deduce that d ‡ 2 ˆ 23 . from which it follows that e ˆ 1 or 2. The class algebra constants aijk are given by ˆ Ci C j ˆ aijk C k X k They can be calculated from the character table. by using the formula aijk ˆ ˆ ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) 2. and so d À 1 ˆ 2 r with r < 5. we have 8 ˆ jC G (t)j > 1 ‡ á(t)2 ‡ â(t)2 ˆ 1 ‡ e 2 ‡ (e À 3)2 . j Summary of Chapter 30 1. giving jGj ˆ 360. giving d ˆ 6 and jGj ˆ 168. a Sylow 2-subgroup of G has order 8.358 Representations and characters of groups â(1) ˆ d ‡ 1.16) yields jGj ˆ 28 d(d ‡ 1) X (d ‡ 2)2 Reasoning as above. d d‡1 whence jGj ˆ 28 d(d ‡ 1) X (d À 1)2 Now the highest common factor hcf (d À 1.8. suppose that e ˆ 2. Moreover. Finally. â(t) ˆ e À 3X From the column orthogonality relations 16. Given groups G and H. and hcf (d À 1. d ‡ 1) is 1 or 2. d) ˆ 1. Suppose now that e ˆ 1.8. This completes the proof of Theorem 30. It follows that r ˆ 3 and d ˆ 9. the class algebra constants of G can sometimes be used to determine whether or not G has a subgroup which isomorphic to H.4(2).

7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2. Use the character table of PSL (2. b: a2 ˆ b3 ˆ (ab)5 ˆ 1iX 3. ⠈ (1 À 5.13). 11) is given in the solution to Exercise 27. 11) contain a subgroup which is isomorphic to A5 ? 4. (ab)7 ˆ 1l. b: a2 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. Does PSL (2. Suppose that G is a group. Prove that A5 is characterized by its character table ± that is. given at the end of Chapter 27. together with lots of ingenious character theory. you may assume that A5 is a simple group. if G is a group with the same character table as A5 (see Example 20. Does PSL (2. (b) Use the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions to obtain an .6. 2. 7). Using Sylow's Theorem. and that G has the character table shown. then G  A5 . to prove that PSL (2. Exercises for Chapter 30 1.Applications to group theory 359 3. (a) Show that G is a simple group of order 360. 7) contain a subgroup isomorphic to D14 ? (Hint: D14 ˆ ka. and that A5 has the following presentation: A5 ˆ ha. g4 1 2 À1 À1 À1 0 1 g5 1 À1 2 À1 À1 0 1 g6 1 0 0 á â À1 0 g7 1 0 0 â á À1 0 where á ˆ (1 ‡ 5)a2. The character table of PSL (2. b has order 3 and ab has order 7. g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 5 5 8 8 9 10 p g2 1 1 1 0 0 1 À2 g3 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 0 p 5)a2.) For the next three exercises. it can be shown that any simple group possessing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 must have order 168 or 360.

7. show that G  A6 . 7) and A6 are simple groups of order 168.6(3) to show that every group G which is generated by two elements a and b which satisfy a2 ˆ b3 ˆ (ab)4 ˆ 1 has order at most 24. and deduce that g2 has order 2 and g3 has order 4. 8. 360 respectively. (d) Using Exercise 23.360 Representations and characters of groups upper bound for the number of involutions in G. (Hint: look for a suitable simple group PSL(2. Find a simple group G having an involution C G (t)  D16 . Prove that PSL(2.9. 6. (c) Prove that G has a subgroup H which is isomorphic to A5 .) t such that . p). both of which contain an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 . Use the ®gure which appears in Example 30.

We call a polynomial in x monic if the coef®cient of the highest power of x in it is 1. We omit proofs of these ± for a good account. The roots of p(x) are called the conjugates of á. until H. then no group of order pa q b is simple. Bender found one in 1972. In order to establish this lemma we require some basic facts about algebraic integers and algebraic numbers. In the ®rst edition of his book Theory of groups of ®nite order (1897). see for instance the book by Pollard and Diamond listed in the Bibliography. which we now describe. An algebraic number is a complex number which is a root of some non-zero polynomial over Q. Let á be an algebraic number. Then p(x) is unique and irreducible. which states that if p and q are prime numbers and a and b are positive integers. A preliminary lemma We prepare for the proof of Burnside's Theorem with a lemma (31. many later attempts to ®nd a proof which does not use representation theory were unsuccessful. but it was only after studying Frobenius's new theory of group representations that he was able to prove the theorem in general. it is called the minimal polynomial of á. Burnside presented group-theoretic arguments which proved the theorem for many special choices of the integers a. if ù is an nth root of unity then the minimal poly361 .31 Burnside's Theorem One of the most famous applications of representation theory is Burnside's Theorem.2) which is concerned with character values. Indeed. and let p(x) be a monic polynomial over Q of smallest possible degree having á as a root. b. For example.

‡ ù d . Write 㠈 ÷( g)a÷(1). By Proposition 13.1) Let á and â be algebraic numbers. so that p(x) ˆ x n ‡ a nÀ1 x nÀ1 ‡ X X X ‡ a1 x ‡ a0 where ai P Z for all i. . where each ù i is a root of unity. and let p(x) be the minimal polynomial of ã. where á9 is a conjugate of á and â9 is a conjugate of â. Then j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1.9 we have ÷( g) ˆ ù1 ‡ . then á is a root of a monic polynomial with integer coef®cients (see Chapter 22). . Alternatively.1) can be proved easily using some Galois theory. We prove that ÷( g) ˆ 0. . . it follows that j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1. Proof Let ÷(1) ˆ d. so ÷( g)a÷(1) ˆ (ù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù d )adX Since |÷( g)| ˆ |ù1 ‡ . . . if r P Q then every conjugate of rá is of the form rá9. Now suppose that ÷( g)a÷(1) is an algebraic integer and j÷( g)a÷(1)j . (31.2 Lemma Let ÷ be a character of a ®nite group G. . . 31. Moreover. . Chapter V. and let g P G. ‡ |ù d | ˆ d. j÷( g)a÷(1)j . We shall require the following fact about conjugates: (31. 1. If á is an algebraic integer. where á9 is a conjugate of á. For an elementary proof of this. Section 3.1). and it turns out that the minimal polynomial of á also has integer coef®cients. Hence each conjugate of ã has 1 d . Then every conjugate of á ‡ â is of the form á9 ‡ â9. ù9 are roots of unity. see Pollard and Diamond. By (31. each conjugate of ã is of the form (ù9 ‡ X X X ‡ ù9 )ad 1 d where ù9 . ‡ ù d | < |ù1 | ‡ . and so every conjugate of ù is also an nth root of unity. and if 0 . .362 Representations and characters of groups nomial of ù divides x n À 1. 1 then ÷( g)a÷(1) is not an algebraic integer.

Burnside's Theorem

363

modulus at most 1. It follows that if ë is the product of all the conjugates of ã (including ã), then jëj , 1X But the conjugates of ã are, by de®nition, the roots of the polynomial p(x), and the product of all these roots is equal to Æa0 . Thus ë ˆ Æa0 X Since a0 P Z and |ë| , 1, it follows that a0 ˆ 0. As p(x) is irreducible, this implies that p(x) ˆ x, which in turn forces 㠈 0. Thus ÷( g) ˆ 0, and the proof is complete.
j

Burnside's p a q b Theorem We deduce the main result, Theorem 31.4, from another interesting theorem of Burnside. 31.3 Theorem Let p be a prime number and let r be an integer with r > 1. Suppose that G is a ®nite group with a conjugacy class of size pr . Then G is not simple. Proof Let g P G with | gG | ˆ pr . Since pr . 1, G is not abelian and g Tˆ 1. As usual, denote the irreducible characters of G by ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k , and take ÷1 to be the trivial character. The column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2), applied to the columns corresponding to 1 and g in the character table of G, give 1‡ Therefore
k ˆ iˆ2 k ˆ iˆ2

÷ i ( g)÷ i (1) ˆ 0X

÷ i ( g) .

÷ i (1) 1 ˆÀ X p p

Now À1a p is not an algebraic integer, by Proposition 22.5. Therefore, for some i > 2, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer (see Theorem 22.3). Since ÷ i ( g) is an algebraic integer (Corollary 22.4), it follows

364

Representations and characters of groups

that ÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer; in other words, p does not divide ÷ i (1). Thus ÷ i ( g) Tˆ 0 and p T j ÷ i (1)X As | gG | ˆ pr , this means that ÷ i (1) and | gG | are coprime integers, and so there are integers a and b such that ajG:CG ( g)j ‡ b÷ i (1) ˆ 1X Hence a jGj÷ i ( g) ÷ i ( g) ‡ b÷ i ( g) ˆ X jCG ( g)j÷ i (1) ÷ i (1)

By Corollaries 22.10 and 22.4, the left-hand side of this equation is an algebraic integer; and since ÷ i ( g) Tˆ 0, it is non-zero. Now Lemma 31.2 implies that j÷ i ( g)a÷ i (1)j ˆ 1X Let r be a representation of G with character ÷ i . By Theorem 13.11(1), there exists ë P C such that gr ˆ ëIX Let K ˆ Ker r, so that K is a normal subgroup of G. Since ÷ i is not the trivial character, K Tˆ G. If K Tˆ {1} then G is not simple, as required; so assume that K ˆ {1}, that is, r is a faithful representation. Since gr is a scalar multiple of the identity, gr commutes with hr for all h P G. As r is faithful, it follows that g commutes with all h P G; in other words, g P Z(G)X Therefore Z(G) Tˆ {1}. As Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G and Z(G) Tˆ G, we conclude that G is not simple. j We now come to the main result of the chapter, Burnside's Theorem. 31.4 Burnside's paqb Theorem Let p and q be prime numbers, and let a and b be non-negative integers with a ‡ b > 2. If G is a group of order pa q b , then G is not simple. Proof First suppose that either a ˆ 0 or b ˆ 0. Then the order of G is a power of a prime, so by Lemma 26.1(1) we have Z(G) Tˆ {1}.

Burnside's Theorem

365

Choose g P Z(G) of prime order. Then k gl v G and k gl is not equal to {1} or G. Hence G is not simple. Now assume that a . 0 and b . 0. By Sylow's Theorem 30.9, G has a subgroup Q of order q b . We have Z(Q) Tˆ {1} by Lemma 26.1(1). Let g P Z(Q) with g Tˆ 1. Then Q < CG ( g), so j g G j ˆ jG:CG ( g)j ˆ pr for some r. If pr ˆ 1 then g P Z(G), so Z(G) Tˆ {1} and G is not simple as before. And if pr . 1 then G is not simple, by Theorem 31.3. j In fact Burnside's pa q b Theorem leads to a somewhat more informative result about groups of order pa q b : (31.5) Every group of order p a q b is soluble. Here, by a soluble group we mean a group G which has subgroups G0 , G1 , . . . , Gr with 1 ˆ G 0 , G1 , X X X , G r ˆ G such that for 1 < i < r, GiÀ1 v Gi and the factor group Gi aG iÀ1 is cyclic of prime order. We sketch a proof of (31.5), using induction on a ‡ b. The result is clear if a ‡ b < 1, so assume that a ‡ b > 2 and let G be a group of order pa q b . By Burnside's Theorem 31.4, G has a normal subgroup H such that H is not {1} or G. Both H and the factor group Ga H have order equal to a product of powers of p and q, and these orders are less than pa q b . Hence by induction, H and Ga H are both soluble. Therefore there are subgroups 1 ˆ G0 v G1 v X X X v Gs ˆ H, 1 ˆ Gs a H v G s‡1 a H v X X X v Gr a H ˆ Ga H with all factor groups Gi aG iÀ1 of prime order. Then the series 1 ˆ G0 v G 1 v X X X v G r ˆ G shows that G is soluble. Summary of Chapter 31 1. If G has a conjugacy class of size pr ( p prime, r > 1), then G is not simple.

366

Representations and characters of groups

2. If |G| ˆ pa q b ( p, q primes, a ‡ b > 2), then G is not simple. Exercises for Chapter 31 1. Show that a non-abelian simple group cannot have an abelian subgroup of prime power index. 2. Prove that if G is a non-abelian simple group of order less than 80, then |G| ˆ 60. (Hint: use Exercise 13.8.)

32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration

Representation theory is used extensively in many of the physical sciences. Such applications come about because every physical system has a symmetry group G, and certain vector spaces associated with the system turn out to be RG-modules. For example, the vibration of a molecule is governed by various differential equations, and the symmetry group of the molecule acts on the space of solutions of these equations. It is on this application ± the theory of molecular vibrations ± that we concentrate in this ®nal chapter. In order to keep our treatment elementary, we stay within the framework of classical mechanics throughout. (Quantum mechanical effects can be incorporated subsequently, but we shall not go into this ± for an account, consult the book by D. S. Schonland listed in the Bibliography.)

Symmetry groups Let V be R2 or R3, and for v, w P V, let d(v, w) denote the distance between v and w ± in other words, if v ˆ (x1 , x2 , . . .) and w ˆ ( y1, y2, . . .), then 3 r2ˆ 2 d(v, w) ˆ (xi À yi ) X An isometry of V is an invertible endomorphism W of V such that d(vW, wW) ˆ d(v, w) for all v, w P V X The set of all isometries of V forms a group under composition, called the orthogonal group of V, and denoted by O(V). Any rotation of R3 about an axis through the origin is an example 367

368

Representations and characters of groups

of an isometry; so is any re¯ection in a plane through the origin. The endomorphism À1R3 which sends every vector v to Àv is another example of an element in the orthogonal group O(R3 ). It turns out that the composition of two rotations is again a rotation, and that for every isometry g in O(R3 ), either g or À g is a rotation (see Exercise 32.1). The orthogonal group O(R3 ) therefore contains a subgroup of index 2 which consists of the rotations. The same is true of the group O(R2 ). If Ä is a subset of V , where V ˆ R2 or R3, then we de®ne G(Ä) to be the set of isometries which leave Ä invariant ± that is, G(Ä) ˆ f g P O(V ): Ä g ˆ Äg (where Ä g ˆ {v g: v P Ä}). Then G(Ä) is a subgroup of called the symmetry group of Ä. The subgroup of G(Ä) the rotations in G(Ä) is called the rotation group of Ä. the rotation group of Ä in the symmetry group G(Ä) is 1 O(V ), and is consisting of The index of or 2.

32.1 Example Let V ˆ R2, and let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon, with n > 3, centred at the origin. The symmetry group of Ä is easily seen to be the dihedral group D2n , which was de®ned as a group of n rotations and n re¯ections preserving Ä (see Example 1.1(3)). Now let V ˆ R3, and again let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon (n > 3) centred at the origin. This time, G(Ä) ˆ D2 n 3 C2 ; the extra elements arise because there is an isometry which ®xes all points of Ä, namely the re¯ection in the plane of Ä. 32.2 Example Let Ä be a regular tetrahedron in R3 centred at the origin:

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 369 Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1, 2, 3, 4. We claim that each permutation of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry of Ä. For example, the 2-cycle (1 2) corresponds to a re¯ection in the plane which contains the origin and the edge 34; similarly each 2-cycle corresponds to a re¯ection. Since S4 is generated by the 2-cycles, each of the 24 permutations of 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry, as claimed. No non-identity endomorphism of R3 ®xes all the corners of Ä, since Ä contains three linearly independent vectors. Therefore we have found all the isometries, and G(Ä)  S4 . Notice that the rotation group of Ä is isomorphic to A4 ; for example, (1 2)(3 4) corresponds to a rotation through ð about the axis through the mid-points of the edges 12 and 34, and (1 2 3) corresponds to a rotation through 2ða3 about the axis through the origin and the corner 4. Finally, observe that the group G(Ä) is unchanged if we take Ä to consist of just the four corners of the tetrahedron. 32.3 Example In this example we describe the symmetry groups of the molecules H2 O (water), CH3 Cl (methyl chloride) and CH4 (methane). The symmetry group of a molecule is de®ned to be the group of isometries which not only preserve the position of the molecule in space, but also send each atom to an atom of the same kind. The shapes of the three molecules are as follows.

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Representations and characters of groups

We always assume that the centroid of our molecule lies at the origin in R3 . The CH4 molecule has four hydrogen atoms at the corners of a regular tetrahedron, and a carbon atom at the centre of the tetrahedron. So the symmetry group of the molecule CH4 is equal to the symmetry group of the tetrahedron, as given in Example 32.2. This group is isomorphic to S4 , permuting the four hydrogen atoms among themselves and ®xing the carbon atom. As for the CH3 Cl molecule, this possesses a rotation symmetry a of order 3 about the vertical axis, and three re¯ection symmetries in the planes containing the C, Cl and one of the H atoms. If b is one of these re¯ections, then the symmetry group is f1, a, a2 , b, ab, a2 bg and is isomorphic to S3 , permuting the three H atoms and ®xing the C and Cl atoms. Finally, the H2 O molecule possesses two re¯ection symmetries, one in the plane of the molecule, and one in a plane perpendicular to this one passing through the O atom; and it has a rotation symmetry of order 2. Hence the symmetry group is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . Vibration of a physical system We prepare for a description of the general problem with an example. 32.4 Example Suppose we have a spring stretched between two points P and Q on a smooth horizontal table, with equal masses m attached at the points of trisection of the spring:

The masses are displaced slightly, and released. What can we say about the subsequent motion of the system? To investigate this problem, we let x1 and x2 be the displacements of the two masses at time t. We measure x1 from left to right, and x2 from right to left, as indicated in the ®gure above. Let k be the

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 371 stiffness of the spring ± in other words, if the extension in the spring is x, then the restoring force is kx. The spring pulls the left-hand mass towards P with force kx1 and towards Q with force Àk(x1 ‡ x2 ). By dealing with the right-hand mass similarly, we obtain the following equations of motion of the system: m1 ˆ Àkx1 À k(x1 ‡ x2 ) ˆ À2kx1 À kx2 , x m2 ˆ Àkx2 À k(x1 ‡ x2 ) ˆ Àkx1 À 2kx2 , x  where xi denotes the second derivative of xi with respect to t. These are second order linear differential equations in two unknowns x1 and x2 , so the general solution involves four arbitrary constants. We shall ®nd the general solution, using a method which can be applied in a much wider context.  Write x ˆ (x1 , x2 ), x ˆ (1 , x2 ) and q ˆ kam. Then the equations of x  motion are equivalent to the matrix equation   À2q Àq  x ˆ xA, where A ˆ (32X5) X Àq À2q Notice that A is symmetric. Hence the eigenvalues of A are real, and A has two linearly independent eigenvectors. It is this property which we wish to emphasize and exploit in the present example. Before we explicitly ®nd the eigenvectors of A, let us explain why they allow us to solve the equation of motion (32.5). Suppose that u is an eigenvector of A, with eigenvalue Àù2 . For an arbitrary constant â, let x ˆ sin (ùt ‡ â) uX Then  x ˆ Àù2 sin (ùt ‡ â) u ˆ sin (ùt ‡ â) uA ˆ xAX Thus x is a solution of the equation of motion. If u1 and u2 are linearly independent eigenvectors of A, with eigenvalues Àù2 and 1 Àù2 , respectively, then 2 á1 sin (ù1 t ‡ â1 ) u1 ‡ á2 sin (ù2 t ‡ â2 ) u2 (since uA ˆ Àù2 u)

t ‡ â2 ) and the vibration is Mode 2: p sin ( q . entries which are determined by Assume. x1 ˆ Àx2 ˆ sin ( q .5). for the moment.5). x1 ˆ x2 ˆ sin ( (3q) t ‡ â1 ) and the vibration is p Here. It follows that when we apply Newton's Second Law of Motion. we assign three coordinate axes. 1) ‡ á2 sin ( q . the eigenvalues are À3q and Àq. Thus.5) is p p á1 sin ( (3q) t ‡ â1 ) (1. At the equilibrium position of each atom. â1 .) Here x is the displacements of all the atoms. t ‡ â2 ) (1. we obtain equations which may be expressed in the form (32X6) (Compare (32. We now adopt this line of attack in the problem to hand. that  x ˆ xAX row vector in R3 n which measures the and A is a 3n 3 3n matrix with real the internal forces. 1) Mode 1: p Here. Therefore the general solution of the equation of motion (32. t ‡ â2 ) (1. We assume that the internal forces are linear functions of the displacements. at each atom the three coordinate axes . so it is the general solution. À1)X The solutions which involve just one eigenvector of A are called the normal modes of vibration.372 Representations and characters of groups is a solution of the equation of motion which involves four arbitrary constants á1 . 1) and (1. which we use to measure the displacement of the atom. For the matrix given in (32. À1) The general molecular vibration problem Suppose we have a molecule consisting of n atoms which vibrate under internal forces. â2 . with corresponding eigenvectors (1. p sin ( (3q) t ‡ â1 ) (1. the state of the molecule at a given time is described by a vector in the 3n-dimensional vector space R3 n . á2 . À1). They are as follows.

32. from physical considerations. (2) (t ‡ â) u ( â constant) where u is an eigenvector of A corresponding to the eigenvalue 0. Therefore we have the following proposition. we look for normal modes of the system.6). In particular. Now.9 Proposition Each normal mode of vibration is a solution of the equation of motion (32. which we de®ne next. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. A has real eigenvalues.6).8 De®nition A normal mode of vibration for our molecule is a vector in R3 n of one of the following forms: (1) sin (ùt ‡ â) u ( â constant) where Àù2 is a non-zero eigenvalue of A and u is a corresponding eigenvector. the effect of changing coordinate axes is merely to replace A by a matrix which is conjugate to A. and for this solution all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency. The general solution of the equation of motion is a linear combination of the normal modes of vibration.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 373 which we have chosen are at right angles to each other. 32. To solve the equation of motion (32. Proof If uA ˆ Àù2 A and x ˆ sin (ùt ‡ â) u. where our chosen coordinate axes are not necessarily at right angles to each other. for the general case. then  x ˆ 0 ˆ (t ‡ â)uA ˆ xAX This proves that the normal modes of vibration are solutions of the . It can be shown. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. 32. that in this special case the matrix A is symmetric.7 Proposition All the eigenvalues of A are real. then  x ˆ Àù2 sin (ùt ‡ â) u ˆ sin (ùt ‡ â) uA ˆ xAX If uA ˆ 0 and x ˆ (t ‡ â)u.

