Representations and Characters of Groups Now in its second edition, this text provides a modern introduction to the representation theory of ®nite groups. The authors have revised the popular ®rst edition and added a considerable amount of new material. The theory is developed in terms of modules, since this is appropriate for more advanced work, but considerable emphasis is placed upon constructing characters. The character tables of many groups are given, including all groups of order less than 32, and all simple groups of order less than 1000. Among the applications covered are Burnside's pa q b theorem, the use of character theory in studying subgroup structure and permutation groups, and a description of how to use representation theory to investigate molecular vibration. Each chapter is accompanied by a variety of exercises, and full solutions to all the exercises are provided at the end of the book. This will be ideal as a text for a course in representation theory, and in view of the applications of the subject, will be of interest to mathematicians, chemists and physicists alike.

R E P R E S E N TAT ION S AN D C H AR ACT E R S OF G ROU P S
G O R D O N JA M E S a n d M A RT I N L I E B E C K
Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London

Second Edition

PUBLISHED BY CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS (VIRTUAL PUBLISHING) FOR AND ON BEHALF OF THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 IRP 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia http://www.cambridge.org © Cambridge University Press 1993, 2001 This edition © Cambridge University Press (Virtual Publishing) 2003 First published in printed format 1993 Second edition 2001 A catalogue record for the original printed book is available from the British Library and from the Library of Congress Original ISBN 0 521 81205 4 hardback Original ISBN 0 521 00392 X paperback

ISBN 0 511 01700 6 virtual (netLibrary Edition)

Contents

Preface 1 Groups and homomorphisms 2 Vector spaces and linear transformations 3 Group representations 4 FG-modules 5 FG-submodules and reducibility 6 Group algebras 7 FG-homomorphisms 8 Maschke's Theorem 9 Schur's Lemma 10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra 11 More on the group algebra 12 Conjugacy classes 13 Characters 14 Inner products of characters 15 The number of irreducible characters 16 Character tables and orthogonality relations 17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters 18 Some elementary character tables 19 Tensor products 20 Restriction to a subgroup 21 Induced modules and characters 22 Algebraic integers 23 Real representations 24 Summary of properties of character tables 25 Characters of groups of order pq 26 Characters of some p-groups 27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 v

page vii 1 14 30 38 49 53 61 70 78 89 95 104 117 133 152 159 168 179 188 210 224 244 263 283 288 298 311

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28 Character table of GL(2, q) 322 29 Permutations and characters 337 30 Applications to group theory 348 31 Burnside's Theorem 361 32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 367 Solutions to exercises 397 Bibliography 454 Index 455

Preface

We have attempted in this book to provide a leisurely introduction to the representation theory of groups. But why should this subject interest you? Representation theory is concerned with the ways of writing a group as a group of matrices. Not only is the theory beautiful in its own right, but it also provides one of the keys to a proper understanding of ®nite groups. For example, it is often vital to have a concrete description of a particular group; this is achieved by ®nding a representation of the group as a group of matrices. Moreover, by studying the different representations of the group, it is possible to prove results which lie outside the framework of representation theory. One simple example: all groups of order p2 (where p is a prime number) are abelian; this can be shown quickly using only group theory, but it is also a consequence of basic results about representations. More generally, all groups of order pa q b ( p and q primes) are soluble; this again is a statement purely about groups, but the best proof, due to Burnside, is an outstanding example of the use of representation theory. In fact, the range of applications of the theory extends far beyond the boundaries of pure mathematics, and includes theoretical physics and chemistry ± we describe one such application in the last chapter. The book is suitable for students who have taken ®rst undergraduate courses involving group theory and linear algebra. We have included two preliminary chapters which cover the necessary background material. The basic theory of representations is developed in Chapters 3±23, and our methods concentrate upon the use of modules; although this accords with the more modern style of algebra, in several instances our proofs differ from those found in other textbooks. The main results are elegant and surprising, but at ®rst sight they sometimes have an air of mystery vii

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about them; we have chosen the approach which we believe to be the most transparent. We also emphasize the practical aspects of the subject, and the text is illustrated with a wealth of examples. A feature of the book is the wide variety of groups which we investigate in detail. By the end of Chapter 28, we have presented the character tables of all groups of order less than 32, of all p-groups of order at most p4 , and of all the simple groups of order less than 1000. Every chapter is accompanied by a set of Exercises, and the solutions to all of these are provided at the end of the book. We would like to thank Dr Hans Liebeck for his careful reading of our manuscript and the many helpful suggestions which he made.

In this second edition, we have included two new chapters; one (Chapter 28) deals with the character tables of an in®nite series of groups, and the other (Chapter 29) covers aspects of the representation theory of permutation groups. We have also added a considerable amount of new material to Chapters 20, 23 and 30, and made minor amendments elsewhere.

Preface to Second Edition

(3) for all g in G. In addition. and any book on basic group theory will supply you with further details. ( gh)k ˆ g(hk). so we begin with a resume of facts about groups. written gh. there exists an element gÀ1 in G such that gg À1 ˆ g À1 g ˆ eX We refer to the rule for combining elements of G as the product operation on G. (2) there exists an element e in G such that for all g in G. eg ˆ ge ˆ g. most of which you should   know already. together with a rule for combining any two elements g. such as dihedral groups and symmetric groups. h. One or two results which we shall use only infrequently are demoted to the exercises at the end of the chapter ± you can refer to the solutions if necessary. An elementary course on abstract algebra would normally cover all the material in the chapter. h of G to form another element of G. which we shall use extensively to illustrate the later theory. 1 . this rule must satisfy the following axioms: (1) for all g.1 Groups and homomorphisms This book is devoted to the study of an aspect of group theory. we introduce several examples. k in G. Groups A group consists of a set G.

It is written as Cn and is called the cyclic group of order n. . and is written |G|. If a ˆ e2ðia n . 1. r1 . Write b for the re¯ection in the . then do g'). for the identity element of G. then Cn ˆ f1. (3) Let n be an integer with n > 3. is a group of order n. gÀ2 ˆ ( gÀ1 )2 . Let A be a corner of the polygon. and denote by C the set of all complex numbers. This group is called the dihedral group of order 2n. It is elementary to see that G has just one identity element. under addition. There are n rotation symmetries: these are r0 . then we call G a ®nite group. g0 ˆ 1. is a group. with the usual multiplication of complex numbers. and an ˆ 1. a2 .1 Examples (1) Let n be a positive integer. similarly 3 g ˆ g 2 g. rather than e. and is written D2 n. gg. r nÀ1 where r k is the (clockwise) rotation about the centre O through an angle 2ðkan. . a. the element e in axiom (2) is an identity element of G. These 2n rotations and re¯ections form a group under the product operation of composition (that is. a nÀ1 g. for two symmetries f and g. the number of elements in G is called the order of G. The set of nth roots of unity in C. Also. . and that every g in G has just one inverse. X X X . and consider the rotation and re¯ection symmetries of a regular n-sided polygon. Usually we write 1. is written g 2 . (2) The set Z of all integers. If the number of elements in G is ®nite.2 Representations and characters of groups Axiom (1) states that the product operation is associative. and so on. and gÀ1 is an inverse of g in axiom (3). There are also n re¯ection symmetries: these are re¯ections in the n lines passing through O and a corner or the mid-point of a side of the polygon. the product fg means `®rst do f. . The product of an element g with itself.

2. D2 n is generated by a and b. This group is called the general linear group of degree n over F. F) is of course the identity matrix. . X X X . A subset H of G is said to be a subgroup if H is itself a group under the product operation inherited from G. the set of all permutations of {1. b2 ˆ 1. which we denote by In or just I. The identity of GL(n. We use the notation H < G to indicate that H is a subgroup of G. b: an ˆ 1. Check that an ˆ 1. The order of Sn is n!. under matrix multiplication. a nÀ1 bX Thus all elements of D2 n are products of powers of a and b ± that is. .Groups and homomorphisms 3 line through O and A. . F). Subgroups Let G be a group. b2 ˆ 1 and bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 X These relations determine the product of any two elements of the group. It is an in®nite group. and write a for the rotation r1 . and the n re¯ections are b. a2 b. ab. under the product operation of composition. (5) Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). a2 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 iX (4) For n a positive integer. . a. we have ba j ˆ aÀ j b (using the relation ba ˆ aÀ1 b). The set of all invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. most of the other examples given above are non-abelian groups. and is written Sn . which leaves the polygon ®xed). X X X . A group G is said to be abelian if gh ˆ hg for all g and h in G. a nÀ1 (where 1 denotes the identity. . and hence (a i b)(a j b) ˆ a i ba j b ˆ a i aÀ j bb ˆ a iÀ j X We summarize all this in the presentation D2 n ˆ ha. For example. n}. forms a group. It is called the symmetric group of degree n. Then the n rotations are 1. is a group. and is denoted by GL(n. While Cn and Z are abelian.

1. Bˆ X 0 Ài À1 0 . g 2 . we can similarly de®ne hSi. and again in Example 1. We illustrate the construction in the next example. This construction gives a powerful method of ®nding new groups as subgroups of given groups. and (2) if h. the subgroup of G generated by S. where ik . De®ne H to be the subset of G consisting of all elements which are products of powers of a and b ± that is. and write H ˆ ha. let r be the least positive integer such that g r ˆ 1. C). If G ˆ k gl for some g P G then we call G a cyclic group. (3) Let G be a group and let a. In this case. then k gl is ®nite.2 Examples (1) For every group G.5 below. then r is equal to the number of elements in k gl ± indeed. jk P Z for 1 < k < n.4 Representations and characters of groups It is easy to see that a subset H of a group G is a subgroup if and only if the following two conditions hold: (1) 1 P H. If gn ˆ 1 for some n > 1. all elements of the form a i1 b j1 a i2 b j2 X X Xa i n b j n for some n. X X X . both {1} and G are subgroups of G. biX Given any ®nite set S of elements of G. such as general linear or symmetric groups. g rÀ1 gX We call r the order of the element g. we call H the subgroup generated by a and b. k P H then hkÀ1 P H. The subset h gi ˆ f g n : n P Zg is a subgroup of G. and let     i 0 0 1 Aˆ . (2) Let G be a group and g P G. Then H is a subgroup of G. (4) Let G ˆ GL(2. b P G.1 are cyclic. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in C. called the cyclic subgroup generated by g. The groups Cn and Z in Examples 1. g. h gi ˆ f1.

. Bl. hh9) for all g. in fact j Hj ˆ 8. so we have the presentation Q8 ˆ hA. A2 ˆ B2 . 2. 0 < j < 1) are all distinct. called the alternating group of degree n. n and ®xes the other n À 2 numbers. . The group H is called the quaternion group of order 8. the subgroup of G generated by A and B. we see that every element of H has the form A i B j for some integers i. h9) ˆ ( gg9. Let G and H be groups. h)( g9. and consider G 3 H ˆ f( g.Groups and homomorphisms Put H ˆ kA. h9 P H. With this product operation. The above three relations determine the product of any two elements of Q8 . we call g an even or an odd permutation. . Check that A4 ˆ I. Since the matrices Ai B j (0 < i < 3. Every permutation g in Sn can be expressed as a product of transpositions. A2 ˆ B2 . It can be shown that either all such expressions for g have an even number of transpositions. h): g P G and h P HgX De®ne a product operation on G 3 H by ( g. The subset An ˆ f g P Sn : g is an even permutationg is a subgroup of Sn . and is written Q8. B: A4 ˆ I. Direct products We describe a construction which produces a new group from given ones. and using the ®rst two relations. or they all have an odd number of transpositions. g9 P G and all h. . j. G 3 H is a group. Hence H has at most eight elements. BÀ1 AB ˆ AÀ1 X 5 Using the third relation. called the direct product of G and H. accordingly. . BÀ1 AB ˆ AÀ1 iX (5) A transposition in the symmetric group Sn is a permutation which interchanges two of the numbers 1. we can take 0 < i < 3 and 0 < j < 1.

In this book. if G1 . the image of g under a function W is written as gW. . . those functions from G to H which `preserve the group structure' ± the so-called homomorphisms ± are of particular importance. . 3 Gr is also ®nite. X X X . .6 Representations and characters of groups More generally. We often indicate that W is a function from G to H by the notation W: G 3 H. h P H. where g P G and h P H. g2 P G implies that g1 ˆ g2 ) and surjective (that is.3 Example The group C2 3 . g r )( g9 . and is written as WÀ1 . If G and H are groups. g1 W ˆ g2 W for g1 . Gr are groups. By an expression W: g 3 h. we generally apply functions on the right ± that is. X X X . g r ): g i P Gi for 1 < i < rg. A function W: G 3 H is invertible if there is a function ö: H 3 G such that for all g P G. with product operation de®ned by ( g1 . for every h P H there exists g P G such that gW ˆ h). ( gW)ö ˆ g and (hö)W ˆ hX Then ö is called the inverse of W. g9 ) ˆ ( g 1 g9 . A function W from G to H is invertible if and only if it is both injective (that is. of order |G1 | . Homomorphisms Given groups G and H. then G1 3 . . . g r g9 )X 1 r 1 r If all the groups Gi are ®nite. 3 C2 (r factors) has order 2 r and all its nonidentity elements have order 2. . 1. g 2 P GX . . |Gr |. X X X . then a homomorphism from G to H is a function W: G 3 H which satis®es ( g1 g 2 )W ˆ ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g 1 . we mean that h ˆ gW. . not as W g. Functions A function from one set G to another set H is a rule which assigns a unique element of H to each element of G. X X X . An invertible function is also called a bijection. then the direct product G1 3 X X X 3 Gr is f( g 1 . .

y À1 xy ˆ x À1 . 0 < u < 1.5 Example Let G ˆ S5 and let x. 0 < j < 1. 0 < t < n À 1. 0 < j < 1.4 Example Let G ˆ D2 n ˆ ka.Groups and homomorphisms 7 An invertible homomorphism is called an isomorphism. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. so H  G. Moreover. b: an ˆ b2 ˆ 1. y ˆ (2 5)(3 4)X . 1. We now demonstrate the technique of Example 1. Suppose that 0 < r < n À 1. then G and H are said to be isomorphic. y be the following permutations in G: x ˆ (1 2 3 4 5). If there is an isomorphism W from G to H. 1. and write the 2n elements of G in the form ai b j with 0 < i < n À 1. Let H be any group. and we write G  H. and suppose that H contains elements x and y which satisfy x n ˆ y 2 ˆ 1. WÀ1 is an isomorphism from H to G. (ar bs at bu )W ˆ (a i b j )W ˆ x i y j ˆ x r y s x t y u ˆ (ar bs )W . and so W is a homomorphism. Then ar bs at bu ˆ a i b j for some i. (at bu )W. we can also deduce that xr ys xt yu ˆ x i y j X Therefore. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l.4 in action. j with 0 < i < n À 1. y À1 xy ˆ x À1 X We shall prove that the function W: G 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < n À 1. i and j are determined by repeatedly using the relations an ˆ b2 ˆ 1. The following example displays a technique which can often be used to prove that certain functions are homomorphisms. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 X Since we have x n ˆ y 2 ˆ 1. also. 0 < s < 1.

) Check that x 5 ˆ y 2 ˆ 1. . Hxr be all the distinct right cosets of H in G. a group of order 10. . The distinct right cosets of H in G form a partition of G (that is. we have . and so j Hxi j ˆ j Hj. Now recall that D10 ˆ ha. Since G ˆ Hx1 ‘ X X X ‘ Hxr . (1 2 3 4 5) denotes the permutation 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 1. yl  D10. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 iX By Example 1. 0 < j < 1g. the function W: D10 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 4. it is an isomorphism.8 Representations and characters of groups (Here we adopt the usual cycle notation ± thus. and Hxi ’ Hxj is empty if i Tˆ j. . the subset Hx ˆ fhx: h P Hg of G is called a right coset of H in G. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. Using the above relations.4. we see that H ˆ fx i y j : 0 < i < 4. y À1 xy ˆ x À1 X Let H be the subgroup kx. every element of G is in precisely one of the cosets). Since W is invertible. . Suppose now that G is ®nite. For x in G. Thus. we deduce that jGj ˆ rj HjX In particular. For all i. yl of G. the function h 3 hxi (h P H) is a bijection from H to Hxi . and let Hx1 . b: a5 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. and so on. Cosets Let G be a group and let H be a subgroup of G. H ˆ kx.

Thus jG: Hj ˆ jGjaj Hj when G is ®nite. then j Hj divides |G|. The subgroup kal is also normal in G. since b P H while aÀ1 ba ˆ a2 b P H. If n > 2 then there are just two right cosets of An in Sn . h P G. NabgX Since (Na)2 ˆ (Nb)2 ˆ (Nab)2 ˆ N. the sub-groups {1} and G are normal subgroups of G. The importance of the condition gÀ1 Ng ˆ N (for all g P G) is that it can be used to show that for all g. we write N v G to indicate that N is a normal subgroup of G. namely An ˆ f g P Sn : g eveng. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. a . and is written as jG: Hj. ka2 l ˆ {1. and An (1 2) ˆ f g P Sn : g oddgX Thus |Sn :An | ˆ 2. but the subgroup H ˆ kbl is not normal in G. we see that GaN  C2 3 C2 .7 Examples (1) For every group G. Na. (3) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. 1.6 Lagrange's Theorem If G is a ®nite group and H is a subgroup of G. and so Sn aAn  C2 . Nb. we have An v Sn . we have fxy: x P Ng and y P Nhg ˆ NghX Hence we can de®ne a product operation on GaN by (Ng)(Nh) ˆ Ngh for all g.Groups and homomorphisms 1. Then N v G and bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l and let Nˆ GaN ˆ fN . Suppose that N v G and let GaN be the set of right cosets of N in G. called the factor group of G by N. h P GX This makes GaN into a group. (2) For n > 1. a2 }. 9 The number r of distinct right cosets of H in G is called the index of H in G. Normal subgroups A subgroup N of a group G is said to be a normal subgroup of G if gÀ1 Ng ˆ N for all g P G (where gÀ1 Ng ˆ f gÀ1 ng: n P Ng).

and in a sense.10 Representations and characters of groups Simple groups A group G is said to be simple if G Tˆ {1} and the only normal subgroups of G are {1} and G. Continuing this process with the smaller groups. If G is a ®nite group which is not simple. the image of W is (1X9) Im W ˆ f gW: g P Gg. we eventually see that G is `built' out of a collection of simple groups. simple groups are fundamental to the study of ®nite groups. (This is analogous to the fact that every positive integer is built out of its prime factors. 1. is simple. Let G and H be groups and suppose that W: G 3 H is a homomorphism.) Thus. with p a prime number. For example. then G has a normal subgroup N such that both N and G/N have smaller order than G. the cyclic group Cp . We de®ne the kernel of W by (1X8) Ker W ˆ f g P G: gW ˆ 1gX Then Ker W is a normal subgroup of G. G is `built' out of these two smaller groups. ( g P G) . We shall give examples of non-abelian simple groups in later chapters ± the smallest one is A5 . Kernels and images To conclude the chapter. Then GaKer W  Im WX An isomorphism is given by the function Kg 3 gW where K ˆ Ker W. we relate normal subgroups and factor groups to homomorphisms.10 Theorem Suppose that G and H are groups and let W: G 3 H be a homomorphism. The following result describes the way in which the kernel and image of W are related. Also. and Im W is a subgroup of H.

