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Representations and Characters of Groups Now in its second edition, this text provides a modern introduction to the representation theory of ®nite groups. The authors have revised the popular ®rst edition and added a considerable amount of new material. The theory is developed in terms of modules, since this is appropriate for more advanced work, but considerable emphasis is placed upon constructing characters. The character tables of many groups are given, including all groups of order less than 32, and all simple groups of order less than 1000. Among the applications covered are Burnside's pa q b theorem, the use of character theory in studying subgroup structure and permutation groups, and a description of how to use representation theory to investigate molecular vibration. Each chapter is accompanied by a variety of exercises, and full solutions to all the exercises are provided at the end of the book. This will be ideal as a text for a course in representation theory, and in view of the applications of the subject, will be of interest to mathematicians, chemists and physicists alike.

**R E P R E S E N TAT ION S AN D C H AR ACT E R S OF G ROU P S
**

G O R D O N JA M E S a n d M A RT I N L I E B E C K

Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London

Second Edition

PUBLISHED BY CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS (VIRTUAL PUBLISHING) FOR AND ON BEHALF OF THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 IRP 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia http://www.cambridge.org © Cambridge University Press 1993, 2001 This edition © Cambridge University Press (Virtual Publishing) 2003 First published in printed format 1993 Second edition 2001 A catalogue record for the original printed book is available from the British Library and from the Library of Congress Original ISBN 0 521 81205 4 hardback Original ISBN 0 521 00392 X paperback

ISBN 0 511 01700 6 virtual (netLibrary Edition)

Contents

Preface 1 Groups and homomorphisms 2 Vector spaces and linear transformations 3 Group representations 4 FG-modules 5 FG-submodules and reducibility 6 Group algebras 7 FG-homomorphisms 8 Maschke's Theorem 9 Schur's Lemma 10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra 11 More on the group algebra 12 Conjugacy classes 13 Characters 14 Inner products of characters 15 The number of irreducible characters 16 Character tables and orthogonality relations 17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters 18 Some elementary character tables 19 Tensor products 20 Restriction to a subgroup 21 Induced modules and characters 22 Algebraic integers 23 Real representations 24 Summary of properties of character tables 25 Characters of groups of order pq 26 Characters of some p-groups 27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 v

page vii 1 14 30 38 49 53 61 70 78 89 95 104 117 133 152 159 168 179 188 210 224 244 263 283 288 298 311

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Representations and characters of groups

28 Character table of GL(2, q) 322 29 Permutations and characters 337 30 Applications to group theory 348 31 Burnside's Theorem 361 32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 367 Solutions to exercises 397 Bibliography 454 Index 455

Preface

We have attempted in this book to provide a leisurely introduction to the representation theory of groups. But why should this subject interest you? Representation theory is concerned with the ways of writing a group as a group of matrices. Not only is the theory beautiful in its own right, but it also provides one of the keys to a proper understanding of ®nite groups. For example, it is often vital to have a concrete description of a particular group; this is achieved by ®nding a representation of the group as a group of matrices. Moreover, by studying the different representations of the group, it is possible to prove results which lie outside the framework of representation theory. One simple example: all groups of order p2 (where p is a prime number) are abelian; this can be shown quickly using only group theory, but it is also a consequence of basic results about representations. More generally, all groups of order pa q b ( p and q primes) are soluble; this again is a statement purely about groups, but the best proof, due to Burnside, is an outstanding example of the use of representation theory. In fact, the range of applications of the theory extends far beyond the boundaries of pure mathematics, and includes theoretical physics and chemistry ± we describe one such application in the last chapter. The book is suitable for students who have taken ®rst undergraduate courses involving group theory and linear algebra. We have included two preliminary chapters which cover the necessary background material. The basic theory of representations is developed in Chapters 3±23, and our methods concentrate upon the use of modules; although this accords with the more modern style of algebra, in several instances our proofs differ from those found in other textbooks. The main results are elegant and surprising, but at ®rst sight they sometimes have an air of mystery vii

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Representations and characters of groups

about them; we have chosen the approach which we believe to be the most transparent. We also emphasize the practical aspects of the subject, and the text is illustrated with a wealth of examples. A feature of the book is the wide variety of groups which we investigate in detail. By the end of Chapter 28, we have presented the character tables of all groups of order less than 32, of all p-groups of order at most p4 , and of all the simple groups of order less than 1000. Every chapter is accompanied by a set of Exercises, and the solutions to all of these are provided at the end of the book. We would like to thank Dr Hans Liebeck for his careful reading of our manuscript and the many helpful suggestions which he made.

In this second edition, we have included two new chapters; one (Chapter 28) deals with the character tables of an in®nite series of groups, and the other (Chapter 29) covers aspects of the representation theory of permutation groups. We have also added a considerable amount of new material to Chapters 20, 23 and 30, and made minor amendments elsewhere.

Preface to Second Edition

most of which you should Â Â know already. (2) there exists an element e in G such that for all g in G. there exists an element gÀ1 in G such that gg À1 g À1 g eX We refer to the rule for combining elements of G as the product operation on G. we introduce several examples. h. k in G. eg ge g. (3) for all g in G.1 Groups and homomorphisms This book is devoted to the study of an aspect of group theory. One or two results which we shall use only infrequently are demoted to the exercises at the end of the chapter ± you can refer to the solutions if necessary. this rule must satisfy the following axioms: (1) for all g. An elementary course on abstract algebra would normally cover all the material in the chapter. which we shall use extensively to illustrate the later theory. together with a rule for combining any two elements g. 1 . In addition. such as dihedral groups and symmetric groups. so we begin with a resume of facts about groups. and any book on basic group theory will supply you with further details. h of G to form another element of G. ( gh)k g(hk). written gh. Groups A group consists of a set G.

It is elementary to see that G has just one identity element. and consider the rotation and re¯ection symmetries of a regular n-sided polygon. and an 1. then we call G a ®nite group. Write b for the re¯ection in the . Usually we write 1. and that every g in G has just one inverse. the product fg means `®rst do f. 1. the element e in axiom (2) is an identity element of G. If the number of elements in G is ®nite. the number of elements in G is called the order of G. Let A be a corner of the polygon. The set of nth roots of unity in C. for the identity element of G. The product of an element g with itself. This group is called the dihedral group of order 2n. and gÀ1 is an inverse of g in axiom (3). and is written D2 n. a nÀ1 g. similarly 3 g g 2 g. r nÀ1 where r k is the (clockwise) rotation about the centre O through an angle 2ðkan. These 2n rotations and re¯ections form a group under the product operation of composition (that is.1 Examples (1) Let n be a positive integer. There are also n re¯ection symmetries: these are re¯ections in the n lines passing through O and a corner or the mid-point of a side of the polygon. gÀ2 ( gÀ1 )2 . then do g'). and is written |G|. . a. Also. g0 1. . gg. is a group of order n. rather than e. and so on. is a group. X X X . under addition. r1 . for two symmetries f and g. with the usual multiplication of complex numbers. . (2) The set Z of all integers. There are n rotation symmetries: these are r0 . (3) Let n be an integer with n > 3. a2 . If a e2ðia n . It is written as Cn and is called the cyclic group of order n. and denote by C the set of all complex numbers. is written g 2 . .2 Representations and characters of groups Axiom (1) states that the product operation is associative. then Cn f1.

n}. It is an in®nite group. most of the other examples given above are non-abelian groups. and is denoted by GL(n. X X X . 2. We use the notation H < G to indicate that H is a subgroup of G. and is written Sn . The set of all invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. Check that an 1. under matrix multiplication. b: an 1. a nÀ1 bX Thus all elements of D2 n are products of powers of a and b ± that is. . It is called the symmetric group of degree n. b2 1. . A group G is said to be abelian if gh hg for all g and h in G. and hence (a i b)(a j b) a i ba j b a i aÀ j bb a iÀ j X We summarize all this in the presentation D2 n ha. which leaves the polygon ®xed). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX (4) For n a positive integer. b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X These relations determine the product of any two elements of the group. forms a group. . we have ba j aÀ j b (using the relation ba aÀ1 b). which we denote by In or just I. a2 b. D2 n is generated by a and b. For example. a. The identity of GL(n. This group is called the general linear group of degree n over F. The order of Sn is n!. X X X . a nÀ1 (where 1 denotes the identity. F). Subgroups Let G be a group. ab. a2 . While Cn and Z are abelian. A subset H of G is said to be a subgroup if H is itself a group under the product operation inherited from G. is a group.Groups and homomorphisms 3 line through O and A. the set of all permutations of {1. under the product operation of composition. . and the n re¯ections are b. (5) Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). and write a for the rotation r1 . . F) is of course the identity matrix. Then the n rotations are 1.

We illustrate the construction in the next example. De®ne H to be the subset of G consisting of all elements which are products of powers of a and b ± that is. If gn 1 for some n > 1. X X X . g rÀ1 gX We call r the order of the element g. we call H the subgroup generated by a and b. Then H is a subgroup of G. then r is equal to the number of elements in k gl ± indeed. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in C. (3) Let G be a group and let a. such as general linear or symmetric groups. (2) Let G be a group and g P G.1 are cyclic. called the cyclic subgroup generated by g. both {1} and G are subgroups of G. B X 0 Ài À1 0 . The groups Cn and Z in Examples 1. In this case. and let i 0 0 1 A . k P H then hkÀ1 P H. b P G.5 below.4 Representations and characters of groups It is easy to see that a subset H of a group G is a subgroup if and only if the following two conditions hold: (1) 1 P H. biX Given any ®nite set S of elements of G. 1. h gi f1. C). then k gl is ®nite.2 Examples (1) For every group G. This construction gives a powerful method of ®nding new groups as subgroups of given groups. we can similarly de®ne hSi. (4) Let G GL(2. The subset h gi f g n : n P Zg is a subgroup of G. and again in Example 1. g 2 . and (2) if h. and write H ha. let r be the least positive integer such that g r 1. the subgroup of G generated by S. where ik . If G k gl for some g P G then we call G a cyclic group. all elements of the form a i1 b j1 a i2 b j2 X X Xa i n b j n for some n. g. jk P Z for 1 < k < n.

. . g9 P G and all h. we call g an even or an odd permutation. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 iX (5) A transposition in the symmetric group Sn is a permutation which interchanges two of the numbers 1. A2 B2 . Since the matrices Ai B j (0 < i < 3. . we can take 0 < i < 3 and 0 < j < 1. called the direct product of G and H. Direct products We describe a construction which produces a new group from given ones. With this product operation. Every permutation g in Sn can be expressed as a product of transpositions. accordingly. 2. . the subgroup of G generated by A and B. h)( g9. G 3 H is a group. n and ®xes the other n À 2 numbers. . The group H is called the quaternion group of order 8. called the alternating group of degree n. hh9) for all g. h9 P H. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X 5 Using the third relation. Bl. 0 < j < 1) are all distinct. and consider G 3 H f( g. and is written Q8. j. A2 B2 . h): g P G and h P HgX De®ne a product operation on G 3 H by ( g. Let G and H be groups. so we have the presentation Q8 hA. B: A4 I. The above three relations determine the product of any two elements of Q8 .Groups and homomorphisms Put H kA. and using the ®rst two relations. The subset An f g P Sn : g is an even permutationg is a subgroup of Sn . h9) ( gg9. Check that A4 I. we see that every element of H has the form A i B j for some integers i. Hence H has at most eight elements. in fact j Hj 8. It can be shown that either all such expressions for g have an even number of transpositions. or they all have an odd number of transpositions.

. if G1 . then the direct product G1 3 X X X 3 Gr is f( g 1 . g r )( g9 . ( gW)ö g and (hö)W hX Then ö is called the inverse of W. and is written as WÀ1 . . g r g9 )X 1 r 1 r If all the groups Gi are ®nite. where g P G and h P H. we generally apply functions on the right ± that is. g 2 P GX . Functions A function from one set G to another set H is a rule which assigns a unique element of H to each element of G. X X X . then a homomorphism from G to H is a function W: G 3 H which satis®es ( g1 g 2 )W ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g 1 . g r ): g i P Gi for 1 < i < rg. not as W g. g2 P G implies that g1 g2 ) and surjective (that is. g9 ) ( g 1 g9 . We often indicate that W is a function from G to H by the notation W: G 3 H. then G1 3 . 3 Gr is also ®nite. X X X . . of order |G1 | . 1. . |Gr |. . A function W from G to H is invertible if and only if it is both injective (that is. h P H. By an expression W: g 3 h. X X X . An invertible function is also called a bijection. the image of g under a function W is written as gW. X X X . .3 Example The group C2 3 . with product operation de®ned by ( g1 . . 3 C2 (r factors) has order 2 r and all its nonidentity elements have order 2. . Homomorphisms Given groups G and H.6 Representations and characters of groups More generally. for every h P H there exists g P G such that gW h). . A function W: G 3 H is invertible if there is a function ö: H 3 G such that for all g P G. . g1 W g2 W for g1 . Gr are groups. In this book. we mean that h gW. those functions from G to H which `preserve the group structure' ± the so-called homomorphisms ± are of particular importance. If G and H are groups.

(ar bs at bu )W (a i b j )W x i y j x r y s x t y u (ar bs )W .4 Example Let G D2 n ka. 0 < t < n À 1. Then ar bs at bu a i b j for some i.4 in action. we can also deduce that xr ys xt yu x i y j X Therefore. If there is an isomorphism W from G to H. also. b: an b2 1. j with 0 < i < n À 1. i and j are determined by repeatedly using the relations an b2 1. y be the following permutations in G: x (1 2 3 4 5). and write the 2n elements of G in the form ai b j with 0 < i < n À 1. WÀ1 is an isomorphism from H to G. then G and H are said to be isomorphic. y À1 xy x À1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. Moreover.Groups and homomorphisms 7 An invertible homomorphism is called an isomorphism. Let H be any group. 1. and we write G H. 1. 0 < u < 1. y (2 5)(3 4)X . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X Since we have x n y 2 1. y À1 xy x À1 X We shall prove that the function W: G 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < n À 1. (at bu )W.5 Example Let G S5 and let x. Suppose that 0 < r < n À 1. 0 < s < 1. and suppose that H contains elements x and y which satisfy x n y 2 1. 0 < j < 1. and so W is a homomorphism. We now demonstrate the technique of Example 1. The following example displays a technique which can often be used to prove that certain functions are homomorphisms. 0 < j < 1. so H G.

0 < j < 1g. and so on. . the function W: D10 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 4. Using the above relations. yl of G. (1 2 3 4 5) denotes the permutation 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 1. y À1 xy x À1 X Let H be the subgroup kx. b: a5 b2 1. H kx. a group of order 10. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism.) Check that x 5 y 2 1. and let Hx1 . For all i. Since G Hx1 X X X Hxr . For x in G. the function h 3 hxi (h P H) is a bijection from H to Hxi . we see that H fx i y j : 0 < i < 4. . the subset Hx fhx: h P Hg of G is called a right coset of H in G. we have . Since W is invertible. yl D10. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX By Example 1. Now recall that D10 ha.4. and Hxi Hxj is empty if i T j. every element of G is in precisely one of the cosets). . . and so j Hxi j j Hj. Hxr be all the distinct right cosets of H in G. we deduce that jGj rj HjX In particular. Suppose now that G is ®nite. The distinct right cosets of H in G form a partition of G (that is.8 Representations and characters of groups (Here we adopt the usual cycle notation ± thus. Thus. it is an isomorphism. Cosets Let G be a group and let H be a subgroup of G.

we have fxy: x P Ng and y P Nhg NghX Hence we can de®ne a product operation on GaN by (Ng)(Nh) Ngh for all g. we write N v G to indicate that N is a normal subgroup of G. (3) Let G D8 ka. we have An v Sn . Na. 1. NabgX Since (Na)2 (Nb)2 (Nab)2 N.Groups and homomorphisms 1. Nb. Then N v G and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let N GaN fN . a2 }. and so Sn aAn C2 . If n > 2 then there are just two right cosets of An in Sn . (2) For n > 1. Thus jG: Hj jGjaj Hj when G is ®nite. Normal subgroups A subgroup N of a group G is said to be a normal subgroup of G if gÀ1 Ng N for all g P G (where gÀ1 Ng f gÀ1 ng: n P Ng). 9 The number r of distinct right cosets of H in G is called the index of H in G. ka2 l {1. namely An f g P Sn : g eveng. The subgroup kal is also normal in G. Suppose that N v G and let GaN be the set of right cosets of N in G. since b P H while aÀ1 ba a2 b P H. and is written as jG: Hj. the sub-groups {1} and G are normal subgroups of G. h P G. but the subgroup H kbl is not normal in G. The importance of the condition gÀ1 Ng N (for all g P G) is that it can be used to show that for all g. a . h P GX This makes GaN into a group. then j Hj divides |G|. and An (1 2) f g P Sn : g oddgX Thus |Sn :An | 2.6 Lagrange's Theorem If G is a ®nite group and H is a subgroup of G. we see that GaN C2 3 C2 . called the factor group of G by N.7 Examples (1) For every group G. b: a4 b2 1.

simple groups are fundamental to the study of ®nite groups. the image of W is (1X9) Im W f gW: g P Gg. then G has a normal subgroup N such that both N and G/N have smaller order than G. (This is analogous to the fact that every positive integer is built out of its prime factors. Then GaKer W Im WX An isomorphism is given by the function Kg 3 gW where K Ker W. Let G and H be groups and suppose that W: G 3 H is a homomorphism. 1. If G is a ®nite group which is not simple. and in a sense. For example. Also. ( g P G) . we eventually see that G is `built' out of a collection of simple groups. The following result describes the way in which the kernel and image of W are related.10 Theorem Suppose that G and H are groups and let W: G 3 H be a homomorphism. Continuing this process with the smaller groups. is simple. with p a prime number. the cyclic group Cp . We de®ne the kernel of W by (1X8) Ker W f g P G: gW 1gX Then Ker W is a normal subgroup of G.10 Representations and characters of groups Simple groups A group G is said to be simple if G T {1} and the only normal subgroups of G are {1} and G. and Im W is a subgroup of H. Kernels and images To conclude the chapter. We shall give examples of non-abelian simple groups in later chapters ± the smallest one is A5 . we relate normal subgroups and factor groups to homomorphisms.) Thus. G is `built' out of these two smaller groups.

is a normal subgroup of G. We have Ker W An . 3 Gr .10. Q8 ka. if g is an odd permutation. Suppose that G and H are groups. Examples of groups are Cn ka: an 1l. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Im W C2 . GL(n. 2. . A normal subgroup N of G is a subgroup such that gÀ1 Ng N for all g in G. b: a4 1. The factor group GaN consists of the right cosets Ng ( g P G). with multiplication (Ng)(Nh) NghX 3. b: an b2 1. . the direct product of the groups G1 . We know from Example 1. 2. Exercises for Chapter 1 1. g2 in G. Gr . and for n > 2. . The kernel. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. An the alternating group of degree n. then G is cyclic of prime order. with G simple. and the image. W: g 3 À1. The factor group GaKer W is isomorphic to Im W. Show that either W is an isomorphism or H {1}.Groups and homomorphisms 1. D2 n ka. Show that if G is an abelian group which is simple. Im W. 11 is a homomorphism. A homomorphism W: G 3 H is a function such that ( g1 g 2 )W ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g1 . . G1 3 . and that W: G 3 H is a surjective homomorphism. if g is an even permutation. is a subgroup of H.11 Example The function W: Sn 3 C2 given by & 1. C) the group of invertible n 3 n matrices over C. Sn the symmetric group of degree n. . illustrating Theorem 1. Summary of Chapter 1 1.7(2) that Sn /An C2 . a2 b2 . Ker W.

de®ned by ö: ar bs 3 x r y s . Prove that f g P G: g n 1g is a cylic subgroup of G of order n. Prove that this homomorphism is an isomorphism. show that x is a power of y. 0 < s < 1). c2 d 2 . Y i of GL(2. Let G D8 ha. y are elements of G with the same order. Y be the 2 3 2 matrices which are given by 0 i 0 À1 X . d: c4 1. . b: a4 b2 1.Y . d À1 cd cÀ1 iX (a) Let x. de®ned by ë: ar bs 3 X r Y s . and let n be a positive integer which divides |G|. is a homomorphism. and Ga (G An ) C2 X 4. 6. (b) Let G be a ®nite cyclic group. and that G is not contained in An . are homomorphisms. Show that both the functions ö: G 3 K and ø: H 3 K. and let K be the subgroup kx. y (3 4). (a) Show that every subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic. (c) If G is a ®nite cyclic group and x. (b) Let X. 0 < s < 1). i 0 1 0 and let L be the subgroup hX . ø: cr d s 3 x r y s (0 < r < 3. yl of S4 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. y be the permutations in S4 which are given by x (1 2). Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . 5. Prove that D4 m D2 m 3 C2 if m is odd.12 Representations and characters of groups 3. Show that just one of the functions ë: G 3 L and ì: H 3 L. Prove that G An is a normal subgroup of G. Find Ker ö and Ker ø. ì: cr d s 3 X r Y s (0 < r < 3. C). and H Q8 hc.

2(4). (Hint: compare Q8 in Example 1. Show that the set of non-zero complex numbers.Groups and homomorphisms 13 7. 8. C) such that A has order 8.) 10. Show that every group of even order contains an element of order 2. Bl has order 16. and B2 A4 and BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X Show that the group kA. Prove that every ®nite subgroup of this group is cyclic. Prove that H v G. is a group. Find elements A and B of GL(2. B has order 4. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G with |G: H| 2. under the usual multiplication. . 9.

namely group theory and linear algebra.1) (a) V is an abelian group under addition. We write 0 for the identity element of the abelian group V under addition. Vector spaces Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). The elements of V are called vectors. and a rule for multiplying any element v of V by any element ë of F to form an element ëv of V. (4) 1v v. (The latter rule is called scalar multiplication. together with a rule for adding any two elements u. An exception occurs in the last section.) Moreover. A vector space over F is a set V. we gather the results from linear algebra concerning vector spaces. (3) (ëì)v ë(ìv). 14 . and those of F are called scalars. (1) ë(u v) ëu ëv. v of V to form an element u v of V. ì in F. v in V and all ë. (b) for all u. (2) (ë ì)v ëv ìv. in case you have not come across projections before. Most of the material will be familiar to you if you have taken a ®rst course on linear algebra. where we deal with projections. here. For reference purposes.2 Vector spaces and linear transformations An attractive feature of representation theory is that it combines two strands of mainstream mathematics. linear transformations and matrices which we shall use later. so we omit the proofs. these rules must satisfy: (2. we explain in detail how the results work.

. v n are said to span V if every vector in V is a linear combination of v1 . . xn ) (ëx1 . We denote the set of all such row vectors by F n. y) (x9. otherwise. . 1 n 1 n ë(x1 . . . . as above. . x2 . x9 ) (x1 x9 . Throughout this book. . ë n in F. v n be vectors in a vector space V over F. not all of which are zero. v n form a basis of V if they span V and are linearly independent. . ëxn )X Then F n is a vector space over F. . . . ë(x. v n if v ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n for some ë1 . . . X X X . . Bases of vector spaces Let v1 . X X X . We say that v1 . A vector v in V is a linear combination of v1 . . . . . . X X X . y) (ëx. The number of vectors in a basis of V is called the dimension of V and is written as dim V. X X X . . we consider row vectors (x1 . . ë y)X Then R2 is a vector space over R. . . v n are linearly dependent if ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n 0 for some ë1 . .Vector spaces and linear transformations 15 2. and de®ne addition and scalar multiplication on F n by (x1 . It turns out that any two bases of V have the same number of vectors. v n . . . y) where x and y are real numbers. . y9) (x x9. .2 Examples (1) Let R2 denote the set of all ordered pairs (x. De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on R2 by (x. X X X . . ë n in F. (2) More generally. . xn ) where x1 . . v1 . xn ) (x9 . X X X . we shall consider only vector spaces V which are ®nite-dimensional ± this means that V has a basis consisting of ®nitely many vectors. v n are linearly independent. . The vector space V is n-dimensional if dim V n. . . If V {0} then dim V 0. The vectors v1 . The vectors v1 . . y y9). . . xn x9 ). xn belong to F. . . for each positive integer n. . x2 .

v n of a vector space V. 1. and it is called the subspace spanned by u1 .16 Representations and characters of groups 2. with ë1 . ë r P FgX By (2. 1. Then (1.4) If v1 . 0. v n form a basis of V. then there exist v k1 . . X X X . . . each vector v in V can be written in a unique way as v ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n . that is. 2. . 1)X Given a basis v1 . sp (u1 . Indeed. . . (2) Let u1 . (3) if ë P F and u P U then ëu P U. v n in V such that v1 . ur ) to be the set of all linear combinations of u1 . . ur ) fë1 u1 X X X ë r ur : ë1 . . 0. 0. . Subspaces A subspace of a vector space V over F is a subset of V which is itself a vector space under the addition and scalar multiplication inherited from V. . . X X X . . . . . . ur . For a subset U of V to be a subspace. . ur ) is a subspace of V. v P U then u v P U. it is necessary and suf®cient that all the following conditions hold: (2. X X X . . . Except in the case where V {0}.5) (1) 0 P U. X X X . 1. . (0. . 0. . (1. . (0. The vector v therefore determines the scalars ë1 . . . . .3 Example Let V F n. . 0). 0. . . 0. . sp (u1 . . 0). 1) is a basis of V. . X X X . . . . . ur . . v k are linearly independent vectors in V. . X X X . (1. (2. X X X . there are many bases of V. . . . (2) if u. Another basis is (1. . X X X . 0). X X X . . 0.6 Examples (1) {0} and V are subspaces of V. the next result says that any linearly independent vectors can be extended to a basis. ë n . 1. 0). 0. ë n in F. We de®ne sp (u1 . .5). X X X . so dim V n. ur be vectors in V.

Extend v1. (2.9) Suppose that V U W. w1. . . then we write it as U1 È X X X È Ur X 2. Then V U È WX From this construction it follows that there are in®nitely many subspaces W with V U È W. . . We say that the sum U1 . . . . .8 Examples (1) Suppose that v1 . U1 . . ws is a basis of W. .7) Suppose that U is a subspace of the vector space V . . . If the sum is direct. . Ur are subspaces of a vector space V. . unless U is {0} or V. (2.4). and for 1 < i < n. . ur is a basis of U and that w1.5). dim U dim V if and . ur . . only if U V. . Direct sums of subspaces 17 If U1. and let W sp (v k1 . . The next result is frequently useful when dealing with the direct sum of two subspaces. . Ur is a subspace of V. . let Ui be the subspace spanned by v i. v k to a basis v1 . . . Then dim U < dim V Also. . . v n of V (see (2. . . . Ur is a direct sum if every element of the sum can be written in a unique way as u1 . (3) U W {0}. . that u1 . . .Vector spaces and linear transformations Notice that the following fact is a consequence of (2. . . ws is a basis of V. . . . . . (2) u1 . . . .3 and 2. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) V U È W. Ur is de®ned by U1 X X X Ur fu1 X X X ur : ui P Ui for 1 < i < rgX By (2. v n is a basis of V. v n ).4 if you have dif®culty with the proof. v k be a basis of U.4)). Then V U1 È X X X È Un X (2) Let U be a subspace of V and let v1 . . then the sum U1 . . . . You should consult the solutions to Exercises 2. . . . . ur with ui P Ui for 1 < i < r. .

v P V . . If V U È W and also U U1 È X X X È Ua . X X X . . X X X . X X X . ur ) (ëu1 . V is a vector space over F. . Let U1. and W W1 È X X X È Wb . u9 ) (u1 u9 .18 Representations and characters of groups Our next result. X X X . ui . 0): ui P U i g i (where the ui is in the ith position). . . (2. X X X . X X X . we write V U1 È X X X È Ur X Linear transformations Let V and W be vector spaces over F. Ur be vector spaces over F. then it is immediate that V U1 È X X X È U 9X 9 r We call V the external direct sum of U1. . Ua. A linear transformation from V to W is a function W: V 3 W which satis®es (u v)W uW vW (ëv)W ë(vW) for all u. for 1 < i < r. If. . . . . . Ur. we put U 9 f(0. . W. ur u9 ). . 1 r 1 r ë(u1 . ur ): ui P U i for 1 < i < rgX De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on V as follows: for all ui . . W1. . involving the direct sum of several subspaces. ëur )X With these de®nitions.10) Suppose that U. Wb are subspaces of a vector space V. ur ) (u9 . X X X . U1. and. . and for all ë P F and v P V X . X X X . can be deduced immediately from the de®nition of a direct sum. let (u1 . and let V f(u1 . u9 i in Ui (1 < i < r) and all ë in F. abusing notation slightly. then V U1 È X X X È Ua È W 1 È X X X È W b X We now introduce a construction for vector spaces which is analogous to the construction of direct products for groups.

. Im W V X . . which is known as the Rank±Nullity Theorem: (2X12) dim V dim (Ker W) dim (Im W)X 2. Kernels and images Suppose that W: V 3 W is a linear transformation. so a linear transformation preserves addition and scalar multiplication. . . . by specifying the values of ö on a basis of V. ë n in F we have (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n )W ë1 (v1 W) X X X ë n (v n W)X Thus. then for ë1 . Their dimensions are connected by the following equation. . and then saying `extend the action of ö to be linear'. there is a unique linear transformation ö: V 3 W such that v i ö wi for all i.13 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW 0 for all v P V. given any basis v1 .5). and Ker W V . then W is a linear transformation. . it is easy to check that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. v n of V and any n vectors w1.Vector spaces and linear transformations 19 Just as a group homomorphism preserves the group multiplication. . . . Im W f0gX (2) If W: V 3 V is de®ned by vW 3v for all v P V. and Ker W f0g. . . . v n is a basis of V. wn in W. Im W fvW: v P V gX Using (2. Furthermore. . The kernel of W (written Ker W) and the image of W (written Im W) are de®ned as follows: (2X11) Ker W fv P V : vW 0g. . the linear transformation ö is given by (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n )ö ë1 w1 X X X ë n wn X We sometimes construct a linear transformation ö: V 3 W in this way. W is determined by its action on a basis. Notice that if W: V 3 W is a linear transformation and v1. then W is a linear transformation. .

Suppose that W and ö are endomorphisms of V and ë P F. we have Ker W sp ((7. and hence W is invertible precisely when W is surjective and Ker W {0}. z P R. By applying (2. It turns out that the inverse of an invertible linear transformation is also a linear transformation (see Exercise 2. z)W (x 2 y z. we see that isomorphic vector spaces have the same dimension.14) Let W be a linear transformation from V to itself. Endomorphisms A linear transformation from a vector space V to itself is called an endomorphism of V. y. v(Wö) (vW)ö.1). If there exists an invertible linear transformation from V to W.20 Representations and characters of groups (3) If W: R3 3 R2 is given by (x. (2) Ker W {0}. À y 3z) for all x. y. Invertible linear transformations Again. let V and W be vector spaces over F. Im W R2 . then V and W are said to be isomorphic vector spaces. By also taking (2. (2. for all v P V. v(ëW) ë(vW).2). A linear transformation W from V to W is injective if and only if Ker W {0}. We de®ne the functions W ö. (3) Im W V. Wö and ëW are endomorphisms of V.7) into account. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. Wö and ëW from V to V by (2X15) v(W ö) vW vö.12). then W is a linear transformation. We write W2 for WW. we obtain the next result (see Exercise 2. À1)). À3. Then W ö. . so dim (Ker W) 1 and dim (Im W) 2.

and is denoted by [W]B . . 3W and W2 are given by (x. . then so is W À ë1 V . If W is an endomorphism of V.17 De®nition The n 3 n matrix (aij ) is called the matrix of W relative to the basis B . ö be the functions from V to V de®ned by (x. .16 Examples (1) The identity function 1 V de®ned by 1 V : v 3 v for all v P V 21 is an endomorphism of V. where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. 1) of V and B 9 is the basis . and W ö. y)(W ö) (2x À y. then [W]B In for all bases B of V.18 Examples (1) If W 1 V (so that vW v for all v P V). and let W be an endomorphism of V. y)W2 (2x À y. y)(Wö) (Àx 5 y. y) 3 (x y. (x. y)(3W) (3x 3 y. v n is a basis of V and call it B . 2x À 10 y). 3x À 6 y). Then there are scalars aij in F (1 < i < n. (x. . Note that Ker (W À ë1 V ) fv P V : vW ëvgX (2) Let V R2. Suppose that v1 . (0. (x. Àx 5 y)X Matrices Let V be a vector space over F. y)W (x y. À2x 4 y)X Then W and ö are endomorphisms of V.Vector spaces and linear transformations 2. for all ë P F. Àx 2 y). 2. (x. y)ö (x À 2 y. 0). Wö. (2) Let V R2 and let W be the endomorphism (x. x À 2 y). and let W. v i W a i1 v1 X X X ain v n X 2. If B is the basis (1. x À 2 y) of V. 1 < j < n) such that for all i.

their sum A B is the m 3 n matrix over F whose ij-entry is aij bij for all i. the matrix ëA is the m 3 n matrix over F obtained from A by multiplying all the entries by ë.20) Suppose that B is a basis of the vector space V.22 Representations and characters of groups 1 . (1. 0). then we describe A as a matrix over F. 1) of V. À2 [W]B 9 1 X À1 (1. Given an m 3 n matrix A (aij ) and an n 3 p matrix B (bij ). Given two m 3 n matrices A (aij ) and B (bij ) over F. then [W]B 1 1 0 3 If we wish to indicate that the entries in a matrix A come from F. 2 À1 5 À2 À4 3 0 3 3 . Then [W ö]B [W]B [ö]B . As you know. and that W and ö are endomorphisms of V. and for ë P F. 3A X À3 9 6 3 4 2 2 À13 À12 À5 The matrix of the sum or product of two endomorphisms (relative to some basis) is related to the matrices of the individual endomorphisms in the way you would expect: (2. AB 3 . j. B 1 2 2 3 À4 X À1 2 . and [Wö]B [W]B [ö]B X . the product of two matrices is de®ned in a less transparent way.19 Example Let A Then A B 2 BA À1 3 2 0 . their product AB is the m 3 p matrix whose ij-entry is n k1 aik bkj X 2.

Vector spaces and linear transformations Also. y)W (x. an endomorphism W of V is invertible if and only if the matrix [W]B is invertible. given a basis of V. v 3 vA (v P F n ) is an endomorphism of F n. 2. is unique. the matrix product vA also lies in V. [ëW]B ë[W]B X 23 We showed you in (2. . xn ) with each xi in F.21) If A is an n 3 n matrix over F then the function . and let V F n.20): given a basis B of V. We concentrate on a particular way of doing this. Then a necessary and suf®cient condition for A to be invertible is that det A T 0. The connection between invertible endomorphisms and invertible matrices is straightforward. and this same matrix is used to describe the way in which the matrix of an . Write det A for the determinant of A. Then for all v in V. for all scalars ë. where 1 À1 (x. . . An invertible matrix converts one basis into another. Such a matrix B. . Àx 2 y)X 3 2 Invertible matrices An n 3 n matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists an n 3 n matrix B with AB BA In . y) (x 3 y.17) how to get a matrix from an endomorphism of a vector space V. The following remark is easily justi®ed. and follows from (2. (2. Invertible matrices turn up when we relate two bases of a vector space. Suppose that A is an n 3 n matrix over F. It is easy enough to reverse this process and use a matrix to de®ne an endomorphism. if it exists. the vector space of row vectors (x1 . it is called the inverse of A and is written as AÀ1 .22 Example Let A 1 3 À1 X 2 Then A gives us an endomorphism W of F 2.

The precise meaning of these remarks is revealed in the de®nition (2. 0). (2. The scalar ë is said to be an eigenvalue of W if vW ëv for some non-zero vector v in V. Then for 1 < i < n.T X 1 1 À1 1 If W is the endomorphism W: (x. (1. then 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 T X À1 1 3 À1 1 1 1 À2 Eigenvalues Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F. . 0). . . . Let B be the basis (1. . as in Example 2. .18(2). 2.24 Representations and characters of groups endomorphism depends upon the basis. v n be a basis B of the vector space V. and suppose that W is an endomorphism of V.25 Example Suppose that V R2. . and let v9 . Then 1 0 1 0 À1 T . x À 2 y) of V.24) below. where T is the change of basis matrix from B to B 9.23 De®nition Let v1 . The inverse of T is the change of basis matrix from B 9 to B . y) 3 (x y. 1) and B 9 the basis (1. . then [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 T . .24) If B and B 9 are bases of V and W is an endomorphism of V. The n 3 n matrix T (tij ) is invertible.23) and the result (2. v9 1 n be a basis B 9 of V. and is called the change of basis matrix from B to B 9. (0. 1) of V. v9 t i1 v1 X X X tin v n i for certain scalars tij . 2. Such a vector v is called an eigenvector of W.

26). and W has no eigenvalues in R. the element ë of F is said to be an eigenvalue of A if vA ëv for some non-zero row vector v in F n. Thus we depend upon F being C in result (2. then 0 1 [W]B X À1 0 We have det ([W]B À ëI2 ) ë2 1. y)W (À y. then i 0 [W]B 9 X 0 Ài (2) Let V R2 and let W again be the endomorphism which is given by (x. (1. (2. i). then the eigenvalues of W are those scalars ë in F which satisfy the equation det ([W]B À ëI n ) 0X Solving this equation involves ®nding the roots of a polynomial of degree n. and let W be an endomorphism of V. For an n 3 n matrix A over F.27 Examples (1) Let V C2 and let W be the endomorphism of V which is given by (x. Therefore. (0. Note that if B 9 is the basis (1. Then W has an eigenvalue. 0). Corresponding eigenvectors are (1. 2. x)X This time.26) Let V be a non-zero vector space over C. Since every non-constant polynomial with coef®cients in C has a root in C. if B is a basis of V. Ài) and (1. i) of V. x)X If B is the basis (1. V is a vector space over R.Vector spaces and linear transformations 25 Now ë is an eigenvalue of W if and only if Ker (W À ë1 V ) T {0}. The eigenvalues of A are those elements ë of F which satisfy det (A À ëI n ) 0X . Ài). we deduce the following result. y)W (À y. which occurs if and only if W À ë1 V is not invertible. 1) of V. so i and Ài are the eigenvalues of W.

Projections If a vector space V is a direct sum of two subspaces U and W. ð is an endomorphism of V. De®ne ð: V 3 V by (u w)ð u for all u P U .26 Representations and characters of groups 2. the eigenvalues are ë1 . . then we can construct a special endomorphism of V which depends upon the expression V U È W: 2. . it follows that ð is a function on V. w9 in W. Im ð U . Then v u w and v9 u9 w9 for some u. w P W. . We have (v v9)ð (u u9 w w9)ð u u9 (u w)ð (u9 w9)ð vð v9ðX Also. Also. we have Im U. . We often display such a matrix in the form H I ë1 0 f g FF Ad e F ën 0 which indicates. for ë in F. w P W X Then ð is an endomorphism of V.29 Proposition Suppose that V U È W. For this diagonal matrix A. Ker ð W and ð2 ðX Proof Since every vector in V has a unique expression in the form u w with u P U. in addition. that aii ë i for 1 < i < n. Clearly Im ð # U. and since uð u for all u in U. Let v and v9 belong to V. ë n . u9 in U and w. . (ëv)ð (ëu ëw)ð ëu ë(vð)X Therefore. Further.28 Example We say that an n 3 n matrix A (aij ) is diagonal if aij 0 for all i and j with i T j.

and (2. and so Ker ð W. Clearly the ®rst term vð belongs to Im ð. j .9) now shows that V Im ð È Ker ð. we have v uð for some u P V. it follows that v vð 0. Therefore vð uð2 uð vX Since v P Ker ð. 2. We now show that every projection can be constructed using a direct sum. Then V Im ð È Ker ðX Proof If v P V then v vð (v À vð). 27 j 2.29. Finally. and the second term v À vð lies in Ker ð.31 Example The endomorphism (x. since (v À vð)ð vð À vð2 vð À vð 0X This establishes that V Im ð Ker ð. 2. as in Proposition 2. y) 3 (2x 2 y.30 De®nition An endomorphism ð of a vector space V which satis®es ð2 ð is called a projection of V. Now suppose that v lies in Im ð Ker ð. (u w)ð2 uð u (u w)ð. and so ð2 ð. Àx À y) of R2 is a projection. Thus Im ð Ker ð f0g. As v P Im ð.Vector spaces and linear transformations (u w)ð 0 D u 0 D u w P W .32 Proposition Suppose that ð is a projection of a vector space V.

Ker ð f(x. and dim V dim (Ker W) dim (Im W)X 4. A linear transformation W: V 3 W satis®es (u v)W uW vW and (ëv)W ë(vW) for all u. . where F C or R. Given a basis B of the n-dimensional vector space V. All our vector spaces are ®nite-dimensional over F. For example. Àx): x P Rg. Àx À y) is the projection of R2 which appears in Example 2. 3. y) 3 (2x 2 y. Exercises for Chapter 2 1. . V U È W if and only if V U W and U W {0}. 5. . there is a correspondence between the endomorphisms W of V and the n 3 n matrices [W]B over F. È Ur if each Ui is a subspace of V. Also. and an endomorphism W of V.31. Show that if V and W are vector spaces and W: V 3 W is an invertible linear transformation then WÀ1 is a linear transformation. 7. then Im ð f(2x. Eigenvalues ë of an endomorphism W satisfy vW ëv for some nonzero v in V. A linear transformation W: V 3 W is invertible if and only if Ker W {0} and Im W W. . there exists an invertible matrix T such that [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 TX 6. and every element v of V has a unique expression of the form v u1 . Àx): x P RgX Summary of Chapter 2 1. Given two bases B and B 9 of V. F n is the set of row vectors (x1 . Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. F F F . 2. x n ) with each xi in F.28 Representations and characters of groups 2. V U1 È .33 Example If ð: (x. v in V and all ë in F. and dimF n n. ur (ui P Ui ). A projection is an endomorphism ð of V which satis®es ð2 ð. .

Ur are subspaces of the vector space V. . . ws is a basis of W. Let V be a vector space and let W be an endomorphism of V. U2 and U3 be subspaces of a vector space V. ur . with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or À1. . . . Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V. 4. Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V and W2 1 V . . È Ur. Show that V U È W if and only if u1 . 6. with V U1 U2 U3. with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or 0. Suppose that U1. Give an example of a vector space V with endomorphisms W and ö such that V Im W È Ker W. Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. (a) Let U1. . Prove that V U È W if and only if V U W and U W = {0}. . where U fv P V : vW vg. (2) Ker W {0}. (3) Im W V. . . .Vector spaces and linear transformations 29 2. Show that V U È W. w1. . . but V T Im ö È Ker ö. 3. Show that V U1 È U2 È U3 D U 1 (U 2 U3 ) U 2 (U 1 U3 ) U 3 (U 1 U2 ) f0gX (b) Give an example of a vector space V with three subspaces U1. . U2 and U3 such that V U1 U2 U3 and U1 U 2 U1 U3 U2 U 3 f0g. ws is a basis of V. ur is a basis of U and w1. 9. . Prove that dim V dim U1 X X X dim U r X 7. Show that the following are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. . . . Suppose that u1 . but V T U1 È U2 È U3. Show that W is a projection if and only if there is a basis B of V such that [W]B is diagonal. . . and that V U1 È . . 8. 5. W fv P V : vW ÀvgX Deduce that V has a basis B such that [W]B is diagonal. . .

We set out this idea in more detail. and consider the kernel of a representation. Thus if r is a function from G to GL (n. for some n. We also introduce the concept of equivalence of representations. and g À1 r ( gr)À1 for all g P G. The degree of r is the integer n. 30 . To be precise.3 Group representations A representation of a group G gives us a way of visualizing G as a group of matrices.1 De®nition A representation of G over F is a homomorphism r from G to GL (n. 3. F) denotes the group of invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. h P GX Since a representation is a homomorphism. F). a representation is a homomorphism from G into a group of invertible matrices. and give some examples of representations. it follows that for every representation r: G 3 GL (n. Representations Let G be a group and let F be R or C. where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. Recall from the ®rst chapter that GL (n. then r is a representation if and only if ( gh)r ( gr)(hr) for all g. F). F). we have 1r I n .

0 < j < 1) is a representation of D8 over F. where In is the n 3 n identity matrix.4) that the function r: G 3 GL (2. The matrices gr for g in D8 are given in the following table: g gr 1 1 0 0 1 a 0 1 À1 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 a3 0 À1 1 0 g gr b 1 0 0 À1 ab 0 À1 À1 0 2 a b À1 0 0 1 3 a b 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G be any group. Equivalent representations We now look at a way of converting a given representation into another one. De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 1 1 0 A . The degree of r is 2. Then ( gh)r I n I n I n ( gr)(hr) for all g. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.2 Examples (1) Let G be the dihedral group D8 ka.Group representations 31 3. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X It follows (see Example 1. h P G. b: a4 b2 1. B À1 0 0 À1 and check that A4 B2 I. so r is a representation of G. as usual. This shows that every group has representations of arbitrarily large degree. F) which is given by r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. F) by gr I n for all g P G. De®ne r: G 3 GL (n. .

4): (1) r is equivalent to r. a representation.4 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. ó and ô of G over F. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. we simply de®ne gó T À1 ( gr)T Then for all g. gó T À1 ( gr)TX Note that for all representations r. and consider the representation r of G which appears in Example 3. We say that r is equivalent to ó if n m and there exists an invertible n 3 n matrix T such that for all g P G. b: a4 b2 1. Note that for all n 3 n matrices A and B. we have (T À1 AT )(T À1 BT ) T À1 (AB)TX We can use this observation to produce a new representation ó from r. T À1 (hr)T ( gó )(hó ). we have (see Exercise 3. F) be representations of G over F.32 Representations and characters of groups Let r: G 3 GL (n. ( gh)ó T À1 (( gh)r)T T À1 (( gr)(hr))T T À1 ( gr)T . Thus ar A for all g P GX . F) be a representation.2(1). 3. In other words. F) and ó : G 3 GL (n. (2) if r is equivalent to ó then ó is equivalent to r. and let T be an invertible n 3 n matrix over F. and so ó is. indeed. equivalence of representations is an equivalence relation. (3) if r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô.3 De®nition Let r: G 3 GL (m. h P G. then r is equivalent to ô. 3.

T has been constructed so that T À1 AT is diagonal. a 3 A is a representation of G. If 2 À3 . T 1 À1 then T À1 AT 0 . where A 1 1 . (2) Let G C2 ka: a2 1l and let À5 A À2 12 X 5 Check that A2 I. we have i 0 0 1 À1 À1 T AT . bó aó 1 0 0 Ài The representations r and ó are equivalent. . À1 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of G for which 1 0 1 0 . T BT . aó 1ó 0 À1 0 1 and ó is equivalent to r. and de®ne 1 T p 2 Then 1 i 1 T À1 p 2 In fact. Hence r: 1 3 I. 0 Ài 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of D8 for which 0 1 i 0 X . . B 0 0 1 X Ài 1 Ài X 1 i 0 X À1 33 0 À1 Assume that F C.Group representations and br B.

34 Representations and characters of groups There are two easily recognized situations where the only representation which is equivalent to r is r itself.5 De®nition The representation r: G 3 GL (1. F) is said to be faithful if Ker r {1}. that is. there are usually lots of representations which are equivalent to r. 3. this consists of the group elements g in G for which gr is the identity matrix. these are when the degree of r is 1.7 Proposition A representation r of a ®nite group G is faithful if and only if Im r is isomorphic to G. Thus Ker r f g P G: gr I n gX Note that Ker r is a normal subgroup of G. is called the trivial representation of G. F). the trivial representation of G is the representation where every group element is sent to the 1 3 1 identity matrix. F) which is de®ned by gr (1) for all g P G.8. Of particular interest are those representations whose kernel is just the identity subgroup.6 De®nition A representation r: G 3 GL (n. However. and when gr In for all g in G. if the identity element of G is the only element g for which gr In . as is shown by the following de®nition. 3. Kernels of representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the kernel of a representation r: G 3 GL (n. It can happen that the kernel of a representation is the whole of G. . To put the de®nition another way. In agreement with De®nition 1. 3.

it follows that all representations which are equivalent to a faithful representation are faithful. r is faithful. . The group generated by the matrices 0 1 1 0 and À1 0 0 À1 is therefore isomorphic to D8. 2. gó T À1 ( gr)T X 3.2(1) is faithful. if G Im r. for some n.10. (2) Since T À1 AT In if and only if A In . j 3. Representations r and ó of G are equivalent if and only if there exists an invertible matrix T such that for all g P G. the factor group G/ Ker r is isomorphic to Im r.8 Examples (1) The representation r of D8 given by j i 1 0 0 1 i j (a b )r 0 À1 À1 0 as in Example 3. if Ker r {1} then G Im r. Conversely. then these two groups have the same (®nite) order. A representation of a group G is a homomorphism from G into GL(n. that is. F). The basic problem of representation theory is to discover and understand representations of ®nite groups. and so |Ker r| 1.Group representations 35 Proof We know that Ker r v G and by Theorem 1. since the identity is the only element g which satis®es gr I. Summary of Chapter 3 1. (3) The trivial representation of a group G if faithful if and only if G {1}. A representation is faithful if it is injective. Therefore. In Chapter 6 we shall show that every ®nite group has a faithful representation.

then r is equivalent to ô. (3) if r is equivalent to ó. say G ka: am 1l. 2. de®ned by r1 : ar 3 Ar . Suppose that A P GL (n. r3 : a r 3 C r (0 < r < 2). Suppose that r. C) (k 1. r2 : ar 3 Br . B. D over C by 0 1 eiða3 0 A . then ó is equivalent to r. De®ne the matrices A. b: a6 b2 1. given by . Let G be the cyclic group of order m. 1 0 0 eÀiða3 p 1a2 3a2 1 0 p C . 1 0 1 0 . Let A (0 < r < m À 1)X Show that r is a representation of G over C if and only if Am I. Show that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (1. and F R or C. (2) if r is equivalent to ó. B . 4). Prove: (1) r is equivalent to r.36 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 3 1. C) by r: ar 3 Ar 2. is a representation of G over C. and de®ne r: G 3 GL (n. D X À 3a2 1a2 0 À1 Prove that each of the functions r k : G 3 GL (2. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Let G D12 ka. B 0 1 0 . Show that each of the functions r j : G 3 GL (2. and ó is equivalent to ô. b: an b2 1. Suppose that G D2 n ka. F) such that ar (1) and br (À1). C). 3. 4.C 0 À1 1 À1 e2ðia3 and let G ka: a3 1l C3 . 5. C. Which of these representations are faithful? 3. ó and ô are representations of G over F. C) (1 < j < 3).

8. Let r be a representation of the group G. Give an example of a faithful representation of D8 of degree 3. Prove that Ga Ker r is abelian. Does it follow that gh hg? . r3 : ar bs 3 (ÀA) r Bs .Group representations r1 : ar bs 3 Ar Bs . 7. r 4 : ar bs 3 C r D s (0 < r < 5. r2 : ar bs 3 A3 r (ÀB) s . Suppose that g and h are elements of G such that ( gr)(hr) (hr)( gr). Which of these representations are faithful? Which are equivalent? 6. Suppose that r is a representation of G of degree 1. 0 < s < 1). 37 is a representation of G.

the matrix product v( gr). the properties of matrix multiplication give (ëv)( gr) ë(v( gr)). Finally. the vector space of all row vectors (ë1 . . 38 . since 1r is the identity matrix. is a row vector in V (since the product of a 1 3 n matrix with an n 3 n matrix is again a 1 3 n matrix). . FG-modules Let G be a group and let F be R or C. . For all v P V and g P G. We now list some basic properties of the multiplication v( gr). F) is a representation of G. Next. Write V F n . the fact that r is a homomorphism shows that v(( gh)r) v( gr)(hr) for all v P V and all g. we have v(1r) v for all v P V. Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. of the row vector v with the n 3 n matrix gr. as there are several advantages to this approach to representation theory. ë n ) with ë i P F.4 FG-modules We now introduce the concept of an FG-module. and show that there is a close connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F. . h P G. Much of the material in the remainder of the book will be presented in terms of FG-modules. First.

v(a3 r) (ë2 . for example. v P V. ë P F and g P G. F) be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. h P G: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) v g P V. (4) and (5) in the de®nition ensure that for all g P G. v(ar) (Àë2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. ë P F and g. (u v) g ug v g. We use the letters F and G in the name `FG-module' to indicate that V is a vector space over F and that G is the group from which we are taking the elements g to form the products v g (v P V).1 Example Let G D8 ka. ë1 ). satisfying the following conditions for all u. v1 v. (v P V ) . 4. Thus 1 0 0 1 X . we now de®ne an FG-module. the function v 3 vg is an endomorphism of V. v(br) (ë1 . v( gh) (v g)h. Note that conditions (1). g P G) is de®ned. Then V is an FG-module if a multiplication v g (v P V. br ar 0 À1 À1 0 If v (ë1 . Àë1 )X Motivated by the above observations on the product v( gr).2(1). (ëv) g ë(v g).2 De®nition Let V be a vector space over F and let G be a group. v P V. 39 4. ë2 ) P F 2 then.FG-modules (u v)( gr) u( gr) v( gr) for all u. b: a4 b2 1. and let r: G 3 GL (2. Àë2 ).

(0.40 Representations and characters of groups 4. v(( gh)r) (v( gr))(hr). then gr [ g]B for all g P G. X X X . g P GX Moreover. if we let B be the basis (1. The connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F is revealed in the following basic result. F n becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g v( gr) for all v P F n . 0. X X X . 4. F) is a representation of G over F. h P G. ë P F and g. g P G)X for all g P GX Moreover. 0). let [ g]B denote the matrix of the endomorphism v 3 v g of V. Then the function g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F. 1) of F n.3 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. 0. X X X . 1. and let B be a basis of V. 0. 0. 0. relative to the basis B . For each g P G. and V F n. v P F n. we have v( gr) P F n . there is a basis B of V such that (2) Assume that V is an FG-module and let B be a basis of V. then V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne the multiplication v g by v g v( gr) gr [ g]B (v P V .4 Theorem (1) If r: G 3 GL(n. (ëv)( gr) ë(v( gr)). X X X . (u v)( gr) u( gr) v( gr)X Therefore. (0. 0). v(1r) v. Proof (1) We have already observed that for all u. ( g P G) .

[1]B [ g]B [ g À1 ]B for all g P G. h P G and all v in the basis B of V. We have proved that the function g 3 [ g]B is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let r be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. j Our next example illustrates part (1) of Theorem 4. (0. b: a4 1. a2 b2 .4(1) again). g 3 [ g]B v1 b v1 . br X À1 0 0 À1 Write V F 2. Since v( gh) (v g)h for all g. 4. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. g P G)X For instance.FG-modules 41 (2) Let V be an FG-module with basis B . In Example .5 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka.4(1). Now v1 v for all v P V.4. v2 is the basis (1. then we have v1 a v2 .2(1). (0. v2 . 0)a (1. By Theorem 4. it follows that [ gh]B [ g]B [h]B X In particular. then the representation is just the representation r (see Theorem 4. b: a4 b2 1. F) (where n dim V ). so 0 1 1 0 ar . 1)X 0 (1. (2) Let G Q8 ka. so [1]B is the identity matrix. 1) of V. v2 b Àv2 X ( g P G) If B denotes the basis v1 . V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g v( gr) (v P V . v2 a Àv1 . Therefore each matrix [ g]B is invertible (with inverse [ gÀ1 ]B ). 0) À1 1 0 If v1 . 0). and hence is a representation of G over F.

and then de®ne (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n ) g to be ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g)X As you might expect. . that is.6 Proposition Assume that v1 . . We then obtain a CG-module with basis v1 . the vectors v1 a. . . v n of V and then extending the action to be linear on the whole of V. To do this. v2 a. v2 such that v1 a iv1 . The next result will often be used to show that our chosen multiplication turns V into an FG-module. that we have a multiplication v g for all v in V and g in G which (ë i P F) . we shall show you various ways of constructing FG-modules directly.5(1). 1 < j < r) determine v g for all v P V and g P G. and B A À1 0 0 Ài so we already have a representation of G over C. we ®rst de®ne v i g for each i and each g in G. . . we turn a vector space V over F into an FG-module by specifying the action of group elements on a basis v1 . . there are restrictions on how we may de®ne the vectors v i g.42 Representations and characters of groups 1. in Example 4. without using a representation. . To illustrate Theorem 4. v n is a basis of a vector space V over F Suppose . v1 b and v2 b determine v g for all v P V and g P G. then the vectors v i g j (1 < i < n. gr generate G. For instance. . 4. v1 b v2 . . .4(1) we must this time take F C. C) generated by 0 1 i 0 . F F F . . v2 a Àiv2 .2(4) we de®ned Q8 to be the subgroup of GL (2. Shortly. v2 b Àv1 X Notice that in the above examples. (v1 2v2 )ab v1 ab 2v2 ab v2 b À 2v1 b Àv2 À 2v1 X A similar remark holds for all FG-modules V: if v1 . v n is a basis of V and g1 .

FG-modules

43

satis®es the following conditions for all i with 1 < i < n, for all g, h P G, and for all ë1 , F F F , ë n P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) v i g P V; v i ( gh) (v i g)h; vi 1 vi ; (ë1 v1 . . . ë n v n ) g ë1 (v1 g) . . . ë n (v n g).

Then V is an FG-module. Proof It is clear from (3) and (4) that v1 v for all v P V. Conditions (1) and (4) ensure that for all g in G, the function v 3 v g (v P V) is an endomorphism of V. That is, vg P V, (ëv) g ë(v g), (u v) g ug v g, for all u, v P V, ë P F and g P G. Hence (4X7) (ë1 u1 X X X ë n u n )h ë1 (u1 h) X X X ë n (un h) for all ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, all u1 , . . . , un P V and all h P G. Now let v P V and g, h P G. Then v ë1 v1 . . . ë n v n for some ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, and v( gh) ë1 (v1 ( gh)) X X X ë n (v n ( gh)) (ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g))h (v g)h by condition (4)X by condition (4) ë1 ((v1 g)h) X X X ë n ((v n g)h) by condition (2) by (4X7)

We have now checked all the axioms which are required for V to be an FG-module. j Our next de®nitions translate the concepts of the trivial representation and a faithful representation into module terms. 4.8 De®nitions (1) The trivial FG-module is the 1-dimensional vector space V over F with vg v for all v P V , g P GX

44

Representations and characters of groups

(2) An FG-module V is faithful if the identity element of G is the only element g for which v g v for all v P V X For instance, the FD8 -module which appears in Example 4.5(1) is faithful. Our next aim is to use Proposition 4.6 to construct faithful FGmodules for all subgroups of symmetric groups. Permutation modules Let G be a subgroup of Sn , so that G is a group of permutations of {1, . . . , n}. Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , . . . , v n . For each i with 1 < i < n and each permutation g in G, de®ne v i g v ig X Then v i g P V and v i 1 v i . Also, for g, h in G, v i ( gh) v i( gh) v(ig) h (v i g)hX We now extend the action of each g linearly to the whole of V; that is, for all ë1 , . . . , ë n in F and g in G, we de®ne (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n ) g ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g)X Then V is an FG-module, by Proposition 4.6. 4.9 Example Let G S4 and let B denote the basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 of V. If g (1 2), then v1 g v2 , v2 g v1 , v3 g v3 , v4 g v4 X And if h (1 3 4), then v1 h v3 , v2 h v2 , v3 h v4 , v4 h v1 X We have [ g]B 0 f1 f d0 0 H 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 H I 0 0 f0 0g g, [h]B f d0 0e 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 I 0 0g gX 1e 0

FG-modules

45

4.10 De®nition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . The FG-module V with basis v1 , . . . , v n such that v i g v ig for all i, and all g P G, is called the permutation module for G over F. We call v1 , . . . , v n the natural basis of V. Note that if we write B for the basis v1 , . . . , v n of the permutation module, then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has precisely one nonzero entry in each row and column, and this entry is 1. Such a matrix is called a permutation matrix. Since the only element of G which ®xes every v i is the identity, we see that the permutation module is a faithful FG-module. If you are aware of the fact that every group G of order n is isomorphic to a subgroup of Sn , then you should be able to see that G has a faithful FG-module of dimension n. We shall go into this in more detail in Chapter 6. 4.11 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. Then G is isomorphic to the cyclic subgroup of S3 which is generated by the permutation (1 2 3). This alerts us to the fact that if V is a 3-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , then we may make V into an FG-module in which v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v3 1 v3 , v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 , v1 a2 v3 , v2 a2 v1 , v3 a2 v2 X Of course, we de®ne v g, for v an arbitrary vector in V and g 1, a or a2 , by (ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ë3 v3 ) g ë1 (v1 g) ë2 (v2 g) ë3 (v3 g) for all ë1 , ë2 , ë3 P F. Proposition 4.6 can be used to verify that V is an FG-module, but we have been motivated by the de®nition of permutation modules in our construction. FG-modules and equivalent representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the relationship between FG-modules and equivalent representations of G over F. An FG-

46

Representations and characters of groups

module gives us many representations, all of the form g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) for some basis B of V. The next result shows that all these representations are equivalent to each other (see De®nition 3.3); and moreover, any two equivalent representations of G arise from some FG-module in this way. 4.12 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B , and let r be the representation of G over F de®ned by r: g 3 [ g]B ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 ( g P G)X ( g P G) (1) If B 9 is a basis of V, then the representation of G is equivalent to r. (2) If ó is a representation of G which is equivalent to r, then there is a basis B 0 of V such that ó : g 3 [ g]B 0 ( g P G)X

Proof (1) Let T be the change of basis matrix from B to B 9 (see De®nition 2.23). Then by (2.24), for all g P G, we have [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 9 TX Therefore ö is equivalent to r. (2) Suppose that r and ó are equivalent representations of G. Then for some invertible matrix T, we have gr T À1 ( gó )T for all g P GX Let B 0 be the basis of V such that the change of basis matrix from B to B 0 is T. Then for all g P G, [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 0 T , and so gó [ g]B 0 .

j

4.13 Example Again let G C3 ka: a3 1l. There is a representation r of G which is given by

1r

1 0

FG-modules 0 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a r , ar X À1 À1 1 1 0

47

(To see this, simply note that (ar)2 a2 r and (ar)3 I; see Exercise 3.2.) If V is a 2-dimensional vector space over C, with basis v1 , v2 (which we call B ), then we can turn V into a CG-module as in Theorem 4.4(1) by de®ning v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v1 a v2 , v1 a2 Àv1 À v2 , v2 a2 v1 X À1 X 0

v2 a Àv1 À v2 ,

We then have 1 0 0 [1]B , [a]B 0 1 À1

1 À1 2 , [a ]B À1 1

Now let u1 v1 and u2 v1 v2 . Then u1 , u2 is another basis of V, which we call B 9. Since u1 1 u 1 , u2 1 u 2 , u1 a Àu1 u2 , u2 a Àu1 , u1 a2 Àu2 , u2 a2 u1 À u2 ,

we obtain the representation ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 where 1 0 À1 1 0 À1 2 [1]B 9 , [a]B 9 , [a ]B 9 X 0 1 À1 0 1 À1 Note that if T then for all g in G, we have [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 9 T , and so r and ö are equivalent, in agreement with Theorem 4.12(1).

1 0 1 1

Summary of Chapter 4 1. An FG-module is a vector space over F, together with a multiplication by elements of G on the right. The multiplication satis®es properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4.2.

48

Representations and characters of groups

2. There is a correspondence between representations of G over F and FG-modules, as follows. (a) Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n, F) is a representation of G. Then F n is an FG-module, if we de®ne v g v( gr) (v P F n , g P G)X (b) If V is an FG-module, with basis B , then r: g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F.

3. If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the permutation FG-module has basis v1 , F F F , v n , and v i g v ig for all i with 1 < i < n, and all g in G. Exercises for Chapter 4 1. Suppose that G S3 , and that V sp (v1 , v2 , v3 ) is the permutation module for G over C, as in De®nition 4.10. Let B 1 be the basis v1 , v2 , v3 of V and let B 2 be the basis v1 v2 v3 , v1 À v2 , v1 À v3 . Calculate the 3 3 3 matrices [ g]B 1 and [ g]B 2 for all g in S3 . What do you notice about the matices [ g]B 2 ? 2. Let G Sn and let V becomes an FG-module & v, vg Àv, be a vector space over F. Show that V if we de®ne, for all v in V, if g is an even permutation, if g is an odd permutation.

3. Let Q8 ka, b: a4 1, b2 a2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l, the quaternion group of order 8. Show that there is an RQ8 -module V of dimension 4 with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 such that v1 a v 2 , v1 b v 3 , v2 a Àv1 , v2 b v4 , v3 a Àv4 , v4 a v3 , and v3 b Àv1 , v4 b Àv2 X

4. Let A be an n 3 n matrix and let B be a matrix obtained from A by permuting the rows. Show that there is an n 3 n permutation matrix P such that B PA. Find a similar result for a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns.

5 FG-submodules and reducibility

We begin the study of FG-modules by introducing the basic building blocks of the theory ± the irreducible FG-modules. First we require the notion of an FG-submodule of an FG-module. Throughout, G is a group and F is R or C. FG-submodules 5.1 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. A subset W of V is said to be an FGsubmodule of V if W is a subspace and wg P W for all w P W and all g P G. Thus an FG-submodule of V is a subspace which is also an FGmodule. 5.2 Examples (1) For every FG-module V, the zero subspace {0}, and V itself, are FG-submodules of V. (2) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l, and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule de®ned in Example 4.11. Thus, V has basis v1 , v2 , v3 , and v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v3 1 v3 , v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 , v1 a2 v3 , v2 a2 v1 , v3 a2 v2 X Put w v1 v2 v3, and let W sp (w), the 1-dimensional subspace spanned by w. Since 49

50

Representations and characters of groups w1 wa wa2 w,

W is an FG-submodule of V. However, sp (v1 v2 ) is not an FGsubmodule, since (v1 v2 )a v2 v3 P sp (v1 v2 )X a Irreducible FG-modules 5.3 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be irreducible if it is non-zero and it has no FG-submodules apart from {0} and V. If V has an FG-submodule W with W not equal to {0} or V, then V is reducible. Similarly, a representation r: G 3 GL (n, F) is irreducible if the corresponding FG-module F n given by v g v( gr) (v P F n , g P G) (see Theorem 4.4(1)) is irreducible; and r is reducible if F n is reducible. Suppose that V is a reducible FG-module, so that there is an FGsubmodule W with 0 , dim W , dim V. Take a basis B 1 of W and extend it to a basis B of V. Then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has the form H I Xg 0 d e (5X4) Yg Z g for some matrices Xg , Yg and Zg , where Xg is k 3 k (k dim W). A representation of degree n is reducible if and only if it is equivalent to a representation of the form (5.4), where X g is k 3 k and 0 , k , n. Notice that in (5.4), the functions g 3 Xg and g 3 Z g are representations of G: to see this, let g, h P G and multiply the matrices [ g]B and [h]B given by (5.4). Notice also that if V is reducible then dim V > 2. 5.5 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule with basis v1 , v2 , v3 such that

FG-submodules and reducibility v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 ,

51

as in Example 4.11. We saw in Example 5.2(2) that V is a reducible FG-module, and has an FG-submodule W sp (v1 v2 v3 ). Let B be the basis v1 v2 v3 , v1 , v2 of V. Then H H I I 1 0 0 1 0 0 f f g g [1]B f 0 1 0 g, [a]B f 0 0 1 g, d d e e 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 H I 1 0 0 f g [a2 ]B f 1 À1 À1 gX d e 0 1 0 This reducible representation gives us two other representations: at the `top left' we have the trivial representation and at the `bottom right' we have the representation which is given by 0 1 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a 3 ,a3 X 13 À1 À1 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G D8 and let V F 2 be the 2-dimensional FG-module described in Example 4.5(1). Thus G ka, bl, and for all (ë, ì) P V we have (ë, ì)a (Àì, ë), (ë, ì)b (ë, Àì)X

We claim that V is an irreducible FG-module. To see this, suppose that there is an FG-submodule U which is not equal to V. Then dim U < 1, so U sp ((á, â)) for some á, â P F. As U is an FGmodule, (á, â)b is a scalar multiple of (á, â), and hence either á 0 or â 0. Since (á, â)a is also a scalar multiple of (á, â), this forces á â 0, so U {0}. Consequently V is irreducible, as claimed.

Summary of Chapter 5 1. If V is an FG-module, and W is a subspace of V which is itself an FG-module, then W is an FG-submodule of V. 2. The FG-module V is irreducible if it is non-zero and the only FGsubmodules are {0} and V.

á). For (á. b. Which of the four representations of D12 de®ned in Exercise 3. Verify that V is an FG-module and ®nd all the FG-submodules of V. Let G C2 ka: a 1l. and let V F 2. and let G ka.52 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 5 1. b (4 5 6). br . c P S6 by a (1 2 3). (b) Suppose that å and ç are complex cube roots of unity. cl. c (2 3)(4 5). Prove that if r is reducible then ó is reducible. b. 2. de®ne (á. â)1 (á. (a) Check that a3 b3 c2 1. â)a (â. ç is r irreducible? 5. De®ne the permutations a. 3.5 are irreducible? 4. Let G C13 . â) P V. â) and (á. Prove that there is a representation r of G over C such that å 0 ç 0 0 1 ar X . cÀ1 ac aÀ1 and cÀ1 bc bÀ1 X Deduce that G has order 18. ç is r faithful? (d) For which values of å. Find a CG-module which is neither reducible nor irreducible. 2 . ab ba. Let r and ó be equivalent representations of the group G over F. cr 0 å À1 0 çÀ1 1 0 (c) For which values of å.

After de®ning the group algebra of G. . if u n i1 ë i g i and v n i1 ìi g i are elements of FG. The group algebra of G Let G be a ®nite group whose elements are g1 . . . the ultimate goal of representation theory ± that of understanding all the representations of ®nite groups ± would be achieved if group algebras could be fully analysed. . . which will be explored in greater detail later on.6 Group algebras The group algebra of a ®nite group G is a vector space of dimension |G| which also carries extra structure involving the product operation on G. and let F be R or C. . In particular. and we call this vector space FG. g n . we shall use it to construct an important faithful representation. . In a sense. . and ë P F. g n as a basis. group algebras are the source of all you need to know about representation theory. known as the regular representation of G. We de®ne a vector space over F with g1 . Group algebras are therefore of great interest. then 53 . Take as the elements of FG all expressions of the form ë1 g 1 X X X ë n g n (all ë i P F)X The rules for addition and scalar multiplication in FG are the natural ones: namely.

1 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 el. ì h P F. .54 Representations and characters of groups uv n n (ë i ì i ) g i and ëu (ëë i ) g i X i1 i1 With these rules. . . v are the elements of CG which appear in Example 6. (To avoid confusion with the element 1 of F. g n .1. . .) The vector space CG contains u e À a 2a2 and v 1 e 5aX 2 We have u v 3 e 4a 2a2 . with basis g1 . FG carries more structure than that of a vector space ± we can use the product operation on G to de®ne multiplication in FG as follows: 3 2 32 ëg g ìh h ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. g n is called the natural basis of FG. 6. . . . we write e for the identity element of G. 1 u 1 e À 1 a 2 a2 X 2 3 3 3 3 Sometimes we write elements of FG in the form ë g g (ë g P F)X gPG Now.hPG where all ë g . in this example. then uv (e À a 2a2 )(1 e 5a) 2 1 2e 5a À 1 a À 5a2 a2 10a3 2 9 a À 4a2 X 2 21 2e . The basis g1 . (ë h ì hÀ1 g ) g gPG hPG 6.2 Example If G C3 and u. FG is a vector space over F of dimension n.

s. (2) Let r ë g g.4 Proposition Multiplication in FG satis®es the following properties. r1 1r r. Proof (1) It follows immediately from the de®nition of rs that rs P FG.h. We write this element simply as 1.kPG ë g ì h í k ( gh)k ë g ì h í k g(hk) g. í g P F). s ì g g. 6. is called the group algebra of G over F. j .kPG r(st)X We leave the proofs of the other equations as easy exercises. ì h P F). (ër)s ë(rs) r(ës). for all r. The group algebra FG contains an identity for multiplication. r(st) (rs)t.hPG 55 (ë g . gPG gPG gPG (ë g . namely the element 1e (where 1 is the identity of F and e is the identity of G). Then (rs)t g.3 De®nition The vector space FG. r(s t) rs rt. with multiplication de®ned by 3 2 32 ëg g ìh h ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. t P FG and ë P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) rs P FG. ì g . (r s)t rt st. r0 0r 0. t í g g.Group algebras 6.h.

with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. The elements of FG have the form . We shall be concerned only with group algebras. respectively. so g 1. h P G. The vector space FG. is called the regular FG-module. by parts (1). we have vg P V. so that V is a vector space of dimension n over F. Note that the regular FG-module has dimension equal to |G|.4 is called an algebra. The regular FG-module We now use the group algebra to de®ne an important FG-module.6 Proposition The regular FG-module is faithful. Therefore V is an FG-module. Proof Suppose that g P G and v g v for all v P FG. (3). and the result follows. (2). The representation g 3 [ g]B obtained by taking B to be the natural basis of FG is called the regular representation of G over F.5 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group and F be R or C.56 Representations and characters of groups In fact. For all u. j 6.4. g P G). (ëv) g ë(v g). v P V. ë P F and g. (4) and (5) of Proposition 6. Then 1 g 1. (u v) g ug v g. 6. but it is worth pointing out that the axioms for an algebra mean that it is both a vector space and a ring. v1 v. any vector space equipped with a multiplication satisfying properties (1)±(7) of Proposition 6.7 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 el. v( gh) (v g)h. 6. Let V FG. where n |G|.

This is done in the following natural way. De®ne vr by vr ì g (v g)X gPG 6.8 De®nition Suppose that V is an FG-module.Group algebras ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 We have (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )e ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 . Now. (2v1 v2 )r ëv1 (2ë ì)v2 2ìv3 X (ë. say r gPG ì g g (ì g P F).9. If r ë(1 2) ì(1 3 4) then v1 r ëv1 (1 2) ìv1 (1 3 4) ëv2 ìv3 . together with a multiplication v g for v P V and g P G (and the multiplication satis®es various axioms). and that v P V and r P FG. a2 of FG. (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )a2 ë2 e ë3 a ë1 a2 X (ë i P F)X 57 By taking matrices relative to the basis e. ì P F) . v2 r ëv1 ìv2 . we obtain the regular representation of G: H I H I H I 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 e 3 d 0 1 0 e. as described in Example 4. (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )a ë3 e ë1 a ë2 a2 . a2 3 d 1 0 0 eX 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 FG acts on an FG-module You will remember that an FG-module is a vector space over F. a 3 d 0 0 1 e. 6. a. it is sometimes helpful to extend the de®nition of the multiplication so that we have an element vr of V for all elements r in the group algebra FG.9 Examples (1) Let V be the permutation module for S4 .

Let v P V. s ì h hX gPG hPG Then 2 3 v(rs) v ë g ì h ( gh) g. Compare the next result with Proposition 6.10 Proposition Suppose that V is an FG-module. v(r s) vr vs. v P V. assuming the other parts. v0 0r 0. Then the following properties hold for all u. all ë P F and all r.h g. (6) j (vr)sX . s P FG with r ë g g. Proof All parts except (2) are straightforward. 6. the element vr is simply the product of v and r as elements of the group algebra. We shall give a proof of part (2). (5). (ëv)r ë(vr) v(ër). v(rs) (vr)s.h ë g ì h (v( gh)) ë g ì h ((v g)h) by (4) and (6) g. v1 v.3. and we leave them to you. given by De®nition 6.58 Representations and characters of groups (2) If V is the regular FG-module. then for all v P V and r P FG. and let r.4. s P FG: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) vr P V.h 2 g 3 32 ë g (v g) ìh h h by (4). (u v)r ur vr.

. 1. Show that for every ®nite group G. y b ab À a2 X Calculate xy. does rs 0 imply that r 0 or s 0? 4. For r and s in CG. g n }. . Suppose that G D8 ka. yx and x 2 . What is the matrix [W]B . with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. (a) Prove that ch hc c for all h in G. . (a) Let x and y be the following elements of CG: x a 2a2 . 2. but neither v nor r is 0. Deduce that zr rz for all r in CG. (c) Let W: CG 3 CG be the linear transformation sending v to vc for all v in CG. g P G) is the regular FG-module. . 3. The group algebra FG of G over F consists of all linear combinations of elements of G. there exists an FG-module V and elements v P V. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. and has a natural multiplication de®ned on it. (b) Deduce that c2 |G|c. The vector space FG. where B is the basis g1 . . Let G C2 . . and v0 0 for all v P V . r P FG such that vr 0. and write c n for the element i1 g i of CG. Work out matrices for the regular representation of C2 3 C2 over F. with |G| . The regular FG-module is faithful. (b) Let z b a2 b. If V is an FG-module. b: a4 b2 1. gn of CG? 5. Exercises for Chapter 6 1.Group algebras Summary of Chapter 6 59 1. prove from the de®nition that 0r 0 for all r P FG. 2. say G { g1 . where the symbol 0 is used for the zero elements of V and FG. . 3. . Assume that G is a ®nite group. Show that zg gz for all g in G. .

b: a3 b2 1. is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CG-module.60 Representations and characters of groups 6. and let ù e2ðia3 . . Suppose that G D6 ka. de®ned by W sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . Prove that the 2-dimensional subspace W of CG. b ù2 ab ùa2 b). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.