Then g ®xes v1 . Thus. let v i denote a unit vector along coordinate axis i. with eigenvector u.9 reduces the problem of solving the equations of motion to that of ®nding all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the 3n 3 3n matrix A. ù or 0) in a normal mode. all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency (namely. R3 n is an RG-module.374 Representations and characters of groups equation of motion (32. and . j Proposition 32. interchanges v4 and v7. then x ˆ e ë t u would be a solution to the equation of motion. the general linear combination of normal modes involves 6n arbitrary constants. each element of G acts as an endomorphism of the space R3 n of displacement vectors.7. and we shall describe a method for doing this. this can be a huge and unwieldy task if it is attempted directly ± even writing down the matrix A for a given molecule can be a painful operation! The symmetry group of the molecule and its representation theory can often be used to simplify greatly the calculation of the eigenvectors of A.6) (as (32.10 Example Let g be the rotation of order 2 of the H2 O molecule: Assign coordinate axes at the initial positions of each atom as shown. By construction. Let G be the symmetry group of the molecule in question. Therefore there exist 3n linearly independent normal modes. Since each normal mode involves an arbitrary constant.6). However. and for 1 < i < 9. Since G permutes the atoms among themselves. so it is the general solution to the equation of motion (32. which is nonsense. negates v2 and v3. Use of the symmetry group We continue the discussion of the previous section. by Proposition 32. 32.6) consists of second order differential equations in 3n unknowns). Note that A can have no strictly positive eigenvalue. for if ë were p such an eigenvalue.

and let v be a corresponding eigenvector.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 375 interchanges v5 and v6 with the negatives of v8 and v9 . The equations of motion are x ˆ xA. x4 . by de®nition. A similar argument applies to the eigenspace for the eigenvalue 0. v g is an eigenvector of A. since the relative con®guration of the atoms is unaltered by applying g. Àx8 . and we are trying to ®nd the eigenvectors of A. and hence . fx P R3 n : xA ˆ ëxgX We can now present the crucial proposition which allows us to exploit the symmetry group G of our molecule. it tells us that the function x 3 xA (x P R3 n ) is an RG-homomorphism from R3 n to itself. Àx6 )X  We return to the general set-up. Proof Let Àù2 be a non-zero eigenvalue of A. x3 . This shows that the eigenspace for Àù2 is an RG-submodule of R3 n . Àx9 . and the eigenspaces of A are RG-submodules of R3 n . Therefore. (xg)A ˆ (xA) g. with eigenvalue Àù2 . Àx3 . Choose a basis of R3 n which consists of eigenvectors of A (see Proposition 32. For all g in G. x2 . x8 . Therefore g acts on R9 as follows: (x1 . x5 . v g must also specify the directions and relative magnitudes of displacements in a normal mode of frequency ù. x4 . Then v speci®es the directions and relative magnitudes of the displacements of the atoms from the equilibrium position when the molecule is vibrating in a normal mode of frequency ù.11 Proposition For all g P G and x P R3 n . and (v g)A ˆ ë(v g) ˆ (ëv) g ˆ (vA) gX Hence (xg)A ˆ (xA) g for all x P R3 n . x6 . and let g P G. x7 . Àx2 .7). 32. The eigenspace for the eigenvalue ë of A is. j The idea now is to use representation theory to express the RGmodule R3n as a direct sum of irreducible RG-submodules. x7 . Àx5 . In effect. For all vectors v in the basis. vA ˆ ëv for some ë P R. x9 ) g ˆ (x1 .

and the normal modes of the molecule. and if ÷ is the character of an irreducible RGmodule which occurs. xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ X Proof By Maschke's Theorem we may write R3n ˆ V÷ È W for some RG-module W. then the element ˆ ÷( g À1 ) g gPG sends R3 n onto the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷ (see (14. w P W ) (x P V÷ ) is an RG-homomorphism.11. We call V÷ a homogeneous component of R3 n . its proof works equally well for RG-modules ± compare Exercise 23.13 Proposition Each homogeneous component V÷ of R3 n is A-invariant ± that is. problems like this are uncommon. this function is zero. 32.376 Representations and characters of groups to determine the eigenspaces of A. (This procedure sometimes needs to be modi®ed. and no RG-submodule of W has character ÷. by Proposition 32. The function å: v ‡ w 3 w (v P V÷ .12 De®nition Suppose that ÷ is the character of an irreducible RG-module. The problem of ®nding the eigenspaces of A is considerably simpli®ed as a consequence of our next proposition. Therefore. By Proposition 11. (Although Proposition 11. Let V÷ denote the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷. since the character of the RG-module R3 n might contain an irreducible character which cannot be realized over R ± but in practice.) 32. so xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ .3.8.27)).3 is stated in terms of CG-modules. the function x 3 (xA)å is an RG-homomorphism from V÷ into W.) j . We can use character theory to see which irreducible RG-modules are contained in R3 n .

in turn. 32.7. (3) Calculate the character ÷ of the RG-module R3 n and express ÷ as a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G.) Since V÷ is A-invariant. then see Remark 32. Then the intersection of V÷ with the eigenspace for ë is a non-zero RG-submodule of V÷ . If V÷ i is reducible. (5) Consider.15 Summary (1) Assign three coordinate axes at each of the n atoms of the molecule. and ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i (see Proposition 32. then sin (ùt ‡ â) v (or (t ‡ â)v if ù ˆ 0) is a normal mode.13).19 below. with eigenvalue Àù2 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 377 32. . say. then all the non-zero vectors in V÷ are eigenvectors of A. It is usually necessary to know the equations of motion in order to determine the frequency ù. This involves no extra work if V÷ i is irreducible (see Corollary 32. as we shall illustrate in the examples which make up the rest of this chapter. (4) Express R3 n as a direct sum of homogeneous components. where â is an arbitrary constant.14). j We now summarize the steps in the procedure for ®nding the normal modes of vibration of a given molecule. (6) If v is an eigenvector of A. (2) Calculate the symmetry group G of the molecule. we may choose v P V÷ such that v is an eigenvector of A. This programme can often be successfully completed. or Exercise 32. each homogeneous component V÷ i of R3 n . to obtain R3n . so it must equal V÷ . Proof (Compare the proof of Schur's Lemma. This can € À1 3n be done by applying the element for each gPG ÷ i ( g ) g to R irreducible character ÷ i of G which appears in ÷. to make further progress. Then R3 n is an RG-module. or by some other method.14 Corollary If V÷ is an irreducible RG-module. with eigenvalue ë.

1). This agrees with the conclusion of Example 32. . x2 ) form an RG-module R2 . . For simplicity. x2 ) g ˆ (x2 . as shown. where xi is the displacement along axis i (1 < i < 6). where the three identical atoms are at the corners of an equilateral triangle. â2 are constants and ù1 . we consider only vibrations of the molecule in the plane. Notice that we have determined the normal modes of vibration (but not their frequencies) using the symmetry group alone. . Since (x1 .4. ù2 are the frequencies. the RG-submodules of R2 are sp (u1 ) and sp (u2 ). as this eases the calculations: Thus the position of the molecule is given by a vector (x1 . sin (ù2 t ‡ â2 )(1. where u1 ˆ (1. x6 ) in R6 .4. with the spring and two vibrating masses: The symmetry group of this system is G ˆ h g: g 2 ˆ 1i. À1). À1)X It follows that the normal modes of the system are given by sin (ù1 t ‡ â1 )(1.16 Example We ®rst return to Example 32.17 Example Consider a hypothetical triatomic molecule.378 Representations and characters of groups 32. u2 ˆ (1. 32. generated by a rotation a of order 3 and a re¯ection . x1 ). so we assign two displacement coordinates to each atom. The symmetry group (in two dimensions) of the molecule is the dihedral group D6. The displacement vectors (x1 . 1). We choose to take our axes along the edges of the triangle. where g is the re¯ection in the mid-point of PQ. . where â1 .

Since the rotation a does not ®x any of the atoms. To do this. It is easy to work out the action of each element of D6 on R6 . . x4 . then we represent the displacement vector (v1 . Thus the values of ÷ are 1 ÷ 6 a 0 b 0 By Section 18. x3 . x6 )b ˆ (x2 . v3 are 2-dimensional displacement vectors for the three atoms. then (x1 . corresponding to the eigenspace of A for eigenvalue 0. the character table of D6 is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 Hence ÷ ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ 2÷3 . ÷3 and ÷3 . x5 . if b is the re¯ection which ®xes the top atom. x5 . ÷(a) ˆ 0.3. ÷2 . x3 )X We want to express the RD6 -module R6 as a direct sum of irreducible RD6 -modules. Thus. x4 . v2 . For example. we ®rst calculate the character ÷ of the module. we see that ÷(b) ˆ 0. which occur for every molecule. v3 ) P R6 pictorially by the diagram We ®rst calculate the normal modes of the form (t ‡ â)v. These include the rotation and translation modes. v2 . if v1 . x1 .1). As a matter of notation. we seek to express R6 as a direct sum of RD6 -submodules with characters ÷1 . x2 . And from the action of b given above.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 379 b (see Example 32. x6 .

À1. and so ÷ R ˆ ÷2 . 0. We call sp (v) the rotation submodule of R6 . so the character must be ÷3 . v3 ) has dimension 2. À1. v2 and v3. À1). 0). Indeed. 1. ÷ R (b) ˆ À1. ÷ R (a) ˆ 1. 1. The mode is given by (t ‡ â)v. it does not contain the rotation submodule.380 Representations and characters of groups Rotation mode In this mode. 1. pictorially. 0. À1. sp (v) ˆ R6 å2 . Translation modes These are modes in which all atoms move in the same constant direction with the same constant speed. 1)). v3 ˆ (0. where ˆ å2 ˆ ÷2 ( g À1 ) g ˆ 1 ‡ a ‡ a2 À b À ab À a2 b gP D6 (compare (14. where v ˆ (1. 0. It is clearly an RD6 -submodule of R6 . À1. 1. where v is a vector in the span of v1 . À1. the molecule rotates with constant angular velocity about the centre. these vectors being given pictorially by (thus v1 ˆ (À1. À1). Since v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 ˆ 0. . v2 ˆ (1. the subspace sp (v1 . v2 . Thus the character of the translation submodule is part of ÷ À ÷2 ˆ ÷1 ‡ 2÷3 . 1.27)). The modes are of the form (t ‡ â)v. and is called the translation submodule. If ÷ R is the character of sp (v). then ÷ R (1) ˆ 1. À1. 1. 0.

u2 . every vector in R6 which satis®es these equations lies in R6 . R6 has dimension 3.18(3)) below). R6 does not contain the rotation vib submodule. if w P R6 then the total component of w vib in each direction is zero. where vib ÷vib ˆ ÷ À (÷2 ‡ ÷3 ) ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 X In particular. Its character is ÷3 and it gives us the last eigenspace for the vib matrix A. it is easy to see that sp (u1 À u2 . moreover. These constraints imply three independent linear equations in the coordinates of the vectors in R6 . u1 À u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 . u3 among themselves. with character ÷vib .11). u3 . and are called vibratory modes. Finally. Therefore a basis of R6 is u1 . where vib vib Clearly sp (u1 ‡ u2 ‡ u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 with characvib ter ÷1 . and since R6 has vib vib dimension 3. The sum of these eigenspaces forms an RD6 -submodule R6 of R6 (by Proposition 32. The vibratory mode given by u1 ‡ u2 ‡ u3 is sometimes called the expansion±contraction mode (you will see the reason for this name in the picture in (32. . Our calculation of the normal modes is now complete.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 381 Vibratory modes The remaining normal modes correspond to eigenspaces of the matrix A with non-zero eigenvalues. Since no mode in R6 can have vib vib any translation component. u2 . and we summarize our ®ndings below. so that total moment of each vector in R6 about the vib centre is zero. since D6 permutes the vectors u1 .

382 (32.18) Representations and characters of groups (1) Rotation mode: (2) Translation modes: linear combinations of (3) Vibratory mode: expansion±contraction mode (4) Vibratory modes: linear combinations of (We have chosen 2u2 À u1 À u3 . In order to . 2u1 À u2 À u3 as the basis for the vibratory modes in (4) merely because these modes look simpler than u1 À u2 .) We emphasize that we have found the normal modes of vibration without explicit knowledge of the equations of motion. u1 À u3 pictorially.

and assume that the magnitude of the force between two atoms is k times the decrease in distance between them. x6 are small compared with the distance between the atoms. Let m be the mass of each atom. x2 . Q9. R9.) Similarly. From the diagram. x6 ). we now calculate the equations of motion. denote the new positions of the atoms by P9. x3 . X X X . so that we may ignore second order terms. PR À P9R9 ˆ (x1 ‡ x6 ) ‡ 1(x2 ‡ x5 ).An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 383 check our results. x5 . 2 PQ À P9Q9 ˆ (x2 ‡ x3 ) ‡ 1(x1 ‡ x4 )X 2 Hence the force on the molecule at P in the direction of the ®rst coordinate axis is Àk(PR À P9R9) ˆ Àk(x1 ‡ x6 ) À 1 k(x2 ‡ x5 )X 2 Therefore. For a general displacement (x1 . . x4 . m  x1 ˆ À(x1 ‡ x6 ) À 1(x2 ‡ x5 )X 2 k m  x2 ˆ À(x2 ‡ x3 ) À 1(x1 ‡ x4 ). 2 k In the same way. the difference in length between QR and Q9R9 is (x4 ‡ x5 ) ‡ 1(x3 ‡ x6 )X 2 (We always assume that x1 .

We determined the symmetry group G of this molecule in Example 32. the character ÷ of the RG-module R6 was given by ÷ ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ 2÷3 X All the non-zero vectors in the homogeneous components for ÷1 and ÷2 gave normal modes. Label the corners of . . The matrix A for  which x ˆ xA is therefore given by H I 1 1a2 1a2 0 0 1 f 1a2 1 1 0 0 1a2 g f g Àk f 0 1 1 1a2 1a2 0 g f gX Aˆ 1a2 1a2 1 1 0 g m f 0 f g d 1a2 0 0 1 1 1a2 e 1 0 0 1a2 1a2 1 You should check that the vectors which we gave in (32.14). since these homogenous components were irreducible (see Corollary 32.19 Remark In Example 32.18) are indeed eigenvectors of A. In our next example.17.20 Example We analyse the normal modes for the methane molecule CH4 . . This illustrates a method which sometimes helps to deal with reducible homogeneous components. where we found that G is isomorphic to S4 .384 Representations and characters of groups   and we obtain similar equations for x3.18)(2) and (4)) because V÷3 ’ R6 vib was an A-invariant RG-submodule of V÷3 different from {0} and V÷3 . 32. but we were able to write it as a sum of two subspaces of eigenvectors (those appearing in (32. The homogeneous component V÷3 for ÷3 was reducible. x6 . .2. 32. . the situation is more complicated.

23. Let V be the vector space over R with basis v12 . let v21 . (2 3 4). giving twelve vectors v ij . and identify G with S4 . Since w1 ‡ w2 ‡ w3 ‡ w4 ˆ 0. by taking four unit vectors w1. for g in G. w4. G permutes our twelve basis vectors of V. 4. similarly. v34 . v14 be unit vectors at corner 1 in the directions of the edges 12. v13 . thus. Our main task is to ®nd RG-submodules of R15 ˆ V È W. The action of G on V is easy to describe.jg for all i. and we can quickly calculate the character ÷ of V: 1 ÷ 12 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . at each hydrogen atom we choose displacement axes along the edges of the tetrahedron. these four vectors span a 3-dimensional space. and let W be the vector space over R spanned by w1. Let v12 . w2. Then V  R12. 3. W  R3 and V and W are RG-modules. with w i pointing towards corner i (1 < i < 4). w2. v41 . v24 be unit vectors at corner 2 in the directions of the edges 21. 2. and so on. w3. w3 and w4 at the carbon atom. (2 4 3)X In order fully to exploit the symmetry of the methane molecule.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 385 the tetrahedron 1. jX Thus. v21 . for example. the rotations about the vertical axis through 1 are written as 1. as shown below. v24 . v14 . v23 . we have v ij g ˆ v ig. v23 . in all. 14. v31 . We now introduce a new idea. v42 . respectively. v43 . 24. v32 . v13 . 13.

all the basis vectors are moved by (1 2 3). for g in G. ‡ w4 ˆ 0. j and this gives the expansion±contraction normal mode: We next describe the RG-submodule W5 with character ÷5 . (1 2) ®xes the basis vectors v34 and v43 only. The group G acts on W as follows.27)). 3.1.386 Representations and characters of groups For example. the character table of S4 is as shown at the top of p. we can ®nd RG-submodules with characters ÷1 . p2 ˆ (v31 À v13 ) ‡ (v14 À v41 ) ‡ (v43 À v34 ). . 5. . 4) to R15 . and so on. it is easy to calculate the character ö of W ± it is 1 ö 3 (1 2) 1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3 4) À1 By Section 18. We ®nd that ÷ ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 ‡ 2÷4 ‡ ÷5 . ÷3 . Let p1 ˆ (v23 À v32 ) ‡ (v34 À v43 ) ‡ (v42 À v24 ). ÷5 and 3÷4 (see (14. 387. we have wi g ˆ wig (1 < i < 4)X After recalling that w1 ‡ . . ö ˆ ÷4 X By applying the elements ˆ ÷ i ( g À1 ) g gPG (i ˆ 1. The RG-submodule W1 with character ÷1 is spanned by ˆ v ij i.

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 387 Character table of S4 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 À1 1 p3 ˆ (v12 À v21 ) ‡ (v41 À v14 ) ‡ (v24 À v42 ). It should be clear from the pictures that for all i with 1 < i < 4 and . p4 ˆ (v21 À v12 ) ‡ (v13 À v31 ) ‡ (v32 À v23 )X The vector pi gives a rotation about the axis through the corner i and the centroid of the tetrahedron.

Since q1 ‡ q2 ‡ q3 ˆ 0.17. the dimension of W3 is 2. q2 ˆ (v13 ‡ v31 ) ‡ (v24 ‡ v42 ) À (v14 ‡ v41 ) À (v23 ‡ v32 ). q2 . Now p1 ‡ p2 ‡ p3 ‡ p4 ˆ 0.) Now we construct the RG-submodule W3 of V with character ÷3 . for example. p3 . q3 ). . we have q i g ˆ Æq j for some j. q3 ˆ (v14 ‡ v41 ) ‡ (v23 ‡ v32 ) À (v12 ‡ v21 ) À (v34 ‡ v43 )X (Each q i is associated with an `opposite pair of edges'. Check that the character of W5 is ÷5 . its character is ÷3 . p4 ). so dim W5 ˆ 3. Let W3 ˆ sp (q1 . The RG-module W5 is the rotation submodule. Then W3 is an RG-submodule of V. Therefore. then W5 is an RG-submodule of V. p2 . (Compare. if we let W 5 ˆ sp ( p1 .) For all i with 1 < i < 4 and g in G. Let q1 ˆ (v12 ‡ v21 ) ‡ (v34 ‡ v43 ) À (v13 ‡ v31 ) À (v24 ‡ v42 ). the picture for p4 with the picture for the rotation vector v in Example 32. we have pi g ˆ Æ p j for some j.388 Representations and characters of groups all g in G.

r2. r2 ˆ (v12 ‡ v21 ) ‡ (v23 ‡ v32 ) ‡ (v24 ‡ v42 ) À (v13 ‡ v31 ) À (v14 ‡ v41 ) À (v34 ‡ v43 ). by Corollary 32. r4 ˆ (v14 ‡ v41 ) ‡ (v24 ‡ v42 ) ‡ (v34 ‡ v43 ) À (v13 ‡ v31 ) À (v12 ‡ v21 ) À (v23 ‡ v32 )X (The vector ri is associated with corner i. r4 by r1 ˆ (v12 ‡ v21 ) ‡ (v13 ‡ v31 ) ‡ (v14 ‡ v41 ) À (v23 ‡ v32 ) À (v24 ‡ v42 ) À (v34 ‡ v43 ). all the non-zero vectors are eigenvectors of A.14.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 389 In the RG-submodules W 1 . r3 ˆ (v13 ‡ v31 ) ‡ (v23 ‡ v32 ) ‡ (v34 ‡ v43 ) À (v12 ‡ v21 ) À (v14 ‡ v41 ) À (v24 ‡ v42 ). We now come to the homogeneous component (V È W)÷4 of R15 . r3. De®ne the vectors r1. W 5 and W3 which we have found so far.) .

r2. so r1. Thus G permutes the vectors r1. r4 among themselves. s4 ˆ (v41 ‡ v42 ‡ v43 ) À (v14 ‡ v24 ‡ v34 )X We have si g ˆ sig ( g P G. Next. s4 by s1 ˆ (v12 ‡ v13 ‡ v14 ) À (v21 ‡ v31 ‡ v41 ). . 1 < i < 4). The character of W4 is ÷4 (see Proposition 13. Note that r1 ‡ r2 ‡ r3 ‡ r4 ˆ 0. r4 span a 3-dimensional RGsubmodule W4 of V. s2 .390 Representations and characters of groups For each g in G and i with 1 < i < 4. r3. s3 . s3 ˆ (v31 ‡ v32 ‡ v34 ) À (v13 ‡ v23 ‡ v43 ). s2 ˆ (v21 ‡ v23 ‡ v24 ) À (v12 ‡ v32 ‡ v42 ). s1 ‡ s2 ‡ s3 ‡ s4 ˆ 0. r3.24). r2. we have ri g ˆ rig. de®ne the vectors s1 .

upon the constants which appear in the equations of motion. w2 . In this case. . The sum of W 4 . it is very dif®cult to calculate the eigenvectors of A in (V È W )÷4 directly. and no central atom. r4 À 2s4 span the 3-dimensional space of translation modes. w1 ‡ w2 ‡ w3 ‡ w4 ˆ 0. 1 < i < 4). in order to deal with the easier case of a molecule with identical atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron. 9 (32. The normal mode (sin ùt)r1 is sometimes called an `umbrella mode'. (2) The vectors r1. We shall therefore press on and explain how to reduce the dif®culty to that of calculating the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. in fact. Now recall that w1 . and so they give the ®nal 3-dimenvib sional space of eigenvectors (see Remark 32. r4 span the subspace V÷4 ’ R12 of V÷4 .21) (1) The vectors r1 À 2s1 . r2. r3 À 2s3 . w4 span W. s2 .19). we have wi g ˆ wig ( g P G. so 9 (V È W )÷4 ˆ W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 We now break off temporarily from studying the methane molecule. Since dim (V È W )÷4 ˆ 9. W 4 and W is direct. r3. Let H be the subgroup of S4 consisting of those permutations which ®x the number 1. and we can decompose V÷4 ˆ W 4 È W 4 in the following way. and the character of W is ÷4 . r2 À 2s2 . w3 . so we cannot complete the work using only representation theory. it follows that U1 is A-invariant. To see why. and let U1 ˆ fv P (V È W )÷4 : vh ˆ v for all h P HgX Since (vh)A ˆ (vA)h for all v P V÷4 and all h P H. the space W does not enter our calculations. s4 span a 3-dimensional RG-submodule W9 of V with 4 character ÷4 . The task in front of us is to ®nd the eigenvectors of A which lie in (V È W )÷4 ˆ W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 The solution of this problem depends.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 391 and s1 . look at the picture of the vector r1 ! We return now to the methane molecule. s3 .

where W is the angle between an edge of the tetrahedron and the line joining a corner on the edge to the centroid. de®ned by U2 ˆ sp (r2 . we have therefore reduced the initial problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of a 15 3 15 matrix A to that of calculating two of the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. w1 (1 2) ˆ w2 . namely the translation vector r1 À 2s1 ‡ 3 cos Ww1 . s1 . w2 ) is A-invariant. w1 )X Once the equations of motion. w1 is easy to ®nd. . and the matrix of A acting on r2. It is hard to imagine a more spectacular application of representation theory with which to conclude our text. Thus we obtain the translation submodule sp (r1 À 2s1 ‡ 3 cos Ww1 . s1 . and so dim U1 ˆ 3.5). s2 .392 We ®nd that Representations and characters of groups h3÷4 5 H. have been calculated. 1 H i H ˆ 3. By means of representation theory. where U 3 ˆ sp (r3 . Therefore U 1 ˆ sp (r1 . r1 (1 2) ˆ r2 . But for all h P H. the process of calculating the eigenvectors of the 3 3 3 matrix B gives nine eigenvectors of A which form a basis of (V È W )÷4 . r1 h ˆ r1. s3 . w3 )X Therefore. The eigenvectors of B then give three eigenvectors of A. s2 . and hence the matrix A. A similar remark applies to U3. w2 is again B. s1 . One eigenvector of A acting on r1. Better still. and since A commutes with the action of G. r3 À 2s3 ‡ 3 cos Ww3 ). s1 h ˆ s1 and w1 h ˆ w1 . it is possible to calculate the 3 3 3 matrix B of the action of A on r1. w1 (see Exercise 32. r2 À 2s2 ‡ 3 cos Ww2 . the space U 2 . s1 (1 2) ˆ s2 .

Prove successively that (i) C has a real eigenvalue. . 3. e3 ˆ (0. All solutions are linear combinations of normal modes. 0). and let e1 ˆ (1. then tr B ˆ 1 ‡ 2 cos ö. If u is an eigenvector of A. 0. 2. with eigenvalue Àù2 . and Àb is a rotation otherwise. The action of any g P G on R3 n commutes with A. e2 . it is suf®cient to ®nd the eigenvectors of A restricted to each homogeneous component V÷ i of the RG-module R3 n . 5. 1). e2 ˆ (0. 2. then x ˆ sin (ùt ‡ â)u (or x ˆ (t ‡ â)u if ù ˆ 0) is a solution of the equations of motion. 0. Suppose that G is the symmetry group of some molecule in R3 . where x P R3 n and the 3n 3 3n matrix A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. Deduce that det B ˆ Æ1. and is called a normal mode. Exercises for Chapter 32 1. then all non-zero vectors in V÷ i are eigenvectors of A. (ii) C has a positive eigenvalue. (d) Show that if b is a rotation through an angle ö about some axis. 0). The space R3n of displacement vectors is an RG-module.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 393 Summary of Chapter 32 1. The symmetry group G of a molecule with n atoms consists of those distance-preserving endomorphisms of R3 which send each atom to an atom of the same kind. Suppose that b P O(R3 ). (a) Show that the matrix B of b with respect to the basis e1 . 4. (c) Deduce from (a) and (b) that b is a rotation if det B ˆ 1. 1. If V÷ i is irreducible. (b) Let C ˆ (det B)B. To determine the eigenvectors of A (and hence all solutions of the equations of motion). (iii) 1 is an eigenvalue of C. The equations of motion of the molecule have the form  x ˆ xA. e3 of R3 satis®es BBt ˆ I (where Bt denotes the transpose of B).

