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Representations and Characters of Groups Now in its second edition, this text provides a modern introduction to the representation theory of ®nite groups. The authors have revised the popular ®rst edition and added a considerable amount of new material. The theory is developed in terms of modules, since this is appropriate for more advanced work, but considerable emphasis is placed upon constructing characters. The character tables of many groups are given, including all groups of order less than 32, and all simple groups of order less than 1000. Among the applications covered are Burnside's pa q b theorem, the use of character theory in studying subgroup structure and permutation groups, and a description of how to use representation theory to investigate molecular vibration. Each chapter is accompanied by a variety of exercises, and full solutions to all the exercises are provided at the end of the book. This will be ideal as a text for a course in representation theory, and in view of the applications of the subject, will be of interest to mathematicians, chemists and physicists alike.

**R E P R E S E N TAT ION S AN D C H AR ACT E R S OF G ROU P S
**

G O R D O N JA M E S a n d M A RT I N L I E B E C K

Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London

Second Edition

PUBLISHED BY CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS (VIRTUAL PUBLISHING) FOR AND ON BEHALF OF THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 IRP 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia http://www.cambridge.org © Cambridge University Press 1993, 2001 This edition © Cambridge University Press (Virtual Publishing) 2003 First published in printed format 1993 Second edition 2001 A catalogue record for the original printed book is available from the British Library and from the Library of Congress Original ISBN 0 521 81205 4 hardback Original ISBN 0 521 00392 X paperback

ISBN 0 511 01700 6 virtual (netLibrary Edition)

Contents

Preface 1 Groups and homomorphisms 2 Vector spaces and linear transformations 3 Group representations 4 FG-modules 5 FG-submodules and reducibility 6 Group algebras 7 FG-homomorphisms 8 Maschke's Theorem 9 Schur's Lemma 10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra 11 More on the group algebra 12 Conjugacy classes 13 Characters 14 Inner products of characters 15 The number of irreducible characters 16 Character tables and orthogonality relations 17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters 18 Some elementary character tables 19 Tensor products 20 Restriction to a subgroup 21 Induced modules and characters 22 Algebraic integers 23 Real representations 24 Summary of properties of character tables 25 Characters of groups of order pq 26 Characters of some p-groups 27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 v

page vii 1 14 30 38 49 53 61 70 78 89 95 104 117 133 152 159 168 179 188 210 224 244 263 283 288 298 311

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Representations and characters of groups

28 Character table of GL(2, q) 322 29 Permutations and characters 337 30 Applications to group theory 348 31 Burnside's Theorem 361 32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 367 Solutions to exercises 397 Bibliography 454 Index 455

Preface

We have attempted in this book to provide a leisurely introduction to the representation theory of groups. But why should this subject interest you? Representation theory is concerned with the ways of writing a group as a group of matrices. Not only is the theory beautiful in its own right, but it also provides one of the keys to a proper understanding of ®nite groups. For example, it is often vital to have a concrete description of a particular group; this is achieved by ®nding a representation of the group as a group of matrices. Moreover, by studying the different representations of the group, it is possible to prove results which lie outside the framework of representation theory. One simple example: all groups of order p2 (where p is a prime number) are abelian; this can be shown quickly using only group theory, but it is also a consequence of basic results about representations. More generally, all groups of order pa q b ( p and q primes) are soluble; this again is a statement purely about groups, but the best proof, due to Burnside, is an outstanding example of the use of representation theory. In fact, the range of applications of the theory extends far beyond the boundaries of pure mathematics, and includes theoretical physics and chemistry ± we describe one such application in the last chapter. The book is suitable for students who have taken ®rst undergraduate courses involving group theory and linear algebra. We have included two preliminary chapters which cover the necessary background material. The basic theory of representations is developed in Chapters 3±23, and our methods concentrate upon the use of modules; although this accords with the more modern style of algebra, in several instances our proofs differ from those found in other textbooks. The main results are elegant and surprising, but at ®rst sight they sometimes have an air of mystery vii

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Representations and characters of groups

about them; we have chosen the approach which we believe to be the most transparent. We also emphasize the practical aspects of the subject, and the text is illustrated with a wealth of examples. A feature of the book is the wide variety of groups which we investigate in detail. By the end of Chapter 28, we have presented the character tables of all groups of order less than 32, of all p-groups of order at most p4 , and of all the simple groups of order less than 1000. Every chapter is accompanied by a set of Exercises, and the solutions to all of these are provided at the end of the book. We would like to thank Dr Hans Liebeck for his careful reading of our manuscript and the many helpful suggestions which he made.

In this second edition, we have included two new chapters; one (Chapter 28) deals with the character tables of an in®nite series of groups, and the other (Chapter 29) covers aspects of the representation theory of permutation groups. We have also added a considerable amount of new material to Chapters 20, 23 and 30, and made minor amendments elsewhere.

Preface to Second Edition

we introduce several examples. which we shall use extensively to illustrate the later theory. 1 . together with a rule for combining any two elements g. An elementary course on abstract algebra would normally cover all the material in the chapter. ( gh)k g(hk). h of G to form another element of G. written gh. such as dihedral groups and symmetric groups. h. there exists an element gÀ1 in G such that gg À1 g À1 g eX We refer to the rule for combining elements of G as the product operation on G. so we begin with a resume of facts about groups. Groups A group consists of a set G. (2) there exists an element e in G such that for all g in G. (3) for all g in G. k in G.1 Groups and homomorphisms This book is devoted to the study of an aspect of group theory. most of which you should Â Â know already. One or two results which we shall use only infrequently are demoted to the exercises at the end of the chapter ± you can refer to the solutions if necessary. this rule must satisfy the following axioms: (1) for all g. In addition. eg ge g. and any book on basic group theory will supply you with further details.

the element e in axiom (2) is an identity element of G. This group is called the dihedral group of order 2n. . Usually we write 1. and gÀ1 is an inverse of g in axiom (3). the product fg means `®rst do f. (2) The set Z of all integers. . for two symmetries f and g. and denote by C the set of all complex numbers. then do g'). (3) Let n be an integer with n > 3. gg. and is written |G|. If a e2ðia n . and consider the rotation and re¯ection symmetries of a regular n-sided polygon. X X X . is a group. Let A be a corner of the polygon. rather than e. then Cn f1. for the identity element of G. and so on. then we call G a ®nite group. If the number of elements in G is ®nite. and is written D2 n.2 Representations and characters of groups Axiom (1) states that the product operation is associative. The set of nth roots of unity in C. Also. similarly 3 g g 2 g. 1. r nÀ1 where r k is the (clockwise) rotation about the centre O through an angle 2ðkan.1 Examples (1) Let n be a positive integer. There are also n re¯ection symmetries: these are re¯ections in the n lines passing through O and a corner or the mid-point of a side of the polygon. is a group of order n. Write b for the re¯ection in the . r1 . a nÀ1 g. . under addition. There are n rotation symmetries: these are r0 . These 2n rotations and re¯ections form a group under the product operation of composition (that is. and an 1. and that every g in G has just one inverse. a2 . is written g 2 . The product of an element g with itself. It is elementary to see that G has just one identity element. a. the number of elements in G is called the order of G. gÀ2 ( gÀ1 )2 . . It is written as Cn and is called the cyclic group of order n. g0 1. with the usual multiplication of complex numbers.

F) is of course the identity matrix. The order of Sn is n!. is a group. and write a for the rotation r1 . . we have ba j aÀ j b (using the relation ba aÀ1 b). This group is called the general linear group of degree n over F. under matrix multiplication. a2 . b: an 1. a nÀ1 (where 1 denotes the identity. While Cn and Z are abelian. which we denote by In or just I. and the n re¯ections are b. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX (4) For n a positive integer. . X X X . Then the n rotations are 1. a nÀ1 bX Thus all elements of D2 n are products of powers of a and b ± that is. A group G is said to be abelian if gh hg for all g and h in G. The set of all invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. ab. 2. We use the notation H < G to indicate that H is a subgroup of G. X X X . a2 b. D2 n is generated by a and b. . The identity of GL(n. the set of all permutations of {1. (5) Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). and is written Sn . F). a. and hence (a i b)(a j b) a i ba j b a i aÀ j bb a iÀ j X We summarize all this in the presentation D2 n ha. b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X These relations determine the product of any two elements of the group. It is an in®nite group. forms a group. and is denoted by GL(n. It is called the symmetric group of degree n.Groups and homomorphisms 3 line through O and A. . A subset H of G is said to be a subgroup if H is itself a group under the product operation inherited from G. Subgroups Let G be a group. b2 1. n}. For example. under the product operation of composition. which leaves the polygon ®xed). most of the other examples given above are non-abelian groups. Check that an 1. .

De®ne H to be the subset of G consisting of all elements which are products of powers of a and b ± that is. h gi f1.5 below. (2) Let G be a group and g P G. and write H ha. B X 0 Ài À1 0 . This construction gives a powerful method of ®nding new groups as subgroups of given groups. (3) Let G be a group and let a. let r be the least positive integer such that g r 1. In this case.1 are cyclic. g 2 . we can similarly de®ne hSi. If gn 1 for some n > 1. X X X . b P G. C). such as general linear or symmetric groups. and (2) if h.2 Examples (1) For every group G. the subgroup of G generated by S. biX Given any ®nite set S of elements of G. called the cyclic subgroup generated by g. all elements of the form a i1 b j1 a i2 b j2 X X Xa i n b j n for some n. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in C. and let i 0 0 1 A . jk P Z for 1 < k < n.4 Representations and characters of groups It is easy to see that a subset H of a group G is a subgroup if and only if the following two conditions hold: (1) 1 P H. and again in Example 1. then r is equal to the number of elements in k gl ± indeed. The subset h gi f g n : n P Zg is a subgroup of G. We illustrate the construction in the next example. we call H the subgroup generated by a and b. g rÀ1 gX We call r the order of the element g. If G k gl for some g P G then we call G a cyclic group. 1. where ik . then k gl is ®nite. g. k P H then hkÀ1 P H. (4) Let G GL(2. both {1} and G are subgroups of G. Then H is a subgroup of G. The groups Cn and Z in Examples 1.

h): g P G and h P HgX De®ne a product operation on G 3 H by ( g. h)( g9. A2 B2 . h9 P H. The group H is called the quaternion group of order 8. A2 B2 . Since the matrices Ai B j (0 < i < 3. Let G and H be groups. in fact j Hj 8. called the alternating group of degree n. . n and ®xes the other n À 2 numbers. . Hence H has at most eight elements. 0 < j < 1) are all distinct. hh9) for all g. and is written Q8. . The above three relations determine the product of any two elements of Q8 . The subset An f g P Sn : g is an even permutationg is a subgroup of Sn . and using the ®rst two relations. Direct products We describe a construction which produces a new group from given ones. h9) ( gg9. and consider G 3 H f( g. the subgroup of G generated by A and B. called the direct product of G and H. we see that every element of H has the form A i B j for some integers i. Bl. j. . B: A4 I. 2. or they all have an odd number of transpositions.Groups and homomorphisms Put H kA. G 3 H is a group. accordingly. Check that A4 I. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 iX (5) A transposition in the symmetric group Sn is a permutation which interchanges two of the numbers 1. . we call g an even or an odd permutation. g9 P G and all h. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X 5 Using the third relation. so we have the presentation Q8 hA. Every permutation g in Sn can be expressed as a product of transpositions. It can be shown that either all such expressions for g have an even number of transpositions. With this product operation. we can take 0 < i < 3 and 0 < j < 1.

A function W from G to H is invertible if and only if it is both injective (that is. In this book. where g P G and h P H. then G1 3 . Functions A function from one set G to another set H is a rule which assigns a unique element of H to each element of G. Gr are groups. X X X . then the direct product G1 3 X X X 3 Gr is f( g 1 . and is written as WÀ1 . we mean that h gW. . . A function W: G 3 H is invertible if there is a function ö: H 3 G such that for all g P G. |Gr |. 3 C2 (r factors) has order 2 r and all its nonidentity elements have order 2.6 Representations and characters of groups More generally.3 Example The group C2 3 . of order |G1 | . those functions from G to H which `preserve the group structure' ± the so-called homomorphisms ± are of particular importance. g2 P G implies that g1 g2 ) and surjective (that is. g r ): g i P Gi for 1 < i < rg. . . . . . . 3 Gr is also ®nite. . g1 W g2 W for g1 . not as W g. ( gW)ö g and (hö)W hX Then ö is called the inverse of W. g r g9 )X 1 r 1 r If all the groups Gi are ®nite. with product operation de®ned by ( g1 . if G1 . the image of g under a function W is written as gW. X X X . for every h P H there exists g P G such that gW h). By an expression W: g 3 h. X X X . 1. If G and H are groups. . h P H. Homomorphisms Given groups G and H. We often indicate that W is a function from G to H by the notation W: G 3 H. g r )( g9 . g9 ) ( g 1 g9 . g 2 P GX . X X X . then a homomorphism from G to H is a function W: G 3 H which satis®es ( g1 g 2 )W ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g 1 . An invertible function is also called a bijection. we generally apply functions on the right ± that is.

Suppose that 0 < r < n À 1. (ar bs at bu )W (a i b j )W x i y j x r y s x t y u (ar bs )W .5 Example Let G S5 and let x. Let H be any group. and so W is a homomorphism. 0 < j < 1. and write the 2n elements of G in the form ai b j with 0 < i < n À 1. y À1 xy x À1 . If there is an isomorphism W from G to H. then G and H are said to be isomorphic. 1. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. also.Groups and homomorphisms 7 An invertible homomorphism is called an isomorphism.4 Example Let G D2 n ka. j with 0 < i < n À 1. y (2 5)(3 4)X . 0 < t < n À 1. i and j are determined by repeatedly using the relations an b2 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X Since we have x n y 2 1.4 in action. WÀ1 is an isomorphism from H to G. (at bu )W. Then ar bs at bu a i b j for some i. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. we can also deduce that xr ys xt yu x i y j X Therefore. y À1 xy x À1 X We shall prove that the function W: G 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < n À 1. The following example displays a technique which can often be used to prove that certain functions are homomorphisms. 1. and we write G H. 0 < s < 1. We now demonstrate the technique of Example 1. Moreover. 0 < j < 1. b: an b2 1. 0 < u < 1. so H G. and suppose that H contains elements x and y which satisfy x n y 2 1. y be the following permutations in G: x (1 2 3 4 5).

bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX By Example 1. Cosets Let G be a group and let H be a subgroup of G.8 Representations and characters of groups (Here we adopt the usual cycle notation ± thus. it is an isomorphism. we have . b: a5 b2 1.) Check that x 5 y 2 1. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. and let Hx1 . we deduce that jGj rj HjX In particular. y À1 xy x À1 X Let H be the subgroup kx. and Hxi Hxj is empty if i T j. Hxr be all the distinct right cosets of H in G. Suppose now that G is ®nite. we see that H fx i y j : 0 < i < 4. and so on. a group of order 10. the function W: D10 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 4. . .4. Thus. For all i. and so j Hxi j j Hj. (1 2 3 4 5) denotes the permutation 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 1. Since W is invertible. yl of G. . Using the above relations. every element of G is in precisely one of the cosets). H kx. Since G Hx1 X X X Hxr . For x in G. . 0 < j < 1g. the subset Hx fhx: h P Hg of G is called a right coset of H in G. Now recall that D10 ha. The distinct right cosets of H in G form a partition of G (that is. yl D10. the function h 3 hxi (h P H) is a bijection from H to Hxi .

h P G. but the subgroup H kbl is not normal in G. 1. we write N v G to indicate that N is a normal subgroup of G. If n > 2 then there are just two right cosets of An in Sn . (2) For n > 1. Then N v G and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let N GaN fN .Groups and homomorphisms 1. (3) Let G D8 ka. and so Sn aAn C2 . namely An f g P Sn : g eveng.7 Examples (1) For every group G. since b P H while aÀ1 ba a2 b P H. and is written as jG: Hj. Suppose that N v G and let GaN be the set of right cosets of N in G. then j Hj divides |G|. we see that GaN C2 3 C2 . Nb. a2 }. a . Normal subgroups A subgroup N of a group G is said to be a normal subgroup of G if gÀ1 Ng N for all g P G (where gÀ1 Ng f gÀ1 ng: n P Ng). ka2 l {1. Na. the sub-groups {1} and G are normal subgroups of G. we have An v Sn . Thus jG: Hj jGjaj Hj when G is ®nite.6 Lagrange's Theorem If G is a ®nite group and H is a subgroup of G. 9 The number r of distinct right cosets of H in G is called the index of H in G. The subgroup kal is also normal in G. h P GX This makes GaN into a group. called the factor group of G by N. we have fxy: x P Ng and y P Nhg NghX Hence we can de®ne a product operation on GaN by (Ng)(Nh) Ngh for all g. b: a4 b2 1. and An (1 2) f g P Sn : g oddgX Thus |Sn :An | 2. NabgX Since (Na)2 (Nb)2 (Nab)2 N. The importance of the condition gÀ1 Ng N (for all g P G) is that it can be used to show that for all g.

the cyclic group Cp . we eventually see that G is `built' out of a collection of simple groups. with p a prime number. (This is analogous to the fact that every positive integer is built out of its prime factors. and Im W is a subgroup of H. G is `built' out of these two smaller groups.) Thus. If G is a ®nite group which is not simple. Kernels and images To conclude the chapter.10 Representations and characters of groups Simple groups A group G is said to be simple if G T {1} and the only normal subgroups of G are {1} and G. Continuing this process with the smaller groups. For example. Then GaKer W Im WX An isomorphism is given by the function Kg 3 gW where K Ker W. 1. then G has a normal subgroup N such that both N and G/N have smaller order than G. we relate normal subgroups and factor groups to homomorphisms. is simple. We shall give examples of non-abelian simple groups in later chapters ± the smallest one is A5 . the image of W is (1X9) Im W f gW: g P Gg. Let G and H be groups and suppose that W: G 3 H is a homomorphism. ( g P G) . simple groups are fundamental to the study of ®nite groups. and in a sense. The following result describes the way in which the kernel and image of W are related.10 Theorem Suppose that G and H are groups and let W: G 3 H be a homomorphism. Also. We de®ne the kernel of W by (1X8) Ker W f g P G: gW 1gX Then Ker W is a normal subgroup of G.

Im W. Exercises for Chapter 1 1. Show that either W is an isomorphism or H {1}. Summary of Chapter 1 1. We have Ker W An . Suppose that G and H are groups. . and for n > 2.11 Example The function W: Sn 3 C2 given by & 1. . W: g 3 À1. is a subgroup of H.10. D2 n ka. with multiplication (Ng)(Nh) NghX 3. is a normal subgroup of G. C) the group of invertible n 3 n matrices over C. . A homomorphism W: G 3 H is a function such that ( g1 g 2 )W ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g1 . . Q8 ka. 2. A normal subgroup N of G is a subgroup such that gÀ1 Ng N for all g in G. GL(n. Ker W. Gr . if g is an odd permutation. The factor group GaN consists of the right cosets Ng ( g P G). with G simple. Im W C2 . The kernel. 11 is a homomorphism. 2. Show that if G is an abelian group which is simple. G1 3 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. the direct product of the groups G1 . Examples of groups are Cn ka: an 1l.7(2) that Sn /An C2 . then G is cyclic of prime order. We know from Example 1. The factor group GaKer W is isomorphic to Im W. if g is an even permutation. and the image. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. illustrating Theorem 1. Sn the symmetric group of degree n.Groups and homomorphisms 1. . a2 b2 . b: an b2 1. . 3 Gr . . and that W: G 3 H is a surjective homomorphism. An the alternating group of degree n. b: a4 1. g2 in G.

5. and let K be the subgroup kx. yl of S4 . is a homomorphism. (c) If G is a ®nite cyclic group and x. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. 6. ø: cr d s 3 x r y s (0 < r < 3. d À1 cd cÀ1 iX (a) Let x. and H Q8 hc. and Ga (G An ) C2 X 4. Find Ker ö and Ker ø. (b) Let G be a ®nite cyclic group. show that x is a power of y. are homomorphisms.12 Representations and characters of groups 3. y be the permutations in S4 which are given by x (1 2). Prove that D4 m D2 m 3 C2 if m is odd. Prove that f g P G: g n 1g is a cylic subgroup of G of order n. 0 < s < 1). Show that both the functions ö: G 3 K and ø: H 3 K. ì: cr d s 3 X r Y s (0 < r < 3. C). d: c4 1. and let n be a positive integer which divides |G|. (a) Show that every subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic. Y be the 2 3 2 matrices which are given by 0 i 0 À1 X . y are elements of G with the same order. Let G D8 ha. . Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . Prove that this homomorphism is an isomorphism. c2 d 2 . y (3 4). b: a4 b2 1. de®ned by ë: ar bs 3 X r Y s .Y . (b) Let X. Y i of GL(2. i 0 1 0 and let L be the subgroup hX . and that G is not contained in An . Show that just one of the functions ë: G 3 L and ì: H 3 L. 0 < s < 1). de®ned by ö: ar bs 3 x r y s . Prove that G An is a normal subgroup of G.

is a group. Bl has order 16. under the usual multiplication. Prove that H v G.Groups and homomorphisms 13 7. B has order 4.) 10. and B2 A4 and BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X Show that the group kA. Find elements A and B of GL(2. Show that every group of even order contains an element of order 2. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G with |G: H| 2. Show that the set of non-zero complex numbers. Prove that every ®nite subgroup of this group is cyclic. 8. .2(4). (Hint: compare Q8 in Example 1. 9. C) such that A has order 8.

ì in F. so we omit the proofs. v of V to form an element u v of V.1) (a) V is an abelian group under addition.2 Vector spaces and linear transformations An attractive feature of representation theory is that it combines two strands of mainstream mathematics. v in V and all ë. The elements of V are called vectors. these rules must satisfy: (2. Vector spaces Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). (b) for all u. in case you have not come across projections before. (4) 1v v.) Moreover. and a rule for multiplying any element v of V by any element ë of F to form an element ëv of V. (The latter rule is called scalar multiplication. namely group theory and linear algebra. For reference purposes. We write 0 for the identity element of the abelian group V under addition. and those of F are called scalars. (3) (ëì)v ë(ìv). where we deal with projections. we gather the results from linear algebra concerning vector spaces. Most of the material will be familiar to you if you have taken a ®rst course on linear algebra. we explain in detail how the results work. together with a rule for adding any two elements u. An exception occurs in the last section. (2) (ë ì)v ëv ìv. here. linear transformations and matrices which we shall use later. 14 . A vector space over F is a set V. (1) ë(u v) ëu ëv.

The vectors v1 . If V {0} then dim V 0. we consider row vectors (x1 . . v n are linearly dependent if ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n 0 for some ë1 . and de®ne addition and scalar multiplication on F n by (x1 . X X X . X X X . . . . x2 . x9 ) (x1 x9 . . ë y)X Then R2 is a vector space over R. as above. ë n in F. . A vector v in V is a linear combination of v1 . The number of vectors in a basis of V is called the dimension of V and is written as dim V. . . v n form a basis of V if they span V and are linearly independent. Throughout this book. v1 . . y y9). . ëxn )X Then F n is a vector space over F. . . . . (2) More generally.Vector spaces and linear transformations 15 2. . . . y) where x and y are real numbers. otherwise. . . The vector space V is n-dimensional if dim V n. . we shall consider only vector spaces V which are ®nite-dimensional ± this means that V has a basis consisting of ®nitely many vectors. . . . X X X . v n are said to span V if every vector in V is a linear combination of v1 . v n . . . . The vectors v1 . v n be vectors in a vector space V over F. Bases of vector spaces Let v1 . ë(x. . not all of which are zero. xn ) (ëx1 . y) (x9. . We denote the set of all such row vectors by F n. . De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on R2 by (x. . xn ) (x9 . X X X . 1 n 1 n ë(x1 . . . .2 Examples (1) Let R2 denote the set of all ordered pairs (x. x2 . X X X . xn x9 ). for each positive integer n. . xn ) where x1 . . xn belong to F. v n if v ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n for some ë1 . . X X X . . . It turns out that any two bases of V have the same number of vectors. We say that v1 . y) (ëx. y9) (x x9. . . v n are linearly independent. . ë n in F.

. . . . v n form a basis of V. ur . ur . 0. . . v P U then u v P U. . . . X X X . ë n . . ë n in F. X X X . (3) if ë P F and u P U then ëu P U. 1. 0. 0). X X X . We de®ne sp (u1 . it is necessary and suf®cient that all the following conditions hold: (2. . ur ) is a subspace of V. (0. 0. each vector v in V can be written in a unique way as v ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n . v n of a vector space V. . 0. . 0. sp (u1 . . 1)X Given a basis v1 . (2) if u. v n in V such that v1 .3 Example Let V F n. . X X X . For a subset U of V to be a subspace. the next result says that any linearly independent vectors can be extended to a basis. . (1. . (0.6 Examples (1) {0} and V are subspaces of V. . 0). . with ë1 . . . Subspaces A subspace of a vector space V over F is a subset of V which is itself a vector space under the addition and scalar multiplication inherited from V. 0.16 Representations and characters of groups 2. . . Another basis is (1. . . Indeed. 2. . .4) If v1 . then there exist v k1 . . X X X . . (2) Let u1 . 1. sp (u1 . . X X X . v k are linearly independent vectors in V. . . . ë r P FgX By (2. 1. ur ) fë1 u1 X X X ë r ur : ë1 . The vector v therefore determines the scalars ë1 . . so dim V n. . and it is called the subspace spanned by u1 . that is. . X X X . (2. . . . 0). . . . 1. .5) (1) 0 P U. . X X X .5). Except in the case where V {0}. ur ) to be the set of all linear combinations of u1 . (1. 0. Then (1. 0). X X X . X X X . 1) is a basis of V. 0. . there are many bases of V. ur be vectors in V.

Then V U È WX From this construction it follows that there are in®nitely many subspaces W with V U È W. . . . . Then dim U < dim V Also. . then we write it as U1 È X X X È Ur X 2. (2. . Then V U1 È X X X È Un X (2) Let U be a subspace of V and let v1 . . . only if U V. . . v n of V (see (2.Vector spaces and linear transformations Notice that the following fact is a consequence of (2. . . . v k be a basis of U. Ur is a direct sum if every element of the sum can be written in a unique way as u1 . w1. . . v n is a basis of V. . dim U dim V if and . . ws is a basis of V. You should consult the solutions to Exercises 2. . . . Extend v1.9) Suppose that V U W. (2) u1 . . The next result is frequently useful when dealing with the direct sum of two subspaces. Ur is de®ned by U1 X X X Ur fu1 X X X ur : ui P Ui for 1 < i < rgX By (2. and for 1 < i < n. . . v n ). . then the sum U1 .7) Suppose that U is a subspace of the vector space V . let Ui be the subspace spanned by v i. . ur . . Ur are subspaces of a vector space V. . .4). v k to a basis v1 . . . Ur is a subspace of V.4 if you have dif®culty with the proof. . . U1 . Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) V U È W. . that u1 . (3) U W {0}. . . unless U is {0} or V. (2. . . Direct sums of subspaces 17 If U1. and let W sp (v k1 . . ur is a basis of U and that w1. . We say that the sum U1 . ws is a basis of W.8 Examples (1) Suppose that v1 . . .5). . ur with ui P Ui for 1 < i < r. . If the sum is direct. . . . .4)). .3 and 2. .

then V U1 È X X X È Ua È W 1 È X X X È W b X We now introduce a construction for vector spaces which is analogous to the construction of direct products for groups. . . . A linear transformation from V to W is a function W: V 3 W which satis®es (u v)W uW vW (ëv)W ë(vW) for all u. and for all ë P F and v P V X . . If V U È W and also U U1 È X X X È Ua . ur ) (ëu1 . . Ur be vector spaces over F. ëur )X With these de®nitions. abusing notation slightly. . Wb are subspaces of a vector space V. . ur ) (u9 . involving the direct sum of several subspaces. 0): ui P U i g i (where the ui is in the ith position). then it is immediate that V U1 È X X X È U 9X 9 r We call V the external direct sum of U1. X X X .10) Suppose that U. . . we write V U1 È X X X È Ur X Linear transformations Let V and W be vector spaces over F. v P V . . X X X . ui . X X X .18 Representations and characters of groups Our next result. X X X . . V is a vector space over F. and let V f(u1 . u9 i in Ui (1 < i < r) and all ë in F. let (u1 . W. ur u9 ). . X X X . If. we put U 9 f(0. U1. and W W1 È X X X È Wb . u9 ) (u1 u9 . W1. for 1 < i < r. ur ): ui P U i for 1 < i < rgX De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on V as follows: for all ui . . X X X . . 1 r 1 r ë(u1 . X X X . Ur. can be deduced immediately from the de®nition of a direct sum. . . (2. X X X . Let U1. Ua. and.

the linear transformation ö is given by (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n )ö ë1 w1 X X X ë n wn X We sometimes construct a linear transformation ö: V 3 W in this way. . . . . so a linear transformation preserves addition and scalar multiplication. wn in W. . which is known as the Rank±Nullity Theorem: (2X12) dim V dim (Ker W) dim (Im W)X 2. . . v n is a basis of V. Kernels and images Suppose that W: V 3 W is a linear transformation. . Furthermore. Their dimensions are connected by the following equation. Im W fvW: v P V gX Using (2. . and then saying `extend the action of ö to be linear'. and Ker W f0g. . . . Im W V X . . and Ker W V .13 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW 0 for all v P V. . The kernel of W (written Ker W) and the image of W (written Im W) are de®ned as follows: (2X11) Ker W fv P V : vW 0g. then for ë1 . it is easy to check that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. v n of V and any n vectors w1.5). given any basis v1 . there is a unique linear transformation ö: V 3 W such that v i ö wi for all i. by specifying the values of ö on a basis of V. then W is a linear transformation. ë n in F we have (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n )W ë1 (v1 W) X X X ë n (v n W)X Thus. Notice that if W: V 3 W is a linear transformation and v1.Vector spaces and linear transformations 19 Just as a group homomorphism preserves the group multiplication. . W is determined by its action on a basis. . then W is a linear transformation. Im W f0gX (2) If W: V 3 V is de®ned by vW 3v for all v P V.

20 Representations and characters of groups (3) If W: R3 3 R2 is given by (x. À1)). Then W ö. A linear transformation W from V to W is injective if and only if Ker W {0}.12). Suppose that W and ö are endomorphisms of V and ë P F. (3) Im W V. Endomorphisms A linear transformation from a vector space V to itself is called an endomorphism of V. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. (2.14) Let W be a linear transformation from V to itself. . À y 3z) for all x. so dim (Ker W) 1 and dim (Im W) 2. Wö and ëW from V to V by (2X15) v(W ö) vW vö. y. Im W R2 . for all v P V. If there exists an invertible linear transformation from V to W.2). z P R. z)W (x 2 y z. we have Ker W sp ((7. and hence W is invertible precisely when W is surjective and Ker W {0}. Invertible linear transformations Again. We de®ne the functions W ö. À3. By also taking (2.7) into account. (2) Ker W {0}. we obtain the next result (see Exercise 2. we see that isomorphic vector spaces have the same dimension. let V and W be vector spaces over F.1). By applying (2. v(ëW) ë(vW). We write W2 for WW. then V and W are said to be isomorphic vector spaces. v(Wö) (vW)ö. Wö and ëW are endomorphisms of V. y. then W is a linear transformation. It turns out that the inverse of an invertible linear transformation is also a linear transformation (see Exercise 2.

(x. Wö. x À 2 y). and let W be an endomorphism of V. y)ö (x À 2 y. y) 3 (x y. 2x À 10 y). y)W (x y. y)(W ö) (2x À y. ö be the functions from V to V de®ned by (x. Suppose that v1 . 1 < j < n) such that for all i. (x.17 De®nition The n 3 n matrix (aij ) is called the matrix of W relative to the basis B . v i W a i1 v1 X X X ain v n X 2. 1) of V and B 9 is the basis . and W ö. y)(3W) (3x 3 y.18 Examples (1) If W 1 V (so that vW v for all v P V). for all ë P F. (2) Let V R2 and let W be the endomorphism (x. and is denoted by [W]B . where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. then [W]B In for all bases B of V. 3x À 6 y). 3W and W2 are given by (x. . then so is W À ë1 V . Àx 2 y). Note that Ker (W À ë1 V ) fv P V : vW ëvgX (2) Let V R2. If B is the basis (1. 0).16 Examples (1) The identity function 1 V de®ned by 1 V : v 3 v for all v P V 21 is an endomorphism of V. y)(Wö) (Àx 5 y. and let W.Vector spaces and linear transformations 2. À2x 4 y)X Then W and ö are endomorphisms of V. (x. 2. (x. v n is a basis of V and call it B . . Then there are scalars aij in F (1 < i < n. x À 2 y) of V. . If W is an endomorphism of V. y)W2 (2x À y. . (0. Àx 5 y)X Matrices Let V be a vector space over F.

20) Suppose that B is a basis of the vector space V. then we describe A as a matrix over F. Then [W ö]B [W]B [ö]B .22 Representations and characters of groups 1 . (1. Given two m 3 n matrices A (aij ) and B (bij ) over F. 0). then [W]B 1 1 0 3 If we wish to indicate that the entries in a matrix A come from F. their product AB is the m 3 p matrix whose ij-entry is n k1 aik bkj X 2. the matrix ëA is the m 3 n matrix over F obtained from A by multiplying all the entries by ë. À2 [W]B 9 1 X À1 (1. AB 3 .19 Example Let A Then A B 2 BA À1 3 2 0 . their sum A B is the m 3 n matrix over F whose ij-entry is aij bij for all i. 3A X À3 9 6 3 4 2 2 À13 À12 À5 The matrix of the sum or product of two endomorphisms (relative to some basis) is related to the matrices of the individual endomorphisms in the way you would expect: (2. j. 1) of V. Given an m 3 n matrix A (aij ) and an n 3 p matrix B (bij ). and [Wö]B [W]B [ö]B X . and for ë P F. As you know. B 1 2 2 3 À4 X À1 2 . and that W and ö are endomorphisms of V. 2 À1 5 À2 À4 3 0 3 3 . the product of two matrices is de®ned in a less transparent way.

It is easy enough to reverse this process and use a matrix to de®ne an endomorphism. Suppose that A is an n 3 n matrix over F. the matrix product vA also lies in V. Invertible matrices turn up when we relate two bases of a vector space. The connection between invertible endomorphisms and invertible matrices is straightforward. if it exists. (2. is unique. An invertible matrix converts one basis into another. it is called the inverse of A and is written as AÀ1 .Vector spaces and linear transformations Also. . [ëW]B ë[W]B X 23 We showed you in (2. and this same matrix is used to describe the way in which the matrix of an .21) If A is an n 3 n matrix over F then the function . The following remark is easily justi®ed. Then a necessary and suf®cient condition for A to be invertible is that det A T 0.20): given a basis B of V. Such a matrix B. where 1 À1 (x. xn ) with each xi in F.17) how to get a matrix from an endomorphism of a vector space V. 2. an endomorphism W of V is invertible if and only if the matrix [W]B is invertible. v 3 vA (v P F n ) is an endomorphism of F n. given a basis of V.22 Example Let A 1 3 À1 X 2 Then A gives us an endomorphism W of F 2. for all scalars ë. . y) (x 3 y. . Then for all v in V. We concentrate on a particular way of doing this. Àx 2 y)X 3 2 Invertible matrices An n 3 n matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists an n 3 n matrix B with AB BA In . Write det A for the determinant of A. y)W (x. . and follows from (2. the vector space of row vectors (x1 . and let V F n.

.23 De®nition Let v1 . v n be a basis B of the vector space V. The scalar ë is said to be an eigenvalue of W if vW ëv for some non-zero vector v in V. 1) of V. (2. v9 t i1 v1 X X X tin v n i for certain scalars tij . . The precise meaning of these remarks is revealed in the de®nition (2. The n 3 n matrix T (tij ) is invertible. (1.24) below. Let B be the basis (1.25 Example Suppose that V R2. 1) and B 9 the basis (1. Then for 1 < i < n. where T is the change of basis matrix from B to B 9. (0. . then [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 T . . The inverse of T is the change of basis matrix from B 9 to B . x À 2 y) of V. and is called the change of basis matrix from B to B 9. and suppose that W is an endomorphism of V. 2. 0). then 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 T X À1 1 3 À1 1 1 1 À2 Eigenvalues Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F. 0). as in Example 2. .24) If B and B 9 are bases of V and W is an endomorphism of V. and let v9 .24 Representations and characters of groups endomorphism depends upon the basis. y) 3 (x y. . 2. v9 1 n be a basis B 9 of V. . . .23) and the result (2.18(2). Such a vector v is called an eigenvector of W.T X 1 1 À1 1 If W is the endomorphism W: (x. Then 1 0 1 0 À1 T .

Ài) and (1.27 Examples (1) Let V C2 and let W be the endomorphism of V which is given by (x. and let W be an endomorphism of V. i) of V. For an n 3 n matrix A over F. i). then i 0 [W]B 9 X 0 Ài (2) Let V R2 and let W again be the endomorphism which is given by (x. x)X This time. 0). then 0 1 [W]B X À1 0 We have det ([W]B À ëI2 ) ë2 1. so i and Ài are the eigenvalues of W. Since every non-constant polynomial with coef®cients in C has a root in C.26) Let V be a non-zero vector space over C. x)X If B is the basis (1. (1. which occurs if and only if W À ë1 V is not invertible. the element ë of F is said to be an eigenvalue of A if vA ëv for some non-zero row vector v in F n. Then W has an eigenvalue. we deduce the following result. and W has no eigenvalues in R. (2. Thus we depend upon F being C in result (2. 1) of V.26). The eigenvalues of A are those elements ë of F which satisfy det (A À ëI n ) 0X . 2. y)W (À y. then the eigenvalues of W are those scalars ë in F which satisfy the equation det ([W]B À ëI n ) 0X Solving this equation involves ®nding the roots of a polynomial of degree n. Note that if B 9 is the basis (1. Ài).Vector spaces and linear transformations 25 Now ë is an eigenvalue of W if and only if Ker (W À ë1 V ) T {0}. if B is a basis of V. (0. V is a vector space over R. y)W (À y. Corresponding eigenvectors are (1. Therefore.

in addition. and since uð u for all u in U. w P W. . for ë in F. (ëv)ð (ëu ëw)ð ëu ë(vð)X Therefore. Clearly Im ð # U. . We have (v v9)ð (u u9 w w9)ð u u9 (u w)ð (u9 w9)ð vð v9ðX Also. then we can construct a special endomorphism of V which depends upon the expression V U È W: 2. Also. ð is an endomorphism of V. . w P W X Then ð is an endomorphism of V.28 Example We say that an n 3 n matrix A (aij ) is diagonal if aij 0 for all i and j with i T j. Ker ð W and ð2 ðX Proof Since every vector in V has a unique expression in the form u w with u P U. u9 in U and w. De®ne ð: V 3 V by (u w)ð u for all u P U . . we have Im U. Projections If a vector space V is a direct sum of two subspaces U and W. . ë n .26 Representations and characters of groups 2. Then v u w and v9 u9 w9 for some u. Further. it follows that ð is a function on V. that aii ë i for 1 < i < n. Im ð U . For this diagonal matrix A. We often display such a matrix in the form H I ë1 0 f g FF Ad e F ën 0 which indicates. the eigenvalues are ë1 . w9 in W. Let v and v9 belong to V.29 Proposition Suppose that V U È W.

j .Vector spaces and linear transformations (u w)ð 0 D u 0 D u w P W .31 Example The endomorphism (x.30 De®nition An endomorphism ð of a vector space V which satis®es ð2 ð is called a projection of V. and so Ker ð W. y) 3 (2x 2 y.32 Proposition Suppose that ð is a projection of a vector space V. (u w)ð2 uð u (u w)ð. since (v À vð)ð vð À vð2 vð À vð 0X This establishes that V Im ð Ker ð. Thus Im ð Ker ð f0g. Now suppose that v lies in Im ð Ker ð. and so ð2 ð. As v P Im ð. as in Proposition 2. and the second term v À vð lies in Ker ð. and (2. Then V Im ð È Ker ðX Proof If v P V then v vð (v À vð). 2. We now show that every projection can be constructed using a direct sum. Clearly the ®rst term vð belongs to Im ð. 27 j 2.29. Therefore vð uð2 uð vX Since v P Ker ð. it follows that v vð 0. Finally. 2. Àx À y) of R2 is a projection.9) now shows that V Im ð È Ker ð. we have v uð for some u P V.

. where F C or R. A linear transformation W: V 3 W is invertible if and only if Ker W {0} and Im W W. F F F . Exercises for Chapter 2 1. x n ) with each xi in F. V U È W if and only if V U W and U W {0}. È Ur if each Ui is a subspace of V. A linear transformation W: V 3 W satis®es (u v)W uW vW and (ëv)W ë(vW) for all u. A projection is an endomorphism ð of V which satis®es ð2 ð. F n is the set of row vectors (x1 . . Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. Àx): x P Rg. Àx À y) is the projection of R2 which appears in Example 2. and every element v of V has a unique expression of the form v u1 . Show that if V and W are vector spaces and W: V 3 W is an invertible linear transformation then WÀ1 is a linear transformation. V U1 È . Àx): x P RgX Summary of Chapter 2 1. ur (ui P Ui ). 3. v in V and all ë in F. 2. . . . there exists an invertible matrix T such that [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 TX 6. and an endomorphism W of V. then Im ð f(2x. All our vector spaces are ®nite-dimensional over F. 7.31. Ker ð f(x. Also.28 Representations and characters of groups 2. Eigenvalues ë of an endomorphism W satisfy vW ëv for some nonzero v in V. y) 3 (2x 2 y. there is a correspondence between the endomorphisms W of V and the n 3 n matrices [W]B over F.33 Example If ð: (x. and dimF n n. Given a basis B of the n-dimensional vector space V. For example. 5. Given two bases B and B 9 of V. and dim V dim (Ker W) dim (Im W)X 4.

Give an example of a vector space V with endomorphisms W and ö such that V Im W È Ker W. ur is a basis of U and w1. . Prove that dim V dim U1 X X X dim U r X 7. . Suppose that u1 . (2) Ker W {0}. . with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or À1. . Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. . and that V U1 È . with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or 0. ur . . . W fv P V : vW ÀvgX Deduce that V has a basis B such that [W]B is diagonal. Show that W is a projection if and only if there is a basis B of V such that [W]B is diagonal. Let V be a vector space and let W be an endomorphism of V. . Prove that V U È W if and only if V U W and U W = {0}. . U2 and U3 be subspaces of a vector space V. . Show that V U1 È U2 È U3 D U 1 (U 2 U3 ) U 2 (U 1 U3 ) U 3 (U 1 U2 ) f0gX (b) Give an example of a vector space V with three subspaces U1. . Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V. Show that the following are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. . . where U fv P V : vW vg. . (3) Im W V. Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V and W2 1 V . but V T U1 È U2 È U3. 6. Suppose that U1. . . . . .Vector spaces and linear transformations 29 2. 4. . . 3. w1. Ur are subspaces of the vector space V. È Ur. Show that V U È W. ws is a basis of W. . 5. but V T Im ö È Ker ö. with V U1 U2 U3. 8. . ws is a basis of V. (a) Let U1. U2 and U3 such that V U1 U2 U3 and U1 U 2 U1 U3 U2 U 3 f0g. Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. 9. Show that V U È W if and only if u1 .

F). and consider the kernel of a representation. F). where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. h P GX Since a representation is a homomorphism. The degree of r is the integer n.3 Group representations A representation of a group G gives us a way of visualizing G as a group of matrices. Representations Let G be a group and let F be R or C. 30 . we have 1r I n . F) denotes the group of invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. We also introduce the concept of equivalence of representations. for some n. To be precise. Thus if r is a function from G to GL (n. Recall from the ®rst chapter that GL (n. and g À1 r ( gr)À1 for all g P G. then r is a representation if and only if ( gh)r ( gr)(hr) for all g. We set out this idea in more detail. and give some examples of representations. a representation is a homomorphism from G into a group of invertible matrices. F).1 De®nition A representation of G over F is a homomorphism r from G to GL (n. it follows that for every representation r: G 3 GL (n. 3.

so r is a representation of G. b: a4 b2 1. as usual. F) by gr I n for all g P G. This shows that every group has representations of arbitrarily large degree. B À1 0 0 À1 and check that A4 B2 I. Equivalent representations We now look at a way of converting a given representation into another one. De®ne r: G 3 GL (n. F) which is given by r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. 0 < j < 1) is a representation of D8 over F.2 Examples (1) Let G be the dihedral group D8 ka. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.Group representations 31 3. . h P G. where In is the n 3 n identity matrix.4) that the function r: G 3 GL (2. Then ( gh)r I n I n I n ( gr)(hr) for all g. The degree of r is 2. The matrices gr for g in D8 are given in the following table: g gr 1 1 0 0 1 a 0 1 À1 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 a3 0 À1 1 0 g gr b 1 0 0 À1 ab 0 À1 À1 0 2 a b À1 0 0 1 3 a b 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G be any group. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X It follows (see Example 1. De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 1 1 0 A .

We say that r is equivalent to ó if n m and there exists an invertible n 3 n matrix T such that for all g P G. F) be a representation. and let T be an invertible n 3 n matrix over F. (3) if r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô.4 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. indeed. 3. gó T À1 ( gr)TX Note that for all representations r. ó and ô of G over F. F) and ó : G 3 GL (n. then r is equivalent to ô. Thus ar A for all g P GX . and so ó is. T À1 (hr)T ( gó )(hó ). we have (T À1 AT )(T À1 BT ) T À1 (AB)TX We can use this observation to produce a new representation ó from r. Note that for all n 3 n matrices A and B. b: a4 b2 1.2(1). and consider the representation r of G which appears in Example 3.3 De®nition Let r: G 3 GL (m. we have (see Exercise 3. equivalence of representations is an equivalence relation. 3. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. a representation. h P G. In other words. ( gh)ó T À1 (( gh)r)T T À1 (( gr)(hr))T T À1 ( gr)T . we simply de®ne gó T À1 ( gr)T Then for all g.32 Representations and characters of groups Let r: G 3 GL (n. (2) if r is equivalent to ó then ó is equivalent to r.4): (1) r is equivalent to r. F) be representations of G over F.

À1 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of G for which 1 0 1 0 . . B 0 0 1 X Ài 1 Ài X 1 i 0 X À1 33 0 À1 Assume that F C. aó 1ó 0 À1 0 1 and ó is equivalent to r. T has been constructed so that T À1 AT is diagonal. Hence r: 1 3 I. bó aó 1 0 0 Ài The representations r and ó are equivalent.Group representations and br B. If 2 À3 . and de®ne 1 T p 2 Then 1 i 1 T À1 p 2 In fact. T BT . 0 Ài 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of D8 for which 0 1 i 0 X . where A 1 1 . we have i 0 0 1 À1 À1 T AT . T 1 À1 then T À1 AT 0 . a 3 A is a representation of G. (2) Let G C2 ka: a2 1l and let À5 A À2 12 X 5 Check that A2 I. .

F) is said to be faithful if Ker r {1}. as is shown by the following de®nition. Kernels of representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the kernel of a representation r: G 3 GL (n.6 De®nition A representation r: G 3 GL (n. To put the de®nition another way. 3.34 Representations and characters of groups There are two easily recognized situations where the only representation which is equivalent to r is r itself. 3. Of particular interest are those representations whose kernel is just the identity subgroup. . this consists of the group elements g in G for which gr is the identity matrix. if the identity element of G is the only element g for which gr In .5 De®nition The representation r: G 3 GL (1. these are when the degree of r is 1. However. the trivial representation of G is the representation where every group element is sent to the 1 3 1 identity matrix. is called the trivial representation of G. and when gr In for all g in G.8. F). that is. F) which is de®ned by gr (1) for all g P G. Thus Ker r f g P G: gr I n gX Note that Ker r is a normal subgroup of G.7 Proposition A representation r of a ®nite group G is faithful if and only if Im r is isomorphic to G. 3. It can happen that the kernel of a representation is the whole of G. there are usually lots of representations which are equivalent to r. In agreement with De®nition 1.

if G Im r. for some n. r is faithful. F). A representation of a group G is a homomorphism from G into GL(n. that is. and so |Ker r| 1. j 3. it follows that all representations which are equivalent to a faithful representation are faithful. Therefore. Summary of Chapter 3 1. The basic problem of representation theory is to discover and understand representations of ®nite groups.8 Examples (1) The representation r of D8 given by j i 1 0 0 1 i j (a b )r 0 À1 À1 0 as in Example 3. (3) The trivial representation of a group G if faithful if and only if G {1}. then these two groups have the same (®nite) order. Representations r and ó of G are equivalent if and only if there exists an invertible matrix T such that for all g P G.Group representations 35 Proof We know that Ker r v G and by Theorem 1. . In Chapter 6 we shall show that every ®nite group has a faithful representation.2(1) is faithful. if Ker r {1} then G Im r.10. the factor group G/ Ker r is isomorphic to Im r. A representation is faithful if it is injective. Conversely. since the identity is the only element g which satis®es gr I. 2. The group generated by the matrices 0 1 1 0 and À1 0 0 À1 is therefore isomorphic to D8. (2) Since T À1 AT In if and only if A In . gó T À1 ( gr)T X 3.

B 0 1 0 . Show that each of the functions r j : G 3 GL (2. B . F) such that ar (1) and br (À1). Suppose that A P GL (n. and F R or C. 4. C) (1 < j < 3). then ó is equivalent to r. 3. then r is equivalent to ô. Let G be the cyclic group of order m. Let A (0 < r < m À 1)X Show that r is a representation of G over C if and only if Am I. Let G D12 ka. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Show that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (1. Suppose that r. Which of these representations are faithful? 3. C) (k 1. 5. C) by r: ar 3 Ar 2. 4). and ó is equivalent to ô. C. say G ka: am 1l. B. D over C by 0 1 eiða3 0 A . 1 0 1 0 .C 0 À1 1 À1 e2ðia3 and let G ka: a3 1l C3 . r3 : a r 3 C r (0 < r < 2). de®ned by r1 : ar 3 Ar . 2. b: an b2 1. 1 0 0 eÀiða3 p 1a2 3a2 1 0 p C . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. (2) if r is equivalent to ó. and de®ne r: G 3 GL (n. C). r2 : ar 3 Br . Suppose that G D2 n ka. is a representation of G over C. ó and ô are representations of G over F.36 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 3 1. Prove: (1) r is equivalent to r. D X À 3a2 1a2 0 À1 Prove that each of the functions r k : G 3 GL (2. given by . De®ne the matrices A. b: a6 b2 1. (3) if r is equivalent to ó.

Give an example of a faithful representation of D8 of degree 3. r2 : ar bs 3 A3 r (ÀB) s . Prove that Ga Ker r is abelian. r 4 : ar bs 3 C r D s (0 < r < 5. r3 : ar bs 3 (ÀA) r Bs .Group representations r1 : ar bs 3 Ar Bs . 0 < s < 1). 8. Which of these representations are faithful? Which are equivalent? 6. Let r be a representation of the group G. 37 is a representation of G. Does it follow that gh hg? . Suppose that g and h are elements of G such that ( gr)(hr) (hr)( gr). Suppose that r is a representation of G of degree 1. 7.

the matrix product v( gr). h P G. since 1r is the identity matrix. Write V F n . We now list some basic properties of the multiplication v( gr). 38 . of the row vector v with the n 3 n matrix gr.4 FG-modules We now introduce the concept of an FG-module. First. the vector space of all row vectors (ë1 . . is a row vector in V (since the product of a 1 3 n matrix with an n 3 n matrix is again a 1 3 n matrix). we have v(1r) v for all v P V. F) is a representation of G. . Next. the fact that r is a homomorphism shows that v(( gh)r) v( gr)(hr) for all v P V and all g. For all v P V and g P G. Finally. Much of the material in the remainder of the book will be presented in terms of FG-modules. FG-modules Let G be a group and let F be R or C. . ë n ) with ë i P F. Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. as there are several advantages to this approach to representation theory. . and show that there is a close connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F. the properties of matrix multiplication give (ëv)( gr) ë(v( gr)).

h P G: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) v g P V. v1 v. Àë2 ). ë P F and g P G. (v P V ) .FG-modules (u v)( gr) u( gr) v( gr) for all u. v( gh) (v g)h. the function v 3 vg is an endomorphism of V. We use the letters F and G in the name `FG-module' to indicate that V is a vector space over F and that G is the group from which we are taking the elements g to form the products v g (v P V). v(br) (ë1 . v(a3 r) (ë2 .2(1). Thus 1 0 0 1 X . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. v P V. v(ar) (Àë2 . F) be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. v P V. 39 4. for example. Àë1 )X Motivated by the above observations on the product v( gr).1 Example Let G D8 ka. 4. ë P F and g. (4) and (5) in the de®nition ensure that for all g P G. b: a4 b2 1. we now de®ne an FG-module. br ar 0 À1 À1 0 If v (ë1 . and let r: G 3 GL (2. g P G) is de®ned. ë2 ) P F 2 then.2 De®nition Let V be a vector space over F and let G be a group. (u v) g ug v g. Then V is an FG-module if a multiplication v g (v P V. Note that conditions (1). (ëv) g ë(v g). satisfying the following conditions for all u. ë1 ).

let [ g]B denote the matrix of the endomorphism v 3 v g of V. ë P F and g. we have v( gr) P F n . v(1r) v. then gr [ g]B for all g P G. 1. and let B be a basis of V. The connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F is revealed in the following basic result. For each g P G. F) is a representation of G over F. 0. 1) of F n. v P F n.4 Theorem (1) If r: G 3 GL(n. X X X . X X X . 0. 0. g P G)X for all g P GX Moreover. g P GX Moreover. v(( gh)r) (v( gr))(hr). 0). 0. X X X . (ëv)( gr) ë(v( gr)). (0. relative to the basis B . 4. X X X .40 Representations and characters of groups 4. then V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne the multiplication v g by v g v( gr) gr [ g]B (v P V . 0).3 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. (0. h P G. and V F n. 0. (u v)( gr) u( gr) v( gr)X Therefore. F n becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g v( gr) for all v P F n . if we let B be the basis (1. Then the function g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F. ( g P G) . there is a basis B of V such that (2) Assume that V is an FG-module and let B be a basis of V. Proof (1) We have already observed that for all u.

(0.5 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka.4(1). b: a4 b2 1. By Theorem 4.FG-modules 41 (2) Let V be an FG-module with basis B . 0) À1 1 0 If v1 . br X À1 0 0 À1 Write V F 2. 4. v2 is the basis (1. 0).4(1) again). h P G and all v in the basis B of V. 0)a (1. F) (where n dim V ). 1) of V. Since v( gh) (v g)h for all g. b: a4 1. then the representation is just the representation r (see Theorem 4. g 3 [ g]B v1 b v1 . and hence is a representation of G over F. (0. j Our next example illustrates part (1) of Theorem 4.2(1). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. it follows that [ gh]B [ g]B [h]B X In particular. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let r be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. We have proved that the function g 3 [ g]B is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. v2 a Àv1 . [1]B [ g]B [ g À1 ]B for all g P G. so [1]B is the identity matrix. (2) Let G Q8 ka. so 0 1 1 0 ar . Now v1 v for all v P V. then we have v1 a v2 . Therefore each matrix [ g]B is invertible (with inverse [ gÀ1 ]B ). g P G)X For instance.4. 1)X 0 (1. a2 b2 . v2 . V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g v( gr) (v P V . v2 b Àv2 X ( g P G) If B denotes the basis v1 . In Example .

. . v2 such that v1 a iv1 . . C) generated by 0 1 i 0 . For instance. . . To illustrate Theorem 4. v2 b Àv1 X Notice that in the above examples. Shortly. and then de®ne (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n ) g to be ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g)X As you might expect. that is. The next result will often be used to show that our chosen multiplication turns V into an FG-module. we shall show you various ways of constructing FG-modules directly. . then the vectors v i g j (1 < i < n. and B A À1 0 0 Ài so we already have a representation of G over C. in Example 4. 1 < j < r) determine v g for all v P V and g P G. there are restrictions on how we may de®ne the vectors v i g. v n is a basis of V and g1 . To do this. v1 b and v2 b determine v g for all v P V and g P G. that we have a multiplication v g for all v in V and g in G which (ë i P F) . the vectors v1 a. we turn a vector space V over F into an FG-module by specifying the action of group elements on a basis v1 . F F F .2(4) we de®ned Q8 to be the subgroup of GL (2. . . . 4. We then obtain a CG-module with basis v1 . v n is a basis of a vector space V over F Suppose . v2 a Àiv2 . . . v1 b v2 . (v1 2v2 )ab v1 ab 2v2 ab v2 b À 2v1 b Àv2 À 2v1 X A similar remark holds for all FG-modules V: if v1 . v2 a.4(1) we must this time take F C. without using a representation.5(1).6 Proposition Assume that v1 . . gr generate G.42 Representations and characters of groups 1. v n of V and then extending the action to be linear on the whole of V. we ®rst de®ne v i g for each i and each g in G.

FG-modules

43

satis®es the following conditions for all i with 1 < i < n, for all g, h P G, and for all ë1 , F F F , ë n P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) v i g P V; v i ( gh) (v i g)h; vi 1 vi ; (ë1 v1 . . . ë n v n ) g ë1 (v1 g) . . . ë n (v n g).

Then V is an FG-module. Proof It is clear from (3) and (4) that v1 v for all v P V. Conditions (1) and (4) ensure that for all g in G, the function v 3 v g (v P V) is an endomorphism of V. That is, vg P V, (ëv) g ë(v g), (u v) g ug v g, for all u, v P V, ë P F and g P G. Hence (4X7) (ë1 u1 X X X ë n u n )h ë1 (u1 h) X X X ë n (un h) for all ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, all u1 , . . . , un P V and all h P G. Now let v P V and g, h P G. Then v ë1 v1 . . . ë n v n for some ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, and v( gh) ë1 (v1 ( gh)) X X X ë n (v n ( gh)) (ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g))h (v g)h by condition (4)X by condition (4) ë1 ((v1 g)h) X X X ë n ((v n g)h) by condition (2) by (4X7)

We have now checked all the axioms which are required for V to be an FG-module. j Our next de®nitions translate the concepts of the trivial representation and a faithful representation into module terms. 4.8 De®nitions (1) The trivial FG-module is the 1-dimensional vector space V over F with vg v for all v P V , g P GX

44

Representations and characters of groups

(2) An FG-module V is faithful if the identity element of G is the only element g for which v g v for all v P V X For instance, the FD8 -module which appears in Example 4.5(1) is faithful. Our next aim is to use Proposition 4.6 to construct faithful FGmodules for all subgroups of symmetric groups. Permutation modules Let G be a subgroup of Sn , so that G is a group of permutations of {1, . . . , n}. Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , . . . , v n . For each i with 1 < i < n and each permutation g in G, de®ne v i g v ig X Then v i g P V and v i 1 v i . Also, for g, h in G, v i ( gh) v i( gh) v(ig) h (v i g)hX We now extend the action of each g linearly to the whole of V; that is, for all ë1 , . . . , ë n in F and g in G, we de®ne (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n ) g ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g)X Then V is an FG-module, by Proposition 4.6. 4.9 Example Let G S4 and let B denote the basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 of V. If g (1 2), then v1 g v2 , v2 g v1 , v3 g v3 , v4 g v4 X And if h (1 3 4), then v1 h v3 , v2 h v2 , v3 h v4 , v4 h v1 X We have [ g]B 0 f1 f d0 0 H 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 H I 0 0 f0 0g g, [h]B f d0 0e 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 I 0 0g gX 1e 0

FG-modules

45

4.10 De®nition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . The FG-module V with basis v1 , . . . , v n such that v i g v ig for all i, and all g P G, is called the permutation module for G over F. We call v1 , . . . , v n the natural basis of V. Note that if we write B for the basis v1 , . . . , v n of the permutation module, then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has precisely one nonzero entry in each row and column, and this entry is 1. Such a matrix is called a permutation matrix. Since the only element of G which ®xes every v i is the identity, we see that the permutation module is a faithful FG-module. If you are aware of the fact that every group G of order n is isomorphic to a subgroup of Sn , then you should be able to see that G has a faithful FG-module of dimension n. We shall go into this in more detail in Chapter 6. 4.11 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. Then G is isomorphic to the cyclic subgroup of S3 which is generated by the permutation (1 2 3). This alerts us to the fact that if V is a 3-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , then we may make V into an FG-module in which v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v3 1 v3 , v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 , v1 a2 v3 , v2 a2 v1 , v3 a2 v2 X Of course, we de®ne v g, for v an arbitrary vector in V and g 1, a or a2 , by (ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ë3 v3 ) g ë1 (v1 g) ë2 (v2 g) ë3 (v3 g) for all ë1 , ë2 , ë3 P F. Proposition 4.6 can be used to verify that V is an FG-module, but we have been motivated by the de®nition of permutation modules in our construction. FG-modules and equivalent representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the relationship between FG-modules and equivalent representations of G over F. An FG-

46

Representations and characters of groups

module gives us many representations, all of the form g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) for some basis B of V. The next result shows that all these representations are equivalent to each other (see De®nition 3.3); and moreover, any two equivalent representations of G arise from some FG-module in this way. 4.12 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B , and let r be the representation of G over F de®ned by r: g 3 [ g]B ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 ( g P G)X ( g P G) (1) If B 9 is a basis of V, then the representation of G is equivalent to r. (2) If ó is a representation of G which is equivalent to r, then there is a basis B 0 of V such that ó : g 3 [ g]B 0 ( g P G)X

Proof (1) Let T be the change of basis matrix from B to B 9 (see De®nition 2.23). Then by (2.24), for all g P G, we have [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 9 TX Therefore ö is equivalent to r. (2) Suppose that r and ó are equivalent representations of G. Then for some invertible matrix T, we have gr T À1 ( gó )T for all g P GX Let B 0 be the basis of V such that the change of basis matrix from B to B 0 is T. Then for all g P G, [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 0 T , and so gó [ g]B 0 .

j

4.13 Example Again let G C3 ka: a3 1l. There is a representation r of G which is given by

1r

1 0

FG-modules 0 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a r , ar X À1 À1 1 1 0

47

(To see this, simply note that (ar)2 a2 r and (ar)3 I; see Exercise 3.2.) If V is a 2-dimensional vector space over C, with basis v1 , v2 (which we call B ), then we can turn V into a CG-module as in Theorem 4.4(1) by de®ning v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v1 a v2 , v1 a2 Àv1 À v2 , v2 a2 v1 X À1 X 0

v2 a Àv1 À v2 ,

We then have 1 0 0 [1]B , [a]B 0 1 À1

1 À1 2 , [a ]B À1 1

Now let u1 v1 and u2 v1 v2 . Then u1 , u2 is another basis of V, which we call B 9. Since u1 1 u 1 , u2 1 u 2 , u1 a Àu1 u2 , u2 a Àu1 , u1 a2 Àu2 , u2 a2 u1 À u2 ,

we obtain the representation ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 where 1 0 À1 1 0 À1 2 [1]B 9 , [a]B 9 , [a ]B 9 X 0 1 À1 0 1 À1 Note that if T then for all g in G, we have [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 9 T , and so r and ö are equivalent, in agreement with Theorem 4.12(1).

1 0 1 1

Summary of Chapter 4 1. An FG-module is a vector space over F, together with a multiplication by elements of G on the right. The multiplication satis®es properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4.2.

48

Representations and characters of groups

2. There is a correspondence between representations of G over F and FG-modules, as follows. (a) Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n, F) is a representation of G. Then F n is an FG-module, if we de®ne v g v( gr) (v P F n , g P G)X (b) If V is an FG-module, with basis B , then r: g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F.

3. If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the permutation FG-module has basis v1 , F F F , v n , and v i g v ig for all i with 1 < i < n, and all g in G. Exercises for Chapter 4 1. Suppose that G S3 , and that V sp (v1 , v2 , v3 ) is the permutation module for G over C, as in De®nition 4.10. Let B 1 be the basis v1 , v2 , v3 of V and let B 2 be the basis v1 v2 v3 , v1 À v2 , v1 À v3 . Calculate the 3 3 3 matrices [ g]B 1 and [ g]B 2 for all g in S3 . What do you notice about the matices [ g]B 2 ? 2. Let G Sn and let V becomes an FG-module & v, vg Àv, be a vector space over F. Show that V if we de®ne, for all v in V, if g is an even permutation, if g is an odd permutation.

3. Let Q8 ka, b: a4 1, b2 a2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l, the quaternion group of order 8. Show that there is an RQ8 -module V of dimension 4 with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 such that v1 a v 2 , v1 b v 3 , v2 a Àv1 , v2 b v4 , v3 a Àv4 , v4 a v3 , and v3 b Àv1 , v4 b Àv2 X

4. Let A be an n 3 n matrix and let B be a matrix obtained from A by permuting the rows. Show that there is an n 3 n permutation matrix P such that B PA. Find a similar result for a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns.

5 FG-submodules and reducibility

We begin the study of FG-modules by introducing the basic building blocks of the theory ± the irreducible FG-modules. First we require the notion of an FG-submodule of an FG-module. Throughout, G is a group and F is R or C. FG-submodules 5.1 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. A subset W of V is said to be an FGsubmodule of V if W is a subspace and wg P W for all w P W and all g P G. Thus an FG-submodule of V is a subspace which is also an FGmodule. 5.2 Examples (1) For every FG-module V, the zero subspace {0}, and V itself, are FG-submodules of V. (2) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l, and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule de®ned in Example 4.11. Thus, V has basis v1 , v2 , v3 , and v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v3 1 v3 , v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 , v1 a2 v3 , v2 a2 v1 , v3 a2 v2 X Put w v1 v2 v3, and let W sp (w), the 1-dimensional subspace spanned by w. Since 49

50

Representations and characters of groups w1 wa wa2 w,

W is an FG-submodule of V. However, sp (v1 v2 ) is not an FGsubmodule, since (v1 v2 )a v2 v3 P sp (v1 v2 )X a Irreducible FG-modules 5.3 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be irreducible if it is non-zero and it has no FG-submodules apart from {0} and V. If V has an FG-submodule W with W not equal to {0} or V, then V is reducible. Similarly, a representation r: G 3 GL (n, F) is irreducible if the corresponding FG-module F n given by v g v( gr) (v P F n , g P G) (see Theorem 4.4(1)) is irreducible; and r is reducible if F n is reducible. Suppose that V is a reducible FG-module, so that there is an FGsubmodule W with 0 , dim W , dim V. Take a basis B 1 of W and extend it to a basis B of V. Then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has the form H I Xg 0 d e (5X4) Yg Z g for some matrices Xg , Yg and Zg , where Xg is k 3 k (k dim W). A representation of degree n is reducible if and only if it is equivalent to a representation of the form (5.4), where X g is k 3 k and 0 , k , n. Notice that in (5.4), the functions g 3 Xg and g 3 Z g are representations of G: to see this, let g, h P G and multiply the matrices [ g]B and [h]B given by (5.4). Notice also that if V is reducible then dim V > 2. 5.5 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule with basis v1 , v2 , v3 such that

FG-submodules and reducibility v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 ,

51

as in Example 4.11. We saw in Example 5.2(2) that V is a reducible FG-module, and has an FG-submodule W sp (v1 v2 v3 ). Let B be the basis v1 v2 v3 , v1 , v2 of V. Then H H I I 1 0 0 1 0 0 f f g g [1]B f 0 1 0 g, [a]B f 0 0 1 g, d d e e 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 H I 1 0 0 f g [a2 ]B f 1 À1 À1 gX d e 0 1 0 This reducible representation gives us two other representations: at the `top left' we have the trivial representation and at the `bottom right' we have the representation which is given by 0 1 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a 3 ,a3 X 13 À1 À1 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G D8 and let V F 2 be the 2-dimensional FG-module described in Example 4.5(1). Thus G ka, bl, and for all (ë, ì) P V we have (ë, ì)a (Àì, ë), (ë, ì)b (ë, Àì)X

We claim that V is an irreducible FG-module. To see this, suppose that there is an FG-submodule U which is not equal to V. Then dim U < 1, so U sp ((á, â)) for some á, â P F. As U is an FGmodule, (á, â)b is a scalar multiple of (á, â), and hence either á 0 or â 0. Since (á, â)a is also a scalar multiple of (á, â), this forces á â 0, so U {0}. Consequently V is irreducible, as claimed.

Summary of Chapter 5 1. If V is an FG-module, and W is a subspace of V which is itself an FG-module, then W is an FG-submodule of V. 2. The FG-module V is irreducible if it is non-zero and the only FGsubmodules are {0} and V.

ab ba. b. Find a CG-module which is neither reducible nor irreducible. Which of the four representations of D12 de®ned in Exercise 3. 2. Prove that there is a representation r of G over C such that å 0 ç 0 0 1 ar X . c P S6 by a (1 2 3). de®ne (á. 3. br . b. b (4 5 6). For (á. 2 . cÀ1 ac aÀ1 and cÀ1 bc bÀ1 X Deduce that G has order 18. (b) Suppose that å and ç are complex cube roots of unity. Let G C2 ka: a 1l. c (2 3)(4 5). â)1 (á. and let V F 2. á). Let r and ó be equivalent representations of the group G over F. Let G C13 . â)a (â. ç is r irreducible? 5. cl. Verify that V is an FG-module and ®nd all the FG-submodules of V. (a) Check that a3 b3 c2 1.52 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 5 1. De®ne the permutations a. â) P V.5 are irreducible? 4. ç is r faithful? (d) For which values of å. â) and (á. cr 0 å À1 0 çÀ1 1 0 (c) For which values of å. Prove that if r is reducible then ó is reducible. and let G ka.

. then 53 . .6 Group algebras The group algebra of a ®nite group G is a vector space of dimension |G| which also carries extra structure involving the product operation on G. known as the regular representation of G. and we call this vector space FG. the ultimate goal of representation theory ± that of understanding all the representations of ®nite groups ± would be achieved if group algebras could be fully analysed. g n . After de®ning the group algebra of G. . and let F be R or C. . if u n i1 ë i g i and v n i1 ìi g i are elements of FG. . g n as a basis. . Group algebras are therefore of great interest. which will be explored in greater detail later on. Take as the elements of FG all expressions of the form ë1 g 1 X X X ë n g n (all ë i P F)X The rules for addition and scalar multiplication in FG are the natural ones: namely. In particular. . we shall use it to construct an important faithful representation. . The group algebra of G Let G be a ®nite group whose elements are g1 . We de®ne a vector space over F with g1 . group algebras are the source of all you need to know about representation theory. In a sense. and ë P F.

54 Representations and characters of groups uv n n (ë i ì i ) g i and ëu (ëë i ) g i X i1 i1 With these rules. . FG carries more structure than that of a vector space ± we can use the product operation on G to de®ne multiplication in FG as follows: 3 2 32 ëg g ìh h ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. g n . in this example. . then uv (e À a 2a2 )(1 e 5a) 2 1 2e 5a À 1 a À 5a2 a2 10a3 2 9 a À 4a2 X 2 21 2e . we write e for the identity element of G. (ë h ì hÀ1 g ) g gPG hPG 6. v are the elements of CG which appear in Example 6. g n is called the natural basis of FG.1 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 el.hPG where all ë g . . (To avoid confusion with the element 1 of F. The basis g1 . with basis g1 .) The vector space CG contains u e À a 2a2 and v 1 e 5aX 2 We have u v 3 e 4a 2a2 . .1. 6. .2 Example If G C3 and u. ì h P F. . . . 1 u 1 e À 1 a 2 a2 X 2 3 3 3 3 Sometimes we write elements of FG in the form ë g g (ë g P F)X gPG Now. FG is a vector space over F of dimension n.

namely the element 1e (where 1 is the identity of F and e is the identity of G).4 Proposition Multiplication in FG satis®es the following properties. (r s)t rt st. ì h P F). 6. ì g . í g P F). Proof (1) It follows immediately from the de®nition of rs that rs P FG. r1 1r r. r0 0r 0.hPG 55 (ë g . gPG gPG gPG (ë g .h.kPG r(st)X We leave the proofs of the other equations as easy exercises. (2) Let r ë g g. j . t í g g. s.Group algebras 6.3 De®nition The vector space FG. Then (rs)t g. with multiplication de®ned by 3 2 32 ëg g ìh h ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. s ì g g. The group algebra FG contains an identity for multiplication. t P FG and ë P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) rs P FG. (ër)s ë(rs) r(ës). r(st) (rs)t. for all r.kPG ë g ì h í k ( gh)k ë g ì h í k g(hk) g. is called the group algebra of G over F. r(s t) rs rt. We write this element simply as 1.h.

v( gh) (v g)h. (4) and (5) of Proposition 6. g P G).5 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group and F be R or C. h P G. respectively.4.7 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 el. (3). We shall be concerned only with group algebras. by parts (1). with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. but it is worth pointing out that the axioms for an algebra mean that it is both a vector space and a ring. (ëv) g ë(v g). For all u. Note that the regular FG-module has dimension equal to |G|. Let V FG. 6. Proof Suppose that g P G and v g v for all v P FG. any vector space equipped with a multiplication satisfying properties (1)±(7) of Proposition 6. 6. so that V is a vector space of dimension n over F. is called the regular FG-module.56 Representations and characters of groups In fact. we have vg P V. The vector space FG. (2).4 is called an algebra. (u v) g ug v g. Therefore V is an FG-module. j 6.6 Proposition The regular FG-module is faithful. The regular FG-module We now use the group algebra to de®ne an important FG-module. The representation g 3 [ g]B obtained by taking B to be the natural basis of FG is called the regular representation of G over F. and the result follows. where n |G|. Then 1 g 1. so g 1. v P V. The elements of FG have the form . v1 v. ë P F and g.

This is done in the following natural way. a. say r gPG ì g g (ì g P F). ì P F) .8 De®nition Suppose that V is an FG-module.9. together with a multiplication v g for v P V and g P G (and the multiplication satis®es various axioms). it is sometimes helpful to extend the de®nition of the multiplication so that we have an element vr of V for all elements r in the group algebra FG. as described in Example 4. If r ë(1 2) ì(1 3 4) then v1 r ëv1 (1 2) ìv1 (1 3 4) ëv2 ìv3 . De®ne vr by vr ì g (v g)X gPG 6. and that v P V and r P FG. a 3 d 0 0 1 e. 6. a2 3 d 1 0 0 eX 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 FG acts on an FG-module You will remember that an FG-module is a vector space over F. v2 r ëv1 ìv2 . we obtain the regular representation of G: H I H I H I 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 e 3 d 0 1 0 e. a2 of FG.Group algebras ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 We have (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )e ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 . (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )a2 ë2 e ë3 a ë1 a2 X (ë i P F)X 57 By taking matrices relative to the basis e. Now.9 Examples (1) Let V be the permutation module for S4 . (2v1 v2 )r ëv1 (2ë ì)v2 2ìv3 X (ë. (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )a ë3 e ë1 a ë2 a2 .

(5). (ëv)r ë(vr) v(ër). the element vr is simply the product of v and r as elements of the group algebra. Compare the next result with Proposition 6. v(r s) vr vs. 6. v P V. Then the following properties hold for all u. v(rs) (vr)s.4. s ì h hX gPG hPG Then 2 3 v(rs) v ë g ì h ( gh) g. (6) j (vr)sX .10 Proposition Suppose that V is an FG-module. (u v)r ur vr. s P FG with r ë g g. assuming the other parts.h ë g ì h (v( gh)) ë g ì h ((v g)h) by (4) and (6) g. all ë P F and all r. We shall give a proof of part (2).h 2 g 3 32 ë g (v g) ìh h h by (4). s P FG: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) vr P V. Proof All parts except (2) are straightforward. Let v P V.58 Representations and characters of groups (2) If V is the regular FG-module. given by De®nition 6. and let r. v0 0r 0.3. v1 v. then for all v P V and r P FG. and we leave them to you.h g.

and v0 0 for all v P V . The regular FG-module is faithful.Group algebras Summary of Chapter 6 59 1. say G { g1 . (b) Let z b a2 b. y b ab À a2 X Calculate xy. prove from the de®nition that 0r 0 for all r P FG. . (c) Let W: CG 3 CG be the linear transformation sending v to vc for all v in CG. Show that for every ®nite group G. Deduce that zr rz for all r in CG. b: a4 b2 1. . Work out matrices for the regular representation of C2 3 C2 over F. yx and x 2 . does rs 0 imply that r 0 or s 0? 4. with |G| . (a) Prove that ch hc c for all h in G. there exists an FG-module V and elements v P V. and has a natural multiplication de®ned on it. and write c n for the element i1 g i of CG. gn of CG? 5. but neither v nor r is 0. Show that zg gz for all g in G. 3. where the symbol 0 is used for the zero elements of V and FG. . Exercises for Chapter 6 1. 1. (a) Let x and y be the following elements of CG: x a 2a2 . g P G) is the regular FG-module. . with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. Let G C2 . Suppose that G D8 ka. 3. The vector space FG. (b) Deduce that c2 |G|c. For r and s in CG. r P FG such that vr 0. g n }. What is the matrix [W]B . If V is an FG-module. The group algebra FG of G over F consists of all linear combinations of elements of G. 2. where B is the basis g1 . . . Assume that G is a ®nite group. 2. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. . .

de®ned by W sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 .60 Representations and characters of groups 6. . and let ù e2ðia3 . is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CG-module. Suppose that G D6 ka. Prove that the 2-dimensional subspace W of CG. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. b ù2 ab ùa2 b). b: a3 b2 1.

A function W: V 3 W is said to be an FG-homomorphism if W is a linear transformation and (v g)W (vW) g for all v P V . submodule of W. Note that if G is a ®nite group and W: V 3 W is an FG-homomorph ism.1 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules.7 FG-homomorphisms For groups and vector spaces. group homomorphisms and linear transformations. 7. respectively. 61 . we have (vr)W (vW)r since (vr)W gPG ë g (v g)W gPG ë g (vW) g (vW)rX The next result shows that FG-homomorphisms give rise to FGsubmodules in a natural way. g P GX In other words. and we introduce these in this chapter. The analogous functions for FG-modules are called FG-homomorphisms. the `structure-preserving' functions are. FG-homomorphisms 7.2 Proposition Let V and W be FG-modules and let W: V 3 W be an FG-homomorphism. Then Ker W is an FG-submodule of V and Im W is an FG. if W sends v to w then it sends v g to wg. then for all v P V and r gPG ë g g P FG.