7 FG-homomorphisms For groups and vector spaces. group homomorphisms and linear transformations.1 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules.2 Proposition Let V and W be FG-modules and let W: V 3 W be an FG-homomorphism. we have (vr)W (vW)r since (vr)W gPG ë g (v g)W gPG ë g (vW) g (vW)rX The next result shows that FG-homomorphisms give rise to FGsubmodules in a natural way. the `structure-preserving' functions are. Note that if G is a ®nite group and W: V 3 W is an FG-homomorph ism. 7. 61 . and we introduce these in this chapter. The analogous functions for FG-modules are called FG-homomorphisms. if W sends v to w then it sends v g to wg. respectively. A function W: V 3 W is said to be an FG-homomorphism if W is a linear transformation and (v g)W (vW) g for all v P V . then for all v P V and r gPG ë g g P FG. Then Ker W is an FG-submodule of V and Im W is an FG. g P GX In other words. FG-homomorphisms 7. submodule of W.

and so Im W is an FG-submodule of W. j 7.8). For all g P G. .10). then W is an FGhomomorphism. Let v P Ker W and g P G. . De®ne 2 n 3 n W: ëivi 3 ë i w (ë i P F)X i1 i1 Thus v i W w for all i. v n ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4. we have 2 3 2 3 (v g)W ë i v ig W ë i w. Then W is a linear transformation. . Im W {0}. since W is a linear transformation. Then W is an FG-homomorphism. we have Ker W {0}. wg (vW) g (v g)W P Im W. Now let w P Im W. and de®ne W: V 3 V by vW ëv for all v P V. Then (v g)W (vW) g 0 g 0. @ n A n Ker W ëi vi : ëi 0 . We construct an FG-homomorphism W from V to W. . Let V sp (v1 . Here. (3) Suppose that G is a subgroup of S n .62 Representations and characters of groups Proof First note that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. i1 i1 Im W W X . so that w vW for some v P V. (2) Let ë P F. Provided ë T 0. Im W V. and Ker W V. and let W sp (w) be the trivial FG-module (see De®nition 4. and 2 3 2 3 (vW) g ë i wg ë i wX Therefore W is an FG-homomorphism. and for all v ë i v i P V and all g P G. so vg P Ker W. Therefore Ker W is an FG-submodule of V.3 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW 0 for all v P V.

as required. Proof Certainly WÀ1 is an invertible linear transformation. (3) V contains a trivial FG-submodule if and only if W contains a trivial FG-submodule (since X is a trivial FG-submodule of V if and only if XW is a trivial FG-submodule of W). .5 Proposition If W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. and prove that V and W share the same structural properties. . Ker W is an FG-submodule of the permutation module V.2. We list some examples below: (1) dim V dim W (since v1 . . v n is a basis of V if and only if v1 W. so we need only show that WÀ1 is an FG-homomorphism. If there is such an FG-isomorphism. ((wWÀ1 ) g)W ((wWÀ1 )W) g wg ((wg)WÀ1 )WX Hence (wWÀ1 ) g (wg)WÀ1 . .4 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules. . Isomorphic FG-modules 7. . 7. then the inverse WÀ1 : W 3 V is also an FG-isomorphism. we check that if V W then W V. We call a function W: V 3 W an FGisomorphism if W is an FG-homomorphism and W is invertible. then we say that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules and write V W. . (2) V is irreducible if and only if W is irreducible (since X is an FGsubmodule of V if and only if XW is an FG-submodule of W). For w P W and g P G. . In the next result. . Then we may use W and WÀ1 to translate back and forth between the isomorphic FGmodules V and W. j as W is an FG-homomorphism Suppose that W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism.FG-homomorphisms 63 By Proposition 7. v n W is a basis of W).

12(2). . . Then by Theorem 4. . In the next result. . Conversely. . there is a basis B 0 of V such that gó [ g]B 0 for all g P G. For the moment.64 Representations and characters of groups Just as we often regard isomorphic groups as being identical. .12(1). and hence W is an FG-isomorphism. though. there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P G. Now assume that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. suppose that r and ó are equivalent. suppose that v1 . . . . . we frequently disdain to distinguish between isomorphic FG-modules. and let v1 . then v1 W. Let g P G. v n W is a basis B 2 of W. suppose ®rst that W is an FG-isomorphism from V to W. . Let W be the invertible linear transformation from V to W for which v i W w i for all i. Conversely. Since (v i g)W (v i W) g for each i.7). we deduce that (v i g)W (v i W) g for all i. De®ne a representation ö of G by ö: g 3 [ g]B 1 . . Let g P G. Since [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 . we continue simply to emphasize the similarity between isomorphic FG-modules. Hence r and ó are equivalent. we show that isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. . Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if the representations r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 are equivalent. . . and W is an FGmodule with basis B 9. This completes the proof of (7. v n be a basis B 1 of V. v n is a basis B 1 of V and w1. 7.7). . By (7. Proof We ®rst establish the following fact: (7. w n is a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P G. it follows that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 . Then by Theorem 4.7) The FG-modules V and W are isomorphic if and only if there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P GX To see this. . ö is equivalent to both r and ó.6 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B .

v3 a v1 X Writing B for the basis v1 . b: a4 b2 1. [a]B 9 f 0 0 1 g. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. [ g]B 9 [ g]B 0 for all g P G. In Example 3. the function W: ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ë3 v3 3 ë1 1 ë2 a ë3 a2 is an FG-isomorphism from V to W. br À1 0 0 À1 and aó i 0 0 0 . j 7. v2 . a.8 Example Let G ka: a3 1l. v3 such that v1 a v2 .7).9 Example Let G D8 ka. a cyclic group of order 3. Therefore V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. we have [ g]B [ g]B 9 for all g P GX According to (7. bó Ài 1 1 X 0 (ë i P F) . Then 1. the FG-modules V and W are therefore isomorphic.7). v3 of V. with basis v1 . d d e e 0 0 1 1 0 0 H 0 0 0 1 1 0 I f [a2 ]B 9 f 1 d 0 g 0 gX e Compare the FG-module V de®ned in Example 4. by (7.FG-homomorphisms 65 that is. Indeed.11. and let W denote the regular FG-module. call it B 9. a2 is a basis of W.4(1) we encountered two equivalent representations r and ó of G. 7. v2 . where 0 1 1 0 ar . We have H H I I 1 0 0 0 1 0 f f g g [1]B 9 f 0 1 0 g. v2 a v3 .

.4(1). . u m . v2 b Àv2 (see Example 4. a direct sum of FG-submodules Ui. since r and ó are equivalent. Then by (2. if we write B for the basis v1 . . . . v2 3 iw1 À iw2 X Then (v j a)W (v j W)a and (v j b)W (v j W)b for j 1. . w n is a basis B of V. . and suppose that V U È W. and. w2 a Àiw2 . . . and we show that these give rise to FG-homomorphisms. . w n be a basis B 2 of W. the CG-modules V and W are isomorphic.9). 2. .6. To verify this directly. . then for all g P G we have r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 X According to Theorem 7. let W: V 3 W be the invertible linear transformation such that W: v1 3 w1 w2 . u m be a basis B 1 of U. . v2 for which v1 a v2 . w1 b w2 .66 Representations and characters of groups Let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . w1. if V U1 È . and B i is a basis of Ui. w2 of W. v2 a Àv1 . B r to . .) Direct sums We conclude the chapter with a discussion of direct sums of FGmodules. and for g P G.5(1)). v2 of V and B 9 for the basis w1. then we can amalgamate B 1 . let W be the CG-module with basis w1. È Ur. . . (Compare Example 3. . . . v1 b v1 . w2 b w1 Thus. . u1 . w2 for which w1 a iw1 . and w1. and hence W is a CG-isomorphism from V to W. Let u1 . . . in a similar way. Let V be an FG-module. where U and W are FG-submodules of V. H I 0 [ g]B 1 eX [ g]B d 0 [ g]B 2 More generally.

v u1 .FG-homomorphisms obtain a basis B of V. and g P G. since for v P V with v u1 . i We now present a technical result concerning sums of irreducible FG-modules which will be used at a later stage. and ð i is an FG-homomorphism. i so ð2 ð i . sum of some of the FG-submodules Ui. . vð 2 ui ð i ui vð i .11 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. j . we have (v g)ð i (u1 g X X X ur g)ð i ui g (vð i ) gX Also. .30). where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V Then V is a direct . and we de®ne ð i : V 3 V (1 < i < r) by setting vð i ui X Then each ð i is an FG-homomorphism. . For v P V we have . Proof Clearly ð i is a linear transformation. u r (u j P U j for all j). and suppose that V U1 È X X X È U r where each Ui is an FG-submodule of V. ur for unique vectors ui P Ui. .12 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. and suppose that V U1 X X X Ur . Thus ð i is a projection (see De®nition 2. H [ g]B 1 f FF [ g]B d (7X10) F 67 I g eX 0 [ g]B r 0 The next result shows that direct sums give rise naturally to FGhomomorphisms. 7. 7. and is also a projection of V . and for g P G.

.68 Representations and characters of groups Proof The idea is to choose as many as we can of the FG-submodules U1. If V and W are FG-modules and W: V 3 W is a linear transformation which satis®es (v g)W (vW) g for all v P V. and Ui is irreducible. 2. . so W Ui T {0}. j Finally. therefore W Ui Ui. Summary of Chapter 7 1. . so assume that Ui P Y. g P G. If Ui P Y this is clear. To this end. F F F . . . V and W be FG-modules. we remark that if V1 . . and so Ui # W. Exercises for Chapter 7 1. but W 1 X X X W s U i is not direct. if Ui P Y X a Let W W1 X X X WsX We claim that Ui # W for all i. . Isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. as claimed. Since U i W for all i with 1 < i < r. then W is an FG-homomorphism. . But W Ui a is an FG-submodule of Ui. v r g) for all v i P Vi (1 < i < r) and all g P G. choose a subset Y {W1. Ur } which has the properties that W 1 X X X W s is direct (iXeX equal to W 1 È X X X È W s ). Ur so that the sum of our chosen FG-submodules is direct. . Prove that Wö: U 3 W is an FG-homomorphism. X X X . Then W Ui is not a direct sum. Let U. 3. we have V W W 1 È F F F ÈW s . Ws } of {U1. . V r are FG-modules. . Kernels and images of FG-homomorphisms are FG-modules. and let W: U 3 V and ö: V 3 W be FG-homomorphisms. X X X . as required. . v r ) g (v1 g. . then we can make the external direct sum V1 È F F F ÈVr (see Chapter 2) into an FGmodule by de®ning (v1 .

Show that the function W: v 3 v g (v P V ) gPG is an FG-homomorphism from V to V0 . Suppose that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. 3. Let G C2 kx: x 2 1l. Prove that the subset V0 fv P V : v g v for all g P Gg is an FG-submodule of V. Assume that V is an FG-module. Let G be the subgroup of S5 which is generated by (1 2 3 4 5). (c) Find a basis B of FG such that 2 0 [W]B X 0 0 . Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by (1 2) and (3 4). (b) Prove that W2 2W. (a) Show that the function W: á1 âx 3 (á À â)(1 À x) (á. Is it necessarily surjective? 4. â P F) is an FG-homomorphism from the regular FG-module to itself.FG-homomorphisms 69 2. 5. De®ne the FGsubmodules V0 and W0 of V and W as in Exercise 3. Is the permutation module for G over F isomorphic to the regular FG-module? 6. Prove that the permutation module for G over F is isomorphic to the regular FG-module. Prove that V0 and W0 are isomorphic FG-modules.

let F be R or C. since ug u for all g P G. v3 ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4.) This essentially reduces representation theory to the study of irreducible FG-modules.10). A consequence of this theorem is that every FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. for instance sp (v2 . (The assumption on F is important ± see Example 8. v2 . If U is an FG-submodule of V. There are many subspaces W of V such that V U È W. where as usual F R or C.2(2) below. v3 ) and sp (v1 . in fact.1 Maschke's Theorem Let G be a ®nite group. 8. Maschke's Theorem 8. and let V be an FG-module. namely Maschke's Theorem. then there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È WX Before proving Maschke's Theorem. we illustrate it with some examples. v2 À 2v3 ). We shall ®nd this W in an 70 .8 Maschke's Theorem We now come to our ®rst major result in representation theory. But there is. only one FGsubmodule W of V with V U È W. Put u v1 v2 v3 and U sp (u)X Then U is an FG-submodule of V.2 Examples (1) Let G S3 and let V sp (v1 .

1. F). for 0 < j < p À 1. We aim to modify the projection ö to create an FG-homomorphism from V to V with image U. Proof of Maschke's Theorem 8. ö is a projection of V with kernel W0 and image U. since U is the only 1-dimensional FG-submodule of V. (vx)W 1 (vx) gö g À1 X jGj gPG . . U sp (v1 ) is an FG-submodule of V. where. let G C p ka: a p 1l. . . By Proposition 2. But there is no FGsubmodule W such that V U È W. v n of V. v m of U. To this end. Choose any subspace W0 of V such that V U È W0X (There are many choices for W0 ± simply take a basis v1 . extend it to a basis v1 . .) For v P V. We show ®rst that W is an FG-homomorphism. as can easily be seen.Maschke's Theorem 71 example after proving Maschke's Theorem (but you may like to look for it yourself now). de®ne W: V 3 V by (8X3) vW 1 v gö g À1 jGj gPG (v P V )X It is clear that W is an endomorphism of V and Im W # U.1 We are given U. (2) The conclusion of Maschke's Theorem can fail if F is not R or C. v n ). p À 1) j 1 is a representation from G to GL (2. and take F to be the ®eld of integers modulo p. and let W0 sp (v m1 . For v P V and x P G. and we de®ne ö: V 3 V by setting vö u.29. an FG-submodule of the FG-module V. v1 a j v1 . . we have v u w for unique vectors u P U and w P W 0. . X X X . For example. let p be a prime number. . v2 ). . v2 a j jv1 v2 X Clearly. . . The corresponding FG-module is V sp (v1 . . . Check that the function 1 0 j a 3 ( j 0.

Using this. (8.4) shows that Im W U. v2 3 0. as claimed. j 8.4) we have (vW)W vW.5 Example Let G S3 and let V sp (v1 . Then V U È W0 (but of course W0 is not an FG-submodule). Then W is an FG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. Next. W ë i v i : ë i 0 . v2 ). so by (8. we have ug P U. as in Example 8. Hence 1 (vx)W vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG 2 3 1 vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG (vW)xX Thus W is an FG-homomorphism. v2 À v3 )X È É (In fact. 2. Consequently W2 W. g P G. the FG-submodule constructed in Example 7. We use the proof of Maschke's Theorem to ®nd an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È W.3) is W: v i 3 1(v1 v2 v3 ) (i 1. and so (ug)ö ug. let W0 sp (v1 .) . 1 1 1 uW (8X4) ugö g À1 (ug) g À1 u uX jGj gPG jGj gPG jGj gPG Now let v P V. so W sp (v1 À v2 . so does h xg. Let W Ker W.2(1).2. Then vW P U. The projection ö onto U is given by ö: v1 3 0. We have now established that W: V 3 V is a projection and an FGhomomorphism. we prove that W2 W. v2 . First note that for u P U. 3)X 3 The required FG-submodule W is then Ker W. First.72 Representations and characters of groups As g runs over the elements of G.32. v3 ) be the permutation module. and V U È W by Proposition 2. with submodule U sp (v1 v2 v3 ). Moreover. This completes the proof of Maschke's Theorem.3(3). v3 3 v1 v2 v3 X Check now that the FG-homomorphism W given by (8.

k . v2 À v3 as a basis B 9. if we can choose a basis B of an FGmodule V such that [ g]B has the form H I Ã 0 d e Ã Ã for all g P G (see (5. then we get H I j 0 0 [ g]B 9 d 0 j j e. suppose that r is a reducible representation of a ®nite group G over F of degree n. v2 of V. g 3d Yg Zg for some matrices X g . . v1 À v2 . Z g . 0 j j because sp (v1 À v2 . then for all g P G.4)). Yg. then we can ®nd a basis B 9 such that [ g]B 9 has the form H I Ã 0 d e 0 Ã for all g P G.Maschke's Theorem 73 Note that if B is the basis v1 v2 v3 . v2 À v3 ) is also an FG-submodule of V. This example illustrates the matrix version of Maschke's Theorem: for an arbitrary ®nite group G. Then we know that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G). the matrix [ g]B has the form H I j 0 0 [ g]B d j j j eX j j j The zeros re¯ect the fact that U is an FG-submodule of V (see (5. n. v1 .4)). If instead we use v1 v2 v3 . where X g is k 3 k with 0 . To put this another way.

where each Ui and W j is an irreducible FG-module. g 3d 0 Bg where A g is also a k 3 k matrix. W W 1 È X X X È W s . since V is irreducible in this case. Then V has an FG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. Consequences of Maschke's Theorem We now use Maschke's Theorem to show that every non-zero FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V. dim V and dim W . then every non-zero FG-module is completely reducible. a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules. we have.74 Representations and characters of groups Maschke's Theorem asserts further that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Ag 0 e. there is an FG-submodule W such that V U È W. we simply mean an FG-submodule which is an irreducible FG-module. j Another useful consequence of Maschke's Theorem is the next proposition. The result is true if dim V 1. Then by (2. Since dim U . (By an irreducible FG-submodule.7 Theorem If G is a ®nite group and F R or C.10). .6 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be completely reducible if V U1 È F F F ÈU r .) 8. 8. By Maschke's Theorem. If V is irreducible then the result holds. V U1 È X X X È Ur È W 1 È X X X È W s . The proof goes by induction on dim V. Proof Let V be a non-zero FG-module. so suppose that V is reducible. by induction. dim V. U U1 È X X X È Ur .

Then there exists a surjective FG-homomorphism from V onto U. Maschke's Theorem says that for every FG-submodule U of an FGmodule V. . Theorem 8. We begin our study of these in the next chapter.11. Thus. in order to understand FG-modules. express the group algebra RG as a direct sum of 1-dimensional RG-submodules. there is an FG-submodule W with V U È WX 2. by Exercise 3.8 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. 2.2. v2 .7 tells us that every non-zero FG-module is a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules. Summary of Chapter 8 Assume that G is a ®nite group and F R or C. w P W ) j is an FG-homomorphism onto U. where v1 x v2 . we may concentrate upon the irreducible FG-modules. Every non-zero FG-module V is a direct sum of irreducible FGmodules: V U1 È X X X È Ur X Exercises for Chapter 8 1. where F R or C and G is a ®nite group. If G C2 3 C2 . Proof By Maschke's Theorem. and let V be the 2-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 . Then the function ð: V 3 U which is de®ned by ð: u w 3 u (u P U . v2 x Àv1 À v2 X (This is a CG-module. there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È W. by Proposition 7. Let G kx: x 3 1l C3 . Suppose that U is an FG-submodule of V.) Express V as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.Maschke's Theorem 75 8. 1.

the vector vg is just the product of the row vector v with the matrix g). 5. h in G such that the matrices gr and hr do not commute. Suppose that there are elements g. Suppose that G is the in®nite group & ' 1 0 : nPZ n 1 and let V be the CG-module C2 . C) be a representation of G. Show that V is not completely reducible.) 5.2) for the de®nition of a complex inner product): for ë i . . ] is a complex inner product. ] on V by [u.3. (You may care to revisit Example 5. . ) on V as follows (see (14. Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 . vg] [u.76 Representations and characters of groups 3.4. v n and suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. ì j P C. Find a group G. with the natural multiplication by elements of G (so that for v P V. 5. An alternative proof of Maschke's Theorem for CG-modules. g P G. . v P V )X xPG (1) Verify that [ . 6. v] for all u. Prove that r is irreducible. ì jv j ëi ìiX i1 j1 i1 De®ne another complex inner product [ .) 6. 4.5(2) and Exercises 5. . v P V and g P GX (2) Suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. . (This shows that Maschke's Theorem fails for in®nite groups ± compare Example 8.1. and de®ne U c fv P V : [u. v] 0 for all u P U gX Show that U c is a CG-submodule of V. Let G be a ®nite group and let r: G 3 GL (2. 2 n 3 n n ëi vi .2(2). v] (ux. vx) (u. a CG-module V and a CG-homomorphism W: V 3 V such that V T Ker W È Im W. De®ne a complex inner product ( . which satis®es [ug.6 in the light of this result.

(Hint: it is a standard property of complex inner products that V U È U c for all subspaces U of V. . Prove that for every ®nite simple group G.) 7.Maschke's Theorem 77 (3) Deduce Maschke's Theorem. there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module.

Though simple in both statement and proof. G denotes a ®nite group.2. and W is irreducible. and so Ker (W À ë1 V ) T {0}. then either W is a CGisomorphism.9 Schur's Lemma Schur's Lemma is a basic result concerning irreducible modules. Also by Proposition 7. and we give an immediate application by determining all the irreducible representations of ®nite abelian groups. Schur's Lemma 9. Proof (1) Suppose that vW T 0 for some v P V. the endomorphism W has an eigenvalue ë P C. (1) If W: V 3 W is a CG-homomorphism. Ker W {0}. we shall deal with CG-modules for the remainder of the book (except in Chapter 23).2. or vW 0 for all v P V. Ker W is a CG-submodule of V. Then Im W T {0}.1 Schur's Lemma Let V and W be irreducible CG-modules. and hence is a CG-isomorphism. As Im W is a CG-submodule of W by Proposition 7. Throughout. and since much of the ensuing theory depends on it. we have Im W W. as Ker W T V and V is irreducible.26). Schur's Lemma is fundamental to representation theory. (2) If W: V 3 V is a CG-isomorphism. Thus W is invertible. Thus Ker (W À ë1 V ) is a non-zero CG-submodule 78 . Schur's Lemma concerns CG-modules rather than RG-modules. (2) By (2. then W is a scalar multiple of the identity endomorphism 1 V .

there is a CGsubmodule W of V such that V U È WX Then the projection ð: V 3 V de®ned by (u w)ð u for all u P U. Hence V is irreducible.2 Proposition Let V be a non-zero CG-module. w P W is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. j We next interpret Schur's Lemma and its converse in terms of representations. Then r is irreducible if and only if every n 3 n matrix A which satis®es ( gr)A A( gr) has the form A ëI n with ë P C. for all v P V X 79 j 9. for all g P G . regard C n as a CG-module by de®ning v g v( gr) for all v P C n . Then V is irreducible. which is a contradiction. By Maschke's Theorem. g P G. Since V is irreducible. Ker (W À ë1 V ) V.11). Part (2) of Schur's Lemma has the following converse. as required. Let A be an n 3 n matrix over C. and is not a scalar multiple of 1 V . Proof As in Theorem 4. g P G. W ë1 V . C) be a representation of G.4(1). Proof Suppose that V is reducible. and suppose that every CG-homomorphism from V to V is a scalar multiple of 1 V .Schur's Lemma of V. so that V has a CG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V.3 Corollary Let r: G 3 GL (n. The endomorphism v 3 vA of C n is a CG-homomorphism if and only if (v g)A (vA) g for all v P C n . Therefore v(W À ë1 V ) 0 That is. 9.

and then (br)A A(br) gives á ä.3 implies that r is reducible.1 and Proposition 9. by Corollary 9. and let r: G 3 GL (2. . (2) Let G D10 ka.4 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. Hence A á 0 0 á áIX Consequently r is irreducible. b: a5 b2 1. C) for which ar Assume that the matrix A á ã â ä ù 0 0 . j 9. Check that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (2. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. The fact that (ar)A A(ar) forces â ã 0. if and only if ( gr)A A( gr) for all g P GX The result now follows from Schur's Lemma 9. Since the matrix 0 À1 1 À1 commutes with all gr ( g P G). ùÀ1 br 0 1 1 X 0 commutes with both ar and br.3.80 Representations and characters of groups that is. and let ù e2ðia5 . Corollary 9.2).2. C) be the representation for which ar 0 À1 1 À1 (see Exercise 3.

Thus we have proved 9. this endomorphism is a scalar multiple of the identity 1 V . Write g i (1. B. with g in i 1 and g i g j g j g i for all i. X X X .6 Theorem Every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. 1) Then G h g1 .5 Proposition If G is a ®nite abelian group. We shall not prove it here. . We shall determine the irreducible representations of all direct products C n1 3 C n2 3 X X X 3 C n r where n1 . By Schur's Lemma 9.Schur's Lemma Representation theory of ®nite abelian groups 81 Let G be a ®nite abelian group.6. then every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. and for 1 < i < r. 3 C n r . . this covers the irreducible representations of all ®nite abelian groups. C) be an irreducible representation of G (ci in ith position)X . Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. X X X . ci . . g r i. say ë x 1 V . n r are positive integers. we deduce that dim V 1. Pick x P G. and let V be an irreducible CGmodule. . . jX Now let r: G 3 GL (n. let c i be a generator for C n i . Let G C n1 3 . but refer you to Chapter 9 of the book of J. . Thus vx ë x v for all v P V X This implies that every subspace of V is a CG-submodule. v gx vxg for all g P G. 9. By Theorem 9. and hence the endomorphism v 3 vx of V is a CG-homomorphism. Since G is abelian. As V is irreducible.1(2). X X X . The next result is a major structure theorem for ®nite abelian groups.

the function i i g 11 X X X g irr 3 (ë11 X X Xë irr ) is a representation of G. . we have ë in i 1. that is. . The representations rë1 . v2 g 1 v2 . 3 C n r . . v3 g 2 v3 . write r rë1 . and every irreducible representation of G over C is equivalent to precisely one of them. and no two of them are equivalent. g2 l are V1 . . ë i is an n i th root of unity. . and put ù e2ðia n . . . Then n 1 by Proposition 9.ë r X Conversely. since for g P G. . where Vi is a 1-dimensional space with basis v i (i 1. so for 1 < i < r.8 Theorem Let G be the abelian group C n1 3 . v4 g 1 Àv4 . ë r i determine r.ë r of G constructed above are irreducible and have degree 1. 2. V4 .7) for all i1 . 9. we have g g11 .XXX. . . 9. .9 Examples (1) Let G C n ka: a n 1l. . v4 g 2 Àv4 X . The n irreducible representations of G over C are rù j (0 < j < n À 1). g irr for some integers i1 . where ak rù j (ù jk ) (0 < k < n À 1)X (2) The four irreducible CG-modules for G C2 3 C2 k g1 . . . v1 g 2 v2 . Also. i r .5. 4) and v1 g 1 v1 . the values ë1 . 3. i r . There are |G| of these representations.XXX. . there exists ë i P C such that g i r (ë i ) (where of course (ë i ) is a 1 3 1 matrix). n r such representations. v3 g 1 Àv3 . We have proved the following theorem. . . given any n i th roots of unity ë i (1 < i < r). There are n1 n2 . . and then (9X7) i i gr ( g 11 X X X g irr )r (ë11 X X Xë irr )X For a representation r of G satisfying (9. As g i has order n i . V2 . V3 .82 Representations and characters of groups over C. v2 g 2 Àv2 .

5. let u i be a vector spanning Ui. then the entries on the diagonal of [ g]B are nth roots of unity.11 Proposition Let G be a ®nite group and V a CG-module.12 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group. . The centre of the group algebra CG. is de®ned by Z(CG) fz P CG: zr rz for all r P CGgX Using (2. the centre Z(CG) is the whole group algebra. Put ù e2ðia n . As V is also a C H-module.10). 9.5). If g P G. V U1 È X X X È Ur . a direct sum of irreducible C H-submodules Ui of V. .Schur's Lemma Diagonalization 83 Let H k gl be a cyclic group of order n. written Z(CG). then H m1 I ù 0 f g FF (9X10) [ g]B d eX F 0 ù mr The following useful result is an immediate consequence of this. Proof Let H k gl. we shall see that Z(CG) plays a crucial role in . Each Ui has dimension 1. If g has order n. By Theorem 8. Then for each i.7. there exists an integer m i such that ui g ù m i u i X Thus if B is the basis u1 . then there is a basis B of V such that the matrix [ g]B is diagonal. by Proposition 9. . For arbitrary groups G. it is easy to check that Z(CG) is a subspace of CG. For abelian groups G. and let V be a non-zero C H-module. 9. . j Some further applications of Schur's Lemma Our next application concerns an important subspace of the group algebra CG. u r of V. the result follows from (9.

g À1 zg g À1 hg h z. Then for all g P G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. if H is any normal subgroup of G. . 9. and let z P Z(CG). 1 a a2 and 1 a a2 b ab a2 b lie in Z(CG). b: a3 b2 1.13 Example The elements 1 and gPG g lie in Z(CG).84 Representations and characters of groups the study of representations of G (for example. j Some elements of the centre of CG are provided by the centre of G. if G D6 ka.14 Proposition Let V be an irreducible CG-module.1(2). For example. kal and G are normal subgroups of G. Indeed. then {1}. 9. We shall see later that these elements in fact form a basis of Z(CG). its dimension is equal to the number of irreducible representations of G ± see Chapter 15). hP H hP H hP H hP H and so zg gz. write z h. Then there exists ë P C such that vz ëv for all v P V X Proof For all r P CG and v P V. We use Schur's Lemma to prove the following important property of the elements of Z(CG). we have vrz vzr. which we now de®ne. and the result follows. By Schur's Lemma 9. Consequently zr rz for all r P CG. then h P Z(CG)X To see this. and hence the function v 3 vz is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. so the elements 1. this CG-homomorphism is equal to ë1 V for some ë P C.

9. which. Proof Let V be a faithful irreducible CG-module. the following result shows that the existence of a faithful irreducible CG-module imposes a strong restriction on the structure of G. the function z 3 ëz (z P Z(G)) is an injective homomorphism from Z(G) into the multiplicative group CÃ of non-zero complex numbers. and is a subset of Z(CG).6. we give an example of a group G such that Z(G) is cyclic but there exists no faithful irreducible CG-module. being a ®nite subgroup of CÃ . j We remark that the converse of Proposition 9. is de®ned by Z(G) fz P G: zg gz for all g P GgX 85 Clearly Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G. then G Z(G).16 Proposition If there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module.6 that for every ®nite group G there is a faithful CG-module.Schur's Lemma 9. and hence by Proposition 9.17 Example If G is an abelian group. is cyclic (see Exercise 1. there is no faithful irreducible CG-module unless G is cyclic.14.15 De®nition The centre of G. written Z(G). In particular.16 is false. C2 3 C2 has no faithful irreducible representation (compare Example 9. it is not necessarily the case that there is a faithful irreducible CG-module. since in Exercise 25. If z P Z(G) then z lies in Z(CG). 9.7). there exists ë z P C such that vz ë z v for all v P V X Since V is faithful. The irreducible representations of non-abelian groups are more dif®cult to construct than those of abelian groups. they . then Z(G) is cyclic. and so by Proposition 9. Therefore Z(G) {ë z : z P Z(G)}. Indeed.9(2)). For example. Although we have seen in Proposition 6.16.

as required.6). as is shown by the following converse to Proposition 9. where each Vi is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule CG. For all x. The centre Z(CG) of the group algebra CG consists of those elements which commute with all elements of CG. Also.86 Representations and characters of groups do not all have degree 1. . 9. . since we are assuming that all irreducible CG-modules have dimension 1. Exercises for Chapter 9 1. Proof By Theorem 8. Schur's Lemma states that every CG-homomorphism between irreducible CG-modules is either zero or a CG-isomorphism. we deduce that x and y commute. Hence G is abelian. C3 and C2 3 C2 . the only CG-homomorphisms from an irreducible CG-module to itself are scalar multiples of the identity. . we can write CG V1 È X X X È Vn . y P G. All irreducible CG-modules for a ®nite abelian group G have dimension 1. The elements of Z(CG) act as scalar multiples of the identity on all irreducible CGmodules. v n is a basis of CG. call it B . j Summary of Chapter 9 1.7. 2. Since the representation g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) of G is faithful (see Proposition 6. Write down the irreducible representations over C of the groups C2 . For 1 < i < n. the matrices [x]B and [ y]B are diagonal.18 Proposition Suppose that G is a ®nite group such that every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. . Then G is abelian. Then dim Vi 1 for all i.5. Then v1 . and hence they commute. let v i be a vector spanning V i . . and there are precisely |G| of them. 3.

Suppose that G D8 ka. where À5 6 X À4 5 5. Let G C4 3 C4 . Let G D6 ka.Schur's Lemma 87 2. 3. . 3 C n r . Prove that G has a faithful representation of degree r. (b) Prove that there is no irreducible representation ó of G such that gó (À1) for all elements g of order 2 in G. b: a3 b2 1. (Compare Proposition 9. and let W be the irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule de®ned by W sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . irreducible. (b) Find ë P C such that w(a aÀ1 ) ëw for all w P W.) . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Write ù e2ðia3 . ó of G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. then there exists ë P C such that 2 3 v g ëv for all v P V X gPG 6. b: a4 b2 1. Show that if V is an irreducible CG-module. Can G have a faithful representation of degree less than r? 4. Let G be the ®nite abelian group C n1 3 . .14. b ù2 ab ùa2 b) (see Exercise 6. bó 4 À5 M( gr) ( gr)M for all g P G. (a) Find a non-trivial irreducible representation r of G such that g2 r (1) for all g P G. Check that there is a representation r of G over C such that À7 10 À5 6 ar . (a) Show that a aÀ1 P Z(CG).6). br X À5 7 À4 5 Find all 2 3 2 matrices M such that Hence determine whether or not r is Do the same for the representation 5 À6 aó .

. (b) D8 .88 Representations and characters of groups 7. (c) C2 3 D8 . (d) C3 3 D8. Which of the following groups have a faithful irreducible representation? (a) C n (n a positive integer).

Also. we can write CG U1 È X X X È Ur where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. However.8). . Ur. As a consequence. We shall show in this chapter that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules U1. there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (a result which has already been established for abelian groups in Theorem 9. Then there is a CG-submodule U of V such that V Ker W È U and U Im W. to ®nd all irreducible CG-modules. this is not really a practical way of ®nding the irreducible CG-modules. By Theorem 8.2.7.10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra Let G be a ®nite group and CG be the group algebra of G over C. it is suf®cient to decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. 10.1 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules and let W: V 3 W be a CG-homomorphism. Proof Since Ker W is a CG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. in theory. . unless G is a small group. there is by Maschke's Theorem a CG-submodule U of V such that V Ker W È U . Irreducible submodules of CG We begin with another consequence of Maschke's Theorem. De®ne a function W: U 3 Im W by uW uW (u P U )X 89 . . . Consider CG as the regular CG-module.

U sp (v1 v2 ) is an irreducible CG-submodule which is not equal to U1 or U2. Now ð i is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. and write V U1 È X X X È Us . De®ne ð i : U 3 Ui by setting uð i ui . . If u P Ker W then u P Ker W U {0}. as the following example shows. so w vW for some v P V. hence Ker W {0}. us for unique vectors ui P Ui (1 < i < s). È Us (each Ui irreducible) without U being equal to any Ui. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. As U and Ui are irreducible. Then w vW kW uW uW uWX Therefore Im W Im W. . v2 . Schur's Lemma 9. u P U. Choosing i such that ui T 0 for some u P U. and ð i T 0. 10. If U is any irreducible CG-submodule of V. Clearly W is a CG-homomorphism. .2 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. j Of course it can happen that U is an irreducible CG-submodule of U1 È .90 Representations and characters of groups We show that W is a CG-isomorphism from U to Im W. as required. . such that v g v for all v P V and g P G. Then V U1 È U2 . . Write v k u with k P Ker W. since W is a CG-homomorphism. However. where U1 sp (v1 ) and U2 sp (v2 ) are irreducible CG-submodules. Now let w P Im W. We have now established that W: U 3 Im W is an invertible CG-homomorphism. Proof For u P U. we have u u1 . with basis v1 . Therefore U Ui. then U Ui for some i. then we say that U is a composition factor of V if V has a CG-submodule which is isomorphic to U. Thus U Im W. we have ð i T 0.1(1) implies that ð i is a CG-isomorphism.3 Example Let G be any group and let V be a 2-dimensional CG-module. 10.4 De®nitions (1) If V is a CG-module and U is an irreducible CG-module. 10.11).

since for r. it follows that (10X6) W fwr: r P CGgX Now de®ne W: CG 3 W by rW wr (r P CG)X Clearly W is a linear transformation. so is U. and Im W W by (10. then W Ui. 10. (rs)W w(rs) (wr)s (rW)sX By Proposition 10. and choose a non-zero vector w P W. By Proposition 10. since W is irreducible.5 Theorem Regard CG as the regular CG-module. s P CG. W is a CG-homomorphism. there is a CG-submodule U of CG such that CG U È Ker W and U Im W W X As W is irreducible. which shows that every irreducible CG-module is a composition factor of the regular CG-module.1. Observe that {wr: r P CG} is a CG-submodule of W. j Theorem 10.7 Corollary If G is a ®nite group. 10. .5 shows that there is a ®nite set of irreducible CGmodules such that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of them. then there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. Moreover. Then every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules Ui. and the result is proved. and write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . We record this fact in the following corollary. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.2 we have U Ui for some i. We now come to the main result of the chapter.6).Irreducible modules and the group algebra 91 (2) Two CG-modules V and W are said to have a common composition factor if there is an irreducible CG-module which is a composition factor of both V and W. Proof Let W be an irreducible CG-module.

and hence CG U0 È U 1 È U2 . note that v0 b w 0 .9(1). every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to U0. v2 1 ùa ù2 a2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 10. w2 b v1 X . (2) Let G D6 ka. v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 . We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. It is easy to check that v0 . The irreducible representation of G corresponding to Ui is the representation rù i of Example 9. 1. v1 . b: a3 b2 1. v2 P CG by v0 1 a a2 . v i a ù i v i for i 0. 2. As in (1) above. 2. U1 or U2. 2X Hence Ui is a CG-submodule of CG for i 0. w0 b v0 . w2 bv2 X ( b ba ba2 ). Then v1 a a ù2 a2 ù1 ùv1 . v1 b w2 . this is not a practical method for studying CG-modules in general.5. 2. De®ne v0 . v2 b w1 . to ®nd all the irreducible CG-modules we need only decompose the regular CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. v1 .8 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. 1.92 Representations and characters of groups According to Theorem 10. v2 1 ùa ù2 a2 .5. We now do this for a couple of examples. v2 is a basis of CG. w0 bv0 w1 bv1 . Let ù e2ðia3 and de®ne v0 1 a a2 . w1 b v2 . and write ù e2ðia3 . v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 . and similarly vi a ùi vi for i 0. however. By Theorem 10. and so sp (v i ) and sp (wi ) are Ckal-modules. Next. 1. and let Ui sp (v i ) for i 0. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. 1.

w1 ) are Ckbl-modules. the CG-submodules U3 sp (v1 . Express CG as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules.) .8(1). w0. and U1 is not isomorphic to U2. Exercises for Chapter 10 1.5 that there are exactly three nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules. w1.5(2). Now v0. every irreducible representation of D6 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r1 : a 3 (1). sp (v1 . But U3 U4 (there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1 . w1 ) are irreducible. w2 ) and sp (v2 . However. By the argument in Example 5. w0 ). w2 is a basis of CG. namely U1. There are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. We conclude from Theorem 10. b 3 (À1). Find a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module. v2 . Correspondingly. the other 1-dimensional Ui. Note that U1 is the trivial CG-module. w2 3 v2 ).b3 X 1 0 0 ùÀ1 Summary of Chapter 10 1. w0 ) is reducible.Irreducible modules and the group algebra 93 Therefore. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. v1 . r2 : a 3 (1). 2. b 3 (1). w2 ) and U4 sp (v2 . sp (v0 . as U 1 sp(v0 w0 ) and U2 sp(v0 À w0 ) are CG-submodules. and hence are CG-submodules of CG. 0 1 ù 0 r3 : a 3 . Every irreducible CG-module occurs as a composition factor of the regular CG-module. Let G be a ®nite group. Is there only one such CGsubmodule? 2. Let G C4 . and hence CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 . U2 and U3. (Hint: copy the method of Example 10. sp(v0 .

b2 a2 . . v2 and v1 a iv1 . of CG such that u1 a u1 . b: a4 b2 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Let G Q8 ka. Let G D8 ka. 6. Thus V has basis v1 . u1 b Àu1 X Find also 1-dimensional CG-submodules. u3 a Àu3 . Use the method of Example 10. v2 a Àiv2 . b: a4 1. such that u2 a Àu2 .94 Representations and characters of groups 3.8(2) to ®nd all the irreducible representations of D8 over C. and ®nd a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. sp (u1 ) say. and u3 b Àu3 X 4. sp (u2 ) and sp (u3 ). Show that there is a V which is not equal to U1 or U2. but is them. Suppose that V is a where U1 and U2 are CG-submodule U of isomorphic to both of non-zero CG-module such that V U1 È U2. u2 b u2 . 5. Find a 1-dimensional CG-submodule. v2 b Àv1 X Show that V is irreducible.5(2). isomorphic CG-modules. v1 b v2 . and let V be the CG-module given in Example 4.

W ) and ë P C. W ) is a vector space over C. v(ëW) ë(vW) for all v P V .9 is based on a study of the vector space of CG-homomorphisms from one CG-module to another. de®ne W ö and ëW by v(W ö) vW vö. We write HomCG (V . Then W ö. As in Chapter 10. With these de®nitions. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui. ö P HomCG (V . De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on HomCG (V . We begin our study of the vector space HomCG (V. Our proof of Theorem 11. ëW P HomCG (V . The question arises: how many of the Ui are isomorphic to U ? There is an elegant and signi®cant answer to this question: the number is precisely dim U (see Theorem 11. we write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . W) with an easy consequence of Schur's Lemma. In Theorem 10.11 More on the group algebra We now go further into the structure of the group algebra CG of a ®nite group G. W ). W ) for the set of all CG-homomorphisms from V to W. 95 . The space of CG-homomorphisms 11.5 we proved that every irreducible CG-module U is isomorphic to one of the Ui. it is easily checked that HomCG (V.1 De®nition Let V and W be CG-modules.9). W ) as follows: for W.

If ö P HomCG (V . 11. recall the de®nition of a composition factor of a CG-module from 10. by Maschke's Theorem. W ) fëW: ë P Cg. so by Schur's Lemma 9. if V T W X Proof If V T W then this is immediate from Schur's Lemma 9. 11. V1 . Let X be an irreducible CG-submodule of U. Then (1) dim (HomCG (V. and suppose that HomCG (V . W ). Then V and W have a common composition factor. Now suppose that V W. (2) dim (HomCG (V1 È V2 .1(2). W2 )). j The next few results show how to calculate the dimension of HomCG (V . Schur's Lemma 9. V2 and W . W ) in general. dim (HomCG (V . W )) dim (HomCG (V1 . a 1-dimensional space.1(1) implies that XW X.1(1). if V W . W)) dim (HomCG (V2 . W1 È W2 )) dim (HomCG (V. and so HomCG (V . W1 )) dim (HomCG (V.3 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules. there exists ë P C such that öWÀ1 ë1 V X Then ö ëW.4 Proposition Let V .2 Proposition Suppose that V and W are irreducible CG-modules. Then & 1.4. W )). Since XW T {0}. W ) T f0g. j For the next result. W )) 0. then öWÀ1 is a CG-isomorphism from V to V. Proof Let W be a non-zero element of HomCG (V . . Then V Ker W È U for some non-zero CG-module U.96 Representations and characters of groups 11. and let W: V 3 W be a CG-isomorphism. The key step is the following proposition. W ). W 1 . W 2 be CG-modules. Therefore X is a common composition factor of V and W.

ö2 ). W 1 ) and Wð2 P HomCG (V. W2 ). then Wð1 P HomCG (V . Now let h be the function from HomCG (V1 È V2 . W1 ) and HomCG (V. Given ö i P HomCG (V. so vW vW(ð1 ð2 ) 0. W 1 È W 2 ))X Clearly f is a linear transformation. the function ö: v1 v2 3 v1 ö1 v2 ö2 öi P (v i P Vi for i 1. W ))X transformation. W ) and has image (ö1 . then vWð1 0 and vWð2 0 for all v P V. and the image of ö under f is (ö1 . (2) For W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . Wð2 ) (W P HomCG (V .More on the group algebra Proof (1) De®ne W 1 È W 2 3 W 2 by the functions ð1 : W1 È W2 3 W1 (w1 w2 )ð2 w2 and 97 ð2 : (w1 w2 )ð1 w1 .1). W ) which is given by h: W 3 (W V1 . 2. for all w1 P W 1 . 2).11. We now de®ne a function f from HomCG (V. W Vi is the function v i W Vi v i W (v i P Vi )X to Then W Vi P HomCG (V i . and (2) follows. W2 ) (see Exercise 7. that is. We show that f is invertible. so Ker f {0} and f is injective. W1 È W2 ). Hence f is surjective. Hence h is surjective. 2). j . the function ö: v 3 vö1 vö2 (v P V ) lies in HomCG (V. W ) È HomCG (V2 . de®ne W Vi : Vi 3 W (i 1. W 1 È W 2 ). Given Clearly h is an injective linear HomCG (Vi . 2) lies in HomCG (V1 È V2 . Therefore W 0. W1 È W2 ) to the (external) direct sum of HomCG (V. If W P HomCG (V . Consequently these two vector spaces have equal dimensions. 2) to be the restriction of W to V i . ö2 ) under h. We have shown that h is an invertible linear transformation. If W P Ker f. w2 P W 2 . Wi ) (i 1. We have established that f is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (V. W ) HomCG (V1 . W ) for i 1. By Proposition 7. W V2 ) (W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . and (1) follows. W2 ) by f : W 3 (Wð1 . W1 ) È HomCG (V. W ) (i 1. W ). ð1 and ð2 are CG-homomorphisms. W1 È W2 ) to HomCG (V.

W )) dim (HomCG (W . In the following corollary we single out the case where one of the CGmodules is irreducible. and dim (HomCG (W . W. . Proof By (11. W)).5) (1) dim (HomCG (V. 11. These in turn imply (3) dim (HomCG (V1 È . U i ))X .5). È Ws )) r s i1 j1 dim (HomCG (Vi.2. W1 È . W1 È . W ) and HomCG (W . . 1 < j < s).98 Representations and characters of groups Now suppose that we have CG-modules V. V )) s i1 s i1 dim (HomCG (Ui . (2) dim(HomCG (V1 È F F F ÈV r . Wj )). Wj )). W )). By an obvious induction using Proposition 11. W )) in general.4. we can ®nd dim (HomCG (V. È Vr . V ) are both equal to the number of CG-modules Ui such that Ui W. . Let W be any irreducible CG-module. Vi. W )) r i1 dim (HomCG (Vi. . Wj (1 < i < r. and using Proposition 11. . . dim (HomCG (V . È Ws )) s j1 dim (HomCG (V. where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. By applying (3) when all Vi and Wj are irreducible. Then the dimensions of HomCG (V . we have (11.6 Corollary Let V be a CG-module with V U1 È X X X È Us .

U )) dim U X Proof Let d dim U.6. Thus by Corollary 11.8 Proposition If U is a CG-module. Choose a basis u1 .More on the group algebra And by Proposition 11. if U i T W X j a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. U ). dim (HomCG (Ui . .8(2) that CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 . de®ne ö i : CG 3 U by rö i ui r (r P CG)X Then ö i P HomCG (CG. . When combined with Corollary 11. ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. 0. s P CG. . we have dim (HomCG (CG.2.7 Example For G D6. it will give the main result of this chapter. W )) dim (HomCG (W . U) since for all r. U ). ud of U. For 1 < i < d. (rs)ö i ui (rs) (ui r)s (rö i )sX We shall prove that ö1 .5 to ®nd bases for these two vector spaces of CG-homomorphisms. . 11. Then 1ö ë1 u1 X X X ë d u d for some ë i P C. U3 )) dim (HomCG (U3 . Suppose that ö P HomCG (CG. 11. for all r P CG we have . CG)) 2X You are asked in Exercise 11. then dim (HomCG (CG. we saw in Example 10. Since ö is a CG-homomorphism. The next proposition investigates the space of CG-homomorphisms from the regular CG-module to any other CG-module. with U3 U4 but U3 not isomorphic to U1 or U2. & 99 1.6. . . . Ui )) The result follows. . if U i W .

where U1.8. dim U dim (HomCG (CG. . Hence ö1 . . HomCG (CG. this is equal to the number of Ui with Ui U. .10 Example Recall again from Example 10. j We now come to the main theorem of the chapter. 11. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.6. . which forces ë i 0 for all i. .9 Theorem Suppose that CG U1 È X X X È Ur . and by Corollary 11. ö d span ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d 0 (ë i P C)X Evaluating both sides at the identity 1. U ). . . j 11. U )). ë d ö d . which therefore has dimension d. we have 0 1(ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d ) ë1 u1 X X X ë d u d .100 Representations and characters of groups rö (1r)ö (1ö)r ë1 u1 r X X X ë d u d r r(ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d )X Hence ö ë1 ö1 . then the number of CG-modules Ui with Ui U is equal to dim U. ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. . and . U2 are non-isomorphic 1-dimensional CG-modules. If U is any irreducible CG-module.8(2) that if G D6 then CG U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . which tells us how often each irreducible CG-module occurs in the regular CGmodule. Proof By Proposition 11. . . Now assume that Therefore ö1 . U ).

) 11. U2 occurs once. dim U2 1.9: U1 occurs once. . Then k (dim Vi )2 jGjX i1 Proof Let CG U1 È .11 De®nition We say that the irreducible CG-modules V1 . . the number of CG-modules Uj with Uj Vi is equal to di . . dk be the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. dim U3 2X We conclude the chapter with a signi®cant consequence of Theorem 11. X X X . V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. . By Theorem 11.More on the group algebra 101 U3. U4 are isomorphic irreducible 2-dimensional CG-modules. 11. . and no two of V1 . dim U1 1.12. U3 occurs twice. for any ®nite group G there exists a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. for each i.9 concerning the dimensions of all irreducible CG-modules. X X X . By Theorem 11. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. For 1 < i < k. È Ur.9. Therefore dim CG dim U 1 X X X dim Ur k i1 k i1 d i (dim Vi ) d2X i j As dim CG |G|. V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules if every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to some V i . write d i dim V i .12 Theorem Let V1 .13 Example Let G be a group of order 8. 11. X X X . (By Corollary 10. V k are isomorphic. the result follows. This illustrates Theorem 11.7. . and let d1. k i1 d 2 8X i .

1. . dim (HomCG (CG. 4.5). X X X . 1.12. and the second when G D8 (see Exercise 10.) 3.4). then k (dim Vi )2 jGjX i1 Exercises for Chapter 11 1. (Hint: use Exercise 5.102 Representations and characters of groups Observe that the trivial CG-module is irreducible of dimension 1. 1. combined with Theorem 11. . . 1. 1 1. U )) dim U . È Ur. We shall see later that dim Vi divides |G| for all i. 1. W j ))X 2. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. and let U be any irreducible CG-module. . 1. is quite a powerful tool in ®nding the dimensions of irreducible CG-modules. If G is a group of order 12. Find a basis for HomCG (CG.3. CG). ®nd the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. If G is a non-abelian group of order 6. what are the possible degrees of all the irreducible representations of G? Find the degrees of the irreducible representations of D12. and so di 1 for some i. dim (HomCG (V1 È X X X È V r . 1. Hence the possibilities for d1. 1. 2X Both these possibilities do occur: the ®rst holds when G is an abelian group (see Proposition 9. Let G be a ®nite group. W 1 È X X X È W s )) r s i1 j1 and dim (HomCG (Vi . . Let CG U1 È . V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. . 2. Then the number of Ui with Ui U is equal to dim U. 3. If V1 . and this fact. 1. . dk are 1. Summary of Chapter 11 1.

Vi ))X k Show that dim (HomCG (V . X X X . Find a basis for HomCG (CG. . as de®ned in 4. Vi )) and ei dim (HomCG (W . 6. and let V. If U is the trivial CGmodule. U) has dimension 1. Assume that for 1 < i < k. as in Example 10. Let G D6 and let CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4.More on the group algebra 103 4. CG). Let V1 . d i dim (HomCG (V . V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. show that HomCG (V. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. W be arbitrary CG-modules. U3 ) and a basis for HomCG (U3. Suppose that G Sn and V is the n-dimensional permutation module for G over C. 5.10. W )) i1 d i ei .8(2).

1 De®nition Let x. G is a ®nite group. Our ®rst result shows that two distinct conjugacy classes have no elements in common. After de®ning conjugacy classes. Proof Suppose that x G y G is not empty. h P G such that z gÀ1 xg hÀ1 yhX 104 .12 Conjugacy classes We take a break from representation theory to discuss some topics in group theory which will be relevant in our further study of representations. symmetric and alternating groups.2 Proposition If x. and is called the conjugacy class of x in G. y P G. 12. Conjugacy classes 12. and pick z P x G y G. Then there exist g. At the end of the chapter we prove a result linking the conjugacy classes of a group to the structure of its group algebra. then either x G y G or x G y G is empty. we develop enough theory to determine the conjugacy classes of dihedral. y P G. We say that x is conjugate to y in G if y g À1 xg for some g P GX The set of all elements conjugate to x in G is x G f g À1 xg: g P Gg. Throughout the chapter.

so bG fb. Another way of seeing this Corollary 12. and bÀ1 ab a2 . 12. . xl representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. b: a3 b2 1. fa. .4 De®nition G G If G x1 . aÀi ba i aÀ2i b for all integers i. a. Since gÀ1 ag is a or a2 for every g P G. . b. ab. a2 bgX . ab. we have aG fa. 12. . then we call x1 . a2 g. fb. So a P x G A a bÀ1 xb A a cÀ1 yc AaP y X G 105 for some b P G where c kb A a bÀ1 k À1 ykb Therefore x G # y G. and so xG yG . x G are l l distinct. The elements of G are 1. a2 b. and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. where k hgÀ1 . . Similarly y G # x G (using y kxkÀ1 ). G is the union of its conjugacy classes and so we deduce immediately 12. 1 G {1} is a conjugacy class of G. a2 .3 Corollary Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. .Conjugacy classes Hence x ghÀ1 yhgÀ1 kÀ1 yk. . and that the conjugacy classes are the equivalence classes. a2 gX Also. (2) Let G D6 ka. x G . . where the conjugacy classes x1 .3 is to observe that conjugacy is an equivalence relation. a2 bgX Thus the conjugacy classes of G are f1g.5 Examples (1) For every group G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. ab. j Since every element x of G lies in the conjugacy class x G (as x 1À1 x1 with 1 P G). . .

and so x G {x}. Proof Observe that for a. then x n is conjugate to y n in G for every integer n. r . Then y m gÀ1 x m g 1. 12. j Conjugacy class sizes The next theorem determines the sizes of the conjugacy classes in G in terms of certain subgroups which we now de®ne. Hence every conjugacy class of G consists of just one element. kxl # CG (x) for all x P G. CG (x) f g P G: xg gxgX (So also CG (x) { g P G: gÀ1 xg x}. Let x have order m.106 Representations and characters of groups (3) If G is abelian then gÀ1 xg x for all x. b P G.7 De®nition Let x P G. and for 0 .6 Proposition Let x.1). |x G | divides |G|. The centralizer of x in G. y P G. . so y also has order m. so that y gÀ1 xg for some g P G.8 Theorem Let x P G. The next proposition is often useful when calculating conjugacy classes. m. Observe that x P CG (x) and indeed. Then the size of the conjugacy class x G is given by jx G j jG: CG (x)j jGjajCG (x)jX In particular. Then y n gÀ1 x n g and therefore x n is conjugate to y n in G. y r gÀ1 x r g T 1. If x is conjugate to y in G. Suppose that x is conjugate to y in G. 12. g P G. we have gÀ1 abg ( g À1 ag)( g À1 bg)X Hence gÀ1 x n g ( gÀ1 xg) n .) It is easy to check that CG (x) is a subgroup of G (Exercise 12. and x and y have the same order. 12. is the set of elements of G which commute with x. written CG (x). that is.

h P G. i Conjugacy classes of dihedral groups We illustrate the use of Theorem 12. Let G D2 n. . We have now proved all parts of the following result. and both | Z(G)| and |x G | divide |G|. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX In ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. . where Z(G) is the centre of G. . b: an b2 1. proving that |x G | |G:CG (x)|.10 The Class Equation Let x1 . we may de®ne an injective function f from x G to the set of right cosets of CG (x) in G by f : g À1 xg 3 CG (x) g ( g P G)X Clearly f is surjective.15. (1) n odd First consider ai (1 < i < n À 1). we make the observation that (12X9) jx G j 1 D g À1 xg x D x P Z(G). 12. Thus G ha.Conjugacy classes Proof Observe ®rst that for g. the dihedral group of order 2n.8 by ®nding the conjugacy classes of all dihedral groups. jG: CG (ai )j < jG: haij 2X . Since CG (ai ) contains kal. j Before summarizing our results on conjugacy classes. Hence f is a bijection. Then jx G j. jGj j Z(G)j i xiP Z(G) a for all g P G where |x G | i |G:CG (xi )|. it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. as de®ned in 9. we have g À1 xg hÀ1 xh D hg À1 x xhg À1 D hg À1 P CG (x) D CG (x) g CG (x)hX 107 By dint of this. . xl be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G.

and as bÀ1 ai b aÀi . n 2m) has precisely m 3 conjugacy classes: {1}.12) The dihedral group D2 n (n even. bG fb.8. we have 2 > jG: CG (ai )j j(ai ) G j > 2X Hence equality holds here. As in case (1). {a. a j baÀ j a2 j b. As n is odd. . b}. the centralizer of am in G contains both a and b. {a( nÀ1)a2 . {a. Therefore the conjugacy class of am in G is just fam g. ab. X X X . {a m }. . (2) n even Write n 2m. . . aÀ( nÀ1)a2 }. . no element ai or ai b (with 1 < i < n À 1) commutes with b.8. aÀi } for 1 < i < m À 1. . and hence CG (am ) G. {a mÀ1 . ab. aÀi } # (ai ) G . {a2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1}. aÀi gX Next. aÀ1 }. Thus CG (b) f1. so {ai . aÀ1 }. Since all the elements ai have been accounted for. a j (ab)aÀ j a2 j1 bX It follows that bG fa2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1g. . bgX Therefore by Theorem 12. . a nÀ1 b}. . bG must consist of the remaining n elements of G.11) The dihedral group D2 n (n odd) has precisely 1(n 3) con2 jugacy classes: {1}. |bG | n. . Using Theorem 12. For every integer j. CG (b) contains {1. As bÀ1 am b aÀ m am . . a nÀ1 bgX We have shown (12. {b. ai T aÀi .108 Representations and characters of groups Also bÀ1 ai b aÀi . and so |(ai ) G | > 2. aÀ m1 }. (ai ) G fai . (ai ) G {ai . . (ab) G fa2 j1 b: 0 < j < m À 1gX Hence (12. . {a2 j1 b: 0 < j < m À 1}. and CG (ai ) hai. That is.

. . y (a9 X X X a9 1 ) X X X (c9 X X X c9 s ). . . . . . 1 k 1 k (products of disjoint cycles). ik ) in Sn . 1 k g À1 xg yX We have proved the following result. . and note that x and gÀ1 xg have the same cycle-shape. . ik }. ck s 3 c9 s . > ks . Write x (a1 X X X ak 1 )(b1 X X X bk 2 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). . with k1 > k2 > . For ir P A. . 12. . a product of disjoint cycles. . y of the same cycle-shape. Our ®rst observation is simple but crucial. and so by (12. there a1 3 a9 . . . say x (a1 X X X a k 1 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). Now consider an arbitrary permutation x P Sn . Proof Write A {i1 . ir g( g À1 xg) i r xg i r1 g (or i1 g if r k)X Also. for 1 < i < n and i P A. ik g). ik g). ik ) g (i1 g i2 g . By Proposition 12. . for g P Sn we have (12. . . Then gÀ1 xg is the k-cycle (i1 g i2 g . exists g P Sn sending j . a ig( gÀ1 xg) ixg igX Hence gÀ1 (i1 i2 . as required. and let g P Sn . . ks ) the cycle-shape of x. . On the other hand.13 Proposition Let x be a k-cycle (i1 i2 .13.Conjugacy classes Conjugacy classes of S n 109 We shall later need to know the conjugacy classes of the symmetric group Sn .14). . .14) g À1 xg g À1 (a1 X X X a k 1 ) gg À1 (b1 X X X b k 2 ) g X X X g À1 (c1 X X X ck s ) g (a1 g X X X a k 1 g)(b1 g X X X b k 2 g) X X X (c1 g X X X c k s g)X We call (k1 . given any two permutations x.

4}. Similarly. (The notation n means the binomial coef®cient 2 r n3a(r3(n À r)3). 3-cycles. (1 4)(2 3)gX (3) There are precisely ®ve conjugacy classes of S4 . 2) and there are six 4-cycles. The number of 2-cycles is equal to the number of pairs that can be chosen from {1. (1 2 3 4)X To calculate the sizes of the conjugacy classes. with representatives (see De®nition 12. Thus for G S4 . (1 3)(2 4). (1 3 2)} Cycle-shape (1) (2) (3) (2) The conjugacy class of (1 2)(3 4) in S4 consists of all the elements of cycle-shape (2. there are three elements of cycle-shape (2.) The number of 3-cycles is 4 3 2 (4 for the choice of ®xed point and 2 because there are two 3-cycles ®xing a given point).4): 1. ÀÁ which is 4 6.16 Examples (1) The conjugacy classes of S3 are Class {1} {(1 2). 12. (1 2)(3 4). 3. the conjugacy class sizes | gG | and the centralizer orders |CG ( g)| (obtained using Theorem 12. (1 2 3). we simply count the number of 2-cycles. (2 3)} {(1 2 3).15 Theorem For x P Sn . (1 3).8) are as follows: Representative Class size g | gG | |CG ( g)| 1 1 24 (1 2) 6 4 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 3 8 (1 2 3 4) 6 4 We check our arithmetic by noting that jS4 j 1 6 8 3 6X . the conjugacy class representatives g. 2. (1 2). and so on. the conjugacy class x Sn of x in Sn consists of all permutations in Sn which have the same cycle-shape as x.110 Representations and characters of groups 12. 2) and is f(1 2)(3 4).

however. and what happens when equality fails. (2) If x does not commute with any odd permutation in Sn then x Sn splits into two conjugacy classes in An of equal size. and so x Sn x An . here x A3 fxg. then x Sn x An . Then CSn (x) CAn (x)X . we have seen in Theorem 12. (2) Assume that x does not commute with any odd permutation. Proof (1) Assume that x commutes with an odd permutation g. The next result determines precisely when x An and x Sn are equal.Conjugacy classes (4) Similarly. The conjugacy class x A n of x in A n . x À1 }. given by x A n f g À1 xg: g P An g. is of course contained in x S n .17 Proposition Let x P An with n . Thus x Sn # x An . and if h is odd then gh P An and y hÀ1 xh hÀ1 g À1 xgh ( gh)À1 x( gh). x A n might not be equal to x S n . Let y P x S n . the corresponding table for G S5 is Rep. If h is even then y P x An . 12. g 1 (1 2) | gG | 1 10 |CG ( g)| 120 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 20 15 6 8 (1 2 3 4) 30 4 111 (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 24 6 5 Conjugacy classes of A n Given an even permutation x P A n . For an easy example where equality does not hold. (1) If x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . with representatives x and (1 2)À1 x(1 2). so again y P x An . while x S3 {x. 1. consider x (1 2 3) P A3 . so that y hÀ1 xh for some h P Sn .15 that the conjugacy class x S n consists of all permutations in S n which have the same cycle-shape as x.

(1 2 3) S4 splits into two conjugacy classes in A4 of size 4. The non-identity even permutations in S5 are those of cycle-shapes (3).112 Representations and characters of groups Hence by Theorem 12. Since (1 2)(3 4) commutes with the odd permutation (1 2). (1 2 3) or (1 3 2). j 12. (1 3)(2 4). an even permutation.17 implies that (1 2)(3 4) A4 (1 2)(3 4) S4 f(1 2)(3 4). Hence by Proposition 12.17.13. 2) and (3). the .17. Thus the conjugacy classes of A4 are Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 12 (1 2)(3 4) 3 4 (1 2 3) 4 3 (1 3 2) 4 3 (as jAn j 1jSn j) 2 (2) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A5 . as we wished to show.18 Examples (1) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A4 . (1 4)(2 3)gX However. jx An j jAn : CAn (x)j 1jSn : CAn (x)j 2 1jSn : CSn (x)j 1jx Sn jX 2 2 Next. Now x Sn fhÀ1 xh: h is eveng fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg x An ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An X Since |x An | 1|x Sn |. The elements of A4 are the identity.8. (2. Proposition 12. but (1 2 3 4 5) commutes with no odd permutation.) Hence by Proposition 12. The elements (1 2 3) and (2 3)(4 5) commute with the odd permutation (4 5). (Check this by using the argument in (1) above. we observe that fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An since every odd permutation has the form (1 2)a for some a P An . together with the permutations of cycle-shapes (2. 2) and (5). the 3-cycle (1 2 3) commutes with no odd permutation: for if gÀ1 (1 2 3) g (1 2 3) then (1 2 3) (1 g 2 g 3 g) by Proposition 12. so g is 1. with representatives (1 2 3) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3)(1 2) (1 3 2). the conjugacy classes x An and ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An must 2 be disjoint and of equal size.

Proof If H is a union of conjugacy classes. we have gÀ1 hg P H. 8. Thus H v G. (1 2)(3 4). Let H v S4 . g P G. Therefore H hG . H is a union of conjugacy classes of S4 . Using Proposition 12.16(3). 3. j 12. if H v G then for all h P H. hP H and so H is a union of conjugacy classes of G.20 Example We ®nd all the normal subgroups of S4 . 1 3. then h P H.19. As we saw in Example 12.19 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. (1 2 3 4 5) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3 4 5)(1 2) (1 3 4 5 2). there are just four possibilities: j Hj 1.17(2). 6. Since j Hj divides 24 by Lagrange's Theorem. Then H v G if and only if H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. g P G A g À1 hg P H. Then by Proposition 12. and 1 P H.Conjugacy classes 113 conjugacy classes of A5 are represented by 1. and so hG # H. 6. 12. (1 2 3). these conjugacy classes have sizes 1. Conversely. we see that the class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows: Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 60 (1 2 3) 20 3 (1 2)(3 4) 15 4 (1 2 3 4 5) 12 5 (1 3 4 5 2) 12 5 Normal subgroups Normal subgroups are related to conjugacy classes by the following elementary result. 1 8 3 or 1 6 8 3 6X . so gÀ1 Hg # H.

yÀ1 gyr of an element g. Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G. Let Ci consist of the r distinct conjugates yÀ1 gy1. . . meaning `four-group'). . 12. A4 and V4 f1. Proof First we show that each C i belongs to Z(CG). in the last case H S4 . . . . and in the third case H A4 . In the case where j Hj 1 3. (1 3)(2 4).12 that the centre of CG is Z(CG) fz P CG: zr rz for all r P CGgX We know that Z(CG) is a subspace of the vector space CG. . . Recall from De®nition 9.21 De®nition Let C1 . . . For 1 < i < l. (1 2)(3 4). . . S4 . . There is a convenient basis for this subspace which can be described in terms of the conjugacy classes of G. . (1 2)(3 4). so 1 r Ci For all h P G. we have H 1 S4 (1 2)(3 4) S4 f1. (1 4)(2 3)gX The centre of a group algebra In this ®nal section we link the conjugacy classes of the group G to the centre of the group algebra CG. we write it as V4 (V stands for `Viergruppe'. C l form a basis of Z(CG). (1 3)(2 4). hÀ1 C i h r j1 r j1 yÀ1 gyj X j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj hX j . . 12.22 Proposition The class sums C1 . (1 4)(2 3)gX This is easily checked to be a subgroup of S4 . C l of CG are called class sums. We have now shown that S4 has exactly four normal subgroups: f1g. . de®ne Ci g P CGX gPCi The elements C1 .114 Representations and characters of groups In the ®rst case H {1}.

. C l are linearly independent: for if l i1 ë i C i 0 (ë i P C). a basis for Z(CD8 ) is 1. a a3 . hence with all hPG ë h h P CG. . . observe that C1 . C l span Z(CG). Next. . the coef®cient ë g of g is equal to the coef®cient ë hÀ1 gh of hÀ1 gh. For an element x of a group G. .23 Examples (1) From Example 12. . b a2 b. since j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h hÀ1 yÀ1 gyk h D yÀ1 gyj yÀ1 gyk X j k j k Hence r j1 À1 hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h C i . (1 2) (1 3) (2 3). That is. It follows that r i1 ë i C i where ë i is the j coef®cient ë gi for some gi P Ci . j and so h C i h C i . and so C i P Z(CG). . a basis for Z(CS3 ) is 1. 2. Let r À1 gPG ë g g P Z(CG). This completes the proof. the function g 3 ë g is constant on l conjugacy classes of G. .Conjugacy classes 115 As j runs from 1 to r.3.12). ab a3 bX Summary of Chapter 12 1. . and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. ë g hÀ1 gh ë g gX gPG gPG So for every h P G. For h P G. we have rh hr. a2 . It remains to show that C1 . (1 2 3) (1 3 2)X (2) From (12. 12. . That is. the elements hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h run through Ci . Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. so h rh r. C i h hC i X Therefore each C i commutes with all h P G. the centralizer CG (x) is the set of . Cl are pairwise disjoint by Corollary 12. then all ë i 0 as the classes C1 . . That is to say. .16(1).

If G is a group and x P G. Suppose that G is a group of order pn .) 4. and let n be a positive integer. Show that A5 is a simple group. Verify that your solution satis®es Theorem 12. Give a basis of the centre of the group algebra CQ8. If x P An then x Sn x An if and only if x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . Let G be a ®nite group and suppose that g P G and z P Z(G). Let G Sn . (Hint: use the method of Example 12. Prove that the conjugacy classes gG and ( gz) G have the same size.10 to show that Z(G) T {1}.116 Representations and characters of groups elements of G which commute with x. 7. . (c) Now let n 6. (There are 11 conjugacy classes in all. 4. Prove that G has a conjugacy class of size p. What are the cycle-shapes of those permutations x P A6 for which x A6 T x S6 ? 5. Show that j(1 2 3)(4 5 6) G j 40 and j(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G j 15. and the number of elements in the conjugacy class x G is equal to |G:CG (x)|. Let p be a prime number. Exercises for Chapter 12 1. (a) Use the Class Equation 12. 3. 3. The conjugacy classes of Sn correspond to the cycle-shapes of permutations in Sn . (b) Suppose that n > 3 and that | Z(G)| p. It is a subgroup of G. n (a) Prove that j(1 2) G j 2 and ®nd CG ((1 2)). Find the conjugacy classes of the quaternion group Q8. and ®nd the sizes of the other conjugacy classes of S6 . 2.20. n n (b) Show that j(1 2 3) G j 2 3 and j(1 2)(3 4) G j 3 4 .) 6.8. 5. show that CG (x) is a subgroup of G which contains Z(G). The class sums in CG form a basis for the centre of CG.

written tr A. With each n 3 n matrix gr ( g P G) we associate the complex number given by adding all the diagonal entries of the matrix. can be resolved by doing some easy arithmetic with the character of the representation. 117 . These facts are surprising. C). is given by tr A n i1 aii X That is.13 Characters Suppose that r: G 3 GL(n. and they are the fundamental tools for performing calculations in representation theory. The trace of a matrix 13. Characters of representations have many remarkable properties. we shall show later that two representations have the same character if and only if they are equivalent. For example.1 De®nition If A (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix. such as deciding whether or not a given representation is irreducible. Moreover. In this chapter we present some basic properties and examples. whereas the character records just one number for each matrix. the trace of A is the sum of the diagonal entries of A. The theory of characters will occupy a considerable portion of the rest of the book. and call this number ÷( g). it appears that we must keep track of all the n2 entries in each matrix gr. The function ÷: G 3 C is called the character of the representation r. since from the de®nition of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. basic problems. then the trace of A. C) is a representation of the ®nite group G.

tr (T À1 AT ) tr ((T À1 A)T ) tr (T (T À1 A)) tr AX (by the second part ) j n n i1 j1 n i1 (aii bii ) n i1 aii n i1 bii tr A tr B. since if B and B 9 are bases of V. then tr (T À1 AT ) tr AX Proof The ii-entry of A B is aii bii . tr (AB) need not equal (tr A)(tr B). Then the character of V is the function ÷: G 3 C de®ned by ÷( g) tr [ g]B ( g P G)X The character of V does not depend on the basis B . unlike the determinant function. and the ii-entry of AB is n j1 aij bji. that is. the trace function is not multiplicative. Therefore tr (A B) and tr (AB) For the last part.3 De®nition Suppose that V is a CG-module with a basis B .2 Proposition Let A (aij ) and B (bij ) be n 3 n matrices. then [ g]B 9 T À1 [ g]B T .118 Representations and characters of groups 13. aij bji n n j1 i1 bji aij tr (BA)X Notice that. Characters 13. if T is an invertible n 3 n matrix. Then tr (A B) tr A tr B. and tr (AB) tr (BA)X Moreover.

there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P GX Consequently tr [ g]B 1 tr [ g]B 2 for all g P G. (2) If x and y are conjugate elements of the group G. (2) Assume that x and y are conjugate elements of G. then ÷(x) ÷( y) for all characters ÷ of G.Characters 119 for some invertible matrix T (see (2. and let B be a basis of V. and ÷ is reducible if it is the character of a reducible CG-module.24)). namely ÷( g) tr ( gr) ( g P G)X 13.2.4 De®nition We say that ÷ is a character of G if ÷ is the character of some CGmodule. and so V and W have the same character. j The result corresponding to Proposition 13. That is. we de®ne the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. 13. and so by Proposition 13. Then [x]B [ g À1 yg]B [ g]À1 [ y]B [ g]B X B Hence by Proposition 13.2. tr [ g]B 9 tr [ g]B for all g P GX Naturally enough.5(1) for representations is that equivalent representations have the same character. we have tr [x]B tr [ y]B . C) to be the character ÷ of the corresponding CGmodule C n . ÷ is an irreducible character of G if ÷ is the character of an irreducible CG-module. so that x gÀ1 yg for some g P G. where ÷ is the character of V. Proof (1) Suppose that V and W are isomorphic CG-modules. . Further. Therefore ÷(x) ÷( y). we write ÷( g) and not g÷. You will have noticed that we are writing characters as functions on the left. Then by (7. Let V be a CG-module.5 Proposition (1) Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character.7).

gr and ÷( g) as g runs through G. we shall prove an astonishing converse of Proposition 13. C) be the representation for which 1 0 0 1 . and take V to be the 3-dimensional permutation module for G over C (see De®nition 4.10). g [ g]B ÷( g) 1 (1 2) (1 3) H 1 d0 0 0 0 1 0e 0 1 3 I H 0 d1 0 1 0 0 0e 0 1 1 I H 0 0 d0 1 1 0 1 I 1 0e 0 . (We obtain ÷( g) by adding the two entries on the diagonal of gr. v3 .6 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. br ar 0 À1 À1 0 (see Example 3. where v i g v ig for 1 < i < 3 and all g P G.) g gr ÷( g) 1 1 0 0 1 2 a 0 1 À1 0 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 À2 a3 0 À1 1 0 0 g gr ÷( g) b 1 0 0 À1 0 ab 0 À1 0 À1 0 a2 b À1 0 0 1 0 a3 b 0 1 0 1 0 (2) Let G S3 . b: a4 b2 1. Let ÷ be the character of this representation.1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.5(1): if two CG-modules have the same character. We record these matrices.120 Representations and characters of groups Later. The matrices [ g]B ( g P G) are given by Exercise 4. thus B is the basis v1 . v2 . and let r: G 3 GL(2.2(1)). The following table records g. then they are isomorphic. together with the character ÷ of V. 13. Let B be the natural basis of V.

U2. This re¯ects the fact that by Proposition 13. Nevertheless. Moreover. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l (so G S3 ). ÷2 and ÷3 . By Theorem 9. The values of these characters on the elements of G can be calculated from the corresponding representations r1 . then the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . G has just three irreducible characters ÷1 .8(2). ÷2 . r3 given in Example 10.8(2). b: a3 b2 1.8. This will become clear as the theory of characters develops. the character encapsulates a great deal of information about the representation. we found a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules U1. with values g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . every character is constant on conjugacy classes of G. ÷3 . it is much quicker to write down the single complex number ÷( g) for the group element g than to record the matrix which corresponds to g. In Example 10.Characters g [ g]B ÷( g) H (2 3) I H (1 2 3) I H (1 3 2) I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 0 121 1 0 0 d0 0 1e 0 1 0 1 0 1 d0 0 1 0 0 0 1e 0 0 d1 0 (3) Let G C3 ha: a3 1 i. (4) Let G D6 ka.5(2). Thus if ÷ i is the character of Ui for 1 < i < 3. the characters given take few distinct values. U3. r2 . . and they are as follows: g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Notice that in all the above examples.

8 gives all the irreducible characters of ®nite abelian groups. we therefore know at least one of the irreducible characters of G. 1 and 2. namely the trivial character. We denote it by 1 G . Then for all v P V X . 13.9 Proposition Let ÷ be the character of a CG-module V. Thus 1 G : g 3 1 for all g P GX Given any group G. (3) The character of the trivial CG-module (see De®nition 4. The values of a character The next result gives information about the complex numbers ÷( g). of course. Characters of degree 1 are called linear characters. and in 13.8 Examples (1) In Example 13. irreducible characters.6(2) we gave a character of S3 of degree 3. Finding all the irreducible characters is usually dif®cult.6(1) we gave a character of D8 of degree 2. Suppose that g P G and g has order m. in particular. Observe that Theorem 9. then for each g P G there is a complex number ë g such that v g ë gv The character ÷ of V is given by ÷( g) ë g ( g P G) and ÷ has degree 1. 13.8(1)) is a linear character. they are all linear characters.6(4) we saw that the irreducible characters of D6 have degrees 1. Every linear character of G is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers. these are the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms (see Exercise 13. In fact. where ÷ is a character of G and g P G.4). they are. (2) If V is any 1-dimensional CG-module. then the dimension of V is called the degree of ÷. in 13.122 Representations and characters of groups 13.7 De®nition If ÷ is the character of the CG-module V. called the trivial character of G.

Then the matrix [1]B of the identity element 1 relative to B is equal to In . . we can be much more speci®c about the possibilities for ÷( g): .5(2). Every complex mth root of unity ù 1 n satis®es ùÀ1 ù. and so ÷( g) ÷( g). and so ÷(1) dim V.Characters (1) (2) (3) (4) ÷(1) dim V. that is. Therefore ÷( g À1 ) ù1 X X X ù n ÷( g)X (4) If g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) ÷( gÀ1 ) by Proposition 13. since for all real W. ÷( g) is a sum of mth roots of unity. ÷( g) is j real. (2) By Proposition 9. which is the complex conjugate of eiW . . ÷( g) is a real number if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . (3) We have H f [ gÀ1 ]B d ùÀ1 1 0 FF 0 F ùÀ1 n I g e and so ÷( gÀ1 ) ùÀ1 . When the element g of G has order 2. a sum of mth roots of unity.11 there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. 123 Proof (1) Let n dim V. Therefore ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù n . the n 3 n identity matrix. and let B be a basis of V. Also ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g) by (3). Consequently ÷(1) tr [1]B tr I n n. (eiW )À1 eÀiW . ùÀ1 . ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g).