20.) 4. The purpose of this exercise is to derive the equations of motion of the methane molecule. and verify that A is symmetric. r4 prompted us to use these vectors? 5. w2 . Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1.394 Representations and characters of groups Show that the sum of the character ÷ T of the translation submodule and the character ÷ R of the rotation submodule has value at g P G given by V b 2(1 ‡ 2 cos ö).20. and so ®nd explicitly the 3 3 3 matrix B which appears at the end of Example 32. 3. X X X . What property of r1.7. Find a basis for this space which is simpler than the one which we have used. if g is not a rotationX 3. r4 given in Example 32. Consider the space spanned by the vectors r1. r2. Work with 15 unit displacement vectors v12 . if g is a rotation b ` through angle ö (÷ T ‡ ÷ R )( g) ˆ about some axis. .17. (See the paragraph before Proposition 32. r2. w3 as described in Example 32. and let the position vector of the molecule be ˆ iTˆ j xij v ij ‡ p 3 ˆ iˆ1 yi wi X (a) Prove that cos (/ 012) ˆ (2a3) and cos (/ 102) ˆ À1a3.20. v13 . Take the axes for the displacement coordinates as shown below:  Calculate the equations of motion x ˆ xA with respect to these axes. w1 . b b X 0. r3. Consider the triatomic molecule studied in Example 32. 2. v43 . 4 and let 0 denote the centroid of the tetrahedron. r3.

q2 . Prove that  m1 x12 ˆ À k 1 [x12 ‡ x21 ‡ 1(x13 ‡ x14 ‡ x23 ‡ x24 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x12 ‡ x13 ‡ x14 ‡ (3a2)( y1 À 1 y2 À 1 y3 )]. 03. 2 with similar expressions for the edges 13. 3   with similar expressions for y2 and y3 . x24 . j . x21 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 395 (b) Show that the decrease in the length of the edge 12 from its original length is x12 ‡ x21 ‡ 1(x13 ‡ x14 ‡ x23 ‡ x24 ). Finally. 14. p2 . x14 . x34 . show that the length of the edge 01 has decreased by p (2a3)(x12 ‡ x13 ‡ x14 ) ‡ y1 À 1( y2 ‡ y3 ). 3 with similar expressions for the edges 02. x32 . show  m1 x41 ˆ À k 1 [x14 ‡ x41 ‡ 1(x42 ‡ x43 ‡ x12 ‡ x13 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x41 ‡ x42 ‡ x43 À 1 (3a2)( y1 ‡ y2 ‡ y3 )]. Also. and m2 the mass of a carbon atom. 24. 34. x23 . q1 . show p  m2 y1 ˆ Àk 2 [ (2a3)(x12 ‡ x13 ‡ x14 À x41 À x42 À x43 ) ‡ 4 y1 ]. Assume that the magnitude of the force between hydrogen atoms is k1 times the decrease in distance between them. (d) The equations in part (c) determine the 15 3 15 matrix A in the  equations of motion x ˆ xA. i. x31 . Also. show that the length of the edge 04 has decreased by p (2a3)(x41 ‡ x42 ‡ x43 ) À 1( y1 ‡ y2 ‡ y3 )X 3 (c) Let m1 denote the mass of a hydrogen atom. 23. 3 3         with similar expressions for x13. and the magnitude of the force between a hydrogen atom and a carbon atom is k2 times the decrease in distance between them. Finally. 3   with similar expressions for x42 and x43 . p1 . p3 . Verify that the vectors ˆ v ij .

w1 are as in Example 32. a sum of m isomorphic irreducible RG-modules.20.8. We reduce our problem to that of ®nding the eigenvectors of an m 3 m matrix. and use Exercise 23. (See 32. 6. . X X X . In this exercise. x ˆ xA. . uW m . are eigenvectors of A. 6) is an eigenvector of B. . (e) Find the entries b ij in the 3 3 3 matrix B which are given by r1 A ˆ b11 r1 ‡ b12 s1 ‡ b13 w1 . . È Um. (f) Verify that p (1. .) We assume that ÷ i is the character of an irreducible RG-module which remains irreducible as a CGmodule. (c) Assume that the eigenvectors of the m 3 m matrix A u are known. uW m ) is an A-invariant vector space of dimension m. .20. 7. . (Hint: compose the function w 3 wA with a projection.) (b) Let A u denote the matrix of the endomorphism w 3 wA of sp (uW1 . . . s1 . For 1 < i < m. and check that the vectors you found in part (a) are. Prove that if u and v are non-zero elements of U1. s1 A ˆ b21 r1 ‡ b22 s1 ‡ b23 w1 . we derive a method for simplifying the problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of A when the homogeneous component V÷ i is reducible. where the vectors r1. Suppose that V÷ i ˆ U1 È . Assume that the only internal forces are along the sides of the square.15(5). w1 A ˆ b31 r1 ‡ b32 s1 ‡ b33 w1 .  (b) Calculate the equations of motion. eigenvectors of A. uW m ) with respect to the basis uW1 . (a) Find the normal modes of the molecule. then Au ˆ Av . À2. Show how to ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i . indeed. (a) Prove that for all non-zero u in U1. sp (uW1 . . Consider a hypothetical molecule in which there are four identical atoms at the corners of a square. .396 Representations and characters of groups which appear in Example 32. let W i be an RG-isomorphism from U1 to Ui .

Also Ker ì ˆ {1} and Im ì ˆ L. y À1 xy ˆ x À1 X By Example 1.4 again that ì is a homomorphism. (À1) k ) for 0 < i < m À 1. it follows that ë is not a homomorphism. since G is abelian. If Ker W ˆ f1g then W is an isomorphism. then h g 2 i would be a normal subgroup different from G and {1}. we have g ˆ a (ghÀ1 )h P (G ’ An )h. b: a2 m ˆ b2 ˆ 1. d: cm ˆ d 2 ˆ 1. the function W: D4 m 3 D2 m 3 C2 de®ned by 397 . For all odd g in G. Let g be a non-identity element of G. Therefore G ’ An and (G ’ An )h are the only right cosets of G ’ An in G.Solutions to exercises Chapter 1 1. 4. and if Ker W ˆ G then H ˆ f1g. and Ga(G ’ A n )  C2 . Let D4 m ˆ ha. If G were in®nite. where m is odd. Since G ’ An Tˆ G. (a) Using the method of Example 1. hence G is ®nite. so kgl ˆ G. so G ’ An v G. it is routine to verify that ö and ø are homomorphisms. G ’ An ˆ f g P G: g is even}. c2 }. 3. Let p be a prime number which divides |G|. 5. Check using the method of Example 1. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i. and D2 m ˆ hc. 0 < j < 1. a2 } and Ker ø ˆ {1. Since G is simple and Ker W v G.4. Note that all subgroups of G are normal. Let x ˆ (c( m‡1)a2 . we may choose h P G with h P An . 0 < k < 1. and G Tˆ {1} since G is simple. either Ker W ˆ f1g or Ker W ˆ G.4. 2. (b) Since b2 ë ˆ I but (bë)2 ˆ Y 2 ˆ ÀI. Therefore g p ˆ 1. Then kgl is a normal subgroup of G. À1) and y ˆ (d. Ker ö ˆ {1. 1). First. d À1 cd ˆ cÀ1 i. The elements of D2 m 3 C2 are (c i d j . and so G is cyclic of prime order. Then h g p i is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to G. Check that x 2 m ˆ y 2 ˆ 1. so ì is an isomorphism.

B2 ˆ A4 and BÀ1 AB ˆ AÀ1 . If g P G and g n ˆ 1. with 0 < j < 7. k. also 1 P G and 1g ˆ g1 ˆ g for all g P G. If H is a subgroup of G of order n. Therefore a j ˆ a kq and so H ˆ kak l. Moreover. If g. Partition G into subsets f g. If g. Therefore H < f g P G: g n ˆ 1g ˆ he2ðia n iX Since j Hj ˆ n ˆ jhe2ðia n ij. then h n ˆ 1 for all h P H (since the order of h divides n. hence g P kad l. h. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. We deduce that hxi ˆ H ˆ h yiX Thus x P h yi.398 Representations and characters of groups W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 2m À 1. (c) If x and y are elements of order n in the ®nite cyclic group G. 6. A Bˆ A ˆ X 0 eÀi jða4 ÀeÀi jða4 0 Since these matrices. yl. Bl has the form A j B k with 0 < j < 7. so g ˆ gÀ1 and g has order 2. Finally. g À1 g ( g P G). and the identity element is in a subset of size 1. Bl has order 16. if g P G then g À1 ˆ 1a g P G. 0 and a k P H. Since Im W ˆ kx. 1) and x m ˆ (1. 7. g À1 g has size 1. 0 < k < 1. Hence. De®ne matrices A. As |D4 m | ˆ |D2 m 3 C2 |. then g ˆ a j for some integer j and dnj jn. 0 such that ai P H. k. If 1 Tˆ a j P H then j ˆ qk ‡ r for some integers q. also H has order n. Since r . Now kxl and k yl have order n. we conclude that W is an isomorphism. which is a cyclic group of order n. Choose k as small as possible such that k . These relations show that every element of the group kA. kA. Each such subset has size 1 or 2. so gh P G. if jGj is even then there exists g P G such that g Tˆ 1 and the subset f g. 0 eÀiða4  Bˆ  1 X 0 0 À1 Check that A8 ˆ I. 8. it contains x 2 ˆ (c. by Lagrange's Theorem). Let G be the set of non-zero complex numbers. Hence a r ˆ a j aÀqk ˆ a j (a k )Àq P H. (b) Assume that G ˆ hai and jGj ˆ dn. h P G then gh Tˆ 0. and gÀ1 g ˆ ggÀ1 ˆ 1. First observe that there exists i . 9. so dj j. Thus G is a group under multiplication. thus H is cyclic. where H ˆ { g P G: gn ˆ 1}. r with 0 < r . we have r ˆ 0. It follows that f g P G: g n ˆ 1g ˆ had i. À1) and hence Im W ˆ D2 m 3 C2 . and so x is a power of y. . B as follows:   eiða4 0 Aˆ . are all distinct. then x. it follows that H ˆ ke2ðia n l. k P G then (gh)k ˆ g(hk).     ei jða4 0 0 ei jða4 j j . by part (b). (a) Let G ˆ kal and suppose that 1 Tˆ H < G. y P H.

Hg are the two right cosets of H in G. . Then v ˆ v ‡ 0 ˆ 0 ‡ v and this gives us two expressions for v as the sum of an element in U and an element in W. Since V ˆ U È W. . w1. the expression 0 ˆ 0 ‡ 0 is the unique expression for 0 as the sum of vectors in U and W. Since such expressions are unique. Then u ˆ u1 ˆ u2 ‡ u3 for some ui P Ui (1 < i < 3).12)). and so ë1 u1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë r ur ˆ ì1 w1 ‡ X X X ‡ ì s ws ˆ 0X As u1 . . 2. u r . 5. . . 3. Let u. so Ker W ˆ {0}. ur and w is a linear combination of w1 . ‡ ì s ws for some ë i . (ë(wWÀ1 ))W ˆ ë(wWÀ1 )W ˆ ëwX Hence (u ‡ w)WÀ1 ˆ uWÀ1 ‡ wWÀ1 and (ëw)WÀ1 ˆ ë(wWÀ1 ). we have u1 ˆ . Suppose jG: Hj ˆ 2 and let g P G. w s . F F F . F F F . this forces ë i ˆ 0 for all i. . . If v P V then v ˆ u ‡ w for some u P U and w P W. . Then V ˆ U ‡ W. . w1. Since W is a linear transformation. 4. . (a) Assume ®rst that V ˆ U1 È U2 È U3. ws span V. It is easy to see that V ˆ U ‡ W. j. . Chapter 2 1. Therefore u1 . it follows that v is a linear combination of u1 . . . w P W and ë P F. (2) A (3): If Ker W ˆ {0} then dim (Im W) ˆ dim V (by (2. . V ˆ U È W. suppose that u1 . . and so u ˆ v. . . Therefore Hg ˆ gH. . w2 P W. ur . ì j P F.7)). . . and so gÀ1 Hg ˆ H again. . First suppose that V ˆ U È W. ws are linearly independent. If g P H then gÀ1 Hg ˆ H. . . . v ˆ 0. Suppose that ë1 u1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë r ur ‡ ì1 w1 ‡ X X X ‡ ì s ws ˆ 0 with all ë i . If v P U ’ W then v ˆ ë1 u1 ‡ . . . then u1 À u2 ˆ w2 À w1 P U ’ W ˆ {0}. . . F F F . . Let u P U1 ’ (U2 ‡ U3 ). . . w1. since u is a linear combination of u1 . ‡ ë r ur ˆ ì1 w1 ‡ .Chapter 2 399 10. Therefore u1 . . we have (uWÀ1 ‡ wWÀ1 )W ˆ (uWÀ1 )W ‡ (wWÀ1 )W ˆ u ‡ w. Ker W ˆ {0}. this gives ë i ˆ ì j ˆ 0 for all i. so Im W ˆ V (by (2. Thus U ’ W ˆ {0}. since u1 . (3) A (1): Assume that Im W ˆ V. . . W is invertible. . w s . so W is surjective. Thus v ˆ 0 and so U ’ W ˆ {0}. v P V and uW ˆ vW then (u À v)W ˆ 0. hence they form a basis of V. ì j in F. Now suppose that V ˆ U ‡ W and U ’ W ˆ {0}. If u. And if g P H then H. By (2. ws are linearly independent. so u À v P Ker W ˆ {0}. Since u1 ‡ 0 ‡ 0 ˆ 0 ‡ u2 ‡ u3 and the sum U1 ‡ U2 ‡ U3 is direct. ur are linearly independent. ur . w1 . . similarly ì i ˆ 0 for all i. Hence H v G. This shows that V ˆ U È W. . . Assume ®rst that V ˆ U È W. . Thus W is injective. . w1. ws is a basis of V. As W is surjective and injective. hence u1 ˆ u2 and w1 ˆ w2. so by Exercise 3. gH are a the two left cosets. If u1 ‡ w1 ˆ u2 ‡ w2 with u1 . . so WÀ1 is a linear transformation. ur .12). while H. . Let v P U ’ W. . . u2 P U and w1. (1) A (2): If W is invertible then W is injective. ur . Conversely.

and U1 ˆ sp ((1. . . Similarly. Therefore U1 ’ (U2 ‡ U3 ) ˆ {0}. by Exercise 4. m À 1 and i . j. 1)). and Im ö ˆ Ker ö ˆ sp ((1. ws for Ker W. so dim V ˆ dim U1 ‡ . Thus V ˆ U ‡ W. . and so r is a representation. ur for Im W and a basis w1. assume that Am ˆ I. . . . 7. so V Tˆ Im ö È Ker ö. Check that A3 ˆ B3 ˆ C 3 ˆ I. 0)). Let v P V. Since ui W ˆ ui for all i and wj W ˆ 0 for all j. dim (U2 È .10)). Ker W ˆ sp ((0. . if V ˆ U1 È . Hence by Exercise 1. . Then u1 . Then I ˆ 1r ˆ (am )r ˆ (ar) m ˆ Am X Conversely. if [W]B has the given form. 0)X Then Im W ˆ sp ((1. . È Ur then V ˆ U1 È (U2 È . . so u1 ˆ u9 . Conversely. First. ws is a basis. . say B. so V ˆ Im W È Ker W. 2. Similarly. by Exercise 3. . U3 ˆ sp ((1. ur . of V. 6. u9 P Ui (1 < i < 3) and i u1 ‡ u2 ‡ u3 ˆ u9 ‡ u9 ‡ u9 . More generally. . so 1(v ‡ vW) P U. the diagonal entries being r 1's followed by s 0's. Take a basis u1 . . Let V ˆ R2. (a i a j )r ˆ (a i‡ j )r ˆ A i‡ j ˆ A i A j ˆ (a i r)(a j r). ‡ dim Ur. . By Exercise 4. . 2 2 2 À vW) P W. The construction of the basis B is similar to that in Solution 8. È Ur ) (see (2. y) 3 ( y. . Therefore for all integers i. Suppose ®rst that W is a projection. U2 ’ (U1 ‡ U3 ) ˆ U 3 ’ (U1 ‡ U2 ) ˆ f0g. but r1 is not. y) 3 (x. 0) and ö: (x.32. the matrix [W]B is diagonal. u2 ˆ u9 and u3 ˆ u9 . È Ur ) ˆ dim U2 ‡ . 2 3 (b) Let V ˆ R2. . 8. . 0)). Therefore V ˆ U È W. so v ˆ 0. . suppose that r is a representation of G. . . Then (ai )r ˆ Ai for all integers i (including i . Then V ˆ Im W È Ker W by Proposition 2. 1 2(v Chapter 3 1. Then 1 2 3 u1 À u9 ˆ (u9 À u2 ) ‡ (u9 À u3 ) P U1 ’ (U2 ‡ U3 ) ˆ {0}. Assume that ui . w1. if V ˆ U È W then dim V ˆ dim U ‡ dim W. Therefore V ˆ U1 È U2 È U3. 0). U2 ˆ sp ((0. then clearly W2 ˆ W. The representations r2 and r3 are faithful. ö: V 3 V by W: (x.400 Representations and characters of groups u2 ˆ u3 ˆ 0. Now suppose that U1 ’ (U2 ‡ U3 ) ˆ U2 ’ (U1 ‡ U3 ) ˆ U3 ’ (U1 ‡ U2 ) ˆ {0}. . 1)). ‡ dim Ur. by induction on r. De®ne W. 1)). . each r j is a representation. . so W is a projection. . 9. Then v ˆ 1(v ‡ vW) ‡ 1(v À vW)X 2 2 Observe that 1(v ‡ vW)W ˆ 1(vW ‡ v). 0)). 1 2 3 1 Similarly. If v P U ’ W then v ˆ vW ˆ Àv. .

And if j Tˆ 3. so r is equivalent to ô.) If j Tˆ 2. hence r3 is not equivalent to any of the others.Chapter 3 3. (2) If r is equivalent to ó then there is an invertible matrix T such that gó ˆ T À1 ( gr)T for all g P G. T ˆ D. IÀ1 (gr)I ˆ gr. F) and GL (1. (4) S ˆ C. 8. Check that in each of the cases (1) S ˆ A. . (2) S ˆ A3 . then gr ˆ (T À1 )À1 (gó)T À1. then a3 r j Tˆ I. T ˆ ÀB. Compare Example 3. The matrices A r Bs (0 < r < 5.10. 0 < s < 1) is a faithful representation of D8 ˆ ka. let  Tˆ  1 1 X Ài i Then T À1 (gr4 )T ˆ gr1 for all g P G. ®rst work out the eigenvectors of C. GaKer r  Im r. (To ®nd T. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. since a2 r2 ˆ I and a3 r3 ˆ I. so r1 is faithful. 7. The representations r1 and r4 are equivalent: to see this. hence r is equivalent to r.4). then gô ˆ (ST)À1 (gr)(ST). Therefore GaKer r is abelian. 5. 0 < s < 1) are all different. we have S 6 ˆ T 2 ˆ I. (3) S ˆ ÀA. so ó is equivalent to r. T ˆ B.2(1). then there are invertible matrices S and T such that gó ˆ SÀ1 ( gr)S and gô ˆ T À1 (gó)T for all g P G. hence r2 is not equivalent to any of the others. De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 A ˆ d À1 0 H I 1 0 0 0 e. No: let G be any non-abelian group and let r be the trivial representation. T À1 ST ˆ S À1 X It follows that each r k is a representation (see Example 1. But r2 and r3 are not faithful. (1) For all g P G. 4. De®ne r by (a i b j )r ˆ (À1) j (0 < i < n À 1. By Theorem 1. (3) If r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô. T ˆ B. 6. But Im r < GL (1. 0 < j < 1)X 401 It is easy to check that r is a representation of G. F) is abelian. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. 0 1 1 B ˆ d0 0 H I 0 0 À1 0 eX 0 1 Then the function r: a r b s 3 A r Bs (0 < r < 3. Similarly r4 is faithful. then a2 r j Tˆ I.

B2 ˆ A2 . and (vg)h ˆ Àv. h P An ) or vg ˆ Àv ˆ vh (if g. By Theorem 4. (ëv) g ˆ ë(v g). v in V and ë in F.402 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 4 1. since one of g. BÀ1 AB ˆ AÀ1 X Hence r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. we have v g P V .2. since either vg ˆ v ˆ vh (if g. Let v P V and g. Let A ˆ f d 0 0 0 À1 e and B ˆ d À1 0 0 0e 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 0 Check that A4 ˆ I. g P Q8. Then v(gh) ˆ v. If we put . Let g P Sn . a a Then v(gh) ˆ Àv. and (vg)h ˆ v. Assume ®rst that gh P An . (u ‡ v) g ˆ ug ‡ v gX It remains to check (2) of De®nition 4. We have now checked all the conditions in De®nition 4. V becomes an RQ8 -module if we de®ne vg ˆ v( gr) for all v P V.2. so V is an FG-module. Next. h P An ). assume that gh P An . 3. g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 H (1 2) 1 0 0 0e 0 1 I 0 0 À1 0 e À1 1 I 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 H (1 3) I 0 1 1 0e 0 0 I 0 0 1 À1 e 0 À1 [ g]B 2 g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 (2 3) 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I H (1 2 3) 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1e 0 0 I 0 0 À1 1 e À1 0 I H (1 3 2) 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 I 0 0 0 À1 e 1 À1 [ g]B 2 All the matrices [g]B 2 have the form H I 1 0 0 d 0 j j eX 0 j j 2.4(1). v1 ˆ v. 0 < j < 1) is a representation of Q8 over R. For all u. H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f À1 0 0 f 0 0g 0 0 1g g f g. Let V ˆ R4. h P Sn . h is in An and the other is not.

Then r is equivalent to a representation ô of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G) ô: g 3 d Yg Zg where X g is a k 3 k matrix and 0 . . It is easy to verify that V is an FG-module. 1) or (1. â À á) P U. 3. k . 0g g g g g e 1 I 0 then MA is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two rows. since ó is equivalent to r. Since at least one of á ‡ â and á À â is non-zero. the proof is similar to that for the rows. 2. You may ®nd it helpful ®rst to check that if H 0 1 f1 0 f f 1 M ˆf FF f d F 403 v1 ˆ (1. If C is a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns. Let U be a non-zero FGsubmodule of V. â) ‡ (á. and AM is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two columns. 1. 0).5. sp ((1. Then (á. â)a ˆ (á À â. and (á. Then ó is equivalent to ô. r4 be the representations of G de®ned in Exercise 3. 0. 0. . â) À (á. we deduce that (1. â) Tˆ (0. v2 ˆ (0. To solve the exercise. Therefore ó is reducible. . Suppose that r has degree n and r is reducible. let g be the permutation in Sn which has the property that for all i. where vg ˆ v(gr1 ) for . 0). and the ij-entry of PA is n ˆ pik akj ˆ a ig. 1)). À1) belongs to U. v3 ˆ (0. if j Tˆ igX Then P is a permutation matrix.Chapter 5 then for all i. Chapter 5 1. Hence the FG-submodules of V are {0}. â) P U with (á. sp ((1. First consider the FG-module V ˆ F 2. 1. v i a and v i b are as required in the question. 0. n. 1). then C ˆ AQ for some permutation matrix Q. 0. 0. Let G ˆ D12 and let r1 . row i of B ˆ row ig of AX Let P be the n 3 n matrix ( pij ) de®ned by V if j ˆ ig. ` 1. á ‡ â) P U. and let (á. v4 ˆ (0. j X kˆ1 Hence PA ˆ B. 0. . 0). â)a ˆ (á ‡ â. À1)) and V. 4. 0). pij ˆ X 0.