The factor group GaKer W is isomorphic to Im W. Exercises for Chapter 1 1. Im W ˆ C2 . Show that either W is an isomorphism or H ˆ {1}. is a subgroup of H. A homomorphism W: G 3 H is a function such that ( g1 g 2 )W ˆ ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g1 . Ker W. Gr . An ˆ the alternating group of degree n. C) ˆ the group of invertible n 3 n matrices over C. G1 3 . We have Ker W ˆ An . g2 in G. GL(n. and that W: G 3 H is a surjective homomorphism. b: an ˆ b2 ˆ 1. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. Sn ˆ the symmetric group of degree n.10. 2. . with G simple. Im W. D2 n ˆ ka. . and for n > 2. a2 ˆ b2 . W: g 3 À1. The kernel.11 Example The function W: Sn 3 C2 given by & 1. with multiplication (Ng)(Nh) ˆ NghX 3. 11 is a homomorphism. is a normal subgroup of G.Groups and homomorphisms 1. We know from Example 1. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. 2. . A normal subgroup N of G is a subgroup such that gÀ1 Ng ˆ N for all g in G. then G is cyclic of prime order. Suppose that G and H are groups. the direct product of the groups G1 . Q8 ˆ ka. Show that if G is an abelian group which is simple. b: a4 ˆ 1. 3 Gr . and the image. illustrating Theorem 1. if g is an odd permutation. The factor group GaN consists of the right cosets Ng ( g P G).7(2) that Sn /An  C2 . Summary of Chapter 1 1. . . if g is an even permutation. Examples of groups are Cn ˆ ka: an ˆ 1l. . .

d À1 cd ˆ cÀ1 iX (a) Let x. y are elements of G with the same order.12 Representations and characters of groups 3. (c) If G is a ®nite cyclic group and x. and Ga (G ’ An )  C2 X 4. d: c4 ˆ 1. and that G is not contained in An . de®ned by ö: ar bs 3 x r y s . Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. (a) Show that every subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic. and H ˆ Q8 ˆ hc. y ˆ (3 4). Prove that f g P G: g n ˆ 1g is a cylic subgroup of G of order n. Y be the 2 3 2 matrices which are given by     0 i 0 À1 X ˆ . 0 < s < 1). (b) Let X. and let n be a positive integer which divides |G|. c2 ˆ d 2 . 5. ø: cr d s 3 x r y s (0 < r < 3. Prove that G ’ An is a normal subgroup of G. y be the permutations in S4 which are given by x ˆ (1 2). 0 < s < 1). yl of S4 . Y i of GL(2. de®ned by ë: ar bs 3 X r Y s . and let K be the subgroup kx. is a homomorphism. ì: cr d s 3 X r Y s (0 < r < 3. Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ha. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i. show that x is a power of y. 6. i 0 1 0 and let L be the subgroup hX . . C). Prove that D4 m  D2 m 3 C2 if m is odd. Prove that this homomorphism is an isomorphism.Y ˆ . Find Ker ö and Ker ø. (b) Let G be a ®nite cyclic group. Show that both the functions ö: G 3 K and ø: H 3 K. are homomorphisms. Show that just one of the functions ë: G 3 L and ì: H 3 L.

2(4). Find elements A and B of GL(2. Bl has order 16. Prove that H v G.) 10. Show that every group of even order contains an element of order 2. Prove that every ®nite subgroup of this group is cyclic. (Hint: compare Q8 in Example 1. B has order 4. . 9. under the usual multiplication. Show that the set of non-zero complex numbers. and B2 ˆ A4 and BÀ1 AB ˆ AÀ1 X Show that the group kA. C) such that A has order 8. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G with |G: H| ˆ 2. 8. is a group.Groups and homomorphisms 13 7.

we gather the results from linear algebra concerning vector spaces. We write 0 for the identity element of the abelian group V under addition. Vector spaces Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). here. The elements of V are called vectors. (The latter rule is called scalar multiplication. An exception occurs in the last section. Most of the material will be familiar to you if you have taken a ®rst course on linear algebra. (2) (ë ‡ ì)v ˆ ëv ‡ ìv. (1) ë(u ‡ v) ˆ ëu ‡ ëv.1) (a) V is an abelian group under addition. A vector space over F is a set V.) Moreover. v in V and all ë. and those of F are called scalars. where we deal with projections. these rules must satisfy: (2. (4) 1v ˆ v. 14 . v of V to form an element u ‡ v of V. linear transformations and matrices which we shall use later. in case you have not come across projections before.2 Vector spaces and linear transformations An attractive feature of representation theory is that it combines two strands of mainstream mathematics. namely group theory and linear algebra. so we omit the proofs. and a rule for multiplying any element v of V by any element ë of F to form an element ëv of V. (b) for all u. For reference purposes. together with a rule for adding any two elements u. ì in F. we explain in detail how the results work. (3) (ëì)v ˆ ë(ìv).

v1 . . . Throughout this book. We denote the set of all such row vectors by F n. y9) ˆ (x ‡ x9. . . X X X . ë(x. . xn belong to F. . . . . v n are linearly dependent if ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n v n ˆ 0 for some ë1 . . xn ) ‡ (x9 . . The vectors v1 . X X X . X X X . The vector space V is n-dimensional if dim V ˆ n. . y) ‡ (x9. . . v n if v ˆ ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n v n for some ë1 . . X X X . . ëxn )X Then F n is a vector space over F. xn ) ˆ (ëx1 . . . v n are said to span V if every vector in V is a linear combination of v1 . y) ˆ (ëx. . x2 . for each positive integer n. . . y ‡ y9). . as above. . A vector v in V is a linear combination of v1 . The number of vectors in a basis of V is called the dimension of V and is written as dim V. Bases of vector spaces Let v1 . ë n in F. and de®ne addition and scalar multiplication on F n by (x1 . v n be vectors in a vector space V over F. y) where x and y are real numbers. . . v n are linearly independent. x2 . 1 n 1 n ë(x1 . we consider row vectors (x1 . x9 ) ˆ (x1 ‡ x9 . . . xn ‡ x9 ). . . ë y)X Then R2 is a vector space over R. De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on R2 by (x. X X X . . . . we shall consider only vector spaces V which are ®nite-dimensional ± this means that V has a basis consisting of ®nitely many vectors. It turns out that any two bases of V have the same number of vectors. . ë n in F. The vectors v1 . We say that v1 . not all of which are zero. v n form a basis of V if they span V and are linearly independent. . If V ˆ {0} then dim V ˆ 0. . v n . xn ) where x1 . .Vector spaces and linear transformations 15 2. (2) More generally. . X X X . . . . otherwise.2 Examples (1) Let R2 denote the set of all ordered pairs (x. .

so dim V ˆ n. . (2) if u. . 0. ur . there are many bases of V. . . that is. . . v k are linearly independent vectors in V. 1. X X X . . (0. X X X . v P U then u ‡ v P U. . Another basis is (1. X X X . . . sp (u1 . 0. 0. 0). . For a subset U of V to be a subspace. . . Then (1. ur ) to be the set of all linear combinations of u1 . . ur be vectors in V. . 0. (3) if ë P F and u P U then ëu P U. 0. v n form a basis of V.4) If v1 . 0. ur ) is a subspace of V. Except in the case where V ˆ {0}. 0). . . . . 2. X X X . . then there exist v k‡1 . . X X X . ë n . . 0). . X X X . ë n in F. . ë r P FgX By (2. 1. (1. .5) (1) 0 P U. . . . (0. v n of a vector space V. . .16 Representations and characters of groups 2. . with ë1 . . X X X . v n in V such that v1 . ur . 1) is a basis of V. . . Indeed. (2) Let u1 . . .6 Examples (1) {0} and V are subspaces of V. . sp (u1 . (1. . 1. 0.5). 0. . 1)X Given a basis v1 . the next result says that any linearly independent vectors can be extended to a basis.3 Example Let V ˆ F n. X X X . each vector v in V can be written in a unique way as v ˆ ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n v n . . and it is called the subspace spanned by u1 . 1. . X X X . 0). . We de®ne sp (u1 . . (2. . ur ) ˆ fë1 u1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë r ur : ë1 . it is necessary and suf®cient that all the following conditions hold: (2. The vector v therefore determines the scalars ë1 . Subspaces A subspace of a vector space V over F is a subset of V which is itself a vector space under the addition and scalar multiplication inherited from V. . X X X .

4)). . . then we write it as U1 È X X X È Ur X 2. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) V ˆ U È W. v n of V (see (2. . . ‡ Ur is de®ned by U1 ‡ X X X ‡ Ur ˆ fu1 ‡ X X X ‡ ur : ui P Ui for 1 < i < rgX By (2. . We say that the sum U1 ‡ . . . let Ui be the subspace spanned by v i. Then V ˆ U È WX From this construction it follows that there are in®nitely many subspaces W with V ˆ U È W. . U1 ‡ . .3 and 2. . . If the sum is direct. Then dim U < dim V Also. . . ws is a basis of V. . only if U ˆ V. .4 if you have dif®culty with the proof. . Extend v1. ‡ ur with ui P Ui for 1 < i < r. . .7) Suppose that U is a subspace of the vector space V . dim U ˆ dim V if and . . Direct sums of subspaces 17 If U1. .5). ur . v k be a basis of U. . . (2. . . Then V ˆ U1 È X X X È Un X (2) Let U be a subspace of V and let v1 . Ur are subspaces of a vector space V. v n is a basis of V. ws is a basis of W. v n ). v k to a basis v1 . You should consult the solutions to Exercises 2. and let W ˆ sp (v k‡1 . . . . . . (2. ‡ Ur is a direct sum if every element of the sum can be written in a unique way as u1 ‡ . . . . w1. . . . . and for 1 < i < n. . . then the sum U1 ‡ . . . .8 Examples (1) Suppose that v1 . ur is a basis of U and that w1. . . unless U is {0} or V. . . (2) u1 . .Vector spaces and linear transformations Notice that the following fact is a consequence of (2.4).9) Suppose that V ˆ U ‡ W. . The next result is frequently useful when dealing with the direct sum of two subspaces. that u1 . . (3) U ’ W ˆ {0}. . ‡ Ur is a subspace of V.

then V ˆ U1 È X X X È Ua È W 1 È X X X È W b X We now introduce a construction for vector spaces which is analogous to the construction of direct products for groups. we write V ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur X Linear transformations Let V and W be vector spaces over F. and W ˆ W1 È X X X È Wb . .18 Representations and characters of groups Our next result. Ur be vector spaces over F. . (2. u9 i in Ui (1 < i < r) and all ë in F. . . u9 ) ˆ (u1 ‡ u9 . ur ) ‡ (u9 . . U1. X X X . 0): ui P U i g i (where the ui is in the ith position). X X X . . ur ): ui P U i for 1 < i < rgX De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on V as follows: for all ui . involving the direct sum of several subspaces. If V ˆ U È W and also U ˆ U1 È X X X È Ua . W. X X X . and let V ˆ f(u1 . . . . . then it is immediate that V ˆ U1 È X X X È U 9X 9 r We call V the external direct sum of U1. for 1 < i < r. . W1. . Ur. and. If. v P V . Wb are subspaces of a vector space V. . we put U 9 ˆ f(0. let (u1 . X X X . . ur ‡ u9 ). Let U1. and for all ë P F and v P V X . . . X X X . 1 r 1 r ë(u1 . Ua. ëur )X With these de®nitions. X X X . abusing notation slightly. can be deduced immediately from the de®nition of a direct sum. ui . X X X . X X X . A linear transformation from V to W is a function W: V 3 W which satis®es (u ‡ v)W ˆ uW ‡ vW (ëv)W ˆ ë(vW) for all u.10) Suppose that U. V is a vector space over F. ur ) ˆ (ëu1 .

. then for ë1 . . then W is a linear transformation. . by specifying the values of ö on a basis of V. . . v n is a basis of V. . Furthermore.Vector spaces and linear transformations 19 Just as a group homomorphism preserves the group multiplication. wn in W. Notice that if W: V 3 W is a linear transformation and v1. so a linear transformation preserves addition and scalar multiplication. and Ker W ˆ V . ë n in F we have (ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n v n )W ˆ ë1 (v1 W) ‡ X X X ‡ ë n (v n W)X Thus. Im W ˆ V X . given any basis v1 . . . then W is a linear transformation. . . there is a unique linear transformation ö: V 3 W such that v i öˆ wi for all i. . Im W ˆ fvW: v P V gX Using (2. v n of V and any n vectors w1. Im W ˆ f0gX (2) If W: V 3 V is de®ned by vW ˆ 3v for all v P V. and Ker W ˆ f0g. it is easy to check that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. . Their dimensions are connected by the following equation. . Kernels and images Suppose that W: V 3 W is a linear transformation. The kernel of W (written Ker W) and the image of W (written Im W) are de®ned as follows: (2X11) Ker W ˆ fv P V : vW ˆ 0g. and then saying `extend the action of ö to be linear'. the linear transformation ö is given by (ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n v n )ö ˆ ë1 w1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n wn X We sometimes construct a linear transformation ö: V 3 W in this way. W is determined by its action on a basis.13 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW ˆ 0 for all v P V. . .5). . which is known as the Rank±Nullity Theorem: (2X12) dim V ˆ dim (Ker W) ‡ dim (Im W)X 2.

(3) Im W ˆ V. z P R. A linear transformation W from V to W is injective if and only if Ker W ˆ {0}. À1)). z)W ˆ (x ‡ 2 y ‡ z. À y ‡ 3z) for all x. let V and W be vector spaces over F. Wö and ëW are endomorphisms of V. then W is a linear transformation. Then W ‡ ö. We de®ne the functions W ‡ ö. v(Wö) ˆ (vW)ö. À3. v(ëW) ˆ ë(vW). so dim (Ker W) ˆ 1 and dim (Im W) ˆ 2. and hence W is invertible precisely when W is surjective and Ker W ˆ {0}.7) into account. By applying (2. Suppose that W and ö are endomorphisms of V and ë P F. . we see that isomorphic vector spaces have the same dimension. Endomorphisms A linear transformation from a vector space V to itself is called an endomorphism of V. If there exists an invertible linear transformation from V to W.14) Let W be a linear transformation from V to itself. (2) Ker W ˆ {0}.12). It turns out that the inverse of an invertible linear transformation is also a linear transformation (see Exercise 2. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. y.2).20 Representations and characters of groups (3) If W: R3 3 R2 is given by (x. y. we obtain the next result (see Exercise 2. (2.1). Wö and ëW from V to V by (2X15) v(W ‡ ö) ˆ vW ‡ vö. Invertible linear transformations Again. By also taking (2. for all v P V. we have Ker W ˆ sp ((7. Im W ˆ R2 . then V and W are said to be isomorphic vector spaces. We write W2 for WW.

. 2x À 10 y).16 Examples (1) The identity function 1 V de®ned by 1 V : v 3 v for all v P V 21 is an endomorphism of V.Vector spaces and linear transformations 2. (x.18 Examples (1) If W ˆ 1 V (so that vW ˆ v for all v P V). y)(Wö) ˆ (Àx ‡ 5 y. . Àx ‡ 5 y)X Matrices Let V be a vector space over F. If B is the basis (1. y) 3 (x ‡ y. À2x ‡ 4 y)X Then W and ö are endomorphisms of V. Then there are scalars aij in F (1 < i < n. y)ö ˆ (x À 2 y. x À 2 y) of V. and W ‡ ö. If W is an endomorphism of V. 2. and is denoted by [W]B . ö be the functions from V to V de®ned by (x. y)(W ‡ ö) ˆ (2x À y. (x. 1) of V and B 9 is the basis .17 De®nition The n 3 n matrix (aij ) is called the matrix of W relative to the basis B . 1 < j < n) such that for all i. and let W be an endomorphism of V. y)(3W) ˆ (3x ‡ 3 y. y)W2 ˆ (2x À y. (x. 3x À 6 y). Note that Ker (W À ë1 V ) ˆ fv P V : vW ˆ ëvgX (2) Let V ˆ R2. . (0. . for all ë P F. v n is a basis of V and call it B . then [W]B ˆ In for all bases B of V. where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. x À 2 y). y)W ˆ (x ‡ y. 3W and W2 are given by (x. 0). v i W ˆ a i1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ain v n X 2. Wö. Àx ‡ 2 y). (2) Let V ˆ R2 and let W be the endomorphism (x. then so is W À ë1 V . and let W. Suppose that v1 . (x.

their product AB is the m 3 p matrix whose ij-entry is n ˆ kˆ1 aik bkj X 2. À2  [W]B 9 ˆ  1 X À1 (1.19 Example Let Aˆ Then A‡ Bˆ 2 BA ˆ  À1 3   2 0 . j. Then [W ‡ ö]B ˆ [W]B ‡ [ö]B . Given two m 3 n matrices A ˆ (aij ) and B ˆ (bij ) over F. 0). the product of two matrices is de®ned in a less transparent way. (1. 2 À1 5 À2 À4 3 0 3 3 . and that W and ö are endomorphisms of V. 1) of V. AB ˆ 3 . then [W]B ˆ 1 1 0 3 If we wish to indicate that the entries in a matrix A come from F. then we describe A as a matrix over F. As you know. 3A ˆ X À3 9 6 3 4 2 2 À13 À12 À5 The matrix of the sum or product of two endomorphisms (relative to some basis) is related to the matrices of the individual endomorphisms in the way you would expect: (2.20) Suppose that B is a basis of the vector space V. Given an m 3 n matrix A ˆ (aij ) and an n 3 p matrix B ˆ (bij ).22 Representations and characters of groups   1 . their sum A ‡ B is the m 3 n matrix over F whose ij-entry is aij ‡ bij for all i. and [Wö]B ˆ [W]B [ö]B X . and for ë P F. the matrix ëA is the m 3 n matrix over F obtained from A by multiplying all the entries by ë. Bˆ 1 2 2 3  À4 X À1 2 .