11 Theorem Let r: G 3 GL(n.10 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G. where n ÷(1) and each ù i is a square root of unity. ÷( g) P Z. Proof (1) Let g P G. suppose that |÷( g)| ÷(1). Then (13X12) j÷( g)j jù1 X X X ù n j ÷(1) nX for some ë P CX . we have ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 2. showing that we can determine the kernel of a representation just from knowledge of its character. Then ÷( g) is an integer. there is a basis B of C n such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. Then each ù i is 1 or À1. 13. j÷( g)j ÷(1) D gr ëI n (2) Ker r { g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)}.9. and ÷( g) në. so |÷( g)| n ÷(1). then ë is an mth root of unity. Conversely. If gr ëIn with ë P C. By Proposition 9. and s are À1. j Our next result gives the ®rst inkling of the importance of characters. and since r À s r s À 2s r s mod 2. and ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 2X Proof By Proposition 13. C) be a representation of G. and suppose that g has order m. and ÷(1) r sX Certainly then. so that ÷( g) r À s.124 Representations and characters of groups 13. and let g be an element of order 2 in G. we have ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù n . (1) For g P G. Suppose r of them are 1. and let ÷ be the character of r.11.

j.6(4). the irreducible characters of the group G D6 ka. zn .) Since |ù i | 1 for all i. (2) If g P Ker r then gr In . Therefore gr In . 125 with equality if and only if the arguments of z1 . Thus H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e ù1 I n X F ù1 0 Hence for all bases B 9 of C n we have [ g]B 9 ù1 In . .Characters Note now that for any complex numbers z1 . This completes the proof of (1). b: a3 b2 1. we have jz1 X X X zn j < jz1 j X X X jzn j. if r is a representation of G with character ÷. and so ÷( g) n ÷(1). we de®ne the kernel of a character as follows. . In particular. . This implies that ÷( g) ë÷(1). with the following values: . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l are ÷1 . written Ker ÷. ÷3 . 13. 13. Part (2) follows. then Ker r Ker ÷. we have gr ëIn for some ë P C. ÷2 .11(2). we deduce from (13. j Motivated by Theorem 13. . whence ë 1. Conversely. We call ÷ a faithful character if Ker ÷ {1}. . suppose that ÷( g) ÷(1). Ker ÷ v G. (To see this. then the kernel of ÷. and so gr ù1 In . .13 De®nition If ÷ is a character of G. .12) that ù i ù j for all i. and so g P Ker r. Then by (1).11(2). consider the picture in the Argand diagram.14 Examples (1) According to Example 13. zn are all equal. . is de®ned by Ker ÷ f g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)gX By Theorem 13.

If ÷ is irreducible. . In particular.15 Proposition Let ÷ be a character of G. then (13X16) (AB) A B.6(1): g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 Then Ker ÷ {1}. Proof Suppose that ÷ is the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. then we de®ne A to be the n 3 n matrix (a ij ). then so is ÷. b: a4 b2 1. C).11(1) implies that if r: G 3 GL(2.126 g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 Representations and characters of groups a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Then Ker ÷1 G. Thus ÷( g) tr ( gr) ( g P G)X If A (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix over C. ÷3 is a faithful irreducible character of D6. We next prove a result which is sometimes useful for constructing a new character from a given one. And since |÷(a2 )| |À2| ÷(1). (2) Let G D8 ka. For a character ÷ of G. 13. C) is a representation with character ÷. then a2 r ÀI. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. and let ÷ be the character of G given in Example 13. Observe that if A (aij ) and B (bij ) are n 3 n matrices over C. Then ÷ is a character of G. de®ne ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ÷( g) ( g P G)X Thus the values of ÷ are the complex conjugates of the values of ÷. so ÷ is a faithful character. Theorem 13. Ker ÷2 kal and Ker ÷3 {1}.

C) de®ned by gr ( gr) is a representation of G. It is clear that if r is reducible then r is reducible. In Theorem 13. . It follows from (13. . the ij-entry of AB. X X X . . Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible. j The regular character 13. We write the regular character as ÷reg . V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11. Ur.18 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. . 13. k let ÷ i be the character of Vi and di ÷ i (1). First we need a preliminary result. . we shall express the regular character in terms of the irreducible characters of G. Proof This is immediate from (7. Then the character of V is equal to the sum of the characters of the CG-modules U1.19 Theorem Let V1 .Characters since the ij-entry of A B is n k1 127 a ik b kj .10). and for i 1.11).19. Then ÷reg d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k X . j ( g P G) 13. . and suppose that V U1 È X X X È Ur . . Since tr ( gr) tr ( gr) tr ( gr) ÷( g) ( g P G). a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui.16) that the function r: G 3 GL(n. .17 De®nition The regular character of G is the character of the regular CG-module. n which is equal to the complex conjugate of k1 aik bkj . the character of the representation r is ÷.

It follows that ÷reg ( g) tr [ g]B 0X j 13.20 Proposition If ÷reg is the regular character of G. gn be the elements of G. gn of CG.19 and Proposition 13. By Proposition 13. Now the result follows from Proposition 13. and let B be the basis g1 . . . . CG (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). . By Example 13. where for each i there are di factors V i . . we have gi g gj for some j with j T i. the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . . and are given in the next result. Now let g P G with g T 1. and ÷reg ( g) 0 if g T 1X Proof Let g1 . Therefore the ith row of the matrix [ g]B has zeros in every place except column j. the ii-entry is zero for all i. 13.128 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Theorem 11. Then for 1 < i < n. ÷ 3 : g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 We calculate ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 : (÷1 ÷2 2÷3 )( g) 6 0 0 0 0 0 .6(4). ÷2 .18. . j The values of ÷reg on the elements of G are easily described.21 Example We illustrate Theorem 13. .20 for the group G D6 .9. ÷reg (1) dim CG |G|.9(1). then ÷reg (1) jGj. in particular.

(1 2 3 4)X The permutation character ð takes the values gi ð( gi ) 1 4 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 1 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . . let fix ( g) fi: 1 < i < n and ig igX Then (13X22) ð( g) jfix( g)j ( g P G)X We call ð the permutation character of G. (1 2)(3 4).19. with representatives 1. . v i g v ig (1 < i < n) (see De®nition 4. and it takes the value |G| on 1. . by Theorem 13.16(3). . Therefore the character ð of the permutation module V is given by ð( g) (the number of i such that ig i)X For g P G. G has ®ve conjugacy classes. where for all g P G. . v n . . Let B denote the basis v1 . Permutation characters In the case where G is a subgroup of the symmetric group Sn . . .10). . and we now describe this. . Then by Example 12. there is an easy construction using the permutation module which produces a character of degree n. n}. and is 1 if ig i. v n . Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . so that G is a group of permutations of {1. (1 2 3). 13. . Then the iientry in the matrix [ g]B is 0 if ig T i. . and the value 0 on all non-identity elements of G.23 Example Let G S4 .Characters 129 This is the regular character of G.20. illustrating Proposition 13. (1 2). The permutation module V for G over C has basis v1 .

(1 2 3).130 Representations and characters of groups 13. so the character of U is the trivial character 1 G (see Example 13. . there is a CG-submodule W of V such that V U È WX Let í be the character of W. so |®x( g)| 1 í( g) for all g P G. 2. . the conjugacy classes of G are represented by 1. .25 Example Let G A4 . .8(3)). Proof Let v1 . and therefore í( g) jfix( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X j ( g P G) 13. (1 3 2)X The values of the character í of G are gi í( gi ) 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 3 2) 0 Summary of Chapter 13 1. .18(1). v n be the basis of the permutation module V as above. Then ð 1 G í. Characters are constant on conjugacy classes. A character is obtained from a representation by taking the trace of each matrix.24 Proposition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . and U sp (u)X Observe that ug u for all g P G. a subgroup of S4 . Then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. and let u v1 X X X v n .1. By Maschke's Theorem 8. (1 2)(3 4). Indeed. By Example 12. so U is a CG-submodule of V. U is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module.

5.Characters 3. Find ÷(x) for x (1 2) and for x (1 6)(2 3 5). br2 1 0 0 X À1 ( g P G) Find the characters of r1 and r2 . Exercises for Chapter 13 1. then Z(G) { g P G: |÷( g)| ÷(1)}. 2. Find all the irreducible characters of C4 . the complex number ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity. . Write the regular character of C4 as a linear combination of these. check that your answers are consistent with Theorem 13. then the function í which is given by í( g) jfix( g)j À 1 is a character of G. 4. Prove that if ÷ is a faithful irreducible character of the group G. 7. The regular character ÷reg of G takes the value |G| on the identity and the value 0 on all other elements of G. Let G D12 ka. If G is a subgroup of Sn . 6. Prove that the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms are the linear characters. Find also Ker r1 and Ker r2 . 5. and all g P G. and let r1 . ÷(zg) ë÷( g)X 6. The character of a representation determines the kernel of the representation. 131 4. For all characters ÷ of G. r2 be the representations of G for which ù 0 0 1 ar1 . 3. Assume that ÷ is an irreducible character of G.11. and ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g). Let ÷ be the character of the 7-dimensional permutation module for S7 . b: a6 b2 1. Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. Suppose that z P Z(G) and that z has order m. Prove that there exists an mth root of unity ë P C such that for all g P G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. br1 (where ù e2ðia3 ) 0 ùÀ1 1 0 and ar2 À1 0 0 1 .

Show that either (1) ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 4. and let g be an element of order 2 in G. (Compare Corollary 13. Let ÷ be a character of a group G. (b) Prove that G/Ker ä is abelian.132 Representations and characters of groups 7. (a) Show that ä: g 3 det ( gr) ( g P G) is a linear character of G. then ÷(x) T ÷(1) for some irreducible character ÷ of G. Show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2. (c) Assume that ä( g) À1 for some g P G.10. Prove that if x is a non-identity element of the group G. 8. show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2. . By considering the regular representation of G. Let g be a group of order 2k. or (2) G has a normal subgroup of index 2. 9. Hint: use Exercise 7. Let r be a representation of the group G over C.) 10. where k is an odd integer.

That is. The set of all functions from G to C forms a vector space over C. if we adopt the natural rules for adding functions and multiplying functions by complex numbers. and in particular we prove the striking result (Theorem 14. we describe a method for decomposing a given CG-module as a direct sum of CG-submodules. Inner products The characters of a ®nite group G are certain functions from G to C. The proofs rely on an inner product involving the characters of a group. Also. and ë P C. and suppose that W: G 3 C and ö: G 3 C are given by 133 .21) that if two CG-modules have the same character then they are isomorphic. using characters.14 Inner products of characters We establish some signi®cant properties of characters in this chapter. if W.) 14. then we de®ne W ö: G 3 C by (W ö)( g) W( g) ö( g) and we de®ne ëW: G 3 C by ëW( g) ë(W( g)) ( g P G)X ( g P G) (We write these functions on the left to agree with our notation for characters.1 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. ö are functions from G to C. and we describe this ®rst.

The de®nition of an inner product on a vector space over C runs as follows. öl ë2 kW2 . W2 i for all ë1 .2) (a) kW. 14. öl for all ë1 . ë2 P C and all vectors W1 .3 De®nition Suppose that W and ö are functions from G to C. The vector space of all functions from G to C can be equipped with an inner product in a way which we shall describe shortly. ö. there is associated a complex number kW. (c) kW. (b) kë1 W1 ë2 W2 . öl ë1 kW1 .134 Representations and characters of groups 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 This means that W(1) 2. as in this example. 0 if W T 0. and that conditions (a) and (b) give hö. Wl is always real. This will be of basic importance in our study of characters. ë1 è1 ë2 W2 i ë1 hö. Wl . ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . We now introduce an inner product on the vector space of all functions from G to C. W(a) i. W1 i ë2 hö. W2 . ö. W2 . De®ne 1 hW. öl which satis®es the following conditions: (14. Then W ö and 3W are given by 1 W ö 3W 3 6 a 1i 3i a2 0 À3 We shall often think of functions from G to C as row vectors. W(a2 ) À1 and ö(1) ö(a) ö(a2 ) 1. öi W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG . With every ordered pair of vectors W. Notice that condition (a) implies that kW. ö. Wi for all W. ö in the vector space. öl hö.

5 Proposition Assume that G has exactly l conjugacy classes.1. 3 3 hè. 3 hö. so k . øi hø. gl . Therefore 1 h÷. 14.4 Example As in Example 14. 1 (1) h÷. 1) 1(1 i).Inner products of characters 135 It is transparent that the conditions of (14.9(3). with representatives g1 . øi ÷( g)ø( g À1 )X jGj gPG . . 1) 1X 3 Inner products of characters We can exploit the fact that characters are constant on conjugacy classes to simplify slightly the calculation of the inner product of two characters. øi l ÷( g i )ø( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j X Proof (1) We have ø( g) ø( gÀ1 ) for all g P G. . l is an inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C. i (À1) . . Let ÷ and ø be characters of G. ÷i ÷( g)ø( g À1 ). èi 1(2 . . öi 1(2 . (À1)) 2. by Proposition 13.2) hold. 14. suppose that G C3 ka: a3 1l and that W and ö are given by 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 Then hè. öi 1(1 . 1 À 1 . and this is a real numberX jGj gPG (2) h÷. 2 i . 1 i . 1 1 . 1 1 .

÷l h÷. it follows that h÷. in fact. Since characters are constant on conjugacy classes.136 Representations and characters of groups Since { gÀ1 : g P G} G. g 2 (1 2)(3 4). i i by Corollary 12. with representatives g 1 1. an integer. we also have 1 h÷. (We shall prove later that h÷. øi l 1 1 ÷( g)ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) jGj gPG jGj i1 G gP g i l j gGj i1 l i1 jGj i ÷( g i )ø( g i ) j 1 ÷( g i )ø( g i )X jCG ( g i )j 14. g 4 (1 3 2) (see Example 12.8.18(1)). Hence h÷.3 and Theorem 12. ÷( g)ø( g) j g G j÷( g i )ø( g i )X i gP g G i Now G l i1 g G and j g G j jGjajCG ( g i )j. g 3 (1 2 3). ÷iX jGj gPG Since kø. øi is. We shall see in Chapter 18 that there are characters ÷ and ø of A4 which take the following values on the representatives gi : gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø g1 12 1 4 g2 4 1 0 g3 3 ù ù2 g4 3 ù2 ù . øi.6 Example The alternating group A4 has four conjugacy classes.) (2) Recall that g G denotes the conjugacy class of G which contains i gi . øi ÷( g À1 )ø( g) hø. øi is real.

. where W1 and W2 are CG-submodules which have no common composition factor. we have 1 . Write 1 e1 e2 where e1 P W1 and e2 P W2. We shall investigate some consequences of writing CG like this. we temporarily adopt the following Hypothesis: 14. 12 4 3 3 4 . øi 2X 12 4 3 3 h÷. ù2 ù . and then let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-modules U i . 0 ù . 0 ù 2 . We ®rst look at the effect of applying the elements e1 and e2 of CG to W1 and W 2 . ù hø. There are several ways of choosing CG-submodules W1 and W2 of CG such that CG W1 È W2 and W1 and W2 have no common composition factor (see De®nition 10. 4 0 . ÷i 1 and h÷. ù2 ù2 .Inner products of characters (where ù e2ðia3 ). Ur. and that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CGmodules U1. we shall derive a formula for e1 in terms of the character of W 1 . ÷l 1. we may take W1 to be the sum of those irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to a given irreducible CG-module. . Recall from Chapter 10 that the regular CG-module is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.12) that the irreducible characters of G form an orthonormal set of vectors in the vector space of functions from G to C. øi 137 We advise you to check also that k÷. for distinct irreducible characters ÷ and ø of G. We are now going to pave the way to proving the key fact (Theorem 14. øi 0.4). Among other results. . we have h÷. Using part (2) of Proposition 14. . say CG U 1 È X X X È U r . 4 1 . ù 0. and to ®nd the inner products of ÷ and ø with the trivial character (which takes the value 1 on all elements of A4 ). therefore. For example. that is.5. .7 Hypothesis Let CG W 1 È W 2 .

9 Corollary For the elements e1 and e2 of CG which appear in Hypothesis 14. and this completes the proof. In particular. The function W: w 3 we1 x À1 (w P CG) is an endomorphism of CG. we evaluate e1 . j .7.10. we have e2 e1 . j 14. w1 e2 0. We shall calculate the trace of W in two ways. take w1 e1 and w2 e2 . w2 P W 2 .8.7. 14. But W2 and W1 have no common composition factor. Now w1 w1 1 w1 (e1 e2 ) w1 e1 .138 Representations and characters of groups 14. so every CG-homomorphism from W2 to W1 is zero. w2 e1 0. w2 e 2 w2 X Proof If w1 P W1 then the function w2 3 w1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to W 1 . Proposition Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14.3.8 Proposition For all w1 P W1 and w2 P W2. and w2 w2 1 w2 (e1 e2 ) w2 e2 . we have w1 e1 w1 . Next. w1 e2 w2 e1 0. e2 e2 and e1 e2 e2 e1 0X 1 2 Proof In Proposition 14. Therefore w1 w2 0 for all w1 P W 1 . by Proposition 11. Then 1 e1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Proof Let x P G. Similarly w2 w1 0.

w2 W w2 e1 x À1 0X Thus W acts on W1 by w1 3 w1 x À1 and on W2 by w2 3 0. we see that for all x P G.11 Corollary Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14. so e1 gPG ëg g for some ë g P C.3 of the multiplication in CG.7.Inner products of characters 139 First. the endomorphism w1 3 w1 x À1 of W1 has trace equal to ÷(x À1 ).20. By the de®nition of the character ÷ of W 1 .10 that the coef®cient of 1 in e2 is 1 1 1 h÷.8. Then h÷. ë x ÷(x À1 )ajGjX Therefore e1 1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG j 14. in view of Proposition 14. ÷iX ÷( g À1 )÷( g) jGj2 gPG jGj . the endomorphism w 3 wgx À1 (w P CG) of CG has trace 0 if g T x and has trace |G| if g x. Hence. By Proposition 13. w1 W w1 e1 x À1 w1 x À1 . Therefore tr W ÷(x À1 )X Secondly. as W: w 3 w gPG ë g gx À1 . and of course the endomorphism w2 3 0 of W2 has trace 0. we deduce from Proposition 14. we have tr W ë x jGjX Comparing our two expressions for tr W. for w1 P W1 and w2 P W2 we have. e1 P CG. ÷i ÷(1)X Proof Using the de®nition 6.

m÷i m÷(1)X As ÷(1) dim U m. and de®ne W to be the sum of the m irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U. j We can now prove the main theorem concerning the inner product k . The character of W is m÷. Let m dim U. l. Then CG Y È Z. and no composition factor of X is isomorphic to U. since W is the direct sum of m CG-submodules. we know from Corollary 14.9 that CG is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. as required. respectively. We now apply Corollary 14. ÷i 1. each of which has character ÷. let X be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. W and X have no common composition factor. Then CG W È X X Moreover. Next. every composition factor of W is isomorphic to U. . this yields h÷.11 to the character of W. Hence k÷. øi 0X Proof Recall from Theorem 11.9 that e2 e1 . let Y be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui of CG which are isomorphic to either U or V. and h÷. and the 1 coef®cient of 1 in e1 is ÷(1)/|G|. Then h÷.140 Representations and characters of groups On the other hand. ÷l ÷(1). ÷i 1.12 Theorem Let U and V be non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. say CG U1 È X X X È Ur . and let Z be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. where the number of CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U is dim U. with characters ÷ and ø. In particular. and obtain hm÷. 14.

12. k÷. By Theorem 8.11. Therefore h÷. there are d i factors Vi X Therefore the character ø of V is given by (14X15) ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k X Using (14. ÷i hø. then by Theorem 14. where for each i. and hø.13). this implies that the irreducible characters ÷1 . øi 1. If ÷ i is the character of Vi (1 < i < k).5(1).7.12 Let G be a ®nite group. ÷ k are all distinct. m÷ nøi m2 h÷. X X X . dk such that (14X14) V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). Each of these is isomorphic to some V i . ä ij is 1 if i j and is 0 if i T j). In particular. The character of Y is m÷ nø. øi mn(h÷. V is equal to a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.11). by the part of the theorem which we have already proved. ø(1) n. øi d i for 1 < i < k. Now let V be a CG-module. ÷ i i h÷ i .Inner products of characters 141 and Y and Z have no common composition factor. øi d 2 X X X d 2 X 1 k Summarizing. ÷i)X Now h÷. . m÷(1) nø(1) hm÷ nø. so there are non-negative integers d1. øi hø. øi hø. øl 0. ÷i n2 hø. . . and let V1 . we have (14X13) h÷ i . ÷l. ÷ j i ä ij for all i. and ÷(1) m. . ÷i 0X By Proposition 14. . j. V k be a complete set of nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11. . we have . . where n dim V. . By Corollary 14. where ä ij is the Kronecker delta function (that is. and hence k÷. we obtain from this (14X16) hø. j Applications of Theorem 14. øl kø.

Moreover. ø ÷1 ÷3 X (This can of course be checked immediately by comparing the values of ø and ÷1 ÷3 on each conjugacy class representative. If ø is any character of G. . then ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers d1. By Example 13.5(2). ÷1 i 3. . ÷2 . . . dk . ÷3 l 1. taking the following values on the conjugacy class representatives 1. ÷2 l 0 and kø.1 0 1X 6 2 Similarly. hø.6(4) that the irreducible characters of S3 D6 are ÷1 .17 Theorem Let ÷1 . ø(1 2) 1. ÷ i i hø.7. d i hø. . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. and d2X i 14. Thus by Theorem 14. by Proposition 14. . ÷3 .6(2). . . (1 2 3): Now let ø be the character of the 3-dimensional permutation module gi |CS3 ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 for S3 .) A more substantial calculation along these lines is given in Example 15.17.18 Example Recall from Example 13.1 1. øi k i1 for 1 < i < k. .142 Representations and characters of groups 14. ø(1 2 3) 0X Therefore. kø. we know that ø(1) 3. (1 2).

It gives us a quick and effective method of determining whether or not a given CG-module is irreducible. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. V Vi for some i. ÷l T 0.21 Theorem Suppose that V and W are CG-modules. Proof If V is irreducible then kø.12. Then by (14. respectively.Inner products of characters 143 We shall see many more applications of the important Theorem 14. øl 1 by Theorem 14. Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if ÷ ø.19 De®nition Suppose that ø is a character of G. We say that ÷ is a constituent of ø if kø. Proof In Proposition 13. and by (14. with characters ÷ and ø.16). 14. Then V is irreducible if and only if kø. Conversely. 14. .5 we proved the elementary fact that if V W then ÷ ø. .12. dk ÷ k is non-zero.14). We have ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers di. The next result is another signi®cant consequence of Theorem 14. øl 1. øi d 2 X X X d 2 X 1 k It follows that one of the integers di is 1 and the rest are zero. Thus.20 Theorem Let V be a CG-module with character ø. for it means that many questions about CG-modules can be answered using character theory.17. It is the converse which is the substantial part of this theorem. . j We are now in a position to prove the remarkable result that `a CGmodule is determined by its character'. 1 hø. øl 1. assume that kø. the constituents of ø are the irreducible characters ÷ i of G for which the integer di in the expression ø d1 ÷1 . 14. and so V is irreducible. It is this fact which motivates our study of characters in much of the rest of the book.

. the representations r2 and r3 are equivalent. 2. r4 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 ù 0 ù 0 . ÷ i i. ar4 À1 À1 0 ù (ù e2ðia3 ). ar1 . and hence V W. it follows that ci di for all i. ÷ i i (1 < i < k)X Since ÷ ø. The characters ø i of the representations r i (i 1. Again let V1 .16). ÷ k . X X X . r3 . ci h÷. and W (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i. We know by (14.14) that there are non-negative integers ci . . . The next theorem is another consequence of Theorem 14.22 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. d i hø. 3. ar2 0 ù 0 ùÀ1 2 3 2 3 0 1 1 ùÀ1 ar3 . suppose that ÷ ø. By (14.12. r3 and r4 . and let r1 . di (1 < i < k) such that V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. . 4) are 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 2 2 2 2 a 2ù À1 À1 1ù a2 2ù2 À1 À1 1 ù2 Hence by Theorem 14. j 14. Vk be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules with characters ÷1 .144 Representations and characters of groups Thus. r2 .21. . but there are no other equivalences among r1 . r2 .

using (14. . Then dim (HomCG (V . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. ÷ k are linearly independent.24 Theorem Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. W )) h÷. . . . . . di (1 < i < k) such that V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. W )) k i1 ci d i X . ÷ k are linearly independent vectors in the vector space of all functions from G to C. Then ÷1 .23 Theorem Let ÷1 . and W (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i. ÷ i i ë i X Therefore ÷1 . Proof Assume that ë1 ÷1 X X X ë k ÷ k 0 (ë i P C)X Then for all i. . øiX Proof We know from (14. using (11. Vj )) ä ij X Hence.5)(3) we see that dim (HomCG (V . . By Proposition 11.13) we have 0 hë1 ÷1 X X X ë k ÷ k . j We now relate inner products of characters to the spaces of CGhomomorphisms which we constructed in Chapter 11. . j we have dim (HomCG (Vi . . for any i. respectively.Inner products of characters 145 14.2.14) that there are non-negative integers ci . . 14. .

26 Proposition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. and we now describe a process for doing this.13) implies that h÷. Decomposing CG-modules It is sometimes of practical importance to be able to decompose a given CG-module into a direct sum of CG-submodules. we deduce the stated results just as in the proof of Proposition 14. Since W2 and V1 have no common composition factor. v1 e2 0. where every composition factor of V1 is a composition factor of W1 and every composition factor of V2 is a composition factor of W2. v 2 e2 v 2 X k i1 j ci d i X Proof If v1 P V1 then the function w2 3 v1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to V1. where the CG-modules W1 and W2 have no common composition factor. Let V be any CG-module. then 2 3 À1 V ÷( g ) g gPG . We can write V V1 È V2 .25 Proposition With the above notation.7: CG W 1 È W 2 . 14. j 14.8. and V is any CG-module. and 1 e1 e2 with e1 P W 1 . øi The result follows. ÷ ci ÷ i and ø di÷i and so (14.146 Representations and characters of groups k i1 k i1 On the other hand. e2 P W 2 . v2 e1 0. for all v1 P V1 and v2 P V2 we have v1 e1 v1 . Once more we adopt Hypothesis 14.

and by Proposition 14. The procedure is as follows: (14. so 2 3 À1 V1 V ÷( g ) g X gPG j Once the irreducible characters of our group G are known. calculate the vectors v i ( gPG ÷( gÀ1 ) g) for 1 < i < n.7. Some more complicated uses of the method can be found in Chapter 32. by Theorem 11. Also W1 and W2 satisfy Hypothesis 14.Inner products of characters 147 is equal to the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷ (where for r P CG. and let V÷ be the subspace of V spanned by these vectors. we de®ne Vr fvr: v P V g). we see that . Let W1 be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui which have character ÷. Clearly we may omit the constant multiplier m/|G|.26. Then the character of W1 is m÷ where m ÷(1). .27) (1) Choose a basis v1 . Proof Write CG U 1 È X X X È U r .28 Examples (1) Let G be any ®nite group and let V be any non-zero CG-module. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. 14. Then Proposition 14. (3) Then V is the direct sum of the CG-modules V÷ as ÷ runs over the irreducible characters of G. . The character of V÷ is a multiple of ÷. We illustrate this method with a couple of simple examples. . . v n of V.25 shows that Ve1 V1.10. the element e1 of W1 is given by m e1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Let V1 be the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷.9.26 provides a useful practical tool for ®nding CG-submodules of a given CG-module V. Proposition 14. (2) For each irreducible character ÷ of G. and let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. Taking ÷ to be the trivial character of G in Proposition 14.

For 1 < i < 5. let G Sn and let V be the permutation module. . ÷5 of D8 (see Example 16. . . Then 2 3 V g sp (v1 X X X v n )X gPG Hence V has a unique trivial CG-submodule. v n such that v i g v ig for all i and all g P G. e5 1(1 À a2 ). Ve3 0. Ve4 sp (v1 À v2 v3 À v4 ). Ve2 0. For example. . Ve5 sp (v1 À v3 . Then 2 Ve1 sp (v1 v2 v3 v4 ). Here is a list of the irreducible characters ÷1 .148 Representations and characters of groups 2 3 V g gPG is the sum of all the trivial CG-submodules of V. . v3 .3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 Let V be the permutation module for G. with basis v1 .5). . v2 À v4 )X . v2 . . (2) Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by a (1 2 3 4) and b (1 2)(3 4)X Then G D8 (compare Example 1. v4 such that v i g v ig for all i and all g P G. . with basis v1 . let ÷ i (1) ei ÷ i ( g À1 ) gX 8 gPG For example.

respectively. Every CG-module is determined by its character. ÷ j i ä ij for all i. ø is irreducible if and only if kø. . The inner product of two functions W. Note that the procedure described in (14.27) does not in general enable us to write a given CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules (since V÷ is not in general irreducible). 3. .Inner products of characters We have V Ve1 È Ve4 È Ve5 . ö from G to C is given by 1 hW. Summary of Chapter 14 1. If ÷1 . h÷ i . e2 ei for 1 < i < 5. j. . . ÷4 and ÷5 . . then ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k where d i hø. ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. . and ø is any character. 149 and so we have expressed V as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules whose characters are ÷1 . . You might like to check that e1 X X X e5 1. øl 1. ÷ k of G form an orthonormal set. Also.9. 4. i ei ej 0 for i T jX Compare these results with Corollary 14. . The irreducible characters ÷1 . öi W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG 2. that is. . ÷ i iX Each di is a non-negative integer.

h÷. 3. and that ÷( g) is a non-negative real number for all g in G. ÷i ÷(1)X . br3 X 0 1 0 À1 Show that r1 and r2 are equivalent. Prove that ÷ is reducible. Let G S4 . br1 . non-trivial character of G. br2 . 5. We shall see in Chapter 18 that G has characters ÷ and ø which take the following values on the conjugacy classes: Class representative |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø 1 24 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 Calculate h÷. but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. b2 a2 . Suppose that ÷ is a non-zero. 0 Ài À1 0 2 3 2 3 0 i 0 À1 ar2 .150 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 14 1. r2 . Which of ÷ and ø is irreducible? 2. b: a4 1. and let r1 . gó T À1 ( gr)TX 4. If ÷ is a character of G. øi and hø. Suppose that r and ó are representations of G. Let G Q8 ka. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. r3 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 ar1 . ÷i. øi. and that for each g in G there is an invertible matrix Tg such that gó T À1 ( gr)Tg X g Prove that there is an invertible matrix T such that for all g in G. show that h÷reg . i 0 1 0 2 3 2 3 À1 0 1 0 ar3 .

What can you say about the integers di in the cases kø. . 2. . .4 relevant. and suppose that ø d 1 ÷1 X X Xd k ÷ k is a character of G. prove that hð. Does it follow that ÷ 2ö for some character ö? . If ð is the permutation character of Sn . ÷( g) is an even integer. 1 S n i 1X (Hint: you may ®nd Exercise 11.Inner products of characters 6. Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and that for every g P G. 3 or 4? 8. . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of the group G. øl 1.) 151 7. Let ÷1 .

3 Theorem The number of irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G.15 The number of irreducible characters We devote this chapter to the theorem which states that the number of irreducible characters of a ®nite group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. Thus.1 De®nition A class function on G is a function ø: G 3 C such that ø(x) ø( y) whenever x and y are conjugate elements of G (that is. A basis of C is given by those functions which take the value 1 on precisely one conjugacy class and zero on all other classes. Class functions 15. then (15X2) dim C lX 15. 152 .5(2). the characters of G are class functions on G. if l is the number of conjugacy classes of G. The set C of all class functions on G is a subspace of the vector space of all functions from G to C. the theorem provides machinery for investigating characters which is used in the remainder of the book. Throughout. ø is constant on conjugacy classes). and to some consequences of this theorem. G is as usual a ®nite group. By Proposition 13. Together with the material from Chapter 14.

Since Z(CG) has dimension l by Proposition 12. vz ë i vX Hence wz ë i w for all w P W i . then ø where ë i kø. Proof Since ÷1 . By Theorem 14. V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. This completes the proof that k l. Indeed. if ø is a class function. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. f iz ëi f i It follows that z 1z ( f 1 X X X f k )z f 1 z X X X f k z ë1 f 1 X X X ë k f k X This shows that Z(CG) is contained in the subspace of CG spanned by f 1 . f k . for each i there exists ë i P C such that for all v P Vi. . they span a subspace of C of dimension k.2) implies that k < l. we know from Theorem 8.2). Since CG contains the identity element 1. dim C l. . the centre of CG. ÷ k are linearly independent. X X X . Now let z P Z(CG). . . . and in particular.The number of irreducible characters 153 Proof Let ÷1 . . we consider the regular CG-module. By Proposition 9. In order to prove the reverse inequality l < k.22.4 Corollary The irreducible characters ÷1 . . j (1 < i < k)X 15. If V1 . ÷1 . which is equal to k by k i1 ëi÷i . where for each i.23. ÷ i l for 1 < i < k. ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. . we deduce that l < k. and let l be the number of conjugacy classes of G. . ÷ k are linearly independent elements of C. W i is isomorphic to a direct sum of copies of V i . . we can write 1 f1 X X X fk with f i P W i for 1 < i < k. . X X X . . By (15. so (15.7 that CG W 1 È X X X È W k .14. X X X .

4. As in previous examples. Hence ÷1 .13). Conversely.4 has the following useful consequence.5 Proposition Suppose that g.5(2). the result follows immediately from Proposition 15.3. . Proof If g is conjugate to h then ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. 15. and six irreducible characters ÷1 .7 Example We shall see in Section 18. and so they form a basis of C. . . 15. . this is true for the class function ø which takes the value 1 on the conjugacy class of g and takes the value 0 elsewhere. . Proof Since ÷( g) is real if and only if ÷( g) ÷( gÀ1 ) (see Proposition j 13. ÷ k span C.154 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 15. ÷6 given as follows: . ø( g) ø(h) for all class functions ø on G. . using (14. .5. Then g is conjugate to h if and only if ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. . .4 that there is a certain group G of order 12 which has exactly six conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . Then ø( g) ø(h) 1. by Proposition 13.9(3)).6 Corollary Suppose that g P G. j 15. In particular. h P G. suppose that ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷. g6 (where g1 1). whose k entries are the values of ÷ on the k conjugacy classes of G. The last part follows. . . . j Corollary 15. We conclude the chapter with an example illustrating some practical methods of expressing characters and class functions of a group as combinations of irreducible characters. we regard a character ÷ of G as a row vector. and so g is conjugate to h. Then g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G. Then by Corollary 15.

.The number of irreducible characters gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 g3 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g4 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 155 g6 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 Suppose we are given characters ÷ and ø of G as follows: g1 ÷ ø 3 4 g2 À3 0 g3 0 0 g4 0 4 g5 i 0 g6 Ài 0 Then it is easy to spot that ÷ ÷2 ÷6 . . The reason for this is that the required coef®cients are known to be non-negative integers. ÷6 : g1 ë ì 2 4 g2 À2 4 g3 À2 1 g4 2 1 g5 0 0 g6 0 0 . given any character ö of G whose degree is not large compared with the degrees of the ÷ i . we see that ÷ must be a combination of ÷2 . ì of G as combinations of ÷1 . ÷4 and ÷6 . they are the degrees of the ÷ i ). In fact. . and the entries in the column corresponding to g1 1 are positive integers (indeed. it is not hard to use tactical guesswork to express ö as a combination of the irreducible characters. The correct answer now comes quickly to mind. Inspecting the values of the irreducible characters ÷ i . We suggest that you use the `guesswork method' to express the following characters ë. the second entry in the row vector for ÷ is equal to minus the ®rst entry. ø ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 X For example. .

we calculate these inner products: 11 . 4 hö. (À1) 5 . ÷4 l 1. 1 (À1 2i) . l.4 that the coef®cients ë i in the expression ö ë1 ÷1 X X X ë6 ÷6 are given by ë i hö. ÷1 i and similarly kö. 1 À3 . 1 5 . 1 3 . 1 (À1 2i) . Therefore ö ÷1 3÷2 2÷3 ÷4 2÷5 X Summary of Chapter 15 1.156 Representations and characters of groups How do we cope with a class function or with a more dif®cult character. ÷6 l 0. 1 5 . i 3. 1 1. like the following one? g1 ö 11 g2 3 g3 À3 g4 5 g5 À1 2i g6 À1 À 2i The answer is to use the inner product k . 4 11 . 1 (À1 2i) . 1 À3 . (À1) (À3) . The number of irreducible characters of a group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. ÷5 l 2 and kö. We know from Corollary 15. 4 11 . 1 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . . 1 3 . (À1) hö. (À1) 2. ÷3 i 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . (Ài) hö. ÷ i i (1 < i < 6)X Using Proposition 14. kö. 1 3 . ÷2 i 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) .5(2).

÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. If ø is a class function. . Let ø1 . then ø k i1 ë i ÷ i where ë i hø. ÷ i iX Exercises for Chapter 15 1. Is ÷ a character of S3 ? 2. ø2 and ø3 be the class functions on S3 taking the following values: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 0 0 (1 2) 0 1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 1 Express ø1 . ÷2 and ÷3 of S3 . .The number of irreducible characters 157 2. ÷3 : 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 Let ÷ be the class function on S3 with the following values: 1 ÷ 19 (1 2) À1 (1 2 3) À2 Express ÷ as a linear combination of ÷1 . . . ÷2 . The irreducible characters ÷1 . . ÷2 and ÷3 . ø2 and ø3 as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ÷1 . The three irreducible characters of S3 are ÷1 .

) (b) Using the solution to Exercise 11. . ÷6 as in that example.2. . . . . Let ø be the class function on G taking the following values: g1 ø 6 g2 0 g3 3 g4 À3 g5 À1 À i g6 À1 i Express ø as a linear combination of ÷1 . Is ø a character of G? 4. Suppose that G is the group of order 12 in Example 15. Let G be a group of order 12. (Hint: show that Z(G) cannot have order 6. prove that G has 4. . Find groups G in which each of these possibilities is realized. 6 or 12 conjugacy classes. . . . (a) Show that G cannot have exactly 9 conjugacy classes.158 Representations and characters of groups 3. . . ÷6 . g6 and irreducible characters ÷1 . . .7. with conjugacy class representatives g1 .

The k 3 k matrix whose ij-entry is ÷ i ( g j ) (for all i. It is therefore convenient to record all the values of all the irreducible characters of G in a square matrix. It is usual to number the irreducible characters and conjugacy classes of G so that ÷1 1 G . many problems in representation theory can be solved by considering characters.21. g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. The motivation for this is Theorem 14. 159 . the rows are indexed by the irreducible characters of G and the columns are indexed by the conjugacy classes (or. the numbering is arbitrary. which tells us that every CG-module is determined by its character.4). Character tables 16. the identity element of G. by conjugacy class representatives). X X X . Beyond this. Note that in the character table.1 De®nition Let ÷1 . j with 1 < i < k. 1 < j < k) is called the character table of G.16 Character tables and orthogonality relations The irreducible characters of a ®nite group G are class functions. Thus. and the number of them is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let g 1 . Much of the later material in the book will be devoted to understanding character tables. in practice. the trivial character. and g1 1. X X X . The entries in a character table are related to each other in subtle ways. This matrix is called the character table of G. many of which are encapsulated in the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16.

b: a3 b2 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. We take 1. the character table of C2 ha: a2 1i is 1 ÷1 ÷2 1 1 a 1 À1 and the character table of C3 ka: a3 1l is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù (ù e2ðia3 ) (3) Let G D8 ka.6(4).3 Examples (1) Let G D6 ka. are linearly independent (Theorem 14.23).4. b as representatives of the conjugacy classes of G.2 Proposition The character table of G is an invertible matrix. j 16. b: a4 b2 1. Proof This follows immediately from the fact that the irreducible characters of G. The irreducible characters of G are given in Example 13. and hence also the rows of the character table. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. a. For example. and then the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 (2) We can write down the character table of any ®nite abelian group using Theorem 9. The conjugacy classes .160 Representations and characters of groups 16. You found all the irreducible representations of G in Exercise 10.8.

a2 . (1) The row orthogonality relations: k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs X (2) The column orthogonality relations: k i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs jCG ( g r )jX . . by writing them as k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) ä rs jCG ( g i )j i1 (see Proposition 14. . X X X . b.12). These relations can be expressed in terms of the rows of the character table. Similar relations exist between the columns of the character table.5(2)). 16.Character tables and orthogonality relations 161 of G are given by (12. . Hence the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 The character tables of all dihedral groups will be found in Chapter 18. . a. and representatives are 1. . ÷ s i ä rs . . and these are given by part (2) of our next result. h÷ r . ab. s P {1. . Then the following relations hold for any r. and let g 1 .13).4 Theorem Let ÷1 . . . ÷ k of G. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. . k}. . The orthogonality relations We have already seen many uses for the relations (14. among the irreducible characters ÷1 . . g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G.

16. (1) Let G D6. For 1 < s < k. and this time we record the order of the centralizer C G ( g i ) next to each conjugacy class representative gi : gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 a 3 1 1 À1 b 2 1 À1 0 . They are recorded here merely for comparison with the column relations. .162 Representations and characters of groups Proof The row orthogonality relations have already been proved. ø s is a linear combination of ÷1 . . and ø s ( g) 0 otherwise. . ÷ k . We copy the character table of G from Example 16. j and the column orthogonality relations follow. Hence ëi Therefore ä rs ø s ( g r ) k i1 1 ÷ i ( gs ) ø s ( g)÷ i ( g) X jGj gP g G jCG ( g s )j s ëi ÷i ( gr ) k ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) i1 jCG ( g s )j .3(1). by Theorem 12.5 Examples We illustrate the column orthogonality relations. also there are jGjajC G ( g s )j elements of G which are conjugate to g s . let ø s be the class function which satis®es ø s ( g r ) ä rs k i1 (1 < r < k)X By Corollary 15. ÷ j i ä ij . .8. ÷ i i 1 ø s ( g)÷ i ( g)X jGj gPG Now ø s ( g) 1 if g is conjugate to g s .4. say øs ëi ÷i (ë i P C)X We know that h÷ i . so ë i hø s .

taking the products of the numbers which appear. 1 (À1) . 1 1 . (2) Suppose we are given the following part of the character table of a group G of order 12 which has exactly four conjugacy classes: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 12 1 1 1 g2 4 1 1 1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 g4 3 1 ù2 ù (where ù e2ðia3 ). Hence the last entry in the ®rst column is 3. r 1. and is the number at the top of the column (that is. (À1) 2 .12). By the column orthogonality relations with r s 1. r 2. so they are positive integers.Character tables and orthogonality relations Consider the sums 3 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) for various cases: i1 r 1. 1 1 . we obtain the complete character table as . By considering the orthogonality relations between the ®rst column and columns 3 and 4. 1 1 . (À1) 0. Let x denote the number at the foot of the second column. s 2: s 2: s 3: 1 . (À1) 3. 1 2 . 1 1 . 0 0X 163 In each case. The column orthogonality relation 4 i1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives 1 . 1 . We shall use the column orthogonality relations to determine the last row of the character table. the order of the centralizer of g r ) if r s. 1 3x 0X Therefore x À1. The entries in the ®rst column of the character table are the degrees of the irreducible characters. the sum of the squares of these numbers is 12 (this also follows from Theorem 11. we read down columns r and s of the character table. The sum of the products is 0 if r T s. 1 . 1 1 .

Those column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column of the character table were proved in Chapter 13. (À1) 4. 1 1 . ù ù2 . d i ÷ i ( g) X i1 0. we get V ` jGj. if g T 1. 1 ù . k ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) X i1 0. although our calculation has used only those relations which involve the ®rst column. 0 0X We shall see later that the character table which we have constructed here is that of A4 . where d i ÷ i (1). if g 1. 0 3. ù2 0 . ù2 ù2 . if g T 1. . ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 3 ) 1 . ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 1 . By taking the complex conjugate of each side of this equation. since Theorem 13. 1 (À1) .20 give V k ` jGj. 1 ù . 4 i1 4 i1 4 i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 1 . For example. 1 1 . ù 0 .164 follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 Representations and characters of groups g1 12 1 1 1 3 g2 4 1 1 1 À1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 0 g4 3 1 ù2 ù 0 Notice that the orthogonality relations hold between all pairs of columns. if g 1.19 and Proposition 13.

the row and column orthogonality relations encapsulate the same information. it is a fact that the column orthogonality relations contain precisely the same information as the row orthogonality relations. we calculated the values of the last character one at a time using the column orthogonality relations. . Rows versus columns Notice that in Example 16. so M M t I. by letting the ij-entry of M be ÷ i ( gj ) X jCG ( g j )j1a2 Let M t denote the transpose of the complex conjugate of M. we see that the row and column orthogonality relations are equivalent. More importantly.5(2). Now the rs-entry in M M t is k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs . and we adjust the entries ÷ i ( g j ) in this matrix to obtain another k 3 k matrix M. as we shall now show. Although the calculation with the column orthogonality relations was easier to perform. the rs-entry in M t M is k 1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs . so M t M I. ÷4 i ä i4 to obtain four equations in the four unknown values ÷4 ( g j ) (1 < j < 4). jCG ( g r )j1a2 jCG ( g s )j1a2 i1 by the column orthogonality relations. An alternative approach would have been to use the row orthogonality relations h÷ i . where we were given three of the four irreducible characters of G. the equation M M t I is just another way of expressing the row orthogonality relations. Indeed.Character tables and orthogonality relations 165 and these are just the column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column. The character table of G is a k 3 k matrix. Since the properties M t M I and M M t I of a square matrix M are equivalent to each other. by the row orthogonality relations. On the other hand. We could have used the above argument to deduce the column orthogonality relations from the row ones.

.166 Representations and characters of groups so when we are working with character tables. . . . A certain group G of order 8 is known to have a total of ®ve conjugacy classes. There exists a group G of order 10 which has precisely four conjugacy classes. s. we can deduce exactly the same results using either set of relations. ÷ k and conjugacy class representatives g1 . . . The row orthogonality relations state that for all r. . Summary of Chapter 16 Let G be a ®nite group with irreducible characters ÷1 . s. The character table of G is the k 3 k matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( g j ). . . with representatives g1 . . g4 . ÷2 as follows: . . . 2. . 1. g5 . . k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs X 3. 3. and four linear characters ÷1 . 2. and has irreducible characters ÷1 . k i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs jCG ( g r )jX Exercises for Chapter 16 1. gk . . . ÷4 taking the following values: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 8 1 1 1 1 g2 8 1 1 1 1 g3 4 1 1 À1 À1 g4 4 1 À1 1 À1 g5 4 1 À1 À1 1 Find the complete character table of G. . . The column orthogonality relations state that for all r. . Write down the character table of C2 3 C2 . . with representatives g1 .

(a) Find æ. then on g4 ± use Corollary 13. (b) Find another column of the character table. . (Hint: ®rst ®nd the values of the remaining irreducible characters on g1 . g k and character table C. k i1 jCG ( g i )jX . Let G be a ®nite group with conjugacy class representatives g1 . . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G.10.Character tables and orthogonality relations gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 g1 10 1 2 g2 5 1 á g3 5 1 â g4 2 1 0 167 p p where á (À1 5)a2 and â (À1 À 5)a2. X X X . A certain group G has two columns of its character table as follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 g1 21 1 1 1 3 3 g2 7 1 1 1 æ æ where g1 1 and æ P C. Show that @ A k Z(G) g P G: ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) jGj X i1 6. Find the complete character table of G. . and that jdet Cj2 Find Æ(det C) when G C3 . Show that det C is either real or purely imaginary. Let ÷1 .) 4. . 5.

17. and let ~ be a character of GaN .e. and ÷ and ~ have the same degree. C) be a representation of GaN with 168 . by a process which is known as lifting. the characters of degree 1) are obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaN in the case where N is the derived subgroup of G.) The linear characters. it is also true that the character table of G enables us to ®nd the normal subgroups of G. De®ne ÷ ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ( g P G)X ÷ Then ÷ is a character of G. in a way which we shall describe.17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters If N is a normal subgroup of the ®nite group G. can be used to get new irreducible characters from a given irreducible character. The linear characters of G (i. ÷ ~ Proof Let r: GaN 3 GL (n. then the factor group GaN is smaller than G. The characters of GaN should therefore be easier to ®nd than the characters of G. in turn. and N T {1}. normal subgroups help us to ®nd characters of G. in particular. Lifted characters We begin by constructing a character of G from a character of GaN .1 Proposition Assume that N v G. In the opposite direction. Thus. it is easy to tell from the character table whether or not G is simple. we can use the characters of GaN to get some of the characters of G. (The derived subgroup is de®ned below in De®nition 17.7. In fact.

3 Theorem Assume that N v G. ~ Proof If ÷ is a character of GaN . g2 P G and Ng1 Ng2 then g1 gÀ1 P N. then the character ÷ of G ÷ which is given by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ÷ is called the lift of ~ to G.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 169 character ~. so ( g1 gÀ1 )r I. C) which is given by the ÷ composition g 3 Ng 3 (Ng)~ r ( g P G) is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. ÷ ÷ so N < Ker ÷. The function r: G 3 GL (n. By associating each character of GaN with its lift to G. then ÷ ~(N) ÷(1). If g 1 . and hence 2 2 ~ g1 r g2 r. Irreducible characters of GaN correspond to irreducible characters of G which have N in their kernel. we obtain a bijective correspondence between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters ÷ of G which satisfy N < Ker ÷. h P G we have ((Ng)(Nh))~ (Ngh)~ ( gh)r ( gr)(hr) r r ((Ng)~)((Nh)~). j 17. Moreover. We may therefore de®ne a function r: GaN 3 GL (n. Now let ÷ be a character of G with N < Ker ÷. C) by (Ng)~ gr r Then for all g. r r ( g P G)X ( g P G) . Thus r is a representation of G. ÷(1) ~(N). and ÷ is the lift of ~ to G. The character ÷ of r satis®es ÷( g) tr ( gr) tr ((Ng)~) ~(Ng) r ÷ for all g P G.2 De®nition If N v G and ~ is a character of GaN . ÷ 17. Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. if k P N then ÷ ÷(k) ~(Nk) ~(N ) ÷(1). C). Also. so ÷ and ~ have the same ÷ ÷ degree. C) is a representation of G with character ÷.

so that N v G (see Example 12. If ~ is the character of r then ÷ ~(Ng) ÷( g) ( g P G)X ÷ ~ Thus ÷ is the lift of ÷. (1 4)(2 3)g. U is a CG-submodule of C n if and only if U is a C(GaN )submodule of C n . If we put a N(1 2 3) and b N(1 2) then GaN ha. We know from Example 16. To see this.3 enables us to write down as many irreducible characters of G as there are irreducible characters of GaN .20). let U be a subspace of C n . 17.4 Example Let G S4 and N V4 f1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . It remains to show that irreducible characters correspond to irreducible characters. ÷ j If we know the character table of GaN for some normal subgroup N of G. bi and a3 b2 N . The representation r is therefore irreducible if and ~ only if the representation r is irreducible. and note that u( gr) P U for all u P U D u(Ng)~ P U for all u P U X r Thus.170 Representations and characters of groups ~ ~ so r is a representation of GaN . (1 2)(3 4). then Theorem 17. Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ~ is irreducible. (1 3)(2 4). so GaN D6 .3(1) that the character table of GaN is N ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 2 N (1 2) 1 À1 0 N(1 2 3) 1 1 À1 . We have now established that the function which sends each character of GaN to its lift to G is a bijection between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters of G which have N in their kernel.

since Ker ÷ f g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)g (see De®nition 13. . Of course. ~3 are ÷1 . ÷ ÷((1 2 3 4)) ~(N (1 3)) since N (1 2 3 4) N (1 3)X ÷ Hence the lifts of ~1 . 17. ~2 . since ~1 . Recall that we can easily locate the kernel of an irreducible character ÷ from the character table. once the character table of G is known. Hence the intersection of the kernels of all the irreducible characters of G is {1}. Also Ker ÷ v G. which are given by ÷ ÷ ÷ 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 171 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 Then ÷1 . so g 1 by Proposition 15. ÷3 are irreducible characters of G. The following proposition shows that every normal subgroup arises in this way. as our next two propositions will demonstrate.5.Normal subgroups and lifted characters To calculate the lift ÷ of a character ~ of GaN . ÷ s of G such that N s i1 Ker ÷ i X Proof If g belongs to the kernel of each irreducible character of G. ÷2 . ~3 are ÷ ÷ ÷ irreducible characters of GaN . ÷2 . we note that ÷ ÷((1 2)(3 4)) ~(N ) since (1 2)(3 4) P N . then ÷( g) ÷(1) for all characters ÷.13). any subgroup which is the intersection of the kernels of irreducible characters is a normal subgroup too. First we shall show how to ®nd all the normal subgroups of G. Finding normal subgroups The character table contains accessible information about the structure of a group. ~2 . ÷3 .5 Proposition If N v G then there exist irreducible characters ÷1 . X X X .

Then by Proposition 17. Therefore if g P Ker ÷ i then Ng P Ker ~ i ÷ ÷ {N}. . there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that Ker ÷ is not {1} or G. Since ÷ is non-trivial and irreducible. If r is a representation of G with character ÷.11(2). . ~ s be the irreducible characters of GaN . If g P Ker ÷ i then ÷ ~ i (N ) ÷ i (1) ÷ i ( g) ~ i (Ng). As Ker ÷ T G. . . ÷ ÷ and so Ng P Ker ~ i. s i1 Ker ~ i fN gX ÷ For 1 < i < s. Thus Ker ÷ is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to {1} of G. since the . j Linear characters Recall that a linear character of a group is a character of degree 1. and taking 1 T g P Ker ÷.6 Proposition The group G is not simple if and only if ÷( g) ÷(1) for some non-trivial irreducible character ÷ of G. so Ker ÷ T {1}. let ÷ i be the lift to G of ~ i . we have ÷( g) ÷(1). ÷ is non-trivial. and so G is not simple. so that there is a normal subgroup N of G with N T {1} and N T G. By the ÷ ÷ above observation.172 Representations and characters of groups Now let ~1 . We shall show how to ®nd all linear characters of any group G. hence Ker ÷ T G. suppose that G is not simple. Then g P Ker ÷. Proof Suppose there is a non-trivial irreducible character ÷ such that ÷( g) ÷(1) for some non-identity element g. and some nonidentity element g of G. then Ker ÷ Ker r by Theorem 13. Ker r T G. Conversely. and so g P N. Hence N s i1 Ker ÷ i X j It is particularly easy to tell from the character table of G whether or not G is simple: 17.5.

so G9 {1}. As a preliminary step. h P G)X Then G9 is called the derived subgroup of G. j Next. h]. 17. Therefore. . Clearly [ g. If g (1 2) and h (2 3) then [ g. let G9 be the subgroup of G which is generated by all elements of the form g À1 hÀ1 gh ( g. (2) Let G S3 . ÷( g À1 hÀ1 gh) ÷( g)À1 ÷(h)À1 ÷( g)÷(h) 1X Hence G9 < Ker ÷.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 173 ®rst move in constructing the character table of G is often to write down the linear characters. h P G. h P GiX 17. Proof Let ÷ be a linear character of G. h] (1 2 3). h] is always an even permutation. we explore some group-theoretic properties of the derived subgroup. We are going to show that G9 v G and that the linear characters of G are the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. h]: g. so G9 < A3 . h P G. Then ÷ is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers.9 Proposition If ÷ is a linear character of G. One step is provided by the following proposition. 17.7 De®nition For a group G. h] 1 for all g. Thus G9 h[ g. Hence G9 h(1 2 3)i A3 .8 Examples (1) If G is abelian then [ g. which is de®ned in the following way. then G9 < Ker ÷. it is necessary to determine the derived subgroup of G. We abbreviate gÀ1 hÀ1 gh as [ g. for all g.

In particular. Since we have proved that G9 v G. we have x À1 (ab)x (x À1 ax)(x À1 bx). In particular. j It follows from Proposition 17. ÷ m of these characters to G also have degree 1. . h.10 Proposition Assume that N v G.8 shows that GaG9 has exactly m irreducible characters ~1 .10 that G9 is the smallest normal subgroup of G with abelian factor group. Since GaG9 is abelian. GaG9 is abelian. Given the derived subgroup G9. x À1 hx]X Therefore G9 v G. Therefore. Proof Let m jGaG9j. to prove that G9 v G it is suf®cient by the ®rst sentence to prove that x À1 [ g. We have ghgÀ1 hÀ1 P N D Ngh Nhg D (Ng)(Nh) (Nh)(Ng)X Hence G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. 17.174 Representations and characters of groups 17. ÷ ÷ The lifts ÷1 . . and by Theorem 17. But x À1 [ g. . h P G. we can obtain the linear characters of G by applying the next theorem. ~ m . . and x À1 aÀ1 x (x À1 ax)À1 X Now G9 consists of products of elements of the form [ g. . (1) G9 v G. h]x P G9 for all g. (2) G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. and so divides |G|. h] and their inverses. . the number of distinct linear characters of G is equal to jGaG9j. h]x x À1 g À1 hÀ1 ghx (x À1 gx)À1 (x À1 hx)À1 (x À1 gx)(x À1 hx) [x À1 gx.3 they are precisely the irreducible characters ÷ of G . . x P G. .11 Theorem The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. b. (2) Let g. x P G. all of degree 1. we deduce that GaG9 is abelian. Proof (1) Note that for all a. Theorem 9.

if g P An X a À1.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 175 such that G9 < Ker ÷. we know that S9 An . If n 1 or 2 then S n is abelian. ÷ ~2 (An (1 2)) À1X ÷ Therefore by Theorem 17. but they can also be used to construct new irreducible characters from old. Therefore A n < G9. Therefore. @ ÷2 ( g) 1. the characters ÷1 . ÷2 .15. . 17. G9 contains all 3-cycles and all elements of cycle-shape (2. all the elements in (1 2 3) G and (1 4)(2 3) G belong to G9. Not only are the linear characters of G important in being irreducible characters. where ÷ ÷ n ~1 (An (1 2)) 1. each of which is the product of an even number of transpositions. From the last example.9. . 2). Since Sn aS9 fAn . We proved that S9 A3 in Example 3 17.13 Example We ®nd the linear characters of S n (n > 2). ÷ m are therefore all the linear characters of G. as the next result shows. h] (1 2 3). [h.10(2). so we assume that n > 4. As S n aA n C2 . 2). which are given by ÷1 1 Sn . and A n consists of permutations. a 3-cycle or an element of cycle-shape (2. We have now proved that G9 A n . k] (1 4)(2 3)X Since G9 v G. If g (1 2). . j 17. we have G9 < A n by Proposition 17. if g P An .11. so G9 {1} A n . . the group n n S n aS9 has two linear characters ~1 and ~2. then [ g. .8(2). S n has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . We shall show that G9 An .12 Example Let G S n . h (2 3) and k (1 2)(3 4). In view of Proposition 17. An (1 2)g C2 . by Theorem 12. But every product of two transpositions is equal to the identity.

20. ÷ëi ÷( g)ë( g)÷( g)ë( g) jGj gPG 1 ÷( g)÷( g) h÷. Characters of GaN correspond to characters ÷ of G for which N < Ker ÷. The character of G which corresponds to the character ~ ÷ of GaN is the lift of ~. if ÷ is irreducible. Therefore 1 h÷ë. Proof Let r: G 3 GL (n. Moreover. j The general case of a product of two characters will be discussed in Chapter 19. The normal subgroups of G can be found from the character table of G. . The matrix g(rë) has trace ë( g) tr ( gr).14 Proposition Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and ë is a linear character of G. ÷iX jGj gPG By Theorem 14. C) by g(rë) ë( g)( gr) ( g P G)X Thus g(rë) is the matrix gr multiplied by the complex number ë( g). it follows that ÷ë is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible. Now for all g P G. so ë( g)ë( g) 1.176 Representations and characters of groups 17. the complex number ë( g) is a root of unity. 3. de®ned by ÷ë( g) ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G) is a character of G. then so is ÷ë. Since r and ë are homomorphisms it follows easily that rë is a homomorphism. ÷ ÷ 2. Summary of Chapter 17 1. Hence rë is a representation of G with character ÷ë. C) be a representation with character ÷. Then the product ÷ë. which is ë( g)÷( g). and is given by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ( g P G). The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. De®ne rë: G 3 GL (n.

. bl. What are the sizes of the conjugacy classes of G? 5. and construct all the linear characters of G. Let a and b be the following permutations in S7 : a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.3(3)). b: a4 1. b2 a2 . a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab. . ö with values as follows: g1 ÷ ö 1 2 g2 Ài 0 g3 i 0 g4 1 À1 g5 À1 À1 g6 À1 2 Use Proposition 17. The character table of D8 is as shown (see Example 16. and has irreducible characters ÷. Compare your table with the character table of D8 (Example 16. 4. with representatives g1 .Normal subgroups and lifted characters Exercises for Chapter 17 177 1. Check that a7 b3 1. g6 (where g1 1). 3. (b) Find the conjugacy classes of G. and hence cannot be simple. A certain group G of order 12 has precisely six conjugacy classes.3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a. (c) Find the character table of G. a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b. Let G Q8 ka. 4 or 12 linear characters. . a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 . (a) Find the ®ve conjugacy classes of G. 2. (c) Complete the character table of G.14 to complete the character table of G. b (2 3 5)(4 7 6)X Let G ka. . (b) Find G9. bÀ1 ab a2 X (a) Show that G has order 21. Show that every group of order 12 has 3.

as in Proposition 17. b: a2 n b4 1. 6. 7.178 Representations and characters of groups Express each normal subgroup of D8 as an intersection of kernels of irreducible characters. an b2 . 8. Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. then there is a representation of V8 n over C which sends å 0 0 1 X a3 .b3 X 0 å À1 ån 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of T4 n. Let n be an odd positive integer. You are given that the group T4 n ha. then there is a representation of U6n over C which sends 0 å ù 0 X a3 . (a) Show that if å is any nth root of unity in C. bÀ1 a aÀ1 bi has order 8n. aÀ1 ba bÀ1 i has order 6n. ba aÀ1 bÀ1 .) (a) Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. The group V8 n ha.5. the group U6 n ha.b3 0 Àå À1 À1 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of V8 n . (a) Let ù e2ðia3 . . For n > 1. (It is known as a dicyclic group. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i has order 4n.b3 å 0 0 ù2 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of U6 n. b: a2 n 1. b: a2 n b3 1. then there is a representation of T4 n over C which sends å 0 0 1 a3 .

14. ÷4 and ÷4 ÷2 are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷2 ÷4 ÷4 ÷2 1 24 1 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 1 Note that h÷4 . we produced three irreducible characters ÷1 . 18. which deals with the product of a character with a linear character. We shall now use Proposition 17. ÷2 . ÷4 i 9 1 1 1 1. By Proposition 17. 24 4 8 4 179 .18 Some elementary character tables We now illustrate the techniques we have presented so far by constructing the character tables of several groups. and all dihedral groups. ÷3 of S4 by lifting characters of the factor group S4 aV4 . to complete the character table of S4 .24. the product ÷4 ÷2 is also a character of S4 .14.1 The group S4 In Example 17.4. The values of ÷2 . including the groups S4 and A4 . Let ÷4 be the character ÷4 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P S4 ) which is given in Proposition 13.

Thus jGaG9j 3 by Theorem 17. and the sum of the squares of their degrees is 12. íi 9 1 1. there must be exactly three linear characters of G. It is not dif®cult to con®rm this by showing that . Since G has four irreducible characters. Then |G| 12. (1 2 3). Let ÷5 ÷4 ÷2 . and we have produced ®ve irreducible characters. The character ÷4 ÷2 is also irreducible. as shown. (1 3 2) (see Example 12.11.18(1)).14.180 Representations and characters of groups so ÷4 is irreducible. Since S4 has ®ve conjugacy classes. and G has four conjugacy classes. with representatives 1. so that í( g) |®x ( g)| À 1 for all g P A4 . Character table of S4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 18. (1 2)(3 4). 12 4 so í is an irreducible character of G of degree 3. either by using the same calculation or by quoting the result of Proposition 17. Let í be the character of A4 given by Proposition 13.2 The group A4 Let G A4 . we have now found the complete character table of S4 .24. the alternating group of degree 4. The values of í are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| í 1 12 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 (1 3 2) 3 0 Note that hí.

. de®ne j 0 1 å 0 Aj . Write å e2ðia n . BÀ1 Aj Bj AÀ1 X j j j j It follows that by de®ning r j : G 3 GL(2.3 The dihedral groups Let G be the dihedral group D2 n of order 2n.Some elementary character tables G9 V4 f1. G9(1 3 2)g C3. ~2 . Bj X 1 0 0 åÀ j Check that A n B2 I. The lifts of ÷1 . we obtain a representation r j of G for each j with 1 < j . (1 3)(2 4). with n > 3. ~3 to G. C) by (ar bs )r j (Aj ) r (Bj ) s (r. na2. give the complete character table of A4 : Character table of A4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 18. G9(1 2 3). For each integer j with 1 < j . so that G ha. (1 4)(2 3)gX 181 Now GaG9 fG9. s P Z). b: an b2 1. and the character table of GaG9 is G9 ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 1 G9(1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 G9(1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù ~ ÷ ÷ (where ù e2ðia3 ). na2. (1 2)(3 4). together with the character ÷4 í. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX We shall derive the character table of G.

At this point it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. X X X . then å i T å j and å i T å À j . aÀ r g(1 < r < (n À 1)a2). na2.11) the conjugacy classes of D2 n (n odd) are f1g.5(2) or by applying the result of Exercise 8. We have now constructed distinct irreducible characters ø j of G. (Incidentally.) The character table of D2 n (n odd) is therefore as follows (where å e2ðia n ): gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 øj (1 < j < (n À 1)/2) 1 2n 1 1 2 ar (1 < r < (n À 1)/2) n 1 1 å À jr b 2 1 À1 0 å jr . fas b: 0 < s < n À 1gX Thus there are (n 3)a2 conjugacy classes. ø( nÀ1)a2 each have degree 2. The (n À 1)a2 irreducible characters ø1 . If i and j are distinct integers with 1 < i . in view of 2 Theorem 17. one for each j which satis®es 1 < j .11. As G has (n 3)/2 irreducible characters in all. Therefore there is no matrix T with ar i T À1 (ar j )T.4. Case 1: n odd By (12. ÷2 of G by lifting the irreducible characters of Gahai to G. Since kal v G and Gahai C2. ÷2 ( g) À1 if g ar b for some rX We have now found all the irreducible characters of D2 n (n odd). so ar i and ar j have different eigenvalues.182 Representations and characters of groups Each r j is an irreducible representation. These characters ÷1 and ÷2 are given by ÷1 1 G and & 1 if g ar for some r. na2. we obtain two linear characters ÷1 . far . Let ø j be the character of r j . either by the proof of Example 5. na2 and 1 < j . we have proved that D9 n kal for n odd. there are two more to be found. ø2 . and so r i and r j are not equivalent.

then the conjugacy classes of D2 n. we ®rst note that ha2 i fa j : j eveng is a normal subgroup of G and Gaha2 i fha2 i.4 Another group of order 12 We shall now describe a non-abelian group G of order 12 which is not isomorphic to either A4 or D12. ø2 . ha2 ia. are f1g. aÀ r g(1 < r < m À 1). far . ha2 iabg C2 3 C2 X Therefore G has four linear characters ÷1 . they are easy to calculate. å e2ðia n ). and we shall construct the character table of G. ÷4 (and G9 ka2 l). n 2m. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (1 < j < m À 1) 1 2n 1 1 1 1 2 am 2n 1 1 (À1) m (À1) m 2(À1) j a r (1 < r < m À 1) n 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r jr å å À jr b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 18. ÷2 . ÷3 . Since these linear characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of G/ka2 l. fam g.Some elementary character tables 183 Case 2: n even If n is even. as supplied by (12. fas b: s eveng. X X X .12). It is in fact known that every non-abelian group of order . fas b: s oddgX Hence G has m 3 irreducible characters. and their values appear in the following complete character table of D2 n (n even. say n 2m. ha2 ib. ø mÀ1 X To ®nd the remaining four irreducible characters. of which m À 1 are given by ø1 .

a the group G has at least 12 elements. a subgroup of S12 . which are tabulated below: Conjugacy class {1} {a3 } {a.184 Representations and characters of groups 12 is isomorphic to A4 . bl. ÷2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X It follows from these relations that every element of G has the form ar bs with 0 < r < 5. 0 < s < 1 as given above. aÀ2 } {b. a4 } v G. a4 b} {ab. and let G ka. a3 bgX These. a3 . Observe that ka2 l {1. a3 b. b (1 7 4 10)(2 12 5 9)(3 11 6 8). ar b (0 < r < 5)X Check that a and b satisfy a6 1. and so |G| 12. aÀ1 } {a2 . Since a has order 6 and b P kal. CG (b) f1. namely ar . we have Gaha2 i C4 . a2 b. help us to ®nd the conjugacy classes of G. CG (a3 ) G. The relations further imply that CG (a) hai. D12 or G. b. a3 b2 . but we shall not prove this result here. ÷4 of G given below: . ha2 iabgX Since ka2 la ka2 lb2 . By lifting the irreducible characters of C4 to G. Let a and b be the following permutations in S12 : a (1 2 3 4 5 6)(7 8 9 10 11 12). and Gaha2 i fha2 i. and similar facts. we obtain the linear characters ÷1 . ha2 ia. a5 b} Representative gi 1 a3 a a2 b ab |CG ( gi )| 12 12 6 6 4 4 Therefore G has six irreducible characters. ha2 ib. ÷3 . a2 .

10. ÷6 . the column orthogonality relations 6 i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 1 ) 0 and 6 i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 now give us two equations involving 2á r 2â r and 2á r À 2â r . For r . 4 2á4 2â4 0.Some elementary character tables gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 á1 â1 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 á2 â2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 á3 â3 a2 6 1 1 1 1 á4 â4 b 4 1 i À1 Ài á5 â5 185 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i á6 â6 It remains to ®nd the values á r . the ®rst equation gives á1 â1 2. so they are positive integers. Since we have not yet distinguished between ÷5 and ÷6 .4(2). By the column orthogonality relations applied to columns 1 and 2. ÷6 . 2á5 À 2â5 0. 2. Explicitly: r 3: r 4: r 5: r 6: 2á3 2â3 0. 2 2 á1 á2 â1 â2 0X Since á1 . 2á5 2â5 0. we shall use the column orthogonality relations. 2á4 À 2â4 0. respectively. 4 2á3 À 2â3 0. we have 4 á2 â2 12. Theorem 16. â1 are positive integers. so we can solve them for á r and â r . The other two equations then imply that á2 Àâ2 Æ2. 1 1 4 á2 â2 12. Observe that á1 . also a3 is an element of order 2. â r taken by the last two irreducible characters ÷5 . so á2 and â2 are integers by Corollary 13. â1 are the degrees of ÷5 . 2á6 2â6 0. For this. we may take á2 2 and â2 À2. 2á6 À 2â6 0X .

without constructing the corresponding CG-modules. á6 0. â6 0X The complete character table of G is therefore as follows: gi CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 We can deduce that G is not isomorphic to A4 or D12 from the fact that the character table of G is different from those of A4 and D12.2: the group A4 . Section 18. (In fact. . á4 À1.186 Hence Representations and characters of groups á3 À1.3: the dihedral groups. It is instructive to note that we produced the last two irreducible characters of G by simply using the orthogonality relations. Section 18.1: the group S4 .6. 1. â3 1. as follows. 3. This is typical of more advanced calculations. and illustrates the fact that it is usually much easier to construct an irreducible character of a group than to obtain an irreducible representation. â4 À1. it is not hard to construct the representations of the above group G with characters ÷5 and ÷6 ± see Exercise 17. Section 18. á5 0. 2. â5 0.) Summary of Chapter 18 In this chapter we gave the character tables of various groups.

bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. b: a2n b4 1. 5. and express ð as a sum of irreducible characters. 2.6.) 3. (Hint: use the result of Exercise 17. as in Exercise 17. as in Exercise 17.Some elementary character tables Exercises for Chapter 18 187 1.6. and show that all its entries are integers.) 4. (Hint: use Proposition 17. . Let ð be the corresponding permutation character of D8. Find the character table of G. b: a2 n 1. Let G U6 n ka. as in Example 1.7. Let G T 4n ha. bÀ1 a aÀ1 bi. Find the character table of G. Find the character table of G. with n odd. Use the character table to ®nd seven distinct normal subgroups of D12. aÀ1 ba bÀ1 l. as in Exercise 17.5. It is a good idea to do the cases n odd and n even separately. Let G V8 n ha.8. ba aÀ1 bÀ1 . an b2 . Regard D8 as a subgroup of S4 permuting the four corners of a square. Write down explicitly the character table of D12. Find the values of ð on the elements of D8. b: a2n b3 1.1(3).

.19 Tensor products The idea of multiplying a character of a group G by a linear character of G was introduced at the end of Chapter 17. . and indeed. . X X X . If ÷ is not linear. At the end of the chapter. Potentially. wn . The value of the product ÷ø on an element g of G is simply ÷( g)ø( g). ÷ 2 . The plan is to take CG-modules V and W with characters ÷ and ø respectively. products of characters provide a very good source of new characters from given ones. we introduce a symbol v i wj. and so on. and more generally ÷ 3 . but a little ingenuity is required in order to justify the conclusion that the product ÷ø is a character of G. we apply tensor products in a different way. and by taking successive powers of ÷ we obtain arbitrarily many new characters. called the tensor product of V and W. . For each i. and to put them together to form a new CG-module. to ®nd all the irreducible characters of a direct product G 3 H. j with 1 < i < m. given those of G and H. we have a chance of getting a large proportion of the character table of G from just one non-linear character ÷ of G. An important special case of the product ÷ø occurs when ÷ ø. 1 < j < n. and it can be extended to include the product of any pair of characters ÷ and ø. It is therefore straightforward to calculate the product. increase. . then the degrees of ÷. so we consider the character ÷ 2 . We shall illustrate this by constructing the character tables of S5 and S6 . Tensor product spaces Let V and W be vector spaces over C with bases v1 . v m and w1 . . ÷ 4 . then. respectively. The tensor product space V W is de®ned to be the mn-dimensional vector space over C with a basis given by 188 . which has character ÷ø. .

i j i. yb P W. j m Proof (1) Let v i1 ë i v i and w n ì j w j. then 2 a 3 H b I xi d yj e xi yj X i1 j1 i. it is impossible to express v1 w1 v2 w2 in the form v w. j i. . (2v1 À v2 ) (w1 w2 ) 2v1 w1 2v1 w2 À v2 w1 À v2 w2 X Do not be misled by the notation into believing that every element of V W has the form v w. . xa P V and y1. j (ëv) w 2 i 3 ëë i v i 2 j 3 ì jw j i. Then j1 2 3 2 3 v (ëw) ëi vi ëì j w j ëë i ì j (v i wj ). j 189 w n j1 ì j wj For example. 1 < j < ngX Thus V W consists of all expressions of the form ë ij (v i wj ) (ë ij P C)X m For v P V and w P W with v i1 ë i v i and (ë i . j i. . .1 Proposition (1) If v P V. ë(v w) ë i. . j ëë i ì j (v i wj ). . j ë i ì j (v i wj ) ëë i ì j (v i wj )X . we de®ne v w P V W by vw ë i ì j (v i wj )X i. For instance. 19. then v (ëw) (ëv) w ë(v w)X (2) If x1 . . ì j P C).Tensor products fv i wj : 1 < i < m. because this is not the case. w P W and ë P C. .

l Now the elements V W . then the elements in fei f j : 1 < i < m. wj n l1 ì jl f l (ë ik . em is a basis of V and f1 . so we are now in a position to de®ne the tensor product of two CG-modules. . . The proof of part (2) is equally straightforward. We know that the elements v i wj (1 < i < m. .2 Proposition If e1 . it follows that the also a basis of V W. . 1 < j < n) are a basis of the mn elements ek fl (1 < k < m. . 1 < j < n) give a basis of V W. Let G be a ®nite group and let V and W be CG-modules with bases v1 . respectively. v m and w1 . X X X . . Since elements ek fl are v i wj (1 < i < m. the next proposition shows that other bases of V and W work equally well.190 Representations and characters of groups Therefore v (ëw) (ëv) w ë(v w). . Tensor product modules We have introduced the tensor product of two vector spaces. we have v i wj ë ik ì jl (ek f l )X k. . The multiplication of v i wj by an element of . fn is a basis of W. . 1 < l < n) V W has dimension mn. j Our construction of V W depended upon choosing a basis of V and a basis of W at the beginning.1. 1 < j < ng give a basis of V W. 19. . and we leave it as an exercise. and hence span V W. w n. Proof Write vi m k1 ë ik ek . . . ì jl P C)X Then by Proposition 19.

19. 19. 19.3. j ë i ì j (v i g wj g) 3 ëivi g 2 j j i 3 ì j wj g by Proposition 19X1 v g wgX You should be warned that (v w)r T vr wr for most elements r in CG. w P W and all g P G. makes the vector space V W into a CGmodule. given in De®nition 19. de®ne (v i wj ) g v i g w j g and.3 De®nition Let g P G. more generally. which is then extended linearly to a multiplication on the whole of V W. consider what happens when r is a scalar multiple of g.Tensor products 191 G is de®ned in the following simple way. j m 2 i. . we have (v w) g v g wgX Proof Let v ë i v i and w n ì j wj. Then j1 2 3 (v w) g ë i ì j (v i wj ) g by Proposition 19X1 i1 i. j for arbitrary complex numbers ë ij .5 Proposition The rule for multiplying an element of V W by an element of G. For example. j.4 Proposition For all v P V. For all i. let 2 3 ë ij (v i wj ) g ë ij (v i g wj g) i. j i.

and g. Then the character of the CG-module V W is the product character ÷ø. Then ÷( g) ë i . 19. (ei f j ) g ei g f j g ë i ì j (ei f j ). . and by Proposition 19. (v i wj )( gh) v i ( gh) wj ( gh) (v i g)h (wj g)h (v i g wj g)h ((v i wj ) g)h. ì j . .6 are ful®lled. . em of V and a basis f1 . By Proposition 9. and V W is a CG-module. j by Proposition 19X4 3 ë ij (v i wj ) g ë ij ((v i wj ) g)X i.11 we can choose a basis e1 . if ö is the character of V W then . . . j Therefore all the conditions of Proposition 4. . fn of W such that ei g ë i e i (1 < i < m) and f j g ì j f j m i1 n j1 (1 < j < n) for some complex numbers ë i . where ÷ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) for all g P GX Proof Let g P G. Hence. Then (v i wj ) g v i g wj g P V W . 1 < j < n. (v i wj )1 v i wj . . ø( g) ì jX Now for 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. . h P G. j We now calculate the character of V W. and 2 i.6 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. these vectors ei fj form a basis of V W.192 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let 1 < i < m. respectively.2.