À1) lies in U. by the solution to Exercise 1. AB ˆ BA. Hence r is a representation (compare Example 1. 1)) is an FG-submodule of V and r2 is reducible. c}. g P G. Finally. On the other hand. Then V is neither reducible nor irreducible. so there exist distinct g1 . 0 < j < 2. g P G. 4. 1) or (1. However. Now u and ua are linearly independent unless å ˆ 1. b}. Then (1. if either å Tˆ 1 or ç Tˆ 1 then dim U ˆ 2 and so r is irreducible. Bˆ 0 å À1 0 Check that A3 ˆ B3 ˆ C 2 ˆ I. Let V ˆ {0} and let 0 g ˆ 0 for all g P G.5(2) for an alternative argument. 9. if å ˆ ç ˆ 1 then sp ((1. accordingly. 1) or (1. If U is a non-zero CG-submodule of V. r3 is irreducible. Using the relations. (a) It is easy to check the given relations. by an argument similar to that for r1. so r is reducible. À1) (so that u P U). let u be (1. we may write every element of G in the form ai b j c k (0 < i < 2. Chapter 6 1X (a) xy ˆ À2X1 À a3 ‡ ab ‡ 3a2 b ‡ 2a3 b. g P G. 1) ˆ (1. À1)a are linearly independent. bl with g1 r ˆ g2 r. 1)a ˆ À(1. 1)) is a CG-submodule of V. it is clear Hence. À1) lies in U.404 Representations and characters of groups v P V.   0 0 . and u and ub are linearly independent unless ç ˆ 1.4). it follows that dim U > 2. bl| ˆ 9 and ka. Suppose that U is a non-zero FG-submodule of V. (b) Let    å 0 ç Aˆ . yx ˆ À2X1 À a3 ‡ b ‡ 2a2 b ‡ 3a3 b. (d) Let V ˆ C2 be the CG-module obtained by de®ning vg ˆ v(gr) for all v P C2 . (See Example 5. bl Tˆ G. there exists a cube root î of unity such that   î 0 gr ˆ À1 X 0 î But there are only three distinct cube roots of unity. 1)b. Now let V ˆ F 2 with vg ˆ v(gr2 ) for v P V. then U is a CHsubmodule. C À1 AC ˆ AÀ1 and C À1 BC ˆ BÀ1 . also r4 is irreducible. where H is the subgroup {1. 1) and (1. bl. À1) and (1. Then U is an FH-module.) Therefore r1 is irreducible. by Lagrange's Theorem. where H is the subgroup {1. x 2 ˆ 4X1 ‡ a2 ‡ 4a3 X . 0 < k < 1)X that |ka. 5. and also (1. 1)a are linearly independent. Hence either (1. either (1. Since (1. (c) For every element g of ka. By the solution to Exercise 1. is a multiple of 9 and jGj . g2 P ka. Hence. Hence sp ((1. 1) or (1. jGj Therefore jGj ˆ 18. Therefore r is never faithful. Consequently U ˆ V and so V is irreducible.Cˆ çÀ1 1  1 X 0 Thus jGj < 18. since r1 and r4 are equivalent.

s ˆ 1 À a. b. so do gh and hg. Let C2 3 C2 ˆ ka. (Note that v i W ˆ ai . ab ˆ bal. It is easy to show that V0 is an FG-submodule of V. and u ‡ u ˆ u. Check that v1 a ˆ ùv1 . hence W is an FG-homomorphism. b: a2 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. Let x P G. Hence a i b j z ˆ za i b j for all i. . ar ˆ f d0 0 0 1e d0 0 1 0e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 H I H I 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 f0 0 1 0g f0 0 0 1g f g f g br ˆ f gX g. The reason is that for all i. Then .5(2) or the solution to Exercise 5. a.) 3. (ëu1 )Wö ˆ (ë(u1 W))ö ˆ ë(u1 (Wö)). j and so gz€ zg for all g P G. Let V be the trivial FG-module and let 0 Tˆ v P V and 1 Tˆ g P G. Let a ˆ (1 2 3 4 5) and let v1 . Hence ch ˆ hc ˆ c. If r P CG then ˆ € € rˆ ë g gz ˆ ë g zg ˆ zr. and v0 ˆ v(0 ‡ 0) ˆ v0 ‡ v0. so (v i a)W ˆ v i‡1 W ˆ a i‡1 ˆ (v i W)a. € € (b) c2 ˆ c hPG h ˆ hPG ch ˆ jGjc. and take r ˆ 1 ‡ a. For all u1 . v1 b ˆ v2 and v2 b ˆ v1. . 6. 4. Use the argument of either Example 5. Relative to the basis 1. g. g ë g g with ë g P C. so rz ˆ 2.3 to prove that W is irreducible. ab of F(C2 3 C2 ). No: let G ˆ ka: a2 ˆ 1l. (a) As g runs through G. v5 be the natural basis for the permutation module for G over F. v2 a ˆ ù2 v2 . Let v1 ˆ 1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 and v2 ˆ b ‡ ù2 ab ‡ ùa2 b. we have (u1 ‡ u2 )Wö ˆ (u1 W ‡ u2 W)ö ˆ u1 (Wö) ‡ u2 (Wö). Hence W is a CG-submodule of CG. and bz ˆ 1 ‡ a2 ˆ zb. then vr ˆ 0 and neither v nor r is 0. (ab)r ˆ f d0 1 0 0e d1 0 0 0e 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3. (u1 g)Wö ˆ ((u1 W) g)ö ˆ ((u1 W)ö) g ˆ (u1 (Wö)) gX 2. Note ®rst that if u is an element of a vector space.Chapter 7 405 (b) az ˆ ab ‡ a3 b ˆ a2 ba ‡ ba ˆ za. Then W: ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë5 v5 3 ë1 1 ‡ ë2 a ‡ ë3 a2 ‡ ë4 a3 ‡ ë5 a4 is the required FG-isomorphism. j. 5. the regular representation r is given by H I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 f1 0 0 0g f0 1 0 0g f g f g 1r ˆ f g. If r ˆ 1 À g. . . u2 P U. there exists a unique h in G such that gi h ˆ gj . ë P F and g P G. hence 0r ˆ v0 ˆ 0. then u ˆ 0. Chapter 7 1. (c) All the entries in [W]B are 1 (compare the solution to Exercise 2). Now 0r ˆ (0 ‡ 0)r ˆ 0r ‡ 0r.

. V ˆ sp (Àùv1 ‡ v2 ) È sp (Àù2 v1 ‡ v2 ). we see that W is an FGhomomorphism from V to V0 . Then by Maschke's Theorem. If v P V0 then (vajGj)W ˆ v. De®ne vg ˆ v for all v P V. is an FG-isomorphism from V0 to W 0 . For all v P V0 . so W 0 öÀ1  V0 . No: let v1 . ì g P C)X 0 ìg Then (gó)(hó) ˆ (hó)(gó) for all g. Suppose that ö: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. Let G ˆ {1. 1 ‡ x. it follows from Exercise 4 that V and FG are not isomorphic FG-modules. Hence W2 ˆ 2W. Let G be any group. ab}  C2 3 C2 (so a2 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. where ù ˆ e2ðia3 . (wöÀ1 )g ˆ (wg)öÀ1 ˆ wöÀ1 . noting that V W  V0 . Let g P G. 6. and let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 . v2 .) 2. and so V0 ö  W 0 . 4. ì P C) then W is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. In the notation of Exercise 3. Chapter 8 1. If we let W: ëv1 ‡ ìv2 3 ëv2 (ë. 4. ab ˆ ba). since all diagonal matrices . (b) (á À â)(1 À x)W ˆ ((á À â) À (â À á))(1 À x) ˆ 2(á À â)(1 À x). Also (á1 ‡ âx)xW ˆ (â1 ‡ áx)W ˆ (â À á)(1 À x) ˆ (á À â)(1 À x)x ˆ (á1 ‡ âx)WxX Hence W is an FG-homomorphism. h P G. this makes V into a CGmodule. g P G. (a) W is easily seen to be a linear transformation. Hence the function ö. v4 be the natural basis of the permutation module V for G over F. 2ˆ 3 V0 ˆ sp (v1 ‡ v2 .406 Representations and characters of groups ˆ gPG vxg ˆ ˆ gPG vg ˆ ˆ gPG v gxX Hence (vx)W ˆ vW ˆ (vW)x. For all w P W 0 . and Ker W ˆ Im W ˆ sp (v2 ). hence W is surjective. Suppose r is reducible. . restricted to V0 . Then RG ˆ sp (1 ‡ a ‡ b ‡ ab) È sp (1 ‡ a À b À ab) È sp (1 À a ‡ b À ab) È sp (1 À a À b ‡ ab)X 3. b. . (vö)g ˆ (vg)ö ˆ vö. 5. a. r is equivalent to a representation ó of the form   ëg 0 gó ˆ (ë g . (c) Let B be the basis 1 À x. . (Find eigenvectors for x. v3 ‡ v4 ) and (FG)0 ˆ sp g X gPG Since V0 and (FG)0 have different dimensions.

Then there exist i P {1. Ur are irreducible CG-submodules of CG. r2 : 1r1 ˆ ar1 ˆ (1).Chapter 9 407 commute with each other. v g] ˆ (ugx. u] . v gx) ˆ (ux. Chapter 9 1. . (3) Let W ˆ U c. we must therefore have K ˆ {1}. vx) ˆ [u. r3 . 5. È Ur. Let C2 ˆ ka: a2 ˆ 1l. r4 : 3 . (x. where U1. so [u. Then for all u P U. This is a contradiction. hence also (gr)(hr) ˆ (hr)(gr) for all g. (x. r3 : 1r1 ˆ br1 ˆ b2 r1 ˆ (1).6). Let CG ˆ U1 È . . Also ˆ ˆ [ug. v] ˆ 0 since ug À1 P U X Therefore vg P U c. ar2 ˆ (À1)X Let C3 ˆ kb: b ˆ 1l and let ù ˆ e2ðia3 . Irreducible representations r1 . 6. v gg À1 ] by part (1) ˆ [ug À1 . . This means that Ui is a faithful irreducible CG-module. where x 2 ˆ y 2 ˆ 1. . r2 . De®ne K ˆ fx P G: vx ˆ v for all v P Ui gX Check that K is a normal subgroup of G. and so U c is a CG-submodule of V. U ˆ sp ((1. y). 7. 0)) is the only 1-dimensional CG-submodule of V. Let v P U c and g P G. Then V ˆ U È W. Irreducible representations r1 . . 0. 1r2 ˆ (1). h P G. . bi r3 ˆ (ù2i )X Let C2 3 C2 ˆ {(1. . r2 . also K Tˆ G since g P K. 1). r} and g P G such that ug Tˆ u for some u P Ui (otherwise vg ˆ v for all v P CG). (1. Irreducible representations r1 . (1) It is straightforward to verify for [ . ] the axioms of a complex inner product. y)}. v]X xPG xPG (2) It is easy to prove that U c is a subspace of V. . 1). We know that the regular CG-module CG is faithful (Proposition 6. Therefore r is irreducible. if u Tˆ 0 then (ux. . and W is a CG-submodule of V by part (2). bi r2 ˆ (ù i ). For example. 0 for all x P G. so there is no CG-submodule W of V with V ˆ U È W. Since G a is simple. v g] ˆ [ug À1 . ux) . [u. .

then i i i i ó : ( g 11 . (b) If g1 ˆ (x 2 . 4. Therefore Proposition 9. Check that     0 ù ù 0 r: (x.5(2)). BÀ1 AB ˆ AÀ1 when A ˆ ar and B ˆ br. Then xz ˆ z ˆ zx for all x P G. Hence z P Z(CG). y j )r4 ˆ (À1) i‡ j X 2. For 1 < j < r. n1 ˆ 2. Check that A4 ˆ B2 ˆ I. . . a) 3 . and the result follows from Proposition 9. Hence r is irreducible (Corollary 9. (b) Check that w(a ‡ aÀ1 ) ˆ Àw for all w P W. 3 C n r of degree r. If M(gr) ˆ (gr)M for g ˆ a and for g ˆ b. 7. b) 3 Àù 0 0 Àù . y j )r2 ˆ (À1) j . (x i . and let å j ˆ e2ðia n j . 3. Also bÀ1 (a ‡ aÀ1 )b ˆ aÀ1 ‡ a. Yes: if r ˆ 2. (a) r: (x i . (x. Notice that the matrix   5 À6 4 À5 commutes with gó for all g P G.3). y 2 ) then g1 .3). g 22 ) 3 (å11 å22 ) is a faithful representation of degree 1 . (a) Clearly a commutes with a ‡ aÀ1 . X X X . 6.408 Representations and characters of groups gr1 ˆ (1) for all g P C2 3 C2 . so b commutes with a ‡ aÀ1 . similarly for ó. hence ó is reducible (Corollary 9. 1). (a) Let Cn ˆ kx: x n ˆ 1l.16 shows that C2 3 D8 has no faithful irreducible representation. g2 and g1 g2 all have order 2. (c) The centre of C2 3 D8 is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . g irr ) 3 f d e F ir år 0 0 is a faithful representation of C n1 3 . (x i . (1. Let z ˆ gPG g.14. y j ) 3 (À1) i . Then r: x j 3 (e2ði ja n ) is a faithful irreducible representation of Cn . (d) Let C3 ˆ kx: x 3 ˆ 1l and let ù ˆ e2ðia3 . € 5. then M ˆ ëI for some ë P C.     0 1 1 0 . we cannot have (g1 g2 )ó ˆ g1 ó ˆ g2 ó ˆ (À1). b3 (b) r: a 3 À1 0 0 À1 gives a faithful irreducible representation of D8 (see Example 5. Then H i I å11 f g i FF g r: ( g 11 . let gj generate Cn j . n2 ˆ 3. y j )r3 ˆ (À1) i . so is not cyclic. r. Hence r gives a representation. y): x 4 ˆ y 4 ˆ 1l. Let C4 3 C4 ˆ k(x. 1) and g2 ˆ (1. Since (g1 g2 )ó ˆ (g1 ó)(g2 ó) for all representations ó. (x i .

so U ˆ sp (u) of for some u. Now suppose that U is an arbitrary trivial CG-submodule € CG. It is irreducible (see for example Exercise 8. b 3 (1) r1 : a 3 (1). w1 ) are CG-submodules of CG. Let G ˆ kx: x 4 ˆ 1l. U1 . Therefore every irreducible representation of D8 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r0 : a 3 (1). We have sp (v0 . w3 3 v3. Let u1 ˆ 1 ‡ a ‡ a2 ‡ a3 À b À ab À a2 b À a3 b. w3 ). w0 ). v2 ˆ 1 À a ‡ a2 À a3 . where Ui ˆ sp (ui ) (0 <€ 3) and u1 . 2. w1 ).4).5(2) (or see Exercise 8.8(2). Then V is a trivial CG-submodule of CG. b 3 (À1) r2 : a 3 (À1). let wj ˆ bv j. Then CG ˆ sp (1 ‡ x ‡ x 2 ‡ x 3 ) È sp (1 ‡ ix À x 2 À ix 3 ) È sp (1 À x ‡ x 2 À x 3 ) È sp (1 À ix À x 2 ‡ ix 3 )X 3. b 3 (À1) 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 r4 : a 3 . Let v0 ˆ 1 ‡ a ‡ a2 ‡ a3 . sp (v2 . 409 € 1. For 0 < j < 3. the subspaces sp (v0 . as in Example 10. w0 ) ˆ U0 È U1 . and so CG has exactly one trivial CGsubmodule. while u0 ˆ gPG g. namely V. We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. u3 ˆ 1 À a ‡ a2 À a3 À b ‡ ab À a2 b ‡ a3 bX 4. Let V ˆ sp ( gPG g). w3 ). so |G|u ˆ u( gPG g) ˆ € ( gPG g)u P V. v3 ˆ 1 À ia À a2 ‡ ia3 Chapter 10 (compare the solution to Exercise 2).5 now shows that there are exactly ®ve non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. U3 and U4 . b 3 (1) r3 : a 3 (À1). u2 . u3 are as in the solution to i< Exercise 3. Let U4 ˆ sp (v1 . namely U0 . U2 . sp (v1 . U5 ˆ sp (v3 . Moreover U4  U5. Then ug ˆ u for all g P G.Chapter 10 gives a representation of C3 3 D8. Thus U ˆ V. As in Example 5. since there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1. Theorem 10.b3 X 0 Ài 1 0 . sp (v2 . v1 ˆ 1 ‡ ia À a2 À ia3 .4) and faithful. u2 ˆ 1 À a ‡ a2 À a3 ‡ b À ab ‡ a2 b À a3 b. w2 ) and sp (v3 . U4 and U5 are irreducible CG-modules. Then. w2 ) ˆ U2 È U3 .

and similarly the number of integers b with Y b  V i is €k e i . ö2 by uö1 ˆ u. It will be shown later (Exercises 15. uö2 ˆ bu (u P U3 ). either by the method of Example 5.12.4. dim (HomCG (V.6. ‡ v n ) is the unique trivial CG-submodule of V (compare Exercise 10. W2 is a basis of HomCG (CG. W)) is equal to the number of ordered pairs (a. Then by (11. .4. 6. . since the sum U1 ‡ U2 is direct. v n be the natural basis of V. Hence the answer for D12 is 14 22 .2.3. CG). in turn. 4. Hence by Corollary 11. b) such that X a  Y b . Then sp (u1 . . . ö2 is a basis of HomCG (U3. Let u1 ˆ 1 À ia À a2 ‡ ia3 . . Therefore we have constructed in®nitely many CG-submodules Im öë of the required form. Since G is non-abelian. by Theorem 11.8. u2 ) is a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. V is irreducible. 18 2 means eight 1s and one 2. by Corollary 11. dim (HomCG (V. It is easy to check that if ë Tˆ ì then Im öë Tˆ Im ö ì . Then {ö g : g P G} gives a basis of HomCG (CG. .3) that 18 2 cannot occur. Compare Example 11. u2 ˆ b À iab À a2 b ‡ ia3 b. . b): X a  Yb  Vi gjX Now the number of integers a with X a  V i is dim (HomCG (V . not all the dimensions are 1 (see Proposition 9. Let V ˆ X1 È . . equals k ˆ iˆ1 jf(a. and so on). Let v1 . . de®ne the function öë : U1 3 V by öë : u 3 u ‡ ëuW (u P U 1 )X Then öë is easily seen to be a CG-homomorphism.13 to see that the possible answers are 112 . moreover. w2 be the basis of U3 described in Example 10. 3. By Exercise 5. 2. U)) ˆ 1. W)) ˆ iˆ1 d i e i . 14 22 and 13 3 (where 112 means twelve 1s. Let W: U1 3 U2 be a CG-isomorphism. Therefore. De®ne W1 and W2 by rW1 ˆ v1 r. 2. de®ne ö1 . the dimensions are 1. Thus U1  Im öë .5)(3) and Proposition 11. È Xr and W ˆ Y1 È . A CG-isomorphism is given by v1 3 u1 .8). v2 3 u2 . . Then ö1 . Chapter 11 1. u P Ker öë D u ‡ ëuW ˆ 0 D u ˆ 0.6.8(2). D12 has at least two inequivalent irreducible representations of degree 2.410 Representations and characters of groups 5. U3 ). Let v1 .5(2) or by Exercise 8. Then sp (v1 ‡ . de®ne ö g : CG 3 CG by rö g ˆ gr (r P CG). For ë P C. Hence. Then W1 . CG) (compare the proof of Proposition 11. by the proof of Proposition 11. V i )) ˆ d i . 6. . 17. 5. È Ys.1). where each Xa and each Yb is an irreducible CG-module. 1. dim (HomCG (V. rW2 ˆ w2 r (r P CG). For each g P G. Also.18). 18 2. This.

k (unordered). By Example 12. The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. There are ®ve choices for i. l (unordered). ab ‡ a3 bX 7. There are (4 ) choices for the numbers i. and three permutations for each choice. Therefore CG (x) is a subgroup of G. 2) (6) 40 90 120 4. then we can make three permutations ( j k)(l m). j < n} and this set has size (2 ). An element x of cycle-shape (5) has CS6 (x) ˆ kxl (note that |x S6 | ˆ 144 and use Theorem 12.8 (since (2 ) ˆ n3a(2X(n À 2)3)). The class equation gives . a ‡ a3 . 12.8. 3 ˆ 15. h P CG (x). If z P Z(G) then zg ˆ gz for all g P G. We have Q8 ˆ ka. For elements g of other cycle-shapes. Assume that g. Note that x P CG (g) D x P CG ( gz). Now the required result follows from Theorem 12.Chapter 12 Chapter 12 411 1. so 1 P CG (x). b ‡ a2 b. k. therefore A5 is simple. thus ghÀ1 P CG (x). fab. and H is a union of conjugacy classes of A5 . j. and 1 P H. 2) (5) 90 120 144 (23 ) 15 (32 ) (4.18(2). 2) from the remaining numbers. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. fa2 g. 6. 2. 2 ˆ 40 elements in all. n k. k. 20. j. fa. If H is a normal subgroup of A5 then j Hj divides 60. This gives 5 . so zx ˆ xz and z P CG (x). 12. Hence j Hj ˆ 1 or 60. b2 ˆ a2 . m distinct. j. n 3. The sizes of the conjugacy classes of S6 are given in the following table: Cycle-shape (1) Class size 1 (2) 15 (3) 40 (22 ) 45 (4) (3. (1 2)(3 4) G consists of all permutations of the form (i j)(k l ) with i. Also 1x ˆ x1. l distinct. 15. Hence by Proposition 12. g A6 ˆ g S6 . (c) Every element of (1 2 3)(4 5 6) G has the form (1 i j)(k l m). a3 g. with i. Hence |(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G | ˆ 5 . where x is a permutation ®xing 1 and 2. Then gx ˆ xg and hx ˆ xh. l. There are (3 ) choices for the numbers i. 4 . ( j l )(k m) and ( j m)(k l ) of cycle shape (2. a2 bg. namely (i j k) and (i k j). The elements of (1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G have the form (1 i)( j k)(l m). fb. x A6 Tˆ x S6 . so hÀ1 x ˆ xhÀ1 and ghÀ1 x ˆ gxhÀ1 ˆ xghÀ1 . Each choice gives exactly two 3-cycles. (i k)( j l ) and (i l )( j k). then we can make two different 3-cycles (k l m) and (k m l ) from the remaining numbers. and a basis of Z(CQ8 ) is 1. b: a4 ˆ 1. Thus |CG ((1 2))| ˆ 2´(n À 2)!. a2 .8). then four choices for j.17. There are ®ve choices for i. (a) (1 2) G ˆ {(i j): 1 < i . The centralizer CG ((1 2)) consists of all elements x and (1 2)x. j. the conjugacy classes of A5 have sizes 1. n G (b) (1 2 3) consists of all 3-cycles (i j k). 5. in agreement with Theorem n 12. namely (i j)(k l ). a3 bg.

The characters ÷ i of r i (i ˆ 1. We have now proved that gr ˆ ëI for some ë P C if and only if g P Z(G). This is a contradiction. so ÷(1) ˆ 1.10. and hence ÷(zg) ˆ ë÷(g). If. (zg)r ˆ (zr)(gr) ˆ ë(gr). a2 . If ÷ is a non-zero character which is a homomorphism. then p2 divides |x G | for all i xi P Z(G). in addition. Since ÷(g) ˆ |®x (g)|. p2 divides a |Z(G)|. a2 b.14. Then zr ˆ ëI for some ë P C. and Im ä is a subgroup of the . a5 À1 0 a2 . we have ÷((1 2)) ˆ 5 and ÷((1 6)(2 3 5)) ˆ 2. 2) are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 2 2 a3 2 0 a. a3 b. I ˆ 1r ˆ z m r ˆ (zr) m ˆ ë m I. Hence p divides |Z(G)|. 7.14. by Proposition 9. Moreover. a4 b ab. 2. Thus. and hence g P Z(G) since r is faithful. a5 b 0 0 0 À2 Also Ker r1 ˆ {1. Conversely.8 and (12. |x G | divides pn and |x G | Tˆ 1 by Theorem 12. a i i Therefore p divides |x G |. . . so ë m ˆ 1. 4. a4 À1 2 b. then ( gr)(hr) ˆ (hr)(gr) for all h P G. 6. . a3 } and Ker r2 ˆ {1. then ÷(1) ˆ ÷(12 ) ˆ (÷(1))2 . i (b) If no conjugacy class of G has size p. If g P Z(G) then gr ˆ ëI for some ë P C.11(1). (a) For all g. Chapter 13 1. 5. |G| > p3 . ÷4 of C4 are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 x 1 i À1 Ài x2 1 À1 1 À1 x3 1 Ài À1 i We have ÷reg ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 . a4 }. then by the class equation. (b) GaKer ä  Im ä by Theorem 1. Let C4 ˆ kx: x 4 ˆ 1l. h PG. by Proposition 9. det ((gh)r) ˆ det ((gr)(hr)) ˆ det (gr) det (hr). and so ä is a linear character of G. The irreducible characters ÷1 .9). Let r be a representation with character ÷. Hence g 3 (det (gr)) is a representation of G over C of degree 1. . if gr ˆ ëI for some ë P C.412 Representations and characters of groups jGj ˆ j Z(G)j ‡ ˆ xiP Z(G) a jx G jX i (a) For xi P Z(G). The required result now follows from Theorem 13. Let r be a representation with character ÷. so Z(G) Tˆ f1g. 3. for all g in G.

19. øi ˆ ‡ ‡0‡ ‡ ˆ 1X 24 4 8 4 Hence ø is irreducible by Theorem 14. 2. 8. so Im ä has even order. (À1) (À1)(À1) h÷. G has an element x of order 2.3 1. 24 4 8 4 3.5(2).Chapter 14 413 multiplicative group Cà of non-zero complex numbers. We may choose a basis B of V so that [g]B is diagonal with all diagonal entries Æ1 (see (9. Let r be the regular representation of G. Therefore GaKer ä is abelian. and G has a normal subgroup of index 2 by Exercise 7. we have ÷reg (x) Tˆ ÷reg (1) (see Proposition 13. Hence Im ä contains a subgroup H of index 2. Then I H 0 1 g f1 0 g f g f 0 1 [x]B ˆ f gX g f 1 0 e d FF F 0 0 There are k blocks and since k is odd. Order the natural basis g1 . And if s is even then Às  s mod 4. De®ne ä as in Exercise 7. 3 (À1)(À1) h÷. 3 (À1)(À1) 3 . a3 b 0 0 À2 . and de®ne the character ä as in Exercise 7. The required result now follows from Exercise 7. by Theorem 13. Using Proposition 14. Thus ä(x) ˆ À1. 2. 3 (À1) . Let ÷ i be the character of r i (i ˆ 1. 3). øi ˆ ‡ ‡0‡ ‡ ˆ 0. hence is cyclic. 9. 1 3 . . a3 0 0 0 b. The values of these characters are as follows: Conjugacy class ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 2 2 2 a2 À2 À2 2 a.20).8. 10. . If s is odd then ä( g) ˆ À1. ÷i ˆ ‡ ‡0‡ ‡ ˆ 2. g2 k of CG so as to obtain a basis B in which g and gx are adjacent for all g P G.7. It is easy to check that {g P G: ä(g) P H} is a normal subgroup of G of index 2. Say there are r entries 1 and s entries À1. (c) Im ä is a ®nite subgroup of Cà . (0 1 ). which is abelian. . det ([x]B ) ˆ (À1) k ˆ À1. Also À1 P Im ä. . Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. 10 Chapter 14 1. so ÷ i (x) Tˆ ÷ i (1) for some irreducible character ÷ i of G.1 (À1)(À1) (À1)(À1) hø. As x Tˆ 1.10)).20 (but ÷ is not). 24 4 8 4 3 . By Exercise 1. we obtain 3 . so ÷( g) ˆ r À s  r ‡ s ˆ ÷(1) mod 4. a2 b 0 0 0 ab. by Exercise 1.