Such a matrix B. We concentrate on a particular way of doing this. . It is easy enough to reverse this process and use a matrix to de®ne an endomorphism. is unique.21) If A is an n 3 n matrix over F then the function . . the matrix product vA also lies in V. . Then a necessary and suf®cient condition for A to be invertible is that det A Tˆ 0. the vector space of row vectors (x1 . it is called the inverse of A and is written as AÀ1 . 2.Vector spaces and linear transformations Also. An invertible matrix converts one basis into another. Àx ‡ 2 y)X 3 2 Invertible matrices An n 3 n matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists an n 3 n matrix B with AB ˆ BA ˆ In .17) how to get a matrix from an endomorphism of a vector space V. (2. The connection between invertible endomorphisms and invertible matrices is straightforward. Write det A for the determinant of A. v 3 vA (v P F n ) is an endomorphism of F n. The following remark is easily justi®ed. [ëW]B ˆ ë[W]B X 23 We showed you in (2. for all scalars ë. and follows from (2. and let V ˆ F n. Suppose that A is an n 3 n matrix over F. xn ) with each xi in F. y)W ˆ (x.22 Example Let Aˆ  1 3  À1 X 2 Then A gives us an endomorphism W of F 2. where   1 À1 (x. Invertible matrices turn up when we relate two bases of a vector space. if it exists. . an endomorphism W of V is invertible if and only if the matrix [W]B is invertible. y) ˆ (x ‡ 3 y.20): given a basis B of V. given a basis of V. Then for all v in V. and this same matrix is used to describe the way in which the matrix of an .

.18(2). The n 3 n matrix T ˆ (tij ) is invertible. 1) and B 9 the basis (1. then       1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 [W]B ˆ ˆ T À1 [W]B 9 T X ˆ À1 1 3 À1 1 1 1 À2 Eigenvalues Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F. y) 3 (x ‡ y. Then     1 0 1 0 À1 Tˆ . v n be a basis B of the vector space V. 2.24) below. where T is the change of basis matrix from B to B 9.25 Example Suppose that V ˆ R2. v9 ˆ t i1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ tin v n i for certain scalars tij .23) and the result (2.24) If B and B 9 are bases of V and W is an endomorphism of V. (0.T ˆ X 1 1 À1 1 If W is the endomorphism W: (x. (2.24 Representations and characters of groups endomorphism depends upon the basis. . Such a vector v is called an eigenvector of W. 2. . . . x À 2 y) of V. 0). . The inverse of T is the change of basis matrix from B 9 to B . 1) of V. . then [W]B ˆ T À1 [W]B 9 T . and is called the change of basis matrix from B to B 9. v9 1 n be a basis B 9 of V. . The scalar ë is said to be an eigenvalue of W if vW ˆ ëv for some non-zero vector v in V. and suppose that W is an endomorphism of V. (1. .23 De®nition Let v1 . Let B be the basis (1. 0). and let v9 . The precise meaning of these remarks is revealed in the de®nition (2. Then for 1 < i < n. as in Example 2.

the element ë of F is said to be an eigenvalue of A if vA ˆ ëv for some non-zero row vector v in F n.26). (1. and W has no eigenvalues in R.27 Examples (1) Let V ˆ C2 and let W be the endomorphism of V which is given by (x. Note that if B 9 is the basis (1. so i and Ài are the eigenvalues of W. y)W ˆ (À y. Therefore. 1) of V. The eigenvalues of A are those elements ë of F which satisfy det (A À ëI n ) ˆ 0X . x)X If B is the basis (1. Since every non-constant polynomial with coef®cients in C has a root in C. y)W ˆ (À y. and let W be an endomorphism of V. x)X This time. Ài). then the eigenvalues of W are those scalars ë in F which satisfy the equation det ([W]B À ëI n ) ˆ 0X Solving this equation involves ®nding the roots of a polynomial of degree n. Then W has an eigenvalue. if B is a basis of V. (2. then   i 0 [W]B 9 ˆ X 0 Ài (2) Let V ˆ R2 and let W again be the endomorphism which is given by (x. 0). Thus we depend upon F being C in result (2. i).26) Let V be a non-zero vector space over C. we deduce the following result. (0. i) of V. 2. Corresponding eigenvectors are (1. For an n 3 n matrix A over F. which occurs if and only if W À ë1 V is not invertible. V is a vector space over R. then   0 1 [W]B ˆ X À1 0 We have det ([W]B À ëI2 ) ˆ ë2 ‡ 1.Vector spaces and linear transformations 25 Now ë is an eigenvalue of W if and only if Ker (W À ë1 V ) Tˆ {0}. Ài) and (1.

. w9 in W. Projections If a vector space V is a direct sum of two subspaces U and W. that aii ˆ ë i for 1 < i < n. We have (v ‡ v9)ð ˆ (u ‡ u9 ‡ w ‡ w9)ð ˆ u ‡ u9 ˆ (u ‡ w)ð ‡ (u9 ‡ w9)ð ˆ vð ‡ v9ðX Also. . Im ð ˆ U . We often display such a matrix in the form H I ë1 0 f g FF Aˆd e F ën 0 which indicates.26 Representations and characters of groups 2.29 Proposition Suppose that V ˆ U È W. w P W X Then ð is an endomorphism of V. . Then v ˆ u ‡ w and v9 ˆ u9 ‡ w9 for some u. we have Im ˆ U. u9 in U and w. Let v and v9 belong to V. Also. w P W. De®ne ð: V 3 V by (u ‡ w)ð ˆ u for all u P U . Further. ë n . ð is an endomorphism of V. in addition.28 Example We say that an n 3 n matrix A ˆ (aij ) is diagonal if aij ˆ 0 for all i and j with i Tˆ j. it follows that ð is a function on V. for ë in F. . then we can construct a special endomorphism of V which depends upon the expression V ˆ U È W: 2. (ëv)ð ˆ (ëu ‡ ëw)ð ˆ ëu ˆ ë(vð)X Therefore. Ker ð ˆ W and ð2 ˆ ðX Proof Since every vector in V has a unique expression in the form u ‡ w with u P U. . Clearly Im ð # U. For this diagonal matrix A. and since uð ˆ u for all u in U. the eigenvalues are ë1 .

30 De®nition An endomorphism ð of a vector space V which satis®es ð2 ˆ ð is called a projection of V. as in Proposition 2. Then V ˆ Im ð È Ker ðX Proof If v P V then v ˆ vð ‡ (v À vð). Finally.31 Example The endomorphism (x. and the second term v À vð lies in Ker ð. Thus Im ð ’ Ker ð ˆ f0g. y) 3 (2x ‡ 2 y. Àx À y) of R2 is a projection. As v P Im ð. and so Ker ð ˆ W. Now suppose that v lies in Im ð ’ Ker ð. We now show that every projection can be constructed using a direct sum.Vector spaces and linear transformations (u ‡ w)ð ˆ 0 D u ˆ 0 D u ‡ w P W . 2. j .29. Therefore vð ˆ uð2 ˆ uð ˆ vX Since v P Ker ð. we have v ˆ uð for some u P V. it follows that v ˆ vð ˆ 0. (u ‡ w)ð2 ˆ uð ˆ u ˆ (u ‡ w)ð. and so ð2 ˆ ð. 27 j 2.32 Proposition Suppose that ð is a projection of a vector space V. 2.9) now shows that V ˆ Im ð È Ker ð. and (2. Clearly the ®rst term vð belongs to Im ð. since (v À vð)ð ˆ vð À vð2 ˆ vð À vð ˆ 0X This establishes that V ˆ Im ð ‡ Ker ð.

there is a correspondence between the endomorphisms W of V and the n 3 n matrices [W]B over F. Àx): x P RgX Summary of Chapter 2 1. 7. ‡ ur (ui P Ui ). 2.31. For example. Àx À y) is the projection of R2 which appears in Example 2. . 3. A linear transformation W: V 3 W satis®es (u ‡ v)W ˆ uW ‡ vW and (ëv)W ˆ ë(vW) for all u. A linear transformation W: V 3 W is invertible if and only if Ker W ˆ {0} and Im W ˆ W. Ker ð ˆ f(x. and an endomorphism W of V. . Exercises for Chapter 2 1. . Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. and dimF n ˆ n. . . È Ur if each Ui is a subspace of V. y) 3 (2x ‡ 2 y. 5.33 Example If ð: (x. V ˆ U È W if and only if V ˆ U ‡ W and U ’ W ˆ {0}. and dim V ˆ dim (Ker W) ‡ dim (Im W)X 4. All our vector spaces are ®nite-dimensional over F. Given two bases B and B 9 of V.28 Representations and characters of groups 2. F F F . and every element v of V has a unique expression of the form v ˆ u1 ‡ . x n ) with each xi in F. where F ˆ C or R. Eigenvalues ë of an endomorphism W satisfy vW ˆ ëv for some nonzero v in V. Àx): x P Rg. then Im ð ˆ f(2x. A projection is an endomorphism ð of V which satis®es ð2 ˆ ð. there exists an invertible matrix T such that [W]B ˆ T À1 [W]B 9 TX 6. v in V and all ë in F. Given a basis B of the n-dimensional vector space V. V ˆ U1 È . F n is the set of row vectors (x1 . Also. Show that if V and W are vector spaces and W: V 3 W is an invertible linear transformation then WÀ1 is a linear transformation.

ws is a basis of W. . but V Tˆ Im ö È Ker ö. (3) Im W ˆ V. and that V ˆ U1 È . Suppose that U1. Prove that V ˆ U È W if and only if V ˆ U ‡ W and U ’ W = {0}. . 3. Ur are subspaces of the vector space V. . 5. È Ur. ur is a basis of U and w1. ws is a basis of V. Show that V ˆ U1 È U2 È U3 D U 1 ’ (U 2 ‡ U3 ) ˆ U 2 ’ (U 1 ‡ U3 ) ˆ U 3 ’ (U 1 ‡ U2 ) ˆ f0gX (b) Give an example of a vector space V with three subspaces U1. Show that V ˆ U È W if and only if u1 . . Prove that dim V ˆ dim U1 ‡ X X X ‡ dim U r X 7. . w1. Show that V ˆ U È W. . 4. 8. Show that the following are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. U2 and U3 such that V ˆ U1 ‡ U2 ‡ U3 and U1 ’ U 2 ˆ U1 ’ U3 ˆ U2 ’ U 3 ˆ f0g. (a) Let U1. . 9. Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. . . W ˆ fv P V : vW ˆ ÀvgX Deduce that V has a basis B such that [W]B is diagonal. . . Give an example of a vector space V with endomorphisms W and ö such that V ˆ Im W È Ker W. with all diagonal entries equal to ‡1 or À1. . . (2) Ker W ˆ {0}. with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or 0.Vector spaces and linear transformations 29 2. U2 and U3 be subspaces of a vector space V. . 6. Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V. . . Let V be a vector space and let W be an endomorphism of V. Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V and W2 ˆ 1 V . . but V Tˆ U1 È U2 È U3. . where U ˆ fv P V : vW ˆ vg. with V ˆ U1 ‡ U2 ‡ U3. . ur . . Show that W is a projection if and only if there is a basis B of V such that [W]B is diagonal. Suppose that u1 . . . . Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V.

30 . Thus if r is a function from G to GL (n. We set out this idea in more detail. a representation is a homomorphism from G into a group of invertible matrices. h P GX Since a representation is a homomorphism. we have 1r ˆ I n . for some n.1 De®nition A representation of G over F is a homomorphism r from G to GL (n. and g À1 r ˆ ( gr)À1 for all g P G. Recall from the ®rst chapter that GL (n. and consider the kernel of a representation. 3. To be precise. F). it follows that for every representation r: G 3 GL (n.3 Group representations A representation of a group G gives us a way of visualizing G as a group of matrices. We also introduce the concept of equivalence of representations. The degree of r is the integer n. where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. F). F) denotes the group of invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. and give some examples of representations. F). Representations Let G be a group and let F be R or C. then r is a representation if and only if ( gh)r ˆ ( gr)(hr) for all g.

De®ne the matrices A and B by     0 1 1 0 Aˆ . BÀ1 AB ˆ AÀ1 X It follows (see Example 1. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. This shows that every group has representations of arbitrarily large degree.4) that the function r: G 3 GL (2. Bˆ À1 0 0 À1 and check that A4 ˆ B2 ˆ I. where In is the n 3 n identity matrix. Equivalent representations We now look at a way of converting a given representation into another one. so r is a representation of G.2 Examples (1) Let G be the dihedral group D8 ˆ ka. 0 < j < 1) is a representation of D8 over F. Then ( gh)r ˆ I n ˆ I n I n ˆ ( gr)(hr) for all g. F) by gr ˆ I n for all g P G. De®ne r: G 3 GL (n. The degree of r is 2. . F) which is given by r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. h P G. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. The matrices gr for g in D8 are given in the following table: g gr  1  1 0 0 1 a  0 1 À1 0 a2  À1 0 0 À1 a3  0 À1 1 0    g gr  b  1 0 0 À1  ab  0 À1 À1 0 2  a b  À1 0 0 1 3  a b  0 1 1 0 (2) Let G be any group.Group representations 31 3. as usual.

we simply de®ne gó ˆ T À1 ( gr)T Then for all g. We say that r is equivalent to ó if n ˆ m and there exists an invertible n 3 n matrix T such that for all g P G. 3.32 Representations and characters of groups Let r: G 3 GL (n.4 Examples (1) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka.2(1).4): (1) r is equivalent to r. and let T be an invertible n 3 n matrix over F. gó ˆ T À1 ( gr)TX Note that for all representations r. F) be a representation. T À1 (hr)T ˆ ( gó )(hó ). we have (see Exercise 3. then r is equivalent to ô. we have (T À1 AT )(T À1 BT ) ˆ T À1 (AB)TX We can use this observation to produce a new representation ó from r. Note that for all n 3 n matrices A and B. equivalence of representations is an equivalence relation. Thus ar ˆ A for all g P GX . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. 3. h P G. (3) if r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô.3 De®nition Let r: G 3 GL (m. indeed. In other words. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. and consider the representation r of G which appears in Example 3. and so ó is. (2) if r is equivalent to ó then ó is equivalent to r. a representation. F) and ó : G 3 GL (n. ( gh)ó ˆ T À1 (( gh)r)T ˆ T À1 (( gr)(hr))T ˆ T À1 ( gr)T . ó and ô of G over F. F) be representations of G over F.

. Tˆ 1 À1 then T À1 AT ˆ   0 .Group representations and br ˆ B. 0 Ài 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of D8 for which     0 1 i 0 X . À1 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of G for which     1 0 1 0 . aó ˆ 1ó ˆ 0 À1 0 1 and ó is equivalent to r. (2) Let G ˆ C2 ˆ ka: a2 ˆ 1l and let  À5 Aˆ À2  12 X 5 Check that A2 ˆ I. we have     i 0 0 1 À1 À1 T AT ˆ . If   2 À3 . a 3 A is a representation of G. where Aˆ    1 1 . Hence r: 1 3 I. bó ˆ aó ˆ 1 0 0 Ài The representations r and ó are equivalent. Bˆ 0 0   1 X Ài  1 Ài X 1 i  0 X À1 33 0 À1 Assume that F ˆ C. . and de®ne 1 T ˆp 2 Then 1 i 1 T À1 ˆ p 2  In fact. T has been constructed so that T À1 AT is diagonal. T BT ˆ .

these are when the degree of r is 1. 3. as is shown by the following de®nition.6 De®nition A representation r: G 3 GL (n. F). . 3. this consists of the group elements g in G for which gr is the identity matrix. the trivial representation of G is the representation where every group element is sent to the 1 3 1 identity matrix. if the identity element of G is the only element g for which gr ˆ In . that is. Kernels of representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the kernel of a representation r: G 3 GL (n. is called the trivial representation of G. Of particular interest are those representations whose kernel is just the identity subgroup. Thus Ker r ˆ f g P G: gr ˆ I n gX Note that Ker r is a normal subgroup of G. and when gr ˆ In for all g in G.5 De®nition The representation r: G 3 GL (1. It can happen that the kernel of a representation is the whole of G. However.34 Representations and characters of groups There are two easily recognized situations where the only representation which is equivalent to r is r itself. there are usually lots of representations which are equivalent to r. F) is said to be faithful if Ker r ˆ {1}.7 Proposition A representation r of a ®nite group G is faithful if and only if Im r is isomorphic to G. To put the de®nition another way. F) which is de®ned by gr ˆ (1) for all g P G.8. 3. In agreement with De®nition 1.

Group representations 35 Proof We know that Ker r v G and by Theorem 1. In Chapter 6 we shall show that every ®nite group has a faithful representation. since the identity is the only element g which satis®es gr ˆ I. Conversely. if Ker r ˆ {1} then G  Im r. r is faithful. that is. . j 3. (3) The trivial representation of a group G if faithful if and only if G ˆ {1}.8 Examples (1) The representation r of D8 given by j  i 1 0 0 1 i j (a b )r ˆ 0 À1 À1 0 as in Example 3. 2. A representation of a group G is a homomorphism from G into GL(n.10. gó ˆ T À1 ( gr)T X 3. if G  Im r. A representation is faithful if it is injective. The group generated by the matrices     0 1 1 0 and À1 0 0 À1 is therefore isomorphic to D8. the factor group G/ Ker r is isomorphic to Im r. Representations r and ó of G are equivalent if and only if there exists an invertible matrix T such that for all g P G. then these two groups have the same (®nite) order. Therefore. F). (2) Since T À1 AT ˆ In if and only if A ˆ In . Summary of Chapter 3 1. it follows that all representations which are equivalent to a faithful representation are faithful. for some n. The basic problem of representation theory is to discover and understand representations of ®nite groups.2(1) is faithful. and so |Ker r| ˆ 1.

r3 : a r 3 C r (0 < r < 2). C). (2) if r is equivalent to ó. De®ne the matrices A. given by . C) (1 < j < 3). Suppose that r.  1 0   1 0 . b: an ˆ b2 ˆ 1. C) by r: ar 3 Ar 2. 1 0 0 eÀiða3     p 1a2 3a2 1 0 p Cˆ . 4). Bˆ 0 1 0  . say G ˆ ka: am ˆ 1l. 5. is a representation of G over C. Which of these representations are faithful? 3. C) (k ˆ 1. Bˆ .36 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 3 1. D over C by     0 1 eiða3 0 Aˆ . Suppose that G ˆ D2 n ˆ ka. Let Aˆ (0 < r < m À 1)X Show that r is a representation of G over C if and only if Am ˆ I. Show that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (1. (3) if r is equivalent to ó. Let G be the cyclic group of order m. and F ˆ R or C. F) such that ar ˆ (1) and br ˆ (À1). B. Let G ˆ D12 ˆ ka. 4. Prove: (1) r is equivalent to r. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. C. 3. ó and ô are representations of G over F.Cˆ  0 À1 1 À1  e2ðia3 and let G ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l  C3 . Suppose that A P GL (n. r2 : ar 3 Br . Dˆ X À 3a2 1a2 0 À1 Prove that each of the functions r k : G 3 GL (2. then ó is equivalent to r. Show that each of the functions r j : G 3 GL (2. b: a6 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. then r is equivalent to ô. and ó is equivalent to ô. de®ned by r1 : ar 3 Ar . 2. and de®ne r: G 3 GL (n.