7 Corollary The product of two characters of G is again a character of G. Ker {1}).7 shows that if ÷ is a character of G then so is ÷ 2 . We reproduce it here. and calculate ÷3 ÷4 and ÷4 ÷4 .Tensor products 2 32 3 ö( g) ëi ì j ëi ì j ÷( g)ø( g). . j i j 193 as required. the product of ÷ with itself. the powers of ÷ carry a lot of information about the whole character table of G. where ÷ 2 ÷÷. as can be seen from Theorem 19. When ÷ is a faithful character (that is. j 19. i. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷4 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 6 9 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 We see that ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷5 . for every nonnegative integer n. 19.10 below.8 Example The character table of S4 was given in Section 18. and ÷4 ÷4 ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 X Powers of characters Corollary 19.1. An inductive proof using Corollary 19. we de®ne ÷ n by ÷ n ( g) (÷( g)) n 0 for all g P GX Thus ÷ 1 G . More generally.7 shows that ÷ n is a character of G.

. x rÀ1 in Ä is Æ1. x2 from the second row.194 Representations and characters of groups In the course of the proof of Theorem 19. . . We ®rst sketch a proof of this result. the term x1 must come from all rÀ2 the factors in the ®rst row. á r are distinct H 1 á1 f1 á 2 f Af dX X 1 is invertible.10. xr are indeterminates. and so on. so Ä 0. . . It follows that Ä is divisible by (xi À x j ) (x1 À x2 )(x1 À x3 ) X X X (x1 À xr ) i. . (19. . j . and so on. and consider H rÀ1 I 1 x1 x2 X X X x1 1 f 1 x x2 X X X x rÀ1 g 2 f g 2 2 Ä detf gX dX X X XXX X e 1 xr x2 r XXX x rÀ1 r If i T j and xi xj then two rows of the given matrix are equal. j complex numbers.9) If á1 . . to obtain x1 x2 X X X x rÀ1 rÀ1 in the expansion of the determinant Ä. . . we must take x1 from the rÀ2 ®rst row of the matrix. then the matrix rÀ1 I á2 X X X á1 1 rÀ1 á2 X X X á2 g g 2 g X XXX X e á2 r XXX á rÀ1 r ár 3 (x2 À x3 ) X X X (x2 À xr ) F F F 3 (x rÀ1 À xr )X rÀ1 rÀ2 Now the coef®cient of x1 x2 X X Xx rÀ1 in this product is 1: for in the rÀ1 way we have displayed the product. Hence rÀ1 rÀ2 the coef®cient of x1 x2 . Suppose that x1 . we shall need the following result concerning the so-called `Vandermonde matrix'. It follows that ÄÆ (xi À xj )X i. x2 must come from all the factors in the rÀ1 rÀ2 second row. On the other hand.

so that G1 Ker ÷.5. and let b be the row vector which is given by b (â1 . let âi ø( g). . j 19. Then for all j > 0. and refer to Example 19. as we wished to prove. But the ( j 1)th entry in the row vector bA is equal to jGjh÷ j . . and for 1 < i < r. G1 {1}. øi.9). then ÷( g) takes just two different values (see Proposition 13. Proof Let the r values taken by ÷ be á1 .9). and b T 0 since â1 T 0. We must show that h÷ j .10 Theorem Let ÷ be a faithful character of G. Then every irreducible character of G is a constituent of one of the powers ÷ 0 . . h÷ j . As ÷ is faithful.10 says that every irreducible character of G is a constituent of 1 G or ÷.20). Now let ø be an irreducible character of G. . øi r 1 1 (÷( g)) j ø( g) (á i ) j â i X jGj gPG jGj i1 Let A be the r 3 r matrix with ij-entry (á i ) jÀ1 .11 Examples (1) If G T {1} and ÷ is the regular character of G. and suppose that ÷( g) takes precisely r different values as g varies over all the elements of G. . by Theorem 10. 19. For 1 < i < r. and thus h÷ j . We have seen that ÷ 2 ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 . ÷ 1 .Tensor products 195 To obtain (19. we know this already. de®ne Gi f g P G: ÷( g) á i gX Take á1 ÷(1). ÷ rÀ1 .8. Then ÷( g) takes four different values. we substitute á i for xi (1 < i < r). . so Theorem 19. á r . and deduce that the matrix A is invertible since its determinant is non-zero. Let ÷ ÷4 . X X X . (2) Let G S4 . hence bA T 0. . øi T 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. øi T 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. . â r )X Now A is invertible by (19. gPG i and note that â1 ø(1) T 0.

. . ÷ 3 (indeed. and de®ne a linear transformation T: V V 3 V V by (v i v j )T v j v i for all i. ÷5 of G.10. We are going to provide a method for decomposing ÷ 2 .196 Representations and characters of groups h÷ 3 .10. v n be a basis of V. 19. the square of ÷. 2 3 ë ij (v i v j ) T ë ij (v j v i )X i. ÷ 3 ) have between them as constituents all the irreducible characters ÷1 . j i. The subspace S(V V) is called the symmetric part of V V. . ÷ 2 .12 Proposition The subspaces S(V V) and A(V V) are CG-submodules of V V. ÷ 1 . and the subspace A(V V ) is known as the antisymmetric part of V V. This special case is particularly useful in ®nding irreducible characters. in this case. the module V V has character ÷ 2 . . it is of some importance to be able to decompose powers of a character ÷ into sums of irreducible characters. . illustrating Theorem 19. Let v1 . as we shall see. j and extending linearly ± that is. w P V. Since T is linear. . Now de®ne subsets of V V as follows: S(V V ) fx P V V : xT xg. j Check that for all v. . . Let V be a CG-module with character ÷.6. ÷2 i 1X and we ®nd that Thus ÷ 0 . we have (v w)T w vX Hence T is independent of the choice of basis. just ÷ 2 . they are eigenspaces of T). Decomposing ÷ 2 In view of Theorem 19. By Proposition 19. Also. it is easy to see that S(V V) and A(V V) are subspaces of V V (indeed. V V S(V V ) È A(V V )X . A(V V ) fx P V V : xT Àxg.

. v n be a basis of V. and ( yg)T ( yT ) g À yg. Therefore. j ë ij (v i g v j g)T 3 ë ij (v i v j ) gT X 2 i. . for x P S(V V). . j < n) form a basis of A(V V). Further. j Therefore T is a CG-homomorphism from V V to itself. (1) The vectors v i v j v j v i (1 < i < j < n) form a basis of S(V V ). (2) The vectors v i v j À v j v i (1 < i . The dimension of A(V V ) is n(n À 1)a2. j 197 i. y P A(V V) and g P G. If x P S(V V) A(V V) then x xT Àx. We now present bases of the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of V V which consist of elements like these. w P V. 19. . for all x P V we have x 1(x xT ) 1(x À xT )X 2 2 Since T 2 is the identity. so x 0. The dimension of S(V V ) is n(n 1)a2. we have (xg)T (xT ) g xg.13 Proposition Let v1 . 1 2(x xT ) P S(V V ) and 1 2(x À xT ) P j V V S(V V ) È A(V V )X Note that the symmetric part of V V contains all vectors which have the form v w w v with v. so xg P S(V V) and yg P A(V V).Tensor products Proof For all ë ij P C and g P G. A(V V ). . Hence. j i. 2 3 ë ij (v i v j ) Tg ë ij (v j g v i g) i. while the antisymmetric part of V V contains all vectors of the form v w À w v. Thus S(V V) and A(V V) are CG-submodules of V V.

which implies that ÷ S ( g) ÷ 2 ( g) À ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 ))X 2 j . i i. ÷ A ( g) ëi ë j X Now e i g so ÷( g) i ë i and ÷( g2 ) i ë2 . and 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Proof By Proposition 9. and the result follows. j dim A(V V ) > n(n À 1)a2X De®ne ÷ S to be the character of the CG-module S(V V ). ÷2 ÷S ÷ AX The next result gives the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A . and the vectors v i v j À v j v i (1 < i . . 19.198 Representations and characters of groups Proof Clearly the vectors v i v j v j v i (1 < i < j < n) are linearly independent elements of S(V V ). By Proposition 19. ÷ 2 ÷ S ÷ A . . By Proposition 19. . Then (ei ej À ej ei ) g ë i ë j (ei ej À ej ei ). . en of V such that e i g ë i e i (1 < i < n) for some complex numbers ë i .11 we can choose a basis e1 . and ÷ A to be the character of the CG-module A(V V ). j Hence ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Also. Hence dim S(V V ) > n(n 1)a2.12. dim S(V V ) dim A(V V ) dim V V n2 X Hence the above inequalities are equalities.13(2).12.14 Proposition For g P G. j i i. Therefore i 2 ÷ 2 ( g) (÷( g))2 ëi 2 ë i ë j ÷( g 2 ) 2÷ A ( g)X 2 ë2 ei. j < n) are linearly independent elements of A(V V ). and hence from Proposition 19. we have ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )).

15 Example Let G S4 . then form ø S and ø A and repeat. given by Proposition 19. ÷2 . the symmetric group of degree 5. The values of ÷. By Example 12.Tensor products 199 19. We illustrate this strategy with two examples. The character table of G is given in Example 19. We have . The techniques which we have developed so far give a useful method for ®nding new irreducible characters of a group. obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaG9. 19.8. conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders |CG ( gi )| as follows: gi Class size |CG ( gi )| 1 1 120 (1 2) 10 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 15 30 20 24 6 8 4 6 5 Thus G has exactly seven irreducible characters. The strategy is simple: (1) Given a character ÷.16 Example The character table of S5 Let G S5 . given one or two irreducible characters to start with. G9 A5 and G has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . (a) Linear characters By Example 17.13. (2) If ø is a new character found in (1).16(4). and the values of ÷ S and ÷ A .14. and use inner products to analyse ÷ S and ÷ A for new irreducible characters. Let ÷ ÷4 . appear below. G has conjugacy class representatives gi . gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷S ÷A 1 24 3 6 3 (1 2) 4 1 2 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 À1 2 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 0 1 We ®nd that ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 and ÷ A ÷5 . form ÷ S and ÷ A .

By Proposition 19. . and 1. ÷3 i ÷3 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X 42 22 12 (À1)2 (À1)2 1X 120 12 6 6 5 Hence ÷3 is irreducible.14 the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷S ÷A 1 120 10 6 (1 2) 12 4 0 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 0 2 À2 0 0 1 0 0 1 Thus.200 Representations and characters of groups & ÷2 ( g) ÷1 1 G . if g is an odd permutationX Proposition 13. Proposition 17. Next. At this point we have the following portion of the character table of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 120 1 1 4 4 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 À1 (c) Tensor products We now use tensor products to construct the last three irreducible characters of G. Write ÷ ÷3 .24 gives us a character ÷3 (b) Permutation character of G with values Observe that h÷3 .14 shows that ÷4 ÷3 ÷2 is also an irreducible character. by Theorem 14. À1.20. if g is an even permutation.

of order 720.Tensor products h÷ A . Character table of S5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 120 1 1 4 4 6 5 5 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 À2 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 19. The character table of S5 is as shown. ÷7 ÷6 ÷2 is a different irreducible character of degree 5. Let ÷6 ø. ÷ A i 36 4 1 1. so that ÷6 ÷ S À ÷1 À ÷3 . We have now found all seven irreducible characters of S5 . 120 12 6 8 6 h÷ S . 10 4 1 2 1 1. Next. and 120 12 6 6 100 16 1 4 1 h÷ S . Using . ÷3 i À 1. it is convenient to label each conjugacy class by the cycle-shape of its elements. Finally. ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ø. Let G S6 . ÷ S i 3. which we call ÷5 . For ease of printing. ÷1 i Therefore.17 Example The character table of S6 In this example. we then ®nd the last three irreducible characters by using the orthogonality relations. 120 8 5 201 and so ÷ A is a new irreducible character. we use techniques similar to those of the previous example to ®nd 8 of the 11 irreducible characters of the symmetric group S6 . 120 12 6 8 6 40 8 1 1 h÷ S . where ø is an irreducible character of degree 5.

the derived subgroup is An . Let ÷ ÷3 . (a) Linear characters As with all symmetric groups Sn (n > 2).202 Representations and characters of groups this notation.2) 6 0 1 À1 (5) 5 0 0 0 (2. ÷ S i 3X h÷ A .24. h÷ S . ÷ A i 1. and we get exactly two linear characters ÷1 and ÷2 . by Proposition 13.3) (4.2) (5) (2. (b) Permutation character and tensor products is given by ÷3 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 The function ÷3 which ÷1 1 G .2) (6) 120 144 15 40 90 120 6 5 48 18 8 6 Since G has 11 conjugacy classes.3) (4.2) (3. if g is even. ÷3 i 1. À1. ÷3 i 1. The values of ÷. the conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows (see Exercise 12.2. h÷ S .2) (3.2) (6) 48 18 8 6 À1 3 À2 À1 0 1 À1 1 0 À1 0 1 We calculate that h÷3 . it has 11 irreducible characters. ÷1 i 1. h÷ S .3): Cycle-shape Class size |CG ( gi )| (1) (2) 1 15 720 48 (3) 40 18 (2. . if g is odd ( g P G) is a character of G.2) 16 1 3 À2 (4) 8 1 1 0 (3. where & ÷2 ( g) (see Example 17. 1.13). ÷ S and ÷ A are as follows: Class |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷3 ÷S ÷A (1) (2) 720 48 5 15 10 3 7 2 (3) 18 2 3 1 (2.2) 45 16 (4) 90 8 (3.2.

10 we know that ÷(s) and ÷(t) are integers for all characters ÷ of G. Thus the conjugacy classes of s and t correspond to the second and fourth columns of the character table. The column orthogonality relations give 11 i1 ÷ i (s)2 48X . . so is ÷4 ÷3 ÷2 . so that we can guarantee that the solutions to the equations which we deal with are integers. Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 (2. in the ordering which we have adopted. ÷5 ÷ A is irreducible. The irreducible characters ÷1 . . Let s denote the permutation (1 2) and t denote the permutation (1 2)(3 4). of degree 9.2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 (2. ÷8 are recorded in the following portion of the character table of G. ÷10 and ÷11 . Ingeniously. where ÷7 is another irreducible character. Finally. From Corollary 13.Tensor products 203 Therefore ÷3 is irreducible.2. . It is therefore convenient ®rst to concentrate on elements of order 2. .2) (3. we call the three irreducible characters of G which have yet to be found ÷9 . ÷8 ÷7 ÷2 is also irreducible. ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ÷7 .2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 (3. Also. but for the moment we know for certain only that ÷( g) is an integer if g2 1 (see Corollary 13.2) (6) 48 18 8 6 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 (c) Orthogonality relations We now use the column orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G.3) (4. as is ÷6 ÷5 ÷2 . respectively.16) that all the entries in the character tables of all symmetric groups are integers. Further. It will be shown later (Corollary 22.10).

. f in the following portion of the character table: Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) a b c s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2. d. ÷10 (s) À1X The plan is now to ®nd ÷ i (1) and ÷ i (t) for i 9. we lose no generality in assuming that ÷9 (s) 1. that ÷9 (s)2 ÷10 (s)2 1. d 2 e 2 f 2 2. . . whence a À b 0. ÷9 ÷2 ÷10 X Once more. Therefore. f 0. ÷ i (t)÷ i (t) 16. ÷11 (s)2 0X Now ÷9 ÷2 is an irreducible character. 0 is d e 1.204 Hence Representations and characters of groups ÷9 (s)2 ÷10 (s)2 ÷11 (s)2 2X We can assume. 10. 11 i1 11 i1 ÷ i (s)÷ i (t) 0. ÷ i (1)÷ i (t) 0. Moreover. e. 11. we aim to evaluate the integers a.2) d e f The column orthogonality relations give 11 i1 11 i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i (s) 0. b. ÷8 . 0 and b . That is. since ÷9 ÷2 (s) À÷9 (s). a b 5X . ad be cf 10X The only solution to these equations in integers with a . . d À e 0. without loss of generality. we see that ÷9 ÷2 is not ÷9 or ÷11 . and is not equal to any of ÷1 . c.

3) (4. .2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 (2.2. we ®nd that the complete character table of S6 is as shown. . Character table of S6 Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 5 5 16 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 1 À1 0 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 À1 À1 À2 (2.2) (6) 18 8 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 2 2 À2 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 Direct products We conclude the chapter by showing that tensor products can be used to determine the character table of a direct product G 3 H. . with basis v1 . and let W be a . since the column orthogonality relations will give three independent equations in these unknowns (as the above 3 3 3 matrix is invertible).2) 1 1 0 We can now determine the three unknown entries in each further column.Tensor products Finally. we ®nd that c 16 by using the relation 11 i1 205 ÷ i (1)2 720X The above portion of the character table is therefore Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) 5 5 16 s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2. Let V be a CG-module. v m . Having done these calculations. .2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 1 1 0 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 0 (3.2) 48 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 À3 3 0 (3. given the character tables of G and H.

h) v g wh. ÷ k i G hø j . the character of V W is ÷ 3 ø. note that for all g. h P H.6. . . x P G and h. G and H indicate inner products of characters of G 3 H. j As in Proposition 19. ø l i H ä ik ä jl X (Here the subscripts G 3 H.5 shows that V W is a C(G 3 H)-module. 1 < j < b)X Proof For all i. for ë ij P C.206 Representations and characters of groups C H-module. ø b be the distinct irreducible characters of H. ÷ k 3 ÷ l i G3 H 1 ÷ i ( g)ø j (h)÷ k ( g)ø l (h) jG 3 Hj gPG 2 3 32 1 1 ÷ i ( g)÷ k ( g) ø j (h)ø l (h) jGj gPG j Hj hP H hP H h÷ i . . h) ÷( g)ø(h) ( g P G. G and H. where (÷ 3 ø)( g. j with 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. h) v i g wj h and extend this de®nition linearly to the whole of V W.) Thus the ab characters ÷ i 3 ø j are distinct and irreducible. . h P H)X 19. Next. . we have (x. y) (x À1 gx. j. . 2 3 ë ij (v i wj ) ( g. l. respectively. . de®ne (v i wj )( g. h)(x. y À1 hy)X .18 Theorem Let ÷1 . j i. k. By the proof of Proposition 19. . . w P W. . with basis w1. y)À1 ( g. we ®nd that (v w)( g. Then a proof similar to that of Proposition 19. wn. . that is. and these are ÷ i 3 ø j (1 < i < a. h) ë ij (v i g wj h)X i. ÷ a be the distinct irreducible characters of G and let ø1 . .4. h÷ i 3 ø j . For all i. Then G 3 H has precisely ab distinct irreducible characters. y P H. and all g P G. Let ÷ be the character of V and ø be the character of W. for all v P V.

1). In particular. 1 < j < b) are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G 3 H. 1). so the irreducible characters ÷ i 3 ø j which we have found must be all the irreducible characters of G 3 H. G 3 H has exactly ab irreducible characters.Tensor products 207 Hence elements ( g. . hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ø1 ø1 ø1 ø2 ø2 ø2 (1. 1) (1. . and by Theorem 19. . Consequently. 1) ((1 2). By Theorem 15. ((1 2). .3. h) and ( g9. . then the elements ( g i . À1) 12 4 6 12 4 6 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 . . ((1 2 3).19 Example The character table of S3 3 C2 The character table of S3 ( D6 ) is given in Example 16. j 19. À1). À1). hb are representatives of the conjugacy classes of H. h9) of G 3 H are conjugate if and only if the elements g and g9 are conjugate in G and the elements h and h9 are conjugate in H. À1). 1) ((1 2 3). hj ) |CG3 H ( g i . alongside the character table of C2 . ga are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G and h1 . 1). À1) ((1 2). G 3 H has precisely ab conjugacy classes. À1) ((1 2 3).18. . if g1 . the character table of S3 3 C2 is as shown. Character table of S3 3 C2 ( gi . . ((1 2). (1. We reproduce it here. Character table of S3 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 Character table of C2 hi |CH (hi )| ø1 ø2 1 2 1 1 À1 2 1 À1 The conjugacy classes of S3 3 C2 are represented by (1.3(1). hj ) (1 < i < a. ((1 2 3).

5 shows that D12 S3 3 C2 ). ø and ö be characters of the group G. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A . if ÷ ø.10. Let ÷ be a character of G which is not faithful. 1 G i 0. øöi hø. ÷öiX 2. h P H. The values of ÷ 3 ø are given by (÷ 3 ø)( g. (This shows that the hypothesis that ÷ is faithful cannot be dropped from Theorem 19. 2. Summary of Chapter 19 1.2. Let ÷. öi h÷. Prove that & 1. h÷ø.) 4. Show that there is some irreducible character ø of G such that k÷ n . Exercises for Chapter 19 1.208 Representations and characters of groups Compare the solution to Exercise 18. where we give the character table of D12 (Exercise 1. 3. h) ÷( g)ø(h) for all g P G. Suppose that ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of G.13 of the next chapter we shall show that there exist irreducible characters ÷ and ö of A5 which take the following values: . if ÷ T øX 3. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ø is an irreducible character of H. In Example 20. The irreducible characters of G 3 H are those characters ÷ 3 ø. The product of any two characters of G is a character of G. 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 )) 2 for all g P G. where ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). If ÷ is a character of G. øl 0 for all integers n with n > 0. Show that h÷ø.

g2 . . g5 .Tensor products 1 ÷ ö 5 3 (1 2 3) À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) (1 0 p 5)a2 (1 3 4 5 2) (1 À 0 p 5)a2 209 Calculate the values of ÷ S . g1 . g5 . Write down the character table of D6 3 D6. By forming products of the irreducible characters found so far. g2 are con1 2 3 4 5 6 7 jugate to g1 . Express these characters as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ø1 . g2 . . ÷ A . . ®nd the character table of G. g2 . respectively. g2 . . G has a character ÷ with values as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ g1 24 2 g2 24 À2 g3 4 0 g4 6 Àù2 g5 6 Àù g6 6 ù g7 6 ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . . g4 . g2 . and show that both are irreducible. . g2 . . A certain group G or order 24 has precisely seven conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . ö S and ö A . 5. ø5 of A5 which are given in Example 20. g7 . further. Moreover. . g4 . Find ÷ S and ÷ A . . 6. g2 .13.

and refer to it as the restriction of ÷ to H.1 Example Let G D8 ka. This simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module is known as restricting from G to H. We write this character of H as ÷ 5 H. we are going to look at ways of relating the representations of a group to the representations of its subgroups. v2 a Àv1 . and illustrate its use.5(1). Here. then V is also a C H-module. if f: G 3 C is any function. h P G. More generally. If V is a CG-module then we write the corresponding C H-module as V 5 H. As in Example 4. which occurs. and call it the restriction of V to H. The case where H is a normal subgroup of G is of particular interest.2 certainly hold for all g. let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . If V is a CG-module.20 Restriction to a subgroup In this chapter and the next.8 gives important information in this case. v1 b v1 . b: a4 b2 1. The character of V 5 H is obtained from the character ÷ of V by evaluating ÷ on the elements of H only. v2 b Àv2 X 210 . we introduce the elementary idea of restricting a CG-module to a subgroup H of G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. v2 for which v1 a v2 . when G S n and H A n . Restriction Let H be a subgroup of the ®nite group G. h P H if they hold for all g. We apply this result in the situation where H is of index 2 in G. then f 5 H denotes the restriction of f to H (so that ( f 5 H)(h) f (h) for all h P H). since properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4. 20. Then C H is a subset of CG. for example. and Clifford's Theorem 20.

By 18.2 Example Let G S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G consisting of all even permutations of {1. 3. a2 . Example 20. b. v2 for which v1 a2 Àv1 .2. for if U is a CG-submodule of V.Restriction to a subgroup 211 If H is the subgroup {1. a2 b} of G. 2. However. if V 5 H is an irreducible C H-module then V is an irreducible CG-module. v2 b Àv2 X and the character ÷ 5 H of V 5 H is given by h ÷(h) 1 2 a2 À2 b 0 a2 b 0 If V is a CG-module and H is a subgroup of G. v2 a2 Àv2 . 4} ®xing 5. then U 5 H is a C H-submodule of V 5 H.1 illustrates this fact. On the other hand. 20. the character table of H is gi jC H ( g i )j ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 . The character ÷ of V is given by g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 v1 b v1 . then V 5 H is the C Hmodule with basis v1 . it might be the case that V is an irreducible CG-module while V 5 H is not an irreducible C H-module. then dim V dim (V 5 H).

From Example 19.212 Representations and characters of groups (where ù e2ðia3 ). and k . .3 De®nitions The inner product k . For each i with 1 < i < 7. ÷3 5 H. we calculate the character ÷ i 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters ø j .16 we see that ÷1 5 H ÷2 5 H. with irreducible characters labelled ÷1 . . jGj gPG . ÷ 6 5 H ø2 ø 3 ø 4 X Constituents of a restricted character To help us discuss the way in which a restricted character ÷ 5 H can be expressed in terms of the irreducible characters of H. . if W1 and W2 are functions from G to C. W2 i G W1 ( g)W2 ( g). ÷5 5 H and ÷6 5 H. we introduce the following notation. 20. ÷ 3 5 H ø1 ø 4 . Thus. ÷5 5 H 2ø4 . de®ned similarly.16. The character table of G is given in Example 19. These have values 1 ÷1 5 ÷3 5 ÷5 5 ÷6 5 H H H H 1 4 6 5 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 À2 1 (1 2 3) (1 3 2) 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 À1 It is easy to spot that ÷ 1 5 H ø1 . . then 1 hW1 . ÷7 . l H is the inner product on the vector space of functions from H to C. ÷3 5 H ÷4 5 H and ÷6 5 H ÷7 5 HX Therefore we need only consider ÷1 5 H. l G is the inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C which we have de®ned earlier.

Then there exists an irreducible character ÷ of G such that h÷ 5 H. it may be very dif®cult in practice to write down the restrictions ÷ 5 H in terms of irreducible characters of H. X X X . øi H T 0 for some i. then 1 hö1 . . Recall from Theorem 13. ø r are the irreducible characters of the subgroup H of G. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. we could hope to ®nd the character table of the subgroup H by restricting the irreducible characters ÷ of G to H. then by Theorem 14. . øi H T 0X Proof Let ÷1 . The best . . In the light of Proposition 20. .4. . The next proposition shows that every irreducible character of H is a constituent of the restriction of some irreducible character of G. ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r for some non-negative integers d 1 . d r which are given by d i h÷ 5 H. Unfortunately.19 and Proposition 13. 20. . ö2 i H ö1 (h)ö2 (h)X j Hj hP H 213 If ÷ is a character of G and ø1 .Restriction to a subgroup and if ö1 and ö2 are functions from H to C. Suppose that we know the character table of G. øi H X j Hj i1 j Therefore h÷ i 5 H. ÷reg ( g) and ÷reg ÷ i (1)÷ i X 0 if g T 1.17. . ø i i H X We say that ø i is a constituent of ÷ 5 H if the coef®cient d i in the above expression is non-zero. øi H ÷ i (1)h÷ i 5 H.4 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G and let ø be a non-zero character of H. .20 that the regular character ÷reg of G satis®es & k jGj if g 1. i1 Now 0 T k jGj ø(1) h÷reg 5 H.

since the restrictions ÷ 5 H then do not have many constituents. since ÷ is irreducible. jGj i1 i where K (1ajGj) ga H ÷( g)÷( g)X Now K > 0.6) if and only if ÷( g) 0 for all elements g of G which lie outside H. The way to exploit the fact that H v G us revealed in the following proposition. ÷i G 1 ÷( g)÷( g) jGj gPG 1 ÷(h)÷(h) K jGj hP H r j Hj 2 d K. For example. and let ø1 .5 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. ÷ 5 Hi H i 1 ÷(h)÷(h)X j Hj hP H Also. we will see that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. j We can say more about the constituents of ÷ 5 H in the case where H is a normal subgroup of G. let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. where the non-negative integers d 1 . Proof By Theorem 14. we have r i1 d 2 h÷ 5 H. we have equality in (20. and K 0 if and only P if ÷( g) 0 for all g with g P H. 20. as the following result shows. X X X . . 1 h÷.214 Representations and characters of groups chance of doing this occurs when the index jG: Hj( jGjaj Hj) is small. ø r be the irreducible characters of H. d r satisfy (20X6) r i1 d 2 < jG: HjX i Moreover. The conclusions of the proposition a follow at once.17. F F F . Then ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r .

since V is irreducible. and the proof of the proposition is complete. Further. For every g P G let Ug fug: u P U g.7 Proposition Suppose that H v G. Proof (1) Clearly. since U is irreducible. De®ne è : Ug1 g 3 Ug2 g by è : wg 3 (wö) g (w P Ug 1 )X Then è is clearly an isomorphism of vector spaces. Ug is an irreducible C H-module. as claimed. V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. g2 . if W is a C Hsubmodule of Ug. (3) If g1 . è is a C H-isomorphism. so dim U dim Ug. g P G and Ug1 and Ug2 are isomorphic C H-modules. we have V UgX gPG Then by Proposition 7. proving that Ug is a C H-submodule of V 5 H.12. Then (1) The set Ug is an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H and dim Ug dim U . Therefore. (2) As a C H-module. WgÀ1 {0} or U. Therefore. Suppose that h P H.Restriction to a subgroup 215 20. Then gh h9 g for some h9 P H. Moreover. and (wgh)è (wh9 g)è (wh9ö) g (wö)h9 g (wö) gh (wgè)hX Therefore. (3) Now let ö be a C H-isomorphism from Ug1 to Ug2 . then WgÀ1 is a C H-submodule of U. and since H v G we have ghgÀ1 P H for all h P H. then Ug1 g and Ug2 g are isomorphic C H-modules. Let V be an irreducible CG-module and U be an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H. V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. u 3 ug (u P U) is an invertible linear transformation from U to Ug. Ug is a subspace of V. j . whence W {0} or Ug. so (ug)h u( ghg À1 ) g P Ug (u P U). (2) The sum of all the subspaces Ug with g P G is a CG-submodule of V.

Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. by Proposition 20. 20.216 Representations and characters of groups We now come the fundamental theorem on the restriction of a character to a normal subgroup. ø1 i. Then it follows from Proposition 20. Let e h÷ 5 H.7(2). Normal subgroups of index 2 We are shortly going to give more precise information about the constituents of ÷ 5 H when H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2 (that is. and which is therefore a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules. and (2) if ø1 . . . each having character ø1 . Then V contains a C H-module X1 whose character is eø1 .8 Clifford's Theorem Suppose that H v G and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. .7(3). Therefore. . ÷ 5 H e(ø1 X X X ø m )X j Our main applications of Clifford's Theorem will concern the case where jG: Hj 2. parts (1) and (2).7. and Xi T X j if i T j. jG: Hj 2). Hence V has the form V X1 È X X X È X m where each Xi is a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules. that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree.14 in Chapter 22 to see an advanced use of the theorem. . Then (1) all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. Examples where this happens are G Sn . but you might like to look at Corollary 22. then ÷ 5 H e(ø1 X X X ø m ) for some positive integer e. if g P G then X1 g is a direct sum of isomorphic C H-modules. say X 1 U1 È X X X È U e X By Proposition 20. ø m are the constituents of ÷ 5 H. V is a sum of C Hmodules of the form X1 g. On the other hand.

. Then either (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. and that ÷ is . In the latter case. since ë(h) 1 for all h P H. ë( g) À1 if g P HX a Note that for all irreducible characters ÷ of G.13) below. Since d 1 . H hai.16). we deduce that either ÷ 5 H ø i for some i. We describe this relationship in (20. the character tables of G and H are closely related. by Clifford's Theorem 20. In fact. Since GaH C2 .10 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. ø i and ø j have the same degree. then H must be normal in G (see Exercise 1. ø r are the irreducible characters of H. or ÷ 5 H ø i ø j for some i. and we then illustrate the results by ®nding the character table of A5 from that of S5 (which we have already obtained in Example 19.8 j r ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r . When H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. j with i T j. Also. . ÷ and ÷ë are irreducible characters of the same degree (see Proposition 17. if H is a subgroup of index 2 in G. then by Proposition 20. it is often desirable to have more details about the two cases in Proposition 20. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i.5. d r are non-negative integers.Restriction to a subgroup 217 H A n . .10). For practical purposes. 20.9 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G.14). and we shall supply these next. or (2) ÷ 5 H is the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. we may lift the non-trivial linear character of GaH to obtain a linear character ë of G which satis®es @ 1 if g P H. . ÷ 5 H ÷ë 5 H. 2 where i1 d i < 2. Proof If ø1 . X X X . 20. b: a n b2 1. or G D2 n ha.9.

218 Representations and characters of groups an irreducible character of G. and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. then ÷ 5 H is the sum of one or two irreducible characters of H. If ö is an irreducible character of G which satis®es ö 5 H ÷ 5 H. then either ö ÷ or ö ÷ë.6) is strict. since jG: Hj 2. ÷ë( g) À÷( g) if g P H. and this happens if and only if ÷( g) T 0 for some g P G with g P H. ÷ 5 H is irreducible if and only if the inequality in (20. Thus (1) is equivalent to a (2). and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible. To see that (2) is equivalent to (3). observe that @ ÷( g) if g P H. Proof We have (÷ ÷ë)( g) Hence @ 2÷( g) 0 if g P H. 20. Proof We use Proposition 20. if H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2.9. a j According to Proposition 20. In the next proposition we consider the ®rst possibility. (2) ÷( g) T 0 for some g P G with g P H. if g P HX a .5. a (3) the characters ÷ and ÷ë of G are not equal.11 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. a so ÷( g) T 0 for some g with g P H if and only if ÷ë T ÷.

G. and hence ö ÷. and that ÷ is the sum of two ö is an irreducias a constituent.12 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible characters of H. öl G 1. ÷( g) 0 for all g with g P H.11). so kö. Therefore k÷ ÷ë. since ÷ 5 H is irreducible and ö 5 H ÷ 5 H. 1 1 hö. ö 5 Hi H X Now k÷ 5 H. ÷ 5 Hi H T 0. and so either ö ÷ or j ö ÷ë. Such characters of G occur in pairs (÷ and ÷ë) which have the same restriction to H (Propositions 20.10. ÷i G ö( g)÷( g) ö( g)÷( g) jGj gPG jGj gP H 1hö 5 H. we look at the case where ÷ 5 H is reducible. 20. ÷ 5 Hi H X 2 If ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 as a constituent. If ble character of G such that ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 then ö ÷. say ÷ 5 H ø1 ø2. then hö 5 H.13) Let H be a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group G. öi G 1 2÷( g)ö( g) jGj gP H 1 ÷( g)ö( g) j Hj gP H 219 h÷ 5 H.10. . 20. j We summarize our results on subgroups of index 2. (1) Each irreducible character ÷ of G which is nonzero somewhere outside H restricts to be an irreducible character of H. Finally. Proof In view of Proposition 20. ö 5 Hl H 1.Restriction to a subgroup h÷ ÷ë. ÷l G T 0. by explaining how to list the irreducible characters of H on the assumption that we know the character table of G. a Therefore. (20.

13)(2). and hence ø1 . Fortunately.4).9. They can also be veri®ed by calculating inner products. 20. ÷3 and ÷6 are non-zero somewhere outside H. . and note that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group S5 . . . Also. ÷5 5 H ø4 ø5 where ø4 and ø5 are distinct irreducible characters of H of degree 3.13) of facts about characters of subgroups of index 2. . Observe that ÷1 . The conjugacy classes of H and their sizes are given in Example 12. as in parts (1) and (2) (Proposition 20. then ÷ restricts to be the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. Note that ÷2 5 H ÷1 5 H. respectively. The two characters of H which we get from ÷ in this way come from no other irreducible character of G (Propositions 20. ø2 and ø3 . ÷1 5 H. (3) Every irreducible character of H appears among those obtained by restricting irreducible characters of G.13)(3). ÷5 ( g) 0 for all g P H.13). . . so by (20.10. In case (2) of (20. . ÷7 of S5 can be found in Example 19.220 Representations and characters of groups (2) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G which is zero everywhere outside H. . a so by (20. in practice case (1) occurs more frequently than case (2).12). 20.14 Example The character table of A5 Write H A5 . ø5 are the distinct irreducible characters of H by (20. and the irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷4 5 H ÷3 5 H and ÷7 5 H ÷6 5 H.16. 20.18(2). The results we have obtained so far have been deduced from our summary (20. Call them ø1 .13)(1). extra work is needed to calculate the values taken by the two constituents of ÷ 5 H. ÷3 5 H and ÷6 5 H are irreducible characters of H. We have established that the character table of H is gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 á2 â2 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 á3 â3 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á4 â4 (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 á5 â5 .

We get á2 â2 0. and we ®nd that á4 and â4 are the solutions of the quadratic x 2 À x À 1 0.Restriction to a subgroup 221 We use the column orthogonality relations to calculate the unknowns á i and â i . â 1(1 À 2 p 5). Since ø4 T ø5 . á5 and â5 are 1(1 Æ 5).9(4). we obtain 3 3 á2 â2 . á3 â3 À2. The values of á i â i for 2 < i < 5 are given by noting that ø4 ø5 ÷5 5 H (or by using the column orthogonality relations for column 1 and column i). we have 2 p p á5 1(1 À 5). By the orthogonality relation for column i with itself (2 < i < 5). Hence by Proposition 13.13. . all the numbers in the character table are real. â4 1(1 À 5)X 2 2 p Similarly. á3 â3 À1. â5 1(1 5)X 2 2 Thus the character table of A5 is as shown. 3 3 5 2 á2 â2 2 á2 â2 X 4 4 5 5 Hence á2 â2 0. Since we have not yet distinguished between ø4 and ø5 . 2 2 4 2 á2 â2 . á4 â4 á5 â5 1X Using Proposition 12. we may take p p á4 1(1 5). we see that each element of A5 is conjugate to its inverse. Character table of A5 gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 â á where á 1(1 2 p 5).

3 and 12. express ÷ 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters of H. (The seven conjugacy classes of A6 can be found by consulting the solutions to Exercises 12. and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. Let G S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3 4).6 allows us to deduce from the character table that A5 is a simple group. X X X . Indeed. (a) Show that H D8. The number of irreducible constituents of ÷ 5 H is bounded above by jG : Hj. then all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. 4. Suppose that G is a group with a subgroup H of index 3. In particular. 2. 2 or 3X Give examples to show that each possibility can occur. ÷ and ÷ 5 H have the same degree. then r i1 d 2 < jG : HjX i 3. Prove that ÷(1) < n for every irreducible character ÷ of G. . to ®nd the character table of A6 .4.17. The values of ÷ 5 H are given by (÷ 5 H)(h) ÷(h) for all h P H. Use the restrictions of the irreducible characters of S6 .222 Representations and characters of groups Proposition 17. If H v G and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. 2. (1 3)l of G. ÷ 5 Hi H 1. Summary of Chapter 20 Assume throughout that H is a subgroup of G. and ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r.1). then ÷ 5 H is a character of H. (b) For each irreducible character ÷ of G (given in Section 18. 1. Exercises for Chapter 20 1. if ø1 . given in Example 19.) 3. Let G be a group with an abelian subgroup H of index n. Prove that h÷ 5 H. ø r are the irreducible characters of H. If ÷ is a character of G.

Find the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of A7 . 1. A7 has nine conjugacy classes. 21. 15. 20. 14. 14. . 21. 15. 35. 35X Also. 14.Restriction to a subgroup 223 5. It is known that the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of S7 is 1. 14. 6. 6.

1 Proposition Assume that H < G. If W is a C H-homomorphism from U to CG. As H is smaller than G. since for all s P C H. Before describing the process of induction. Much more subtle than this is the process of induction.21 Induced modules and characters Throughout this chapter we assume that H is a subgroup of the ®nite group G. and induction is the main concern of this chapter. (us)W rus (uW)s. which constructs a CG-module from a given C H-module. and let U be a C H-submodule of C H. 21. If r P CG. We saw in the last chapter that restriction gives a simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module. we require some results which connect C H-homomorphisms with CG-homomorphisms. then W: u 3 ru (u P U ) de®nes a C H-homomorphism from U to CG. C H-homomorphisms and CG-homomorphisms Let U be a C H-submodule of the regular C H-module C H. We now prove the striking fact that every C Hhomomorphism from U to CG has this simple form. then there exists r P CG such that uW ru for all u P U X 224 . so induction can often give us an important handle on the representations of a group if we know some representations of its subgroups. We shall see many applications of this method in later chapters. it is usually the case that C H-modules are easier to understand and construct than CG-modules.

j . moreover. assume that for some r P CG we have ru u and rv 0 for all u P U. If x P U V then rx x and rx 0. (2) there exists r P CG such that for all u P U. there exists r P CG such that for all u P U. and so x 0. v P V. v P V. Then every CG-homomorphism from U to CG has the form u 3 ru (u P U ) for some r P CG. v P V ) is a function. j We give two corollaries of Proposition 21. 21. Conversely. 21. and rv 0 if v P V.2 Corollary Let U be a CG-submodule of CG. r(u v) uX Then ru u if u P U. ru u and rv 0X Proof Assume that U V {0}.2.11). Consequently U V {0}. Then the following two statements are equivalent: (1) U V {0}. For u P U. the ®rst of which is just the case H G of the proposition.Induced modules and characters 225 Proof By Maschke's Theorem 8.3 Corollary Let U and V be CG-submodules of CG. De®ne ö: C H 3 CG by ö: u w 3 uW (u P U. Let r 1ö.1. Then the sum U V is a direct sum. Therefore by Corollary 21. w P W )X Then ö is easily seen to be a C H-homomorphism.1. uW uö (1u)ö (1ö)u ru. so uv3 u (u P U . and so W is of the required form. there is a C H-submodule W of C H such that C H U È W. v P V. it is a CG-homomorphism from U È V to CG (see Proposition 7.

W 0 4 G sp (1 a a2 . W 2 4 G sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 . a cyclic subgroup of G of order 3. 21. b: a3 b2 1. we write X(CG) for the subspace of CG which is spanned by all the elements xg with x P X. W 1 4 G sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . W 1 sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 ). g P GgX Clearly. b ab a2 b). a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules U i . W 1 4 G U3 . and let H kal. Remember that H is a subgroup of G. X (CG) sp fxg: x P X . b ùab ù2 a2 b)X Recall from Example 10.226 Representations and characters of groups Induction from H to G For any subset X of CG.5 Example Let G D6 ka. b ù2 ab ùa2 b).8(1)). U2 sp (1 a a2 À b À ab À a2 b). X(CG) is then a CG-submodule of CG.4 De®nition Assume that H is a subgroup of G. where U1 sp (1 a a2 b ab a2 b). W 2 sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 )X These are C H-submodules of C H (see Example 10. 21.8(2) that CG U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. and let U 4 G denote the CG-module U(CG). W 2 4 G U4 X . and de®ne W 0 sp (1 a a2 ). g P G. b ù2 ab ùa2 b). U4 sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 . so C H is a subset of CG. b ùab ù2 a2 b)X Thus W 0 4 G U1 È U2 . Let ù e2ðia3 . Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. Clearly. U3 sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . That is. Then U 4 G is called the CG-module induced from U.

v P V. b P V 4 GX . Moreover. Therefore ö: a 3 ra (a P U 4 G) is a function from U 4 G to V 4 G.1. and hence ra P V 4 G. j The next proposition and its corollary enable us to de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C H-module U. Consequently sru u and rsv v for all u P U . g P G). Therefore ö is a CG-isomorphism. and also there exists s P CG such that vWÀ1 sv for all v P V. W 0 4 G is reducible. while W 1 4 G and W 2 4 G are irreducible. We now show that isomorphic C H-modules give isomorphic induced CG-modules. there exists r P CG such that uW ru for all u P U. rsb b Hence the function b 3 sb (b P V 4 G) is the inverse of ö. proving that U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G.7 Proposition Assume that U and V are C H-submodules of C H with U V {0}.6 Proposition Assume that H < G. Suppose that U and V are C H-submodules of C H and that U is C H-isomorphic to V. ö is a CG-homomorphism. Then U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. Since sru u and rsv v for all u P U. 21. g P G). for all a P U 4 G. so ra is a linear combination of elements rug. Proof Let W: U 3 V be a C H-isomorphism. we have sra a. By Proposition 21. v P V X If a P U 4 G then a is a linear combination of elements ug (u P U. 21.Induced modules and characters 227 In particular. Then (U 4 G) (V 4 G) f0g. as (aö) g rag (ag)ö (a P U 4 G.

It is trivial for m 1.10). 21. U 4 G (U1 4 G) È (V 4 G)X By induction. using (2.3. g P G).9 De®nition Let U be a C H-module.3.5). V 4 G (U 2 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G). Then for all u P U. The de®nition of U 4 G implies that U 4 G (U1 4 G) (V 4 G)X Therefore by Proposition 21. as required. and suppose that U U1 È X X X È Um . a direct sum of C H-submodules U i .7. U U1 È X X X È Um . we obtain U 4 G (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G). and hence.228 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Corollary 21. Then U 4 G (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Proof We prove this by induction on m. this implies that ru9 u9 and similarly. Now U U1 È V. v P V. Then (by Theorems 8. 21.7 and 10.8 Corollary Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. v P V and all g P G. there exists r P CG such that ru u and rv 0 for all u P U. where V U2 È X X X È U m . j We can now de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C Hmodule U (where U is not necessarily a C H-submodule of C H). rug ug and rvg 0X Since U 4 G is spanned by elements of the form ug (u P U. Therefore (U 4 G) (V 4 G) f0g by Corollary 21. rv9 0 for all v9 P V 4 GX j for all u9 P U 4 G.

By (21. 21. k P K)X Therefore.11 Theorem Suppose that H and K are subgroups of G such that H < K < G. U 4 K (U1 4 K) È X X X È (Um 4 K)X Since K < G. and then applying the fact (which is immediate from De®nition 21. Then U(CK) is spanned by elements of the form uk ukg (21X12) (u P U .Induced modules and characters 229 for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. Now let U be an arbitrary C H-module. it follows that (U(CK))(CG) U(CG). (U(CK))(CG) is spanned by elements of the form (u P U .6 and Corollary 21. If U is a C H-module.10). De®ne U 4 G to be the following (external) direct sum: U 4 G (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G)X Proposition 21. g P G)X (U 4 K) 4 G U 4 GX U U1 È X X X È Um for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. Then . then (U 4 K) 4 G U 4 GX Proof Assume ®rst that U is a C H-submodule of C H. We emphasize that the de®nition of the induced module U 4 G in the case where U is a C H-submodule of C H is a natural one: U 4 G U (CG)X We shall always prove results for general induced modules U 4 G by ®rst dealing with the special case where U is a C H-submodule of C H. k P K.8 ensure that this de®nition is consistent with De®nition 21. That is.9) that (21X10) (U1 È X X X È Um ) 4 G (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Our ®rst major result on general induced modules is known as `the transitivity of induction'.4.

÷ 2 5 H ø1 . and ø1 . . ÷ 6 5 H ø 2 ø 3 ø4 . The next example illustrates an important relationship between induced characters and restrictions of characters. We showed in that example that if ÷1 . ÷ 4 5 H ø1 ø4 .16).13 De®nition If ø is the character of a C H-module U.14 Example Let G S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G. . then the character of the induced CG-module U 4 G is denoted by ø 4 G. . ø j i H for appropriate i.2. ÷ 7 5 H ø 2 ø 3 ø4 X By Theorem 14.2) then ÷ 1 5 H ø1 . . 21. ÷ 3 5 H ø1 ø4 . ÷7 are the irreducible characters of G (given in Example 19. ø4 are the irreducible characters of H (given in 18. . We record these coef®cients in a . . by (21X12) j Induced characters 21. the coef®cients which appear here are the values of h÷ i 5 H. j.9. ÷5 5 H 2ø4 . .17. and is called the character induced from ø. . as in Example 20.230 Therefore Representations and characters of groups (U 4 K) 4 G (U1 4 K) 4 G È X X X È (Um 4 K) 4 G by (21X10) (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G) U4G by Definition 21.

ø3 1 . Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. ø1 0 . ÷2 1 . In fact. . Then the vector spaces HomCG (U 4 G. ÷5 0 . V ) and HomC H (U . ÷7 X Similarly. ø j i H . For example. To be precise. ÷3 1 . ÷6 0 . row 3 gives ÷3 5 H 1 . The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Before proving the theorem. ø2 0 . ø j 4 Gi G . øi H for all characters ÷ of G and ø of H. and we devote the next section to a proof of this result. and let V be a CG-submodule of CG. it is true that h÷. ø 4 Gi G h÷ 5 H. ø2 4 G ø3 4 G ÷6 ÷7 . ÷4 0 . ÷1 1 . which is known as the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. we need the following preliminary result. is also equal to h÷ i . ø j i H : ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 H ø1 1 f 1 f f 1 f f 1 f f 0 f d 0 0 ø2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø4 I 0 0 g g 1 g g 1 g g 2 g g 1 e 1 231 The rows of this matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of G restrict to H. which we already know to be equal to h÷ i 5 H.Induced modules and characters matrix whose ij-entry is h÷ i 5 H.15 Proposition Assume that H < G. 21. and ø4 4 G ÷3 ÷4 2÷5 ÷6 ÷7 X Thus the ij-entry in our matrix. V 5 H) have equal dimensions. the seven integers in column 1 give ø1 4 G 1 . ø4 X Remarkably. it turns out that the columns of the matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of H induce to G.

note that if r1. Then by Proposition 21. Hence the function W 3 W is injective. V )). that is. We shall show that this linear transformation is invertible. ÷ 5 Hi H X Proof First assume that the characters ÷ and ø are irreducible. there is an element r P CG such that sW rs for all s P U 4 GX De®ne W: U 3 CG to be the restriction of W to U. These two vector spaces therefore have the same dimension.232 Representations and characters of groups Proof Suppose that W P HomCG (U 4 G. ÷ 5 Hi H dim (HomC H (U . as required. V 5 H). V 5 H).24. Then there is a C H-submodule U of C H which has character ø. Let ö P HomC H (U . Thus the function W3W is a linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. V ). Let ÷ be a character of G and let ø be a character of H. r2 P CG and r1 u r2 u for all u P U.2. De®ne W from U 4 G to CG by sW rs (s P U 4 G)X Then W P HomCG (U 4 G. By Theorem 14. and there is a CG-submodule V of CG which has character ÷. Then hø 4 G. V 5 H). j 21. and so it is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. uW ru for all u P U X Then W P HomC H (U . since s is a linear combination of elements ug with u P U. g P G. ö W. there exists r P CG such that uö ru for all u P U. ÷i G hø. V ) to HomC H (U . V ). ÷i G dim (HomCG (U 4 G. and hø. Finally. then r1 s r2 s for all s P U 4 G. Moreover. we have hø 4 G. V 5 H))X . Therefore the function W 3 W is surjective. V 5 H). Then by Corollary 21.1.16 The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Assume that H < G. V ) to HomC H (U .

÷ 5 Hi H X This completes the proof of the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. namely when ÷ and ø are irreducible. hø. ej we have ÷ Therefore hø 4 G. For the general case. . the characters of G span the vector space of class functions on G. . 21.Induced modules and characters From Proposition 21. . and ø is a character of H. k i1 d i ÷i G m k j1 i1 m k ej d i hø j 4 G. j The values of induced characters We now show how to evaluate induced characters. . . ÷i G k i1 d i ÷ i and ø m j1 ej ø j X C B m j1 ej ø j 4 G. ÷ i i G ej d i hø j . Then for some integers di . de®ne the j .15. f i G hø. ÷ 5 Hi H 233 in the special case we are considering.18 Corollary If f is a class function on G. Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G. . ÷i G hø.4. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let ø1 . since by Corollary 15. and for convenience of notation. we therefore deduce that (21X17) hø 4 G. . ÷ i 5 Hi H k i1 by (21X17) B j1 i1 m j1 C di÷i 5 H H ej ø j . f 5 Hi H X Proof This follows at once from the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. then hø 4 G. ø m be the irreducible characters of H. let ÷1 . .

÷i G f ( g)÷( g) jGj gPG Put x y À1 gy. Then 1 h f . Therefore f is a class function.19 Proposition The values of the induced character ø 4 G are given by 1 (ø 4 G)( g) ø( y À1 gy) j Hj yPG for all g P G. and so by Corollary 15.234 Representations and characters of groups @ function ø: G 3 C by ø( g) ø( g) 0 if g P H. ÷i G hø 4 G. ÷i G for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. ÷i G 1 1 ø(x)÷( yxy À1 )X jGj j Hj xPG yPG 1 ø(x)÷(x) j Hj xP H 1 1 ø( y À1 gy)÷( g)X jGj j Hj gPG yPG . if g P HX a 21.4. If w P G then 1 f (w À1 gw) ø( y À1 w À1 gwy) f ( g) j Hj yPG since wy runs through G as y runs through G. Proof Let f: G 3 C be the function given by 1 f ( g) ø( y À1 gy) ( g P G)X j Hj yPG We aim to prove that f ø 4 G. it is suf®cient to show that h f . Then h f . Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G.

19 is more useful. so the proof is complete. j 21. ÷i G hø. and we shall derive this next (it is given in Proposition 21. j For practical purposes. f G i G x ÷(x) X jCG (x)j . ÷i G X This was the equation required to show that f ø 4 G. Therefore a h f .21 Proposition If ÷ is a character of G and x P G. then the degree of ø 4 G is given by (ø 4 G)(1) jGj ø(1)X j Hj Proof This follows immediately by evaluating (ø 4 G)(1) using Proposition 21. and ÷( yxy À1 ) ÷(x) for all y P G. ÷i G hø 4 G. For x P G. h f . 21. a formula for the values of induced characters different from that given in Proposition 21. ÷ 5 Hi H and so by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem.20 Corollary If ø is a character of the subgroup H of G. de®ne the class function f G on G by x & 1 if y P x G f G ( y) ( y P G)X x 0 if y P x G a Thus f is the characteristic function of the conjugacy class x G .3).23 below). Alternatively. then h÷. the stated degree of ø 4 G can be found using just the de®nition of induced modules (see Exercise 21.19.Induced modules and characters 235 since ø(x) 0 if x P H.

. x (2) If some element of x G lies in H. we have (ø 4 G)(x) hø 4 G. If H < G and h P H then h H h G . 21. x Proof By Proposition 21. with representatives x1 . .4. then (ø 4 G)(x) 0. To put this another way. f G i G hø. 2 or more conjugacy classes of H. jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where x1 . f G 5 Hi H X x x jCG (x)j . .22) Suppose that x P G. (2) If some element of x G lies in H.236 Proof We have Representations and characters of groups 1 ÷( g) f G ( g) x jGj gPG 1 jx G j ÷(x) ÷( g) jGj gPx G jGj ÷(x) jCG (x)j by Theorem 12X8X j h÷. (1) If no element of x G lies in H. we have: (21. but if g P G then g G may contain 0. .18. (1) If no element of x G lies in H. f G i G x Note that a result similar to Proposition 21. X X X . then there are elements x1 . . . then f G 5 H 0. and suppose that x P G. x m .21 and Corollary 21. . . xm P H such that H H f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m X x Statement (2) just says that H x G breaks up into m conjugacy classes of H. 1.22)). xm P H and f G 5 H f x1 F F F f x m (as in (21. then ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)(x) jCG (x)j X X X .23 Proposition Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G.21 was used in the proof of Theorem 16.

. f x1 i H X X X hø. G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H f (1 3)(2 4) f (1 2)(3 4) . 21. a2 b (2 4)g. a3 (1 4 3 2)g. and H H f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m as in (21.22)(2). f x m i H ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) X X X jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j by Proposition 21X21X j The result follows.Induced modules and characters 237 If no element of x G lies in H. fa2 (1 3)(2 4)g. and G H f (1 2 3 4) 5 H f (1 2 3 4) X For example. f x1 X X X f x m i H jCG (x)j H H hø. b (1 3)X Then H D8. where a (1 2 3 4). then f G 5 H 0. By (12. and hence x (ø 4 G)(x) 0. G f (1 2 3) 5 H 0.12). G H f (1 3) 5 H f (1 3) . with representatives (1 3)(2 4) and (1 2)(3 4). since a4 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . the conjugacy classes of H are f1g. bl. And if some element of x G lies in H. fb (1 3). fa (1 2 3 4). then x (ø 4 G)(x) H H hø. the statement G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H f (1 3)(2 4) f (1 2)(3 4) records the fact that the G-conjugacy class (1 2)(3 4) G contains exactly two H-conjugacy classes.24 Example Let G S4 and let H ka. We have G H f1 5 H f1 .

÷5 of H D8.238 Representations and characters of groups The orders of the centralizers of the elements of H are as follows: h |CG (h)| |C H (h)| 1 24 8 (1 3)(2 4) 8 8 (1 2 3 4) 4 4 (1 3) 4 4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 4 Suppose that ø is a character of H. . we use induced characters to ®nd the character table of a group of order 21. 4 ø((1 3)(2 4)) ø((1 2)(3 4)) (ø 4 G)((1 2)(3 4)) 8 . we therefore have 1 ÷1 4 G ÷2 4 G ÷3 4 G ÷4 4 G ÷5 4 G 3 3 3 3 6 (1 2) 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À1 À1 3 À2 (1 2 3 4) 1 1 À1 À1 0 In the next example.3(3) for the irreducible characters ÷1 .2) De®ne permutations a. Then according to Proposition 21. . Exercise 17. b in S7 by a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7).23. . 8 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3 4)) 4 ø((1 2 3 4)) X 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3)) 0. b (2 3 5)(4 7 6) . . we have (ø 4 G)(1) 24 ø(1) . 8 ø((1 3)) (ø 4 G)((1 3)) 4 .25 Example (cf. 21. Referring to Example 16.

Their values are shown below: g |CG ( g)| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . fai b: 0 < i < 6g. bÀ1 ab a2 X 239 It follows from these relations that the elements of G are all of the form ai bj with 0 < i < 6. a3 . 21. a5 .23 for calculating ø k 4 G. and since b P C G (a). Since kal v G and Gahai C3. we obtain three linear characters ÷1 . a jC G (a)j .Induced modules and characters and let G be the subgroup ka. 7 divides jC G (a)j. 0 < j < 2. a6 g. We shall obtain the last two irreducible characters of G by inducing linear characters of H. fa. First we ®nd the conjugacy classes. a2 . there is a character ø k of H given by ø k (a j ) ç jk (0 < j < 6)X To use the formula in Proposition 21. We aim to ®nd the character table of G. ÷3 of G as the lifts of the linear characters of Gahai. For 1 < k < 6. b and b2 to be representatives of the conjugacy classes. a4 g. note that H H H f G 5 H f a f a2 f a4 a . fai b2 : 0 < i < 6gX We take 1. a. Let H kal. G has order 21. we see that the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. Hence jC G (a)j 7. ÷2 . Using this. and similarly jC G (b)j 3. fa3 . bl of S7 . Also. Notice that G has exactly ®ve irreducible characters. Check that a7 b3 1. Let ç e2ðia7 . Since hai < C G (a).

(ø1 4 G)(b) (ø1 4 G)(b2 ) 0X Similarly (ø3 4 G)(1) 3. . ø6 are linearly independent. b: a7 b3 1. (ø3 4 G)(a) ç3 ç5 ç6 . a4 are conjugate in H. and the character table of G is as shown. (ø3 4 G)(a3 ) ç ç2 ç4 . Hence by Proposition 21. (ø1 4 G)(a) ç ç2 ç4 and similarly (ø1 4 G)(a3 ) ç3 ç5 ç6 .23. 21 7 7 3 3 and similarly h÷5 . then the values of ÷4 and ÷5 are 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 a3 ç3 ç5 ç6 ç ç2 ç4 b 0 0 b2 0 0 Now ÷4 5 H ø1 ø2 ø4 and ÷5 5 H ø3 ø5 ø6 . Therefore ÷4 T ÷5 . a2 . (ø1 4 G)(1) 3X And since no G-conjugate of b or b2 lies in H. bÀ1 ab a2 i g |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 21 1 1 1 3 3 a 7 1 1 1 ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 a3 7 1 1 1 ç3 ç5 ç6 ç ç2 ç4 b 3 1 ù ù2 0 0 b2 3 1 ù2 ù 0 0 . . ÷4 i G 9 2 2 0 0 1. . We now calculate that h÷4 . and (ø3 4 G)(b) (ø3 4 G)(b2 ) 0X Thus if we write ÷4 ø1 4 G and ÷5 ø3 4 G. . ÷5 i G 1. Character table of ha.240 Representations and characters of groups since no two of the elements a. since ø1 . Thus ÷4 and ÷5 are our last two irreducible characters.

(a) If ÷1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let H be the subgroup ka2 . . De®ne U to be the 1-dimensional subspace of C H spanned by 1 À a2 b À a2 bX (a) Check that U is a C H-submodule of C H. Is U 4 G irreducible? 2.Induced modules and characters Summary of Chapter 21 Assume that H is a subgroup of G. Exercises for Chapter 21 1. b: a4 b2 1. 241 1. . an induced CG-module U 4 G can be de®ned. ÷ 5 Hi H . . then ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)( g) jCG ( g)j X X X jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m . The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem states that hø 4 G. Let G S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3)l C3 . g 4. ÷i G hø. where ø is a character of H and ÷ is a character of G. (c) Write down the character of the C H-module U and the character of the CG-module U 4 G. 2. If no element of g G lies in H. then (ø 4 G)( g) 0X If some element of g G lies in H. then U 4 G is simply U(CG). If U is a C H-module of C H. For each C H-module U. as given in . 3. . If ø is a character of H then the induced character ø 4 G is given by 1 (ø 4 G)( g) ø( y À1 gy)X j Hj yPG In particular. ÷5 are the irreducible characters of G. bl. (b) Find a basis of the induced CG-module U 4 G. the degree of ø:G is |G: H|ø(1). Let G D8 ka.

. 3. bl. X X X . (b) Calculate the induced characters ø j 4 G (1 < j < 3) as sums of the irreducible characters ÷ i of G. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G. which are given by ø 4 G d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷k . as in Example 21. Let H be a subgroup of G.5. ø3 of C3 . let ø be a character of H. 6. You are given that jC G (a)j 7 and jC G (b)j 18. b (2 3 5)(4 7 6).1. then jGj (ø 4 G)(1) ø(1)X j Hj 4.25).) 5. work out the restrictions ÷ i 5 H (1 < i < 5) as sums of the irreducible characters ø1 . where a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). Prove that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G (ø 4 G)÷X (Hint: consider the inner product of each side with an arbitrary irreducible character of G. . and use the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. Show direct from the de®nition that if H < G and ø is a character of H. Let G S7 and let H ka. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. Let ö and ø be the irreducible characters of H which are given by gi |C H ( g i )| ö ø 1 21 1 3 a 7 a3 7 b 3 1 0 b2 3 1 0 1 1 ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 where ç e2ðia7 (see Example 21.25. Show that the integers d 1 . . satisfy k i1 d 2 < jG : HjX i (Compare Proposition 20.) .242 Representations and characters of groups Section 18. and let ÷1 . Let ø be an irreducible character of H. d k . ø2 . Calculate the values of the induced characters ö 4 G and ø 4 G. . and let ÷ be a character of G.

Discover and prove results for ø 4 G which are similar to those presented in Chapter 20 for the restriction of irreducible characters of G to H. Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. and let ø be an irreducible character of H. .Induced modules and characters 243 7.

if p is a prime number and g P G is an element of order pr for some r. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod p for any character ÷ of G for which ÷( g) is an integer. We discuss properties of a group element g P G which ensure that ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. Thus. Equivalently. And we prove some useful congruence properties. all of whose entries are integers. Algebraic integers 22.1 De®nition A complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is an eigenvalue of some matrix. This is one of several results which we shall prove in this chapter.22 Algebraic integers Among the properties of characters which may be regarded as fundamental. Most of the results concern arithmetic properties of character values. for example. using algebraic integers. perhaps the most opaque is that which states that the degree of an irreducible character of a ®nite group G must divide the order of G. we require that det (A À ëI) 0 for some square matrix A with integer entries. for ë to be an algebraic integer. for the same matrix A. we have uA ëu for some non-zero row vector u. We remark that ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form 244 .

algebraic integers are usually de®ned in this way. then so are Àë and the complex conjugate ë of ë. vB ìvX Suppose that A is an m 3 m matrix and B is an n 3 n matrix. such that uA ëu. since it is an eigenvalue of the 0 1 matrix X 2 0 (3) If ë is an algebraic integer. p (2) 2 is an algebraic integer. ù nÀ1 ). To see this. (4) Let A be the n 3 n matrix H 0 0 f1 0 f f0 1 Af f f d0 0 0 0 given by 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 1 0 0g g 0 0g gX g g 0 0e 1 0 Suppose that ù is an nth root of unity. 1) ùuX This shows that every nth root of unity is an algebraic integer. ù. ù2 . where u is the row vector obtained from u by replacing each entry by its complex conjugate. note that if A is an integer matrix and u is a row vector with uA ëu. a nÀ1 are integers (see Exercise 22. ù nÀ1 . Proof There exist square matrices A and B. .7). then u(ÀA) (Àë)u and uA ëu. and let u be the row vector (1. Then uA (ù. ù2 .Algebraic integers x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 245 where a0 . . then ëì and ë ì are also algebraic integers. . 22. X X X . all of whose entries are integers. . and non-zero row vectors u and v.2 Examples (1) Every integer n is an algebraic integer. In fact. since n is an eigenvalue of the 1 3 1 matrix (n). 22. . X X X .3 Theorem If ë and ì are algebraic integers.

Since the matrix of A B relative to the basis ei fj (1 < i < m. by Example 22. 1 < j < n). then ÷( g) is an algebraic integer.5 Proposition If ë is both a rational number and an algebraic integer. so any sum of roots of unity is an algebraic integer by Theorem 22. ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity. y P C n. we have (x y)(A B) xA yBX Hence (u v)(A B) uA vB ëu ìv ëì(u v)X Therefore ëì is an eigenvalue of A B. it follows that ëì is an algebraic integer.3 shows that the set of all algebraic integers forms a subring of C. respectively.3. Proof By Proposition 13. . em be a basis of C m and f 1 . j 22. The next result provides a link between algebraic integers and characters. Then (u v)(A I n I m B) uA vI n uI m vB ëu v u ìv (ë ì)(u v).2(4). 1 < j < n) has integer entries. X X X . f n be a basis of C n . 22. then ë is an integer. Each root of unity is an algebraic integer.4 that for all vectors x P C m . Let Im and In denote the identity m 3 m and n 3 n matrices. . It is easy to check as in the proof of Proposition 19. ( ë ij (ei f j ))(A B) ë ij (ei A f j B)). 1 < j < n) form a basis of the tensor product space V C m C n. .4 Corollary If ÷ is a character of G and g P G. . extending linearly (that is. j Theorem 22. Hence ÷( g) is an algebraic integer.246 Representations and characters of groups Let e1 . and we deduce as above that ë ì is an algebraic integer. Then the vectors ei fj (1 < i < m.9. . De®ne an endomorphism A B of V by (ei f j )(A B) ei A f j B (1 < i < m.

we establish two preliminary lemmas. Then . we deduce that det (sA À rI) T 0.6 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G and let g P G. which is enough to establish the proposition. Therefore det (sA À rI) (Àr) n mp for some integer m.Algebraic integers 247 Proof Suppose that ë is a rational number which is not an integer. Recall from De®nition 12. Let U be an irreducible CG-module. p the well known result that 2 is irrational. the entries of sA À rI which are not on the diagonal are divisible by s.) The degree of every irreducible character divides |G| To prepare for the proof that |G| is divisible by the degree of each irreducible character of G. j The next result is an immediate consequence of Corollary 22. where r and s are coprime integers and s T Æ1. s and hence ë is not an algebraic integer.5. Thus n 1 det (A À ëI) det (sA À rI) T 0. In passing.7 Lemma Suppose that g P G and that C is the conjugacy class of G which contains g. then ÷( g) is an integer. As p does not divide r (since r and s are coprime). We shall show that ë is not an algebraic integer. If ÷( g) is a rational number. then C x P CGX xPC 22.4 and Proposition 22.5. with character ÷. note that we have.2(2) shows p that 2 is an algebraic integer. For every n 3 n matrix A of integers. Write ë ras. 22. Let p be a prime number which divides s. as a special case of Proposition 22. and hence also by p. (Example 22.21 that if C is a conjugacy class of G.

this yields jCj÷( g) ë÷(1)X Thus ë jCj÷( g)a÷(1).8. . where ë jGj ÷( g) X jCG ( g)j ÷(1) Proof Since C lies in the centre of CG (see Proposition 12. we have gi r n j1 aij g j .14 that there exists ë P C such that uC ëu for all u P U. where ë P C. we know by Proposition 9. that is. As |C| |G:CG ( g)| by Theorem 12. Suppose that u is a non-zero element of CG such that ur ëu. the result follows. gn be the elements of G. .22). .8 Lemma Let r gPG á g g P CG. then [x]B ëIX xPC Taking the traces of both sides of this equation.248 Representations and characters of groups uC ëu for all u P U . Then ë is an algebraic integer. u x ëu for all u P U X xPC Consequently if B is a basis of U. . where each á g is an integer. Then for 1 < i < n. j 22. Proof Let g1 . we obtain ÷(x) ë÷(1). xPC and since ÷ is constant on the conjugacy class C.

(In fact.Algebraic integers 249 for certain integers aij . Therefore ë is an algebraic integer.3. and de®ne u 1 ùx À1 ù2 x À2 X X X ù nÀ1 x P CG.10 Corollary If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and g P G. . Proof Let g1 . 22. by Corollaries 22. k i1 jGj ÷( g i )÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) . both jGj ÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) and ÷( g i ) jGj ÷( g) jCG ( g)j ÷(1) are algebraic integers. Hence by Theorem 22. Then uC ëu for all u P U. . Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. where ù is an nth root of unity. gk be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. .8. then ÷(1) divides |G|.10 and 22. aij á g where g gÀ1 gj . Proof Let U be an irreducible CG-submodule of CG with character ÷.7.8 con®rms that ù is an algebraic integer. then ë is an algebraic integer. Notice that this example is just a reworking of Example 22. . j 22. j 22. and let C be the sum of the elements in the conjugacy class of G which contains g. Then for all i.4. by Lemma 22.9 Example Let G Cn kx: x n 1l. Then ux ùu and so Lemma 22.11 Theorem If ÷ is an irreducible character of G.) The i statement that ur ëu (with u T 0) says that ë is an eigenvalue of the integer matrix A (aij ).2(4). by Lemma 22.

13 Corollary No simple group has an irreducible character of degree 2. as the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is equal to |G|.4(1). Proposition 22. Therefore by Theorem 17. ÷(1) divides |G|. 2.5 now implies that jGja÷(1) is an integer. By Theorem 17. and this implies that det ( gr) 1 for all g P GX . either the degrees of the irreducible characters of G are all 1. Proof Suppose that G is a simple group which has an irreducible character ÷ of degree 2. C) be a representation of G with character ÷.) Hence. Since Ker r v G and G is simple. by Proposition 9. observe that G is non-abelian.) 22. Theorem 16. by the row orthogonality relations. or they are 1. (Note that ÷(1) . using Proposition 9. By Theorem 22.11. As jGja÷(1) is a rational number.11 also has the following interesting consequences concerning irreducible characters of simple groups. the number of linear characters of G divides |G|. G has no non-trivial linear characters. if jGj p2 then ÷(1) 1 for all irreducible characters ÷. X X X . Hence G9 T 1. j 22. we have Ker r f1g. (Recall that a group G is simple if it has no normal subgroups apart from {1} and G. then ÷(1) is a power of p for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. This algebraic integer is equal to jGja÷(1).11.18. and hence satis®es p < n. and so G9 G as G is simple. Let r: G 3 GL(2. Theorem 22. Hence. (2) Let G be a group of order 2 p. p. In particular. 1. First. But g 3 det ( gr) is a linear character of G (see Exercise 13.7(a)). That is. where p is prime. the degree of each irreducible character of G is 1 or 2 (it cannot be p for the reason noted in (1) above).5. we recover the well known result that groups of order p2 are abelian.12 Examples (1) If p is a prime number and G is a group of order pn for some n. 2 (with ( p À 1)a2 degrees 2)X (3) If G Sn then every prime p which divides the degree of an irreducible character of G also divides n!.11.250 Representations and characters of groups is an algebraic integer. and so r is injective.

j Our next result again shows that information about character degrees can sometimes be used to learn about the structure of a group. Consider the 2 3 2 matrix xr. ÷(1) .6). the sum being over the irreducible characters ÷ of G for which ÷(1) . and hence hxi v GX This is a contradiction. 22. Since det (xr) 1. Therefore G contains an element x of order 2 (see Exercise 1. so p divides |G| by . by Theorem 22. This time.12 and 17. this means that xg gx for all g P G. Then ÷(1) is divisible by p. while jG: N j is a power of p. As r is injective. As r is injective.11.Algebraic integers 251 Now G has even order. Theorems 11. xr has order 2. we conclude that À1 0 À1 T (xr)T X 0 À1 Thus xr T(ÀI)T À1 ÀIX Consequently (xr)( gr) ( gr)(xr) for all g P G.8). In particular. Since G is non-abelian. by our hypothesis. and jN j is coprime to p. as G is simple. there is a 2 3 2 matrix T such that T À1 (xr)T is a diagonal matrix with diagonal entries Æ1.14 Corollary Suppose that p is a prime and the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p. and we deduce that G has an abelian normal pcomplement N. that is. G is not simple unless G has prime order. Proof The result is correct if G is abelian (see Theorem 9. 1. so we assume that G is non-abelian. N is an abelian normal subgroup of G. 1 for some irreducible character ÷ of G.11 give us the equation jGj jGaG9j ÷(1)2 .11. and by Proposition 9. we assume that every irreducible character of G has degree a power of a prime p. Then G has an abelian normal p-complement.

by Proposition 20. øi T 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. This result implies. assume that G is simple. Theorem 22. and we deduce from the equation above that p divides the order of the abelian group GaG9.11. because G is simple.17). Therefore.16 is evidently a useful result. Hence G has a normal subgroup H of index p. so G is abelian. for example. Hence N consists of those elements of G whose order is coprime to p. 22. and from this fact it follows easily that N v G. then we denote their highest common factor by (a.7). since otherwise p divides the order of gH which in turn divides the order of g. G has prime order. On the other hand. Before proving Theorem 22. so it remains to prove that N v G. j A condition which ensures that ÷( g) is an integer In Theorem 22.16. a similar argument shows that g P N. Then g P H. Next. so ø(1) is a power of p. Also. for integers d and n. every entry in the character table of Sn is an integer (see Corollary 22. that for all n. Since every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups.1. it follows that GaG9 has a subgroup of index p.16 below we give a group-theoretic condition on an element g of G which implies that ÷( g) is an integer for every character ÷ of G. Finally.252 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 22. Clifford's Theorem 20. If a and b are positive integers. If N f1g then G is a p-group so Z(G) T {1} (see Exercise 12. we require a preliminary lemma concerning roots of unity. Bearing in mind the dif®culties we encountered in constructing the character tables of Sn for small values of n (we reached n 6 in Example 19. by Exercise 1. if N G then G is again abelian. b). Then h÷ 5 H. We have that |N| is coprime to p and jG : N j is a power of p. we write d|n to denote the fact that d divides n. We may now apply induction on |G| to deduce that H has an abelian normal p-complement N.15 Lemma If ù is an nth root of unity.8 shows that ø(1) divides ÷(1). then . But an abelian simple group has prime order. we have Z(G) G.17). Let ø be an irreducible character of H. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is coprime to p. so either N {1} or N G.4.

if ù 1 then the result is immediate. ( j. 1 ( j. (i. It is trivial for n 1. then by our induction hypothesis.nad)1 j as required.Algebraic integers ùi 1<i< n. and if in addition d . By Proposition 9. Then ù is a root of the polynomial n (x n À 1)a(x À 1) x nÀ1 X X X x 1X Therefore i1 ù i 0. Suppose that g is conjugate to gi for all i with 1 < i < n and (i.nad)1 It follows that 1<i< n. (i. Then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G.11. 1< j< nad. Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷ of degree m.n)1 ùi n i1 ùi À ù dj P Z. ù dj P ZX 1< j< nad. dj n.n)1 253 is an integer. Proof We prove the result by induction on n. ( j. n) 1. there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùm 0 . 22. So suppose that ù is an nth root of unity and ù T 1. 1.16 Theorem Let g be an element of order n in G.nad)1 If djn then ù d is an (nad)th root of unity.n)d ùi ù dj X dj n 1< j< nad. d . Also. n i Now we partition the sum i1 ù according to the highest common factor d of i and n: 0 n i1 ùi dj n 1<i< n (i.

we need to de®ne the p9-part of a group element. n) 1.16. j The p9-part of a group element The rest of the chapter is devoted to some important congruence properties of character values. we have ÷( g i ) ÷( g) for such i. . ÷( g i ) P ZX 1<i< n. then the permutations g and g i have the same cycle-shape. ù m are nth roots of unity. and hence s÷( g) P Z. g is an element of G of order pr for some r.17 Corollary All the character values of symmetric groups are integers. 22. . and so ÷( g) is an integer by Corollary 22. . Consequently ÷( g) is a rational number. The result now follows from Theorem 22. . namely that if ÷( g i ) P Z for all characters ÷ of G.6. For 1 < i < n. one particularly useful consequence of our results is that if p is a prime number.15. The de®nition will emerge from the following lemma.254 Representations and characters of groups where ù1 . . and ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z. ù im . then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod p. and so i ÷( g i ) ù1 X X X ù im X Therefore by Lemma 22. Before going into the character theory. . . n) 1. j We remark that using Galois theory it is possible to prove the converse of Theorem 22. Proof If g P Sn and i is coprime to the order of g. For example.15. and hence are conjugate by Theorem 12. . (i. . where s is the number of integers i with 1 < i < n and (i.n)1 As g is conjugate to gi if 1 < i < n and (i. then g is conjugate to g i whenever i is coprime to n. the matrix i [ g i ]B has diagonal entries ù1 .16.

it follows that x À1 x9 has order a power of p. We must show that x x9 and y y9. Now suppose that x9. b such that au bpv 1X Put x gau and y gbp . and so x x9 and y y9. xy g x9 y9. so is coprime to p. Proof Let the order of g be upv . Then there exist x. that is. so x9 commutes with g. so x À1 x9 y( y9)À1 X If z x À1 x9 y( y9)À1 . then we have shown that the order of z is both a power of p and coprime to p. y u g bup 1X Hence the order of x is a power of p and the order of y divides u. Since both x and x9 have order a power of p. g x9 y9 y9x9.Algebraic integers 255 22. hence also with gau x.18 Lemma Let p be a prime number and let g P G. as required. (2) the order of x is a power of p. the order of x9 is a power of p and the order of y9 is coprime to p. p) 1. the elements x and y of G which satisfy conditions (1)±(3) are unique. Therefore x and y satisfy conditions (1)±(3). y9 P G also satisfy (1)±(3). and (3) the order of y is coprime to p. Then xy yx g aubp g. Therefore z 1. v P Z and (u. y P G such that (1) g xy yx. x p g aup 1. We have x9 g x9 y9x9 gx9. Moreover. Finally. y9 commutes with y and y( y9)À1 has order coprime to p. Then there exist integers a. Similarly. where u. j v v v v v .