4 and Theorem 14. (À1)(À1) ‡ 2 . We have h÷reg . 2 2 ø 3 ˆ 1 ÷1 ‡ 1 ÷2 À 1 ÷3 X 3 3 3 3. ÷1 i ˆ 1(19 . 6 6 3 ø 2 ˆ 1 ÷1 À 1 ÷2 . or exactly one of the di is 2. €k 7. 1 ‡ 3 . if x P G then the subgroup generated by x and the elements of Z(G) is abelian (since the elements of Z(G) commute with powers of x). (a) For all groups G. øi ˆ iˆ1 d 2 . by Proposition 13. If |G| ˆ 12 . it follows that ÷ is a character of S3 .21. 0 and by hypothesis ÷(g) > 0 for all g P G. 4. 2 ‡ 0 ‡ 2 . hence r and ó are equivalent. Since the coef®cient of ÷2 is a negative integer. then i exactly a of the integers di are 1 and the rest are 0.24. Theorem 14. (À1) . If kø. Let ÷1 be the trivial character of G.21. Then 1 ˆ h÷.2. ÷3 i ˆ 1(19 . 6 h÷. Every abelian group of order 12 has 12 conjugacy classes. øl ˆ a where a ˆ 1. Hence k÷reg . (À2)(À1)) ˆ 7X 6 h÷. Since all the coef®cients here are non-negative integers. the regular character of C2 . The representations r and ó have the same character. 8. (À2) .414 Representations and characters of groups By Theorem 14. ÷1 l Tˆ 0. (À2) . 6 Hence ÷ ˆ 2÷1 ‡ 3÷2 ‡ 7÷3 . 1 ‡ 2 . by Theorem 14. we have k÷. Chapter 15 1X h÷. This follows at once from Exercise 11. No: let G ˆ C2 and ÷ ˆ ÷reg . We ®nd that ø ˆ À÷2 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷5 ‡ 2÷6 . r1 and r2 are equivalent. øl ˆ 4. 5. 1) ˆ 3.17 shows that ÷ is reducible. Therefore the centre of a group G never has index 2 in G. ÷2 i ˆ 1(19 . 6. 1 ‡ 3 . 4. 3. then either exactly four of the di are 1. By the method used in the solution to Exercise 1. ÷l ˆ ÷(1). the rest are 0. and this gives the required matrix T. Hence if kø. we obtain ø 1 ˆ 1 ÷1 ‡ 1 ÷2 ‡ 1 ÷3 . ø is not a character of G. Hence. but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. 1) ˆ 2. 2 or 3. As ÷ Tˆ ÷1 . Recall that hø. ÷1 i ˆ ÷( g)X jGj gPG Since ÷(1) . if G ˆ Z(G) ‘ Z(G)x then G ˆ Z(G). 2. ÷i ˆ 1 ˆ ÷reg ( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG But ÷reg (g) is |G| if g ˆ 1 and is 0 if g Tˆ 1.

9)). Therefore. y) 1 À1 1 À1 (x. y): x 2 ˆ y 2 ˆ 1}.5(2)) g1 ÷5 2 g2 À2 g3 0 g4 0 g5 0 3. (x. 1) 1 1 À1 À1 (1. gives the values on g4 . y) 1 À1 À1 1 2.g. so there cannot be as many as 9 conjugacy classes in total. . similarly ÷3 (g3 ) ˆ 1. then |Z(G)| divides 12 and |Z(G)| Tˆ 6 or 12. ÷4 (1) are 1.2 and part (a) that G has 4. it follows from the solution to Exercise 11. Let C2 3 C2 ˆ {(1. similarly ÷4 ( g3 ) ˆ (À1 ‡ 5)a2.18(1)).1) (1. Example 16. together with the relation €4 €4 iˆ1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 4 ) ˆ 0. (1. G ˆ C4 3 C3 ) then G has 12 conjugacy classes.Chapter 16 415 and G is non-abelian. 1). (b) Since the number of irreducible representations is equal to the number of conjugacy classes. If G is abelian (e. The character table of C2 3 C2 is (cf. Corollary 13. iˆ1 Because g4 has order 2. The last row of the character table is (cf. Then iˆ1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 4 ) ˆ 0 € gives ÷3 ( g2 ) ˆ 1. 4 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 2 ) ˆ 0 gives iˆ1 p p ÷4 ( g 2 ) ˆ (À1 À 5)a2. Chapter 16 1. if G ˆ D12 then G has 6 conjugacy classes (see (12. the remaining conjugacy classes have size at least 2. Exercise 9. (x. 1). Finally. and if G ˆ A4 then G has 4 conjugacy classes (see Example 12. 6 or 12 conjugacy classes.10. 1) ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 (x. so |Z(G)| < 4. 2 since 4 ( ÷ i (1))2 ˆ 10.12)). at most 4 conjugacy classes of G have size 1 (see (12. y). The complete character table of G is gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 10 1 2 1 2 g2 5 1p (À1 ‡ 5)a2 1p (À1 À 5)a2 g3 5 1p (À1 À 5)a2 1p (À1 ‡ 5)a2 g4 2 1 0 À1 0 € The two unknown degrees ÷3 (1).

a2 g and GaG9 ˆ fG9. By the column orthogonality relations. and 5 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g2 ) ˆ 7 iˆ1 gives 3 ‡ 2ææ ˆ 7.9(3)). every element of G has the form am bn with . a3 bg. Hence the linear characters of G are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 8 1 1 1 1 a2 8 1 1 1 1 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 (c) Using the column orthogonality relations. a2 bg and fab. fa. (The sign depends upon the ordering of rows and columns. 6.9(3)). G9a. p If G ˆ C3 then det C ˆ Æi3 3. fb. Let g P G. the last irreducible character of G is 1 ÷5 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 The character table of Q8 is the same as that of D8. The character table of C2 3 C2 is given in the solution to Exercise 16. This number is equal to |G| if and only if CG (g) ˆ G. this is a different column of the character table of G. since æ is non-real. we have iˆ1 ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) ˆ jC G ( g)j. C t C is the k 3 k diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are |CG ( gi )| (1 < i < k). (a) €5 Representations and characters of groups iˆ1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) € ˆ 0 gives 3 ‡ 3æ ‡ 3æ ˆ 0. (a) Using the relations. Hence  jdet Cj2 ˆ jC G ( g i )j. Therefore det C ˆ Ædet C.) Chapter 17 1. It is easy to see that a7 ˆ b3 ˆ 1. 2. (a) The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. and if det C ˆ Àdet C then det C is purely imaginary. The matrix C is obtained from C by rearranging the columns (see Proposition 13.1. a3 g. (b) G9 ˆ f1. if det C ˆ det C then det C is real. (b) The column which corresponds to the conjugacy class containing gÀ1 2 has values which are the complex conjugates of those in the column of g2 (see Proposition 13. Use Proposition 12.13 to see quickly that bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 . 5. G9b. which occurs if and only if g P Z(G). G9abg  C2 3 C2 . fa2 g. p Hence æ ˆ (À1 Æ i 7)a2. By the column orthogonality relations applied to the column €k corresponding to g.416 4.

Applying the column orthogonality relations. we note that a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . and the class sizes j g G j come from the equations i jGj ˆ jC G ( g i )jj g G j (Theorem 12. G9 ˆ kal. If G has 3 or 4 linear characters then jGaG9j ˆ 3 or 4 and again G is not simple as G9 v G. so G is certainly not simple. i gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 4 3 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 g3 4 3 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 g4 6 2 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 6 2 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g6 12 1 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 . Now consult the solution to Exercise 11. then G is abelian (see Proposition 9. The centralizer orders are obtained by using the orthogonality relations. 0 < n < 2. (b) The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. 3. fa m b: 0 < m < 6g and fa m b2 : 0 < m < 6g. so we get three linear characters of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù ˆ e2ðia3 .8). ÷3 ˆ ÷ 2 .11. all of these are irreducible characters by Proposition 17. a6 g. a2 .18). ÷5 ˆ ö. To ®nd the two remaining irreducible characters ÷4 and ÷5 . a5 . therefore for some irreducible character ÷. we obtain 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a á á a3 á á b 0 0 b2 0 0 p where á ˆ (À1 ‡ i 7)a2. In the character table below. we have ÷1 ˆ 1 G . fa.2 to see that there are 3. But a has order 7 and b has order 3. Therefore jGj ˆ 21. The number of linear characters of G divides jGj by Theorem 17. we have ÷(a) Tˆ ÷(a) (see Corollary 15. hence jGj < 21.6). 4 or 12 linear characters. ÷6 ˆ ö÷. so 21 divides jGj by Lagrange's Theorem. a4 g. Hence ÷4 and ÷5 must be complex conjugates of each other. ÷4 ˆ ÷2 ÷3 . If there are 12. 4. fa3 .Chapter 17 417 0 < m < 6. (c) First.14. ÷2 ˆ ÷.

bi ˆ Ker ÷3 . The normal subgroups of D8 are 6. with r ˆ 1. Note that b2 does not belong to the kernel of any of these representations. 0 çÀ1 1 0 where ç is any (2n)th root of unity in C. For ç ˆ e2ði ja2 n with 1 < j < n À 1. Moreover G9 ˆ ka2 l. . 12 ˆ 6n. by Exercise 8. For å ˆ e2ði ra2 n . for å ˆ e2ði ka2 n with 0 < k < n À 1.4).b3 . ˆ . ha2 i ˆ Ker ÷2 ’ Ker ÷3 . The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found is n .4) and inequivalent (their characters are distinct). ha2 . see the solution to Exercise 18. hai ˆ Ker ÷2 .4). We get further representations by     ç 0 0 1 a3 . by Theorem 11. (For further details on the representations of degree 1. 8. and inequivalent (consider the character values on a2 ). are irreducible (by Exercise 8. they are not equivalent to any representation found earlier. so we have obtained all the irreducible representations. . 22 ‡ 4 . 12 ˆ 4nX Hence we have found all the irreducible representations. no two of which are equivalent. 22 ‡ 2n . note that the structure of GaG9 depends upon whether n is even or odd. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations: 2 32 n 2 3n 2 3 2 32 å 0 1 0 å 0 0 1 ˆ . Now the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found so far is (n À 1) . are irreducible (by Exercise 8. so jGaG9j ˆ 4 and there are four representations of degree 1 (see Theorem 17. abi ˆ Ker ÷4 .418 Representations and characters of groups D8 ˆ Ker ÷1 . 2.12. f1g ˆ Ker ÷5 X 5. (b) The given representations. . since b2 is in the kernel of each of these representations. so jGaG9j ˆ 2n and there are 2n representations of degree 1.4. ha2 . 0 å À1 0 1 0 å À1 ån 0 32 3À1 2 3À1 2 3 2 0 1 å 0 0 1 å 0 X ˆ ån 0 0 å À1 ån 0 0 å À1 Hence we have representations of T4 n (cf. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations. these representations are irreducible and inequivalent.3. Also G9 ˆ kbl. . we get n À 1 irreducible representations. Moreover. (b) The given representations. for å ˆ e2ði ja n with 0 < j < n À 1. (b) The representations in part (a) are irreducible unless å ˆ Æ1. n À 1. since they have distinct characters.) 7.11). Example 1. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations. .

Then ù ‡ ùÀ1 ˆ 1. take b to be a re¯ection in a diagonal of the square. Character table of D12 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 À2 2 a 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 . 22 ‡ (n À 1) . b2 l and GaG9  C2 3 C2. (Compare Example 14.28(2). Character table of D8 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 a2 8 1 1 1 1 À2 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (See Example 16. so we get four representations of degree 1. using Section 18. where we took b to be a different re¯ection. Let ù ˆ e2ðia6 . 12 ˆ 8nX Chapter 18 1. The character table of D8 is as shown. since the sum of the squares of the irreducible representations given above is n . We have now found all the irreducible representations. ù2 ‡ ùÀ2 ˆ ù4 ‡ ùÀ4 ˆ À1. the character table of D12 is as shown.) Regarding D8 as the symmetry group of a square. Then ð takes the following values: 1 ð 4 a2 0 a 0 b 2 ab 0 Hence ð ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷5 .Chapter 18 419 Finally. Hence.3.3(3) or Section 18. G9 ˆ ka2 .3.) 2. 22 ‡ 4 .

bl ˆ Ker ÷3 . fan g. 4. a2 r‡1 b. then GaG9  C2 3 C2 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 1 1 1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r b 1 À1 1 À1 ab 1 À1 À1 1 Note that T4  C4 . then GaG9 ˆ hG9bi  C4 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 À1 1 À1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 (À1) r 1 (À1) r b 1 i À1 Ài ab 1 Ài À1 i If n is even. T8  Q8 and T12 is the Example in Section 18. ka2 . ka2 l ˆ Ker ÷3 ’ Ker ÷4 . .7 gives us n irreducible characters ø k (0 < k < n À 1).4. ka3 l ˆ Ker ÷6 and {1} ˆ Ker ÷5 .6 as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| øj 1 4n 2 an 4n 2(À1) j ar (1 < r < n À 1) 2n ù rj ‡ ùÀ rj b 4 0 ab 4 0 where ù ˆ e2ðia2 n . fa2 r g. fa2 r b. Hence we get 2n linear characters ÷ j (0 < j < 2n À 1). ka2 . Exercise 17. abl ˆ Ker ÷4 . for 0 < r < n À 1. If n is odd. far . aÀ r g(1 < r < n À 1). 3. kal ˆ Ker ÷2 . a2 r‡1 b2 gX We have G9 ˆ hbi and GaG9 ˆ hG9ai  C2 n . fa2 r‡1 . fa2 j‡1 b: 0 < j < n À 1gX We get n À 1 irreducible characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) of G from Exercise 17. The n ‡ 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g.420 Representations and characters of groups Seven normal subgroups of D12 are G ˆ Ker ÷1 . a2 r b2 g. The 3n conjugacy classes of G are. The remaining four irreducible characters of G are linear. fa2 j b: 0 < j < n À 1g. as shown.

as shown below. and faj bk : j odd. faj bk : j even.Chapter 18 Character table of U6 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷j (0 < j < 2n À 1) øk (0 < k < n À 1) Note: ù ˆ e2ðia2 n . n characters ø j (0 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. . ÷4 . Observe that U6  D6. the character table of V24 is given at the top of p. 422. we get four linear characters ÷1 . The 2n ‡ 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. fa2s b2 . aÀ2 rÀ1 b2 g(0 < r < n À 1). . For example. . Character table of V8 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (0 < j < n À 1) öj (1 < j < n À 1) 1 8n 1 1 1 1 2 2 a2 r‡1 (0 < r < n À 1) 8n 4n 1 1 1 1 À2 2 1 1 À1 À1 b2 a2s a2s b2 (1 < s < (n À 1)a2) 4n 4n 1 1 1 1 ù4 js ‡ùÀ4 js ù2 js ‡ùÀ2 js 1 1 1 1 Àù4 js ÀùÀ4 js ù2 js ‡ùÀ2 js b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 ù2 j(2 r‡1) ÀùÀ2 j(2 r‡1) ù j(2 r‡1) ‡ùÀ j(2 r‡1) Note: ù ˆ e2ðia2 n . U12  T12 and U18  D6 3 C3 . fa2 r‡1 .8. aÀ2s b2 g(1 < s < (n À 1)a2). 5. k ˆ 1 or 3gX a2 r 6n ù2 jr 2ù2 kr a2 r b 3n ù2 jr Àù2 kr a2 r‡1 2n ù j(2 r‡1) 0 421 Using Exercise 17. . fa2s . and a further n À 1 characters ö j (1 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. aÀ2s g. k ˆ 1 or 3g. fb2 g.

The result now follows from Proposition 13. Hence ö( g) ˆ ö(1) for all irreducible characters ö for which k÷ n . by Exercise 1. . 3. Using Proposition 19. 4. Since ÷ is not faithful.5 there is an irreducible character ø of G such that ø(g) Tˆ ø(1). 2. ö A ˆ ø4 X . ÷öl. öi ˆ 1 ˆ 1 ˆ ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) ˆ ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) ˆ h÷.15 and (14. öl ˆ kø. there exists 1 Tˆ g P G with vg ˆ v for all v P V. 1 G l ˆ k÷. Note that (1 2 3 4 5)2 is conjugate to (1 3 4 5 2) in A5 . By Proposition 15. k÷ø. ö S ˆ ø1 ‡ ø3 . Therefore k÷ n .14 we obtain 1 ÷S ÷A öS öA 15 10 6 3 (1 2 3) 0 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À2 2 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 0 0 1 p (1 3 4 5 2) 0 0 1 p (1 ‡ 5)a2 (1 À 5)a2 Then ÷ S ˆ ø1 ‡ ø2 ‡ 2ø3 . k÷ø. öl Tˆ 0. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. Then wg ˆ w for all w P V  . . øöiX jGj gPG jGj gPG Similarly. øl ˆ 0.  V (n factors). Let n be an integer with n > 0. øl.422 Representations and characters of groups Character table of V24 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ø0 ø1 ø2 ö1 ö2 1 24 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 b2 24 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 À2 2 2 a 12 1 1 À1 À1 p0 ip 3 Ài 3 1 À1 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 À2 2 a5 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 p Ài 3 p i 3 1 À1 a2 12 1 1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 À1 a2 b2 12 1 1 1 1 À2 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Chapter 19 1X h÷ø.13). ÷ A ˆ ø2 ‡ ø4 ‡ ø5 .

1(3). hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 (1. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1.Chapter 20 423 5. the character table of D6 3 D6 is as shown. Take b to be the re¯ection in the axis shown: . Character table of D6 3 D6 ( gi . b) (a. 1) (b. b) 36 18 12 18 9 6 12 6 4 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 2 2 À2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 2 À2 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 0 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 0 0 0 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 Àù2 Àù À1 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 Àù Àù2 À1 g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 ù ù2 1 g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 ù2 ù 1 Chapter 20 1. a) (b. 1) (1. Exercise 27. ÷3 ˆ ÷2 . (a) Regard D8 as the subgroup of S4 which permutes the four corners of a square. Character table of G (cf. 5. 1) (a. a) (a. these are irreducible by Propositions 13.14. as in Example 1. Taking D6 ˆ ka. b) (b. We have recorded ÷ as ÷5 . The table also records the trivial character ÷1 . 4. Since k÷ i .15 and 17. hj ) |CG ( gi . the character table is complete. Since G has seven conjugacy classes. these characters are irreducible. ÷ S as ÷4 and ÷ A as ÷2 . below. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. ÷6 ˆ ÷5 and ÷7 ˆ ÷2 ÷5 . ÷ i l ˆ 1 for i ˆ 2.2) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù ˆ e2ðia3 6. a) (1.

9) are distinct irreducible characters of A6 .13). these give the characters ø1 . . we obtain from ÷11 5 A6 the two irreducible characters which we have called ø6 and ø7 . Write d ˆ k÷ 5 H. ÷5 5 H ˆ ø2 ‡ ø5 X 2.5. ÷3 5 H ˆ ø1 ‡ ø4 . Then ÷ 5 H ˆ d1 ø1 ‡ . we ®nd that the characters ÷ i 5 A6 (i ˆ 1. 5. 7. Also. Since each ø i has degree 1. . . Arguing as in Example 20. . Let ÷1 . . For examples with d ˆ 1 or 2. Let ø1 .3). The inequality k÷ 5 H. ÷ 5 Hl H < 3 follows at once from Proposition 20. 3. b 3 (1 3) gives the required isomorphism. H ˆ V4 and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree 3 (see Section 18. .3(3) or Section 18. the inequality (20. . . Either by direct calculation. . . ÷2 5 H ˆ ø4 . ⠈ (1 À 1 0 0 À1 0 á â p 5)a2 1 0 0 À1 0 â á 1 À1 1 0 2 À1 À1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 0 Note: á ˆ (1 ‡ 3. . . as in Example 19. . For an example with d ˆ 3.1. Character table of A6 gi 1 (1 2 3) |C A6 ( g i )| 360 9 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 ø6 ø7 1 5 10 9 5 8 8 1 2 1 0 À1 À1 À1 p (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4 5) (1 3 4 5 2) (1 2 3)(4 5 6) (1 2 3 4)(5 6) 8 5 5 9 4 1 1 À2 1 1 0 0 5)a2. ÷11 5 A6 l ˆ 2. or using (20.6) gives ÷(1) ˆ d 1 ‡ X X X ‡ d r < d 2 ‡ X X X ‡ d 2 < nX 1 r 4. and take the character table of H to be gi |CH ( gi )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 (1 3)(2 4) 8 1 1 1 1 À2 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 (1 3) 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (see Example 16.14. take G ˆ A4 . (b) Take the irreducible characters ÷1 . . k÷11 5 A6 . . ÷5 of S4 as in Section 18. ÷11 be the irreducible characters of S6 . ÷4 5 H ˆ ø3 ‡ ø5 .17. . . ø r be the irreducible characters of H. ø5 in our character table below. . and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree d. We obtain ÷1 5 H ˆ ø1 . ‡ dr ø r for some non-negative integers di . . ÷ 5 Hl H .424 Representations and characters of groups Then a 3 (1 2 3 4). take G ˆ S3 and H a subgroup of order 2.2).

and we get precisely seven if and only if the restriction of each of the fourteen characters is irreducible. See (20. Then ua2 ˆ Àu and ub ˆ u.Chapter 21 425 5. 6. ÷4 5 H ˆ ÷5 5 H ˆ ø1 ‡ ø2 ‡ ø3 . ÷3 5 H ˆ ø2 ‡ ø3 . ø2 4 G ˆ ø3 4 G ˆ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 ‡ ÷5 X 3. Label the characters of H as follows: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 1 1 (1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 (1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù where ù ˆ e2ðia3 . Since 20 occurs only once in the list of degrees for S7 . 2. Hence the irreducible characters of A7 have degrees 1. 15. 14. 10. 35X Chapter 21 1. We are told that A7 has exactly nine conjugacy classes. (b) Since every element of G belongs to H or to Ha. the induced module U 4 G is irreducible. Let Hgj (1 < j < m) be the distinct right . From the remaining fourteen irreducible characters of S7 . (a) ÷1 5 H ˆ ÷2 5 H ˆ ø1 . (a) Let u ˆ 1 À a2 ‡ b À a2 b. 21. we obtain ø1 4 G ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ ÷4 ‡ ÷5 . the elements u and ua form a basis of U 4 G. 14. the restriction of the irreducible character of degree 20 to A7 must be the sum of two different irreducible characters of degree 10. 10. (b) Using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. (c) The character ø of U and the character ø 4 G of U 4 G are given by 1 ø 1 a2 À1 b 1 a2 b À1 1 ø4G 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 Since hø 4 G. upon restriction to A7 we get at least seven irreducible characters of A7 . Hence sp (u) is a C H-submodule of CH. It is suf®cient to prove that if U is a CH-submodule of CH then dim (U 4 G) ˆ jG : Hjdim U . ø 4 Gi ˆ 1.13).