Therefore Ker W is an FG-submodule of V. Here. De®ne 2 n 3 n W: ëivi 3 ë i w (ë i P F)X i1 i1 Thus v i W w for all i. and de®ne W: V 3 V by vW ëv for all v P V.3 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW 0 for all v P V. Im W V. . Then (v g)W (vW) g 0 g 0. wg (vW) g (v g)W P Im W. then W is an FGhomomorphism. i1 i1 Im W W X . Let v P Ker W and g P G.10). . @ n A n Ker W ëi vi : ëi 0 . and for all v ë i v i P V and all g P G. we have 2 3 2 3 (v g)W ë i v ig W ë i w. We construct an FG-homomorphism W from V to W. Im W {0}. Now let w P Im W. Then W is an FG-homomorphism. since W is a linear transformation. . j 7. For all g P G. and 2 3 2 3 (vW) g ë i wg ë i wX Therefore W is an FG-homomorphism. so vg P Ker W. and so Im W is an FG-submodule of W. and let W sp (w) be the trivial FG-module (see De®nition 4. . v n ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4. Let V sp (v1 . and Ker W V. we have Ker W {0}.62 Representations and characters of groups Proof First note that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W.8). (2) Let ë P F. Provided ë T 0. (3) Suppose that G is a subgroup of S n . Then W is a linear transformation. so that w vW for some v P V.

then we say that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules and write V W. j as W is an FG-homomorphism Suppose that W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism.2. (3) V contains a trivial FG-submodule if and only if W contains a trivial FG-submodule (since X is a trivial FG-submodule of V if and only if XW is a trivial FG-submodule of W). . . Then we may use W and WÀ1 to translate back and forth between the isomorphic FGmodules V and W. v n is a basis of V if and only if v1 W.5 Proposition If W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. We call a function W: V 3 W an FGisomorphism if W is an FG-homomorphism and W is invertible. If there is such an FG-isomorphism. Isomorphic FG-modules 7. 7. (2) V is irreducible if and only if W is irreducible (since X is an FGsubmodule of V if and only if XW is an FG-submodule of W). so we need only show that WÀ1 is an FG-homomorphism.4 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules.FG-homomorphisms 63 By Proposition 7. . as required. ((wWÀ1 ) g)W ((wWÀ1 )W) g wg ((wg)WÀ1 )WX Hence (wWÀ1 ) g (wg)WÀ1 . Proof Certainly WÀ1 is an invertible linear transformation. and prove that V and W share the same structural properties. We list some examples below: (1) dim V dim W (since v1 . . we check that if V W then W V. then the inverse WÀ1 : W 3 V is also an FG-isomorphism. In the next result. . Ker W is an FG-submodule of the permutation module V. . For w P W and g P G. . . . v n W is a basis of W).

. and let v1 . . and hence W is an FG-isomorphism. 7. Then by Theorem 4. suppose that v1 . .7). . . there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P G. Conversely. This completes the proof of (7. there is a basis B 0 of V such that gó [ g]B 0 for all g P G.7) The FG-modules V and W are isomorphic if and only if there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P GX To see this. Now assume that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. . . it follows that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 . Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if the representations r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 are equivalent. . we show that isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. v n be a basis B 1 of V.64 Representations and characters of groups Just as we often regard isomorphic groups as being identical. suppose that r and ó are equivalent. suppose ®rst that W is an FG-isomorphism from V to W. v n W is a basis B 2 of W. . .7).12(1). w n is a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P G. In the next result.12(2). . Since (v i g)W (v i W) g for each i. though.6 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B . Let g P G. we deduce that (v i g)W (v i W) g for all i. . Since [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 . . Proof We ®rst establish the following fact: (7. we continue simply to emphasize the similarity between isomorphic FG-modules. and W is an FGmodule with basis B 9. we frequently disdain to distinguish between isomorphic FG-modules. Let g P G. . then v1 W. . By (7. ö is equivalent to both r and ó. Hence r and ó are equivalent. For the moment. . Then by Theorem 4. De®ne a representation ö of G by ö: g 3 [ g]B 1 . Conversely. v n is a basis B 1 of V and w1. Let W be the invertible linear transformation from V to W for which v i W w i for all i. .

b: a4 b2 1. [a]B 9 f 0 0 1 g.9 Example Let G D8 ka. v3 a v1 X Writing B for the basis v1 . br À1 0 0 À1 and aó i 0 0 0 . In Example 3. the FG-modules V and W are therefore isomorphic. call it B 9. j 7. 7. v2 . Indeed. with basis v1 .4(1) we encountered two equivalent representations r and ó of G. a cyclic group of order 3. a. d d e e 0 0 1 1 0 0 H 0 0 0 1 1 0 I f [a2 ]B 9 f 1 d 0 g 0 gX e Compare the FG-module V de®ned in Example 4. bó Ài 1 1 X 0 (ë i P F) . v3 such that v1 a v2 . Then 1. We have H H I I 1 0 0 0 1 0 f f g g [1]B 9 f 0 1 0 g.8 Example Let G ka: a3 1l.11.7). Therefore V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. [ g]B 9 [ g]B 0 for all g P G. the function W: ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ë3 v3 3 ë1 1 ë2 a ë3 a2 is an FG-isomorphism from V to W. we have [ g]B [ g]B 9 for all g P GX According to (7. v3 of V. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.7).FG-homomorphisms 65 that is. v2 . by (7. and let W denote the regular FG-module. a2 is a basis of W. v2 a v3 . where 0 1 1 0 ar .

w n be a basis B 2 of W. . .66 Representations and characters of groups Let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . . . (Compare Example 3.4(1).5(1)). . . and for g P G. where U and W are FG-submodules of V. Let V be an FG-module. . v2 a Àv1 . and w1. Then by (2. . w2 of W. È Ur. u m . v2 b Àv2 (see Example 4. v1 b v1 . v2 for which v1 a v2 . w n is a basis B of V. B r to . u1 . .6. and we show that these give rise to FG-homomorphisms. Let u1 . let W be the CG-module with basis w1. 2. .) Direct sums We conclude the chapter with a discussion of direct sums of FGmodules. . w2 for which w1 a iw1 . the CG-modules V and W are isomorphic. . if V U1 È . H I 0 [ g]B 1 eX [ g]B d 0 [ g]B 2 More generally. . . in a similar way. then for all g P G we have r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 X According to Theorem 7. then we can amalgamate B 1 . w1 b w2 . let W: V 3 W be the invertible linear transformation such that W: v1 3 w1 w2 . . . v2 3 iw1 À iw2 X Then (v j a)W (v j W)a and (v j b)W (v j W)b for j 1. and suppose that V U È W. . and hence W is a CG-isomorphism from V to W. . . . since r and ó are equivalent. w2 b w1 Thus. if we write B for the basis v1 . a direct sum of FG-submodules Ui. and. u m be a basis B 1 of U. . w1. w2 a Àiw2 . . To verify this directly. v2 of V and B 9 for the basis w1. and B i is a basis of Ui.9).

v u1 . . j . 7. sum of some of the FG-submodules Ui. and is also a projection of V . vð 2 ui ð i ui vð i . u r (u j P U j for all j). where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V Then V is a direct . . and suppose that V U1 X X X Ur . and we de®ne ð i : V 3 V (1 < i < r) by setting vð i ui X Then each ð i is an FG-homomorphism. i We now present a technical result concerning sums of irreducible FG-modules which will be used at a later stage.12 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. Thus ð i is a projection (see De®nition 2.11 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. ur for unique vectors ui P Ui. i so ð2 ð i . H [ g]B 1 f FF [ g]B d (7X10) F 67 I g eX 0 [ g]B r 0 The next result shows that direct sums give rise naturally to FGhomomorphisms. . since for v P V with v u1 . For v P V we have . we have (v g)ð i (u1 g X X X ur g)ð i ui g (vð i ) gX Also. 7. and for g P G. and suppose that V U1 È X X X È U r where each Ui is an FG-submodule of V. and g P G. Proof Clearly ð i is a linear transformation. and ð i is an FG-homomorphism.FG-homomorphisms obtain a basis B of V.30). .

. as claimed. Isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. then W is an FG-homomorphism. . Since U i W for all i with 1 < i < r. . . . 2. Then W Ui is not a direct sum. Exercises for Chapter 7 1. and so Ui # W. X X X . . . therefore W Ui Ui. as required. j Finally. To this end. X X X . Let U. and Ui is irreducible. F F F . . so assume that Ui P Y. we remark that if V1 . choose a subset Y {W1. Ur } which has the properties that W 1 X X X W s is direct (iXeX equal to W 1 È X X X È W s ). v r ) g (v1 g. 3. V and W be FG-modules. g P G. Kernels and images of FG-homomorphisms are FG-modules. then we can make the external direct sum V1 È F F F ÈVr (see Chapter 2) into an FGmodule by de®ning (v1 . Ws } of {U1. Summary of Chapter 7 1. so W Ui T {0}. Ur so that the sum of our chosen FG-submodules is direct. and let W: U 3 V and ö: V 3 W be FG-homomorphisms. But W Ui a is an FG-submodule of Ui. . v r g) for all v i P Vi (1 < i < r) and all g P G. . if Ui P Y X a Let W W1 X X X WsX We claim that Ui # W for all i. If V and W are FG-modules and W: V 3 W is a linear transformation which satis®es (v g)W (vW) g for all v P V. we have V W W 1 È F F F ÈW s . . Prove that Wö: U 3 W is an FG-homomorphism. V r are FG-modules. If Ui P Y this is clear. . . but W 1 X X X W s U i is not direct.68 Representations and characters of groups Proof The idea is to choose as many as we can of the FG-submodules U1.

Prove that the subset V0 fv P V : v g v for all g P Gg is an FG-submodule of V. Assume that V is an FG-module. Prove that the permutation module for G over F is isomorphic to the regular FG-module. Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by (1 2) and (3 4). Suppose that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. 3. Let G C2 kx: x 2 1l. Is it necessarily surjective? 4. (c) Find a basis B of FG such that 2 0 [W]B X 0 0 . De®ne the FGsubmodules V0 and W0 of V and W as in Exercise 3. (b) Prove that W2 2W. 5.FG-homomorphisms 69 2. (a) Show that the function W: á1 âx 3 (á À â)(1 À x) (á. Prove that V0 and W0 are isomorphic FG-modules. â P F) is an FG-homomorphism from the regular FG-module to itself. Let G be the subgroup of S5 which is generated by (1 2 3 4 5). Is the permutation module for G over F isomorphic to the regular FG-module? 6. Show that the function W: v 3 v g (v P V ) gPG is an FG-homomorphism from V to V0 .

we illustrate it with some examples. There are many subspaces W of V such that V U È W.) This essentially reduces representation theory to the study of irreducible FG-modules. since ug u for all g P G. then there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È WX Before proving Maschke's Theorem.1 Maschke's Theorem Let G be a ®nite group. and let V be an FG-module. only one FGsubmodule W of V with V U È W. (The assumption on F is important ± see Example 8. where as usual F R or C. v3 ) and sp (v1 . v2 . Maschke's Theorem 8.8 Maschke's Theorem We now come to our ®rst major result in representation theory. namely Maschke's Theorem.2(2) below. A consequence of this theorem is that every FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. Put u v1 v2 v3 and U sp (u)X Then U is an FG-submodule of V.10). 8. v2 À 2v3 ).2 Examples (1) Let G S3 and let V sp (v1 . in fact. for instance sp (v2 . v3 ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4. If U is an FG-submodule of V. We shall ®nd this W in an 70 . let F be R or C. But there is.

1 We are given U. for 0 < j < p À 1. let p be a prime number. Check that the function 1 0 j a 3 ( j 0. By Proposition 2. But there is no FGsubmodule W such that V U È W. p À 1) j 1 is a representation from G to GL (2. . . . Choose any subspace W0 of V such that V U È W0X (There are many choices for W0 ± simply take a basis v1 . F). we have v u w for unique vectors u P U and w P W 0. since U is the only 1-dimensional FG-submodule of V. To this end. . (vx)W 1 (vx) gö g À1 X jGj gPG . . and take F to be the ®eld of integers modulo p. For example. . .29. as can easily be seen. U sp (v1 ) is an FG-submodule of V. v2 a j jv1 v2 X Clearly. For v P V and x P G. . and we de®ne ö: V 3 V by setting vö u. ö is a projection of V with kernel W0 and image U. . v n of V. Proof of Maschke's Theorem 8. v2 ). We show ®rst that W is an FG-homomorphism. We aim to modify the projection ö to create an FG-homomorphism from V to V with image U. and let W0 sp (v m1 . X X X . de®ne W: V 3 V by (8X3) vW 1 v gö g À1 jGj gPG (v P V )X It is clear that W is an endomorphism of V and Im W # U. v m of U. let G C p ka: a p 1l. (2) The conclusion of Maschke's Theorem can fail if F is not R or C. v1 a j v1 .Maschke's Theorem 71 example after proving Maschke's Theorem (but you may like to look for it yourself now). . an FG-submodule of the FG-module V. extend it to a basis v1 . . . v n ).) For v P V. where. 1. The corresponding FG-module is V sp (v1 .

Next.2(1). and V U È W by Proposition 2. Hence 1 (vx)W vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG 2 3 1 vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG (vW)xX Thus W is an FG-homomorphism. v2 3 0. Let W Ker W. This completes the proof of Maschke's Theorem.5 Example Let G S3 and let V sp (v1 .3) is W: v i 3 1(v1 v2 v3 ) (i 1. v3 3 v1 v2 v3 X Check now that the FG-homomorphism W given by (8. we prove that W2 W. Then V U È W0 (but of course W0 is not an FG-submodule). Moreover. as in Example 8. let W0 sp (v1 . the FG-submodule constructed in Example 7.4) shows that Im W U.2. First note that for u P U.4) we have (vW)W vW. v3 ) be the permutation module. Then vW P U. we have ug P U. W ë i v i : ë i 0 . Then W is an FG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. so W sp (v1 À v2 . with submodule U sp (v1 v2 v3 ).) .3(3). First. v2 ). so by (8. g P G. We use the proof of Maschke's Theorem to ®nd an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È W. j 8. We have now established that W: V 3 V is a projection and an FGhomomorphism. (8. Consequently W2 W. as claimed. The projection ö onto U is given by ö: v1 3 0.32.72 Representations and characters of groups As g runs over the elements of G. Using this. v2 . 2. 1 1 1 uW (8X4) ugö g À1 (ug) g À1 u uX jGj gPG jGj gPG jGj gPG Now let v P V. and so (ug)ö ug. v2 À v3 )X È É (In fact. so does h xg. 3)X 3 The required FG-submodule W is then Ker W.

v2 of V. v1 À v2 . if we can choose a basis B of an FGmodule V such that [ g]B has the form H I Ã 0 d e Ã Ã for all g P G (see (5. suppose that r is a reducible representation of a ®nite group G over F of degree n. v2 À v3 ) is also an FG-submodule of V.Maschke's Theorem 73 Note that if B is the basis v1 v2 v3 .4)). Yg. If instead we use v1 v2 v3 . then we get H I j 0 0 [ g]B 9 d 0 j j e. then we can ®nd a basis B 9 such that [ g]B 9 has the form H I Ã 0 d e 0 Ã for all g P G. Then we know that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G). . v2 À v3 as a basis B 9.4)). k . n. 0 j j because sp (v1 À v2 . v1 . then for all g P G. the matrix [ g]B has the form H I j 0 0 [ g]B d j j j eX j j j The zeros re¯ect the fact that U is an FG-submodule of V (see (5. Z g . where X g is k 3 k with 0 . This example illustrates the matrix version of Maschke's Theorem: for an arbitrary ®nite group G. To put this another way. g 3d Yg Zg for some matrices X g .

dim V and dim W . V U1 È X X X È Ur È W 1 È X X X È W s . Then V has an FG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. there is an FG-submodule W such that V U È W. If V is irreducible then the result holds. The result is true if dim V 1. so suppose that V is reducible. Then by (2. .) 8. Since dim U . Proof Let V be a non-zero FG-module. then every non-zero FG-module is completely reducible. where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V. U U1 È X X X È Ur . by induction. where each Ui and W j is an irreducible FG-module. The proof goes by induction on dim V. we simply mean an FG-submodule which is an irreducible FG-module. j Another useful consequence of Maschke's Theorem is the next proposition. dim V. Consequences of Maschke's Theorem We now use Maschke's Theorem to show that every non-zero FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. since V is irreducible in this case. a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules. g 3d 0 Bg where A g is also a k 3 k matrix.74 Representations and characters of groups Maschke's Theorem asserts further that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Ag 0 e. By Maschke's Theorem.7 Theorem If G is a ®nite group and F R or C.10). 8. W W 1 È X X X È W s . we have. (By an irreducible FG-submodule.6 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be completely reducible if V U1 È F F F ÈU r .

8 Proposition Let V be an FG-module.2. Thus. w P W ) j is an FG-homomorphism onto U. by Proposition 7.11.7 tells us that every non-zero FG-module is a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules. . by Exercise 3. Then the function ð: V 3 U which is de®ned by ð: u w 3 u (u P U . Proof By Maschke's Theorem. 2. we may concentrate upon the irreducible FG-modules. Every non-zero FG-module V is a direct sum of irreducible FGmodules: V U1 È X X X È Ur X Exercises for Chapter 8 1. and let V be the 2-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 . Let G kx: x 3 1l C3 . 1.) Express V as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. there is an FG-submodule W with V U È WX 2. where v1 x v2 . where F R or C and G is a ®nite group. Summary of Chapter 8 Assume that G is a ®nite group and F R or C. express the group algebra RG as a direct sum of 1-dimensional RG-submodules. We begin our study of these in the next chapter. Then there exists a surjective FG-homomorphism from V onto U. Theorem 8. If G C2 3 C2 . v2 . there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È W. Suppose that U is an FG-submodule of V. in order to understand FG-modules. Maschke's Theorem says that for every FG-submodule U of an FGmodule V. v2 x Àv1 À v2 X (This is a CG-module.Maschke's Theorem 75 8.

with the natural multiplication by elements of G (so that for v P V. C) be a representation of G.2(2).2) for the de®nition of a complex inner product): for ë i . g P G. vx) (u. which satis®es [ug. v P V )X xPG (1) Verify that [ .76 Representations and characters of groups 3. (You may care to revisit Example 5. v P V and g P GX (2) Suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. Prove that r is irreducible.3. Suppose that there are elements g. (This shows that Maschke's Theorem fails for in®nite groups ± compare Example 8. Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 . . 4. ] on V by [u. 5. ì j P C. v] (ux. Let G be a ®nite group and let r: G 3 GL (2. . ) on V as follows (see (14. vg] [u. v n and suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. ] is a complex inner product.) 6. . De®ne a complex inner product ( .) 5. Show that V is not completely reducible.5(2) and Exercises 5. 2 n 3 n n ëi vi . v] 0 for all u P U gX Show that U c is a CG-submodule of V. 5. An alternative proof of Maschke's Theorem for CG-modules.4. Suppose that G is the in®nite group & ' 1 0 : nPZ n 1 and let V be the CG-module C2 . . h in G such that the matrices gr and hr do not commute.1. and de®ne U c fv P V : [u. 6. the vector vg is just the product of the row vector v with the matrix g).6 in the light of this result. . a CG-module V and a CG-homomorphism W: V 3 V such that V T Ker W È Im W. ì jv j ëi ìiX i1 j1 i1 De®ne another complex inner product [ . Find a group G. v] for all u.

.Maschke's Theorem 77 (3) Deduce Maschke's Theorem.) 7. Prove that for every ®nite simple group G. (Hint: it is a standard property of complex inner products that V U È U c for all subspaces U of V. there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module.

Thus Ker (W À ë1 V ) is a non-zero CG-submodule 78 . Then Im W T {0}. Proof (1) Suppose that vW T 0 for some v P V. Thus W is invertible. and so Ker (W À ë1 V ) T {0}. (1) If W: V 3 W is a CG-homomorphism.2. Though simple in both statement and proof. Ker W {0}. then either W is a CGisomorphism. Schur's Lemma is fundamental to representation theory. as Ker W T V and V is irreducible. Ker W is a CG-submodule of V. Schur's Lemma concerns CG-modules rather than RG-modules.26). then W is a scalar multiple of the identity endomorphism 1 V . and hence is a CG-isomorphism. we have Im W W. and since much of the ensuing theory depends on it. G denotes a ®nite group.1 Schur's Lemma Let V and W be irreducible CG-modules. we shall deal with CG-modules for the remainder of the book (except in Chapter 23). As Im W is a CG-submodule of W by Proposition 7. Throughout. Also by Proposition 7.2. and we give an immediate application by determining all the irreducible representations of ®nite abelian groups. (2) If W: V 3 V is a CG-isomorphism. Schur's Lemma 9. and W is irreducible. (2) By (2.9 Schur's Lemma Schur's Lemma is a basic result concerning irreducible modules. the endomorphism W has an eigenvalue ë P C. or vW 0 for all v P V.

11). so that V has a CG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. regard C n as a CG-module by de®ning v g v( gr) for all v P C n . Then r is irreducible if and only if every n 3 n matrix A which satis®es ( gr)A A( gr) has the form A ëI n with ë P C. Proof As in Theorem 4. g P G. By Maschke's Theorem. Part (2) of Schur's Lemma has the following converse. which is a contradiction. w P W is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. Proof Suppose that V is reducible. Hence V is irreducible. j We next interpret Schur's Lemma and its converse in terms of representations. and suppose that every CG-homomorphism from V to V is a scalar multiple of 1 V . Therefore v(W À ë1 V ) 0 That is.Schur's Lemma of V. there is a CGsubmodule W of V such that V U È WX Then the projection ð: V 3 V de®ned by (u w)ð u for all u P U. Let A be an n 3 n matrix over C. for all g P G . for all v P V X 79 j 9.3 Corollary Let r: G 3 GL (n. and is not a scalar multiple of 1 V . W ë1 V .2 Proposition Let V be a non-zero CG-module.4(1). as required. C) be a representation of G. The endomorphism v 3 vA of C n is a CG-homomorphism if and only if (v g)A (vA) g for all v P C n . Since V is irreducible. g P G. Then V is irreducible. 9. Ker (W À ë1 V ) V.

C) for which ar Assume that the matrix A á ã â ä ù 0 0 . (2) Let G D10 ka. The fact that (ar)A A(ar) forces â ã 0. if and only if ( gr)A A( gr) for all g P GX The result now follows from Schur's Lemma 9.80 Representations and characters of groups that is.2. b: a5 b2 1. Corollary 9. Since the matrix 0 À1 1 À1 commutes with all gr ( g P G). and then (br)A A(br) gives á ä.3.4 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. ùÀ1 br 0 1 1 X 0 commutes with both ar and br. by Corollary 9. and let r: G 3 GL (2. j 9.2).3 implies that r is reducible. Hence A á 0 0 á áIX Consequently r is irreducible. .1 and Proposition 9. Check that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (2. and let ù e2ðia5 . C) be the representation for which ar 0 À1 1 À1 (see Exercise 3. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.

We shall not prove it here. this covers the irreducible representations of all ®nite abelian groups. 1) Then G h g1 . let c i be a generator for C n i . C) be an irreducible representation of G (ci in ith position)X . but refer you to Chapter 9 of the book of J. and hence the endomorphism v 3 vx of V is a CG-homomorphism. n r are positive integers. Pick x P G. B. say ë x 1 V .Schur's Lemma Representation theory of ®nite abelian groups 81 Let G be a ®nite abelian group. and for 1 < i < r. with g in i 1 and g i g j g j g i for all i.6 Theorem Every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. 9. .6. As V is irreducible. X X X . then every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. and let V be an irreducible CGmodule. Let G C n1 3 . . . Write g i (1. 3 C n r . By Theorem 9. v gx vxg for all g P G. X X X . Thus vx ë x v for all v P V X This implies that every subspace of V is a CG-submodule. we deduce that dim V 1. this endomorphism is a scalar multiple of the identity 1 V . . ci . g r i. .1(2).5 Proposition If G is a ®nite abelian group. By Schur's Lemma 9. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. jX Now let r: G 3 GL (n. Since G is abelian. X X X . The next result is a major structure theorem for ®nite abelian groups. We shall determine the irreducible representations of all direct products C n1 3 C n2 3 X X X 3 C n r where n1 . . Thus we have proved 9.

. V2 .82 Representations and characters of groups over C.7) for all i1 . v3 g 1 Àv3 . .XXX. v4 g 1 Àv4 . . that is. . given any n i th roots of unity ë i (1 < i < r). i r . the values ë1 . v4 g 2 Àv4 X . there exists ë i P C such that g i r (ë i ) (where of course (ë i ) is a 1 3 1 matrix). . 4) and v1 g 1 v1 .8 Theorem Let G be the abelian group C n1 3 . 9. we have ë in i 1. V4 . ë r i determine r. The n irreducible representations of G over C are rù j (0 < j < n À 1). 2. and put ù e2ðia n . . . since for g P G.ë r X Conversely. There are |G| of these representations. i r . g irr for some integers i1 . and no two of them are equivalent. The representations rë1 . where ak rù j (ù jk ) (0 < k < n À 1)X (2) The four irreducible CG-modules for G C2 3 C2 k g1 . Then n 1 by Proposition 9. . ë i is an n i th root of unity. we have g g11 .9 Examples (1) Let G C n ka: a n 1l. v1 g 2 v2 . v2 g 1 v2 . .5. and then (9X7) i i gr ( g 11 X X X g irr )r (ë11 X X Xë irr )X For a representation r of G satisfying (9. . . . v2 g 2 Àv2 . . so for 1 < i < r. v3 g 2 v3 . V3 . 3 C n r . write r rë1 . g2 l are V1 . . . the function i i g 11 X X X g irr 3 (ë11 X X Xë irr ) is a representation of G. There are n1 n2 . . 3. Also. 9. where Vi is a 1-dimensional space with basis v i (i 1. . We have proved the following theorem. . and every irreducible representation of G over C is equivalent to precisely one of them.ë r of G constructed above are irreducible and have degree 1. As g i has order n i . n r such representations.XXX.

is de®ned by Z(CG) fz P CG: zr rz for all r P CGgX Using (2. Put ù e2ðia n .5). let u i be a vector spanning Ui. a direct sum of irreducible C H-submodules Ui of V. by Proposition 9. 9.7. Proof Let H k gl.Schur's Lemma Diagonalization 83 Let H k gl be a cyclic group of order n. then there is a basis B of V such that the matrix [ g]B is diagonal. the result follows from (9. Each Ui has dimension 1. As V is also a C H-module. we shall see that Z(CG) plays a crucial role in . The centre of the group algebra CG. If g P G. Then for each i.10). u r of V. For abelian groups G.12 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group. . . For arbitrary groups G. then the entries on the diagonal of [ g]B are nth roots of unity. j Some further applications of Schur's Lemma Our next application concerns an important subspace of the group algebra CG. there exists an integer m i such that ui g ù m i u i X Thus if B is the basis u1 . then H m1 I ù 0 f g FF (9X10) [ g]B d eX F 0 ù mr The following useful result is an immediate consequence of this. By Theorem 8.5. the centre Z(CG) is the whole group algebra. 9. V U1 È X X X È Ur . . and let V be a non-zero C H-module. . it is easy to check that Z(CG) is a subspace of CG. If g has order n.11 Proposition Let G be a ®nite group and V a CG-module. written Z(CG).

hP H hP H hP H hP H and so zg gz. Consequently zr rz for all r P CG. b: a3 b2 1. 1 a a2 and 1 a a2 b ab a2 b lie in Z(CG). Then for all g P G. and the result follows. kal and G are normal subgroups of G. we have vrz vzr.13 Example The elements 1 and gPG g lie in Z(CG). 9. its dimension is equal to the number of irreducible representations of G ± see Chapter 15). if H is any normal subgroup of G. this CG-homomorphism is equal to ë1 V for some ë P C. g À1 zg g À1 hg h z. and let z P Z(CG). For example. Then there exists ë P C such that vz ëv for all v P V X Proof For all r P CG and v P V. and hence the function v 3 vz is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. j Some elements of the centre of CG are provided by the centre of G. We use Schur's Lemma to prove the following important property of the elements of Z(CG). Indeed. then h P Z(CG)X To see this.14 Proposition Let V be an irreducible CG-module.84 Representations and characters of groups the study of representations of G (for example. write z h. 9. then {1}. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. We shall see later that these elements in fact form a basis of Z(CG). . By Schur's Lemma 9. which we now de®ne.1(2). if G D6 ka. so the elements 1.

For example. Proof Let V be a faithful irreducible CG-module. it is not necessarily the case that there is a faithful irreducible CG-module.15 De®nition The centre of G. is de®ned by Z(G) fz P G: zg gz for all g P GgX 85 Clearly Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G. they . we give an example of a group G such that Z(G) is cyclic but there exists no faithful irreducible CG-module. and hence by Proposition 9. since in Exercise 25. Although we have seen in Proposition 6. the function z 3 ëz (z P Z(G)) is an injective homomorphism from Z(G) into the multiplicative group CÃ of non-zero complex numbers. written Z(G). which. 9. then G Z(G).6 that for every ®nite group G there is a faithful CG-module. then Z(G) is cyclic.7).9(2)). Therefore Z(G) {ë z : z P Z(G)}.6. and so by Proposition 9.16 is false.14. The irreducible representations of non-abelian groups are more dif®cult to construct than those of abelian groups. If z P Z(G) then z lies in Z(CG).Schur's Lemma 9.16. j We remark that the converse of Proposition 9.17 Example If G is an abelian group. C2 3 C2 has no faithful irreducible representation (compare Example 9.16 Proposition If there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module. the following result shows that the existence of a faithful irreducible CG-module imposes a strong restriction on the structure of G. and is a subset of Z(CG). Indeed. there is no faithful irreducible CG-module unless G is cyclic. 9. there exists ë z P C such that vz ë z v for all v P V X Since V is faithful. being a ®nite subgroup of CÃ . is cyclic (see Exercise 1. In particular.

v n is a basis of CG. Exercises for Chapter 9 1. Then dim Vi 1 for all i. the only CG-homomorphisms from an irreducible CG-module to itself are scalar multiples of the identity. where each Vi is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule CG. Hence G is abelian. The elements of Z(CG) act as scalar multiples of the identity on all irreducible CGmodules. y P G. as required. and hence they commute. . Then G is abelian. we can write CG V1 È X X X È Vn . and there are precisely |G| of them. For all x. . Also. . j Summary of Chapter 9 1.6). since we are assuming that all irreducible CG-modules have dimension 1. as is shown by the following converse to Proposition 9. we deduce that x and y commute. For 1 < i < n. . Schur's Lemma states that every CG-homomorphism between irreducible CG-modules is either zero or a CG-isomorphism. Then v1 . call it B . All irreducible CG-modules for a ®nite abelian group G have dimension 1.5. . C3 and C2 3 C2 . 2. 3. Proof By Theorem 8. Since the representation g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) of G is faithful (see Proposition 6.86 Representations and characters of groups do not all have degree 1.18 Proposition Suppose that G is a ®nite group such that every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. the matrices [x]B and [ y]B are diagonal. The centre Z(CG) of the group algebra CG consists of those elements which commute with all elements of CG.7. Write down the irreducible representations over C of the groups C2 . let v i be a vector spanning V i . 9.

(a) Show that a aÀ1 P Z(CG). (a) Find a non-trivial irreducible representation r of G such that g2 r (1) for all g P G. b: a4 b2 1. b: a3 b2 1. Let G D6 ka. Check that there is a representation r of G over C such that À7 10 À5 6 ar . 3 C n r .14. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 3. b ù2 ab ùa2 b) (see Exercise 6. where À5 6 X À4 5 5. Let G C4 3 C4 . then there exists ë P C such that 2 3 v g ëv for all v P V X gPG 6.6). Can G have a faithful representation of degree less than r? 4. Prove that G has a faithful representation of degree r. (b) Find ë P C such that w(a aÀ1 ) ëw for all w P W. Write ù e2ðia3 . . (Compare Proposition 9. irreducible. bó 4 À5 M( gr) ( gr)M for all g P G. Let G be the ®nite abelian group C n1 3 . and let W be the irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule de®ned by W sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 .Schur's Lemma 87 2. (b) Prove that there is no irreducible representation ó of G such that gó (À1) for all elements g of order 2 in G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.) . br X À5 7 À4 5 Find all 2 3 2 matrices M such that Hence determine whether or not r is Do the same for the representation 5 À6 aó . Show that if V is an irreducible CG-module. Suppose that G D8 ka. . ó of G.

88 Representations and characters of groups 7. (b) D8 . (d) C3 3 D8. . (c) C2 3 D8 . Which of the following groups have a faithful irreducible representation? (a) C n (n a positive integer).

Proof Since Ker W is a CG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. However. to ®nd all irreducible CG-modules. we can write CG U1 È X X X È Ur where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. Irreducible submodules of CG We begin with another consequence of Maschke's Theorem. Then there is a CG-submodule U of V such that V Ker W È U and U Im W. it is suf®cient to decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (a result which has already been established for abelian groups in Theorem 9. . Consider CG as the regular CG-module.7. unless G is a small group.8). . As a consequence. .10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra Let G be a ®nite group and CG be the group algebra of G over C. 10. We shall show in this chapter that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules U1. By Theorem 8. there is by Maschke's Theorem a CG-submodule U of V such that V Ker W È U . Also.1 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules and let W: V 3 W be a CG-homomorphism. this is not really a practical way of ®nding the irreducible CG-modules. in theory. De®ne a function W: U 3 Im W by uW uW (u P U )X 89 .2. Ur. .

È Us (each Ui irreducible) without U being equal to any Ui. Clearly W is a CG-homomorphism.90 Representations and characters of groups We show that W is a CG-isomorphism from U to Im W. Schur's Lemma 9. . . we have ð i T 0. we have u u1 . so w vW for some v P V. Therefore U Ui.4 De®nitions (1) If V is a CG-module and U is an irreducible CG-module. As U and Ui are irreducible. Thus U Im W. then we say that U is a composition factor of V if V has a CG-submodule which is isomorphic to U. such that v g v for all v P V and g P G.1(1) implies that ð i is a CG-isomorphism. However. and ð i T 0. as the following example shows. and write V U1 È X X X È Us . with basis v1 . Write v k u with k P Ker W. . . Proof For u P U. We have now established that W: U 3 Im W is an invertible CG-homomorphism.11). If u P Ker W then u P Ker W U {0}. Then w vW kW uW uW uWX Therefore Im W Im W.3 Example Let G be any group and let V be a 2-dimensional CG-module. Now ð i is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. 10. Then V U1 È U2 . since W is a CG-homomorphism. then U Ui for some i. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. . as required. j Of course it can happen that U is an irreducible CG-submodule of U1 È . Now let w P Im W. where U1 sp (v1 ) and U2 sp (v2 ) are irreducible CG-submodules.2 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. u P U. 10. If U is any irreducible CG-submodule of V. De®ne ð i : U 3 Ui by setting uð i ui . us for unique vectors ui P Ui (1 < i < s). hence Ker W {0}. v2 . U sp (v1 v2 ) is an irreducible CG-submodule which is not equal to U1 or U2. Choosing i such that ui T 0 for some u P U. 10.

s P CG. and Im W W by (10. Then every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules Ui. . then there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.6). j Theorem 10. and write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . and choose a non-zero vector w P W. Observe that {wr: r P CG} is a CG-submodule of W. then W Ui. it follows that (10X6) W fwr: r P CGgX Now de®ne W: CG 3 W by rW wr (r P CG)X Clearly W is a linear transformation. By Proposition 10. Moreover. since for r. We now come to the main result of the chapter.2 we have U Ui for some i. W is a CG-homomorphism.5 Theorem Regard CG as the regular CG-module. and the result is proved.Irreducible modules and the group algebra 91 (2) Two CG-modules V and W are said to have a common composition factor if there is an irreducible CG-module which is a composition factor of both V and W.1. so is U. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. which shows that every irreducible CG-module is a composition factor of the regular CG-module. there is a CG-submodule U of CG such that CG U È Ker W and U Im W W X As W is irreducible. since W is irreducible. We record this fact in the following corollary. (rs)W w(rs) (wr)s (rW)sX By Proposition 10.5 shows that there is a ®nite set of irreducible CGmodules such that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of them. Proof Let W be an irreducible CG-module.7 Corollary If G is a ®nite group. 10. 10.

5. and write ù e2ðia3 . De®ne v0 . v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 . v2 P CG by v0 1 a a2 . note that v0 b w 0 . 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 1. and so sp (v i ) and sp (wi ) are Ckal-modules. 10. w0 bv0 w1 bv1 . Next.92 Representations and characters of groups According to Theorem 10.8 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. v2 1 ùa ù2 a2 . and hence CG U0 È U 1 È U2 . 2. and similarly vi a ùi vi for i 0.9(1). (2) Let G D6 ka.5. 1. It is easy to check that v0 . Then v1 a a ù2 a2 ù1 ùv1 . to ®nd all the irreducible CG-modules we need only decompose the regular CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. By Theorem 10. v2 1 ùa ù2 a2 . this is not a practical method for studying CG-modules in general. 1. v2 b w1 . U1 or U2. As in (1) above. w2 bv2 X ( b ba ba2 ). 2. Let ù e2ðia3 and de®ne v0 1 a a2 . We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. b: a3 b2 1. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. v1 . w1 b v2 . v2 is a basis of CG. w2 b v1 X . v i a ù i v i for i 0. 2. v1 . 2X Hence Ui is a CG-submodule of CG for i 0. however. every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to U0. and let Ui sp (v i ) for i 0. The irreducible representation of G corresponding to Ui is the representation rù i of Example 9. w0 b v0 . We now do this for a couple of examples. v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 . v1 b w2 .

0 1 ù 0 r3 : a 3 . Express CG as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules.8(1).b3 X 1 0 0 ùÀ1 Summary of Chapter 10 1. w1 ) are Ckbl-modules. r2 : a 3 (1). w2 ) and U4 sp (v2 . Note that U1 is the trivial CG-module. w0 ) is reducible. sp (v1 . (Hint: copy the method of Example 10. and hence are CG-submodules of CG. v2 . w2 is a basis of CG. the CG-submodules U3 sp (v1 . By the argument in Example 5. Correspondingly. namely U1. w2 ) and sp (v2 . the other 1-dimensional Ui. w2 3 v2 ). w1.5(2). We conclude from Theorem 10. sp (v0 . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. But U3 U4 (there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1 . Is there only one such CGsubmodule? 2. w1 ) are irreducible. Let G be a ®nite group. Exercises for Chapter 10 1. Let G C4 . v1 . Find a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module.) . b 3 (À1). and U1 is not isomorphic to U2. w0. Now v0.5 that there are exactly three nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules. Every irreducible CG-module occurs as a composition factor of the regular CG-module. w0 ). However. b 3 (1). 2. as U 1 sp(v0 w0 ) and U2 sp(v0 À w0 ) are CG-submodules. every irreducible representation of D6 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r1 : a 3 (1). and hence CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 .Irreducible modules and the group algebra 93 Therefore. There are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. sp(v0 . U2 and U3.

and let V be the CG-module given in Example 4. Let G D8 ka. Find a 1-dimensional CG-submodule. isomorphic CG-modules. v2 a Àiv2 . u2 b u2 . and ®nd a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. v2 b Àv1 X Show that V is irreducible. such that u2 a Àu2 . b: a4 1. sp (u1 ) say. of CG such that u1 a u1 . Thus V has basis v1 .5(2). Use the method of Example 10. and u3 b Àu3 X 4. 5. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 6. u3 a Àu3 . Show that there is a V which is not equal to U1 or U2.94 Representations and characters of groups 3. . but is them.8(2) to ®nd all the irreducible representations of D8 over C. v2 and v1 a iv1 . u1 b Àu1 X Find also 1-dimensional CG-submodules. b: a4 b2 1. Suppose that V is a where U1 and U2 are CG-submodule U of isomorphic to both of non-zero CG-module such that V U1 È U2. v1 b v2 . sp (u2 ) and sp (u3 ). Let G Q8 ka. b2 a2 .

1 De®nition Let V and W be CG-modules. We write HomCG (V . W ) and ë P C. In Theorem 10. it is easily checked that HomCG (V. We begin our study of the vector space HomCG (V. The space of CG-homomorphisms 11. With these de®nitions.11 More on the group algebra We now go further into the structure of the group algebra CG of a ®nite group G. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui.5 we proved that every irreducible CG-module U is isomorphic to one of the Ui. De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on HomCG (V . W ) for the set of all CG-homomorphisms from V to W. The question arises: how many of the Ui are isomorphic to U ? There is an elegant and signi®cant answer to this question: the number is precisely dim U (see Theorem 11. v(ëW) ë(vW) for all v P V . As in Chapter 10.9). de®ne W ö and ëW by v(W ö) vW vö.9 is based on a study of the vector space of CG-homomorphisms from one CG-module to another. 95 . W ) as follows: for W. W ). ö P HomCG (V . ëW P HomCG (V . Then W ö. W) with an easy consequence of Schur's Lemma. Our proof of Theorem 11. we write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . W ) is a vector space over C.

96 Representations and characters of groups 11. W ) in general. by Maschke's Theorem. W1 È W2 )) dim (HomCG (V.3 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules. if V T W X Proof If V T W then this is immediate from Schur's Lemma 9. W ). W 2 be CG-modules. V1 . (2) dim (HomCG (V1 È V2 . Then (1) dim (HomCG (V.1(1) implies that XW X. 11. W )) dim (HomCG (V1 . Now suppose that V W. recall the de®nition of a composition factor of a CG-module from 10. The key step is the following proposition. Schur's Lemma 9. W2 )). W )). there exists ë P C such that öWÀ1 ë1 V X Then ö ëW.4. dim (HomCG (V .2 Proposition Suppose that V and W are irreducible CG-modules. W1 )) dim (HomCG (V. a 1-dimensional space. if V W .4 Proposition Let V . If ö P HomCG (V . W ). W)) dim (HomCG (V2 . 11. Then V and W have a common composition factor. and so HomCG (V . j For the next result. W 1 . Since XW T {0}. Then V Ker W È U for some non-zero CG-module U. W ) fëW: ë P Cg. . Proof Let W be a non-zero element of HomCG (V . so by Schur's Lemma 9. V2 and W . Therefore X is a common composition factor of V and W. Then & 1. W )) 0.1(2). and let W: V 3 W be a CG-isomorphism. W ) T f0g. then öWÀ1 is a CG-isomorphism from V to V.1(1). j The next few results show how to calculate the dimension of HomCG (V . Let X be an irreducible CG-submodule of U. and suppose that HomCG (V .

W 1 ) and Wð2 P HomCG (V. then Wð1 P HomCG (V . W V2 ) (W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . W ))X transformation.1). W2 ) (see Exercise 7. If W P Ker f. W1 È W2 ). Hence f is surjective. for all w1 P W 1 . W2 ) by f : W 3 (Wð1 . 2) lies in HomCG (V1 È V2 . w2 P W 2 . Hence h is surjective. W ) (i 1. de®ne W Vi : Vi 3 W (i 1. 2. Wi ) (i 1. Now let h be the function from HomCG (V1 È V2 . the function ö: v 3 vö1 vö2 (v P V ) lies in HomCG (V. (2) For W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . that is.More on the group algebra Proof (1) De®ne W 1 È W 2 3 W 2 by the functions ð1 : W1 È W2 3 W1 (w1 w2 )ð2 w2 and 97 ð2 : (w1 w2 )ð1 w1 . 2). W1 È W2 ) to HomCG (V. W ) È HomCG (V2 . W ) for i 1. Therefore W 0. ö2 ) under h. and the image of ö under f is (ö1 . We have established that f is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (V. and (1) follows. Consequently these two vector spaces have equal dimensions. W 1 È W 2 ))X Clearly f is a linear transformation. so vW vW(ð1 ð2 ) 0. W Vi is the function v i W Vi v i W (v i P Vi )X to Then W Vi P HomCG (V i . then vWð1 0 and vWð2 0 for all v P V. W 1 È W 2 ). W1 ) and HomCG (V. We show that f is invertible. If W P HomCG (V .11. j . and (2) follows. W2 ). By Proposition 7. We have shown that h is an invertible linear transformation. W ) and has image (ö1 . Given Clearly h is an injective linear HomCG (Vi . 2). We now de®ne a function f from HomCG (V. W ) HomCG (V1 . the function ö: v1 v2 3 v1 ö1 v2 ö2 öi P (v i P Vi for i 1. so Ker f {0} and f is injective. W1 ) È HomCG (V. ð1 and ð2 are CG-homomorphisms. W ) which is given by h: W 3 (W V1 . Wð2 ) (W P HomCG (V . 2) to be the restriction of W to V i . W ). Given ö i P HomCG (V. ö2 ). W1 È W2 ) to the (external) direct sum of HomCG (V.

11. and dim (HomCG (W . W1 È . By applying (3) when all Vi and Wj are irreducible. and using Proposition 11.5). . . W )) r i1 dim (HomCG (Vi. where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. Then the dimensions of HomCG (V . Let W be any irreducible CG-module. . W)).4. V ) are both equal to the number of CG-modules Ui such that Ui W. dim (HomCG (V . È Ws )) s j1 dim (HomCG (V. W )) dim (HomCG (W .5) (1) dim (HomCG (V. In the following corollary we single out the case where one of the CGmodules is irreducible. W ) and HomCG (W . we can ®nd dim (HomCG (V. È Vr . By an obvious induction using Proposition 11. (2) dim(HomCG (V1 È F F F ÈV r . W )) in general. Vi. 1 < j < s). W1 È . . Proof By (11. W. U i ))X . V )) s i1 s i1 dim (HomCG (Ui . È Ws )) r s i1 j1 dim (HomCG (Vi. Wj )). W )). we have (11.6 Corollary Let V be a CG-module with V U1 È X X X È Us .2.98 Representations and characters of groups Now suppose that we have CG-modules V. Wj )). . These in turn imply (3) dim (HomCG (V1 È . Wj (1 < i < r. .

Choose a basis u1 . For 1 < i < d. with U3 U4 but U3 not isomorphic to U1 or U2.5 to ®nd bases for these two vector spaces of CG-homomorphisms. . The next proposition investigates the space of CG-homomorphisms from the regular CG-module to any other CG-module. if U i W . When combined with Corollary 11. ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. Then 1ö ë1 u1 X X X ë d u d for some ë i P C. . U) since for all r.2. s P CG. . 11.8(2) that CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 . for all r P CG we have . then dim (HomCG (CG. U ). we have dim (HomCG (CG. Ui )) The result follows. if U i T W X j a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. (rs)ö i ui (rs) (ui r)s (rö i )sX We shall prove that ö1 . de®ne ö i : CG 3 U by rö i ui r (r P CG)X Then ö i P HomCG (CG. CG)) 2X You are asked in Exercise 11.More on the group algebra And by Proposition 11. Thus by Corollary 11. 11.8 Proposition If U is a CG-module.6. U3 )) dim (HomCG (U3 . . . dim (HomCG (Ui .7 Example For G D6. U )) dim U X Proof Let d dim U. . it will give the main result of this chapter. . 0. . we saw in Example 10. U ). W )) dim (HomCG (W . Suppose that ö P HomCG (CG.6. Since ö is a CG-homomorphism. ud of U. & 99 1.

U ). If U is any irreducible CG-module.10 Example Recall again from Example 10. then the number of CG-modules Ui with Ui U is equal to dim U. which tells us how often each irreducible CG-module occurs in the regular CGmodule. . which forces ë i 0 for all i. U ). j We now come to the main theorem of the chapter. ë d ö d . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. . Proof By Proposition 11. ö d span ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d 0 (ë i P C)X Evaluating both sides at the identity 1. 11. . U2 are non-isomorphic 1-dimensional CG-modules. . and . HomCG (CG. .8.8(2) that if G D6 then CG U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . Hence ö1 . Now assume that Therefore ö1 . we have 0 1(ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d ) ë1 u1 X X X ë d u d . . where U1.100 Representations and characters of groups rö (1r)ö (1ö)r ë1 u1 r X X X ë d u d r r(ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d )X Hence ö ë1 ö1 . which therefore has dimension d. U )).9 Theorem Suppose that CG U1 È X X X È Ur . .6. ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. . dim U dim (HomCG (CG. j 11. this is equal to the number of Ui with Ui U. and by Corollary 11. . .

This illustrates Theorem 11. U4 are isomorphic irreducible 2-dimensional CG-modules. X X X . dk be the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. 11. U2 occurs once.9 concerning the dimensions of all irreducible CG-modules.12 Theorem Let V1 . 11.7. (By Corollary 10. . and let d1. . Then k (dim Vi )2 jGjX i1 Proof Let CG U1 È . .) 11. For 1 < i < k. k i1 d 2 8X i . for each i. È Ur.9. U3 occurs twice. . . and no two of V1 . V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. X X X . V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules if every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to some V i . X X X . V k are isomorphic. . By Theorem 11. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. write d i dim V i . dim U2 1. for any ®nite group G there exists a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.More on the group algebra 101 U3. dim U1 1. Therefore dim CG dim U 1 X X X dim Ur k i1 k i1 d i (dim Vi ) d2X i j As dim CG |G|. the result follows. dim U3 2X We conclude the chapter with a signi®cant consequence of Theorem 11.11 De®nition We say that the irreducible CG-modules V1 . the number of CG-modules Uj with Uj Vi is equal to di .12.13 Example Let G be a group of order 8. By Theorem 11.9: U1 occurs once.

®nd the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. and let U be any irreducible CG-module. 1. V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. W 1 È X X X È W s )) r s i1 j1 and dim (HomCG (Vi . 1. . . what are the possible degrees of all the irreducible representations of G? Find the degrees of the irreducible representations of D12. Summary of Chapter 11 1. X X X . .4). Then the number of Ui with Ui U is equal to dim U. 4. We shall see later that dim Vi divides |G| for all i. then k (dim Vi )2 jGjX i1 Exercises for Chapter 11 1. If G is a group of order 12. Let CG U1 È . 1. and this fact. 1. U )) dim U . If G is a non-abelian group of order 6.5). Find a basis for HomCG (CG. È Ur. combined with Theorem 11. 1. . Let G be a ®nite group. 2X Both these possibilities do occur: the ®rst holds when G is an abelian group (see Proposition 9. . 1. dk are 1. W j ))X 2. and the second when G D8 (see Exercise 10. 2. CG). 1 1. 1. dim (HomCG (CG. If V1 . .) 3. . and so di 1 for some i. Hence the possibilities for d1.3.12.102 Representations and characters of groups Observe that the trivial CG-module is irreducible of dimension 1. 1. is quite a powerful tool in ®nding the dimensions of irreducible CG-modules. 1. 3. (Hint: use Exercise 5. dim (HomCG (V1 È X X X È V r . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules.

Suppose that G Sn and V is the n-dimensional permutation module for G over C. Assume that for 1 < i < k. W )) i1 d i ei . Vi ))X k Show that dim (HomCG (V . V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. as de®ned in 4. U) has dimension 1.10. W be arbitrary CG-modules. U3 ) and a basis for HomCG (U3.More on the group algebra 103 4. as in Example 10. 5. Let V1 . d i dim (HomCG (V . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. Find a basis for HomCG (CG. X X X . Let G D6 and let CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4. Vi )) and ei dim (HomCG (W .8(2). and let V. If U is the trivial CGmodule. 6. CG). . show that HomCG (V.

y P G. then either x G y G or x G y G is empty. y P G. h P G such that z gÀ1 xg hÀ1 yhX 104 . Throughout the chapter.12 Conjugacy classes We take a break from representation theory to discuss some topics in group theory which will be relevant in our further study of representations.1 De®nition Let x. Our ®rst result shows that two distinct conjugacy classes have no elements in common. We say that x is conjugate to y in G if y g À1 xg for some g P GX The set of all elements conjugate to x in G is x G f g À1 xg: g P Gg. G is a ®nite group. Proof Suppose that x G y G is not empty. and is called the conjugacy class of x in G. Conjugacy classes 12. we develop enough theory to determine the conjugacy classes of dihedral. Then there exist g. 12. After de®ning conjugacy classes. and pick z P x G y G. At the end of the chapter we prove a result linking the conjugacy classes of a group to the structure of its group algebra. symmetric and alternating groups.2 Proposition If x.

and that the conjugacy classes are the equivalence classes. a. . 1 G {1} is a conjugacy class of G.Conjugacy classes Hence x ghÀ1 yhgÀ1 kÀ1 yk. ab. 12. ab.3 Corollary Every group is a union of conjugacy classes.3 is to observe that conjugacy is an equivalence relation. . a2 gX Also. . . (2) Let G D6 ka. So a P x G A a bÀ1 xb A a cÀ1 yc AaP y X G 105 for some b P G where c kb A a bÀ1 k À1 ykb Therefore x G # y G. x G . a2 bgX Thus the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. . where k hgÀ1 . a2 . where the conjugacy classes x1 .5 Examples (1) For every group G. Since gÀ1 ag is a or a2 for every g P G.4 De®nition G G If G x1 . . a2 b. so bG fb. The elements of G are 1. and bÀ1 ab a2 . b: a3 b2 1. and so xG yG . . fa. and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. G is the union of its conjugacy classes and so we deduce immediately 12. . we have aG fa. Another way of seeing this Corollary 12. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. fb. x G are l l distinct. a2 bgX . then we call x1 . a2 g. j Since every element x of G lies in the conjugacy class x G (as x 1À1 x1 with 1 P G). Similarly y G # x G (using y kxkÀ1 ). . xl representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. 12. ab. b. aÀi ba i aÀ2i b for all integers i.

and so x G {x}. we have gÀ1 abg ( g À1 ag)( g À1 bg)X Hence gÀ1 x n g ( gÀ1 xg) n . Let x have order m. so y also has order m. g P G. Then y m gÀ1 x m g 1.6 Proposition Let x. y P G. . then x n is conjugate to y n in G for every integer n. kxl # CG (x) for all x P G. 12. Then the size of the conjugacy class x G is given by jx G j jG: CG (x)j jGjajCG (x)jX In particular. j Conjugacy class sizes The next theorem determines the sizes of the conjugacy classes in G in terms of certain subgroups which we now de®ne. Suppose that x is conjugate to y in G. CG (x) f g P G: xg gxgX (So also CG (x) { g P G: gÀ1 xg x}. is the set of elements of G which commute with x. and for 0 . If x is conjugate to y in G. so that y gÀ1 xg for some g P G. 12. 12. The next proposition is often useful when calculating conjugacy classes.8 Theorem Let x P G. m.1). Observe that x P CG (x) and indeed. Proof Observe that for a. Hence every conjugacy class of G consists of just one element.7 De®nition Let x P G. y r gÀ1 x r g T 1. that is. The centralizer of x in G. and x and y have the same order. written CG (x). |x G | divides |G|. r . b P G.) It is easy to check that CG (x) is a subgroup of G (Exercise 12.106 Representations and characters of groups (3) If G is abelian then gÀ1 xg x for all x. Then y n gÀ1 x n g and therefore x n is conjugate to y n in G.

10 The Class Equation Let x1 . Thus G ha. Then jx G j. b: an b2 1. the dihedral group of order 2n. We have now proved all parts of the following result. we have g À1 xg hÀ1 xh D hg À1 x xhg À1 D hg À1 P CG (x) D CG (x) g CG (x)hX 107 By dint of this. and both | Z(G)| and |x G | divide |G|. as de®ned in 9. we may de®ne an injective function f from x G to the set of right cosets of CG (x) in G by f : g À1 xg 3 CG (x) g ( g P G)X Clearly f is surjective. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX In ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. jGj j Z(G)j i xiP Z(G) a for all g P G where |x G | i |G:CG (xi )|. . 12. we make the observation that (12X9) jx G j 1 D g À1 xg x D x P Z(G). xl be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. . . where Z(G) is the centre of G. Let G D2 n. jG: CG (ai )j < jG: haij 2X . proving that |x G | |G:CG (x)|. it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. (1) n odd First consider ai (1 < i < n À 1). j Before summarizing our results on conjugacy classes. i Conjugacy classes of dihedral groups We illustrate the use of Theorem 12. Since CG (ai ) contains kal. .8 by ®nding the conjugacy classes of all dihedral groups. Hence f is a bijection. h P G.Conjugacy classes Proof Observe ®rst that for g.15.

{a. aÀi } # (ai ) G . Thus CG (b) f1. . . As bÀ1 am b aÀ m am . and so |(ai ) G | > 2. . (ai ) G {ai . a j baÀ j a2 j b. n 2m) has precisely m 3 conjugacy classes: {1}. (ab) G fa2 j1 b: 0 < j < m À 1gX Hence (12. . Since all the elements ai have been accounted for. aÀ( nÀ1)a2 }. . . so {ai . and as bÀ1 ai b aÀi . As n is odd. bG must consist of the remaining n elements of G. aÀ m1 }. . {a m }. aÀ1 }. {a2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1}. ab. and hence CG (am ) G. For every integer j. a nÀ1 b}. CG (b) contains {1. .108 Representations and characters of groups Also bÀ1 ai b aÀi . {a( nÀ1)a2 . a nÀ1 bgX We have shown (12.11) The dihedral group D2 n (n odd) has precisely 1(n 3) con2 jugacy classes: {1}. ai T aÀi . (ai ) G fai . X X X . b}. . Using Theorem 12. bG fb. Therefore the conjugacy class of am in G is just fam g. That is. (2) n even Write n 2m. As in case (1).12) The dihedral group D2 n (n even. . the centralizer of am in G contains both a and b. |bG | n. {b. a j (ab)aÀ j a2 j1 bX It follows that bG fa2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1g. we have 2 > jG: CG (ai )j j(ai ) G j > 2X Hence equality holds here. {a2 j1 b: 0 < j < m À 1}. aÀi gX Next. . and CG (ai ) hai. no element ai or ai b (with 1 < i < n À 1) commutes with b. bgX Therefore by Theorem 12. {a. aÀ1 }. . {a mÀ1 .8. . aÀi } for 1 < i < m À 1. ab.8.

For ir P A. . for 1 < i < n and i P A. . Our ®rst observation is simple but crucial. . 1 k 1 k (products of disjoint cycles). exists g P Sn sending j . ck s 3 c9 s . Now consider an arbitrary permutation x P Sn .13. ks ) the cycle-shape of x. . . ik g). . given any two permutations x. and so by (12. .Conjugacy classes Conjugacy classes of S n 109 We shall later need to know the conjugacy classes of the symmetric group Sn . ik g). . say x (a1 X X X a k 1 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). . . y of the same cycle-shape. . > ks . with k1 > k2 > . 12.13 Proposition Let x be a k-cycle (i1 i2 . On the other hand. a ig( gÀ1 xg) ixg igX Hence gÀ1 (i1 i2 . y (a9 X X X a9 1 ) X X X (c9 X X X c9 s ). ik ) g (i1 g i2 g .14). . ik }. . . Then gÀ1 xg is the k-cycle (i1 g i2 g . ik ) in Sn .14) g À1 xg g À1 (a1 X X X a k 1 ) gg À1 (b1 X X X b k 2 ) g X X X g À1 (c1 X X X ck s ) g (a1 g X X X a k 1 g)(b1 g X X X b k 2 g) X X X (c1 g X X X c k s g)X We call (k1 . . and note that x and gÀ1 xg have the same cycle-shape. . Write x (a1 X X X ak 1 )(b1 X X X bk 2 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). By Proposition 12. . and let g P Sn . there a1 3 a9 . for g P Sn we have (12. Proof Write A {i1 . . 1 k g À1 xg yX We have proved the following result. as required. . a product of disjoint cycles. . ir g( g À1 xg) i r xg i r1 g (or i1 g if r k)X Also. . .

12. 3. we simply count the number of 2-cycles.4): 1. with representatives (see De®nition 12. The number of 2-cycles is equal to the number of pairs that can be chosen from {1. (1 2 3). (1 4)(2 3)gX (3) There are precisely ®ve conjugacy classes of S4 . there are three elements of cycle-shape (2. the conjugacy class sizes | gG | and the centralizer orders |CG ( g)| (obtained using Theorem 12. (1 2)(3 4). 2) and there are six 4-cycles.16 Examples (1) The conjugacy classes of S3 are Class {1} {(1 2). (1 2 3 4)X To calculate the sizes of the conjugacy classes. 2. and so on. (1 2).15 Theorem For x P Sn . (1 3 2)} Cycle-shape (1) (2) (3) (2) The conjugacy class of (1 2)(3 4) in S4 consists of all the elements of cycle-shape (2. (1 3). (1 3)(2 4). (2 3)} {(1 2 3). the conjugacy class representatives g. 4}. Thus for G S4 . ÀÁ which is 4 6. Similarly. (The notation n means the binomial coef®cient 2 r n3a(r3(n À r)3).110 Representations and characters of groups 12. 3-cycles.) The number of 3-cycles is 4 3 2 (4 for the choice of ®xed point and 2 because there are two 3-cycles ®xing a given point). the conjugacy class x Sn of x in Sn consists of all permutations in Sn which have the same cycle-shape as x. 2) and is f(1 2)(3 4).8) are as follows: Representative Class size g | gG | |CG ( g)| 1 1 24 (1 2) 6 4 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 3 8 (1 2 3 4) 6 4 We check our arithmetic by noting that jS4 j 1 6 8 3 6X .

the corresponding table for G S5 is Rep. If h is even then y P x An . Then CSn (x) CAn (x)X .15 that the conjugacy class x S n consists of all permutations in S n which have the same cycle-shape as x. and so x Sn x An . x A n might not be equal to x S n . (2) Assume that x does not commute with any odd permutation. x À1 }. 1. Thus x Sn # x An . however. so again y P x An . here x A3 fxg. For an easy example where equality does not hold. g 1 (1 2) | gG | 1 10 |CG ( g)| 120 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 20 15 6 8 (1 2 3 4) 30 4 111 (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 24 6 5 Conjugacy classes of A n Given an even permutation x P A n . The next result determines precisely when x An and x Sn are equal. and if h is odd then gh P An and y hÀ1 xh hÀ1 g À1 xgh ( gh)À1 x( gh). (2) If x does not commute with any odd permutation in Sn then x Sn splits into two conjugacy classes in An of equal size. consider x (1 2 3) P A3 . while x S3 {x. given by x A n f g À1 xg: g P An g. and what happens when equality fails. 12. then x Sn x An . Proof (1) Assume that x commutes with an odd permutation g. we have seen in Theorem 12.Conjugacy classes (4) Similarly. Let y P x S n . is of course contained in x S n . (1) If x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . so that y hÀ1 xh for some h P Sn . The conjugacy class x A n of x in A n .17 Proposition Let x P An with n . with representatives x and (1 2)À1 x(1 2).

together with the permutations of cycle-shapes (2. Proposition 12. we observe that fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An since every odd permutation has the form (1 2)a for some a P An . an even permutation.17.18 Examples (1) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A4 . Hence by Proposition 12. as we wished to show. (1 3)(2 4). but (1 2 3 4 5) commutes with no odd permutation. (2. (1 2 3) or (1 3 2).13. 2) and (5).8. so g is 1. 2) and (3). the conjugacy classes x An and ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An must 2 be disjoint and of equal size. Thus the conjugacy classes of A4 are Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 12 (1 2)(3 4) 3 4 (1 2 3) 4 3 (1 3 2) 4 3 (as jAn j 1jSn j) 2 (2) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A5 . (1 2 3) S4 splits into two conjugacy classes in A4 of size 4. The elements (1 2 3) and (2 3)(4 5) commute with the odd permutation (4 5). with representatives (1 2 3) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3)(1 2) (1 3 2).17. The elements of A4 are the identity. (Check this by using the argument in (1) above.112 Representations and characters of groups Hence by Theorem 12. Now x Sn fhÀ1 xh: h is eveng fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg x An ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An X Since |x An | 1|x Sn |. Since (1 2)(3 4) commutes with the odd permutation (1 2). The non-identity even permutations in S5 are those of cycle-shapes (3). (1 4)(2 3)gX However. the 3-cycle (1 2 3) commutes with no odd permutation: for if gÀ1 (1 2 3) g (1 2 3) then (1 2 3) (1 g 2 g 3 g) by Proposition 12.17 implies that (1 2)(3 4) A4 (1 2)(3 4) S4 f(1 2)(3 4).) Hence by Proposition 12. jx An j jAn : CAn (x)j 1jSn : CAn (x)j 2 1jSn : CSn (x)j 1jx Sn jX 2 2 Next. the . j 12.

12. H is a union of conjugacy classes of S4 . 8. and 1 P H. then h P H.17(2). 1 3. 6. 6. Using Proposition 12. Proof If H is a union of conjugacy classes. j 12.Conjugacy classes 113 conjugacy classes of A5 are represented by 1. Thus H v G. Since j Hj divides 24 by Lagrange's Theorem.20 Example We ®nd all the normal subgroups of S4 . hP H and so H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. As we saw in Example 12. there are just four possibilities: j Hj 1.19 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. (1 2 3). we see that the class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows: Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 60 (1 2 3) 20 3 (1 2)(3 4) 15 4 (1 2 3 4 5) 12 5 (1 3 4 5 2) 12 5 Normal subgroups Normal subgroups are related to conjugacy classes by the following elementary result. 3. Therefore H hG . so gÀ1 Hg # H. Conversely. g P G.19. 1 8 3 or 1 6 8 3 6X . (1 2 3 4 5) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3 4 5)(1 2) (1 3 4 5 2). g P G A g À1 hg P H. (1 2)(3 4). Then H v G if and only if H is a union of conjugacy classes of G.16(3). Then by Proposition 12. and so hG # H. Let H v S4 . we have gÀ1 hg P H. if H v G then for all h P H. these conjugacy classes have sizes 1.

(1 4)(2 3)gX This is easily checked to be a subgroup of S4 .114 Representations and characters of groups In the ®rst case H {1}. . . . Let Ci consist of the r distinct conjugates yÀ1 gy1. Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G. . Recall from De®nition 9. and in the third case H A4 . we write it as V4 (V stands for `Viergruppe'. . hÀ1 C i h r j1 r j1 yÀ1 gyj X j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj hX j . . C l of CG are called class sums. A4 and V4 f1. In the case where j Hj 1 3. . We have now shown that S4 has exactly four normal subgroups: f1g. . meaning `four-group'). (1 3)(2 4). C l form a basis of Z(CG). . For 1 < i < l.12 that the centre of CG is Z(CG) fz P CG: zr rz for all r P CGgX We know that Z(CG) is a subspace of the vector space CG. . de®ne Ci g P CGX gPCi The elements C1 . . . There is a convenient basis for this subspace which can be described in terms of the conjugacy classes of G. . Proof First we show that each C i belongs to Z(CG). S4 . (1 4)(2 3)gX The centre of a group algebra In this ®nal section we link the conjugacy classes of the group G to the centre of the group algebra CG. we have H 1 S4 (1 2)(3 4) S4 f1.22 Proposition The class sums C1 . 12. . (1 3)(2 4). yÀ1 gyr of an element g. in the last case H S4 . (1 2)(3 4). . (1 2)(3 4).21 De®nition Let C1 . 12. . so 1 r Ci For all h P G.

a basis for Z(CD8 ) is 1. hence with all hPG ë h h P CG. For h P G. Next. .16(1). That is. . the function g 3 ë g is constant on l conjugacy classes of G. It follows that r i1 ë i C i where ë i is the j coef®cient ë gi for some gi P Ci . the coef®cient ë g of g is equal to the coef®cient ë hÀ1 gh of hÀ1 gh. we have rh hr. That is to say. and so C i P Z(CG). . the elements hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h run through Ci . . . 12.3. This completes the proof. (1 2) (1 3) (2 3). b a2 b. observe that C1 . . C i h hC i X Therefore each C i commutes with all h P G. ë g hÀ1 gh ë g gX gPG gPG So for every h P G.12). a basis for Z(CS3 ) is 1. (1 2 3) (1 3 2)X (2) From (12.23 Examples (1) From Example 12. then all ë i 0 as the classes C1 . Every group is a union of conjugacy classes.Conjugacy classes 115 As j runs from 1 to r. Cl are pairwise disjoint by Corollary 12. . . It remains to show that C1 . C l are linearly independent: for if l i1 ë i C i 0 (ë i P C). . That is. . C l span Z(CG). j and so h C i h C i . and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. the centralizer CG (x) is the set of . For an element x of a group G. so h rh r. 2. . ab a3 bX Summary of Chapter 12 1. Let r À1 gPG ë g g P Z(CG). a2 . since j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h hÀ1 yÀ1 gyk h D yÀ1 gyj yÀ1 gyk X j k j k Hence r j1 À1 hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h C i . a a3 . .

and ®nd the sizes of the other conjugacy classes of S6 .8. Verify that your solution satis®es Theorem 12. and let n be a positive integer. (There are 11 conjugacy classes in all.20.) 4. 7. n (a) Prove that j(1 2) G j 2 and ®nd CG ((1 2)). The conjugacy classes of Sn correspond to the cycle-shapes of permutations in Sn . Let G be a ®nite group and suppose that g P G and z P Z(G). 3. (Hint: use the method of Example 12. It is a subgroup of G. and the number of elements in the conjugacy class x G is equal to |G:CG (x)|.10 to show that Z(G) T {1}. 5. Find the conjugacy classes of the quaternion group Q8. Let G Sn . What are the cycle-shapes of those permutations x P A6 for which x A6 T x S6 ? 5. If G is a group and x P G. If x P An then x Sn x An if and only if x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . Give a basis of the centre of the group algebra CQ8. 4. . Suppose that G is a group of order pn . 2. n n (b) Show that j(1 2 3) G j 2 3 and j(1 2)(3 4) G j 3 4 . The class sums in CG form a basis for the centre of CG. Let p be a prime number. (c) Now let n 6. (b) Suppose that n > 3 and that | Z(G)| p. Show that A5 is a simple group.) 6. 3. Prove that G has a conjugacy class of size p.116 Representations and characters of groups elements of G which commute with x. Prove that the conjugacy classes gG and ( gz) G have the same size. show that CG (x) is a subgroup of G which contains Z(G). Exercises for Chapter 12 1. (a) Use the Class Equation 12. Show that j(1 2 3)(4 5 6) G j 40 and j(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G j 15.

since from the de®nition of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. C) is a representation of the ®nite group G. basic problems. These facts are surprising. written tr A. such as deciding whether or not a given representation is irreducible. For example. C). is given by tr A n i1 aii X That is. The trace of a matrix 13. The function ÷: G 3 C is called the character of the representation r. The theory of characters will occupy a considerable portion of the rest of the book. whereas the character records just one number for each matrix. 117 . and they are the fundamental tools for performing calculations in representation theory. Characters of representations have many remarkable properties. can be resolved by doing some easy arithmetic with the character of the representation. then the trace of A.13 Characters Suppose that r: G 3 GL(n. With each n 3 n matrix gr ( g P G) we associate the complex number given by adding all the diagonal entries of the matrix. the trace of A is the sum of the diagonal entries of A. it appears that we must keep track of all the n2 entries in each matrix gr. In this chapter we present some basic properties and examples. Moreover. we shall show later that two representations have the same character if and only if they are equivalent. and call this number ÷( g).1 De®nition If A (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix.

since if B and B 9 are bases of V. Characters 13. then tr (T À1 AT ) tr AX Proof The ii-entry of A B is aii bii . that is. Then tr (A B) tr A tr B. if T is an invertible n 3 n matrix. Then the character of V is the function ÷: G 3 C de®ned by ÷( g) tr [ g]B ( g P G)X The character of V does not depend on the basis B . then [ g]B 9 T À1 [ g]B T .118 Representations and characters of groups 13. the trace function is not multiplicative. and the ii-entry of AB is n j1 aij bji. and tr (AB) tr (BA)X Moreover.2 Proposition Let A (aij ) and B (bij ) be n 3 n matrices. aij bji n n j1 i1 bji aij tr (BA)X Notice that. Therefore tr (A B) and tr (AB) For the last part.3 De®nition Suppose that V is a CG-module with a basis B . tr (T À1 AT ) tr ((T À1 A)T ) tr (T (T À1 A)) tr AX (by the second part ) j n n i1 j1 n i1 (aii bii ) n i1 aii n i1 bii tr A tr B. tr (AB) need not equal (tr A)(tr B). unlike the determinant function.

Then [x]B [ g À1 yg]B [ g]À1 [ y]B [ g]B X B Hence by Proposition 13. we de®ne the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. . we write ÷( g) and not g÷. (2) Assume that x and y are conjugate elements of G. Therefore ÷(x) ÷( y). Then by (7. (2) If x and y are conjugate elements of the group G. where ÷ is the character of V. j The result corresponding to Proposition 13. and let B be a basis of V. namely ÷( g) tr ( gr) ( g P G)X 13.5 Proposition (1) Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. Proof (1) Suppose that V and W are isomorphic CG-modules. C) to be the character ÷ of the corresponding CGmodule C n . Let V be a CG-module.7). so that x gÀ1 yg for some g P G.5(1) for representations is that equivalent representations have the same character.4 De®nition We say that ÷ is a character of G if ÷ is the character of some CGmodule. Further. tr [ g]B 9 tr [ g]B for all g P GX Naturally enough. and so by Proposition 13.24)). You will have noticed that we are writing characters as functions on the left.2. we have tr [x]B tr [ y]B . and so V and W have the same character. ÷ is an irreducible character of G if ÷ is the character of an irreducible CG-module. there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P GX Consequently tr [ g]B 1 tr [ g]B 2 for all g P G.2. and ÷ is reducible if it is the character of a reducible CG-module. 13. That is.Characters 119 for some invertible matrix T (see (2. then ÷(x) ÷( y) for all characters ÷ of G.

2(1)). Let ÷ be the character of this representation. C) be the representation for which 1 0 0 1 .6 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka.10).) g gr ÷( g) 1 1 0 0 1 2 a 0 1 À1 0 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 À2 a3 0 À1 1 0 0 g gr ÷( g) b 1 0 0 À1 0 ab 0 À1 0 À1 0 a2 b À1 0 0 1 0 a3 b 0 1 0 1 0 (2) Let G S3 . We record these matrices. b: a4 b2 1. v2 . 13. The following table records g. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. g [ g]B ÷( g) 1 (1 2) (1 3) H 1 d0 0 0 0 1 0e 0 1 3 I H 0 d1 0 1 0 0 0e 0 1 1 I H 0 0 d0 1 1 0 1 I 1 0e 0 . br ar 0 À1 À1 0 (see Example 3. (We obtain ÷( g) by adding the two entries on the diagonal of gr. The matrices [ g]B ( g P G) are given by Exercise 4.5(1): if two CG-modules have the same character. gr and ÷( g) as g runs through G. then they are isomorphic. thus B is the basis v1 . and take V to be the 3-dimensional permutation module for G over C (see De®nition 4.120 Representations and characters of groups Later. together with the character ÷ of V. where v i g v ig for 1 < i < 3 and all g P G. we shall prove an astonishing converse of Proposition 13. and let r: G 3 GL(2. Let B be the natural basis of V. v3 .1.

This will become clear as the theory of characters develops. b: a3 b2 1. with values g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l (so G S3 ). the characters given take few distinct values. U2. and they are as follows: g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Notice that in all the above examples.8(2). By Theorem 9. G has just three irreducible characters ÷1 .5(2).8(2). r2 . In Example 10. we found a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules U1. r3 given in Example 10. ÷2 . Thus if ÷ i is the character of Ui for 1 < i < 3. ÷2 and ÷3 . Moreover. . every character is constant on conjugacy classes of G.Characters g [ g]B ÷( g) H (2 3) I H (1 2 3) I H (1 3 2) I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 0 121 1 0 0 d0 0 1e 0 1 0 1 0 1 d0 0 1 0 0 0 1e 0 0 d1 0 (3) Let G C3 ha: a3 1 i. the character encapsulates a great deal of information about the representation. The values of these characters on the elements of G can be calculated from the corresponding representations r1 . (4) Let G D6 ka. This re¯ects the fact that by Proposition 13. then the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . it is much quicker to write down the single complex number ÷( g) for the group element g than to record the matrix which corresponds to g. Nevertheless. ÷3 .8. U3.

in 13.8 gives all the irreducible characters of ®nite abelian groups. In fact. Observe that Theorem 9. they are all linear characters. irreducible characters. 13. we therefore know at least one of the irreducible characters of G.6(4) we saw that the irreducible characters of D6 have degrees 1. 1 and 2.9 Proposition Let ÷ be the character of a CG-module V. Thus 1 G : g 3 1 for all g P GX Given any group G. namely the trivial character.8 Examples (1) In Example 13. in particular. and in 13. called the trivial character of G. We denote it by 1 G .8(1)) is a linear character. Suppose that g P G and g has order m. (2) If V is any 1-dimensional CG-module. then the dimension of V is called the degree of ÷.7 De®nition If ÷ is the character of the CG-module V.122 Representations and characters of groups 13. Then for all v P V X .6(1) we gave a character of D8 of degree 2.6(2) we gave a character of S3 of degree 3. then for each g P G there is a complex number ë g such that v g ë gv The character ÷ of V is given by ÷( g) ë g ( g P G) and ÷ has degree 1.4). they are. The values of a character The next result gives information about the complex numbers ÷( g). of course. Characters of degree 1 are called linear characters. Every linear character of G is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers. Finding all the irreducible characters is usually dif®cult. 13. these are the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms (see Exercise 13. (3) The character of the trivial CG-module (see De®nition 4. where ÷ is a character of G and g P G.

Every complex mth root of unity ù 1 n satis®es ùÀ1 ù. ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g). (3) We have H f [ gÀ1 ]B d ùÀ1 1 0 FF 0 F ùÀ1 n I g e and so ÷( gÀ1 ) ùÀ1 . When the element g of G has order 2. since for all real W. the n 3 n identity matrix. . ÷( g) is j real. Therefore ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù n .5(2). Therefore ÷( g À1 ) ù1 X X X ù n ÷( g)X (4) If g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) ÷( gÀ1 ) by Proposition 13. Consequently ÷(1) tr [1]B tr I n n. ùÀ1 . Also ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g) by (3). which is the complex conjugate of eiW . a sum of mth roots of unity. we can be much more speci®c about the possibilities for ÷( g): . 123 Proof (1) Let n dim V. Then the matrix [1]B of the identity element 1 relative to B is equal to In . ÷( g) is a sum of mth roots of unity. . ÷( g) is a real number if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . and so ÷(1) dim V.11 there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. that is. and so ÷( g) ÷( g).Characters (1) (2) (3) (4) ÷(1) dim V. (2) By Proposition 9. (eiW )À1 eÀiW . and let B be a basis of V.