19 De®nition We call the element y which appears in Lemma 22. y gÀ2 . we conclude that Z[æ]a pZ[æ] is ®nite. . By de®nition. the expression g xy in Lemma 22.part of g is gbp . 0 < ai < p À 1 for all iX As there are only ®nitely many such elements. æ nÀ1 . Let n be a positive integer and let æ e2ðia n .21 Proposition There are only ®nitely many ideals I of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ]. so in fact Z[æ] f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x] of degree < n À 1gX Now let p be a prime number and let pZ[æ] f pr: r P Z[æ]g. . We extract the following statement from the proof of Lemma 22. À2 A little ring theory To prepare for our main result on congruence properties of character values. a principal ideal of Z[æ]. (22.18 the p9-part of g. Z[æ] f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x]gX Clearly. . The ideals of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ] are in . Every such coset contains an element of the form a0 a1 æ X X X a nÀ1 æ nÀ1 . and choose integers a. . æ2 . v P Z and (u. every element of Z[æ] is an integer combination of the powers 1. De®ne Z[æ] to be the subring of C generated by Z and æ.18 has x g3 . where u.20) Let the order of g be upv . this has as its elements all the cosets pZ[æ] r with r P Z[æ]. then the p9-part of g is g .18. that is.256 Representations and characters of groups 22. if p 2 and g has order 6. p) 1. 22. v Then the p9. æ. we need a few basic facts about a certain subring of C in which all our character values will lie. with ai P Z. Proof Consider the factor ring Z[æ]a pZ[æ]. b with au bpv 1. For example.

we also have pZ P Z. j We deduce from Proposition 22. Proof Assume that rs P P and r P P. Since n r rr nÀ1 . (A proper ideal of Z[æ] is an ideal which is not equal to Z[æ]. and the proof is complete.Algebraic integers 257 bijective correspondence with the ideals of Z[æ]a pZ[æ] (the correspondence being I 3 Ia pZ[æ]). Repeating this argument. As P is a maximal. this implies that either r P P or r nÀ1 P P. there exist a P Z[æ]. we conclude that r P P. b P P such that 1 ra bX Then s rsa sbX As rs P P and b P P. since P T Z[æ]. as required.23 Proposition We have P Z pZ. Therefore there are only ®nitely many such ideals. We must show that s P P. s P Z[æ] and rs P P. 22. For the last statement of the proposition. but this implies that 1 P P. j 22. In particular. that is.) We now prove two easy results about the maximal ideal P. If p B m then there are integers a.21 that there is a maximal ideal of P of Z[æ] which contains pZ[æ]. we therefore have rZ[æ] P Z[æ]X Consequently. assume that r n P P. then r P P. Proof Let m P P Z. if r n P P for some positive integer n. which establishes that P Z pZ. Thus pjm. the ideal rZ[æ] P of Z[æ] strictly contains P. P is a proper ideal which is contained in no larger proper ideal of Z[æ]. Since p P P. a Since r P P. then either r P P or s P P. it follows that s P P. b with j am bp 1. which is false.22 Proposition If r. j .

If ÷ is any character of G. Hence (ù À ù bp ) p ù p (À1) p ù bp pá. Then y g bp (see (22. b with au bpv 1. v vÀ r v p bpv pv pv v pvÀ1 bpv (ù À ù ) ù À p ù ù X X X Æ ù p ù rbp r X X X (À1) p ù bp X For 0 . where u. v P Z and v (u. so it follows that (ù À ù bp ) p P pZ[æ]X Thus (ù À ù bp ) p lies in the maximal ideal P. pv pv bp2v ù (À1) ù pv 2ù . so ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both sums of nth roots of unity. Let G be a group of order n and let æ e2ðia n .20)). Moreover. Choose integers a. the binomial coef®cient ( rp ) is divisible by p. Then v ù ù aubp .11). The orders of g and of y divide n |G|. we have @ 0. 22. let p be a prime number and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing pZ[æ]. if p 2. r . and hence lie in Z[æ]. By the Binomial Theorem. then ÷( g) À ÷( y) P PX Proof Suppose that g has order m upv . As in the previous section. pv . The ring Z[æ] is of interest because all the character values of G lie in Z[æ] (see Proposition 9. p) 1. Now let ù be an mth root of unity (so ù P Z[æ] as mjn).24 Theorem Let g P G and let y be the p9.258 Representations and characters of groups Congruences At last we are ready to prove our results on congruences of character values. where á P Z[æ]. and so v v 2v 2v ù p ù aup .part of g.22 now forces v v v v v 2v v v v v 2v v v 2v v v . ù bp ù bp X Consider the number (ù À ù bp ) p . Application of Proposition 22. if p T 2. since ù p ù bp .

. . by (22. . j Notice that Corollary 13. Suppose that g P G and that y is the p9. We shall use the congruence results 22. . Theorem 22. j 22.26 Corollary Let p be a prime number. the p9-part of g is 1.24±22.part of g. For the moment. we just illustrate the results with reference to some character tables which we already know. there are mth roots of unity ù1 .10 is the special case of Corollary 22. .11. so the result is immediate from Corollary 22. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is a power of p. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z.Algebraic integers (22X25) (ù À ù bp ) P PX v 259 By Proposition 9. j 22.24 and Proposition 22. ù d such that bp ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù d and ÷( y) ù1 X X X ù bp X d v v Then bp ÷( g) À ÷( y) (ù1 À ù1 ) X X X (ù d À ù bp ).26.27 extensively in our character calculations in Chapters 25±7. lies in P. d v v which.27 Corollary Let p be a prime number.27 in which g has order 2.23 give ÷( g) À ÷( y) P P Z pZX Therefore ÷( g) ÷( y) mod p. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers. then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod pX Proof As ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod pX Proof As the order of g is a power of p.25).

11). so 5 P P by Proposition 22.26 implies that ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 3 whenever ÷( g) P Z. .28 Example Recall from Example 20. 2. as can be seen by inspecting the table. Thus the corresponding entries in columns 1 and 2 Character table of A5 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 1 À1 0 â á of the character table are congruent modulo 3. and p ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) á À 3 1(1 5 À 6) 2 p p p 5 . p p Then ( 5)2 P P. The degree of every irreducible character of G divides |G|. Character values are algebraic integers. If g (1 2 3) then Corollary 22.260 Representations and characters of groups 22.22. Summary of Chapter 22 1. 1(1 À 5) â 5X 2 Put æ e2ðia60 . then the p9-part of g is 1. ÷4 ((1 2 3 4 5)) á P Z.24 for this a value. ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) P PX This illustrates Theorem 22. If we take p 5 and g (1 2 3 4 5). p p where á (1 5)a2.24. and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing 5Z[æ]. we have â 5 P P. â (1 À 5)a2.14 that the character table of A5 is as shown. We illustrate Theorem 22. That is. 2. Since â P Z[æ] (see p Proposition 9. 3X However. Similarly the entries in columns 1 and 3 are congruent modulo 2. Also ÷ i ((1 2 3 4 5)) ÷ i (1) mod 5 for i 1.

(b) Show that a b and a b|G| are integers. . (a) Find the degrees of all the irreducible characters of G. for all characters ÷. 17. 3. 4. (d) Deduce that both a and b are integers. then g 1. Let G be a group of order 15. Suppose that G is a group of odd order. If g is conjugate to g i for all integers i which are coprime to the order of g. then ÷( g) is an integer. If g P G and y is the p9-part of g.11 to show that every irreducible character of G has degree 1. (c) Show that if ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G. 10 or 16. This exercise shows that the only irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷ ÷ is the trivial character. 4. (b) Show that |G9| p. b P C. Deduce that G is abelian. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . and let G be a nonabelian group of order pq. q. Prove that the number of conjugacy classes in a group of order 16 is 7. then b÷(1) is an integer.12. Let G be a group and let ö be a character of G such that ö( g) ö(h) for all non-identity elements g and h of G.Algebraic integers 261 3.11 and 22. 1 G i 1 (÷(1) 2á). then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod p for all characters ÷ of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are integers. Exercises for Chapter 22 1. (a) Show that ö a1 G b÷reg for some a. Use Theorems 11. 5. (c) Deduce that ÷ 1 G . jGj where á is an algebraic integer. 2. Prove that h÷. (b) Now let ÷ be an irreducible character of G with ÷ ÷. (c) Show that q divides p À 1 and that G has q (( p À 1)aq) conjugacy classes. Let p be a prime number. (a) Prove that if g P G and g gÀ1 .

(c) Find ÷(1) and ÷( g) for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. ÷( g) is 0. . (a) Show that for every irreducible character ÷ of G. g3 and g4 are conjugate in G. (b) Use Corollary 22. ®nd the character table of G. . . 7. (d) You are given that all entries in the character table of G are integers. . A certain group G of order 120 has exactly seven conjugacy classes. g7 with orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 120 g2 2 12 g3 2 8 g4 3 6 g5 4 4 g6 6 6 g7 5 5 Using Corollary 22. g.262 Representations and characters of groups 6. This exercise illustrates this point with the group G S5 . where each ar (0 < r < n À 1) is an integer. and that the conjugacy classes of G have representatives g1 . 1 or À1. and contains an element g of order 5 such that jCG ( g)j 5. Moreover.27 to deduce that G has two irreducible characters of degree 5. . It is often possible to calculate the character table from limited arithmetic information about the group G. g2 . Prove that a complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 .26 and the column orthogonality relations.

Nevertheless. we have always taken our representations to be over the ®eld C of complex numbers. However. which we shall explore in this chapter. and is not used in the ensuing chapters.23 Real representations Since Chapter 9. Real characters An element g of the ®nite group G is said to be real if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . while there is no representation ó equivalent to r with all the matrices gó having real entries. There is a subtle interplay between representations over C and representations over R. If all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. However. then the conjugacy class g G is also said to be 263 . and if g is real. the subject of real representations not only is elegant and interesting. and the ®rst main result of the chapter describes the number of real-valued irreducible characters of G. Often. some results in representation theory work equally well for the ®eld R of real numbers. Let r be a representation of G. but also gives delicate information about characters which often comes into play in more dif®cult calculations. The material in this chapter is perhaps at a slightly more advanced level than that in the rest of the book. then of course the character of r is real-valued. the converse is not true: it can happen that the character of r is realvalued. which consist largely of the calculation of character tables and applications of character theory. This is used in the last section to prove a famous result of Brauer and Fowler concerning centralizers of involutions in ®nite simple groups. Various criteria for whether or not a character corresponds to a representation over R lead us to the remarkable Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. characters of CG-modules are real-valued.

2. and so there is a permutation matrix Q such that XQ X By Proposition 16. For every irreducible character ÷ of G. so X can be obtained from X by permuting the rows. On the other hand. Since the trace of a permutation matrix is equal to the number of points ®xed by the corresponding permutation. the complex conjugate ÷ is also an irreducible character (see Proposition 13. Therefore Q X À1 X X À1 PX X Consequently P and Q have the same trace.4).5. Hence there is a permutation matrix P such that PX X (see Exercise 4. by Proposition 13. and the number of real conjugacy classes of G is tr (Q)X j As these numbers are equal. then it contains the inverse of each of its elements.264 Representations and characters of groups real. . Therefore X can be obtained from X be permuting the columns.2. Thus for example. 23. Notice that if a conjugacy class is real. Part of the following corollary was obtained by a different method in Exercise 22. and let X denote the complex conjugate of the matrix X. the conjugacy class {1} of G is real. we have the number of real irreducible characters of G is tr (P). Proof Let X denote the character table of G. the result is proved. X is invertible. and the trivial character of G is real.1 Theorem The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. since ( g À1 ) G fx À1 : x P g G g.15). a character ÷ of G is real if ÷( g) is real for all g P G. For every conjugacy class g G of G. the entries in the column of X which corresponds to g G are the complex conjugates of the entries in the column of X which corresponds to ( g À1 ) G .

This is the same as saying that there is some CG-module V with character ÷. We say that ÷ can be realized over R if there is a representation r: G 3 GL (n. The values of ÷ are as follows: 1 ÷ 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 . such that for all g P G and 1 < i < n. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.8. . the only real character of G is the trivial character. . and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Example 16. Hence G has at least two real conjugacy classes. .3 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. and there is a basis v1 . and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Exercise 17. br ar 0 1 À1 0 provides a representation r of G with character ÷ such that all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries.1. since À1 0 0 1 . b2 a2 . G has an element g of order 2. j Characters which can be realized over R Let ÷ be a character of the group G. then no non-identity element of G is real (see the solution to Exercise 23. v i g is a linear combination of v1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Therefore by Theorem 23. . b: a4 b2 1. . and so G has at least two real irreducible characters by Theorem 23. v n with real coef®cients. v n of V.1). {1} and g G. b: a4 1. . such that all the entries in each matrix gr ( g P G) are real. If G has even order. then by Exercise 1.2 Corollary The group G has a non-trivial real irreducible character if and only if the order of G is even.1.Real representations 265 23. . Then ÷ can be realized over R. C) with character ÷. Proof If G has odd order.1). (2) Let G Q8 ka.3(3)). 23. .

if we de®ne v1 x v2 . . v n of the RG-module.4 Examples Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over R. The construction is even easier to understand in terms of representations: if r: G 3 GL (n. ÷ cannot be realized over R.18(3) below. (We shall eventually establish this in Example 23. with basis v1 . . .) À1 À1 Every RG-module can easily be converted into a CG-module. and consider the vector space over C with basis v1 . where F is R or C. . In this section we shall study the relationship between RG-modules and CGmodules. Thus an RG-module is a vector space over R. v1 b Àv1 . R) is a representation then for each g P G. and hence also in C. (1) V becomes an RD8 -module if we de®ne v1 a v2 . v2 . This new vector space is clearly a CG-module (with v i g de®ned as before). Example 23. v n .) Although every character which can be realized over R is perforce a real character. .266 Representations and characters of groups Thus ÷ is real. Therefore we obtain a representation r: G 3 GL (n. v2 b v2 (compare Example 23. . v2 x Àv1 À v2 X 0 1 (This gives the representation x 3 of Exercise 3.2. . 23. C). .3(2) tells us that the converse is false. RG-modules Recall that in Chapter 4 we de®ned an FG-module. Simply take a basis v1 . (2) V becomes an RC3 -module. but it is at the moment unclear how to prove this. where C3 kx: x 3 1l. with a multiplication by elements of G satisfying the conditions of De®nition 4.3(1)).2. the matrix gr has its entries in R. v2 a Àv1 . In fact. Notice that a character ÷ of G can be .

and (À yjk v k xjk (iv k )) (1 < j < n). and let g P G. iv n X Write z jk x jk iyjk with x jk . we have (v j g)h v j ( gh) and ((iv j ) g)h (iv j )( gh)X Hence using Proposition 4. . We de®ne a multiplication of VR by g by putting (23X5) vj g (iv j ) g n k1 n k1 (xjk v k yjk (iv k )). Regarding v j as an element of the CG-module V. X X X . We summarize the basic properties of VR in the next proposition. v n . v n . 1 < j < nX It follows easily that.5) makes VR into an RGmodule. If ÷ is the character of V. . we have (v j g)h v j ( gh) for all g. . is 2 n k1 xkk ÷( g) ÷( g)X Hence the character of VR is ÷ ÷. we see that (23. regarding v j and iv j as elements of VR .6. There exist complex numbers z jk such that vj g n k1 zjk v k (1 < j < n)X Now let VR be the vector space over R with basis v1 . X X X . y jk P R. . and extending linearly to de®ne v g for all v P VR . iv1 .Real representations 267 realized over R if and only if there exists an RG-module with character ÷. evaluated at g. then ÷( g) n k1 zkk X The character of VR . . In this way we de®ne v g for all v P VR and all g P G. h P G. Rather more subtle than this is the construction of an RG-module from a given CG-module. Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 .

Then by part (1). .7 Examples (1) Let G C3 kx: x 3 1l. (2) If V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RGmodule. in particular. v3 . j 23. VR U È W where U is an RG-module with character ÷ and W is an RG-module with character ÷. we obtain the representation r. (1) The RG-module VR has character ÷ ÷. x is represented by the matrix p À1a2 3a2 p X À 3a2 À1a2 (2) Let G D8 ka. where v3 iv1 .268 Representations and characters of groups 23. With respect to this basis. v4 . where H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f 0 0 0 À1 g f g g. v4 iv2 . v2 . then ÷ can be realized over R. Therefore the character of V can be realized over R. and let V be the 1-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 such that p v1 x 1(À1 i 3)v1 2 p (note that 1(À1 i 3) e2ðia3 ). dim VR 2 dim V. and with 2 respect to this basis. and let V be the 2dimensional CG-module with basis v1 . namely U. Thus there is an RG-module. suppose that V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RG-module. v2 such that v1 a iv1 . v2 b v1 X Then VR has basis v1 . iv1 . and so ÷ can be realized over R. with character ÷. b: a4 b2 1. v1 b v2 . Then VR has basis v1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.6 Proposition Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. Proof We have already proved part (1). v2 a Àiv2 . br f 1 0 0 0 gX ar f d À1 0 0 e d0 0 0 1e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 The subspace of VR which is spanned by v1 v4 and v2 v3 is an RG-submodule. For part (2).

v) ë1 â(u1 . v. v) . v2 P V and ë1 . u1 . 0 for all non-zero v P V X . v) ë2 â(u2 . v) for all u. v) Àâ(v. v) and y 3 â(u. v. 23. Let V be a vector space over F. Bilinear forms The question of whether or not a given character can be realized over R turns out to be related to the existence of a certain bilinear form on the corresponding CG-module. v P V X And the bilinear form â is skew-symmetric if â(u. the functions x 3 â(x. v) of vectors in V an element â(u. u2 . u) for all u. u) for all u. (Thus for ®xed u. then a bilinear form â on V is said to be Ginvariant if â(ug. v P V X If V is an FG-module. v2 ). v). where F is R or C. vg) â(u. ë2 P F. A bilinear form â on V is a function which associates with each ordered pair (u.) The bilinear form â is symmetric if â(u. and which has the following properties: â(ë1 u1 ë2 u2 . v P V and g P GX Our next result shows that every RG-module has a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form with a strong positivity property. In fact. then there exists a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V such that â(v. v) of F. y) are both linear ± hence the term bilinear.6.Real representations 269 by Proposition 23. v1 .8 Theorem If V is an RG-module. â(u. A similar result for CG-modules was given in Exercise 8. we already know this from Example 23. v) â(v. for all u. ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ) ë1 â(u.6(2). v1 ) ë2 â(u.3(1).

Now let w P W and g P G.10 Proposition Suppose that â is a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the RGmodule V. wgg À1 ) â(ug À1 . 0 and â(v. ã(v. j 23. . .9 Proposition Let V be an RG-module and let â be a G-invariant bilinear form on V. v) n j1 ì2 . Proof Let v1 . 0. vx) (u. w) 0 for all u P U gX Proof It is easy to see that W is a subspace of V. w) 0X Thus wg P W. W fw P V : â(u. u) . v P V )X Again. . v) . v gx) â(u. v) . j 23. . for non-zero v P V. . so â(u. 0 for all non-zero v P V. and â(v. v)X xPG Therefore â is G-invariant and the theorem is proved. For all u P U. vg) ã(ugx. v P V with â(u.270 Representations and characters of groups n j1 ë j v j . Then V is a reducible RG-module. â is a symmetric bilinear form on V. If U is an RG-submodule of V then so is . we have ugÀ1 P U. v n be a basis of V. wg) â(ug À1 . de®ne ã(u. so W is an RG-submodule of V. For u n j1 ì j v j P V with ë j . Moreover. and hence â(ug. 0X j xPG ã(ux. v) n j1 v ë j ì jX Then ã is a symmetric bilinear form on V. ì j P R. then gx runs through G as x runs through G. v) Now let â(u. If g P G. and that there exist u.

v) â1 (u. for all i. if we de®ne W fw P V : ã(v. â(v2 . v i ) 1 â(v1 . v n of V such that â1 (v i . so is ã. 23. Therefore V is a reducible RG-module. 0 for all non-zero w P V X By a general result on bilinear forms (see Exercise 23. j if i T j. We can now relate bilinear forms to the question of whether or not a given character of G can be realized over R.8 supplies us with a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â1 on V such that â1 (w. 0. . w) 0 for all v P V g.Real representations 271 Proof Theorem 23. The following two conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ can be realized over R. v) (u. (2) there exists a CG-module V with character ÷. v) À â(u. there is a basis v1 . n But for all v i1 ë i v i P V (ë i P R). v1 ) ë1 ã(v1 . . w) . v j ) â(v i . and is an RG-submodule of V by Proposition 23. v P V )X x Since â and â1 are G-invariant symmetric bilinear forms on V. 1 ã(v2 . v2 ) .9. . and de®ne ã by 1 ã(u. Moreover. v1 ) 0X Therefore. x so W T V. v j ) 0 and â1 (v i . . we have ã(v. v1 ) .11 Theorem Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. 0. and a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on V . 0X Let â(v1 . v1 ) x. v2 ) .7). then W is non-zero. . v2 ) 1 À â(v2 .

that â is a Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on VR . and suppose that â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. u n . Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. Since â(u v. u) T 0. v P VR )X ~ You can readily check. v). v n of V. This establishes that (2) implies (1) in the theorem. Notice that ~ ~ â(v1 . and let V be the vector space over C with basis u1 . u n be a basis of U. w) z and v1 z À1a2 w. Let u1 . v1 ) 1 and â(iv1 . By Theorem 23. . De®ne a function W from VR to V by n n n W: ë jv j ì j (iv j ) 3 (ë j iì j )v j (ë j . v P V with â(u. v) the real part of â(uW. and let U be an RG-module with character ÷. (v g)W (vW) gX ~ Now de®ne a function â on ordered pairs of elements of VR by ~ â(u. . V is a CG-module (with u i g de®ned as for U). all ë P R and all g P G. . by Proposition 23. Then v1 . Conversely. ìk uk ë j ì k ã(u j . .12). .272 Representations and characters of groups Proof We ®rst show that (2) implies (1). X X X .10. iv n is a basis of the RG-module VR . w) T 0. There exist u. we have (23X12) (w1 w2 )W w1 W w2 W. .8. using the properties (23. X X X . there exists w P V with â(w. v1 ) 1X Extend v1 to a basis v1 . (ëv)W ë(vW). . As explained earlier. . v) 2â(u. Then â(v1 . It now follows from Proposition 23. ì j P R)X j1 j1 j1 Then W is a bijection. u v) â(u. . w2 . vW) (u. . iv1 ) À1X Therefore VR is a reducible RG-module. suppose that ÷ can be realized over R. u k ) j1 k1 j1 k1 . .6(2) that ÷ can be realized over R. Let â(w. v P VR . De®ne ã on V by 2 n 3 n n n ã ë j u j. there is a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form ã on U. u) â(v. . and for all w1 . v n . iv1 . v) â(v.

23. 1 or À1. and the proof of the theorem is complete. if ÷ is not real. Observe that 1 h÷ 2 . 1 G i ÷( g)÷( g) h÷. b b X À1. if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S .Real representations 273 (where ë j . . 1 G i 1. Hence if h÷ 2 . 2 h÷ . The next result gives a signi®cant property of the indicator function. which is always 0. j The indicator function We now associate with each irreducible character ÷ of G a certain number. Recall from Chapter 19 that ÷ 2 is the character of the CG-module V V. b ` é÷ 1. ì k P C). and ÷ A is the character of the antisymmetric part of V V. called the indicator of ÷. 1 G i 1. for irreducible characters ÷. We shall see later that this number tells us whether or not ÷ can be realized over R. then precisely one of ÷ S and ÷ A has 1 G as a constituent. where ÷ S is the character of the symmetric part of V V. relating it to the internal structure of the group G. Then ã is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the CG-module V. and ÷2 ÷S ÷ A . Note that é÷ T 0 if and only if ÷ is real. ÷iX jGj gPG Therefore. if ÷ is realX Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. Thus (1) implies (2). then we de®ne the indicator é÷ of ÷ by V if ÷ is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A . we have @ 0. if 1G is a constituent of ÷ A X We call é the indicator function on the set of irreducible characters of G. b 0.13 De®nition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. and V has character ÷.

Proof De®ne a function W: G 3 C by W(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj (x P G)X Note that W is a class function on G. ÷ where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. The character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 j . 23.274 23. Representations and characters of groups (é÷)÷(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj.4.15 Example Let G S3 . W (é÷)÷. and the result follows. ÷iX Therefore. 1 G i 1 ÷( g 2 ) by Proposition 19X14 jGj gPG 1 ÷( g 2 ) jGj xPG gPG: g2 x 1 W(x)÷(x) jGj xPG hW.14 Theorem For all x P G. The de®nition of é÷ gives é÷ h÷ S À ÷A . since for g P G we have y 2 x D ( g À1 yg)2 g À1 xgX Therefore by Corollary 15. W is a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G.

(3) There exists a non-zero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ À1. Proof In this proof we regard C as a 1-dimensional vector space over C.8.Real representations 275 Using Proposition 19. (2) There exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ 1. squares to be (1 2 3). four elements of G square to be 1. (1) Suppose that é÷ T 0. and deduce the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions.16 Theorem Let V be an irreducible CG-module with character ÷. . (1 3 2). Back to reality We now relate the indicator function to the previous material on bilinear forms. (1 3) and (2 3). there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V V onto this trivial CG-submodule. Using this. By Proposition 8. we show that the indicator of an irreducible character determines whether or not it can be realized over R. so (é÷)÷ ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 . and hence the CG-module V V has a trivial CG-submodule. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ 2 . (1) There exists a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ T 0. and one element. in accordance with Theorem 23. C becomes a trivial CG-module.14.14 we calculate that é÷ 1 for each irreducible character ÷ of G. and de®ne a multiplication of C by elements of G by ëg ë (ë P C. (1 2). no elements square to be (1 2). g P G)X In this way. 23. namely 1. and hence there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism W from V V onto the trivial CG-module C. which takes the following values: 1 ÷ 1 ÷2 ÷3 4 (1 2) 0 (1 2 3) 1 Sure enough.

. the symmetric part of V V. v j g) â(v i . suppose that there exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V. v n be a basis of V. De®ne â(u. Let v1 . v) (u v v u)W (u. Since â is symmetric. If follows that ÷ 2 has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent. and de®ne W: S(V V) 3 C by putting (v i v j v j v i )W â(v i . 1 < j < n) and extending linearly to the whole of V V. Conversely. De®ne W: V V 3 C by putting (v i v j )W â(v i .1. which is the character of the CG-module S(V V).276 Representations and characters of groups Now de®ne â by â(u. j < n) and extending linearly. . v j ) (1 < i. v)X Thus â is G-invariant. As in (1). . we have ((v i v j ) g)W (v i g v j g)W â(v i g. Let v1 . 1 < j < n) form a basis of V V. we have â(ug. and W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from S(V V) onto the trivial CG- . W is well-de®ned. suppose that there is a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form â on V. v j ) as â is G-invariant (v i v j )WX Hence W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V V onto the trivial CG-module C. Thus. and for u. v j ) (1 < i < n. .8 that there is a non-zero CGhomomorphism W from S(V V) onto the trivial CG-module C. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . v P V )X Then â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. For g P G. Conversely. it follows by Proposition 8. V V has a trivial CGsubmodule. and therefore é÷ T 0. X X X . so that v i v j (1 < i < n. v P V and g P G. v n be a basis of V. vg) (ug v g)W ((u v) g)W ((u v)W) g (u v)W â(u. v P V )X Then â is a non-zero bilinear form on V. by Proposition 10. v) (u v)W (u. (2) Suppose that é÷ 1.

Real representations

277

module C. Hence ÷ S has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent, and so é÷ 1. (3) The proof of (3) is very similar to that of (2), and is omitted. j We can now relate real representations of G to involutions in G, where by an involution we mean an element of order 2. 23.17 Corollary (The Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions) For each irreducible character ÷ of G, we have V if ÷ is not real, b 0, b ` é÷ 1, if ÷ can be realized over R, b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but ÷ cannot be realized over RX Moreover, for all x P G, (é÷)÷(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj,

÷

**where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. In particular, (é÷)÷(1) 1 t,
**

÷

where t is equal to the number of involutions in G. Proof When we de®ned the indicator function, we showed that é÷ T 0 if and only if ÷ is real. And Theorems 23.11 and 23.16(2) show that ÷ can be realized over R if and only if é÷ 1. This proves that é÷ is determined as in the statement of the corollary. The expression for ÷ (é÷)÷(x) was obtained in Theorem 23.14. Putting x 1, we see that ÷ (é÷)÷(1) is equal to the number of elements y of G satisfying y 2 1. These elements are just the involutions in G, together with the identity, so the number of them is precisely 1 t. j We conclude with some examples illustrating the use of Corollary 23.17. 23.18 Examples (1) Let ÷ be a linear character. Then é÷ 1 if ÷ is real, and é÷ 0 if ÷ is non-real.

278

Representations and characters of groups

For an abelian group, the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions shows that the number of real irreducible (linear) characters is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes, since in this case g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if g2 1. This special case of Theorem 23.1 can be proved directly without much dif®culty (see Exercise 23.2). (2) We know that all the irreducible characters of D8 ka, b: a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l can be realized over R (see Example 23.3(1), and note that all four linear characters are real). Thus é÷ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of D8, and so (é÷)÷(1) 1 1 1 1 2 6X

÷

The ®ve involutions in D8 which are predicted by the Frobenius± Schur Count of Involutions are a2 , b, ab, a2 b and a3 b. (3) In the group Q8 ka, b: a4 1, a2 b2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l, there is just one involution, namely a2 . Now é÷ 1 for each of the four linear characters, and (é÷)÷(1) 2

÷

by the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. Therefore, if ø is the irreducible character of degree 2, then éø À1. In particular ø cannot be realized over R. (4) The symmetric group S4 has ten elements whose square is 1, namely the identity, the six elements which are conjugate to (1 2), and the three elements which are conjugate to (1 2)(3 4). Since the degrees 1, 1, 2, 3, 3 of the irreducible characters of S4 sum to be 10 (see Section 18.1), we see that all the characters of S4 can be realized over R. The Brauer±Fowler Theorem We now apply Corollary 23.17 to give a proof of a famous theorem of Brauer and Fowler. 23.19 Brauer±Fowler Theorem Let n be a positive integer. Then there exist only ®nitely many nonisomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with centralizer of order n.

Real representations

279

Despite its fairly elementary proof, this result is of great historical importance in ®nite group theory. It led Brauer to propose the programme of determining, for each ®nite group C, all the simple groups G possessing an involution u with CG (u) C. This programme was the start of the modern attempt to classify all ®nite simple groups, which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s. For further information about this, see the book by D. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography. In Exercise 10 at the end of the chapter you are asked to carry out Brauer's programme in the case where C C2 . This should not trouble you too much. In Chapter 30, Theorem 30.8, you will ®nd a much more sophisticated case, in which C D8. For proof of Theorem 23.19 we require two preliminary lemmas. 23.20 Lemma If a1 , . . . , a n are real numbers, then a2 >
a i 2 an. i Proof This follows from the Cauchy±Schwarz inequality kvk kwk > jvXwj, taking v (a1 , . . . , a n ) and w (1, . . . , 1). j 23.21 Lemma Let G be a group of even order m, and let t be the number of involutions in G (so t . 0 by Exercise 8 of Chapter 1). Write a (m À 1)at. Then G contains a non-identity element x such that jG : C G (x)j < a2 . Proof By Corollary 23.17, we have t< ÷(1)

÷

where the sum is over all non-trivial irreducible characters ÷ of G. Writing k for the number of irreducible characters of G, we deduce using Lemma 23.20 and Theorem 11.12 that t2 < ( ÷(1))2 < (k À 1) ÷(1)2 (k À 1)(m À 1),

÷

and hence m À 1 < (k À 1)(m À 1)2 at 2 (k À 1)a2 . Now k À 1 is the number of non-identity conjugacy classes of G. If every nonidentity conjugacy class has size more then a2 , then (k À 1)a2 .

280

Representations and characters of groups

jGj À 1 m À 1, a contradiction. Therefore some non-identity class x G has size at most a2 . Then jG : C G (x)j < a2 , giving the result. j Proof of Theorem 23.19 Suppose G is simple and contains an involution u such that jC G (u)j n. Let jGj m, and let t be the number of involutions in G. By Proposition 12.6, every element of the conjugacy class u G is an involution, and hence t > ju G j jG : C G (u)j manX Therefore (m À 1)at , n, and so by Lemma 23.21, there is a nonidentity element x P G such that jG : C G (x)j , n2 . Let H C G (x). If H G then x lies in Z(G), the centre of G, which is a normal subgroup of G. Since G is simple it follows that G Z(G), so G is abelian and therefore G C2 . Now suppose that H T G. Write r jG : Hj, so r , n2 . By Exercise 9 at the end of the chapter, there is a non-trivial homomorphism è from G to the symmetric group S r . As G is simple, the normal subgroup Ker è f1g. Thus G is isomorphic to a subgroup of S r , hence of S n2 . In particular, given n, there are only ®nitely many possibilities for G. j

Summary of Chapter 23 1. The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. Let é be the indicator function, and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. V if ÷ is non-real, b 0, b b b 1, ` if there exists an RG-module U with character ÷, 2X é÷ with character ÷ b b b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but there does not exist an RG-moduleX V if 1 G is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A , b 0, ` 3X é÷ 1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S , b X À1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ A X 2 4. ÷ (é÷)÷(1) |{ g P G: g 1}|.

Real representations Exercises for Chapter 23

281

1. Prove that if G is a group of odd order then no non-identity element of G is real. 2. Let G be a ®nite abelian group. Use the description of the irreducible characters of G, given in Theorem 9.8, to prove directly that the number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of elements g in G for which g2 1. 3. Let G D2 n and consult Section 18.3 for the character table of G. How many elements g of G satisfy g2 1? Deduce that é÷ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. 4. Let r be an irreducible representation of degree 2 of a group G, and let ÷ be the character of r. Prove that ÷ A ( g) det ( gr) for all g P G. Deduce that é÷ À1 if and only if det ( gr) 1 for all g P G. 5. Let G T 4 n ha, b: a2 n 1, a n b2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i, as in Exercise 17.6. Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 , v2 and let å be a (2n)th root of unity in C with å T Æ1. Exercise 17.6 shows that V becomes an irreducible CG-module if we de®ne v1 a åv1 , v2 a å À1 v2 , v1 b v2 , v2 b å n v1 X

Let ÷ be the character of this CG-module V. (a) Note that å n Æ1. Use Exercise 4 to show that é÷ 1 if å n 1 and é÷ À1 if å n À1. (b) Let â be the bilinear form on V for which â(v1 , v1 ) â(v2 , v2 ) 0, â(v1 , v2 ) 1, â(v2 , v1 ) å n X Prove that the bilinear form â is G-invariant, and use Theorem 23.16 to provide a second proof that é÷ 1 if å n 1 and é÷ À1 if å n À1. (c) Prove that a n is the only element of order 2 in T4 n. (d) Use the character table of G, which appears in the solution to Exercise 18.3, to ®nd é÷ for each irreducible character ÷ of G. Check that

282

**Representations and characters of groups (é÷)÷(1) 2,
**

÷

in agreement with the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 6. Prove that if ÷ is an irreducible character of a group G, and é÷ À1, then ÷(1) is even. (Hint: the solution uses a well known result about skew-symmetric bilinear forms.) 7. Suppose that V is a vector space over R and that â1 and â are symmetric bilinear forms on V. Assume that â1 (w, w) . 0 for all non-zero w in V. Prove that there is a basis e1 , X X X , e n of V such that â1 (ei , ei ) 1 for all i, and â1 (ei , ej ) â(ei , ej ) 0 for all i T jX 8. Schur's Lemma is crucial for the development of the theory of CG-modules. This exercise indicates the extent to which results like Schur's Lemma hold for RG-modules. Let V and W be irreducible RG-modules. (a) Prove that if W: V 3 W is an RG-homomorphism then either W is an RG-isomorphism or vW 0 for all v P V. (b) Prove that if W: V 3 V is an RG-isomorphism and V remains irreducible as a CG-module, then W ë1 V for some real number ë. . (c) Give an example of a group G, an irreducible RG-module V and an RG-homomorphism W: V 3 V which is not a multiple of 1 V . 9. Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. Let Ù be the set of n right cosets Hx of H in G. For g P G, de®ne a function r g : Ù 3 Ù by ( Hx)r g Hxg for all x P G. Prove that r g is a permutation of Ù, and that the function r : g 3 r g is a homomorphism from G to the symmetric group on Ù. Show that the kernel of r is xPG x À1 Hx. Deduce that if a group G has a subgroup H of index n, then there is a homomorphism G 3 S n with kernel contained in H. 10. Suppose that G is a ®nite group containing and involution t with CG (t) C2 . Prove that |G : G9| 2. Deduce that if G is simple, then G C2 .

24 Summary of properties of character tables

In this short chapter we present no new results, but instead we gather together from previous chapters various properties which are helpful when we try to ®nd the character table of a particular group. In the next four chapters we shall calculate several character tables in detail. Usually we begin by working out the conjugacy classes and centralizer orders of our given ®nite group G. The size of the character table is determined by the number k of conjugacy classes of G; the character table is then a k 3 k matrix, with columns indexed by the conjugacy classes of G (the ®rst column corresponding to the conjugacy class {1}), and with rows indexed by the irreducible characters of G. When doing calculations, we commonly come across a new character ÷, which may or may not be irreducible. We can then calculate h÷, ÷i, which is given by h÷, ÷i 1 ÷( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG

The character ÷ is irreducible if and only if h÷, ÷i 1 (see Theorem 14.20). If ÷ is reducible then we calculate h÷, ÷ i i for each of the irreducible characters ÷ i which we already know, and then ÷À h÷, ÷ i i÷ i

i

will also be a character. We can thus determine whether ÷ is a linear combination of the irreducible characters we already know; and if it is not, then we can obtain from ÷ a linear combination of irreducible characters, all of which are new. We have developed a number of methods for producing characters ÷ 283

284

Representations and characters of groups

on which to perform such calculations. For example, every subgroup of Sn has a permutation character (see (13.22)); the product of two characters is again a character (Proposition 19.6); given a character ø we can form the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of its square, ø S and ø A (see Proposition 19.14); and if H is a subgroup of G then we can restrict characters of G to H, and induce characters of H to G. These and other properties of characters are summarized in the following list.

Properties of characters Assume that ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. (1) (Example 13.8(3)) There is a (trivial) character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) 1 for all g P GX (2) (Theorem 17.11) The group G has precisely jGaG9j linear characters. These are the characters ÷ given by ÷( g) ø( gG9) ( g P G) as ø varies over the irreducible (linear) characters of GaG9. (3) (Theorem 17.3) As a generalization of (2), if N v G and ø is an irreducible character of GaN , then we get an irreducible character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) ø( gN ) ( g P G) (÷ is the lift of ø). This method gives precisely those irreducible characters of G which have N contained in their kernel. (4) (Theorem 19.18) If G G1 3 G2 then all the irreducible characters ÷ of G are given by ÷( g1 , g 2 ) ö1 ( g 1 )ö2 ( g 2 ) ( g 1 P G1 , g 2 P G2 ), as ö i varies over the irreducible characters of Gi (i 1, 2). (5) (Proposition 13.24) If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. ( g P G)

Summary of properties of character tables

285

(6) (Theorems 11.12 and 22.11) The entries ÷ i (1) (1 < i < k) in the ®rst column of the character table of G are positive integers, and satisfy

k i1

÷ i (1)2 jGjX

Moreover, each integer ÷ i (1) divides |G|. (7) (Row orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(1)) For all i, j, we have h÷ i , ÷ j i ä ij . (8) (Column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2)) For all g, h P G, we have @ k jCG ( g)j, if g and h are conjugate, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (h) 0, otherwiseX i1 (9) (Exercise 13.5) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and z P Z(G), then there exists a root of unity å such that for all g P G, ÷(zg) å÷( g)X (10) (Proposition 13.9(2)) If g is an element of order n in G, and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g) is a sum of nth roots of unity. Moreover, |÷( g)| < ÷(1). (11) (Proposition 13.9(3, 4)) If g P G and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g À1 ) ÷( g)X In particular, if g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G. (12) (Corollary 15.6) If g P G and g is not conjugate to gÀ1 , then ÷( g) is non-real for some character ÷ of G. (13) (Theorem 22.16) Let g P G. If g is conjugate to gi for all positive integers i which are coprime to the order of g, then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. (14) (Corollary 22.26) Suppose that p is a prime number and that y is the p9-part of the element g of G. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers, then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod pX

5). Proposition 21. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod pX (15) (Proposition 13. indeed. where for all g P G. where ÷ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) ( g P G)X (19) (Proposition 19.1) The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G.6) If ÷ and ø are characters of G.286 Representations and characters of groups In particular. We can see from the character table whether or not G is simple (Proposition 17.23. then ÷ë is an irreducible character of G. the ®rst column determines |G| and jGaG9j (by (6) and (2)).15) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G.6).14) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ë is a linear character of G.23) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of H. The centre Z(G) can be found by noting which elements g of G satisfy . then ø 4 G is a character of G. with values given by Proposition 21. For example. then so is the product ÷ø. these can be determined in the following ways. 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 (20) (De®nition 21. we can ®nd all the normal subgroups of G (Proposition 17.13. where ÷ë( g) ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G)X (18) (Proposition 19. (17) (Proposition 17. The derived subgroup G9 consists of those elements g in G which satisfy ÷( g) 1 for all linear characters ÷ of G. then ø 5 H is a character of H.14) If ÷ is a character of G. then so is ÷. (21) (Chapter 20) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of G. where ÷( g) ÷( g) ( g P G)X (16) (Theorem 23. ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). where (ø 5 H)(h) ø(h) (h P H)X We have seen that the character table of a group G gives grouptheoretic information about G. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A . Two important normal subgroups are G9 and Z(G). if the order of g is a power of p.

it is of course true that isomorphic groups have the same character table. however. D8 and Q8 . . As a ®nal remark. with the same character table. which can be deduced from the character table. the sum being over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. In Chapter 30 we shall see some more impressive results about subgroups of G. the converse is false: in Exercise 17.1 we gave examples of non-isomorphic groups.Summary of properties of character tables 287 ÷( g)÷( g) |G|.

we shall have determined the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. that ZÃ is cyclic: p 25. but for a good 288 . this will give the character tables of all groups whose order is the product of two prime numbers. Z p is an abelian group under addition. p À 1X An integer n of order p À 1 in ZÃ is called a primitive root modulo p p. Throughout the chapter. 1. X X X . We shall not provide a proof of Theorem 25. Primitive roots modulo p Recall that the set Z p f0. with addition and multiplication modulo p. In particular. that is. generated by 1.1.25 Characters of groups of order pq By the end of the next chapter. p À 1g. and ZÃ Z p À f0g is an abelian group p under multiplication. p will denote a prime number. A number of these groups are so-called Frobenius groups. that is. It is also true. there exists an integer n p such that n pÀ1 1 mod p.1 Theorem The multiplicative group ZÃ is cyclic. is a ®eld. but not at all obvious. and in this chapter we shall describe a class of Frobenius groups and ®nd the character tables of the groups in this class. r . and n r T 1 mod p for 0 . Clearly Z p is a cyclic group under addition.

5. and u r T 1 mod p for 0 . Now let q| p À 1. we refer you to Theorem 45. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography.4 Example De®ne G & 1 0 ' y Ã. the subgroup of G generated by A and B.1).1 we have 25. such that u q 1 mod p. 11 and 13. r .3 Proposition If q| p À 1 then there is an integer u such that u has order q modulo p ± that is. These pq elements are dis- . De®ne p 1 1 1 0 A . but not modulo 7. B. 0 < j < q À 1. 0 1 and so we have the relations (25X5) Ap Bq I. and 3 is a primitive root modulo 7. y P Z X : xPZp p x Under matrix multiplication. BÀ1 AB Au X Using these relations. we see that every element of F is of the form A i B j with 0 < i < p À 1. G is a group of order p( p À 1) (see Exercise 25. B . qX Frobenius groups of order pq. where q| p 2 1 25. Bi. Then 1 u À1 B AB Au . As an immediate consequence of Theorem 25.Characters of groups of order pq 289 account.2 Example The number 2 is a primitive root modulo 3.3 of the book by J. 25. and let u be an element of order q in the multiplicative group ZÃ . 0 1 0 u and let F hA.

3). where p and q are prime numbers with p . Since bq P H but b does not have order pq (as G is non-abelian). then G is generated by a and b. bÀ1 ab au i.q does not depend on which integer u of order q we choose (see Exercise 25. Thus the order of u in the group ZÃ divides q.6 De®nition If p is a prime and q| p À 1. since they have prime order. p . BÀ1 AB Au iX 25. S. where u is an element of order q in ZÃ . Further. a bÀq abq a u q and so u q 1 mod p. it follows that b has order q.q ha. so jFj pq. We shall not give the general de®nition of these here. The next result classi®es all groups whose order is the product of two distinct prime numbers. then we write F p. Proof Assume that G is non-abelian.7 Proposition Suppose that G is a group of order pq. 25. Then either G is abelian.q . Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography). up to isomorphism.3 that q divides p À 1 and G has a normal subgroup H of order p.q .) Both H and Ga H are cyclic.5) determine all products in F. The groups F p. b: a p b q 1.q belong to a wider class of groups known as Frobenius groups. as we shall only be dealing with F p. F p. so bÀ1 ab au for some integer u. B. Moreover the relations (25. these facts follow readily from Sylow's Theorems (see Chapter 18 of the book by J.290 Representations and characters of groups tinct. Now H v G.q for the group of order pq with presentation F p. or q divides p À 1 and G F p. p It is not hard to show that. Passman listed in the Bibliography. q. (Alternatively. the interested reader can ®nd more information in the book by D. so we have the presentation F hA. B: Ap Bq I. It follows from Exercise 22. Suppose that H kal and Ga H h Hbi.

and since kal < CG (av i ). and in Example 21. Hence (av i ) G has size q. and choose coset representatives v1 .9 Proposition The conjugacy classes of G F p. The character table of F p. every group of order 15 is abelian (indeed. and the groups of order 21 are C3 3 C7 and F7.3 .3.Characters of groups of order pq 291 If the order of u were 1 then we would have bÀ1 ab a. also the size of this conjugacy class is equal to |G: CG (av i )|. Thus let G Fp. order of u in ZÃ is qX p Hence G F p. Let S be the subgroup of ZÃ consisting of the powers of u. j 25. isomorphic to C3 3 C5 ). and G would be abelian. Write r ( p À 1)aq.q ha. We now construct the character table of F p. X X X . b: ap bq 1.q in general.q We have. and has the form stated in the proposition. Therefore the conjugacy class of av i has size at least q.8 Example By Proposition 25.q : the dihedral group of order 2 p is the case where q 2. Therefore the order of u is q. bÀ1 ab au i where p is prime. this size is at most q.q . . and u has order q modulo p. We have now established that a p b q 1. v r for S in ZÃ . q| p À 1 (q not necessarily prime).q are f1g. (av i ) G fav i s : s P Sg (1 < i < r). Thus p jSj q.25 we dealt with F7. in fact. (bn ) G fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g (1 < n < q À 1)X Proof The equation bÀ j av b j avu j shows that av is conjugate to avs for all s P S.7. p 25. already found the character tables of certain of the groups F p. bÀ1 ab au .

We obtain (øv 4 G)(ax by ) 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. Let å e2ðia p . Hence (bn ) G fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g and the proof is complete.11. and øv 4 G øvs 4 G if s P SX For each coset representative v j (1 < j < r) of S in ZÃ . where ÷ n (a x b y ) e2ði nyaq (0 < x < p À 1. so we seek q r irreducible characters. øv j s 4 Gi G hö j . using Proposition 21. denote by øv the character of kal which p is given by øv (ax ) å vx (0 < x < p À 1)X We calculate the values of the induced character øv 4 G. j By Proposition 25.23. we have |CG (bn )| q. every conjugate of bn has the form am bn for some m. G has q r conjugacy classes. By the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. . These are given by ÷ n (0 < n < q À 1). For v P ZÃ . On the other hand. so GaG9 has order q and therefore by Theorem 17. for all s P S. it follows that for n T 0 mod q. observe that the derived subgroup G9 kal. let p ö j øv j 4 GX We now prove that each ö j is irreducible. hö j 5 hai. øv j s ihai hö j .9. ö j i G sPS øv j s ÷. G has precisely q linear characters. and (øv 4 G)(ax ) å vsx (0 < x < p À 1)X sPS Note that øv 4 G has degree q. 0 < y < q À 1)X We shall show that G has r irreducible characters of degree q.292 Representations and characters of groups Since CG (bn ) contains kbl. First. and kbl has index p in G.16. ö j i G X Hence ö j 5 hai hö j . and so the conjugacy class of bn has size p. as Gahai is abelian.

. Then the group F p.Characters of groups of order pq 293 where ÷ is either 0 or a character of kal. and also that ö j 5 hai hö j . ö j i G øv j s X sPS By Theorem 14. ö j (ax ) e2ðiv j sxa p .23. and hence ö1 5 kal. ö r 5 kal are distinct. sPS for 1 < j < r. . Consequently the irreducible characters ö1 .11 Example Let G F p.q ha. we deduce that kö j . q have degree 1 and are given by ÷ n (ax by ) e2ði nyaq (0 < n < q À 1) and r have degree q and are given by ö j (ax by ) 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. ö j of G (0 < n < q À 1. . . bÀ1 ab au i fax by : 0 < x < p À 1. Taking degrees. 1 < j < r).10 in some examples. it follows that ö j (1) > jSjhö j . We summarize in the following theorem. . Of these. . ö j i G X Since ö j (1) q jSj. so we have the complete character table of G. the characters øv (v P ZÃ ) are linearly indepenp dent. 25. This proves that ö j is irreducible.10 Theorem Let p be a prime number. X X X . ö j l G 1. q| p À 1 and r ( p À 1)aq. . We have now found q r distinct irreducible characters ÷ n . 25. . pÀ1 ha. b: a p bq 1. where v1 S. bÀ1 ab au i . 0 < y < q À 1g has q r irreducible characters. ö r are distinct. b: a p b pÀ1 1. v r S are the cosets in ZÃ of the p subgroup S generated by u. We conclude by illustrating Theorem 25.

In Example 21. b P S5 be the permutations a (1 2 3 4 5). q 4. bÀ1 ab a5 iX Write å e2ðia13 .25 we found the character table of F7.4 .294 Representations and characters of groups where u is a primitive root modulo p.12 Example Let a.4 is as shown opposite. bÀ1 ab a2 X Hence if G ka.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö 1 20 1 1 1 1 4 a 5 1 1 1 1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 x if 1 < y < p À 2. Then G has p À 1 linear characters. b: a13 b4 1.4 ha. ã å4 å6 å7 å9 X By Theorem 25. and so by the previous example the character table of G is as shown. You may like . bl. then G F5. Here F13.10. the character table of F13. b (2 3 5 4)X Check that a5 b4 1. and one irreducible character ö of degree p À 1.13 Example We consider the case p 13.3. with values given by ö(ax by ) 0 ö(a ) À1 25. â å 2 å 3 å 10 å 11 . and let á å å 5 å 8 å 12 . if 1 < x < p À 1X 25. Character table of F5.

Let p be a prime number. Suppose that p is prime and q divides p À 1. Exercises for Chapter 25 1. bÀ1 ab au iX The irreducible characters of Fp. Then p Fp. Let p and q be positive integers. Character table of F13.Characters of groups of order pq 295 to check that this agrees with the description of the character table provided by Theorem 25. with p prime and q| p À 1. 2. and de®ne .4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö1 ö2 ö3 1 52 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 a 13 1 1 1 1 á â ã a2 13 1 1 1 1 â ã á a4 13 1 1 1 1 ã á â b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 0 Summary of Chapter 25 1.5 of order 55.q are described in Theorem 25. 2. q. p 0 x under matrix multiplication. y P Z p .q ha.10. b: ap bq 1. is a group of order p( p À 1). If G has order pq. Let u and v be two integers which are of order q modulo p. Write down the character table of the non-abelian group F11. then either G is abelian or G F p. Let u be an element of order q in ZÃ .q.10. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . Prove that & ' 1 y : x P ZÃ . 3.

4. Note that ka. bl is a normal subgroup of E which is isomorphic to C3 3 C3 . 22 . ab ba.6.16. b: ap bq 1. cÀ1 ac aÀ1 .q in 25. where ä 1 if p 1 mod 4. (This justi®es the comment which follows the de®nition of Fp. (b) Deduce that a is conjugate to aÀ1 if and only if p 1 mod 4. (( p À 1)a2)2 g). c: a3 b3 c2 1. Show that the group E of Exercise 5 has the properties that Z(E) is cyclic. b: ap bq 1.q ha.296 Representations and characters of groups G1 ha. as in Exercise 5. but E has no faithful irreducible representation. cÀ1 bc bÀ1 i. Let q ( p À 1)a2 and let G Fp. with p T 2. bÀ1 ab au i. and ä À1 if p À1 mod 4.) 4. bÀ1 ab av iX Prove that G1 G2 . Q f12 . (a) Show that there exists an integer m such that u m À1 mod p if and only if p 1 mod 4. show that the two irreducible characters ö1 . b: ap bq 1. Let E be the group of order 18 which is given by E ha. 5. (c) Using the orthogonality relations. 6. ö2 of G of degree q have values p 1 (ä p)) 2(À1 Æ on the element a. sPQ where Q is the set of quadratic residues modulo p (that is. Suppose that p is a prime number. obtain the character table of E. (Thus. b.) 7. X X X . (d) Deduce that if å e2ðia p then p å s (À1 Æ (ä p)). E provides a counterexample to the converse of Proposition 9. G2 ha. (a) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are . bÀ1 ab au i. where u is an element of order q modulo p. By inducing linear characters of this subgroup.

1. 6X 8.Characters of groups of order pq 1. 2. 3. 3. 1. 1. Let G be the group of order 54 which is given by G ha. 3. 6. 1. 1. 3X (b) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 3X (c) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 3. 1. 3. 3. 2. 297 . 1. 3. 1. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 1. 2. 1. bÀ1 ab a2 iX Find the character table of G. 3. 1. 1. 3. 3. 6. b: a9 b6 1. 6. 3. 3.

all of which have size a power of p. then G is abelian. and before explaining the method. p will be a prime number. (3) If n < 2 then G is abelian.15). we show that all groups of order pn with 1 < n < 4 do. The method consists of examining the characters of those p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. We shall show how to obtain the character tables of all groups of order pn for n < 4. (1) If {1} T H v G then H Z(G) T {1}. that we have found the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. and H Z(G) consists of those conjugacy classes in H which have size 1. Recall that Z(G) denotes the centre of G (see De®nition 9.26 Characters of some p-groups Throughout this chapter. have an abelian subgroup of index p. Proof (1) Since H v G.1 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with n > 1. Z(G) T {1}. We later give explicitly the irreducible characters of all groups of order p3 and of all groups of order 16. 26. In the ®rst lemma we collect several well known properties of pgroups. with references. H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. Therefore 298 . (2) If K < Z(G) and GaK is cyclic. At the end of the chapter we point out. indeed. In particular. Elementary properties of p-groups A p-group is a group whose order is a power of the prime number p.

Now assume that Z(G) has no subgroup of order p nÀ2 . Since Z(G) T f1g by Lemma 26. As K < Z( H) and.1(2). Assume that Z(G) contains a subgroup K of order p nÀ2 .7. k2 P K. Let H CG (x). jGa Z(G)j < p nÀ1 . we deduce that H Z(G) T {1}. (2) Suppose that GaK is cyclic. Since k1 . k2 P Z(G).8. the only possibility is that |G| p4 and | Z(G)| p.2 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with 1 < n < 4. and so Z( H) > p2 . Hence again Z( H) H by Lemma 26.1(1).7). j Hj jGjajx G j p3 . Therefore G is abelian. j For our ®nal result on the structure of p-groups. Then by Exercise 12. x2 P G. Therefore H is an abelian subgroup of index p in G. Then by Theorem 12. Z(G) and kxl are distinct nonidentity subgroups of Z( H). by Lemma 26. generated by gK. Hence if n < 2 then Ga Z(G) is j cyclic and so G is abelian by (2). Ha Z( H) is not of order p. G has an element x whose conjugacy class x G is of size p. it follows that x1 x2 x2 x1 . 26. Then x1 g i k 1 . Then there exists a normal subgroup K of G such that K < H G9 Z(G) and jKj pX . x2 g j k 2 for some integers i. 26. Then we can ®nd a subgroup H of G such that K < H and j Hj p nÀ1 . recall that the derived subgroup of G is denoted by G9 (see De®nition 17. so suppose that 2 < n < 4.Characters of some p-groups j Hj j H Z(G)j (a multiple of p)X 299 As | H| is a multiple of p and | H Z(G)| T 0. and H is an abelian subgroup of index p. Proof The result is immediate if n 1. j and some k1 . Let x1 .1(2). (3) By (1). Moreover.3 Lemma Let G be a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p. we deduce that Z( H) H. Then G contains an abelian subgroup of index p.

By Theorem 17. Let K be a subgroup of order p in G9 Z(G). Now K < Z(G) implies that K v G and that KH is an abelian subgroup of G (where KH {kh: k P K.11. The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters obtained in this way is jGaKj p nÀ1 . Since p nÀ1 ( p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 ) p2 pn jGj. We shall construct p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 further irreducible characters of G. (Ã ) we shall then have obtained all the irreducible characters of G. for some linear character ø of H which satis®es K T< Ker ø. and hence G9 Z(G) T {1} by Lemma 26. Proof Let |G| pn . the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p). then ÷ is irreducibleX We know by Theorem 9. we have G9 < Ker ÷. or (2) ø 4 G. Let K be a normal subgroup of G as in Lemma 26. j Characters of p-groups with an abelian subgroup of index p In view of Lemma 26.300 Representations and characters of groups Proof Since G is non-abelian. by Theorem 11. again by Theorem 11. the irreducible characters of GaK lift to give precisely those irreducible characters of G which have K in their kernel. then either ÷ is irreducible or ÷ is a sum of linear characters (since by Theorem 22. h P H}). Since G is non-abelian and |G: H| p. as G9 is in the kernel of every linear character. Then every irreducible character of G is given by either (1) the lift of an irreducible character of GaK.4 Theorem Assume that G is a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p.2.3. Let Ö denote the set of linear . 26.8 that all the p nÀ1 irreducible characters of the abelian group H are linear. First note that if ÷ is a character of G of degree p. In the latter case. we have KH H.1(1).12.3. and hence K < G9 < Ker ÷. and therefore K < H. each of degree p. we have {1} T G9 v G. the next theorem provides us with all the irreducible characters of non-abelian groups of order p3 or p4 . This establishes (26X5) if ÷(1) p and K T< Ker ÷.12.

Characters of some p-groups 301 characters of H which do not have K in their kernel. It follows that fø 4 G: ø P Ög gives at least jÖja p ( p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 )a p distinct irreducible characters of G of degree p which do not have K in their kernel. Therefore fø 4 G: ø P Ög consists precisely of the p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 irreducible characters we seek. j We now use Theorem 26. Z T {1} and Ga Z is non-cyclic. ø1 i H X Since (ø 4 G) 5 H has degree p.23. Since the linear characters of H which do have K in their kernel are precisely the lifts of linear characters of HaK. Now let G be a non-abelian group of order p3 . Then . Therefore by (26. ø 4 G is an irreducible character of G. bZ such that Ga Z haZ. Hence Ga Z Cp 3 Cp and Z kzl Cp . we have jÖj p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 X Let ø P Ö. Write Z Z(G). By Lemma 26. C p2 3 Cp and Cp 3 Cp 3 Cp X The character tables of these groups are given by Theorem 9. Choose aZ.4 to give an explicit construction of the irreducible characters of the non-abelian groups of order p3 . this implies that there are at most p elements ø1 of Ö such that ø1 4 G ø 4 G.6. bZi.1. and the proof is complete. By Proposition 21. We shall then illustrate Theorem 26. the abelian groups of order p3 are C p3 . ø1 4 Gi G h(ø 4 G) 5 H.8. Then by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. Groups of order p3 By Theorem 9.16. (ø 4 G)(k) pø(k) for all k P KX Thus ø 4 G has degree p and does not have K in its kernel.5).4 further by constructing the character tables of all the non-abelian groups of order 16. As we saw in (Ã ). since K < Z(G). Suppose now that ø1 is a linear character of H such that ø 4 G ø1 4 G. 1 hø 4 G. G has at most p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 such characters.

Then the irreducible characters of G are ÷ u. s. Write å e2ðia p . If ar is conjugate to an element g of G.v which appears in the statement of the theorem.v (0 < u. s. ö u (ar bs z t ) 0. otherwiseX (0 < u < p À 1. s. and hence (ar ) G far z t : 0 < t < p À 1gX . Proof By Theorem 9. ÷ u. For 1 < u < p À 1. s. choose a character ø u of H which satis®es ø u (z t ) å ut (0 < t < p À 1)X We shall calculate ø u 4 G. every element of G is of the form ar bs z t for some r. so ar Z gZ. v < p À 1).302 Representations and characters of groups Ga Z far bs Z: 0 < r < p À 1. t < p À 1. where ø u.8. the irreducible characters of Ga Z are ø u. so that H is an abelian subgroup of order p2 . then ar Z is conjugate to gZ in the abelian group Ga Z. Since ar P Z. a the conjugacy class (ar ) G does not have size 1.v (ar bs Z) å rusv X The lift to G of ø u. på . Let H ka. t < p À 1} be a non-abelian group of order p3 .v (ar bs z t ) å rusv . t with 0 < r. and therefore g ar z t for some t. 0 < s < p À 1g and in particular.v öu where for all r. t. 26. zl. Let r be an integer with 1 < r < p À 1.6 Theorem Let G {ar bs z t : 0 < r. and (1 < u < p À 1).v is the linear character ÷ u. @ ut if r s 0. 0 < v < p À 1). as above.

If p 2. 12 ( p À 1) .4 (with K Z(G)). they are D8 and Q8. Clearly the irreducible characters ÷ u. and (ø u 4 G)( g) 0 if g P HX a pÀ1 s0 pÀ1 s0 303 ø u (z s ) å us We have now established that if ö u ø u 4 G. they are . We ®nd that 1 hö u . up to isomorphism. And if p is odd.6 is a special case of the proof of Theorem 26. (ø u 4 G)(ar z t ) ø u (ar ) ø u (ar z) X X X ø u (ar z pÀ1 ) ø u (ar ) ø u (ar ) 0X Also. (ø u 4 G)(z t ) pø u (z t ) på ut . there are precisely two non-abelian groups of order p3 . ö u i G 3 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p gPG 1 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p3 gP Z 1 2 p p3 gP Z 1X Therefore ö u is irreducible. p2 jGjX Hence we have found all the irreducible characters of G. v < p À 1) and ö u (1 < u < p À 1) are all distinct.23. then ö u takes the values stated in the theorem. In fact. j Notice that the calculation in the proof of Theorem 26.v (0 < u.Characters of some p-groups Then by Proposition 21. and the sum of the squares of their degrees is p2 .

C8 3 C2 . using Exercise 26. C4 3 C2 or C2 3 C2 3 C2 X We shall divide our descriptions into three parts. Z( H2 ) kzl. and their character tables are given by Theorem 9. Hence GaK D8 . (A) There are three non-abelian groups GaK D8 .6. Our descriptions will be in terms of presentations. and H 2 ha. bÀ1 ab aziX 2 We have Z( H1 ) ka p l. By Theorem 9. .8. az za. C4 3 C2 3 C2 and C2 3 C2 3 C2 3 C2 . that all the nine groups G1 . These are G of order 16 with G1 ha. b chosen in the statement of Theorem 26. b2 a4 . so the subgroup K described in Lemma 26. b: a8 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. 26. G3 ha. b in H1 and H2 will serve for the elements a. C4 3 C4 .8 The groups of order 16 It is known that. It is not C8 by Lemma 26. there are precisely fourteen groups of order 16 (see p.8. b: a p b p 1. z: a p b p z p 1. bÀ1 ab a p1 i. 134 of the book by Coxeter and Moser listed in the Bibliography). bÀ1 ab a3 iX .304 (26X7) Representations and characters of groups H 1 ha.7). up to isomorphism.5. The elements a. bz zb. the abelian groups of order 16 are C16 . according to these three possibilities for GaK. .3 is given by K G9 Z(G)X Now GaK is a group of order 8. it is possible to see. For each of the nine non-abelian groups G of order 16 it is the case that |G9 Z(G)| 2 (see Exercise 26. G9 given below do indeed have order 16. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i D16 . G2 ha. b. We shall describe all these groups and their character tables.1(2). b: a8 b2 1. b: a8 b2 1. . and it is not Q8 by Exercise 26.6.

a5 a5 . These are G4 ha. z: a4 z. G2 . but not in G3 .6). as before. bÀ1 ab azi. b2 z 2 1. z: a4 1. G5 ha. of order 2).4(2) as induced characters ø 4 G. . b. The last two characters can be obtained as in Theorem 26. p á i 2 Àâ for G3 X p The ®rst ®ve characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of GaK D8 . but not for G3 (see Corollary 15. bÀ1 ab az.4. G2 and G3 : Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 2 À2 À2 C3 8 1 1 1 1 À2 0 0 C4 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 á â C5 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 â á C6 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 C7 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 where á 2 Àâ for G1 . and these are given in the following table. a6 a2 . G2 G3 1 1 C2 a4 a4 C3 a2 . a7 C6 ai b (i even) ai b (i even) C7 ai b (i odd) ai b (i odd) Using Theorem 26. K G9 Z(G). G6 ha. b. bÀ1 ab azi. z 2 1. C7 . Note that a is conjugate to aÀ1 in G1 and G2 . alternatively. Each of the groups has seven conjugacy classes C1 . az za. we obtain the character tables of G1 . they can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. . b2 z. b. . bz zbiX . C1 G1 . hence the values in the columns C4 and C5 are all real for G1 and G2 . b2 z 2 1. (B) There are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK C4 3 C2 (where. . a6 C4 a. z: a4 1.Characters of some p-groups 305 In each case K ka4 l. where ø is a linear character of the abelian subgroup kal of index 2. a3 C5 a3 . a7 a.

a3 bz a. az za. b. z: a4 b2 z 2 1. az za. but they are in a form which allows us to describe the conjugacy classes C1 . bÀ1 ab az 2 . G6 simultaneously: C1 1 C2 z C3 a2 C4 a2 z C5 C6 C7 C8 a2 b. bz zbi D8 3 C2 . abz C10 a3 b. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . The character tables of G4 .4: Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 á â C4 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 â á C5 8 1 i À1 Ài 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 C6 8 1 Ài À1 i 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 C7 8 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 i À1 Ài À1 Ài 1 i 0 0 C10 8 1 Ài À1 i À1 i 1 Ài 0 0 where á 2i Àâ á 2 Àâ for G4 . These are G7 ha. a2 bz C9 ab. K kzl. G6 X (C) Finally. since a4 z in G4 . . bz zbi Q8 3 C2 . C10 of all three groups G4 . b. a3 z b. for G5 . b. z is redundant). G8 ha. z: a2 b2 z 4 1. az a3 . . there are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK C2 3 C2 3 C2 (where K G9 Z(G). bz zbiX . z: a4 z 2 1. G9 ha. G5 .306 Representations and characters of groups The given presentations are somewhat cumbersome (for example. . of order 2). bz In each case. az za. a2 b2 . . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . G5 and G6 can again be found using Theorem 26.

bz 2 bz. we have in fact found the character tables of all groups of order 31 or less. for G9 X 26. az 3 b. a3 bz b. a3 b abz.8 and Section 18. a2 b bz.9 The groups of order less than 32 At this point. Apart from abelian groups and dihedral groups. for G9 . and the character tables of G7 . a3 az. G8 G9 1 a2 1 z2 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 307 z a2 z a. Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 á â C4 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 â á C5 8 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 0 0 C6 8 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 C7 8 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 C10 8 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 0 0 where á 2 Àâ á 2i Àâ for G7 . a2 bz ab. the groups.Characters of some p-groups Each of these groups has ten conjugacy classes. with references for their character tables. G8 . whose character tables are given by Theorem 9. abz 2 abz. given by Theorem 26. are as follows: .3. abz3 We have K @ ha2 i hz 2 i for G7 . are as follows. G8 . az 2 az. bz 3 ab. which are given by C1 C2 C3 C4 G7 . a3 z z z 3 a.4. G8 and G9 .

n > 2).4 F7.1 Exercise 27. . D10 3 C3 Reference for character table Exercise 17.18 Theorem 19.18 Exercise 25. as follows. .6: groups of order p3 .2 Exercise 18.1 Section 18. Suppose that G is a group of order pn ( p prime.3 D12 3 C2 .2 Exercise 18. G9 D6 3 C3 E T20 F5.4 Exercise 18.308 |G| 8 12 16 18 20 21 24 Representations and characters of groups G Q8 A4 T12 G1 .5 Exercise 18.10 Theorem 19. we gave the irreducible characters of various nonabelian p-groups G. .4: p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p.6 Exercise 18.18 Section 18. Theorem 26. D6 3 C4 S4 SL (2.5 Theorem 26. Exercises for Chapter 26 1.3 Theorem 19. Show that for some integer m > 2. Theorem 26. 2. H2 T28 D6 3 C5 . T12 3 C2 D8 3 C3 . . 3) T24 U24 V24 H1 .8: groups of order 16. 1.8 Theorem 19.18 27 28 30 Summary of Chapter 26 In this chapter. Section 26. with an abelian subgroup H of index p.3 Theorem 25.3 Exercise 18. Q8 3 C3 . . G has pm linear characters and p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 irreducible characters of degree p.10 Theorem 25.3 Section 26. 3. A4 3 C2 .

(b) Why do the remaining groups G5 .6 to write down the character table of H. and deduce that G9 h Zi. . bz zb. bÀ1 ab azi 309 (see (26. b2 a8 . D H À1 f f 0 f Af f 0 d 0 f fi f Cf f0 d 0 H i 0 0 0 be the following 4 3 4 matrices: I H 0 0 0 0 0 i g f f0 1 0 0g 0 0 g f Bf g.4. . 0g e 0 I g 0g g g. Ài g e 0 g 0g g g. G6 . or otherwise. Let G1 . . B. and deduce that G is a 2group of order at most 32. b.3. (Hint: use Corollary 9. z: a3 b3 z 3 1. and ®nd all the irreducible representations of G. B. az za. C. (b) Show that for all g in G. 0g e 0 and let G kA. ®nd the character table of G. Write Z ÀI. G7 and G8 have no faithful irreducible representations? . 4. Dl. . C. G9 be the non-abelian groups of order 16 with presentations as given in the text. G2 .7)). Find the conjugacy classes of H. b: a16 1. 5. Let G be the group of order 32 which is given by G ha.) (d) Show that |G| 32. (a) Prove that all pairs of generators commute modulo h Zi. G4 and G9 . fi 0 1 0g 0 0 e d 0 0 0 0 Ài À1 0 I 0 f f0 f Df f0 d 1 H 0 Ài 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 0 g Ài g g g. Let H be the group of order 27 which is given by H ha. Let A. (a) Find faithful irreducible representations of degree 2 for G1 . g 2 P h Zi. 3. G3 . (c) Prove that the given representation of G of degree 4 is irreducible.Characters of some p-groups 2. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX Using Theorem 26. and use Theorem 26.

b 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. . . G9 are isomorphic. (a) Prove that if G is any group. (Hint: assume that Ga Z haZ. G9 given in the text do indeed give groups of order 16. then Ga(G9 Z(G)) T Q8 . . then Ga Z(G) T Q8 . bZ: a4 P Z. 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 eX 0 0 1 (d) Find faithful representations of degree 3 for G7 D8 3 C2 and G8 Q8 3 C2 . . b 3 d 1 0 0 e. 0 0 1 H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 G6 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. . (b) Prove that |G9| p or p2 . 8. 7. Prove that a2 commutes with b. 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 e. . and that if | Z(G)| p2 then G has p3 p2 À p conjugacy classes. Let G be a non-abelian group of order p4 . Prove that no two of the groups G1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 mod Zi.) (b) Deduce from the result of Exercise 7 that if G is a group of order 16. (c) Deduce that |G9 Z(G)| p.310 (c) Representations and characters of groups Check that the following give faithful representations of G5 and G6 : H I H I 0 1 0 i 0 0 G5 : a 3 d 1 0 0 e. . . and hence that a2 P Z. and that if |G9| p2 then G has 2 p2 À 1 conjugacy classes.) 6. (a) Prove that | Z(G)| p or p2 . . a2 b2 mod Z. (Note: This exercise can be used to con®rm that the presentations of G1 .

The group belongs to a whole family of simple groups. and recall that Z p is the ®eld which consists of the numbers 0. b.27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 Recall that a simple group is a non-trivial group G such that the only normal subgroups of G are f1g and G itself. c. ad À bc 1)X c d If c 0. c. and is called the 2-dimensional special linear group over Z p. d 311 . and in this chapter we shall describe this group and ®nd its character table. then there are p( p À 1) choices for a. is the smallest non-abelian simple group. we count the matrices a b (a. p). . except that a T 0. and we begin with a description of this family. To calculate the order of the group SL (2. Denote by SL (2. We discussed brie¯y in Chapter 1 the signi®cance of simple groups in the theory of ®nite groups. A5 and A6 . p) is a group under matrix multiplication. b. p) the set of all 2 3 2 matrices M with entries in Z p such that det M 1. . Then SL (2. And there are p2 ( p À 1) choices for a. p À 1. Special linear groups Let p be a prime number. d which make ad À bc 1 (since a. and d is determined by a). . b. b are arbitrary. Examples of simple groups which we have met so far are cyclic groups of prime order. . with addition and multiplication modulo p. In fact the group A5 . of order 60. The next smallest is a certain group of order 168. d P Z p .

and we shall construct the character table of this group. notably the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16. The conjugacy classes of PSL (2. and is written as PSL (2. p)j p( p2 À 1)a2X It is known that PSL (2. and the size of the conjugacy class containing gi . p)j p( p À 1) p2 ( p À 1) p( p2 À 1)X If p 2 then SL (2. we indicate other ways of obtaining characters of G. 7) has order 168. the centre of SL (2. p)| p( p2 À 1). The following table records representatives gi (1 < i < 6) for the conjugacy classes. p) SL (2. J. . we shall ®nd the character table using only numerical calculations. ÀIg (where I is the 2 3 2 identity matrix).4) and congruence properties (Corollary 22. 7) 27. and then b is determined).312 Representations and characters of groups with c T 0.1 Lemma The group PSL (2. c is any non-zero element of Z p . Rotman listed in the Bibliography). and that for p > 5. such that ad À bc 1 (since a. using information about subgroups. In the exercises. PSL (2. 5) A5 . we have jPSL(2. d may be chosen arbitrarily. The factor group SL (2. p)afÆIgX Since |SL (2. p) has order 6. together with the order of gi . 3) A4 .26). and it is easy to see that this group is isomorphic to S3 . p) is Z fI.1. The simple group G PSL (2. the order of CG ( gi ). p)a Z is called the 2-dimensional projective special linear group. p). Thus PSL (2. the group PSL (2. After ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. The power of these techniques is therefore well illustrated. By Exercise 27. so assume that p is an odd prime. Therefore jSL (2.19 of the book by J. p) is simple (see Theorem 8. 7) has exactly six conjugacy classes.

Among g1 . Consequently & 1 0 2 Z. . . . g6 . g4 . CG ( g 4 ) 0 1 0 Similarly CG ( g2 ) & 0 4 0 4 Z. .Character table of the simple group of order 168 Order of gi g1 g2 g3 g4 g5 g6 1 0 0 1 Z Z 2 4 3 7 7 8 4 3 7 7 21 42 56 24 24 1 168 |CG ( gi )| | gG | i 1 313 0 1 À1 0 2 2 2 0 1 0 1 0 À2 Z 2 0 Z 4 1 Z 1 À1 Z 1 Proof For each i. for example. the only elements with the same order are g5 . Then a b 2 0 2 Æ c d 0 4 0 and hence b c 0. . d ' Z X 4 0 0 2 3 À2 3 2 0 À1 1 0 . CG ( gi ) k gi l for i 3. . we verify that gi has the stated order. . MZ: M À2 4 2 4 1 0 0 1 ' 2 3 2 4 2 2 2 À2 . . Suppose that a b Z c d commutes with g4 . 5. X 3 À2 4 À2 À2 2 2 2 Also. . Consider. and then use direct calculation to ®nd all the elements of G which commute with g i . 6. a c b .