17 that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G ˆ (ø 4 G)÷. By applying the result of Exercise 6. . together with the result of Exercise 19. ÷i G Tˆ 0 D hø9. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. .) . ‡ Ug m is direct (since the elements in Ugj are linear combinations of elements in the right coset Hgj ). as in the proof of Proposition 20. the values are as follows. On elements of cycle-shapes (1). or (2) ø 4 G is the sum of two different irreducible characters of the same degree. 7. öi G ˆ hø(÷ 5 H). we deduce. . say ÷ 5 H ˆ ø ‡ ö. that either (1) ø 4 G is irreducible. (÷ö) 5 Hi H ˆ hø 4 G. (7) and (3. By using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem twice. Hence dim(U 4 G) ˆ dim(U (CG)) ˆ m dim U . we obtain h(ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G.11.9. ‡ dk ÷ k (1). then for precisely one other irreducible character ö of H we have ø 4 G ˆ ö 4 G. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. ö 5 Hi H ˆ hø. øl H ˆ 1.1 (also twice). Suppose ®rst that ø 4 G is irreducible. since ø is irreducible. ‡ Ugm . ÷ i 5 H ˆ di ø ‡ â where either â is a character of H or ⠈ 0. Let ö be an irreducible character of G. dim (Ugj ) ˆ dim U (since u 3 ugj (u P U) is a vector space isomorphism). Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H. ÷ i 5 Hi H . ÷ i i G ˆ hø. where d i ˆ hø 4 G. 5. . Hence. Thus ÷ i (1) > di ø(1). 4. The sum Ug1 ‡ . where Ugj ˆ {ugj : u P U}. we deduce from Theorem 14. . and on all other elements the values are zero. ÷öi G ˆ h(ø 4 G)÷. Cycle-shape ö4G ø4G (1) 240 720 (7) 2 À1 (3.23. Then U(CG) ˆ Ug1 ‡ .426 Representations and characters of groups cosets of H in G. ÷ 5 Hi H Tˆ 0 D ø9 ˆ ø or öX Thus If ø 4 G is irreducible. hence ÷ 5 H is reducible. (Compare Proposition 20. We have hø9 4 G. say ø 4 G ˆ ÷. and therefore jG: Hjø(1) > (d 2 ‡ X X X ‡ d 2 )ø(1)X 1 k The required result follows. Also. 3) 12 0 6. öi G X Since this holds for all irreducible characters ö of G. Then ÷(1) ˆ 2ø(1) and k÷ 5 H. 3). . We have |G: H|ø(1) ˆ d1 ÷1 (1) ‡ . The values of ö 4 G and ø 4 G are given by Proposition 21.

and the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is 15 (Theorem 11. öl and k÷reg . ÷l P Z and k1 G . (Compare Proposition 20. 12 ‡ s . (a) Since G is non-abelian.12).Chapter 22 427 Suppose next that ø 4 G is reducible.11 and 22. (c) The number of conjugacy classes of G is r ‡ s. Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H. then kö.11). and so G is abelian by Proposition 9. ÷l ˆ kb÷reg . both k1 G . öl are integers. since both sides of this equation take the same values on all elements of G. (a) By hypothesis.12. The degree of each irreducible character is 1 or 2. each degree divides 15 (Theorem 22. ÷1 i G Tˆ 0 D hø9.18). Then ö ˆ a1 G ‡ b÷reg . 1 < s and r ‡ sq 2 ˆ pqX Hence r ˆ q and s ˆ ( p À 1)/q. øl H ˆ 1.11. . 3. not every irreducible character has degree 1 (Proposition 9. and ø9 is an irreducible character of H such that ø9 4 G has ÷1 or ÷2 as a constituent. We have hø9 4 G. ÷l ˆ 0. öi ˆ h÷reg . then ø9 ˆ ø. hence ÷1 5 H ˆ ø. 22 ˆ 16X Hence r ˆ 4 or 8 or 16. and if there are r characters of degree 1 and s of degree 2. moreover.) 4. and r . 17. (For more information on groups of order pq. ÷l ˆ bjGj÷(1)ajGj ˆ b÷(1). öi ˆ 1 (a ‡ bjGj ‡ (jGj À 1)a) ˆ a ‡ b. 2. The number of linear characters divides 15 (Theorem 17. Hence kö À a1 G . This time. see Chapter 25. (c) If ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G. b P C such that ö(g) ˆ a for all g Tˆ 1 and ö(1) ˆ a ‡ bjGj.11 again. (b) We have h1 G .11 show that there are r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree q. Then ÷1 (1) ˆ ø(1) and k÷1 5 H.11 and 22. ÷1 5 Hi H Tˆ 0 D ø9 ˆ øX Thus If ø 4 G ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 where ÷1 and ÷2 are irreducible characters of G.11). But kö À a1 G . ÷l P Z. Use Theorems 11. and r ‡ s ˆ 7 or 10 or 16.) Chapter 22 1.12. (b) jG9j ˆ p by Theorem 17. and jGj 1 jGj(a ‡ bjGj) ˆ a ‡ bjGjX jGj Since ö is a character.18.12. Theorems 11. there exist a. then r divides 16. where r divides pq. 17. Hence every irreducible character has degree 1. say ø 4 G ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2.

(b) We deduce from part (a) that ÷ i (g) ˆ 0 for two values of i.) 6. Let ÷1 . By the column orthogonality relations. . The stated result follows. 120. (a) By Theorem 22. ÷7 be the irreducible characters of G. a. and from equation (III) we have (IV) 7 ˆ (÷ i (1))2 ˆ 69X iˆ4 Hence the possibilities for the pairs of integers (÷ i (1).27. 1. 1 G i ˆ ÷( g)X jGj gPG (c) If ÷ Tˆ 1 G in part (b). and hence also b. by part (b). by part (a). say i ˆ 2. 1). À1).428 Representations and characters of groups (d) Since ÷(1) divides jGj. Hence ˆ ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1) ‡ 2á gPG for some algebraic integer á. the second possibility is ruled out by equation (II). 1).5. . and hence á ˆ À÷(1)a2. By Corollary 22. if g2 ˆ 1 then g ˆ 1. 6 in some order. with ÷1 ˆ 1 G .1 and Corollary 23. (Further information about the number of characters ÷ such that ÷ ˆ ÷ appears in Theorem 23. ÷ i ( g)) with 4 < i < 7 are (1. then k÷. (4. (c) By Corollary 22. Partition Gnf1g into subsets by putting each element with its inverse.16. by Lagrange's Theorem. (a) If g P G then g has odd order. and ÷(g) is an algebraic integer. But À÷(1)a2 is a rational number which is not an integer (since ÷(1) divides jGj. . Æ1 for all i. ÷ i (1)  ÷ i ( g) mod 5 for all i. 4. we have (I) 1‡ 7 ˆ iˆ2 (÷ i ( g))2 ˆ 5. ÷2 (1)  ÷3 (1)  0 mod 5. The only possibility which is consistent with equation (IV) is that the values of ÷ i (1) for 4 < i < 7 are 1. 1 G l ˆ 0. 3. (b) For all g P G. . hence is odd). is an integer. (6. This contradicts Proposition 22. part (c) implies that b|G| is an integer. ÷(g) is an integer for all characters ÷. we deduce that ÷2 (1) ˆ ÷3 (1) ˆ 5. we have ÷( g) ‡ ÷( g À1 ) ˆ ÷( g) ‡ ÷( g) ˆ 2÷( g). Thus ÷ ˆ 1 G . 4. and ÷ i (g) ˆ Æ1 for 4 < i < 7. and (II) 1 ‡ 7 ˆ iˆ2 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) ˆ 0X From equation (I) we deduce that either ÷ i ( g) ˆ 0.27. (d) We now have the following part of the character table of G: . Therefore.2. or ÷ i (g) ˆ Æ2 for exactly one i and ÷ i (g) ˆ 0 for all other i . 5. Each such subset has size 2. Also (III) 2 2 7 ˆ iˆ1 (÷ i (1))2 ˆ 120X Since 5 ‡ 10 . Therefore. since 1 ˆ h÷.

7. 1. 0. Hence the values of iˆ1 ÷ i (g4 ) for 1 < i < 7 are 1. 0. (2) Next. From the relation iˆ1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 3 ) ˆ 0 we now deduce that the entries in column 3 are 1. 1. ÷ i (g5 )  ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g5 ))2 ˆ 4. 1. an (1) First. € 1. Also iˆ1 ÷ i (g3 )÷ i ( gr ) ˆ 0 for r ˆ 4. 4. These can be obtained from the column orthogonality relations. Since 7 ÷ i (1)÷ i (g5 ) ˆ 0. 0. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 À1 1 À1 À2 2 0 g3 2 8 1 1 1 1 0 0 À2 g4 3 6 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 0 g5 4 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 g6 6 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 . respectively. The character table of G is as shown. (5) Only the entries in column 2 remain to be calculated. Æ2 in some order. 5 and 7 we obtain ÷2 (g6 ) ˆ À÷3 (g6 ) ˆ ÷4 (g6 ) ˆ À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷5 (g6 ) ˆ À÷6 (g6 ) ˆ 1. We are told that ÷ i (gj ) is€ integer for all i. we deduce that iˆ1 ÷ i (g3 ) ˆ Æ1 for 1 < i < 4 and€ the values of ÷ i ( g3 ) for 5 < i < 7 are that 7 0. À1. By applying the column orthogonality relations involving column 6 and columns 3. € (3) Since ÷ i (g3 )  ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g3 ))2 ˆ 8. j. € (4) We have ÷ i (g6 )  ÷ i (g4 ) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g6 ))2 ˆ 6. 1. Therefore iˆ1 ÷ i (g6 ) ˆ Æ1 for 1 < i < 6 and ÷7 (g6 ) ˆ 0. À1. € Hence ÷ i (g5 ) ˆ Æ1 iˆ1 for 1 < i < 4 and ÷ i (g5 ) ˆ 0 for 5 < i < 7. 1. ÷ i ( g4 )  ÷ i (1) mod 3 and 7 (÷ i ( g4 ))2 ˆ 6. À2 in order from the top.Chapter 22 gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 g3 2 8 1 g4 3 6 1 g5 4 4 1 g6 6 6 1 429 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 We successively calculate the ®ve remaining columns of the character table. iˆ1 we deduce that ÷4 ( g5 ) ˆ À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷2 (g5 ) ˆ À÷3 (g5 ) ˆ 1. 0. from which €7 we see that ÷ i (g3 ) ˆ 1 for 1 < i < 4.

. all of whose entries are integers. where m is the number of the integers n1 . Since x 2 ˆ 1 and x has odd order.8.430 Representations and characters of groups 7. Then gÀ1 xg ˆ x À1 for some g P G. . The elements g of D2 n for which g2 ˆ 1 are 1. . . Since A has integer entries. . However. 4. and hence ë is a root of the polynomial det (xIn À A). assume that ë is a root of the polynomial p(x) ˆ a0 ‡ a1 x ‡ . Then g ˆ g2( n‡1) P CG (x). nr which are even. it follows that ë is an eigenvalue of A. Now the ni th root of unity ë i can be À1 if and only if ni is even. Since é÷ < 1 for all ÷. Let ë1 and ë2 be the eigenvalues of gr. Since ÷(1) ˆ 2 we have ÷ A (1) ˆ 1. Let m be the order of g. so g2 P CG (x). . Hence the number of real irreducible characters is 2 m . Since jGj is odd. summing over all the irreducible characters ÷. ë is therefore an algebraic integer. 3. Adopt the notation of Theorem 9. 2. Assume that x P G and x is real. either i j ˆ 0 or n j is even and i j ˆ n j a2. it follows that x ˆ 1. Suppose ®rst that ë is an eigenvalue of an n 3 n matrix A. . Therefore x À1 ˆ gÀ1 xg ˆ x. Then ÷ A (g) ˆ 1 2 2 2 2((ë1 ‡ ë2 ) À (ë1 ‡ ë2 )) ˆ ë1 ë2 ˆ det (gr) (see Proposition 19. Chapter 23 1. € These numbers coincide with ÷(1). . and n ‡ 2 elements if n is even. It now follows from the De®nition 23. 3 C n r which is given by i i ÷( g 11 X X X g irr ) ˆ ë11 X X X ë irr is real if and only if ë i ˆ Æ1 for all i with 1 < i < r. The result follows. The number of such elements is also 2 m . it follows from the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions that we must have é÷ ˆ 1 for all ÷. Then det (A À ëIn ) ˆ 0. a i b (0 < i < n À 1) (and also a na2 if n is even)X This gives n ‡ 1 elements if n is odd.13 of é÷ that é÷ ˆ À1 if and only if ÷ A ˆ 1 G .14). ‡ a nÀ1 x nÀ1 ‡ x n (a r P Z). Let I H 0 1 0 XXX 0 f 0 0 1 0 g g f f 0 0 0 0 g f F Aˆf F F gX F g F g f F d 0 0 0 1 e Àa0 Àa1 Àa2 XXX Àa nÀ1 Check that det (xIn À A) ˆ p(x). . . As p(ë) ˆ 0. . by Lagrange's Theorem. Hence gÀ2 xg2 ˆ x. The character ÷ of G ˆ C n1 3 . g irr where for each j. the elements g of G which satisfy g2 ˆ 1 are i precisely those elements g11 . m ˆ 2n ‡ 1 for some integer n. which is of the form x n ‡ anÀ1 x nÀ1 ‡ X X X ‡ a1 x ‡ a0 (ar P Z)X Conversely.

Chapter 23 431 5. (d) Refer the Exercise 18. according to whether n is odd or even. v1 ) ˆ â(v2 . fn of V and de®ne the symmetric n 3 n matrices A ˆ (aij ) and B ˆ (bij ) by aij ˆ â1 ( f i . f j )X By applying the Gram±Schmidt orthogonalization process. . â(v1 b. Hence ÷ (é÷)÷(1) ˆ 2. The result now follows from Exercise 4. 2} then â(v i g. Let r be the representation obtained by using the basis v1 . QQt ˆ I) such that Q(PBPt )QÀ1 is diagonal. 7. Let 9 n i j P ˆ ( pij ) be the n 3 n matrix which is given by ˆ f9ˆ pij f j X i j Then PAP ˆ I n and PBP is symmetric. . (c) The elements of T4 n are ai and ai b (0 < i < 2n À 1). . and é÷2 ˆ é÷4 ˆ 0 or 1. there is an orthogonal matrix Q (i. v j g À1 )X For example. Choose a basis f1 . å n v2 ) ˆ â(v1 .3 for the characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) and ÷ j (1 < j < 4) of T4 n. v2 of V. b ij ˆ â( f i . it is easy to check that ÷( g) is real for all g P G. Also A is invertible by (à ). as n ˆ ÷(1) the result is proved. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. a has order 2n and ai b has order 4. j. . As â is G-invariant. we may construct a basis f 1 . according to whether n is odd or € even. . Write Q ˆ (q ij ). we get éø j ˆ À1 or 1. (a) First. Hence an is the only element of order 2. The de®nition of â shows that â is symmetric if å n ˆ 1 and â is skew-symmetric if å n ˆ À1. . so det A ˆ (À1) n det A. . By part (a) (or part (b)) and the construction of the characters ø j in Exercise 17. v j ) ˆ â(v i .16. It follows that n is even. 6. v1 bÀ1 ). f j ). (b) It is easy to check that if g ˆ a or b and i. hence det (gr) ˆ 1 for all g P G if and only if å n ˆ À1. we have At ˆ ÀA. Hence â is G-invariant. so det A Tˆ 0. Then det (ar) ˆ 1 and det (br) ˆ Àå n . . f 9 of V such that â1 ( f 9. Since é÷ ˆ À1. respectively. v1 ) ˆ å n ˆ â(v1 . j P {1.6. Clearly é÷1 ˆ é÷3 ˆ 1. according to whether j is odd or even. en of V by ˆ ei ˆ qij f 9 X j j t t . € nÀ1 Therefore jˆ1 (éø j )ø j (1) ˆ 0 or À2. . X X X . Therefore det (At ) ˆ (À1) n det A. Since â is skew-symmetric. . .e. v n of V and let A be the n 3 n matrix with ij-entry â(v i . respectively. v) ˆ 0 for all v P V g ˆ f0gX (à ) Pick a basis v1 . The result now follows from Theorem 23. v j ). respectively. so é÷ ˆ Æ1. By a well known property of symmetric matrices. and de®ne the basis e1 . f 9) ˆ ä ij for all i. v) ˆ 0 for all v P V} is a CGsubmodule of V. the subspace {u P V: â(u. since V is irreducible it follows that fu P V : â(u. . there exists a nonzero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form â on V.

. . Call it G. Chapter 25 1. and let V be the RG-submodule of the regular RG-module which is spanned by 1 À a and 1 À a2 . and since QPBPt Qt is diagonalX â(ei . . Then V is an irreducible RG-module. and r is a homomorphism as (Hx)(r gh ) ˆ Hxgh ˆ (Hx)(r g )(r h ). and consider the vector space V9 over C with basis v1 .11. ej ) ˆ ä ij . since a linear character must take the value Æ1 on t. ej ) ˆ 0 if i Tˆ j.e. G is abelian. inverse of is . ⠈ å 2 ‡ å 6 ‡ å 7 ‡ å 8 ‡ å 10 X . ÷1 and ÷2 are the only linear characters. . c2 be the columns of the character table of G corresponding to the classes {1} and t G . as Hxg ˆ Hyg A Hx ˆ Hy. 9. Vx P G D g P ’ xPG xÀ1 HxX Finally. . which we are assuming to be an irreducible CG-module. By the orthogonality relation for c2 we have € ÷ i (t)2 ˆ |CG (t)| ˆ 2 (the sum over all irreducible characters ÷ i . v n be a basis of the RG-module V. .432 Then Representations and characters of groups â1 (ei .1. For the last part. Then V9 is a CG-module. i. we have G9 ˆ 1. . Let c1 . 0 1 0 x 0 x À1 Therefore G is a group. note that      1 y 1 y9 1 y9 ‡ yx ˆ . 10. Hence |G : G9| ˆ 2 by Theorem 17. 8. By Schur's Lemma there exists ë P C such that vW ˆ ëv for all v P V9. (b) Let v1 . . De®ne W: V 3 V by vW ˆ av (v P V). if G is simple then since G9 v G. We have g P ker r D Hxg ˆ Hx. But v1 W ˆ ëv1 P V. identity is       1 0 1 y 1 À yx À1 . and write á ˆ å ‡ å 3 ‡ å 4 ‡ å 5 ‡ å 9 . Let ç ˆ e2ðia5 and å ˆ e2ðia11 . Hx. 0 x 0 x9 0 xx9 associativity is a property of matrix multiplication. (a) The proof is similar to that of part (1) of Schur's Lemma 9. It is clear that the given set of matrices has size p( p À 1). since QPAPt Qt ˆ I n . so we may take ÷1 (t) ˆ 1. r g is a permutation. For closure. so ë P R. ÷2 (t) ˆ Æ1 and ÷ i (t) ˆ 0 for i > 3. v n . with ÷1 ˆ 1 G ). xgx À1 Vx P G D „ xPG x À1 P H. Now the orthogonality of c1 and c2 gives ÷1 (1) ˆ ÷2 (1) ˆ 1 and ÷2 (t) ˆ À1. Hence G  C2 . Further. (c) Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l. r is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù)  S n with kernel which is contained in H. 2.

Hence ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) ÷.Chapter 25 Character table of F11. since both m and v have u order q modulo p. |CG (a)| ˆ p. m is coprime to q. and we ®nd that p ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are (À1 Æ i p)a2. (a) Note that À1 is the only element of order 2 in ZÃ. Let b9 ˆ bm. If p  À1 mod 4. If p  1 mod 4. there exists an integer m p such that u m  v mod p. Hence ˆ 0ˆ ÷(1)÷(a) ˆ q ‡ qö1 (a) ‡ qö2 (a)X ÷ irred m Therefore ö1 (a) ‡ ö2 (a) ˆ À1. bÀ m abm ˆ au ˆ av . and it follows from Corollary 15. Hence bm has order q. 4. b9À1 ab9 ˆ av iX Hence G1  G2 . Recall that Zà is cyclic.9. are (À1 Æ p)a2.6(c). then a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . 2ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ˆ ( p ‡ 1)a2. aG ˆ {au : m P Z}. Also. Then G1 ˆ ha. Therefore aÀ1 P aG D u m  À1 mod p for some m D p  1 mod 4X (c) ÷ i (a) ˆ 1 for all the q linear characters ÷ i of G. b9: ap ˆ b9q ˆ 1. then a is conjugate to aÀ1 and so ÷(a) is real for all characters p so (ö1 (a))2 ‡ (ö2 (a))2 ˆ ( p ‡ 1)a2. so by Exercise 1. 5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 55 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 a 11 1 1 1 1 1 á â a2 11 1 1 1 1 1 â á b 5 1 ç ç2 ç3 ç4 0 0 b2 5 1 ç2 ç4 ç ç3 0 0 b3 5 1 ç3 ç ç4 ç2 0 0 433 b4 5 1 ç4 ç3 ç2 ç 0 0 3. This time.6 that ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are not both real. . Also. so ˆ pˆ ÷(a)÷(a) ˆ q ‡ ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ‡ ö2 (a)ö2 (a)X ÷ Hence ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ‡ ö2 (a)ö2 (a) ˆ ( p ‡ 1)a2. Hence p u m  À1 mod p for some m D the element u of Zà has even order p D q is even D p  1 mod 4X (b) By Proposition 25. Hence ö2 (a) ˆ ö1 (a). Also.

. fa r b5 : 0 < r < 8gX Let H1 ˆ kal. 8. Then H1 v G and Ga H 1  C6 .3 (see Theorem 25. (a) F13. . Then H2 v G and Ga H 2 ˆ h H 2 a. 6g. Lift the irreducible character of D6 of degree 2 to obtain ÷7 in the table below. Let H ˆ ka. The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. fa3 . fa r b4 : 3 B rg. it follows that {u. fa r b3 : 0 < r < 8g. as shown. a6 g. 5. 6g. The result now follows from part (c). Then for all h P H. . u ( pÀ1)a2 } is precisely the set of quadratic residues modulo p. fa r b2 : r ˆ 0. . ÷6 of G. H 2 bi  D6 . 3.434 Representations and characters of groups €( pÀ1)a2 m (d) By Theorem 25. fa r b: 0 < r < 8g. bl. E9 ˆ H. u 2 . 3. Since Zà is cyclic of order p p À 1 and u has order ( p À 1)a2. ÷5 and ÷6 are obtained similarly. .18). ö1 (a) ˆ mˆ1 å u . A typical non-trivial linear character of H is 1 ÷ 1 a 1 a2 1 b ù b2 ù2 ab ù ab2 ù2 a2 b ù a2 b2 ù2 where ù ˆ e2ðia3 . Also. The ®nal irreducible character ÷10 can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. The characters ÷4 . the conjugacy class hE consists of h and hÀ1 . and for all i with 1 < i < 6. . All the elements outside H form a single conjugacy class of E.3 (see Theorem 19. Hence we get six linear characters ÷1 . fa r b4 : r ˆ 0. Then ÷8 ˆ ÷7 ÷2 and ÷9 ˆ ÷7 ÷3 are also irreducible.3 (see Theorem 19. (b) C2 3 F13. Z(E) ˆ {1}. say ÷1 and ÷2 . so E has exactly two linear characters.18). .10). b2 l. . there exist gi P E such that gi Tˆ 1 but ÷ i (gi ) ˆ ÷ i (1) (so gi P Ker ÷ i ). Let H2 ˆ ka3 . fa r b2 : 3 B rg. Then ÷ 4 E is the irreducible character ÷3 given in the table which follows. 7. Character table of E gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 18 1 1 2 2 2 2 a 9 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 b 9 1 1 À1 2 À1 À1 ab 9 1 1 À1 À1 2 À1 a2 b 9 1 1 À1 À1 À1 2 c 2 1 À1 0 0 0 0 6. . (c) D6 3 F13.10. fa r : 3 B rg.

and so ÷(1) ˆ 1 or p by Theorem 22. øl H Tˆ 0 for some irreducible character ø of H.11. Hence ÷(1) < p. hz 2 }. Therefore h÷. by Theorem 11X12X Since s ˆ p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 and s is an integer. For all other elements h of H. Then r ˆ pm for some m. Character table of H (a non-abelian group of order 27) gi |C H ( g i )| ÷00 ÷01 ÷02 ÷10 ÷11 ÷12 ÷20 ÷21 ÷22 ö1 ö2 1 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 z 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù 3ù2 z2 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù2 3ù a 9 1 1 1 ù ù ù ù2 ù2 ù2 0 0 a2 9 1 1 1 ù2 ù2 ù2 ù ù ù 0 0 b 9 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 0 0 ab 9 1 ù ù2 ù ù2 1 ù2 1 ù 0 0 a2 b 9 1 ù ù2 ù2 1 ù ù ù2 1 0 0 b2 9 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 0 0 ab2 9 1 ù2 ù ù 1 ù2 ù2 ù 1 0 0 a2 b2 9 1 ù2 ù ù2 ù 1 ù 1 ù2 0 0 Note: ù ˆ e2ðia3 . Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G.Chapter 26 Character table of G ˆ ka. by Corollary 21. since H is abelian. {z} and {z 2 } are conjugacy classes of H. But ø(1) ˆ 1.20. and (ø 4 G)(1) ˆ p. ø 4 Gi G Tˆ 0 by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. Then k÷ 5 H. by Theorem 17X11. and r ‡ sp2 ˆ pn . {1}. m is at least 2. bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 l gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 Note: ù ˆ e2ðia3 1 54 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 6 a3 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 À3 a 9 ab2 9 ab4 9 b 6 b2 18 b3 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 b4 18 435 b5 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 ù2 ù Àù ù2 1 ù ù2 ù2 ù 1 1 1 À1 1 1 ù2 ù ù ù2 1 ù ù2 Àù2 ù À1 À1 À1 0 2 À1 Àù2 Àù 0 2ù2 À1 Àù Àù2 0 2ù 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ù Àù2 ù2 ù 1 À1 ù ù2 ù2 Àù 2 0 2ù 0 2ù2 0 0 0 Chapter 26 1. the conjugacy class hH ˆ {h. Assume that G has r linear characters and s irreducible characters of degree p. hz. b: a9 ˆ b6 ˆ 1. 2.

t. these are all the irreducible representations of G. the group K which appears in Theorem 26. Therefore G9 ˆ h Zi (see Proposition 17. s. j. k. 7) come from inducing to G those linear characters ÷ of kal for which ÷(a8 ) ˆ À1.4 is {1. . Since G9 ˆ h Zi. also G is a 2-group. BC ˆ CB. it follows that g 2 P h Zi for all g P G. ÷7 of G as shown in the table at the top of this page. Hence by Corollary 9. m P f0. . AD ˆ DA. (a) Let å ˆ e2ðia8 . BD ˆ ÀDB. We obtain representations as follows: .436 Representations and characters of groups Character table of G ˆ ka. since g4 ˆ 1 for all g P G. AC ˆ ÀCA. u P {0. The character table of D16 is given in Section 26. t. 3. we get a representation A i B j C k D l Z m 3 (À1) ir‡ js‡ kt‡ lu X Together with the irreducible representation of degree 4. u) with r. Here. {ar b: r odd}. 1g. we obtain the characters ÷1 . B. and Gah Zi is abelian while G is non-abelian. 5. 3. (a) Check that AB ˆ ÀBA. aÀ r } (1 < r < 7). 1 32 a8 32 a 16 a2 16 a3 16 a4 16 a5 16 a6 16 a7 16 b 4 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 2 2 p0 À2 0 2 0 0 p p À2 p0 2 2 2 0 Àp2 À2 Àp2 0 2 0 p p 2 2 À 2 0 2 À2 2 0 À 2 0 2 À2 cj c2 j c3 j c4 j c5 j c6 j c7 j 0 5. G has 11 conjugacy classes: {1}. 1}. {a8 }.3. (d) Since G has irreducible representations of degrees 1 and 4. G has precisely 16 representations of degree 1. 5. 7) Note: cm ˆ e2ði ma16 ‡ eÀ2ði ma16 ˆ 2 cos (mð/8) 3. the given representation is irreducible. {ar b: r even}. (c) A routine calculation shows that every matrix which commutes with each of A. a8 }. b: a16 ˆ 1. CD ˆ ÀDC. Hence every element of G has the form A i B j C k D l Z m for some i. s. {ar . so jGj < 32. l. this shows that jGj ˆ 32. b2 ˆ a8 . . jGj > 12 ‡ 42 ˆ 17. Since Gah Zi is abelian. By lifting the irreducible characters of D16. 4. Hence Z P G. (b) A2 ˆ ÀB2 ˆ ÀC2 ˆ D2 ˆ I.12.10).3.8 (D16 ˆ G1 ) and in Section 18. Combined with part (b). bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 øj ( j ˆ 1. and GaK  D16 . by Theorem 11. Then the four characters ø j ( j ˆ 1. . C and D has the form ëI for some ë P C. These are as follows: for each (r.