Prove that Ga Ker r is abelian. 7. r3 : ar bs 3 (ÀA) r Bs . r 4 : ar bs 3 C r D s (0 < r < 5. Let r be a representation of the group G. 0 < s < 1). Suppose that g and h are elements of G such that ( gr)(hr) ˆ (hr)( gr).Group representations r1 : ar bs 3 Ar Bs . r2 : ar bs 3 A3 r (ÀB) s . Does it follow that gh ˆ hg? . Suppose that r is a representation of G of degree 1. Give an example of a faithful representation of D8 of degree 3. Which of these representations are faithful? Which are equivalent? 6. 8. 37 is a representation of G.

Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. . the fact that r is a homomorphism shows that v(( gh)r) ˆ v( gr)(hr) for all v P V and all g. For all v P V and g P G. since 1r is the identity matrix. of the row vector v with the n 3 n matrix gr. h P G. we have v(1r) ˆ v for all v P V. is a row vector in V (since the product of a 1 3 n matrix with an n 3 n matrix is again a 1 3 n matrix). Finally. . FG-modules Let G be a group and let F be R or C. F) is a representation of G. . the vector space of all row vectors (ë1 . Write V ˆ F n . 38 . . the properties of matrix multiplication give (ëv)( gr) ˆ ë(v( gr)). as there are several advantages to this approach to representation theory. ë n ) with ë i P F.4 FG-modules We now introduce the concept of an FG-module. First. Next. Much of the material in the remainder of the book will be presented in terms of FG-modules. the matrix product v( gr). and show that there is a close connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F. We now list some basic properties of the multiplication v( gr).

v(ar) ˆ (Àë2 . Thus     1 0 0 1 X . h P G: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) v g P V. (ëv) g ˆ ë(v g). br ˆ ar ˆ 0 À1 À1 0 If v ˆ (ë1 . v(br) ˆ (ë1 . Àë1 )X Motivated by the above observations on the product v( gr). 4.2(1).2 De®nition Let V be a vector space over F and let G be a group. (v P V ) . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l.FG-modules (u ‡ v)( gr) ˆ u( gr) ‡ v( gr) for all u. (u ‡ v) g ˆ ug ‡ v g. we now de®ne an FG-module. Then V is an FG-module if a multiplication v g (v P V. (4) and (5) in the de®nition ensure that for all g P G. v1 ˆ v. v P V. F) be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. and let r: G 3 GL (2. ë P F and g P G. v( gh) ˆ (v g)h. Àë2 ). We use the letters F and G in the name `FG-module' to indicate that V is a vector space over F and that G is the group from which we are taking the elements g to form the products v g (v P V). v P V.1 Example Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. for example. 39 4. ë1 ). b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. Note that conditions (1). satisfying the following conditions for all u. ë P F and g. v(a3 r) ˆ (ë2 . the function v 3 vg is an endomorphism of V. ë2 ) P F 2 then. g P G) is de®ned.

0). The connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F is revealed in the following basic result.4 Theorem (1) If r: G 3 GL(n. let [ g]B denote the matrix of the endomorphism v 3 v g of V. 0). 1. (u ‡ v)( gr) ˆ u( gr) ‡ v( gr)X Therefore. ( g P G) .40 Representations and characters of groups 4. relative to the basis B . if we let B be the basis (1. 0. Then the function g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F. there is a basis B of V such that (2) Assume that V is an FG-module and let B be a basis of V. 4. 0. Proof (1) We have already observed that for all u. 0. (ëv)( gr) ˆ ë(v( gr)). v(1r) ˆ v. h P G. g P G)X for all g P GX Moreover. we have v( gr) P F n . X X X . ë P F and g. 0. v(( gh)r) ˆ (v( gr))(hr). X X X . and let B be a basis of V.3 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. F) is a representation of G over F. X X X . X X X . (0. F n becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g ˆ v( gr) for all v P F n . then V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne the multiplication v g by v g ˆ v( gr) gr ˆ [ g]B (v P V . g P GX Moreover. 1) of F n. then gr ˆ [ g]B for all g P G. For each g P G. and V ˆ F n. v P F n. 0. (0.

v2 b ˆ Àv2 X ( g P G) If B denotes the basis v1 . By Theorem 4. v2 is the basis (1. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. 1)X 0 (1. 1) of V. b: a4 ˆ 1. F) (where n ˆ dim V ). (2) Let G ˆ Q8 ˆ ka. v2 a ˆ Àv1 . 0)a ˆ (1. h P G and all v in the basis B of V. a2 ˆ b2 . it follows that [ gh]B ˆ [ g]B [h]B X In particular. then we have v1 a ˆ v2 . j Our next example illustrates part (1) of Theorem 4. V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g ˆ v( gr) (v P V . In Example . br ˆ X À1 0 0 À1 Write V ˆ F 2.FG-modules 41 (2) Let V be an FG-module with basis B . Now v1 ˆ v for all v P V. g 3 [ g]B v1 b ˆ v1 .   ˆ (0.2(1). so [1]B is the identity matrix. Therefore each matrix [ g]B is invertible (with inverse [ gÀ1 ]B ). v2 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l and let r be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. 4. 0). so     0 1 1 0 ar ˆ . (0. 0) À1 1 0 If v1 .4(1) again). then the representation is just the representation r (see Theorem 4. [1]B ˆ [ g]B [ g À1 ]B for all g P G. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1.5 Examples (1) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka.4.4(1). Since v( gh) ˆ (v g)h for all g. We have proved that the function g 3 [ g]B is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. and hence is a representation of G over F. g P G)X For instance.

. there are restrictions on how we may de®ne the vectors v i g. v2 a ˆ Àiv2 . v n is a basis of V and g1 . . To do this. . v2 b ˆ Àv1 X Notice that in the above examples. For instance.42 Representations and characters of groups 1. (v1 ‡ 2v2 )ab ˆ v1 ab ‡ 2v2 ab ˆ v2 b À 2v1 b ˆ Àv2 À 2v1 X A similar remark holds for all FG-modules V: if v1 . we turn a vector space V over F into an FG-module by specifying the action of group elements on a basis v1 . Shortly. the vectors v1 a. we ®rst de®ne v i g for each i and each g in G. then the vectors v i g j (1 < i < n. . gr generate G. that we have a multiplication v g for all v in V and g in G which (ë i P F) . and then de®ne (ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n v n ) g to be ë1 (v1 g) ‡ X X X ‡ ë n (v n g)X As you might expect. and B ˆ Aˆ À1 0 0 Ài so we already have a representation of G over C. that is. F F F . C) generated by     0 1 i 0 . We then obtain a CG-module with basis v1 . v1 b and v2 b determine v g for all v P V and g P G. . v2 a. .5(1). 4. 1 < j < r) determine v g for all v P V and g P G. v n of V and then extending the action to be linear on the whole of V.4(1) we must this time take F ˆ C. v2 such that v1 a ˆ iv1 . . in Example 4. v1 b ˆ v2 .6 Proposition Assume that v1 . . . without using a representation. The next result will often be used to show that our chosen multiplication turns V into an FG-module. . . v n is a basis of a vector space V over F Suppose .2(4) we de®ned Q8 to be the subgroup of GL (2. . we shall show you various ways of constructing FG-modules directly. To illustrate Theorem 4.

FG-modules

43

satis®es the following conditions for all i with 1 < i < n, for all g, h P G, and for all ë1 , F F F , ë n P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) v i g P V; v i ( gh) ˆ (v i g)h; vi 1 ˆ vi ; (ë1 v1 ‡ . . . ‡ ë n v n ) g ˆ ë1 (v1 g) ‡ . . . ‡ ë n (v n g).

Then V is an FG-module. Proof It is clear from (3) and (4) that v1 ˆ v for all v P V. Conditions (1) and (4) ensure that for all g in G, the function v 3 v g (v P V) is an endomorphism of V. That is, vg P V, (ëv) g ˆ ë(v g), (u ‡ v) g ˆ ug ‡ v g, for all u, v P V, ë P F and g P G. Hence (4X7) (ë1 u1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n u n )h ˆ ë1 (u1 h) ‡ X X X ‡ ë n (un h) for all ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, all u1 , . . . , un P V and all h P G. Now let v P V and g, h P G. Then v ˆ ë1 v1 ‡ . . . ‡ ë n v n for some ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, and v( gh) ˆ ë1 (v1 ( gh)) ‡ X X X ‡ ë n (v n ( gh)) ˆ (ë1 (v1 g) ‡ X X X ‡ ë n (v n g))h ˆ (v g)h by condition (4)X by condition (4) ˆ ë1 ((v1 g)h) ‡ X X X ‡ ë n ((v n g)h) by condition (2) by (4X7)

We have now checked all the axioms which are required for V to be an FG-module. j Our next de®nitions translate the concepts of the trivial representation and a faithful representation into module terms. 4.8 De®nitions (1) The trivial FG-module is the 1-dimensional vector space V over F with vg ˆ v for all v P V , g P GX

44

Representations and characters of groups

(2) An FG-module V is faithful if the identity element of G is the only element g for which v g ˆ v for all v P V X For instance, the FD8 -module which appears in Example 4.5(1) is faithful. Our next aim is to use Proposition 4.6 to construct faithful FGmodules for all subgroups of symmetric groups. Permutation modules Let G be a subgroup of Sn , so that G is a group of permutations of {1, . . . , n}. Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , . . . , v n . For each i with 1 < i < n and each permutation g in G, de®ne v i g ˆ v ig X Then v i g P V and v i 1 ˆ v i . Also, for g, h in G, v i ( gh) ˆ v i( gh) ˆ v(ig) h ˆ (v i g)hX We now extend the action of each g linearly to the whole of V; that is, for all ë1 , . . . , ë n in F and g in G, we de®ne (ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n v n ) g ˆ ë1 (v1 g) ‡ X X X ‡ ë n (v n g)X Then V is an FG-module, by Proposition 4.6. 4.9 Example Let G ˆ S4 and let B denote the basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 of V. If g ˆ (1 2), then v1 g ˆ v2 , v2 g ˆ v1 , v3 g ˆ v3 , v4 g ˆ v4 X And if h ˆ (1 3 4), then v1 h ˆ v3 , v2 h ˆ v2 , v3 h ˆ v4 , v4 h ˆ v1 X We have [ g]B 0 f1 ˆf d0 0 H 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 H I 0 0 f0 0g g, [h]B ˆ f d0 0e 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 I 0 0g gX 1e 0

FG-modules

45

4.10 De®nition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . The FG-module V with basis v1 , . . . , v n such that v i g ˆ v ig for all i, and all g P G, is called the permutation module for G over F. We call v1 , . . . , v n the natural basis of V. Note that if we write B for the basis v1 , . . . , v n of the permutation module, then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has precisely one nonzero entry in each row and column, and this entry is 1. Such a matrix is called a permutation matrix. Since the only element of G which ®xes every v i is the identity, we see that the permutation module is a faithful FG-module. If you are aware of the fact that every group G of order n is isomorphic to a subgroup of Sn , then you should be able to see that G has a faithful FG-module of dimension n. We shall go into this in more detail in Chapter 6. 4.11 Example Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l. Then G is isomorphic to the cyclic subgroup of S3 which is generated by the permutation (1 2 3). This alerts us to the fact that if V is a 3-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , then we may make V into an FG-module in which v1 1 ˆ v1 , v2 1 ˆ v2 , v3 1 ˆ v3 , v1 a ˆ v2 , v2 a ˆ v3 , v3 a ˆ v1 , v1 a2 ˆ v3 , v2 a2 ˆ v1 , v3 a2 ˆ v2 X Of course, we de®ne v g, for v an arbitrary vector in V and g ˆ 1, a or a2 , by (ë1 v1 ‡ ë2 v2 ‡ ë3 v3 ) g ˆ ë1 (v1 g) ‡ ë2 (v2 g) ‡ ë3 (v3 g) for all ë1 , ë2 , ë3 P F. Proposition 4.6 can be used to verify that V is an FG-module, but we have been motivated by the de®nition of permutation modules in our construction. FG-modules and equivalent representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the relationship between FG-modules and equivalent representations of G over F. An FG-

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Representations and characters of groups

module gives us many representations, all of the form g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) for some basis B of V. The next result shows that all these representations are equivalent to each other (see De®nition 3.3); and moreover, any two equivalent representations of G arise from some FG-module in this way. 4.12 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B , and let r be the representation of G over F de®ned by r: g 3 [ g]B ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 ( g P G)X ( g P G) (1) If B 9 is a basis of V, then the representation of G is equivalent to r. (2) If ó is a representation of G which is equivalent to r, then there is a basis B 0 of V such that ó : g 3 [ g]B 0 ( g P G)X

Proof (1) Let T be the change of basis matrix from B to B 9 (see De®nition 2.23). Then by (2.24), for all g P G, we have [ g]B ˆ T À1 [ g]B 9 TX Therefore ö is equivalent to r. (2) Suppose that r and ó are equivalent representations of G. Then for some invertible matrix T, we have gr ˆ T À1 ( gó )T for all g P GX Let B 0 be the basis of V such that the change of basis matrix from B to B 0 is T. Then for all g P G, [ g]B ˆ T À1 [ g]B 0 T , and so gó ˆ [ g]B 0 .
j

4.13 Example Again let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l. There is a representation r of G which is given by

 1r ˆ

1 0

FG-modules     0 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a rˆ , ar ˆ X À1 À1 1 1 0 

47

(To see this, simply note that (ar)2 ˆ a2 r and (ar)3 ˆ I; see Exercise 3.2.) If V is a 2-dimensional vector space over C, with basis v1 , v2 (which we call B ), then we can turn V into a CG-module as in Theorem 4.4(1) by de®ning v1 1 ˆ v1 , v2 1 ˆ v2 , v1 a ˆ v2 , v1 a2 ˆ Àv1 À v2 , v2 a2 ˆ v1 X  À1 X 0

v2 a ˆ Àv1 À v2 ,

We then have    1 0 0 [1]B ˆ , [a]B ˆ 0 1 À1 

 1 À1 2 , [a ]B ˆ À1 1

Now let u1 ˆ v1 and u2 ˆ v1 ‡ v2 . Then u1 , u2 is another basis of V, which we call B 9. Since u1 1 ˆ u 1 , u2 1 ˆ u 2 , u1 a ˆ Àu1 ‡ u2 , u2 a ˆ Àu1 , u1 a2 ˆ Àu2 , u2 a2 ˆ u1 À u2 ,

we obtain the representation ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 where       1 0 À1 1 0 À1 2 [1]B 9 ˆ , [a]B 9 ˆ , [a ]B 9 ˆ X 0 1 À1 0 1 À1 Note that if Tˆ then for all g in G, we have [ g]B ˆ T À1 [ g]B 9 T , and so r and ö are equivalent, in agreement with Theorem 4.12(1).  

1 0 1 1

Summary of Chapter 4 1. An FG-module is a vector space over F, together with a multiplication by elements of G on the right. The multiplication satis®es properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4.2.

48

Representations and characters of groups

2. There is a correspondence between representations of G over F and FG-modules, as follows. (a) Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n, F) is a representation of G. Then F n is an FG-module, if we de®ne v g ˆ v( gr) (v P F n , g P G)X (b) If V is an FG-module, with basis B , then r: g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F.

3. If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the permutation FG-module has basis v1 , F F F , v n , and v i g ˆ v ig for all i with 1 < i < n, and all g in G. Exercises for Chapter 4 1. Suppose that G ˆ S3 , and that V ˆ sp (v1 , v2 , v3 ) is the permutation module for G over C, as in De®nition 4.10. Let B 1 be the basis v1 , v2 , v3 of V and let B 2 be the basis v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 , v1 À v2 , v1 À v3 . Calculate the 3 3 3 matrices [ g]B 1 and [ g]B 2 for all g in S3 . What do you notice about the matices [ g]B 2 ? 2. Let G ˆ Sn and let V becomes an FG-module & v, vg ˆ Àv, be a vector space over F. Show that V if we de®ne, for all v in V, if g is an even permutation, if g is an odd permutation.

3. Let Q8 ˆ ka, b: a4 ˆ 1, b2 ˆ a2 , bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l, the quaternion group of order 8. Show that there is an RQ8 -module V of dimension 4 with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 such that v1 a ˆ v 2 , v1 b ˆ v 3 , v2 a ˆ Àv1 , v2 b ˆ v4 , v3 a ˆ Àv4 , v4 a ˆ v3 , and v3 b ˆ Àv1 , v4 b ˆ Àv2 X

4. Let A be an n 3 n matrix and let B be a matrix obtained from A by permuting the rows. Show that there is an n 3 n permutation matrix P such that B ˆ PA. Find a similar result for a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns.