13.124 Representations and characters of groups 13. Conversely. suppose that |÷( g)| ÷(1). and let g be an element of order 2 in G. so that ÷( g) r À s. we have ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 2. and let ÷ be the character of r. Then each ù i is 1 or À1. so |÷( g)| n ÷(1). where n ÷(1) and each ù i is a square root of unity. and suppose that g has order m. and ÷(1) r sX Certainly then. and ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 2X Proof By Proposition 13. and since r À s r s À 2s r s mod 2. j Our next result gives the ®rst inkling of the importance of characters. there is a basis B of C n such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. (1) For g P G. If gr ëIn with ë P C. C) be a representation of G.11 Theorem Let r: G 3 GL(n. and s are À1. then ë is an mth root of unity.9. Suppose r of them are 1. Proof (1) Let g P G. showing that we can determine the kernel of a representation just from knowledge of its character. ÷( g) P Z. j÷( g)j ÷(1) D gr ëI n (2) Ker r { g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)}. By Proposition 9.11.10 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G. we have ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù n . and ÷( g) në. Then ÷( g) is an integer. Then (13X12) j÷( g)j jù1 X X X ù n j ÷(1) nX for some ë P CX .

we de®ne the kernel of a character as follows. consider the picture in the Argand diagram. we have jz1 X X X zn j < jz1 j X X X jzn j.11(2).11(2). .) Since |ù i | 1 for all i. (To see this. we have gr ëIn for some ë P C. and so gr ù1 In . written Ker ÷. zn . This completes the proof of (1).6(4). with the following values: . we deduce from (13.14 Examples (1) According to Example 13. 13. j Motivated by Theorem 13. . b: a3 b2 1. the irreducible characters of the group G D6 ka. suppose that ÷( g) ÷(1). This implies that ÷( g) ë÷(1).13 De®nition If ÷ is a character of G. . Conversely. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l are ÷1 . Then by (1). Ker ÷ v G. and so ÷( g) n ÷(1). and so g P Ker r. . ÷3 .Characters Note now that for any complex numbers z1 . whence ë 1. In particular. j. Thus H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e ù1 I n X F ù1 0 Hence for all bases B 9 of C n we have [ g]B 9 ù1 In . then Ker r Ker ÷. is de®ned by Ker ÷ f g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)gX By Theorem 13. then the kernel of ÷. We call ÷ a faithful character if Ker ÷ {1}. Part (2) follows. Therefore gr In . (2) If g P Ker r then gr In .12) that ù i ù j for all i. . . ÷2 . . if r is a representation of G with character ÷. 13. zn are all equal. 125 with equality if and only if the arguments of z1 .

6(1): g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 Then Ker ÷ {1}. then a2 r ÀI. Thus ÷( g) tr ( gr) ( g P G)X If A (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix over C.15 Proposition Let ÷ be a character of G. Then ÷ is a character of G. then so is ÷. In particular. Ker ÷2 kal and Ker ÷3 {1}. We next prove a result which is sometimes useful for constructing a new character from a given one. 13. Proof Suppose that ÷ is the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. ÷3 is a faithful irreducible character of D6. (2) Let G D8 ka. so ÷ is a faithful character. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. de®ne ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ÷( g) ( g P G)X Thus the values of ÷ are the complex conjugates of the values of ÷. Observe that if A (aij ) and B (bij ) are n 3 n matrices over C.11(1) implies that if r: G 3 GL(2. C) is a representation with character ÷. For a character ÷ of G. . then we de®ne A to be the n 3 n matrix (a ij ). C). If ÷ is irreducible. Theorem 13. And since |÷(a2 )| |À2| ÷(1). b: a4 b2 1. and let ÷ be the character of G given in Example 13.126 g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 Representations and characters of groups a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Then Ker ÷1 G. then (13X16) (AB) A B.

j The regular character 13. In Theorem 13. Then ÷reg d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k X . 13.10). It is clear that if r is reducible then r is reducible. . It follows from (13.19. C) de®ned by gr ( gr) is a representation of G. Proof This is immediate from (7. j ( g P G) 13. V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11.19 Theorem Let V1 . We write the regular character as ÷reg . . First we need a preliminary result. X X X . Then the character of V is equal to the sum of the characters of the CG-modules U1. .16) that the function r: G 3 GL(n. k let ÷ i be the character of Vi and di ÷ i (1). Since tr ( gr) tr ( gr) tr ( gr) ÷( g) ( g P G).Characters since the ij-entry of A B is n k1 127 a ik b kj . . the character of the representation r is ÷. Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible. . the ij-entry of AB. .11).18 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. . and suppose that V U1 È X X X È Ur .17 De®nition The regular character of G is the character of the regular CG-module. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui. we shall express the regular character in terms of the irreducible characters of G. . Ur. and for i 1. n which is equal to the complex conjugate of k1 aik bkj .

. and ÷reg ( g) 0 if g T 1X Proof Let g1 . Now the result follows from Proposition 13.21 Example We illustrate Theorem 13. in particular. By Example 13.19 and Proposition 13. and are given in the next result. By Proposition 13. where for each i there are di factors V i . gn of CG. ÷reg (1) dim CG |G|. 13. . then ÷reg (1) jGj. Now let g P G with g T 1. .6(4). . Therefore the ith row of the matrix [ g]B has zeros in every place except column j. It follows that ÷reg ( g) tr [ g]B 0X j 13.20 Proposition If ÷reg is the regular character of G. the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . the ii-entry is zero for all i.9(1). . .20 for the group G D6 . ÷ 3 : g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 We calculate ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 : (÷1 ÷2 2÷3 )( g) 6 0 0 0 0 0 . Then for 1 < i < n.128 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Theorem 11. . . ÷2 . and let B be the basis g1 . j The values of ÷reg on the elements of G are easily described. CG (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ).18. gn be the elements of G. we have gi g gj for some j with j T i.9.

illustrating Proposition 13. by Theorem 13.Characters 129 This is the regular character of G. The permutation module V for G over C has basis v1 . . v n . .10). Then the iientry in the matrix [ g]B is 0 if ig T i. there is an easy construction using the permutation module which produces a character of degree n. Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . and we now describe this. . . v i g v ig (1 < i < n) (see De®nition 4.23 Example Let G S4 .20. and the value 0 on all non-identity elements of G. (1 2). . v n . Then by Example 12. Let B denote the basis v1 . . . let fix ( g) fi: 1 < i < n and ig igX Then (13X22) ð( g) jfix( g)j ( g P G)X We call ð the permutation character of G.16(3). . G has ®ve conjugacy classes. n}. 13. Permutation characters In the case where G is a subgroup of the symmetric group Sn .19. and it takes the value |G| on 1. . where for all g P G. so that G is a group of permutations of {1. . . (1 2 3 4)X The permutation character ð takes the values gi ð( gi ) 1 4 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 1 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . . (1 2 3). and is 1 if ig i. with representatives 1. Therefore the character ð of the permutation module V is given by ð( g) (the number of i such that ig i)X For g P G. (1 2)(3 4).

. 2. .18(1). (1 2 3). (1 3 2)X The values of the character í of G are gi í( gi ) 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 3 2) 0 Summary of Chapter 13 1. Indeed. and U sp (u)X Observe that ug u for all g P G. v n be the basis of the permutation module V as above. the conjugacy classes of G are represented by 1. By Maschke's Theorem 8. By Example 12. a subgroup of S4 . Proof Let v1 .24 Proposition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . there is a CG-submodule W of V such that V U È WX Let í be the character of W.1.130 Representations and characters of groups 13. and let u v1 X X X v n . . Then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. A character is obtained from a representation by taking the trace of each matrix. . so |®x( g)| 1 í( g) for all g P G. . so U is a CG-submodule of V. (1 2)(3 4). Characters are constant on conjugacy classes.25 Example Let G A4 . and therefore í( g) jfix( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X j ( g P G) 13. U is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module. Then ð 1 G í.8(3)). so the character of U is the trivial character 1 G (see Example 13.

check that your answers are consistent with Theorem 13. 2. Find also Ker r1 and Ker r2 . and all g P G. Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. Let ÷ be the character of the 7-dimensional permutation module for S7 . The regular character ÷reg of G takes the value |G| on the identity and the value 0 on all other elements of G. For all characters ÷ of G. Assume that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Find ÷(x) for x (1 2) and for x (1 6)(2 3 5). Exercises for Chapter 13 1. then Z(G) { g P G: |÷( g)| ÷(1)}. b: a6 b2 1. the complex number ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity. Let G D12 ka.Characters 3. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Write the regular character of C4 as a linear combination of these. 131 4. If G is a subgroup of Sn . 5. 6. r2 be the representations of G for which ù 0 0 1 ar1 . Prove that there exists an mth root of unity ë P C such that for all g P G. Prove that the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms are the linear characters. br2 1 0 0 X À1 ( g P G) Find the characters of r1 and r2 .11. 3. Prove that if ÷ is a faithful irreducible character of the group G. 4. 7. and let r1 . Find all the irreducible characters of C4 . Suppose that z P Z(G) and that z has order m. 5. then the function í which is given by í( g) jfix( g)j À 1 is a character of G. . br1 (where ù e2ðia3 ) 0 ùÀ1 1 0 and ar2 À1 0 0 1 . ÷(zg) ë÷( g)X 6. and ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g). The character of a representation determines the kernel of the representation.

Show that either (1) ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 4. By considering the regular representation of G.) 10. (c) Assume that ä( g) À1 for some g P G. Let g be a group of order 2k. Hint: use Exercise 7. . show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2. Let ÷ be a character of a group G. and let g be an element of order 2 in G.132 Representations and characters of groups 7. (b) Prove that G/Ker ä is abelian. 8. or (2) G has a normal subgroup of index 2. then ÷(x) T ÷(1) for some irreducible character ÷ of G. Prove that if x is a non-identity element of the group G. Let r be a representation of the group G over C. (Compare Corollary 13. Show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2. where k is an odd integer. 9.10. (a) Show that ä: g 3 det ( gr) ( g P G) is a linear character of G.

then we de®ne W ö: G 3 C by (W ö)( g) W( g) ö( g) and we de®ne ëW: G 3 C by ëW( g) ë(W( g)) ( g P G)X ( g P G) (We write these functions on the left to agree with our notation for characters.1 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. That is.14 Inner products of characters We establish some signi®cant properties of characters in this chapter. The set of all functions from G to C forms a vector space over C. and we describe this ®rst. and suppose that W: G 3 C and ö: G 3 C are given by 133 .21) that if two CG-modules have the same character then they are isomorphic. Also. The proofs rely on an inner product involving the characters of a group. and in particular we prove the striking result (Theorem 14. if W. Inner products The characters of a ®nite group G are certain functions from G to C. using characters. ö are functions from G to C.) 14. if we adopt the natural rules for adding functions and multiplying functions by complex numbers. we describe a method for decomposing a given CG-module as a direct sum of CG-submodules. and ë P C.

and that conditions (a) and (b) give hö.2) (a) kW. ö in the vector space. öl ë1 kW1 . (b) kë1 W1 ë2 W2 . ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . öl for all ë1 . With every ordered pair of vectors W. 14. Notice that condition (a) implies that kW. W2 .3 De®nition Suppose that W and ö are functions from G to C. We now introduce an inner product on the vector space of all functions from G to C. öi W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG . ë1 è1 ë2 W2 i ë1 hö. as in this example. (c) kW. Wi for all W. The de®nition of an inner product on a vector space over C runs as follows. öl which satis®es the following conditions: (14. ö. öl hö. Wl is always real. öl ë2 kW2 . W1 i ë2 hö. Then W ö and 3W are given by 1 W ö 3W 3 6 a 1i 3i a2 0 À3 We shall often think of functions from G to C as row vectors.134 Representations and characters of groups 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 This means that W(1) 2. This will be of basic importance in our study of characters. W2 . W2 i for all ë1 . De®ne 1 hW. ö. The vector space of all functions from G to C can be equipped with an inner product in a way which we shall describe shortly. ö. W(a2 ) À1 and ö(1) ö(a) ö(a2 ) 1. Wl . ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . 0 if W T 0. W(a) i. there is associated a complex number kW.

. öi 1(1 .9(3). øi ÷( g)ø( g À1 )X jGj gPG . 1 1 . by Proposition 13. 1) 1X 3 Inner products of characters We can exploit the fact that characters are constant on conjugacy classes to simplify slightly the calculation of the inner product of two characters. öi 1(2 . l is an inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C.Inner products of characters 135 It is transparent that the conditions of (14. 1 1 . 14. gl .2) hold. so k . 14. (À1)) 2. 1) 1(1 i). 1 i . Let ÷ and ø be characters of G. and this is a real numberX jGj gPG (2) h÷. 3 hö. 2 i . with representatives g1 . suppose that G C3 ka: a3 1l and that W and ö are given by 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 Then hè. .5 Proposition Assume that G has exactly l conjugacy classes. Therefore 1 h÷. 1 (1) h÷. . øi l ÷( g i )ø( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j X Proof (1) We have ø( g) ø( gÀ1 ) for all g P G. 3 3 hè. øi hø.1. i (À1) . èi 1(2 . ÷i ÷( g)ø( g À1 ). 1 À 1 .4 Example As in Example 14. .

øi ÷( g À1 )ø( g) hø. ÷( g)ø( g) j g G j÷( g i )ø( g i )X i gP g G i Now G l i1 g G and j g G j jGjajCG ( g i )j. g 3 (1 2 3). i i by Corollary 12.8. Since characters are constant on conjugacy classes.3 and Theorem 12. in fact. ÷iX jGj gPG Since kø. ÷l h÷. an integer.) (2) Recall that g G denotes the conjugacy class of G which contains i gi . Hence h÷. g 2 (1 2)(3 4). øi. we also have 1 h÷. it follows that h÷.136 Representations and characters of groups Since { gÀ1 : g P G} G.18(1)). (We shall prove later that h÷. øi l 1 1 ÷( g)ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) jGj gPG jGj i1 G gP g i l j gGj i1 l i1 jGj i ÷( g i )ø( g i ) j 1 ÷( g i )ø( g i )X jCG ( g i )j 14. We shall see in Chapter 18 that there are characters ÷ and ø of A4 which take the following values on the representatives gi : gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø g1 12 1 4 g2 4 1 0 g3 3 ù ù2 g4 3 ù2 ù . g 4 (1 3 2) (see Example 12. øi is. øi is real.6 Example The alternating group A4 has four conjugacy classes. with representatives g 1 1.

and to ®nd the inner products of ÷ and ø with the trivial character (which takes the value 1 on all elements of A4 ). that is. we have 1 . therefore. 0 ù . For example. ÷i 1 and h÷. and that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CGmodules U1. . Using part (2) of Proposition 14. We are now going to pave the way to proving the key fact (Theorem 14. we shall derive a formula for e1 in terms of the character of W 1 . we may take W1 to be the sum of those irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to a given irreducible CG-module. Among other results.Inner products of characters (where ù e2ðia3 ). There are several ways of choosing CG-submodules W1 and W2 of CG such that CG W1 È W2 and W1 and W2 have no common composition factor (see De®nition 10. ù2 ù2 . ù hø. øi 137 We advise you to check also that k÷. Ur. say CG U 1 È X X X È U r . 4 1 . we have h÷. 0 ù 2 . where W1 and W2 are CG-submodules which have no common composition factor. ÷l 1. We ®rst look at the effect of applying the elements e1 and e2 of CG to W1 and W 2 . . Recall from Chapter 10 that the regular CG-module is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. øi 0. for distinct irreducible characters ÷ and ø of G. øi 2X 12 4 3 3 h÷.12) that the irreducible characters of G form an orthonormal set of vectors in the vector space of functions from G to C. We shall investigate some consequences of writing CG like this. and then let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-modules U i . ù 0.5. we temporarily adopt the following Hypothesis: 14. 12 4 3 3 4 . .7 Hypothesis Let CG W 1 È W 2 . 4 0 . . Write 1 e1 e2 where e1 P W1 and e2 P W2. .4). ù2 ù .

Proposition Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14.138 Representations and characters of groups 14. j . j 14. we have e2 e1 . But W2 and W1 have no common composition factor. Then 1 e1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Proof Let x P G. w2 P W 2 .9 Corollary For the elements e1 and e2 of CG which appear in Hypothesis 14. so every CG-homomorphism from W2 to W1 is zero. and this completes the proof. The function W: w 3 we1 x À1 (w P CG) is an endomorphism of CG.8 Proposition For all w1 P W1 and w2 P W2. take w1 e1 and w2 e2 . we have w1 e1 w1 . by Proposition 11. w1 e2 w2 e1 0. In particular.7. Next. 14.10. w2 e 2 w2 X Proof If w1 P W1 then the function w2 3 w1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to W 1 . we evaluate e1 .3. Therefore w1 w2 0 for all w1 P W 1 . We shall calculate the trace of W in two ways. w2 e1 0. Similarly w2 w1 0.7. Now w1 w1 1 w1 (e1 e2 ) w1 e1 . w1 e2 0.8. and w2 w2 1 w2 (e1 e2 ) w2 e2 . e2 e2 and e1 e2 e2 e1 0X 1 2 Proof In Proposition 14.

Inner products of characters 139 First. Therefore tr W ÷(x À1 )X Secondly. By the de®nition of the character ÷ of W 1 . in view of Proposition 14. the endomorphism w1 3 w1 x À1 of W1 has trace equal to ÷(x À1 ). w1 W w1 e1 x À1 w1 x À1 . as W: w 3 w gPG ë g gx À1 .3 of the multiplication in CG. the endomorphism w 3 wgx À1 (w P CG) of CG has trace 0 if g T x and has trace |G| if g x. we deduce from Proposition 14. we have tr W ë x jGjX Comparing our two expressions for tr W.7.11 Corollary Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14. Then h÷. e1 P CG. ÷i ÷(1)X Proof Using the de®nition 6. ë x ÷(x À1 )ajGjX Therefore e1 1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG j 14. we see that for all x P G. w2 W w2 e1 x À1 0X Thus W acts on W1 by w1 3 w1 x À1 and on W2 by w2 3 0. Hence. for w1 P W1 and w2 P W2 we have. and of course the endomorphism w2 3 0 of W2 has trace 0. By Proposition 13. ÷iX ÷( g À1 )÷( g) jGj2 gPG jGj .10 that the coef®cient of 1 in e2 is 1 1 1 h÷.20.8. so e1 gPG ëg g for some ë g P C.

÷i 1. and let Z be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. every composition factor of W is isomorphic to U. W and X have no common composition factor. The character of W is m÷. øi 0X Proof Recall from Theorem 11.11 to the character of W. l. let Y be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui of CG which are isomorphic to either U or V. respectively.12 Theorem Let U and V be non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.9 that e2 e1 . ÷l ÷(1). Then h÷. Then CG W È X X Moreover. In particular. where the number of CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U is dim U. j We can now prove the main theorem concerning the inner product k . and h÷. Next. 14. Then CG Y È Z. and obtain hm÷. ÷i 1. . we know from Corollary 14. this yields h÷. each of which has character ÷. and no composition factor of X is isomorphic to U. m÷i m÷(1)X As ÷(1) dim U m.140 Representations and characters of groups On the other hand. Hence k÷. say CG U1 È X X X È Ur . since W is the direct sum of m CG-submodules. and the 1 coef®cient of 1 in e1 is ÷(1)/|G|. with characters ÷ and ø. and de®ne W to be the sum of the m irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U. let X be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. We now apply Corollary 14. Let m dim U.9 that CG is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. as required.

V is equal to a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.7.13). so there are non-negative integers d1. ÷i 0X By Proposition 14. Now let V be a CG-module.11). ÷i hø. j. then by Theorem 14. ÷i n2 hø.12 Let G be a ®nite group.12. øl 0. ä ij is 1 if i j and is 0 if i T j). and hence k÷. where ä ij is the Kronecker delta function (that is. and hø.Inner products of characters 141 and Y and Z have no common composition factor. m÷(1) nø(1) hm÷ nø. ÷ j i ä ij for all i. ÷i)X Now h÷. By Theorem 8. and let V1 . . .5(1). Each of these is isomorphic to some V i . there are d i factors Vi X Therefore the character ø of V is given by (14X15) ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k X Using (14. . ø(1) n. In particular. j Applications of Theorem 14. . By Corollary 14.11. . øi d 2 X X X d 2 X 1 k Summarizing. øi 1. Therefore h÷. øi d i for 1 < i < k. ÷ i i h÷ i . this implies that the irreducible characters ÷1 . If ÷ i is the character of Vi (1 < i < k). ÷l. where n dim V. øi hø. by the part of the theorem which we have already proved. øi mn(h÷. we obtain from this (14X16) hø. we have . k÷. øl kø. dk such that (14X14) V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). øi hø. where for each i. we have (14X13) h÷ i . The character of Y is m÷ nø. X X X . V k be a complete set of nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11. . ÷ k are all distinct. . . m÷ nøi m2 h÷. and ÷(1) m.

(1 2).17 Theorem Let ÷1 . . . If ø is any character of G. . .17. dk .5(2). kø.1 1. ø ÷1 ÷3 X (This can of course be checked immediately by comparing the values of ø and ÷1 ÷3 on each conjugacy class representative.142 Representations and characters of groups 14. ÷3 . taking the following values on the conjugacy class representatives 1. ÷ i i hø. ø(1 2) 1. we know that ø(1) 3. and d2X i 14. By Example 13.18 Example Recall from Example 13. . (1 2 3): Now let ø be the character of the 3-dimensional permutation module gi |CS3 ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 for S3 .6(2). . hø. d i hø.7.1 0 1X 6 2 Similarly.6(4) that the irreducible characters of S3 D6 are ÷1 . Thus by Theorem 14. . . ÷1 i 3. ÷3 l 1. by Proposition 14. øi k i1 for 1 < i < k. ø(1 2 3) 0X Therefore. ÷2 l 0 and kø. Moreover. ÷2 .) A more substantial calculation along these lines is given in Example 15. then ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers d1. . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G.

14). Proof If V is irreducible then kø. øi d 2 X X X d 2 X 1 k It follows that one of the integers di is 1 and the rest are zero. 14.5 we proved the elementary fact that if V W then ÷ ø. øl 1. . Thus. Then by (14. Proof In Proposition 13.Inner products of characters 143 We shall see many more applications of the important Theorem 14. 14.21 Theorem Suppose that V and W are CG-modules. j We are now in a position to prove the remarkable result that `a CGmodule is determined by its character'. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. It gives us a quick and effective method of determining whether or not a given CG-module is irreducible. We say that ÷ is a constituent of ø if kø.17. .12. dk ÷ k is non-zero.19 De®nition Suppose that ø is a character of G. for it means that many questions about CG-modules can be answered using character theory. Then V is irreducible if and only if kø. Conversely.12. øl 1 by Theorem 14. It is this fact which motivates our study of characters in much of the rest of the book. the constituents of ø are the irreducible characters ÷ i of G for which the integer di in the expression ø d1 ÷1 . with characters ÷ and ø. V Vi for some i. 1 hø. We have ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers di.16). and by (14. The next result is another signi®cant consequence of Theorem 14. 14.20 Theorem Let V be a CG-module with character ø. assume that kø. Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if ÷ ø. and so V is irreducible. øl 1. respectively. It is the converse which is the substantial part of this theorem. . ÷l T 0.

÷ i i.14) that there are non-negative integers ci . ar1 . The next theorem is another consequence of Theorem 14. 3. the representations r2 and r3 are equivalent. By (14. r3 . suppose that ÷ ø.22 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. r2 . d i hø. j 14. . ar2 0 ù 0 ùÀ1 2 3 2 3 0 1 1 ùÀ1 ar3 . ar4 À1 À1 0 ù (ù e2ðia3 ). ÷ k . and hence V W. . and let r1 . but there are no other equivalences among r1 . r3 and r4 . Vk be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules with characters ÷1 . r2 . it follows that ci di for all i. ÷ i i (1 < i < k)X Since ÷ ø. . di (1 < i < k) such that V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i.21.16). . X X X . . Again let V1 . We know by (14.12. ci h÷. The characters ø i of the representations r i (i 1. r4 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 ù 0 ù 0 . 2. and W (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i.144 Representations and characters of groups Thus. 4) are 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 2 2 2 2 a 2ù À1 À1 1ù a2 2ù2 À1 À1 1 ù2 Hence by Theorem 14.

. . . W )) k i1 ci d i X . . ÷ i i ë i X Therefore ÷1 . . Proof Assume that ë1 ÷1 X X X ë k ÷ k 0 (ë i P C)X Then for all i. di (1 < i < k) such that V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i.2.23 Theorem Let ÷1 .24 Theorem Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. Then ÷1 . . By Proposition 11. ÷ k are linearly independent. respectively. Then dim (HomCG (V . .13) we have 0 hë1 ÷1 X X X ë k ÷ k . Vj )) ä ij X Hence. ÷ k are linearly independent vectors in the vector space of all functions from G to C.Inner products of characters 145 14. . . using (14. . using (11. . øiX Proof We know from (14. W )) h÷. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. 14. for any i. j we have dim (HomCG (Vi . .14) that there are non-negative integers ci . j We now relate inner products of characters to the spaces of CGhomomorphisms which we constructed in Chapter 11. and W (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i.5)(3) we see that dim (HomCG (V .

we deduce the stated results just as in the proof of Proposition 14.8. and 1 e1 e2 with e1 P W 1 . for all v1 P V1 and v2 P V2 we have v1 e1 v1 . where every composition factor of V1 is a composition factor of W1 and every composition factor of V2 is a composition factor of W2. v2 e1 0.7: CG W 1 È W 2 . v1 e2 0. ÷ ci ÷ i and ø di÷i and so (14. Let V be any CG-module. and we now describe a process for doing this. e2 P W 2 . We can write V V1 È V2 . øi The result follows. v 2 e2 v 2 X k i1 j ci d i X Proof If v1 P V1 then the function w2 3 v1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to V1. Once more we adopt Hypothesis 14. Decomposing CG-modules It is sometimes of practical importance to be able to decompose a given CG-module into a direct sum of CG-submodules.13) implies that h÷.26 Proposition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G.146 Representations and characters of groups k i1 k i1 On the other hand. then 2 3 À1 V ÷( g ) g gPG . j 14. where the CG-modules W1 and W2 have no common composition factor. and V is any CG-module. 14. Since W2 and V1 have no common composition factor.25 Proposition With the above notation.

Inner products of characters 147 is equal to the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷ (where for r P CG. Clearly we may omit the constant multiplier m/|G|. Let W1 be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui which have character ÷. . we see that . .26. and let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. the element e1 of W1 is given by m e1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Let V1 be the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷. calculate the vectors v i ( gPG ÷( gÀ1 ) g) for 1 < i < n.27) (1) Choose a basis v1 . by Theorem 11. We illustrate this method with a couple of simple examples. . The procedure is as follows: (14. we de®ne Vr fvr: v P V g). Then Proposition 14.7. (2) For each irreducible character ÷ of G.25 shows that Ve1 V1. 14.10. v n of V. The character of V÷ is a multiple of ÷. and by Proposition 14. Some more complicated uses of the method can be found in Chapter 32. and let V÷ be the subspace of V spanned by these vectors. Taking ÷ to be the trivial character of G in Proposition 14. Proposition 14. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. Then the character of W1 is m÷ where m ÷(1). . (3) Then V is the direct sum of the CG-modules V÷ as ÷ runs over the irreducible characters of G. so 2 3 À1 V1 V ÷( g ) g X gPG j Once the irreducible characters of our group G are known.26 provides a useful practical tool for ®nding CG-submodules of a given CG-module V.28 Examples (1) Let G be any ®nite group and let V be any non-zero CG-module. Also W1 and W2 satisfy Hypothesis 14. Proof Write CG U 1 È X X X È U r .9.

. e5 1(1 À a2 ). v n such that v i g v ig for all i and all g P G. . . (2) Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by a (1 2 3 4) and b (1 2)(3 4)X Then G D8 (compare Example 1. Ve4 sp (v1 À v2 v3 À v4 ). v2 À v4 )X . v4 such that v i g v ig for all i and all g P G. . Then 2 Ve1 sp (v1 v2 v3 v4 ). with basis v1 . Ve5 sp (v1 À v3 . For example.148 Representations and characters of groups 2 3 V g gPG is the sum of all the trivial CG-submodules of V. Then 2 3 V g sp (v1 X X X v n )X gPG Hence V has a unique trivial CG-submodule. . Ve3 0. with basis v1 . For 1 < i < 5. Here is a list of the irreducible characters ÷1 . v3 . . ÷5 of D8 (see Example 16. . let ÷ i (1) ei ÷ i ( g À1 ) gX 8 gPG For example.5). Ve2 0. v2 . . let G Sn and let V be the permutation module.3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 Let V be the permutation module for G.

3. . . e2 ei for 1 < i < 5. . ÷ i iX Each di is a non-negative integer. The irreducible characters ÷1 . j.9. Every CG-module is determined by its character. 4. Summary of Chapter 14 1. Note that the procedure described in (14. Also. The inner product of two functions W. that is. .Inner products of characters We have V Ve1 È Ve4 È Ve5 . You might like to check that e1 X X X e5 1. . respectively. ÷ j i ä ij for all i. and ø is any character. ö from G to C is given by 1 hW. i ei ej 0 for i T jX Compare these results with Corollary 14. If ÷1 . ÷ k of G form an orthonormal set. 149 and so we have expressed V as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules whose characters are ÷1 . . ø is irreducible if and only if kø. ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. . . h÷ i . ÷4 and ÷5 .27) does not in general enable us to write a given CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules (since V÷ is not in general irreducible). . øl 1. öi W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG 2. then ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k where d i hø.

Prove that ÷ is reducible. but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. If ÷ is a character of G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 0 Ài À1 0 2 3 2 3 0 i 0 À1 ar2 . and that ÷( g) is a non-negative real number for all g in G. b: a4 1. øi and hø. Suppose that r and ó are representations of G. br1 . Suppose that ÷ is a non-zero. b2 a2 . gó T À1 ( gr)TX 4. Which of ÷ and ø is irreducible? 2. ÷i ÷(1)X .150 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 14 1. h÷. i 0 1 0 2 3 2 3 À1 0 1 0 ar3 . We shall see in Chapter 18 that G has characters ÷ and ø which take the following values on the conjugacy classes: Class representative |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø 1 24 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 Calculate h÷. 5. Let G S4 . Let G Q8 ka. øi. r3 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 ar1 . r2 . br2 . 3. and that for each g in G there is an invertible matrix Tg such that gó T À1 ( gr)Tg X g Prove that there is an invertible matrix T such that for all g in G. ÷i. show that h÷reg . br3 X 0 1 0 À1 Show that r1 and r2 are equivalent. and let r1 . non-trivial character of G.

If ð is the permutation character of Sn .Inner products of characters 6. Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and that for every g P G. and suppose that ø d 1 ÷1 X X Xd k ÷ k is a character of G. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of the group G. Let ÷1 . . 3 or 4? 8. Does it follow that ÷ 2ö for some character ö? .) 151 7. . What can you say about the integers di in the cases kø. . ÷( g) is an even integer. 1 S n i 1X (Hint: you may ®nd Exercise 11.4 relevant. øl 1. prove that hð. . 2.

Thus.3 Theorem The number of irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. then (15X2) dim C lX 15. ø is constant on conjugacy classes). A basis of C is given by those functions which take the value 1 on precisely one conjugacy class and zero on all other classes. Throughout. the characters of G are class functions on G. Together with the material from Chapter 14. and to some consequences of this theorem. G is as usual a ®nite group. the theorem provides machinery for investigating characters which is used in the remainder of the book.1 De®nition A class function on G is a function ø: G 3 C such that ø(x) ø( y) whenever x and y are conjugate elements of G (that is. if l is the number of conjugacy classes of G.15 The number of irreducible characters We devote this chapter to the theorem which states that the number of irreducible characters of a ®nite group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group.5(2). By Proposition 13. Class functions 15. 152 . The set C of all class functions on G is a subspace of the vector space of all functions from G to C.

. Indeed. V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.2) implies that k < l. if ø is a class function.7 that CG W 1 È X X X È W k . dim C l. By Theorem 14. . By Proposition 9. .14. we deduce that l < k. .4 Corollary The irreducible characters ÷1 . X X X . . . and let l be the number of conjugacy classes of G. X X X . we consider the regular CG-module. ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. In order to prove the reverse inequality l < k. we know from Theorem 8. X X X .2). Since Z(CG) has dimension l by Proposition 12. ÷ k are linearly independent. which is equal to k by k i1 ëi÷i . ÷1 . . ÷ i l for 1 < i < k.23.22. then ø where ë i kø. . j (1 < i < k)X 15. the centre of CG. so (15. and in particular. for each i there exists ë i P C such that for all v P Vi. we can write 1 f1 X X X fk with f i P W i for 1 < i < k. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. If V1 . This completes the proof that k l. f k . . Since CG contains the identity element 1. By (15. ÷ k are linearly independent elements of C. . Proof Since ÷1 . . where for each i.The number of irreducible characters 153 Proof Let ÷1 . f iz ëi f i It follows that z 1z ( f 1 X X X f k )z f 1 z X X X f k z ë1 f 1 X X X ë k f k X This shows that Z(CG) is contained in the subspace of CG spanned by f 1 . they span a subspace of C of dimension k. W i is isomorphic to a direct sum of copies of V i . Now let z P Z(CG). . vz ë i vX Hence wz ë i w for all w P W i .

15. . and so g is conjugate to h.3.4 that there is a certain group G of order 12 which has exactly six conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . and so they form a basis of C. . . whose k entries are the values of ÷ on the k conjugacy classes of G. The last part follows. 15. the result follows immediately from Proposition 15.13). In particular. by Proposition 13. Then by Corollary 15. using (14.7 Example We shall see in Section 18.4 has the following useful consequence. . Hence ÷1 . . Then g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G.9(3)). . . h P G. we regard a character ÷ of G as a row vector. Then g is conjugate to h if and only if ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G.5(2). ÷ k span C. Conversely. Proof If g is conjugate to h then ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. j Corollary 15. . We conclude the chapter with an example illustrating some practical methods of expressing characters and class functions of a group as combinations of irreducible characters. Proof Since ÷( g) is real if and only if ÷( g) ÷( gÀ1 ) (see Proposition j 13. ÷6 given as follows: . this is true for the class function ø which takes the value 1 on the conjugacy class of g and takes the value 0 elsewhere. and six irreducible characters ÷1 . .5 Proposition Suppose that g.154 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 15. ø( g) ø(h) for all class functions ø on G. As in previous examples. Then ø( g) ø(h) 1. .4. suppose that ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷. j 15. . .5. g6 (where g1 1).6 Corollary Suppose that g P G.

The correct answer now comes quickly to mind. . and the entries in the column corresponding to g1 1 are positive integers (indeed. Inspecting the values of the irreducible characters ÷ i . . ÷6 : g1 ë ì 2 4 g2 À2 4 g3 À2 1 g4 2 1 g5 0 0 g6 0 0 . ø ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 X For example. the second entry in the row vector for ÷ is equal to minus the ®rst entry. . we see that ÷ must be a combination of ÷2 .The number of irreducible characters gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 g3 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g4 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 155 g6 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 Suppose we are given characters ÷ and ø of G as follows: g1 ÷ ø 3 4 g2 À3 0 g3 0 0 g4 0 4 g5 i 0 g6 Ài 0 Then it is easy to spot that ÷ ÷2 ÷6 . The reason for this is that the required coef®cients are known to be non-negative integers. they are the degrees of the ÷ i ). . given any character ö of G whose degree is not large compared with the degrees of the ÷ i . ÷4 and ÷6 . We suggest that you use the `guesswork method' to express the following characters ë. ì of G as combinations of ÷1 . it is not hard to use tactical guesswork to express ö as a combination of the irreducible characters. In fact.

(Ài) hö. 1 1.4 that the coef®cients ë i in the expression ö ë1 ÷1 X X X ë6 ÷6 are given by ë i hö. 1 À3 . (À1) (À3) . 4 hö. 4 11 . (À1) 2. like the following one? g1 ö 11 g2 3 g3 À3 g4 5 g5 À1 2i g6 À1 À 2i The answer is to use the inner product k .5(2). ÷4 l 1. we calculate these inner products: 11 . ÷ i i (1 < i < 6)X Using Proposition 14. 1 3 . ÷3 i 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . Therefore ö ÷1 3÷2 2÷3 ÷4 2÷5 X Summary of Chapter 15 1. 1 5 . 1 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . 1 (À1 2i) . 1 (À1 2i) .156 Representations and characters of groups How do we cope with a class function or with a more dif®cult character. (À1) hö. 1 3 . 1 5 . ÷2 i 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . 1 À3 . 4 11 . We know from Corollary 15. l. ÷1 i and similarly kö. ÷5 l 2 and kö. The number of irreducible characters of a group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. 1 3 . . i 3. 1 (À1 2i) . (À1) 5 . kö. ÷6 l 0.

Is ÷ a character of S3 ? 2. ÷2 and ÷3 of S3 . If ø is a class function. then ø k i1 ë i ÷ i where ë i hø. ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. . ÷ i iX Exercises for Chapter 15 1. Let ø1 . ÷2 . ø2 and ø3 be the class functions on S3 taking the following values: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 0 0 (1 2) 0 1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 1 Express ø1 . ÷2 and ÷3 . . .The number of irreducible characters 157 2. . . ø2 and ø3 as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ÷1 . The three irreducible characters of S3 are ÷1 . The irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷3 : 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 Let ÷ be the class function on S3 with the following values: 1 ÷ 19 (1 2) À1 (1 2 3) À2 Express ÷ as a linear combination of ÷1 .

. (a) Show that G cannot have exactly 9 conjugacy classes. with conjugacy class representatives g1 . . ÷6 . 6 or 12 conjugacy classes. Find groups G in which each of these possibilities is realized. prove that G has 4. .2. Suppose that G is the group of order 12 in Example 15. . . . g6 and irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷6 as in that example. . Is ø a character of G? 4. . Let ø be the class function on G taking the following values: g1 ø 6 g2 0 g3 3 g4 À3 g5 À1 À i g6 À1 i Express ø as a linear combination of ÷1 .7. Let G be a group of order 12.) (b) Using the solution to Exercise 11. . (Hint: show that Z(G) cannot have order 6. . . . .158 Representations and characters of groups 3.

X X X . It is therefore convenient to record all the values of all the irreducible characters of G in a square matrix.1 De®nition Let ÷1 . Beyond this. the rows are indexed by the irreducible characters of G and the columns are indexed by the conjugacy classes (or. in practice. 159 . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let g 1 . The entries in a character table are related to each other in subtle ways. Note that in the character table. and the number of them is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G.21. the identity element of G. 1 < j < k) is called the character table of G. many of which are encapsulated in the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16. The k 3 k matrix whose ij-entry is ÷ i ( g j ) (for all i. the numbering is arbitrary. Thus. and g1 1. the trivial character. This matrix is called the character table of G. j with 1 < i < k. Much of the later material in the book will be devoted to understanding character tables. which tells us that every CG-module is determined by its character. g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. X X X . It is usual to number the irreducible characters and conjugacy classes of G so that ÷1 1 G . Character tables 16. many problems in representation theory can be solved by considering characters.16 Character tables and orthogonality relations The irreducible characters of a ®nite group G are class functions. The motivation for this is Theorem 14.4). by conjugacy class representatives).

bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. You found all the irreducible representations of G in Exercise 10. We take 1.2 Proposition The character table of G is an invertible matrix. and then the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 (2) We can write down the character table of any ®nite abelian group using Theorem 9. and hence also the rows of the character table. b: a4 b2 1.23). a. b as representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. b: a3 b2 1. For example. are linearly independent (Theorem 14.160 Representations and characters of groups 16. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.6(4). j 16.3 Examples (1) Let G D6 ka. The irreducible characters of G are given in Example 13. the character table of C2 ha: a2 1i is 1 ÷1 ÷2 1 1 a 1 À1 and the character table of C3 ka: a3 1l is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù (ù e2ðia3 ) (3) Let G D8 ka. Proof This follows immediately from the fact that the irreducible characters of G.4.8. The conjugacy classes .

÷ s i ä rs . Hence the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 The character tables of all dihedral groups will be found in Chapter 18. . among the irreducible characters ÷1 . These relations can be expressed in terms of the rows of the character table. 16. (1) The row orthogonality relations: k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs X (2) The column orthogonality relations: k i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs jCG ( g r )jX . and these are given by part (2) of our next result. X X X . . and let g 1 .4 Theorem Let ÷1 . The orthogonality relations We have already seen many uses for the relations (14. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. . ab. . ÷ k of G. . h÷ r . b. . . . a. g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Then the following relations hold for any r.5(2)).Character tables and orthogonality relations 161 of G are given by (12. and representatives are 1. k}.13). . . s P {1. Similar relations exist between the columns of the character table. a2 . .12). . by writing them as k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) ä rs jCG ( g i )j i1 (see Proposition 14.

(1) Let G D6. ø s is a linear combination of ÷1 .4. so ë i hø s .162 Representations and characters of groups Proof The row orthogonality relations have already been proved.8. . also there are jGjajC G ( g s )j elements of G which are conjugate to g s . j and the column orthogonality relations follow. by Theorem 12.5 Examples We illustrate the column orthogonality relations. say øs ëi ÷i (ë i P C)X We know that h÷ i . and ø s ( g) 0 otherwise. and this time we record the order of the centralizer C G ( g i ) next to each conjugacy class representative gi : gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 a 3 1 1 À1 b 2 1 À1 0 . We copy the character table of G from Example 16. .3(1). . let ø s be the class function which satis®es ø s ( g r ) ä rs k i1 (1 < r < k)X By Corollary 15. . ÷ i i 1 ø s ( g)÷ i ( g)X jGj gPG Now ø s ( g) 1 if g is conjugate to g s . ÷ j i ä ij . For 1 < s < k. Hence ëi Therefore ä rs ø s ( g r ) k i1 1 ÷ i ( gs ) ø s ( g)÷ i ( g) X jGj gP g G jCG ( g s )j s ëi ÷i ( gr ) k ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) i1 jCG ( g s )j . ÷ k . 16. They are recorded here merely for comparison with the column relations.

We shall use the column orthogonality relations to determine the last row of the character table. the sum of the squares of these numbers is 12 (this also follows from Theorem 11. so they are positive integers. r 1. (À1) 3. 1 1 . (À1) 0. we read down columns r and s of the character table. (2) Suppose we are given the following part of the character table of a group G of order 12 which has exactly four conjugacy classes: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 12 1 1 1 g2 4 1 1 1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 g4 3 1 ù2 ù (where ù e2ðia3 ). 0 0X 163 In each case. and is the number at the top of the column (that is. 1 1 . By the column orthogonality relations with r s 1. (À1) 2 . Hence the last entry in the ®rst column is 3. 1 . The column orthogonality relation 4 i1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives 1 . 1 (À1) . taking the products of the numbers which appear. the order of the centralizer of g r ) if r s.12). 1 3x 0X Therefore x À1. By considering the orthogonality relations between the ®rst column and columns 3 and 4.Character tables and orthogonality relations Consider the sums 3 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) for various cases: i1 r 1. 1 1 . 1 2 . 1 . 1 1 . r 2. Let x denote the number at the foot of the second column. The sum of the products is 0 if r T s. s 2: s 2: s 3: 1 . we obtain the complete character table as . 1 1 . The entries in the ®rst column of the character table are the degrees of the irreducible characters.

1 1 . ù2 ù2 . For example. we get V ` jGj. k ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) X i1 0. (À1) 4. 0 0X We shall see later that the character table which we have constructed here is that of A4 . ù 0 . where d i ÷ i (1). 1 1 . By taking the complex conjugate of each side of this equation. if g 1. if g 1. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 1 . 4 i1 4 i1 4 i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 1 . . 1 ù .164 follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 Representations and characters of groups g1 12 1 1 1 3 g2 4 1 1 1 À1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 0 g4 3 1 ù2 ù 0 Notice that the orthogonality relations hold between all pairs of columns. d i ÷ i ( g) X i1 0.20 give V k ` jGj. ù2 0 . Those column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column of the character table were proved in Chapter 13. 1 (À1) . if g T 1. 0 3. if g T 1. 1 ù . although our calculation has used only those relations which involve the ®rst column. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 3 ) 1 . since Theorem 13.19 and Proposition 13. ù ù2 .

so M t M I. and we adjust the entries ÷ i ( g j ) in this matrix to obtain another k 3 k matrix M. An alternative approach would have been to use the row orthogonality relations h÷ i . Since the properties M t M I and M M t I of a square matrix M are equivalent to each other. the rs-entry in M t M is k 1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs . Indeed.5(2). . ÷4 i ä i4 to obtain four equations in the four unknown values ÷4 ( g j ) (1 < j < 4). we calculated the values of the last character one at a time using the column orthogonality relations. jCG ( g r )j1a2 jCG ( g s )j1a2 i1 by the column orthogonality relations. by letting the ij-entry of M be ÷ i ( gj ) X jCG ( g j )j1a2 Let M t denote the transpose of the complex conjugate of M. Although the calculation with the column orthogonality relations was easier to perform. it is a fact that the column orthogonality relations contain precisely the same information as the row orthogonality relations. we see that the row and column orthogonality relations are equivalent. so M M t I. Rows versus columns Notice that in Example 16. On the other hand. We could have used the above argument to deduce the column orthogonality relations from the row ones. The character table of G is a k 3 k matrix. Now the rs-entry in M M t is k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs .Character tables and orthogonality relations 165 and these are just the column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column. More importantly. where we were given three of the four irreducible characters of G. as we shall now show. the equation M M t I is just another way of expressing the row orthogonality relations. by the row orthogonality relations. the row and column orthogonality relations encapsulate the same information.

. Summary of Chapter 16 Let G be a ®nite group with irreducible characters ÷1 . 2. . with representatives g1 . and four linear characters ÷1 . . The column orthogonality relations state that for all r.166 Representations and characters of groups so when we are working with character tables. . k i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs jCG ( g r )jX Exercises for Chapter 16 1. . . 3. There exists a group G of order 10 which has precisely four conjugacy classes. . g5 . g4 . k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs X 3. . s. Write down the character table of C2 3 C2 . 2. . The character table of G is the k 3 k matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( g j ). . The row orthogonality relations state that for all r. A certain group G of order 8 is known to have a total of ®ve conjugacy classes. and has irreducible characters ÷1 . 1. gk . . we can deduce exactly the same results using either set of relations. . . with representatives g1 . . . ÷2 as follows: . . ÷4 taking the following values: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 8 1 1 1 1 g2 8 1 1 1 1 g3 4 1 1 À1 À1 g4 4 1 À1 1 À1 g5 4 1 À1 À1 1 Find the complete character table of G. s. . . . ÷ k and conjugacy class representatives g1 . .

(b) Find another column of the character table. then on g4 ± use Corollary 13. Show that @ A k Z(G) g P G: ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) jGj X i1 6. A certain group G has two columns of its character table as follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 g1 21 1 1 1 3 3 g2 7 1 1 1 æ æ where g1 1 and æ P C. X X X . . . 5. Find the complete character table of G. Let ÷1 . Show that det C is either real or purely imaginary.Character tables and orthogonality relations gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 g1 10 1 2 g2 5 1 á g3 5 1 â g4 2 1 0 167 p p where á (À1 5)a2 and â (À1 À 5)a2. and that jdet Cj2 Find Æ(det C) when G C3 .) 4. k i1 jCG ( g i )jX .10. (Hint: ®rst ®nd the values of the remaining irreducible characters on g1 . . . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. (a) Find æ. g k and character table C. Let G be a ®nite group with conjugacy class representatives g1 .

1 Proposition Assume that N v G. In the opposite direction. and N T {1}. De®ne ÷ ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ( g P G)X ÷ Then ÷ is a character of G. ÷ ~ Proof Let r: GaN 3 GL (n. Lifted characters We begin by constructing a character of G from a character of GaN . it is also true that the character table of G enables us to ®nd the normal subgroups of G. we can use the characters of GaN to get some of the characters of G. In fact. can be used to get new irreducible characters from a given irreducible character. the characters of degree 1) are obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaN in the case where N is the derived subgroup of G. normal subgroups help us to ®nd characters of G.7. Thus. and ÷ and ~ have the same degree. and let ~ be a character of GaN . in turn.e. (The derived subgroup is de®ned below in De®nition 17. C) be a representation of GaN with 168 . in particular. in a way which we shall describe. The linear characters of G (i. then the factor group GaN is smaller than G.17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters If N is a normal subgroup of the ®nite group G. 17. The characters of GaN should therefore be easier to ®nd than the characters of G. it is easy to tell from the character table whether or not G is simple.) The linear characters. by a process which is known as lifting.

and ÷ is the lift of ~ to G. C) by (Ng)~ gr r Then for all g. We may therefore de®ne a function r: GaN 3 GL (n. then the character ÷ of G ÷ which is given by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ÷ is called the lift of ~ to G. then ÷ ~(N) ÷(1). The function r: G 3 GL (n.2 De®nition If N v G and ~ is a character of GaN . if k P N then ÷ ÷(k) ~(Nk) ~(N ) ÷(1). Also. ~ Proof If ÷ is a character of GaN . Now let ÷ be a character of G with N < Ker ÷. we obtain a bijective correspondence between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters ÷ of G which satisfy N < Ker ÷. If g 1 . C) which is given by the ÷ composition g 3 Ng 3 (Ng)~ r ( g P G) is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. Moreover. Irreducible characters of GaN correspond to irreducible characters of G which have N in their kernel. Thus r is a representation of G. ÷ 17.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 169 character ~. j 17. The character ÷ of r satis®es ÷( g) tr ( gr) tr ((Ng)~) ~(Ng) r ÷ for all g P G. ÷(1) ~(N). Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. r r ( g P G)X ( g P G) . By associating each character of GaN with its lift to G. so ( g1 gÀ1 )r I. ÷ ÷ so N < Ker ÷. and hence 2 2 ~ g1 r g2 r. C).3 Theorem Assume that N v G. C) is a representation of G with character ÷. g2 P G and Ng1 Ng2 then g1 gÀ1 P N. so ÷ and ~ have the same ÷ ÷ degree. h P G we have ((Ng)(Nh))~ (Ngh)~ ( gh)r ( gr)(hr) r r ((Ng)~)((Nh)~).

4 Example Let G S4 and N V4 f1. We know from Example 16. 17. Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ~ is irreducible. The representation r is therefore irreducible if and ~ only if the representation r is irreducible. ÷ j If we know the character table of GaN for some normal subgroup N of G. bi and a3 b2 N . If ~ is the character of r then ÷ ~(Ng) ÷( g) ( g P G)X ÷ ~ Thus ÷ is the lift of ÷. then Theorem 17. If we put a N(1 2 3) and b N(1 2) then GaN ha. (1 3)(2 4). so that N v G (see Example 12.3(1) that the character table of GaN is N ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 2 N (1 2) 1 À1 0 N(1 2 3) 1 1 À1 . (1 4)(2 3)g. (1 2)(3 4). so GaN D6 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . let U be a subspace of C n . It remains to show that irreducible characters correspond to irreducible characters. and note that u( gr) P U for all u P U D u(Ng)~ P U for all u P U X r Thus.20). U is a CG-submodule of C n if and only if U is a C(GaN )submodule of C n . We have now established that the function which sends each character of GaN to its lift to G is a bijection between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters of G which have N in their kernel.170 Representations and characters of groups ~ ~ so r is a representation of GaN .3 enables us to write down as many irreducible characters of G as there are irreducible characters of GaN . To see this.

which are given by ÷ ÷ ÷ 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 171 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 Then ÷1 . once the character table of G is known.5. then ÷( g) ÷(1) for all characters ÷. so g 1 by Proposition 15. ÷ s of G such that N s i1 Ker ÷ i X Proof If g belongs to the kernel of each irreducible character of G. as our next two propositions will demonstrate. Of course. 17.13). ~3 are ÷1 . First we shall show how to ®nd all the normal subgroups of G. The following proposition shows that every normal subgroup arises in this way. Recall that we can easily locate the kernel of an irreducible character ÷ from the character table. ~2 . . ÷2 .Normal subgroups and lifted characters To calculate the lift ÷ of a character ~ of GaN . ÷ ÷((1 2 3 4)) ~(N (1 3)) since N (1 2 3 4) N (1 3)X ÷ Hence the lifts of ~1 . since Ker ÷ f g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)g (see De®nition 13. ~2 . any subgroup which is the intersection of the kernels of irreducible characters is a normal subgroup too. ÷2 . Hence the intersection of the kernels of all the irreducible characters of G is {1}. ÷3 . Finding normal subgroups The character table contains accessible information about the structure of a group. ~3 are ÷ ÷ ÷ irreducible characters of GaN . Also Ker ÷ v G. X X X .5 Proposition If N v G then there exist irreducible characters ÷1 . we note that ÷ ÷((1 2)(3 4)) ~(N ) since (1 2)(3 4) P N . since ~1 . ÷3 are irreducible characters of G.

so Ker ÷ T {1}. Therefore if g P Ker ÷ i then Ng P Ker ~ i ÷ ÷ {N}. If r is a representation of G with character ÷. Thus Ker ÷ is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to {1} of G. . By the ÷ ÷ above observation. We shall show how to ®nd all linear characters of any group G. .11(2). If g P Ker ÷ i then ÷ ~ i (N ) ÷ i (1) ÷ i ( g) ~ i (Ng). ÷ is non-trivial. ÷ ÷ and so Ng P Ker ~ i. Then by Proposition 17. we have ÷( g) ÷(1). Then g P Ker ÷. Proof Suppose there is a non-trivial irreducible character ÷ such that ÷( g) ÷(1) for some non-identity element g. Since ÷ is non-trivial and irreducible. and so G is not simple. . there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that Ker ÷ is not {1} or G. ~ s be the irreducible characters of GaN . then Ker ÷ Ker r by Theorem 13. hence Ker ÷ T G. since the . suppose that G is not simple. and some nonidentity element g of G. As Ker ÷ T G. and taking 1 T g P Ker ÷. Hence N s i1 Ker ÷ i X j It is particularly easy to tell from the character table of G whether or not G is simple: 17. and so g P N. so that there is a normal subgroup N of G with N T {1} and N T G.6 Proposition The group G is not simple if and only if ÷( g) ÷(1) for some non-trivial irreducible character ÷ of G. Conversely. s i1 Ker ~ i fN gX ÷ For 1 < i < s.172 Representations and characters of groups Now let ~1 . Ker r T G. .5. let ÷ i be the lift to G of ~ i . j Linear characters Recall that a linear character of a group is a character of degree 1.

We abbreviate gÀ1 hÀ1 gh as [ g. We are going to show that G9 v G and that the linear characters of G are the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. . h] (1 2 3). h] 1 for all g. 17.8 Examples (1) If G is abelian then [ g. h P GiX 17.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 173 ®rst move in constructing the character table of G is often to write down the linear characters. Then ÷ is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers. Hence G9 h(1 2 3)i A3 . which is de®ned in the following way. One step is provided by the following proposition. h P G. h] is always an even permutation. h P G)X Then G9 is called the derived subgroup of G. (2) Let G S3 . j Next. Therefore. so G9 < A3 .9 Proposition If ÷ is a linear character of G. h P G. let G9 be the subgroup of G which is generated by all elements of the form g À1 hÀ1 gh ( g. h]: g. we explore some group-theoretic properties of the derived subgroup. 17. for all g. so G9 {1}.7 De®nition For a group G. If g (1 2) and h (2 3) then [ g. h]. ÷( g À1 hÀ1 gh) ÷( g)À1 ÷(h)À1 ÷( g)÷(h) 1X Hence G9 < Ker ÷. Thus G9 h[ g. As a preliminary step. Proof Let ÷ be a linear character of G. Clearly [ g. then G9 < Ker ÷. it is necessary to determine the derived subgroup of G.

. ÷ ÷ The lifts ÷1 .10 that G9 is the smallest normal subgroup of G with abelian factor group. 17. (2) Let g. Proof Let m jGaG9j. and x À1 aÀ1 x (x À1 ax)À1 X Now G9 consists of products of elements of the form [ g. x P G. Since GaG9 is abelian. the number of distinct linear characters of G is equal to jGaG9j. In particular. we can obtain the linear characters of G by applying the next theorem. x P G.10 Proposition Assume that N v G. . Given the derived subgroup G9. But x À1 [ g. j It follows from Proposition 17. Since we have proved that G9 v G. and by Theorem 17. h] and their inverses. .174 Representations and characters of groups 17.3 they are precisely the irreducible characters ÷ of G . GaG9 is abelian. h P G. h. we deduce that GaG9 is abelian. we have x À1 (ab)x (x À1 ax)(x À1 bx). h]x P G9 for all g. . ÷ m of these characters to G also have degree 1. . In particular. . . (2) G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. b. . and so divides |G|. ~ m . Proof (1) Note that for all a. h]x x À1 g À1 hÀ1 ghx (x À1 gx)À1 (x À1 hx)À1 (x À1 gx)(x À1 hx) [x À1 gx.8 shows that GaG9 has exactly m irreducible characters ~1 . We have ghgÀ1 hÀ1 P N D Ngh Nhg D (Ng)(Nh) (Nh)(Ng)X Hence G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. to prove that G9 v G it is suf®cient by the ®rst sentence to prove that x À1 [ g. x À1 hx]X Therefore G9 v G. (1) G9 v G. Theorem 9. all of degree 1. Therefore.11 Theorem The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9.

9. . ÷ m are therefore all the linear characters of G. If g (1 2). Not only are the linear characters of G important in being irreducible characters. k] (1 4)(2 3)X Since G9 v G. But every product of two transpositions is equal to the identity. so we assume that n > 4. We have now proved that G9 A n . G9 contains all 3-cycles and all elements of cycle-shape (2. h (2 3) and k (1 2)(3 4). . and A n consists of permutations.8(2). We shall show that G9 An .15. each of which is the product of an even number of transpositions. we know that S9 An . the group n n S n aS9 has two linear characters ~1 and ~2. a 3-cycle or an element of cycle-shape (2. . . if g P An .13 Example We ®nd the linear characters of S n (n > 2). 17. S n has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . . Therefore A n < G9.12 Example Let G S n .11. 2). then [ g. An (1 2)g C2 . by Theorem 12.10(2). h] (1 2 3). ÷2 . [h. so G9 {1} A n . If n 1 or 2 then S n is abelian. we have G9 < A n by Proposition 17. ÷ ~2 (An (1 2)) À1X ÷ Therefore by Theorem 17. Since Sn aS9 fAn . the characters ÷1 . j 17. as the next result shows. all the elements in (1 2 3) G and (1 4)(2 3) G belong to G9. which are given by ÷1 1 Sn . where ÷ ÷ n ~1 (An (1 2)) 1. From the last example.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 175 such that G9 < Ker ÷. but they can also be used to construct new irreducible characters from old. In view of Proposition 17. Therefore. As S n aA n C2 . 2). if g P An X a À1. We proved that S9 A3 in Example 3 17. @ ÷2 ( g) 1.

and is given by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ( g P G). The matrix g(rë) has trace ë( g) tr ( gr). 3. The normal subgroups of G can be found from the character table of G. Therefore 1 h÷ë. which is ë( g)÷( g). Characters of GaN correspond to characters ÷ of G for which N < Ker ÷. the complex number ë( g) is a root of unity. The character of G which corresponds to the character ~ ÷ of GaN is the lift of ~. Then the product ÷ë. C) by g(rë) ë( g)( gr) ( g P G)X Thus g(rë) is the matrix gr multiplied by the complex number ë( g). if ÷ is irreducible. . j The general case of a product of two characters will be discussed in Chapter 19. The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9.176 Representations and characters of groups 17. ÷ ÷ 2. Proof Let r: G 3 GL (n. De®ne rë: G 3 GL (n. Summary of Chapter 17 1. Hence rë is a representation of G with character ÷ë. ÷iX jGj gPG By Theorem 14.20. C) be a representation with character ÷. then so is ÷ë. Moreover. de®ned by ÷ë( g) ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G) is a character of G. it follows that ÷ë is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible. ÷ëi ÷( g)ë( g)÷( g)ë( g) jGj gPG 1 ÷( g)÷( g) h÷. Since r and ë are homomorphisms it follows easily that rë is a homomorphism.14 Proposition Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and ë is a linear character of G. so ë( g)ë( g) 1. Now for all g P G.

3(3)). bÀ1 ab a2 X (a) Show that G has order 21. Show that every group of order 12 has 3. and has irreducible characters ÷. bl. a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab. 4. 2. (b) Find the conjugacy classes of G. b (2 3 5)(4 7 6)X Let G ka.14 to complete the character table of G. A certain group G of order 12 has precisely six conjugacy classes. g6 (where g1 1). Let G Q8 ka. Compare your table with the character table of D8 (Example 16. (b) Find G9. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b. . a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 . (c) Find the character table of G. 3. with representatives g1 . What are the sizes of the conjugacy classes of G? 5. (c) Complete the character table of G. .3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a. (a) Find the ®ve conjugacy classes of G. ö with values as follows: g1 ÷ ö 1 2 g2 Ài 0 g3 i 0 g4 1 À1 g5 À1 À1 g6 À1 2 Use Proposition 17. and construct all the linear characters of G. Check that a7 b3 1. and hence cannot be simple. b: a4 1. 4 or 12 linear characters. . .Normal subgroups and lifted characters Exercises for Chapter 17 177 1. b2 a2 . Let a and b be the following permutations in S7 : a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). The character table of D8 is as shown (see Example 16.

(a) Let ù e2ðia3 . b: a2 n b4 1. (It is known as a dicyclic group. 6. For n > 1. ba aÀ1 bÀ1 . then there is a representation of T4 n over C which sends å 0 0 1 a3 . as in Proposition 17. Let n be an odd positive integer. Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. then there is a representation of V8 n over C which sends å 0 0 1 X a3 . 7.b3 X 0 å À1 ån 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of T4 n. bÀ1 a aÀ1 bi has order 8n.178 Representations and characters of groups Express each normal subgroup of D8 as an intersection of kernels of irreducible characters. b: a2 n 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i has order 4n.5. The group V8 n ha.b3 0 Àå À1 À1 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of V8 n . You are given that the group T4 n ha. an b2 .) (a) Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. 8. then there is a representation of U6n over C which sends 0 å ù 0 X a3 .b3 å 0 0 ù2 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of U6 n. . aÀ1 ba bÀ1 i has order 6n. (a) Show that if å is any nth root of unity in C. b: a2 n b3 1. the group U6 n ha.

÷4 i 9 1 1 1 1. ÷3 of S4 by lifting characters of the factor group S4 aV4 . including the groups S4 and A4 . which deals with the product of a character with a linear character. to complete the character table of S4 . The values of ÷2 . we produced three irreducible characters ÷1 . the product ÷4 ÷2 is also a character of S4 .4. 24 4 8 4 179 . and all dihedral groups. Let ÷4 be the character ÷4 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P S4 ) which is given in Proposition 13.14.18 Some elementary character tables We now illustrate the techniques we have presented so far by constructing the character tables of several groups. We shall now use Proposition 17. 18.14. By Proposition 17.1 The group S4 In Example 17.24. ÷2 . ÷4 and ÷4 ÷2 are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷2 ÷4 ÷4 ÷2 1 24 1 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 1 Note that h÷4 .

Then |G| 12. Let ÷5 ÷4 ÷2 . we have now found the complete character table of S4 . Since S4 has ®ve conjugacy classes. either by using the same calculation or by quoting the result of Proposition 17. and G has four conjugacy classes.11. with representatives 1. It is not dif®cult to con®rm this by showing that . Thus jGaG9j 3 by Theorem 17. 12 4 so í is an irreducible character of G of degree 3. The character ÷4 ÷2 is also irreducible. (1 3 2) (see Example 12. Since G has four irreducible characters. (1 2)(3 4). Character table of S4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 18. and the sum of the squares of their degrees is 12. The values of í are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| í 1 12 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 (1 3 2) 3 0 Note that hí. Let í be the character of A4 given by Proposition 13.180 Representations and characters of groups so ÷4 is irreducible. and we have produced ®ve irreducible characters. as shown. íi 9 1 1. the alternating group of degree 4. (1 2 3). there must be exactly three linear characters of G. so that í( g) |®x ( g)| À 1 for all g P A4 .2 The group A4 Let G A4 .14.18(1)).24.

3 The dihedral groups Let G be the dihedral group D2 n of order 2n. The lifts of ÷1 . Bj X 1 0 0 åÀ j Check that A n B2 I. BÀ1 Aj Bj AÀ1 X j j j j It follows that by de®ning r j : G 3 GL(2. de®ne j 0 1 å 0 Aj . and the character table of GaG9 is G9 ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 1 G9(1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 G9(1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù ~ ÷ ÷ (where ù e2ðia3 ). we obtain a representation r j of G for each j with 1 < j . G9(1 2 3). (1 2)(3 4). s P Z). For each integer j with 1 < j . so that G ha. C) by (ar bs )r j (Aj ) r (Bj ) s (r. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX We shall derive the character table of G. ~2 . together with the character ÷4 í. na2. (1 4)(2 3)gX 181 Now GaG9 fG9. Write å e2ðia n . . with n > 3. G9(1 3 2)g C3. ~3 to G. (1 3)(2 4). na2. give the complete character table of A4 : Character table of A4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 18. b: an b2 1.Some elementary character tables G9 V4 f1.

we have proved that D9 n kal for n odd. ÷2 of G by lifting the irreducible characters of Gahai to G.11) the conjugacy classes of D2 n (n odd) are f1g. then å i T å j and å i T å À j . na2. ø2 .182 Representations and characters of groups Each r j is an irreducible representation. Let ø j be the character of r j . na2. Since kal v G and Gahai C2. Therefore there is no matrix T with ar i T À1 (ar j )T. far . (Incidentally.5(2) or by applying the result of Exercise 8. We have now constructed distinct irreducible characters ø j of G. These characters ÷1 and ÷2 are given by ÷1 1 G and & 1 if g ar for some r. The (n À 1)a2 irreducible characters ø1 . Case 1: n odd By (12. X X X . so ar i and ar j have different eigenvalues. ÷2 ( g) À1 if g ar b for some rX We have now found all the irreducible characters of D2 n (n odd). na2 and 1 < j . and so r i and r j are not equivalent. fas b: 0 < s < n À 1gX Thus there are (n 3)a2 conjugacy classes. At this point it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. in view of 2 Theorem 17.4. ø( nÀ1)a2 each have degree 2. either by the proof of Example 5.) The character table of D2 n (n odd) is therefore as follows (where å e2ðia n ): gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 øj (1 < j < (n À 1)/2) 1 2n 1 1 2 ar (1 < r < (n À 1)/2) n 1 1 å À jr b 2 1 À1 0 å jr . we obtain two linear characters ÷1 .11. aÀ r g(1 < r < (n À 1)a2). one for each j which satis®es 1 < j . If i and j are distinct integers with 1 < i . there are two more to be found. As G has (n 3)/2 irreducible characters in all.

÷4 (and G9 ka2 l). ha2 ia. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (1 < j < m À 1) 1 2n 1 1 1 1 2 am 2n 1 1 (À1) m (À1) m 2(À1) j a r (1 < r < m À 1) n 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r jr å å À jr b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 18. fam g. are f1g. ø2 . aÀ r g(1 < r < m À 1).Some elementary character tables 183 Case 2: n even If n is even. X X X . then the conjugacy classes of D2 n. ha2 iabg C2 3 C2 X Therefore G has four linear characters ÷1 . and we shall construct the character table of G. far . as supplied by (12. n 2m. fas b: s eveng. ø mÀ1 X To ®nd the remaining four irreducible characters. fas b: s oddgX Hence G has m 3 irreducible characters. ÷2 . å e2ðia n ).4 Another group of order 12 We shall now describe a non-abelian group G of order 12 which is not isomorphic to either A4 or D12. of which m À 1 are given by ø1 . they are easy to calculate.12). ÷3 . ha2 ib. Since these linear characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of G/ka2 l. and their values appear in the following complete character table of D2 n (n even. say n 2m. It is in fact known that every non-abelian group of order . we ®rst note that ha2 i fa j : j eveng is a normal subgroup of G and Gaha2 i fha2 i.

CG (b) f1. ar b (0 < r < 5)X Check that a and b satisfy a6 1. a3 bgX These. ÷2 . Since a has order 6 and b P kal. Let a and b be the following permutations in S12 : a (1 2 3 4 5 6)(7 8 9 10 11 12). ÷4 of G given below: . bl. a3 . a the group G has at least 12 elements. aÀ1 } {a2 . 0 < s < 1 as given above. and let G ka. we have Gaha2 i C4 . ha2 ia. b (1 7 4 10)(2 12 5 9)(3 11 6 8). and similar facts. ÷3 . a subgroup of S12 . we obtain the linear characters ÷1 . a4 } v G. Observe that ka2 l {1. and so |G| 12. aÀ2 } {b. b. help us to ®nd the conjugacy classes of G.184 Representations and characters of groups 12 is isomorphic to A4 . ha2 iabgX Since ka2 la ka2 lb2 . but we shall not prove this result here. CG (a3 ) G. a2 b. a3 b2 . By lifting the irreducible characters of C4 to G. which are tabulated below: Conjugacy class {1} {a3 } {a. a3 b. and Gaha2 i fha2 i. D12 or G. a4 b} {ab. ha2 ib. a5 b} Representative gi 1 a3 a a2 b ab |CG ( gi )| 12 12 6 6 4 4 Therefore G has six irreducible characters. a2 . namely ar . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X It follows from these relations that every element of G has the form ar bs with 0 < r < 5. The relations further imply that CG (a) hai.

also a3 is an element of order 2. 2á6 À 2â6 0X . 2. we may take á2 2 and â2 À2. 4 2á3 À 2â3 0. 4 2á4 2â4 0. â1 are positive integers.4(2). we have 4 á2 â2 12. â1 are the degrees of ÷5 . we shall use the column orthogonality relations. Explicitly: r 3: r 4: r 5: r 6: 2á3 2â3 0. the column orthogonality relations 6 i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 1 ) 0 and 6 i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 now give us two equations involving 2á r 2â r and 2á r À 2â r . ÷6 . For r . Observe that á1 . 1 1 4 á2 â2 12. The other two equations then imply that á2 Àâ2 Æ2. the ®rst equation gives á1 â1 2. 2á5 À 2â5 0. respectively. â r taken by the last two irreducible characters ÷5 . so we can solve them for á r and â r . 2á5 2â5 0. 2á4 À 2â4 0. Theorem 16. ÷6 . 2á6 2â6 0.10. so they are positive integers. so á2 and â2 are integers by Corollary 13. Since we have not yet distinguished between ÷5 and ÷6 . For this.Some elementary character tables gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 á1 â1 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 á2 â2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 á3 â3 a2 6 1 1 1 1 á4 â4 b 4 1 i À1 Ài á5 â5 185 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i á6 â6 It remains to ®nd the values á r . 2 2 á1 á2 â1 â2 0X Since á1 . By the column orthogonality relations applied to columns 1 and 2.

186 Hence Representations and characters of groups á3 À1. and illustrates the fact that it is usually much easier to construct an irreducible character of a group than to obtain an irreducible representation. á4 À1. â3 1. This is typical of more advanced calculations. 1.3: the dihedral groups. . á6 0. It is instructive to note that we produced the last two irreducible characters of G by simply using the orthogonality relations. Section 18. Section 18.1: the group S4 . as follows. á5 0. 2. â6 0X The complete character table of G is therefore as follows: gi CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 We can deduce that G is not isomorphic to A4 or D12 from the fact that the character table of G is different from those of A4 and D12.2: the group A4 .) Summary of Chapter 18 In this chapter we gave the character tables of various groups. â5 0. it is not hard to construct the representations of the above group G with characters ÷5 and ÷6 ± see Exercise 17. â4 À1.6. without constructing the corresponding CG-modules. (In fact. Section 18. 3.

Find the values of ð on the elements of D8. and express ð as a sum of irreducible characters.1(3). b: a2n b3 1.Some elementary character tables Exercises for Chapter 18 187 1. Let G V8 n ha. Let G U6 n ka. an b2 .8. as in Exercise 17. (Hint: use the result of Exercise 17. and show that all its entries are integers. Regard D8 as a subgroup of S4 permuting the four corners of a square. as in Exercise 17. Let ð be the corresponding permutation character of D8.) 4. Use the character table to ®nd seven distinct normal subgroups of D12. Find the character table of G. b: a2n b4 1. (Hint: use Proposition 17. ba aÀ1 bÀ1 .6. bÀ1 a aÀ1 bi. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. 2. It is a good idea to do the cases n odd and n even separately.5.6. aÀ1 ba bÀ1 l. Write down explicitly the character table of D12. with n odd. as in Exercise 17. 5. .7. Let G T 4n ha. Find the character table of G. b: a2 n 1. Find the character table of G. as in Example 1.) 3.

An important special case of the product ÷ø occurs when ÷ ø. and more generally ÷ 3 . . j with 1 < i < m. 1 < j < n. and so on. Tensor product spaces Let V and W be vector spaces over C with bases v1 . . we introduce a symbol v i wj. products of characters provide a very good source of new characters from given ones. and it can be extended to include the product of any pair of characters ÷ and ø. and by taking successive powers of ÷ we obtain arbitrarily many new characters. we have a chance of getting a large proportion of the character table of G from just one non-linear character ÷ of G.19 Tensor products The idea of multiplying a character of a group G by a linear character of G was introduced at the end of Chapter 17. The plan is to take CG-modules V and W with characters ÷ and ø respectively. . so we consider the character ÷ 2 . which has character ÷ø. ÷ 2 . then. Potentially. It is therefore straightforward to calculate the product. X X X . but a little ingenuity is required in order to justify the conclusion that the product ÷ø is a character of G. ÷ 4 . then the degrees of ÷. called the tensor product of V and W. We shall illustrate this by constructing the character tables of S5 and S6 . given those of G and H. v m and w1 . For each i. At the end of the chapter. and indeed. The value of the product ÷ø on an element g of G is simply ÷( g)ø( g). respectively. we apply tensor products in a different way. increase. The tensor product space V W is de®ned to be the mn-dimensional vector space over C with a basis given by 188 . . If ÷ is not linear. . . to ®nd all the irreducible characters of a direct product G 3 H. and to put them together to form a new CG-module. wn . .

. . 19. For instance. . because this is not the case. w P W and ë P C. ë(v w) ë i. j m Proof (1) Let v i1 ë i v i and w n ì j w j. . Then j1 2 3 2 3 v (ëw) ëi vi ëì j w j ëë i ì j (v i wj ). then v (ëw) (ëv) w ë(v w)X (2) If x1 . j (ëv) w 2 i 3 ëë i v i 2 j 3 ì jw j i. j i.Tensor products fv i wj : 1 < i < m. yb P W. xa P V and y1. j 189 w n j1 ì j wj For example. 1 < j < ngX Thus V W consists of all expressions of the form ë ij (v i wj ) (ë ij P C)X m For v P V and w P W with v i1 ë i v i and (ë i . j ë i ì j (v i wj ) ëë i ì j (v i wj )X . ì j P C). . then 2 a 3 H b I xi d yj e xi yj X i1 j1 i. j ëë i ì j (v i wj ). we de®ne v w P V W by vw ë i ì j (v i wj )X i. i j i. . . it is impossible to express v1 w1 v2 w2 in the form v w.1 Proposition (1) If v P V. . j i. (2v1 À v2 ) (w1 w2 ) 2v1 w1 2v1 w2 À v2 w1 À v2 w2 X Do not be misled by the notation into believing that every element of V W has the form v w.

We know that the elements v i wj (1 < i < m. 19.2 Proposition If e1 . . we have v i wj ë ik ì jl (ek f l )X k. the next proposition shows that other bases of V and W work equally well. Let G be a ®nite group and let V and W be CG-modules with bases v1 . 1 < l < n) V W has dimension mn. then the elements in fei f j : 1 < i < m. . w n. wj n l1 ì jl f l (ë ik . . . em is a basis of V and f1 . 1 < j < n) are a basis of the mn elements ek fl (1 < k < m. The proof of part (2) is equally straightforward. Since elements ek fl are v i wj (1 < i < m. Proof Write vi m k1 ë ik ek .190 Representations and characters of groups Therefore v (ëw) (ëv) w ë(v w). . Tensor product modules We have introduced the tensor product of two vector spaces. The multiplication of v i wj by an element of . . so we are now in a position to de®ne the tensor product of two CG-modules.1. . respectively. . and we leave it as an exercise. and hence span V W. v m and w1 . . X X X . fn is a basis of W. it follows that the also a basis of V W. j Our construction of V W depended upon choosing a basis of V and a basis of W at the beginning. . ì jl P C)X Then by Proposition 19. . . l Now the elements V W . 1 < j < n) give a basis of V W. 1 < j < ng give a basis of V W.

j. de®ne (v i wj ) g v i g w j g and. j ë i ì j (v i g wj g) 3 ëivi g 2 j j i 3 ì j wj g by Proposition 19X1 v g wgX You should be warned that (v w)r T vr wr for most elements r in CG. . Then j1 2 3 (v w) g ë i ì j (v i wj ) g by Proposition 19X1 i1 i.Tensor products 191 G is de®ned in the following simple way. makes the vector space V W into a CGmodule.3. 19. For example.4 Proposition For all v P V. which is then extended linearly to a multiplication on the whole of V W. consider what happens when r is a scalar multiple of g. w P W and all g P G. j for arbitrary complex numbers ë ij . j i. we have (v w) g v g wgX Proof Let v ë i v i and w n ì j wj. 19. 19. let 2 3 ë ij (v i wj ) g ë ij (v i g wj g) i. more generally. j m 2 i. For all i.3 De®nition Let g P G.5 Proposition The rule for multiplying an element of V W by an element of G. given in De®nition 19.

Hence. . . and g. ì j . j by Proposition 19X4 3 ë ij (v i wj ) g ë ij ((v i wj ) g)X i.11 we can choose a basis e1 . 19.6 are ful®lled. respectively. . 1 < j < n.192 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let 1 < i < m. (ei f j ) g ei g f j g ë i ì j (ei f j ). these vectors ei fj form a basis of V W. j Therefore all the conditions of Proposition 4. j We now calculate the character of V W. Then the character of the CG-module V W is the product character ÷ø. . where ÷ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) for all g P GX Proof Let g P G. and 2 i. and V W is a CG-module. (v i wj )( gh) v i ( gh) wj ( gh) (v i g)h (wj g)h (v i g wj g)h ((v i wj ) g)h. . h P G. . fn of W such that ei g ë i e i (1 < i < m) and f j g ì j f j m i1 n j1 (1 < j < n) for some complex numbers ë i . em of V and a basis f1 .2. By Proposition 9. if ö is the character of V W then .6 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. and by Proposition 19. ø( g) ì jX Now for 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. . Then (v i wj ) g v i g wj g P V W . (v i wj )1 v i wj . . Then ÷( g) ë i .