. so G5 T G8 . except possibly G5 and G8 .1(1) we have {1} Tˆ Z(G) Tˆ G. by Proposition 9.b3 2 2 Chapter 26 0 1 1 0 0 1 3 . It is easy to see that the matrices generate groups with more than eight elements. 4 and 8 in G1 . 7. The following table records the numbers of elements of orders 1. z 3 d 0 1 0 eX I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 1 0 0 1 6. z 3 d 0 1 0 e.16.2 G1 : a 3 2 G2 : a 3 G3 : a 3 G4 : a 3 2 G5 : a 3 å å 0 À1 3 . å5 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 0 0 1 i 0 . . . so give representations. . a2 z}  C2 3 C2 . Hence a . . b 3 d 1 0 0 e. . Since Z(Gj ) is not cyclic. If g P Z(G) then Z(G) < CG (g) Tˆ G. 1 0 å3 3 2 3 0 0 1 . (d) The following give faithful representations: H I H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 f g f g f g G7 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. But G5 aG5 9  C2 3 C4 . a2 . Assume that j Z(G)j ˆ p2 . Gj has no faithful irreducible representation. Also jGa Z(G)j Tˆ p by Lemma 26. 3 437 0 å 0 0 å À1 2 3 å 0 2 0 å 0 1 0 .1(2). Therefore j Z(G)j ˆ p or p2 . 7 or 8 then Z(Gj ) ˆ {1.b3 . 2. G9 : G1 Order Order Order Order 1 2 4 8 1 9 2 4 G2 1 1 10 4 G3 1 5 6 4 G4 1 3 4 8 G5 1 3 12 0 G6 1 7 8 0 G7 1 11 4 0 G8 1 3 12 0 G9 1 5 10 0 Therefore no two of G1 . . i f G8 : a 3 d 0 0 H 0 0 0 À1 H I 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 g f g f g Ài 0 e. 6. z.z3 X À1 1 0 0 i (b) If j ˆ 5. G9 are isomorphic.b3 . (c) Check that the matrices satisfy the required relations.b3 . (a) By Lemma 26. while G8 aG8 9  C2 3 C2 3 C2 . . so the representations are faithful. b 3 d À1 0 0 e. À1 0 2 3 0 1 . and g P CG ( g).b3 3 .

b and all elements in Z. a2 Z ˆ b2 Z. a ˆ dX 0   1 1 1 ˆ 0 0 1    0 1 0 z ˆ À1 0 À1 z Therefore z ˆ aI. and . Since ÷(1)2 ˆ p4 (Theorem 11. Therefore. as r ‡ s is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. there are no irreducible characters of degree greater than p. p). By parts (a) and (b). so a ˆ Æ1. Therefore Ga Z T Q8 . (b) Assume that G has r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible € characters of degree p. and since z P SL (2. 8. Therefore jGaG9j ˆ r ˆ p2 or p3 . Hence |G9 ’ Z(G)| ˆ p. we have a2 P Z. bZi. Assume that zˆ Then   a c b d  P Z(SL (2. Since a2 commutes with a. and if r ˆ p2 then r ‡ s ˆ 2 p2 À 1. either G9 ’ Z(G) ˆ G9. and 1  1 z A c ˆ Àb. bÀ1 abZ ˆ aÀ1 ZX Then a2 ˆ b2 z for some z P Z.12). 3) of order 3 which are not conjugate to each other.438 Representations and characters of groups jC G ( g)j ˆ p3 and j gG j ˆ p. and if |G9| ˆ p2 then |Z(G)| ˆ p. Chapter 27 1. G has p2 ‡ ( p4 À p2 )a p conjugacy classes. with a4 P Z. Part (b) follows. or G9 ’ Z(G) ˆ Z(G). and assume that Ga Z ˆ haZ. if |Z(G)| ˆ p2 then |G9| ˆ p. and hence ba2 ˆ b3 z ˆ b2 zb ˆ a2 b. 2.1(1). (c) Note that G9 ’ Z(G) Tˆ {1} by Lemma 26. The element   À1 0 0 À1 lies in Z(G). p))X  1 z A c ˆ 0. so r ‡ sp2 ˆ p4 . then by Exercise 7. (a) Let Z ˆ Z(G). in which case Ga(G9 ’ Z(G)) T Q8 by part (a). we have a2 ˆ 1. Check that   and   1 0 1 1 1 À1 0 1 are elements of G ˆ SL (2. (b) If G is a non-abelian group of order 16. in which case Ga(G9 ’ Z(G)) is abelian.

a subgroup of S4 of order 12. 0). Note that G has three real conjugacy classes.2). The characters ÷1 . Since á is real. . ÷6 and ÷7 must be real. one of ÷5 . they must be ÷6 and ÷7 in some order. therefore GafÆIg  A4 . (2. whose values on g4 are áù and áù2 . ÷(g5 ) ˆ ÷( g4 ) and ÷(g6 ) ˆ ÷( g7 ) for all ÷. Then á ˆ À1 since ÷5 ( g4 )  ÷5 (1) mod 3. Also á Tˆ 0. which is given below. Assume. namely the spans of the vectors (0.27.1.5 implies that ÷ j ( g7 ) ˆ À÷ j ( g4 ). ÷6 . g2 . Hence the following are conjugacy class representatives: g1 1 0 1 24 0 1 g2 À1 0 0 À1 2 24 g3 0 À1 4 4 1 0 g4         1 1 0 1 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| 3 6  g5 1 0 À1 1 3 6   g6 À1 1 0 À1 6 6   g7 À1 À1 0 À1 6 6  Order of gi |CG ( gi )| We now describe how to construct the character table of G. g3 can be deduced from the column orthogonality relations. so by Theorem 23.Chapter 27  0 À1 1 0  439 has order 4. Then ÷5 ( g4 ) ˆ á. 1) and (1. The group G permutes these subspaces among themselves. ÷7 on the elements g1 . by Corollary 22. First observe that the vector space (Z3 )2 has exactly four 1-dimensional subspaces. Exercise 13. Since ÷5 ÷2 and ÷5 ÷3 are irreducible characters of G of degree 2. ÷3 . say ÷5 ÷2 ˆ ÷6 and ÷5 ÷3 ˆ ÷7 . 7. so we obtain a homomorphism ö: G 3 S4 . 1). The values of ÷5 . ÷2 . 6. without loss of generality. (1. where á is real. Now note that for j ˆ 5. ÷4 of G are obtained by lifting to G the irreducible characters of A4 (which are given in Section 18. Finally. Check that Ker ö ˆ {ÆI}. The € equation j ÷ j (g4 )÷ j ( g 4 ) ˆ 6 gives áá ˆ 1. á ˆ Æ1. 1). that ÷5 is real. Hence GafÆIg  Im ö.

0 1 0 4 0 2 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 À1 h4 ˆ Z. notice that T is isomorphic to the group of order 21 whose character table is found in Exercise 17. 4. so ë : G is irreducible. h3 ˆ Z. Hence 1 T : G ˆ 1 G ‡ ÷. 1 T : Gl ˆ 2 and k1 T : G. write ö ˆ ë : G. . . 3) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù ˆ e2ðia3 3.6. . Also. h5 . 1 G l ˆ 1. Representatives of the conjugacy classes of T are h1 . .25. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G.440 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. ë : Gl ˆ 1. Apply Proposition 17. . h2 ˆ Z. h5 ˆ ZX 0 1 0 1 Two of the linear characters of T are hi |CT (h i )| 1T ë h1 21 1 1 h2 3 1 ù h3 3 1 ù2 h4 7 1 1 h5 7 1 1 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 À1 Àù Àù2 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 À1 Àù2 Àù g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 1 ù2 ù g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 1 ù ù2 where ù ˆ e2ðia3 . The values of 1 T : G and ë : G are as follows (see Proposition 21. (a) For the character table of T. where 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 0 2 0 4 0 h1 ˆ Z.23): gi |CG ( g i )| 1T 4 G ë4G g1 168 8 8 g2 8 0 0 g3 4 0 0 g4 3 2 À1 g5 7 1 1 g6 7 1 1 We ®nd that k1 T : G. kë : G.2 and Example 21.

æ cannot therefore be the sum of four irreducible characters. (b) By lifting. apply part (c). We calculate that kæ. (c) Use Exercise 13. . 0. say ÷7 (1) and ÷8 (1). we obtain the characters ÷1 . ÷ j (1) is even. The congruences ÷(1)  ÷(g6 ) mod 3 now give the remaining values on g6 . ÷6 in the character table shown below. and 12 ‡ 6 . so ÷9 (1) ˆ ÷10 (1) ˆ 6. . Since By 11 2 jˆ1 (÷ j (g6 )) ˆ 6. and ÷11 (1) ˆ 8. . Now 1 G . in the character table of G given at the end of Chapter 27.16. . ø A has the following values on g1 . (e) € Theorem 22. Æ1. have degrees 2divisible by 6. ö. we deduce that ÷ j (g3 ) ˆ 0 for 7 < j < 11.1. Since there are only six irreducible characters in all. gi and gi g2 have the same centralizer for all i. €11 say ÷9 and ÷10 . ÷2 and ÷6 . Next. since ÀI is not in € kernel of these characters). the values of ÷ j (g6 ) for 7 < j < 11 must be Æ1. respectively. ÷8 (1). in some order. The only possibility is that two of ÷7 (1).Chapter 27 (c) The values of ÷ and ÷ S are as shown below (see Proposition 19. 0. ö and ÷ are three of the six irreducible characters of G. Further. Exercise 14. öl ˆ k÷ S . ÷3 . ÷11 (1).5 (noting that ÷ j (ÀI) Tˆ ÷ j (I) for 7 < j < 11. By Corollary 22.7). ÷5 can readily be calculated using the column orthogonality relations (noting that gi is real if and only if 1 < i < 4). and so æ ˆ 2ø with ø irreducible. (a) Compare the proof of Lemma 27. 1 G l ˆ k÷ S . ÷(g6 ) P Z for all characters ÷. Use part (c) to ®ll in the values on g2 and g7 . ÷l ˆ 1.27.27 again. and none is a constituent of æ. (f ) By Proposition 19. (d) The characters 1 G . . 5. by Corollary 22. 2 2 jˆ1 (÷ j (1)) ˆ 168. The remaining irreducible characters ÷4 . . jˆ1 (Alternatively. Hence there is a character æ of G such that ÷ S ˆ 1 G ‡ ö ‡ ÷ ‡ æX The values of æ are as shown above. Æ1. or æ is the sum of four distinct irreducible characters (cf. ÷7 (1)2 ‡ ÷8 (1)2 ‡ ÷11 (1)2 ˆ 96. The values of ø are as shown above. ÷ and ø are the characters ÷1 . . g3 and g6 : g1 øA 6 g2 6 g3 2 g6 0 . ÷11 . two of ÷7 .14): gi |CG ( g i )| ÷ ÷S æ ø g1 168 7 28 12 6 g2 8 À1 4 4 2 g3 4 À1 0 0 0 g4 3 1 1 0 0 g5 7 0 0 À2 À1 g6 7 0 0 À2 À1 441 We ®nd that k÷ S . are equal to 4. 168. so either æ ˆ 2ø for some irreducible character ø. the (d) Since 11 ÷ j (g3 )÷ j ( g3 ) ˆ 8. . Note that because g2 lies in Z(G).14.) Also. æl ˆ 4. g2 .

Similarly. ÷5 and ÷6 . using this fact and part (c). This allows us to ®ll in the jˆ1 values of ÷11 . 6. Since g4 is conjugate to gÀ1 . 0 1 0 6 and T has ®ve linear characters æ j (0 < j < 4). ø(g5 ) ˆ 0. 7) gi g1 Order of g i 1 |CG ( g i )| 336 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 7 8 3 3 6 4 4 6 6 8 g2 2 336 1 7 8 3 3 6 À4 À4 À6 À6 À8 g3 4 8 g4 8 8 g5 8 8 g6 3 6 g7 6 6 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 g8 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g9 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 g10 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g11 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 p p 0 0 p 2 Àp 2 0 À 2 2 0 0 0 0 À1 p Note: á ˆ (À1 ‡ i 7)a2 The values of ø A on g1 and g2 show that ø A is a linear combination of ÷1 . For all ÷. where æ j : x u y v 3 e2ði jva5 X . Say ÷9 (g4 ) ˆ 2. Let Z ˆ {ÆI} and de®ne the subgroup T of G. ®nally. € (g) For i Tˆ 6. of order 55. and therefore. by &  ' a b Ã. Therefore x ˆ (1 Æ i 7)a2. ÷(g4 ) is real for all ÷. ÷4 . Then 4 €11 € and 11 ÷ j ( g 4 )2 ˆ 8 imply that jˆ1 ÷ j ( g 1 )÷ j ( g 4 ) ˆ 0 p jˆ1 p ÷9 (g4 ) ˆ À÷10 (g4 ) ˆ Æ 2. Then ÷8 ˆ ÷7 . Now g2 is conjugate to g3 . thereby completing the character table of G. ø(g4 ) ˆ 0. Since g2 is conjugate to g8 . we get 8 p (x 2 À x)a2 ˆ øp( g8 ) ˆ À1.442 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. Hence 4 (ø( g4 )2 À ø( g 3 ))a2 ˆ ø A ( g4 ) ˆ ÷6 ( g 4 ) ˆ 0.bPZ Tˆ Z: a P Z 11 11 X 0 aÀ1 Then T is generated by     1 1 2 0 xˆ Z and y ˆ Z. Then the value of ø A on g6 shows that ÷1 is not a constituent of ø A . The column orthogonality relations now let us ®nd the remaining values of ÷9 and ÷10 . Let x ˆ ø(g8 ). we have 11 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g 6 ) ˆ 0. ÷( g 10 ) ˆ ÷(g8 ). the value on g3 forces ø A ˆ ÷6 . we ®ll in the values of ÷7 and ÷8 . Say A ÷7 ( g 8 ) ˆ (1 À i 7)a2.

we deduce that the remaining irreducible jˆ1 characters ÷5 . We have hæ0 4 G. 2. ÷5 (g2 ) ˆ 2 ˆ À÷6 ( g2 ). 10. Note that ÷(gj ) is an integer for 1 < j < 4 and all characters ÷. ÷4 . ÷1 i ˆ 1 and hæ0 4 G. hence. ÷6 (1).16. ÷7 (1). ÷3 . the jˆ1 values of ÷ j (g3 ) (5 < j < 8) are as shown. The column orthogonality relations now enable us to ®nish the character table. By considering 8 ÷ j (1)÷ j (g2 ) ˆ 0. and 8 ÷ j ( g2 )2 ˆ 12. We may now conclude from the facts €8 2 that ÷(g2 )  ÷(g1 ) mod 2 and that ÷ j (g2 ) ˆ Æ2 for j ˆ 5.Chapter 27 443 The characters æ1 4 G and æ2 4 G are irreducible. so ÷ j (g4 ) ˆ Æ1 for 5 < j < 8. We have now found four of the eight irreducible characters of G. æ0 4 Gi ˆ 2. we jˆ1 can complete column 4. 8. . 3 for all irreducible ÷. 5.27. ÷6 . without loss of generality. € Since ÷(1)  ÷(g3 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. 3 and 5 of the character table. € Since ÷(g4 )  ÷(g2 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. and 8 ÷ j (g4 )2 ˆ 6. namely ÷1 . and 8 ÷ j (g3 )2 ˆ 6. By Corollary 22. 11) gi Order of g i |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 Note: á ˆ (À1 ‡ p g1 1 660 1 11 12 12 10 10 5 5 g2 2 12 1 À1 0 0 2 À2 1 1 g3 3 6 1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 p g4 6 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 1 1 g5 5 5 1 1 á â 0 0 0 0 g6 5 5 1 1 â á 0 0 0 0 g7 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã g8 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã 5)a2. ÷(g2 )  ÷(g4 ) mod 3 for all ÷. ÷8 take the value 0 on g5 . ÷5 (1). We have now completed columns 1. note that e2ðia5 ‡ eÀ2ðia5 ˆ (À1 ‡ 5)a2X) Let ÷1 ˆ 1 G . ÷2 . without loss jˆ5 of generality. € ÷ j (1)  0 mod 5 for 5 < j < 8. by Theorem 22. € 6 and ÷ j (g2 ) ˆ Æ1 for j ˆ 7. and ÷5 (g2 ). Hence æ0 4 G ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 for an irreducible character ÷2 of G. and ˆ jˆ1 ÷ j (g4 ) € 6. respectively. 5. (In calculating ÷3 (g5 ). we jˆ1 see that ÷7 (g2 ) ˆ ÷8 (g2 ) ˆ 1. ÷7 . ÷6 (g2 ) have opposite signs. Next. jˆ1 hence |÷( g2 )| . they are ÷3 and ÷4 in the p table. € 8 2 Now ÷(g4 )  ÷(g3 ) mod 2 for all ÷. ⠈ (À1 À p 5)a2 and 㠈 (À1 ‡ i 11)a2 € Since 8 ÷ j (g5 )÷ j ( g 5 ) ˆ 5. ÷8 (1) are 10. jˆ1 ÷ j (g2 ) ˆ 12. Character table of PSL (2. But 8 (÷ j (1))2 ˆ 250.

q) have representatives as follows. q You should have no dif®culty in proving that the conjugacy classes of SL(2. q)  Z 3 SL(2.s À1 ˆ . Every element r of F q can be expressed as a square. It now follows easily that GL(2. 0 1 (c) There are (q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives   s 0 d s.1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 48 1 1 3 3 4 2 2 2 g2 48 1 1 3 3 À4 À2 2 À2 g3 6 1 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 À1 g4 6 1 1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 g5 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 g6 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 2 0 g7 8 1 À1 À1 1 p0  i 2 0 p Ài 2 g8 8 1 À1 À1 1 0 p Ài 2 p0  i 2 2. Then s in F q      a b s 0 aas bas ˆ X 0 s cas das c d The ®rst matrix in the product is sI and the second belongs to SL(2. 3) is then as follows. since r ˆ r q and q is even. Each such element has centralizer of order q À 1. q). We take g 1 . 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 g2 ˆ g3 ˆ g4 ˆ 1 0 2 0 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 g6 ˆ g7 ˆ g8 ˆ 2 2 0 1 2 1 where 3 1 2 1 1 3 X The character table of GL(2. q) where Z ˆ fsI : s P Fà g.444 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 28 1. We may write ad À bc as s 2 for some c d à .   a b Suppose that P GL(2. gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ë1 ø0 ø1 ø0. s À1 g of elements 0 s À1 from F q nF2 . X 2 1 g1 ˆ 0 2 1 g5 ˆ 0 X X . q). indexed by unordered pairs fs.   1 1 (b) The matrix u1 ˆ has centralizer of order q. (a) The identity I has centralizer of order q 3 À q. g8 as representatives of the conjugacy classes. .

i ÷i 1 q q‡1 qÀ1 u1 1 0 1 À1 d s.s À1 1 1 s i ‡ s Ài 0 vr 1 À1 0 À(r i ‡ r Ài ) Here. 3. x 2 ‡ ç2 x ‡ 1. b. f1 ‡ ç. s À1 g of elements from F8 nF2 are fç. g 9 of the conjugacy classes of SL(2. Then 64 . ç ‡ ç2 gX These give us the conjugacy class representatives g3 . x 2 ‡ (ç ‡ ç2 )x ‡ 1X The companion matrices for these quadratics give use the conjugacy class representatives g 6 . q) is as follows. Hence we may write F8 ˆ fa ‡ bç ‡ cç2 : a. and therefore SL(2. The polynomial x 3 ‡ x ‡ 1 is irreducible over F2.Chapter 28 445 (d) There are qa2 conjugacy classes with representatives   0 1 vr ˆ . x 2 ‡ çx ‡ 1.i satisfy 1 < i < (q À 2)a2. By restricting characters from GL(2. g8 . 8)  SL(2. 1 ‡ ç2 g. 8). 1 ‡ ç ‡ ç2 g. g 5 below. Note ®rst that PSL(2. I ë0 ø0 ø0. The irreducible monic quadratics over F8 with constant term 1 are x 2 ‡ x ‡ 1. g9 below We can now list representatives g 1 . Each such element has centralizer of order q ‡ 1. we have used the function r 3 r de®ned in (28. as follows. g 7 . fç2 . and the subscripts for ÷ i satisfy 1 < i < qa2.3). r À1 g of elements 1 r ‡ r À1 from F q 2 nF q such that r 1‡q ˆ 1. If q Tˆ 2 then the kernel of every non-trivial character is the identity subgroup. 8). indexed by unordered pairs fr. c P F2 and ç3 ˆ 1 ‡ çgX The pairs fs. q) you will quickly be able to prove that the character table of SL(2. g4 . X X X . The subscripts for ø0. q) is simple. 2 3 2 3 1 0 1 1 g1 ˆ g2 ˆ 0 1 0 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 ç 0 1‡ç 0 0 ç2 g3 ˆ g4 ˆ g5 ˆ 0 1 ‡ ç2 0 ç ‡ ç2 0 1 ‡ ç ‡ ç2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 g6 ˆ g9 ˆ X g7 ˆ g8 ˆ 1 1 1 ç 1 ç2 1 ç ‡ ç2 We may choose a generator å of Fà so that å 7 ‡ å À7 ˆ ç. q) to SL(2.

446

Representations and characters of groups

å 14 ‡ å À14 ˆ ç2 , å 21 ‡ å À21 ˆ 1 and å 28 ‡ å À28 ˆ ç4 ˆ ç ‡ ç2 . The character table of SL(2, 8) is then as follows.
gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ø0 ø0,1 ø0,2 ø0,3 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 504 1 8 9 9 9 7 7 7 7 g2 8 1 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 g3 7 1 1 g4 7 1 1 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 g5 7 1 1 g6 9 1 À1 0 0 0 À2 1 1 1 g7 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 g8 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 B g9 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1

Here, the 3 3 3 submatrices A and B are given by H I 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) f g A ˆ d 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) e 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) H À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) I

f g B ˆ d À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) eX À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9)

Chapter 29
1. (a) It is straightforward to check that ö is a homomorphism. For x, y P G, the element (x, y) P G 3 G sends x to y, so that action is transitive. (b) (G 3 G)1 ˆ f( g, g) : g P Gg, and ker ö ˆ f(z, z) : z P Z(G)g. (c) Every orbit of G 3 G on G 3 G contains an ordered pair of the form (1, x), and if ( g, h) sends (1, x) to (1, y) then g ˆ h and y ˆ g À1 xg. Hence if C1 , X X X , C k are the conjugacy classes of G, and xi P C i, then (1, xi ) (1 < i < k) are orbit representatives for the action of G 3 G on G 3 G, and so the rank is equal to k. Since x(( g, h)ö) ˆ x if and only if xhx À1 ˆ g, we see that ð( g, h) ˆ jfix G ( g, h)j is equal to 0 if g is not conjugate to h, and is equal to jC G (x)j if g is conjugate to h (since in the latter case, if xhx À1 ˆ g then an arbitrary element y P G such that yhy À1 ˆ g is of the form y ˆ xc with c P € (x)). Hence using the column orthogonality relations we see CG that ð ˆ ÷ 3 ÷. 2. There are q 2 À 1 non-zero vectors in V, and each 1-dimensional subspace

Chapter 29

447

contains q À 1 of them; also two 1-dimensional subspaces have no non-zero vectors in common. Hence jÙj ˆ (q 2 À 1)a(q À 1) ˆ q ‡ 1. 3. Use the notation for the conjugacy classes and irreducible characters of GL(2, q) given in Proposition 28.4 and Theorem 28.5. It is easy to check that ð takes the values q 2 À 1, q À 1, q À 1 on the classes with representatives I, u1 , d 1, t respectively, and takes the value 0 on all other classes. Taking inner products we ®nd hð, 1 G i ˆ hð, ø0 i ˆ hð, ø0, j i ˆ 1 (1 < j < q À 2)X € qÀ2 As 1 G ‡ ø0 ‡ 1 ø0, j has degree q 2 À 1 ˆ ð(1), we conclude that € qÀ2 ð ˆ 1 G ‡ ø0 ‡ 1 ø0, j . 4. Observe that the coset H 1 x is ®xed by g if and only if xgx À1 P H 1 . If G is abelian this amounts to g P H 1 , and hence we see that ð1 ( g) ˆ 0 if g P H 1 a and ð1 ( g) ˆ jG : H 1 j if g P H 1 . Thus H 1 ˆ f g P G : ð1 ( g) Tˆ 0g. Likewise for H 2 ; since ð1 ˆ ð2 we deduce that H 1 ˆ H 2 . As a counterexample for G non-abelian, take G ˆ D8 ˆ ha, b : a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1, bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i with H 1 ˆ hbi, H 2 ˆ ha2 bi. Then ð1 ˆ ð2 but H 1 Tˆ H 2 . € € 1 5. By Proposition 29.4 we have 1 ˆ jGj gPG jfixÙ ( g)j, hence jfixÙ ( g)j ˆ jGj. Since jfixÙ ( g)j is a non-negative integer for each g, and jfixÙ (1)j ˆ jÙj . 1, we must have jfixÙ ( g)j ˆ 0 for some g. 6. Write ð ˆ ð( nÀ2,1,1) . Calculating inner products using Proposition 29.6, as in the proof of Theorem 29.13, we ®nd hð, ði ˆ 7, hð, 1i ˆ 1, hð, ð( nÀ1,1) i ˆ 3, hð, ð( nÀ2,2) i ˆ 4X Using Theorem 29.13 it follows that ð( nÀ2,1,1) ˆ 1 ‡ 2÷ ( nÀ1,1) ‡ ÷ ( nÀ2,2) ‡ ÷ with ÷ irreducible. Hence ÷ ˆ 1 ‡ ð À ð( nÀ1,1) À ð( nÀ2,2) , from which it is easy to calculate that ÷(1) ˆ 1(n À 1)(n À 2), 2 ÷(12) ˆ 1(n À 2)(n À 5), ÷(123) ˆ 1(n À 4)(n À 5). For n ˆ 6, ÷ (4,1,1) is the 2 2 character ÷5 in Example 19.17.