5 FG-submodules and reducibility

We begin the study of FG-modules by introducing the basic building blocks of the theory ± the irreducible FG-modules. First we require the notion of an FG-submodule of an FG-module. Throughout, G is a group and F is R or C. FG-submodules 5.1 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. A subset W of V is said to be an FGsubmodule of V if W is a subspace and wg P W for all w P W and all g P G. Thus an FG-submodule of V is a subspace which is also an FGmodule. 5.2 Examples (1) For every FG-module V, the zero subspace {0}, and V itself, are FG-submodules of V. (2) Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l, and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule de®ned in Example 4.11. Thus, V has basis v1 , v2 , v3 , and v1 1 ˆ v1 , v2 1 ˆ v2 , v3 1 ˆ v3 , v1 a ˆ v2 , v2 a ˆ v3 , v3 a ˆ v1 , v1 a2 ˆ v3 , v2 a2 ˆ v1 , v3 a2 ˆ v2 X Put w ˆ v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3, and let W ˆ sp (w), the 1-dimensional subspace spanned by w. Since 49

50

Representations and characters of groups w1 ˆ wa ˆ wa2 ˆ w,

W is an FG-submodule of V. However, sp (v1 ‡ v2 ) is not an FGsubmodule, since (v1 ‡ v2 )a ˆ v2 ‡ v3 P sp (v1 ‡ v2 )X a Irreducible FG-modules 5.3 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be irreducible if it is non-zero and it has no FG-submodules apart from {0} and V. If V has an FG-submodule W with W not equal to {0} or V, then V is reducible. Similarly, a representation r: G 3 GL (n, F) is irreducible if the corresponding FG-module F n given by v g ˆ v( gr) (v P F n , g P G) (see Theorem 4.4(1)) is irreducible; and r is reducible if F n is reducible. Suppose that V is a reducible FG-module, so that there is an FGsubmodule W with 0 , dim W , dim V. Take a basis B 1 of W and extend it to a basis B of V. Then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has the form H I Xg 0 d e (5X4) Yg Z g for some matrices Xg , Yg and Zg , where Xg is k 3 k (k ˆ dim W). A representation of degree n is reducible if and only if it is equivalent to a representation of the form (5.4), where X g is k 3 k and 0 , k , n. Notice that in (5.4), the functions g 3 Xg and g 3 Z g are representations of G: to see this, let g, h P G and multiply the matrices [ g]B and [h]B given by (5.4). Notice also that if V is reducible then dim V > 2. 5.5 Examples (1) Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule with basis v1 , v2 , v3 such that

FG-submodules and reducibility v1 a ˆ v2 , v2 a ˆ v3 , v3 a ˆ v1 ,

51

as in Example 4.11. We saw in Example 5.2(2) that V is a reducible FG-module, and has an FG-submodule W ˆ sp (v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 ). Let B be the basis v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 , v1 , v2 of V. Then H H I I 1 0 0 1 0 0 f f g g [1]B ˆ f 0 1 0 g, [a]B ˆ f 0 0 1 g, d d e e 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 H I 1 0 0 f g [a2 ]B ˆ f 1 À1 À1 gX d e 0 1 0 This reducible representation gives us two other representations: at the `top left' we have the trivial representation and at the `bottom right' we have the representation which is given by       0 1 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a 3 ,a3 X 13 À1 À1 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G ˆ D8 and let V ˆ F 2 be the 2-dimensional FG-module described in Example 4.5(1). Thus G ˆ ka, bl, and for all (ë, ì) P V we have (ë, ì)a ˆ (Àì, ë), (ë, ì)b ˆ (ë, Àì)X

We claim that V is an irreducible FG-module. To see this, suppose that there is an FG-submodule U which is not equal to V. Then dim U < 1, so U ˆ sp ((á, â)) for some á, â P F. As U is an FGmodule, (á, â)b is a scalar multiple of (á, â), and hence either á ˆ 0 or ⠈ 0. Since (á, â)a is also a scalar multiple of (á, â), this forces á ˆ ⠈ 0, so U ˆ {0}. Consequently V is irreducible, as claimed.

Summary of Chapter 5 1. If V is an FG-module, and W is a subspace of V which is itself an FG-module, then W is an FG-submodule of V. 2. The FG-module V is irreducible if it is non-zero and the only FGsubmodules are {0} and V.

â)1 ˆ (á. b ˆ (4 5 6). c ˆ (2 3)(4 5). â) P V. de®ne (á. Let r and ó be equivalent representations of the group G over F. and let G ˆ ka. 2 . cÀ1 ac ˆ aÀ1 and cÀ1 bc ˆ bÀ1 X Deduce that G has order 18. Find a CG-module which is neither reducible nor irreducible. c P S6 by a ˆ (1 2 3). Let G ˆ C13 . For (á. (b) Suppose that å and ç are complex cube roots of unity. ab ˆ ba. 2. Verify that V is an FG-module and ®nd all the FG-submodules of V. Which of the four representations of D12 de®ned in Exercise 3. br ˆ . (a) Check that a3 ˆ b3 ˆ c2 ˆ 1.5 are irreducible? 4. and let V ˆ F 2. Let G ˆ C2 ˆ ka: a ˆ 1l. â) and (á. 3. Prove that if r is reducible then ó is reducible. Prove that there is a representation r of G over C such that       å 0 ç 0 0 1 ar ˆ X . â)a ˆ (â. cl. ç is r faithful? (d) For which values of å. cr ˆ 0 å À1 0 çÀ1 1 0 (c) For which values of å.52 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 5 1. ç is r irreducible? 5. De®ne the permutations a. b. b. á).

The group algebra of G Let G be a ®nite group whose elements are g1 . . . . . which will be explored in greater detail later on. we shall use it to construct an important faithful representation. group algebras are the source of all you need to know about representation theory. In a sense. if uˆ n ˆ iˆ1 ë i g i and v ˆ n ˆ iˆ1 ìi g i are elements of FG. In particular. Take as the elements of FG all expressions of the form ë1 g 1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë n g n (all ë i P F)X The rules for addition and scalar multiplication in FG are the natural ones: namely. We de®ne a vector space over F with g1 . Group algebras are therefore of great interest. and let F be R or C. the ultimate goal of representation theory ± that of understanding all the representations of ®nite groups ± would be achieved if group algebras could be fully analysed. After de®ning the group algebra of G. g n . then 53 . and ë P F. . known as the regular representation of G. . .6 Group algebras The group algebra of a ®nite group G is a vector space of dimension |G| which also carries extra structure involving the product operation on G. g n as a basis. . and we call this vector space FG.

.54 Representations and characters of groups u‡vˆ n n ˆ ˆ (ë i ‡ ì i ) g i and ëu ˆ (ëë i ) g i X iˆ1 iˆ1 With these rules. 6. .hPG ˆ where all ë g . with basis g1 .2 Example If G ˆ C3 and u. we write e for the identity element of G. (To avoid confusion with the element 1 of F. ì h P F. g n . ˆˆ (ë h ì hÀ1 g ) g gPG hPG 6. . . v are the elements of CG which appear in Example 6.1.1 Example Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ el. . . then uv ˆ (e À a ‡ 2a2 )(1 e ‡ 5a) 2 ˆ ˆ 1 2e ‡ 5a À 1 a À 5a2 ‡ a2 ‡ 10a3 2 ‡ 9 a À 4a2 X 2 21 2e .) The vector space CG contains u ˆ e À a ‡ 2a2 and v ˆ 1 e ‡ 5aX 2 We have u ‡ v ˆ 3 e ‡ 4a ‡ 2a2 . The basis g1 . FG is a vector space over F of dimension n. in this example. . 1 u ˆ 1 e À 1 a ‡ 2 a2 X 2 3 3 3 3 Sometimes we write elements of FG in the form ˆ ë g g (ë g P F)X gPG Now. FG carries more structure than that of a vector space ± we can use the product operation on G to de®ne multiplication in FG as follows: 3 2ˆ 32ˆ ˆ ëg g ìh h ˆ ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. g n is called the natural basis of FG. .

h. We write this element simply as 1. ì h P F). 6. ì g . r(st) ˆ (rs)t. (ër)s ˆ ë(rs) ˆ r(ës).h. Then (rs)t ˆ ˆ ˆ g. r0 ˆ 0r ˆ 0. for all r. is called the group algebra of G over F.hPG 55 (ë g . The group algebra FG contains an identity for multiplication. t ˆ í g g.kPG ë g ì h í k ( gh)k ë g ì h í k g(hk) ˆ g. with multiplication de®ned by 3 2ˆ 32ˆ ˆ ëg g ìh h ˆ ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g.Group algebras 6. j . gPG gPG gPG (ë g . r(s ‡ t) ˆ rs ‡ rt. í g P F). s ˆ ì g g. s. (2) Let ˆ ˆ ˆ rˆ ë g g.kPG ˆ r(st)X We leave the proofs of the other equations as easy exercises. t P FG and ë P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) rs P FG.3 De®nition The vector space FG. (r ‡ s)t ˆ rt ‡ st. Proof (1) It follows immediately from the de®nition of rs that rs P FG. namely the element 1e (where 1 is the identity of F and e is the identity of G). r1 ˆ 1r ˆ r.4 Proposition Multiplication in FG satis®es the following properties.

(u ‡ v) g ˆ ug ‡ v g. with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. g P G). j 6. The regular FG-module We now use the group algebra to de®ne an important FG-module. Let V ˆ FG. ë P F and g. where n ˆ |G|. Note that the regular FG-module has dimension equal to |G|. Therefore V is an FG-module. any vector space equipped with a multiplication satisfying properties (1)±(7) of Proposition 6. We shall be concerned only with group algebras. (2).4 is called an algebra. Proof Suppose that g P G and v g ˆ v for all v P FG. is called the regular FG-module.7 Example Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ el. The representation g 3 [ g]B obtained by taking B to be the natural basis of FG is called the regular representation of G over F.6 Proposition The regular FG-module is faithful. Then 1 g ˆ 1.56 Representations and characters of groups In fact. so g ˆ 1. v( gh) ˆ (v g)h. v P V. and the result follows. respectively. by parts (1). we have vg P V. (ëv) g ˆ ë(v g). v1 ˆ v. The elements of FG have the form . but it is worth pointing out that the axioms for an algebra mean that it is both a vector space and a ring. 6.4. (4) and (5) of Proposition 6. so that V is a vector space of dimension n over F. For all u. (3). h P G. The vector space FG.5 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group and F be R or C. 6.

Group algebras ë1 e ‡ ë2 a ‡ ë3 a2 We have (ë1 e ‡ ë2 a ‡ ë3 a2 )e ˆ ë1 e ‡ ë2 a ‡ ë3 a2 .8 De®nition Suppose that V is an FG-module. it is sometimes helpful to extend the de®nition of the multiplication so that we have an element vr of V for all elements r in the group algebra FG. (ë1 e ‡ ë2 a ‡ ë3 a2 )a ˆ ë3 e ‡ ë1 a ‡ ë2 a2 .9 Examples (1) Let V be the permutation module for S4 . say € r ˆ gPG ì g g (ì g P F). De®ne vr by ˆ vr ˆ ì g (v g)X gPG 6. Now. (ë1 e ‡ ë2 a ‡ ë3 a2 )a2 ˆ ë2 e ‡ ë3 a ‡ ë1 a2 X (ë i P F)X 57 By taking matrices relative to the basis e. a2 of FG. This is done in the following natural way. ì P F) . together with a multiplication v g for v P V and g P G (and the multiplication satis®es various axioms). a. 6. v2 r ˆ ëv1 ‡ ìv2 . a2 3 d 1 0 0 eX 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 FG acts on an FG-module You will remember that an FG-module is a vector space over F. (2v1 ‡ v2 )r ˆ ëv1 ‡ (2ë ‡ ì)v2 ‡ 2ìv3 X (ë. If r ˆ ë(1 2) ‡ ì(1 3 4) then v1 r ˆ ëv1 (1 2) ‡ ìv1 (1 3 4) ˆ ëv2 ‡ ìv3 . a 3 d 0 0 1 e.9. and that v P V and r P FG. we obtain the regular representation of G: H I H I H I 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 e 3 d 0 1 0 e. as described in Example 4.

all ë P F and all r. 6.58 Representations and characters of groups (2) If V is the regular FG-module. Proof All parts except (2) are straightforward. v(rs) ˆ (vr)s. (5). (u ‡ v)r ˆ ur ‡ vr. the element vr is simply the product of v and r as elements of the group algebra. v0 ˆ 0r ˆ 0. assuming the other parts.4. (6) j ˆ (vr)sX . v P V. v(r ‡ s) ˆ vr ‡ vs.h 2ˆ g 3 32ˆ ë g (v g) ìh h h by (4). and we leave them to you. given by De®nition 6.h ë g ì h (v( gh)) ë g ì h ((v g)h) by (4) and (6) ˆ g. Compare the next result with Proposition 6. (ëv)r ˆ ë(vr) ˆ v(ër).10 Proposition Suppose that V is an FG-module. s P FG: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) vr P V. s P FG with ˆ ˆ rˆ ë g g. Let v P V. s ˆ ì h hX gPG hPG Then 2ˆ 3 v(rs) ˆ v ë g ì h ( gh) g. We shall give a proof of part (2). v1 ˆ v. and let r.h ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ g. Then the following properties hold for all u. then for all v P V and r P FG.3.

. and has a natural multiplication de®ned on it. The group algebra FG of G over F consists of all linear combinations of elements of G. . (a) Let x and y be the following elements of CG: x ˆ a ‡ 2a2 . yx and x 2 . where B is the basis g1 . Deduce that zr ˆ rz for all r in CG. say G ˆ { g1 . and v0 ˆ 0 for all v P V . . . The regular FG-module is faithful. Show that for every ®nite group G. with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. 2. 2. 3. (a) Prove that ch ˆ hc ˆ c for all h in G. Suppose that G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. . where the symbol 0 is used for the zero elements of V and FG. (c) Let W: CG 3 CG be the linear transformation sending v to vc for all v in CG. . If V is an FG-module. 1. Assume that G is a ®nite group. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. (b) Let z ˆ b ‡ a2 b. What is the matrix [W]B . Let G ˆ C2 . r P FG such that vr ˆ 0. For r and s in CG. (b) Deduce that c2 ˆ |G|c. Exercises for Chapter 6 1. . with |G| . and write c €n for the element iˆ1 g i of CG. gn of CG? 5. The vector space FG. . g n }. 3. Work out matrices for the regular representation of C2 3 C2 over F. g P G) is the regular FG-module. Show that zg ˆ gz for all g in G. . y ˆ b ‡ ab À a2 X Calculate xy. does rs ˆ 0 imply that r ˆ 0 or s ˆ 0? 4. but neither v nor r is 0. prove from the de®nition that 0r ˆ 0 for all r P FG. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l.Group algebras Summary of Chapter 6 59 1. there exists an FG-module V and elements v P V.

Prove that the 2-dimensional subspace W of CG. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. b ‡ ù2 ab ‡ ùa2 b). is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CG-module. de®ned by W ˆ sp (1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. .60 Representations and characters of groups 6. and let ù ˆ e2ðia3 . Suppose that G ˆ D6 ˆ ka.

7.2 Proposition Let V and W be FG-modules and let W: V 3 W be an FG-homomorphism. the `structure-preserving' functions are. then for all v P V and r ˆ gPG ë g g P FG.7 FG-homomorphisms For groups and vector spaces. The analogous functions for FG-modules are called FG-homomorphisms. and we introduce these in this chapter. g P GX In other words. group homomorphisms and linear transformations. submodule of W. FG-homomorphisms 7.1 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules. Then Ker W is an FG-submodule of V and Im W is an FG. Note that if G is a ®nite group and W: V 3 W is an FG-homomorph€ ism. A function W: V 3 W is said to be an FG-homomorphism if W is a linear transformation and (v g)W ˆ (vW) g for all v P V . respectively. if W sends v to w then it sends v g to wg. we have (vr)W ˆ (vW)r since (vr)W ˆ ˆ gPG ë g (v g)W ˆ ˆ gPG ë g (vW) g ˆ (vW)rX The next result shows that FG-homomorphisms give rise to FGsubmodules in a natural way. 61 .

so vg P Ker W.3 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW ˆ 0 for all v P V. Here. we have Ker W ˆ {0}.8). Therefore Ker W is an FG-submodule of V. . since W is a linear transformation. . v n ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4. and Ker W ˆ V. and for all € v ˆ ë i v i P V and all g P G. Now let w P Im W. @ n A n ˆ ˆ Ker W ˆ ëi vi : ëi ˆ 0 . (3) Suppose that G is a subgroup of S n . and so Im W is an FG-submodule of W. For all g P G. wg ˆ (vW) g ˆ (v g)W P Im W. Im W ˆ V. (2) Let ë P F. Provided ë Tˆ 0. and de®ne W: V 3 V by vW ˆ ëv for all v P V. Let v P Ker W and g P G. Then W is a linear transformation. . so that w ˆ vW for some v P V. and let W ˆ sp (w) be the trivial FG-module (see De®nition 4.10). iˆ1 iˆ1 Im W ˆ W X . We construct an FG-homomorphism W from V to W. j 7. De®ne 2 n 3 n ˆ ˆ W: ëivi 3 ë i w (ë i P F)X iˆ1 iˆ1 Thus v i W ˆ w for all i.62 Representations and characters of groups Proof First note that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. we have 2 3 2 3 ˆ ˆ (v g)W ˆ ë i v ig W ˆ ë i w. and 2 3 2 3 ˆ ˆ (vW) g ˆ ë i wg ˆ ë i wX Therefore W is an FG-homomorphism. then W is an FGhomomorphism. Im W ˆ {0}. Then W is an FG-homomorphism. . Let V ˆ sp (v1 . Then (v g)W ˆ (vW) g ˆ 0 g ˆ 0.

then the inverse WÀ1 : W 3 V is also an FG-isomorphism.5 Proposition If W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. v n is a basis of V if and only if v1 W. then we say that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules and write V  W. In the next result. We call a function W: V 3 W an FGisomorphism if W is an FG-homomorphism and W is invertible. ((wWÀ1 ) g)W ˆ ((wWÀ1 )W) g ˆ wg ˆ ((wg)WÀ1 )WX Hence (wWÀ1 ) g ˆ (wg)WÀ1 . as required. (3) V contains a trivial FG-submodule if and only if W contains a trivial FG-submodule (since X is a trivial FG-submodule of V if and only if XW is a trivial FG-submodule of W). and prove that V and W share the same structural properties. v n W is a basis of W). . . . Proof Certainly WÀ1 is an invertible linear transformation. j as W is an FG-homomorphism Suppose that W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. We list some examples below: (1) dim V ˆ dim W (since v1 . If there is such an FG-isomorphism. Isomorphic FG-modules 7. .FG-homomorphisms 63 By Proposition 7.4 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules.2. Ker W is an FG-submodule of the permutation module V. . . 7. . For w P W and g P G. . we check that if V  W then W  V. (2) V is irreducible if and only if W is irreducible (since X is an FGsubmodule of V if and only if XW is an FG-submodule of W). Then we may use W and WÀ1 to translate back and forth between the isomorphic FGmodules V and W. . so we need only show that WÀ1 is an FG-homomorphism.

Now assume that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. we deduce that (v i g)W ˆ (v i W) g for all i. . v n is a basis B 1 of V and w1. . then v1 W. By (7. Let W be the invertible linear transformation from V to W for which v i W ˆ w i for all i. Then by Theorem 4. This completes the proof of (7. suppose that r and ó are equivalent. 7. and hence W is an FG-isomorphism.7). there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 ˆ [ g]B 2 for all g P G. Since [ g]B 1 ˆ [ g]B 2 . v n W is a basis B 2 of W. Conversely. w n is a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 ˆ [ g]B 2 for all g P G. . . Let g P G. For the moment. and W is an FGmodule with basis B 9. Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if the representations r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 are equivalent. . we show that isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. Let g P G. we frequently disdain to distinguish between isomorphic FG-modules. suppose that v1 . it follows that [ g]B 1 ˆ [ g]B 2 . . De®ne a representation ö of G by ö: g 3 [ g]B 1 . v n be a basis B 1 of V. . . Proof We ®rst establish the following fact: (7.64 Representations and characters of groups Just as we often regard isomorphic groups as being identical.7) The FG-modules V and W are isomorphic if and only if there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 ˆ [ g]B 2 for all g P GX To see this. . . . .12(2).7). Since (v i g)W ˆ (v i W) g for each i. though. . there is a basis B 0 of V such that gó ˆ [ g]B 0 for all g P G. Hence r and ó are equivalent. Conversely. Then by Theorem 4. In the next result. suppose ®rst that W is an FG-isomorphism from V to W.12(1). . . we continue simply to emphasize the similarity between isomorphic FG-modules. . and let v1 . ö is equivalent to both r and ó.6 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B . .