1. we de®ne ÷ n by ÷ n ( g) (÷( g)) n 0 for all g P GX Thus ÷ 1 G . When ÷ is a faithful character (that is.7 Corollary The product of two characters of G is again a character of G.10 below. More generally. . and calculate ÷3 ÷4 and ÷4 ÷4 . where ÷ 2 ÷÷. Ker {1}). 19.8 Example The character table of S4 was given in Section 18. and ÷4 ÷4 ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 X Powers of characters Corollary 19. for every nonnegative integer n. j i j 193 as required. An inductive proof using Corollary 19. as can be seen from Theorem 19. j 19.Tensor products 2 32 3 ö( g) ëi ì j ëi ì j ÷( g)ø( g). We reproduce it here.7 shows that ÷ n is a character of G. the product of ÷ with itself. the powers of ÷ carry a lot of information about the whole character table of G. i. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷4 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 6 9 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 We see that ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷5 .7 shows that if ÷ is a character of G then so is ÷ 2 .

x2 must come from all the factors in the rÀ1 rÀ2 second row. Suppose that x1 . . the term x1 must come from all rÀ2 the factors in the ®rst row.9) If á1 . . j . we must take x1 from the rÀ2 ®rst row of the matrix. and so on. so Ä 0. . then the matrix rÀ1 I á2 X X X á1 1 rÀ1 á2 X X X á2 g g 2 g X XXX X e á2 r XXX á rÀ1 r ár 3 (x2 À x3 ) X X X (x2 À xr ) F F F 3 (x rÀ1 À xr )X rÀ1 rÀ2 Now the coef®cient of x1 x2 X X Xx rÀ1 in this product is 1: for in the rÀ1 way we have displayed the product.194 Representations and characters of groups In the course of the proof of Theorem 19. It follows that Ä is divisible by (xi À x j ) (x1 À x2 )(x1 À x3 ) X X X (x1 À xr ) i. x2 from the second row. to obtain x1 x2 X X X x rÀ1 rÀ1 in the expansion of the determinant Ä. Hence rÀ1 rÀ2 the coef®cient of x1 x2 . x rÀ1 in Ä is Æ1. We ®rst sketch a proof of this result. xr are indeterminates. . (19. . . j complex numbers. . . It follows that ÄÆ (xi À xj )X i. á r are distinct H 1 á1 f1 á 2 f Af dX X 1 is invertible. and so on. . we shall need the following result concerning the so-called `Vandermonde matrix'.10. . and consider H rÀ1 I 1 x1 x2 X X X x1 1 f 1 x x2 X X X x rÀ1 g 2 f g 2 2 Ä detf gX dX X X XXX X e 1 xr x2 r XXX x rÀ1 r If i T j and xi xj then two rows of the given matrix are equal. On the other hand.

Proof Let the r values taken by ÷ be á1 . Now let ø be an irreducible character of G. and refer to Example 19. ÷ rÀ1 . ÷ 1 . øi T 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. and let b be the row vector which is given by b (â1 . (2) Let G S4 . X X X . Then ÷( g) takes four different values. 19. we substitute á i for xi (1 < i < r). then ÷( g) takes just two different values (see Proposition 13. and deduce that the matrix A is invertible since its determinant is non-zero. Then every irreducible character of G is a constituent of one of the powers ÷ 0 . . let âi ø( g). øi. We must show that h÷ j . G1 {1}. But the ( j 1)th entry in the row vector bA is equal to jGjh÷ j . h÷ j . by Theorem 10. j 19. so Theorem 19.9).10 says that every irreducible character of G is a constituent of 1 G or ÷. so that G1 Ker ÷. We have seen that ÷ 2 ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 . øi r 1 1 (÷( g)) j ø( g) (á i ) j â i X jGj gPG jGj i1 Let A be the r 3 r matrix with ij-entry (á i ) jÀ1 . . â r )X Now A is invertible by (19.11 Examples (1) If G T {1} and ÷ is the regular character of G. . Then for all j > 0. and b T 0 since â1 T 0. gPG i and note that â1 ø(1) T 0. . and for 1 < i < r. .8.Tensor products 195 To obtain (19. Let ÷ ÷4 . . . As ÷ is faithful. hence bA T 0. øi T 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. . á r . For 1 < i < r.20). we know this already. de®ne Gi f g P G: ÷( g) á i gX Take á1 ÷(1).5. as we wished to prove.10 Theorem Let ÷ be a faithful character of G. and suppose that ÷( g) takes precisely r different values as g varies over all the elements of G. and thus h÷ j .9).

Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. . . as we shall see. ÷5 of G. . it is easy to see that S(V V) and A(V V) are subspaces of V V (indeed. they are eigenspaces of T). A(V V ) fx P V V : xT Àxg. We are going to provide a method for decomposing ÷ 2 . ÷ 1 . w P V.10. v n be a basis of V. The subspace S(V V) is called the symmetric part of V V. Also. the square of ÷. we have (v w)T w vX Hence T is independent of the choice of basis.196 Representations and characters of groups h÷ 3 .6. . Since T is linear. 19. illustrating Theorem 19. ÷2 i 1X and we ®nd that Thus ÷ 0 . ÷ 3 (indeed. j Check that for all v. Now de®ne subsets of V V as follows: S(V V ) fx P V V : xT xg. Let v1 . it is of some importance to be able to decompose powers of a character ÷ into sums of irreducible characters. . Decomposing ÷ 2 In view of Theorem 19. 2 3 ë ij (v i v j ) T ë ij (v j v i )X i. and de®ne a linear transformation T: V V 3 V V by (v i v j )T v j v i for all i. This special case is particularly useful in ®nding irreducible characters. in this case. just ÷ 2 . . . V V S(V V ) È A(V V )X . j i. the module V V has character ÷ 2 . and the subspace A(V V ) is known as the antisymmetric part of V V.10. ÷ 3 ) have between them as constituents all the irreducible characters ÷1 . By Proposition 19.12 Proposition The subspaces S(V V) and A(V V) are CG-submodules of V V. j and extending linearly ± that is. ÷ 2 . .

y P A(V V) and g P G.13 Proposition Let v1 . j ë ij (v i g v j g)T 3 ë ij (v i v j ) gT X 2 i. (1) The vectors v i v j v j v i (1 < i < j < n) form a basis of S(V V ). so xg P S(V V) and yg P A(V V). j Therefore T is a CG-homomorphism from V V to itself. for all x P V we have x 1(x xT ) 1(x À xT )X 2 2 Since T 2 is the identity. . Therefore. for x P S(V V). . 1 2(x xT ) P S(V V ) and 1 2(x À xT ) P j V V S(V V ) È A(V V )X Note that the symmetric part of V V contains all vectors which have the form v w w v with v. w P V. while the antisymmetric part of V V contains all vectors of the form v w À w v. . v n be a basis of V. The dimension of S(V V ) is n(n 1)a2.Tensor products Proof For all ë ij P C and g P G. j 197 i. If x P S(V V) A(V V) then x xT Àx. We now present bases of the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of V V which consist of elements like these. (2) The vectors v i v j À v j v i (1 < i . . . Hence. The dimension of A(V V ) is n(n À 1)a2. Further. 2 3 ë ij (v i v j ) Tg ë ij (v j g v i g) i. j < n) form a basis of A(V V). j i. A(V V ). 19. and ( yg)T ( yT ) g À yg. so x 0. Thus S(V V) and A(V V) are CG-submodules of V V. we have (xg)T (xT ) g xg.

. ÷ 2 ÷ S ÷ A . and the result follows. and hence from Proposition 19.12. By Proposition 19. en of V such that e i g ë i e i (1 < i < n) for some complex numbers ë i . j < n) are linearly independent elements of A(V V ).198 Representations and characters of groups Proof Clearly the vectors v i v j v j v i (1 < i < j < n) are linearly independent elements of S(V V ). Therefore i 2 ÷ 2 ( g) (÷( g))2 ëi 2 ë i ë j ÷( g 2 ) 2÷ A ( g)X 2 ë2 ei.13(2). which implies that ÷ S ( g) ÷ 2 ( g) À ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 ))X 2 j . we have ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). and ÷ A to be the character of the CG-module A(V V ). j i i. . Hence dim S(V V ) > n(n 1)a2. . ÷ A ( g) ëi ë j X Now e i g so ÷( g) i ë i and ÷( g2 ) i ë2 .12. i i. and 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Proof By Proposition 9. By Proposition 19.14 Proposition For g P G. . j dim A(V V ) > n(n À 1)a2X De®ne ÷ S to be the character of the CG-module S(V V ). Then (ei ej À ej ei ) g ë i ë j (ei ej À ej ei ). ÷2 ÷S ÷ AX The next result gives the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A .11 we can choose a basis e1 . 19. and the vectors v i v j À v j v i (1 < i . dim S(V V ) dim A(V V ) dim V V n2 X Hence the above inequalities are equalities. j Hence ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Also.

Tensor products 199 19. conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders |CG ( gi )| as follows: gi Class size |CG ( gi )| 1 1 120 (1 2) 10 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 15 30 20 24 6 8 4 6 5 Thus G has exactly seven irreducible characters. The character table of G is given in Example 19. obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaG9. given by Proposition 19. G has conjugacy class representatives gi . The values of ÷. (2) If ø is a new character found in (1). and use inner products to analyse ÷ S and ÷ A for new irreducible characters. ÷2 . Let ÷ ÷4 .15 Example Let G S4 . By Example 12. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷S ÷A 1 24 3 6 3 (1 2) 4 1 2 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 À1 2 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 0 1 We ®nd that ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 and ÷ A ÷5 . appear below.13.16 Example The character table of S5 Let G S5 . then form ø S and ø A and repeat.8.16(4). given one or two irreducible characters to start with. We have . We illustrate this strategy with two examples. The techniques which we have developed so far give a useful method for ®nding new irreducible characters of a group. The strategy is simple: (1) Given a character ÷. 19. and the values of ÷ S and ÷ A . G9 A5 and G has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . the symmetric group of degree 5. (a) Linear characters By Example 17.14. form ÷ S and ÷ A .

By Proposition 19.14 the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷S ÷A 1 120 10 6 (1 2) 12 4 0 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 0 2 À2 0 0 1 0 0 1 Thus. and 1. ÷3 i ÷3 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X 42 22 12 (À1)2 (À1)2 1X 120 12 6 6 5 Hence ÷3 is irreducible. Next. À1. if g is an odd permutationX Proposition 13. Proposition 17.24 gives us a character ÷3 (b) Permutation character of G with values Observe that h÷3 .200 Representations and characters of groups & ÷2 ( g) ÷1 1 G . Write ÷ ÷3 .14 shows that ÷4 ÷3 ÷2 is also an irreducible character. . At this point we have the following portion of the character table of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 120 1 1 4 4 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 À1 (c) Tensor products We now use tensor products to construct the last three irreducible characters of G. by Theorem 14.20. if g is an even permutation.

where ø is an irreducible character of degree 5. ÷7 ÷6 ÷2 is a different irreducible character of degree 5. ÷ S i 3. The character table of S5 is as shown. Next. it is convenient to label each conjugacy class by the cycle-shape of its elements. Using . 120 12 6 8 6 40 8 1 1 h÷ S . For ease of printing. ÷1 i Therefore. we use techniques similar to those of the previous example to ®nd 8 of the 11 irreducible characters of the symmetric group S6 . Character table of S5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 120 1 1 4 4 6 5 5 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 À2 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 19. ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ø. and 120 12 6 6 100 16 1 4 1 h÷ S . 10 4 1 2 1 1. of order 720.Tensor products h÷ A . Let ÷6 ø. ÷3 i À 1. We have now found all seven irreducible characters of S5 . 120 12 6 8 6 h÷ S . which we call ÷5 . we then ®nd the last three irreducible characters by using the orthogonality relations. Finally. 120 8 5 201 and so ÷ A is a new irreducible character. ÷ A i 36 4 1 1.17 Example The character table of S6 In this example. so that ÷6 ÷ S À ÷1 À ÷3 . Let G S6 .

13).2) 16 1 3 À2 (4) 8 1 1 0 (3. . h÷ S . ÷ S i 3X h÷ A .3): Cycle-shape Class size |CG ( gi )| (1) (2) 1 15 720 48 (3) 40 18 (2. ÷3 i 1.2.2) (6) 48 18 8 6 À1 3 À2 À1 0 1 À1 1 0 À1 0 1 We calculate that h÷3 . ÷1 i 1. the derived subgroup is An .2) 45 16 (4) 90 8 (3.2) (6) 120 144 15 40 90 120 6 5 48 18 8 6 Since G has 11 conjugacy classes. (a) Linear characters As with all symmetric groups Sn (n > 2). and we get exactly two linear characters ÷1 and ÷2 . if g is odd ( g P G) is a character of G.2) 6 0 1 À1 (5) 5 0 0 0 (2.2) (3. Let ÷ ÷3 . ÷3 i 1. the conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows (see Exercise 12.3) (4. The values of ÷.2) (5) (2.2) (3.2.3) (4. where & ÷2 ( g) (see Example 17. it has 11 irreducible characters. if g is even. ÷ S and ÷ A are as follows: Class |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷3 ÷S ÷A (1) (2) 720 48 5 15 10 3 7 2 (3) 18 2 3 1 (2.202 Representations and characters of groups this notation. h÷ S . À1. by Proposition 13. h÷ S . (b) Permutation character and tensor products is given by ÷3 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 The function ÷3 which ÷1 1 G .24. 1. ÷ A i 1.

From Corollary 13. . but for the moment we know for certain only that ÷( g) is an integer if g2 1 (see Corollary 13. . so that we can guarantee that the solutions to the equations which we deal with are integers.16) that all the entries in the character tables of all symmetric groups are integers. It is therefore convenient ®rst to concentrate on elements of order 2. Thus the conjugacy classes of s and t correspond to the second and fourth columns of the character table. . Also. Ingeniously. as is ÷6 ÷5 ÷2 . Finally. Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 (2. Further.Tensor products 203 Therefore ÷3 is irreducible. ÷10 and ÷11 . . of degree 9.2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 (3. The column orthogonality relations give 11 i1 ÷ i (s)2 48X .2) (6) 48 18 8 6 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 (c) Orthogonality relations We now use the column orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. The irreducible characters ÷1 . in the ordering which we have adopted. ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ÷7 . ÷8 ÷7 ÷2 is also irreducible.10 we know that ÷(s) and ÷(t) are integers for all characters ÷ of G. It will be shown later (Corollary 22.3) (4. where ÷7 is another irreducible character. we call the three irreducible characters of G which have yet to be found ÷9 . Let s denote the permutation (1 2) and t denote the permutation (1 2)(3 4). ÷8 are recorded in the following portion of the character table of G. respectively.2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 (2.2.2) (3. ÷5 ÷ A is irreducible. so is ÷4 ÷3 ÷2 .10).

e. we aim to evaluate the integers a. . b. 10. d 2 e 2 f 2 2. That is. a b 5X . . ad be cf 10X The only solution to these equations in integers with a . f in the following portion of the character table: Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) a b c s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2. d. ÷9 ÷2 ÷10 X Once more. ÷ i (1)÷ i (t) 0. Moreover. we lose no generality in assuming that ÷9 (s) 1. that ÷9 (s)2 ÷10 (s)2 1. 11 i1 11 i1 ÷ i (s)÷ i (t) 0. ÷ i (t)÷ i (t) 16. ÷10 (s) À1X The plan is now to ®nd ÷ i (1) and ÷ i (t) for i 9. ÷8 . without loss of generality. ÷11 (s)2 0X Now ÷9 ÷2 is an irreducible character.204 Hence Representations and characters of groups ÷9 (s)2 ÷10 (s)2 ÷11 (s)2 2X We can assume. d À e 0. . Therefore. whence a À b 0. 0 is d e 1. we see that ÷9 ÷2 is not ÷9 or ÷11 . 0 and b . f 0. and is not equal to any of ÷1 . since ÷9 ÷2 (s) À÷9 (s).2) d e f The column orthogonality relations give 11 i1 11 i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i (s) 0. 11. . c.

.2) 1 1 0 We can now determine the three unknown entries in each further column. . . Let V be a CG-module. . Having done these calculations.3) (4. Character table of S6 Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 5 5 16 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 1 À1 0 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 À1 À1 À2 (2. we ®nd that the complete character table of S6 is as shown. given the character tables of G and H. v m .2) 48 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 À3 3 0 (3. since the column orthogonality relations will give three independent equations in these unknowns (as the above 3 3 3 matrix is invertible). we ®nd that c 16 by using the relation 11 i1 205 ÷ i (1)2 720X The above portion of the character table is therefore Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) 5 5 16 s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2.2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 1 1 0 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 0 (3. with basis v1 .2.Tensor products Finally.2) (6) 18 8 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 2 2 À2 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 Direct products We conclude the chapter by showing that tensor products can be used to determine the character table of a direct product G 3 H.2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 (2. and let W be a .

ø b be the distinct irreducible characters of H. 1 < j < b)X Proof For all i. with basis w1. By the proof of Proposition 19. . Then G 3 H has precisely ab distinct irreducible characters. h P H. ÷ a be the distinct irreducible characters of G and let ø1 . h) ÷( g)ø(h) ( g P G. for all v P V. h) v g wh. the character of V W is ÷ 3 ø. y P H. h)(x. G and H indicate inner products of characters of G 3 H.5 shows that V W is a C(G 3 H)-module. y)À1 ( g. Then a proof similar to that of Proposition 19. Next. .6. and all g P G. ÷ k i G hø j . h÷ i 3 ø j . note that for all g.) Thus the ab characters ÷ i 3 ø j are distinct and irreducible.206 Representations and characters of groups C H-module. that is. de®ne (v i wj )( g. . j. we ®nd that (v w)( g. .18 Theorem Let ÷1 . y) (x À1 gx. . For all i. . where (÷ 3 ø)( g. . j i. w P W. and these are ÷ i 3 ø j (1 < i < a. wn. x P G and h. Let ÷ be the character of V and ø be the character of W. y À1 hy)X . ÷ k 3 ÷ l i G3 H 1 ÷ i ( g)ø j (h)÷ k ( g)ø l (h) jG 3 Hj gPG 2 3 32 1 1 ÷ i ( g)÷ k ( g) ø j (h)ø l (h) jGj gPG j Hj hP H hP H h÷ i . G and H. 2 3 ë ij (v i wj ) ( g. . l. . h) ë ij (v i g wj h)X i. we have (x. h P H)X 19. .4. h) v i g wj h and extend this de®nition linearly to the whole of V W. respectively. k. . ø l i H ä ik ä jl X (Here the subscripts G 3 H. . for ë ij P C. j with 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. j As in Proposition 19.

À1) ((1 2).3(1). .19 Example The character table of S3 3 C2 The character table of S3 ( D6 ) is given in Example 16. (1. We reproduce it here. . Consequently. ((1 2). 1) ((1 2 3). so the irreducible characters ÷ i 3 ø j which we have found must be all the irreducible characters of G 3 H. j 19. hb are representatives of the conjugacy classes of H. . 1) (1. hj ) |CG3 H ( g i . ga are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G and h1 . G 3 H has precisely ab conjugacy classes.3. In particular. h9) of G 3 H are conjugate if and only if the elements g and g9 are conjugate in G and the elements h and h9 are conjugate in H. . hj ) (1 < i < a. if g1 . 1) ((1 2).Tensor products 207 Hence elements ( g. 1 < j < b) are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G 3 H. then the elements ( g i . the character table of S3 3 C2 is as shown. ((1 2 3). Character table of S3 3 C2 ( gi . alongside the character table of C2 . 1). À1). À1). À1) ((1 2 3). .18. . and by Theorem 19. G 3 H has exactly ab irreducible characters. À1) 12 4 6 12 4 6 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 . . 1). ((1 2 3). hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ø1 ø1 ø1 ø2 ø2 ø2 (1. 1). h) and ( g9. ((1 2). By Theorem 15. À1). . Character table of S3 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 Character table of C2 hi |CH (hi )| ø1 ø2 1 2 1 1 À1 2 1 À1 The conjugacy classes of S3 3 C2 are represented by (1.

h÷ø. In Example 20. If ÷ is a character of G. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ø is an irreducible character of H. The values of ÷ 3 ø are given by (÷ 3 ø)( g. The irreducible characters of G 3 H are those characters ÷ 3 ø. ø and ö be characters of the group G. 3. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A . øöi hø. Show that h÷ø. Prove that & 1. if ÷ ø.13 of the next chapter we shall show that there exist irreducible characters ÷ and ö of A5 which take the following values: . Suppose that ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of G.10. (This shows that the hypothesis that ÷ is faithful cannot be dropped from Theorem 19. Show that there is some irreducible character ø of G such that k÷ n . øl 0 for all integers n with n > 0. 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 )) 2 for all g P G.208 Representations and characters of groups Compare the solution to Exercise 18. The product of any two characters of G is a character of G.5 shows that D12 S3 3 C2 ). 2. ÷öiX 2. where we give the character table of D12 (Exercise 1. 1 G i 0. Exercises for Chapter 19 1. h) ÷( g)ø(h) for all g P G. Summary of Chapter 19 1.) 4. Let ÷. öi h÷. if ÷ T øX 3. where ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). h P H. Let ÷ be a character of G which is not faithful.2.

Write down the character table of D6 3 D6. g7 . ø5 of A5 which are given in Example 20. Moreover. A certain group G or order 24 has precisely seven conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . g2 . . Find ÷ S and ÷ A . . g1 . g2 .Tensor products 1 ÷ ö 5 3 (1 2 3) À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) (1 0 p 5)a2 (1 3 4 5 2) (1 À 0 p 5)a2 209 Calculate the values of ÷ S . . g4 . respectively.13. ®nd the character table of G. further. G has a character ÷ with values as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ g1 24 2 g2 24 À2 g3 4 0 g4 6 Àù2 g5 6 Àù g6 6 ù g7 6 ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . g2 . 6. . ö S and ö A . g4 . . By forming products of the irreducible characters found so far. Express these characters as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ø1 . g5 . g2 are con1 2 3 4 5 6 7 jugate to g1 . 5. g2 . . . g2 . g2 . g5 . ÷ A . . . g2 . and show that both are irreducible.

v1 b v1 . Restriction Let H be a subgroup of the ®nite group G. h P G. h P H if they hold for all g. then f 5 H denotes the restriction of f to H (so that ( f 5 H)(h) f (h) for all h P H). This simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module is known as restricting from G to H. if f: G 3 C is any function. and refer to it as the restriction of ÷ to H. The case where H is a normal subgroup of G is of particular interest. we are going to look at ways of relating the representations of a group to the representations of its subgroups. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. v2 a Àv1 . and call it the restriction of V to H. v2 b Àv2 X 210 . and illustrate its use. b: a4 b2 1. If V is a CG-module then we write the corresponding C H-module as V 5 H. which occurs. since properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4. v2 for which v1 a v2 .2 certainly hold for all g. then V is also a C H-module. 20. for example.5(1).20 Restriction to a subgroup In this chapter and the next.1 Example Let G D8 ka. We write this character of H as ÷ 5 H. We apply this result in the situation where H is of index 2 in G. The character of V 5 H is obtained from the character ÷ of V by evaluating ÷ on the elements of H only. If V is a CG-module. Then C H is a subset of CG. we introduce the elementary idea of restricting a CG-module to a subgroup H of G. let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . As in Example 4. Here. and Clifford's Theorem 20. when G S n and H A n . More generally.8 gives important information in this case.

a2 . then U 5 H is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. then V 5 H is the C Hmodule with basis v1 . On the other hand. By 18.2 Example Let G S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G consisting of all even permutations of {1. the character table of H is gi jC H ( g i )j ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 . 3.1 illustrates this fact. b. a2 b} of G. 2. The character ÷ of V is given by g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 v1 b v1 . v2 a2 Àv2 . 20.Restriction to a subgroup 211 If H is the subgroup {1. 4} ®xing 5. v2 b Àv2 X and the character ÷ 5 H of V 5 H is given by h ÷(h) 1 2 a2 À2 b 0 a2 b 0 If V is a CG-module and H is a subgroup of G.2. However. Example 20. if V 5 H is an irreducible C H-module then V is an irreducible CG-module. then dim V dim (V 5 H). for if U is a CG-submodule of V. it might be the case that V is an irreducible CG-module while V 5 H is not an irreducible C H-module. v2 for which v1 a2 Àv1 .

212 Representations and characters of groups (where ù e2ðia3 ).3 De®nitions The inner product k . if W1 and W2 are functions from G to C. . ÷5 5 H 2ø4 . .16. W2 i G W1 ( g)W2 ( g). we calculate the character ÷ i 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters ø j . with irreducible characters labelled ÷1 .16 we see that ÷1 5 H ÷2 5 H. we introduce the following notation. . ÷5 5 H and ÷6 5 H. l G is the inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C which we have de®ned earlier. and k . From Example 19. ÷ 6 5 H ø2 ø 3 ø 4 X Constituents of a restricted character To help us discuss the way in which a restricted character ÷ 5 H can be expressed in terms of the irreducible characters of H. 20. ÷3 5 H. de®ned similarly. For each i with 1 < i < 7. then 1 hW1 . ÷7 . These have values 1 ÷1 5 ÷3 5 ÷5 5 ÷6 5 H H H H 1 4 6 5 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 À2 1 (1 2 3) (1 3 2) 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 À1 It is easy to spot that ÷ 1 5 H ø1 . l H is the inner product on the vector space of functions from H to C. Thus. The character table of G is given in Example 19. ÷ 3 5 H ø1 ø 4 . . jGj gPG . ÷3 5 H ÷4 5 H and ÷6 5 H ÷7 5 HX Therefore we need only consider ÷1 5 H.

The next proposition shows that every irreducible character of H is a constituent of the restriction of some irreducible character of G. Suppose that we know the character table of G. d r which are given by d i h÷ 5 H. i1 Now 0 T k jGj ø(1) h÷reg 5 H.Restriction to a subgroup and if ö1 and ö2 are functions from H to C. X X X . it may be very dif®cult in practice to write down the restrictions ÷ 5 H in terms of irreducible characters of H. øi H ÷ i (1)h÷ i 5 H. . ø i i H X We say that ø i is a constituent of ÷ 5 H if the coef®cient d i in the above expression is non-zero. . ö2 i H ö1 (h)ö2 (h)X j Hj hP H 213 If ÷ is a character of G and ø1 . then 1 hö1 . øi H T 0X Proof Let ÷1 . The best . 20. Recall from Theorem 13. then by Theorem 14. . Then there exists an irreducible character ÷ of G such that h÷ 5 H.20 that the regular character ÷reg of G satis®es & k jGj if g 1.4.4 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G and let ø be a non-zero character of H. ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r for some non-negative integers d 1 . . ÷reg ( g) and ÷reg ÷ i (1)÷ i X 0 if g T 1. we could hope to ®nd the character table of the subgroup H by restricting the irreducible characters ÷ of G to H. . . øi H X j Hj i1 j Therefore h÷ i 5 H. ø r are the irreducible characters of the subgroup H of G. In the light of Proposition 20. .17.19 and Proposition 13. øi H T 0 for some i. Unfortunately. . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G.

j We can say more about the constituents of ÷ 5 H in the case where H is a normal subgroup of G. let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. The conclusions of the proposition a follow at once. and let ø1 . For example. we will see that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. and K 0 if and only P if ÷( g) 0 for all g with g P H. jGj i1 i where K (1ajGj) ga H ÷( g)÷( g)X Now K > 0. Then ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r .6) if and only if ÷( g) 0 for all elements g of G which lie outside H. d r satisfy (20X6) r i1 d 2 < jG: HjX i Moreover. F F F . we have equality in (20. 1 h÷. as the following result shows. The way to exploit the fact that H v G us revealed in the following proposition.214 Representations and characters of groups chance of doing this occurs when the index jG: Hj( jGjaj Hj) is small. ø r be the irreducible characters of H.5 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. . since ÷ is irreducible. we have r i1 d 2 h÷ 5 H. where the non-negative integers d 1 .17. Proof By Theorem 14. 20. since the restrictions ÷ 5 H then do not have many constituents. X X X . ÷i G 1 ÷( g)÷( g) jGj gPG 1 ÷(h)÷(h) K jGj hP H r j Hj 2 d K. ÷ 5 Hi H i 1 ÷(h)÷(h)X j Hj hP H Also.

Then (1) The set Ug is an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H and dim Ug dim U . V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. è is a C H-isomorphism. V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. so dim U dim Ug. then WgÀ1 is a C H-submodule of U. (3) If g1 . proving that Ug is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. Then gh h9 g for some h9 P H. WgÀ1 {0} or U. (2) The sum of all the subspaces Ug with g P G is a CG-submodule of V.7 Proposition Suppose that H v G. g2 . Further. (3) Now let ö be a C H-isomorphism from Ug1 to Ug2 . since V is irreducible. Ug is a subspace of V. Suppose that h P H.Restriction to a subgroup 215 20. and since H v G we have ghgÀ1 P H for all h P H. Proof (1) Clearly. since U is irreducible. j . Therefore. and (wgh)è (wh9 g)è (wh9ö) g (wö)h9 g (wö) gh (wgè)hX Therefore. u 3 ug (u P U) is an invertible linear transformation from U to Ug. then Ug1 g and Ug2 g are isomorphic C H-modules. (2) As a C H-module. For every g P G let Ug fug: u P U g. as claimed. so (ug)h u( ghg À1 ) g P Ug (u P U). and the proof of the proposition is complete.12. whence W {0} or Ug. if W is a C Hsubmodule of Ug. Let V be an irreducible CG-module and U be an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H. Ug is an irreducible C H-module. De®ne è : Ug1 g 3 Ug2 g by è : wg 3 (wö) g (w P Ug 1 )X Then è is clearly an isomorphism of vector spaces. Therefore. g P G and Ug1 and Ug2 are isomorphic C H-modules. Moreover. we have V UgX gPG Then by Proposition 7.

7. Examples where this happens are G Sn . ø m are the constituents of ÷ 5 H. Then (1) all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. . 20. Then V contains a C H-module X1 whose character is eø1 . jG: Hj 2). On the other hand. .7(3). Then it follows from Proposition 20. then ÷ 5 H e(ø1 X X X ø m ) for some positive integer e. V is a sum of C Hmodules of the form X1 g. Hence V has the form V X1 È X X X È X m where each Xi is a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules. and (2) if ø1 .8 Clifford's Theorem Suppose that H v G and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G.216 Representations and characters of groups We now come the fundamental theorem on the restriction of a character to a normal subgroup. parts (1) and (2). ø1 i.7(2). and which is therefore a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules. . Normal subgroups of index 2 We are shortly going to give more precise information about the constituents of ÷ 5 H when H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2 (that is. . . Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. by Proposition 20. that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. but you might like to look at Corollary 22. Let e h÷ 5 H. Therefore. ÷ 5 H e(ø1 X X X ø m )X j Our main applications of Clifford's Theorem will concern the case where jG: Hj 2. if g P G then X1 g is a direct sum of isomorphic C H-modules. each having character ø1 . say X 1 U1 È X X X È U e X By Proposition 20.14 in Chapter 22 to see an advanced use of the theorem. and Xi T X j if i T j.

÷ and ÷ë are irreducible characters of the same degree (see Proposition 17. Since d 1 . We describe this relationship in (20. j with i T j. In the latter case.8 j r ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r . Since GaH C2 .10).Restriction to a subgroup 217 H A n . the character tables of G and H are closely related. H hai. then H must be normal in G (see Exercise 1.5. .16). 20. In fact. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. by Clifford's Theorem 20. if H is a subgroup of index 2 in G. 2 where i1 d i < 2. X X X . and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G.13) below. ø r are the irreducible characters of H. ÷ 5 H ÷ë 5 H. . ø i and ø j have the same degree. or ÷ 5 H ø i ø j for some i. we may lift the non-trivial linear character of GaH to obtain a linear character ë of G which satis®es @ 1 if g P H. .14).9 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. we deduce that either ÷ 5 H ø i for some i. then by Proposition 20. . since ë(h) 1 for all h P H. and that ÷ is .9. For practical purposes.10 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. it is often desirable to have more details about the two cases in Proposition 20. or G D2 n ha. b: a n b2 1. Proof If ø1 . Then either (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. When H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. or (2) ÷ 5 H is the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. Also. 20. and we shall supply these next. d r are non-negative integers. and we then illustrate the results by ®nding the character table of A5 from that of S5 (which we have already obtained in Example 19. ë( g) À1 if g P HX a Note that for all irreducible characters ÷ of G.

Proof We use Proposition 20.5. if H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2. since jG: Hj 2.218 Representations and characters of groups an irreducible character of G. If ö is an irreducible character of G which satis®es ö 5 H ÷ 5 H.9. ÷ 5 H is irreducible if and only if the inequality in (20. In the next proposition we consider the ®rst possibility. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible. then either ö ÷ or ö ÷ë. observe that @ ÷( g) if g P H. if g P HX a . ÷ë( g) À÷( g) if g P H. (2) ÷( g) T 0 for some g P G with g P H. a so ÷( g) T 0 for some g with g P H if and only if ÷ë T ÷. To see that (2) is equivalent to (3).11 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. a j According to Proposition 20.6) is strict. and this happens if and only if ÷( g) T 0 for some g P G with g P H. 20. and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Proof We have (÷ ÷ë)( g) Hence @ 2÷( g) 0 if g P H. a (3) the characters ÷ and ÷ë of G are not equal. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. Thus (1) is equivalent to a (2). then ÷ 5 H is the sum of one or two irreducible characters of H.

a Therefore. and hence ö ÷. and so either ö ÷ or j ö ÷ë. Finally. öl G 1.Restriction to a subgroup h÷ ÷ë. say ÷ 5 H ø1 ø2. (20. by explaining how to list the irreducible characters of H on the assumption that we know the character table of G.12 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible characters of H. If ble character of G such that ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 then ö ÷. so kö. ÷l G T 0.13) Let H be a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group G. G.10. ÷i G ö( g)÷( g) ö( g)÷( g) jGj gPG jGj gP H 1hö 5 H. 1 1 hö. 20. ö 5 Hi H X Now k÷ 5 H. ÷ 5 Hi H T 0. (1) Each irreducible character ÷ of G which is nonzero somewhere outside H restricts to be an irreducible character of H.11). and that ÷ is the sum of two ö is an irreducias a constituent. then hö 5 H. we look at the case where ÷ 5 H is reducible. . Therefore k÷ ÷ë. since ÷ 5 H is irreducible and ö 5 H ÷ 5 H. 20. ÷ 5 Hi H X 2 If ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 as a constituent. Proof In view of Proposition 20. ÷( g) 0 for all g with g P H. j We summarize our results on subgroups of index 2.10. Such characters of G occur in pairs (÷ and ÷ë) which have the same restriction to H (Propositions 20. öi G 1 2÷( g)ö( g) jGj gP H 1 ÷( g)ö( g) j Hj gP H 219 h÷ 5 H. ö 5 Hl H 1.

13)(2).13) of facts about characters of subgroups of index 2. a so by (20. . ÷3 and ÷6 are non-zero somewhere outside H. The two characters of H which we get from ÷ in this way come from no other irreducible character of G (Propositions 20. . . 20. We have established that the character table of H is gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 á2 â2 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 á3 â3 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á4 â4 (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 á5 â5 . and the irreducible characters ÷1 .10. as in parts (1) and (2) (Proposition 20. . 20. respectively. 20. ÷3 5 H and ÷6 5 H are irreducible characters of H. ÷4 5 H ÷3 5 H and ÷7 5 H ÷6 5 H. ø2 and ø3 . (3) Every irreducible character of H appears among those obtained by restricting irreducible characters of G. ÷7 of S5 can be found in Example 19. ø5 are the distinct irreducible characters of H by (20. and note that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group S5 . in practice case (1) occurs more frequently than case (2). Fortunately.16. Note that ÷2 5 H ÷1 5 H. Observe that ÷1 . . .4). ÷5 5 H ø4 ø5 where ø4 and ø5 are distinct irreducible characters of H of degree 3.13). and hence ø1 .12).18(2).220 Representations and characters of groups (2) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G which is zero everywhere outside H.9.13)(3). Also.14 Example The character table of A5 Write H A5 . They can also be veri®ed by calculating inner products. extra work is needed to calculate the values taken by the two constituents of ÷ 5 H. ÷5 ( g) 0 for all g P H. The conjugacy classes of H and their sizes are given in Example 12. ÷1 5 H. then ÷ restricts to be the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. . In case (2) of (20. so by (20. The results we have obtained so far have been deduced from our summary (20.13)(1). . Call them ø1 .

â5 1(1 5)X 2 2 Thus the character table of A5 is as shown. The values of á i â i for 2 < i < 5 are given by noting that ø4 ø5 ÷5 5 H (or by using the column orthogonality relations for column 1 and column i). we obtain 3 3 á2 â2 . we see that each element of A5 is conjugate to its inverse. Character table of A5 gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 â á where á 1(1 2 p 5). Hence by Proposition 13. 2 2 4 2 á2 â2 . 3 3 5 2 á2 â2 2 á2 â2 X 4 4 5 5 Hence á2 â2 0.13. we may take p p á4 1(1 5). á3 â3 À1. Since we have not yet distinguished between ø4 and ø5 .9(4). all the numbers in the character table are real. á4 â4 á5 â5 1X Using Proposition 12. á3 â3 À2. â 1(1 À 2 p 5). Since ø4 T ø5 . â4 1(1 À 5)X 2 2 p Similarly. á5 and â5 are 1(1 Æ 5). . We get á2 â2 0. we have 2 p p á5 1(1 À 5). and we ®nd that á4 and â4 are the solutions of the quadratic x 2 À x À 1 0. By the orthogonality relation for column i with itself (2 < i < 5).Restriction to a subgroup 221 We use the column orthogonality relations to calculate the unknowns á i and â i .

In particular. and ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r. . 4. Exercises for Chapter 20 1. then r i1 d 2 < jG : HjX i 3. if ø1 .1). ÷ and ÷ 5 H have the same degree. Let G be a group with an abelian subgroup H of index n. to ®nd the character table of A6 . given in Example 19. express ÷ 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters of H.4. then all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. 2 or 3X Give examples to show that each possibility can occur. Let G S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3 4). Indeed. If ÷ is a character of G. (a) Show that H D8. Suppose that G is a group with a subgroup H of index 3. X X X . 2. Prove that ÷(1) < n for every irreducible character ÷ of G.17. then ÷ 5 H is a character of H.3 and 12. The number of irreducible constituents of ÷ 5 H is bounded above by jG : Hj. Use the restrictions of the irreducible characters of S6 . 2.) 3.222 Representations and characters of groups Proposition 17. ÷ 5 Hi H 1. (1 3)l of G. ø r are the irreducible characters of H.6 allows us to deduce from the character table that A5 is a simple group. and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. Prove that h÷ 5 H. (The seven conjugacy classes of A6 can be found by consulting the solutions to Exercises 12. (b) For each irreducible character ÷ of G (given in Section 18. 1. Summary of Chapter 20 Assume throughout that H is a subgroup of G. The values of ÷ 5 H are given by (÷ 5 H)(h) ÷(h) for all h P H. If H v G and ÷ is an irreducible character of G.

6. 14. 1.Restriction to a subgroup 223 5. 15. 35. 21. 15. 6. A7 has nine conjugacy classes. 14. 14. 20. 21. 35X Also. . 14. Find the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of A7 . It is known that the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of S7 is 1.

We now prove the striking fact that every C Hhomomorphism from U to CG has this simple form. If r P CG. 21. which constructs a CG-module from a given C H-module. We saw in the last chapter that restriction gives a simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module. Before describing the process of induction. We shall see many applications of this method in later chapters. C H-homomorphisms and CG-homomorphisms Let U be a C H-submodule of the regular C H-module C H. If W is a C H-homomorphism from U to CG.21 Induced modules and characters Throughout this chapter we assume that H is a subgroup of the ®nite group G.1 Proposition Assume that H < G. As H is smaller than G. then there exists r P CG such that uW ru for all u P U X 224 . then W: u 3 ru (u P U ) de®nes a C H-homomorphism from U to CG. and induction is the main concern of this chapter. we require some results which connect C H-homomorphisms with CG-homomorphisms. so induction can often give us an important handle on the representations of a group if we know some representations of its subgroups. and let U be a C H-submodule of C H. it is usually the case that C H-modules are easier to understand and construct than CG-modules. (us)W rus (uW)s. Much more subtle than this is the process of induction. since for all s P C H.

2. De®ne ö: C H 3 CG by ö: u w 3 uW (u P U. r(u v) uX Then ru u if u P U. v P V. v P V. and so W is of the required form. (2) there exists r P CG such that for all u P U. Then the following two statements are equivalent: (1) U V {0}.1. 21. so uv3 u (u P U . Consequently U V {0}. there exists r P CG such that for all u P U. Then every CG-homomorphism from U to CG has the form u 3 ru (u P U ) for some r P CG. Therefore by Corollary 21.Induced modules and characters 225 Proof By Maschke's Theorem 8. If x P U V then rx x and rx 0.3 Corollary Let U and V be CG-submodules of CG. 21. Conversely. For u P U. j We give two corollaries of Proposition 21. and rv 0 if v P V.1. w P W )X Then ö is easily seen to be a C H-homomorphism. there is a C H-submodule W of C H such that C H U È W. moreover. v P V ) is a function. j . ru u and rv 0X Proof Assume that U V {0}.2 Corollary Let U be a CG-submodule of CG.11). the ®rst of which is just the case H G of the proposition. assume that for some r P CG we have ru u and rv 0 for all u P U. Let r 1ö. v P V. it is a CG-homomorphism from U È V to CG (see Proposition 7. Then the sum U V is a direct sum. and so x 0. uW uö (1u)ö (1ö)u ru.

b: a3 b2 1. and let H kal. W 1 sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 ). W 1 4 G sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 .4 De®nition Assume that H is a subgroup of G. so C H is a subset of CG. Remember that H is a subgroup of G. b ùab ù2 a2 b)X Thus W 0 4 G U1 È U2 . b ù2 ab ùa2 b). b ab a2 b). X(CG) is then a CG-submodule of CG.8(1)). W 0 4 G sp (1 a a2 . Clearly. b ù2 ab ùa2 b).8(2) that CG U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . U3 sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . and de®ne W 0 sp (1 a a2 ). Let ù e2ðia3 . Then U 4 G is called the CG-module induced from U.226 Representations and characters of groups Induction from H to G For any subset X of CG. W 1 4 G U3 . That is. W 2 4 G sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 . b ùab ù2 a2 b)X Recall from Example 10.5 Example Let G D6 ka. g P GgX Clearly. and let U 4 G denote the CG-module U(CG). 21. W 2 sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 )X These are C H-submodules of C H (see Example 10. we write X(CG) for the subspace of CG which is spanned by all the elements xg with x P X. a cyclic subgroup of G of order 3. U4 sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 . X (CG) sp fxg: x P X . Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. g P G. 21. where U1 sp (1 a a2 b ab a2 b). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. U2 sp (1 a a2 À b À ab À a2 b). a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules U i . W 2 4 G U4 X .

for all a P U 4 G. proving that U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. Suppose that U and V are C H-submodules of C H and that U is C H-isomorphic to V. there exists r P CG such that uW ru for all u P U. j The next proposition and its corollary enable us to de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C H-module U. W 0 4 G is reducible. and hence ra P V 4 G. Since sru u and rsv v for all u P U. g P G). Then (U 4 G) (V 4 G) f0g. rsb b Hence the function b 3 sb (b P V 4 G) is the inverse of ö.7 Proposition Assume that U and V are C H-submodules of C H with U V {0}. while W 1 4 G and W 2 4 G are irreducible. so ra is a linear combination of elements rug. ö is a CG-homomorphism. v P V X If a P U 4 G then a is a linear combination of elements ug (u P U. g P G). 21. and also there exists s P CG such that vWÀ1 sv for all v P V. Therefore ö: a 3 ra (a P U 4 G) is a function from U 4 G to V 4 G. v P V. 21. Then U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. Proof Let W: U 3 V be a C H-isomorphism.1. b P V 4 GX . Consequently sru u and rsv v for all u P U . we have sra a. Therefore ö is a CG-isomorphism.Induced modules and characters 227 In particular. Moreover. By Proposition 21.6 Proposition Assume that H < G. We now show that isomorphic C H-modules give isomorphic induced CG-modules. as (aö) g rag (ag)ö (a P U 4 G.

using (2.7.10).9 De®nition Let U be a C H-module.5). a direct sum of C H-submodules U i . as required.7 and 10. 21. Then for all u P U.228 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Corollary 21.3. V 4 G (U 2 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G). and hence. g P G). v P V and all g P G. Then U 4 G (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Proof We prove this by induction on m. U U1 È X X X È Um . and suppose that U U1 È X X X È Um . there exists r P CG such that ru u and rv 0 for all u P U. where V U2 È X X X È U m .3. rv9 0 for all v9 P V 4 GX j for all u9 P U 4 G. j We can now de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C Hmodule U (where U is not necessarily a C H-submodule of C H). Now U U1 È V. v P V. Therefore (U 4 G) (V 4 G) f0g by Corollary 21. It is trivial for m 1. U 4 G (U1 4 G) È (V 4 G)X By induction. rug ug and rvg 0X Since U 4 G is spanned by elements of the form ug (u P U.8 Corollary Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. 21. The de®nition of U 4 G implies that U 4 G (U1 4 G) (V 4 G)X Therefore by Proposition 21. Then (by Theorems 8. this implies that ru9 u9 and similarly. we obtain U 4 G (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G).

If U is a C H-module. That is. 21. and then applying the fact (which is immediate from De®nition 21. (U(CK))(CG) is spanned by elements of the form (u P U . k P K.4.9) that (21X10) (U1 È X X X È Um ) 4 G (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Our ®rst major result on general induced modules is known as `the transitivity of induction'. k P K)X Therefore. We emphasize that the de®nition of the induced module U 4 G in the case where U is a C H-submodule of C H is a natural one: U 4 G U (CG)X We shall always prove results for general induced modules U 4 G by ®rst dealing with the special case where U is a C H-submodule of C H. Now let U be an arbitrary C H-module. it follows that (U(CK))(CG) U(CG).6 and Corollary 21.11 Theorem Suppose that H and K are subgroups of G such that H < K < G. By (21.10). U 4 K (U1 4 K) È X X X È (Um 4 K)X Since K < G. Then . De®ne U 4 G to be the following (external) direct sum: U 4 G (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G)X Proposition 21. Then U(CK) is spanned by elements of the form uk ukg (21X12) (u P U .8 ensure that this de®nition is consistent with De®nition 21.Induced modules and characters 229 for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. g P G)X (U 4 K) 4 G U 4 GX U U1 È X X X È Um for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. then (U 4 K) 4 G U 4 GX Proof Assume ®rst that U is a C H-submodule of C H.

÷7 are the irreducible characters of G (given in Example 19. ÷ 6 5 H ø 2 ø 3 ø4 . . .16). and is called the character induced from ø. 21. ÷ 7 5 H ø 2 ø 3 ø4 X By Theorem 14. as in Example 20. and ø1 .2) then ÷ 1 5 H ø1 . ø4 are the irreducible characters of H (given in 18. ø j i H for appropriate i. . ÷ 3 5 H ø1 ø4 . by (21X12) j Induced characters 21. We showed in that example that if ÷1 .14 Example Let G S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G.13 De®nition If ø is the character of a C H-module U. We record these coef®cients in a .17.9. .2.230 Therefore Representations and characters of groups (U 4 K) 4 G (U1 4 K) 4 G È X X X È (Um 4 K) 4 G by (21X10) (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G) U4G by Definition 21. then the character of the induced CG-module U 4 G is denoted by ø 4 G. the coef®cients which appear here are the values of h÷ i 5 H. ÷ 2 5 H ø1 . ÷5 5 H 2ø4 . The next example illustrates an important relationship between induced characters and restrictions of characters. . . . ÷ 4 5 H ø1 ø4 . . j.

which we already know to be equal to h÷ i 5 H. and ø4 4 G ÷3 ÷4 2÷5 ÷6 ÷7 X Thus the ij-entry in our matrix. Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. Then the vector spaces HomCG (U 4 G. ÷5 0 . ø 4 Gi G h÷ 5 H. ÷4 0 . . is also equal to h÷ i . To be precise. ÷3 1 . the seven integers in column 1 give ø1 4 G 1 . row 3 gives ÷3 5 H 1 . V ) and HomC H (U . and we devote the next section to a proof of this result. ÷7 X Similarly. ø j i H . ÷6 0 . ø j 4 Gi G . ø j i H : ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 H ø1 1 f 1 f f 1 f f 1 f f 0 f d 0 0 ø2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø4 I 0 0 g g 1 g g 1 g g 2 g g 1 e 1 231 The rows of this matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of G restrict to H. The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Before proving the theorem. ø4 X Remarkably. ø2 4 G ø3 4 G ÷6 ÷7 . ø1 0 . and let V be a CG-submodule of CG. which is known as the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem.Induced modules and characters matrix whose ij-entry is h÷ i 5 H. ÷2 1 . øi H for all characters ÷ of G and ø of H. V 5 H) have equal dimensions. For example. ÷1 1 . it is true that h÷. 21. it turns out that the columns of the matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of H induce to G. we need the following preliminary result. ø3 1 . ø2 0 .15 Proposition Assume that H < G. In fact.

1. Let ö P HomC H (U .16 The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Assume that H < G. Hence the function W 3 W is injective. V 5 H). and there is a CG-submodule V of CG which has character ÷. V ) to HomC H (U . ÷i G hø. Moreover. We shall show that this linear transformation is invertible. V 5 H))X . as required. These two vector spaces therefore have the same dimension. then r1 s r2 s for all s P U 4 G. there is an element r P CG such that sW rs for all s P U 4 GX De®ne W: U 3 CG to be the restriction of W to U. V ). Therefore the function W 3 W is surjective. j 21.2. and so it is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. V )).24. ö W. V 5 H). note that if r1. V ). De®ne W from U 4 G to CG by sW rs (s P U 4 G)X Then W P HomCG (U 4 G. Thus the function W3W is a linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. uW ru for all u P U X Then W P HomC H (U . ÷ 5 Hi H dim (HomC H (U . g P G. Finally. Let ÷ be a character of G and let ø be a character of H. ÷ 5 Hi H X Proof First assume that the characters ÷ and ø are irreducible. V 5 H). Then there is a C H-submodule U of C H which has character ø. and hø. Then by Proposition 21. By Theorem 14. r2 P CG and r1 u r2 u for all u P U. ÷i G dim (HomCG (U 4 G. Then hø 4 G. since s is a linear combination of elements ug with u P U. V 5 H). that is. there exists r P CG such that uö ru for all u P U. Then by Corollary 21. V ) to HomC H (U . we have hø 4 G.232 Representations and characters of groups Proof Suppose that W P HomCG (U 4 G.

. f i G hø. Then for some integers di . then hø 4 G. ÷ i i G ej d i hø j . f 5 Hi H X Proof This follows at once from the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem.18 Corollary If f is a class function on G. . ÷ 5 Hi H 233 in the special case we are considering. we therefore deduce that (21X17) hø 4 G. de®ne the j . let ÷1 .15. hø. and for convenience of notation. 21. ÷ 5 Hi H X This completes the proof of the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. . namely when ÷ and ø are irreducible.Induced modules and characters From Proposition 21. ÷i G k i1 d i ÷ i and ø m j1 ej ø j X C B m j1 ej ø j 4 G.4. Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G. j The values of induced characters We now show how to evaluate induced characters. ÷i G hø. . . ej we have ÷ Therefore hø 4 G. since by Corollary 15. ÷ i 5 Hi H k i1 by (21X17) B j1 i1 m j1 C di÷i 5 H H ej ø j . the characters of G span the vector space of class functions on G. . k i1 d i ÷i G m k j1 i1 m k ej d i hø j 4 G. ø m be the irreducible characters of H. . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let ø1 . For the general case. and ø is a character of H. .

Then h f . Proof Let f: G 3 C be the function given by 1 f ( g) ø( y À1 gy) ( g P G)X j Hj yPG We aim to prove that f ø 4 G. ÷i G hø 4 G.4.234 Representations and characters of groups @ function ø: G 3 C by ø( g) ø( g) 0 if g P H.19 Proposition The values of the induced character ø 4 G are given by 1 (ø 4 G)( g) ø( y À1 gy) j Hj yPG for all g P G. ÷i G f ( g)÷( g) jGj gPG Put x y À1 gy. ÷i G 1 1 ø(x)÷( yxy À1 )X jGj j Hj xPG yPG 1 ø(x)÷(x) j Hj xP H 1 1 ø( y À1 gy)÷( g)X jGj j Hj gPG yPG . ÷i G for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. if g P HX a 21. and so by Corollary 15. If w P G then 1 f (w À1 gw) ø( y À1 w À1 gwy) f ( g) j Hj yPG since wy runs through G as y runs through G. Then 1 h f . it is suf®cient to show that h f . Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. Therefore f is a class function.

20 Corollary If ø is a character of the subgroup H of G. and we shall derive this next (it is given in Proposition 21. so the proof is complete.23 below). then h÷. j 21. j For practical purposes.21 Proposition If ÷ is a character of G and x P G.3).Induced modules and characters 235 since ø(x) 0 if x P H. f G i G x ÷(x) X jCG (x)j . ÷i G hø 4 G.19. ÷i G X This was the equation required to show that f ø 4 G.19 is more useful. de®ne the class function f G on G by x & 1 if y P x G f G ( y) ( y P G)X x 0 if y P x G a Thus f is the characteristic function of the conjugacy class x G . ÷ 5 Hi H and so by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 21. then the degree of ø 4 G is given by (ø 4 G)(1) jGj ø(1)X j Hj Proof This follows immediately by evaluating (ø 4 G)(1) using Proposition 21. Therefore a h f . and ÷( yxy À1 ) ÷(x) for all y P G. Alternatively. h f . ÷i G hø. For x P G. the stated degree of ø 4 G can be found using just the de®nition of induced modules (see Exercise 21. a formula for the values of induced characters different from that given in Proposition 21.

.22) Suppose that x P G. f G i G hø.22)). we have: (21. . (1) If no element of x G lies in H. To put this another way. then there are elements x1 . x Proof By Proposition 21. 21. xm P H and f G 5 H f x1 F F F f x m (as in (21. 1. and suppose that x P G.21 and Corollary 21. jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where x1 . xm P H such that H H f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m X x Statement (2) just says that H x G breaks up into m conjugacy classes of H.4. .23 Proposition Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G. (2) If some element of x G lies in H.236 Proof We have Representations and characters of groups 1 ÷( g) f G ( g) x jGj gPG 1 jx G j ÷(x) ÷( g) jGj gPx G jGj ÷(x) jCG (x)j by Theorem 12X8X j h÷. If H < G and h P H then h H h G . then f G 5 H 0. . .21 was used in the proof of Theorem 16. . but if g P G then g G may contain 0. x m . f G i G x Note that a result similar to Proposition 21. . with representatives x1 . (1) If no element of x G lies in H. X X X . we have (ø 4 G)(x) hø 4 G.18. 2 or more conjugacy classes of H. then ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)(x) jCG (x)j X X X . then (ø 4 G)(x) 0. f G 5 Hi H X x x jCG (x)j . . x (2) If some element of x G lies in H.

f x1 i H X X X hø. the conjugacy classes of H are f1g. b (1 3)X Then H D8. with representatives (1 3)(2 4) and (1 2)(3 4). And if some element of x G lies in H. fb (1 3).24 Example Let G S4 and let H ka. a3 (1 4 3 2)g. By (12. f x1 X X X f x m i H jCG (x)j H H hø.22)(2).12). G H f (1 3) 5 H f (1 3) .Induced modules and characters 237 If no element of x G lies in H. We have G H f1 5 H f1 . 21. fa (1 2 3 4). where a (1 2 3 4). . and hence x (ø 4 G)(x) 0. G f (1 2 3) 5 H 0. G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H f (1 3)(2 4) f (1 2)(3 4) . f x m i H ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) X X X jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j by Proposition 21X21X j The result follows. then f G 5 H 0. since a4 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . bl. and G H f (1 2 3 4) 5 H f (1 2 3 4) X For example. and H H f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m as in (21. then x (ø 4 G)(x) H H hø. a2 b (2 4)g. fa2 (1 3)(2 4)g. the statement G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H f (1 3)(2 4) f (1 2)(3 4) records the fact that the G-conjugacy class (1 2)(3 4) G contains exactly two H-conjugacy classes.

÷5 of H D8.25 Example (cf. 8 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3 4)) 4 ø((1 2 3 4)) X 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3)) 0. .2) De®ne permutations a.238 Representations and characters of groups The orders of the centralizers of the elements of H are as follows: h |CG (h)| |C H (h)| 1 24 8 (1 3)(2 4) 8 8 (1 2 3 4) 4 4 (1 3) 4 4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 4 Suppose that ø is a character of H. Exercise 17.23. we use induced characters to ®nd the character table of a group of order 21. 4 ø((1 3)(2 4)) ø((1 2)(3 4)) (ø 4 G)((1 2)(3 4)) 8 . we therefore have 1 ÷1 4 G ÷2 4 G ÷3 4 G ÷4 4 G ÷5 4 G 3 3 3 3 6 (1 2) 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À1 À1 3 À2 (1 2 3 4) 1 1 À1 À1 0 In the next example. .3(3) for the irreducible characters ÷1 . Referring to Example 16. 8 ø((1 3)) (ø 4 G)((1 3)) 4 . we have (ø 4 G)(1) 24 ø(1) . b in S7 by a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). b (2 3 5)(4 7 6) . 21. Then according to Proposition 21. . .

Check that a7 b3 1. First we ®nd the conjugacy classes. Hence jC G (a)j 7. and since b P C G (a). Since kal v G and Gahai C3. there is a character ø k of H given by ø k (a j ) ç jk (0 < j < 6)X To use the formula in Proposition 21. a3 . Notice that G has exactly ®ve irreducible characters. bl of S7 . 7 divides jC G (a)j. fa. Let H kal. a6 g. bÀ1 ab a2 X 239 It follows from these relations that the elements of G are all of the form ai bj with 0 < i < 6. We aim to ®nd the character table of G. Let ç e2ðia7 . ÷2 . a5 . we obtain three linear characters ÷1 . we see that the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. and similarly jC G (b)j 3. fa3 . Their values are shown below: g |CG ( g)| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . a2 . a4 g. Since hai < C G (a). a jC G (a)j . We shall obtain the last two irreducible characters of G by inducing linear characters of H. For 1 < k < 6. b and b2 to be representatives of the conjugacy classes. a. Using this. note that H H H f G 5 H f a f a2 f a4 a . fai b: 0 < i < 6g. 0 < j < 2. 21. G has order 21. fai b2 : 0 < i < 6gX We take 1.23 for calculating ø k 4 G. Also. ÷3 of G as the lifts of the linear characters of Gahai.Induced modules and characters and let G be the subgroup ka.

a2 . . (ø1 4 G)(b) (ø1 4 G)(b2 ) 0X Similarly (ø3 4 G)(1) 3. . ÷5 i G 1. and (ø3 4 G)(b) (ø3 4 G)(b2 ) 0X Thus if we write ÷4 ø1 4 G and ÷5 ø3 4 G. 21 7 7 3 3 and similarly h÷5 . since ø1 .240 Representations and characters of groups since no two of the elements a. (ø1 4 G)(1) 3X And since no G-conjugate of b or b2 lies in H. then the values of ÷4 and ÷5 are 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 a3 ç3 ç5 ç6 ç ç2 ç4 b 0 0 b2 0 0 Now ÷4 5 H ø1 ø2 ø4 and ÷5 5 H ø3 ø5 ø6 . Hence by Proposition 21. ÷4 i G 9 2 2 0 0 1. bÀ1 ab a2 i g |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 21 1 1 1 3 3 a 7 1 1 1 ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 a3 7 1 1 1 ç3 ç5 ç6 ç ç2 ç4 b 3 1 ù ù2 0 0 b2 3 1 ù2 ù 0 0 . (ø3 4 G)(a3 ) ç ç2 ç4 .23. . We now calculate that h÷4 . Thus ÷4 and ÷5 are our last two irreducible characters. b: a7 b3 1. and the character table of G is as shown. (ø1 4 G)(a) ç ç2 ç4 and similarly (ø1 4 G)(a3 ) ç3 ç5 ç6 . a4 are conjugate in H. (ø3 4 G)(a) ç3 ç5 ç6 . . Therefore ÷4 T ÷5 . ø6 are linearly independent. Character table of ha.

b: a4 b2 1. ÷5 are the irreducible characters of G. (c) Write down the character of the C H-module U and the character of the CG-module U 4 G. an induced CG-module U 4 G can be de®ned. If U is a C H-module of C H. Is U 4 G irreducible? 2. Let G S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3)l C3 . If ø is a character of H then the induced character ø 4 G is given by 1 (ø 4 G)( g) ø( y À1 gy)X j Hj yPG In particular. bl. as given in . 2. the degree of ø:G is |G: H|ø(1). If no element of g G lies in H. De®ne U to be the 1-dimensional subspace of C H spanned by 1 À a2 b À a2 bX (a) Check that U is a C H-submodule of C H. ÷i G hø. For each C H-module U. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let H be the subgroup ka2 . (b) Find a basis of the induced CG-module U 4 G. then ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)( g) jCG ( g)j X X X jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m . . . then (ø 4 G)( g) 0X If some element of g G lies in H.Induced modules and characters Summary of Chapter 21 Assume that H is a subgroup of G. ÷ 5 Hi H . then U 4 G is simply U(CG). where ø is a character of H and ÷ is a character of G. Let G D8 ka. 3. 241 1. (a) If ÷1 . g 4. Exercises for Chapter 21 1. . . The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem states that hø 4 G.

(b) Calculate the induced characters ø j 4 G (1 < j < 3) as sums of the irreducible characters ÷ i of G. Calculate the values of the induced characters ö 4 G and ø 4 G. .) . and use the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 6.1. Show direct from the de®nition that if H < G and ø is a character of H. as in Example 21. You are given that jC G (a)j 7 and jC G (b)j 18. which are given by ø 4 G d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷k . b (2 3 5)(4 7 6). . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. X X X . Let ø be an irreducible character of H. . Let H be a subgroup of G. d k .5. Show that the integers d 1 . Suppose that H is a subgroup of G. where a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). ø2 . . work out the restrictions ÷ i 5 H (1 < i < 5) as sums of the irreducible characters ø1 . then jGj (ø 4 G)(1) ø(1)X j Hj 4. ø3 of C3 . and let ÷1 . 3. satisfy k i1 d 2 < jG : HjX i (Compare Proposition 20.25. let ø be a character of H. and let ÷ be a character of G.242 Representations and characters of groups Section 18. Let ö and ø be the irreducible characters of H which are given by gi |C H ( g i )| ö ø 1 21 1 3 a 7 a3 7 b 3 1 0 b2 3 1 0 1 1 ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 where ç e2ðia7 (see Example 21. Let G S7 and let H ka.25). Prove that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G (ø 4 G)÷X (Hint: consider the inner product of each side with an arbitrary irreducible character of G.) 5. bl.

Induced modules and characters 243 7. Discover and prove results for ø 4 G which are similar to those presented in Chapter 20 for the restriction of irreducible characters of G to H. Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. and let ø be an irreducible character of H. .

for the same matrix A. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod p for any character ÷ of G for which ÷( g) is an integer. we have uA ëu for some non-zero row vector u. using algebraic integers.22 Algebraic integers Among the properties of characters which may be regarded as fundamental. for example.1 De®nition A complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is an eigenvalue of some matrix. we require that det (A À ëI) 0 for some square matrix A with integer entries. Most of the results concern arithmetic properties of character values. We remark that ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form 244 . Algebraic integers 22. for ë to be an algebraic integer. perhaps the most opaque is that which states that the degree of an irreducible character of a ®nite group G must divide the order of G. This is one of several results which we shall prove in this chapter. We discuss properties of a group element g P G which ensure that ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. Equivalently. if p is a prime number and g P G is an element of order pr for some r. And we prove some useful congruence properties. all of whose entries are integers. Thus.

1) ùuX This shows that every nth root of unity is an algebraic integer. . since n is an eigenvalue of the 1 3 1 matrix (n). To see this. . and let u be the row vector (1. ù. Proof There exist square matrices A and B. algebraic integers are usually de®ned in this way. . ù nÀ1 ). . since it is an eigenvalue of the 0 1 matrix X 2 0 (3) If ë is an algebraic integer. a nÀ1 are integers (see Exercise 22. X X X . (4) Let A be the n 3 n matrix H 0 0 f1 0 f f0 1 Af f f d0 0 0 0 given by 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 1 0 0g g 0 0g gX g g 0 0e 1 0 Suppose that ù is an nth root of unity. Then uA (ù. ù nÀ1 . then u(ÀA) (Àë)u and uA ëu. vB ìvX Suppose that A is an m 3 m matrix and B is an n 3 n matrix. In fact. then ëì and ë ì are also algebraic integers. note that if A is an integer matrix and u is a row vector with uA ëu.3 Theorem If ë and ì are algebraic integers. X X X . such that uA ëu. 22. ù2 . then so are Àë and the complex conjugate ë of ë. 22. . and non-zero row vectors u and v. all of whose entries are integers. where u is the row vector obtained from u by replacing each entry by its complex conjugate. ù2 . p (2) 2 is an algebraic integer.Algebraic integers x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 245 where a0 .2 Examples (1) Every integer n is an algebraic integer.7).

3. 22. Each root of unity is an algebraic integer. then ÷( g) is an algebraic integer.9. Since the matrix of A B relative to the basis ei fj (1 < i < m.2(4). Then (u v)(A I n I m B) uA vI n uI m vB ëu v u ìv (ë ì)(u v). Let Im and In denote the identity m 3 m and n 3 n matrices. extending linearly (that is. we have (x y)(A B) xA yBX Hence (u v)(A B) uA vB ëu ìv ëì(u v)X Therefore ëì is an eigenvalue of A B. j 22. It is easy to check as in the proof of Proposition 19. . De®ne an endomorphism A B of V by (ei f j )(A B) ei A f j B (1 < i < m. X X X . respectively. ( ë ij (ei f j ))(A B) ë ij (ei A f j B)).3 shows that the set of all algebraic integers forms a subring of C. . y P C n.4 that for all vectors x P C m .246 Representations and characters of groups Let e1 . . by Example 22. 1 < j < n). 1 < j < n) has integer entries. then ë is an integer. . Hence ÷( g) is an algebraic integer. and we deduce as above that ë ì is an algebraic integer. 1 < j < n) form a basis of the tensor product space V C m C n. it follows that ëì is an algebraic integer. ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity.4 Corollary If ÷ is a character of G and g P G. The next result provides a link between algebraic integers and characters. em be a basis of C m and f 1 . . Then the vectors ei fj (1 < i < m. so any sum of roots of unity is an algebraic integer by Theorem 22. f n be a basis of C n .5 Proposition If ë is both a rational number and an algebraic integer. Proof By Proposition 13. j Theorem 22.

p the well known result that 2 is irrational. If ÷( g) is a rational number. j The next result is an immediate consequence of Corollary 22.Algebraic integers 247 Proof Suppose that ë is a rational number which is not an integer. the entries of sA À rI which are not on the diagonal are divisible by s.6 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G and let g P G. then ÷( g) is an integer. where r and s are coprime integers and s T Æ1. In passing. 22.2(2) shows p that 2 is an algebraic integer. we establish two preliminary lemmas. with character ÷. As p does not divide r (since r and s are coprime). For every n 3 n matrix A of integers. (Example 22. Recall from De®nition 12.5. Let p be a prime number which divides s. as a special case of Proposition 22. note that we have.) The degree of every irreducible character divides |G| To prepare for the proof that |G| is divisible by the degree of each irreducible character of G. we deduce that det (sA À rI) T 0. s and hence ë is not an algebraic integer. then C x P CGX xPC 22.4 and Proposition 22. We shall show that ë is not an algebraic integer. Thus n 1 det (A À ëI) det (sA À rI) T 0.5. and hence also by p.21 that if C is a conjugacy class of G. Then . Let U be an irreducible CG-module. which is enough to establish the proposition.7 Lemma Suppose that g P G and that C is the conjugacy class of G which contains g. Write ë ras. Therefore det (sA À rI) (Àr) n mp for some integer m.

then [x]B ëIX xPC Taking the traces of both sides of this equation. this yields jCj÷( g) ë÷(1)X Thus ë jCj÷( g)a÷(1). . where ë P C. Then for 1 < i < n. where ë jGj ÷( g) X jCG ( g)j ÷(1) Proof Since C lies in the centre of CG (see Proposition 12. Proof Let g1 . . we obtain ÷(x) ë÷(1). xPC and since ÷ is constant on the conjugacy class C. As |C| |G:CG ( g)| by Theorem 12. gn be the elements of G.22). we know by Proposition 9. the result follows. Then ë is an algebraic integer. j 22. . . where each á g is an integer.8 Lemma Let r gPG á g g P CG. u x ëu for all u P U X xPC Consequently if B is a basis of U.248 Representations and characters of groups uC ëu for all u P U . that is.14 that there exists ë P C such that uC ëu for all u P U. we have gi r n j1 aij g j .8. Suppose that u is a non-zero element of CG such that ur ëu.

7. by Lemma 22. Proof Let g1 . .) The i statement that ur ëu (with u T 0) says that ë is an eigenvalue of the integer matrix A (aij ). and let C be the sum of the elements in the conjugacy class of G which contains g. (In fact. Notice that this example is just a reworking of Example 22. k i1 jGj ÷( g i )÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) . . aij á g where g gÀ1 gj . Hence by Theorem 22. Then for all i. where ù is an nth root of unity.2(4). by Corollaries 22. gk be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. and de®ne u 1 ùx À1 ù2 x À2 X X X ù nÀ1 x P CG.Algebraic integers 249 for certain integers aij .3. 22.11 Theorem If ÷ is an irreducible character of G.10 and 22. Then uC ëu for all u P U. Proof Let U be an irreducible CG-submodule of CG with character ÷. both jGj ÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) and ÷( g i ) jGj ÷( g) jCG ( g)j ÷(1) are algebraic integers. j 22.8 con®rms that ù is an algebraic integer. by Lemma 22.9 Example Let G Cn kx: x n 1l. then ë is an algebraic integer. then ÷(1) divides |G|. .4. Then ux ùu and so Lemma 22.8. j 22.10 Corollary If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and g P G. Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. .

11 also has the following interesting consequences concerning irreducible characters of simple groups. (Recall that a group G is simple if it has no normal subgroups apart from {1} and G. Since Ker r v G and G is simple. if jGj p2 then ÷(1) 1 for all irreducible characters ÷. But g 3 det ( gr) is a linear character of G (see Exercise 13. Proof Suppose that G is a simple group which has an irreducible character ÷ of degree 2. 2. Theorem 16. C) be a representation of G with character ÷. and hence satis®es p < n. 1.) 22. As jGja÷(1) is a rational number. either the degrees of the irreducible characters of G are all 1. and this implies that det ( gr) 1 for all g P GX .250 Representations and characters of groups is an algebraic integer.5. Hence. the degree of each irreducible character of G is 1 or 2 (it cannot be p for the reason noted in (1) above). using Proposition 9. then ÷(1) is a power of p for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. Let r: G 3 GL(2. G has no non-trivial linear characters.12 Examples (1) If p is a prime number and G is a group of order pn for some n.11. where p is prime. In particular. and so G9 G as G is simple.13 Corollary No simple group has an irreducible character of degree 2. By Theorem 17. By Theorem 22.11. (Note that ÷(1) . as the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is equal to |G|. 2 (with ( p À 1)a2 degrees 2)X (3) If G Sn then every prime p which divides the degree of an irreducible character of G also divides n!.) Hence. (2) Let G be a group of order 2 p. observe that G is non-abelian. we have Ker r f1g.7(a)). First. X X X . and so r is injective.18. by the row orthogonality relations. we recover the well known result that groups of order p2 are abelian. Therefore by Theorem 17. or they are 1. ÷(1) divides |G|. Theorem 22.11. the number of linear characters of G divides |G|. by Proposition 9. This algebraic integer is equal to jGja÷(1). p. Proposition 22. That is.4(1).5 now implies that jGja÷(1) is an integer. Hence G9 T 1. j 22.

N is an abelian normal subgroup of G.14 Corollary Suppose that p is a prime and the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p. As r is injective. Since G is non-abelian. This time.6). we conclude that À1 0 À1 T (xr)T X 0 À1 Thus xr T(ÀI)T À1 ÀIX Consequently (xr)( gr) ( gr)(xr) for all g P G. j Our next result again shows that information about character degrees can sometimes be used to learn about the structure of a group. and hence hxi v GX This is a contradiction. As r is injective. and we deduce that G has an abelian normal pcomplement N. 1 for some irreducible character ÷ of G. so we assume that G is non-abelian. and jN j is coprime to p. as G is simple. Therefore G contains an element x of order 2 (see Exercise 1. while jG: N j is a power of p. In particular. and by Proposition 9.11. Then ÷(1) is divisible by p. Then G has an abelian normal p-complement. 22.Algebraic integers 251 Now G has even order. xr has order 2. so p divides |G| by . G is not simple unless G has prime order. Proof The result is correct if G is abelian (see Theorem 9. by our hypothesis. by Theorem 22. Theorems 11. Since det (xr) 1. there is a 2 3 2 matrix T such that T À1 (xr)T is a diagonal matrix with diagonal entries Æ1. the sum being over the irreducible characters ÷ of G for which ÷(1) . that is.12 and 17.8). 1. this means that xg gx for all g P G.11. Consider the 2 3 2 matrix xr. we assume that every irreducible character of G has degree a power of a prime p. ÷(1) .11 give us the equation jGj jGaG9j ÷(1)2 .

But an abelian simple group has prime order. b). Hence G has a normal subgroup H of index p. we require a preliminary lemma concerning roots of unity. because G is simple. so it remains to prove that N v G. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is coprime to p.11. j A condition which ensures that ÷( g) is an integer In Theorem 22. We have that |N| is coprime to p and jG : N j is a power of p. Before proving Theorem 22. G has prime order. so G is abelian. it follows that GaG9 has a subgroup of index p. then we denote their highest common factor by (a.7). This result implies.15 Lemma If ù is an nth root of unity.4. Next. we write d|n to denote the fact that d divides n.16. so ø(1) is a power of p. since otherwise p divides the order of gH which in turn divides the order of g.1. and we deduce from the equation above that p divides the order of the abelian group GaG9. Then g P H. If N f1g then G is a p-group so Z(G) T {1} (see Exercise 12. We may now apply induction on |G| to deduce that H has an abelian normal p-complement N.252 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 22.17). Since every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. Also. then . Then h÷ 5 H. for example. that for all n. On the other hand. by Exercise 1.17). If a and b are positive integers. Finally. 22. and from this fact it follows easily that N v G. so either N {1} or N G. assume that G is simple. every entry in the character table of Sn is an integer (see Corollary 22. Bearing in mind the dif®culties we encountered in constructing the character tables of Sn for small values of n (we reached n 6 in Example 19. for integers d and n.16 below we give a group-theoretic condition on an element g of G which implies that ÷( g) is an integer for every character ÷ of G. a similar argument shows that g P N. we have Z(G) G. Hence N consists of those elements of G whose order is coprime to p. Therefore. øi T 0 for some irreducible character ø of H.8 shows that ø(1) divides ÷(1).16 is evidently a useful result. Clifford's Theorem 20. by Proposition 20. if N G then G is again abelian. Theorem 22. Let ø be an irreducible character of H.

Algebraic integers ùi 1<i< n.nad)1 If djn then ù d is an (nad)th root of unity. (i.n)1 ùi n i1 ùi À ù dj P Z. then by our induction hypothesis.nad)1 j as required. there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùm 0 . By Proposition 9.11. n i Now we partition the sum i1 ù according to the highest common factor d of i and n: 0 n i1 ùi dj n 1<i< n (i. (i. 1.n)d ùi ù dj X dj n 1< j< nad. if ù 1 then the result is immediate. n) 1. Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷ of degree m. Then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. Suppose that g is conjugate to gi for all i with 1 < i < n and (i. Also. 22.n)1 253 is an integer. It is trivial for n 1.nad)1 It follows that 1<i< n. Then ù is a root of the polynomial n (x n À 1)a(x À 1) x nÀ1 X X X x 1X Therefore i1 ù i 0. 1 ( j. ù dj P ZX 1< j< nad. ( j. So suppose that ù is an nth root of unity and ù T 1. ( j. and if in addition d .16 Theorem Let g be an element of order n in G. dj n. 1< j< nad. Proof We prove the result by induction on n. d .

15. Before going into the character theory.n)1 As g is conjugate to gi if 1 < i < n and (i.16. g is an element of G of order pr for some r. then the permutations g and g i have the same cycle-shape. .254 Representations and characters of groups where ù1 . the matrix i [ g i ]B has diagonal entries ù1 . . 22. . The result now follows from Theorem 22. The de®nition will emerge from the following lemma. we need to de®ne the p9-part of a group element. namely that if ÷( g i ) P Z for all characters ÷ of G. and so ÷( g) is an integer by Corollary 22.17 Corollary All the character values of symmetric groups are integers. ÷( g i ) P ZX 1<i< n.16. ù m are nth roots of unity. (i. one particularly useful consequence of our results is that if p is a prime number. where s is the number of integers i with 1 < i < n and (i. ù im . and hence s÷( g) P Z. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod p. j We remark that using Galois theory it is possible to prove the converse of Theorem 22. and ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z. and so i ÷( g i ) ù1 X X X ù im X Therefore by Lemma 22. . Proof If g P Sn and i is coprime to the order of g. we have ÷( g i ) ÷( g) for such i. j The p9-part of a group element The rest of the chapter is devoted to some important congruence properties of character values. . . . n) 1. then g is conjugate to g i whenever i is coprime to n. n) 1. Consequently ÷( g) is a rational number. . For 1 < i < n. and hence are conjugate by Theorem 12. . For example.15.6.

y u g bup 1X Hence the order of x is a power of p and the order of y divides u. and so x x9 and y y9. v P Z and (u. y9 commutes with y and y( y9)À1 has order coprime to p. j v v v v v . so x9 commutes with g. g x9 y9 y9x9. then we have shown that the order of z is both a power of p and coprime to p. We must show that x x9 and y y9. that is. hence also with gau x. y P G such that (1) g xy yx. where u. Now suppose that x9. Therefore z 1. x p g aup 1. so x À1 x9 y( y9)À1 X If z x À1 x9 y( y9)À1 . it follows that x À1 x9 has order a power of p. Moreover. y9 P G also satisfy (1)±(3). Then there exist x. as required. xy g x9 y9. so is coprime to p. Proof Let the order of g be upv .18 Lemma Let p be a prime number and let g P G. Then xy yx g aubp g. the order of x9 is a power of p and the order of y9 is coprime to p. b such that au bpv 1X Put x gau and y gbp . and (3) the order of y is coprime to p. Since both x and x9 have order a power of p. (2) the order of x is a power of p. We have x9 g x9 y9x9 gx9. the elements x and y of G which satisfy conditions (1)±(3) are unique. Finally.Algebraic integers 255 22. Similarly. p) 1. Therefore x and y satisfy conditions (1)±(3). Then there exist integers a.