.8).314 Representations and characters of groups and g6 . The size of the conjugacy class g G is obtained by dividing 168 by i |CG ( gi )| (Theorem 12. for 1 < i < 4. so no two of these six elements are conjugate. it also has six irreducible characters. (2) Notice that g6 gÀ1 . which is impossible for a P Z7 . . j Notice that using Lemma 27.2 Corollary (1) If 1 < i < 4 and ÷ is a character of G. . d aÀ1 and a ab a b À aÀ1 X 0 aÀ1 0 aÀ1 Therefore a2 À1. 7) Since G has six conjugacy classes. 27. Suppose that gÀ1 g6 g g5 with a b g Z P GX c d Then gg5 g6 g. where ÷1 is the . 5 Therefore (2) follows from Corollary 15. since any normal subgroup is a union of conjugacy classes (see Proposition 12.6. Hence the conclusion follows from Theorem 22.19). . and we have established that no two of the elements g1 . ÷6 be the irreducible characters of G. and so a ab aÀc Æ c cd c bÀd d with ad À bc 1X It follows that c 0. so g5 is not conjugate to its inverse. these exhaust the conjugacy i classes of G. it is easy to check that G is indeed simple.1. j The character table of G PSL (2. Let ÷1 . except possibly g5 and g6 . .1.16. . . then ÷( gi ) is an integer. ÷( g5 ) is non-real. Thus g5 is not conjugate to g6 . Proof (1) By Lemma 27. . (2) For some character ÷ of G. gi is conjugate to ( gi ) k whenever gi and ( gi ) k have the same order. Since the sum of the sizes of the six conjugacy classes g G (1 < i < 6) is 168. g6 are conjugate. a T 0.

e. (We know that the entry in the ®rst row is ÷1 ( g4 ) 1.Character table of the simple group of order 168 315 trivial character (so that ÷1 ( g) 1 for all g P G). 0.27. and the entries in column g2 are 1. and the congruence properties given by Corollaries 22. Now for all characters ÷ of G. .) Similarly the entries in the column of g3 are 1. so di is the entry on row i of column 1. Æ1. . g3 . Æ1. The entries in the column of g4 are integers. For the moment we concentrate on the entries in the ®rst column of the character table (i. g4 . part of the character table of G is as follows: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 We shall determine the signs later. we have by Corollary 22. Æ1. Æ1. 0. .27 for the elements g2 . Æ1. ÷6 . 0. ÷( g 2 ) ÷(1) mod 2. 0 in some order. and so ÷( g 2 ) ÷( g 3 ) mod 2X Since we also know that 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 0. for which the character values are known to be integers. Æ1. by Corollary 27.4(2).26 and 22. Æ1. 0 in some order. with a suitable ordering of ÷2 . By .2. and the sum of the squares of these integers is equal to |CG ( g4 )| 3. Theorem 16. Let di ÷ i (1). The entries must therefore be 1. 0 in some order. and ÷( g 3 ) ÷(1) mod 2. the degrees ÷ i (1)). Æ2. we see that. Æ1. We shall repeatedly exploit the column orthogonality relations. . Recall that the character table is the 6 3 6 matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( gj ).

d3 equal to 7.11 and the fact that i1 d i 168. we have d 4 0 mod 3. we have d2 7 and d3 8. d 6 0 mod 3. d 2 < 168X 4 The only positive integer d4 which satis®es these conditions is d4 3. d 2 < 168X 6 Therefore d6 is 6 or 12. Since d 2 1 mod 2. 8 in some order. and hence d6 6. so as d 2 < 168. Next. We have now found the ®rst column of the character table. we have d6 T 12.27. But 0 6 i1 316 and and ÷ i ( g 2 )d i 1 Æ d 2 Æ 3 Æ 3 Æ 2d 6 .Representations and characters of groups 6 2 Corollary 22. and have the following portion: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 . Theorem 22. 2 3 so d 2 d 2 113. d 4 1 mod 2. d 6 0 mod 2. d5 3. d3 2 3 positive integers have d2. d 4 divides jGj 168. The only solutions to this equation with d2. d 6 divides 168. 2 Now 1 d 2 d 2 32 32 62 168. In the same way.

g3 . 3. (Note that ÷2 ( g5 ) ÷2 (1) mod 7. ÷2 i 6 ÷2 ( g i )÷2 ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j 7X7 1 1 1 ÷2 ( g 5 )÷2 ( g 5 ) ÷2 ( g 6 )÷2 ( g 6 ) 168 8 4 3 7 7 gives ÷2 ( g5 ) ÷2 ( g6 ) 0. for j 5. but we could not use this fact as we were not sure that ÷2 ( g5 ) was an integer. 4 now enable us to determine the signs in the columns for g2 . We obtain Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 Next. Thus the column for g5 is . the complex conjugate ÷ will be a different character of the same degree. 0 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 4 )÷ i ( g j ) 1 À ÷3 ( g j ) and so ÷3 ( g5 ) ÷3 ( g6 ) 1. By Corollary 27.2.Character table of the simple group of order 168 The equations 6 i1 317 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g j ) 0 for j 2. For this character ÷.) Also. there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷( g5 ) is non-real. Hence ÷4 and ÷5 (being the only two irreducible characters with the same degree) must be complex conjugates of each other. and let ÷6 ( g5 ) t. g4 . the equation 1 h÷2 . Let ÷4 ( g5 ) ÷5 ( g 5 ) z. 6.

7). we have ÷( g6 ) ÷( g 5 ) for all characters ÷ of G. 5 We have now completely determined the character table of G PSL (2. z (À1 Æ i 7)a2X Since g6 gÀ1 . as shown. We give you the character tables of all of these. g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 1 0 1 á á À1 It is known that there are precisely ®ve non-abelian simple groups of order less than 1000.318 Representations and characters of groups Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g5 7 1 0 1 z z t Now 0 0 7 6 i1 6 i1 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 1 À z À z 2t. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 1 z z. ÷ i ( g 5 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 2 2zz ttX Solving these equations. Character table of PSL (2. 7) Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. we obtain p t À1. .

2. 3. as follows: & ' a b T Z : a P ZÃ . b. 2. d jSL (2. Calculate the values of the induced character (1 T ) 4 G.6 & 1. p)j p( p2 À 1). d P Z p . p) a c Summary of Chapter 27 ' b : a. Prove that Z(SL (2. and show that (1 T ) 4 G 1 G ÷. 7) A6 PSL (2. SL (2. 3. ad À bc 1 . In this exercise we present an alternative construction of the character table of G PSL (2. given the conjugacy classes of G. PSL (2. . 4. the simple group of order 168. 7). Deduce directly from the character table of PSL (2. Exercises for Chapter 27 1. jPSL (2. p)) fÆIg. b P Z7 7 0 aÀ1 (where Z {ÆI}).Character table of the simple group of order 168 as follows: G A5 PSL (2. 11) Order of G 60 168 360 504 660 319 Reference for character table Example 20. as in Lemma 27. 8) PSL (2. (a) De®ne the subgroup T of G. 3). 7). 7) that this group is simple. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. c. We constructed the character table of PSL (2. p)afÆIg.13 This chapter Exercise 20. p)j p( p2 À 1)a2 ( p odd). of order 21. p) SL (2. Find the character table of SL (2.1.3 Exercise 27.2 Exercise 28.

Use orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. (b). 7.14). Calculate the values of ë 4 G and prove that this is an irreducible character of G. 7). 5. (c) By considering ÷ S (see Proposition 19. obtain an irreducible character of G of degree 6. we now have irreducible characters of G of degrees 1. 7). (d) From (a).320 Representations and characters of groups (b) Let ë be a non-trivial linear character of T. The character table of SL (2. 8 and 6. the group of all 2 3 2 matrices of determinant 1. (c). Let G SL (2. (a) Show that G has 11 conjugacy classes with representatives gi as follows: gi g1 g2 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 8 8 3 6 7 14 7 14 336 336 8 8 8 6 6 14 14 14 14 1 1 42 42 42 56 56 24 24 24 24 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i À1 0 0 À1 0 1 g3 À1 0 2 À2 g4 2 2 À2 2 g5 À2 À2 2 0 g6 0 4 À2 0 g7 0 À4 1 1 g8 0 1 À1 À1 g9 0 À1 1 À1 g 10 0 1 À1 1 g 11 0 À1 . with entries in the ®eld Z7 .

6. and ®nd ÷ j ( g6 ) for 7 < j < 11. gÀ1 . (g) Complete the character table of G. prove that ø A is equal to the irreducible character of G of degree 6 whose kernel contains Z. g2 . (c) Let ÷7 . 11). g8 . gÀ1 are conjugate to g5 . ÷10 . Find the character table of G. . The character table of PSL (2. gÀ1 . 6. (d) Prove that ÷ j ( g3 ) 0 for 7 < j < 11. 6. ÷9 . . . g3 and g6 (see Proposition 19. This group has eight conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . gÀ1 . ÷11 are 4. we have ÷ j ( g) À÷ j (À g). ÷11 be the remaining irreducible characters of G. Deduce the values of the irreducible characters of degree 4 on all gi .7) to write down the six irreducible characters of G with kernel containing Z {ÆI}. and congruences modulo 3. Show that for any j with 7 < j < 11 and any g P G. ÷8 . g7 . Let G PSL (2. g6 . .Character table of the simple group of order 168 321 (b) Use the character table of PSL (2. g8 having orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 660 g2 2 12 g3 3 6 g4 6 6 g5 5 5 g6 5 5 g7 11 11 g8 11 11 Also. (f) Let ø be one of the irreducible characters of degree 4. . 8.14). . 11). and deduce that ÷ j (1) is even. show that the degrees of ÷7 . . . . respec5 6 7 8 tively. (e) By considering the column of g6 in the character table. By considering the values of ø A on g1 . 4.

since the number of irreducible characters increases with the size of the ®eld. b.28 Character table of GL(2. . if you are unfamiliar with ®nite ®elds then you might like to consult the book by J. The ®elds F q and F q 2 We consider ®nite ®elds. Recall that a ®eld (F. we found the character tables of certain groups of 2 3 2 matrices with entries in Z7 and Z11 . Secondly. that is (a b)c ac bc for all a. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. R. Finally. and one of the exercises will show you how to use the results of this chapter to determine the character tables of in®nitely many simple groups. with identity element 1. (F. as do the irreducible characters. First. c P F. However. with the usual de®nitions of and 3. we shall see that the conjugacy classes of our groups fall into four families. Consequently. then (F Ã . this is a daunting task. We shall determine the character tables of some matrix groups with entries from an arbitrary ®nite ®eld. the distributive law holds. The basic properties of ®nite ®elds which we will use without proof are these: 322 . At ®rst sight. For example. B. with identity element 0. if we write F Ã Fnf0g. In the last chapter and its exercises. q) We are now going to calculate the character tables of an important in®nite series of groups. C and Z p ( p prime) are ®elds. ) is an abelian group. 3) is an abelian group. and we shall tell you which properties of these ®elds we will use. 3) is a set F with two binary operations and 3 such that the following properties hold. we can display the character values in a 4 3 4 matrix.

1) Let p be a prime and n be a positive integer. every irreducible character of FÃ2 has the form q r 3 r j for some integer j. t P S. For every s P F q the sum of s with itself p times is zero. so r r q . namely Theorem 28. it follows that (s t) p s p t p for all s. and k k k hence (s t) p s p t p for all positive integers k. t P F q . We introduce the following useful notation.5. so S is a ®eld. Proof (1) Suppose that s. Suppose that r P FÃ2 . This implies that (r r ) r r r r and (r 1q ) q j r 1q . We may write q r å m for some m and we let r ù m . Moreq over. We use this remark in the proof of the next proposition. r 1q P S. so s t P S. q) (28. ) and (Snf0g.3) Let å be a generator of the cyclic group FÃ2 and let q 2 ù e(2ðia(q À1)) . 28. q 323 Notice that the binomial coef®cients ( ip ) with 1 < i < p À 1 are all divisible by p.2 with the ®eld F q . (28. (2) If r P F then r r q . 3) are abelian groups. r 1q P S. ps 0. Then (s t) q s q t q s t. 3) is cyclic. You are now in a position to appreciate the statement of the main result of this chapter. we shall identify the sub®eld S of F q 2 in Proposition 28. and write q pn . we see that r q r for all q q q q q2 q r P F.Character table of GL(2. Then there exists a ®eld F q of order q and every ®eld of order q is isomorphic to F q . It is now easy to check that (S. . and hence S F q . (1) The set S is a sub®eld of F of order q. 2 (2) Since FÃ2 is a group of order q 2 À 1. Then r 3 r is an irreducible character of FÃ2 .2 Proposition Let F F q 2 and S fs P F : s q sg. Hereafter. The group (FÃ . in short.

b) has been chosen. q). c9g. q) The general linear group GL(2. we are going to calculate the character table of GL(2. Therefore. First. Next. giving us q 2 À q choices. and we talked about some special linear groups in the last chapter. and once (a. The matrices s 0 sI (s P FÃ ) q 0 s belong to the centre of G. Let G GL(2. The number of such matrices is found by noting that (a. of which three are easy to describe. q). q) is de®ned to be the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in F q . The subgroup consisting of all matrices of determinant 1 is the special linear group SL(2. b). b) can be any non-zero row vector. (c. Keep this in mind during the following discussion. giving us q 2 À 1 choices. They size 1. and remember that the matrix a b c d belongs to G if and only if its rows are linearly independent. Here. q). consider the matrices s us 0 Let give us q À 1 conjugacy classes of 1 s (s P FÃ )X q . d) can be any row vector which is not a multiple of (a. jGj (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q(q À 1)2 (q 1)X There are four families of conjugacy classes of G.324 Representations and characters of groups The conjugacy classes of GL(2. cg fa9. a b 0 c can be conjugate to a9 0 b9 c9 only if fa. since conjugate matrices have the same eigenvalues.

t P G (s. if s T t.2. so. then we have that gd s. Thus. v r P G. 2 3 Àbr 1q a b(r r q ) gv r and Àdr 1q c d(r r q ) 2 3 c d vr g X Àar 1q c(r r q ) Àbr 1q d(r r q ) . so each conjugacy class contains q(q 1) elements. Since r P F q we see that v r lies in a none of the conjugacy classes we have constructed so far. t (s. Thus. Now. t P FÃ .8. by Theorem 12. each conjugacy class contains q 2 À 1 elements. t P FÃ ) q 0 t and note that 0 1 1 0 À1 d s. so v r has eigenvalues r and r q. consider 0 1 vr (r P F q 2 nF q )X Àr 1q r r q By Proposition 28. Finally. t 0 1 1 0 d t.s X On the other hand.Character table of GL(2. t d s. the q centralizer order is (q À 1)q. the centralizer order is (q À 1)2 . the matrices us (s P FÃ ) give us q À 1 conjugacy classes. the matrices d s. q) a b P GX g c d Then gus and us g 325 as cs a bs c ds as cs d bs ds so g belongs to the centralizer of us if and only if c 0 and a d. let s 0 d s. t g if and only if b c 0. s T t) give us q (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes. The characteristic polynomial of v r is det(xI À v r ) x(x À (r r q )) r 1q (x À r)(x À r q ). Now.

b) T (0. q). r q g. Class rep. j . jCG (v r )j q 2 À 1. But this sum is equal to the order of GL(2. q The family of conjugacy class representatives v r is indexed by unordered pairs fr. r q g of elements of FÃ2 nFÃ . q The family of conjugacy class representatives d s. We therefore partition F q 2 nF q into subsets fr. g sI |CG ( g)| (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) No. we see that a br and a br q a are non-zero. q q Proof The conjugacy classes we have found account for (q À 1) (q À 1)(q 2 À 1) (q À 1)(q À 2)q(q 1)a2 (q 2 À q)(q 2 À q)a2 elements altogether. The matrix v t has eigenvalues t and t q. g P CG (v r ) if and only if a b g X Àbr 1q a b(r r q ) Thus. each subset gives us a conjugacy class representative v r and different subsets give us representatives of different conjugacy classes. r q P F q. so we have found all the conjugacy classes. 0) and r. tg of distinct elements of FÃ . and the conjugacy class containing v r has size q 2 À q. If these conditions hold. q). described as follows. Therefore. of classes qÀ1 us (q À 1)q qÀ1 d s. We have now found all the conjugacy classes of G.326 Representations and characters of groups Hence gv r v r g only if c Àbr 1q and d a b(r r q ).4 Proposition There are q 2 À 1 conjugacy classes in GL(2. 28. t (q À 1)2 (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 vr q2 À 1 (q 2 À q)a2 The families of conjugacy class representatives sI and us are indexed by elements s of FÃ . t is indexed by unordered pairs fs. so it is not conjugate to v r unless t r or t r q. then ad À bc a2 ab(r r q ) b2 r 1q (a br)(a br q )X Since (a.

and of the remaining q 2 À q elements of K. j . we present a proposition which will be useful later. j . . 1 X vå å åq Àå 1q 28. (c) For ø i.4. (d) For ÷ i. each of degree q. q) The characters of GL(2. Thus.5 Theorem Label the conjugacy classes of GL(2. t (st) i (st) i si t j s j t i 0 vr r i(1q) Àr i(1q) 0 À(r i r iq ) Here. there are (q 2 À q)a2 characters ÷ i . sI ëi øi ø i. each of degree q À 1.Character table of GL(2. ÷ i as follows. q) are given by ë i . ø i . Before we embark upon the task of calculating the irreducible characters of G. The group K contains the q À 1 scalar matrices sI in G. j < q À 2. ø i. if j1 and j2 belong to this set and j1 j2 q mod (q 2 À 1) then we choose precisely one of j1 and j2 to belong to the indexing set for the characters ÷ i .6 Proposition Let K hvå i. (a) For ë i we have 0 < i < q À 2.3). we have the following restrictions on the subscripts. j we have 0 < i . Thus. 327 28. Then jKj q 2 À 1. and let r 3 r be the function from FÃ2 to C described in (28. we ®rst consider the set of integers j with 0 < j < q 2 À 1 and (q 1) T j j. each of degree q 1. Then the q irreducible characters of GL(2. Thus. Hence. Recall that å is our chosen generator for FÃ2 and q 0. each of degree 1. (b) For ø i we have 0 < i < q À 2. j ÷i s 2i qs 2i (q 1)s i j (q À 1)s i us s 2i 0 s i j Às i d s. there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 characters ø i. there are q À 1 characters ë i .q) We are now in a position to describe the character table of G. there are q À 1 characters ø i . q) as in Proposition 28.

t si t j s j t i vr 0 .5. j there is a character ø i. Proof The map det : g 3 det g is a homomorphism from G onto FÃ . j (q 1)s i j us s i j d s. since vå has eigenvalues in F q and vå is diagonalizable. i i i If å i å iq then vå å i I. i iq The eigenvalues of vå and of vå are å i and å iq . in turn. j and ÷ i which appear in Theorem 28.328 Representations and characters of groups precisely two belong to each of the conjugacy classes represented by v r with r P FÃ2 nFÃ . 28. so vå has order q 2 À 1. q As i varies between 0 and q À 2 inclusive. ø i . the irreducible characters ë i . and they are given in Theorem 28. j We shall construct.5.5. q q Proof The eigenvalues of vå are å and å q. j We will see later that the linear characters ë i (0 < i < q À 2) which appear in Proposition 28. the functions ë i : g 3 (det g) i ( g P G) give q À 1 distinct linear characters of G. j of G whose values on the conjugacy class representatives.8 Proposition For all integers i. and this case accounts for the q À 1 scalar matrices. ø i. are as follows.4. 28. as described in Proposition 28. whose values appear in Theorem 28. sI ø i. If å i T å iq then i i iq å P F q and vå and vå must be conjugate to vå i . Hence two elements a of K belong to the conjugacy class of vå i .7 are all the linear characters of G.7 Proposition There are q À 1 linear characters ë i of G.

there is an irreducible character ø i of G whose values are given in Theorem 28. j ëi. j ( g) 0X j Hence.5. the values of ø i. To this end. j is a character of B.i i and hø i. 28. Remember that the complex conjugate of s i is s Ài . We use Proposition 21.s jC B ( g)j jC B ( g9)j ø i. ø i. we calculate hø i. j ( g) jC G ( g)j ë i.23 to calculate ø i. where g9 d t.i ë i ø i . as follows. j ( g) jC G ( g)j . q) Proof Let B & ' PG X 329 a 0 b c Then B is a subgroup of G with jBj (q À 1)2 q. j : 3 s i t jX 0 t Then ë i. The characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. g sI : g us : g d s. j ( g) for each conjugacy class representative g. ë i i.9 Proposition For each integer i. j ( g) ø i. j 4 G.i . t : g vr : ø i.i which appears in Proposition 28. ø i.8 gives us ø i. j ( g) jC B ( g)j ë i. j ( g) jC B ( g)j jC G ( g)j ë i.i i (q 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 2X Here. We let ø i.i . De®ne ë i. Proof We shall demonstrate that the character ø i.i . j are as stated in the proposition. j : B 3 C by s r ë i. We have hø i. the ®rst term corresponds to the conjugacy classes of elements 4 (q À 1)(q À 2) (q À 1)2 2 .Character table of GL(2. j ( g) ë i. j ( g9) ø i.

i . t : s. and the calculation of this ®rst term involves the following three observations.1 3 s i .i .8 is irreducible.5.i .10 Proposition Suppose that 0 < i . (2) jC G (sI)j (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q)X (3) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the forms sI. where (q 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1). Proof We shall show that hø i. Next. ë i i 1 and hø i. j i 1. j . t 3 s i t j s j t i then ó is a sum of two . Then the character ø i. The remaining terms in hø i. and if ó : d s. ø i. we obtain hø i. ë i i (q 1) 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q 1X The facts that hø i. ø i. ø i. Subtract ë i from ø i.i ë i ø i for some irreducible character ø i. j . tg of distinct elements of FÃ . j 28.i .i to get the values of ø i as given in Theorem 28. B 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 1 1 i j C (s t s j t i )(s Ài t À j s À j t Ài )X (q À 1)2 2 sT t A and 2 (q À 1)(q À 2) 2 (q À 1) 2 The coef®cent 1 appears in C because we have just one conjugacy 2 class for each unordered pair fs.i (sI)ø i.i (sI) (q 1)2 . ø i. (1) ø i. j which are given in Proposition 28.330 Representations and characters of groups sI. note that fd s. Let s be an element of FÃ of order q À 1.8.i i 2 imply that ø i. Then ø i : d s. j which appears in Proposition 28. q Hence the characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. hø i. j i A B C. j < q À 2. Using the values of ø i. q To evaluate C. t P FÃ g is an abelian group of q order (q À 1)2.i i are calculated in a similar fashion.

j9 . j is irreducible. ó i 2X That is. j T ø i9.8. and (i. j9 ë j9. j characters of G. Therefore. there exists a character ö i of G which takes the following values. j < q À 2 are distinct irreducible Proof Suppose that 0 < i . hó . j i 1. j differs from ø i9. j ë j. We must prove that ø i. we see that ø i. j T ø i9. for 0 < i .i : 3 s i t j s j t iX 0 t Since ë i. there exists complex (q À 1)th roots of unity s and t such that either s T t and s i t j s j t i T s i9 t j9 s j9 t i9 or s t and s i j T s i9 j9 . j < q À 2 and 0 < i9 . ø i. j9 .i T ë i9. sI öi q(q À 1)s i us 0 d s. In either case. j) T (i9.12 Proposition For each integer i. j9).i9 . C qÀ3 X qÀ1 And now we ®nd that A B C 1. Therefore. q) 331 inequivalent irreducible characters of this group. ø i. j . j ë j. 2 3 1 i j j i Ài À j À j Ài 4(q À 1) (s t s t )(s t s t ) 2X (q À 1)2 sT t Hence. j which were used in the proof of Proposition 28. Thus. j 28.11 Corollary The characters ø i. t 0 vr r i r iq . We have s b ë i. 28. j9 on a conjugacy class j of G. hø i. Consider the group B and its linear characters ë i. j9 < q À 2.Character table of GL(2. and ø i.

Then g has eigenvalues r and r q . v r is conjugate to an element of g of K. Hence á i ( g) r i or r iq and á i ( g) á i ( g q ) r i r iq X Let ö i á i 4 G. t (s T t).13 Lemma Assume that i is an integer and (q 1) T j i. ö i has the values stated in the proposition. j To be able to work out certain inner products involving our characters ö i . . ö i is zero on the elements of the form u s and d s. by Proposition 28. ®rst recall that á i 4 G is zero on all elements which are not conjugate to an element of K.6. by Proposition 28.6. as in Proposition 28. Also. Thus.332 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let K hvå i. á i ( g) ái( g q) ö i ( g) jC G ( g)j jC K ( g)j jC K ( g)j á i ( g) á i ( g q ) r i r iq X Thus. Then (r i r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2(q À 1)2 X rPF q 2 nF q Proof Note that & r G1 0 0 rq : r P FÃ2 q ' and G2 & r 0 0 rq : r P FÃ q ' are abelian groups of orders q 2 À 1 and q À 1. Now.6. In order to calculate ö i . 28. we shall the use the following lemma. Suppose that g P K and g is conjugate in G to v r . respectively. and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i . If g sI with s P FÃ then g P K and q ö i ( g) jC G ( g)j á i ( g) q(q À 1)s i X jC K ( g)j Suppose that r P F q 2 nF q . Then.

sI ÷i (q À 1)s i us Às i d s.i À ö i X . t 0 vr À(r i r iq ) If (q 1) T j i then ÷ i is an irreducible character of G.12. Now. q) r 0 3 r i r iq 0 rq 333 gives a character ÷ of degree 2 for each group. the character ÷ is a sum of two inequivalent irreducible characters. ø i and ö i given in Propositions 28. since (q 1) T j i implies that å i T å iq . 28. since r q r for r P FÃ. we get 1 i (r r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 4X qÀ1 Ã rPF q Hence rPF q 2 nF q (r i r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2(q 2 À 1) À 4(q À 1) 2(q À 1)2 X j 28. the character ÷ is twice an irreducible character.9 and 28.8. and for G2.Character table of GL(2. Taking the inner product of the q character ÷ of G1 with itself. we get 1 i (r r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2 2À1 q rPFÃ 2 q and doing the same for the character ÷ of G2 . Recall the characters ø i. j . Proof We can justify the manoeuvre which we now perform only by saying that it gives the correct answer. let ÷ i be the class function on G with the following values. For G1.14 Proposition For each integer i.Ài ø i À ø0. ÷ i is the class function on G which is given by ÷ i ø0.

j 28.334 Representations and characters of groups The table below allows us to verify this. sI ø0. since we have shown that the class functions given in the theorem are inequivalent irreducible characters.13. h÷ i . Since j T i. as we wished to show. iq mod(q 2 À 1). and the number of them is q 2 À 1.6. the characters á i á iq and á j á jq of K are different. q) to ®nd the . iq mod(q 2 À 1). t s Ài t Ài (st) i i s ti si t i 0 0 vr 0 Àr i(1q) 0 0 r i r iq À(r i r iq ) Next. 0. ÷ i i 1 and ÷ i (1) .Ài ø i ø0. assume that (q 1) T j i. which is the same as the number of conjugacy classes of G. so either s i T s j for some s P FÃ or q r i r iq T r j r jq for some r P F q 2 nF q . ÷ i i (q À 1)2 1 (q À 1)2 (q À 1) 2 (q À 1) 2 1X q Àq (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q À1 Since ÷ i is a linear combination of irreducible characters of G.Ài øi ø0. If g sI where s P FÃ then (á i á iq )( g) 2s i . ÷ i T ÷ j . and h÷ i . ÷ i i using Lemma 28. Therefore.5. Proof Let K hvå i. Suppose that g P K.15 Proposition Suppose that i and j are integers with (q 1) T j i and (q 1) T j j and j T i. as in Proposition 28. q If g is conjugate to v r where r P F q 2 nF q then (á i á iq )( g) r i r iq . It is possible to use the character table of GL(2. and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i . We work out h÷ i . with integer coef®cients. Then the characters ÷ i and ÷ j of G are different. j We have now completed the proof of Theorem 28.i öi ÷i (q 1)s Ài qs 2i q(q 1)s i (q 1)s i q(q À 1)s i (q À 1)s i us s Ài 0 0 si 0 Às Ài d s. it follows that ÷ i is an irreducible character of G.

A. t (s T t). q). q). A challenging exercise is to determine the character table of PSL(2. Since SL(2. q). q) 335 character table of SL(2. Among the characters of SL(2. J. We do not go fully into this. and there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 0 t irreducible characters of degree q 1. in 1955. q) PSL(2. q). q) was ®rst given in 1907. Green determined the character table of GL(n. this gives the character tables of an in®nite series of simple groups PSL(2. q) has the following properties. and they depend upon whether q is a power of 2 or q 1 mod 4 or q 3 mod 4. Summary of Chapter 28 The character table of GL(2. q) for all positive integers n. q) provide the characters of the groups PSL(2. q) when q 1 mod 4 or q 3 mod 4 from the character table of GL(2. those with kernel containing the centre of SL(2. (d) There are (q 2 À q)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives of the . q) was found. q) is rather easier to ®nd than that of SL(2. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of degree 0 s q. (b) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form s 1 us . since the answers are quite complicated.Character table of GL(2. Although the character table of GL(2. Then. since most of the irreducible characters remain irreducible when restricted. though.2. namely that where q is a power of 2. q). In Exercise 28. it was not until the 1950's that the character table of GL(3. (a) Thereare q 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form À s 0 sI . q) ± compare Chapter 27 ± and so the character table of PSL(2. (c) There are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives s 0 of the form d s. you are asked to consider the easiest case. q) when q is a power of 2. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of 0 s degree 1.

Prove that if q T 2 then SL(2. q)X Deduce the character table of SL(2. and there are (q 2 À q)a2 irreducible form v r Àr 1q r r q characters of degree q À 1. .336 Representations and characters of groups 0 1 . 8). Exercises for Chapter 28 1. Let Z fsI : s P FÃ g. q). Suppose that q is a power of 2. Use Theorem 28.5 to write down explicitly the character table of GL(2. 2. q) from that of GL(2. Prove that q GL(2. q) is simple. 3).2 to write down explicitly the character table of PSL(2. Use your solution to Exercise 28. 3. q) Z 3 SL(2.

j < n. a subgroup of Sn for some n. if Ù f1. F F F . ng then Sym(Ù) Sn . F F F . De®nition Let G be a group and Ù a set. then G has a permutation character ð de®ned by ð( g) jfix( g)j for g P G. We also say that G acts on Ù (via ö). An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism ö: G 3 Sym(Ù). In particular. 3g. jg( gö) fig. If Ù is a set.e. F F F . ng. ng. and develop some useful results.29 Permutations and characters We have already seen in Chapter 13 that if G is a permutation group. 2. jg of elements of f1. particularly about irreducible characters of symmetric groups (see Theorem 29. 337 . Group actions We begin with a more general notion than that of a permutation group. jgg for all g P Sn and 1 < i . a fact which proved useful in many of our subsequent character table calculations.) Check that ö is an action of Sn . denote by Sym(Ù) the group of all permutations of Ù.1 Examples (1) If G < Sn then the identity map is an action of G on f1. In this chapter we take the theory of permutation groups and characters somewhat further. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting fi. (2) Let G Sn and let Ù be the set consisting of all pairs fi. (1 2)ö sends f1. i. 3g 3 f2.12 below). 29. (So for example. it is called the action of Sn on pairs.

de®ne a relation $ on Ù as follows: for á. Adopting this notation. as de®ned in Chapter 28. in other words. It is easy to see that $ is an equivalence relation on Ù. h P G. 29. Thus Ù is the disjoint union of the orbits of G. we have á $ â if and only if there exists g P G such that á g â. if ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) is an action. Ù) 1. b P F q . â P Ù.338 Representations and characters of groups (3) Let G GL(2. generated by x. The equivalence classes are called the orbits of G on Ù. Let V be the 2-dimensional vector space over F q consisting of all row vectors (a. and Ker ö xPG x À1 Hx < H. The group G is said to be transitive on Ù if orb(G. For example. the fact that ö is a homomorphism simply says that ù( gh) (ù g)h for all ù P Ù and g. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting hvi( gö) hv gi for all hvi P Ù and g P G. Ù) for the number of orbits of G on Ù. b)i 3 h(a. and let ö: G 3 S8 be the action . G is transitive if. given any á. if 1 1 g 0 1 then gö sends h(a. ö is an action of G. and let Ù be the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces hvi of V. To simplify notation.2 Examples (1) Let G C4 . say. Write orb(G. q). De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by ( Hx)( gö) Hxg for all x. and let Ù be the set of all right cosets Hx of H in G (so jÙj n). â P Ù. a b)iX Then ö is an action of G on Ù. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices over the ®nite ®eld F q. Then by Exercise 9 of Chapter 23. (4) Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. g P G. there exists g P G such that á g â. With this notation. for ù P Ù and g P G we usually just write ù g instead of ù( gö). b) with a.

3. 29. namely f1.Permutations and characters 339 de®ned by xö (1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8) (and of course x k ö ((1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8)) k for any k). to verify it for Example (3) you need to convince yourself that for any two non-zero row vectors v. Hy P Ù. Now let Ä be the set of right cosets Gù x of Gù in G. so Gù is a subgroup. 4g. 4). hence gh P Gù . simply observe that. w P V there is an invertible 2 3 2 matrix A P GL(2.3 Proposition The stabilizer Gù is a subgroup of G. the size of the orbit ù G is equal to the index of Gù in G. Observe that for x. 6g and f7. Denote by CÙ the vector space over C for which Ù is a basis. given two right cosets Hx. In other words. Then G has three orbits on Ù f1. Let G be a group acting on a set Ù. write ù G for the orbit of G which contains ù. 3. and hence jÄj jù G j. j Permutation characters Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. (2) The group G is transitive on the set Ù in each of Examples 29. jù G j jG : Gù jX Proof If g. and in Example (4). so ù G fù g : g P Gg. F F F . the element g x À1 y P G has the property that ( Hx) g Hy. and Gù contains the identity. Also gÀ1 P Gù . y P G. that is. 2. q) such that vA w. This is clear in Example (2). For ù P Ù. Moreover. as required. 8g. and de®ne Gù f g P G : ù g ùgX We call Gù the stabilizer of ù in G. CÙ consists of all expressions of the form . f5. Clearly ã is also surjective. Gù x Gù y D xy À1 P Gù D ùxy À1 ù D ùx ù yX Hence we can de®ne an injective function ã : Ä 3 ù G by ã(Gù x) ùx for all x P G.1(2. 8g. h P Gù then ù( gh) (ù g)h ùh ù.

pick ù i P Ä i .3. by de®ning 2 3 ëù ù g ëù (ù g) for all g P G. and provides a basic link between the permutation character and the action of G. then for g P G. but is in fact due to Cauchy and Frobenius. though elementary. where fixÙ ( g) fù P Ù : ù g ùg. Then 1 hð. we can make CÙ into a CG-module. 29. g) : ù P Ù. and for each i.340 Representations and characters of groups ëù ù (ëù P C) ùPÙ with the obvious addition and scalar multiplication.4 Proposition Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. for 1 < i < t we have jÄ i j jù G j jG : Gù i jX i Hence jÄ i j jGù i j jGj. 129) that if ð is the character of this permutation module. 1 G i 1 1 ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)jX jGj gPG jGj gPG Let Ä1 . First. is rather famous. Ù)X jGj gPG Proof First note that hð. ù g ùg. Now de®ne Ö f(ù. We calculate jÖj in two different ways. ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)j. We see just as in Chapter 13 (p. It is often referred to as ``Burnside's Lemma''. By Proposition 29. and let ð be the permutation character. The next result. the number of ù P Ù such that ù g ù is equal to jfixÙ ( g)j. g P G. F F F . Ä t be the orbits of G on Ù. for each g. As in Chapter 13. called the permutation module. hence . We call ð the permutation character of G on Ù. 1 G i jfixÙ ( g)j orb(G.

4. the number of g P G such that ù g ù is equal to jGù j. Then hð1 . In the rest of the chapter we apply Proposition 29. ð2 i 1 1 jfixÙ1 ( g)kfixÙ2 ( g)j jfixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g)j. hence jÖj Therefore gPG ùPÙ jGù j t i1 jÄ i j jGù i j t 1 jGj tjGjX j jfixÙ ( g)j tjGj.6 Proposition Let G act on Ù1 and Ù2 .5 Corollary G is transitive on Ù if and only if hð. then ð( g) ð1 ( g)ð2 ( g) for all g P G. with permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively. Ù1 3 Ù2 ) by Proposition 29. . Hence if ð is the permutation character of G on Ù1 3 Ù2 . Now let G be a group. ù2 ) g (ù1 g. 29. ù2 g) for all ù i P Ù i . It is clear that fixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g) fixÙ1 ( g) 3 fixÙ2 ( g) for any g P G. 29. Ù1 3 Ù2 )X Proof We have hð1 . with corresponding permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively.6 in a number of situations. g P G. for each ù. Then we can de®ne an action of G on the Cartesian product Ù1 3 Ù2 by setting (ù1 . the ®rst being the case where Ù1 Ù2 . and suppose that G acts on two sets Ù1 and Ù2 . ð2 i orb(G. jGj gPG jGj gPG j which is equal to orb(G. and the conclusion follows.Permutations and characters jÖj jfixÙ ( g)jX gPG 341 Secondly. 1 G i 1.

9 De®nition Let G be transitive on Ù. G is 2-transitive if. using Theorem 14. Then G is said to be 2-transitive on Ù if r(G.8 Proposition Let G act on Ù. written r(G. Ù 3 Ù)X The next result is immediate from Proposition 29. â1 T â2 . with permutation character ð.342 Representations and characters of groups Suppose G acts on Ù. 29. there exists g P G such that á1 g â1 and á2 g â2 . with permutation character ð. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. 29. 1. namely (ù1 . Thus r(G. â2 ) in Ù 3 Ù.17. and hð. The case where equality holds is of particular interest. for any ordered pairs (á1 . ù2 P Ù.7 De®nition The number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù is called the rank of G on Ù. ðiX Now suppose G is transitive on Ù and jÙj . Ù) 2. ù2 ) g (ù1 g. In other words. Proof We have hð. then ð 1 G ÷. j . Then r(G. 29. The result follows.8. g P G. ù2 g) for all ù1 . Then Ä f(ù. with á1 T á2 . Then G also acts on Ù 3 Ù in the way de®ned above. ù) : ù P Ùg is an orbit of G on Ù 3 Ù.10 Corollary If G is 2-transitive on Ù. 1 G i 1 by Corollary 29. ði 2 by Proposition 29. 29. Ù). Ù) hð.5. and hence certainly r(G. Ù) > 2. á2 ) and (â1 .6. Ù) orb(G.

the irreducible character ÷ of G given by Corollary 29. v2 and w1. giving an element of GL(2. w2 are both bases of V.15 we know that the conjugacy classes of Sn are in bijective correspondence with the set of all possible cycle-shapes of permutations. where ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of Sn . ng. Hence G is 2-transitive on Ù. Some irreducible characters of S n By Theorem 12.1(2). v2 3 w2 is therefore invertible. q) given in Example 29. Hence these groups have an irreducible character ÷ given by ÷( g) jfix( g)j À 1X We have seen this irreducible character in a number of previous examples (see 18. lgj 1g.5. for example. for each partition ë. Here Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of the 2-dimensional vector space V. f2. Also An is 2-transitive. let (hv1 i. fk. lg) : jfi. This action is not 2-transitive. F F F .16. 19. Since jÙj q 1 (see Exercise 1 at the end of the chapter). hw2 i) be two pairs of distinct 1-spaces in Ù. with n > 4.Permutations and characters 343 29. To see this. q) which sends hv1 i 3 hw1 i. and Ä1 f(fi. In fact it is easy to see that the orbits of G Sn on Ù 3 Ù are Ä. as claimed. f3. and so ð 1 G ÷ ø.10 is the character ø0 of degree q in Theorem 28. jg fk. since. A key aim is therefore to construct. Ä1 and Ä2 . where Ä is as above. (3) Consider the action of Sn on pairs de®ned in Example 29.17). the irreducible characters of Sn are also in bijective correspondence with the partitions ë of n. Ù) 3. fk. lgj 0gX Thus hð. an irreducible character ÷ ë . We claim that G is 2-transitive on Ù. jg.3. ë s ) of positive integers ë i such that ë1 > ë2 > F F F > ë s and ë1 F F F ë s n. Ä2 f(fi. 19. Each cycle-shape (including 1-cycles) is a sequence ë (ë1 . F F F . 4g) to (f1.11 Examples (1) The symmetric group Sn is 2-transitive on f1. hv2 i 3 hw2 i.1. Then v1 . 3g). ði r(G. jg fk.1(3). By Theorem 15. provided n > 4. hv2 i) and (hw1 i. (2) Consider the action of G GL(2. jg. The linear transformation from V to V which sends v1 3 w1 . and we call such a sequence a partition of n. there is no element of Sn which sends (f1. lg) : jfi. 2g. 2g.

÷ ( nÀ2.2) . The ideas can be developed to carry out the aim in general. m) such that for all k < m. and much more.344 Representations and characters of groups of Sn . and m (n À 1)a2 if n is odd. J s f(A. k). F F F . k) . Then .10.1) . ð l i l 1. This holds for k 1 by Corollary 29. ik g P I k and any g P G. a 2-part partition (see Theorem 29. but we do not do this. We shall apply the material of this chapter to carry out this aim in the case where ë (n À k. Proof By Proposition 29. ÷ ( nÀ k. ng. 2. then hð k . Now assume the statement holds for all values less than k. I k 3 I l ). F F F . in a natural way. k) such that ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. Observe that n ð k (1) jI k j X k 29. F F F . ÷ ( nÀ1. ÷ ( nÀ1. I k 3 I l ) l 1.1(2) we can de®ne an action of G on I k as follows: for any subset A fi1 .12 Proposition If l < k < na2. we refer you to the book by G. ÷ ( nÀ m. ik ggX Let ð k be the permutation character of G in its action on I k . F F F . giving the conclusion. by induction on k.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. Then Sn has distinct irreducible characters ÷ ( n) 1 G . The orbits of G Sn on I k 3 I l are easily seen to be J 0 .1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. James listed in the Bibliography. For an integer k < na2. if you want to see this. on the character theory of Sn . B) P I k 3 I l : jA Bj sgX Hence orb(G. F F F . where for 0 < s < l. de®ne I k to be the set consisting of all subsets of I of size k. J 1 . k) X In particular. hð k . Let G Sn and I f1. F F F J l .1) .13 below). Proof We prove the existence of irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . let Ag fi1 g. ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. ð l i orb(G. Just as in Example 29. k) ð k À ð kÀ1 .13 Theorem Let m na2 if n is even.6. j 29. ÷ ( nÀ k.

k) ð k À ð kÀ1 makes it easy to calculate the values of the characters ÷ ( nÀ k.1) . as required. The number of orbits is equal to hð.i) for all i .1) F F F ÷ ( nÀi. k) .2) (123) ð2 (123) À ð1 (123) jfix I 2 (123)j À jfix I 1 (123)j 6 À 4 2X (2) In the character table of S6 given in Example 19. The irreducible characters ÷ ( nÀ k. ÷ (4. The orbits are the equivalence classes in Ù of the relation de®ned by á $ â D á g â for some g P G.2) . Now by Proposition 29. Ù) is the number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù. ÷ (5. F F F . where ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)j.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. we have ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1.3) . Ù) 2 and ð 1 G ÷ with ÷ irreducible. and r(G. and the corresponding character of G is ð. ði. 4.14 Examples (1) The formula ÷ ( nÀ k. hð k . k) . ð k i k 1X It follows that ð k ð kÀ1 ÷ for some irreducible character ÷. hð k . ÷9 are equal to ÷ (6) . k) ÷ (1) ð k (1) À ð kÀ1 (1) À X k kÀ1 As another example. Summary of Chapter 29 1. ÷ (3. k. hð k . ÷ ( nÀ1.12.1) . suppose n 7 and let us calculate the value of the irreducible character ÷ (5. 1 G i. respectively. 1 G i 1.13.Permutations and characters 345 there exist irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . ð kÀ1 i k. Writing ÷ ÷ ( nÀ k. k) . The size of the orbit ù G containing ù is jù G j jG : Gù j. The irreducible characters of Sn are in bijective correspondence with partitions of n. the irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷7 . F F F . ÷3 . 3. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù). For example. ÷ ( nÀ k1. k) corresponding to 2-part partitions have values given by Theorem 29. Ù) hð. If G is 2-transitive then r(G. j 29. ð1 i 2. The rank r(G. the degree is n n ( nÀ k. If G acts on Ù then CÙ is the permutation module. .2) on a 3-cycle: ÷ (5. 2.17. hð k . kÀ1) such that ð i ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1.

1(4). Let q V Ã V À f0g. which is transitive. Prove that G contains an element g such that jfixÙ ( g)j 0. Let ð be the permutation character of G in this action. g P G.1(2). q) and let V F2 as in Example 29. and ÷ 3 ÷ is the irreducible character of G 3 G given by Theorem 19. (a) Show that ö is an action of G 3 G on G. For i 1.18. Suppose that ð1 ð2 . so that G acts on Ù i as in Example 29. h)ö) g À1 xh for all x. Prove that if G is abelian. h P G. Decompose ð as a sum of irreducible characters of GL(2. 3.5). (b) Find the stabilizer (G 3 G)1 of the identity 1 P G. and ®nd the kernel of ö. (c) Show that the rank of this action r(G 3 G. then jÙj q 1. 2 de®ne Ù i to be the set of right cosets of H i in G.346 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 29 1. q) (the latter are given by Theorem 28. (Such an element is called a ®xed-point-free element of G. let ð i be the permutation character of G in the action on Ù i . and the permutation character ð is ð ÷ ÷ 3 ÷. Let G be a ®nite group acting transitively on a set Ù of size greater than 1. Let G be a ®nite group. and de®ne an action ö : G 3 Sym(V Ã ) by v( gö) v g for v P V Ã. where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. and let H 1 .5. and take inner products with the irreducible characters of G given in 28. H 2 be subgroups of G.) 4. G) is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. then H 1 H 2 X Give an example to show that this need not be the case in general.) . Let G GL(2. 2. Show that if Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of a 2dimensional vector space over F q (as in Example 29. Let G be a ®nite group. and de®ne a function ö : G 3 G 3 Sym(G) by x(( g. ( Hint: one way to do this is to write down the values of ð on the conjugacy classes of G. 5. g.1(3)).

1. where ÷ is an irreducible character. prove that ð( nÀ2. (i.17. Writing ÷ ÷ ( nÀ2.1. calculate the degree of ÷ ( nÀ2. j) g (ig. and calculate its value on the elements (12) and (123) of Sn .1. F F F .2) ÷. j) with i. ng and i T j. Let n be a positive integer. jg) for g P Sn ).13. In the character table of S6 given in Example 19.1) .1) ? .Permutations and characters 347 6.1. and let the permutation character of Sn in this action be ð( nÀ2. and let Ù be the set of all ordered pairs (i.1) .1) . which irreducible character is equal to ÷ (4.1.1) ÷ ( nÀ2. j P f1. Let Sn act on Ù in the obvious way (namely.1) 1 2÷ ( nÀ1. By considering inner products as in the proof of Theorem 29.

The ®rst involves doing arithmetic with character values to determine certain numbers. seeing whether or not the group is simple. In this chapter we present some rather deeper applications.1 Proposition There exist non-negative integers aijk such that for 1 < i < l and 1 < j < l. Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G. known as the class algebra constants. . The second application takes this much further: the Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23. . as we shall demonstrate. Recall from Proposition 12. . 30. 348 . C l form a basis for the centre of the group algebra CG (where C i gPC i g). and they can be used to investigate the subgroup structure of G. the dihedral group of order 8. .30 Applications to group theory There are several ways of using the character theory of a group to determine information about the structure of the group. . These constants carry information about the multiplication in G. . The examples which we have come across so far ± ®nding the centre of the group.22 that the class sums C1 . Using a little group theory and a lot of character theory we shall carry out such a study in the case where C D8 . and so on ± require little calculation.19 motivates the study of simple groups containing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to a given group C. . Class algebra constants Let G be a ®nite group and let C1 . .

the constants aijk determine the product of any two elements in the centre Z(CG) of the group algebra. k. As the centre of the group algebra plays an important role in representation theory.1 is to note that C i C j belongs to Z(CG). The result follows. we have aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all the irreducible characters ÷ of G. C l . . j. and is independent of the chosen element g of Ck . 30. . This number is a non-negative integer.Applications to group theory Ci C j l k1 349 aijk C k X Proof For g P Ck the coef®cient of g in the product C i C j is equal to the number of pairs (a. . Then for all i. 30. . Our next theorem shows that this is indeed the case. you might suspect that the class algebra constants are determined by the character table of G.2 De®nition The integers aijk in the formula Ci C j l k1 aijk C k are the class algebra constants of G. . . From their very de®nition. b) with a P Ci . j Another way of looking at Proposition 30.4 Theorem Let gi P Ci for 1 < i < l. . the numbers aijk carry information about the multiplication in G: (30X3) For all g P Ck and all i. so it must be a linear combination of C1 . . C l is a basis of Z(CG). b P Cj and ab gX Also. since C1 . b P Cj and ab g. . b) with a P Ci . j we have aijk the number of pairs (a.

350 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G.1.5) by ÷( g k ) and sum over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. to obtain l m1 aijm ÷( g m )÷( g k ) ÷ jCG ( g m )j ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) By the column orthogonality relations. Theorem 16. for all u P U we have uC i Therefore uC i C j and l m1 jGj÷( g i ) uX jCG ( g i )j÷(1) ÷( g i )÷( g j ) jGj2 u jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j (÷(1))2 aijm uC m l m1 aijm jGj÷( g m ) uX jCG ( g m )j÷(1) Since C i C j (30X5) m aijm C m . the character table of G is as shown: .6 Example In this example we shall use the class algebra constants to prove some facts about the elements and subgroups of the symmetric group S4 . but they serve as a useful illustration of the method. and let U be a CGmodule with character ÷.4(2). Let G S4 . these results can readily be proved directly. By Section 18. this yields aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) j Examples 30. Multiply both sides of equation (30. we deduce that l m1 aijm ÷( g i )÷( g j ) ÷( g m ) jGj X jCG ( g m )j jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷(1) Pick k with 1 < k < l.7. Then by Lemma 22.

bl D8. We deduce from this that S4 does not have a subgroup which is isomorphic to the quaternion group Q8 : for Q8 does have two elements of order 4 with product of order 4. and all products of elements of S4 are determined by the given relations. we have x 4 1. We supply a . by (30. 24 a235 X (1 1) 4. In fact. (2) By Theorem 30. 24 1 1 a245 X 11 2X 48 3 3 Hence S4 has elements a. 43 so S4 has elements a of order 2 and b of order 3 with ab of order 4. S4 is generated by a and b. Writing x ab. b of order 2 such that ab has order 4. b of order 4 such that the product ab also has order 4. aÀ1 xa ba (ab)À1 x À1 . so ka.3).1) that S4 has a subgroup which is isomorphic to D8. (3) Finally. We deduce the fact (which we already know from Exercise 18.4. b: a2 b3 (ab)4 1iX In other words. S4 does not possess elements a. it can be shown that S4 has a presentation as follows: S4 ha.Applications to group theory Character table of S4 Class Ci gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 C1 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 C2 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 C3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 C4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 351 C5 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 (1) We use Theorem 30.4 to calculate the class algebra constant a555 : 24 1 À1 0 À1 1 0X a555 X 44 1 1 2 3 3 Hence.

and it is quite tricky to construct directly.7 Example We use Theorem 30. you may wish to puzzle out the relevance of the ®gure above. 7) Class rep. 7) is as follows. g1 1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 . Character table of PSL (2. That such a subgroup exists is not obvious. 30. We found in Chapter 27 that the character table of G PSL (2.6 ± in the meantime.4 to ®nd a subgroup H of the simple group PSL (2. 7) with H isomorphic to S4 . gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á (À1 i 7)a2.352 Representations and characters of groups proof in the solution to Exercise 30.

Since H has an element of order 4. 7) has a subgroup which is isomorphic to S4 .6. 168 1 a243 X 1 0 0 0 0 8X 83 7 353 Hence. By Theorem 30.8 Theorem Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group which has an involution t such that C G (t) D8 . an effort which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s (see the book by D. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography). S4 aKer ö H.4. a dihedral group of order 8. This fact led Brauer to initiate a programme to ®nd.20). By Theorem 1. y has order 3 and xy has order 4. 30. From Example 30. we know that S4 ha. It determines the possible orders of simple groups G having an involution t such that C G (t) D8 . The Brauer programme The Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23. Let H be the subgroup kx. we conclude that H S4 X Thus we have shown that PSL (2. yl of G.10. C2 or {1}. namely xy. Then G has order 168 or 360. A4 or S4 (see Example 12. . being a normal subgroup of S4 . G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2. by (30. all ®nite simple groups G possessing an involution t such that C G (t) C. is {1}. V4 .Applications to group theory We calculate the class algebra constant a243 . given a ®nite group C. This programme formed an important part of the effort of many mathematicians to classify all the ®nite simple groups. b: a2 b3 (ab)4 1iX Hence there is a homomorphism ö from S4 onto H (ö sends a to x and b to y). S3 . so H is isomorphic to S4 . Now Ker ö.3). We have chosen to present this result because it provides a wonderful illustration of the use of character theory in the service of group theory.19 states that there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with a given centralizer. The next result carries out part of Brauer's programme in the case where C D8 .

then there exists g P G such that Q g Pg). the involution u is a product of m disjoint 2-cycles. and de®ne an action of G on Ù by (Qx) g Qxg for x.354 Representations and characters of groups Observe that PSL(2.1). Hence the subgroup f g P G : g acts as an even permutation on Ùg . (3) if R is a subgroup of G with jRj p c for some c.2(4)). hence is an odd permutation.8. 7) is a simple group of order 168 having an involution with centralizer D8 (see Lemma 27. such a subgroup is call a Sylow p-subgroup of G. but refer you to Theorems 18. 30. and A6 is a simple group of order 360 with this property (see Exercise 7 at the end of the chapter). if P Q are Sylow p. Let Ù be the set of right cosets Qx of Q in G. and let G be a ®nite group of order p a b. a basic result in ®nite group theory.e. 7) and A6 are the only simple groups of order 168 or 360.9 Sylow's Theorem Let p be a prime number. where a. g P G (see Example 29. then u is conjugate to an element of Q. one can show that PSL(2. and let P be a Sylow 2subgroup of G. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. Before embarking upon the proof of Theorem 30. then Qxu Qx and hence xux À1 P Q. Now consider fixÙ (u) fù P Ù : ùu ùg If Qx P fixÙ (u). then there is a Sylow p-subgroup of G containing R. Hence fixÙ (u) Æ. Suppose Q is a subgroup of P with jP : Qj 2. Observe that jÙj 2jG : Pj 2m. (2) all Sylow p-subgroups are conjugate in G (i. We shall not prove this. we require a couple of preliminary results. Then (1) G contains a subgroup of order p a. where m is odd since P is a Sylow 2-subgroup. Proof Suppose u is not conjugate to an element of Q. This means that in its action on Ù.3 and 18. 30. b are positive integers and p T j b.10 Lemma Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group.4 of the book by J. Using some rather more sophisticated group theory than that covered in this book. The ®rst is Sylow's Theorem. If u is an involution in G. contrary to assumption. À1 subgroups.

8 Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group with an involution t such that C G (t) D D8 . By Lemma 26.20 hold for generalized characters ø. j We also need to introduce the idea of a generalized character of a group H.Applications to group theory 355 is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. the centre of D. Certainly t commutes with itself. This is impossible since G is non-abelian and simple. if H is a subgroup of a group G.9(3).1(1) we have Z(P) T 1. Proof of Theorem 30. In particular. and hence Z(P) hti. ÷i n÷ . The centre of D8 is a cyclic group of order 2 (see (12. It is clear from this de®nition that the formulae for the values of ø 4 G given in Proposition 21. This contradiction completes the proof. Notice also that the orthogonality relations give the usual inner products hø. where á and â are characters of H: take á n÷ ÷. øi n2 ÷ for a generalized character ø as above.12)). and each n÷ P Z. we have t P Z(D). By Theorem 30. so Z(P) < Z(D) hti. the degree ø(1) can be 0 or negative for a generalized character ø. we de®ne the induced generalized character ø 4 G by ø 4 G (á 4 G) À ( â 4 G) where ø á À â as above. If n÷ > 0 for all ÷ then of course ø is a character. hø. The generalized character ø can be expressed as a difference á À â. and hence Z(D) hti. Then Z(P) < C G (t) D. Therefore P < .19 and Corollary 21. and as t commutes with all elements of D. but this need not be the case for a generalized character. there is a Sylow 2-subgroup P of G such that D < P.0 Finally. â À n÷ ÷X n÷ >0 n÷ . This is simply a class function of the form ø n÷ ÷ x where the sum is over all the irreducible characters of H. so t P D.

Since è vanishes on D À C. whence y À1 cy cÆ1 and è( y À1 cy) è(c). We next establish (30X12) hè 4 G.11) D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. è 4 Gi 3X To see this. and so P D. èi Now for 1 T c P C.356 Representations and characters of groups C G (t) D. In other words. the value 4 on t. èi 3. Referring to the character table of D8 in Example 16. observe ®rst that by Frobenius reciprocity. giving (30. Proposition 21. we must have g À1 tg t. for any g P G we have C gÀ1 Cg f1g or C. Next. Also (è 4 G)(1) 0 (see Corollary 21. and if C g À1 Cg C then g P D. aÀ1 . And if y À1 cy P D À C then è( y À1 cy) 0. (In particular.11). It follows that (è 4 G)(c) è(c). By Lemma 30. hè 4 G. As t a2 is the only such involution. we therefore have h(è 4 G) 5 D.3(3). 1 C i 1. D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. èi 3.20). è 4 Gi h(è 4 G) 5 D. Now hè 4 G. and so it follows from (30.12) that . 1 G i h1 C À ë. Let ë be the linear character of C such that ë(a) i.10. bi where a4 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . Since t c or c2. This is all the group theory we will need for the proof. hence g P C G (t) D and so g À1 Cg C. The rest is character theory. è(1) 0. every involution of G is conjugate to an involution in C.12). we conclude that t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. Then t a2 .) Hence hè. and 0 elsewhere. èi hè. a generalized character of D. let g P G and suppose that g À1 cg P C for some non-identity element c P C.19 gives 1 À1 (è 4 G)(c) è( y cy)X 8 yPG By (30. Let C hai be the cyclic subgroup of index 2 in D. and de®ne è (1 C 4 D) À (ë 4 D). We summarise what we have proved so far: (30. Then è takes the value 2 on a. Write D ha. we have è ÷1 ÷2 À ÷5 . t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. if y À1 cy P C then y P D.

ã 5 Ci. First.Applications to group theory è 4 G 1 G á À â. (30. similarly y P D. then x À1 cx yx cÀ1 . By (30.10. Now calculation in D8 shows that ã(c) 4. We shall calculate the inner product of ã and è 4 G in two ways. ãi h1 C À ë. Note that by Corollary 13. and hence x P D by (30. 357 where á. (30. then ã( g) a iik in the notation of (30. de®ne ã( g) to be number of ordered pairs (x. from (30.14) We have ã jGj ÷(t)2 ÷. hè 4 G. Therefore h1 C À ë. Hence Theorem 30. ãi 1 (30X15) À X 64 á(1) â(1) On the other hand.14) we have 2 3 jGj á(t)2 â(t)2 hè 4 G.3). Write d á(1) and e á(t) P Z. â are irreducible. If c xy with x.13) and (30. We now introduce another class function of G into the picture.4 yields the following. Consider ã(c) for 1 T c P C.13) we have . we have now proved the following. If we write t G C i and g lies in the conjugacy class C k of G. ã 5 Ci 1 X4X((1 À i) 2 (1 i)) 4X jCj Hence from (30.13) We have è 4 G 1 G á À â. Since we have shown that (è 4 G)(t) è(t) 4. 1 á(1) À â(1) 0 and 1 á(t) À â(t) 4. â are irreducible characters of G.15) we deduce 2 3 á(t)2 â(t)2 jGj 1 (30X16) À 28 X á(1) â(1) This equation gives us enough number-theoretic information about jGj to ®nish the proof fairly quickly. y) P t G 3 t G such that g xy. by Frobenius Reciprocity. where á. For g P G. jDj2 ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G.11). á(t) and â(t) are integers. y P t G .

from which it follows that e 1 or 2. suppose that e 2. Moreover.358 Representations and characters of groups â(1) d 1.16) yields jGj 28 d(d 1) X (d 2)2 Reasoning as above. â(t) e À 3X From the column orthogonality relations 16. d 1) is 1 or 2. and hcf (d À 1. Then (30. we deduce that d 2 23 . Finally. j Summary of Chapter 30 1. The class algebra constants aijk are given by Ci C j aijk C k X k They can be calculated from the character table. giving d 6 and jGj 168.4(2).8.16) gives 1 4 jGj 1 À 28 . Suppose now that e 1. Given groups G and H. by using the formula aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) 2. It follows that r 3 and d 9. Then (30. one of the possibilities in the conclusion of Theorem 30. . we have 8 jC G (t)j > 1 á(t)2 â(t)2 1 e 2 (e À 3)2 . d) 1. and so d À 1 2 r with r < 5. a Sylow 2-subgroup of G has order 8. the class algebra constants of G can sometimes be used to determine whether or not G has a subgroup which isomorphic to H.8. d d1 whence jGj 28 d(d 1) X (d À 1)2 Now the highest common factor hcf (d À 1. giving jGj 360. This completes the proof of Theorem 30. Hence (d À 1)2 must divide 210 .

then G A5 . (a) Show that G is a simple group of order 360. Use the character table of PSL (2. and that G has the character table shown. The character table of PSL (2. g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 5 5 8 8 9 10 p g2 1 1 1 0 0 1 À2 g3 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 0 p 5)a2. it can be shown that any simple group possessing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 must have order 168 or 360. you may assume that A5 is a simple group. and that A5 has the following presentation: A5 ha. Does PSL (2. together with lots of ingenious character theory. given at the end of Chapter 27. b: a2 b2 1. b has order 3 and ab has order 7. Using Sylow's Theorem. (ab)7 1l.) For the next three exercises. g4 1 2 À1 À1 À1 0 1 g5 1 À1 2 À1 À1 0 1 g6 1 0 0 á â À1 0 g7 1 0 0 â á À1 0 where á (1 5)a2. 7) contain a subgroup isomorphic to D14 ? (Hint: D14 ka.13). if G is a group with the same character table as A5 (see Example 20. to prove that PSL (2. 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2. Prove that A5 is characterized by its character table ± that is. Suppose that G is a group. 7).Applications to group theory 359 3. b: a2 b3 (ab)5 1iX 3. 11) is given in the solution to Exercise 27. â (1 À 5. 11) contain a subgroup which is isomorphic to A5 ? 4.6. Exercises for Chapter 30 1. Does PSL (2. 2. (b) Use the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions to obtain an .

6. p). 7) and A6 are simple groups of order 168.) t such that . 360 respectively. Use the ®gure which appears in Example 30. and deduce that g2 has order 2 and g3 has order 4. Prove that PSL(2. both of which contain an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 .6(3) to show that every group G which is generated by two elements a and b which satisfy a2 b3 (ab)4 1 has order at most 24. 7. (Hint: look for a suitable simple group PSL(2. show that G A6 .9.360 Representations and characters of groups upper bound for the number of involutions in G. (d) Using Exercise 23. Find a simple group G having an involution C G (t) D16 . 8. (c) Prove that G has a subgroup H which is isomorphic to A5 .

and let p(x) be a monic polynomial over Q of smallest possible degree having á as a root. Then p(x) is unique and irreducible. but it was only after studying Frobenius's new theory of group representations that he was able to prove the theorem in general. see for instance the book by Pollard and Diamond listed in the Bibliography. which we now describe. We omit proofs of these ± for a good account. it is called the minimal polynomial of á. The roots of p(x) are called the conjugates of á. An algebraic number is a complex number which is a root of some non-zero polynomial over Q. A preliminary lemma We prepare for the proof of Burnside's Theorem with a lemma (31. We call a polynomial in x monic if the coef®cient of the highest power of x in it is 1. if ù is an nth root of unity then the minimal poly361 . then no group of order pa q b is simple. which states that if p and q are prime numbers and a and b are positive integers.2) which is concerned with character values. Indeed. Let á be an algebraic number. In order to establish this lemma we require some basic facts about algebraic integers and algebraic numbers. For example.31 Burnside's Theorem One of the most famous applications of representation theory is Burnside's Theorem. b. Bender found one in 1972. until H. many later attempts to ®nd a proof which does not use representation theory were unsuccessful. Burnside presented group-theoretic arguments which proved the theorem for many special choices of the integers a. In the ®rst edition of his book Theory of groups of ®nite order (1897).

. each conjugate of ã is of the form (ù9 X X X ù9 )ad 1 d where ù9 . where each ù i is a root of unity. Alternatively. (31. Now suppose that ÷( g)a÷(1) is an algebraic integer and j÷( g)a÷(1)j . . see Pollard and Diamond.9 we have ÷( g) ù1 . . 31. ù d | < |ù1 | . . and let p(x) be the minimal polynomial of ã. ù9 are roots of unity. 1. Moreover. . Section 3.1) Let á and â be algebraic numbers. and so every conjugate of ù is also an nth root of unity. We prove that ÷( g) 0. . and if 0 . For an elementary proof of this. it follows that j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1.362 Representations and characters of groups nomial of ù divides x n À 1. so ÷( g)a÷(1) (ù1 X X X ù d )adX Since |÷( g)| |ù1 . and let g P G. so that p(x) x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 where ai P Z for all i. |ù d | d. We shall require the following fact about conjugates: (31. Proof Let ÷(1) d. . and it turns out that the minimal polynomial of á also has integer coef®cients. then á is a root of a monic polynomial with integer coef®cients (see Chapter 22). Write ã ÷( g)a÷(1).2 Lemma Let ÷ be a character of a ®nite group G. Then every conjugate of á â is of the form á9 â9.1). Then j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1. j÷( g)a÷(1)j . By (31. By Proposition 13.1) can be proved easily using some Galois theory. if r P Q then every conjugate of rá is of the form rá9. ù d . . Hence each conjugate of ã has 1 d . If á is an algebraic integer. where á9 is a conjugate of á and â9 is a conjugate of â. 1 then ÷( g)a÷(1) is not an algebraic integer. . where á9 is a conjugate of á. . Chapter V.

Burnside's Theorem

363

modulus at most 1. It follows that if ë is the product of all the conjugates of ã (including ã), then jëj , 1X But the conjugates of ã are, by de®nition, the roots of the polynomial p(x), and the product of all these roots is equal to Æa0 . Thus ë Æa0 X Since a0 P Z and |ë| , 1, it follows that a0 0. As p(x) is irreducible, this implies that p(x) x, which in turn forces ã 0. Thus ÷( g) 0, and the proof is complete.

j

Burnside's p a q b Theorem We deduce the main result, Theorem 31.4, from another interesting theorem of Burnside. 31.3 Theorem Let p be a prime number and let r be an integer with r > 1. Suppose that G is a ®nite group with a conjugacy class of size pr . Then G is not simple. Proof Let g P G with | gG | pr . Since pr . 1, G is not abelian and g T 1. As usual, denote the irreducible characters of G by ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k , and take ÷1 to be the trivial character. The column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2), applied to the columns corresponding to 1 and g in the character table of G, give 1 Therefore

k i2 k i2

÷ i ( g)÷ i (1) 0X

÷ i ( g) .

÷ i (1) 1 À X p p

Now À1a p is not an algebraic integer, by Proposition 22.5. Therefore, for some i > 2, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer (see Theorem 22.3). Since ÷ i ( g) is an algebraic integer (Corollary 22.4), it follows

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that ÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer; in other words, p does not divide ÷ i (1). Thus ÷ i ( g) T 0 and p T j ÷ i (1)X As | gG | pr , this means that ÷ i (1) and | gG | are coprime integers, and so there are integers a and b such that ajG:CG ( g)j b÷ i (1) 1X Hence a jGj÷ i ( g) ÷ i ( g) b÷ i ( g) X jCG ( g)j÷ i (1) ÷ i (1)

By Corollaries 22.10 and 22.4, the left-hand side of this equation is an algebraic integer; and since ÷ i ( g) T 0, it is non-zero. Now Lemma 31.2 implies that j÷ i ( g)a÷ i (1)j 1X Let r be a representation of G with character ÷ i . By Theorem 13.11(1), there exists ë P C such that gr ëIX Let K Ker r, so that K is a normal subgroup of G. Since ÷ i is not the trivial character, K T G. If K T {1} then G is not simple, as required; so assume that K {1}, that is, r is a faithful representation. Since gr is a scalar multiple of the identity, gr commutes with hr for all h P G. As r is faithful, it follows that g commutes with all h P G; in other words, g P Z(G)X Therefore Z(G) T {1}. As Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G and Z(G) T G, we conclude that G is not simple. j We now come to the main result of the chapter, Burnside's Theorem. 31.4 Burnside's paqb Theorem Let p and q be prime numbers, and let a and b be non-negative integers with a b > 2. If G is a group of order pa q b , then G is not simple. Proof First suppose that either a 0 or b 0. Then the order of G is a power of a prime, so by Lemma 26.1(1) we have Z(G) T {1}.

Burnside's Theorem

365

Choose g P Z(G) of prime order. Then k gl v G and k gl is not equal to {1} or G. Hence G is not simple. Now assume that a . 0 and b . 0. By Sylow's Theorem 30.9, G has a subgroup Q of order q b . We have Z(Q) T {1} by Lemma 26.1(1). Let g P Z(Q) with g T 1. Then Q < CG ( g), so j g G j jG:CG ( g)j pr for some r. If pr 1 then g P Z(G), so Z(G) T {1} and G is not simple as before. And if pr . 1 then G is not simple, by Theorem 31.3. j In fact Burnside's pa q b Theorem leads to a somewhat more informative result about groups of order pa q b : (31.5) Every group of order p a q b is soluble. Here, by a soluble group we mean a group G which has subgroups G0 , G1 , . . . , Gr with 1 G 0 , G1 , X X X , G r G such that for 1 < i < r, GiÀ1 v Gi and the factor group Gi aG iÀ1 is cyclic of prime order. We sketch a proof of (31.5), using induction on a b. The result is clear if a b < 1, so assume that a b > 2 and let G be a group of order pa q b . By Burnside's Theorem 31.4, G has a normal subgroup H such that H is not {1} or G. Both H and the factor group Ga H have order equal to a product of powers of p and q, and these orders are less than pa q b . Hence by induction, H and Ga H are both soluble. Therefore there are subgroups 1 G0 v G1 v X X X v Gs H, 1 Gs a H v G s1 a H v X X X v Gr a H Ga H with all factor groups Gi aG iÀ1 of prime order. Then the series 1 G0 v G 1 v X X X v G r G shows that G is soluble. Summary of Chapter 31 1. If G has a conjugacy class of size pr ( p prime, r > 1), then G is not simple.

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2. If |G| pa q b ( p, q primes, a b > 2), then G is not simple. Exercises for Chapter 31 1. Show that a non-abelian simple group cannot have an abelian subgroup of prime power index. 2. Prove that if G is a non-abelian simple group of order less than 80, then |G| 60. (Hint: use Exercise 13.8.)

32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration

Representation theory is used extensively in many of the physical sciences. Such applications come about because every physical system has a symmetry group G, and certain vector spaces associated with the system turn out to be RG-modules. For example, the vibration of a molecule is governed by various differential equations, and the symmetry group of the molecule acts on the space of solutions of these equations. It is on this application ± the theory of molecular vibrations ± that we concentrate in this ®nal chapter. In order to keep our treatment elementary, we stay within the framework of classical mechanics throughout. (Quantum mechanical effects can be incorporated subsequently, but we shall not go into this ± for an account, consult the book by D. S. Schonland listed in the Bibliography.)

Symmetry groups Let V be R2 or R3, and for v, w P V, let d(v, w) denote the distance between v and w ± in other words, if v (x1 , x2 , . . .) and w ( y1, y2, . . .), then 3 r2 2 d(v, w) (xi À yi ) X An isometry of V is an invertible endomorphism W of V such that d(vW, wW) d(v, w) for all v, w P V X The set of all isometries of V forms a group under composition, called the orthogonal group of V, and denoted by O(V). Any rotation of R3 about an axis through the origin is an example 367

368

Representations and characters of groups

of an isometry; so is any re¯ection in a plane through the origin. The endomorphism À1R3 which sends every vector v to Àv is another example of an element in the orthogonal group O(R3 ). It turns out that the composition of two rotations is again a rotation, and that for every isometry g in O(R3 ), either g or À g is a rotation (see Exercise 32.1). The orthogonal group O(R3 ) therefore contains a subgroup of index 2 which consists of the rotations. The same is true of the group O(R2 ). If Ä is a subset of V , where V R2 or R3, then we de®ne G(Ä) to be the set of isometries which leave Ä invariant ± that is, G(Ä) f g P O(V ): Ä g Äg (where Ä g {v g: v P Ä}). Then G(Ä) is a subgroup of called the symmetry group of Ä. The subgroup of G(Ä) the rotations in G(Ä) is called the rotation group of Ä. the rotation group of Ä in the symmetry group G(Ä) is 1 O(V ), and is consisting of The index of or 2.

32.1 Example Let V R2, and let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon, with n > 3, centred at the origin. The symmetry group of Ä is easily seen to be the dihedral group D2n , which was de®ned as a group of n rotations and n re¯ections preserving Ä (see Example 1.1(3)). Now let V R3, and again let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon (n > 3) centred at the origin. This time, G(Ä) D2 n 3 C2 ; the extra elements arise because there is an isometry which ®xes all points of Ä, namely the re¯ection in the plane of Ä. 32.2 Example Let Ä be a regular tetrahedron in R3 centred at the origin:

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 369 Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1, 2, 3, 4. We claim that each permutation of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry of Ä. For example, the 2-cycle (1 2) corresponds to a re¯ection in the plane which contains the origin and the edge 34; similarly each 2-cycle corresponds to a re¯ection. Since S4 is generated by the 2-cycles, each of the 24 permutations of 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry, as claimed. No non-identity endomorphism of R3 ®xes all the corners of Ä, since Ä contains three linearly independent vectors. Therefore we have found all the isometries, and G(Ä) S4 . Notice that the rotation group of Ä is isomorphic to A4 ; for example, (1 2)(3 4) corresponds to a rotation through ð about the axis through the mid-points of the edges 12 and 34, and (1 2 3) corresponds to a rotation through 2ða3 about the axis through the origin and the corner 4. Finally, observe that the group G(Ä) is unchanged if we take Ä to consist of just the four corners of the tetrahedron. 32.3 Example In this example we describe the symmetry groups of the molecules H2 O (water), CH3 Cl (methyl chloride) and CH4 (methane). The symmetry group of a molecule is de®ned to be the group of isometries which not only preserve the position of the molecule in space, but also send each atom to an atom of the same kind. The shapes of the three molecules are as follows.

370

Representations and characters of groups

We always assume that the centroid of our molecule lies at the origin in R3 . The CH4 molecule has four hydrogen atoms at the corners of a regular tetrahedron, and a carbon atom at the centre of the tetrahedron. So the symmetry group of the molecule CH4 is equal to the symmetry group of the tetrahedron, as given in Example 32.2. This group is isomorphic to S4 , permuting the four hydrogen atoms among themselves and ®xing the carbon atom. As for the CH3 Cl molecule, this possesses a rotation symmetry a of order 3 about the vertical axis, and three re¯ection symmetries in the planes containing the C, Cl and one of the H atoms. If b is one of these re¯ections, then the symmetry group is f1, a, a2 , b, ab, a2 bg and is isomorphic to S3 , permuting the three H atoms and ®xing the C and Cl atoms. Finally, the H2 O molecule possesses two re¯ection symmetries, one in the plane of the molecule, and one in a plane perpendicular to this one passing through the O atom; and it has a rotation symmetry of order 2. Hence the symmetry group is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . Vibration of a physical system We prepare for a description of the general problem with an example. 32.4 Example Suppose we have a spring stretched between two points P and Q on a smooth horizontal table, with equal masses m attached at the points of trisection of the spring:

The masses are displaced slightly, and released. What can we say about the subsequent motion of the system? To investigate this problem, we let x1 and x2 be the displacements of the two masses at time t. We measure x1 from left to right, and x2 from right to left, as indicated in the ®gure above. Let k be the

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 371 stiffness of the spring ± in other words, if the extension in the spring is x, then the restoring force is kx. The spring pulls the left-hand mass towards P with force kx1 and towards Q with force Àk(x1 x2 ). By dealing with the right-hand mass similarly, we obtain the following equations of motion of the system: m1 Àkx1 À k(x1 x2 ) À2kx1 À kx2 , x m2 Àkx2 À k(x1 x2 ) Àkx1 À 2kx2 , x where xi denotes the second derivative of xi with respect to t. These are second order linear differential equations in two unknowns x1 and x2 , so the general solution involves four arbitrary constants. We shall ®nd the general solution, using a method which can be applied in a much wider context. Write x (x1 , x2 ), x (1 , x2 ) and q kam. Then the equations of x motion are equivalent to the matrix equation À2q Àq x xA, where A (32X5) X Àq À2q Notice that A is symmetric. Hence the eigenvalues of A are real, and A has two linearly independent eigenvectors. It is this property which we wish to emphasize and exploit in the present example. Before we explicitly ®nd the eigenvectors of A, let us explain why they allow us to solve the equation of motion (32.5). Suppose that u is an eigenvector of A, with eigenvalue Àù2 . For an arbitrary constant â, let x sin (ùt â) uX Then x Àù2 sin (ùt â) u sin (ùt â) uA xAX Thus x is a solution of the equation of motion. If u1 and u2 are linearly independent eigenvectors of A, with eigenvalues Àù2 and 1 Àù2 , respectively, then 2 á1 sin (ù1 t â1 ) u1 á2 sin (ù2 t â2 ) u2 (since uA Àù2 u)

x1 Àx2 sin ( q . the eigenvalues are À3q and Àq. À1) The general molecular vibration problem Suppose we have a molecule consisting of n atoms which vibrate under internal forces. À1)X The solutions which involve just one eigenvector of A are called the normal modes of vibration. that x xAX row vector in R3 n which measures the and A is a 3n 3 3n matrix with real the internal forces. x1 x2 sin ( (3q) t â1 ) and the vibration is p Here. á2 . It follows that when we apply Newton's Second Law of Motion. We now adopt this line of attack in the problem to hand.5). À1). t â2 ) and the vibration is Mode 2: p sin ( q . at each atom the three coordinate axes . For the matrix given in (32. â1 . t â2 ) (1.5). for the moment. so it is the general solution.372 Representations and characters of groups is a solution of the equation of motion which involves four arbitrary constants á1 . Thus. 1) á2 sin ( q . we obtain equations which may be expressed in the form (32X6) (Compare (32. p sin ( (3q) t â1 ) (1. entries which are determined by Assume.5) is p p á1 sin ( (3q) t â1 ) (1.) Here x is the displacements of all the atoms. Therefore the general solution of the equation of motion (32. They are as follows. At the equilibrium position of each atom. â2 . t â2 ) (1. We assume that the internal forces are linear functions of the displacements. 1) Mode 1: p Here. 1) and (1. the state of the molecule at a given time is described by a vector in the 3n-dimensional vector space R3 n . with corresponding eigenvectors (1. we assign three coordinate axes. which we use to measure the displacement of the atom.

A has real eigenvalues. we look for normal modes of the system. Therefore we have the following proposition.7 Proposition All the eigenvalues of A are real. (2) (t â) u ( â constant) where u is an eigenvector of A corresponding to the eigenvalue 0. To solve the equation of motion (32. for the general case. and for this solution all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. then x 0 (t â)uA xAX This proves that the normal modes of vibration are solutions of the .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 373 which we have chosen are at right angles to each other.8 De®nition A normal mode of vibration for our molecule is a vector in R3 n of one of the following forms: (1) sin (ùt â) u ( â constant) where Àù2 is a non-zero eigenvalue of A and u is a corresponding eigenvector.9 Proposition Each normal mode of vibration is a solution of the equation of motion (32. from physical considerations. that in this special case the matrix A is symmetric. Proof If uA Àù2 A and x sin (ùt â) u.6). 32. then x Àù2 sin (ùt â) u sin (ùt â) uA xAX If uA 0 and x (t â)u. which we de®ne next. 32. It can be shown. In particular. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. where our chosen coordinate axes are not necessarily at right angles to each other. 32. the effect of changing coordinate axes is merely to replace A by a matrix which is conjugate to A. Now.6). The general solution of the equation of motion is a linear combination of the normal modes of vibration.