[ g]B 9 ˆ [ g]B 0 for all g P G. where     0 1 1 0 ar ˆ . a. v2 . v3 such that v1 a ˆ v2 . and let W denote the regular FG-module. a2 is a basis of W. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. by (7. the FG-modules V and W are therefore isomorphic.11.9 Example Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka.7). v3 a ˆ v1 X Writing B for the basis v1 . j 7.4(1) we encountered two equivalent representations r and ó of G. with basis v1 . Then 1. v2 . v3 of V. v2 a ˆ v3 . d d e e 0 0 1 1 0 0 H 0 0 0 1 1 0 I f [a2 ]B 9 ˆ f 1 d 0 g 0 gX e Compare the FG-module V de®ned in Example 4. In Example 3. bó ˆ Ài 1  1 X 0 (ë i P F) .8 Example Let G ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l.FG-homomorphisms 65 that is. [a]B 9 ˆ f 0 0 1 g. Indeed. 7. the function W: ë1 v1 ‡ ë2 v2 ‡ ë3 v3 3 ë1 1 ‡ ë2 a ‡ ë3 a2 is an FG-isomorphism from V to W.7). br ˆ À1 0 0 À1 and aó ˆ  i 0   0 0 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. we have [ g]B ˆ [ g]B 9 for all g P GX According to (7. a cyclic group of order 3. We have H H I I 1 0 0 0 1 0 f f g g [1]B 9 ˆ f 0 1 0 g. call it B 9. Therefore V and W are isomorphic FG-modules.

v2 of V and B 9 for the basis w1. if we write B for the basis v1 . the CG-modules V and W are isomorphic. . in a similar way. . . (Compare Example 3. v2 3 iw1 À iw2 X Then (v j a)W ˆ (v j W)a and (v j b)W ˆ (v j W)b for j ˆ 1. v2 a ˆ Àv1 . w1 b ˆ w2 . let W be the CG-module with basis w1. a direct sum of FG-submodules Ui. .4(1). where U and W are FG-submodules of V. and w1. . since r and ó are equivalent. and we show that these give rise to FG-homomorphisms. and. let W: V 3 W be the invertible linear transformation such that W: v1 3 w1 ‡ w2 .6. u1 . w2 of W. then we can amalgamate B 1 . w n is a basis B of V.) Direct sums We conclude the chapter with a discussion of direct sums of FGmodules. . . .66 Representations and characters of groups Let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . u m . w2 b ˆ w1 Thus. H I 0 [ g]B 1 eX [ g]B ˆ d 0 [ g]B 2 More generally. . then for all g P G we have r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 X According to Theorem 7. and hence W is a CG-isomorphism from V to W. . and suppose that V ˆ U È W. . To verify this directly. . w1. v1 b ˆ v1 . . v2 for which v1 a ˆ v2 .9). . È Ur. . . . . Let u1 . 2. Let V be an FG-module. B r to .5(1)). u m be a basis B 1 of U. and for g P G. . w2 a ˆ Àiw2 . if V ˆ U1 È . . . w2 for which w1 a ˆ iw1 . . v2 b ˆ Àv2 (see Example 4. Then by (2. w n be a basis B 2 of W. and B i is a basis of Ui.

. i so ð2 ˆ ð i . Thus ð i is a projection (see De®nition 2. Proof Clearly ð i is a linear transformation. and g P G. v ˆ u1 ‡ . and we de®ne ð i : V 3 V (1 < i < r) by setting vð i ˆ ui X Then each ð i is an FG-homomorphism.11 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V Then V is a direct . ‡ u r (u j P U j for all j). we have (v g)ð i ˆ (u1 g ‡ X X X ‡ ur g)ð i ˆ ui g ˆ (vð i ) gX Also. sum of some of the FG-submodules Ui. and ð i is an FG-homomorphism. j . ‡ ur for unique vectors ui P Ui. .30).12 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. 7. . H [ g]B 1 f FF [ g]B ˆ d (7X10) F 67 I g eX 0 [ g]B r 0 The next result shows that direct sums give rise naturally to FGhomomorphisms.FG-homomorphisms obtain a basis B of V. vð 2 ˆ ui ð i ˆ ui ˆ vð i . and suppose that V ˆ U1 È X X X È U r where each Ui is an FG-submodule of V. since for v P V with v ˆ u1 ‡ . and for g P G. For v P V we have . i We now present a technical result concerning sums of irreducible FG-modules which will be used at a later stage. and suppose that V ˆ U1 ‡ X X X ‡ Ur . 7. and is also a projection of V . .

V and W be FG-modules. so assume that Ui P Y. . F F F . . then W is an FG-homomorphism. we remark that if V1 . If Ui P Y this is clear. . But W ’ Ui a is an FG-submodule of Ui. v r g) for all v i P Vi (1 < i < r) and all g P G. if Ui P Y X a Let W ˆ W1 ‡ X X X ‡ WsX We claim that Ui # W for all i. Prove that Wö: U 3 W is an FG-homomorphism. 3. X X X . . If V and W are FG-modules and W: V 3 W is a linear transformation which satis®es (v g)W ˆ (vW) g for all v P V. then we can make the external direct sum V1 È F F F ÈVr (see Chapter 2) into an FGmodule by de®ning (v1 .68 Representations and characters of groups Proof The idea is to choose as many as we can of the FG-submodules U1. Ur } which has the properties that W 1 ‡ X X X ‡ W s is direct (iXeX equal to W 1 È X X X È W s ). To this end. so W ’ Ui Tˆ {0}. Ur so that the sum of our chosen FG-submodules is direct. . . Summary of Chapter 7 1. but W 1 ‡ X X X ‡ W s ‡ U i is not direct. Isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. v r ) g ˆ (v1 g. . as required. we have V ˆ W ˆ W 1 È F F F ÈW s . and let W: U 3 V and ö: V 3 W be FG-homomorphisms. choose a subset Y ˆ {W1. . . g P G. Kernels and images of FG-homomorphisms are FG-modules. 2. therefore W ’ Ui ˆ Ui. X X X . V r are FG-modules. . Let U. as claimed. . . and so Ui # W. . Then W ‡ Ui is not a direct sum. Since U i  W for all i with 1 < i < r. j Finally. and Ui is irreducible. Exercises for Chapter 7 1. Ws } of {U1.

De®ne the FGsubmodules V0 and W0 of V and W as in Exercise 3. Is the permutation module for G over F isomorphic to the regular FG-module? 6. â P F) is an FG-homomorphism from the regular FG-module to itself. Prove that the permutation module for G over F is isomorphic to the regular FG-module. 3. Prove that the subset V0 ˆ fv P V : v g ˆ v for all g P Gg is an FG-submodule of V. (a) Show that the function W: á1 ‡ âx 3 (á À â)(1 À x) (á. Is it necessarily surjective? 4. Prove that V0 and W0 are isomorphic FG-modules. Let G be the subgroup of S5 which is generated by (1 2 3 4 5). Let G ˆ C2 ˆ kx: x 2 ˆ 1l. (b) Prove that W2 ˆ 2W. Suppose that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules.FG-homomorphisms 69 2. Show that the function ˆ W: v 3 v g (v P V ) gPG is an FG-homomorphism from V to V0 . (c) Find a basis B of FG such that   2 0 [W]B ˆ X 0 0 . 5. Assume that V is an FG-module. Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by (1 2) and (3 4).

v3 ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4. in fact. v2 À 2v3 ).8 Maschke's Theorem We now come to our ®rst major result in representation theory. Maschke's Theorem 8. v2 .10). Put u ˆ v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 and U ˆ sp (u)X Then U is an FG-submodule of V. for instance sp (v2 . let F be R or C.) This essentially reduces representation theory to the study of irreducible FG-modules. 8.2 Examples (1) Let G ˆ S3 and let V ˆ sp (v1 . we illustrate it with some examples. since ug ˆ u for all g P G. and let V be an FG-module. namely Maschke's Theorem. If U is an FG-submodule of V.1 Maschke's Theorem Let G be a ®nite group. where as usual F ˆ R or C. (The assumption on F is important ± see Example 8.2(2) below. There are many subspaces W of V such that V ˆ U È W. v3 ) and sp (v1 . But there is. A consequence of this theorem is that every FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. We shall ®nd this W in an 70 . then there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V ˆ U È WX Before proving Maschke's Theorem. only one FGsubmodule W of V with V ˆ U È W.

We aim to modify the projection ö to create an FG-homomorphism from V to V with image U. The corresponding FG-module is V ˆ sp (v1 . We show ®rst that W is an FG-homomorphism. an FG-submodule of the FG-module V. de®ne W: V 3 V by (8X3) vW ˆ 1 ˆ v gö g À1 jGj gPG (v P V )X It is clear that W is an endomorphism of V and Im W # U. . Proof of Maschke's Theorem 8. F). Choose any subspace W0 of V such that V ˆ U È W0X (There are many choices for W0 ± simply take a basis v1 . . v1 a j ˆ v1 .Maschke's Theorem 71 example after proving Maschke's Theorem (but you may like to look for it yourself now). extend it to a basis v1 . . By Proposition 2. for 0 < j < p À 1. as can easily be seen. . v2 a j ˆ jv1 ‡ v2 X Clearly. But there is no FGsubmodule W such that V ˆ U È W. let p be a prime number. (2) The conclusion of Maschke's Theorem can fail if F is not R or C. . For example.29. and let W0 ˆ sp (v m‡1 . where. . . U ˆ sp (v1 ) is an FG-submodule of V. v n of V. To this end.) For v P V. since U is the only 1-dimensional FG-submodule of V. let G ˆ C p ˆ ka: a p ˆ 1l. we have v ˆ u ‡ w for unique vectors u P U and w P W 0. v2 ). and take F to be the ®eld of integers modulo p. X X X . . For v P V and x P G. . 1. . Check that the function   1 0 j a 3 ( j ˆ 0. .1 We are given U. (vx)W ˆ 1 ˆ (vx) gö g À1 X jGj gPG . . v n ). ö is a projection of V with kernel W0 and image U. v m of U. p À 1) j 1 is a representation from G to GL (2. and we de®ne ö: V 3 V by setting vö ˆ u.

Hence 1 ˆ (vx)W ˆ vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG 2 3 1 ˆ ˆ vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG ˆ (vW)xX Thus W is an FG-homomorphism. We use the proof of Maschke's Theorem to ®nd an FG-submodule W of V such that V ˆ U È W. The projection ö onto U is given by ö: v1 3 0. as in Example 8. we have ug P U. Let W ˆ Ker W. v3 3 v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 X Check now that the FG-homomorphism W given by (8. Then V ˆ U È W0 (but of course W0 is not an FG-submodule). Then vW P U. Moreover.32.3(3). First note that for u P U.3) is W: v i 3 1(v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 ) (i ˆ 1. and so (ug)ö ˆ ug. and V ˆ U È W by Proposition 2. v2 . 3)X 3 The required FG-submodule W is then Ker W.) . 2. First. with submodule U ˆ sp (v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 ). v3 ) be the permutation module. g P G. the FG-submodule constructed in Example 7. so W ˆ sp (v1 À v2 .72 Representations and characters of groups As g runs over the elements of G. This completes the proof of Maschke's Theorem. 1 ˆ 1 ˆ 1 ˆ uW ˆ (8X4) ugö g À1 ˆ (ug) g À1 ˆ u ˆ uX jGj gPG jGj gPG jGj gPG Now let v P V. let W0 ˆ sp (v1 . Consequently W2 ˆ W. we prove that W2 ˆ W. (8. j 8. We have now established that W: V 3 V is a projection and an FGhomomorphism. Using this.2.4) we have (vW)W ˆ vW.5 Example Let G ˆ S3 and let V ˆ sp (v1 . so does h ˆ xg. so by (8. as claimed. W ˆ ë i v i : ë i ˆ 0 .2(1). Next. v2 3 0. v2 ). v2 À v3 )X Ȁ É € (In fact.4) shows that Im W ˆ U. Then W is an FG-submodule of V by Proposition 7.

. suppose that r is a reducible representation of a ®nite group G over F of degree n. 0 j j because sp (v1 À v2 . v1 À v2 . Z g . This example illustrates the matrix version of Maschke's Theorem: for an arbitrary ®nite group G. if we can choose a basis B of an FGmodule V such that [ g]B has the form H I à 0 d e à à for all g P G (see (5. Then we know that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G).4)). the matrix [ g]B has the form H I j 0 0 [ g]B ˆ d j j j eX j j j The zeros re¯ect the fact that U is an FG-submodule of V (see (5. If instead we use v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 . where X g is k 3 k with 0 . then we get H I j 0 0 [ g]B 9 ˆ d 0 j j e.4)). v2 À v3 as a basis B 9. v1 . n. then for all g P G. then we can ®nd a basis B 9 such that [ g]B 9 has the form H I à 0 d e 0 à for all g P G. To put this another way. Yg.Maschke's Theorem 73 Note that if B is the basis v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 . g 3d Yg Zg for some matrices X g . v2 of V. k . v2 À v3 ) is also an FG-submodule of V.

6 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be completely reducible if V ˆ U1 È F F F ÈU r . Consequences of Maschke's Theorem We now use Maschke's Theorem to show that every non-zero FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. we have. by induction. j Another useful consequence of Maschke's Theorem is the next proposition. Then by (2. Since dim U . where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V. . there is an FG-submodule W such that V ˆ U È W. 8. U ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur . dim V. W ˆ W 1 È X X X È W s . so suppose that V is reducible. then every non-zero FG-module is completely reducible. g 3d 0 Bg where A g is also a k 3 k matrix.7 Theorem If G is a ®nite group and F ˆ R or C. The result is true if dim V ˆ 1.) 8. a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules. V ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur È W 1 È X X X È W s . By Maschke's Theorem. If V is irreducible then the result holds. since V is irreducible in this case. we simply mean an FG-submodule which is an irreducible FG-module. Then V has an FG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. The proof goes by induction on dim V. where each Ui and W j is an irreducible FG-module.10).74 Representations and characters of groups Maschke's Theorem asserts further that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Ag 0 e. dim V and dim W . (By an irreducible FG-submodule. Proof Let V be a non-zero FG-module.

and let V be the 2-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 . Then there exists a surjective FG-homomorphism from V onto U. where v1 x ˆ v2 . Then the function ð: V 3 U which is de®ned by ð: u ‡ w 3 u (u P U .2. where F ˆ R or C and G is a ®nite group. Thus. express the group algebra RG as a direct sum of 1-dimensional RG-submodules. v2 x ˆ Àv1 À v2 X (This is a CG-module.11. Proof By Maschke's Theorem. Every non-zero FG-module V is a direct sum of irreducible FGmodules: V ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur X Exercises for Chapter 8 1. If G ˆ C2 3 C2 . by Exercise 3. Theorem 8.7 tells us that every non-zero FG-module is a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules. Maschke's Theorem says that for every FG-submodule U of an FGmodule V. Suppose that U is an FG-submodule of V. in order to understand FG-modules. by Proposition 7. 2. . w P W ) j is an FG-homomorphism onto U.) Express V as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.Maschke's Theorem 75 8. 1. there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V ˆ U È W. Let G ˆ kx: x 3 ˆ 1l  C3 . there is an FG-submodule W with V ˆ U È WX 2. we may concentrate upon the irreducible FG-modules. v2 .8 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. We begin our study of these in the next chapter. Summary of Chapter 8 Assume that G is a ®nite group and F ˆ R or C.

] on V by ˆ [u. v] ˆ 0 for all u P U gX Show that U c is a CG-submodule of V. Show that V is not completely reducible. 6. ì jv j ˆ ëi ìiX iˆ1 jˆ1 iˆ1 De®ne another complex inner product [ . vg] ˆ [u. Prove that r is irreducible. (This shows that Maschke's Theorem fails for in®nite groups ± compare Example 8. vx) (u. Let G be a ®nite group and let r: G 3 GL (2. 5. and de®ne U c ˆ fv P V : [u.2(2).1. which satis®es [ug. ) on V as follows (see (14. . An alternative proof of Maschke's Theorem for CG-modules. 2 n 3 n n ˆ ˆ ˆ ëi vi . (You may care to revisit Example 5. a CG-module V and a CG-homomorphism W: V 3 V such that V Tˆ Ker W È Im W.6 in the light of this result. Find a group G.) 6. v] for all u.) 5. 5. the vector vg is just the product of the row vector v with the matrix g). . v P V and g P GX (2) Suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. C) be a representation of G.76 Representations and characters of groups 3. h in G such that the matrices gr and hr do not commute. 4.2) for the de®nition of a complex inner product): for ë i . g P G. Suppose that there are elements g. with the natural multiplication by elements of G (so that for v P V. .4. . v] ˆ (ux. ì j P C. . v P V )X xPG (1) Verify that [ . De®ne a complex inner product ( .3. v n and suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 . Suppose that G is the in®nite group &  ' 1 0 : nPZ n 1 and let V be the CG-module C2 . ] is a complex inner product.5(2) and Exercises 5.

there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module.Maschke's Theorem 77 (3) Deduce Maschke's Theorem.) 7. . (Hint: it is a standard property of complex inner products that V ˆ U È U c for all subspaces U of V. Prove that for every ®nite simple group G.