. b with au bpv 1. æ. (22.20) Let the order of g be upv . where u. À2 A little ring theory To prepare for our main result on congruence properties of character values. Let n be a positive integer and let æ e2ðia n . .18 the p9-part of g.21 Proposition There are only ®nitely many ideals I of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ].18. we need a few basic facts about a certain subring of C in which all our character values will lie. every element of Z[æ] is an integer combination of the powers 1.256 Representations and characters of groups 22. so in fact Z[æ] f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x] of degree < n À 1gX Now let p be a prime number and let pZ[æ] f pr: r P Z[æ]g. v P Z and (u. if p 2 and g has order 6. 22. Z[æ] f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x]gX Clearly. De®ne Z[æ] to be the subring of C generated by Z and æ. 0 < ai < p À 1 for all iX As there are only ®nitely many such elements. then the p9-part of g is g . this has as its elements all the cosets pZ[æ] r with r P Z[æ]. . For example. with ai P Z. we conclude that Z[æ]a pZ[æ] is ®nite. y gÀ2 . Proof Consider the factor ring Z[æ]a pZ[æ]. the expression g xy in Lemma 22. v Then the p9. Every such coset contains an element of the form a0 a1 æ X X X a nÀ1 æ nÀ1 . The ideals of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ] are in .part of g is gbp .18 has x g3 . æ nÀ1 . We extract the following statement from the proof of Lemma 22. a principal ideal of Z[æ]. and choose integers a. By de®nition. æ2 .19 De®nition We call the element y which appears in Lemma 22. . p) 1. that is.

b P P such that 1 ra bX Then s rsa sbX As rs P P and b P P. Proof Let m P P Z. P is a proper ideal which is contained in no larger proper ideal of Z[æ].) We now prove two easy results about the maximal ideal P. In particular. j 22. b with j am bp 1.Algebraic integers 257 bijective correspondence with the ideals of Z[æ]a pZ[æ] (the correspondence being I 3 Ia pZ[æ]). We must show that s P P.21 that there is a maximal ideal of P of Z[æ] which contains pZ[æ]. Thus pjm. Since p P P. if r n P P for some positive integer n. Since n r rr nÀ1 . and the proof is complete. a Since r P P. this implies that either r P P or r nÀ1 P P. that is. j We deduce from Proposition 22.23 Proposition We have P Z pZ. j . there exist a P Z[æ]. since P T Z[æ]. (A proper ideal of Z[æ] is an ideal which is not equal to Z[æ]. If p B m then there are integers a.22 Proposition If r. then r P P. Therefore there are only ®nitely many such ideals. we also have pZ P Z. we therefore have rZ[æ] P Z[æ]X Consequently. the ideal rZ[æ] P of Z[æ] strictly contains P. which establishes that P Z pZ. we conclude that r P P. it follows that s P P. then either r P P or s P P. Proof Assume that rs P P and r P P. as required. For the last statement of the proposition. assume that r n P P. s P Z[æ] and rs P P. but this implies that 1 P P. 22. Repeating this argument. which is false. As P is a maximal.

r . If ÷ is any character of G. pv . so it follows that (ù À ù bp ) p P pZ[æ]X Thus (ù À ù bp ) p lies in the maximal ideal P. Then y g bp (see (22. ù bp ù bp X Consider the number (ù À ù bp ) p . As in the previous section. p) 1. since ù p ù bp . Now let ù be an mth root of unity (so ù P Z[æ] as mjn). 22. then ÷( g) À ÷( y) P PX Proof Suppose that g has order m upv .24 Theorem Let g P G and let y be the p9. if p T 2. Hence (ù À ù bp ) p ù p (À1) p ù bp pá. and hence lie in Z[æ].part of g. pv pv bp2v ù (À1) ù pv 2ù . so ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both sums of nth roots of unity. By the Binomial Theorem. v P Z and v (u. The ring Z[æ] is of interest because all the character values of G lie in Z[æ] (see Proposition 9.11). Choose integers a. if p 2. v vÀ r v p bpv pv pv v pvÀ1 bpv (ù À ù ) ù À p ù ù X X X Æ ù p ù rbp r X X X (À1) p ù bp X For 0 . let p be a prime number and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing pZ[æ]. where u. where á P Z[æ]. Then v ù ù aubp . Let G be a group of order n and let æ e2ðia n .22 now forces v v v v v 2v v v v v 2v v v 2v v v . The orders of g and of y divide n |G|. the binomial coef®cient ( rp ) is divisible by p. Application of Proposition 22. we have @ 0. and so v v 2v 2v ù p ù aup . b with au bpv 1.258 Representations and characters of groups Congruences At last we are ready to prove our results on congruences of character values.20)). Moreover.

27 extensively in our character calculations in Chapters 25±7. For the moment.26 Corollary Let p be a prime number.10 is the special case of Corollary 22. j 22.23 give ÷( g) À ÷( y) P P Z pZX Therefore ÷( g) ÷( y) mod p. We shall use the congruence results 22.26. then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod pX Proof As ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers. j 22. d v v which.24 and Proposition 22. . by (22. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is a power of p. Suppose that g P G and that y is the p9.Algebraic integers (22X25) (ù À ù bp ) P PX v 259 By Proposition 9. there are mth roots of unity ù1 . lies in P. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers. .25). . then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod pX Proof As the order of g is a power of p. Theorem 22.part of g. we just illustrate the results with reference to some character tables which we already know. j Notice that Corollary 13. ù d such that bp ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù d and ÷( y) ù1 X X X ù bp X d v v Then bp ÷( g) À ÷( y) (ù1 À ù1 ) X X X (ù d À ù bp ).27 in which g has order 2.24±22. . so the result is immediate from Corollary 22. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z. the p9-part of g is 1. .11.27 Corollary Let p be a prime number.

as can be seen by inspecting the table. That is. and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing 5Z[æ]. we have â 5 P P. p p where á (1 5)a2. Since â P Z[æ] (see p Proposition 9. Similarly the entries in columns 1 and 3 are congruent modulo 2. so 5 P P by Proposition 22. 2. â (1 À 5)a2.26 implies that ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 3 whenever ÷( g) P Z. then the p9-part of g is 1. We illustrate Theorem 22. and p ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) á À 3 1(1 5 À 6) 2 p p p 5 .260 Representations and characters of groups 22.11). Summary of Chapter 22 1. . 2. p p Then ( 5)2 P P. 1(1 À 5) â 5X 2 Put æ e2ðia60 .22. ÷4 ((1 2 3 4 5)) á P Z.14 that the character table of A5 is as shown. The degree of every irreducible character of G divides |G|. Also ÷ i ((1 2 3 4 5)) ÷ i (1) mod 5 for i 1. Thus the corresponding entries in columns 1 and 2 Character table of A5 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 1 À1 0 â á of the character table are congruent modulo 3. ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) P PX This illustrates Theorem 22. If we take p 5 and g (1 2 3 4 5).28 Example Recall from Example 20.24. 3X However. Character values are algebraic integers. If g (1 2 3) then Corollary 22.24 for this a value.

Let G be a group of order 15. 3. (c) Show that if ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G. 4. Deduce that G is abelian. and let G be a nonabelian group of order pq. This exercise shows that the only irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷ ÷ is the trivial character. b P C. jGj where á is an algebraic integer. Suppose that G is a group of odd order. Exercises for Chapter 22 1. (a) Prove that if g P G and g gÀ1 . Use Theorems 11. . 2. (a) Find the degrees of all the irreducible characters of G. (c) Show that q divides p À 1 and that G has q (( p À 1)aq) conjugacy classes. (b) Now let ÷ be an irreducible character of G with ÷ ÷. 5. 17. then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod p for all characters ÷ of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are integers.Algebraic integers 261 3. then g 1. 10 or 16.11 to show that every irreducible character of G has degree 1. If g P G and y is the p9-part of g. If g is conjugate to g i for all integers i which are coprime to the order of g.12.11 and 22. (c) Deduce that ÷ 1 G . Prove that h÷. (b) Show that |G9| p. Let G be a group and let ö be a character of G such that ö( g) ö(h) for all non-identity elements g and h of G. q. Let p be a prime number. (b) Show that a b and a b|G| are integers. then b÷(1) is an integer. for all characters ÷. (d) Deduce that both a and b are integers. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . then ÷( g) is an integer. 4. (a) Show that ö a1 G b÷reg for some a. Prove that the number of conjugacy classes in a group of order 16 is 7. 1 G i 1 (÷(1) 2á).

g2 . (b) Use Corollary 22. Prove that a complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 .27 to deduce that G has two irreducible characters of degree 5. . Moreover. ÷( g) is 0. g. where each ar (0 < r < n À 1) is an integer. A certain group G of order 120 has exactly seven conjugacy classes. (c) Find ÷(1) and ÷( g) for all irreducible characters ÷ of G.26 and the column orthogonality relations. It is often possible to calculate the character table from limited arithmetic information about the group G. . . . g3 and g4 are conjugate in G. (a) Show that for every irreducible character ÷ of G. 7. (d) You are given that all entries in the character table of G are integers. ®nd the character table of G. g7 with orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 120 g2 2 12 g3 2 8 g4 3 6 g5 4 4 g6 6 6 g7 5 5 Using Corollary 22.262 Representations and characters of groups 6. . 1 or À1. This exercise illustrates this point with the group G S5 . and contains an element g of order 5 such that jCG ( g)j 5. and that the conjugacy classes of G have representatives g1 .

but also gives delicate information about characters which often comes into play in more dif®cult calculations. There is a subtle interplay between representations over C and representations over R. This is used in the last section to prove a famous result of Brauer and Fowler concerning centralizers of involutions in ®nite simple groups.23 Real representations Since Chapter 9. Let r be a representation of G. characters of CG-modules are real-valued. The material in this chapter is perhaps at a slightly more advanced level than that in the rest of the book. and if g is real. we have always taken our representations to be over the ®eld C of complex numbers. the subject of real representations not only is elegant and interesting. some results in representation theory work equally well for the ®eld R of real numbers. Real characters An element g of the ®nite group G is said to be real if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . Often. which we shall explore in this chapter. and the ®rst main result of the chapter describes the number of real-valued irreducible characters of G. and is not used in the ensuing chapters. Various criteria for whether or not a character corresponds to a representation over R lead us to the remarkable Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. the converse is not true: it can happen that the character of r is realvalued. which consist largely of the calculation of character tables and applications of character theory. However. However. while there is no representation ó equivalent to r with all the matrices gó having real entries. Nevertheless. then the conjugacy class g G is also said to be 263 . If all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. then of course the character of r is real-valued.

X is invertible. and let X denote the complex conjugate of the matrix X.5. . the entries in the column of X which corresponds to g G are the complex conjugates of the entries in the column of X which corresponds to ( g À1 ) G . Since the trace of a permutation matrix is equal to the number of points ®xed by the corresponding permutation. 23. On the other hand. so X can be obtained from X by permuting the rows. and the number of real conjugacy classes of G is tr (Q)X j As these numbers are equal. the complex conjugate ÷ is also an irreducible character (see Proposition 13. Proof Let X denote the character table of G.2. and the trivial character of G is real. then it contains the inverse of each of its elements. Thus for example. a character ÷ of G is real if ÷( g) is real for all g P G. Therefore Q X À1 X X À1 PX X Consequently P and Q have the same trace. For every conjugacy class g G of G.15). the result is proved.1 Theorem The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. Therefore X can be obtained from X be permuting the columns. Notice that if a conjugacy class is real.264 Representations and characters of groups real. For every irreducible character ÷ of G. Hence there is a permutation matrix P such that PX X (see Exercise 4. the conjugacy class {1} of G is real. we have the number of real irreducible characters of G is tr (P). by Proposition 13.2. and so there is a permutation matrix Q such that XQ X By Proposition 16. Part of the following corollary was obtained by a different method in Exercise 22.4). since ( g À1 ) G fx À1 : x P g G g.

The values of ÷ are as follows: 1 ÷ 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 . (2) Let G Q8 ka.Real representations 265 23. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Example 16. . v n with real coef®cients. G has an element g of order 2. {1} and g G. Then ÷ can be realized over R.3(3)). Therefore by Theorem 23. b2 a2 .1. If G has even order. . . . . and so G has at least two real irreducible characters by Theorem 23.1. such that all the entries in each matrix gr ( g P G) are real. We say that ÷ can be realized over R if there is a representation r: G 3 GL (n. Proof If G has odd order. since À1 0 0 1 . 23. such that for all g P G and 1 < i < n. br ar 0 1 À1 0 provides a representation r of G with character ÷ such that all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.3 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. b: a4 1. then no non-identity element of G is real (see the solution to Exercise 23. the only real character of G is the trivial character. Hence G has at least two real conjugacy classes.1). .2 Corollary The group G has a non-trivial real irreducible character if and only if the order of G is even. j Characters which can be realized over R Let ÷ be a character of the group G. and there is a basis v1 . then by Exercise 1. v i g is a linear combination of v1 . and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Exercise 17.8. C) with character ÷. v n of V. This is the same as saying that there is some CG-module V with character ÷. . b: a4 b2 1. .1).

Thus an RG-module is a vector space over R.2. Simply take a basis v1 .4 Examples Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over R.18(3) below. In this section we shall study the relationship between RG-modules and CGmodules. v2 . v n of the RG-module.) Although every character which can be realized over R is perforce a real character. v1 b Àv1 . with basis v1 . . v2 a Àv1 . where F is R or C. v2 b v2 (compare Example 23.2. .3(2) tells us that the converse is false. (We shall eventually establish this in Example 23. (2) V becomes an RC3 -module. and consider the vector space over C with basis v1 . Therefore we obtain a representation r: G 3 GL (n. In fact. if we de®ne v1 x v2 . . but it is at the moment unclear how to prove this. Notice that a character ÷ of G can be .266 Representations and characters of groups Thus ÷ is real. and hence also in C. . RG-modules Recall that in Chapter 4 we de®ned an FG-module. ÷ cannot be realized over R. R) is a representation then for each g P G. . the matrix gr has its entries in R. . 23. with a multiplication by elements of G satisfying the conditions of De®nition 4.) À1 À1 Every RG-module can easily be converted into a CG-module. where C3 kx: x 3 1l. This new vector space is clearly a CG-module (with v i g de®ned as before). (1) V becomes an RD8 -module if we de®ne v1 a v2 . Example 23. C). v2 x Àv1 À v2 X 0 1 (This gives the representation x 3 of Exercise 3. The construction is even easier to understand in terms of representations: if r: G 3 GL (n.3(1)). . v n . .

and let g P G. Regarding v j as an element of the CG-module V. y jk P R. . . iv1 . X X X . . .5) makes VR into an RGmodule. v n . Rather more subtle than this is the construction of an RG-module from a given CG-module. X X X . 1 < j < nX It follows easily that. is 2 n k1 xkk ÷( g) ÷( g)X Hence the character of VR is ÷ ÷.6. We de®ne a multiplication of VR by g by putting (23X5) vj g (iv j ) g n k1 n k1 (xjk v k yjk (iv k )). we have (v j g)h v j ( gh) and ((iv j ) g)h (iv j )( gh)X Hence using Proposition 4. . we have (v j g)h v j ( gh) for all g. In this way we de®ne v g for all v P VR and all g P G. h P G. v n . and extending linearly to de®ne v g for all v P VR .Real representations 267 realized over R if and only if there exists an RG-module with character ÷. we see that (23. and (À yjk v k xjk (iv k )) (1 < j < n). regarding v j and iv j as elements of VR . iv n X Write z jk x jk iyjk with x jk . We summarize the basic properties of VR in the next proposition. Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 . There exist complex numbers z jk such that vj g n k1 zjk v k (1 < j < n)X Now let VR be the vector space over R with basis v1 . then ÷( g) n k1 zkk X The character of VR . evaluated at g. If ÷ is the character of V.

br f 1 0 0 0 gX ar f d À1 0 0 e d0 0 0 1e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 The subspace of VR which is spanned by v1 v4 and v2 v3 is an RG-submodule. Then by part (1). where v3 iv1 . v1 b v2 . v3 . (1) The RG-module VR has character ÷ ÷. iv1 . b: a4 b2 1.268 Representations and characters of groups 23. v2 . j 23. suppose that V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RG-module. v2 such that v1 a iv1 . v4 . dim VR 2 dim V. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Then VR has basis v1 . then ÷ can be realized over R. Thus there is an RG-module. where H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f 0 0 0 À1 g f g g. v2 a Àiv2 . . For part (2). With respect to this basis. and let V be the 1-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 such that p v1 x 1(À1 i 3)v1 2 p (note that 1(À1 i 3) e2ðia3 ). VR U È W where U is an RG-module with character ÷ and W is an RG-module with character ÷.6 Proposition Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. v2 b v1 X Then VR has basis v1 . we obtain the representation r. Therefore the character of V can be realized over R. and with 2 respect to this basis. x is represented by the matrix p À1a2 3a2 p X À 3a2 À1a2 (2) Let G D8 ka. Proof We have already proved part (1). v4 iv2 .7 Examples (1) Let G C3 kx: x 3 1l. namely U. with character ÷. and let V be the 2dimensional CG-module with basis v1 . and so ÷ can be realized over R. (2) If V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RGmodule. in particular.

v P V X And the bilinear form â is skew-symmetric if â(u. v2 P V and ë1 . we already know this from Example 23. v) and y 3 â(u. In fact. ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ) ë1 â(u.3(1). where F is R or C.6(2). v) of vectors in V an element â(u. vg) â(u. v P V and g P GX Our next result shows that every RG-module has a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form with a strong positivity property. v1 . u1 . and which has the following properties: â(ë1 u1 ë2 u2 .Real representations 269 by Proposition 23.6. v. u) for all u. v) ë2 â(u2 . A similar result for CG-modules was given in Exercise 8. v) Àâ(v. the functions x 3 â(x. y) are both linear ± hence the term bilinear. then there exists a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V such that â(v. v) . 0 for all non-zero v P V X . v) of F. v P V X If V is an FG-module. ë2 P F.) The bilinear form â is symmetric if â(u. A bilinear form â on V is a function which associates with each ordered pair (u. for all u. v) for all u. v) ë1 â(u1 . Bilinear forms The question of whether or not a given character can be realized over R turns out to be related to the existence of a certain bilinear form on the corresponding CG-module. u) for all u. v1 ) ë2 â(u. â(u. v). then a bilinear form â on V is said to be Ginvariant if â(ug. 23.8 Theorem If V is an RG-module. Let V be a vector space over F. v2 ). v. v) â(v. (Thus for ®xed u. u2 .

so W is an RG-submodule of V. Now let w P W and g P G. v gx) â(u. . v) Now let â(u. . v) . w) 0 for all u P U gX Proof It is easy to see that W is a subspace of V. Proof Let v1 . v) n j1 v ë j ì jX Then ã is a symmetric bilinear form on V. 0 and â(v. . and hence â(ug. If g P G. ã(v. Moreover. wg) â(ug À1 . 0 for all non-zero v P V. so â(u. wgg À1 ) â(ug À1 . For u n j1 ì j v j P V with ë j . vg) ã(ugx. v) n j1 ì2 .10 Proposition Suppose that â is a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the RGmodule V. and that there exist u. j 23.270 Representations and characters of groups n j1 ë j v j . 0. we have ugÀ1 P U.9 Proposition Let V be an RG-module and let â be a G-invariant bilinear form on V. v) . vx) (u. 0X j xPG ã(ux. for non-zero v P V. W fw P V : â(u. w) 0X Thus wg P W. v)X xPG Therefore â is G-invariant and the theorem is proved. Then V is a reducible RG-module. â is a symmetric bilinear form on V. . v n be a basis of V. then gx runs through G as x runs through G. . and â(v. v P V )X Again. u) . If U is an RG-submodule of V then so is . v P V with â(u. j 23. de®ne ã(u. For all u P U. ì j P R.

v) À â(u. and de®ne ã by 1 ã(u. v) â1 (u. j if i T j. â(v2 . (2) there exists a CG-module V with character ÷.7). The following two conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ can be realized over R.Real representations 271 Proof Theorem 23. x so W T V. we have ã(v. there is a basis v1 . v1 ) ë1 ã(v1 . . 0. v) (u. v j ) â(v i . for all i. 0X Let â(v1 . then W is non-zero. Moreover. . so is ã. Therefore V is a reducible RG-module.9. v j ) 0 and â1 (v i . w) 0 for all v P V g. . and is an RG-submodule of V by Proposition 23. v1 ) x. . n But for all v i1 ë i v i P V (ë i P R). v2 ) 1 À â(v2 . v n of V such that â1 (v i . v i ) 1 â(v1 . 0. 23. v1 ) . We can now relate bilinear forms to the question of whether or not a given character of G can be realized over R. if we de®ne W fw P V : ã(v.8 supplies us with a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â1 on V such that â1 (w. . 0 for all non-zero w P V X By a general result on bilinear forms (see Exercise 23. 1 ã(v2 . w) . v2 ) .11 Theorem Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. and a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on V . v2 ) . v P V )X x Since â and â1 are G-invariant symmetric bilinear forms on V. v1 ) 0X Therefore.

. Notice that ~ ~ â(v1 . and let U be an RG-module with character ÷. and let V be the vector space over C with basis u1 . u k ) j1 k1 j1 k1 . there exists w P V with â(w. v P VR . v) the real part of â(uW. (v g)W (vW) gX ~ Now de®ne a function â on ordered pairs of elements of VR by ~ â(u. X X X . Let V be a CG-module with character ÷.12). . De®ne ã on V by 2 n 3 n n n ã ë j u j. v n . . It now follows from Proposition 23. that â is a Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on VR . v1 ) 1X Extend v1 to a basis v1 . v n of V. By Theorem 23. Then v1 . Then â(v1 . vW) (u. by Proposition 23. . v) 2â(u. and suppose that â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. u) T 0. . . Let â(w. u n . V is a CG-module (with u i g de®ned as for U). (ëv)W ë(vW). De®ne a function W from VR to V by n n n W: ë jv j ì j (iv j ) 3 (ë j iì j )v j (ë j . u v) â(u. all ë P R and all g P G. As explained earlier. ì j P R)X j1 j1 j1 Then W is a bijection. ìk uk ë j ì k ã(u j . .6(2) that ÷ can be realized over R. iv n is a basis of the RG-module VR . and for all w1 .272 Representations and characters of groups Proof We ®rst show that (2) implies (1). w) T 0. using the properties (23. Conversely. we have (23X12) (w1 w2 )W w1 W w2 W.8.10. w) z and v1 z À1a2 w. suppose that ÷ can be realized over R. iv1 . v1 ) 1 and â(iv1 . Let u1 . v P V with â(u. X X X . . Since â(u v. iv1 ) À1X Therefore VR is a reducible RG-module. w2 . u) â(v. . . v). v P VR )X ~ You can readily check. u n be a basis of U. there is a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form ã on U. . . This establishes that (2) implies (1) in the theorem. v) â(v. There exist u.

ì k P C). then we de®ne the indicator é÷ of ÷ by V if ÷ is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A . 1 or À1. b 0. and ÷ A is the character of the antisymmetric part of V V. 1 G i 1. then precisely one of ÷ S and ÷ A has 1 G as a constituent. The next result gives a signi®cant property of the indicator function. j The indicator function We now associate with each irreducible character ÷ of G a certain number. and the proof of the theorem is complete. where ÷ S is the character of the symmetric part of V V. we have @ 0. 2 h÷ . if 1G is a constituent of ÷ A X We call é the indicator function on the set of irreducible characters of G. Then ã is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the CG-module V. We shall see later that this number tells us whether or not ÷ can be realized over R. Note that é÷ T 0 if and only if ÷ is real. 23. Thus (1) implies (2). 1 G i ÷( g)÷( g) h÷. relating it to the internal structure of the group G. if ÷ is not real. and V has character ÷. and ÷2 ÷S ÷ A . Observe that 1 h÷ 2 . if ÷ is realX Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. .Real representations 273 (where ë j . which is always 0. ÷iX jGj gPG Therefore.13 De®nition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Recall from Chapter 19 that ÷ 2 is the character of the CG-module V V. called the indicator of ÷. Hence if h÷ 2 . if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . b ` é÷ 1. 1 G i 1. b b X À1. for irreducible characters ÷.

15 Example Let G S3 . Proof De®ne a function W: G 3 C by W(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj (x P G)X Note that W is a class function on G. ÷iX Therefore. since for g P G we have y 2 x D ( g À1 yg)2 g À1 xgX Therefore by Corollary 15. and the result follows.14 Theorem For all x P G. W is a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G. 23. Representations and characters of groups (é÷)÷(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj. ÷ where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. The de®nition of é÷ gives é÷ h÷ S À ÷A .274 23. 1 G i 1 ÷( g 2 ) by Proposition 19X14 jGj gPG 1 ÷( g 2 ) jGj xPG gPG: g2 x 1 W(x)÷(x) jGj xPG hW. W (é÷)÷. The character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 j .4.

so (é÷)÷ ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 . we show that the indicator of an irreducible character determines whether or not it can be realized over R. (1) Suppose that é÷ T 0. Using this.14.14 we calculate that é÷ 1 for each irreducible character ÷ of G. (2) There exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ 1. Proof In this proof we regard C as a 1-dimensional vector space over C. (1 2). (1) There exists a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ T 0. namely 1. g P G)X In this way. and de®ne a multiplication of C by elements of G by ëg ë (ë P C.8. which takes the following values: 1 ÷ 1 ÷2 ÷3 4 (1 2) 0 (1 2 3) 1 Sure enough. squares to be (1 2 3). (3) There exists a non-zero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ À1. By Proposition 8.Real representations 275 Using Proposition 19. and hence the CG-module V V has a trivial CG-submodule. no elements square to be (1 2). 23. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ 2 . and deduce the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. Back to reality We now relate the indicator function to the previous material on bilinear forms. (1 3) and (2 3). C becomes a trivial CG-module. . and one element.16 Theorem Let V be an irreducible CG-module with character ÷. (1 3 2). and hence there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism W from V V onto the trivial CG-module C. four elements of G square to be 1. in accordance with Theorem 23. there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V V onto this trivial CG-submodule.

the symmetric part of V V. v P V )X Then â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V.276 Representations and characters of groups Now de®ne â by â(u. and de®ne W: S(V V) 3 C by putting (v i v j v j v i )W â(v i . so that v i v j (1 < i < n. Conversely. and therefore é÷ T 0. v n be a basis of V. Thus. v j ) as â is G-invariant (v i v j )WX Hence W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V V onto the trivial CG-module C. Let v1 . For g P G. 1 < j < n) form a basis of V V. vg) (ug v g)W ((u v) g)W ((u v)W) g (u v)W â(u. As in (1). it follows by Proposition 8. X X X . v)X Thus â is G-invariant. . Since â is symmetric. and W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from S(V V) onto the trivial CG- . v P V )X Then â is a non-zero bilinear form on V. we have ((v i v j ) g)W (v i g v j g)W â(v i g. V V has a trivial CGsubmodule. suppose that there is a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form â on V. suppose that there exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V. v n be a basis of V. j < n) and extending linearly.1. Let v1 . v j ) (1 < i < n. If follows that ÷ 2 has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent. v P V and g P G. and for u. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . which is the character of the CG-module S(V V).8 that there is a non-zero CGhomomorphism W from S(V V) onto the trivial CG-module C. De®ne â(u. by Proposition 10. v) (u v)W (u. v j g) â(v i . we have â(ug. . W is well-de®ned. 1 < j < n) and extending linearly to the whole of V V. v) (u v v u)W (u. (2) Suppose that é÷ 1. . De®ne W: V V 3 C by putting (v i v j )W â(v i . Conversely. . v j ) (1 < i.

Real representations

277

module C. Hence ÷ S has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent, and so é÷ 1. (3) The proof of (3) is very similar to that of (2), and is omitted. j We can now relate real representations of G to involutions in G, where by an involution we mean an element of order 2. 23.17 Corollary (The Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions) For each irreducible character ÷ of G, we have V if ÷ is not real, b 0, b ` é÷ 1, if ÷ can be realized over R, b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but ÷ cannot be realized over RX Moreover, for all x P G, (é÷)÷(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj,

÷

**where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. In particular, (é÷)÷(1) 1 t,
**

÷

where t is equal to the number of involutions in G. Proof When we de®ned the indicator function, we showed that é÷ T 0 if and only if ÷ is real. And Theorems 23.11 and 23.16(2) show that ÷ can be realized over R if and only if é÷ 1. This proves that é÷ is determined as in the statement of the corollary. The expression for ÷ (é÷)÷(x) was obtained in Theorem 23.14. Putting x 1, we see that ÷ (é÷)÷(1) is equal to the number of elements y of G satisfying y 2 1. These elements are just the involutions in G, together with the identity, so the number of them is precisely 1 t. j We conclude with some examples illustrating the use of Corollary 23.17. 23.18 Examples (1) Let ÷ be a linear character. Then é÷ 1 if ÷ is real, and é÷ 0 if ÷ is non-real.

278

Representations and characters of groups

For an abelian group, the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions shows that the number of real irreducible (linear) characters is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes, since in this case g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if g2 1. This special case of Theorem 23.1 can be proved directly without much dif®culty (see Exercise 23.2). (2) We know that all the irreducible characters of D8 ka, b: a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l can be realized over R (see Example 23.3(1), and note that all four linear characters are real). Thus é÷ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of D8, and so (é÷)÷(1) 1 1 1 1 2 6X

÷

The ®ve involutions in D8 which are predicted by the Frobenius± Schur Count of Involutions are a2 , b, ab, a2 b and a3 b. (3) In the group Q8 ka, b: a4 1, a2 b2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l, there is just one involution, namely a2 . Now é÷ 1 for each of the four linear characters, and (é÷)÷(1) 2

÷

by the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. Therefore, if ø is the irreducible character of degree 2, then éø À1. In particular ø cannot be realized over R. (4) The symmetric group S4 has ten elements whose square is 1, namely the identity, the six elements which are conjugate to (1 2), and the three elements which are conjugate to (1 2)(3 4). Since the degrees 1, 1, 2, 3, 3 of the irreducible characters of S4 sum to be 10 (see Section 18.1), we see that all the characters of S4 can be realized over R. The Brauer±Fowler Theorem We now apply Corollary 23.17 to give a proof of a famous theorem of Brauer and Fowler. 23.19 Brauer±Fowler Theorem Let n be a positive integer. Then there exist only ®nitely many nonisomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with centralizer of order n.

Real representations

279

Despite its fairly elementary proof, this result is of great historical importance in ®nite group theory. It led Brauer to propose the programme of determining, for each ®nite group C, all the simple groups G possessing an involution u with CG (u) C. This programme was the start of the modern attempt to classify all ®nite simple groups, which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s. For further information about this, see the book by D. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography. In Exercise 10 at the end of the chapter you are asked to carry out Brauer's programme in the case where C C2 . This should not trouble you too much. In Chapter 30, Theorem 30.8, you will ®nd a much more sophisticated case, in which C D8. For proof of Theorem 23.19 we require two preliminary lemmas. 23.20 Lemma If a1 , . . . , a n are real numbers, then a2 >
a i 2 an. i Proof This follows from the Cauchy±Schwarz inequality kvk kwk > jvXwj, taking v (a1 , . . . , a n ) and w (1, . . . , 1). j 23.21 Lemma Let G be a group of even order m, and let t be the number of involutions in G (so t . 0 by Exercise 8 of Chapter 1). Write a (m À 1)at. Then G contains a non-identity element x such that jG : C G (x)j < a2 . Proof By Corollary 23.17, we have t< ÷(1)

÷

where the sum is over all non-trivial irreducible characters ÷ of G. Writing k for the number of irreducible characters of G, we deduce using Lemma 23.20 and Theorem 11.12 that t2 < ( ÷(1))2 < (k À 1) ÷(1)2 (k À 1)(m À 1),

÷

and hence m À 1 < (k À 1)(m À 1)2 at 2 (k À 1)a2 . Now k À 1 is the number of non-identity conjugacy classes of G. If every nonidentity conjugacy class has size more then a2 , then (k À 1)a2 .

280

Representations and characters of groups

jGj À 1 m À 1, a contradiction. Therefore some non-identity class x G has size at most a2 . Then jG : C G (x)j < a2 , giving the result. j Proof of Theorem 23.19 Suppose G is simple and contains an involution u such that jC G (u)j n. Let jGj m, and let t be the number of involutions in G. By Proposition 12.6, every element of the conjugacy class u G is an involution, and hence t > ju G j jG : C G (u)j manX Therefore (m À 1)at , n, and so by Lemma 23.21, there is a nonidentity element x P G such that jG : C G (x)j , n2 . Let H C G (x). If H G then x lies in Z(G), the centre of G, which is a normal subgroup of G. Since G is simple it follows that G Z(G), so G is abelian and therefore G C2 . Now suppose that H T G. Write r jG : Hj, so r , n2 . By Exercise 9 at the end of the chapter, there is a non-trivial homomorphism è from G to the symmetric group S r . As G is simple, the normal subgroup Ker è f1g. Thus G is isomorphic to a subgroup of S r , hence of S n2 . In particular, given n, there are only ®nitely many possibilities for G. j

Summary of Chapter 23 1. The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. Let é be the indicator function, and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. V if ÷ is non-real, b 0, b b b 1, ` if there exists an RG-module U with character ÷, 2X é÷ with character ÷ b b b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but there does not exist an RG-moduleX V if 1 G is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A , b 0, ` 3X é÷ 1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S , b X À1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ A X 2 4. ÷ (é÷)÷(1) |{ g P G: g 1}|.

Real representations Exercises for Chapter 23

281

1. Prove that if G is a group of odd order then no non-identity element of G is real. 2. Let G be a ®nite abelian group. Use the description of the irreducible characters of G, given in Theorem 9.8, to prove directly that the number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of elements g in G for which g2 1. 3. Let G D2 n and consult Section 18.3 for the character table of G. How many elements g of G satisfy g2 1? Deduce that é÷ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. 4. Let r be an irreducible representation of degree 2 of a group G, and let ÷ be the character of r. Prove that ÷ A ( g) det ( gr) for all g P G. Deduce that é÷ À1 if and only if det ( gr) 1 for all g P G. 5. Let G T 4 n ha, b: a2 n 1, a n b2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i, as in Exercise 17.6. Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 , v2 and let å be a (2n)th root of unity in C with å T Æ1. Exercise 17.6 shows that V becomes an irreducible CG-module if we de®ne v1 a åv1 , v2 a å À1 v2 , v1 b v2 , v2 b å n v1 X

Let ÷ be the character of this CG-module V. (a) Note that å n Æ1. Use Exercise 4 to show that é÷ 1 if å n 1 and é÷ À1 if å n À1. (b) Let â be the bilinear form on V for which â(v1 , v1 ) â(v2 , v2 ) 0, â(v1 , v2 ) 1, â(v2 , v1 ) å n X Prove that the bilinear form â is G-invariant, and use Theorem 23.16 to provide a second proof that é÷ 1 if å n 1 and é÷ À1 if å n À1. (c) Prove that a n is the only element of order 2 in T4 n. (d) Use the character table of G, which appears in the solution to Exercise 18.3, to ®nd é÷ for each irreducible character ÷ of G. Check that

282

**Representations and characters of groups (é÷)÷(1) 2,
**

÷

in agreement with the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 6. Prove that if ÷ is an irreducible character of a group G, and é÷ À1, then ÷(1) is even. (Hint: the solution uses a well known result about skew-symmetric bilinear forms.) 7. Suppose that V is a vector space over R and that â1 and â are symmetric bilinear forms on V. Assume that â1 (w, w) . 0 for all non-zero w in V. Prove that there is a basis e1 , X X X , e n of V such that â1 (ei , ei ) 1 for all i, and â1 (ei , ej ) â(ei , ej ) 0 for all i T jX 8. Schur's Lemma is crucial for the development of the theory of CG-modules. This exercise indicates the extent to which results like Schur's Lemma hold for RG-modules. Let V and W be irreducible RG-modules. (a) Prove that if W: V 3 W is an RG-homomorphism then either W is an RG-isomorphism or vW 0 for all v P V. (b) Prove that if W: V 3 V is an RG-isomorphism and V remains irreducible as a CG-module, then W ë1 V for some real number ë. . (c) Give an example of a group G, an irreducible RG-module V and an RG-homomorphism W: V 3 V which is not a multiple of 1 V . 9. Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. Let Ù be the set of n right cosets Hx of H in G. For g P G, de®ne a function r g : Ù 3 Ù by ( Hx)r g Hxg for all x P G. Prove that r g is a permutation of Ù, and that the function r : g 3 r g is a homomorphism from G to the symmetric group on Ù. Show that the kernel of r is xPG x À1 Hx. Deduce that if a group G has a subgroup H of index n, then there is a homomorphism G 3 S n with kernel contained in H. 10. Suppose that G is a ®nite group containing and involution t with CG (t) C2 . Prove that |G : G9| 2. Deduce that if G is simple, then G C2 .

24 Summary of properties of character tables

In this short chapter we present no new results, but instead we gather together from previous chapters various properties which are helpful when we try to ®nd the character table of a particular group. In the next four chapters we shall calculate several character tables in detail. Usually we begin by working out the conjugacy classes and centralizer orders of our given ®nite group G. The size of the character table is determined by the number k of conjugacy classes of G; the character table is then a k 3 k matrix, with columns indexed by the conjugacy classes of G (the ®rst column corresponding to the conjugacy class {1}), and with rows indexed by the irreducible characters of G. When doing calculations, we commonly come across a new character ÷, which may or may not be irreducible. We can then calculate h÷, ÷i, which is given by h÷, ÷i 1 ÷( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG

The character ÷ is irreducible if and only if h÷, ÷i 1 (see Theorem 14.20). If ÷ is reducible then we calculate h÷, ÷ i i for each of the irreducible characters ÷ i which we already know, and then ÷À h÷, ÷ i i÷ i

i

will also be a character. We can thus determine whether ÷ is a linear combination of the irreducible characters we already know; and if it is not, then we can obtain from ÷ a linear combination of irreducible characters, all of which are new. We have developed a number of methods for producing characters ÷ 283

284

Representations and characters of groups

on which to perform such calculations. For example, every subgroup of Sn has a permutation character (see (13.22)); the product of two characters is again a character (Proposition 19.6); given a character ø we can form the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of its square, ø S and ø A (see Proposition 19.14); and if H is a subgroup of G then we can restrict characters of G to H, and induce characters of H to G. These and other properties of characters are summarized in the following list.

Properties of characters Assume that ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. (1) (Example 13.8(3)) There is a (trivial) character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) 1 for all g P GX (2) (Theorem 17.11) The group G has precisely jGaG9j linear characters. These are the characters ÷ given by ÷( g) ø( gG9) ( g P G) as ø varies over the irreducible (linear) characters of GaG9. (3) (Theorem 17.3) As a generalization of (2), if N v G and ø is an irreducible character of GaN , then we get an irreducible character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) ø( gN ) ( g P G) (÷ is the lift of ø). This method gives precisely those irreducible characters of G which have N contained in their kernel. (4) (Theorem 19.18) If G G1 3 G2 then all the irreducible characters ÷ of G are given by ÷( g1 , g 2 ) ö1 ( g 1 )ö2 ( g 2 ) ( g 1 P G1 , g 2 P G2 ), as ö i varies over the irreducible characters of Gi (i 1, 2). (5) (Proposition 13.24) If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. ( g P G)

Summary of properties of character tables

285

(6) (Theorems 11.12 and 22.11) The entries ÷ i (1) (1 < i < k) in the ®rst column of the character table of G are positive integers, and satisfy

k i1

÷ i (1)2 jGjX

Moreover, each integer ÷ i (1) divides |G|. (7) (Row orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(1)) For all i, j, we have h÷ i , ÷ j i ä ij . (8) (Column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2)) For all g, h P G, we have @ k jCG ( g)j, if g and h are conjugate, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (h) 0, otherwiseX i1 (9) (Exercise 13.5) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and z P Z(G), then there exists a root of unity å such that for all g P G, ÷(zg) å÷( g)X (10) (Proposition 13.9(2)) If g is an element of order n in G, and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g) is a sum of nth roots of unity. Moreover, |÷( g)| < ÷(1). (11) (Proposition 13.9(3, 4)) If g P G and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g À1 ) ÷( g)X In particular, if g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G. (12) (Corollary 15.6) If g P G and g is not conjugate to gÀ1 , then ÷( g) is non-real for some character ÷ of G. (13) (Theorem 22.16) Let g P G. If g is conjugate to gi for all positive integers i which are coprime to the order of g, then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. (14) (Corollary 22.26) Suppose that p is a prime number and that y is the p9-part of the element g of G. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers, then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod pX

then ø 4 G is a character of G.14) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ë is a linear character of G. where ÷( g) ÷( g) ( g P G)X (16) (Theorem 23. We can see from the character table whether or not G is simple (Proposition 17. The centre Z(G) can be found by noting which elements g of G satisfy . the ®rst column determines |G| and jGaG9j (by (6) and (2)). we can ®nd all the normal subgroups of G (Proposition 17. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod pX (15) (Proposition 13.23.15) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G.13. where ÷ë( g) ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G)X (18) (Proposition 19. where for all g P G. ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). The derived subgroup G9 consists of those elements g in G which satisfy ÷( g) 1 for all linear characters ÷ of G. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A . then so is ÷. then ÷ë is an irreducible character of G.6). (17) (Proposition 17. (21) (Chapter 20) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of G. indeed. where (ø 5 H)(h) ø(h) (h P H)X We have seen that the character table of a group G gives grouptheoretic information about G.5).23) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of H. For example. Two important normal subgroups are G9 and Z(G). these can be determined in the following ways. then ø 5 H is a character of H. then so is the product ÷ø. where ÷ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) ( g P G)X (19) (Proposition 19. with values given by Proposition 21. if the order of g is a power of p.286 Representations and characters of groups In particular.1) The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G.6) If ÷ and ø are characters of G. Proposition 21.14) If ÷ is a character of G. 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 (20) (De®nition 21.

however. the sum being over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. which can be deduced from the character table. the converse is false: in Exercise 17. In Chapter 30 we shall see some more impressive results about subgroups of G. with the same character table.Summary of properties of character tables 287 ÷( g)÷( g) |G|. D8 and Q8 . it is of course true that isomorphic groups have the same character table. As a ®nal remark. .1 we gave examples of non-isomorphic groups.

We shall not provide a proof of Theorem 25. r . with addition and multiplication modulo p. and in this chapter we shall describe a class of Frobenius groups and ®nd the character tables of the groups in this class. p will denote a prime number. this will give the character tables of all groups whose order is the product of two prime numbers.1. but for a good 288 . that ZÃ is cyclic: p 25.1 Theorem The multiplicative group ZÃ is cyclic. but not at all obvious. that is. In particular. p À 1X An integer n of order p À 1 in ZÃ is called a primitive root modulo p p. Clearly Z p is a cyclic group under addition. Throughout the chapter. there exists an integer n p such that n pÀ1 1 mod p. we shall have determined the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. generated by 1. Z p is an abelian group under addition. that is. A number of these groups are so-called Frobenius groups. X X X . and n r T 1 mod p for 0 . It is also true. Primitive roots modulo p Recall that the set Z p f0. and ZÃ Z p À f0g is an abelian group p under multiplication. is a ®eld.25 Characters of groups of order pq By the end of the next chapter. p À 1g. 1.

B . BÀ1 AB Au X Using these relations. 0 1 and so we have the relations (25X5) Ap Bq I. but not modulo 7. 5. 0 1 0 u and let F hA.4 Example De®ne G & 1 0 ' y Ã. Now let q| p À 1. 0 < j < q À 1. B. we refer you to Theorem 45. Then 1 u À1 B AB Au .1 we have 25. and u r T 1 mod p for 0 . 11 and 13.2 Example The number 2 is a primitive root modulo 3. and let u be an element of order q in the multiplicative group ZÃ . r .3 of the book by J. and 3 is a primitive root modulo 7. such that u q 1 mod p.1). qX Frobenius groups of order pq. These pq elements are dis- . we see that every element of F is of the form A i B j with 0 < i < p À 1. the subgroup of G generated by A and B. 25. y P Z X : xPZp p x Under matrix multiplication. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography.Characters of groups of order pq 289 account. As an immediate consequence of Theorem 25.3 Proposition If q| p À 1 then there is an integer u such that u has order q modulo p ± that is. De®ne p 1 1 1 0 A . where q| p 2 1 25. Bi. G is a group of order p( p À 1) (see Exercise 25.

these facts follow readily from Sylow's Theorems (see Chapter 18 of the book by J. so we have the presentation F hA. the interested reader can ®nd more information in the book by D. We shall not give the general de®nition of these here. p It is not hard to show that.5) determine all products in F. where p and q are prime numbers with p . B.q for the group of order pq with presentation F p. up to isomorphism.7 Proposition Suppose that G is a group of order pq. BÀ1 AB Au iX 25. b: a p b q 1. Then either G is abelian.q .3). 25.6 De®nition If p is a prime and q| p À 1.q belong to a wider class of groups known as Frobenius groups. It follows from Exercise 22. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography). B: Ap Bq I.q .3 that q divides p À 1 and G has a normal subgroup H of order p. Thus the order of u in the group ZÃ divides q. p .) Both H and Ga H are cyclic. S. Suppose that H kal and Ga H h Hbi. Further. q. F p. bÀ1 ab au i. so bÀ1 ab au for some integer u. Proof Assume that G is non-abelian. a bÀq abq a u q and so u q 1 mod p. since they have prime order. The groups F p.290 Representations and characters of groups tinct. (Alternatively. it follows that b has order q. or q divides p À 1 and G F p. Moreover the relations (25.q does not depend on which integer u of order q we choose (see Exercise 25. The next result classi®es all groups whose order is the product of two distinct prime numbers. as we shall only be dealing with F p. so jFj pq.q ha. where u is an element of order q in ZÃ . Since bq P H but b does not have order pq (as G is non-abelian). then we write F p. Passman listed in the Bibliography. Now H v G. then G is generated by a and b.

and choose coset representatives v1 . in fact.q in general. and in Example 21. Thus let G Fp. and u has order q modulo p. bÀ1 ab au i where p is prime.q ha.7. v r for S in ZÃ . The character table of F p.3 . . Let S be the subgroup of ZÃ consisting of the powers of u. b: ap bq 1.q .9 Proposition The conjugacy classes of G F p. bÀ1 ab au . and G would be abelian.q We have.8 Example By Proposition 25. order of u in ZÃ is qX p Hence G F p. Therefore the order of u is q. Write r ( p À 1)aq.25 we dealt with F7. every group of order 15 is abelian (indeed. Thus p jSj q.q : the dihedral group of order 2 p is the case where q 2. this size is at most q. and has the form stated in the proposition. We now construct the character table of F p. Therefore the conjugacy class of av i has size at least q. We have now established that a p b q 1. also the size of this conjugacy class is equal to |G: CG (av i )|. (av i ) G fav i s : s P Sg (1 < i < r). q| p À 1 (q not necessarily prime).3. and the groups of order 21 are C3 3 C7 and F7. X X X . already found the character tables of certain of the groups F p. Hence (av i ) G has size q.Characters of groups of order pq 291 If the order of u were 1 then we would have bÀ1 ab a. (bn ) G fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g (1 < n < q À 1)X Proof The equation bÀ j av b j avu j shows that av is conjugate to avs for all s P S.q are f1g. isomorphic to C3 3 C5 ). p 25. j 25. and since kal < CG (av i ).

for all s P S. and kbl has index p in G. ö j i G sPS øv j s ÷. These are given by ÷ n (0 < n < q À 1). øv j s 4 Gi G hö j . let p ö j øv j 4 GX We now prove that each ö j is irreducible. First. . it follows that for n T 0 mod q. using Proposition 21. Hence (bn ) G fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g and the proof is complete. øv j s ihai hö j . G has precisely q linear characters. and (øv 4 G)(ax ) å vsx (0 < x < p À 1)X sPS Note that øv 4 G has degree q.9. so we seek q r irreducible characters. G has q r conjugacy classes. 0 < y < q À 1)X We shall show that G has r irreducible characters of degree q. By the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. On the other hand. where ÷ n (a x b y ) e2ði nyaq (0 < x < p À 1.11. For v P ZÃ .16. ö j i G X Hence ö j 5 hai hö j . every conjugate of bn has the form am bn for some m.23. hö j 5 hai. We obtain (øv 4 G)(ax by ) 0 if 1 < y < q À 1.292 Representations and characters of groups Since CG (bn ) contains kbl. and øv 4 G øvs 4 G if s P SX For each coset representative v j (1 < j < r) of S in ZÃ . and so the conjugacy class of bn has size p. Let å e2ðia p . denote by øv the character of kal which p is given by øv (ax ) å vx (0 < x < p À 1)X We calculate the values of the induced character øv 4 G. we have |CG (bn )| q. observe that the derived subgroup G9 kal. j By Proposition 25. so GaG9 has order q and therefore by Theorem 17. as Gahai is abelian.

we deduce that kö j . Of these. We have now found q r distinct irreducible characters ÷ n . ö j (ax ) e2ðiv j sxa p . bÀ1 ab au i . ö j l G 1. 25. q| p À 1 and r ( p À 1)aq. .Characters of groups of order pq 293 where ÷ is either 0 or a character of kal. b: a p b pÀ1 1. so we have the complete character table of G. 0 < y < q À 1g has q r irreducible characters. . ö j of G (0 < n < q À 1. ö r 5 kal are distinct. 25. . . v r S are the cosets in ZÃ of the p subgroup S generated by u. .11 Example Let G F p. This proves that ö j is irreducible. b: a p bq 1. . bÀ1 ab au i fax by : 0 < x < p À 1. pÀ1 ha. Consequently the irreducible characters ö1 . 1 < j < r). and also that ö j 5 hai hö j . and hence ö1 5 kal. q have degree 1 and are given by ÷ n (ax by ) e2ði nyaq (0 < n < q À 1) and r have degree q and are given by ö j (ax by ) 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. .10 Theorem Let p be a prime number. We summarize in the following theorem. . Then the group F p.23.q ha. X X X .10 in some examples. sPS for 1 < j < r. ö r are distinct. ö j i G X Since ö j (1) q jSj. We conclude by illustrating Theorem 25. the characters øv (v P ZÃ ) are linearly indepenp dent. it follows that ö j (1) > jSjhö j . where v1 S. Taking degrees. ö j i G øv j s X sPS By Theorem 14.

4 is as shown opposite. b P S5 be the permutations a (1 2 3 4 5).12 Example Let a. and so by the previous example the character table of G is as shown. and one irreducible character ö of degree p À 1.4 . and let á å å 5 å 8 å 12 . Then G has p À 1 linear characters. b (2 3 5 4)X Check that a5 b4 1. bÀ1 ab a2 X Hence if G ka. ã å4 å6 å7 å9 X By Theorem 25. bl. the character table of F13.10.4 ha. if 1 < x < p À 1X 25.13 Example We consider the case p 13.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö 1 20 1 1 1 1 4 a 5 1 1 1 1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 x if 1 < y < p À 2.294 Representations and characters of groups where u is a primitive root modulo p. b: a13 b4 1.25 we found the character table of F7. â å 2 å 3 å 10 å 11 . Character table of F5. q 4. then G F5. You may like . Here F13. bÀ1 ab a5 iX Write å e2ðia13 .3. In Example 21. with values given by ö(ax by ) 0 ö(a ) À1 25.

10. Prove that & ' 1 y : x P ZÃ . Character table of F13. Let p and q be positive integers. Write down the character table of the non-abelian group F11. Then p Fp. Let u be an element of order q in ZÃ .Characters of groups of order pq 295 to check that this agrees with the description of the character table provided by Theorem 25. y P Z p . If G has order pq.5 of order 55. bÀ1 ab au iX The irreducible characters of Fp.10. q. 2. Let p be a prime number. 2.q are described in Theorem 25. Exercises for Chapter 25 1. Let u and v be two integers which are of order q modulo p. b: ap bq 1. p 0 x under matrix multiplication.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö1 ö2 ö3 1 52 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 a 13 1 1 1 1 á â ã a2 13 1 1 1 1 â ã á a4 13 1 1 1 1 ã á â b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 0 Summary of Chapter 25 1. 3.q. is a group of order p( p À 1).q ha. and de®ne . then either G is abelian or G F p. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . Suppose that p is prime and q divides p À 1. with p prime and q| p À 1.

obtain the character table of E. with p T 2. where u is an element of order q modulo p. Note that ka. bl is a normal subgroup of E which is isomorphic to C3 3 C3 . (b) Deduce that a is conjugate to aÀ1 if and only if p 1 mod 4. (This justi®es the comment which follows the de®nition of Fp. (d) Deduce that if å e2ðia p then p å s (À1 Æ (ä p)). b.q ha. (( p À 1)a2)2 g). (Thus. c: a3 b3 c2 1. Q f12 . as in Exercise 5. (a) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are . bÀ1 ab au i. (c) Using the orthogonality relations. 5. (a) Show that there exists an integer m such that u m À1 mod p if and only if p 1 mod 4. cÀ1 ac aÀ1 .) 4. 6. ab ba. b: ap bq 1. G2 ha. cÀ1 bc bÀ1 i. and ä À1 if p À1 mod 4. b: ap bq 1. where ä 1 if p 1 mod 4. sPQ where Q is the set of quadratic residues modulo p (that is.) 7.16.4. but E has no faithful irreducible representation. By inducing linear characters of this subgroup. X X X . Let E be the group of order 18 which is given by E ha. b: ap bq 1. ö2 of G of degree q have values p 1 (ä p)) 2(À1 Æ on the element a. show that the two irreducible characters ö1 . Let q ( p À 1)a2 and let G Fp. Show that the group E of Exercise 5 has the properties that Z(E) is cyclic. E provides a counterexample to the converse of Proposition 9. bÀ1 ab av iX Prove that G1 G2 . Suppose that p is a prime number.296 Representations and characters of groups G1 ha.6.q in 25. 22 . bÀ1 ab au i.

1. 3. b: a9 b6 1. 1. 6. 3. 1. 3. 1. 3X (b) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 1. 3. 3X (c) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 6. bÀ1 ab a2 iX Find the character table of G. 3. 3. 1. 3. 1. 1. 6X 8. 3. 2. 3. 3.Characters of groups of order pq 1. 1. 3. 3. 1. Let G be the group of order 54 which is given by G ha. 297 . 1. 6. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 3. 1. 3. 3.

Proof (1) Since H v G. We later give explicitly the irreducible characters of all groups of order p3 and of all groups of order 16. (3) If n < 2 then G is abelian. We shall show how to obtain the character tables of all groups of order pn for n < 4. with references. Recall that Z(G) denotes the centre of G (see De®nition 9. we show that all groups of order pn with 1 < n < 4 do. Therefore 298 . (2) If K < Z(G) and GaK is cyclic. Elementary properties of p-groups A p-group is a group whose order is a power of the prime number p. Z(G) T {1}. In the ®rst lemma we collect several well known properties of pgroups. and H Z(G) consists of those conjugacy classes in H which have size 1. H is a union of conjugacy classes of G.26 Characters of some p-groups Throughout this chapter. The method consists of examining the characters of those p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. At the end of the chapter we point out. and before explaining the method. all of which have size a power of p. then G is abelian. In particular. p will be a prime number. have an abelian subgroup of index p. that we have found the character tables of all groups of order less than 32.1 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with n > 1. indeed.15). (1) If {1} T H v G then H Z(G) T {1}. 26.

7). the only possibility is that |G| p4 and | Z(G)| p. (3) By (1). Then by Theorem 12. Therefore H is an abelian subgroup of index p in G.1(2). Now assume that Z(G) has no subgroup of order p nÀ2 . recall that the derived subgroup of G is denoted by G9 (see De®nition 17. Ha Z( H) is not of order p.7.2 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with 1 < n < 4. j and some k1 . generated by gK. Hence if n < 2 then Ga Z(G) is j cyclic and so G is abelian by (2). Let x1 . j For our ®nal result on the structure of p-groups. by Lemma 26. Z(G) and kxl are distinct nonidentity subgroups of Z( H). and so Z( H) > p2 . Hence again Z( H) H by Lemma 26.1(2). j Hj jGjajx G j p3 . Since k1 . Then x1 g i k 1 . we deduce that H Z(G) T {1}. Therefore G is abelian. Moreover. 26. we deduce that Z( H) H. As K < Z( H) and. k2 P Z(G). k2 P K. x2 P G. G has an element x whose conjugacy class x G is of size p. x2 g j k 2 for some integers i. so suppose that 2 < n < 4. Then we can ®nd a subgroup H of G such that K < H and j Hj p nÀ1 .8. (2) Suppose that GaK is cyclic. Then by Exercise 12. it follows that x1 x2 x2 x1 . Let H CG (x). Then there exists a normal subgroup K of G such that K < H G9 Z(G) and jKj pX . and H is an abelian subgroup of index p. Then G contains an abelian subgroup of index p.Characters of some p-groups j Hj j H Z(G)j (a multiple of p)X 299 As | H| is a multiple of p and | H Z(G)| T 0. Assume that Z(G) contains a subgroup K of order p nÀ2 . jGa Z(G)j < p nÀ1 . Proof The result is immediate if n 1.1(1). Since Z(G) T f1g by Lemma 26. 26.3 Lemma Let G be a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p.

2. This establishes (26X5) if ÷(1) p and K T< Ker ÷.1(1). j Characters of p-groups with an abelian subgroup of index p In view of Lemma 26. Proof Let |G| pn .3. Let K be a normal subgroup of G as in Lemma 26. each of degree p. Since p nÀ1 ( p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 ) p2 pn jGj. By Theorem 17. or (2) ø 4 G.11. again by Theorem 11.4 Theorem Assume that G is a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p.300 Representations and characters of groups Proof Since G is non-abelian. Then every irreducible character of G is given by either (1) the lift of an irreducible character of GaK. by Theorem 11. In the latter case. First note that if ÷ is a character of G of degree p.12. for some linear character ø of H which satis®es K T< Ker ø. we have G9 < Ker ÷. we have {1} T G9 v G. the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p). The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters obtained in this way is jGaKj p nÀ1 . 26.8 that all the p nÀ1 irreducible characters of the abelian group H are linear. We shall construct p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 further irreducible characters of G. then either ÷ is irreducible or ÷ is a sum of linear characters (since by Theorem 22. and hence G9 Z(G) T {1} by Lemma 26. h P H}). and hence K < G9 < Ker ÷. as G9 is in the kernel of every linear character. (Ã ) we shall then have obtained all the irreducible characters of G.3.12. the irreducible characters of GaK lift to give precisely those irreducible characters of G which have K in their kernel. Let K be a subgroup of order p in G9 Z(G). the next theorem provides us with all the irreducible characters of non-abelian groups of order p3 or p4 . and therefore K < H. Let Ö denote the set of linear . then ÷ is irreducibleX We know by Theorem 9. Since G is non-abelian and |G: H| p. we have KH H. Now K < Z(G) implies that K v G and that KH is an abelian subgroup of G (where KH {kh: k P K.

bZ such that Ga Z haZ. (ø 4 G)(k) pø(k) for all k P KX Thus ø 4 G has degree p and does not have K in its kernel. we have jÖj p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 X Let ø P Ö.4 to give an explicit construction of the irreducible characters of the non-abelian groups of order p3 .6. Write Z Z(G). Z T {1} and Ga Z is non-cyclic. ø 4 G is an irreducible character of G. Therefore by (26. this implies that there are at most p elements ø1 of Ö such that ø1 4 G ø 4 G.23. Now let G be a non-abelian group of order p3 . j We now use Theorem 26.Characters of some p-groups 301 characters of H which do not have K in their kernel.16. As we saw in (Ã ).1. By Proposition 21. bZi. ø1 4 Gi G h(ø 4 G) 5 H.4 further by constructing the character tables of all the non-abelian groups of order 16. Then by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. ø1 i H X Since (ø 4 G) 5 H has degree p.8. By Lemma 26. 1 hø 4 G. Therefore fø 4 G: ø P Ög consists precisely of the p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 irreducible characters we seek. Groups of order p3 By Theorem 9.5). Suppose now that ø1 is a linear character of H such that ø 4 G ø1 4 G. G has at most p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 such characters. Then . the abelian groups of order p3 are C p3 . Since the linear characters of H which do have K in their kernel are precisely the lifts of linear characters of HaK. C p2 3 Cp and Cp 3 Cp 3 Cp X The character tables of these groups are given by Theorem 9. We shall then illustrate Theorem 26. It follows that fø 4 G: ø P Ög gives at least jÖja p ( p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 )a p distinct irreducible characters of G of degree p which do not have K in their kernel. and the proof is complete. since K < Z(G). Choose aZ. Hence Ga Z Cp 3 Cp and Z kzl Cp .

as above.v (ar bs Z) å rusv X The lift to G of ø u.v (ar bs z t ) å rusv . s. Write å e2ðia p .v is the linear character ÷ u.v öu where for all r. Let H ka. t < p À 1.v which appears in the statement of the theorem. Let r be an integer with 1 < r < p À 1.6 Theorem Let G {ar bs z t : 0 < r. and hence (ar ) G far z t : 0 < t < p À 1gX . ö u (ar bs z t ) 0.v (0 < u. 26. v < p À 1). the irreducible characters of Ga Z are ø u. Proof By Theorem 9. 0 < s < p À 1g and in particular. 0 < v < p À 1). på . Then the irreducible characters of G are ÷ u. @ ut if r s 0. so that H is an abelian subgroup of order p2 . t with 0 < r. ÷ u. For 1 < u < p À 1. where ø u. a the conjugacy class (ar ) G does not have size 1. t < p À 1} be a non-abelian group of order p3 .302 Representations and characters of groups Ga Z far bs Z: 0 < r < p À 1. Since ar P Z. s. t. choose a character ø u of H which satis®es ø u (z t ) å ut (0 < t < p À 1)X We shall calculate ø u 4 G. then ar Z is conjugate to gZ in the abelian group Ga Z. and therefore g ar z t for some t. otherwiseX (0 < u < p À 1. s. s. and (1 < u < p À 1). zl.8. If ar is conjugate to an element g of G. every element of G is of the form ar bs z t for some r. so ar Z gZ.

Clearly the irreducible characters ÷ u. We ®nd that 1 hö u . there are precisely two non-abelian groups of order p3 . and (ø u 4 G)( g) 0 if g P HX a pÀ1 s0 pÀ1 s0 303 ø u (z s ) å us We have now established that if ö u ø u 4 G. 12 ( p À 1) . If p 2. (ø u 4 G)(z t ) pø u (z t ) på ut .v (0 < u.6 is a special case of the proof of Theorem 26. they are D8 and Q8.23.Characters of some p-groups Then by Proposition 21. p2 jGjX Hence we have found all the irreducible characters of G. they are . and the sum of the squares of their degrees is p2 . ö u i G 3 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p gPG 1 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p3 gP Z 1 2 p p3 gP Z 1X Therefore ö u is irreducible. up to isomorphism. then ö u takes the values stated in the theorem. j Notice that the calculation in the proof of Theorem 26.4 (with K Z(G)). In fact. (ø u 4 G)(ar z t ) ø u (ar ) ø u (ar z) X X X ø u (ar z pÀ1 ) ø u (ar ) ø u (ar ) 0X Also. And if p is odd. v < p À 1) and ö u (1 < u < p À 1) are all distinct.

b. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. and H 2 ha. . 134 of the book by Coxeter and Moser listed in the Bibliography). so the subgroup K described in Lemma 26. G2 ha.1(2). For each of the nine non-abelian groups G of order 16 it is the case that |G9 Z(G)| 2 (see Exercise 26. the abelian groups of order 16 are C16 . bÀ1 ab a3 iX . up to isomorphism. . b in H1 and H2 will serve for the elements a. and it is not Q8 by Exercise 26. b: a8 b2 1. Hence GaK D8 .5. z: a p b p z p 1. G9 given below do indeed have order 16. G3 ha. These are G of order 16 with G1 ha. bz zb. It is not C8 by Lemma 26. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i D16 . b: a p b p 1.8. . C4 3 C4 . We shall describe all these groups and their character tables. C8 3 C2 . b chosen in the statement of Theorem 26. according to these three possibilities for GaK.304 (26X7) Representations and characters of groups H 1 ha. that all the nine groups G1 . it is possible to see.3 is given by K G9 Z(G)X Now GaK is a group of order 8. and their character tables are given by Theorem 9.8 The groups of order 16 It is known that. By Theorem 9. (A) There are three non-abelian groups GaK D8 . Our descriptions will be in terms of presentations. bÀ1 ab a p1 i. . Z( H2 ) kzl. bÀ1 ab aziX 2 We have Z( H1 ) ka p l.6. there are precisely fourteen groups of order 16 (see p. az za. C4 3 C2 or C2 3 C2 3 C2 X We shall divide our descriptions into three parts. 26.7).6.8. b2 a4 . b: a8 b2 1. using Exercise 26. b: a8 1. The elements a. C4 3 C2 3 C2 and C2 3 C2 3 C2 3 C2 .

as before.6). G6 ha. a6 a2 . (B) There are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK C4 3 C2 (where. .4(2) as induced characters ø 4 G. . C7 . z: a4 1. of order 2). a7 C6 ai b (i even) ai b (i even) C7 ai b (i odd) ai b (i odd) Using Theorem 26. a3 C5 a3 . z 2 1. a7 a. bÀ1 ab azi. Note that a is conjugate to aÀ1 in G1 and G2 . p á i 2 Àâ for G3 X p The ®rst ®ve characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of GaK D8 . The last two characters can be obtained as in Theorem 26. az za. C1 G1 . Each of the groups has seven conjugacy classes C1 . G2 G3 1 1 C2 a4 a4 C3 a2 . bÀ1 ab az.Characters of some p-groups 305 In each case K ka4 l. b2 z 2 1. z: a4 z. . but not in G3 . These are G4 ha. G5 ha. bÀ1 ab azi. but not for G3 (see Corollary 15. K G9 Z(G). we obtain the character tables of G1 . b. b2 z 2 1. . bz zbiX . G2 .4. they can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. alternatively. and these are given in the following table. b2 z. a5 a5 . a6 C4 a. where ø is a linear character of the abelian subgroup kal of index 2. G2 and G3 : Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 2 À2 À2 C3 8 1 1 1 1 À2 0 0 C4 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 á â C5 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 â á C6 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 C7 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 where á 2 Àâ for G1 . z: a4 1. b. b. hence the values in the columns C4 and C5 are all real for G1 and G2 .

G6 simultaneously: C1 1 C2 z C3 a2 C4 a2 z C5 C6 C7 C8 a2 b. These are G7 ha. z: a2 b2 z 4 1. but they are in a form which allows us to describe the conjugacy classes C1 . z is redundant). G5 . C10 of all three groups G4 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . bz zbi Q8 3 C2 . there are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK C2 3 C2 3 C2 (where K G9 Z(G). since a4 z in G4 . G5 and G6 can again be found using Theorem 26. abz C10 a3 b. of order 2). . bz zbi D8 3 C2 . az za. bz In each case. . . az a3 . a3 bz a. The character tables of G4 . a2 b2 . b. . G6 X (C) Finally.4: Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 á â C4 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 â á C5 8 1 i À1 Ài 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 C6 8 1 Ài À1 i 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 C7 8 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 i À1 Ài À1 Ài 1 i 0 0 C10 8 1 Ài À1 i À1 i 1 Ài 0 0 where á 2i Àâ á 2 Àâ for G4 . a3 z b. bz zbiX . G8 ha. z: a4 z 2 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . bÀ1 ab az 2 . az za. for G5 . a2 bz C9 ab. az za. b. z: a4 b2 z 2 1. b. K kzl. G9 ha.306 Representations and characters of groups The given presentations are somewhat cumbersome (for example.

for G9 X 26. and the character tables of G7 . a2 b bz.4.9 The groups of order less than 32 At this point. G8 G9 1 a2 1 z2 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 307 z a2 z a. Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 á â C4 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 â á C5 8 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 0 0 C6 8 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 C7 8 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 C10 8 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 0 0 where á 2 Àâ á 2i Àâ for G7 . abz3 We have K @ ha2 i hz 2 i for G7 . the groups. a3 z z z 3 a. given by Theorem 26. a3 az. for G9 . a3 b abz. abz 2 abz. we have in fact found the character tables of all groups of order 31 or less. are as follows: . G8 . az 2 az. which are given by C1 C2 C3 C4 G7 . Apart from abelian groups and dihedral groups. az 3 b.Characters of some p-groups Each of these groups has ten conjugacy classes. G8 and G9 . a3 bz b.8 and Section 18. bz 2 bz. are as follows. bz 3 ab. with references for their character tables. G8 .3. a2 bz ab. whose character tables are given by Theorem 9.

8 Theorem 19.10 Theorem 19.3 Theorem 25.8: groups of order 16. 1.10 Theorem 25.2 Exercise 18.3 Exercise 18. G has pm linear characters and p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 irreducible characters of degree p.2 Exercise 18. Suppose that G is a group of order pn ( p prime. A4 3 C2 .308 |G| 8 12 16 18 20 21 24 Representations and characters of groups G Q8 A4 T12 G1 . we gave the irreducible characters of various nonabelian p-groups G. .1 Section 18. Exercises for Chapter 26 1. .4: p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. Theorem 26. .18 Section 18. T12 3 C2 D8 3 C3 .3 Section 26.18 Exercise 25.6 Exercise 18.4 F7. 3. n > 2).18 Theorem 19. .5 Exercise 18. 2. D10 3 C3 Reference for character table Exercise 17. 3) T24 U24 V24 H1 .3 D12 3 C2 . G9 D6 3 C3 E T20 F5.18 27 28 30 Summary of Chapter 26 In this chapter. Show that for some integer m > 2.5 Theorem 26. D6 3 C4 S4 SL (2. Section 26. Theorem 26.1 Exercise 27. with an abelian subgroup H of index p. Q8 3 C3 . .4 Exercise 18. H2 T28 D6 3 C5 .3 Theorem 19. as follows.6: groups of order p3 .

g 2 P h Zi. Let G be the group of order 32 which is given by G ha. Write Z ÀI. or otherwise.3. (b) Why do the remaining groups G5 . Let H be the group of order 27 which is given by H ha. Let G1 . bz zb. and ®nd all the irreducible representations of G. Dl.) (d) Show that |G| 32. b: a16 1. (Hint: use Corollary 9. fi 0 1 0g 0 0 e d 0 0 0 0 Ài À1 0 I 0 f f0 f Df f0 d 1 H 0 Ài 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 0 g Ài g g g. 5. (a) Prove that all pairs of generators commute modulo h Zi. . B. (c) Prove that the given representation of G of degree 4 is irreducible. Let A. C. G4 and G9 . b. . 4. . 0g e 0 I g 0g g g. b2 a8 .6 to write down the character table of H. Ài g e 0 g 0g g g. 0g e 0 and let G kA. 3. and deduce that G is a 2group of order at most 32. G2 . bÀ1 ab azi 309 (see (26. ®nd the character table of G.7)). G7 and G8 have no faithful irreducible representations? . C. z: a3 b3 z 3 1. (a) Find faithful irreducible representations of degree 2 for G1 . D H À1 f f 0 f Af f 0 d 0 f fi f Cf f0 d 0 H i 0 0 0 be the following 4 3 4 matrices: I H 0 0 0 0 0 i g f f0 1 0 0g 0 0 g f Bf g. (b) Show that for all g in G. . and use Theorem 26. Find the conjugacy classes of H.Characters of some p-groups 2. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX Using Theorem 26. G9 be the non-abelian groups of order 16 with presentations as given in the text. and deduce that G9 h Zi. az za.4. B. G3 . G6 .

(c) Deduce that |G9 Z(G)| p. (b) Prove that |G9| p or p2 . 0 0 1 H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 G6 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. Prove that no two of the groups G1 . Let G be a non-abelian group of order p4 . . G9 are isomorphic. b 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. (a) Prove that if G is any group. . (a) Prove that | Z(G)| p or p2 . (Note: This exercise can be used to con®rm that the presentations of G1 . Prove that a2 commutes with b. . 8.) 6. . 7. .310 (c) Representations and characters of groups Check that the following give faithful representations of G5 and G6 : H I H I 0 1 0 i 0 0 G5 : a 3 d 1 0 0 e. then Ga Z(G) T Q8 . . a2 b2 mod Z. . G9 given in the text do indeed give groups of order 16. and hence that a2 P Z. 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 eX 0 0 1 (d) Find faithful representations of degree 3 for G7 D8 3 C2 and G8 Q8 3 C2 . 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 e. (Hint: assume that Ga Z haZ. . then Ga(G9 Z(G)) T Q8 . and that if | Z(G)| p2 then G has p3 p2 À p conjugacy classes. b 3 d 1 0 0 e. and that if |G9| p2 then G has 2 p2 À 1 conjugacy classes. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 mod Zi.) (b) Deduce from the result of Exercise 7 that if G is a group of order 16. bZ: a4 P Z. .

To calculate the order of the group SL (2. . b. The group belongs to a whole family of simple groups. p À 1. and recall that Z p is the ®eld which consists of the numbers 0. And there are p2 ( p À 1) choices for a. b are arbitrary. with addition and multiplication modulo p. . d P Z p . Examples of simple groups which we have met so far are cyclic groups of prime order. A5 and A6 . Denote by SL (2. p). d 311 . c. and in this chapter we shall describe this group and ®nd its character table.27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 Recall that a simple group is a non-trivial group G such that the only normal subgroups of G are f1g and G itself. except that a T 0. b. Special linear groups Let p be a prime number. is the smallest non-abelian simple group. ad À bc 1)X c d If c 0. p) is a group under matrix multiplication. The next smallest is a certain group of order 168. c. p) the set of all 2 3 2 matrices M with entries in Z p such that det M 1. we count the matrices a b (a. b. Then SL (2. then there are p( p À 1) choices for a. In fact the group A5 . and d is determined by a). and we begin with a description of this family. . d which make ad À bc 1 (since a. of order 60. and is called the 2-dimensional special linear group over Z p. . We discussed brie¯y in Chapter 1 the signi®cance of simple groups in the theory of ®nite groups.

we have jPSL(2. In the exercises. The power of these techniques is therefore well illustrated. . Therefore jSL (2. 7) has order 168. and it is easy to see that this group is isomorphic to S3 .26). p) is Z fI.19 of the book by J. 3) A4 . and then b is determined).1 Lemma The group PSL (2. The following table records representatives gi (1 < i < 6) for the conjugacy classes. 7) 27.4) and congruence properties (Corollary 22. The simple group G PSL (2. p)j p( p2 À 1)a2X It is known that PSL (2. PSL (2. p) SL (2.1. together with the order of gi . 5) A5 . using information about subgroups. p) has order 6. p). p)j p( p À 1) p2 ( p À 1) p( p2 À 1)X If p 2 then SL (2. p) is simple (see Theorem 8. The conjugacy classes of PSL (2. p)afÆIgX Since |SL (2. After ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. and is written as PSL (2. such that ad À bc 1 (since a. J. ÀIg (where I is the 2 3 2 identity matrix). the order of CG ( gi ). and the size of the conjugacy class containing gi . c is any non-zero element of Z p . and that for p > 5. the group PSL (2. Rotman listed in the Bibliography). and we shall construct the character table of this group. notably the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16. 7) has exactly six conjugacy classes. p)a Z is called the 2-dimensional projective special linear group.312 Representations and characters of groups with c T 0. The factor group SL (2. By Exercise 27. we indicate other ways of obtaining characters of G. d may be chosen arbitrarily. so assume that p is an odd prime. the centre of SL (2. p)| p( p2 À 1). we shall ®nd the character table using only numerical calculations. Thus PSL (2.

d ' Z X 4 0 0 2 3 À2 3 2 0 À1 1 0 . g6 . Consequently & 1 0 2 Z. Among g1 . . CG ( gi ) k gi l for i 3. g4 . X 3 À2 4 À2 À2 2 2 2 Also.Character table of the simple group of order 168 Order of gi g1 g2 g3 g4 g5 g6 1 0 0 1 Z Z 2 4 3 7 7 8 4 3 7 7 21 42 56 24 24 1 168 |CG ( gi )| | gG | i 1 313 0 1 À1 0 2 2 2 0 1 0 1 0 À2 Z 2 0 Z 4 1 Z 1 À1 Z 1 Proof For each i. Suppose that a b Z c d commutes with g4 . CG ( g 4 ) 0 1 0 Similarly CG ( g2 ) & 0 4 0 4 Z. Consider. . MZ: M À2 4 2 4 1 0 0 1 ' 2 3 2 4 2 2 2 À2 . we verify that gi has the stated order. for example. . . . 5. . 6. Then a b 2 0 2 Æ c d 0 4 0 and hence b c 0. a c b . the only elements with the same order are g5 . . . . and then use direct calculation to ®nd all the elements of G which commute with g i .

and so a ab aÀc Æ c cd c bÀd d with ad À bc 1X It follows that c 0. 5 Therefore (2) follows from Corollary 15. for 1 < i < 4. then ÷( gi ) is an integer. except possibly g5 and g6 . g6 are conjugate. 7) Since G has six conjugacy classes. . 27.6. j The character table of G PSL (2. which is impossible for a P Z7 .314 Representations and characters of groups and g6 . so no two of these six elements are conjugate. it is easy to check that G is indeed simple. Suppose that gÀ1 g6 g g5 with a b g Z P GX c d Then gg5 g6 g. since any normal subgroup is a union of conjugacy classes (see Proposition 12. so g5 is not conjugate to its inverse.8). .16. .2 Corollary (1) If 1 < i < 4 and ÷ is a character of G. . gi is conjugate to ( gi ) k whenever gi and ( gi ) k have the same order. and we have established that no two of the elements g1 . these exhaust the conjugacy i classes of G. where ÷1 is the . ÷( g5 ) is non-real. a T 0. j Notice that using Lemma 27. ÷6 be the irreducible characters of G. Since the sum of the sizes of the six conjugacy classes g G (1 < i < 6) is 168. .19). (2) For some character ÷ of G. it also has six irreducible characters. The size of the conjugacy class g G is obtained by dividing 168 by i |CG ( gi )| (Theorem 12. Let ÷1 . d aÀ1 and a ab a b À aÀ1 X 0 aÀ1 0 aÀ1 Therefore a2 À1. Thus g5 is not conjugate to g6 . . . (2) Notice that g6 gÀ1 .1. Hence the conclusion follows from Theorem 22.1. Proof (1) By Lemma 27. .