6) consists of second order differential equations in 3n unknowns). However. Let G be the symmetry group of the molecule in question. all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency (namely. and . by Proposition 32. let v i denote a unit vector along coordinate axis i. each element of G acts as an endomorphism of the space R3 n of displacement vectors. j Proposition 32. which is nonsense.374 Representations and characters of groups equation of motion (32.6) (as (32. for if ë were p such an eigenvalue. Therefore there exist 3n linearly independent normal modes.7. interchanges v4 and v7. Use of the symmetry group We continue the discussion of the previous section. the general linear combination of normal modes involves 6n arbitrary constants. 32. Thus. then x e ë t u would be a solution to the equation of motion. Since each normal mode involves an arbitrary constant. and for 1 < i < 9. Since G permutes the atoms among themselves. Note that A can have no strictly positive eigenvalue.9 reduces the problem of solving the equations of motion to that of ®nding all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the 3n 3 3n matrix A. with eigenvector u. R3 n is an RG-module. Then g ®xes v1 . and we shall describe a method for doing this. negates v2 and v3. ù or 0) in a normal mode.10 Example Let g be the rotation of order 2 of the H2 O molecule: Assign coordinate axes at the initial positions of each atom as shown. this can be a huge and unwieldy task if it is attempted directly ± even writing down the matrix A for a given molecule can be a painful operation! The symmetry group of the molecule and its representation theory can often be used to simplify greatly the calculation of the eigenvectors of A.6). so it is the general solution to the equation of motion (32. By construction.

and we are trying to ®nd the eigenvectors of A. Àx2 . x4 . For all vectors v in the basis. x2 .7). The eigenspace for the eigenvalue ë of A is.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 375 interchanges v5 and v6 with the negatives of v8 and v9 . This shows that the eigenspace for Àù2 is an RG-submodule of R3 n . Therefore. The equations of motion are x xA. x7 . In effect. 32. (xg)A (xA) g. A similar argument applies to the eigenspace for the eigenvalue 0. it tells us that the function x 3 xA (x P R3 n ) is an RG-homomorphism from R3 n to itself. Àx5 . Therefore g acts on R9 as follows: (x1 . v g must also specify the directions and relative magnitudes of displacements in a normal mode of frequency ù. x7 . and let v be a corresponding eigenvector. Choose a basis of R3 n which consists of eigenvectors of A (see Proposition 32. Àx6 )X We return to the general set-up. Àx3 . x3 . and (v g)A ë(v g) (ëv) g (vA) gX Hence (xg)A (xA) g for all x P R3 n . vA ëv for some ë P R. and hence . x5 . Then v speci®es the directions and relative magnitudes of the displacements of the atoms from the equilibrium position when the molecule is vibrating in a normal mode of frequency ù. and the eigenspaces of A are RG-submodules of R3 n . with eigenvalue Àù2 . fx P R3 n : xA ëxgX We can now present the crucial proposition which allows us to exploit the symmetry group G of our molecule. x6 . Àx8 . v g is an eigenvector of A. Àx9 . since the relative con®guration of the atoms is unaltered by applying g. x4 . Proof Let Àù2 be a non-zero eigenvalue of A. x9 ) g (x1 . by de®nition. x8 .11 Proposition For all g P G and x P R3 n . and let g P G. For all g in G. j The idea now is to use representation theory to express the RGmodule R3n as a direct sum of irreducible RG-submodules.

its proof works equally well for RG-modules ± compare Exercise 23. w P W ) (x P V÷ ) is an RG-homomorphism. then the element ÷( g À1 ) g gPG sends R3 n onto the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷ (see (14. Let V÷ denote the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷.) j .) 32. By Proposition 11. xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ X Proof By Maschke's Theorem we may write R3n V÷ È W for some RG-module W.12 De®nition Suppose that ÷ is the character of an irreducible RG-module. the function x 3 (xA)å is an RG-homomorphism from V÷ into W. We call V÷ a homogeneous component of R3 n . The function å: v w 3 w (v P V÷ . and the normal modes of the molecule.3. Therefore.376 Representations and characters of groups to determine the eigenspaces of A. problems like this are uncommon. since the character of the RG-module R3 n might contain an irreducible character which cannot be realized over R ± but in practice. (Although Proposition 11. The problem of ®nding the eigenspaces of A is considerably simpli®ed as a consequence of our next proposition. this function is zero. by Proposition 32.3 is stated in terms of CG-modules.13 Proposition Each homogeneous component V÷ of R3 n is A-invariant ± that is. (This procedure sometimes needs to be modi®ed.8. so xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ .11.27)). 32. and if ÷ is the character of an irreducible RGmodule which occurs. We can use character theory to see which irreducible RG-modules are contained in R3 n . and no RG-submodule of W has character ÷.

with eigenvalue Àù2 . (4) Express R3 n as a direct sum of homogeneous components. or Exercise 32. This programme can often be successfully completed. This can À1 3n be done by applying the element for each gPG ÷ i ( g ) g to R irreducible character ÷ i of G which appears in ÷. If V÷ i is reducible. (2) Calculate the symmetry group G of the molecule. j We now summarize the steps in the procedure for ®nding the normal modes of vibration of a given molecule. Then the intersection of V÷ with the eigenspace for ë is a non-zero RG-submodule of V÷ . Proof (Compare the proof of Schur's Lemma. 32. . (6) If v is an eigenvector of A. so it must equal V÷ . (3) Calculate the character ÷ of the RG-module R3 n and express ÷ as a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G.14). each homogeneous component V÷ i of R3 n . to make further progress. with eigenvalue ë. and ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i (see Proposition 32.15 Summary (1) Assign three coordinate axes at each of the n atoms of the molecule.13). (5) Consider. as we shall illustrate in the examples which make up the rest of this chapter. then all the non-zero vectors in V÷ are eigenvectors of A. where â is an arbitrary constant.19 below.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 377 32. This involves no extra work if V÷ i is irreducible (see Corollary 32. It is usually necessary to know the equations of motion in order to determine the frequency ù. say. then sin (ùt â) v (or (t â)v if ù 0) is a normal mode. in turn. we may choose v P V÷ such that v is an eigenvector of A. to obtain R3n . then see Remark 32.7.14 Corollary If V÷ is an irreducible RG-module.) Since V÷ is A-invariant. Then R3 n is an RG-module. or by some other method.

The symmetry group (in two dimensions) of the molecule is the dihedral group D6. x2 ) form an RG-module R2 . where the three identical atoms are at the corners of an equilateral triangle. . sin (ù2 t â2 )(1.4. the RG-submodules of R2 are sp (u1 ) and sp (u2 ). as this eases the calculations: Thus the position of the molecule is given by a vector (x1 . as shown. where g is the re¯ection in the mid-point of PQ. where â1 . . u2 (1. The displacement vectors (x1 . so we assign two displacement coordinates to each atom. We choose to take our axes along the edges of the triangle. x2 ) g (x2 .16 Example We ®rst return to Example 32. . À1). with the spring and two vibrating masses: The symmetry group of this system is G h g: g 2 1i. . x1 ). 32. À1)X It follows that the normal modes of the system are given by sin (ù1 t â1 )(1.378 Representations and characters of groups 32. we consider only vibrations of the molecule in the plane.17 Example Consider a hypothetical triatomic molecule. For simplicity. This agrees with the conclusion of Example 32. 1). where u1 (1. Notice that we have determined the normal modes of vibration (but not their frequencies) using the symmetry group alone. x6 ) in R6 . where xi is the displacement along axis i (1 < i < 6).4. â2 are constants and ù1 . 1). ù2 are the frequencies. generated by a rotation a of order 3 and a re¯ection . Since (x1 .

These include the rotation and translation modes.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 379 b (see Example 32. we see that ÷(b) 0. x5 . if b is the re¯ection which ®xes the top atom. v3 are 2-dimensional displacement vectors for the three atoms. x4 . x3 )X We want to express the RD6 -module R6 as a direct sum of irreducible RD6 -modules. then (x1 . Thus. we seek to express R6 as a direct sum of RD6 -submodules with characters ÷1 . then we represent the displacement vector (v1 . x1 . x3 . which occur for every molecule. v2 . ÷(a) 0. x6 . x4 .1). corresponding to the eigenspace of A for eigenvalue 0. And from the action of b given above.3. if v1 . x5 . x2 . . As a matter of notation. the character table of D6 is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 Hence ÷ ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 . v2 . Since the rotation a does not ®x any of the atoms. To do this. we ®rst calculate the character ÷ of the module. ÷2 . x6 )b (x2 . ÷3 and ÷3 . v3 ) P R6 pictorially by the diagram We ®rst calculate the normal modes of the form (t â)v. Thus the values of ÷ are 1 ÷ 6 a 0 b 0 By Section 18. For example. It is easy to work out the action of each element of D6 on R6 .

1. so the character must be ÷3 . . v2 and v3. 1. À1). v2 . 0. where å2 ÷2 ( g À1 ) g 1 a a2 À b À ab À a2 b gP D6 (compare (14. ÷ R (b) À1. 0. v3 (0. where v is a vector in the span of v1 . then ÷ R (1) 1. 1. À1. À1. the subspace sp (v1 . and so ÷ R ÷2 . ÷ R (a) 1. these vectors being given pictorially by (thus v1 (À1. À1. sp (v) R6 å2 . 1. the molecule rotates with constant angular velocity about the centre. 1)). 1. v3 ) has dimension 2. v2 (1. The modes are of the form (t â)v. Since v1 v2 v3 0. À1. Indeed. Translation modes These are modes in which all atoms move in the same constant direction with the same constant speed. À1. and is called the translation submodule. À1. The mode is given by (t â)v. À1). 0. If ÷ R is the character of sp (v). Thus the character of the translation submodule is part of ÷ À ÷2 ÷1 2÷3 .27)). It is clearly an RD6 -submodule of R6 . it does not contain the rotation submodule. 1. 0. where v (1.380 Representations and characters of groups Rotation mode In this mode. pictorially. 0). We call sp (v) the rotation submodule of R6 .

with character ÷vib . u1 À u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 . and are called vibratory modes. since D6 permutes the vectors u1 . and since R6 has vib vib dimension 3. it is easy to see that sp (u1 À u2 . moreover. u2 . Our calculation of the normal modes is now complete. Finally. so that total moment of each vector in R6 about the vib centre is zero. where vib vib Clearly sp (u1 u2 u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 with characvib ter ÷1 . if w P R6 then the total component of w vib in each direction is zero. Its character is ÷3 and it gives us the last eigenspace for the vib matrix A. Since no mode in R6 can have vib vib any translation component. The vibratory mode given by u1 u2 u3 is sometimes called the expansion±contraction mode (you will see the reason for this name in the picture in (32. R6 has dimension 3. u3 among themselves. u3 . and we summarize our ®ndings below. u2 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 381 Vibratory modes The remaining normal modes correspond to eigenspaces of the matrix A with non-zero eigenvalues. . every vector in R6 which satis®es these equations lies in R6 .18(3)) below). The sum of these eigenspaces forms an RD6 -submodule R6 of R6 (by Proposition 32. These constraints imply three independent linear equations in the coordinates of the vectors in R6 . Therefore a basis of R6 is u1 . R6 does not contain the rotation vib submodule.11). where vib ÷vib ÷ À (÷2 ÷3 ) ÷1 ÷3 X In particular.

) We emphasize that we have found the normal modes of vibration without explicit knowledge of the equations of motion. In order to . u1 À u3 pictorially. 2u1 À u2 À u3 as the basis for the vibratory modes in (4) merely because these modes look simpler than u1 À u2 .18) Representations and characters of groups (1) Rotation mode: (2) Translation modes: linear combinations of (3) Vibratory mode: expansion±contraction mode (4) Vibratory modes: linear combinations of (We have chosen 2u2 À u1 À u3 .382 (32.

x3 . Q9. so that we may ignore second order terms. Let m be the mass of each atom. x4 . R9. x5 . PR À P9R9 (x1 x6 ) 1(x2 x5 ). the difference in length between QR and Q9R9 is (x4 x5 ) 1(x3 x6 )X 2 (We always assume that x1 .) Similarly. 2 k In the same way. denote the new positions of the atoms by P9. . we now calculate the equations of motion. X X X . 2 PQ À P9Q9 (x2 x3 ) 1(x1 x4 )X 2 Hence the force on the molecule at P in the direction of the ®rst coordinate axis is Àk(PR À P9R9) Àk(x1 x6 ) À 1 k(x2 x5 )X 2 Therefore. For a general displacement (x1 . and assume that the magnitude of the force between two atoms is k times the decrease in distance between them. x2 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 383 check our results. m x1 À(x1 x6 ) À 1(x2 x5 )X 2 k m x2 À(x2 x3 ) À 1(x1 x4 ). x6 are small compared with the distance between the atoms. From the diagram. x6 ).

18)(2) and (4)) because V÷3 R6 vib was an A-invariant RG-submodule of V÷3 different from {0} and V÷3 . x6 . the character ÷ of the RG-module R6 was given by ÷ ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 X All the non-zero vectors in the homogeneous components for ÷1 and ÷2 gave normal modes. The homogeneous component V÷3 for ÷3 was reducible. 32. but we were able to write it as a sum of two subspaces of eigenvectors (those appearing in (32. We determined the symmetry group G of this molecule in Example 32. . .2.384 Representations and characters of groups and we obtain similar equations for x3.17. the situation is more complicated. since these homogenous components were irreducible (see Corollary 32. The matrix A for which x xA is therefore given by H I 1 1a2 1a2 0 0 1 f 1a2 1 1 0 0 1a2 g f g Àk f 0 1 1 1a2 1a2 0 g f gX A 1a2 1a2 1 1 0 g m f 0 f g d 1a2 0 0 1 1 1a2 e 1 0 0 1a2 1a2 1 You should check that the vectors which we gave in (32. . In our next example. . where we found that G is isomorphic to S4 .19 Remark In Example 32.18) are indeed eigenvectors of A. Label the corners of . This illustrates a method which sometimes helps to deal with reducible homogeneous components. 32.20 Example We analyse the normal modes for the methane molecule CH4 .14).

W R3 and V and W are RG-modules. v23 . v34 . for example. Let V be the vector space over R with basis v12 . 3. We now introduce a new idea. in all. v14 . 24. jX Thus. 4. v43 . with w i pointing towards corner i (1 < i < 4). v13 . v24 be unit vectors at corner 2 in the directions of the edges 21. w2. G permutes our twelve basis vectors of V. Then V R12. as shown below. Let v12 .jg for all i. (2 4 3)X In order fully to exploit the symmetry of the methane molecule. similarly. v24 . let v21 . and let W be the vector space over R spanned by w1. by taking four unit vectors w1. v13 . at each hydrogen atom we choose displacement axes along the edges of the tetrahedron. The action of G on V is easy to describe. 2. v31 . and identify G with S4 . these four vectors span a 3-dimensional space. Our main task is to ®nd RG-submodules of R15 V È W. (2 3 4). v23 . w3. and so on. w4. 14. thus. we have v ij g v ig. 13. v42 . and we can quickly calculate the character ÷ of V: 1 ÷ 12 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . v14 be unit vectors at corner 1 in the directions of the edges 12. w3 and w4 at the carbon atom. respectively. Since w1 w2 w3 w4 0. v41 . v32 . for g in G.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 385 the tetrahedron 1. w2. giving twelve vectors v ij . 23. the rotations about the vertical axis through 1 are written as 1. v21 .

(1 2) ®xes the basis vectors v34 and v43 only. we can ®nd RG-submodules with characters ÷1 . 3. The group G acts on W as follows. 5. w4 0. it is easy to calculate the character ö of W ± it is 1 ö 3 (1 2) 1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3 4) À1 By Section 18.27)).386 Representations and characters of groups For example. . for g in G. the character table of S4 is as shown at the top of p. ö ÷4 X By applying the elements ÷ i ( g À1 ) g gPG (i 1. j and this gives the expansion±contraction normal mode: We next describe the RG-submodule W5 with character ÷5 . . and so on. 4) to R15 . all the basis vectors are moved by (1 2 3). . We ®nd that ÷ ÷1 ÷3 2÷4 ÷5 . we have wi g wig (1 < i < 4)X After recalling that w1 . p2 (v31 À v13 ) (v14 À v41 ) (v43 À v34 ). ÷3 . 387. The RG-submodule W1 with character ÷1 is spanned by v ij i.1. ÷5 and 3÷4 (see (14. Let p1 (v23 À v32 ) (v34 À v43 ) (v42 À v24 ).

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 387 Character table of S4 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 À1 1 p3 (v12 À v21 ) (v41 À v14 ) (v24 À v42 ). p4 (v21 À v12 ) (v13 À v31 ) (v32 À v23 )X The vector pi gives a rotation about the axis through the corner i and the centroid of the tetrahedron. It should be clear from the pictures that for all i with 1 < i < 4 and .

q3 (v14 v41 ) (v23 v32 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v34 v43 )X (Each q i is associated with an `opposite pair of edges'. q2 (v13 v31 ) (v24 v42 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 ).) Now we construct the RG-submodule W3 of V with character ÷3 . Now p1 p2 p3 p4 0. the dimension of W3 is 2. if we let W 5 sp ( p1 . its character is ÷3 . p3 . p4 ). so dim W5 3. Then W3 is an RG-submodule of V. Let q1 (v12 v21 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v24 v42 ). then W5 is an RG-submodule of V.) For all i with 1 < i < 4 and g in G. Check that the character of W5 is ÷5 . q3 ). for example. the picture for p4 with the picture for the rotation vector v in Example 32. Let W3 sp (q1 . . The RG-module W5 is the rotation submodule.17. Since q1 q2 q3 0. we have pi g Æ p j for some j. we have q i g Æq j for some j. q2 . p2 .388 Representations and characters of groups all g in G. Therefore. (Compare.

De®ne the vectors r1.14. r2. r4 (v14 v41 ) (v24 v42 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v23 v32 )X (The vector ri is associated with corner i. by Corollary 32. r4 by r1 (v12 v21 ) (v13 v31 ) (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 ) À (v24 v42 ) À (v34 v43 ). W 5 and W3 which we have found so far. all the non-zero vectors are eigenvectors of A.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 389 In the RG-submodules W 1 . r3 (v13 v31 ) (v23 v32 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v24 v42 ). r3. r2 (v12 v21 ) (v23 v32 ) (v24 v42 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v34 v43 ).) . We now come to the homogeneous component (V È W)÷4 of R15 .

r3. r3. Note that r1 r2 r3 r4 0.24). so r1. de®ne the vectors s1 . r4 among themselves. s1 s2 s3 s4 0. r2.390 Representations and characters of groups For each g in G and i with 1 < i < 4. . s3 (v31 v32 v34 ) À (v13 v23 v43 ). s3 . r4 span a 3-dimensional RGsubmodule W4 of V. s2 (v21 v23 v24 ) À (v12 v32 v42 ). r2. s4 by s1 (v12 v13 v14 ) À (v21 v31 v41 ). 1 < i < 4). s4 (v41 v42 v43 ) À (v14 v24 v34 )X We have si g sig ( g P G. Next. s2 . we have ri g rig. The character of W4 is ÷4 (see Proposition 13. Thus G permutes the vectors r1.

upon the constants which appear in the equations of motion. the space W does not enter our calculations. s3 . in fact. In this case. r4 À 2s4 span the 3-dimensional space of translation modes. and we can decompose V÷4 W 4 È W 4 in the following way. and so they give the ®nal 3-dimenvib sional space of eigenvectors (see Remark 32. w4 span W. and no central atom.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 391 and s1 . Now recall that w1 . r2 À 2s2 . r3.21) (1) The vectors r1 À 2s1 . r2. we have wi g wig ( g P G. To see why. and let U1 fv P (V È W )÷4 : vh v for all h P HgX Since (vh)A (vA)h for all v P V÷4 and all h P H. r3 À 2s3 . Since dim (V È W )÷4 9. The task in front of us is to ®nd the eigenvectors of A which lie in (V È W )÷4 W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 The solution of this problem depends. (2) The vectors r1. . look at the picture of the vector r1 ! We return now to the methane molecule. The normal mode (sin ùt)r1 is sometimes called an `umbrella mode'. it follows that U1 is A-invariant. r4 span the subspace V÷4 R12 of V÷4 . 9 (32. in order to deal with the easier case of a molecule with identical atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron. and the character of W is ÷4 . W 4 and W is direct. s2 . w2 . s4 span a 3-dimensional RG-submodule W9 of V with 4 character ÷4 . The sum of W 4 . We shall therefore press on and explain how to reduce the dif®culty to that of calculating the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. 1 < i < 4). so we cannot complete the work using only representation theory. it is very dif®cult to calculate the eigenvectors of A in (V È W )÷4 directly.19). w3 . so 9 (V È W )÷4 W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 We now break off temporarily from studying the methane molecule. Let H be the subgroup of S4 consisting of those permutations which ®x the number 1. w1 w2 w3 w4 0.

the process of calculating the eigenvectors of the 3 3 3 matrix B gives nine eigenvectors of A which form a basis of (V È W )÷4 . w1 )X Once the equations of motion. s3 . Thus we obtain the translation submodule sp (r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 . By means of representation theory. Therefore U 1 sp (r1 . and hence the matrix A. and since A commutes with the action of G. Better still. and so dim U1 3. r3 À 2s3 3 cos Ww3 ).5). it is possible to calculate the 3 3 3 matrix B of the action of A on r1. A similar remark applies to U3. 1 H i H 3. s2 . where U 3 sp (r3 . It is hard to imagine a more spectacular application of representation theory with which to conclude our text. w1 (see Exercise 32. de®ned by U2 sp (r2 . and the matrix of A acting on r2. . w1 is easy to ®nd. r1 (1 2) r2 . where W is the angle between an edge of the tetrahedron and the line joining a corner on the edge to the centroid. w3 )X Therefore. s2 . One eigenvector of A acting on r1. w2 ) is A-invariant. s1 h s1 and w1 h w1 . w2 is again B. The eigenvectors of B then give three eigenvectors of A. we have therefore reduced the initial problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of a 15 3 15 matrix A to that of calculating two of the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. But for all h P H. the space U 2 . s1 (1 2) s2 . r1 h r1. s1 . s1 . w1 (1 2) w2 .392 We ®nd that Representations and characters of groups h3÷4 5 H. namely the translation vector r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 . have been calculated. r2 À 2s2 3 cos Ww2 . s1 .

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 393 Summary of Chapter 32 1. (c) Deduce from (a) and (b) that b is a rotation if det B 1. 0. 4. Deduce that det B Æ1. The equations of motion of the molecule have the form x xA. (iii) 1 is an eigenvalue of C. 0). Suppose that G is the symmetry group of some molecule in R3 . then x sin (ùt â)u (or x (t â)u if ù 0) is a solution of the equations of motion. it is suf®cient to ®nd the eigenvectors of A restricted to each homogeneous component V÷ i of the RG-module R3 n . The action of any g P G on R3 n commutes with A. e3 of R3 satis®es BBt I (where Bt denotes the transpose of B). e3 (0. . Exercises for Chapter 32 1. Prove successively that (i) C has a real eigenvalue. and Àb is a rotation otherwise. e2 (0. Suppose that b P O(R3 ). 0). 2. e2 . and let e1 (1. The symmetry group G of a molecule with n atoms consists of those distance-preserving endomorphisms of R3 which send each atom to an atom of the same kind. where x P R3 n and the 3n 3 3n matrix A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. with eigenvalue Àù2 . then tr B 1 2 cos ö. All solutions are linear combinations of normal modes. If u is an eigenvector of A. 2. If V÷ i is irreducible. (b) Let C (det B)B. 0. (d) Show that if b is a rotation through an angle ö about some axis. (ii) C has a positive eigenvalue. To determine the eigenvectors of A (and hence all solutions of the equations of motion). The space R3n of displacement vectors is an RG-module. 5. and is called a normal mode. 3. 1. 1). then all non-zero vectors in V÷ i are eigenvectors of A. (a) Show that the matrix B of b with respect to the basis e1 .

and so ®nd explicitly the 3 3 3 matrix B which appears at the end of Example 32. and verify that A is symmetric. if g is a rotation b ` through angle ö (÷ T ÷ R )( g) about some axis. and let the position vector of the molecule be iT j xij v ij p 3 i1 yi wi X (a) Prove that cos (/ 012) (2a3) and cos (/ 102) À1a3.7. w2 . r4 given in Example 32. if g is not a rotationX 3. 2. Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1. r2.17. Consider the space spanned by the vectors r1.20. Consider the triatomic molecule studied in Example 32. r2. w3 as described in Example 32. .394 Representations and characters of groups Show that the sum of the character ÷ T of the translation submodule and the character ÷ R of the rotation submodule has value at g P G given by V b 2(1 2 cos ö).20. (See the paragraph before Proposition 32. The purpose of this exercise is to derive the equations of motion of the methane molecule.20. X X X . Work with 15 unit displacement vectors v12 . v13 . r4 prompted us to use these vectors? 5. 3. r3. What property of r1. w1 . r3. 4 and let 0 denote the centroid of the tetrahedron. v43 .) 4. Take the axes for the displacement coordinates as shown below: Calculate the equations of motion x xA with respect to these axes. b b X 0. Find a basis for this space which is simpler than the one which we have used.

q1 . x14 . show that the length of the edge 04 has decreased by p (2a3)(x41 x42 x43 ) À 1( y1 y2 y3 )X 3 (c) Let m1 denote the mass of a hydrogen atom. Also. Prove that m1 x12 À k 1 [x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x12 x13 x14 (3a2)( y1 À 1 y2 À 1 y3 )]. j . 2 with similar expressions for the edges 13. x23 . Assume that the magnitude of the force between hydrogen atoms is k1 times the decrease in distance between them. 3 3 with similar expressions for x13. and the magnitude of the force between a hydrogen atom and a carbon atom is k2 times the decrease in distance between them. 3 with similar expressions for y2 and y3 . show that the length of the edge 01 has decreased by p (2a3)(x12 x13 x14 ) y1 À 1( y2 y3 ). show m1 x41 À k 1 [x14 x41 1(x42 x43 x12 x13 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x41 x42 x43 À 1 (3a2)( y1 y2 y3 )]. 03. x31 . show p m2 y1 Àk 2 [ (2a3)(x12 x13 x14 À x41 À x42 À x43 ) 4 y1 ]. p3 . 34. (d) The equations in part (c) determine the 15 3 15 matrix A in the equations of motion x xA. 14. 3 with similar expressions for the edges 02. Finally. 24. x34 . x21 . Also. and m2 the mass of a carbon atom. q2 . 23. i. x24 . Verify that the vectors v ij . x32 . 3 with similar expressions for x42 and x43 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 395 (b) Show that the decrease in the length of the edge 12 from its original length is x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 ). p2 . Finally. p1 .

X X X .20.15(5). . 6.) We assume that ÷ i is the character of an irreducible RG-module which remains irreducible as a CGmodule.20. (a) Prove that for all non-zero u in U1. let W i be an RG-isomorphism from U1 to Ui . and check that the vectors you found in part (a) are. (c) Assume that the eigenvectors of the m 3 m matrix A u are known. (See 32. . (a) Find the normal modes of the molecule. Prove that if u and v are non-zero elements of U1.) (b) Let A u denote the matrix of the endomorphism w 3 wA of sp (uW1 . uW m ) is an A-invariant vector space of dimension m. are eigenvectors of A. . s1 A b21 r1 b22 s1 b23 w1 . Show how to ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i . . (e) Find the entries b ij in the 3 3 3 matrix B which are given by r1 A b11 r1 b12 s1 b13 w1 . À2. a sum of m isomorphic irreducible RG-modules. then Au Av . . (Hint: compose the function w 3 wA with a projection. we derive a method for simplifying the problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of A when the homogeneous component V÷ i is reducible. Suppose that V÷ i U1 È . Consider a hypothetical molecule in which there are four identical atoms at the corners of a square. uW m ) with respect to the basis uW1 . È Um. .8. (b) Calculate the equations of motion.396 Representations and characters of groups which appear in Example 32. indeed. . eigenvectors of A. . s1 . (f) Verify that p (1. where the vectors r1. We reduce our problem to that of ®nding the eigenvectors of an m 3 m matrix. In this exercise. sp (uW1 . uW m . . 7. For 1 < i < m. Assume that the only internal forces are along the sides of the square. w1 are as in Example 32. . and use Exercise 23. . w1 A b31 r1 b32 s1 b33 w1 . 6) is an eigenvector of B. x xA.

2. Ker ö {1. and D2 m hc. y À1 xy x À1 X By Example 1. the function W: D4 m 3 D2 m 3 C2 de®ned by 397 . where m is odd. G An f g P G: g is even}. Check that x 2 m y 2 1. we have g a (ghÀ1 )h P (G An )h. (a) Using the method of Example 1. Also Ker ì {1} and Im ì L. a2 } and Ker ø {1. and G T {1} since G is simple. and if Ker W G then H f1g. either Ker W f1g or Ker W G. If Ker W f1g then W is an isomorphism. Let p be a prime number which divides |G|.4.4 again that ì is a homomorphism. Note that all subgroups of G are normal. (À1) k ) for 0 < i < m À 1. Therefore G An and (G An )h are the only right cosets of G An in G.Solutions to exercises Chapter 1 1. c2 }. 3. Then h g p i is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to G. Let g be a non-identity element of G. Therefore g p 1. For all odd g in G. b: a2 m b2 1. it follows that ë is not a homomorphism. Since G is simple and Ker W v G. The elements of D2 m 3 C2 are (c i d j . À1) and y (d. 1). Since G An T G. 5. Then kgl is a normal subgroup of G. 4. Let D4 m ha. so ì is an isomorphism. Let x (c( m1)a2 . 0 < j < 1. so G An v G. First. d À1 cd cÀ1 i.4. Check using the method of Example 1. d: cm d 2 1. since G is abelian. then h g 2 i would be a normal subgroup different from G and {1}. If G were in®nite. so kgl G. it is routine to verify that ö and ø are homomorphisms. and Ga(G A n ) C2 . 0 < k < 1. (b) Since b2 ë I but (bë)2 Y 2 ÀI. hence G is ®nite. and so G is cyclic of prime order. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. we may choose h P G with h P An .

If H is a subgroup of G of order n. (b) Assume that G hai and jGj dn. Hence. so gh P G. also H has order n. Bl has the form A j B k with 0 < j < 7. y P H. then g a j for some integer j and dnj jn. Finally. we conclude that W is an isomorphism. Bl has order 16. 0 such that ai P H. we have r 0. by Lagrange's Theorem). It follows that f g P G: g n 1g had i. by part (b). 0 and a k P H. . First observe that there exists i . À1) and hence Im W D2 m 3 C2 . 0 eÀiða4 B 1 X 0 0 À1 Check that A8 I. De®ne matrices A. We deduce that hxi H h yiX Thus x P h yi. if g P G then g À1 1a g P G. k. 7. and the identity element is in a subset of size 1. r with 0 < r . ei jða4 0 0 ei jða4 j j . 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. Hence a r a j aÀqk a j (a k )Àq P H. 6. Now kxl and k yl have order n. and so x is a power of y. g À1 g ( g P G). which is a cyclic group of order n. As |D4 m | |D2 m 3 C2 |. yl. Since Im W kx. (c) If x and y are elements of order n in the ®nite cyclic group G. Thus G is a group under multiplication. Each such subset has size 1 or 2. Therefore a j a kq and so H kak l. Let G be the set of non-zero complex numbers.398 Representations and characters of groups W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 2m À 1. (a) Let G kal and suppose that 1 T H < G. are all distinct. it follows that H ke2ðia n l. Choose k as small as possible such that k . These relations show that every element of the group kA. If g P G and g n 1. 1) and x m (1. also 1 P G and 1g g1 g for all g P G. so g gÀ1 and g has order 2. k. kA. 8. then x. and gÀ1 g ggÀ1 1. 0 < k < 1. B as follows: eiða4 0 A . then h n 1 for all h P H (since the order of h divides n. if jGj is even then there exists g P G such that g T 1 and the subset f g. If 1 T a j P H then j qk r for some integers q. Partition G into subsets f g. with 0 < j < 7. Therefore H < f g P G: g n 1g he2ðia n iX Since j Hj n jhe2ðia n ij. If g. A B A X 0 eÀi jða4 ÀeÀi jða4 0 Since these matrices. h. B2 A4 and BÀ1 AB AÀ1 . Moreover. Since r . If g. 9. thus H is cyclic. g À1 g has size 1. k P G then (gh)k g(hk). hence g P kad l. it contains x 2 (c. h P G then gh T 0. where H { g P G: gn 1}. so dj j.

while H. . since u1 . we have u1 . and so u v. . . ur . .Chapter 2 399 10. By (2. Thus W is injective. we have (uWÀ1 wWÀ1 )W (uWÀ1 )W (wWÀ1 )W u w. 2. . Therefore u1 . . hence u1 u2 and w1 w2. . Hence H v G. so by Exercise 3. this forces ë i 0 for all i. ì j in F. ws are linearly independent. . . And if g P H then H. u r . ì j P F. w P W and ë P F. (2) A (3): If Ker W {0} then dim (Im W) dim V (by (2. since u is a linear combination of u1 . similarly ì i 0 for all i. . . Since W is a linear transformation. j. . . gH are a the two left cosets. If u. . If u1 w1 u2 w2 with u1 . (1) A (2): If W is invertible then W is injective. ur . . F F F . (ë(wWÀ1 ))W ë(wWÀ1 )W ëwX Hence (u w)WÀ1 uWÀ1 wWÀ1 and (ëw)WÀ1 ë(wWÀ1 ). . (a) Assume ®rst that V U1 È U2 È U3. then u1 À u2 w2 À w1 P U W {0}. w1. 4. hence they form a basis of V. . . Since such expressions are unique. w s .12). . Let u. ws span V. . Then u u1 u2 u3 for some ui P Ui (1 < i < 3). suppose that u1 . so Ker W {0}. . Suppose that ë1 u1 X X X ë r ur ì1 w1 X X X ì s ws 0 with all ë i . . Conversely. . . ur and w is a linear combination of w1 . . Thus U W {0}. . F F F . First suppose that V U È W. V U È W. Since u1 0 0 0 u2 u3 and the sum U1 U2 U3 is direct. . . so W is surjective. Now suppose that V U W and U W {0}. w1. Thus v 0 and so U W {0}. w1 . As W is surjective and injective. Suppose jG: Hj 2 and let g P G. If v P V then v u w for some u P U and w P W. and so ë1 u1 X X X ë r ur ì1 w1 X X X ì s ws 0X As u1 . . ws is a basis of V. Let u P U1 (U2 U3 ). w2 P W. . It is easy to see that V U W. w1. Ker W {0}. ë r ur ì1 w1 . ur . . . F F F . If g P H then gÀ1 Hg H. . . ur . 3. so Im W V (by (2. Assume ®rst that V U È W. ws are linearly independent. so u À v P Ker W {0}. 5. Hg are the two right cosets of H in G. . w s . . . . ur are linearly independent. Then v v 0 0 v and this gives us two expressions for v as the sum of an element in U and an element in W. and so gÀ1 Hg H again. Chapter 2 1. this gives ë i ì j 0 for all i. (3) A (1): Assume that Im W V.7)). Since V U È W. v 0. ì s ws for some ë i . so WÀ1 is a linear transformation. w1. . . Therefore Hg gH. This shows that V U È W. it follows that v is a linear combination of u1 . . . u2 P U and w1. . If v P U W then v ë1 u1 . the expression 0 0 0 is the unique expression for 0 as the sum of vectors in U and W. Let v P U W. Therefore u1 .12)). Then V U W. v P V and uW vW then (u À v)W 0. W is invertible. .

Take a basis u1 . Similarly. . . . .32. Then 1 2 3 u1 À u9 (u9 À u2 ) (u9 À u3 ) P U1 (U2 U3 ) {0}. . Therefore V U1 È U2 È U3. . if V U1 È . then clearly W2 W. . so u1 u9 . Thus V U W. 7. by Exercise 3. j. 1 2(v Chapter 3 1. Therefore for all integers i. Suppose ®rst that W is a projection. De®ne W. and Im ö Ker ö sp ((1. the diagonal entries being r 1's followed by s 0's. ö: V 3 V by W: (x. 2 3 (b) Let V R2. Then u1 . y) 3 ( y. so W is a projection. (a i a j )r (a i j )r A i j A i A j (a i r)(a j r). so 1(v vW) P U. The representations r2 and r3 are faithful. by induction on r. if V U È W then dim V dim U dim W. and so r is a representation. Then (ai )r Ai for all integers i (including i . 2. . 2 2 2 À vW) P W. u2 u9 and u3 u9 . First. 8. suppose that r is a representation of G. If v P U W then v vW Àv. 0)). by Exercise 4. Then I 1r (am )r (ar) m Am X Conversely. Assume that ui . . . w1. U2 sp ((0. so V Im W È Ker W. . È Ur ) dim U2 . Ker W sp ((0. Check that A3 B3 C 3 I. . È Ur then V U1 È (U2 È . m À 1 and i . Therefore U1 (U2 U3 ) {0}. 1)). Similarly. U3 sp ((1. . if [W]B has the given form. 1)). dim Ur.10)). . ur . Hence by Exercise 1. By Exercise 4. so V T Im ö È Ker ö. ws for Ker W. . 1)). say B. u9 P Ui (1 < i < 3) and i u1 u2 u3 u9 u9 u9 . . the matrix [W]B is diagonal. . of V. . . y) 3 (x. Since ui W ui for all i and wj W 0 for all j. . Let V R2. U2 (U1 U3 ) U 3 (U1 U2 ) f0g. 0) and ö: (x. each r j is a representation. More generally. 6. but r1 is not. 0). so v 0. assume that Am I. Then v 1(v vW) 1(v À vW)X 2 2 Observe that 1(v vW)W 1(vW v). Then V Im W È Ker W by Proposition 2. Let v P V. Conversely. . . Therefore V U È W. dim (U2 È . . 0)). dim Ur. Now suppose that U1 (U2 U3 ) U2 (U1 U3 ) U3 (U1 U2 ) {0}. ws is a basis. 0)X Then Im W sp ((1. . 1 2 3 1 Similarly. The construction of the basis B is similar to that in Solution 8. .400 Representations and characters of groups u2 u3 0. 0)). and U1 sp ((1. so dim V dim U1 . ur for Im W and a basis w1. . 9. . È Ur ) (see (2.

T D. (3) If r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô. hence r3 is not equivalent to any of the others. But Im r < GL (1. F) and GL (1. Check that in each of the cases (1) S A. The representations r1 and r4 are equivalent: to see this. F) is abelian. The matrices A r Bs (0 < r < 5. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. let T 1 1 X Ài i Then T À1 (gr4 )T gr1 for all g P G. 0 < s < 1) are all different. 5. (2) S A3 . But r2 and r3 are not faithful.) If j T 2. (1) For all g P G. 4. Therefore GaKer r is abelian.Chapter 3 3. T ÀB. T B. .4). T À1 ST S À1 X It follows that each r k is a representation (see Example 1. so r is equivalent to ô. since a2 r2 I and a3 r3 I. Compare Example 3. (3) S ÀA. 8. 6. De®ne r by (a i b j )r (À1) j (0 < i < n À 1.2(1). GaKer r Im r. then gr (T À1 )À1 (gó)T À1. then a2 r j T I. No: let G be any non-abelian group and let r be the trivial representation.10. hence r2 is not equivalent to any of the others. so ó is equivalent to r. b: a4 b2 1. hence r is equivalent to r. 0 < s < 1) is a faithful representation of D8 ka. Similarly r4 is faithful. T B. By Theorem 1. IÀ1 (gr)I gr. And if j T 3. 0 1 1 B d0 0 H I 0 0 À1 0 eX 0 1 Then the function r: a r b s 3 A r Bs (0 < r < 3. 7. then there are invertible matrices S and T such that gó SÀ1 ( gr)S and gô T À1 (gó)T for all g P G. ®rst work out the eigenvectors of C. then a3 r j T I. we have S 6 T 2 I. so r1 is faithful. (To ®nd T. (4) S C. De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 A d À1 0 H I 1 0 0 0 e. then gô (ST)À1 (gr)(ST). (2) If r is equivalent to ó then there is an invertible matrix T such that gó T À1 ( gr)T for all g P G. 0 < j < 1)X 401 It is easy to check that r is a representation of G.

we have v g P V .2. Assume ®rst that gh P An . (u v) g ug v gX It remains to check (2) of De®nition 4. h P Sn . Let v P V and g. v1 v. (ëv) g ë(v g). 0 < j < 1) is a representation of Q8 over R. h P An ) or vg Àv vh (if g. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X Hence r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. so V is an FG-module. assume that gh P An . since either vg v vh (if g. since one of g.2. h P An ). We have now checked all the conditions in De®nition 4. g P Q8. 3. For all u. g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 H (1 2) 1 0 0 0e 0 1 I 0 0 À1 0 e À1 1 I 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 H (1 3) I 0 1 1 0e 0 0 I 0 0 1 À1 e 0 À1 [ g]B 2 g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 (2 3) 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I H (1 2 3) 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1e 0 0 I 0 0 À1 1 e À1 0 I H (1 3 2) 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 I 0 0 0 À1 e 1 À1 [ g]B 2 All the matrices [g]B 2 have the form H I 1 0 0 d 0 j j eX 0 j j 2. B2 A2 . v in V and ë in F. and (vg)h Àv.402 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 4 1. Then v(gh) v. Let A f d 0 0 0 À1 e and B d À1 0 0 0e 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 0 Check that A4 I. By Theorem 4. H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f À1 0 0 f 0 0g 0 0 1g g f g. h is in An and the other is not.4(1). and (vg)h v. V becomes an RQ8 -module if we de®ne vg v( gr) for all v P V. Next. a a Then v(gh) Àv. Let V R4. If we put . Let g P Sn .

let g be the permutation in Sn which has the property that for all i. 0). â) (á. r4 be the representations of G de®ned in Exercise 3. 0). 1) or (1. 1. Therefore ó is reducible. Then ó is equivalent to ô. Suppose that r has degree n and r is reducible. row i of B row ig of AX Let P be the n 3 n matrix ( pij ) de®ned by V if j ig. then C AQ for some permutation matrix Q.5. . 0. 0. if j T igX Then P is a permutation matrix. 0. . Since at least one of á â and á À â is non-zero. n. First consider the FG-module V F 2. v2 (0. 0). 0. À1) belongs to U. á â) P U. Then r is equivalent to a representation ô of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G) ô: g 3 d Yg Zg where X g is a k 3 k matrix and 0 . Chapter 5 1. To solve the exercise. 1). j X k1 Hence PA B. sp ((1. . and let (á. 0. Then (á. v4 (0. â)a (á â. 2. 1)). Let U be a non-zero FGsubmodule of V. Hence the FG-submodules of V are {0}. â) À (á. À1)) and V. 3. It is easy to verify that V is an FG-module. 0g g g g g e 1 I 0 then MA is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two rows. 0. pij X 0. ` 1. You may ®nd it helpful ®rst to check that if H 0 1 f1 0 f f 1 M f FF f d F 403 v1 (1. k . v i a and v i b are as required in the question. 1.Chapter 5 then for all i. where vg v(gr1 ) for . and AM is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two columns. the proof is similar to that for the rows. v3 (0. Let G D12 and let r1 . . 4. â) P U with (á. sp ((1. â)a (á À â. and the ij-entry of PA is n pik akj a ig. we deduce that (1. If C is a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns. and (á. â À á) P U. 0). since ó is equivalent to r. â) T (0.

g P G. Then (1. AB BA. Hence either (1. then U is a CHsubmodule. where H is the subgroup {1. and u and ub are linearly independent unless ç 1. Since (1. there exists a cube root î of unity such that î 0 gr À1 X 0 î But there are only three distinct cube roots of unity. it follows that dim U > 2. so there exist distinct g1 . if å ç 1 then sp ((1. 1)a are linearly independent. 4. Consequently U V and so V is irreducible. bl| 9 and ka. (See Example 5. x 2 4X1 a2 4a3 X . Chapter 6 1X (a) xy À2X1 À a3 ab 3a2 b 2a3 b. let u be (1. if either å T 1 or ç T 1 then dim U 2 and so r is irreducible. 1) and (1. À1) and (1. À1) (so that u P U). 9. Then U is an FH-module. Therefore r is never faithful. 1)) is an FG-submodule of V and r2 is reducible. either (1. 1)a À(1. yx À2X1 À a3 b 2a2 b 3a3 b.C çÀ1 1 1 X 0 Thus jGj < 18. 1)b. 1) or (1. Finally. If U is a non-zero CG-submodule of V. 1) (1. 0 < k < 1)X that |ka.) Therefore r1 is irreducible. so r is reducible. Using the relations. 5. b}. and also (1. Then V is neither reducible nor irreducible. À1)a are linearly independent. Hence r is a representation (compare Example 1. Suppose that U is a non-zero FG-submodule of V. we may write every element of G in the form ai b j c k (0 < i < 2. accordingly.4). 1) or (1. À1) lies in U. À1) lies in U. (d) Let V C2 be the CG-module obtained by de®ning vg v(gr) for all v P C2 . B 0 å À1 0 Check that A3 B3 C 2 I. bl with g1 r g2 r. (c) For every element g of ka. 1)) is a CG-submodule of V. Now let V F 2 with vg v(gr2 ) for v P V. On the other hand. 1) or (1. g2 P ka. C À1 AC AÀ1 and C À1 BC BÀ1 . by an argument similar to that for r1. 0 < j < 2.5(2) for an alternative argument. c}. g P G. Hence sp ((1. Let V {0} and let 0 g 0 for all g P G. However. is a multiple of 9 and jGj . (a) It is easy to check the given relations. by the solution to Exercise 1. (b) Let å 0 ç A . Hence. g P G. Now u and ua are linearly independent unless å 1. by Lagrange's Theorem. bl.404 Representations and characters of groups v P V. 0 0 . it is clear Hence. bl T G. also r4 is irreducible. where H is the subgroup {1. jGj Therefore jGj 18. By the solution to Exercise 1. r3 is irreducible. since r1 and r4 are equivalent.

. then u 0. so rz 2. ab bal. 6. (ab)r f d0 1 0 0e d1 0 0 0e 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3.) 3. Hence W is a CG-submodule of CG. . and u u u. and bz 1 a2 zb. hence W is an FG-homomorphism. and v0 v(0 0) v0 v0. . then vr 0 and neither v nor r is 0. ar f d0 0 0 1e d0 0 1 0e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 H I H I 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 f0 0 1 0g f0 0 0 1g f g f g br f gX g. so do gh and hg. j. b. v5 be the natural basis for the permutation module for G over F. hence 0r v0 0. It is easy to show that V0 is an FG-submodule of V. No: let G ka: a2 1l. g ë g g with ë g P C. Then . ab of F(C2 3 C2 ). the regular representation r is given by H I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 f1 0 0 0g f0 1 0 0g f g f g 1r f g. Let v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 and v2 b ù2 ab ùa2 b. and take r 1 a. Note ®rst that if u is an element of a vector space. If r P CG then r ë g gz ë g zg zr. Chapter 7 1. (c) All the entries in [W]B are 1 (compare the solution to Exercise 2). . a. Let a (1 2 3 4 5) and let v1 . Hence a i b j z za i b j for all i. s 1 À a. (Note that v i W ai . v2 a ù2 v2 . Let x P G. so (v i a)W v i1 W a i1 (v i W)a. Hence ch hc c. Now 0r (0 0)r 0r 0r. Check that v1 a ùv1 . Relative to the basis 1. v1 b v2 and v2 b v1.3 to prove that W is irreducible. u2 P U. we have (u1 u2 )Wö (u1 W u2 W)ö u1 (Wö) u2 (Wö). For all u1 . (ëu1 )Wö (ë(u1 W))ö ë(u1 (Wö)). 4.5(2) or the solution to Exercise 5. g. j and so gz zg for all g P G.Chapter 7 405 (b) az ab a3 b a2 ba ba za. If r 1 À g. (a) As g runs through G. The reason is that for all i. Let V be the trivial FG-module and let 0 T v P V and 1 T g P G. there exists a unique h in G such that gi h gj . ë P F and g P G. (u1 g)Wö ((u1 W) g)ö ((u1 W)ö) g (u1 (Wö)) gX 2. Let C2 3 C2 ka. Then W: ë1 v1 X X X ë5 v5 3 ë1 1 ë2 a ë3 a2 ë4 a3 ë5 a4 is the required FG-isomorphism. 5. (b) c2 c hPG h hPG ch jGjc. Use the argument of either Example 5. b: a2 b2 1.

In the notation of Exercise 3. . v2 . since all diagonal matrices . and Ker W Im W sp (v2 ). If we let W: ëv1 ìv2 3 ëv2 (ë.406 Representations and characters of groups gPG vxg gPG vg gPG v gxX Hence (vx)W vW (vW)x. g P G. 4. (b) (á À â)(1 À x)W ((á À â) À (â À á))(1 À x) 2(á À â)(1 À x). and so V0 ö W 0 . (Find eigenvectors for x. ab ba). ì P C) then W is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. and let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 . For all w P W 0 . Hence the function ö. No: let v1 . a. v3 v4 ) and (FG)0 sp g X gPG Since V0 and (FG)0 have different dimensions. If v P V0 then (vajGj)W v. where ù e2ðia3 . . Chapter 8 1. ab} C2 3 C2 (so a2 b2 1. r is equivalent to a representation ó of the form ëg 0 gó (ë g . h P G. noting that V W V0 . (vö)g (vg)ö vö. 6. Let g P G. it follows from Exercise 4 that V and FG are not isomorphic FG-modules. this makes V into a CGmodule. Then RG sp (1 a b ab) È sp (1 a À b À ab) È sp (1 À a b À ab) È sp (1 À a À b ab)X 3.) 2. Then by Maschke's Theorem. Let G be any group. (c) Let B be the basis 1 À x. v4 be the natural basis of the permutation module V for G over F. Hence W2 2W. hence W is surjective. ì g P C)X 0 ìg Then (gó)(hó) (hó)(gó) for all g. 4. Let G {1. restricted to V0 . V sp (Àùv1 v2 ) È sp (Àù2 v1 v2 ). De®ne vg v for all v P V. we see that W is an FGhomomorphism from V to V0 . so W 0 öÀ1 V0 . . (wöÀ1 )g (wg)öÀ1 wöÀ1 . . For all v P V0 . Suppose r is reducible. is an FG-isomorphism from V0 to W 0 . 1 x. Suppose that ö: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. 2 3 V0 sp (v1 v2 . (a) W is easily seen to be a linear transformation. b. 5. Also (á1 âx)xW (â1 áx)W (â À á)(1 À x) (á À â)(1 À x)x (á1 âx)WxX Hence W is an FG-homomorphism.

r3 : 1r1 br1 b2 r1 (1). Irreducible representations r1 . y)}. We know that the regular CG-module CG is faithful (Proposition 6. bi r3 (ù2i )X Let C2 3 C2 {(1. if u T 0 then (ux. For example. u] . Let CG U1 È . De®ne K fx P G: vx v for all v P Ui gX Check that K is a normal subgroup of G. v] 0 since ug À1 P U X Therefore vg P U c. Chapter 9 1. È Ur. r} and g P G such that ug T u for some u P Ui (otherwise vg v for all v P CG). . 0 for all x P G. v g] (ugx. Since G a is simple. (x. so [u. (1) It is straightforward to verify for [ . r2 : 1r1 ar1 (1). h P G. bi r2 (ù i ). r2 . This means that Ui is a faithful irreducible CG-module. 5. v gx) (ux. U sp ((1. v]X xPG xPG (2) It is easy to prove that U c is a subspace of V. 6. Let v P U c and g P G. .Chapter 9 407 commute with each other. (1. ux) . Therefore r is irreducible. and W is a CG-submodule of V by part (2). . v gg À1 ] by part (1) [ug À1 . . where x 2 y 2 1. Then there exist i P {1. . . Irreducible representations r1 . y). (x. Also [ug. 1). r2 . ar2 (À1)X Let C3 kb: b 1l and let ù e2ðia3 . Ur are irreducible CG-submodules of CG. where U1. . Then for all u P U. This is a contradiction. . ] the axioms of a complex inner product. 0)) is the only 1-dimensional CG-submodule of V. 1r2 (1). v g] [ug À1 . 7. Let C2 ka: a2 1l. hence also (gr)(hr) (hr)(gr) for all g. r3 . 0. we must therefore have K {1}. also K T G since g P K. Then V U È W. so there is no CG-submodule W of V with V U È W. vx) [u. 1). r4 : 3 . . and so U c is a CG-submodule of V.6). (3) Let W U c. Irreducible representations r1 . [u. .

b) 3 Àù 0 0 Àù . and let å j e2ðia n j . Yes: if r 2.408 Representations and characters of groups gr1 (1) for all g P C2 3 C2 . then i i i i ó : ( g 11 . y j )r3 (À1) i . 1). 5. 3 C n r of degree r. (c) The centre of C2 3 D8 is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . (b) Check that w(a aÀ1 ) Àw for all w P W. (x i . . y): x 4 y 4 1l. (d) Let C3 kx: x 3 1l and let ù e2ðia3 . Then r: x j 3 (e2ði ja n ) is a faithful irreducible representation of Cn . (b) If g1 (x 2 . y j ) 3 (À1) i . y 2 ) then g1 .5(2)). 1) and g2 (1. 7. a) 3 . (x. 6. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 when A ar and B br. (x i . X X X . Then xz z zx for all x P G. Hence r is irreducible (Corollary 9.14. (x i . r. hence ó is reducible (Corollary 9. g2 and g1 g2 all have order 2. (a) Clearly a commutes with a aÀ1 . Check that A4 B2 I.16 shows that C2 3 D8 has no faithful irreducible representation. g 22 ) 3 (å11 å22 ) is a faithful representation of degree 1 . so b commutes with a aÀ1 . 0 1 1 0 . and the result follows from Proposition 9. similarly for ó. Therefore Proposition 9. Since (g1 g2 )ó (g1 ó)(g2 ó) for all representations ó. Then H i I å11 f g i FF g r: ( g 11 . g irr ) 3 f d e F ir år 0 0 is a faithful representation of C n1 3 . then M ëI for some ë P C. Hence r gives a representation. (a) Let Cn kx: x n 1l. n2 3. Hence z P Z(CG). . (1. b3 (b) r: a 3 À1 0 0 À1 gives a faithful irreducible representation of D8 (see Example 5. 3. y j )r4 (À1) i j X 2. Also bÀ1 (a aÀ1 )b aÀ1 a. Notice that the matrix 5 À6 4 À5 commutes with gó for all g P G. we cannot have (g1 g2 )ó g1 ó g2 ó (À1). let gj generate Cn j . If M(gr) (gr)M for g a and for g b. (a) r: (x i . Check that 0 ù ù 0 r: (x.3). so is not cyclic. 4. Let C4 3 C4 k(x. y j )r2 (À1) j . n1 2. Let z gPG g.3). For 1 < j < r.

4) and faithful. sp (v2 . let wj bv j. w1 ) are CG-submodules of CG. U2 . namely V. w3 3 v3. Let U4 sp (v1 . Then ug u for all g P G. b 3 (À1) r2 : a 3 (À1). since there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1. so |G|u u( gPG g) ( gPG g)u P V. u3 are as in the solution to i< Exercise 3. while u0 gPG g. U4 and U5 are irreducible CG-modules. v1 1 ia À a2 À ia3 . as in Example 10.b3 X 0 Ài 1 0 . Thus U V. w1 ). 409 1. w0 ). u3 1 À a a2 À a3 À b ab À a2 b a3 bX 4.8(2). U1 . b 3 (À1) 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 r4 : a 3 .4). sp (v1 . w0 ) U0 È U1 . b 3 (1) r1 : a 3 (1). Let G kx: x 4 1l. Therefore every irreducible representation of D8 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r0 : a 3 (1). w3 ). U5 sp (v3 . sp (v2 . Then. w3 ). u2 .5(2) (or see Exercise 8. Moreover U4 U5. 2. b 3 (1) r3 : a 3 (À1). Let u1 1 a a2 a3 À b À ab À a2 b À a3 b. Let v0 1 a a2 a3 . namely U0 . Theorem 10. Then CG sp (1 x x 2 x 3 ) È sp (1 ix À x 2 À ix 3 ) È sp (1 À x x 2 À x 3 ) È sp (1 À ix À x 2 ix 3 )X 3. v2 1 À a a2 À a3 . and so CG has exactly one trivial CGsubmodule. We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Let V sp ( gPG g). For 0 < j < 3. u2 1 À a a2 À a3 b À ab a2 b À a3 b. w2 ) U2 È U3 . v3 1 À ia À a2 ia3 Chapter 10 (compare the solution to Exercise 2). U3 and U4 . We have sp (v0 . Now suppose that U is an arbitrary trivial CG-submodule CG. It is irreducible (see for example Exercise 8. Then V is a trivial CG-submodule of CG.5 now shows that there are exactly ®ve non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.Chapter 10 gives a representation of C3 3 D8. where Ui sp (ui ) (0 < 3) and u1 . so U sp (u) of for some u. w2 ) and sp (v3 . As in Example 5. the subspaces sp (v0 .

13 to see that the possible answers are 112 .410 Representations and characters of groups 5. uö2 bu (u P U3 ). W2 is a basis of HomCG (CG. Chapter 11 1.6. Then W1 . where each Xa and each Yb is an irreducible CG-module.4. w2 be the basis of U3 described in Example 10. By Exercise 5. rW2 w2 r (r P CG). moreover.5)(3) and Proposition 11. Let v1 . . u2 ) is a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. the dimensions are 1. dim (HomCG (V. Since G is non-abelian. . U)) 1. 4. dim (HomCG (V. Let V X1 È . ö2 is a basis of HomCG (U3. 17.8(2). For ë P C. . u P Ker öë D u ëuW 0 D u 0. and so on).1). 2. È Xr and W Y1 È . v n be the natural basis of V. u2 b À iab À a2 b ia3 b. 2. 1. Therefore we have constructed in®nitely many CG-submodules Im öë of the required form. 18 2 means eight 1s and one 2. È Ys. ö2 by uö1 u. equals k i1 jf(a. CG). .4. Compare Example 11. not all the dimensions are 1 (see Proposition 9. . Let u1 1 À ia À a2 ia3 . dim (HomCG (V. b): X a Yb Vi gjX Now the number of integers a with X a V i is dim (HomCG (V .12. either by the method of Example 5. by Theorem 11. by the proof of Proposition 11.3. Also.8. Then by (11. and similarly the number of integers b with Y b V i is k e i . . 18 2. de®ne the function öë : U1 3 V by öë : u 3 u ëuW (u P U 1 )X Then öë is easily seen to be a CG-homomorphism.2. V i )) d i . v2 3 u2 .8).3) that 18 2 cannot occur. Hence by Corollary 11. It is easy to check that if ë T ì then Im öë T Im ö ì . 6. 14 22 and 13 3 (where 112 means twelve 1s. . de®ne ö g : CG 3 CG by rö g gr (r P CG). CG) (compare the proof of Proposition 11. V is irreducible. W)) i1 d i e i . Then sp (v1 .18). Therefore. Let v1 . Hence the answer for D12 is 14 22 . b) such that X a Y b . in turn. 6. D12 has at least two inequivalent irreducible representations of degree 2. 3. Let W: U1 3 U2 be a CG-isomorphism. Then sp (u1 . U3 ). by Corollary 11. Then ö1 . A CG-isomorphism is given by v1 3 u1 .5(2) or by Exercise 8. v n ) is the unique trivial CG-submodule of V (compare Exercise 10. . .6. de®ne ö1 . This. . . Thus U1 Im öë . It will be shown later (Exercises 15. W)) is equal to the number of ordered pairs (a. since the sum U1 U2 is direct. For each g P G. Then {ö g : g P G} gives a basis of HomCG (CG. De®ne W1 and W2 by rW1 v1 r. 5. Hence.

8 (since (2 ) n3a(2X(n À 2)3)). 12. k. a2 . There are ®ve choices for i. 3 15.8). 2.18(2). 5. so 1 P CG (x). Hence |(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G | 5 . Note that x P CG (g) D x P CG ( gz). The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. (a) (1 2) G {(i j): 1 < i . l. Now the required result follows from Theorem 12. n G (b) (1 2 3) consists of all 3-cycles (i j k). l (unordered). a2 bg. h P CG (x).8. then we can make two different 3-cycles (k l m) and (k m l ) from the remaining numbers. Hence by Proposition 12. m distinct. fa2 g. The sizes of the conjugacy classes of S6 are given in the following table: Cycle-shape (1) Class size 1 (2) 15 (3) 40 (22 ) 45 (4) (3. a a3 . If H is a normal subgroup of A5 then j Hj divides 60. and H is a union of conjugacy classes of A5 . fab. 2 40 elements in all. There are (3 ) choices for the numbers i. For elements g of other cycle-shapes. 6. 2) from the remaining numbers. j. Hence j Hj 1 or 60. in agreement with Theorem n 12. There are ®ve choices for i. k. the conjugacy classes of A5 have sizes 1. 15. This gives 5 . and three permutations for each choice. fb. b a2 b. The elements of (1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G have the form (1 i)( j k)(l m). namely (i j k) and (i k j). An element x of cycle-shape (5) has CS6 (x) kxl (note that |x S6 | 144 and use Theorem 12. Therefore CG (x) is a subgroup of G. 12. and 1 P H. then we can make three permutations ( j k)(l m). b: a4 1. thus ghÀ1 P CG (x). a3 g. with i. so hÀ1 x xhÀ1 and ghÀ1 x gxhÀ1 xghÀ1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. therefore A5 is simple. 4 . The centralizer CG ((1 2)) consists of all elements x and (1 2)x. If z P Z(G) then zg gz for all g P G. then four choices for j. Then gx xg and hx xh. a3 bg. Each choice gives exactly two 3-cycles. (i k)( j l ) and (i l )( j k).Chapter 12 Chapter 12 411 1. j < n} and this set has size (2 ). (c) Every element of (1 2 3)(4 5 6) G has the form (1 i j)(k l m). ( j l )(k m) and ( j m)(k l ) of cycle shape (2. There are (4 ) choices for the numbers i. The class equation gives . n 3. x A6 T x S6 . n k. k (unordered). so zx xz and z P CG (x). and a basis of Z(CQ8 ) is 1. Assume that g. 2) (6) 40 90 120 4. ab a3 bX 7. (1 2)(3 4) G consists of all permutations of the form (i j)(k l ) with i. l distinct. fa. g A6 g S6 . We have Q8 ka.17. 20. namely (i j)(k l ). b2 a2 . j. j. By Example 12. where x is a permutation ®xing 1 and 2. Thus |CG ((1 2))| 2´(n À 2)!. Also 1x x1. j. 2) (5) 90 120 144 (23 ) 15 (32 ) (4.

and so ä is a linear character of G. and Im ä is a subgroup of the . |G| > p3 . Conversely. a5 b 0 0 0 À2 Also Ker r1 {1. Let C4 kx: x 4 1l. 7. a4 b ab. Moreover. i (b) If no conjugacy class of G has size p.10. and hence g P Z(G) since r is faithful. by Proposition 9. a2 b. We have now proved that gr ëI for some ë P C if and only if g P Z(G). 2) are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 2 2 a3 2 0 a.9). then ( gr)(hr) (hr)(gr) for all h P G. a4 À1 2 b. then p2 divides |x G | for all i xi P Z(G).14. then by the class equation. If ÷ is a non-zero character which is a homomorphism. a2 . The characters ÷ i of r i (i 1. . (b) GaKer ä Im ä by Theorem 1. Since ÷(g) |®x (g)|. a5 À1 0 a2 . (a) For all g. det ((gh)r) det ((gr)(hr)) det (gr) det (hr). Let r be a representation with character ÷. a3 b.14. The irreducible characters ÷1 . a i i Therefore p divides |x G |. . 3. 2. ÷4 of C4 are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 x 1 i À1 Ài x2 1 À1 1 À1 x3 1 Ài À1 i We have ÷reg ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 . Hence p divides |Z(G)|. Then zr ëI for some ë P C. in addition. (zg)r (zr)(gr) ë(gr). for all g in G. if gr ëI for some ë P C. a4 }.11(1). so Z(G) T f1g. by Proposition 9. we have ÷((1 2)) 5 and ÷((1 6)(2 3 5)) 2. Hence g 3 (det (gr)) is a representation of G over C of degree 1. p2 divides a |Z(G)|. 6. and hence ÷(zg) ë÷(g). The required result now follows from Theorem 13. then ÷(1) ÷(12 ) (÷(1))2 . 4. a3 } and Ker r2 {1. This is a contradiction. I 1r z m r (zr) m ë m I. . |x G | divides pn and |x G | T 1 by Theorem 12. Let r be a representation with character ÷.8 and (12. h PG. . Chapter 13 1. so ë m 1.412 Representations and characters of groups jGj j Z(G)j xiP Z(G) a jx G jX i (a) For xi P Z(G). so ÷(1) 1. 5. If g P Z(G) then gr ëI for some ë P C. If. Thus.

3 (À1) . . By Exercise 1.19. De®ne ä as in Exercise 7. 3). which is abelian. The required result now follows from Exercise 7. 1 3 . (0 1 ). Let r be the regular representation of G. And if s is even then Às s mod 4. and G has a normal subgroup of index 2 by Exercise 7. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷.20 (but ÷ is not). . 10.5(2). so ÷ i (x) T ÷ i (1) for some irreducible character ÷ i of G. . Thus ä(x) À1.8. Hence Im ä contains a subgroup H of index 2.Chapter 14 413 multiplicative group CÃ of non-zero complex numbers. Let ÷ i be the character of r i (i 1.1 (À1)(À1) (À1)(À1) hø. 2. a3 0 0 0 b. 24 4 8 4 3. If s is odd then ä( g) À1. G has an element x of order 2. so ÷( g) r À s r s ÷(1) mod 4. øi 0 1X 24 4 8 4 Hence ø is irreducible by Theorem 14. 24 4 8 4 3 . hence is cyclic. and de®ne the character ä as in Exercise 7. Say there are r entries 1 and s entries À1. a3 b 0 0 À2 . 9. We may choose a basis B of V so that [g]B is diagonal with all diagonal entries Æ1 (see (9. det ([x]B ) (À1) k À1. we have ÷reg (x) T ÷reg (1) (see Proposition 13. (À1) (À1)(À1) h÷. so Im ä has even order.20). . As x T 1. (c) Im ä is a ®nite subgroup of CÃ . g2 k of CG so as to obtain a basis B in which g and gx are adjacent for all g P G. øi 0 0. Using Proposition 14. The values of these characters are as follows: Conjugacy class ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 2 2 2 a2 À2 À2 2 a. by Exercise 1. Order the natural basis g1 .10)). we obtain 3 . Therefore GaKer ä is abelian. It is easy to check that {g P G: ä(g) P H} is a normal subgroup of G of index 2. 3 (À1)(À1) 3 . 2. by Theorem 13.7. ÷i 0 2.3 1. a2 b 0 0 0 ab. Also À1 P Im ä. 8. 3 (À1)(À1) h÷. 10 Chapter 14 1. Then I H 0 1 g f1 0 g f g f 0 1 [x]B f gX g f 1 0 e d FF F 0 0 There are k blocks and since k is odd.

17 shows that ÷ is reducible. No: let G C2 and ÷ ÷reg . Hence k÷reg .21.414 Representations and characters of groups By Theorem 14. The representations r and ó have the same character. (À2) . ÷1 l T 0. 0 and by hypothesis ÷(g) > 0 for all g P G. ÷l ÷(1). by Theorem 14. (À2)(À1)) 7X 6 h÷. Every abelian group of order 12 has 12 conjugacy classes.4 and Theorem 14. and this gives the required matrix T. 4. 5. ÷1 i 1(19 . k 7. This follows at once from Exercise 11. ÷1 i ÷( g)X jGj gPG Since ÷(1) . If |G| 12 . ø is not a character of G. (À1) . 4. 1 3 . 1 3 . If kø. Since all the coef®cients here are non-negative integers.21. we obtain ø 1 1 ÷1 1 ÷2 1 ÷3 . Since the coef®cient of ÷2 is a negative integer. Let ÷1 be the trivial character of G. Therefore the centre of a group G never has index 2 in G. 2. (À2) . We ®nd that ø À÷2 ÷3 ÷5 2÷6 . 1) 2. if G Z(G) Z(G)x then G Z(G). By the method used in the solution to Exercise 1.24. Then 1 h÷. (À1)(À1) 2 . Chapter 15 1X h÷. 6 h÷. Theorem 14. 8. øl 4. 1) 3. øl a where a 1. ÷3 i 1(19 . or exactly one of the di is 2. it follows that ÷ is a character of S3 . We have h÷reg . 2 2 ø 3 1 ÷1 1 ÷2 À 1 ÷3 X 3 3 3 3. the rest are 0.2. Hence. 1 2 . hence r and ó are equivalent. 2 0 2 . ÷2 i 1(19 . 2 or 3. Recall that hø. then either exactly four of the di are 1. ÷i 1 ÷reg ( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG But ÷reg (g) is |G| if g 1 and is 0 if g T 1. øi i1 d 2 . 6. r1 and r2 are equivalent. if x P G then the subgroup generated by x and the elements of Z(G) is abelian (since the elements of Z(G) commute with powers of x). then i exactly a of the integers di are 1 and the rest are 0. (a) For all groups G. 6 6 3 ø 2 1 ÷1 À 1 ÷2 . Hence if kø. we have k÷. As ÷ T ÷1 . by Proposition 13. the regular character of C2 . but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. 6 Hence ÷ 2÷1 3÷2 7÷3 . 3.

(x. Finally. similarly ÷4 ( g3 ) (À1 5)a2. Corollary 13. Example 16. together with the relation 4 4 i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 4 ) 0. so there cannot be as many as 9 conjugacy classes in total. If G is abelian (e. and if G A4 then G has 4 conjugacy classes (see Example 12. so |Z(G)| < 4. The last row of the character table is (cf. it follows from the solution to Exercise 11. similarly ÷3 (g3 ) 1.12)). 2 since 4 ( ÷ i (1))2 10. 1) 1 1 À1 À1 (1. then |Z(G)| divides 12 and |Z(G)| T 6 or 12. 4 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives i1 p p ÷4 ( g 2 ) (À1 À 5)a2.18(1)). Let C2 3 C2 {(1.10. y). Exercise 9. (1. . G C4 3 C3 ) then G has 12 conjugacy classes. (x. 1) ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 (x. the remaining conjugacy classes have size at least 2. y): x 2 y 2 1}. Therefore. (b) Since the number of irreducible representations is equal to the number of conjugacy classes. gives the values on g4 . 1). if G D12 then G has 6 conjugacy classes (see (12. Chapter 16 1.1) (1.Chapter 16 415 and G is non-abelian.g. y) 1 À1 À1 1 2. The character table of C2 3 C2 is (cf. at most 4 conjugacy classes of G have size 1 (see (12. The complete character table of G is gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 10 1 2 1 2 g2 5 1p (À1 5)a2 1p (À1 À 5)a2 g3 5 1p (À1 À 5)a2 1p (À1 5)a2 g4 2 1 0 À1 0 The two unknown degrees ÷3 (1).9)).2 and part (a) that G has 4. Then i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 0 gives ÷3 ( g2 ) 1. 1). ÷4 (1) are 1. i1 Because g4 has order 2. 6 or 12 conjugacy classes. y) 1 À1 1 À1 (x.5(2)) g1 ÷5 2 g2 À2 g3 0 g4 0 g5 0 3.

416 4. if det C det C then det C is real. G9a.1. (a) 5 Representations and characters of groups i1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives 3 3æ 3æ 0. 5. fa2 g. By the column orthogonality relations. The matrix C is obtained from C by rearranging the columns (see Proposition 13. p Hence æ (À1 Æ i 7)a2. and if det C Àdet C then det C is purely imaginary. fb. Hence jdet Cj2 jC G ( g i )j. By the column orthogonality relations applied to the column k corresponding to g. Use Proposition 12. (b) The column which corresponds to the conjugacy class containing gÀ1 2 has values which are the complex conjugates of those in the column of g2 (see Proposition 13.) Chapter 17 1. The character table of C2 3 C2 is given in the solution to Exercise 16. a3 bg.9(3)). since æ is non-real. 2. Hence the linear characters of G are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 8 1 1 1 1 a2 8 1 1 1 1 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 (c) Using the column orthogonality relations. we have i1 ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) jC G ( g)j. (a) Using the relations. Let g P G. a3 g. G9b. every element of G has the form am bn with .9(3)). (The sign depends upon the ordering of rows and columns. (b) G9 f1. This number is equal to |G| if and only if CG (g) G. and 5 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g2 ) 7 i1 gives 3 2ææ 7. a2 bg and fab. a2 g and GaG9 fG9. this is a different column of the character table of G. G9abg C2 3 C2 . p If G C3 then det C Æi3 3. 6. (a) The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. It is easy to see that a7 b3 1.13 to see quickly that bÀ1 ab a2 . C t C is the k 3 k diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are |CG ( gi )| (1 < i < k). which occurs if and only if g P Z(G). Therefore det C Ædet C. the last irreducible character of G is 1 ÷5 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 The character table of Q8 is the same as that of D8. fa.

3. all of these are irreducible characters by Proposition 17. G9 kal. To ®nd the two remaining irreducible characters ÷4 and ÷5 . a2 . 4 or 12 linear characters. Therefore jGj 21. we note that a is not conjugate to aÀ1 .14. (b) The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. ÷3 ÷ 2 . then G is abelian (see Proposition 9.8).Chapter 17 417 0 < m < 6. Hence ÷4 and ÷5 must be complex conjugates of each other. ÷4 ÷2 ÷3 . a6 g. so G is certainly not simple. so we get three linear characters of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . If G has 3 or 4 linear characters then jGaG9j 3 or 4 and again G is not simple as G9 v G. Applying the column orthogonality relations. Now consult the solution to Exercise 11. The centralizer orders are obtained by using the orthogonality relations. If there are 12. we have ÷(a) T ÷(a) (see Corollary 15. ÷6 ö÷. 0 < n < 2. so 21 divides jGj by Lagrange's Theorem. i gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 4 3 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 g3 4 3 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 g4 6 2 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 6 2 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g6 12 1 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 . fa.6).11. and the class sizes j g G j come from the equations i jGj jC G ( g i )jj g G j (Theorem 12.2 to see that there are 3. The number of linear characters of G divides jGj by Theorem 17.18). we obtain 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a á á a3 á á b 0 0 b2 0 0 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. 4. ÷5 ö. therefore for some irreducible character ÷. a5 . fa3 . (c) First. But a has order 7 and b has order 3. hence jGj < 21. ÷2 ÷. In the character table below. we have ÷1 1 G . a4 g. fa m b: 0 < m < 6g and fa m b2 : 0 < m < 6g.

For ç e2ði ja2 n with 1 < j < n À 1. (b) The representations in part (a) are irreducible unless å Æ1. for å e2ði ka2 n with 0 < k < n À 1. Example 1.11). The normal subgroups of D8 are 6. Moreover. Note that b2 does not belong to the kernel of any of these representations.) 7. with r 1. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations. 12 4nX Hence we have found all the irreducible representations. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations. no two of which are equivalent. and inequivalent (consider the character values on a2 ). bi Ker ÷3 . so jGaG9j 2n and there are 2n representations of degree 1.12. hai Ker ÷2 . The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found is n . (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations: 2 32 n 2 3n 2 3 2 32 å 0 1 0 å 0 0 1 . since they have distinct characters. by Theorem 11. . 2. they are not equivalent to any representation found earlier. n À 1.b3 . 8. ha2 i Ker ÷2 Ker ÷3 . we get n À 1 irreducible representations. . . so jGaG9j 4 and there are four representations of degree 1 (see Theorem 17. For å e2ði ra2 n . 0 å À1 0 1 0 å À1 ån 0 32 3À1 2 3À1 2 3 2 0 1 å 0 0 1 å 0 X ån 0 0 å À1 ån 0 0 å À1 Hence we have representations of T4 n (cf. Moreover G9 ka2 l. by Exercise 8. . . 0 çÀ1 1 0 where ç is any (2n)th root of unity in C. 12 6n. note that the structure of GaG9 depends upon whether n is even or odd. Also G9 kbl.4) and inequivalent (their characters are distinct).4. ha2 . (For further details on the representations of degree 1. We get further representations by ç 0 0 1 a3 . 22 4 . for å e2ði ja n with 0 < j < n À 1. see the solution to Exercise 18. (b) The given representations. 22 2n . since b2 is in the kernel of each of these representations. f1g Ker ÷5 X 5. ha2 . Now the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found so far is (n À 1) . .4). abi Ker ÷4 .3. these representations are irreducible and inequivalent. so we have obtained all the irreducible representations. are irreducible (by Exercise 8.418 Representations and characters of groups D8 Ker ÷1 . are irreducible (by Exercise 8. (b) The given representations.4).

Hence. where we took b to be a different re¯ection. the character table of D12 is as shown.3. since the sum of the squares of the irreducible representations given above is n . b2 l and GaG9 C2 3 C2.3. Let ù e2ðia6 . take b to be a re¯ection in a diagonal of the square.28(2). ù2 ùÀ2 ù4 ùÀ4 À1. so we get four representations of degree 1. 22 4 .) 2. Character table of D12 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 À2 2 a 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 . G9 ka2 . 12 8nX Chapter 18 1.) Regarding D8 as the symmetry group of a square.3(3) or Section 18. (Compare Example 14. using Section 18. We have now found all the irreducible representations.Chapter 18 419 Finally. 22 (n À 1) . Then ð takes the following values: 1 ð 4 a2 0 a 0 b 2 ab 0 Hence ð ÷1 ÷3 ÷5 . The character table of D8 is as shown. Then ù ùÀ1 1. Character table of D8 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 a2 8 1 1 1 1 À2 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (See Example 16.

ka2 . abl Ker ÷4 . ka2 . The n 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. a2 r1 b. fa2 j1 b: 0 < j < n À 1gX We get n À 1 irreducible characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) of G from Exercise 17.6 as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| øj 1 4n 2 an 4n 2(À1) j ar (1 < r < n À 1) 2n ù rj ùÀ rj b 4 0 ab 4 0 where ù e2ðia2 n . a2 r b2 g. then GaG9 C2 3 C2 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 1 1 1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r b 1 À1 1 À1 ab 1 À1 À1 1 Note that T4 C4 . kal Ker ÷2 .420 Representations and characters of groups Seven normal subgroups of D12 are G Ker ÷1 . fan g.4. fa2 j b: 0 < j < n À 1g.7 gives us n irreducible characters ø k (0 < k < n À 1). The 3n conjugacy classes of G are. 3. fa2 r1 . The remaining four irreducible characters of G are linear. aÀ r g(1 < r < n À 1). Exercise 17. fa2 r b. for 0 < r < n À 1. Hence we get 2n linear characters ÷ j (0 < j < 2n À 1). . If n is odd. as shown. bl Ker ÷3 . 4. ka3 l Ker ÷6 and {1} Ker ÷5 . a2 r1 b2 gX We have G9 hbi and GaG9 hG9ai C2 n . T8 Q8 and T12 is the Example in Section 18. fa2 r g. then GaG9 hG9bi C4 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 À1 1 À1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 (À1) r 1 (À1) r b 1 i À1 Ài ab 1 Ài À1 i If n is even. far . ka2 l Ker ÷3 Ker ÷4 .