Schur's Lemma is fundamental to representation theory. Thus Ker (W À ë1 V ) is a non-zero CG-submodule 78 . or vW ˆ 0 for all v P V. (1) If W: V 3 W is a CG-homomorphism.26). Throughout. Ker W is a CG-submodule of V. then either W is a CGisomorphism. as Ker W Tˆ V and V is irreducible. Ker W ˆ {0}. (2) By (2. Thus W is invertible. Proof (1) Suppose that vW Tˆ 0 for some v P V.2.2. we shall deal with CG-modules for the remainder of the book (except in Chapter 23). Schur's Lemma 9. and we give an immediate application by determining all the irreducible representations of ®nite abelian groups. (2) If W: V 3 V is a CG-isomorphism. Then Im W Tˆ {0}. G denotes a ®nite group. we have Im W ˆ W. Though simple in both statement and proof. and hence is a CG-isomorphism. and so Ker (W À ë1 V ) Tˆ {0}. As Im W is a CG-submodule of W by Proposition 7. Also by Proposition 7. the endomorphism W has an eigenvalue ë P C.9 Schur's Lemma Schur's Lemma is a basic result concerning irreducible modules.1 Schur's Lemma Let V and W be irreducible CG-modules. then W is a scalar multiple of the identity endomorphism 1 V . Schur's Lemma concerns CG-modules rather than RG-modules. and W is irreducible. and since much of the ensuing theory depends on it.

w P W is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. By Maschke's Theorem. regard C n as a CG-module by de®ning v g ˆ v( gr) for all v P C n . g P G. Proof As in Theorem 4.11). so that V has a CG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. Therefore v(W À ë1 V ) ˆ 0 That is. C) be a representation of G. there is a CGsubmodule W of V such that V ˆ U È WX Then the projection ð: V 3 V de®ned by (u ‡ w)ð ˆ u for all u P U.Schur's Lemma of V. Then V is irreducible. 9. for all v P V X 79 j 9. Let A be an n 3 n matrix over C. j We next interpret Schur's Lemma and its converse in terms of representations. as required. Part (2) of Schur's Lemma has the following converse. and is not a scalar multiple of 1 V . for all g P G .3 Corollary Let r: G 3 GL (n.2 Proposition Let V be a non-zero CG-module. and suppose that every CG-homomorphism from V to V is a scalar multiple of 1 V . W ˆ ë1 V . The endomorphism v 3 vA of C n is a CG-homomorphism if and only if (v g)A ˆ (vA) g for all v P C n . which is a contradiction. Hence V is irreducible.4(1). g P G. Since V is irreducible. Proof Suppose that V is reducible. Ker (W À ë1 V ) ˆ V. Then r is irreducible if and only if every n 3 n matrix A which satis®es ( gr)A ˆ A( gr) has the form A ˆ ëI n with ë P C.

C) for which  ar ˆ Assume that the matrix  Aˆ á ã â ä  ù 0  0 . and let ù ˆ e2ðia5 .2. ùÀ1  br ˆ 0 1  1 X 0 commutes with both ar and br.4 Examples (1) Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l.3. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l.80 Representations and characters of groups that is.2). b: a5 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. . Corollary 9. C) be the representation for which  ar ˆ 0 À1 1 À1  (see Exercise 3. Check that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (2. (2) Let G ˆ D10 ˆ ka. and then (br)A ˆ A(br) gives á ˆ ä. Since the matrix  0 À1 1 À1  commutes with all gr ( g P G).1 and Proposition 9. The fact that (ar)A ˆ A(ar) forces ⠈ 㠈 0. by Corollary 9. if and only if ( gr)A ˆ A( gr) for all g P GX The result now follows from Schur's Lemma 9.3 implies that r is reducible. and let r: G 3 GL (2. Hence  Aˆ á 0 0 á  ˆ áIX Consequently r is irreducible. j 9.

n r are positive integers. We shall not prove it here. 1) Then G ˆ h g1 . Let G ˆ C n1 3 . The next result is a major structure theorem for ®nite abelian groups. this covers the irreducible representations of all ®nite abelian groups. 3 C n r . . then every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1.Schur's Lemma Representation theory of ®nite abelian groups 81 Let G be a ®nite abelian group. we deduce that dim V ˆ 1. B. X X X . this endomorphism is a scalar multiple of the identity 1 V . ci . v gx ˆ vxg for all g P G. . C) be an irreducible representation of G (ci in ith position)X . By Theorem 9. . with g in i ˆ 1 and g i g j ˆ g j g i for all i. 9.1(2). Write g i ˆ (1. but refer you to Chapter 9 of the book of J. Pick x P G. and for 1 < i < r. and let V be an irreducible CGmodule. X X X . . and hence the endomorphism v 3 vx of V is a CG-homomorphism. X X X . g r i. We shall determine the irreducible representations of all direct products C n1 3 C n2 3 X X X 3 C n r where n1 . By Schur's Lemma 9.6 Theorem Every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups.5 Proposition If G is a ®nite abelian group. Thus vx ˆ ë x v for all v P V X This implies that every subspace of V is a CG-submodule. As V is irreducible. let c i be a generator for C n i . Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. Thus we have proved 9. . Since G is abelian. jX Now let r: G 3 GL (n. . say ë x 1 V .6.

5. v1 g 2 ˆ v2 . . we have g ˆ g11 .9 Examples (1) Let G ˆ C n ˆ ka: a n ˆ 1l. . . v4 g 2 ˆ Àv4 X . given any n i th roots of unity ë i (1 < i < r). As g i has order n i . where ak rù j ˆ (ù jk ) (0 < k < n À 1)X (2) The four irreducible CG-modules for G ˆ C2 3 C2 ˆ k g1 . that is. The n irreducible representations of G over C are rù j (0 < j < n À 1). Then n ˆ 1 by Proposition 9. 9.XXX. We have proved the following theorem. . The representations rë1 . 9. . . . 2. . so for 1 < i < r. write r ˆ rë1 . the function i i g 11 X X X g irr 3 (ë11 X X Xë irr ) is a representation of G.ë r of G constructed above are irreducible and have degree 1. we have ë in i ˆ 1. v4 g 1 ˆ Àv4 . . and no two of them are equivalent.XXX. There are n1 n2 . g irr for some integers i1 . ë i is an n i th root of unity. 4) and v1 g 1 ˆ v1 . i r . V2 . . . v3 g 2 ˆ v3 .ë r X Conversely. V3 . and every irreducible representation of G over C is equivalent to precisely one of them. where Vi is a 1-dimensional space with basis v i (i ˆ 1. and put ù ˆ e2ðia n . V4 . there exists ë i P C such that g i r ˆ (ë i ) (where of course (ë i ) is a 1 3 1 matrix). . . Also. v3 g 1 ˆ Àv3 . .7) for all i1 . and then (9X7) i i gr ˆ ( g 11 X X X g irr )r ˆ (ë11 X X Xë irr )X For a representation r of G satisfying (9. v2 g 1 ˆ v2 . ë r i determine r. . . v2 g 2 ˆ Àv2 . There are |G| of these representations. g2 l are V1 .8 Theorem Let G be the abelian group C n1 3 . 3. i r . . n r such representations.82 Representations and characters of groups over C. 3 C n r . the values ë1 . . since for g P G.

9. by Proposition 9. the centre Z(CG) is the whole group algebra. written Z(CG). Then for each i. the result follows from (9. For arbitrary groups G. then H m1 I ù 0 f g FF (9X10) [ g]B ˆ d eX F 0 ù mr The following useful result is an immediate consequence of this. As V is also a C H-module. . . If g has order n. u r of V. we shall see that Z(CG) plays a crucial role in . By Theorem 8.7. Each Ui has dimension 1.11 Proposition Let G be a ®nite group and V a CG-module. then the entries on the diagonal of [ g]B are nth roots of unity.5). j Some further applications of Schur's Lemma Our next application concerns an important subspace of the group algebra CG. then there is a basis B of V such that the matrix [ g]B is diagonal. Put ù ˆ e2ðia n .Schur's Lemma Diagonalization 83 Let H ˆ k gl be a cyclic group of order n. a direct sum of irreducible C H-submodules Ui of V. is de®ned by Z(CG) ˆ fz P CG: zr ˆ rz for all r P CGgX Using (2. and let V be a non-zero C H-module. For abelian groups G. Proof Let H ˆ k gl. . The centre of the group algebra CG. there exists an integer m i such that ui g ˆ ù m i u i X Thus if B is the basis u1 .12 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group. let u i be a vector spanning Ui. it is easy to check that Z(CG) is a subspace of CG. 9. If g P G. .10). V ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur .5.

then ˆ h P Z(CG)X To see this. Indeed. 9. which we now de®ne.13 Example € The elements 1 and gPG g lie in Z(CG). We use Schur's Lemma to prove the following important property of the elements of Z(CG). hP H hP H hP H € hP H and so zg ˆ gz. Consequently zr ˆ rz for all r P CG.84 Representations and characters of groups the study of representations of G (for example. . then {1}. 1 ‡ a ‡ a2 and 1 ‡ a ‡ a2 ‡ b ‡ ab ‡ a2 b lie in Z(CG). bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l.1(2). For example. and let z P Z(CG). its dimension is equal to the number of irreducible representations of G ± see Chapter 15). 9.14 Proposition Let V be an irreducible CG-module. ˆ ˆ g À1 zg ˆ g À1 hg ˆ h ˆ z. Then for all g P G. write z ˆ h. we have vrz ˆ vzr. and hence the function v 3 vz is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. By Schur's Lemma 9. kal and G are normal subgroups of G. j Some elements of the centre of CG are provided by the centre of G. if G ˆ D6 ˆ ka. and the result follows. if H is any normal subgroup of G. We shall see later that these elements in fact form a basis of Z(CG). this CG-homomorphism is equal to ë1 V for some ë P C. so the elements 1. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. Then there exists ë P C such that vz ˆ ëv for all v P V X Proof For all r P CG and v P V.

9. then G ˆ Z(G). there exists ë z P C such that vz ˆ ë z v for all v P V X Since V is faithful.16 Proposition If there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module.16 is false.15 De®nition The centre of G. The irreducible representations of non-abelian groups are more dif®cult to construct than those of abelian groups. Proof Let V be a faithful irreducible CG-module. and hence by Proposition 9. which.6 that for every ®nite group G there is a faithful CG-module.Schur's Lemma 9. Although we have seen in Proposition 6. we give an example of a group G such that Z(G) is cyclic but there exists no faithful irreducible CG-module. C2 3 C2 has no faithful irreducible representation (compare Example 9. it is not necessarily the case that there is a faithful irreducible CG-module. For example. they . and so by Proposition 9. is cyclic (see Exercise 1. the function z 3 ëz (z P Z(G)) is an injective homomorphism from Z(G) into the multiplicative group Cà of non-zero complex numbers.17 Example If G is an abelian group. since in Exercise 25. If z P Z(G) then z lies in Z(CG). j We remark that the converse of Proposition 9. is de®ned by Z(G) ˆ fz P G: zg ˆ gz for all g P GgX 85 Clearly Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G. In particular. Therefore Z(G)  {ë z : z P Z(G)}. the following result shows that the existence of a faithful irreducible CG-module imposes a strong restriction on the structure of G. written Z(G). 9.6. and is a subset of Z(CG).7).16.14. Indeed. then Z(G) is cyclic. being a ®nite subgroup of Cà .9(2)). there is no faithful irreducible CG-module unless G is cyclic.

Schur's Lemma states that every CG-homomorphism between irreducible CG-modules is either zero or a CG-isomorphism. For 1 < i < n. The centre Z(CG) of the group algebra CG consists of those elements which commute with all elements of CG. Exercises for Chapter 9 1. and there are precisely |G| of them. call it B . and hence they commute. v n is a basis of CG. Then G is abelian. 9.86 Representations and characters of groups do not all have degree 1. . Proof By Theorem 8. 3. since we are assuming that all irreducible CG-modules have dimension 1. . Then dim Vi ˆ 1 for all i. the only CG-homomorphisms from an irreducible CG-module to itself are scalar multiples of the identity.18 Proposition Suppose that G is a ®nite group such that every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. y P G. j Summary of Chapter 9 1. All irreducible CG-modules for a ®nite abelian group G have dimension 1. let v i be a vector spanning V i . as required. The elements of Z(CG) act as scalar multiples of the identity on all irreducible CGmodules. Then v1 . C3 and C2 3 C2 . Hence G is abelian. the matrices [x]B and [ y]B are diagonal. Also. where each Vi is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule CG.5.7. . . we can write CG ˆ V1 È X X X È Vn . we deduce that x and y commute. Write down the irreducible representations over C of the groups C2 . as is shown by the following converse to Proposition 9. 2. . For all x. Since the representation g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) of G is faithful (see Proposition 6.6).

) . (Compare Proposition 9. Check that there is a representation r of G over C such that     À7 10 À5 6 ar ˆ . (a) Show that a ‡ aÀ1 P Z(CG). Let G ˆ D6 ˆ ka. where   À5 6 ˆ X À4 5 5. Prove that G has a faithful representation of degree r. b ‡ ù2 ab ‡ ùa2 b) (see Exercise 6. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. . (b) Prove that there is no irreducible representation ó of G such that gó ˆ (À1) for all elements g of order 2 in G.Schur's Lemma 87 2. Show that if V is an irreducible CG-module. then there exists ë P C such that 2ˆ 3 v g ˆ ëv for all v P V X gPG 6. 3 C n r . Suppose that G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. bó 4 À5 M( gr) ˆ ( gr)M for all g P G. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1.6).14. Can G have a faithful representation of degree less than r? 4. . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. br ˆ X À5 7 À4 5 Find all 2 3 2 matrices M such that Hence determine whether or not r is Do the same for the representation   5 À6 aó ˆ . Write ù ˆ e2ðia3 . Let G ˆ C4 3 C4 . (a) Find a non-trivial irreducible representation r of G such that g2 r ˆ (1) for all g P G. irreducible. (b) Find ë P C such that w(a ‡ aÀ1 ) ˆ ëw for all w P W. and let W be the irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule de®ned by W ˆ sp (1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 . 3. ó of G. Let G be the ®nite abelian group C n1 3 .

(d) C3 3 D8. Which of the following groups have a faithful irreducible representation? (a) C n (n a positive integer). . (b) D8 .88 Representations and characters of groups 7. (c) C2 3 D8 .

By Theorem 8. Irreducible submodules of CG We begin with another consequence of Maschke's Theorem. there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (a result which has already been established for abelian groups in Theorem 9. to ®nd all irreducible CG-modules.1 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules and let W: V 3 W be a CG-homomorphism. De®ne a function W: U 3 Im W by uW ˆ uW (u P U )X 89 . we can write CG ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. Proof Since Ker W is a CG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. However. . Ur. this is not really a practical way of ®nding the irreducible CG-modules. Consider CG as the regular CG-module. 10. there is by Maschke's Theorem a CG-submodule U of V such that V ˆ Ker W È U .8). it is suf®cient to decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. . We shall show in this chapter that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules U1. Also. .2. Then there is a CG-submodule U of V such that V ˆ Ker W È U and U  Im W. in theory.10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra Let G be a ®nite group and CG be the group algebra of G over C.7. unless G is a small group. As a consequence. .

10. De®ne ð i : U 3 Ui by setting uð i ˆ ui . 10. . Clearly W is a CG-homomorphism. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. and write V ˆ U1 È X X X È Us .2 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. then we say that U is a composition factor of V if V has a CG-submodule which is isomorphic to U. such that v g ˆ v for all v P V and g P G. where U1 ˆ sp (v1 ) and U2 ˆ sp (v2 ) are irreducible CG-submodules. with basis v1 .1(1) implies that ð i is a CG-isomorphism. Choosing i such that ui Tˆ 0 for some u P U. If u P Ker W then u P Ker W ’ U ˆ {0}. since W is a CG-homomorphism. However.11). Write v ˆ k ‡ u with k P Ker W. v2 . As U and Ui are irreducible. ‡ us for unique vectors ui P Ui (1 < i < s). . Therefore U  Ui. . Schur's Lemma 9. hence Ker W ˆ {0}. then U  Ui for some i. . we have ð i Tˆ 0. Proof For u P U. Then V ˆ U1 È U2 . We have now established that W: U 3 Im W is an invertible CG-homomorphism. Then w ˆ vW ˆ kW ‡ uW ˆ uW ˆ uWX Therefore Im W ˆ Im W. È Us (each Ui irreducible) without U being equal to any Ui.90 Representations and characters of groups We show that W is a CG-isomorphism from U to Im W. as the following example shows. Now let w P Im W. as required.3 Example Let G be any group and let V be a 2-dimensional CG-module. and ð i Tˆ 0. Now ð i is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. so w ˆ vW for some v P V. U ˆ sp (v1 ‡ v2 ) is an irreducible CG-submodule which is not equal to U1 or U2. If U is any irreducible CG-submodule of V. j Of course it can happen that U is an irreducible CG-submodule of U1 È . Thus U  Im W. we have u ˆ u1 ‡ . u P U.4 De®nitions (1) If V is a CG-module and U is an irreducible CG-module. . 10.

Irreducible modules and the group algebra 91 (2) Two CG-modules V and W are said to have a common composition factor if there is an irreducible CG-module which is a composition factor of both V and W. and the result is proved. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. j Theorem 10. so is U. (rs)W ˆ w(rs) ˆ (wr)s ˆ (rW)sX By Proposition 10. Proof Let W be an irreducible CG-module. and choose a non-zero vector w P W.5 Theorem Regard CG as the regular CG-module. then W  Ui. which shows that every irreducible CG-module is a composition factor of the regular CG-module. W is a CG-homomorphism. since W is irreducible.1.6).5 shows that there is a ®nite set of irreducible CGmodules such that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of them. By Proposition 10.2 we have U  Ui for some i. We record this fact in the following corollary. Moreover. there is a CG-submodule U of CG such that CG ˆ U È Ker W and U  Im W ˆ W X As W is irreducible.7 Corollary If G is a ®nite group. Observe that {wr: r P CG} is a CG-submodule of W. since for r. 10. We now come to the main result of the chapter. and Im W ˆ W by (10. Then every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules Ui. and write CG ˆ U 1 È X X X È U r . it follows that (10X6) W ˆ fwr: r P CGgX Now de®ne W: CG 3 W by rW ˆ wr (r P CG)X Clearly W is a linear transformation. 10. then there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. . s P CG.

however. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. this is not a practical method for studying CG-modules in general.5. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. and hence CG ˆ U0 È U 1 È U2 . The irreducible representation of G corresponding to Ui is the representation rù i of Example 9. v2 ˆ 1 ‡ ùa ‡ ù2 a2 . note that v0 b ˆ w 0 . v2 is a basis of CG. Let ù ˆ e2ðia3 and de®ne v0 ˆ 1 ‡ a ‡ a2 . v1 b ˆ w2 . w1 b ˆ v2 . and write ù ˆ e2ðia3 . As in (1) above.92 Representations and characters of groups According to Theorem 10. 10. w0 ˆ bv0 w1 ˆ bv1 . 2. w0 b ˆ v0 . 1. U1 or U2. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. De®ne v0 . and let Ui ˆ sp (v i ) for i ˆ 0. 1. v1 . v2 P CG by v0 ˆ 1 ‡ a ‡ a2 . 2.8 Examples (1) Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l. 1. to ®nd all the irreducible CG-modules we need only decompose the regular CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. v1 . 1. every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to U0. v i a ˆ ù i v i for i ˆ 0. and similarly vi a ˆ ùi vi for i ˆ 0.5. v2 b ˆ w1 . Then v1 a ˆ a ‡ ù2 a2 ‡ ù1 ˆ ùv1 .9(1). v1 ˆ 1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 . 2. and so sp (v i ) and sp (wi ) are Ckal-modules. 2X Hence Ui is a CG-submodule of CG for i ˆ 0. Next. v1 ˆ 1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 . w2 ˆ bv2 X (ˆ b ‡ ba ‡ ba2 ). w2 b ˆ v1 X . v2 ˆ 1 ‡ ùa ‡ ù2 a2 . We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. By Theorem 10. We now do this for a couple of examples. (2) Let G ˆ D6 ˆ ka. It is easy to check that v0 .