0 in some order. ÷( g 2 ) ÷(1) mod 2. Æ1. . and the congruence properties given by Corollaries 22. so di is the entry on row i of column 1. . Let di ÷ i (1). and ÷( g 3 ) ÷(1) mod 2.4(2). Theorem 16. 0. Æ1. and the sum of the squares of these integers is equal to |CG ( g4 )| 3. we have by Corollary 22. Now for all characters ÷ of G. ÷6 . 0 in some order. for which the character values are known to be integers. . Æ1. we see that. Æ2. g4 .2. Æ1. The entries must therefore be 1.27. and the entries in column g2 are 1. Æ1. and so ÷( g 2 ) ÷( g 3 ) mod 2X Since we also know that 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 0. For the moment we concentrate on the entries in the ®rst column of the character table (i. Æ1. 0 in some order.) Similarly the entries in the column of g3 are 1. 0. (We know that the entry in the ®rst row is ÷1 ( g4 ) 1.27 for the elements g2 . part of the character table of G is as follows: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 We shall determine the signs later. We shall repeatedly exploit the column orthogonality relations. By . with a suitable ordering of ÷2 . g3 . the degrees ÷ i (1)). . Recall that the character table is the 6 3 6 matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( gj ). 0.26 and 22.e. The entries in the column of g4 are integers. Æ1. Æ1. by Corollary 27.Character table of the simple group of order 168 315 trivial character (so that ÷1 ( g) 1 for all g P G).

Since d 2 1 mod 2. The only solutions to this equation with d2. We have now found the ®rst column of the character table. 8 in some order. In the same way.11 and the fact that i1 d i 168. d 6 0 mod 3.Representations and characters of groups 6 2 Corollary 22. we have d6 T 12. and hence d6 6. we have d2 7 and d3 8. d3 equal to 7. Next. d 6 divides 168. 2 3 so d 2 d 2 113. d 4 divides jGj 168. so as d 2 < 168. and have the following portion: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 . d 6 0 mod 2. d 2 < 168X 6 Therefore d6 is 6 or 12. d5 3. d 4 1 mod 2. d 2 < 168X 4 The only positive integer d4 which satis®es these conditions is d4 3. d3 2 3 positive integers have d2. 2 Now 1 d 2 d 2 32 32 62 168. Theorem 22. we have d 4 0 mod 3. But 0 6 i1 316 and and ÷ i ( g 2 )d i 1 Æ d 2 Æ 3 Æ 3 Æ 2d 6 .27.

3.Character table of the simple group of order 168 The equations 6 i1 317 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g j ) 0 for j 2. By Corollary 27. Let ÷4 ( g5 ) ÷5 ( g 5 ) z. ÷2 i 6 ÷2 ( g i )÷2 ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j 7X7 1 1 1 ÷2 ( g 5 )÷2 ( g 5 ) ÷2 ( g 6 )÷2 ( g 6 ) 168 8 4 3 7 7 gives ÷2 ( g5 ) ÷2 ( g6 ) 0. the complex conjugate ÷ will be a different character of the same degree. 0 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 4 )÷ i ( g j ) 1 À ÷3 ( g j ) and so ÷3 ( g5 ) ÷3 ( g6 ) 1. For this character ÷. (Note that ÷2 ( g5 ) ÷2 (1) mod 7. for j 5. and let ÷6 ( g5 ) t. but we could not use this fact as we were not sure that ÷2 ( g5 ) was an integer. the equation 1 h÷2 . g3 . there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷( g5 ) is non-real. 4 now enable us to determine the signs in the columns for g2 .2. We obtain Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 Next. g4 . Hence ÷4 and ÷5 (being the only two irreducible characters with the same degree) must be complex conjugates of each other.) Also. 6. Thus the column for g5 is .

z (À1 Æ i 7)a2X Since g6 gÀ1 . 7). as shown. 7) Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. we obtain p t À1.318 Representations and characters of groups Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g5 7 1 0 1 z z t Now 0 0 7 6 i1 6 i1 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 1 À z À z 2t. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 1 z z. g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 1 0 1 á á À1 It is known that there are precisely ®ve non-abelian simple groups of order less than 1000. we have ÷( g6 ) ÷( g 5 ) for all characters ÷ of G. We give you the character tables of all of these. 5 We have now completely determined the character table of G PSL (2. . ÷ i ( g 5 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 2 2zz ttX Solving these equations. Character table of PSL (2.

2. jPSL (2. given the conjugacy classes of G. c. p) SL (2.3 Exercise 27. 3. p)j p( p2 À 1)a2 ( p odd). . We constructed the character table of PSL (2. b P Z7 7 0 aÀ1 (where Z {ÆI}).Character table of the simple group of order 168 as follows: G A5 PSL (2. p)j p( p2 À 1). 7). Calculate the values of the induced character (1 T ) 4 G. In this exercise we present an alternative construction of the character table of G PSL (2. and show that (1 T ) 4 G 1 G ÷. PSL (2. p)afÆIg. 4.6 & 1.1. as in Lemma 27. of order 21. Prove that Z(SL (2. d P Z p . p) a c Summary of Chapter 27 ' b : a. SL (2. 2. 3). Deduce directly from the character table of PSL (2. d jSL (2. (a) De®ne the subgroup T of G. 8) PSL (2. ad À bc 1 . 7) that this group is simple. as follows: & ' a b T Z : a P ZÃ . where ÷ is an irreducible character of G.2 Exercise 28.13 This chapter Exercise 20. 11) Order of G 60 168 360 504 660 319 Reference for character table Example 20. b. Exercises for Chapter 27 1. the simple group of order 168. Find the character table of SL (2. 7). 3. p)) fÆIg. 7) A6 PSL (2.

7. Use orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. the group of all 2 3 2 matrices of determinant 1. with entries in the ®eld Z7 . (c) By considering ÷ S (see Proposition 19. 5. 7). Let G SL (2. 7).320 Representations and characters of groups (b) Let ë be a non-trivial linear character of T. obtain an irreducible character of G of degree 6. Calculate the values of ë 4 G and prove that this is an irreducible character of G.14). (c). 8 and 6. we now have irreducible characters of G of degrees 1. The character table of SL (2. (a) Show that G has 11 conjugacy classes with representatives gi as follows: gi g1 g2 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 8 8 3 6 7 14 7 14 336 336 8 8 8 6 6 14 14 14 14 1 1 42 42 42 56 56 24 24 24 24 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i À1 0 0 À1 0 1 g3 À1 0 2 À2 g4 2 2 À2 2 g5 À2 À2 2 0 g6 0 4 À2 0 g7 0 À4 1 1 g8 0 1 À1 À1 g9 0 À1 1 À1 g 10 0 1 À1 1 g 11 0 À1 . (b). (d) From (a).

gÀ1 . .14). ÷11 are 4. 11). we have ÷ j ( g) À÷ j (À g). respec5 6 7 8 tively. and congruences modulo 3. g3 and g6 (see Proposition 19. By considering the values of ø A on g1 . . ÷10 . . g2 . . . prove that ø A is equal to the irreducible character of G of degree 6 whose kernel contains Z. (d) Prove that ÷ j ( g3 ) 0 for 7 < j < 11. g7 . and ®nd ÷ j ( g6 ) for 7 < j < 11. gÀ1 . . (e) By considering the column of g6 in the character table. . . 6. (c) Let ÷7 . Deduce the values of the irreducible characters of degree 4 on all gi . 6. ÷8 . ÷11 be the remaining irreducible characters of G. Let G PSL (2. 8. Find the character table of G. g8 having orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 660 g2 2 12 g3 3 6 g4 6 6 g5 5 5 g6 5 5 g7 11 11 g8 11 11 Also. g8 . g6 . 6. This group has eight conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . (f) Let ø be one of the irreducible characters of degree 4. Show that for any j with 7 < j < 11 and any g P G.Character table of the simple group of order 168 321 (b) Use the character table of PSL (2. show that the degrees of ÷7 . 4.7) to write down the six irreducible characters of G with kernel containing Z {ÆI}. The character table of PSL (2. and deduce that ÷ j (1) is even. ÷9 . gÀ1 are conjugate to g5 . (g) Complete the character table of G. gÀ1 . 11). .

b. that is (a b)c ac bc for all a. we found the character tables of certain groups of 2 3 2 matrices with entries in Z7 and Z11 . R. We shall determine the character tables of some matrix groups with entries from an arbitrary ®nite ®eld. then (F Ã . ) is an abelian group. Consequently. The ®elds F q and F q 2 We consider ®nite ®elds. since the number of irreducible characters increases with the size of the ®eld. with identity element 0. . as do the irreducible characters. c P F. with identity element 1. the distributive law holds.28 Character table of GL(2. At ®rst sight. 3) is a set F with two binary operations and 3 such that the following properties hold. q) We are now going to calculate the character tables of an important in®nite series of groups. The basic properties of ®nite ®elds which we will use without proof are these: 322 . Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. if you are unfamiliar with ®nite ®elds then you might like to consult the book by J. we can display the character values in a 4 3 4 matrix. and we shall tell you which properties of these ®elds we will use. we shall see that the conjugacy classes of our groups fall into four families. 3) is an abelian group. with the usual de®nitions of and 3. However. Finally. if we write F Ã Fnf0g. and one of the exercises will show you how to use the results of this chapter to determine the character tables of in®nitely many simple groups. Recall that a ®eld (F. (F. C and Z p ( p prime) are ®elds. Secondly. For example. First. this is a daunting task. B. In the last chapter and its exercises.

You are now in a position to appreciate the statement of the main result of this chapter. Then r 3 r is an irreducible character of FÃ2 . q) (28. Then (s t) q s q t q s t. We use this remark in the proof of the next proposition. every irreducible character of FÃ2 has the form q r 3 r j for some integer j. We introduce the following useful notation. We may write q r å m for some m and we let r ù m . t P S. 3) is cyclic. 2 (2) Since FÃ2 is a group of order q 2 À 1.1) Let p be a prime and n be a positive integer. Proof (1) Suppose that s.3) Let å be a generator of the cyclic group FÃ2 and let q 2 ù e(2ðia(q À1)) .Character table of GL(2. For every s P F q the sum of s with itself p times is zero. This implies that (r r ) r r r r and (r 1q ) q j r 1q . ) and (Snf0g.2 Proposition Let F F q 2 and S fs P F : s q sg. so r r q . Suppose that r P FÃ2 . it follows that (s t) p s p t p for all s. so S is a ®eld. we see that r q r for all q q q q q2 q r P F. (1) The set S is a sub®eld of F of order q.5. (28. so s t P S. in short. Hereafter. Then there exists a ®eld F q of order q and every ®eld of order q is isomorphic to F q . t P F q . we shall identify the sub®eld S of F q 2 in Proposition 28. 28. q 323 Notice that the binomial coef®cients ( ip ) with 1 < i < p À 1 are all divisible by p. 3) are abelian groups. (2) If r P F then r r q . and hence S F q .2 with the ®eld F q . and k k k hence (s t) p s p t p for all positive integers k. ps 0. Moreq over. r 1q P S. It is now easy to check that (S. and write q pn . . namely Theorem 28. r 1q P S. The group (FÃ .

c9g. cg fa9. The matrices s 0 sI (s P FÃ ) q 0 s belong to the centre of G. and once (a. consider the matrices s us 0 Let give us q À 1 conjugacy classes of 1 s (s P FÃ )X q . q). since conjugate matrices have the same eigenvalues. jGj (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q(q À 1)2 (q 1)X There are four families of conjugacy classes of G. q) The general linear group GL(2. a b 0 c can be conjugate to a9 0 b9 c9 only if fa. Keep this in mind during the following discussion.324 Representations and characters of groups The conjugacy classes of GL(2. of which three are easy to describe. q) is de®ned to be the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in F q . (c. b) can be any non-zero row vector. b). q). They size 1. and we talked about some special linear groups in the last chapter. The subgroup consisting of all matrices of determinant 1 is the special linear group SL(2. Here. giving us q 2 À q choices. q). Let G GL(2. The number of such matrices is found by noting that (a. Therefore. b) has been chosen. d) can be any row vector which is not a multiple of (a. Next. we are going to calculate the character table of GL(2. First. giving us q 2 À 1 choices. and remember that the matrix a b c d belongs to G if and only if its rows are linearly independent.

let s 0 d s. t P FÃ ) q 0 t and note that 0 1 1 0 À1 d s. s T t) give us q (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes. so v r has eigenvalues r and r q. Finally.8. the matrices d s. each conjugacy class contains q 2 À 1 elements. 2 3 Àbr 1q a b(r r q ) gv r and Àdr 1q c d(r r q ) 2 3 c d vr g X Àar 1q c(r r q ) Àbr 1q d(r r q ) . Thus. the matrices us (s P FÃ ) give us q À 1 conjugacy classes. Now. Now. then we have that gd s. so each conjugacy class contains q(q 1) elements. q) a b P GX g c d Then gus and us g 325 as cs a bs c ds as cs d bs ds so g belongs to the centralizer of us if and only if c 0 and a d. so. Since r P F q we see that v r lies in a none of the conjugacy classes we have constructed so far. Thus. t 0 1 1 0 d t. v r P G. The characteristic polynomial of v r is det(xI À v r ) x(x À (r r q )) r 1q (x À r)(x À r q ). the centralizer order is (q À 1)2 . t g if and only if b c 0.Character table of GL(2. t P G (s. consider 0 1 vr (r P F q 2 nF q )X Àr 1q r r q By Proposition 28.s X On the other hand. the q centralizer order is (q À 1)q. t d s.2. if s T t. t P FÃ . by Theorem 12. t (s.

each subset gives us a conjugacy class representative v r and different subsets give us representatives of different conjugacy classes. so it is not conjugate to v r unless t r or t r q. The matrix v t has eigenvalues t and t q. described as follows. t is indexed by unordered pairs fs. 0) and r. b) T (0. j . r q P F q.326 Representations and characters of groups Hence gv r v r g only if c Àbr 1q and d a b(r r q ). tg of distinct elements of FÃ . and the conjugacy class containing v r has size q 2 À q. q). of classes qÀ1 us (q À 1)q qÀ1 d s. q). g sI |CG ( g)| (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) No. so we have found all the conjugacy classes. 28. g P CG (v r ) if and only if a b g X Àbr 1q a b(r r q ) Thus. q The family of conjugacy class representatives d s. Therefore. We have now found all the conjugacy classes of G. If these conditions hold. q The family of conjugacy class representatives v r is indexed by unordered pairs fr. We therefore partition F q 2 nF q into subsets fr. But this sum is equal to the order of GL(2.4 Proposition There are q 2 À 1 conjugacy classes in GL(2. Class rep. t (q À 1)2 (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 vr q2 À 1 (q 2 À q)a2 The families of conjugacy class representatives sI and us are indexed by elements s of FÃ . then ad À bc a2 ab(r r q ) b2 r 1q (a br)(a br q )X Since (a. we see that a br and a br q a are non-zero. jCG (v r )j q 2 À 1. r q g of elements of FÃ2 nFÃ . r q g. q q Proof The conjugacy classes we have found account for (q À 1) (q À 1)(q 2 À 1) (q À 1)(q À 2)q(q 1)a2 (q 2 À q)(q 2 À q)a2 elements altogether.

ø i . sI ëi øi ø i. Then the q irreducible characters of GL(2. and let r 3 r be the function from FÃ2 to C described in (28. j ÷i s 2i qs 2i (q 1)s i j (q À 1)s i us s 2i 0 s i j Às i d s. 327 28.Character table of GL(2. q) as in Proposition 28. q) The characters of GL(2.6 Proposition Let K hvå i. if j1 and j2 belong to this set and j1 j2 q mod (q 2 À 1) then we choose precisely one of j1 and j2 to belong to the indexing set for the characters ÷ i . (d) For ÷ i. there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 characters ø i. there are (q 2 À q)a2 characters ÷ i . we ®rst consider the set of integers j with 0 < j < q 2 À 1 and (q 1) T j j. there are q À 1 characters ë i . t (st) i (st) i si t j s j t i 0 vr r i(1q) Àr i(1q) 0 À(r i r iq ) Here. each of degree q À 1. (b) For ø i we have 0 < i < q À 2. The group K contains the q À 1 scalar matrices sI in G. Hence. (c) For ø i. Recall that å is our chosen generator for FÃ2 and q 0. Thus. we have the following restrictions on the subscripts. each of degree 1. 1 X vå å åq Àå 1q 28. (a) For ë i we have 0 < i < q À 2.5 Theorem Label the conjugacy classes of GL(2. q) are given by ë i . Thus. there are q À 1 characters ø i .4. j . j we have 0 < i . each of degree q. and of the remaining q 2 À q elements of K. we present a proposition which will be useful later. ÷ i as follows. Thus.q) We are now in a position to describe the character table of G. j < q À 2. j . Before we embark upon the task of calculating the irreducible characters of G. each of degree q 1. ø i. . Then jKj q 2 À 1.3).

328 Representations and characters of groups precisely two belong to each of the conjugacy classes represented by v r with r P FÃ2 nFÃ .5.4. q q Proof The eigenvalues of vå are å and å q. j of G whose values on the conjugacy class representatives. so vå has order q 2 À 1.7 Proposition There are q À 1 linear characters ë i of G. the irreducible characters ë i . and this case accounts for the q À 1 scalar matrices. j We will see later that the linear characters ë i (0 < i < q À 2) which appear in Proposition 28. q As i varies between 0 and q À 2 inclusive. i iq The eigenvalues of vå and of vå are å i and å iq .7 are all the linear characters of G. ø i . 28.5. 28. the functions ë i : g 3 (det g) i ( g P G) give q À 1 distinct linear characters of G. and they are given in Theorem 28. j We shall construct. j there is a character ø i. i i i If å i å iq then vå å i I. Proof The map det : g 3 det g is a homomorphism from G onto FÃ .5. Hence two elements a of K belong to the conjugacy class of vå i . are as follows. sI ø i. in turn. If å i T å iq then i i iq å P F q and vå and vå must be conjugate to vå i . t si t j s j t i vr 0 . since vå has eigenvalues in F q and vå is diagonalizable. ø i. whose values appear in Theorem 28. j (q 1)s i j us s i j d s.8 Proposition For all integers i. as described in Proposition 28. j and ÷ i which appear in Theorem 28.

8 gives us ø i.i .23 to calculate ø i. ø i. j ( g) jC B ( g)j ë i. j ( g) jC B ( g)j jC G ( g)j ë i.i . We let ø i. j ( g9) ø i. We use Proposition 21. j ( g) jC G ( g)j . j 4 G.Character table of GL(2. there is an irreducible character ø i of G whose values are given in Theorem 28. Remember that the complex conjugate of s i is s Ài .5. j are as stated in the proposition. The characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. ë i i. We have hø i. 28. q) Proof Let B & ' PG X 329 a 0 b c Then B is a subgroup of G with jBj (q À 1)2 q. j : B 3 C by s r ë i. j is a character of B. j ( g) 0X j Hence.i . j ( g) for each conjugacy class representative g. j ( g) jC G ( g)j ë i.i ë i ø i . j ( g) ë i. where g9 d t. we calculate hø i. g sI : g us : g d s. Proof We shall demonstrate that the character ø i. j : 3 s i t jX 0 t Then ë i. j ( g) ø i. the values of ø i. j ëi. t : g vr : ø i. De®ne ë i. To this end. the ®rst term corresponds to the conjugacy classes of elements 4 (q À 1)(q À 2) (q À 1)2 2 . ø i.9 Proposition For each integer i.i i (q 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 2X Here.i which appears in Proposition 28.i i and hø i. as follows.s jC B ( g)j jC B ( g9)j ø i.

i . j < q À 2.5. and the calculation of this ®rst term involves the following three observations.8. t P FÃ g is an abelian group of q order (q À 1)2. Let s be an element of FÃ of order q À 1. Using the values of ø i. Then the character ø i. ø i. note that fd s. q To evaluate C.i ë i ø i for some irreducible character ø i.i (sI) (q 1)2 . q Hence the characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. j which appears in Proposition 28.330 Representations and characters of groups sI.1 3 s i . Proof We shall show that hø i. (2) jC G (sI)j (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q)X (3) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the forms sI. j 28. ø i. Then ø i : d s. t 3 s i t j s j t i then ó is a sum of two . Subtract ë i from ø i. tg of distinct elements of FÃ .i to get the values of ø i as given in Theorem 28. we obtain hø i.i . j i A B C.10 Proposition Suppose that 0 < i . j which are given in Proposition 28. where (q 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1).i (sI)ø i. j . The remaining terms in hø i. ë i i 1 and hø i.i . ø i. hø i. t : s.i i are calculated in a similar fashion. and if ó : d s. j i 1. (1) ø i.i i 2 imply that ø i. B 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 1 1 i j C (s t s j t i )(s Ài t À j s À j t Ài )X (q À 1)2 2 sT t A and 2 (q À 1)(q À 2) 2 (q À 1) 2 The coef®cent 1 appears in C because we have just one conjugacy 2 class for each unordered pair fs. ë i i (q 1) 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q 1X The facts that hø i.i . ø i. j . Next.8 is irreducible.

j ë j. Therefore. j 28. j ë j. and (i. j9). j . j9 < q À 2. j is irreducible. j T ø i9. 2 3 1 i j j i Ài À j À j Ài 4(q À 1) (s t s t )(s t s t ) 2X (q À 1)2 sT t Hence. there exists complex (q À 1)th roots of unity s and t such that either s T t and s i t j s j t i T s i9 t j9 s j9 t i9 or s t and s i j T s i9 j9 . there exists a character ö i of G which takes the following values.11 Corollary The characters ø i. j9 on a conjugacy class j of G. j < q À 2 and 0 < i9 . j which were used in the proof of Proposition 28. j i 1. Thus. j9 . j characters of G. j9 ë j9. Therefore. hø i. Consider the group B and its linear characters ë i. ó i 2X That is. We have s b ë i. we see that ø i. for 0 < i . q) 331 inequivalent irreducible characters of this group.i T ë i9. j < q À 2 are distinct irreducible Proof Suppose that 0 < i .12 Proposition For each integer i.8.i9 . j9 . ø i. We must prove that ø i. sI öi q(q À 1)s i us 0 d s.i : 3 s i t j s j t iX 0 t Since ë i. 28. C qÀ3 X qÀ1 And now we ®nd that A B C 1. t 0 vr r i r iq . j T ø i9. j) T (i9. ø i. hó .Character table of GL(2. and ø i. j differs from ø i9. In either case.

Now. by Proposition 28. Then. respectively. j To be able to work out certain inner products involving our characters ö i .13 Lemma Assume that i is an integer and (q 1) T j i. If g sI with s P FÃ then g P K and q ö i ( g) jC G ( g)j á i ( g) q(q À 1)s i X jC K ( g)j Suppose that r P F q 2 nF q . Hence á i ( g) r i or r iq and á i ( g) á i ( g q ) r i r iq X Let ö i á i 4 G. . Then (r i r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2(q À 1)2 X rPF q 2 nF q Proof Note that & r G1 0 0 rq : r P FÃ2 q ' and G2 & r 0 0 rq : r P FÃ q ' are abelian groups of orders q 2 À 1 and q À 1.6. ö i is zero on the elements of the form u s and d s. as in Proposition 28. ®rst recall that á i 4 G is zero on all elements which are not conjugate to an element of K. t (s T t). Also.6.332 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let K hvå i. v r is conjugate to an element of g of K. In order to calculate ö i . Thus. we shall the use the following lemma. 28. by Proposition 28. Then g has eigenvalues r and r q . and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i .6. Suppose that g P K and g is conjugate in G to v r . ö i has the values stated in the proposition. á i ( g) ái( g q) ö i ( g) jC G ( g)j jC K ( g)j jC K ( g)j á i ( g) á i ( g q ) r i r iq X Thus.

8.9 and 28. 28. ÷ i is the class function on G which is given by ÷ i ø0. j .Ài ø i À ø0. since (q 1) T j i implies that å i T å iq .i À ö i X . Now. the character ÷ is twice an irreducible character. Proof We can justify the manoeuvre which we now perform only by saying that it gives the correct answer. we get 1 i (r r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 4X qÀ1 Ã rPF q Hence rPF q 2 nF q (r i r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2(q 2 À 1) À 4(q À 1) 2(q À 1)2 X j 28. Recall the characters ø i. t 0 vr À(r i r iq ) If (q 1) T j i then ÷ i is an irreducible character of G.Character table of GL(2. the character ÷ is a sum of two inequivalent irreducible characters. and for G2. since r q r for r P FÃ.14 Proposition For each integer i. Taking the inner product of the q character ÷ of G1 with itself. sI ÷i (q À 1)s i us Às i d s. let ÷ i be the class function on G with the following values. q) r 0 3 r i r iq 0 rq 333 gives a character ÷ of degree 2 for each group. For G1. we get 1 i (r r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2 2À1 q rPFÃ 2 q and doing the same for the character ÷ of G2 .12. ø i and ö i given in Propositions 28.

it follows that ÷ i is an irreducible character of G. Then the characters ÷ i and ÷ j of G are different. with integer coef®cients. the characters á i á iq and á j á jq of K are different. ÷ i T ÷ j . and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i . j We have now completed the proof of Theorem 28. and h÷ i . q If g is conjugate to v r where r P F q 2 nF q then (á i á iq )( g) r i r iq .15 Proposition Suppose that i and j are integers with (q 1) T j i and (q 1) T j j and j T i.13. 0. ÷ i i (q À 1)2 1 (q À 1)2 (q À 1) 2 (q À 1) 2 1X q Àq (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q À1 Since ÷ i is a linear combination of irreducible characters of G.5.i öi ÷i (q 1)s Ài qs 2i q(q 1)s i (q 1)s i q(q À 1)s i (q À 1)s i us s Ài 0 0 si 0 Às Ài d s. h÷ i . and the number of them is q 2 À 1. Proof Let K hvå i. as we wished to show.334 Representations and characters of groups The table below allows us to verify this. Since j T i. It is possible to use the character table of GL(2. which is the same as the number of conjugacy classes of G.Ài ø i ø0. j 28. as in Proposition 28. ÷ i i using Lemma 28. since we have shown that the class functions given in the theorem are inequivalent irreducible characters. We work out h÷ i . iq mod(q 2 À 1). sI ø0. Therefore.Ài øi ø0. t s Ài t Ài (st) i i s ti si t i 0 0 vr 0 Àr i(1q) 0 0 r i r iq À(r i r iq ) Next. Suppose that g P K. ÷ i i 1 and ÷ i (1) . q) to ®nd the . If g sI where s P FÃ then (á i á iq )( g) 2s i .6. so either s i T s j for some s P FÃ or q r i r iq T r j r jq for some r P F q 2 nF q . assume that (q 1) T j i. iq mod(q 2 À 1).

q) for all positive integers n. q). since most of the irreducible characters remain irreducible when restricted. In Exercise 28. Since SL(2. q) was found. q) is rather easier to ®nd than that of SL(2. namely that where q is a power of 2. Summary of Chapter 28 The character table of GL(2. q). q) when q 1 mod 4 or q 3 mod 4 from the character table of GL(2. q) 335 character table of SL(2. in 1955. Among the characters of SL(2. Although the character table of GL(2. and they depend upon whether q is a power of 2 or q 1 mod 4 or q 3 mod 4. you are asked to consider the easiest case. A. since the answers are quite complicated. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of degree 0 s q. though. q) provide the characters of the groups PSL(2. q). q) ± compare Chapter 27 ± and so the character table of PSL(2. A challenging exercise is to determine the character table of PSL(2. q) when q is a power of 2. it was not until the 1950's that the character table of GL(3.2. t (s T t). (d) There are (q 2 À q)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives of the . q). q) was ®rst given in 1907. q). those with kernel containing the centre of SL(2. and there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 0 t irreducible characters of degree q 1. We do not go fully into this. Then.Character table of GL(2. (b) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form s 1 us . q) has the following properties. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of 0 s degree 1. Green determined the character table of GL(n. (c) There are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives s 0 of the form d s. q) PSL(2. (a) Thereare q 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form À s 0 sI . this gives the character tables of an in®nite series of simple groups PSL(2. J.

q). 8). 3. q) Z 3 SL(2.336 Representations and characters of groups 0 1 . 2. q) is simple. . Use Theorem 28. Prove that q GL(2. 3). and there are (q 2 À q)a2 irreducible form v r Àr 1q r r q characters of degree q À 1. Prove that if q T 2 then SL(2. q) from that of GL(2.2 to write down explicitly the character table of PSL(2. q)X Deduce the character table of SL(2. Use your solution to Exercise 28. Let Z fsI : s P FÃ g. Exercises for Chapter 28 1.5 to write down explicitly the character table of GL(2. Suppose that q is a power of 2.

1 Examples (1) If G < Sn then the identity map is an action of G on f1. We also say that G acts on Ù (via ö). In particular. jg of elements of f1. F F F . F F F . denote by Sym(Ù) the group of all permutations of Ù. ng. If Ù is a set. (2) Let G Sn and let Ù be the set consisting of all pairs fi. 2. (So for example. it is called the action of Sn on pairs. 3g 3 f2. ng then Sym(Ù) Sn . De®nition Let G be a group and Ù a set.12 below).e. if Ù f1. particularly about irreducible characters of symmetric groups (see Theorem 29. and develop some useful results. In this chapter we take the theory of permutation groups and characters somewhat further. i. a fact which proved useful in many of our subsequent character table calculations. 29. Group actions We begin with a more general notion than that of a permutation group. 3g.) Check that ö is an action of Sn . jgg for all g P Sn and 1 < i . 337 .29 Permutations and characters We have already seen in Chapter 13 that if G is a permutation group. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism ö: G 3 Sym(Ù). a subgroup of Sn for some n. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting fi. (1 2)ö sends f1. j < n. F F F . ng. jg( gö) fig. then G has a permutation character ð de®ned by ð( g) jfix( g)j for g P G.

29. The equivalence classes are called the orbits of G on Ù. a b)iX Then ö is an action of G on Ù. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting hvi( gö) hv gi for all hvi P Ù and g P G. and let Ù be the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces hvi of V. With this notation. Then by Exercise 9 of Chapter 23. if 1 1 g 0 1 then gö sends h(a. in other words. we have á $ â if and only if there exists g P G such that á g â. Ù) for the number of orbits of G on Ù. b)i 3 h(a. It is easy to see that $ is an equivalence relation on Ù. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices over the ®nite ®eld F q. Ù) 1. de®ne a relation $ on Ù as follows: for á. For example. The group G is said to be transitive on Ù if orb(G. b) with a. and let Ù be the set of all right cosets Hx of H in G (so jÙj n). Adopting this notation.338 Representations and characters of groups (3) Let G GL(2. generated by x. Thus Ù is the disjoint union of the orbits of G. given any á. and Ker ö xPG x À1 Hx < H. G is transitive if. Write orb(G. for ù P Ù and g P G we usually just write ù g instead of ù( gö). ö is an action of G. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by ( Hx)( gö) Hxg for all x.2 Examples (1) Let G C4 . as de®ned in Chapter 28. (4) Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. h P G. g P G. the fact that ö is a homomorphism simply says that ù( gh) (ù g)h for all ù P Ù and g. if ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) is an action. say. â P Ù. and let ö: G 3 S8 be the action . b P F q . â P Ù. Let V be the 2-dimensional vector space over F q consisting of all row vectors (a. there exists g P G such that á g â. To simplify notation. q).

In other words.3 Proposition The stabilizer Gù is a subgroup of G. Observe that for x. so Gù is a subgroup. namely f1. q) such that vA w. Moreover. the element g x À1 y P G has the property that ( Hx) g Hy. w P V there is an invertible 2 3 2 matrix A P GL(2. 3. so ù G fù g : g P Gg. Clearly ã is also surjective. 8g. CÙ consists of all expressions of the form . Let G be a group acting on a set Ù.Permutations and characters 339 de®ned by xö (1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8) (and of course x k ö ((1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8)) k for any k). This is clear in Example (2). the size of the orbit ù G is equal to the index of Gù in G. that is. (2) The group G is transitive on the set Ù in each of Examples 29. h P Gù then ù( gh) (ù g)h ùh ù. given two right cosets Hx. simply observe that. 2. as required. Denote by CÙ the vector space over C for which Ù is a basis. 4). Gù x Gù y D xy À1 P Gù D ùxy À1 ù D ùx ù yX Hence we can de®ne an injective function ã : Ä 3 ù G by ã(Gù x) ùx for all x P G. and in Example (4). and de®ne Gù f g P G : ù g ùgX We call Gù the stabilizer of ù in G. 8g. 29.1(2. hence gh P Gù . y P G. Now let Ä be the set of right cosets Gù x of Gù in G. to verify it for Example (3) you need to convince yourself that for any two non-zero row vectors v. f5. 6g and f7. and hence jÄj jù G j. write ù G for the orbit of G which contains ù. 3. 4g. Then G has three orbits on Ù f1. For ù P Ù. Also gÀ1 P Gù . F F F . j Permutation characters Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. and Gù contains the identity. jù G j jG : Gù jX Proof If g. Hy P Ù.

We calculate jÖj in two different ways. ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)j.4 Proposition Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. By Proposition 29. and let ð be the permutation character. 129) that if ð is the character of this permutation module. F F F . The next result. g) : ù P Ù. by de®ning 2 3 ëù ù g ëù (ù g) for all g P G. the number of ù P Ù such that ù g ù is equal to jfixÙ ( g)j. 29. It is often referred to as ``Burnside's Lemma''. then for g P G. where fixÙ ( g) fù P Ù : ù g ùg. ù g ùg. hence . Then 1 hð. pick ù i P Ä i . We call ð the permutation character of G on Ù. for 1 < i < t we have jÄ i j jù G j jG : Gù i jX i Hence jÄ i j jGù i j jGj. and provides a basic link between the permutation character and the action of G. for each g. we can make CÙ into a CG-module. As in Chapter 13.3. 1 G i jfixÙ ( g)j orb(G. and for each i.340 Representations and characters of groups ëù ù (ëù P C) ùPÙ with the obvious addition and scalar multiplication. Ù)X jGj gPG Proof First note that hð. called the permutation module. Ä t be the orbits of G on Ù. First. 1 G i 1 1 ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)jX jGj gPG jGj gPG Let Ä1 . but is in fact due to Cauchy and Frobenius. g P G. Now de®ne Ö f(ù. is rather famous. We see just as in Chapter 13 (p. though elementary.

It is clear that fixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g) fixÙ1 ( g) 3 fixÙ2 ( g) for any g P G. 1 G i 1. Hence if ð is the permutation character of G on Ù1 3 Ù2 . for each ù.6 in a number of situations.Permutations and characters jÖj jfixÙ ( g)jX gPG 341 Secondly. and suppose that G acts on two sets Ù1 and Ù2 .4. the ®rst being the case where Ù1 Ù2 . . with permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively. Then hð1 . 29. ð2 i 1 1 jfixÙ1 ( g)kfixÙ2 ( g)j jfixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g)j. ù2 g) for all ù i P Ù i . then ð( g) ð1 ( g)ð2 ( g) for all g P G. the number of g P G such that ù g ù is equal to jGù j. hence jÖj Therefore gPG ùPÙ jGù j t i1 jÄ i j jGù i j t 1 jGj tjGjX j jfixÙ ( g)j tjGj. Then we can de®ne an action of G on the Cartesian product Ù1 3 Ù2 by setting (ù1 . with corresponding permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively. g P G.6 Proposition Let G act on Ù1 and Ù2 . ù2 ) g (ù1 g. and the conclusion follows. Now let G be a group. Ù1 3 Ù2 )X Proof We have hð1 .5 Corollary G is transitive on Ù if and only if hð. Ù1 3 Ù2 ) by Proposition 29. 29. ð2 i orb(G. jGj gPG jGj gPG j which is equal to orb(G. In the rest of the chapter we apply Proposition 29.

Ù 3 Ù)X The next result is immediate from Proposition 29. ù2 P Ù. Then G also acts on Ù 3 Ù in the way de®ned above.10 Corollary If G is 2-transitive on Ù. ðiX Now suppose G is transitive on Ù and jÙj . Ù) orb(G. 29.342 Representations and characters of groups Suppose G acts on Ù. 1 G i 1 by Corollary 29.7 De®nition The number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù is called the rank of G on Ù. The case where equality holds is of particular interest. Ù) > 2. there exists g P G such that á1 g â1 and á2 g â2 .8. g P G. Then r(G. with permutation character ð.17. and hð. Then Ä f(ù. â2 ) in Ù 3 Ù. with permutation character ð.6. written r(G.8 Proposition Let G act on Ù. then ð 1 G ÷. 29. with á1 T á2 . Ù).5.9 De®nition Let G be transitive on Ù. ù2 g) for all ù1 . 29. namely (ù1 . Ù) hð. j . In other words. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. á2 ) and (â1 . ði 2 by Proposition 29. G is 2-transitive if. Ù) 2. Then G is said to be 2-transitive on Ù if r(G. using Theorem 14. Thus r(G. The result follows. â1 T â2 . for any ordered pairs (á1 . Proof We have hð. ù) : ù P Ùg is an orbit of G on Ù 3 Ù. and hence certainly r(G. 1. ù2 ) g (ù1 g. 29.

as claimed. lg) : jfi. 2g. with n > 4. ng. lgj 0gX Thus hð. (3) Consider the action of Sn on pairs de®ned in Example 29. the irreducible character ÷ of G given by Corollary 29. To see this. Also An is 2-transitive. F F F .10 is the character ø0 of degree q in Theorem 28. jg. 2g. Some irreducible characters of S n By Theorem 12. 4g) to (f1.15 we know that the conjugacy classes of Sn are in bijective correspondence with the set of all possible cycle-shapes of permutations. Here Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of the 2-dimensional vector space V. Each cycle-shape (including 1-cycles) is a sequence ë (ë1 . the irreducible characters of Sn are also in bijective correspondence with the partitions ë of n. Hence G is 2-transitive on Ù. an irreducible character ÷ ë . By Theorem 15. jg. for example.5. The linear transformation from V to V which sends v1 3 w1 . q) given in Example 29. where Ä is as above.3. and we call such a sequence a partition of n. hv2 i) and (hw1 i. since.17). and so ð 1 G ÷ ø. This action is not 2-transitive. v2 and w1. w2 are both bases of V. 19. v2 3 w2 is therefore invertible. let (hv1 i. hw2 i) be two pairs of distinct 1-spaces in Ù. ði r(G.11 Examples (1) The symmetric group Sn is 2-transitive on f1.1(2). F F F . Since jÙj q 1 (see Exercise 1 at the end of the chapter).1(3). hv2 i 3 hw2 i. jg fk. A key aim is therefore to construct. f2. Then v1 . fk. q) which sends hv1 i 3 hw1 i. there is no element of Sn which sends (f1. We claim that G is 2-transitive on Ù. 19. fk. and Ä1 f(fi. for each partition ë.1. Ä2 f(fi.16. Ù) 3. provided n > 4. 3g). (2) Consider the action of G GL(2.Permutations and characters 343 29. giving an element of GL(2. Ä1 and Ä2 . where ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of Sn . In fact it is easy to see that the orbits of G Sn on Ù 3 Ù are Ä. ë s ) of positive integers ë i such that ë1 > ë2 > F F F > ë s and ë1 F F F ë s n. lg) : jfi. jg fk. f3. Hence these groups have an irreducible character ÷ given by ÷( g) jfix( g)j À 1X We have seen this irreducible character in a number of previous examples (see 18. lgj 1g.

Just as in Example 29.13 Theorem Let m na2 if n is even. Proof By Proposition 29.1(2) we can de®ne an action of G on I k as follows: for any subset A fi1 . in a natural way. F F F . ÷ ( nÀ1. Proof We prove the existence of irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . ÷ ( nÀ m. k) . For an integer k < na2. F F F . The orbits of G Sn on I k 3 I l are easily seen to be J 0 . where for 0 < s < l. giving the conclusion. F F F . F F F .10. k) X In particular. by induction on k. Then Sn has distinct irreducible characters ÷ ( n) 1 G . ÷ ( nÀ k. Now assume the statement holds for all values less than k. but we do not do this.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. 2. ÷ ( nÀ1. m) such that for all k < m. and much more. James listed in the Bibliography. F F F . de®ne I k to be the set consisting of all subsets of I of size k. we refer you to the book by G. ð l i orb(G.1) .2) . ÷ ( nÀ k. ng. J s f(A. k).12 Proposition If l < k < na2. ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. a 2-part partition (see Theorem 29. on the character theory of Sn . We shall apply the material of this chapter to carry out this aim in the case where ë (n À k. The ideas can be developed to carry out the aim in general. Let G Sn and I f1. Then . ik ggX Let ð k be the permutation character of G in its action on I k . ÷ ( nÀ2.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k.13 below). ð l i l 1. if you want to see this. let Ag fi1 g. k) such that ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. I k 3 I l ). F F F J l . B) P I k 3 I l : jA Bj sgX Hence orb(G. Observe that n ð k (1) jI k j X k 29. and m (n À 1)a2 if n is odd. I k 3 I l ) l 1. then hð k .344 Representations and characters of groups of Sn . This holds for k 1 by Corollary 29.6.1) . ik g P I k and any g P G. hð k . j 29. J 1 . k) ð k À ð kÀ1 .

÷7 . ÷ ( nÀ k1. and r(G.13. hð k .2) on a 3-cycle: ÷ (5.14 Examples (1) The formula ÷ ( nÀ k. Summary of Chapter 29 1. as required. and the corresponding character of G is ð. ð1 i 2. The size of the orbit ù G containing ù is jù G j jG : Gù j.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀi. 2. j 29. 4.3) . the degree is n n ( nÀ k. respectively. If G is 2-transitive then r(G. Now by Proposition 29.1) . ð k i k 1X It follows that ð k ð kÀ1 ÷ for some irreducible character ÷. For example.Permutations and characters 345 there exist irreducible characters ÷ ( n) .17. ÷ (4. ÷3 . k) . Writing ÷ ÷ ( nÀ k. ÷ (3. hð k . Ù) is the number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù. k. ð kÀ1 i k.2) . we have ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. ÷ (5. F F F . . hð k . Ù) 2 and ð 1 G ÷ with ÷ irreducible. k) .1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. k) corresponding to 2-part partitions have values given by Theorem 29. ÷9 are equal to ÷ (6) . where ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)j. The irreducible characters ÷ ( nÀ k. The orbits are the equivalence classes in Ù of the relation de®ned by á $ â D á g â for some g P G. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù). k) ÷ (1) ð k (1) À ð kÀ1 (1) À X k kÀ1 As another example. the irreducible characters ÷1 . kÀ1) such that ð i ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. Ù) hð. ÷ ( nÀ1. F F F . k) . hð k . k) ð k À ð kÀ1 makes it easy to calculate the values of the characters ÷ ( nÀ k.1) . The rank r(G. suppose n 7 and let us calculate the value of the irreducible character ÷ (5.2) (123) ð2 (123) À ð1 (123) jfix I 2 (123)j À jfix I 1 (123)j 6 À 4 2X (2) In the character table of S6 given in Example 19.12. The irreducible characters of Sn are in bijective correspondence with partitions of n. 3. ði. The number of orbits is equal to hð. If G acts on Ù then CÙ is the permutation module. 1 G i 1.i) for all i . 1 G i.

(Such an element is called a ®xed-point-free element of G.1(3)). (c) Show that the rank of this action r(G 3 G. Let G be a ®nite group.) . q) (the latter are given by Theorem 28. Show that if Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of a 2dimensional vector space over F q (as in Example 29.346 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 29 1. and take inner products with the irreducible characters of G given in 28. and de®ne an action ö : G 3 Sym(V Ã ) by v( gö) v g for v P V Ã. For i 1. and ÷ 3 ÷ is the irreducible character of G 3 G given by Theorem 19.1(4). Decompose ð as a sum of irreducible characters of GL(2. then H 1 H 2 X Give an example to show that this need not be the case in general. H 2 be subgroups of G. Let G be a ®nite group acting transitively on a set Ù of size greater than 1.18. 2. g. Let G be a ®nite group. Let G GL(2. so that G acts on Ù i as in Example 29. h)ö) g À1 xh for all x. Suppose that ð1 ð2 . where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G.5. Let q V Ã V À f0g. let ð i be the permutation character of G in the action on Ù i .1(2). and let H 1 . and ®nd the kernel of ö. (a) Show that ö is an action of G 3 G on G. (b) Find the stabilizer (G 3 G)1 of the identity 1 P G. q) and let V F2 as in Example 29. G) is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. 2 de®ne Ù i to be the set of right cosets of H i in G. which is transitive. and de®ne a function ö : G 3 G 3 Sym(G) by x(( g. Prove that if G is abelian.5). ( Hint: one way to do this is to write down the values of ð on the conjugacy classes of G. h P G. 3.) 4. 5. Let ð be the permutation character of G in this action. and the permutation character ð is ð ÷ ÷ 3 ÷. g P G. Prove that G contains an element g such that jfixÙ ( g)j 0. then jÙj q 1.

1) ÷ ( nÀ2. and let Ù be the set of all ordered pairs (i. By considering inner products as in the proof of Theorem 29. which irreducible character is equal to ÷ (4.1) ? . Writing ÷ ÷ ( nÀ2. (i.1) .1. j) with i.1. Let Sn act on Ù in the obvious way (namely.1. jg) for g P Sn ). where ÷ is an irreducible character. j P f1. prove that ð( nÀ2.1.1. calculate the degree of ÷ ( nÀ2. Let n be a positive integer.1) . ng and i T j.13. and calculate its value on the elements (12) and (123) of Sn . and let the permutation character of Sn in this action be ð( nÀ2. j) g (ig.17. F F F . In the character table of S6 given in Example 19.1) .Permutations and characters 347 6.1) 1 2÷ ( nÀ1.2) ÷.

the dihedral group of order 8. as we shall demonstrate. Recall from Proposition 12. 348 .30 Applications to group theory There are several ways of using the character theory of a group to determine information about the structure of the group.1 Proposition There exist non-negative integers aijk such that for 1 < i < l and 1 < j < l. . Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G. These constants carry information about the multiplication in G. . . and they can be used to investigate the subgroup structure of G. Using a little group theory and a lot of character theory we shall carry out such a study in the case where C D8 . The examples which we have come across so far ± ®nding the centre of the group. seeing whether or not the group is simple. . C l form a basis for the centre of the group algebra CG (where C i gPC i g). 30. The second application takes this much further: the Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23.19 motivates the study of simple groups containing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to a given group C. . and so on ± require little calculation. known as the class algebra constants. . In this chapter we present some rather deeper applications. Class algebra constants Let G be a ®nite group and let C1 . .22 that the class sums C1 . The ®rst involves doing arithmetic with character values to determine certain numbers. .

the constants aijk determine the product of any two elements in the centre Z(CG) of the group algebra. j Another way of looking at Proposition 30. you might suspect that the class algebra constants are determined by the character table of G. j we have aijk the number of pairs (a. and is independent of the chosen element g of Ck . C l . This number is a non-negative integer.1 is to note that C i C j belongs to Z(CG). . 30. . b) with a P Ci . we have aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all the irreducible characters ÷ of G. k. the numbers aijk carry information about the multiplication in G: (30X3) For all g P Ck and all i. From their very de®nition. b P Cj and ab gX Also. . so it must be a linear combination of C1 . The result follows. C l is a basis of Z(CG). . .4 Theorem Let gi P Ci for 1 < i < l.Applications to group theory Ci C j l k1 349 aijk C k X Proof For g P Ck the coef®cient of g in the product C i C j is equal to the number of pairs (a. 30. b P Cj and ab g. . As the centre of the group algebra plays an important role in representation theory. . .2 De®nition The integers aijk in the formula Ci C j l k1 aijk C k are the class algebra constants of G. b) with a P Ci . Our next theorem shows that this is indeed the case. Then for all i. since C1 . . j.

4(2).6 Example In this example we shall use the class algebra constants to prove some facts about the elements and subgroups of the symmetric group S4 .5) by ÷( g k ) and sum over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. and let U be a CGmodule with character ÷.7. we deduce that l m1 aijm ÷( g i )÷( g j ) ÷( g m ) jGj X jCG ( g m )j jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷(1) Pick k with 1 < k < l.350 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. Then by Lemma 22. the character table of G is as shown: . By Section 18. this yields aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) j Examples 30. Theorem 16. Multiply both sides of equation (30. to obtain l m1 aijm ÷( g m )÷( g k ) ÷ jCG ( g m )j ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) By the column orthogonality relations. for all u P U we have uC i Therefore uC i C j and l m1 jGj÷( g i ) uX jCG ( g i )j÷(1) ÷( g i )÷( g j ) jGj2 u jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j (÷(1))2 aijm uC m l m1 aijm jGj÷( g m ) uX jCG ( g m )j÷(1) Since C i C j (30X5) m aijm C m . but they serve as a useful illustration of the method. these results can readily be proved directly. Let G S4 .1.

4 to calculate the class algebra constant a555 : 24 1 À1 0 À1 1 0X a555 X 44 1 1 2 3 3 Hence. In fact. aÀ1 xa ba (ab)À1 x À1 .4. S4 does not possess elements a. (3) Finally. We deduce the fact (which we already know from Exercise 18. we have x 4 1. so ka. b of order 4 such that the product ab also has order 4. We deduce from this that S4 does not have a subgroup which is isomorphic to the quaternion group Q8 : for Q8 does have two elements of order 4 with product of order 4.Applications to group theory Character table of S4 Class Ci gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 C1 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 C2 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 C3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 C4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 351 C5 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 (1) We use Theorem 30. and all products of elements of S4 are determined by the given relations. (2) By Theorem 30. bl D8. 24 a235 X (1 1) 4.1) that S4 has a subgroup which is isomorphic to D8. by (30. Writing x ab. 43 so S4 has elements a of order 2 and b of order 3 with ab of order 4. b of order 2 such that ab has order 4.3). b: a2 b3 (ab)4 1iX In other words. it can be shown that S4 has a presentation as follows: S4 ha. S4 is generated by a and b. 24 1 1 a245 X 11 2X 48 3 3 Hence S4 has elements a. We supply a .

6 ± in the meantime. 7) Class rep. and it is quite tricky to construct directly.4 to ®nd a subgroup H of the simple group PSL (2.352 Representations and characters of groups proof in the solution to Exercise 30. 7) with H isomorphic to S4 . gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. That such a subgroup exists is not obvious.7 Example We use Theorem 30. We found in Chapter 27 that the character table of G PSL (2. you may wish to puzzle out the relevance of the ®gure above. Character table of PSL (2. 7) is as follows. 30. g1 1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 .

is {1}. given a ®nite group C. G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2. yl of G. by (30.4. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography).8 Theorem Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group which has an involution t such that C G (t) D8 . an effort which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s (see the book by D. 30. V4 . A4 or S4 (see Example 12.19 states that there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with a given centralizer. all ®nite simple groups G possessing an involution t such that C G (t) C. This fact led Brauer to initiate a programme to ®nd.10. From Example 30. It determines the possible orders of simple groups G having an involution t such that C G (t) D8 . Let H be the subgroup kx. We have chosen to present this result because it provides a wonderful illustration of the use of character theory in the service of group theory. so H is isomorphic to S4 . y has order 3 and xy has order 4. The next result carries out part of Brauer's programme in the case where C D8 . This programme formed an important part of the effort of many mathematicians to classify all the ®nite simple groups. 7) has a subgroup which is isomorphic to S4 . we know that S4 ha. Then G has order 168 or 360. we conclude that H S4 X Thus we have shown that PSL (2. The Brauer programme The Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23. S3 .Applications to group theory We calculate the class algebra constant a243 . 168 1 a243 X 1 0 0 0 0 8X 83 7 353 Hence. Since H has an element of order 4. being a normal subgroup of S4 . b: a2 b3 (ab)4 1iX Hence there is a homomorphism ö from S4 onto H (ö sends a to x and b to y). By Theorem 30. namely xy. . a dihedral group of order 8. By Theorem 1.6.20). Now Ker ö.3). S4 aKer ö H. C2 or {1}.

Let Ù be the set of right cosets Qx of Q in G. 30. (2) all Sylow p-subgroups are conjugate in G (i. we require a couple of preliminary results. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. then there is a Sylow p-subgroup of G containing R. then Qxu Qx and hence xux À1 P Q. Hence the subgroup f g P G : g acts as an even permutation on Ùg . and A6 is a simple group of order 360 with this property (see Exercise 7 at the end of the chapter). The ®rst is Sylow's Theorem. the involution u is a product of m disjoint 2-cycles. contrary to assumption.1). Observe that jÙj 2jG : Pj 2m.8. a basic result in ®nite group theory. then there exists g P G such that Q g Pg). Hence fixÙ (u) Æ. À1 subgroups. hence is an odd permutation. and de®ne an action of G on Ù by (Qx) g Qxg for x. Now consider fixÙ (u) fù P Ù : ùu ùg If Qx P fixÙ (u). Proof Suppose u is not conjugate to an element of Q. 7) and A6 are the only simple groups of order 168 or 360. where a.2(4)). and let P be a Sylow 2subgroup of G. We shall not prove this.3 and 18. Suppose Q is a subgroup of P with jP : Qj 2. where m is odd since P is a Sylow 2-subgroup. and let G be a ®nite group of order p a b.9 Sylow's Theorem Let p be a prime number.e. g P G (see Example 29.4 of the book by J. (3) if R is a subgroup of G with jRj p c for some c. 7) is a simple group of order 168 having an involution with centralizer D8 (see Lemma 27. but refer you to Theorems 18. then u is conjugate to an element of Q. such a subgroup is call a Sylow p-subgroup of G. if P Q are Sylow p.354 Representations and characters of groups Observe that PSL(2. one can show that PSL(2. Using some rather more sophisticated group theory than that covered in this book. If u is an involution in G.10 Lemma Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group. This means that in its action on Ù. Then (1) G contains a subgroup of order p a. 30. Before embarking upon the proof of Theorem 30. b are positive integers and p T j b.

9(3). It is clear from this de®nition that the formulae for the values of ø 4 G given in Proposition 21. By Theorem 30. Therefore P < . The centre of D8 is a cyclic group of order 2 (see (12. Notice also that the orthogonality relations give the usual inner products hø. The generalized character ø can be expressed as a difference á À â. This contradiction completes the proof. so Z(P) < Z(D) hti.20 hold for generalized characters ø. This is impossible since G is non-abelian and simple. and as t commutes with all elements of D.0 Finally. In particular.12)). and hence Z(P) hti. øi n2 ÷ for a generalized character ø as above.1(1) we have Z(P) T 1. and each n÷ P Z. the centre of D. j We also need to introduce the idea of a generalized character of a group H.Applications to group theory 355 is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. Proof of Theorem 30. if H is a subgroup of a group G. the degree ø(1) can be 0 or negative for a generalized character ø. hø. where á and â are characters of H: take á n÷ ÷. â À n÷ ÷X n÷ >0 n÷ . Then Z(P) < C G (t) D. and hence Z(D) hti. so t P D. ÷i n÷ .19 and Corollary 21. there is a Sylow 2-subgroup P of G such that D < P. we have t P Z(D). we de®ne the induced generalized character ø 4 G by ø 4 G (á 4 G) À ( â 4 G) where ø á À â as above. but this need not be the case for a generalized character. Certainly t commutes with itself. By Lemma 26. If n÷ > 0 for all ÷ then of course ø is a character.8 Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group with an involution t such that C G (t) D D8 . This is simply a class function of the form ø n÷ ÷ x where the sum is over all the irreducible characters of H.

we must have g À1 tg t. D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. è(1) 0. bi where a4 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . èi 3. This is all the group theory we will need for the proof. Write D ha. è 4 Gi 3X To see this. and if C g À1 Cg C then g P D. giving (30.20). Now hè 4 G. Referring to the character table of D8 in Example 16. èi 3. whence y À1 cy cÆ1 and è( y À1 cy) è(c). and de®ne è (1 C 4 D) À (ë 4 D). By Lemma 30. if y À1 cy P C then y P D. hè 4 G. t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. Let ë be the linear character of C such that ë(a) i.356 Representations and characters of groups C G (t) D. hence g P C G (t) D and so g À1 Cg C. aÀ1 . Let C hai be the cyclic subgroup of index 2 in D. We summarise what we have proved so far: (30. Next.12) that . The rest is character theory. Since è vanishes on D À C.11). We next establish (30X12) hè 4 G. As t a2 is the only such involution.10. for any g P G we have C gÀ1 Cg f1g or C. we therefore have h(è 4 G) 5 D. èi Now for 1 T c P C. and so it follows from (30. the value 4 on t. And if y À1 cy P D À C then è( y À1 cy) 0.) Hence hè. observe ®rst that by Frobenius reciprocity. (In particular. Also (è 4 G)(1) 0 (see Corollary 21. Since t c or c2. 1 G i h1 C À ë.3(3).19 gives 1 À1 (è 4 G)(c) è( y cy)X 8 yPG By (30. let g P G and suppose that g À1 cg P C for some non-identity element c P C. è 4 Gi h(è 4 G) 5 D. we have è ÷1 ÷2 À ÷5 . Then t a2 . 1 C i 1. Proposition 21. èi hè. and so P D.11) D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. and 0 elsewhere. we conclude that t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. It follows that (è 4 G)(c) è(c). a generalized character of D.12). every involution of G is conjugate to an involution in C. Then è takes the value 2 on a. In other words.

hè 4 G. ãi h1 C À ë. We shall calculate the inner product of ã and è 4 G in two ways.10. If c xy with x. where á.3). and hence x P D by (30. (30. Write d á(1) and e á(t) P Z. then ã( g) a iik in the notation of (30.15) we deduce 2 3 á(t)2 â(t)2 jGj 1 (30X16) À 28 X á(1) â(1) This equation gives us enough number-theoretic information about jGj to ®nish the proof fairly quickly. â are irreducible characters of G.11). Therefore h1 C À ë.Applications to group theory è 4 G 1 G á À â. y P t G . We now introduce another class function of G into the picture. First. then x À1 cx yx cÀ1 .13) We have è 4 G 1 G á À â.13) we have . Hence Theorem 30. ã 5 Ci 1 X4X((1 À i) 2 (1 i)) 4X jCj Hence from (30. For g P G. 1 á(1) À â(1) 0 and 1 á(t) À â(t) 4. by Frobenius Reciprocity. ã 5 Ci. Consider ã(c) for 1 T c P C. y) P t G 3 t G such that g xy. de®ne ã( g) to be number of ordered pairs (x. similarly y P D. Now calculation in D8 shows that ã(c) 4.4 yields the following. we have now proved the following.14) We have ã jGj ÷(t)2 ÷. (30. Since we have shown that (è 4 G)(t) è(t) 4. Note that by Corollary 13. jDj2 ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. from (30. ãi 1 (30X15) À X 64 á(1) â(1) On the other hand. By (30. á(t) and â(t) are integers.13) and (30. If we write t G C i and g lies in the conjugacy class C k of G.14) we have 2 3 jGj á(t)2 â(t)2 hè 4 G. 357 where á. â are irreducible.

and so d À 1 2 r with r < 5.16) gives 1 4 jGj 1 À 28 .16) yields jGj 28 d(d 1) X (d 2)2 Reasoning as above. Suppose now that e 1. . suppose that e 2. This completes the proof of Theorem 30. d) 1. Given groups G and H. by using the formula aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) 2. we have 8 jC G (t)j > 1 á(t)2 â(t)2 1 e 2 (e À 3)2 . j Summary of Chapter 30 1. The class algebra constants aijk are given by Ci C j aijk C k X k They can be calculated from the character table. Finally. one of the possibilities in the conclusion of Theorem 30. It follows that r 3 and d 9.8. from which it follows that e 1 or 2.358 Representations and characters of groups â(1) d 1.4(2). d 1) is 1 or 2. the class algebra constants of G can sometimes be used to determine whether or not G has a subgroup which isomorphic to H. giving jGj 360. d d1 whence jGj 28 d(d 1) X (d À 1)2 Now the highest common factor hcf (d À 1. Moreover. a Sylow 2-subgroup of G has order 8. we deduce that d 2 23 . â(t) e À 3X From the column orthogonality relations 16. Then (30. and hcf (d À 1. giving d 6 and jGj 168. Then (30.8. Hence (d À 1)2 must divide 210 .

Using Sylow's Theorem. 7) contain a subgroup isomorphic to D14 ? (Hint: D14 ka. g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 5 5 8 8 9 10 p g2 1 1 1 0 0 1 À2 g3 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 0 p 5)a2. and that G has the character table shown. 2. Prove that A5 is characterized by its character table ± that is. b has order 3 and ab has order 7. (a) Show that G is a simple group of order 360. and that A5 has the following presentation: A5 ha. if G is a group with the same character table as A5 (see Example 20. Exercises for Chapter 30 1. Use the character table of PSL (2.Applications to group theory 359 3. it can be shown that any simple group possessing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 must have order 168 or 360. â (1 À 5. 11) contain a subgroup which is isomorphic to A5 ? 4. Does PSL (2. then G A5 . b: a2 b3 (ab)5 1iX 3. The character table of PSL (2. given at the end of Chapter 27. 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2. g4 1 2 À1 À1 À1 0 1 g5 1 À1 2 À1 À1 0 1 g6 1 0 0 á â À1 0 g7 1 0 0 â á À1 0 where á (1 5)a2. together with lots of ingenious character theory. you may assume that A5 is a simple group. 7). to prove that PSL (2. (b) Use the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions to obtain an . Suppose that G is a group.) For the next three exercises.6. Does PSL (2.13). 11) is given in the solution to Exercise 27. b: a2 b2 1. (ab)7 1l.

) t such that . both of which contain an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 . 7. Find a simple group G having an involution C G (t) D16 .9. 7) and A6 are simple groups of order 168. Prove that PSL(2. 6. p). and deduce that g2 has order 2 and g3 has order 4.360 Representations and characters of groups upper bound for the number of involutions in G. show that G A6 .6(3) to show that every group G which is generated by two elements a and b which satisfy a2 b3 (ab)4 1 has order at most 24. 360 respectively. (c) Prove that G has a subgroup H which is isomorphic to A5 . (Hint: look for a suitable simple group PSL(2. (d) Using Exercise 23. Use the ®gure which appears in Example 30. 8.

Let á be an algebraic number. it is called the minimal polynomial of á. which we now describe. which states that if p and q are prime numbers and a and b are positive integers. For example. We omit proofs of these ± for a good account. Bender found one in 1972. Burnside presented group-theoretic arguments which proved the theorem for many special choices of the integers a. until H.31 Burnside's Theorem One of the most famous applications of representation theory is Burnside's Theorem. An algebraic number is a complex number which is a root of some non-zero polynomial over Q. We call a polynomial in x monic if the coef®cient of the highest power of x in it is 1. but it was only after studying Frobenius's new theory of group representations that he was able to prove the theorem in general. many later attempts to ®nd a proof which does not use representation theory were unsuccessful. b. Then p(x) is unique and irreducible. see for instance the book by Pollard and Diamond listed in the Bibliography. The roots of p(x) are called the conjugates of á. and let p(x) be a monic polynomial over Q of smallest possible degree having á as a root.2) which is concerned with character values. In the ®rst edition of his book Theory of groups of ®nite order (1897). then no group of order pa q b is simple. if ù is an nth root of unity then the minimal poly361 . Indeed. In order to establish this lemma we require some basic facts about algebraic integers and algebraic numbers. A preliminary lemma We prepare for the proof of Burnside's Theorem with a lemma (31.

Now suppose that ÷( g)a÷(1) is an algebraic integer and j÷( g)a÷(1)j . it follows that j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1. ù9 are roots of unity. Moreover. where each ù i is a root of unity.362 Representations and characters of groups nomial of ù divides x n À 1. 1. |ù d | d. . ù d | < |ù1 | . Then j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1.9 we have ÷( g) ù1 . Section 3.1) Let á and â be algebraic numbers. We shall require the following fact about conjugates: (31. then á is a root of a monic polynomial with integer coef®cients (see Chapter 22). each conjugate of ã is of the form (ù9 X X X ù9 )ad 1 d where ù9 . Proof Let ÷(1) d. . so ÷( g)a÷(1) (ù1 X X X ù d )adX Since |÷( g)| |ù1 .2 Lemma Let ÷ be a character of a ®nite group G. Write ã ÷( g)a÷(1). see Pollard and Diamond. 31. If á is an algebraic integer. where á9 is a conjugate of á. Then every conjugate of á â is of the form á9 â9. Chapter V. Hence each conjugate of ã has 1 d .1) can be proved easily using some Galois theory. . and if 0 . if r P Q then every conjugate of rá is of the form rá9. (31. and let p(x) be the minimal polynomial of ã. j÷( g)a÷(1)j . We prove that ÷( g) 0. By Proposition 13. . so that p(x) x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 where ai P Z for all i. and it turns out that the minimal polynomial of á also has integer coef®cients. . and so every conjugate of ù is also an nth root of unity. . .1). 1 then ÷( g)a÷(1) is not an algebraic integer. . where á9 is a conjugate of á and â9 is a conjugate of â. and let g P G. By (31. . . For an elementary proof of this. Alternatively. ù d .

Burnside's Theorem

363

modulus at most 1. It follows that if ë is the product of all the conjugates of ã (including ã), then jëj , 1X But the conjugates of ã are, by de®nition, the roots of the polynomial p(x), and the product of all these roots is equal to Æa0 . Thus ë Æa0 X Since a0 P Z and |ë| , 1, it follows that a0 0. As p(x) is irreducible, this implies that p(x) x, which in turn forces ã 0. Thus ÷( g) 0, and the proof is complete.

j

Burnside's p a q b Theorem We deduce the main result, Theorem 31.4, from another interesting theorem of Burnside. 31.3 Theorem Let p be a prime number and let r be an integer with r > 1. Suppose that G is a ®nite group with a conjugacy class of size pr . Then G is not simple. Proof Let g P G with | gG | pr . Since pr . 1, G is not abelian and g T 1. As usual, denote the irreducible characters of G by ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k , and take ÷1 to be the trivial character. The column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2), applied to the columns corresponding to 1 and g in the character table of G, give 1 Therefore

k i2 k i2

÷ i ( g)÷ i (1) 0X

÷ i ( g) .

÷ i (1) 1 À X p p

Now À1a p is not an algebraic integer, by Proposition 22.5. Therefore, for some i > 2, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer (see Theorem 22.3). Since ÷ i ( g) is an algebraic integer (Corollary 22.4), it follows

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that ÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer; in other words, p does not divide ÷ i (1). Thus ÷ i ( g) T 0 and p T j ÷ i (1)X As | gG | pr , this means that ÷ i (1) and | gG | are coprime integers, and so there are integers a and b such that ajG:CG ( g)j b÷ i (1) 1X Hence a jGj÷ i ( g) ÷ i ( g) b÷ i ( g) X jCG ( g)j÷ i (1) ÷ i (1)

By Corollaries 22.10 and 22.4, the left-hand side of this equation is an algebraic integer; and since ÷ i ( g) T 0, it is non-zero. Now Lemma 31.2 implies that j÷ i ( g)a÷ i (1)j 1X Let r be a representation of G with character ÷ i . By Theorem 13.11(1), there exists ë P C such that gr ëIX Let K Ker r, so that K is a normal subgroup of G. Since ÷ i is not the trivial character, K T G. If K T {1} then G is not simple, as required; so assume that K {1}, that is, r is a faithful representation. Since gr is a scalar multiple of the identity, gr commutes with hr for all h P G. As r is faithful, it follows that g commutes with all h P G; in other words, g P Z(G)X Therefore Z(G) T {1}. As Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G and Z(G) T G, we conclude that G is not simple. j We now come to the main result of the chapter, Burnside's Theorem. 31.4 Burnside's paqb Theorem Let p and q be prime numbers, and let a and b be non-negative integers with a b > 2. If G is a group of order pa q b , then G is not simple. Proof First suppose that either a 0 or b 0. Then the order of G is a power of a prime, so by Lemma 26.1(1) we have Z(G) T {1}.

Burnside's Theorem

365

Choose g P Z(G) of prime order. Then k gl v G and k gl is not equal to {1} or G. Hence G is not simple. Now assume that a . 0 and b . 0. By Sylow's Theorem 30.9, G has a subgroup Q of order q b . We have Z(Q) T {1} by Lemma 26.1(1). Let g P Z(Q) with g T 1. Then Q < CG ( g), so j g G j jG:CG ( g)j pr for some r. If pr 1 then g P Z(G), so Z(G) T {1} and G is not simple as before. And if pr . 1 then G is not simple, by Theorem 31.3. j In fact Burnside's pa q b Theorem leads to a somewhat more informative result about groups of order pa q b : (31.5) Every group of order p a q b is soluble. Here, by a soluble group we mean a group G which has subgroups G0 , G1 , . . . , Gr with 1 G 0 , G1 , X X X , G r G such that for 1 < i < r, GiÀ1 v Gi and the factor group Gi aG iÀ1 is cyclic of prime order. We sketch a proof of (31.5), using induction on a b. The result is clear if a b < 1, so assume that a b > 2 and let G be a group of order pa q b . By Burnside's Theorem 31.4, G has a normal subgroup H such that H is not {1} or G. Both H and the factor group Ga H have order equal to a product of powers of p and q, and these orders are less than pa q b . Hence by induction, H and Ga H are both soluble. Therefore there are subgroups 1 G0 v G1 v X X X v Gs H, 1 Gs a H v G s1 a H v X X X v Gr a H Ga H with all factor groups Gi aG iÀ1 of prime order. Then the series 1 G0 v G 1 v X X X v G r G shows that G is soluble. Summary of Chapter 31 1. If G has a conjugacy class of size pr ( p prime, r > 1), then G is not simple.

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2. If |G| pa q b ( p, q primes, a b > 2), then G is not simple. Exercises for Chapter 31 1. Show that a non-abelian simple group cannot have an abelian subgroup of prime power index. 2. Prove that if G is a non-abelian simple group of order less than 80, then |G| 60. (Hint: use Exercise 13.8.)

32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration

Representation theory is used extensively in many of the physical sciences. Such applications come about because every physical system has a symmetry group G, and certain vector spaces associated with the system turn out to be RG-modules. For example, the vibration of a molecule is governed by various differential equations, and the symmetry group of the molecule acts on the space of solutions of these equations. It is on this application ± the theory of molecular vibrations ± that we concentrate in this ®nal chapter. In order to keep our treatment elementary, we stay within the framework of classical mechanics throughout. (Quantum mechanical effects can be incorporated subsequently, but we shall not go into this ± for an account, consult the book by D. S. Schonland listed in the Bibliography.)

Symmetry groups Let V be R2 or R3, and for v, w P V, let d(v, w) denote the distance between v and w ± in other words, if v (x1 , x2 , . . .) and w ( y1, y2, . . .), then 3 r2 2 d(v, w) (xi À yi ) X An isometry of V is an invertible endomorphism W of V such that d(vW, wW) d(v, w) for all v, w P V X The set of all isometries of V forms a group under composition, called the orthogonal group of V, and denoted by O(V). Any rotation of R3 about an axis through the origin is an example 367

368

Representations and characters of groups

of an isometry; so is any re¯ection in a plane through the origin. The endomorphism À1R3 which sends every vector v to Àv is another example of an element in the orthogonal group O(R3 ). It turns out that the composition of two rotations is again a rotation, and that for every isometry g in O(R3 ), either g or À g is a rotation (see Exercise 32.1). The orthogonal group O(R3 ) therefore contains a subgroup of index 2 which consists of the rotations. The same is true of the group O(R2 ). If Ä is a subset of V , where V R2 or R3, then we de®ne G(Ä) to be the set of isometries which leave Ä invariant ± that is, G(Ä) f g P O(V ): Ä g Äg (where Ä g {v g: v P Ä}). Then G(Ä) is a subgroup of called the symmetry group of Ä. The subgroup of G(Ä) the rotations in G(Ä) is called the rotation group of Ä. the rotation group of Ä in the symmetry group G(Ä) is 1 O(V ), and is consisting of The index of or 2.

32.1 Example Let V R2, and let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon, with n > 3, centred at the origin. The symmetry group of Ä is easily seen to be the dihedral group D2n , which was de®ned as a group of n rotations and n re¯ections preserving Ä (see Example 1.1(3)). Now let V R3, and again let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon (n > 3) centred at the origin. This time, G(Ä) D2 n 3 C2 ; the extra elements arise because there is an isometry which ®xes all points of Ä, namely the re¯ection in the plane of Ä. 32.2 Example Let Ä be a regular tetrahedron in R3 centred at the origin:

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 369 Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1, 2, 3, 4. We claim that each permutation of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry of Ä. For example, the 2-cycle (1 2) corresponds to a re¯ection in the plane which contains the origin and the edge 34; similarly each 2-cycle corresponds to a re¯ection. Since S4 is generated by the 2-cycles, each of the 24 permutations of 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry, as claimed. No non-identity endomorphism of R3 ®xes all the corners of Ä, since Ä contains three linearly independent vectors. Therefore we have found all the isometries, and G(Ä) S4 . Notice that the rotation group of Ä is isomorphic to A4 ; for example, (1 2)(3 4) corresponds to a rotation through ð about the axis through the mid-points of the edges 12 and 34, and (1 2 3) corresponds to a rotation through 2ða3 about the axis through the origin and the corner 4. Finally, observe that the group G(Ä) is unchanged if we take Ä to consist of just the four corners of the tetrahedron. 32.3 Example In this example we describe the symmetry groups of the molecules H2 O (water), CH3 Cl (methyl chloride) and CH4 (methane). The symmetry group of a molecule is de®ned to be the group of isometries which not only preserve the position of the molecule in space, but also send each atom to an atom of the same kind. The shapes of the three molecules are as follows.

370

Representations and characters of groups

We always assume that the centroid of our molecule lies at the origin in R3 . The CH4 molecule has four hydrogen atoms at the corners of a regular tetrahedron, and a carbon atom at the centre of the tetrahedron. So the symmetry group of the molecule CH4 is equal to the symmetry group of the tetrahedron, as given in Example 32.2. This group is isomorphic to S4 , permuting the four hydrogen atoms among themselves and ®xing the carbon atom. As for the CH3 Cl molecule, this possesses a rotation symmetry a of order 3 about the vertical axis, and three re¯ection symmetries in the planes containing the C, Cl and one of the H atoms. If b is one of these re¯ections, then the symmetry group is f1, a, a2 , b, ab, a2 bg and is isomorphic to S3 , permuting the three H atoms and ®xing the C and Cl atoms. Finally, the H2 O molecule possesses two re¯ection symmetries, one in the plane of the molecule, and one in a plane perpendicular to this one passing through the O atom; and it has a rotation symmetry of order 2. Hence the symmetry group is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . Vibration of a physical system We prepare for a description of the general problem with an example. 32.4 Example Suppose we have a spring stretched between two points P and Q on a smooth horizontal table, with equal masses m attached at the points of trisection of the spring:

The masses are displaced slightly, and released. What can we say about the subsequent motion of the system? To investigate this problem, we let x1 and x2 be the displacements of the two masses at time t. We measure x1 from left to right, and x2 from right to left, as indicated in the ®gure above. Let k be the

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 371 stiffness of the spring ± in other words, if the extension in the spring is x, then the restoring force is kx. The spring pulls the left-hand mass towards P with force kx1 and towards Q with force Àk(x1 x2 ). By dealing with the right-hand mass similarly, we obtain the following equations of motion of the system: m1 Àkx1 À k(x1 x2 ) À2kx1 À kx2 , x m2 Àkx2 À k(x1 x2 ) Àkx1 À 2kx2 , x where xi denotes the second derivative of xi with respect to t. These are second order linear differential equations in two unknowns x1 and x2 , so the general solution involves four arbitrary constants. We shall ®nd the general solution, using a method which can be applied in a much wider context. Write x (x1 , x2 ), x (1 , x2 ) and q kam. Then the equations of x motion are equivalent to the matrix equation À2q Àq x xA, where A (32X5) X Àq À2q Notice that A is symmetric. Hence the eigenvalues of A are real, and A has two linearly independent eigenvectors. It is this property which we wish to emphasize and exploit in the present example. Before we explicitly ®nd the eigenvectors of A, let us explain why they allow us to solve the equation of motion (32.5). Suppose that u is an eigenvector of A, with eigenvalue Àù2 . For an arbitrary constant â, let x sin (ùt â) uX Then x Àù2 sin (ùt â) u sin (ùt â) uA xAX Thus x is a solution of the equation of motion. If u1 and u2 are linearly independent eigenvectors of A, with eigenvalues Àù2 and 1 Àù2 , respectively, then 2 á1 sin (ù1 t â1 ) u1 á2 sin (ù2 t â2 ) u2 (since uA Àù2 u)

372 Representations and characters of groups is a solution of the equation of motion which involves four arbitrary constants á1 .) Here x is the displacements of all the atoms. for the moment. so it is the general solution. Therefore the general solution of the equation of motion (32. For the matrix given in (32. that x xAX row vector in R3 n which measures the and A is a 3n 3 3n matrix with real the internal forces. We now adopt this line of attack in the problem to hand.5). we obtain equations which may be expressed in the form (32X6) (Compare (32. â1 . á2 .5) is p p á1 sin ( (3q) t â1 ) (1. Thus. at each atom the three coordinate axes . 1) and (1. entries which are determined by Assume. We assume that the internal forces are linear functions of the displacements.5). which we use to measure the displacement of the atom. They are as follows. x1 x2 sin ( (3q) t â1 ) and the vibration is p Here. t â2 ) (1. with corresponding eigenvectors (1. À1). â2 . t â2 ) and the vibration is Mode 2: p sin ( q . 1) á2 sin ( q . At the equilibrium position of each atom. we assign three coordinate axes. the state of the molecule at a given time is described by a vector in the 3n-dimensional vector space R3 n . 1) Mode 1: p Here. It follows that when we apply Newton's Second Law of Motion. p sin ( (3q) t â1 ) (1. À1) The general molecular vibration problem Suppose we have a molecule consisting of n atoms which vibrate under internal forces. the eigenvalues are À3q and Àq. x1 Àx2 sin ( q . À1)X The solutions which involve just one eigenvector of A are called the normal modes of vibration. t â2 ) (1.

6). which we de®ne next. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 373 which we have chosen are at right angles to each other. (2) (t â) u ( â constant) where u is an eigenvector of A corresponding to the eigenvalue 0.9 Proposition Each normal mode of vibration is a solution of the equation of motion (32.6). Proof If uA Àù2 A and x sin (ùt â) u.7 Proposition All the eigenvalues of A are real. for the general case.8 De®nition A normal mode of vibration for our molecule is a vector in R3 n of one of the following forms: (1) sin (ùt â) u ( â constant) where Àù2 is a non-zero eigenvalue of A and u is a corresponding eigenvector. that in this special case the matrix A is symmetric. then x 0 (t â)uA xAX This proves that the normal modes of vibration are solutions of the . and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. the effect of changing coordinate axes is merely to replace A by a matrix which is conjugate to A. Therefore we have the following proposition. from physical considerations. In particular. To solve the equation of motion (32. 32. where our chosen coordinate axes are not necessarily at right angles to each other. we look for normal modes of the system. The general solution of the equation of motion is a linear combination of the normal modes of vibration. 32. A has real eigenvalues. It can be shown. then x Àù2 sin (ùt â) u sin (ùt â) uA xAX If uA 0 and x (t â)u. and for this solution all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency. 32. Now.