Character table of V8 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (0 < j < n À 1) öj (1 < j < n À 1) 1 8n 1 1 1 1 2 2 a2 r1 (0 < r < n À 1) 8n 4n 1 1 1 1 À2 2 1 1 À1 À1 b2 a2s a2s b2 (1 < s < (n À 1)a2) 4n 4n 1 1 1 1 ù4 js ùÀ4 js ù2 js ùÀ2 js 1 1 1 1 Àù4 js ÀùÀ4 js ù2 js ùÀ2 js b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 ù2 j(2 r1) ÀùÀ2 j(2 r1) ù j(2 r1) ùÀ j(2 r1) Note: ù e2ðia2 n . . and a further n À 1 characters ö j (1 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. Observe that U6 D6. 422. faj bk : j even. . and faj bk : j odd. For example. fa2s . The 2n 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. fa2 r1 .Chapter 18 Character table of U6 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷j (0 < j < 2n À 1) øk (0 < k < n À 1) Note: ù e2ðia2 n . aÀ2 rÀ1 b2 g(0 < r < n À 1). fa2s b2 . fb2 g. ÷4 . aÀ2s b2 g(1 < s < (n À 1)a2).8. k 1 or 3gX a2 r 6n ù2 jr 2ù2 kr a2 r b 3n ù2 jr Àù2 kr a2 r1 2n ù j(2 r1) 0 421 Using Exercise 17. . k 1 or 3g. n characters ø j (0 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. as shown below. aÀ2s g. U12 T12 and U18 D6 3 C3 . . we get four linear characters ÷1 . the character table of V24 is given at the top of p. 5.

öl T 0. Note that (1 2 3 4 5)2 is conjugate to (1 3 4 5 2) in A5 . 1 G l k÷. öl kø. Since ÷ is not faithful. øöiX jGj gPG jGj gPG Similarly. . Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. 2. By Proposition 15. ÷ A ø2 ø4 ø5 . Using Proposition 19. 4. Therefore k÷ n . ÷öl. .5 there is an irreducible character ø of G such that ø(g) T ø(1). Then wg w for all w P V . V (n factors).13). k÷ø. ö A ø4 X . øl.15 and (14.422 Representations and characters of groups Character table of V24 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ø0 ø1 ø2 ö1 ö2 1 24 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 b2 24 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 À2 2 2 a 12 1 1 À1 À1 p0 ip 3 Ài 3 1 À1 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 À2 2 a5 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 p Ài 3 p i 3 1 À1 a2 12 1 1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 À1 a2 b2 12 1 1 1 1 À2 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Chapter 19 1X h÷ø. ö S ø1 ø3 . there exists 1 T g P G with vg v for all v P V. by Exercise 1. The result now follows from Proposition 13. øl 0. öi 1 1 ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) h÷. Hence ö( g) ö(1) for all irreducible characters ö for which k÷ n . 3. k÷ø.14 we obtain 1 ÷S ÷A öS öA 15 10 6 3 (1 2 3) 0 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À2 2 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 0 0 1 p (1 3 4 5 2) 0 0 1 p (1 5)a2 (1 À 5)a2 Then ÷ S ø1 ø2 2ø3 . Let n be an integer with n > 0.

÷ S as ÷4 and ÷ A as ÷2 . below. the character table of D6 3 D6 is as shown. We have recorded ÷ as ÷5 . a) (1. hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 (1. 1) (b. Character table of D6 3 D6 ( gi . Since k÷ i .14. these are irreducible by Propositions 13. The table also records the trivial character ÷1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. ÷3 ÷2 . Taking D6 ka. 1) (a. b) (b. (a) Regard D8 as the subgroup of S4 which permutes the four corners of a square. Exercise 27. ÷ i l 1 for i 2. b: a3 b2 1. 1) (1. a) (b. ÷6 ÷5 and ÷7 ÷2 ÷5 . 5. as in Example 1.1(3). hj ) |CG ( gi . b) 36 18 12 18 9 6 12 6 4 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 2 2 À2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 2 À2 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 0 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 0 0 0 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 Àù2 Àù À1 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 Àù Àù2 À1 g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 ù ù2 1 g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 ù2 ù 1 Chapter 20 1. Character table of G (cf. the character table is complete.Chapter 20 423 5.2) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù e2ðia3 6. b) (a. Since G has seven conjugacy classes. a) (a.15 and 17. Take b to be the re¯ection in the axis shown: . these characters are irreducible. 4.

÷4 5 H ø3 ø5 . Also. ÷3 5 H ø1 ø4 . . ÷11 be the irreducible characters of S6 . . Then ÷ 5 H d1 ø1 . b 3 (1 3) gives the required isomorphism.3). these give the characters ø1 . . (b) Take the irreducible characters ÷1 . . Character table of A6 gi 1 (1 2 3) |C A6 ( g i )| 360 9 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 ø6 ø7 1 5 10 9 5 8 8 1 2 1 0 À1 À1 À1 p (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4 5) (1 3 4 5 2) (1 2 3)(4 5 6) (1 2 3 4)(5 6) 8 5 5 9 4 1 1 À2 1 1 0 0 5)a2. . and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree d. Let ÷1 . we obtain from ÷11 5 A6 the two irreducible characters which we have called ø6 and ø7 . ÷11 5 A6 l 2.14.5. H V4 and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree 3 (see Section 18. ø5 in our character table below. . take G S3 and H a subgroup of order 2. Since each ø i has degree 1. ø r be the irreducible characters of H. ÷2 5 H ø4 . or using (20. ÷ 5 Hl H < 3 follows at once from Proposition 20. Write d k÷ 5 H. Arguing as in Example 20. . 7. .13). as in Example 19. take G A4 . For an example with d 3. ÷5 of S4 as in Section 18. . The inequality k÷ 5 H.1. dr ø r for some non-negative integers di . â (1 À 1 0 0 À1 0 á â p 5)a2 1 0 0 À1 0 â á 1 À1 1 0 2 À1 À1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 0 Note: á (1 3. . the inequality (20. .17. and take the character table of H to be gi |CH ( gi )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 (1 3)(2 4) 8 1 1 1 1 À2 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 (1 3) 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (see Example 16. For examples with d 1 or 2. . .2). Let ø1 . k÷11 5 A6 .424 Representations and characters of groups Then a 3 (1 2 3 4). Either by direct calculation. . ÷5 5 H ø2 ø5 X 2. . .3(3) or Section 18. ÷ 5 Hl H .6) gives ÷(1) d 1 X X X d r < d 2 X X X d 2 < nX 1 r 4. . . we ®nd that the characters ÷ i 5 A6 (i 1. . 3. 5. 9) are distinct irreducible characters of A6 . We obtain ÷1 5 H ø1 .

6. 2. (a) ÷1 5 H ÷2 5 H ø1 . Hence sp (u) is a C H-submodule of CH. ø2 4 G ø3 4 G ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 X 3. 35X Chapter 21 1. the induced module U 4 G is irreducible. ÷4 5 H ÷5 5 H ø1 ø2 ø3 . (b) Since every element of G belongs to H or to Ha. (b) Using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 14. Then ua2 Àu and ub u. (c) The character ø of U and the character ø 4 G of U 4 G are given by 1 ø 1 a2 À1 b 1 a2 b À1 1 ø4G 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 Since hø 4 G. It is suf®cient to prove that if U is a CH-submodule of CH then dim (U 4 G) jG : Hjdim U . the restriction of the irreducible character of degree 20 to A7 must be the sum of two different irreducible characters of degree 10. we obtain ø1 4 G ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 ÷5 . 21. We are told that A7 has exactly nine conjugacy classes. 10. Since 20 occurs only once in the list of degrees for S7 . ÷3 5 H ø2 ø3 . 10. Let Hgj (1 < j < m) be the distinct right . Hence the irreducible characters of A7 have degrees 1.13). upon restriction to A7 we get at least seven irreducible characters of A7 . 15. Label the characters of H as follows: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 1 1 (1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 (1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . the elements u and ua form a basis of U 4 G. See (20.Chapter 21 425 5. and we get precisely seven if and only if the restriction of each of the fourteen characters is irreducible. 14. (a) Let u 1 À a2 b À a2 b. ø 4 Gi 1. From the remaining fourteen irreducible characters of S7 .

. . . that either (1) ø 4 G is irreducible. 3). and on all other elements the values are zero. we obtain h(ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G. (÷ö) 5 Hi H hø 4 G.23. Suppose ®rst that ø 4 G is irreducible. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. ÷ i 5 Hi H . (Compare Proposition 20. We have |G: H|ø(1) d1 ÷1 (1) . The values of ö 4 G and ø 4 G are given by Proposition 21. hence ÷ 5 H is reducible. dk ÷ k (1). By applying the result of Exercise 6. or (2) ø 4 G is the sum of two different irreducible characters of the same degree. The sum Ug1 . say ÷ 5 H ø ö. Ug m is direct (since the elements in Ugj are linear combinations of elements in the right coset Hgj ).9. By using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem twice. Then U(CG) Ug1 .11. we deduce. Hence dim(U 4 G) dim(U (CG)) m dim U . 3) 12 0 6. dim (Ugj ) dim U (since u 3 ugj (u P U) is a vector space isomorphism). as in the proof of Proposition 20. since ø is irreducible. the values are as follows. . öi G hø(÷ 5 H). 5. ÷öi G h(ø 4 G)÷. ÷ 5 Hi H T 0 D ø9 ø or öX Thus If ø 4 G is irreducible.17 that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G (ø 4 G)÷. (7) and (3. öi G X Since this holds for all irreducible characters ö of G. Let ö be an irreducible character of G. Cycle-shape ö4G ø4G (1) 240 720 (7) 2 À1 (3. On elements of cycle-shapes (1). we deduce from Theorem 14. Ugm . Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H. ÷ i 5 H di ø â where either â is a character of H or â 0. 4. ÷i G T 0 D hø9. We have hø9 4 G. Hence. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. say ø 4 G ÷. Then ÷(1) 2ø(1) and k÷ 5 H.426 Representations and characters of groups cosets of H in G. together with the result of Exercise 19. Thus ÷ i (1) > di ø(1). and therefore jG: Hjø(1) > (d 2 X X X d 2 )ø(1)X 1 k The required result follows. ÷ i i G hø. where d i hø 4 G. 7. where Ugj {ugj : u P U}. . then for precisely one other irreducible character ö of H we have ø 4 G ö 4 G. .) .1 (also twice). ö 5 Hi H hø. Also. øl H 1.

then ø9 ø. (a) By hypothesis. (b) We have h1 G .) Chapter 22 1.12). ÷1 5 Hi H T 0 D ø9 øX Thus If ø 4 G ÷1 ÷2 where ÷1 and ÷2 are irreducible characters of G. then r divides 16. ÷l P Z and k1 G . But kö À a1 G .11. 22 16X Hence r 4 or 8 or 16. The number of linear characters divides 15 (Theorem 17. there exist a. and the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is 15 (Theorem 11.11). ÷l bjGj÷(1)ajGj b÷(1). and if there are r characters of degree 1 and s of degree 2. ÷1 i G T 0 D hø9.11 and 22. Theorems 11. not every irreducible character has degree 1 (Proposition 9.11 show that there are r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree q. 17. ÷l 0. ÷l kb÷reg . 2. moreover. and so G is abelian by Proposition 9. 3. say ø 4 G ÷1 ÷2.12. This time. 17. (c) The number of conjugacy classes of G is r s. öl are integers. both k1 G . öi h÷reg .) 4.11 and 22. Hence every irreducible character has degree 1. Then ÷1 (1) ø(1) and k÷1 5 H. Then ö a1 G b÷reg .12. and r .11). and jGj 1 jGj(a bjGj) a bjGjX jGj Since ö is a character. then kö. Use Theorems 11. (c) If ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G.18. since both sides of this equation take the same values on all elements of G. see Chapter 25. (Compare Proposition 20. 12 s . (a) Since G is non-abelian. each degree divides 15 (Theorem 22. øl H 1. öi 1 (a bjGj (jGj À 1)a) a b. 1 < s and r sq 2 pqX Hence r q and s ( p À 1)/q.12.18). öl and k÷reg . We have hø9 4 G. b P C such that ö(g) a for all g T 1 and ö(1) a bjGj. Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H.11 again. and ø9 is an irreducible character of H such that ø9 4 G has ÷1 or ÷2 as a constituent. (b) jG9j p by Theorem 17. where r divides pq. ÷l P Z. The degree of each irreducible character is 1 or 2. hence ÷1 5 H ø. .Chapter 22 427 Suppose next that ø 4 G is reducible. and r s 7 or 10 or 16. (For more information on groups of order pq. Hence kö À a1 G .

and (II) 1 7 i2 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) 0X From equation (I) we deduce that either ÷ i ( g) 0. by Lagrange's Theorem. 1 G l 0. ÷2 (1) ÷3 (1) 0 mod 5.5. Therefore. say i 2. (a) By Theorem 22. (a) If g P G then g has odd order. (6.16. . ÷7 be the irreducible characters of G. ÷ i ( g)) with 4 < i < 7 are (1. Each such subset has size 2. is an integer. 1). we have (I) 1 7 i2 (÷ i ( g))2 5. Also (III) 2 2 7 i1 (÷ i (1))2 120X Since 5 10 . 4. we have ÷( g) ÷( g À1 ) ÷( g) ÷( g) 2÷( g). . This contradicts Proposition 22. a. 4. (4. by part (b). or ÷ i (g) Æ2 for exactly one i and ÷ i (g) 0 for all other i . by part (a). . Let ÷1 .2. (c) By Corollary 22.1 and Corollary 23. But À÷(1)a2 is a rational number which is not an integer (since ÷(1) divides jGj. and from equation (III) we have (IV) 7 (÷ i (1))2 69X i4 Hence the possibilities for the pairs of integers (÷ i (1). with ÷1 1 G . (b) We deduce from part (a) that ÷ i (g) 0 for two values of i. By Corollary 22. 3. 1 G i ÷( g)X jGj gPG (c) If ÷ T 1 G in part (b). ÷(g) is an integer for all characters ÷. The stated result follows. then k÷. since 1 h÷. hence is odd). Thus ÷ 1 G . if g2 1 then g 1. (d) We now have the following part of the character table of G: . and hence also b. and ÷ i (g) Æ1 for 4 < i < 7. and ÷(g) is an algebraic integer.) 6.27. . the second possibility is ruled out by equation (II). Hence ÷( g) ÷(1) 2á gPG for some algebraic integer á. 5. By the column orthogonality relations.428 Representations and characters of groups (d) Since ÷(1) divides jGj. we deduce that ÷2 (1) ÷3 (1) 5. À1). Therefore. 6 in some order. 1). (Further information about the number of characters ÷ such that ÷ ÷ appears in Theorem 23. 1. Æ1 for all i. 120. (b) For all g P G.27. ÷ i (1) ÷ i ( g) mod 5 for all i. Partition Gnf1g into subsets by putting each element with its inverse. and hence á À÷(1)a2. part (c) implies that b|G| is an integer. The only possibility which is consistent with equation (IV) is that the values of ÷ i (1) for 4 < i < 7 are 1.

1. ÷ i ( g4 ) ÷ i (1) mod 3 and 7 (÷ i ( g4 ))2 6. 1. respectively. we deduce that i1 ÷ i (g3 ) Æ1 for 1 < i < 4 and the values of ÷ i ( g3 ) for 5 < i < 7 are that 7 0. (2) Next. (3) Since ÷ i (g3 ) ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g3 ))2 8. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 À1 1 À1 À2 2 0 g3 2 8 1 1 1 1 0 0 À2 g4 3 6 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 0 g5 4 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 g6 6 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 . We are told that ÷ i (gj ) is integer for all i. ÷ i (g5 ) ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g5 ))2 4. Since 7 ÷ i (1)÷ i (g5 ) 0. 0. À2 in order from the top. Æ2 in some order. From the relation i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 3 ) 0 we now deduce that the entries in column 3 are 1. À1. Hence the values of i1 ÷ i (g4 ) for 1 < i < 7 are 1. 1. Also i1 ÷ i (g3 )÷ i ( gr ) 0 for r 4. 0. The character table of G is as shown. 1. j. (5) Only the entries in column 2 remain to be calculated. from which 7 we see that ÷ i (g3 ) 1 for 1 < i < 4.Chapter 22 gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 g3 2 8 1 g4 3 6 1 g5 4 4 1 g6 6 6 1 429 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 We successively calculate the ®ve remaining columns of the character table. 5 and 7 we obtain ÷2 (g6 ) À÷3 (g6 ) ÷4 (g6 ) À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷5 (g6 ) À÷6 (g6 ) 1. 1. These can be obtained from the column orthogonality relations. 0. i1 we deduce that ÷4 ( g5 ) À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷2 (g5 ) À÷3 (g5 ) 1. Therefore i1 ÷ i (g6 ) Æ1 for 1 < i < 6 and ÷7 (g6 ) 0. 0. À1. By applying the column orthogonality relations involving column 6 and columns 3. 4. 7. (4) We have ÷ i (g6 ) ÷ i (g4 ) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g6 ))2 6. an (1) First. Hence ÷ i (g5 ) Æ1 i1 for 1 < i < 4 and ÷ i (g5 ) 0 for 5 < i < 7. 1.

either i j 0 or n j is even and i j n j a2. 2. . Then ÷ A (g) 1 2 2 2 2((ë1 ë2 ) À (ë1 ë2 )) ë1 ë2 det (gr) (see Proposition 19. Assume that x P G and x is real. it follows that ë is an eigenvalue of A. .430 Representations and characters of groups 7. nr which are even. a nÀ1 x nÀ1 x n (a r P Z). Then g g2( n1) P CG (x). Now the ni th root of unity ë i can be À1 if and only if ni is even. Since A has integer entries. g irr where for each j. Then det (A À ëIn ) 0. The elements g of D2 n for which g2 1 are 1. Since x 2 1 and x has odd order. where m is the number of the integers n1 . . which is of the form x n anÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 (ar P Z)X Conversely. summing over all the irreducible characters ÷. the elements g of G which satisfy g2 1 are i precisely those elements g11 .14). assume that ë is a root of the polynomial p(x) a0 a1 x . m 2n 1 for some integer n. Since ÷(1) 2 we have ÷ A (1) 1. The character ÷ of G C n1 3 . Adopt the notation of Theorem 9. . . . These numbers coincide with ÷(1). . Suppose ®rst that ë is an eigenvalue of an n 3 n matrix A. It now follows from the De®nition 23. Therefore x À1 gÀ1 xg x. . 3. 4. Then gÀ1 xg x À1 for some g P G. and n 2 elements if n is even. . so g2 P CG (x). Hence the number of real irreducible characters is 2 m . As p(ë) 0. . Hence gÀ2 xg2 x. Since jGj is odd. it follows that x 1. Chapter 23 1. Let m be the order of g. . by Lagrange's Theorem. Since é÷ < 1 for all ÷. Let ë1 and ë2 be the eigenvalues of gr. The number of such elements is also 2 m . However.8. ë is therefore an algebraic integer. all of whose entries are integers. it follows from the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions that we must have é÷ 1 for all ÷. The result follows.13 of é÷ that é÷ À1 if and only if ÷ A 1 G . a i b (0 < i < n À 1) (and also a na2 if n is even)X This gives n 1 elements if n is odd. Let I H 0 1 0 XXX 0 f 0 0 1 0 g g f f 0 0 0 0 g f F Af F F gX F g F g f F d 0 0 0 1 e Àa0 Àa1 Àa2 XXX Àa nÀ1 Check that det (xIn À A) p(x). 3 C n r which is given by i i ÷( g 11 X X X g irr ) ë11 X X X ë irr is real if and only if ë i Æ1 for all i with 1 < i < r. and hence ë is a root of the polynomial det (xIn À A).

so det A (À1) n det A. (a) First. there exists a nonzero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form â on V. so det A T 0. v j ). nÀ1 Therefore j1 (éø j )ø j (1) 0 or À2. 2} then â(v i g. f j ). Clearly é÷1 é÷3 1. QQt I) such that Q(PBPt )QÀ1 is diagonal. there is an orthogonal matrix Q (i. j P {1. b ij â( f i . so é÷ Æ1. 6. v j ) â(v i . and de®ne the basis e1 . 7. Hence ÷ (é÷)÷(1) 2.Chapter 23 431 5. X X X . it is easy to check that ÷( g) is real for all g P G. Then det (ar) 1 and det (br) Àå n . Let 9 n i j P ( pij ) be the n 3 n matrix which is given by f9 pij f j X i j Then PAP I n and PBP is symmetric. v1 bÀ1 ). . respectively. . f 9 of V such that â1 ( f 9. Hence an is the only element of order 2. since V is irreducible it follows that fu P V : â(u. . . Therefore det (At ) (À1) n det A. as n ÷(1) the result is proved. a has order 2n and ai b has order 4. The result now follows from Theorem 23. The result now follows from Exercise 4. Since â is skew-symmetric. respectively. It follows that n is even. according to whether n is odd or even. hence det (gr) 1 for all g P G if and only if å n À1. . v j g À1 )X For example. f 9) ä ij for all i. and é÷2 é÷4 0 or 1. . v1 ) â(v2 . By part (a) (or part (b)) and the construction of the characters ø j in Exercise 17. . . Choose a basis f1 . we may construct a basis f 1 . Write Q (q ij ). The de®nition of â shows that â is symmetric if å n 1 and â is skew-symmetric if å n À1. . respectively. v1 ) å n â(v1 . we get éø j À1 or 1. (c) The elements of T4 n are ai and ai b (0 < i < 2n À 1). Let r be the representation obtained by using the basis v1 . v) 0 for all v P V} is a CGsubmodule of V. (d) Refer the Exercise 18. according to whether j is odd or even.e. fn of V and de®ne the symmetric n 3 n matrices A (aij ) and B (bij ) by aij â1 ( f i .16. v2 of V. As â is G-invariant. en of V by ei qij f 9 X j j t t . v) 0 for all v P V g f0gX (Ã ) Pick a basis v1 . Since é÷ À1. By a well known property of symmetric matrices. . v n of V and let A be the n 3 n matrix with ij-entry â(v i . . according to whether n is odd or even. j. â(v1 b. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. f j )X By applying the Gram±Schmidt orthogonalization process. å n v2 ) â(v1 . .6. (b) It is easy to check that if g a or b and i. we have At ÀA. Also A is invertible by (Ã ). the subspace {u P V: â(u.3 for the characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) and ÷ j (1 < j < 4) of T4 n. Hence â is G-invariant.

e. Hence |G : G9| 2 by Theorem 17. and since QPBPt Qt is diagonalX â(ei . â å 2 å 6 å 7 å 8 å 10 X . so ë P R. r g is a permutation. we have G9 1.1. . . Then V9 is a CG-module. which we are assuming to be an irreducible CG-module. 0 1 0 x 0 x À1 Therefore G is a group. We have g P ker r D Hxg Hx. Let ç e2ðia5 and å e2ðia11 . i. 0 x 0 x9 0 xx9 associativity is a property of matrix multiplication. since QPAPt Qt I n . since a linear character must take the value Æ1 on t. . ej ) ä ij . . ÷2 (t) Æ1 and ÷ i (t) 0 for i > 3. . By the orthogonality relation for c2 we have ÷ i (t)2 |CG (t)| 2 (the sum over all irreducible characters ÷ i . G is abelian. note that 1 y 1 y9 1 y9 yx . Let c1 . De®ne W: V 3 V by vW av (v P V). so we may take ÷1 (t) 1. . (c) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. Hence G C2 . v n . inverse of is . Then V is an irreducible RG-module. ÷1 and ÷2 are the only linear characters.432 Then Representations and characters of groups â1 (ei . (b) Let v1 . By Schur's Lemma there exists ë P C such that vW ëv for all v P V9. v n be a basis of the RG-module V. and consider the vector space V9 over C with basis v1 . 10. 2.11. 9. and r is a homomorphism as (Hx)(r gh ) Hxgh (Hx)(r g )(r h ). Further. Vx P G D g P xPG xÀ1 HxX Finally. and write á å å 3 å 4 å 5 å 9 . . identity is 1 0 1 y 1 À yx À1 . For the last part. if G is simple then since G9 v G. ej ) 0 if i T j. as Hxg Hyg A Hx Hy. It is clear that the given set of matrices has size p( p À 1). But v1 W ëv1 P V. (a) The proof is similar to that of part (1) of Schur's Lemma 9. xgx À1 Vx P G D xPG x À1 P H. and let V be the RG-submodule of the regular RG-module which is spanned by 1 À a and 1 À a2 . with ÷1 1 G ). Hx. . Chapter 25 1. 8. Call it G. r is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù) S n with kernel which is contained in H. For closure. Now the orthogonality of c1 and c2 gives ÷1 (1) ÷2 (1) 1 and ÷2 (t) À1. c2 be the columns of the character table of G corresponding to the classes {1} and t G .

then a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . 5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 55 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 a 11 1 1 1 1 1 á â a2 11 1 1 1 1 1 â á b 5 1 ç ç2 ç3 ç4 0 0 b2 5 1 ç2 ç4 ç ç3 0 0 b3 5 1 ç3 ç ç4 ç2 0 0 433 b4 5 1 ç4 ç3 ç2 ç 0 0 3. b9À1 ab9 av iX Hence G1 G2 . m is coprime to q. Recall that ZÃ is cyclic.Chapter 25 Character table of F11. and it follows from Corollary 15. Also. bÀ m abm au av . then a is conjugate to aÀ1 and so ÷(a) is real for all characters p so (ö1 (a))2 (ö2 (a))2 ( p 1)a2. since both m and v have u order q modulo p. Then G1 ha. Hence bm has order q. b9: ap b9q 1. Let b9 bm. Also. Also. and we ®nd that p ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are (À1 Æ i p)a2. Hence ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) ÷. This time. If p À1 mod 4.6 that ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are not both real.6(c). Hence p u m À1 mod p for some m D the element u of ZÃ has even order p D q is even D p 1 mod 4X (b) By Proposition 25. Hence ö2 (a) ö1 (a).9. are (À1 Æ p)a2. there exists an integer m p such that u m v mod p. Therefore aÀ1 P aG D u m À1 mod p for some m D p 1 mod 4X (c) ÷ i (a) 1 for all the q linear characters ÷ i of G. (a) Note that À1 is the only element of order 2 in ZÃ. aG {au : m P Z}. Hence 0 ÷(1)÷(a) q qö1 (a) qö2 (a)X ÷ irred m Therefore ö1 (a) ö2 (a) À1. 4. so p ÷(a)÷(a) q ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ö2 (a)ö2 (a)X ÷ Hence ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ö2 (a)ö2 (a) ( p 1)a2. 2ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ( p 1)a2. If p 1 mod 4. . |CG (a)| p. so by Exercise 1.

u ( pÀ1)a2 } is precisely the set of quadratic residues modulo p. fa r : 3 B rg. Then H1 v G and Ga H 1 C6 . The result now follows from part (c). u 2 . The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. The ®nal irreducible character ÷10 can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. H 2 bi D6 .434 Representations and characters of groups ( pÀ1)a2 m (d) By Theorem 25. 6g. All the elements outside H form a single conjugacy class of E. it follows that {u.3 (see Theorem 19. the conjugacy class hE consists of h and hÀ1 . 3. Hence we get six linear characters ÷1 . (a) F13. fa r b: 0 < r < 8g. Lift the irreducible character of D6 of degree 2 to obtain ÷7 in the table below. 6g.10. Since ZÃ is cyclic of order p p À 1 and u has order ( p À 1)a2. fa r b2 : 3 B rg.3 (see Theorem 25. Z(E) {1}.10). ÷5 and ÷6 are obtained similarly. and for all i with 1 < i < 6. Also. . The characters ÷4 . . fa r b2 : r 0. Then H2 v G and Ga H 2 h H 2 a. ÷6 of G. 8.3 (see Theorem 19. . Then ÷8 ÷7 ÷2 and ÷9 ÷7 ÷3 are also irreducible. Character table of E gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 18 1 1 2 2 2 2 a 9 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 b 9 1 1 À1 2 À1 À1 ab 9 1 1 À1 À1 2 À1 a2 b 9 1 1 À1 À1 À1 2 c 2 1 À1 0 0 0 0 6.18). b2 l. bl. . ö1 (a) m1 å u . . Then ÷ 4 E is the irreducible character ÷3 given in the table which follows. 5. Let H2 ka3 . (c) D6 3 F13. . A typical non-trivial linear character of H is 1 ÷ 1 a 1 a2 1 b ù b2 ù2 ab ù ab2 ù2 a2 b ù a2 b2 ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . (b) C2 3 F13. . fa r b3 : 0 < r < 8g. Then for all h P H. as shown. E9 H. so E has exactly two linear characters. 3. fa r b4 : 3 B rg. 7. a6 g.18). there exist gi P E such that gi T 1 but ÷ i (gi ) ÷ i (1) (so gi P Ker ÷ i ). Let H ka. fa r b4 : r 0. say ÷1 and ÷2 . fa r b5 : 0 < r < 8gX Let H1 kal. . . fa3 .

But ø(1) 1. hz. {1}. Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. Then k÷ 5 H. Character table of H (a non-abelian group of order 27) gi |C H ( g i )| ÷00 ÷01 ÷02 ÷10 ÷11 ÷12 ÷20 ÷21 ÷22 ö1 ö2 1 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 z 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù 3ù2 z2 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù2 3ù a 9 1 1 1 ù ù ù ù2 ù2 ù2 0 0 a2 9 1 1 1 ù2 ù2 ù2 ù ù ù 0 0 b 9 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 0 0 ab 9 1 ù ù2 ù ù2 1 ù2 1 ù 0 0 a2 b 9 1 ù ù2 ù2 1 ù ù ù2 1 0 0 b2 9 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 0 0 ab2 9 1 ù2 ù ù 1 ù2 ù2 ù 1 0 0 a2 b2 9 1 ù2 ù ù2 ù 1 ù 1 ù2 0 0 Note: ù e2ðia3 . bÀ1 ab a2 l gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 Note: ù e2ðia3 1 54 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 6 a3 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 À3 a 9 ab2 9 ab4 9 b 6 b2 18 b3 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 b4 18 435 b5 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 ù2 ù Àù ù2 1 ù ù2 ù2 ù 1 1 1 À1 1 1 ù2 ù ù ù2 1 ù ù2 Àù2 ù À1 À1 À1 0 2 À1 Àù2 Àù 0 2ù2 À1 Àù Àù2 0 2ù 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ù Àù2 ù2 ù 1 À1 ù ù2 ù2 Àù 2 0 2ù 0 2ù2 0 0 0 Chapter 26 1. hz 2 }. Then r pm for some m. since H is abelian. Assume that G has r linear characters and s irreducible characters of degree p. and (ø 4 G)(1) p.Chapter 26 Character table of G ka. Hence ÷(1) < p. by Theorem 17X11. øl H T 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. For all other elements h of H.11. by Corollary 21. by Theorem 11X12X Since s p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 and s is an integer. ø 4 Gi G T 0 by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. b: a9 b6 1. and r sp2 pn . Therefore h÷. the conjugacy class hH {h. m is at least 2. 2. {z} and {z 2 } are conjugacy classes of H. and so ÷(1) 1 or p by Theorem 22.20.

G has 11 conjugacy classes: {1}. B. u P {0. s. ÷7 of G as shown in the table at the top of this page. Since Gah Zi is abelian.3. Hence every element of G has the form A i B j C k D l Z m for some i. aÀ r } (1 < r < 7). Here. G has precisely 16 representations of degree 1. b: a16 1. s. b2 a8 . k. by Theorem 11. (a) Let å e2ðia8 . (b) A2 ÀB2 ÀC2 D2 I. since g4 1 for all g P G. 1 32 a8 32 a 16 a2 16 a3 16 a4 16 a5 16 a6 16 a7 16 b 4 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 2 2 p0 À2 0 2 0 0 p p À2 p0 2 2 2 0 Àp2 À2 Àp2 0 2 0 p p 2 2 À 2 0 2 À2 2 0 À 2 0 2 À2 cj c2 j c3 j c4 j c5 j c6 j c7 j 0 5. 1g. we obtain the characters ÷1 . 7) come from inducing to G those linear characters ÷ of kal for which ÷(a8 ) À1. BD ÀDB. it follows that g 2 P h Zi for all g P G. . . these are all the irreducible representations of G. {ar b: r even}. l. 3.10). j. and GaK D16 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 øj ( j 1. this shows that jGj 32. Hence Z P G. Since G9 h Zi.3.436 Representations and characters of groups Character table of G ka. Hence by Corollary 9. {ar . jGj > 12 42 17. (a) Check that AB ÀBA. 5. C and D has the form ëI for some ë P C. By lifting the irreducible characters of D16. also G is a 2-group. the given representation is irreducible. (c) A routine calculation shows that every matrix which commutes with each of A. we get a representation A i B j C k D l Z m 3 (À1) ir js kt lu X Together with the irreducible representation of degree 4.8 (D16 G1 ) and in Section 18. CD ÀDC. The character table of D16 is given in Section 26. the group K which appears in Theorem 26. 5. t. We obtain representations as follows: . . Combined with part (b). so jGj < 32. {a8 }. t. 4. BC CB. 3. AD DA. 1}. 7) Note: cm e2ði ma16 eÀ2ði ma16 2 cos (mð/8) 3. and Gah Zi is abelian while G is non-abelian. Therefore G9 h Zi (see Proposition 17. a8 }. Then the four characters ø j ( j 1. These are as follows: for each (r. m P f0. {ar b: r odd}.4 is {1.12. (d) Since G has irreducible representations of degrees 1 and 4. . u) with r. AC ÀCA.

b3 2 2 Chapter 26 0 1 1 0 0 1 3 . . 7 or 8 then Z(Gj ) {1. But G5 aG5 9 C2 3 C4 . . z 3 d 0 1 0 e. It is easy to see that the matrices generate groups with more than eight elements.1(2). (a) By Lemma 26. so give representations. so G5 T G8 . . The following table records the numbers of elements of orders 1. (d) The following give faithful representations: H I H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 f g f g f g G7 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. so the representations are faithful. À1 0 2 3 0 1 . Hence a .z3 X À1 1 0 0 i (b) If j 5. z. Therefore j Z(G)j p or p2 . b 3 d À1 0 0 e. b 3 d 1 0 0 e.b3 .b3 3 . except possibly G5 and G8 . Since Z(Gj ) is not cyclic. by Proposition 9. a2 z} C2 3 C2 . i f G8 : a 3 d 0 0 H 0 0 0 À1 H I 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 g f g f g Ài 0 e. . 3 437 0 å 0 0 å À1 2 3 å 0 2 0 å 0 1 0 . G9 : G1 Order Order Order Order 1 2 4 8 1 9 2 4 G2 1 1 10 4 G3 1 5 6 4 G4 1 3 4 8 G5 1 3 12 0 G6 1 7 8 0 G7 1 11 4 0 G8 1 3 12 0 G9 1 5 10 0 Therefore no two of G1 . .1(1) we have {1} T Z(G) T G.b3 . . 7. G9 are isomorphic.16. (c) Check that the matrices satisfy the required relations. 4 and 8 in G1 . . Also jGa Z(G)j T p by Lemma 26. Assume that j Z(G)j p2 . å5 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 0 0 1 i 0 .2 G1 : a 3 2 G2 : a 3 G3 : a 3 G4 : a 3 2 G5 : a 3 å å 0 À1 3 . 6. and g P CG ( g). .b3 . while G8 aG8 9 C2 3 C2 3 C2 . a2 . 2. z 3 d 0 1 0 eX I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 1 0 0 1 6. Gj has no faithful irreducible representation. 1 0 å3 3 2 3 0 0 1 . If g P Z(G) then Z(G) < CG (g) T G.

Therefore Ga Z T Q8 . and assume that Ga Z haZ. bÀ1 abZ aÀ1 ZX Then a2 b2 z for some z P Z. Since ÷(1)2 p4 (Theorem 11. we have a2 1. Check that and 1 0 1 1 1 À1 0 1 are elements of G SL (2. G has p2 ( p4 À p2 )a p conjugacy classes. if |Z(G)| p2 then |G9| p. so a Æ1. (c) Note that G9 Z(G) T {1} by Lemma 26. b and all elements in Z. Therefore jGaG9j r p2 or p3 . Since a2 commutes with a. in which case Ga(G9 Z(G)) is abelian. a2 Z b2 Z. we have a2 P Z. and if |G9| p2 then |Z(G)| p. either G9 Z(G) G9. so r sp2 p4 . and . p))X 1 z A c 0. then by Exercise 7.438 Representations and characters of groups jC G ( g)j p3 and j gG j p. Therefore. (b) Assume that G has r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree p. (a) Let Z Z(G). Chapter 27 1. By parts (a) and (b). bZi. Part (b) follows.12). and hence ba2 b3 z b2 zb a2 b. and since z P SL (2. and 1 1 z A c Àb. (b) If G is a non-abelian group of order 16. Hence |G9 Z(G)| p.1(1). Assume that z Then a c b d P Z(SL (2. in which case Ga(G9 Z(G)) T Q8 by part (a). there are no irreducible characters of degree greater than p. as r s is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. 3) of order 3 which are not conjugate to each other. a dX 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 z À1 0 À1 z Therefore z aI. The element À1 0 0 À1 lies in Z(G). 8. and if r p2 then r s 2 p2 À 1. 2. p). with a4 P Z. or G9 Z(G) Z(G).

0). so we obtain a homomorphism ö: G 3 S4 . Since ÷5 ÷2 and ÷5 ÷3 are irreducible characters of G of degree 2. 7. say ÷5 ÷2 ÷6 and ÷5 ÷3 ÷7 . 1) and (1. Hence the following are conjugacy class representatives: g1 1 0 1 24 0 1 g2 À1 0 0 À1 2 24 g3 0 À1 4 4 1 0 g4 1 1 0 1 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| 3 6 g5 1 0 À1 1 3 6 g6 À1 1 0 À1 6 6 g7 À1 À1 0 À1 6 6 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| We now describe how to construct the character table of G. by Corollary 22. ÷6 and ÷7 must be real. ÷6 . a subgroup of S4 of order 12. therefore GafÆIg A4 . First observe that the vector space (Z3 )2 has exactly four 1-dimensional subspaces.5 implies that ÷ j ( g7 ) À÷ j ( g4 ). one of ÷5 . The values of ÷5 . Finally. they must be ÷6 and ÷7 in some order. . Then ÷5 ( g4 ) á. The group G permutes these subspaces among themselves. Exercise 13. á Æ1. ÷2 .2). Note that G has three real conjugacy classes.27. without loss of generality. The characters ÷1 . ÷(g5 ) ÷( g4 ) and ÷(g6 ) ÷( g7 ) for all ÷. that ÷5 is real. Now note that for j 5. ÷7 on the elements g1 . Check that Ker ö {ÆI}. ÷3 . g2 . (2. which is given below. Hence GafÆIg Im ö. Since á is real. so by Theorem 23. (1.1. whose values on g4 are áù and áù2 . 1).Chapter 27 0 À1 1 0 439 has order 4. Also á T 0. Assume. Then á À1 since ÷5 ( g4 ) ÷5 (1) mod 3. 6. 1). ÷4 of G are obtained by lifting to G the irreducible characters of A4 (which are given in Section 18. The equation j ÷ j (g4 )÷ j ( g 4 ) 6 gives áá 1. g3 can be deduced from the column orthogonality relations. where á is real. namely the spans of the vectors (0.

Representatives of the conjugacy classes of T are h1 .6. so ë : G is irreducible.440 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. 1 G l 1.25. The values of 1 T : G and ë : G are as follows (see Proposition 21. . h5 . where 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 0 2 0 4 0 h1 Z.23): gi |CG ( g i )| 1T 4 G ë4G g1 168 8 8 g2 8 0 0 g3 4 0 0 g4 3 2 À1 g5 7 1 1 g6 7 1 1 We ®nd that k1 T : G. Also. 3) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù e2ðia3 3. (a) For the character table of T. 0 1 0 4 0 2 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 À1 h4 Z. Hence 1 T : G 1 G ÷. . h2 Z. h5 ZX 0 1 0 1 Two of the linear characters of T are hi |CT (h i )| 1T ë h1 21 1 1 h2 3 1 ù h3 3 1 ù2 h4 7 1 1 h5 7 1 1 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 À1 Àù Àù2 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 À1 Àù2 Àù g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 1 ù2 ù g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 1 ù ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . Apply Proposition 17. . notice that T is isomorphic to the group of order 21 whose character table is found in Exercise 17. . where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. 4. write ö ë : G. ë : Gl 1. kë : G. 1 T : Gl 2 and k1 T : G.2 and Example 21. h3 Z. .

Further.14): gi |CG ( g i )| ÷ ÷S æ ø g1 168 7 28 12 6 g2 8 À1 4 4 2 g3 4 À1 0 0 0 g4 3 1 1 0 0 g5 7 0 0 À2 À1 g6 7 0 0 À2 À1 441 We ®nd that k÷ S . and none is a constituent of æ. The remaining irreducible characters ÷4 . 0. Hence there is a character æ of G such that ÷ S 1 G ö ÷ æX The values of æ are as shown above. ÷ and ø are the characters ÷1 . ÷6 in the character table shown below. öl k÷ S . ö and ÷ are three of the six irreducible characters of G. ÷3 . and ÷11 (1) 8. two of ÷7 . (d) The characters 1 G . .27 again. 1 G l k÷ S . ö. . . (b) By lifting. ÷7 (1)2 ÷8 (1)2 ÷11 (1)2 96. ø A has the following values on g1 . ÷8 (1).16. The values of ø are as shown above. and 12 6 . 11 say ÷9 and ÷10 . have degrees 2divisible by 6. . g2 . . ÷(g6 ) P Z for all characters ÷. æ cannot therefore be the sum of four irreducible characters. By Corollary 22. we deduce that ÷ j (g3 ) 0 for 7 < j < 11. the (d) Since 11 ÷ j (g3 )÷ j ( g3 ) 8. or æ is the sum of four distinct irreducible characters (cf.14. so ÷9 (1) ÷10 (1) 6. are equal to 4. (a) Compare the proof of Lemma 27. 5. gi and gi g2 have the same centralizer for all i. .Chapter 27 (c) The values of ÷ and ÷ S are as shown below (see Proposition 19. in the character table of G given at the end of Chapter 27. the values of ÷ j (g6 ) for 7 < j < 11 must be Æ1. Since By 11 2 j1 (÷ j (g6 )) 6. ÷11 (1). since ÀI is not in kernel of these characters). ÷5 can readily be calculated using the column orthogonality relations (noting that gi is real if and only if 1 < i < 4). by Corollary 22. Exercise 14. so either æ 2ø for some irreducible character ø. apply part (c). The congruences ÷(1) ÷(g6 ) mod 3 now give the remaining values on g6 . ÷l 1. respectively. in some order.) Also. Æ1. ÷2 and ÷6 .7). Use part (c) to ®ll in the values on g2 and g7 . 168. . j1 (Alternatively. Since there are only six irreducible characters in all. ÷11 . 2 2 j1 (÷ j (1)) 168. Æ1. say ÷7 (1) and ÷8 (1). and so æ 2ø with ø irreducible. Now 1 G .5 (noting that ÷ j (ÀI) T ÷ j (I) for 7 < j < 11. g3 and g6 : g1 øA 6 g2 6 g3 2 g6 0 .27. Next. ÷ j (1) is even. We calculate that kæ. (e) Theorem 22.1. The only possibility is that two of ÷7 (1). we obtain the characters ÷1 . . æl 4. 0. (c) Use Exercise 13. Note that because g2 lies in Z(G). (f ) By Proposition 19.

®nally. thereby completing the character table of G. This allows us to ®ll in the j1 values of ÷11 . by & ' a b Ã. ø(g4 ) 0. ÷(g4 ) is real for all ÷. using this fact and part (c). of order 55. Therefore x (1 Æ i 7)a2. Hence 4 (ø( g4 )2 À ø( g 3 ))a2 ø A ( g4 ) ÷6 ( g 4 ) 0. The column orthogonality relations now let us ®nd the remaining values of ÷9 and ÷10 . we ®ll in the values of ÷7 and ÷8 . For all ÷. the value on g3 forces ø A ÷6 . Then ÷8 ÷7 . 6. we have 11 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g 6 ) 0. Then the value of ø A on g6 shows that ÷1 is not a constituent of ø A . ø(g5 ) 0. we get 8 p (x 2 À x)a2 øp( g8 ) À1. Since g4 is conjugate to gÀ1 . Similarly. Let x ø(g8 ). ÷( g 10 ) ÷(g8 ).bPZ T Z: a P Z 11 11 X 0 aÀ1 Then T is generated by 1 1 2 0 x Z and y Z. Let Z {ÆI} and de®ne the subgroup T of G. 7) gi g1 Order of g i 1 |CG ( g i )| 336 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 7 8 3 3 6 4 4 6 6 8 g2 2 336 1 7 8 3 3 6 À4 À4 À6 À6 À8 g3 4 8 g4 8 8 g5 8 8 g6 3 6 g7 6 6 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 g8 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g9 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 g10 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g11 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 p p 0 0 p 2 Àp 2 0 À 2 2 0 0 0 0 À1 p Note: á (À1 i 7)a2 The values of ø A on g1 and g2 show that ø A is a linear combination of ÷1 . where æ j : x u y v 3 e2ði jva5 X .442 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. Now g2 is conjugate to g3 . and therefore. Since g2 is conjugate to g8 . ÷4 . Say A ÷7 ( g 8 ) (1 À i 7)a2. 0 1 0 6 and T has ®ve linear characters æ j (0 < j < 4). (g) For i T 6. ÷5 and ÷6 . Then 4 11 and 11 ÷ j ( g 4 )2 8 imply that j1 ÷ j ( g 1 )÷ j ( g 4 ) 0 p j1 p ÷9 (g4 ) À÷10 (g4 ) Æ 2. Say ÷9 (g4 ) 2.

The column orthogonality relations now enable us to ®nish the character table. ÷5 (1). and j1 ÷ j (g4 ) 6. we j1 see that ÷7 (g2 ) ÷8 (g2 ) 1. 8 2 Now ÷(g4 ) ÷(g3 ) mod 2 for all ÷. ÷(g2 ) ÷(g4 ) mod 3 for all ÷. By considering 8 ÷ j (1)÷ j (g2 ) 0. ÷7 (1). j1 ÷ j (g2 ) 12. ÷8 (1) are 10. so ÷ j (g4 ) Æ1 for 5 < j < 8. ÷5 (g2 ) 2 À÷6 ( g2 ). hence. the j1 values of ÷ j (g3 ) (5 < j < 8) are as shown. and 8 ÷ j ( g2 )2 12. æ0 4 Gi 2. 11) gi Order of g i |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 Note: á (À1 p g1 1 660 1 11 12 12 10 10 5 5 g2 2 12 1 À1 0 0 2 À2 1 1 g3 3 6 1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 p g4 6 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 1 1 g5 5 5 1 1 á â 0 0 0 0 g6 5 5 1 1 â á 0 0 0 0 g7 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã g8 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã 5)a2. 10. â (À1 À p 5)a2 and ã (À1 i 11)a2 Since 8 ÷ j (g5 )÷ j ( g 5 ) 5. ÷4 . ÷3 . namely ÷1 . j1 hence |÷( g2 )| . . we j1 can complete column 4. without loss of generality. respectively. But 8 (÷ j (1))2 250. ÷6 . 2. and ÷5 (g2 ). 5. We may now conclude from the facts 8 2 that ÷(g2 ) ÷(g1 ) mod 2 and that ÷ j (g2 ) Æ2 for j 5. Character table of PSL (2. Next.27. note that e2ðia5 eÀ2ðia5 (À1 5)a2X) Let ÷1 1 G . ÷1 i 1 and hæ0 4 G. 3 for all irreducible ÷. by Theorem 22. We have hæ0 4 G. 8. without loss j5 of generality. and 8 ÷ j (g4 )2 6. 6 and ÷ j (g2 ) Æ1 for j 7. ÷6 (g2 ) have opposite signs. ÷6 (1). ÷ j (1) 0 mod 5 for 5 < j < 8. 5. (In calculating ÷3 (g5 ). they are ÷3 and ÷4 in the p table. By Corollary 22. ÷2 . Hence æ0 4 G ÷1 ÷2 for an irreducible character ÷2 of G. we deduce that the remaining irreducible j1 characters ÷5 . ÷8 take the value 0 on g5 . We have now found four of the eight irreducible characters of G. and 8 ÷ j (g3 )2 6.Chapter 27 443 The characters æ1 4 G and æ2 4 G are irreducible. ÷7 .16. 3 and 5 of the character table. Since ÷(g4 ) ÷(g2 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. Note that ÷(gj ) is an integer for 1 < j < 4 and all characters ÷. Since ÷(1) ÷(g3 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. We have now completed columns 1.

(a) The identity I has centralizer of order q 3 À q. Then s in F q a b s 0 aas bas X 0 s cas das c d The ®rst matrix in the product is sI and the second belongs to SL(2. 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 g2 g3 g4 1 0 2 0 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 g6 g7 g8 2 2 0 1 2 1 where 3 1 2 1 1 3 X The character table of GL(2. q You should have no dif®culty in proving that the conjugacy classes of SL(2. 1 1 (b) The matrix u1 has centralizer of order q. s À1 g of elements 0 s À1 from F q nF2 . g8 as representatives of the conjugacy classes. q). 0 1 (c) There are (q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives s 0 d s. X 2 1 g1 0 2 1 g5 0 X X .s À1 . 3) is then as follows. Every element r of F q can be expressed as a square. since r r q and q is even. q) where Z fsI : s P FÃ g. gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ë1 ø0 ø1 ø0. q) Z 3 SL(2. We take g 1 .444 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 28 1. q). It now follows easily that GL(2. indexed by unordered pairs fs. We may write ad À bc as s 2 for some c d Ã . Each such element has centralizer of order q À 1.1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 48 1 1 3 3 4 2 2 2 g2 48 1 1 3 3 À4 À2 2 À2 g3 6 1 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 À1 g4 6 1 1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 g5 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 g6 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 2 0 g7 8 1 À1 À1 1 p0 i 2 0 p Ài 2 g8 8 1 À1 À1 1 0 p Ài 2 p0 i 2 2. q) have representatives as follows. . a b Suppose that P GL(2.

f1 ç. x 2 ç2 x 1. s À1 g of elements from F8 nF2 are fç. 1 ç ç2 g. fç2 . 8). g4 . we have used the function r 3 r de®ned in (28. g 7 . 1 ç2 g. 8) SL(2. The subscripts for ø0. and the subscripts for ÷ i satisfy 1 < i < qa2. The irreducible monic quadratics over F8 with constant term 1 are x 2 x 1. 3. 2 3 2 3 1 0 1 1 g1 g2 0 1 0 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 ç 0 1ç 0 0 ç2 g3 g4 g5 0 1 ç2 0 ç ç2 0 1 ç ç2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 g6 g9 X g7 g8 1 1 1 ç 1 ç2 1 ç ç2 We may choose a generator å of FÃ so that å 7 å À7 ç. If q T 2 then the kernel of every non-trivial character is the identity subgroup. The polynomial x 3 x 1 is irreducible over F2. x 2 (ç ç2 )x 1X The companion matrices for these quadratics give use the conjugacy class representatives g 6 . By restricting characters from GL(2. and therefore SL(2. q) is simple.i satisfy 1 < i < (q À 2)a2. Note ®rst that PSL(2. g8 . g9 below We can now list representatives g 1 . I ë0 ø0 ø0. r À1 g of elements 1 r r À1 from F q 2 nF q such that r 1q 1.3). q) you will quickly be able to prove that the character table of SL(2. q) is as follows. q) to SL(2.i ÷i 1 q q1 qÀ1 u1 1 0 1 À1 d s. c P F2 and ç3 1 çgX The pairs fs. 8). g 5 below. b. g 9 of the conjugacy classes of SL(2. Hence we may write F8 fa bç cç2 : a. X X X . indexed by unordered pairs fr.Chapter 28 445 (d) There are qa2 conjugacy classes with representatives 0 1 vr . ç ç2 gX These give us the conjugacy class representatives g3 .s À1 1 1 s i s Ài 0 vr 1 À1 0 À(r i r Ài ) Here. Then 64 . Each such element has centralizer of order q 1. as follows. x 2 çx 1.

446

Representations and characters of groups

**å 14 å À14 ç2 , å 21 å À21 1 and å 28 å À28 ç4 ç ç2 . The character table of SL(2, 8) is then as follows.
**

gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ø0 ø0,1 ø0,2 ø0,3 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 504 1 8 9 9 9 7 7 7 7 g2 8 1 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 g3 7 1 1 g4 7 1 1 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 g5 7 1 1 g6 9 1 À1 0 0 0 À2 1 1 1 g7 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 g8 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 B g9 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1

Here, the 3 3 3 submatrices A and B are given by H I 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) f g A d 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) e 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) H À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) I

f g B d À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) eX À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9)

Chapter 29

1. (a) It is straightforward to check that ö is a homomorphism. For x, y P G, the element (x, y) P G 3 G sends x to y, so that action is transitive. (b) (G 3 G)1 f( g, g) : g P Gg, and ker ö f(z, z) : z P Z(G)g. (c) Every orbit of G 3 G on G 3 G contains an ordered pair of the form (1, x), and if ( g, h) sends (1, x) to (1, y) then g h and y g À1 xg. Hence if C1 , X X X , C k are the conjugacy classes of G, and xi P C i, then (1, xi ) (1 < i < k) are orbit representatives for the action of G 3 G on G 3 G, and so the rank is equal to k. Since x(( g, h)ö) x if and only if xhx À1 g, we see that ð( g, h) jfix G ( g, h)j is equal to 0 if g is not conjugate to h, and is equal to jC G (x)j if g is conjugate to h (since in the latter case, if xhx À1 g then an arbitrary element y P G such that yhy À1 g is of the form y xc with c P (x)). Hence using the column orthogonality relations we see CG that ð ÷ 3 ÷. 2. There are q 2 À 1 non-zero vectors in V, and each 1-dimensional subspace

Chapter 29

447

contains q À 1 of them; also two 1-dimensional subspaces have no non-zero vectors in common. Hence jÙj (q 2 À 1)a(q À 1) q 1. 3. Use the notation for the conjugacy classes and irreducible characters of GL(2, q) given in Proposition 28.4 and Theorem 28.5. It is easy to check that ð takes the values q 2 À 1, q À 1, q À 1 on the classes with representatives I, u1 , d 1, t respectively, and takes the value 0 on all other classes. Taking inner products we ®nd hð, 1 G i hð, ø0 i hð, ø0, j i 1 (1 < j < q À 2)X qÀ2 As 1 G ø0 1 ø0, j has degree q 2 À 1 ð(1), we conclude that qÀ2 ð 1 G ø0 1 ø0, j . 4. Observe that the coset H 1 x is ®xed by g if and only if xgx À1 P H 1 . If G is abelian this amounts to g P H 1 , and hence we see that ð1 ( g) 0 if g P H 1 a and ð1 ( g) jG : H 1 j if g P H 1 . Thus H 1 f g P G : ð1 ( g) T 0g. Likewise for H 2 ; since ð1 ð2 we deduce that H 1 H 2 . As a counterexample for G non-abelian, take G D8 ha, b : a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i with H 1 hbi, H 2 ha2 bi. Then ð1 ð2 but H 1 T H 2 . 1 5. By Proposition 29.4 we have 1 jGj gPG jfixÙ ( g)j, hence jfixÙ ( g)j jGj. Since jfixÙ ( g)j is a non-negative integer for each g, and jfixÙ (1)j jÙj . 1, we must have jfixÙ ( g)j 0 for some g. 6. Write ð ð( nÀ2,1,1) . Calculating inner products using Proposition 29.6, as in the proof of Theorem 29.13, we ®nd hð, ði 7, hð, 1i 1, hð, ð( nÀ1,1) i 3, hð, ð( nÀ2,2) i 4X Using Theorem 29.13 it follows that ð( nÀ2,1,1) 1 2÷ ( nÀ1,1) ÷ ( nÀ2,2) ÷ with ÷ irreducible. Hence ÷ 1 ð À ð( nÀ1,1) À ð( nÀ2,2) , from which it is easy to calculate that ÷(1) 1(n À 1)(n À 2), 2 ÷(12) 1(n À 2)(n À 5), ÷(123) 1(n À 4)(n À 5). For n 6, ÷ (4,1,1) is the 2 2 character ÷5 in Example 19.17.

Chapter 30

1. By Theorem 30.4, a245 168/(8´3) 7. Hence, by (30.3), PSL (2, 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2, b has order 3 and ab has order 7. p p 2. No: a225 (1 (À1 i 7)a6 (À1 À i 7)a6 À 4a6)168a(8X8) 0, and similarly a226 0. Hence PSL (2,7) does not contain two involutions whose product has order 7. 3. Yes. Number the conjugacy classes of PSL (2, 11) as in the solution to Exercise 27.6. Then 660 1 a235 X 1 10X 12 6 11 Therefore PSL (2, 11) contains elements x and y such that x, y and xy have orders 2, 3 and 5, respectively. Let H be the subgroup kx, yl of PSL (2, 11).

448

Representations and characters of groups

There is a homomorphism W from A5 onto H (W sends a 3 x, b 3 y). Since Ker W 3 A5 and A5 is simple, we deduce that H A5 . 4. Suppose that G is a group whose p character table is p where á (1 5)a2, â (1 À 5)a2.

g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 g2 1 1 À1 0 0 g3 1 0 1 À1 À1 g4 1 À1 0 á â g5 1 À1 0 â á

For 1 < i < 5 we have jC G ( g i )j 5 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g i ). Therefore the j1 centralizers of g1 , g2 , g3 , g4 , g5 have orders 60, 3, 4, 5, 5, respectively. Hence the orders of g2 , g4 and g5 are 3, 5 and 5; also the order of g3 must be 2, since for no other i (except i 1) is |CG (g i )| even. Now a324 60a(4 . 3). Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, G has a subgroup H with H A5 . Since jGj 60, we have G A5 . 5. (a) Using the fact that 7 ÷ j (g i )÷ j ( g i ) |CG (g i )|, we ®nd that the j1 centralizer orders and class sizes are as follows:

g1 |CG ( g i )| | gG | i 360 1 g2 8 45 g3 4 90 g4 9 40 g5 9 40 g6 5 72 g7 5 72

Hence jGj 360. Also G is simple, by Proposition 17.6. (b) By the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions (Corollary 23.17), the number of involutions t in G is bounded by 1 t <

7 j1

÷ j (1) 46X

By considering jC G ( g i )j, we see that g i has even order only for i 2 and 3. Since t < 45, only g2 can be an involution. Hence g3 has order 4. (This information about the orders of g2 and g3 can also be deduced using Sylow's Theorem.) (c) Clearly g6 and g7 have order 5, and at least one of g4 and g5 has order 3. If j 4 or 5 and k 6 or 7 then

Chapter 30

a2 jk ÷( g2 )÷( g j )÷ ( g k ) jGj jCG ( g 2 )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1)

449

360 5X 8.9 Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, the subgroup H kx, yl of G is isomorphic to A5 . (d) If g, h P G then ( gh)r: Hx 3 Hxgh, and ( gr)(hr): Hx 3 Hxg 3 HxghX Hence r is a homomorphism. (e) Since G is simple, Ker r {1}. Hence G is isomorphic to a subgroup K of S6 . Since jS6 : Kj 63a360 2, K must be A6 . 6. Consider the ®gure in Example 30.6(3). We shall explain how to label the vertices by elements of G. Choose a vertex and label it 1. Label the vertices according to the following inductive rule. Assume that v is a vertex and an adjacent vertex u is labelled by g. Then label v by ga gb gb

À1

if the edge uv has no arrow, if the edge uv has an arrow from u to v, if the edge uv has an arrow from v to uX

For example, if you decided to label the bottom left-hand vertex by 1, then part of the labelling would be

The relation a2 1 ensures that the labelling is consistent along unmarked edges; since b3 1, the labelling is consistent around triangles; and the relation abababab 1 deals with the octagons. Every element in G has the form given by the label of one of the 24 vertices, so jGj < 24. 7. The conjugacy classes of PSL(2, 7) are given in Lemma 27.1 The element g 2 is an involution with centralizer of order 8 given in the proof of 2 2 2 4 Lemma 27.1. Letting a , b , we see that the À2 2 4 À2 centralizer is generated by a and b, and a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 À, hence the centralizer is isomorphic to D8 . As in Exercises 12.3 and 12.4, we see that C A6 ((12)(34)) has order 8 and is generated by (1324) and (13)(24), hence as above is isomorphic to D8 .

450

Representations and characters of groups

8. Let G be the simple group PSL(2, 17). In the ®eld Z17 the element 4 is a 4 0 fourth root of unity, so t Z is an involution. Calculate that 0 À4 C G (t) is generated by the group of diagonal matrices together with 0 1 3 0 b Z, hence is generated by b and a Z. As À1 0 0 6 a 8 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1, we have C G (t) D16 .

Chapter 31

1. Assume that G has an abelian subgroup H of index p r ( p prime), and that |G| . p. If H {1} then |G| p r and so G is not simple (see Lemma 26.1(1)). So assume that H T {1}; pick 1 T h P H. Then H < CG (h) as H is abelian, so |G:CG (h)| is a power of p. If |G:CG (h)| 1 then khl v G and G is not simple. And if |G:CG (h)| . 1, then G is not simple by Theorem 31.3. 2. By Burnside's Theorem, jGj is divisible by at least three distinct primes. Since 3 . 5 . 7 . 80, jGj is even. Then by Exercise 13.8, |G| is divisible by 4. Since 4 . 3 . 7 . 80, the only possibility is that jGj 4 . 3 . 5 60.

Chapter 32

1. (a) The fact that BB I follows from the observation that for all i, j, d(ei b, ej b) d(ei , ej ) ä ij X Since 1 det I (det B)(det Bt ) (det B)2 , we have det B Æ1. (b) (i) The eigenvalues of C are the roots of det (C À xI), which is a cubic polynomial over R. Therefore, C has one or three real eigenvalues. (ii) Moreover, the product of the eigenvalues of C is det C 1. If C has three real eigenvalues, then they cannot all be negative; and if C has one real eigenvalue ë and a pair of conjugate non-real eigenvalues ì, ì, then ë ìì 1, and hence ë . 0. Therefore C has a real positive eigenvalue, say ë. (iii) Let v be an eigenvector for ë. Then d(v, v) d(vC, vC) d(ëv, ëv) ë2 d(v, v), and so ë 1. (c) Let c be the isometry v 3 vC. By (b), c ®xes a vector v; it is now easy to convince yourself that c must be a rotation about the axis through v. The required result for b follows from the de®nition of c. (d) Take three orthogonal axes, one of which is the axis of the rotation b. With respect to these axes, the matrix of b is H I 1 0 0 d 0 cos ö sin ö eX 0 Àsin ö cos ö Hence tr B 1 2 cos ö.

t

Chapter 32

451

2. We regard G as a subgroup of O(R3 ). It is easy to see that the translation submodule T (which consists of all the translation modes) is isomorphic to the RG-module given by the natural action of G on R3 . Hence by part (d) of Exercise 1, V if g is a rotation through ö, about some b 1 2 cos ö, b b b b axis, b ` ÷ T ( g) b À(1 2 cos ö), if the element À g of O(R3 ) is a rotation b b b b b X through öX Now consider the rotation submodule R, which consists of all the rotation modes. A rotation mode is speci®ed by a 3-dimensional vector öv, where v is a unit vector along the axis of the rotation and ö denotes the angle of rotation, taken positive in the right-hand screw sense. Let g P G, and consider g acting on öv. It sends v to vg, and if g is a rotation, it preserves the sense of the rotation; however, if g is a re¯ection then it transforms a right-hand screw to a left-hand screw, and hence sends öv to (Àö)(vg). Therefore @ if g is a rotation, ÷ T ( g), ÷ R ( g) À÷T ( g), if g is not a rotation, and so ÷ T ÷ R has the required form. 3. The matrix A is I H p p À3a2 0 3a4 À 3a4 p3a4 3a4 p f 0 À1a2 À 3a4 p1a4 3a4 1a4 g g f p k f 3a4 À 3a4 À3a4 3a4 0 0 g gX f p p 3a4 À5a4 0 1 g m f À 3a4 p1a4 g f p d 3a4 3a4 0 0 À3a4 À 3a4 e p p 3a4 1a4 0 1 À 3a4 À5a4 4. A simpler basis is given by

1 2(r1 1 2(r1 1 2(r1

r2 ) (v12 v21 ) À (v34 v43 ), r3 ) (v13 v31 ) À (v24 v42 ), r4 ) (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 )X

We chose r1, r2, r3, r4 to be the images of w1, w2, w3, w4 under an RGisomorphism. (Compare the construction of the matrix B, towards the end of Example 32.20.) 5. (a) This is a routine geometrical exercise. (b) Let the displaced positions of the atoms be 09, 19, 29, 39, 49. The distance of 19 from the plane through 1 perpendicular to 12 is x12 1(x13 x14 ). Similarly, the distance of 29 from the plane through 2 2 perpendicular to 12 is x21 1(x23 x24 ). Therefore 12 has decreased by 2 x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 ). The other calculations can be done in 2 the same way. (c) We express the force at each atom as a vector, and then write this vector

452

**Representations and characters of groups
**

as a linear combination of our three chosen unit vectors at the initial position of the atom. Let d ij denote the decrease in the length ij, as calculated in part (b). Then, for example, at vertex 1, the contributions to the component of the force vector in the direction 12 are as follows: Àk1 d12 from the force between atoms 1 and 2; zero from the force between atoms 1 and 3 and from the force between atoms 1 and 4; and Àk2 d10 sec (/012) from the force between atoms 1 and 0. Hence p m1 12 Àk 1 d 12 À 1 (3a2)k 2 d 10 X x 3

Upon substituting for d12 and d10 from part (b), we obtain the given expression for 12. x The other accelerations are calculated in the same way. (d) The entries in the 15 3 15 matrix A are the coef®cients which appear in the equations of motion xA. If you write down the matrix A, then x you will easily verify that the given vectors are eigenvectors of A (with eigenvalues À(4k 1 k 2 )am1 , 0, 0, 0, Àk 1 am1 , Àk 1 am1 , p p I À2k 2 a3m1 À4k 2 p 2a(m2 p3) À2k 2 a3m1 p À4k 2 2a(m2 3) eX p À2k 2 3a(9m1 2) À4k 2 a3m2 p (f ) You will ®nd that (1, À2, 6) is an eigenvector of B, with eigenvalue 0. This agrees with the statement in Example 32.20 that the translation vector r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 is an eigenvector of A. 6. (a) Assign coordinate axes along the edges of the square, as shown below. respectively). (e) The matrix B is H À(6k 1 k 2 )a3m1 d À(3k 1 k 2 )a3m1 p p Àk 2 3a(9m1 2)

The symmetry group is G D8. Let a denote the rotation sending P 3 Q 3 R 3 S 3 P, and let b denote the re¯ection in the axis PR. The character ÷ of the RG-module R8 is

1 ÷ 8

a2 0

a 0

b 0

ab 0

Chapter 32

453

We refer to the character table of D8 which is given in Example 16.3(3), and see that ÷ ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 2÷5 X The rotation mode is (t â)v, where v (1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1) P V÷2 X The translation modes are (t â)v, where v is in the span of v1 , v2 and v1 (1, 0, 0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1), v2 (0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1, 1, 0)X The homogeneous components V÷1, V÷3 and V÷4 are spanned by the vectors (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), (1, 1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1) and (1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1, 1), respectively. The ®nal set of eigen-vectors is given by V÷5 R8 which is spanned by vib (1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0, 0, 1) and (0, 1, 1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0)X (b) The matrix A is 1 f0 f f0 f k f0 À f mf0 f f0 f d0 1 H 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 I 1 0g g 0g g 0g gX 0g g 0g g 0e 1

7. (a, b) Let å i (1 < i < m) be the projection which is given by å i : u1 X X X um 3 ui (where u k P Uk for all k). Then w 3 wAå j WÀ1 W i j (w P Ui ) gives an RG-homomorphism from Ui to Ui. By Exercise 23.8, there exist ë ij P R such that for all w P Ui, Since m wAå j ë ij wWÀ1 W j X i is the identity endomorphism of U1 È . . . È Um, we have m ë ij wWÀ1 W j for all w P Ui X wA i

j1 j1 å j

Now take in turn w uW i and w vW i to obtain the results of parts (a) and (b) of the question. (c) Take a basis u1 , . . . , u n of U1. Assume that the eigenvectors of A u are known. For all k with 1 < k < n, the eigenvectors of A in sp (u k W1 , . . . , u k W m ) are given by the eigenvectors of A u (see part (b)). Hence we know all the eigenvectors of A in U1 È . . . È Um.

Bibliography

**Books mentioned in the text
**

H. S. M. Coxeter and W. J. O. Moser, Generators and Relations for Discrete Groups (Fourth Edition), Springer-Verlag, 1980. J. B. Fraleigh, A First Course in Abstract Algebra (Third Edition), AddisonWesley, 1982. D. Gorenstein, Finite Simple Groups: An Introduction to their Classi®cation, Plenum Press, New York, 1982. G. D. James, The Representation Theory of the Symmetric Groups, Lecture Notes in Mathematics No. 682, Spring-Verlag, 1978. D. S. Passman, Permutation Groups, Benjamin, 1968. H. Pollard and H. G. Diamond, The Theory of Algebraic Numbers (Second Edition), Carus Mathematical Monographs No. 9, Mathematical Association of America, 1975. J. J. Rotman, An Introduction to the Theory of Groups (Third Edition), Allyn and Bacon, 1984. D. S. Schonland, Molecular Symmetry ± an Introduction to Group Theory and its uses in Chemistry, Van Nostrand, 1965.

**Suggestions for further reading
**

M. J. Collins, Representations and Characters of Finite Groups, Cambridge University Press, 1990. C. W. Curtis and I. Reiner, Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I, Wiley-Interscience, 1981. W. Feit, Characters of Finite Groups, Benjamin, 1967. I. M. Isaacs, Character Theory of Finite Groups, Academic Press, 1976. W. Ledermann, Introduction to Group Characters (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press, 1987. J. P. Serre, Linear Representations of Finite Groups, Springer-Verlag, 1977.

454

116. 174 permutation. 83. 355 induced. 119 regular. 291 GL(2. 81. 445 PSL(2. 11. 362 algebraic number. 318 PSL(2. 2 basis. 56 algebraic integer. 2. 160 C4 . 440 SL(2. 221. 416 S4 .7). 359 A6 . 236 integer-valued. 269 Brauer±Fowler Theroem.7). 136. 247 faithful. 417 F11.q . 186 T4 n. 114. 327 PSL(2. 150 trivial. 122 character table. 298 of group algebra. 363.Index A4 . 176. 181. 160 D8. 234. 278 Burnside's Lemma. 222. 230. 2 Cn . 153 change of basis. 119 kernel of.5 . 201. 354. 423 E. 111 antisymmetric part. 337 algebra. 88 centralizer. 112. 419 D2n ( n odd). 106 centre of group. 9. 129 product. 85. 125. 220. 24 character. 343 abelian group. 308 A5 . 122. 359. 11.3. 359 A6 . 182 D2n ( n even). 434 F7. 361 alternating group. 433 Fp. 415 Cn . 82 D6. 55.3). 443 Q8 . 360 A7 . 412 C2 3 C2 . 192 real. 269 skew-symmetric. 11. 340 Burnside's Theorem. 116. 159 A4 . 112. 15 natural. 240. 244. 312. 45. 196. 116. 5. 442 SL(2. 10. 130. 118 degree. 205 SL(2. 111. 181 A5 . 273 associative. 195 generalized. 107. 122. 9. 172. 207. 128. 445 T12. 415 D12 S3 3 C2 . 180 S5 . 265 reducible. 183 D6 3 D6. 262 S6 . 127. 424 C2 . 125 linear. 3. 82. 82 action. 269 symmetric. 420 455 . 5. 364 C. 263 realized over R.11). 161 D10.8). 223 An . of order 18. 54 bijection.q).q). 160 C3 . 6 bilinear form. 253 irreducible.

79. 96 congruences. 107. 290 Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 2 order p3 . 232 Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 368 simple. 420 dihedral group. 421 V24 . 353. 367 projective special linear. 17. 91. 46 even permutation. 6 bijective. 178. 18 F R or C. 308 order p3 . 368 group algebra. 281. 3. 2 general linear. 311 symmetric. 49 FG-homomorphism. 114 Clifford's Theorem. 109. 18 eigenvalue. 1 abelian. 91 irreducible representation. 82. 5. 56. 249 derived subgroup. 32. 96 . 10. 107 class function. 324. 32. see module . 175. 79 isomorphism. 116. 349 class equation. 11.q). 2. 300 class algebra constants. 353 irreducible character. 278. 109 cyclic group. 5. 12. 3 group. 122. 173 diagonalization. 2 composition factor. 195 faithful module. 254 symmetry. 187. 7. 85 faithful representation. 11. 53 factor group. 8 cycle notation.F). 6 surjective. 74. 376 homomorphism. 83 dicyclic group T4 n. 119 irreducible module. 143. 9 indicator function.q . 312 quaternion. 15 Fp. 6 GL(n. 82. 82 alternating. 74 composition. 111 cyclic. 206 direct sum. 290 FG. 304 orthogonal. 2. 12. 107. 6. 3 GL(2. 181 factor. 257 proper. 6 invertible. 181 dimension. 12. 55 H < G. 5 rotation. 4. 361 constituent. 301 order pq. 305. 24 endomorphism. 81. 2. 277 function. 6 injective. 2. 421 direct product. 9 ®nite. 20 equivalent. 88 D2n. 307 order 27. 107. 63 U6n. 9 faithful character. 422 V8 n . 5 expansion±contraction mode. 12. 134 involution. 63 Frobenius group. 3 H v G.456 Representations and characters of groups FG-submodule. 10. 2. 44. 311. 4. 15 direct product. 9 HomCG (V W). 88 dicyclic. 230. 259 conjugacy class. 8 cycle-shape. 302. 318. 20. 256 maximal. 226. 234. 435 order . 365 special linear. 12. 61 FG-isomorphism. 3 F n. 50. 306. 257 index of subgroup. 228 inner product. homogeneous component. 104 conjugate. 50. 178 dihedral. 152 class sum. 273 induced character. 9. 206 order 16. 250. 343 general linear group. 66 external. 3. 213 coset. 381 external direct sum. 277. 61 ideal. 95. 24 eigenvector. 236 induced module. 181 degree. 34 FG-module. 101 completely reducible. 125. 291 p-group. 104. 90 common. 364 soluble. 30. 3 order. 216 complete set. 363.

262 S6 . 4 derived. 119 reducible module. 113. 50 regular. 5 orbit. 173. 216. 364 skew-symmetric bilinear form. p). 367 orthogonality relations. 43 natural normal normal normal 217 basis. 15 Maschke's Theorem. 5. 263 real conjugacy class. 56 trivial. 269 odd permutation. 27. 338 order of G. 44. 34. 336. 3. 124 reducible. 45. 161 PSL(2. 3 primitive root. 30. 359 PSL(2. 62. 284 product of characters. 23 permutation. 56 trivial. 113. 416 R. 251 subgroup. 321.3). 85 permutation. 30 degree. 116. 180. 56 regular representation. 445 Schur's Lemma. 319. 311 stabilizer. 10. 113. 19 real character. 44. 85 irreducible. 416 quaternion group. 193 presentation. 39 completely reducible. 318. 173 generated. 56. 278. 54 modes of vibration. 3. 311. 192 . 440 SL(2. 67 projective special linear group. 5 permutation module. 223 Sn . 150 regular module. 380. 298 p9-part. 174 linear transformation. 50. 365 symmetric bilinear form. 312. 171. 9 lift. 125 Lagrange's Theorem.11). 217 submodule.Index kernel. 343. 311 SL(2. 34. 379 rotation submodule. 318. 215. 129. 177. 9. 394 S4 . 18 linearly dependent. 74 Sylow's Theorem. 361 module. 372. 26 identity. 50 regular. 340 permutation matrix. 9. 21 invertible. 45 powers of characters.7). 45. 263 real element. 50. p). 15 linearly independent. 176. 78 simple group. 3. 278. 312 p-group. 342 Rank±Nullity Theorem. 201. 312 457 Q8 . 269 special linear group. 3. 24 diagonal. projection. 34 irreducible. 79. 50 reducible representation. 46 faithful. 215. 116. 171. 79 kernel of. 56 representation. 250. 4 orthogonal group. 359. 116. 210 rotation group. 320. 110. 384 minimal polynomial.7). 74 faithful. 122. 32. 124. 5 even. 442 SL(2. 354. 105 restriction. 254. 263 reducible character. 111. 340 permutation character. 50 regular character. 177. 5. 45. 275 S5 . 128. 249 equivalent. 62 reducible. 216. 363. 34 representatives. 339 subgroup. 49 irreducible. 360 PSL(2. 368 rotation mode. 278. 109. 10. 116. 76 matrix. 175. 258 permutation. 4 cyclic. 70. 354. 127. 319. 205 S7 . 21 change of basis. 344 SL(2.q). 256. 4 normal. 45 methane. 3 rank. 19. 373 p-complement. 2 order of g. 5 odd. 169 linear character.

194 vibratory modes. 394 transposition. 254 symmetric part. 178. 178. 116. 43 representation. 117 transitive. 341 transitivity of induction. 187. 3. 190 tensor product space. 379 translation submodule. 369. 196. 5 . 380. 178. 109. 421 V8n. 368 T4 n. 2 symmetric group. 229 translation mode. 374 Z. 187. 420 tensor product module. 338. 281. 175. 381 water. 187. 273 symmetry group.458 Representations and characters of groups trivial character. 34 U6n. 122 module. 421 Vandermonde matrix. 188 trace.