Chapter 30
1. By Theorem 30.4, a245 ˆ 168/(8´3) ˆ 7. Hence, by (30.3), PSL (2, 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2, b has order 3 and ab has order 7. p p 2. No: a225 ˆ (1 ‡ (À1 ‡ i 7)a6 ‡ (À1 À i 7)a6 À 4a6)168a(8X8) ˆ 0, and similarly a226 ˆ 0. Hence PSL (2,7) does not contain two involutions whose product has order 7. 3. Yes. Number the conjugacy classes of PSL (2, 11) as in the solution to Exercise 27.6. Then   660 1 a235 ˆ X 1‡ ˆ 10X 12 6 11 Therefore PSL (2, 11) contains elements x and y such that x, y and xy have orders 2, 3 and 5, respectively. Let H be the subgroup kx, yl of PSL (2, 11).

448

Representations and characters of groups

There is a homomorphism W from A5 onto H (W sends a 3 x, b 3 y). Since Ker W 3 A5 and A5 is simple, we deduce that H  A5 . 4. Suppose that G is a group whose p character table is p where á ˆ (1 ‡ 5)a2, ⠈ (1 À 5)a2.
g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 g2 1 1 À1 0 0 g3 1 0 1 À1 À1 g4 1 À1 0 á â g5 1 À1 0 â á

€ For 1 < i < 5 we have jC G ( g i )j ˆ 5 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g i ). Therefore the jˆ1 centralizers of g1 , g2 , g3 , g4 , g5 have orders 60, 3, 4, 5, 5, respectively. Hence the orders of g2 , g4 and g5 are 3, 5 and 5; also the order of g3 must be 2, since for no other i (except i ˆ 1) is |CG (g i )| even. Now a324 ˆ 60a(4 . 3). Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, G has a subgroup H with H  A5 . Since jGj ˆ 60, we have G  A5 . € 5. (a) Using the fact that 7 ÷ j (g i )÷ j ( g i ) ˆ |CG (g i )|, we ®nd that the jˆ1 centralizer orders and class sizes are as follows:
g1 |CG ( g i )| | gG | i 360 1 g2 8 45 g3 4 90 g4 9 40 g5 9 40 g6 5 72 g7 5 72

Hence jGj ˆ 360. Also G is simple, by Proposition 17.6. (b) By the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions (Corollary 23.17), the number of involutions t in G is bounded by 1‡ t <
7 ˆ jˆ1

÷ j (1) ˆ 46X

By considering jC G ( g i )j, we see that g i has even order only for i ˆ 2 and 3. Since t < 45, only g2 can be an involution. Hence g3 has order 4. (This information about the orders of g2 and g3 can also be deduced using Sylow's Theorem.) (c) Clearly g6 and g7 have order 5, and at least one of g4 and g5 has order 3. If j ˆ 4 or 5 and k ˆ 6 or 7 then

Chapter 30
a2 jk ˆ ˆ ˆ ÷( g2 )÷( g j )÷ ( g k ) jGj jCG ( g 2 )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1)

449

360 ˆ 5X 8.9 Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, the subgroup H ˆ kx, yl of G is isomorphic to A5 . (d) If g, h P G then ( gh)r: Hx 3 Hxgh, and ( gr)(hr): Hx 3 Hxg 3 HxghX Hence r is a homomorphism. (e) Since G is simple, Ker r ˆ {1}. Hence G is isomorphic to a subgroup K of S6 . Since jS6 : Kj ˆ 63a360 ˆ 2, K must be A6 . 6. Consider the ®gure in Example 30.6(3). We shall explain how to label the vertices by elements of G. Choose a vertex and label it 1. Label the vertices according to the following inductive rule. Assume that v is a vertex and an adjacent vertex u is labelled by g. Then label v by ga gb gb
À1

if the edge uv has no arrow, if the edge uv has an arrow from u to v, if the edge uv has an arrow from v to uX

For example, if you decided to label the bottom left-hand vertex by 1, then part of the labelling would be

The relation a2 ˆ 1 ensures that the labelling is consistent along unmarked edges; since b3 ˆ 1, the labelling is consistent around triangles; and the relation abababab ˆ 1 deals with the octagons. Every element in G has the form given by the label of one of the 24 vertices, so jGj < 24. 7. The conjugacy classes of PSL(2, 7) are given in Lemma 27.1 The element g 2 is an involution with centralizer of order 8 given in the proof of     2 2 2 4 Lemma 27.1. Letting a ˆ , bˆ , we see that the À2 2 4 À2 centralizer is generated by a and b, and a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1, bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 À, hence the centralizer is isomorphic to D8 . As in Exercises 12.3 and 12.4, we see that C A6 ((12)(34)) has order 8 and is generated by (1324) and (13)(24), hence as above is isomorphic to D8 .

450

Representations and characters of groups

8. Let G be the simple group PSL(2, 17). In the ®eld Z17 the element 4 is a   4 0 fourth root of unity, so t ˆ Z is an involution. Calculate that 0 À4 C G (t) is generated by the group of diagonal matrices together with     0 1 3 0 bˆ Z, hence is generated by b and a ˆ Z. As À1 0 0 6 a 8 ˆ b2 ˆ 1 and bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1, we have C G (t)  D16 .

Chapter 31
1. Assume that G has an abelian subgroup H of index p r ( p prime), and that |G| . p. If H ˆ {1} then |G| ˆ p r and so G is not simple (see Lemma 26.1(1)). So assume that H Tˆ {1}; pick 1 Tˆ h P H. Then H < CG (h) as H is abelian, so |G:CG (h)| is a power of p. If |G:CG (h)| ˆ 1 then khl v G and G is not simple. And if |G:CG (h)| . 1, then G is not simple by Theorem 31.3. 2. By Burnside's Theorem, jGj is divisible by at least three distinct primes. Since 3 . 5 . 7 . 80, jGj is even. Then by Exercise 13.8, |G| is divisible by 4. Since 4 . 3 . 7 . 80, the only possibility is that jGj ˆ 4 . 3 . 5 ˆ 60.

Chapter 32
1. (a) The fact that BB ˆ I follows from the observation that for all i, j, d(ei b, ej b) ˆ d(ei , ej ) ˆ ä ij X Since 1 ˆ det I ˆ (det B)(det Bt ) ˆ (det B)2 , we have det B ˆ Æ1. (b) (i) The eigenvalues of C are the roots of det (C À xI), which is a cubic polynomial over R. Therefore, C has one or three real eigenvalues. (ii) Moreover, the product of the eigenvalues of C is det C ˆ 1. If C has three real eigenvalues, then they cannot all be negative; and if C has one real eigenvalue ë and a pair of conjugate non-real eigenvalues ì, ì, then ë ìì ˆ 1, and hence ë . 0. Therefore C has a real positive eigenvalue, say ë. (iii) Let v be an eigenvector for ë. Then d(v, v) ˆ d(vC, vC) ˆ d(ëv, ëv) ˆ ë2 d(v, v), and so ë ˆ 1. (c) Let c be the isometry v 3 vC. By (b), c ®xes a vector v; it is now easy to convince yourself that c must be a rotation about the axis through v. The required result for b follows from the de®nition of c. (d) Take three orthogonal axes, one of which is the axis of the rotation b. With respect to these axes, the matrix of b is H I 1 0 0 d 0 cos ö sin ö eX 0 Àsin ö cos ö Hence tr B ˆ 1 ‡ 2 cos ö.
t

Chapter 32

451

2. We regard G as a subgroup of O(R3 ). It is easy to see that the translation submodule T (which consists of all the translation modes) is isomorphic to the RG-module given by the natural action of G on R3 . Hence by part (d) of Exercise 1, V if g is a rotation through ö, about some b 1 ‡ 2 cos ö, b b b b axis, b ` ÷ T ( g) ˆ b À(1 ‡ 2 cos ö), if the element À g of O(R3 ) is a rotation b b b b b X through öX Now consider the rotation submodule R, which consists of all the rotation modes. A rotation mode is speci®ed by a 3-dimensional vector öv, where v is a unit vector along the axis of the rotation and ö denotes the angle of rotation, taken positive in the right-hand screw sense. Let g P G, and consider g acting on öv. It sends v to vg, and if g is a rotation, it preserves the sense of the rotation; however, if g is a re¯ection then it transforms a right-hand screw to a left-hand screw, and hence sends öv to (Àö)(vg). Therefore @ if g is a rotation, ÷ T ( g), ÷ R ( g) ˆ À÷T ( g), if g is not a rotation, and so ÷ T ‡ ÷ R has the required form. 3. The matrix A is I H p p À3a2 0 3a4 À 3a4 p3a4 3a4 p f 0 À1a2 À 3a4 p1a4 3a4 1a4 g g f p k f 3a4 À 3a4 À3a4 3a4 0 0 g gX f p p 3a4 À5a4 0 1 g m f À 3a4 p1a4 g f p d 3a4 3a4 0 0 À3a4 À 3a4 e p p 3a4 1a4 0 1 À 3a4 À5a4 4. A simpler basis is given by
1 2(r1 1 2(r1 1 2(r1

‡ r2 ) ˆ (v12 ‡ v21 ) À (v34 ‡ v43 ), ‡ r3 ) ˆ (v13 ‡ v31 ) À (v24 ‡ v42 ), ‡ r4 ) ˆ (v14 ‡ v41 ) À (v23 ‡ v32 )X

We chose r1, r2, r3, r4 to be the images of w1, w2, w3, w4 under an RGisomorphism. (Compare the construction of the matrix B, towards the end of Example 32.20.) 5. (a) This is a routine geometrical exercise. (b) Let the displaced positions of the atoms be 09, 19, 29, 39, 49. The distance of 19 from the plane through 1 perpendicular to 12 is x12 ‡ 1(x13 ‡ x14 ). Similarly, the distance of 29 from the plane through 2 2 perpendicular to 12 is x21 ‡ 1(x23 ‡ x24 ). Therefore 12 has decreased by 2 x12 ‡ x21 ‡ 1(x13 ‡ x14 ‡ x23 ‡ x24 ). The other calculations can be done in 2 the same way. (c) We express the force at each atom as a vector, and then write this vector

452

Representations and characters of groups
as a linear combination of our three chosen unit vectors at the initial position of the atom. Let d ij denote the decrease in the length ij, as calculated in part (b). Then, for example, at vertex 1, the contributions to the component of the force vector in the direction 12 are as follows: Àk1 d12 from the force between atoms 1 and 2; zero from the force between atoms 1 and 3 and from the force between atoms 1 and 4; and Àk2 d10 sec (/012) from the force between atoms 1 and 0. Hence p m1 12 ˆ Àk 1 d 12 À 1 (3a2)k 2 d 10 X x 3

Upon substituting for d12 and d10 from part (b), we obtain the given expression for 12. x The other accelerations are calculated in the same way. (d) The entries in the 15 3 15 matrix A are the coef®cients which appear in the equations of motion  ˆ xA. If you write down the matrix A, then x you will easily verify that the given vectors are eigenvectors of A (with eigenvalues À(4k 1 ‡ k 2 )am1 , 0, 0, 0, Àk 1 am1 , Àk 1 am1 , p p I À2k 2 a3m1 À4k 2 p 2a(m2 p3) À2k 2 a3m1 p À4k 2 2a(m2 3) eX p À2k 2 3a(9m1 2) À4k 2 a3m2 p (f ) You will ®nd that (1, À2, 6) is an eigenvector of B, with eigenvalue 0. This agrees with the statement in Example 32.20 that the translation vector r1 À 2s1 ‡ 3 cos Ww1 is an eigenvector of A. 6. (a) Assign coordinate axes along the edges of the square, as shown below. respectively). (e) The matrix B is H À(6k 1 ‡ k 2 )a3m1 d À(3k 1 ‡ k 2 )a3m1 p p Àk 2 3a(9m1 2)

The symmetry group is G ˆ D8. Let a denote the rotation sending P 3 Q 3 R 3 S 3 P, and let b denote the re¯ection in the axis PR. The character ÷ of the RG-module R8 is

1 ÷ 8

a2 0

a 0

b 0

ab 0

Chapter 32

453

We refer to the character table of D8 which is given in Example 16.3(3), and see that ÷ ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 ‡ 2÷5 X The rotation mode is (t ‡ â)v, where v ˆ (1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1) P V÷2 X The translation modes are (t ‡ â)v, where v is in the span of v1 , v2 and v1 ˆ (1, 0, 0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1), v2 ˆ (0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1, 1, 0)X The homogeneous components V÷1, V÷3 and V÷4 are spanned by the vectors (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), (1, 1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1) and (1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1, 1), respectively. The ®nal set of eigen-vectors is given by V÷5 ’ R8 which is spanned by vib (1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0, 0, 1) and (0, 1, 1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0)X (b) The matrix A is 1 f0 f f0 f k f0 À f mf0 f f0 f d0 1 H 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 I 1 0g g 0g g 0g gX 0g g 0g g 0e 1

7. (a, b) Let å i (1 < i < m) be the projection which is given by å i : u1 ‡ X X X ‡ um 3 ui (where u k P Uk for all k). Then w 3 wAå j WÀ1 W i j (w P Ui ) gives an RG-homomorphism from Ui to Ui. By Exercise 23.8, there exist ë ij P R such that for all w P Ui, Since €m wAå j ˆ ë ij wWÀ1 W j X i is the identity endomorphism of U1 È . . . È Um, we have m ˆ ë ij wWÀ1 W j for all w P Ui X wA ˆ i
jˆ1 jˆ1 å j

Now take in turn w ˆ uW i and w ˆ vW i to obtain the results of parts (a) and (b) of the question. (c) Take a basis u1 , . . . , u n of U1. Assume that the eigenvectors of A u are known. For all k with 1 < k < n, the eigenvectors of A in sp (u k W1 , . . . , u k W m ) are given by the eigenvectors of A u (see part (b)). Hence we know all the eigenvectors of A in U1 È . . . È Um.

Bibliography

Books mentioned in the text
H. S. M. Coxeter and W. J. O. Moser, Generators and Relations for Discrete Groups (Fourth Edition), Springer-Verlag, 1980. J. B. Fraleigh, A First Course in Abstract Algebra (Third Edition), AddisonWesley, 1982. D. Gorenstein, Finite Simple Groups: An Introduction to their Classi®cation, Plenum Press, New York, 1982. G. D. James, The Representation Theory of the Symmetric Groups, Lecture Notes in Mathematics No. 682, Spring-Verlag, 1978. D. S. Passman, Permutation Groups, Benjamin, 1968. H. Pollard and H. G. Diamond, The Theory of Algebraic Numbers (Second Edition), Carus Mathematical Monographs No. 9, Mathematical Association of America, 1975. J. J. Rotman, An Introduction to the Theory of Groups (Third Edition), Allyn and Bacon, 1984. D. S. Schonland, Molecular Symmetry ± an Introduction to Group Theory and its uses in Chemistry, Van Nostrand, 1965.

Suggestions for further reading
M. J. Collins, Representations and Characters of Finite Groups, Cambridge University Press, 1990. C. W. Curtis and I. Reiner, Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I, Wiley-Interscience, 1981. W. Feit, Characters of Finite Groups, Benjamin, 1967. I. M. Isaacs, Character Theory of Finite Groups, Academic Press, 1976. W. Ledermann, Introduction to Group Characters (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press, 1987. J. P. Serre, Linear Representations of Finite Groups, Springer-Verlag, 1977.

454

419 D2n ( n odd). 265 reducible. 127. 9. 81. 111. 159 A4 . 253 irreducible. 359. 114. 247 faithful.q). 230.Index A4 . 6 bilinear form. 3. 15 natural. 85. 269 symmetric. 186 T4 n. 362 algebraic number. 221. 412 C2 3 C2 . 445 PSL(2. 445 T12. 11. 136.3). 54 bijection. 83. 269 Brauer±Fowler Theroem. 192 real. 88 centralizer. 201. 327 PSL(2. 291 GL(2. 440 SL(2. 443 Q8 . 112. 196. 312. 433 Fp. 207. 116. 244. 343 abelian group. 364 C. 160 C4 . of order 18. 181. 263 realized over R. 56 algebraic integer.7).5 . 11. 176. 2. 116. 5. 340 Burnside's Theorem. 262 S6 . 128. 318 PSL(2. 82. 415 Cn . 360 A7 . 442 SL(2. 160 D8. 434 F7. 129 product. 122. 220. 420 455 . 205 SL(2.q . 174 permutation. 107. 11. 125. 161 D10. 82 action.7). 424 C2 . 24 character. 122. 195 generalized. 172. 10. 278 Burnside's Lemma. 9. 5. 355 induced. 111 antisymmetric part. 55. 183 D6 3 D6. 112. 130. 415 D12  S3 3 C2 . 118 degree. 222. 363. 82 D6. 106 centre of group. 223 An . 153 change of basis. 119 regular. 416 S4 . 116. 361 alternating group. 182 D2n ( n even). 2 Cn .8). 236 integer-valued. 150 trivial. 234. 359 A6 . 119 kernel of. 359 A6 . 298 of group algebra. 354.q).3. 273 associative. 308 A5 . 240. 269 skew-symmetric.11). 160 C3 . 181 A5 . 122 character table. 180 S5 . 337 algebra. 45. 417 F11. 423 E. 125 linear. 2 basis.

277 function. 82 alternating. 61 ideal. 2 general linear. 4. 2 composition factor. 79 isomorphism. 12. 152 class sum. 306. 367 projective special linear. 9. 34 FG-module. 107 class function. 107. 30. 79. 421 V24 . 304 orthogonal. 422 V8 n . 6 bijective. 24 eigenvector. 9 indicator function. 318. 111 cyclic. 49 FG-homomorphism. 12. 85 faithful representation. 9 faithful character. 104. 96 congruences. 230. 363. 236 induced module. 3 group. 6. 250. 5 rotation. 277. 134 involution. 24 endomorphism. 82. 15 Fp. 5. 353. 109 cyclic group. 32. 61 FG-isomorphism. 46 even permutation. 74. 2. 104 conjugate. 175. 4. 421 direct product. 381 external direct sum. 18 eigenvalue. 7. 82. 181 dimension. 249 derived subgroup. 3 H v G. 2. 178 dihedral. 302. 63 Frobenius group. 3 GL(2. 17. 259 conjugacy class. 178. 364 soluble. 8 cycle-shape. 311. 18 F ˆ R or C. 181 factor. 8 cycle notation. 53 factor group. 56.F). 55 H < G. 365 special linear. 1 abelian. 187. 3. 281. 2 order p3 . 257 index of subgroup. 125. 107. 312 quaternion. 96 . 50. 114 Clifford's Theorem. 12. 122. 195 faithful module. 278. 2. 88 dicyclic. 81. 368 simple. 226. 10. 361 constituent. 20. 2. 66 external. 109. 101 completely reducible. 6 GL(n. homogeneous component. 20 equivalent. 376 homomorphism. 420 dihedral group. 3. 228 inner product. 349 class equation. 6 invertible. 83 dicyclic group T4 n. 213 coset. 290 Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 300 class algebra constants. 301 order pq. 119 irreducible module. 232 Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 273 induced character. 11. 91 irreducible representation. 291 p-group. 91. 15 direct product. 290 FG.q). 3 F n. 32. 10. see module . 5. 9 HomCG (V W). 12. 216 complete set. 116. 206 direct sum. 257 proper. 95.456 Representations and characters of groups FG-submodule. 3 order. 6 injective. 311 symmetric. 256 maximal. 11. 234. 50. 88 D2n. 143. 9 ®nite. 353 irreducible character. 44.q . 254 symmetry. 206 order 16. 107. 368 group algebra. 90 common. 308 order p3 . 343 general linear group. 307 order 27. 181 degree. 6 surjective. 324. 63 U6n. 12. 5 expansion±contraction mode. 173 diagonalization. 435 order . 2. 305. 74 composition.

4 normal. 62 reducible. 336.7). 254. 116. 54 modes of vibration. 416 R. 125 Lagrange's Theorem. p). 19. 74 Sylow's Theorem. 354. 122. 124 reducible. 201. 45 methane. 50 reducible representation. 3. 442 SL(2.11). 30. 192 . 34 representatives. 4 orthogonal group. 32. 85 irreducible. 56 representation. 205 S7 . 5 even. 15 linearly independent. 116. 312 457 Q8 . 43 natural normal normal normal 217 basis. 340 permutation matrix. 312. 319. 298 p9-part. 79 kernel of. 3. 177. 312 p-group. 169 linear character. projection. 342 Rank±Nullity Theorem. 210 rotation group.q). 364 skew-symmetric bilinear form. 340 permutation character. 3. 39 completely reducible. 278. 50 regular. 354. 171. 116. 359 PSL(2. 10. 5. 262 S6 . 338 order of G. 177. 70. 74 faithful. 311 SL(2. 339 subgroup. 24 diagonal. 56 trivial. 19 real character. 380. 129. 394 S4 . 360 PSL(2. 34. 249 equivalent. 311 stabilizer. 284 product of characters. 344 SL(2. 263 reducible character. 111. 3. 44. 176. 124. 45. 15 Maschke's Theorem. 311. 21 invertible. 128. 45 powers of characters. 23 permutation. 3 rank. 50. 119 reducible module. 113. 263 real conjugacy class. 9 lift. 30 degree. 320. 9. 440 SL(2. 359. 45. 217 submodule. 278. 56 trivial. 278. 372. 363. 416 quaternion group. 49 irreducible. 113. 367 orthogonality relations. 343. 373 p-complement. 173 generated. 127. 62. 173. 45. 269 odd permutation. 4 derived. 46 faithful. 4 cyclic. 445 Schur's Lemma. 27. 250. 3 primitive root. 216. 5 orbit. 67 projective special linear group. 44. 21 change of basis. 180. 175. 5 permutation module. 56 regular representation. 78 simple group. 5. 85 permutation. 34. 105 restriction. 365 symmetric bilinear form. 256. 171. 110. 216. 361 module. 379 rotation submodule. p). 319. 109. 50 regular character. 215. 193 presentation. 269 special linear group. 5 odd.Index kernel. 26 identity. 18 linearly dependent. 116. 79. 10. 215. 161 PSL(2. 56. 384 minimal polynomial. 50. 263 real element. 76 matrix. 318. 258 permutation. 113. 368 rotation mode. 318. 223 Sn . 251 subgroup. 150 regular module. 321.7). 34 irreducible. 50 regular. 9.3). 174 linear transformation. 2 order of g. 275 S5 .

190 tensor product space.458 Representations and characters of groups trivial character. 196. 254 symmetric part. 117 transitive. 187. 34 U6n. 187. 394 transposition. 273 symmetry group. 116. 187. 122 module. 338. 178. 229 translation mode. 194 vibratory modes. 178. 369. 341 transitivity of induction. 109. 188 trace. 2 symmetric group. 420 tensor product module. 381 water. 380. 5 . 421 Vandermonde matrix. 3. 175. 368 T4 n. 281. 43 representation. 178. 374 Z. 421 V8n. 379 translation submodule.

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