Note that A can have no strictly positive eigenvalue. interchanges v4 and v7. by Proposition 32. which is nonsense. Since G permutes the atoms among themselves. Let G be the symmetry group of the molecule in question.6) (as (32. negates v2 and v3. Then g ®xes v1 . then x e ë t u would be a solution to the equation of motion. By construction.9 reduces the problem of solving the equations of motion to that of ®nding all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the 3n 3 3n matrix A. so it is the general solution to the equation of motion (32. 32.374 Representations and characters of groups equation of motion (32. ù or 0) in a normal mode. each element of G acts as an endomorphism of the space R3 n of displacement vectors. and . let v i denote a unit vector along coordinate axis i.6) consists of second order differential equations in 3n unknowns). Use of the symmetry group We continue the discussion of the previous section.6). j Proposition 32. Thus. with eigenvector u.10 Example Let g be the rotation of order 2 of the H2 O molecule: Assign coordinate axes at the initial positions of each atom as shown. all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency (namely. R3 n is an RG-module.7. and for 1 < i < 9. this can be a huge and unwieldy task if it is attempted directly ± even writing down the matrix A for a given molecule can be a painful operation! The symmetry group of the molecule and its representation theory can often be used to simplify greatly the calculation of the eigenvectors of A. However. and we shall describe a method for doing this. for if ë were p such an eigenvalue. the general linear combination of normal modes involves 6n arbitrary constants. Since each normal mode involves an arbitrary constant. Therefore there exist 3n linearly independent normal modes.

and the eigenspaces of A are RG-submodules of R3 n . Proof Let Àù2 be a non-zero eigenvalue of A. x9 ) g (x1 . Therefore. This shows that the eigenspace for Àù2 is an RG-submodule of R3 n . Àx8 . (xg)A (xA) g. by de®nition. v g must also specify the directions and relative magnitudes of displacements in a normal mode of frequency ù. x8 . The equations of motion are x xA. x6 . A similar argument applies to the eigenspace for the eigenvalue 0. fx P R3 n : xA ëxgX We can now present the crucial proposition which allows us to exploit the symmetry group G of our molecule. x4 . For all g in G. Àx6 )X We return to the general set-up. v g is an eigenvector of A. x7 . x4 . x3 . and hence .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 375 interchanges v5 and v6 with the negatives of v8 and v9 .7). with eigenvalue Àù2 . Àx5 . j The idea now is to use representation theory to express the RGmodule R3n as a direct sum of irreducible RG-submodules. since the relative con®guration of the atoms is unaltered by applying g. and let v be a corresponding eigenvector. For all vectors v in the basis. 32. Choose a basis of R3 n which consists of eigenvectors of A (see Proposition 32.11 Proposition For all g P G and x P R3 n . Àx3 . Àx9 . and we are trying to ®nd the eigenvectors of A. x2 . Then v speci®es the directions and relative magnitudes of the displacements of the atoms from the equilibrium position when the molecule is vibrating in a normal mode of frequency ù. vA ëv for some ë P R. it tells us that the function x 3 xA (x P R3 n ) is an RG-homomorphism from R3 n to itself. In effect. x7 . and (v g)A ë(v g) (ëv) g (vA) gX Hence (xg)A (xA) g for all x P R3 n . x5 . Therefore g acts on R9 as follows: (x1 . The eigenspace for the eigenvalue ë of A is. and let g P G. Àx2 .

problems like this are uncommon. then the element ÷( g À1 ) g gPG sends R3 n onto the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷ (see (14. the function x 3 (xA)å is an RG-homomorphism from V÷ into W. By Proposition 11.376 Representations and characters of groups to determine the eigenspaces of A. We can use character theory to see which irreducible RG-modules are contained in R3 n . The problem of ®nding the eigenspaces of A is considerably simpli®ed as a consequence of our next proposition.3. since the character of the RG-module R3 n might contain an irreducible character which cannot be realized over R ± but in practice. and the normal modes of the molecule. 32.) j . so xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ . w P W ) (x P V÷ ) is an RG-homomorphism.3 is stated in terms of CG-modules. its proof works equally well for RG-modules ± compare Exercise 23.8. and if ÷ is the character of an irreducible RGmodule which occurs. xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ X Proof By Maschke's Theorem we may write R3n V÷ È W for some RG-module W.27)). (This procedure sometimes needs to be modi®ed. (Although Proposition 11.12 De®nition Suppose that ÷ is the character of an irreducible RG-module. this function is zero.11.13 Proposition Each homogeneous component V÷ of R3 n is A-invariant ± that is.) 32. and no RG-submodule of W has character ÷. Therefore. Let V÷ denote the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷. by Proposition 32. We call V÷ a homogeneous component of R3 n . The function å: v w 3 w (v P V÷ .

32. (3) Calculate the character ÷ of the RG-module R3 n and express ÷ as a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G. so it must equal V÷ . Then the intersection of V÷ with the eigenspace for ë is a non-zero RG-submodule of V÷ . we may choose v P V÷ such that v is an eigenvector of A. or by some other method.7. then see Remark 32. then all the non-zero vectors in V÷ are eigenvectors of A. This can À1 3n be done by applying the element for each gPG ÷ i ( g ) g to R irreducible character ÷ i of G which appears in ÷. It is usually necessary to know the equations of motion in order to determine the frequency ù. with eigenvalue Àù2 . This involves no extra work if V÷ i is irreducible (see Corollary 32. (4) Express R3 n as a direct sum of homogeneous components.) Since V÷ is A-invariant. as we shall illustrate in the examples which make up the rest of this chapter.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 377 32. or Exercise 32. in turn. then sin (ùt â) v (or (t â)v if ù 0) is a normal mode. (2) Calculate the symmetry group G of the molecule. Then R3 n is an RG-module.19 below. to make further progress. and ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i (see Proposition 32. . j We now summarize the steps in the procedure for ®nding the normal modes of vibration of a given molecule. This programme can often be successfully completed.14 Corollary If V÷ is an irreducible RG-module. say. with eigenvalue ë.15 Summary (1) Assign three coordinate axes at each of the n atoms of the molecule. to obtain R3n . If V÷ i is reducible.13).14). where â is an arbitrary constant. Proof (Compare the proof of Schur's Lemma. (5) Consider. each homogeneous component V÷ i of R3 n . (6) If v is an eigenvector of A.

the RG-submodules of R2 are sp (u1 ) and sp (u2 ). so we assign two displacement coordinates to each atom.4. where the three identical atoms are at the corners of an equilateral triangle. we consider only vibrations of the molecule in the plane. x2 ) g (x2 . À1). 1). . x6 ) in R6 . 32. ù2 are the frequencies. where u1 (1. where xi is the displacement along axis i (1 < i < 6). For simplicity. â2 are constants and ù1 . 1). u2 (1. The symmetry group (in two dimensions) of the molecule is the dihedral group D6. x1 ). where â1 . À1)X It follows that the normal modes of the system are given by sin (ù1 t â1 )(1. x2 ) form an RG-module R2 . The displacement vectors (x1 . .17 Example Consider a hypothetical triatomic molecule.16 Example We ®rst return to Example 32. . as shown. We choose to take our axes along the edges of the triangle.4.378 Representations and characters of groups 32. where g is the re¯ection in the mid-point of PQ. . generated by a rotation a of order 3 and a re¯ection . with the spring and two vibrating masses: The symmetry group of this system is G h g: g 2 1i. Notice that we have determined the normal modes of vibration (but not their frequencies) using the symmetry group alone. as this eases the calculations: Thus the position of the molecule is given by a vector (x1 . sin (ù2 t â2 )(1. This agrees with the conclusion of Example 32. Since (x1 .

x3 . .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 379 b (see Example 32. x6 .1). x1 . For example. x4 . x5 . Since the rotation a does not ®x any of the atoms. corresponding to the eigenspace of A for eigenvalue 0. ÷3 and ÷3 . Thus. x4 . And from the action of b given above. we ®rst calculate the character ÷ of the module. To do this. v3 ) P R6 pictorially by the diagram We ®rst calculate the normal modes of the form (t â)v. then we represent the displacement vector (v1 . It is easy to work out the action of each element of D6 on R6 . v2 . ÷2 . if b is the re¯ection which ®xes the top atom. the character table of D6 is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 Hence ÷ ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 . v2 . x6 )b (x2 . x3 )X We want to express the RD6 -module R6 as a direct sum of irreducible RD6 -modules. x5 . we seek to express R6 as a direct sum of RD6 -submodules with characters ÷1 . Thus the values of ÷ are 1 ÷ 6 a 0 b 0 By Section 18. ÷(a) 0.3. then (x1 . v3 are 2-dimensional displacement vectors for the three atoms. These include the rotation and translation modes. if v1 . we see that ÷(b) 0. which occur for every molecule. x2 . As a matter of notation.

It is clearly an RD6 -submodule of R6 . and is called the translation submodule. Indeed. 1. 1. v3 ) has dimension 2. 0).380 Representations and characters of groups Rotation mode In this mode. . the molecule rotates with constant angular velocity about the centre. so the character must be ÷3 . then ÷ R (1) 1. We call sp (v) the rotation submodule of R6 . À1). 1. 1. v2 . À1. Thus the character of the translation submodule is part of ÷ À ÷2 ÷1 2÷3 . v3 (0. ÷ R (b) À1. where å2 ÷2 ( g À1 ) g 1 a a2 À b À ab À a2 b gP D6 (compare (14. 0. Translation modes These are modes in which all atoms move in the same constant direction with the same constant speed. The modes are of the form (t â)v. ÷ R (a) 1. where v (1. 1. the subspace sp (v1 . À1.27)). these vectors being given pictorially by (thus v1 (À1. À1. pictorially. where v is a vector in the span of v1 . À1. 1)). 1. À1). À1. v2 (1. sp (v) R6 å2 . The mode is given by (t â)v. and so ÷ R ÷2 . 0. it does not contain the rotation submodule. v2 and v3. À1. If ÷ R is the character of sp (v). 0. 0. Since v1 v2 v3 0.

moreover. Therefore a basis of R6 is u1 . u1 À u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 . and we summarize our ®ndings below. R6 does not contain the rotation vib submodule. and are called vibratory modes. u2 .11). it is easy to see that sp (u1 À u2 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 381 Vibratory modes The remaining normal modes correspond to eigenspaces of the matrix A with non-zero eigenvalues. These constraints imply three independent linear equations in the coordinates of the vectors in R6 . every vector in R6 which satis®es these equations lies in R6 . The vibratory mode given by u1 u2 u3 is sometimes called the expansion±contraction mode (you will see the reason for this name in the picture in (32. u3 among themselves. u2 . . since D6 permutes the vectors u1 . with character ÷vib . where vib ÷vib ÷ À (÷2 ÷3 ) ÷1 ÷3 X In particular. u3 . R6 has dimension 3. The sum of these eigenspaces forms an RD6 -submodule R6 of R6 (by Proposition 32. if w P R6 then the total component of w vib in each direction is zero. Our calculation of the normal modes is now complete. and since R6 has vib vib dimension 3. so that total moment of each vector in R6 about the vib centre is zero. where vib vib Clearly sp (u1 u2 u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 with characvib ter ÷1 . Its character is ÷3 and it gives us the last eigenspace for the vib matrix A. Finally. Since no mode in R6 can have vib vib any translation component.18(3)) below).

18) Representations and characters of groups (1) Rotation mode: (2) Translation modes: linear combinations of (3) Vibratory mode: expansion±contraction mode (4) Vibratory modes: linear combinations of (We have chosen 2u2 À u1 À u3 . In order to . 2u1 À u2 À u3 as the basis for the vibratory modes in (4) merely because these modes look simpler than u1 À u2 .382 (32.) We emphasize that we have found the normal modes of vibration without explicit knowledge of the equations of motion. u1 À u3 pictorially.

x5 . x6 ). x3 . . X X X .) Similarly. x4 . so that we may ignore second order terms. and assume that the magnitude of the force between two atoms is k times the decrease in distance between them. 2 PQ À P9Q9 (x2 x3 ) 1(x1 x4 )X 2 Hence the force on the molecule at P in the direction of the ®rst coordinate axis is Àk(PR À P9R9) Àk(x1 x6 ) À 1 k(x2 x5 )X 2 Therefore. denote the new positions of the atoms by P9. x2 . m x1 À(x1 x6 ) À 1(x2 x5 )X 2 k m x2 À(x2 x3 ) À 1(x1 x4 ). we now calculate the equations of motion. From the diagram. PR À P9R9 (x1 x6 ) 1(x2 x5 ). x6 are small compared with the distance between the atoms. For a general displacement (x1 . the difference in length between QR and Q9R9 is (x4 x5 ) 1(x3 x6 )X 2 (We always assume that x1 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 383 check our results. Q9. 2 k In the same way. Let m be the mass of each atom. R9.

. since these homogenous components were irreducible (see Corollary 32. the situation is more complicated. . Label the corners of .18)(2) and (4)) because V÷3 R6 vib was an A-invariant RG-submodule of V÷3 different from {0} and V÷3 .19 Remark In Example 32.384 Representations and characters of groups and we obtain similar equations for x3. the character ÷ of the RG-module R6 was given by ÷ ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 X All the non-zero vectors in the homogeneous components for ÷1 and ÷2 gave normal modes.18) are indeed eigenvectors of A. 32. The matrix A for which x xA is therefore given by H I 1 1a2 1a2 0 0 1 f 1a2 1 1 0 0 1a2 g f g Àk f 0 1 1 1a2 1a2 0 g f gX A 1a2 1a2 1 1 0 g m f 0 f g d 1a2 0 0 1 1 1a2 e 1 0 0 1a2 1a2 1 You should check that the vectors which we gave in (32. .14). We determined the symmetry group G of this molecule in Example 32. The homogeneous component V÷3 for ÷3 was reducible. .2. This illustrates a method which sometimes helps to deal with reducible homogeneous components. where we found that G is isomorphic to S4 . In our next example.17. but we were able to write it as a sum of two subspaces of eigenvectors (those appearing in (32. 32.20 Example We analyse the normal modes for the methane molecule CH4 . x6 .

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 385 the tetrahedron 1. and identify G with S4 . v13 . for g in G. with w i pointing towards corner i (1 < i < 4). 24. v14 . Since w1 w2 w3 w4 0. Our main task is to ®nd RG-submodules of R15 V È W. and so on. 14. w3. 3. Then V R12. v23 . and we can quickly calculate the character ÷ of V: 1 ÷ 12 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . these four vectors span a 3-dimensional space. v42 . w4. as shown below. 4. giving twelve vectors v ij . v34 . v32 . w3 and w4 at the carbon atom. for example. let v21 . in all. we have v ij g v ig. v13 . G permutes our twelve basis vectors of V.jg for all i. jX Thus. by taking four unit vectors w1. and let W be the vector space over R spanned by w1. v24 . v23 . (2 4 3)X In order fully to exploit the symmetry of the methane molecule. 23. W R3 and V and W are RG-modules. Let V be the vector space over R with basis v12 . Let v12 . v41 . v14 be unit vectors at corner 1 in the directions of the edges 12. thus. 2. similarly. w2. respectively. The action of G on V is easy to describe. at each hydrogen atom we choose displacement axes along the edges of the tetrahedron. w2. v43 . (2 3 4). v31 . 13. v24 be unit vectors at corner 2 in the directions of the edges 21. We now introduce a new idea. the rotations about the vertical axis through 1 are written as 1. v21 .

. ÷3 . j and this gives the expansion±contraction normal mode: We next describe the RG-submodule W5 with character ÷5 . w4 0. The RG-submodule W1 with character ÷1 is spanned by v ij i. and so on. 5. we can ®nd RG-submodules with characters ÷1 . . all the basis vectors are moved by (1 2 3). . for g in G. ÷5 and 3÷4 (see (14. 4) to R15 . we have wi g wig (1 < i < 4)X After recalling that w1 . ö ÷4 X By applying the elements ÷ i ( g À1 ) g gPG (i 1. Let p1 (v23 À v32 ) (v34 À v43 ) (v42 À v24 ).1. We ®nd that ÷ ÷1 ÷3 2÷4 ÷5 . the character table of S4 is as shown at the top of p. 3. it is easy to calculate the character ö of W ± it is 1 ö 3 (1 2) 1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3 4) À1 By Section 18. (1 2) ®xes the basis vectors v34 and v43 only. p2 (v31 À v13 ) (v14 À v41 ) (v43 À v34 ). The group G acts on W as follows.27)). 387.386 Representations and characters of groups For example.

p4 (v21 À v12 ) (v13 À v31 ) (v32 À v23 )X The vector pi gives a rotation about the axis through the corner i and the centroid of the tetrahedron.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 387 Character table of S4 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 À1 1 p3 (v12 À v21 ) (v41 À v14 ) (v24 À v42 ). It should be clear from the pictures that for all i with 1 < i < 4 and .

The RG-module W5 is the rotation submodule. the dimension of W3 is 2. so dim W5 3.) Now we construct the RG-submodule W3 of V with character ÷3 . Let q1 (v12 v21 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v24 v42 ). Now p1 p2 p3 p4 0. . the picture for p4 with the picture for the rotation vector v in Example 32. p3 . we have q i g Æq j for some j.) For all i with 1 < i < 4 and g in G. p4 ).17. Let W3 sp (q1 . Therefore. Then W3 is an RG-submodule of V. q3 ). then W5 is an RG-submodule of V. for example. p2 . (Compare. q3 (v14 v41 ) (v23 v32 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v34 v43 )X (Each q i is associated with an `opposite pair of edges'. if we let W 5 sp ( p1 . q2 . we have pi g Æ p j for some j. Since q1 q2 q3 0. q2 (v13 v31 ) (v24 v42 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 ). Check that the character of W5 is ÷5 .388 Representations and characters of groups all g in G. its character is ÷3 .

r3. De®ne the vectors r1. r3 (v13 v31 ) (v23 v32 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v24 v42 ). r4 (v14 v41 ) (v24 v42 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v23 v32 )X (The vector ri is associated with corner i. r4 by r1 (v12 v21 ) (v13 v31 ) (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 ) À (v24 v42 ) À (v34 v43 ). r2. We now come to the homogeneous component (V È W)÷4 of R15 . r2 (v12 v21 ) (v23 v32 ) (v24 v42 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v34 v43 ).An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 389 In the RG-submodules W 1 .14. by Corollary 32.) . W 5 and W3 which we have found so far. all the non-zero vectors are eigenvectors of A.

s3 (v31 v32 v34 ) À (v13 v23 v43 ). r4 among themselves. 1 < i < 4). r2. we have ri g rig. . r3. s3 . de®ne the vectors s1 . s4 by s1 (v12 v13 v14 ) À (v21 v31 v41 ). s2 . r4 span a 3-dimensional RGsubmodule W4 of V.390 Representations and characters of groups For each g in G and i with 1 < i < 4. r2. r3. Thus G permutes the vectors r1. Note that r1 r2 r3 r4 0. s2 (v21 v23 v24 ) À (v12 v32 v42 ). s1 s2 s3 s4 0. Next. so r1.24). The character of W4 is ÷4 (see Proposition 13. s4 (v41 v42 v43 ) À (v14 v24 v34 )X We have si g sig ( g P G.

W 4 and W is direct. The sum of W 4 . the space W does not enter our calculations.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 391 and s1 . and no central atom. We shall therefore press on and explain how to reduce the dif®culty to that of calculating the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. upon the constants which appear in the equations of motion. so we cannot complete the work using only representation theory. r2 À 2s2 . and so they give the ®nal 3-dimenvib sional space of eigenvectors (see Remark 32. s3 . The task in front of us is to ®nd the eigenvectors of A which lie in (V È W )÷4 W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 The solution of this problem depends. and let U1 fv P (V È W )÷4 : vh v for all h P HgX Since (vh)A (vA)h for all v P V÷4 and all h P H. w2 . Since dim (V È W )÷4 9. it follows that U1 is A-invariant. 9 (32. In this case. we have wi g wig ( g P G. w1 w2 w3 w4 0. w3 . r4 span the subspace V÷4 R12 of V÷4 .19). 1 < i < 4). look at the picture of the vector r1 ! We return now to the methane molecule. The normal mode (sin ùt)r1 is sometimes called an `umbrella mode'. r3 À 2s3 . r4 À 2s4 span the 3-dimensional space of translation modes. in fact.21) (1) The vectors r1 À 2s1 . and the character of W is ÷4 . (2) The vectors r1. in order to deal with the easier case of a molecule with identical atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron. so 9 (V È W )÷4 W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 We now break off temporarily from studying the methane molecule. r3. and we can decompose V÷4 W 4 È W 4 in the following way. To see why. r2. s4 span a 3-dimensional RG-submodule W9 of V with 4 character ÷4 . w4 span W. s2 . Let H be the subgroup of S4 consisting of those permutations which ®x the number 1. . Now recall that w1 . it is very dif®cult to calculate the eigenvectors of A in (V È W )÷4 directly.

w2 ) is A-invariant. and since A commutes with the action of G. and the matrix of A acting on r2. s1 (1 2) s2 . By means of representation theory. r1 h r1. where U 3 sp (r3 .5).392 We ®nd that Representations and characters of groups h3÷4 5 H. we have therefore reduced the initial problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of a 15 3 15 matrix A to that of calculating two of the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. r3 À 2s3 3 cos Ww3 ). w1 (1 2) w2 . the process of calculating the eigenvectors of the 3 3 3 matrix B gives nine eigenvectors of A which form a basis of (V È W )÷4 . A similar remark applies to U3. w3 )X Therefore. Therefore U 1 sp (r1 . s1 h s1 and w1 h w1 . r1 (1 2) r2 . The eigenvectors of B then give three eigenvectors of A. It is hard to imagine a more spectacular application of representation theory with which to conclude our text. Thus we obtain the translation submodule sp (r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 . and so dim U1 3. de®ned by U2 sp (r2 . 1 H i H 3. One eigenvector of A acting on r1. w2 is again B. Better still. . namely the translation vector r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 . s1 . the space U 2 . where W is the angle between an edge of the tetrahedron and the line joining a corner on the edge to the centroid. r2 À 2s2 3 cos Ww2 . w1 (see Exercise 32. s1 . But for all h P H. w1 is easy to ®nd. s3 . have been calculated. it is possible to calculate the 3 3 3 matrix B of the action of A on r1. s1 . s2 . s2 . w1 )X Once the equations of motion. and hence the matrix A.

(b) Let C (det B)B. e2 (0. then all non-zero vectors in V÷ i are eigenvectors of A. (ii) C has a positive eigenvalue. (c) Deduce from (a) and (b) that b is a rotation if det B 1. 1). The action of any g P G on R3 n commutes with A. To determine the eigenvectors of A (and hence all solutions of the equations of motion). 5. 2. 0). 1. 0). and Àb is a rotation otherwise. Suppose that b P O(R3 ). 4. where x P R3 n and the 3n 3 3n matrix A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. and let e1 (1. with eigenvalue Àù2 . All solutions are linear combinations of normal modes. and is called a normal mode. Suppose that G is the symmetry group of some molecule in R3 . it is suf®cient to ®nd the eigenvectors of A restricted to each homogeneous component V÷ i of the RG-module R3 n . Deduce that det B Æ1. 2. Prove successively that (i) C has a real eigenvalue. (iii) 1 is an eigenvalue of C. e2 . The symmetry group G of a molecule with n atoms consists of those distance-preserving endomorphisms of R3 which send each atom to an atom of the same kind. then x sin (ùt â)u (or x (t â)u if ù 0) is a solution of the equations of motion. (a) Show that the matrix B of b with respect to the basis e1 . 0. . Exercises for Chapter 32 1. e3 (0. 3. then tr B 1 2 cos ö.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 393 Summary of Chapter 32 1. If V÷ i is irreducible. e3 of R3 satis®es BBt I (where Bt denotes the transpose of B). (d) Show that if b is a rotation through an angle ö about some axis. The equations of motion of the molecule have the form x xA. The space R3n of displacement vectors is an RG-module. 0. If u is an eigenvector of A.

7. if g is not a rotationX 3. w1 . v43 .17. v13 . r3. and let the position vector of the molecule be iT j xij v ij p 3 i1 yi wi X (a) Prove that cos (/ 012) (2a3) and cos (/ 102) À1a3. What property of r1. X X X . (See the paragraph before Proposition 32. r4 given in Example 32. b b X 0. w3 as described in Example 32. if g is a rotation b ` through angle ö (÷ T ÷ R )( g) about some axis.20. Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1. and so ®nd explicitly the 3 3 3 matrix B which appears at the end of Example 32. . and verify that A is symmetric. w2 .20. Consider the space spanned by the vectors r1. 4 and let 0 denote the centroid of the tetrahedron. The purpose of this exercise is to derive the equations of motion of the methane molecule. 3.20. r4 prompted us to use these vectors? 5. 2. r3. Find a basis for this space which is simpler than the one which we have used. r2. r2. Work with 15 unit displacement vectors v12 . Consider the triatomic molecule studied in Example 32.394 Representations and characters of groups Show that the sum of the character ÷ T of the translation submodule and the character ÷ R of the rotation submodule has value at g P G given by V b 2(1 2 cos ö).) 4. Take the axes for the displacement coordinates as shown below: Calculate the equations of motion x xA with respect to these axes.

show m1 x41 À k 1 [x14 x41 1(x42 x43 x12 x13 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x41 x42 x43 À 1 (3a2)( y1 y2 y3 )]. i. q2 . 34. 03. Assume that the magnitude of the force between hydrogen atoms is k1 times the decrease in distance between them. x21 . x23 . Also. Finally. show p m2 y1 Àk 2 [ (2a3)(x12 x13 x14 À x41 À x42 À x43 ) 4 y1 ]. 3 with similar expressions for the edges 02. x32 . p1 . j . p3 . 3 3 with similar expressions for x13. q1 . Also. x14 . 24. 23. Finally. show that the length of the edge 01 has decreased by p (2a3)(x12 x13 x14 ) y1 À 1( y2 y3 ). (d) The equations in part (c) determine the 15 3 15 matrix A in the equations of motion x xA. show that the length of the edge 04 has decreased by p (2a3)(x41 x42 x43 ) À 1( y1 y2 y3 )X 3 (c) Let m1 denote the mass of a hydrogen atom. 3 with similar expressions for y2 and y3 . x31 . 3 with similar expressions for x42 and x43 . Verify that the vectors v ij . and the magnitude of the force between a hydrogen atom and a carbon atom is k2 times the decrease in distance between them. 14.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 395 (b) Show that the decrease in the length of the edge 12 from its original length is x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 ). p2 . x24 . and m2 the mass of a carbon atom. 2 with similar expressions for the edges 13. x34 . Prove that m1 x12 À k 1 [x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x12 x13 x14 (3a2)( y1 À 1 y2 À 1 y3 )].

Suppose that V÷ i U1 È . . sp (uW1 . and use Exercise 23. In this exercise. Consider a hypothetical molecule in which there are four identical atoms at the corners of a square.15(5).8. Prove that if u and v are non-zero elements of U1. (Hint: compose the function w 3 wA with a projection. uW m . (b) Calculate the equations of motion. (a) Find the normal modes of the molecule. For 1 < i < m. uW m ) with respect to the basis uW1 . . 6) is an eigenvector of B. x xA. a sum of m isomorphic irreducible RG-modules. we derive a method for simplifying the problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of A when the homogeneous component V÷ i is reducible. . À2. . and check that the vectors you found in part (a) are.20. 7. indeed. 6. We reduce our problem to that of ®nding the eigenvectors of an m 3 m matrix. w1 A b31 r1 b32 s1 b33 w1 . s1 A b21 r1 b22 s1 b23 w1 . . eigenvectors of A. (See 32. are eigenvectors of A. X X X . Assume that the only internal forces are along the sides of the square. uW m ) is an A-invariant vector space of dimension m. s1 .20. (c) Assume that the eigenvectors of the m 3 m matrix A u are known. . (f) Verify that p (1. .) (b) Let A u denote the matrix of the endomorphism w 3 wA of sp (uW1 . (e) Find the entries b ij in the 3 3 3 matrix B which are given by r1 A b11 r1 b12 s1 b13 w1 . (a) Prove that for all non-zero u in U1. . .) We assume that ÷ i is the character of an irreducible RG-module which remains irreducible as a CGmodule. È Um. where the vectors r1.396 Representations and characters of groups which appear in Example 32. . let W i be an RG-isomorphism from U1 to Ui . Show how to ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i . then Au Av . . w1 are as in Example 32.

(b) Since b2 ë I but (bë)2 Y 2 ÀI. so G An v G. Therefore G An and (G An )h are the only right cosets of G An in G. c2 }. a2 } and Ker ø {1. and Ga(G A n ) C2 . we have g a (ghÀ1 )h P (G An )h. since G is abelian. it is routine to verify that ö and ø are homomorphisms.Solutions to exercises Chapter 1 1. and G T {1} since G is simple. b: a2 m b2 1. À1) and y (d. and if Ker W G then H f1g. If G were in®nite. Let g be a non-identity element of G. Then h g p i is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to G. 1). then h g 2 i would be a normal subgroup different from G and {1}. (a) Using the method of Example 1. either Ker W f1g or Ker W G. Note that all subgroups of G are normal. y À1 xy x À1 X By Example 1. and so G is cyclic of prime order. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. Check using the method of Example 1. Check that x 2 m y 2 1. d: cm d 2 1. where m is odd. Ker ö {1. Then kgl is a normal subgroup of G. If Ker W f1g then W is an isomorphism. G An f g P G: g is even}. the function W: D4 m 3 D2 m 3 C2 de®ned by 397 . so kgl G. Also Ker ì {1} and Im ì L. d À1 cd cÀ1 i. Since G An T G.4 again that ì is a homomorphism. Let D4 m ha. Therefore g p 1. it follows that ë is not a homomorphism. The elements of D2 m 3 C2 are (c i d j .4. 0 < k < 1. 2. hence G is ®nite. 0 < j < 1. and D2 m hc. Let p be a prime number which divides |G|. (À1) k ) for 0 < i < m À 1. so ì is an isomorphism. For all odd g in G. 3.4. 5. Let x (c( m1)a2 . we may choose h P G with h P An . First. 4. Since G is simple and Ker W v G.

with 0 < j < 7. 1) and x m (1. we conclude that W is an isomorphism.398 Representations and characters of groups W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 2m À 1. If H is a subgroup of G of order n. thus H is cyclic. so dj j. k P G then (gh)k g(hk). B2 A4 and BÀ1 AB AÀ1 . 8. Finally. 0 < k < 1. and so x is a power of y. and the identity element is in a subset of size 1. r with 0 < r . Bl has order 16. g À1 g ( g P G). so g gÀ1 and g has order 2. it follows that H ke2ðia n l. (a) Let G kal and suppose that 1 T H < G. Since r . then x. 0 and a k P H. (c) If x and y are elements of order n in the ®nite cyclic group G. and gÀ1 g ggÀ1 1. where H { g P G: gn 1}. it contains x 2 (c. Partition G into subsets f g. then g a j for some integer j and dnj jn. Each such subset has size 1 or 2. so gh P G. by part (b). by Lagrange's Theorem). kA. It follows that f g P G: g n 1g had i. First observe that there exists i . ei jða4 0 0 ei jða4 j j . which is a cyclic group of order n. Hence. Therefore H < f g P G: g n 1g he2ðia n iX Since j Hj n jhe2ðia n ij. 6. Let G be the set of non-zero complex numbers. k. Now kxl and k yl have order n. then h n 1 for all h P H (since the order of h divides n. B as follows: eiða4 0 A . h. Bl has the form A j B k with 0 < j < 7. hence g P kad l. are all distinct. 0 such that ai P H. Therefore a j a kq and so H kak l. we have r 0. . 0 eÀiða4 B 1 X 0 0 À1 Check that A8 I. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. If g. if g P G then g À1 1a g P G. also 1 P G and 1g g1 g for all g P G. If g P G and g n 1. 7. De®ne matrices A. These relations show that every element of the group kA. À1) and hence Im W D2 m 3 C2 . A B A X 0 eÀi jða4 ÀeÀi jða4 0 Since these matrices. 9. if jGj is even then there exists g P G such that g T 1 and the subset f g. k. Moreover. y P H. Thus G is a group under multiplication. h P G then gh T 0. If 1 T a j P H then j qk r for some integers q. (b) Assume that G hai and jGj dn. g À1 g has size 1. If g. also H has order n. Hence a r a j aÀqk a j (a k )Àq P H. As |D4 m | |D2 m 3 C2 |. Choose k as small as possible such that k . We deduce that hxi H h yiX Thus x P h yi. Since Im W kx. yl.

. while H. (1) A (2): If W is invertible then W is injective. And if g P H then H. it follows that v is a linear combination of u1 . It is easy to see that V U W. Hg are the two right cosets of H in G. Thus W is injective. If u. . .12)). . . . ì j in F. . Therefore u1 . ws are linearly independent. ë r ur ì1 w1 . Since W is a linear transformation. Therefore Hg gH. this forces ë i 0 for all i. suppose that u1 . ws span V. . F F F . 5. . u r . If v P V then v u w for some u P U and w P W.12). (2) A (3): If Ker W {0} then dim (Im W) dim V (by (2. . so Ker W {0}. (3) A (1): Assume that Im W V. and so u v. . (ë(wWÀ1 ))W ë(wWÀ1 )W ëwX Hence (u w)WÀ1 uWÀ1 wWÀ1 and (ëw)WÀ1 ë(wWÀ1 ). ur . Hence H v G. hence u1 u2 and w1 w2. As W is surjective and injective. . Since such expressions are unique. and so ë1 u1 X X X ë r ur ì1 w1 X X X ì s ws 0X As u1 . . . Ker W {0}. Since V U È W. . the expression 0 0 0 is the unique expression for 0 as the sum of vectors in U and W. Since u1 0 0 0 u2 u3 and the sum U1 U2 U3 is direct. w1. Suppose jG: Hj 2 and let g P G. F F F . ì s ws for some ë i . v 0. . Let u. and so gÀ1 Hg H again. w1. . . . ws is a basis of V. If v P U W then v ë1 u1 . W is invertible. . w1. . this gives ë i ì j 0 for all i. so WÀ1 is a linear transformation. . . w1 . . Let v P U W. . ws are linearly independent.7)). since u1 . ur . ur are linearly independent. Thus v 0 and so U W {0}. First suppose that V U È W. Let u P U1 (U2 U3 ). 2. . v P V and uW vW then (u À v)W 0. If u1 w1 u2 w2 with u1 . 3. . since u is a linear combination of u1 . . . Chapter 2 1. . . u2 P U and w1. Now suppose that V U W and U W {0}. . . . so by Exercise 3. w2 P W. F F F . Thus U W {0}. so W is surjective. w1. By (2. . hence they form a basis of V. This shows that V U È W. . ì j P F. Conversely. w s . Then V U W. 4. ur . j. . (a) Assume ®rst that V U1 È U2 È U3. Suppose that ë1 u1 X X X ë r ur ì1 w1 X X X ì s ws 0 with all ë i . ur . Therefore u1 . . . ur and w is a linear combination of w1 . similarly ì i 0 for all i. we have u1 . Assume ®rst that V U È W. Then v v 0 0 v and this gives us two expressions for v as the sum of an element in U and an element in W. Then u u1 u2 u3 for some ui P Ui (1 < i < 3). V U È W. w s .Chapter 2 399 10. If g P H then gÀ1 Hg H. w P W and ë P F. then u1 À u2 w2 À w1 P U W {0}. . . so Im W V (by (2. . we have (uWÀ1 wWÀ1 )W (uWÀ1 )W (wWÀ1 )W u w. so u À v P Ker W {0}. . . gH are a the two left cosets.

if V U1 È . . È Ur ) (see (2. . 0). The representations r2 and r3 are faithful. dim Ur. by induction on r. then clearly W2 W. but r1 is not. by Exercise 4. 0)). assume that Am I. U3 sp ((1. . Then V Im W È Ker W by Proposition 2. 6. each r j is a representation. ö: V 3 V by W: (x. . 1)). 1)). Let v P V. 8. If v P U W then v vW Àv. 0)). Therefore V U1 È U2 È U3. so v 0. . . Therefore for all integers i. Now suppose that U1 (U2 U3 ) U2 (U1 U3 ) U3 (U1 U2 ) {0}. and Im ö Ker ö sp ((1. ur for Im W and a basis w1. U2 sp ((0. 0)). so V T Im ö È Ker ö.32. . Ker W sp ((0. De®ne W. . Then I 1r (am )r (ar) m Am X Conversely. ur . Hence by Exercise 1. The construction of the basis B is similar to that in Solution 8. 2 2 2 À vW) P W. . . dim Ur. . Then 1 2 3 u1 À u9 (u9 À u2 ) (u9 À u3 ) P U1 (U2 U3 ) {0}. . . dim (U2 È . Then (ai )r Ai for all integers i (including i . suppose that r is a representation of G. 7. say B. by Exercise 3. u9 P Ui (1 < i < 3) and i u1 u2 u3 u9 u9 u9 . 1 2 3 1 Similarly. . . .400 Representations and characters of groups u2 u3 0. ws for Ker W. (a i a j )r (a i j )r A i j A i A j (a i r)(a j r). . m À 1 and i . By Exercise 4. Let V R2. More generally. Similarly. Then u1 . the diagonal entries being r 1's followed by s 0's. Conversely. È Ur ) dim U2 . Then v 1(v vW) 1(v À vW)X 2 2 Observe that 1(v vW)W 1(vW v). Similarly. w1. if [W]B has the given form. È Ur then V U1 È (U2 È . so W is a projection. . Thus V U W. j. . and so r is a representation. . and U1 sp ((1. y) 3 (x. Take a basis u1 . . . . 1 2(v Chapter 3 1. . First. Therefore U1 (U2 U3 ) {0}. 0) and ö: (x. so u1 u9 . Suppose ®rst that W is a projection. Assume that ui . 0)X Then Im W sp ((1. so dim V dim U1 . U2 (U1 U3 ) U 3 (U1 U2 ) f0g. . y) 3 ( y.10)). Since ui W ui for all i and wj W 0 for all j. 9. . . u2 u9 and u3 u9 . Check that A3 B3 C 3 I. 1)). if V U È W then dim V dim U dim W. 2 3 (b) Let V R2. the matrix [W]B is diagonal. ws is a basis. 2. so 1(v vW) P U. so V Im W È Ker W. of V. Therefore V U È W.

(3) S ÀA. 7. (3) If r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô.10. hence r3 is not equivalent to any of the others.4). . T D. ®rst work out the eigenvectors of C. so r is equivalent to ô. T B. 0 < j < 1)X 401 It is easy to check that r is a representation of G. T À1 ST S À1 X It follows that each r k is a representation (see Example 1. 0 < s < 1) is a faithful representation of D8 ka. Therefore GaKer r is abelian. since a2 r2 I and a3 r3 I.2(1). (2) S A3 . No: let G be any non-abelian group and let r be the trivial representation. IÀ1 (gr)I gr. hence r2 is not equivalent to any of the others. 8. (2) If r is equivalent to ó then there is an invertible matrix T such that gó T À1 ( gr)T for all g P G. F) is abelian. By Theorem 1. (1) For all g P G.) If j T 2. De®ne r by (a i b j )r (À1) j (0 < i < n À 1. Similarly r4 is faithful. The matrices A r Bs (0 < r < 5.Chapter 3 3. then a2 r j T I. hence r is equivalent to r. then gr (T À1 )À1 (gó)T À1. 6. so ó is equivalent to r. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. T B. 5. (To ®nd T. De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 A d À1 0 H I 1 0 0 0 e. 4. T ÀB. GaKer r Im r. then a3 r j T I. F) and GL (1. so r1 is faithful. The representations r1 and r4 are equivalent: to see this. And if j T 3. Check that in each of the cases (1) S A. then there are invertible matrices S and T such that gó SÀ1 ( gr)S and gô T À1 (gó)T for all g P G. we have S 6 T 2 I. But Im r < GL (1. b: a4 b2 1. Compare Example 3. let T 1 1 X Ài i Then T À1 (gr4 )T gr1 for all g P G. (4) S C. 0 1 1 B d0 0 H I 0 0 À1 0 eX 0 1 Then the function r: a r b s 3 A r Bs (0 < r < 3. 0 < s < 1) are all different. then gô (ST)À1 (gr)(ST). But r2 and r3 are not faithful.

3. since either vg v vh (if g. h is in An and the other is not. v in V and ë in F. V becomes an RQ8 -module if we de®ne vg v( gr) for all v P V. Next. We have now checked all the conditions in De®nition 4. a a Then v(gh) Àv. Let g P Sn .4(1). H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f À1 0 0 f 0 0g 0 0 1g g f g. 0 < j < 1) is a representation of Q8 over R. Assume ®rst that gh P An . If we put . g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 H (1 2) 1 0 0 0e 0 1 I 0 0 À1 0 e À1 1 I 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 H (1 3) I 0 1 1 0e 0 0 I 0 0 1 À1 e 0 À1 [ g]B 2 g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 (2 3) 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I H (1 2 3) 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1e 0 0 I 0 0 À1 1 e À1 0 I H (1 3 2) 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 I 0 0 0 À1 e 1 À1 [ g]B 2 All the matrices [g]B 2 have the form H I 1 0 0 d 0 j j eX 0 j j 2. Let A f d 0 0 0 À1 e and B d À1 0 0 0e 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 0 Check that A4 I. and (vg)h v. h P An ) or vg Àv vh (if g. Let v P V and g. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X Hence r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. so V is an FG-module. since one of g.2.402 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 4 1. g P Q8. we have v g P V . assume that gh P An . h P Sn .2. Let V R4. For all u. B2 A2 . v1 v. and (vg)h Àv. h P An ). Then v(gh) v. By Theorem 4. (u v) g ug v gX It remains to check (2) of De®nition 4. (ëv) g ë(v g).

j X k1 Hence PA B. 4. 0. À1) belongs to U. if j T igX Then P is a permutation matrix.5. 0). the proof is similar to that for the rows. â À á) P U. 2. 0g g g g g e 1 I 0 then MA is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two rows. Suppose that r has degree n and r is reducible. sp ((1. . 0. â) P U with (á. 1)). 3. Chapter 5 1. then C AQ for some permutation matrix Q. 0). we deduce that (1. á â) P U. First consider the FG-module V F 2. You may ®nd it helpful ®rst to check that if H 0 1 f1 0 f f 1 M f FF f d F 403 v1 (1. 1) or (1. Then r is equivalent to a representation ô of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G) ô: g 3 d Yg Zg where X g is a k 3 k matrix and 0 . r4 be the representations of G de®ned in Exercise 3. â) À (á. Hence the FG-submodules of V are {0}. Therefore ó is reducible. v3 (0. 1). To solve the exercise. k . . let g be the permutation in Sn which has the property that for all i. 0). 0. Then (á. v i a and v i b are as required in the question. sp ((1. . v2 (0. 1. row i of B row ig of AX Let P be the n 3 n matrix ( pij ) de®ned by V if j ig. pij X 0.Chapter 5 then for all i. â)a (á â. â)a (á À â. and AM is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two columns. . 1. À1)) and V. It is easy to verify that V is an FG-module. 0. Let G D12 and let r1 . Then ó is equivalent to ô. and let (á. Since at least one of á â and á À â is non-zero. v4 (0. where vg v(gr1 ) for . 0. If C is a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns. and the ij-entry of PA is n pik akj a ig. n. ` 1. since ó is equivalent to r. Let U be a non-zero FGsubmodule of V. â) T (0. â) (á. 0). and (á. 0.

4). Chapter 6 1X (a) xy À2X1 À a3 ab 3a2 b 2a3 b. B 0 å À1 0 Check that A3 B3 C 2 I. since r1 and r4 are equivalent. C À1 AC AÀ1 and C À1 BC BÀ1 . Now let V F 2 with vg v(gr2 ) for v P V. 9. let u be (1. 4. is a multiple of 9 and jGj . and also (1. by Lagrange's Theorem. 1)a are linearly independent. 1) or (1.) Therefore r1 is irreducible. (See Example 5.404 Representations and characters of groups v P V. However. c}. AB BA. jGj Therefore jGj 18. we may write every element of G in the form ai b j c k (0 < i < 2. bl T G. also r4 is irreducible. so there exist distinct g1 . it follows that dim U > 2. g P G. 0 < j < 2. (b) Let å 0 ç A . Since (1. it is clear Hence. g P G. Hence either (1. (d) Let V C2 be the CG-module obtained by de®ning vg v(gr) for all v P C2 . so r is reducible. If U is a non-zero CG-submodule of V.5(2) for an alternative argument. À1)a are linearly independent. 1) and (1. Consequently U V and so V is irreducible. 0 0 . if å ç 1 then sp ((1. Hence. Then (1. Hence sp ((1. 1)b. r3 is irreducible. 1)) is an FG-submodule of V and r2 is reducible. Let V {0} and let 0 g 0 for all g P G.C çÀ1 1 1 X 0 Thus jGj < 18. Therefore r is never faithful. 5. and u and ub are linearly independent unless ç 1. Hence r is a representation (compare Example 1. À1) (so that u P U). either (1. Then V is neither reducible nor irreducible. (a) It is easy to check the given relations. 1)a À(1. 1) (1. bl with g1 r g2 r. Finally. there exists a cube root î of unity such that î 0 gr À1 X 0 î But there are only three distinct cube roots of unity. b}. bl. À1) lies in U. x 2 4X1 a2 4a3 X . 1)) is a CG-submodule of V. À1) lies in U. g P G. À1) and (1. g2 P ka. 1) or (1. by an argument similar to that for r1. yx À2X1 À a3 b 2a2 b 3a3 b. bl| 9 and ka. Then U is an FH-module. where H is the subgroup {1. accordingly. By the solution to Exercise 1. Suppose that U is a non-zero FG-submodule of V. Using the relations. 1) or (1. if either å T 1 or ç T 1 then dim U 2 and so r is irreducible. (c) For every element g of ka. where H is the subgroup {1. On the other hand. by the solution to Exercise 1. 0 < k < 1)X that |ka. then U is a CHsubmodule. Now u and ua are linearly independent unless å 1.

. . (c) All the entries in [W]B are 1 (compare the solution to Exercise 2). Let a (1 2 3 4 5) and let v1 . s 1 À a. (Note that v i W ai . Now 0r (0 0)r 0r 0r. g ë g g with ë g P C. 6.) 3. For all u1 .5(2) or the solution to Exercise 5. there exists a unique h in G such that gi h gj . u2 P U. (ëu1 )Wö (ë(u1 W))ö ë(u1 (Wö)). Check that v1 a ùv1 . . b. ab of F(C2 3 C2 ). ar f d0 0 0 1e d0 0 1 0e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 H I H I 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 f0 0 1 0g f0 0 0 1g f g f g br f gX g. v5 be the natural basis for the permutation module for G over F. hence 0r v0 0. If r 1 À g. the regular representation r is given by H I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 f1 0 0 0g f0 1 0 0g f g f g 1r f g. Relative to the basis 1. Chapter 7 1. and take r 1 a. v1 b v2 and v2 b v1. ë P F and g P G. (b) c2 c hPG h hPG ch jGjc. 5. hence W is an FG-homomorphism. j and so gz zg for all g P G. then vr 0 and neither v nor r is 0. v2 a ù2 v2 . No: let G ka: a2 1l. (u1 g)Wö ((u1 W) g)ö ((u1 W)ö) g (u1 (Wö)) gX 2. Let C2 3 C2 ka. Use the argument of either Example 5. Hence W is a CG-submodule of CG. (a) As g runs through G.3 to prove that W is irreducible. Let v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 and v2 b ù2 ab ùa2 b. If r P CG then r ë g gz ë g zg zr. ab bal. a. we have (u1 u2 )Wö (u1 W u2 W)ö u1 (Wö) u2 (Wö). and bz 1 a2 zb. so do gh and hg. so rz 2. . Then . j. Then W: ë1 v1 X X X ë5 v5 3 ë1 1 ë2 a ë3 a2 ë4 a3 ë5 a4 is the required FG-isomorphism. then u 0. and u u u. Hence ch hc c. g. Let V be the trivial FG-module and let 0 T v P V and 1 T g P G. Let x P G. b: a2 b2 1. so (v i a)W v i1 W a i1 (v i W)a. Hence a i b j z za i b j for all i. It is easy to show that V0 is an FG-submodule of V. 4. (ab)r f d0 1 0 0e d1 0 0 0e 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3.Chapter 7 405 (b) az ab a3 b a2 ba ba za. Note ®rst that if u is an element of a vector space. The reason is that for all i. and v0 v(0 0) v0 v0.

Let G {1. v3 v4 ) and (FG)0 sp g X gPG Since V0 and (FG)0 have different dimensions. Suppose r is reducible. Also (á1 âx)xW (â1 áx)W (â À á)(1 À x) (á À â)(1 À x)x (á1 âx)WxX Hence W is an FG-homomorphism. (Find eigenvectors for x. it follows from Exercise 4 that V and FG are not isomorphic FG-modules. (vö)g (vg)ö vö. restricted to V0 . Let g P G. where ù e2ðia3 . Chapter 8 1. In the notation of Exercise 3. ab ba).406 Representations and characters of groups gPG vxg gPG vg gPG v gxX Hence (vx)W vW (vW)x. . If we let W: ëv1 ìv2 3 ëv2 (ë. For all w P W 0 . Hence W2 2W. (wöÀ1 )g (wg)öÀ1 wöÀ1 . 4. and Ker W Im W sp (v2 ). 1 x. v4 be the natural basis of the permutation module V for G over F. . h P G. v2 . a. Then RG sp (1 a b ab) È sp (1 a À b À ab) È sp (1 À a b À ab) È sp (1 À a À b ab)X 3. Hence the function ö. (b) (á À â)(1 À x)W ((á À â) À (â À á))(1 À x) 2(á À â)(1 À x). (a) W is easily seen to be a linear transformation. Then by Maschke's Theorem. 4. 6. ì g P C)X 0 ìg Then (gó)(hó) (hó)(gó) for all g. De®ne vg v for all v P V. and let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 . b. noting that V W V0 . Suppose that ö: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. Let G be any group. and so V0 ö W 0 . 5. ab} C2 3 C2 (so a2 b2 1. If v P V0 then (vajGj)W v. since all diagonal matrices . V sp (Àùv1 v2 ) È sp (Àù2 v1 v2 ). this makes V into a CGmodule. g P G.) 2. we see that W is an FGhomomorphism from V to V0 . For all v P V0 . . r is equivalent to a representation ó of the form ëg 0 gó (ë g . No: let v1 . is an FG-isomorphism from V0 to W 0 . 2 3 V0 sp (v1 v2 . . so W 0 öÀ1 V0 . hence W is surjective. (c) Let B be the basis 1 À x. ì P C) then W is a CG-homomorphism from V to V.

Chapter 9 1. Irreducible representations r1 . 1). We know that the regular CG-module CG is faithful (Proposition 6. [u. where U1. 7. r3 . if u T 0 then (ux. Then V U È W. 1). . Then for all u P U. bi r3 (ù2i )X Let C2 3 C2 {(1. vx) [u. r} and g P G such that ug T u for some u P Ui (otherwise vg v for all v P CG). bi r2 (ù i ). y). . . Irreducible representations r1 . 0. This means that Ui is a faithful irreducible CG-module. ar2 (À1)X Let C3 kb: b 1l and let ù e2ðia3 . 1r2 (1). r2 . r2 . Ur are irreducible CG-submodules of CG. Also [ug. (x. also K T G since g P K. so [u. . . where x 2 y 2 1. (3) Let W U c.6). Since G a is simple. v]X xPG xPG (2) It is easy to prove that U c is a subspace of V. . 5. so there is no CG-submodule W of V with V U È W. De®ne K fx P G: vx v for all v P Ui gX Check that K is a normal subgroup of G. v gx) (ux. r4 : 3 . 0 for all x P G. (1. v gg À1 ] by part (1) [ug À1 . . v g] [ug À1 . . and W is a CG-submodule of V by part (2). we must therefore have K {1}. 6. For example. (1) It is straightforward to verify for [ . È Ur. ] the axioms of a complex inner product. u] . (x. U sp ((1. hence also (gr)(hr) (hr)(gr) for all g. Therefore r is irreducible. and so U c is a CG-submodule of V. Let v P U c and g P G. y)}.Chapter 9 407 commute with each other. Let CG U1 È . . v g] (ugx. r3 : 1r1 br1 b2 r1 (1). This is a contradiction. . v] 0 since ug À1 P U X Therefore vg P U c. r2 : 1r1 ar1 (1). Irreducible representations r1 . Then there exist i P {1. h P G. Let C2 ka: a2 1l. ux) . 0)) is the only 1-dimensional CG-submodule of V.

Then H i I å11 f g i FF g r: ( g 11 . (a) r: (x i .3). a) 3 . 5.16 shows that C2 3 D8 has no faithful irreducible representation. hence ó is reducible (Corollary 9. y j )r2 (À1) j . Notice that the matrix 5 À6 4 À5 commutes with gó for all g P G. then M ëI for some ë P C. Then r: x j 3 (e2ði ja n ) is a faithful irreducible representation of Cn . BÀ1 AB AÀ1 when A ar and B br. (x i . y j )r3 (À1) i . Then xz z zx for all x P G. 4. n2 3. y): x 4 y 4 1l. 0 1 1 0 . 3. and the result follows from Proposition 9. r. Let C4 3 C4 k(x. b3 (b) r: a 3 À1 0 0 À1 gives a faithful irreducible representation of D8 (see Example 5. If M(gr) (gr)M for g a and for g b. 1). . 7. . g irr ) 3 f d e F ir år 0 0 is a faithful representation of C n1 3 . 6. Let z gPG g. (1. Since (g1 g2 )ó (g1 ó)(g2 ó) for all representations ó. (d) Let C3 kx: x 3 1l and let ù e2ðia3 . Therefore Proposition 9. (a) Let Cn kx: x n 1l. y 2 ) then g1 . Check that 0 ù ù 0 r: (x. n1 2. b) 3 Àù 0 0 Àù . let gj generate Cn j . (c) The centre of C2 3 D8 is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . y j )r4 (À1) i j X 2.408 Representations and characters of groups gr1 (1) for all g P C2 3 C2 . (x i . 3 C n r of degree r. (x i . Yes: if r 2. y j ) 3 (À1) i . Also bÀ1 (a aÀ1 )b aÀ1 a. (b) Check that w(a aÀ1 ) Àw for all w P W. and let å j e2ðia n j . Hence r gives a representation. Hence r is irreducible (Corollary 9. (x. Hence z P Z(CG). then i i i i ó : ( g 11 .14.3). (a) Clearly a commutes with a aÀ1 . g2 and g1 g2 all have order 2. similarly for ó. 1) and g2 (1. For 1 < j < r. so b commutes with a aÀ1 . Check that A4 B2 I. X X X .5(2)). we cannot have (g1 g2 )ó g1 ó g2 ó (À1). g 22 ) 3 (å11 å22 ) is a faithful representation of degree 1 . (b) If g1 (x 2 . so is not cyclic.

v3 1 À ia À a2 ia3 Chapter 10 (compare the solution to Exercise 2). w1 ) are CG-submodules of CG. sp (v1 . For 0 < j < 3. We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.8(2). u2 1 À a a2 À a3 b À ab a2 b À a3 b. w0 ) U0 È U1 .5(2) (or see Exercise 8. the subspaces sp (v0 . w3 ). sp (v2 . U5 sp (v3 . since there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1. Thus U V. b 3 (À1) r2 : a 3 (À1). w2 ) and sp (v3 . 2.5 now shows that there are exactly ®ve non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. b 3 (1) r3 : a 3 (À1). sp (v2 . As in Example 5.Chapter 10 gives a representation of C3 3 D8. 409 1.b3 X 0 Ài 1 0 . b 3 (1) r1 : a 3 (1). where Ui sp (ui ) (0 < 3) and u1 . w1 ). Then ug u for all g P G. It is irreducible (see for example Exercise 8. w3 3 v3. u2 . Now suppose that U is an arbitrary trivial CG-submodule CG. b 3 (À1) 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 r4 : a 3 . Let U4 sp (v1 . namely U0 . Let V sp ( gPG g). Moreover U4 U5. U1 . v2 1 À a a2 À a3 . U2 . Then. w0 ). We have sp (v0 . w3 ). w2 ) U2 È U3 . u3 are as in the solution to i< Exercise 3. Let v0 1 a a2 a3 . Let u1 1 a a2 a3 À b À ab À a2 b À a3 b. as in Example 10. and so CG has exactly one trivial CGsubmodule. Then CG sp (1 x x 2 x 3 ) È sp (1 ix À x 2 À ix 3 ) È sp (1 À x x 2 À x 3 ) È sp (1 À ix À x 2 ix 3 )X 3.4). U4 and U5 are irreducible CG-modules. while u0 gPG g. Then V is a trivial CG-submodule of CG. Theorem 10. U3 and U4 . namely V. let wj bv j. so U sp (u) of for some u. Let G kx: x 4 1l. Therefore every irreducible representation of D8 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r0 : a 3 (1). v1 1 ia À a2 À ia3 . so |G|u u( gPG g) ( gPG g)u P V. u3 1 À a a2 À a3 À b ab À a2 b a3 bX 4.4) and faithful.

moreover. For each g P G. Therefore we have constructed in®nitely many CG-submodules Im öë of the required form. W)) i1 d i e i .4. Let W: U1 3 U2 be a CG-isomorphism. equals k i1 jf(a. Let v1 . U)) 1. 2. CG) (compare the proof of Proposition 11. Then {ö g : g P G} gives a basis of HomCG (CG. u2 ) is a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. 17. Since G is non-abelian. b) such that X a Y b . . Then sp (u1 . and similarly the number of integers b with Y b V i is k e i . rW2 w2 r (r P CG). v n be the natural basis of V.6.13 to see that the possible answers are 112 . u P Ker öë D u ëuW 0 D u 0.410 Representations and characters of groups 5. dim (HomCG (V. This. de®ne ö1 .12. Let v1 . 14 22 and 13 3 (where 112 means twelve 1s. A CG-isomorphism is given by v1 3 u1 . b): X a Yb Vi gjX Now the number of integers a with X a V i is dim (HomCG (V .1). 5. Thus U1 Im öë . . Then by (11. V is irreducible. Chapter 11 1. Let V X1 È . CG). the dimensions are 1.8(2). dim (HomCG (V. V i )) d i .8). 6. . By Exercise 5.6. 4. Then W1 . . where each Xa and each Yb is an irreducible CG-module. Hence by Corollary 11. either by the method of Example 5. v n ) is the unique trivial CG-submodule of V (compare Exercise 10. in turn. ö2 by uö1 u. . D12 has at least two inequivalent irreducible representations of degree 2. . 1. . u2 b À iab À a2 b ia3 b. de®ne the function öë : U1 3 V by öë : u 3 u ëuW (u P U 1 )X Then öë is easily seen to be a CG-homomorphism. ö2 is a basis of HomCG (U3. w2 be the basis of U3 described in Example 10. since the sum U1 U2 is direct. Hence. It will be shown later (Exercises 15. De®ne W1 and W2 by rW1 v1 r.4.3) that 18 2 cannot occur. 6. For ë P C. 3.5(2) or by Exercise 8. .2. . and so on). It is easy to check that if ë T ì then Im öë T Im ö ì . 18 2 means eight 1s and one 2. . 2. by Corollary 11. Then ö1 . by Theorem 11. de®ne ö g : CG 3 CG by rö g gr (r P CG). v2 3 u2 . not all the dimensions are 1 (see Proposition 9. U3 ). Let u1 1 À ia À a2 ia3 . È Xr and W Y1 È .8. 18 2.5)(3) and Proposition 11. uö2 bu (u P U3 ). È Ys. Hence the answer for D12 is 14 22 . Then sp (v1 . Compare Example 11. W)) is equal to the number of ordered pairs (a. Also.3. Therefore. by the proof of Proposition 11. W2 is a basis of HomCG (CG. dim (HomCG (V.18). .

We have Q8 ka. so hÀ1 x xhÀ1 and ghÀ1 x gxhÀ1 xghÀ1 . Thus |CG ((1 2))| 2´(n À 2)!. and three permutations for each choice. the conjugacy classes of A5 have sizes 1. The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. so 1 P CG (x). n G (b) (1 2 3) consists of all 3-cycles (i j k). n k. There are ®ve choices for i. fa. therefore A5 is simple.8 (since (2 ) n3a(2X(n À 2)3)). and H is a union of conjugacy classes of A5 . with i. 3 15. The elements of (1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G have the form (1 i)( j k)(l m). An element x of cycle-shape (5) has CS6 (x) kxl (note that |x S6 | 144 and use Theorem 12. The class equation gives . a2 .18(2). fb. k. h P CG (x). namely (i j)(k l ). By Example 12. then we can make three permutations ( j k)(l m). (1 2)(3 4) G consists of all permutations of the form (i j)(k l ) with i. Note that x P CG (g) D x P CG ( gz). 20. l. fa2 g. b: a4 1. Then gx xg and hx xh. Now the required result follows from Theorem 12. then we can make two different 3-cycles (k l m) and (k m l ) from the remaining numbers. m distinct. l distinct. j. If H is a normal subgroup of A5 then j Hj divides 60. Hence |(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G | 5 . thus ghÀ1 P CG (x). fab. 2) (6) 40 90 120 4. a a3 . Each choice gives exactly two 3-cycles. 4 . n 3. then four choices for j.8). There are (3 ) choices for the numbers i. and 1 P H. 2. 2 40 elements in all. Hence by Proposition 12. a3 bg. The centralizer CG ((1 2)) consists of all elements x and (1 2)x. This gives 5 . Therefore CG (x) is a subgroup of G. 2) from the remaining numbers. where x is a permutation ®xing 1 and 2. and a basis of Z(CQ8 ) is 1. b2 a2 . k (unordered). Assume that g. 2) (5) 90 120 144 (23 ) 15 (32 ) (4. l (unordered). g A6 g S6 . If z P Z(G) then zg gz for all g P G. x A6 T x S6 . j. b a2 b. Hence j Hj 1 or 60. k. (c) Every element of (1 2 3)(4 5 6) G has the form (1 i j)(k l m).8. (i k)( j l ) and (i l )( j k). ( j l )(k m) and ( j m)(k l ) of cycle shape (2. For elements g of other cycle-shapes. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.17. (a) (1 2) G {(i j): 1 < i . a3 g. 12. There are (4 ) choices for the numbers i. Also 1x x1. j. 12.Chapter 12 Chapter 12 411 1. The sizes of the conjugacy classes of S6 are given in the following table: Cycle-shape (1) Class size 1 (2) 15 (3) 40 (22 ) 45 (4) (3. ab a3 bX 7. j < n} and this set has size (2 ). 15. a2 bg. 5. 6. in agreement with Theorem n 12. namely (i j k) and (i k j). There are ®ve choices for i. so zx xz and z P CG (x). j.

Since ÷(g) |®x (g)|. for all g in G. we have ÷((1 2)) 5 and ÷((1 6)(2 3 5)) 2.14. Hence p divides |Z(G)|. and so ä is a linear character of G. . h PG. I 1r z m r (zr) m ë m I. Then zr ëI for some ë P C. 2) are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 2 2 a3 2 0 a. Chapter 13 1.8 and (12. If. a5 À1 0 a2 . 6. Moreover. Let r be a representation with character ÷. Let r be a representation with character ÷. by Proposition 9. |G| > p3 . a2 . if gr ëI for some ë P C. ÷4 of C4 are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 x 1 i À1 Ài x2 1 À1 1 À1 x3 1 Ài À1 i We have ÷reg ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 . 2.10. Let C4 kx: x 4 1l.9). . a3 b. The required result now follows from Theorem 13. We have now proved that gr ëI for some ë P C if and only if g P Z(G). 3. The characters ÷ i of r i (i 1. then by the class equation. (a) For all g. then ÷(1) ÷(12 ) (÷(1))2 . then p2 divides |x G | for all i xi P Z(G). If ÷ is a non-zero character which is a homomorphism. and hence ÷(zg) ë÷(g). det ((gh)r) det ((gr)(hr)) det (gr) det (hr). a i i Therefore p divides |x G |. Hence g 3 (det (gr)) is a representation of G over C of degree 1.11(1). and Im ä is a subgroup of the . (zg)r (zr)(gr) ë(gr). a2 b. a5 b 0 0 0 À2 Also Ker r1 {1. so ÷(1) 1. . 7. p2 divides a |Z(G)|. Thus. by Proposition 9.412 Representations and characters of groups jGj j Z(G)j xiP Z(G) a jx G jX i (a) For xi P Z(G). Conversely. If g P Z(G) then gr ëI for some ë P C. 5. |x G | divides pn and |x G | T 1 by Theorem 12. then ( gr)(hr) (hr)(gr) for all h P G. so ë m 1. in addition. (b) GaKer ä Im ä by Theorem 1. This is a contradiction. The irreducible characters ÷1 . i (b) If no conjugacy class of G has size p. 4. a3 } and Ker r2 {1. . a4 }.14. so Z(G) T f1g. and hence g P Z(G) since r is faithful. a4 À1 2 b. a4 b ab.

hence is cyclic. g2 k of CG so as to obtain a basis B in which g and gx are adjacent for all g P G. We may choose a basis B of V so that [g]B is diagonal with all diagonal entries Æ1 (see (9. Then I H 0 1 g f1 0 g f g f 0 1 [x]B f gX g f 1 0 e d FF F 0 0 There are k blocks and since k is odd. so Im ä has even order. which is abelian. det ([x]B ) (À1) k À1. Order the natural basis g1 .3 1. (0 1 ). 8. 24 4 8 4 3 .20 (but ÷ is not). and G has a normal subgroup of index 2 by Exercise 7. De®ne ä as in Exercise 7. . (À1) (À1)(À1) h÷. Using Proposition 14. so ÷( g) r À s r s ÷(1) mod 4. and de®ne the character ä as in Exercise 7. The required result now follows from Exercise 7. . . Thus ä(x) À1. . we have ÷reg (x) T ÷reg (1) (see Proposition 13.19. so ÷ i (x) T ÷ i (1) for some irreducible character ÷ i of G. 3). G has an element x of order 2. we obtain 3 . It is easy to check that {g P G: ä(g) P H} is a normal subgroup of G of index 2. 3 (À1)(À1) 3 . 3 (À1)(À1) h÷. 24 4 8 4 3. 9. ÷i 0 2. by Exercise 1. As x T 1. And if s is even then Às s mod 4. (c) Im ä is a ®nite subgroup of CÃ . Hence Im ä contains a subgroup H of index 2.Chapter 14 413 multiplicative group CÃ of non-zero complex numbers.7. øi 0 1X 24 4 8 4 Hence ø is irreducible by Theorem 14. a3 b 0 0 À2 . a2 b 0 0 0 ab. 2.8. By Exercise 1. The values of these characters are as follows: Conjugacy class ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 2 2 2 a2 À2 À2 2 a.10)). 2. Let ÷ i be the character of r i (i 1. øi 0 0. Also À1 P Im ä. 1 3 . 10 Chapter 14 1. 3 (À1) . Say there are r entries 1 and s entries À1.5(2). If s is odd then ä( g) À1. Let r be the regular representation of G. Therefore GaKer ä is abelian. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. a3 0 0 0 b. by Theorem 13. 10.1 (À1)(À1) (À1)(À1) hø.20).

(À1) . As ÷ T ÷1 . ÷2 i 1(19 . ÷3 i 1(19 . We ®nd that ø À÷2 ÷3 ÷5 2÷6 . If kø. Theorem 14. 1) 2. then i exactly a of the integers di are 1 and the rest are 0. the regular character of C2 . øl a where a 1. r1 and r2 are equivalent. k 7.21. (À2)(À1)) 7X 6 h÷. Hence. 2 2 ø 3 1 ÷1 1 ÷2 À 1 ÷3 X 3 3 3 3. Hence k÷reg . 0 and by hypothesis ÷(g) > 0 for all g P G. øi i1 d 2 . or exactly one of the di is 2. Then 1 h÷. 6 6 3 ø 2 1 ÷1 À 1 ÷2 . No: let G C2 and ÷ ÷reg . Chapter 15 1X h÷. 5. 6. 3. 4. by Proposition 13. then either exactly four of the di are 1. (À2) . (a) For all groups G. 6 Hence ÷ 2÷1 3÷2 7÷3 . ÷i 1 ÷reg ( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG But ÷reg (g) is |G| if g 1 and is 0 if g T 1.2. We have h÷reg . by Theorem 14. øl 4. ÷1 i ÷( g)X jGj gPG Since ÷(1) .21. if x P G then the subgroup generated by x and the elements of Z(G) is abelian (since the elements of Z(G) commute with powers of x). (À1)(À1) 2 . 1) 3. This follows at once from Exercise 11. hence r and ó are equivalent. ÷1 i 1(19 . we obtain ø 1 1 ÷1 1 ÷2 1 ÷3 . and this gives the required matrix T. Recall that hø. ÷1 l T 0.24. Hence if kø. 1 3 . 4. Therefore the centre of a group G never has index 2 in G. the rest are 0. but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. we have k÷. 1 2 . 2. ø is not a character of G. 8. By the method used in the solution to Exercise 1. Every abelian group of order 12 has 12 conjugacy classes. Let ÷1 be the trivial character of G. If |G| 12 . ÷l ÷(1).4 and Theorem 14. Since the coef®cient of ÷2 is a negative integer. 6 h÷.17 shows that ÷ is reducible. 1 3 .414 Representations and characters of groups By Theorem 14. The representations r and ó have the same character. Since all the coef®cients here are non-negative integers. 2 or 3. 2 0 2 . if G Z(G) Z(G)x then G Z(G). it follows that ÷ is a character of S3 . (À2) .

y) 1 À1 À1 1 2. 1) ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 (x. 2 since 4 ( ÷ i (1))2 10.10.9)). Corollary 13. Therefore.Chapter 16 415 and G is non-abelian. (b) Since the number of irreducible representations is equal to the number of conjugacy classes. then |Z(G)| divides 12 and |Z(G)| T 6 or 12. Finally. If G is abelian (e. and if G A4 then G has 4 conjugacy classes (see Example 12. 1) 1 1 À1 À1 (1. The last row of the character table is (cf. Then i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 0 gives ÷3 ( g2 ) 1. 4 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives i1 p p ÷4 ( g 2 ) (À1 À 5)a2. so |Z(G)| < 4. the remaining conjugacy classes have size at least 2. Exercise 9. y) 1 À1 1 À1 (x. it follows from the solution to Exercise 11.1) (1. The character table of C2 3 C2 is (cf. (x. i1 Because g4 has order 2. The complete character table of G is gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 10 1 2 1 2 g2 5 1p (À1 5)a2 1p (À1 À 5)a2 g3 5 1p (À1 À 5)a2 1p (À1 5)a2 g4 2 1 0 À1 0 The two unknown degrees ÷3 (1).5(2)) g1 ÷5 2 g2 À2 g3 0 g4 0 g5 0 3. Example 16. G C4 3 C3 ) then G has 12 conjugacy classes. similarly ÷4 ( g3 ) (À1 5)a2. at most 4 conjugacy classes of G have size 1 (see (12. 1). gives the values on g4 . (1. 1). . together with the relation 4 4 i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 4 ) 0. if G D12 then G has 6 conjugacy classes (see (12. ÷4 (1) are 1. Chapter 16 1. Let C2 3 C2 {(1.2 and part (a) that G has 4. 6 or 12 conjugacy classes.g.12)). y). similarly ÷3 (g3 ) 1. y): x 2 y 2 1}.18(1)). (x. so there cannot be as many as 9 conjugacy classes in total.

6. G9b. C t C is the k 3 k diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are |CG ( gi )| (1 < i < k). (a) 5 Representations and characters of groups i1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives 3 3æ 3æ 0. This number is equal to |G| if and only if CG (g) G. (a) The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. a3 bg. and if det C Àdet C then det C is purely imaginary. every element of G has the form am bn with . a3 g. It is easy to see that a7 b3 1. (b) G9 f1.13 to see quickly that bÀ1 ab a2 . By the column orthogonality relations. By the column orthogonality relations applied to the column k corresponding to g. this is a different column of the character table of G. Use Proposition 12. fa. the last irreducible character of G is 1 ÷5 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 The character table of Q8 is the same as that of D8.9(3)). Hence the linear characters of G are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 8 1 1 1 1 a2 8 1 1 1 1 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 (c) Using the column orthogonality relations. p Hence æ (À1 Æ i 7)a2. and 5 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g2 ) 7 i1 gives 3 2ææ 7. (b) The column which corresponds to the conjugacy class containing gÀ1 2 has values which are the complex conjugates of those in the column of g2 (see Proposition 13. Hence jdet Cj2 jC G ( g i )j. since æ is non-real. 5. we have i1 ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) jC G ( g)j. fa2 g. a2 bg and fab. G9a. a2 g and GaG9 fG9. G9abg C2 3 C2 .9(3)). fb. (The sign depends upon the ordering of rows and columns. Let g P G. The matrix C is obtained from C by rearranging the columns (see Proposition 13. The character table of C2 3 C2 is given in the solution to Exercise 16. p If G C3 then det C Æi3 3.) Chapter 17 1. (a) Using the relations. which occurs if and only if g P Z(G). if det C det C then det C is real.416 4. Therefore det C Ædet C.1. 2.

we note that a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . Hence ÷4 and ÷5 must be complex conjugates of each other. hence jGj < 21. If G has 3 or 4 linear characters then jGaG9j 3 or 4 and again G is not simple as G9 v G. ÷6 ö÷. To ®nd the two remaining irreducible characters ÷4 and ÷5 . so 21 divides jGj by Lagrange's Theorem. and the class sizes j g G j come from the equations i jGj jC G ( g i )jj g G j (Theorem 12.18). i gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 4 3 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 g3 4 3 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 g4 6 2 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 6 2 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g6 12 1 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 . 0 < n < 2. The centralizer orders are obtained by using the orthogonality relations. ÷5 ö. (b) The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. Therefore jGj 21. a5 .Chapter 17 417 0 < m < 6. Now consult the solution to Exercise 11. a4 g. so we get three linear characters of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . we have ÷(a) T ÷(a) (see Corollary 15. In the character table below. (c) First. fa3 . a6 g. so G is certainly not simple. fa. Applying the column orthogonality relations. then G is abelian (see Proposition 9.11.6). fa m b: 0 < m < 6g and fa m b2 : 0 < m < 6g. we obtain 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a á á a3 á á b 0 0 b2 0 0 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. ÷4 ÷2 ÷3 . ÷3 ÷ 2 .14. The number of linear characters of G divides jGj by Theorem 17. 3. 4. ÷2 ÷. But a has order 7 and b has order 3. therefore for some irreducible character ÷. we have ÷1 1 G . If there are 12.2 to see that there are 3. all of these are irreducible characters by Proposition 17.8). 4 or 12 linear characters. G9 kal. a2 .

0 çÀ1 1 0 where ç is any (2n)th root of unity in C.11). for å e2ði ja n with 0 < j < n À 1. for å e2ði ka2 n with 0 < k < n À 1. so jGaG9j 2n and there are 2n representations of degree 1. see the solution to Exercise 18. and inequivalent (consider the character values on a2 ). note that the structure of GaG9 depends upon whether n is even or odd. (b) The representations in part (a) are irreducible unless å Æ1. . abi Ker ÷4 . these representations are irreducible and inequivalent.12. ha2 . 0 å À1 0 1 0 å À1 ån 0 32 3À1 2 3À1 2 3 2 0 1 å 0 0 1 å 0 X ån 0 0 å À1 ån 0 0 å À1 Hence we have representations of T4 n (cf.4). (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations. . since they have distinct characters. For å e2ði ra2 n . For ç e2ði ja2 n with 1 < j < n À 1. 12 6n. Example 1. The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found is n . with r 1. are irreducible (by Exercise 8. 2. f1g Ker ÷5 X 5. Moreover G9 ka2 l.4). (b) The given representations. they are not equivalent to any representation found earlier. . ha2 . hai Ker ÷2 . 12 4nX Hence we have found all the irreducible representations. 22 4 . no two of which are equivalent. n À 1. Moreover. We get further representations by ç 0 0 1 a3 . (b) The given representations. . The normal subgroups of D8 are 6. bi Ker ÷3 . so jGaG9j 4 and there are four representations of degree 1 (see Theorem 17.) 7. (For further details on the representations of degree 1. Also G9 kbl.3. 8.4. by Theorem 11.b3 . are irreducible (by Exercise 8.418 Representations and characters of groups D8 Ker ÷1 .4) and inequivalent (their characters are distinct). since b2 is in the kernel of each of these representations. we get n À 1 irreducible representations. ha2 i Ker ÷2 Ker ÷3 . 22 2n . so we have obtained all the irreducible representations. by Exercise 8. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations: 2 32 n 2 3n 2 3 2 32 å 0 1 0 å 0 0 1 . Now the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found so far is (n À 1) . . . Note that b2 does not belong to the kernel of any of these representations.

since the sum of the squares of the irreducible representations given above is n . 22 4 . Character table of D8 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 a2 8 1 1 1 1 À2 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (See Example 16.3. (Compare Example 14. 22 (n À 1) . take b to be a re¯ection in a diagonal of the square. b2 l and GaG9 C2 3 C2.28(2). using Section 18. 12 8nX Chapter 18 1. The character table of D8 is as shown.) 2.3. Character table of D12 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 À2 2 a 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 . so we get four representations of degree 1. Then ù ùÀ1 1. the character table of D12 is as shown. G9 ka2 . Hence. where we took b to be a different re¯ection. ù2 ùÀ2 ù4 ùÀ4 À1. Then ð takes the following values: 1 ð 4 a2 0 a 0 b 2 ab 0 Hence ð ÷1 ÷3 ÷5 . Let ù e2ðia6 .Chapter 18 419 Finally.) Regarding D8 as the symmetry group of a square. We have now found all the irreducible representations.3(3) or Section 18.

as shown. fa2 j1 b: 0 < j < n À 1gX We get n À 1 irreducible characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) of G from Exercise 17.6 as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| øj 1 4n 2 an 4n 2(À1) j ar (1 < r < n À 1) 2n ù rj ùÀ rj b 4 0 ab 4 0 where ù e2ðia2 n . a2 r1 b2 gX We have G9 hbi and GaG9 hG9ai C2 n . fan g. far . then GaG9 hG9bi C4 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 À1 1 À1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 (À1) r 1 (À1) r b 1 i À1 Ài ab 1 Ài À1 i If n is even. fa2 r b. The remaining four irreducible characters of G are linear. 4. fa2 r g. kal Ker ÷2 . Exercise 17. ka2 . The 3n conjugacy classes of G are. fa2 r1 . 3. Hence we get 2n linear characters ÷ j (0 < j < 2n À 1). The n 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. ka2 . T8 Q8 and T12 is the Example in Section 18. fa2 j b: 0 < j < n À 1g. a2 r b2 g. If n is odd. a2 r1 b.4.7 gives us n irreducible characters ø k (0 < k < n À 1). then GaG9 C2 3 C2 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 1 1 1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r b 1 À1 1 À1 ab 1 À1 À1 1 Note that T4 C4 . .420 Representations and characters of groups Seven normal subgroups of D12 are G Ker ÷1 . aÀ r g(1 < r < n À 1). ka2 l Ker ÷3 Ker ÷4 . abl Ker ÷4 . bl Ker ÷3 . for 0 < r < n À 1. ka3 l Ker ÷6 and {1} Ker ÷5 .

k 1 or 3gX a2 r 6n ù2 jr 2ù2 kr a2 r b 3n ù2 jr Àù2 kr a2 r1 2n ù j(2 r1) 0 421 Using Exercise 17. and faj bk : j odd.Chapter 18 Character table of U6 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷j (0 < j < 2n À 1) øk (0 < k < n À 1) Note: ù e2ðia2 n . . and a further n À 1 characters ö j (1 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. n characters ø j (0 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. Character table of V8 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (0 < j < n À 1) öj (1 < j < n À 1) 1 8n 1 1 1 1 2 2 a2 r1 (0 < r < n À 1) 8n 4n 1 1 1 1 À2 2 1 1 À1 À1 b2 a2s a2s b2 (1 < s < (n À 1)a2) 4n 4n 1 1 1 1 ù4 js ùÀ4 js ù2 js ùÀ2 js 1 1 1 1 Àù4 js ÀùÀ4 js ù2 js ùÀ2 js b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 ù2 j(2 r1) ÀùÀ2 j(2 r1) ù j(2 r1) ùÀ j(2 r1) Note: ù e2ðia2 n . as shown below. ÷4 . fa2 r1 . fb2 g. U12 T12 and U18 D6 3 C3 .8. faj bk : j even. fa2s b2 . aÀ2 rÀ1 b2 g(0 < r < n À 1). The 2n 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. aÀ2s g. fa2s . 5. aÀ2s b2 g(1 < s < (n À 1)a2). the character table of V24 is given at the top of p. For example. . 422. k 1 or 3g. Observe that U6 D6. we get four linear characters ÷1 . . .

÷ A ø2 ø4 ø5 . By Proposition 15. Hence ö( g) ö(1) for all irreducible characters ö for which k÷ n . Since ÷ is not faithful. øl. there exists 1 T g P G with vg v for all v P V.422 Representations and characters of groups Character table of V24 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ø0 ø1 ø2 ö1 ö2 1 24 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 b2 24 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 À2 2 2 a 12 1 1 À1 À1 p0 ip 3 Ài 3 1 À1 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 À2 2 a5 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 p Ài 3 p i 3 1 À1 a2 12 1 1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 À1 a2 b2 12 1 1 1 1 À2 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Chapter 19 1X h÷ø. Therefore k÷ n .14 we obtain 1 ÷S ÷A öS öA 15 10 6 3 (1 2 3) 0 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À2 2 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 0 0 1 p (1 3 4 5 2) 0 0 1 p (1 5)a2 (1 À 5)a2 Then ÷ S ø1 ø2 2ø3 . ÷öl. öl T 0. øöiX jGj gPG jGj gPG Similarly. by Exercise 1. k÷ø. Using Proposition 19. 1 G l k÷. Let n be an integer with n > 0. 3. V (n factors). The result now follows from Proposition 13.13). öi 1 1 ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) h÷. 2. ö S ø1 ø3 . ö A ø4 X . k÷ø. . øl 0. 4.5 there is an irreducible character ø of G such that ø(g) T ø(1). . Note that (1 2 3 4 5)2 is conjugate to (1 3 4 5 2) in A5 . Let V be a CG-module with character ÷.15 and (14. öl kø. Then wg w for all w P V .

Since G has seven conjugacy classes. (a) Regard D8 as the subgroup of S4 which permutes the four corners of a square. ÷3 ÷2 . hj ) |CG ( gi . these are irreducible by Propositions 13. ÷ i l 1 for i 2.2) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù e2ðia3 6. ÷ S as ÷4 and ÷ A as ÷2 . Take b to be the re¯ection in the axis shown: .Chapter 20 423 5. hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 (1. The table also records the trivial character ÷1 . ÷6 ÷5 and ÷7 ÷2 ÷5 . b: a3 b2 1.1(3). Since k÷ i . the character table of D6 3 D6 is as shown. b) (b. as in Example 1. a) (1. Exercise 27.15 and 17. b) 36 18 12 18 9 6 12 6 4 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 2 2 À2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 2 À2 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 0 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 0 0 0 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 Àù2 Àù À1 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 Àù Àù2 À1 g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 ù ù2 1 g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 ù2 ù 1 Chapter 20 1. these characters are irreducible. We have recorded ÷ as ÷5 . 1) (1. 4. b) (a. Character table of D6 3 D6 ( gi .14. 5. below. Character table of G (cf. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. the character table is complete. a) (a. Taking D6 ka. a) (b. 1) (b. 1) (a.

. . ÷4 5 H ø3 ø5 . Then ÷ 5 H d1 ø1 .424 Representations and characters of groups Then a 3 (1 2 3 4). .1. ø r be the irreducible characters of H. ÷ 5 Hl H . Write d k÷ 5 H. b 3 (1 3) gives the required isomorphism. 9) are distinct irreducible characters of A6 . H V4 and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree 3 (see Section 18.3(3) or Section 18. . Since each ø i has degree 1. and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree d. dr ø r for some non-negative integers di . . . ÷11 5 A6 l 2. . k÷11 5 A6 . . ÷5 5 H ø2 ø5 X 2. 7. ÷2 5 H ø4 .14. For examples with d 1 or 2. . 5. ÷3 5 H ø1 ø4 . . ø5 in our character table below. We obtain ÷1 5 H ø1 . ÷11 be the irreducible characters of S6 . Also. (b) Take the irreducible characters ÷1 . Let ÷1 . take G A4 .6) gives ÷(1) d 1 X X X d r < d 2 X X X d 2 < nX 1 r 4. and take the character table of H to be gi |CH ( gi )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 (1 3)(2 4) 8 1 1 1 1 À2 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 (1 3) 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (see Example 16. these give the characters ø1 . . . the inequality (20. Arguing as in Example 20. . For an example with d 3. . Either by direct calculation. .2). . The inequality k÷ 5 H.3). Character table of A6 gi 1 (1 2 3) |C A6 ( g i )| 360 9 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 ø6 ø7 1 5 10 9 5 8 8 1 2 1 0 À1 À1 À1 p (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4 5) (1 3 4 5 2) (1 2 3)(4 5 6) (1 2 3 4)(5 6) 8 5 5 9 4 1 1 À2 1 1 0 0 5)a2.17. 3. as in Example 19. or using (20. we ®nd that the characters ÷ i 5 A6 (i 1. . we obtain from ÷11 5 A6 the two irreducible characters which we have called ø6 and ø7 . . . ÷ 5 Hl H < 3 follows at once from Proposition 20. ÷5 of S4 as in Section 18.5. â (1 À 1 0 0 À1 0 á â p 5)a2 1 0 0 À1 0 â á 1 À1 1 0 2 À1 À1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 0 Note: á (1 3.13). Let ø1 . take G S3 and H a subgroup of order 2.

the restriction of the irreducible character of degree 20 to A7 must be the sum of two different irreducible characters of degree 10.13).Chapter 21 425 5. 2. (a) ÷1 5 H ÷2 5 H ø1 . (a) Let u 1 À a2 b À a2 b. ÷4 5 H ÷5 5 H ø1 ø2 ø3 . (b) Since every element of G belongs to H or to Ha. the induced module U 4 G is irreducible. Then ua2 Àu and ub u. Let Hgj (1 < j < m) be the distinct right . 15. 10. Since 20 occurs only once in the list of degrees for S7 . (b) Using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 35X Chapter 21 1. ÷3 5 H ø2 ø3 . 6. and we get precisely seven if and only if the restriction of each of the fourteen characters is irreducible. See (20. upon restriction to A7 we get at least seven irreducible characters of A7 . we obtain ø1 4 G ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 ÷5 . Label the characters of H as follows: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 1 1 (1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 (1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . From the remaining fourteen irreducible characters of S7 . Hence the irreducible characters of A7 have degrees 1. (c) The character ø of U and the character ø 4 G of U 4 G are given by 1 ø 1 a2 À1 b 1 a2 b À1 1 ø4G 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 Since hø 4 G. It is suf®cient to prove that if U is a CH-submodule of CH then dim (U 4 G) jG : Hjdim U . ø 4 Gi 1. ø2 4 G ø3 4 G ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 X 3. the elements u and ua form a basis of U 4 G. 14. 14. Hence sp (u) is a C H-submodule of CH. We are told that A7 has exactly nine conjugacy classes. 21. 10.

÷ i 5 Hi H . hence ÷ 5 H is reducible. the values are as follows. The sum Ug1 . dim (Ugj ) dim U (since u 3 ugj (u P U) is a vector space isomorphism).) . The values of ö 4 G and ø 4 G are given by Proposition 21. together with the result of Exercise 19. By applying the result of Exercise 6. say ø 4 G ÷. that either (1) ø 4 G is irreducible. 3). we deduce. ÷öi G h(ø 4 G)÷. and therefore jG: Hjø(1) > (d 2 X X X d 2 )ø(1)X 1 k The required result follows.1 (also twice). ö 5 Hi H hø. dk ÷ k (1). Cycle-shape ö4G ø4G (1) 240 720 (7) 2 À1 (3. Ug m is direct (since the elements in Ugj are linear combinations of elements in the right coset Hgj ). where Ugj {ugj : u P U}. . Let ö be an irreducible character of G. . Hence dim(U 4 G) dim(U (CG)) m dim U . 7.11. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. (÷ö) 5 Hi H hø 4 G. ÷ i i G hø. 4. 5. Suppose ®rst that ø 4 G is irreducible. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. then for precisely one other irreducible character ö of H we have ø 4 G ö 4 G. (7) and (3. .426 Representations and characters of groups cosets of H in G. we deduce from Theorem 14. Hence. say ÷ 5 H ø ö. ÷ 5 Hi H T 0 D ø9 ø or öX Thus If ø 4 G is irreducible. Then ÷(1) 2ø(1) and k÷ 5 H.9. or (2) ø 4 G is the sum of two different irreducible characters of the same degree. öi G hø(÷ 5 H). 3) 12 0 6. ÷ i 5 H di ø â where either â is a character of H or â 0. Also. we obtain h(ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G. öi G X Since this holds for all irreducible characters ö of G. øl H 1.17 that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G (ø 4 G)÷. where d i hø 4 G. (Compare Proposition 20. Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H. . We have |G: H|ø(1) d1 ÷1 (1) . ÷i G T 0 D hø9. since ø is irreducible. On elements of cycle-shapes (1). . Thus ÷ i (1) > di ø(1). Then U(CG) Ug1 . We have hø9 4 G. and on all other elements the values are zero. By using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem twice. as in the proof of Proposition 20. . Ugm .23.

Hence kö À a1 G . say ø 4 G ÷1 ÷2. b P C such that ö(g) a for all g T 1 and ö(1) a bjGj. (a) By hypothesis.) Chapter 22 1. (c) The number of conjugacy classes of G is r s. 17.11. ÷l P Z and k1 G . and r s 7 or 10 or 16. (Compare Proposition 20. ÷l bjGj÷(1)ajGj b÷(1). öl and k÷reg . ÷l 0. (b) jG9j p by Theorem 17. (b) We have h1 G . 3. then kö.Chapter 22 427 Suppose next that ø 4 G is reducible. not every irreducible character has degree 1 (Proposition 9. Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H. Theorems 11.11). But kö À a1 G . The degree of each irreducible character is 1 or 2. ÷1 i G T 0 D hø9. We have hø9 4 G. The number of linear characters divides 15 (Theorem 17. and ø9 is an irreducible character of H such that ø9 4 G has ÷1 or ÷2 as a constituent. and so G is abelian by Proposition 9. 17. and the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is 15 (Theorem 11. since both sides of this equation take the same values on all elements of G.11 show that there are r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree q. ÷l kb÷reg . and jGj 1 jGj(a bjGj) a bjGjX jGj Since ö is a character. and if there are r characters of degree 1 and s of degree 2. then r divides 16. öl are integers. Then ÷1 (1) ø(1) and k÷1 5 H.11).11 and 22. 22 16X Hence r 4 or 8 or 16. then ø9 ø. (c) If ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G.12). hence ÷1 5 H ø. öi h÷reg . 2.18. and r . This time. öi 1 (a bjGj (jGj À 1)a) a b.) 4. 1 < s and r sq 2 pqX Hence r q and s ( p À 1)/q. moreover. ÷1 5 Hi H T 0 D ø9 øX Thus If ø 4 G ÷1 ÷2 where ÷1 and ÷2 are irreducible characters of G. .11 and 22. 12 s .12.12. øl H 1. Use Theorems 11. ÷l P Z. where r divides pq. both k1 G . each degree divides 15 (Theorem 22. (a) Since G is non-abelian.11 again. see Chapter 25.12. Then ö a1 G b÷reg . there exist a. Hence every irreducible character has degree 1. (For more information on groups of order pq.18).

. and ÷ i (g) Æ1 for 4 < i < 7. But À÷(1)a2 is a rational number which is not an integer (since ÷(1) divides jGj.1 and Corollary 23.5. and ÷(g) is an algebraic integer. and hence also b. by part (b). 120. ÷2 (1) ÷3 (1) 0 mod 5. (Further information about the number of characters ÷ such that ÷ ÷ appears in Theorem 23.) 6. The only possibility which is consistent with equation (IV) is that the values of ÷ i (1) for 4 < i < 7 are 1. with ÷1 1 G . by Lagrange's Theorem. and from equation (III) we have (IV) 7 (÷ i (1))2 69X i4 Hence the possibilities for the pairs of integers (÷ i (1). part (c) implies that b|G| is an integer. 1 G i ÷( g)X jGj gPG (c) If ÷ T 1 G in part (b). we have ÷( g) ÷( g À1 ) ÷( g) ÷( g) 2÷( g). By the column orthogonality relations. (a) By Theorem 22. This contradicts Proposition 22. and hence á À÷(1)a2. and (II) 1 7 i2 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) 0X From equation (I) we deduce that either ÷ i ( g) 0. a. if g2 1 then g 1. ÷ i ( g)) with 4 < i < 7 are (1. Therefore.2. Let ÷1 . À1). Thus ÷ 1 G . Each such subset has size 2. 3. (b) We deduce from part (a) that ÷ i (g) 0 for two values of i. 1). hence is odd). (6. say i 2. Partition Gnf1g into subsets by putting each element with its inverse. 5. since 1 h÷. we deduce that ÷2 (1) ÷3 (1) 5. Hence ÷( g) ÷(1) 2á gPG for some algebraic integer á. (a) If g P G then g has odd order. ÷7 be the irreducible characters of G. 4. 1. 1 G l 0. then k÷. Therefore.16. or ÷ i (g) Æ2 for exactly one i and ÷ i (g) 0 for all other i . ÷(g) is an integer for all characters ÷. Æ1 for all i. . (4. The stated result follows. by part (a). Also (III) 2 2 7 i1 (÷ i (1))2 120X Since 5 10 . . (d) We now have the following part of the character table of G: . ÷ i (1) ÷ i ( g) mod 5 for all i. the second possibility is ruled out by equation (II).27. (b) For all g P G. is an integer. (c) By Corollary 22. 6 in some order.27. we have (I) 1 7 i2 (÷ i ( g))2 5. 4.428 Representations and characters of groups (d) Since ÷(1) divides jGj. 1). . By Corollary 22.

(5) Only the entries in column 2 remain to be calculated. Hence ÷ i (g5 ) Æ1 i1 for 1 < i < 4 and ÷ i (g5 ) 0 for 5 < i < 7. 1. (2) Next.Chapter 22 gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 g3 2 8 1 g4 3 6 1 g5 4 4 1 g6 6 6 1 429 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 We successively calculate the ®ve remaining columns of the character table. an (1) First. Therefore i1 ÷ i (g6 ) Æ1 for 1 < i < 6 and ÷7 (g6 ) 0. 0. À1. By applying the column orthogonality relations involving column 6 and columns 3. 7. 0. 5 and 7 we obtain ÷2 (g6 ) À÷3 (g6 ) ÷4 (g6 ) À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷5 (g6 ) À÷6 (g6 ) 1. À1. 1. 0. (3) Since ÷ i (g3 ) ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g3 ))2 8. j. Since 7 ÷ i (1)÷ i (g5 ) 0. respectively. (4) We have ÷ i (g6 ) ÷ i (g4 ) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g6 ))2 6. We are told that ÷ i (gj ) is integer for all i. ÷ i (g5 ) ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g5 ))2 4. ÷ i ( g4 ) ÷ i (1) mod 3 and 7 (÷ i ( g4 ))2 6. À2 in order from the top. we deduce that i1 ÷ i (g3 ) Æ1 for 1 < i < 4 and the values of ÷ i ( g3 ) for 5 < i < 7 are that 7 0. Also i1 ÷ i (g3 )÷ i ( gr ) 0 for r 4. 1. Æ2 in some order. 1. From the relation i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 3 ) 0 we now deduce that the entries in column 3 are 1. 1. from which 7 we see that ÷ i (g3 ) 1 for 1 < i < 4. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 À1 1 À1 À2 2 0 g3 2 8 1 1 1 1 0 0 À2 g4 3 6 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 0 g5 4 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 g6 6 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 . 0. These can be obtained from the column orthogonality relations. The character table of G is as shown. 1. 4. Hence the values of i1 ÷ i (g4 ) for 1 < i < 7 are 1. i1 we deduce that ÷4 ( g5 ) À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷2 (g5 ) À÷3 (g5 ) 1.

3 C n r which is given by i i ÷( g 11 X X X g irr ) ë11 X X X ë irr is real if and only if ë i Æ1 for all i with 1 < i < r. Let I H 0 1 0 XXX 0 f 0 0 1 0 g g f f 0 0 0 0 g f F Af F F gX F g F g f F d 0 0 0 1 e Àa0 Àa1 Àa2 XXX Àa nÀ1 Check that det (xIn À A) p(x). and hence ë is a root of the polynomial det (xIn À A). the elements g of G which satisfy g2 1 are i precisely those elements g11 . These numbers coincide with ÷(1). Since ÷(1) 2 we have ÷ A (1) 1. . However.430 Representations and characters of groups 7. Hence the number of real irreducible characters is 2 m . . it follows that ë is an eigenvalue of A. Since jGj is odd. . Then g g2( n1) P CG (x).14). summing over all the irreducible characters ÷. Therefore x À1 gÀ1 xg x. . and n 2 elements if n is even.8. either i j 0 or n j is even and i j n j a2. a i b (0 < i < n À 1) (and also a na2 if n is even)X This gives n 1 elements if n is odd. 3. The elements g of D2 n for which g2 1 are 1. Then ÷ A (g) 1 2 2 2 2((ë1 ë2 ) À (ë1 ë2 )) ë1 ë2 det (gr) (see Proposition 19. As p(ë) 0.13 of é÷ that é÷ À1 if and only if ÷ A 1 G . it follows that x 1. Then gÀ1 xg x À1 for some g P G. Since x 2 1 and x has odd order. nr which are even. . Let ë1 and ë2 be the eigenvalues of gr. . Since A has integer entries. 2. m 2n 1 for some integer n. Chapter 23 1. The result follows. by Lagrange's Theorem. 4. Suppose ®rst that ë is an eigenvalue of an n 3 n matrix A. Since é÷ < 1 for all ÷. Let m be the order of g. Then det (A À ëIn ) 0. . . which is of the form x n anÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 (ar P Z)X Conversely. g irr where for each j. Hence gÀ2 xg2 x. It now follows from the De®nition 23. Assume that x P G and x is real. The number of such elements is also 2 m . . The character ÷ of G C n1 3 . . assume that ë is a root of the polynomial p(x) a0 a1 x . it follows from the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions that we must have é÷ 1 for all ÷. a nÀ1 x nÀ1 x n (a r P Z). . Now the ni th root of unity ë i can be À1 if and only if ni is even. all of whose entries are integers. Adopt the notation of Theorem 9. ë is therefore an algebraic integer. where m is the number of the integers n1 . so g2 P CG (x).

The de®nition of â shows that â is symmetric if å n 1 and â is skew-symmetric if å n À1.3 for the characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) and ÷ j (1 < j < 4) of T4 n. so det A T 0. By a well known property of symmetric matrices. . Hence an is the only element of order 2. By part (a) (or part (b)) and the construction of the characters ø j in Exercise 17. respectively. . f j )X By applying the Gram±Schmidt orthogonalization process. Hence â is G-invariant. X X X . v j ). v j ) â(v i . . f j ). . Write Q (q ij ). Let r be the representation obtained by using the basis v1 . as n ÷(1) the result is proved. there is an orthogonal matrix Q (i. Also A is invertible by (Ã ). and de®ne the basis e1 . b ij â( f i . f 9) ä ij for all i. . v n of V and let A be the n 3 n matrix with ij-entry â(v i . v j g À1 )X For example. The result now follows from Exercise 4. 7. v1 bÀ1 ). . Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. v) 0 for all v P V g f0gX (Ã ) Pick a basis v1 . (c) The elements of T4 n are ai and ai b (0 < i < 2n À 1). Since é÷ À1. å n v2 ) â(v1 . v1 ) â(v2 . Clearly é÷1 é÷3 1. f 9 of V such that â1 ( f 9. we may construct a basis f 1 . there exists a nonzero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form â on V.16. respectively. 6. . the subspace {u P V: â(u. â(v1 b.e. and é÷2 é÷4 0 or 1. Therefore det (At ) (À1) n det A. j. since V is irreducible it follows that fu P V : â(u. QQt I) such that Q(PBPt )QÀ1 is diagonal. (d) Refer the Exercise 18. hence det (gr) 1 for all g P G if and only if å n À1. according to whether n is odd or even. respectively.6. j P {1. (a) First. As â is G-invariant. Since â is skew-symmetric. nÀ1 Therefore j1 (éø j )ø j (1) 0 or À2. . 2} then â(v i g. according to whether n is odd or even. v2 of V. it is easy to check that ÷( g) is real for all g P G. v1 ) å n â(v1 . so é÷ Æ1. en of V by ei qij f 9 X j j t t . so det A (À1) n det A. . The result now follows from Theorem 23. we have At ÀA. . Then det (ar) 1 and det (br) Àå n . Choose a basis f1 .Chapter 23 431 5. It follows that n is even. Hence ÷ (é÷)÷(1) 2. . we get éø j À1 or 1. (b) It is easy to check that if g a or b and i. a has order 2n and ai b has order 4. fn of V and de®ne the symmetric n 3 n matrices A (aij ) and B (bij ) by aij â1 ( f i . Let 9 n i j P ( pij ) be the n 3 n matrix which is given by f9 pij f j X i j Then PAP I n and PBP is symmetric. . according to whether j is odd or even. v) 0 for all v P V} is a CGsubmodule of V.

inverse of is . Then V is an irreducible RG-module. 10. v n be a basis of the RG-module V. r g is a permutation. By Schur's Lemma there exists ë P C such that vW ëv for all v P V9.432 Then Representations and characters of groups â1 (ei . . But v1 W ëv1 P V. . Then V9 is a CG-module. we have G9 1. Further. . and r is a homomorphism as (Hx)(r gh ) Hxgh (Hx)(r g )(r h ). . Hx.1. so we may take ÷1 (t) 1. Hence G C2 . . xgx À1 Vx P G D xPG x À1 P H. â å 2 å 6 å 7 å 8 å 10 X . For the last part. 8. (c) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. De®ne W: V 3 V by vW av (v P V). ej ) 0 if i T j. since a linear character must take the value Æ1 on t. since QPAPt Qt I n . which we are assuming to be an irreducible CG-module. r is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù) S n with kernel which is contained in H. . ej ) ä ij . For closure. G is abelian. v n . Let ç e2ðia5 and å e2ðia11 . identity is 1 0 1 y 1 À yx À1 . 0 x 0 x9 0 xx9 associativity is a property of matrix multiplication. Hence |G : G9| 2 by Theorem 17. ÷1 and ÷2 are the only linear characters. By the orthogonality relation for c2 we have ÷ i (t)2 |CG (t)| 2 (the sum over all irreducible characters ÷ i . Call it G. Now the orthogonality of c1 and c2 gives ÷1 (1) ÷2 (1) 1 and ÷2 (t) À1. and let V be the RG-submodule of the regular RG-module which is spanned by 1 À a and 1 À a2 . 0 1 0 x 0 x À1 Therefore G is a group. if G is simple then since G9 v G. ÷2 (t) Æ1 and ÷ i (t) 0 for i > 3. with ÷1 1 G ). c2 be the columns of the character table of G corresponding to the classes {1} and t G . Chapter 25 1.e. We have g P ker r D Hxg Hx. . note that 1 y 1 y9 1 y9 yx .11. as Hxg Hyg A Hx Hy. It is clear that the given set of matrices has size p( p À 1). (b) Let v1 . Let c1 . 2. and consider the vector space V9 over C with basis v1 . Vx P G D g P xPG xÀ1 HxX Finally. i. . 9. so ë P R. and write á å å 3 å 4 å 5 å 9 . and since QPBPt Qt is diagonalX â(ei . (a) The proof is similar to that of part (1) of Schur's Lemma 9.

b9À1 ab9 av iX Hence G1 G2 . Also. Hence ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) ÷. then a is conjugate to aÀ1 and so ÷(a) is real for all characters p so (ö1 (a))2 (ö2 (a))2 ( p 1)a2. Recall that ZÃ is cyclic.Chapter 25 Character table of F11. so by Exercise 1. Let b9 bm. Hence bm has order q. . m is coprime to q. Then G1 ha. 2ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ( p 1)a2. Also.9. and it follows from Corollary 15. Also. Hence ö2 (a) ö1 (a). If p 1 mod 4. there exists an integer m p such that u m v mod p.6(c). and we ®nd that p ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are (À1 Æ i p)a2. (a) Note that À1 is the only element of order 2 in ZÃ. aG {au : m P Z}. Hence 0 ÷(1)÷(a) q qö1 (a) qö2 (a)X ÷ irred m Therefore ö1 (a) ö2 (a) À1. 5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 55 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 a 11 1 1 1 1 1 á â a2 11 1 1 1 1 1 â á b 5 1 ç ç2 ç3 ç4 0 0 b2 5 1 ç2 ç4 ç ç3 0 0 b3 5 1 ç3 ç ç4 ç2 0 0 433 b4 5 1 ç4 ç3 ç2 ç 0 0 3. This time. so p ÷(a)÷(a) q ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ö2 (a)ö2 (a)X ÷ Hence ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ö2 (a)ö2 (a) ( p 1)a2. are (À1 Æ p)a2. Hence p u m À1 mod p for some m D the element u of ZÃ has even order p D q is even D p 1 mod 4X (b) By Proposition 25. then a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . since both m and v have u order q modulo p. Therefore aÀ1 P aG D u m À1 mod p for some m D p 1 mod 4X (c) ÷ i (a) 1 for all the q linear characters ÷ i of G.6 that ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are not both real. If p À1 mod 4. bÀ m abm au av . 4. b9: ap b9q 1. |CG (a)| p.

Then for all h P H. fa3 . as shown. Lift the irreducible character of D6 of degree 2 to obtain ÷7 in the table below.18). . . (c) D6 3 F13. The result now follows from part (c). . ÷6 of G. . fa r b5 : 0 < r < 8gX Let H1 kal. .434 Representations and characters of groups ( pÀ1)a2 m (d) By Theorem 25. (b) C2 3 F13. ö1 (a) m1 å u . .10). Then H1 v G and Ga H 1 C6 . fa r b3 : 0 < r < 8g. u 2 . . u ( pÀ1)a2 } is precisely the set of quadratic residues modulo p. The characters ÷4 . bl. Then H2 v G and Ga H 2 h H 2 a. Character table of E gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 18 1 1 2 2 2 2 a 9 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 b 9 1 1 À1 2 À1 À1 ab 9 1 1 À1 À1 2 À1 a2 b 9 1 1 À1 À1 À1 2 c 2 1 À1 0 0 0 0 6. there exist gi P E such that gi T 1 but ÷ i (gi ) ÷ i (1) (so gi P Ker ÷ i ). Hence we get six linear characters ÷1 . 7. a6 g. Then ÷ 4 E is the irreducible character ÷3 given in the table which follows. fa r : 3 B rg. say ÷1 and ÷2 . E9 H. 6g. Also. ÷5 and ÷6 are obtained similarly. so E has exactly two linear characters. 6g. 3.3 (see Theorem 19. . Z(E) {1}. 3. Then ÷8 ÷7 ÷2 and ÷9 ÷7 ÷3 are also irreducible. fa r b4 : 3 B rg. A typical non-trivial linear character of H is 1 ÷ 1 a 1 a2 1 b ù b2 ù2 ab ù ab2 ù2 a2 b ù a2 b2 ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . Since ZÃ is cyclic of order p p À 1 and u has order ( p À 1)a2. fa r b4 : r 0. Let H2 ka3 . .3 (see Theorem 19. 8. (a) F13. b2 l. H 2 bi D6 . The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. and for all i with 1 < i < 6. the conjugacy class hE consists of h and hÀ1 . Let H ka.3 (see Theorem 25. 5. it follows that {u. fa r b2 : 3 B rg.18). All the elements outside H form a single conjugacy class of E. fa r b2 : r 0. fa r b: 0 < r < 8g.10. The ®nal irreducible character ÷10 can be found by using the column orthogonality relations.

b: a9 b6 1.11. {1}. m is at least 2. and (ø 4 G)(1) p.Chapter 26 Character table of G ka. øl H T 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. hz. Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G.20. Then k÷ 5 H. since H is abelian. by Theorem 17X11. by Theorem 11X12X Since s p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 and s is an integer. and r sp2 pn . bÀ1 ab a2 l gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 Note: ù e2ðia3 1 54 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 6 a3 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 À3 a 9 ab2 9 ab4 9 b 6 b2 18 b3 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 b4 18 435 b5 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 ù2 ù Àù ù2 1 ù ù2 ù2 ù 1 1 1 À1 1 1 ù2 ù ù ù2 1 ù ù2 Àù2 ù À1 À1 À1 0 2 À1 Àù2 Àù 0 2ù2 À1 Àù Àù2 0 2ù 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ù Àù2 ù2 ù 1 À1 ù ù2 ù2 Àù 2 0 2ù 0 2ù2 0 0 0 Chapter 26 1. For all other elements h of H. 2. {z} and {z 2 } are conjugacy classes of H. Therefore h÷. But ø(1) 1. Assume that G has r linear characters and s irreducible characters of degree p. the conjugacy class hH {h. Then r pm for some m. Character table of H (a non-abelian group of order 27) gi |C H ( g i )| ÷00 ÷01 ÷02 ÷10 ÷11 ÷12 ÷20 ÷21 ÷22 ö1 ö2 1 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 z 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù 3ù2 z2 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù2 3ù a 9 1 1 1 ù ù ù ù2 ù2 ù2 0 0 a2 9 1 1 1 ù2 ù2 ù2 ù ù ù 0 0 b 9 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 0 0 ab 9 1 ù ù2 ù ù2 1 ù2 1 ù 0 0 a2 b 9 1 ù ù2 ù2 1 ù ù ù2 1 0 0 b2 9 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 0 0 ab2 9 1 ù2 ù ù 1 ù2 ù2 ù 1 0 0 a2 b2 9 1 ù2 ù ù2 ù 1 ù 1 ù2 0 0 Note: ù e2ðia3 . hz 2 }. Hence ÷(1) < p. ø 4 Gi G T 0 by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. by Corollary 21. and so ÷(1) 1 or p by Theorem 22.

7) Note: cm e2ði ma16 eÀ2ði ma16 2 cos (mð/8) 3. a8 }. s. u) with r. Since G9 h Zi. jGj > 12 42 17. and GaK D16 . AD DA. these are all the irreducible representations of G. . AC ÀCA. . t. BC CB. 5. Since Gah Zi is abelian. ÷7 of G as shown in the table at the top of this page. and Gah Zi is abelian while G is non-abelian. b: a16 1. s. we obtain the characters ÷1 . 4. this shows that jGj 32. u P {0. Here. 1g. G has precisely 16 representations of degree 1. 1}. {ar b: r even}. (d) Since G has irreducible representations of degrees 1 and 4. These are as follows: for each (r.3. Therefore G9 h Zi (see Proposition 17. We obtain representations as follows: . b2 a8 . t. it follows that g 2 P h Zi for all g P G. also G is a 2-group.10). {ar . 7) come from inducing to G those linear characters ÷ of kal for which ÷(a8 ) À1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 øj ( j 1. {ar b: r odd}. (a) Check that AB ÀBA. Then the four characters ø j ( j 1. k. aÀ r } (1 < r < 7). by Theorem 11. (b) A2 ÀB2 ÀC2 D2 I. (c) A routine calculation shows that every matrix which commutes with each of A. B. 1 32 a8 32 a 16 a2 16 a3 16 a4 16 a5 16 a6 16 a7 16 b 4 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 2 2 p0 À2 0 2 0 0 p p À2 p0 2 2 2 0 Àp2 À2 Àp2 0 2 0 p p 2 2 À 2 0 2 À2 2 0 À 2 0 2 À2 cj c2 j c3 j c4 j c5 j c6 j c7 j 0 5. Hence Z P G. m P f0. we get a representation A i B j C k D l Z m 3 (À1) ir js kt lu X Together with the irreducible representation of degree 4. G has 11 conjugacy classes: {1}. the group K which appears in Theorem 26. since g4 1 for all g P G. The character table of D16 is given in Section 26. so jGj < 32. Combined with part (b). . {a8 }. BD ÀDB. 3. the given representation is irreducible. j.12. Hence by Corollary 9. (a) Let å e2ðia8 . . 3.8 (D16 G1 ) and in Section 18. 5.436 Representations and characters of groups Character table of G ka. C and D has the form ëI for some ë P C. Hence every element of G has the form A i B j C k D l Z m for some i. l.3. By lifting the irreducible characters of D16. CD ÀDC.4 is {1.

G9 : G1 Order Order Order Order 1 2 4 8 1 9 2 4 G2 1 1 10 4 G3 1 5 6 4 G4 1 3 4 8 G5 1 3 12 0 G6 1 7 8 0 G7 1 11 4 0 G8 1 3 12 0 G9 1 5 10 0 Therefore no two of G1 . å5 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 0 0 1 i 0 . b 3 d À1 0 0 e. But G5 aG5 9 C2 3 C4 .b3 . Hence a . a2 z} C2 3 C2 . by Proposition 9. i f G8 : a 3 d 0 0 H 0 0 0 À1 H I 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 g f g f g Ài 0 e. Also jGa Z(G)j T p by Lemma 26. 4 and 8 in G1 . À1 0 2 3 0 1 . .1(2). Assume that j Z(G)j p2 .b3 . while G8 aG8 9 C2 3 C2 3 C2 . . (c) Check that the matrices satisfy the required relations. 1 0 å3 3 2 3 0 0 1 . so the representations are faithful. 7 or 8 then Z(Gj ) {1. 2. 7. b 3 d 1 0 0 e. Since Z(Gj ) is not cyclic. .16. . z 3 d 0 1 0 eX I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 1 0 0 1 6. The following table records the numbers of elements of orders 1. Gj has no faithful irreducible representation. .2 G1 : a 3 2 G2 : a 3 G3 : a 3 G4 : a 3 2 G5 : a 3 å å 0 À1 3 . and g P CG ( g). If g P Z(G) then Z(G) < CG (g) T G. a2 . . (d) The following give faithful representations: H I H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 f g f g f g G7 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. so give representations. z. 6.b3 3 . 3 437 0 å 0 0 å À1 2 3 å 0 2 0 å 0 1 0 . . so G5 T G8 . z 3 d 0 1 0 e. . Therefore j Z(G)j p or p2 . It is easy to see that the matrices generate groups with more than eight elements.1(1) we have {1} T Z(G) T G.b3 . (a) By Lemma 26.b3 2 2 Chapter 26 0 1 1 0 0 1 3 .z3 X À1 1 0 0 i (b) If j 5. except possibly G5 and G8 . G9 are isomorphic.

Since a2 commutes with a. then by Exercise 7. Hence |G9 Z(G)| p. in which case Ga(G9 Z(G)) is abelian.438 Representations and characters of groups jC G ( g)j p3 and j gG j p. 8. a dX 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 z À1 0 À1 z Therefore z aI. with a4 P Z. Therefore jGaG9j r p2 or p3 . bZi. and . By parts (a) and (b). so a Æ1. so r sp2 p4 . bÀ1 abZ aÀ1 ZX Then a2 b2 z for some z P Z. p). (b) If G is a non-abelian group of order 16. and assume that Ga Z haZ. (c) Note that G9 Z(G) T {1} by Lemma 26. 2. in which case Ga(G9 Z(G)) T Q8 by part (a). 3) of order 3 which are not conjugate to each other. as r s is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. either G9 Z(G) G9. and if |G9| p2 then |Z(G)| p. and 1 1 z A c Àb. and hence ba2 b3 z b2 zb a2 b. Chapter 27 1.1(1). we have a2 P Z. (a) Let Z Z(G). (b) Assume that G has r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree p. and since z P SL (2. there are no irreducible characters of degree greater than p.12). or G9 Z(G) Z(G). Therefore Ga Z T Q8 . Assume that z Then a c b d P Z(SL (2. we have a2 1. if |Z(G)| p2 then |G9| p. G has p2 ( p4 À p2 )a p conjugacy classes. p))X 1 z A c 0. b and all elements in Z. The element À1 0 0 À1 lies in Z(G). a2 Z b2 Z. Check that and 1 0 1 1 1 À1 0 1 are elements of G SL (2. Therefore. and if r p2 then r s 2 p2 À 1. Since ÷(1)2 p4 (Theorem 11. Part (b) follows.

0).Chapter 27 0 À1 1 0 439 has order 4. whose values on g4 are áù and áù2 . they must be ÷6 and ÷7 in some order. 6. ÷6 .27. therefore GafÆIg A4 . Finally. one of ÷5 . 7.1. Since á is real. ÷3 .2). Then á À1 since ÷5 ( g4 ) ÷5 (1) mod 3. a subgroup of S4 of order 12. say ÷5 ÷2 ÷6 and ÷5 ÷3 ÷7 . The values of ÷5 . ÷7 on the elements g1 . ÷4 of G are obtained by lifting to G the irreducible characters of A4 (which are given in Section 18. where á is real. 1). Also á T 0. The characters ÷1 . ÷(g5 ) ÷( g4 ) and ÷(g6 ) ÷( g7 ) for all ÷. namely the spans of the vectors (0. ÷2 . 1). by Corollary 22. which is given below. The equation j ÷ j (g4 )÷ j ( g 4 ) 6 gives áá 1. Then ÷5 ( g4 ) á. The group G permutes these subspaces among themselves. g3 can be deduced from the column orthogonality relations. so we obtain a homomorphism ö: G 3 S4 . Now note that for j 5. so by Theorem 23. 1) and (1. Hence GafÆIg Im ö. . (1. ÷6 and ÷7 must be real. Note that G has three real conjugacy classes. that ÷5 is real. Assume. g2 . Since ÷5 ÷2 and ÷5 ÷3 are irreducible characters of G of degree 2. Check that Ker ö {ÆI}. á Æ1. (2.5 implies that ÷ j ( g7 ) À÷ j ( g4 ). Exercise 13. Hence the following are conjugacy class representatives: g1 1 0 1 24 0 1 g2 À1 0 0 À1 2 24 g3 0 À1 4 4 1 0 g4 1 1 0 1 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| 3 6 g5 1 0 À1 1 3 6 g6 À1 1 0 À1 6 6 g7 À1 À1 0 À1 6 6 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| We now describe how to construct the character table of G. without loss of generality. First observe that the vector space (Z3 )2 has exactly four 1-dimensional subspaces.

h2 Z. write ö ë : G. 1 T : Gl 2 and k1 T : G. (a) For the character table of T. . The values of 1 T : G and ë : G are as follows (see Proposition 21. ë : Gl 1. h5 ZX 0 1 0 1 Two of the linear characters of T are hi |CT (h i )| 1T ë h1 21 1 1 h2 3 1 ù h3 3 1 ù2 h4 7 1 1 h5 7 1 1 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 À1 Àù Àù2 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 À1 Àù2 Àù g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 1 ù2 ù g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 1 ù ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . so ë : G is irreducible.6. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. . h3 Z.2 and Example 21. Also. kë : G. h5 . Hence 1 T : G 1 G ÷. 4. notice that T is isomorphic to the group of order 21 whose character table is found in Exercise 17. where 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 0 2 0 4 0 h1 Z.440 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2.23): gi |CG ( g i )| 1T 4 G ë4G g1 168 8 8 g2 8 0 0 g3 4 0 0 g4 3 2 À1 g5 7 1 1 g6 7 1 1 We ®nd that k1 T : G. Representatives of the conjugacy classes of T are h1 . Apply Proposition 17. . 0 1 0 4 0 2 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 À1 h4 Z. .25. 3) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù e2ðia3 3. 1 G l 1. .

0. Use part (c) to ®ll in the values on g2 and g7 . ÷7 (1)2 ÷8 (1)2 ÷11 (1)2 96. have degrees 2divisible by 6. Æ1. 5. The congruences ÷(1) ÷(g6 ) mod 3 now give the remaining values on g6 . ö. say ÷7 (1) and ÷8 (1). ø A has the following values on g1 . and so æ 2ø with ø irreducible. . 11 say ÷9 and ÷10 . so ÷9 (1) ÷10 (1) 6. By Corollary 22. ÷l 1. Next.7). The values of ø are as shown above. æ cannot therefore be the sum of four irreducible characters. in the character table of G given at the end of Chapter 27. 1 G l k÷ S . we obtain the characters ÷1 . ÷11 (1). . (d) The characters 1 G . Now 1 G . Æ1. ÷2 and ÷6 . in some order. (e) Theorem 22. are equal to 4. Further. and 12 6 . g3 and g6 : g1 øA 6 g2 6 g3 2 g6 0 .27. (c) Use Exercise 13. and ÷11 (1) 8. ÷ j (1) is even. the values of ÷ j (g6 ) for 7 < j < 11 must be Æ1. (a) Compare the proof of Lemma 27. ÷8 (1). and none is a constituent of æ.5 (noting that ÷ j (ÀI) T ÷ j (I) for 7 < j < 11.) Also. Since By 11 2 j1 (÷ j (g6 )) 6. ÷3 .Chapter 27 (c) The values of ÷ and ÷ S are as shown below (see Proposition 19. 2 2 j1 (÷ j (1)) 168. we deduce that ÷ j (g3 ) 0 for 7 < j < 11. Note that because g2 lies in Z(G). or æ is the sum of four distinct irreducible characters (cf. æl 4. since ÀI is not in kernel of these characters). öl k÷ S . ÷6 in the character table shown below. ÷11 . (b) By lifting.1. ÷5 can readily be calculated using the column orthogonality relations (noting that gi is real if and only if 1 < i < 4). The only possibility is that two of ÷7 (1). . ÷(g6 ) P Z for all characters ÷. We calculate that kæ. respectively. . 168. . by Corollary 22. Hence there is a character æ of G such that ÷ S 1 G ö ÷ æX The values of æ are as shown above. . the (d) Since 11 ÷ j (g3 )÷ j ( g3 ) 8. apply part (c). Since there are only six irreducible characters in all. g2 . ÷ and ø are the characters ÷1 . (f ) By Proposition 19. ö and ÷ are three of the six irreducible characters of G.14): gi |CG ( g i )| ÷ ÷S æ ø g1 168 7 28 12 6 g2 8 À1 4 4 2 g3 4 À1 0 0 0 g4 3 1 1 0 0 g5 7 0 0 À2 À1 g6 7 0 0 À2 À1 441 We ®nd that k÷ S .14. two of ÷7 . . gi and gi g2 have the same centralizer for all i. The remaining irreducible characters ÷4 .27 again. j1 (Alternatively. . so either æ 2ø for some irreducible character ø.16. Exercise 14. 0.

Say ÷9 (g4 ) 2. using this fact and part (c). ÷5 and ÷6 . This allows us to ®ll in the j1 values of ÷11 . we ®ll in the values of ÷7 and ÷8 . ÷( g 10 ) ÷(g8 ). ®nally. ÷4 . Now g2 is conjugate to g3 . Similarly. Say A ÷7 ( g 8 ) (1 À i 7)a2. of order 55. The column orthogonality relations now let us ®nd the remaining values of ÷9 and ÷10 .bPZ T Z: a P Z 11 11 X 0 aÀ1 Then T is generated by 1 1 2 0 x Z and y Z. Then ÷8 ÷7 . we have 11 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g 6 ) 0.442 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. Then the value of ø A on g6 shows that ÷1 is not a constituent of ø A . we get 8 p (x 2 À x)a2 øp( g8 ) À1. Therefore x (1 Æ i 7)a2. ø(g5 ) 0. ÷(g4 ) is real for all ÷. 7) gi g1 Order of g i 1 |CG ( g i )| 336 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 7 8 3 3 6 4 4 6 6 8 g2 2 336 1 7 8 3 3 6 À4 À4 À6 À6 À8 g3 4 8 g4 8 8 g5 8 8 g6 3 6 g7 6 6 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 g8 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g9 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 g10 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g11 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 p p 0 0 p 2 Àp 2 0 À 2 2 0 0 0 0 À1 p Note: á (À1 i 7)a2 The values of ø A on g1 and g2 show that ø A is a linear combination of ÷1 . (g) For i T 6. 0 1 0 6 and T has ®ve linear characters æ j (0 < j < 4). Hence 4 (ø( g4 )2 À ø( g 3 ))a2 ø A ( g4 ) ÷6 ( g 4 ) 0. by & ' a b Ã. the value on g3 forces ø A ÷6 . and therefore. where æ j : x u y v 3 e2ði jva5 X . Let x ø(g8 ). 6. For all ÷. ø(g4 ) 0. Since g2 is conjugate to g8 . Since g4 is conjugate to gÀ1 . Then 4 11 and 11 ÷ j ( g 4 )2 8 imply that j1 ÷ j ( g 1 )÷ j ( g 4 ) 0 p j1 p ÷9 (g4 ) À÷10 (g4 ) Æ 2. thereby completing the character table of G. Let Z {ÆI} and de®ne the subgroup T of G.

By considering 8 ÷ j (1)÷ j (g2 ) 0. . Next. 5. 11) gi Order of g i |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 Note: á (À1 p g1 1 660 1 11 12 12 10 10 5 5 g2 2 12 1 À1 0 0 2 À2 1 1 g3 3 6 1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 p g4 6 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 1 1 g5 5 5 1 1 á â 0 0 0 0 g6 5 5 1 1 â á 0 0 0 0 g7 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã g8 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã 5)a2. The column orthogonality relations now enable us to ®nish the character table. ÷2 . By Corollary 22. We may now conclude from the facts 8 2 that ÷(g2 ) ÷(g1 ) mod 2 and that ÷ j (g2 ) Æ2 for j 5. (In calculating ÷3 (g5 ). ÷7 (1). we j1 see that ÷7 (g2 ) ÷8 (g2 ) 1. 10. Hence æ0 4 G ÷1 ÷2 for an irreducible character ÷2 of G. â (À1 À p 5)a2 and ã (À1 i 11)a2 Since 8 ÷ j (g5 )÷ j ( g 5 ) 5. we j1 can complete column 4. Since ÷(1) ÷(g3 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. æ0 4 Gi 2. ÷ j (1) 0 mod 5 for 5 < j < 8. the j1 values of ÷ j (g3 ) (5 < j < 8) are as shown. and 8 ÷ j (g4 )2 6.Chapter 27 443 The characters æ1 4 G and æ2 4 G are irreducible. 2. 6 and ÷ j (g2 ) Æ1 for j 7. by Theorem 22. we deduce that the remaining irreducible j1 characters ÷5 . and 8 ÷ j ( g2 )2 12. and ÷5 (g2 ). note that e2ðia5 eÀ2ðia5 (À1 5)a2X) Let ÷1 1 G . Note that ÷(gj ) is an integer for 1 < j < 4 and all characters ÷. Character table of PSL (2. 5. Since ÷(g4 ) ÷(g2 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. ÷(g2 ) ÷(g4 ) mod 3 for all ÷. We have now found four of the eight irreducible characters of G. ÷6 (1). ÷3 . and 8 ÷ j (g3 )2 6. namely ÷1 . hence. 8 2 Now ÷(g4 ) ÷(g3 ) mod 2 for all ÷. ÷5 (g2 ) 2 À÷6 ( g2 ). respectively. so ÷ j (g4 ) Æ1 for 5 < j < 8.27. 3 for all irreducible ÷.16. j1 hence |÷( g2 )| . 3 and 5 of the character table. We have hæ0 4 G. j1 ÷ j (g2 ) 12. ÷6 . 8. But 8 (÷ j (1))2 250. ÷6 (g2 ) have opposite signs. without loss j5 of generality. they are ÷3 and ÷4 in the p table. ÷8 take the value 0 on g5 . We have now completed columns 1. and j1 ÷ j (g4 ) 6. ÷8 (1) are 10. ÷5 (1). ÷1 i 1 and hæ0 4 G. ÷7 . without loss of generality. ÷4 .

q).444 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 28 1. q) have representatives as follows. g8 as representatives of the conjugacy classes. We may write ad À bc as s 2 for some c d Ã . (a) The identity I has centralizer of order q 3 À q.s À1 . q) Z 3 SL(2. 3) is then as follows. 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 g2 g3 g4 1 0 2 0 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 g6 g7 g8 2 2 0 1 2 1 where 3 1 2 1 1 3 X The character table of GL(2.1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 48 1 1 3 3 4 2 2 2 g2 48 1 1 3 3 À4 À2 2 À2 g3 6 1 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 À1 g4 6 1 1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 g5 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 g6 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 2 0 g7 8 1 À1 À1 1 p0 i 2 0 p Ài 2 g8 8 1 À1 À1 1 0 p Ài 2 p0 i 2 2. It now follows easily that GL(2. 0 1 (c) There are (q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives s 0 d s. q). . 1 1 (b) The matrix u1 has centralizer of order q. Each such element has centralizer of order q À 1. X 2 1 g1 0 2 1 g5 0 X X . q You should have no dif®culty in proving that the conjugacy classes of SL(2. q) where Z fsI : s P FÃ g. s À1 g of elements 0 s À1 from F q nF2 . since r r q and q is even. a b Suppose that P GL(2. We take g 1 . Every element r of F q can be expressed as a square. Then s in F q a b s 0 aas bas X 0 s cas das c d The ®rst matrix in the product is sI and the second belongs to SL(2. indexed by unordered pairs fs. gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ë1 ø0 ø1 ø0.

By restricting characters from GL(2.i ÷i 1 q q1 qÀ1 u1 1 0 1 À1 d s. x 2 (ç ç2 )x 1X The companion matrices for these quadratics give use the conjugacy class representatives g 6 . Note ®rst that PSL(2. The irreducible monic quadratics over F8 with constant term 1 are x 2 x 1. Then 64 . The polynomial x 3 x 1 is irreducible over F2. g 5 below. f1 ç. r À1 g of elements 1 r r À1 from F q 2 nF q such that r 1q 1. as follows. If q T 2 then the kernel of every non-trivial character is the identity subgroup. g9 below We can now list representatives g 1 . The subscripts for ø0. 8) SL(2. X X X . b. x 2 ç2 x 1. 8).s À1 1 1 s i s Ài 0 vr 1 À1 0 À(r i r Ài ) Here. we have used the function r 3 r de®ned in (28. 8). and the subscripts for ÷ i satisfy 1 < i < qa2. s À1 g of elements from F8 nF2 are fç. 3. I ë0 ø0 ø0. c P F2 and ç3 1 çgX The pairs fs. and therefore SL(2. Hence we may write F8 fa bç cç2 : a.i satisfy 1 < i < (q À 2)a2.Chapter 28 445 (d) There are qa2 conjugacy classes with representatives 0 1 vr . indexed by unordered pairs fr. 1 ç2 g. ç ç2 gX These give us the conjugacy class representatives g3 . 1 ç ç2 g. q) is simple.3). q) to SL(2. q) you will quickly be able to prove that the character table of SL(2. g8 . g4 . x 2 çx 1. fç2 . g 9 of the conjugacy classes of SL(2. Each such element has centralizer of order q 1. q) is as follows. g 7 . 2 3 2 3 1 0 1 1 g1 g2 0 1 0 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 ç 0 1ç 0 0 ç2 g3 g4 g5 0 1 ç2 0 ç ç2 0 1 ç ç2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 g6 g9 X g7 g8 1 1 1 ç 1 ç2 1 ç ç2 We may choose a generator å of FÃ so that å 7 å À7 ç.

446

Representations and characters of groups

**å 14 å À14 ç2 , å 21 å À21 1 and å 28 å À28 ç4 ç ç2 . The character table of SL(2, 8) is then as follows.
**

gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ø0 ø0,1 ø0,2 ø0,3 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 504 1 8 9 9 9 7 7 7 7 g2 8 1 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 g3 7 1 1 g4 7 1 1 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 g5 7 1 1 g6 9 1 À1 0 0 0 À2 1 1 1 g7 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 g8 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 B g9 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1

Here, the 3 3 3 submatrices A and B are given by H I 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) f g A d 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) e 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) H À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) I

f g B d À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) eX À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9)

Chapter 29

1. (a) It is straightforward to check that ö is a homomorphism. For x, y P G, the element (x, y) P G 3 G sends x to y, so that action is transitive. (b) (G 3 G)1 f( g, g) : g P Gg, and ker ö f(z, z) : z P Z(G)g. (c) Every orbit of G 3 G on G 3 G contains an ordered pair of the form (1, x), and if ( g, h) sends (1, x) to (1, y) then g h and y g À1 xg. Hence if C1 , X X X , C k are the conjugacy classes of G, and xi P C i, then (1, xi ) (1 < i < k) are orbit representatives for the action of G 3 G on G 3 G, and so the rank is equal to k. Since x(( g, h)ö) x if and only if xhx À1 g, we see that ð( g, h) jfix G ( g, h)j is equal to 0 if g is not conjugate to h, and is equal to jC G (x)j if g is conjugate to h (since in the latter case, if xhx À1 g then an arbitrary element y P G such that yhy À1 g is of the form y xc with c P (x)). Hence using the column orthogonality relations we see CG that ð ÷ 3 ÷. 2. There are q 2 À 1 non-zero vectors in V, and each 1-dimensional subspace

Chapter 29

447

contains q À 1 of them; also two 1-dimensional subspaces have no non-zero vectors in common. Hence jÙj (q 2 À 1)a(q À 1) q 1. 3. Use the notation for the conjugacy classes and irreducible characters of GL(2, q) given in Proposition 28.4 and Theorem 28.5. It is easy to check that ð takes the values q 2 À 1, q À 1, q À 1 on the classes with representatives I, u1 , d 1, t respectively, and takes the value 0 on all other classes. Taking inner products we ®nd hð, 1 G i hð, ø0 i hð, ø0, j i 1 (1 < j < q À 2)X qÀ2 As 1 G ø0 1 ø0, j has degree q 2 À 1 ð(1), we conclude that qÀ2 ð 1 G ø0 1 ø0, j . 4. Observe that the coset H 1 x is ®xed by g if and only if xgx À1 P H 1 . If G is abelian this amounts to g P H 1 , and hence we see that ð1 ( g) 0 if g P H 1 a and ð1 ( g) jG : H 1 j if g P H 1 . Thus H 1 f g P G : ð1 ( g) T 0g. Likewise for H 2 ; since ð1 ð2 we deduce that H 1 H 2 . As a counterexample for G non-abelian, take G D8 ha, b : a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i with H 1 hbi, H 2 ha2 bi. Then ð1 ð2 but H 1 T H 2 . 1 5. By Proposition 29.4 we have 1 jGj gPG jfixÙ ( g)j, hence jfixÙ ( g)j jGj. Since jfixÙ ( g)j is a non-negative integer for each g, and jfixÙ (1)j jÙj . 1, we must have jfixÙ ( g)j 0 for some g. 6. Write ð ð( nÀ2,1,1) . Calculating inner products using Proposition 29.6, as in the proof of Theorem 29.13, we ®nd hð, ði 7, hð, 1i 1, hð, ð( nÀ1,1) i 3, hð, ð( nÀ2,2) i 4X Using Theorem 29.13 it follows that ð( nÀ2,1,1) 1 2÷ ( nÀ1,1) ÷ ( nÀ2,2) ÷ with ÷ irreducible. Hence ÷ 1 ð À ð( nÀ1,1) À ð( nÀ2,2) , from which it is easy to calculate that ÷(1) 1(n À 1)(n À 2), 2 ÷(12) 1(n À 2)(n À 5), ÷(123) 1(n À 4)(n À 5). For n 6, ÷ (4,1,1) is the 2 2 character ÷5 in Example 19.17.

Chapter 30

1. By Theorem 30.4, a245 168/(8´3) 7. Hence, by (30.3), PSL (2, 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2, b has order 3 and ab has order 7. p p 2. No: a225 (1 (À1 i 7)a6 (À1 À i 7)a6 À 4a6)168a(8X8) 0, and similarly a226 0. Hence PSL (2,7) does not contain two involutions whose product has order 7. 3. Yes. Number the conjugacy classes of PSL (2, 11) as in the solution to Exercise 27.6. Then 660 1 a235 X 1 10X 12 6 11 Therefore PSL (2, 11) contains elements x and y such that x, y and xy have orders 2, 3 and 5, respectively. Let H be the subgroup kx, yl of PSL (2, 11).

448

Representations and characters of groups

There is a homomorphism W from A5 onto H (W sends a 3 x, b 3 y). Since Ker W 3 A5 and A5 is simple, we deduce that H A5 . 4. Suppose that G is a group whose p character table is p where á (1 5)a2, â (1 À 5)a2.

g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 g2 1 1 À1 0 0 g3 1 0 1 À1 À1 g4 1 À1 0 á â g5 1 À1 0 â á

For 1 < i < 5 we have jC G ( g i )j 5 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g i ). Therefore the j1 centralizers of g1 , g2 , g3 , g4 , g5 have orders 60, 3, 4, 5, 5, respectively. Hence the orders of g2 , g4 and g5 are 3, 5 and 5; also the order of g3 must be 2, since for no other i (except i 1) is |CG (g i )| even. Now a324 60a(4 . 3). Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, G has a subgroup H with H A5 . Since jGj 60, we have G A5 . 5. (a) Using the fact that 7 ÷ j (g i )÷ j ( g i ) |CG (g i )|, we ®nd that the j1 centralizer orders and class sizes are as follows:

g1 |CG ( g i )| | gG | i 360 1 g2 8 45 g3 4 90 g4 9 40 g5 9 40 g6 5 72 g7 5 72

Hence jGj 360. Also G is simple, by Proposition 17.6. (b) By the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions (Corollary 23.17), the number of involutions t in G is bounded by 1 t <

7 j1

÷ j (1) 46X

By considering jC G ( g i )j, we see that g i has even order only for i 2 and 3. Since t < 45, only g2 can be an involution. Hence g3 has order 4. (This information about the orders of g2 and g3 can also be deduced using Sylow's Theorem.) (c) Clearly g6 and g7 have order 5, and at least one of g4 and g5 has order 3. If j 4 or 5 and k 6 or 7 then

Chapter 30

a2 jk ÷( g2 )÷( g j )÷ ( g k ) jGj jCG ( g 2 )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1)

449

360 5X 8.9 Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, the subgroup H kx, yl of G is isomorphic to A5 . (d) If g, h P G then ( gh)r: Hx 3 Hxgh, and ( gr)(hr): Hx 3 Hxg 3 HxghX Hence r is a homomorphism. (e) Since G is simple, Ker r {1}. Hence G is isomorphic to a subgroup K of S6 . Since jS6 : Kj 63a360 2, K must be A6 . 6. Consider the ®gure in Example 30.6(3). We shall explain how to label the vertices by elements of G. Choose a vertex and label it 1. Label the vertices according to the following inductive rule. Assume that v is a vertex and an adjacent vertex u is labelled by g. Then label v by ga gb gb

À1

if the edge uv has no arrow, if the edge uv has an arrow from u to v, if the edge uv has an arrow from v to uX

For example, if you decided to label the bottom left-hand vertex by 1, then part of the labelling would be

The relation a2 1 ensures that the labelling is consistent along unmarked edges; since b3 1, the labelling is consistent around triangles; and the relation abababab 1 deals with the octagons. Every element in G has the form given by the label of one of the 24 vertices, so jGj < 24. 7. The conjugacy classes of PSL(2, 7) are given in Lemma 27.1 The element g 2 is an involution with centralizer of order 8 given in the proof of 2 2 2 4 Lemma 27.1. Letting a , b , we see that the À2 2 4 À2 centralizer is generated by a and b, and a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 À, hence the centralizer is isomorphic to D8 . As in Exercises 12.3 and 12.4, we see that C A6 ((12)(34)) has order 8 and is generated by (1324) and (13)(24), hence as above is isomorphic to D8 .

450

Representations and characters of groups

8. Let G be the simple group PSL(2, 17). In the ®eld Z17 the element 4 is a 4 0 fourth root of unity, so t Z is an involution. Calculate that 0 À4 C G (t) is generated by the group of diagonal matrices together with 0 1 3 0 b Z, hence is generated by b and a Z. As À1 0 0 6 a 8 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1, we have C G (t) D16 .

Chapter 31

1. Assume that G has an abelian subgroup H of index p r ( p prime), and that |G| . p. If H {1} then |G| p r and so G is not simple (see Lemma 26.1(1)). So assume that H T {1}; pick 1 T h P H. Then H < CG (h) as H is abelian, so |G:CG (h)| is a power of p. If |G:CG (h)| 1 then khl v G and G is not simple. And if |G:CG (h)| . 1, then G is not simple by Theorem 31.3. 2. By Burnside's Theorem, jGj is divisible by at least three distinct primes. Since 3 . 5 . 7 . 80, jGj is even. Then by Exercise 13.8, |G| is divisible by 4. Since 4 . 3 . 7 . 80, the only possibility is that jGj 4 . 3 . 5 60.

Chapter 32

1. (a) The fact that BB I follows from the observation that for all i, j, d(ei b, ej b) d(ei , ej ) ä ij X Since 1 det I (det B)(det Bt ) (det B)2 , we have det B Æ1. (b) (i) The eigenvalues of C are the roots of det (C À xI), which is a cubic polynomial over R. Therefore, C has one or three real eigenvalues. (ii) Moreover, the product of the eigenvalues of C is det C 1. If C has three real eigenvalues, then they cannot all be negative; and if C has one real eigenvalue ë and a pair of conjugate non-real eigenvalues ì, ì, then ë ìì 1, and hence ë . 0. Therefore C has a real positive eigenvalue, say ë. (iii) Let v be an eigenvector for ë. Then d(v, v) d(vC, vC) d(ëv, ëv) ë2 d(v, v), and so ë 1. (c) Let c be the isometry v 3 vC. By (b), c ®xes a vector v; it is now easy to convince yourself that c must be a rotation about the axis through v. The required result for b follows from the de®nition of c. (d) Take three orthogonal axes, one of which is the axis of the rotation b. With respect to these axes, the matrix of b is H I 1 0 0 d 0 cos ö sin ö eX 0 Àsin ö cos ö Hence tr B 1 2 cos ö.

t

Chapter 32

451

2. We regard G as a subgroup of O(R3 ). It is easy to see that the translation submodule T (which consists of all the translation modes) is isomorphic to the RG-module given by the natural action of G on R3 . Hence by part (d) of Exercise 1, V if g is a rotation through ö, about some b 1 2 cos ö, b b b b axis, b ` ÷ T ( g) b À(1 2 cos ö), if the element À g of O(R3 ) is a rotation b b b b b X through öX Now consider the rotation submodule R, which consists of all the rotation modes. A rotation mode is speci®ed by a 3-dimensional vector öv, where v is a unit vector along the axis of the rotation and ö denotes the angle of rotation, taken positive in the right-hand screw sense. Let g P G, and consider g acting on öv. It sends v to vg, and if g is a rotation, it preserves the sense of the rotation; however, if g is a re¯ection then it transforms a right-hand screw to a left-hand screw, and hence sends öv to (Àö)(vg). Therefore @ if g is a rotation, ÷ T ( g), ÷ R ( g) À÷T ( g), if g is not a rotation, and so ÷ T ÷ R has the required form. 3. The matrix A is I H p p À3a2 0 3a4 À 3a4 p3a4 3a4 p f 0 À1a2 À 3a4 p1a4 3a4 1a4 g g f p k f 3a4 À 3a4 À3a4 3a4 0 0 g gX f p p 3a4 À5a4 0 1 g m f À 3a4 p1a4 g f p d 3a4 3a4 0 0 À3a4 À 3a4 e p p 3a4 1a4 0 1 À 3a4 À5a4 4. A simpler basis is given by

1 2(r1 1 2(r1 1 2(r1

r2 ) (v12 v21 ) À (v34 v43 ), r3 ) (v13 v31 ) À (v24 v42 ), r4 ) (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 )X

We chose r1, r2, r3, r4 to be the images of w1, w2, w3, w4 under an RGisomorphism. (Compare the construction of the matrix B, towards the end of Example 32.20.) 5. (a) This is a routine geometrical exercise. (b) Let the displaced positions of the atoms be 09, 19, 29, 39, 49. The distance of 19 from the plane through 1 perpendicular to 12 is x12 1(x13 x14 ). Similarly, the distance of 29 from the plane through 2 2 perpendicular to 12 is x21 1(x23 x24 ). Therefore 12 has decreased by 2 x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 ). The other calculations can be done in 2 the same way. (c) We express the force at each atom as a vector, and then write this vector

452

**Representations and characters of groups
**

as a linear combination of our three chosen unit vectors at the initial position of the atom. Let d ij denote the decrease in the length ij, as calculated in part (b). Then, for example, at vertex 1, the contributions to the component of the force vector in the direction 12 are as follows: Àk1 d12 from the force between atoms 1 and 2; zero from the force between atoms 1 and 3 and from the force between atoms 1 and 4; and Àk2 d10 sec (/012) from the force between atoms 1 and 0. Hence p m1 12 Àk 1 d 12 À 1 (3a2)k 2 d 10 X x 3

Upon substituting for d12 and d10 from part (b), we obtain the given expression for 12. x The other accelerations are calculated in the same way. (d) The entries in the 15 3 15 matrix A are the coef®cients which appear in the equations of motion xA. If you write down the matrix A, then x you will easily verify that the given vectors are eigenvectors of A (with eigenvalues À(4k 1 k 2 )am1 , 0, 0, 0, Àk 1 am1 , Àk 1 am1 , p p I À2k 2 a3m1 À4k 2 p 2a(m2 p3) À2k 2 a3m1 p À4k 2 2a(m2 3) eX p À2k 2 3a(9m1 2) À4k 2 a3m2 p (f ) You will ®nd that (1, À2, 6) is an eigenvector of B, with eigenvalue 0. This agrees with the statement in Example 32.20 that the translation vector r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 is an eigenvector of A. 6. (a) Assign coordinate axes along the edges of the square, as shown below. respectively). (e) The matrix B is H À(6k 1 k 2 )a3m1 d À(3k 1 k 2 )a3m1 p p Àk 2 3a(9m1 2)

The symmetry group is G D8. Let a denote the rotation sending P 3 Q 3 R 3 S 3 P, and let b denote the re¯ection in the axis PR. The character ÷ of the RG-module R8 is

1 ÷ 8

a2 0

a 0

b 0

ab 0

Chapter 32

453

We refer to the character table of D8 which is given in Example 16.3(3), and see that ÷ ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 2÷5 X The rotation mode is (t â)v, where v (1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1) P V÷2 X The translation modes are (t â)v, where v is in the span of v1 , v2 and v1 (1, 0, 0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1), v2 (0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1, 1, 0)X The homogeneous components V÷1, V÷3 and V÷4 are spanned by the vectors (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), (1, 1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1) and (1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1, 1), respectively. The ®nal set of eigen-vectors is given by V÷5 R8 which is spanned by vib (1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0, 0, 1) and (0, 1, 1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0)X (b) The matrix A is 1 f0 f f0 f k f0 À f mf0 f f0 f d0 1 H 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 I 1 0g g 0g g 0g gX 0g g 0g g 0e 1

7. (a, b) Let å i (1 < i < m) be the projection which is given by å i : u1 X X X um 3 ui (where u k P Uk for all k). Then w 3 wAå j WÀ1 W i j (w P Ui ) gives an RG-homomorphism from Ui to Ui. By Exercise 23.8, there exist ë ij P R such that for all w P Ui, Since m wAå j ë ij wWÀ1 W j X i is the identity endomorphism of U1 È . . . È Um, we have m ë ij wWÀ1 W j for all w P Ui X wA i

j1 j1 å j

Now take in turn w uW i and w vW i to obtain the results of parts (a) and (b) of the question. (c) Take a basis u1 , . . . , u n of U1. Assume that the eigenvectors of A u are known. For all k with 1 < k < n, the eigenvectors of A in sp (u k W1 , . . . , u k W m ) are given by the eigenvectors of A u (see part (b)). Hence we know all the eigenvectors of A in U1 È . . . È Um.

Bibliography

**Books mentioned in the text
**

H. S. M. Coxeter and W. J. O. Moser, Generators and Relations for Discrete Groups (Fourth Edition), Springer-Verlag, 1980. J. B. Fraleigh, A First Course in Abstract Algebra (Third Edition), AddisonWesley, 1982. D. Gorenstein, Finite Simple Groups: An Introduction to their Classi®cation, Plenum Press, New York, 1982. G. D. James, The Representation Theory of the Symmetric Groups, Lecture Notes in Mathematics No. 682, Spring-Verlag, 1978. D. S. Passman, Permutation Groups, Benjamin, 1968. H. Pollard and H. G. Diamond, The Theory of Algebraic Numbers (Second Edition), Carus Mathematical Monographs No. 9, Mathematical Association of America, 1975. J. J. Rotman, An Introduction to the Theory of Groups (Third Edition), Allyn and Bacon, 1984. D. S. Schonland, Molecular Symmetry ± an Introduction to Group Theory and its uses in Chemistry, Van Nostrand, 1965.

**Suggestions for further reading
**

M. J. Collins, Representations and Characters of Finite Groups, Cambridge University Press, 1990. C. W. Curtis and I. Reiner, Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I, Wiley-Interscience, 1981. W. Feit, Characters of Finite Groups, Benjamin, 1967. I. M. Isaacs, Character Theory of Finite Groups, Academic Press, 1976. W. Ledermann, Introduction to Group Characters (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press, 1987. J. P. Serre, Linear Representations of Finite Groups, Springer-Verlag, 1977.

454

183 D6 3 D6. 161 D10. 327 PSL(2. 111 antisymmetric part. 24 character. 112. 354. 195 generalized. 262 S6 . 355 induced. 223 An . 192 real. 222. 291 GL(2. 116. 116.q). 160 C4 . 82 action. 445 T12.3). 3. 247 faithful. 361 alternating group. 234.7). 150 trivial. 180 S5 . 160 D8. 362 algebraic number. 298 of group algebra. 263 realized over R. 136. 11. 2 Cn . 253 irreducible. 273 associative. 55. 118 degree. 9. 11. 265 reducible. 5. 269 skew-symmetric. 15 natural. 85. 359 A6 . 359 A6 . 205 SL(2. 220. 56 algebraic integer. 11. 417 F11.Index A4 . of order 18.5 . 412 C2 3 C2 . 2. 424 C2 . 181 A5 . 443 Q8 .11). 423 E. 174 permutation. 201. 10. 308 A5 . 88 centralizer. 359. 440 SL(2. 116. 269 symmetric. 415 D12 S3 3 C2 . 83. 112. 119 regular. 364 C. 318 PSL(2. 82 D6. 236 integer-valued. 122. 419 D2n ( n odd). 420 455 . 186 T4 n. 230. 312. 128. 6 bilinear form. 340 Burnside's Theorem. 127. 122. 363. 445 PSL(2. 240.8). 119 kernel of. 122 character table.q .q). 45. 434 F7. 433 Fp. 176. 125 linear. 207. 221. 129 product.7). 54 bijection. 81. 278 Burnside's Lemma. 5. 172. 442 SL(2. 9. 114. 182 D2n ( n even). 415 Cn . 153 change of basis. 343 abelian group. 181. 106 centre of group. 111. 337 algebra. 416 S4 . 160 C3 . 159 A4 . 269 Brauer±Fowler Theroem.3. 360 A7 . 244. 196. 107. 82. 2 basis. 125. 130.

107. 2 general linear. 125. 95. 236 induced module. 307 order 27. 257 index of subgroup. 278. 256 maximal. 312 quaternion.q . 88 dicyclic. 82 alternating. 361 constituent. 20 equivalent. 368 simple. 134 involution. 90 common. 88 D2n. 6 bijective. 15 Fp. 259 conjugacy class. 46 even permutation. 367 projective special linear. 7. 66 external. 61 FG-isomorphism. 3 GL(2. 44. 107. 216 complete set. 305. 119 irreducible module.q). 143. 311 symmetric. 281. 104 conjugate. 15 direct product. 178 dihedral. 277. 376 homomorphism. 32. 3 H v G. 107. 53 factor group. 18 eigenvalue. 79 isomorphism. 273 induced character. 206 order 16.F). 173 diagonalization. 8 cycle notation. 50. 3 F n. 421 direct product. 63 Frobenius group. 226. 85 faithful representation. 63 U6n. 301 order pq. 349 class equation. 34 FG-module.456 Representations and characters of groups FG-submodule. 6 injective. 6 surjective. 96 congruences. 234. 318. 5. 2 composition factor. 82. 9 indicator function. 421 V24 . 3 group. 308 order p3 . 111 cyclic. 353. 6. 213 coset. 353 irreducible character. 61 ideal. 9. 91. 10. 96 . 364 soluble. 1 abelian. 20. 365 special linear. 290 FG. 32. 368 group algebra. 4. 24 endomorphism. 175. 3 order. 12. 300 class algebra constants. 152 class sum. 302. 24 eigenvector. 195 faithful module. 18 F R or C. 181 factor. 187. 82. 311. 11. 49 FG-homomorphism. 109 cyclic group. 2 order p3 . 114 Clifford's Theorem. 8 cycle-shape. 181 degree. 181 dimension. 30. 2. 254 symmetry. 55 H < G. 257 proper. 101 completely reducible. 291 p-group. 74 composition. 178. 74. 304 orthogonal. 422 V8 n . 12. 3. 9 ®nite. 91 irreducible representation. 206 direct sum. see module . homogeneous component. 249 derived subgroup. 230. 9 HomCG (V W). 12. 228 inner product. 109. 2. 4. 50. 290 Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 12. 6 GL(n. 232 Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 79. 2. 6 invertible. 10. 250. 104. 83 dicyclic group T4 n. 81. 363. 5 expansion±contraction mode. 122. 12. 381 external direct sum. 420 dihedral group. 2. 116. 306. 5 rotation. 9 faithful character. 5. 56. 435 order . 3. 17. 343 general linear group. 11. 277 function. 107 class function. 324. 2.

70. 359 PSL(2. 177. 161 PSL(2. 50 regular character. 129. 368 rotation mode. 43 natural normal normal normal 217 basis. 4 orthogonal group.q). 193 presentation. 343. 3 rank. 74 Sylow's Theorem. p). 3. 49 irreducible. 50. 56 regular representation. 384 minimal polynomial. 445 Schur's Lemma. 342 Rank±Nullity Theorem. 56. 34 irreducible.7). 24 diagonal. 4 derived. 311 stabilizer. 5 permutation module. 319. 56 trivial. 113. 116. 5 orbit.3). 44. 113. 34. 54 modes of vibration. 113. 372. 45. 21 change of basis. 27. 320.Index kernel. 201. 5 even. 354. 180. 34. 284 product of characters. 150 regular module. 354. 116. 360 PSL(2. 361 module. 176. 124. 262 S6 . 365 symmetric bilinear form. 116. 359. 263 real conjugacy class.11). 318. 9 lift. 56 trivial. 338 order of G. 312. 124 reducible. 46 faithful. 171. 21 invertible. 278. 56 representation. 3 primitive root. 15 Maschke's Theorem. 344 SL(2. 173. 128. 256. 3. 119 reducible module. 173 generated. 127. 394 S4 . 373 p-complement.7). 85 irreducible. 125 Lagrange's Theorem. 311. 15 linearly independent. 321. 76 matrix. 79. 30. 340 permutation character. 10. 18 linearly dependent. 254. 32. 50. 312 p-group. 223 Sn . 269 odd permutation. 205 S7 . 23 permutation. p). 174 linear transformation. 210 rotation group. 50 regular. 39 completely reducible. 105 restriction. 10. 110. 298 p9-part. 5. 249 equivalent. 251 subgroup. 74 faithful. 62. 336. 111. 45 powers of characters. 216. 319. 50 regular. 171. 442 SL(2. 250. 269 special linear group. 122. 363. 26 identity. 34 representatives. 416 quaternion group. 215. 258 permutation. 175. 85 permutation. 312 457 Q8 . projection. 19 real character. 217 submodule. 3. 416 R. 9. 364 skew-symmetric bilinear form. 2 order of g. 339 subgroup. 318. 263 real element. 109. 379 rotation submodule. 278. 340 permutation matrix. 367 orthogonality relations. 50 reducible representation. 45 methane. 4 normal. 169 linear character. 67 projective special linear group. 192 . 3. 263 reducible character. 215. 19. 440 SL(2. 45. 216. 9. 311 SL(2. 62 reducible. 380. 177. 45. 116. 78 simple group. 79 kernel of. 278. 44. 30 degree. 4 cyclic. 5 odd. 275 S5 . 5.

188 trace. 3. 381 water. 187. 421 Vandermonde matrix. 254 symmetric part. 229 translation mode.458 Representations and characters of groups trivial character. 187. 421 V8n. 379 translation submodule. 175. 196. 341 transitivity of induction. 178. 374 Z. 394 transposition. 2 symmetric group. 190 tensor product space. 122 module. 338. 368 T4 n. 178. 116. 420 tensor product module. 109. 178. 194 vibratory modes. 369. 34 U6n. 380. 187. 5 . 273 symmetry group. 281. 43 representation. 117 transitive.