) . w1 ) are Ckbl-modules. Find a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module.Irreducible modules and the group algebra 93 Therefore. b 3 (À1). w2 ) and sp (v2 . 2. Exercises for Chapter 10 1. v1 .     0 1 ù 0 r3 : a 3 . w2 ) and U4 ˆ sp (v2 . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. sp (v0 . every irreducible representation of D6 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r1 : a 3 (1). and U1 is not isomorphic to U2. Now v0. w0 ). Every irreducible CG-module occurs as a composition factor of the regular CG-module. b 3 (1).5(2). By the argument in Example 5. Let G ˆ C4 .b3 X 1 0 0 ùÀ1 Summary of Chapter 10 1. w1 ) are irreducible. w1. Is there only one such CGsubmodule? 2. r2 : a 3 (1).5 that there are exactly three nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules. There are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. the other 1-dimensional Ui. Correspondingly. Express CG as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules. v2 . as U 1 ˆ sp(v0 ‡ w0 ) and U2 ˆ sp(v0 À w0 ) are CG-submodules. Let G be a ®nite group. w0 ) is reducible. U2 and U3. w0.8(1). sp (v1 . However. We conclude from Theorem 10. (Hint: copy the method of Example 10. w2 3 v2 ). and hence are CG-submodules of CG. sp(v0 . and hence CG ˆ U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 . the CG-submodules U3 ˆ sp (v1 . namely U1. w2 is a basis of CG. Note that U1 is the trivial CG-module. But U3  U4 (there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1 .

of CG such that u1 a ˆ u1 . v2 and v1 a ˆ iv1 . Let G ˆ Q8 ˆ ka. and let V be the CG-module given in Example 4. Find a 1-dimensional CG-submodule. Show that there is a V which is not equal to U1 or U2. Thus V has basis v1 . Use the method of Example 10. sp (u2 ) and sp (u3 ). b2 ˆ a2 . b: a4 ˆ 1. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. such that u2 a ˆ Àu2 . and ®nd a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1.94 Representations and characters of groups 3. 6. u2 b ˆ u2 . v2 a ˆ Àiv2 .8(2) to ®nd all the irreducible representations of D8 over C. v2 b ˆ Àv1 X Show that V is irreducible. Suppose that V is a where U1 and U2 are CG-submodule U of isomorphic to both of non-zero CG-module such that V ˆ U1 È U2. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l.5(2). and u3 b ˆ Àu3 X 4. sp (u1 ) say. 5. v1 b ˆ v2 . isomorphic CG-modules. but is them. Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. . u1 b ˆ Àu1 X Find also 1-dimensional CG-submodules. u3 a ˆ Àu3 .

Then W ‡ ö. we write CG ˆ U 1 È X X X È U r .11 More on the group algebra We now go further into the structure of the group algebra CG of a ®nite group G. In Theorem 10. de®ne W ‡ ö and ëW by v(W ‡ ö) ˆ vW ‡ vö.9 is based on a study of the vector space of CG-homomorphisms from one CG-module to another. v(ëW) ˆ ë(vW) for all v P V . The space of CG-homomorphisms 11. W ) is a vector space over C. With these de®nitions. W ) as follows: for W. We begin our study of the vector space HomCG (V. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui.9). it is easily checked that HomCG (V. The question arises: how many of the Ui are isomorphic to U ? There is an elegant and signi®cant answer to this question: the number is precisely dim U (see Theorem 11. ëW P HomCG (V . As in Chapter 10. ö P HomCG (V .5 we proved that every irreducible CG-module U is isomorphic to one of the Ui. We write HomCG (V . 95 . Our proof of Theorem 11. W) with an easy consequence of Schur's Lemma. W ).1 De®nition Let V and W be CG-modules. W ) for the set of all CG-homomorphisms from V to W. W ) and ë P C. De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on HomCG (V .

W ) ˆ fëW: ë P Cg. and let W: V 3 W be a CG-isomorphism.4. Then V and W have a common composition factor. . W1 È W2 )) ˆ dim (HomCG (V. W ) Tˆ f0g. Therefore X is a common composition factor of V and W.4 Proposition Let V . W1 )) ‡ dim (HomCG (V. dim (HomCG (V . Then (1) dim (HomCG (V.96 Representations and characters of groups 11. W 2 be CG-modules. Since XW Tˆ {0}. If ö P HomCG (V . there exists ë P C such that öWÀ1 ˆ ë1 V X Then ö ˆ ëW. j The next few results show how to calculate the dimension of HomCG (V . W)) ‡ dim (HomCG (V2 . W )) ˆ dim (HomCG (V1 . (2) dim (HomCG (V1 È V2 . recall the de®nition of a composition factor of a CG-module from 10. and suppose that HomCG (V . 11. W 1 . a 1-dimensional space. if V T W X Proof If V T W then this is immediate from Schur's Lemma 9. Proof Let W be a non-zero element of HomCG (V . W )). and so HomCG (V . then öWÀ1 is a CG-isomorphism from V to V. W2 )). V2 and W . j For the next result. W )) ˆ 0. The key step is the following proposition.1(2). W ) in general. Then V ˆ Ker W È U for some non-zero CG-module U. 11. by Maschke's Theorem.1(1). if V  W .2 Proposition Suppose that V and W are irreducible CG-modules. Now suppose that V  W.3 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules. Schur's Lemma 9. W ). Then & 1. V1 . Let X be an irreducible CG-submodule of U. W ). so by Schur's Lemma 9.1(1) implies that XW  X.

j . Consequently these two vector spaces have equal dimensions. the function ö: v1 ‡ v2 3 v1 ö1 ‡ v2 ö2 öi P (v i P Vi for i ˆ 1. and (2) follows. We have established that f is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (V. Therefore W ˆ 0. Wi ) (i ˆ 1. 2). and (1) follows. We show that f is invertible. W ) for i ˆ 1. w2 P W 2 . W1 È W2 ) to the (external) direct sum of HomCG (V. 2. W1 ) È HomCG (V. Given Clearly h is an injective linear HomCG (Vi . We have shown that h is an invertible linear transformation. W1 ) and HomCG (V. 2). ö2 ). ö2 ) under h. Hence h is surjective. W ) HomCG (V1 . for all w1 P W 1 . W 1 È W 2 ))X Clearly f is a linear transformation. W ) È HomCG (V2 . ð1 and ð2 are CG-homomorphisms.11. W2 ). W Vi is the function v i W Vi ˆ v i W (v i P Vi )X to Then W Vi P HomCG (V i . the function ö: v 3 vö1 ‡ vö2 (v P V ) lies in HomCG (V. W1 È W2 ). so vW ˆ vW(ð1 ‡ ð2 ) ˆ 0. W V2 ) (W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . We now de®ne a function f from HomCG (V. then Wð1 P HomCG (V . that is.1). W ))X transformation.More on the group algebra Proof (1) De®ne W 1 È W 2 3 W 2 by the functions ð1 : W1 È W2 3 W1 (w1 ‡ w2 )ð2 ˆ w2 and 97 ð2 : (w1 ‡ w2 )ð1 ˆ w1 . W1 È W2 ) to HomCG (V. 2) to be the restriction of W to V i . W2 ) (see Exercise 7. Wð2 ) (W P HomCG (V . If W P Ker f. Given ö i P HomCG (V. W ) (i ˆ 1. W 1 ) and Wð2 P HomCG (V. Hence f is surjective. W2 ) by f : W 3 (Wð1 . and the image of ö under f is (ö1 . (2) For W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . If W P HomCG (V . then vWð1 ˆ 0 and vWð2 ˆ 0 for all v P V. 2) lies in HomCG (V1 È V2 . W 1 È W 2 ). W ). so Ker f ˆ {0} and f is injective. W ) and has image (ö1 . W ) which is given by h: W 3 (W V1 . Now let h be the function from HomCG (V1 È V2 . de®ne W Vi : Vi 3 W (i ˆ 1. By Proposition 7.

Let W be any irreducible CG-module. W )) in general. Then the dimensions of HomCG (V .98 Representations and characters of groups Now suppose that we have CG-modules V. and dim (HomCG (W . dim (HomCG (V .2.5) (1) dim (HomCG (V. (2) dim(HomCG (V1 È F F F ÈV r . V )) ˆ s ˆ iˆ1 s ˆ iˆ1 dim (HomCG (Ui . Proof By (11. Vi. W )). we have (11. In the following corollary we single out the case where one of the CGmodules is irreducible. V ) are both equal to the number of CG-modules Ui such that Ui  W. Wj )). È Vr . By applying (3) when all Vi and Wj are irreducible. W1 È . . . È Ws )) ˆ r s ˆˆ iˆ1 jˆ1 dim (HomCG (Vi. È Ws )) ˆ s ˆ jˆ1 dim (HomCG (V. . where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. and using Proposition 11. W)). Wj (1 < i < r. 11. 1 < j < s). . W. W )) ˆ r ˆ iˆ1 dim (HomCG (Vi. . U i ))X . Wj )). By an obvious induction using Proposition 11. W )) ˆ dim (HomCG (W .6 Corollary Let V be a CG-module with V ˆ U1 È X X X È Us . W ) and HomCG (W . .4. These in turn imply (3) dim (HomCG (V1 È . we can ®nd dim (HomCG (V. W1 È .5).

. . U ). U3 )) ˆ dim (HomCG (U3 . Then 1ö ˆ ë1 u1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë d u d for some ë i P C. .8 Proposition If U is a CG-module. & 99 1. it will give the main result of this chapter. For 1 < i < d. CG)) ˆ 2X You are asked in Exercise 11.More on the group algebra And by Proposition 11. . . with U3  U4 but U3 not isomorphic to U1 or U2. Since ö is a CG-homomorphism. dim (HomCG (Ui . ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. U ). we saw in Example 10. s P CG. 0.7 Example For G ˆ D6. if U i T W X j a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. if U i  W . When combined with Corollary 11. Suppose that ö P HomCG (CG. de®ne ö i : CG 3 U by rö i ˆ ui r (r P CG)X Then ö i P HomCG (CG. The next proposition investigates the space of CG-homomorphisms from the regular CG-module to any other CG-module. (rs)ö i ˆ ui (rs) ˆ (ui r)s ˆ (rö i )sX We shall prove that ö1 .8(2) that CG ˆ U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 . we have dim (HomCG (CG. U )) ˆ dim U X Proof Let d ˆ dim U. Choose a basis u1 . ud of U. then dim (HomCG (CG. .6.2. . 11. Ui )) ˆ The result follows. .5 to ®nd bases for these two vector spaces of CG-homomorphisms. 11. U) since for all r. Thus by Corollary 11. W )) ˆ dim (HomCG (W .6. for all r P CG we have .

ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. and by Corollary 11. Now assume that Therefore ö1 . and . .8(2) that if G ˆ D6 then CG ˆ U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . . HomCG (CG. which forces ë i ˆ 0 for all i. . which tells us how often each irreducible CG-module occurs in the regular CGmodule. U ). U )). . . this is equal to the number of Ui with Ui  U. If U is any irreducible CG-module. then the number of CG-modules Ui with Ui  U is equal to dim U. 11. . . U2 are non-isomorphic 1-dimensional CG-modules.100 Representations and characters of groups rö ˆ (1r)ö ˆ (1ö)r ˆ ë1 u1 r ‡ X X X ‡ ë d u d r ˆ r(ë1 ö1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë d ö d )X Hence ö ˆ ë1 ö1 ‡ .8. Proof By Proposition 11.9 Theorem Suppose that CG ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur . where U1. ö d span ë1 ö1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë d ö d ˆ 0 (ë i P C)X Evaluating both sides at the identity 1. j 11.6. j We now come to the main theorem of the chapter. ‡ ë d ö d . U ).10 Example Recall again from Example 10. dim U ˆ dim (HomCG (CG. which therefore has dimension d. . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. we have 0 ˆ 1(ë1 ö1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë d ö d ) ˆ ë1 u1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë d u d . Hence ö1 . . .

For 1 < i < k. È Ur.13 Example Let G be a group of order 8.7. and let d1.More on the group algebra 101 U3.9 concerning the dimensions of all irreducible CG-modules. V k are isomorphic. Therefore dim CG ˆ dim U 1 ‡ X X X ‡ dim Ur ˆ k ˆ iˆ1 k ˆ iˆ1 d i (dim Vi ) ˆ d2X i j As dim CG ˆ |G|. and no two of V1 .12 Theorem Let V1 . Then k ˆ (dim Vi )2 ˆ jGjX iˆ1 Proof Let CG ˆ U1 È . This illustrates Theorem 11.9. U3 occurs twice. . X X X . By Theorem 11. dk be the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. . the number of CG-modules Uj with Uj  Vi is equal to di .) 11. X X X . By Theorem 11. .12. dim U3 ˆ 2X We conclude the chapter with a signi®cant consequence of Theorem 11. dim U2 ˆ 1.11 De®nition We say that the irreducible CG-modules V1 . dim U1 ˆ 1. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. U2 occurs once. the result follows. X X X . V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules if every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to some V i . (By Corollary 10. V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. 11. 11. .9: U1 occurs once. . for any ®nite group G there exists a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. k ˆ iˆ1 d 2 ˆ 8X i . write d i ˆ dim V i . for each i. U4 are isomorphic irreducible 2-dimensional CG-modules. .

1. V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. 4. U )) ˆ dim U . 1. CG). If G is a group of order 12. If V1 . W 1 È X X X È W s )) ˆ r s ˆˆ iˆ1 jˆ1 and dim (HomCG (Vi . If G is a non-abelian group of order 6.12. and the second when G ˆ D8 (see Exercise 10. 1. . We shall see later that dim Vi divides |G| for all i. W j ))X 2. and so di ˆ 1 for some i. 1. 2X Both these possibilities do occur: the ®rst holds when G is an abelian group (see Proposition 9. dk are 1. combined with Theorem 11. Summary of Chapter 11 1. È Ur. 3. (Hint: use Exercise 5. 1. and this fact. Hence the possibilities for d1. . is quite a powerful tool in ®nding the dimensions of irreducible CG-modules. . 2. ®nd the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. Then the number of Ui with Ui  U is equal to dim U. Let CG ˆ U1 È . X X X . 1. . . 1 1.4). . 1.5). what are the possible degrees of all the irreducible representations of G? Find the degrees of the irreducible representations of D12. 1. and let U be any irreducible CG-module.3.102 Representations and characters of groups Observe that the trivial CG-module is irreducible of dimension 1. . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules.) 3. Find a basis for HomCG (CG. then k ˆ (dim Vi )2 ˆ jGjX iˆ1 Exercises for Chapter 11 1. dim (HomCG (V1 È X X X È V r . 1. Let G be a ®nite group. dim (HomCG (CG.

d i ˆ dim (HomCG (V . Vi )) and ei ˆ dim (HomCG (W . Assume that for 1 < i < k. . show that HomCG (V. 6.More on the group algebra 103 4. Let V1 . Let G ˆ D6 and let CG ˆ U1 È U2 È U3 È U4. If U is the trivial CGmodule.10. as in Example 10. Suppose that G ˆ Sn and V is the n-dimensional permutation module for G over C. Find a basis for HomCG (CG.8(2). U3 ) and a basis for HomCG (U3. X X X . 5. as de®ned in 4. CG). W be arbitrary CG-modules. W )) ˆ iˆ1 d i ei . U) has dimension 1. Vi ))X €k Show that dim (HomCG (V . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. and let V.

12. y P G. Then there exist g. At the end of the chapter we prove a result linking the conjugacy classes of a group to the structure of its group algebra.12 Conjugacy classes We take a break from representation theory to discuss some topics in group theory which will be relevant in our further study of representations. symmetric and alternating groups. Our ®rst result shows that two distinct conjugacy classes have no elements in common. and is called the conjugacy class of x in G. y P G. After de®ning conjugacy classes. we develop enough theory to determine the conjugacy classes of dihedral.2 Proposition If x.1 De®nition Let x. Throughout the chapter. h P G such that z ˆ gÀ1 xg ˆ hÀ1 yhX 104 . then either x G ˆ y G or x G ’ y G is empty. We say that x is conjugate to y in G if y ˆ g À1 xg for some g P GX The set of all elements conjugate to x in G is x G ˆ f g À1 xg: g P Gg. Proof Suppose that x G ’ y G is not empty. G is a ®nite group. Conjugacy classes 12. and pick z P x G ’ y G.

Since gÀ1 ag is a or a2 for every g P G. . . Similarly y G # x G (using y ˆ kxkÀ1 ). and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. a2 gX Also. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. . where the conjugacy classes x1 . a2 bgX Thus the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. 12. . j Since every element x of G lies in the conjugacy class x G (as x ˆ 1À1 x1 with 1 P G). where k ˆ hgÀ1 . The elements of G are 1. a. a2 b. . . . ab.3 Corollary Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. ab. fa. then we call x1 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. b. Another way of seeing this Corollary 12. and bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 . so bG ˆ fb.4 De®nition G G If G ˆ x1 ‘ . and that the conjugacy classes are the equivalence classes. a2 bgX . (2) Let G ˆ D6 ˆ ka. ‘ x G . . xl representatives of the conjugacy classes of G.5 Examples (1) For every group G. we have aG ˆ fa.Conjugacy classes Hence x ˆ ghÀ1 yhgÀ1 ˆ kÀ1 yk. . ab. x G are l l distinct. 12. a2 . 1 G ˆ {1} is a conjugacy class of G. aÀi ba i ˆ aÀ2i b for all integers i.3 is to observe that conjugacy is an equivalence relation. and so xG ˆ yG . G is the union of its conjugacy classes and so we deduce immediately 12. . So a P x G A a ˆ bÀ1 xb A a ˆ cÀ1 yc AaP y X G 105 for some b P G where c ˆ kb A a ˆ bÀ1 k À1 ykb Therefore x G # y G. fb. a2 g.

that is. Let x have order m.8 Theorem Let x P G. 12. 12. Suppose that x is conjugate to y in G. 12. If x is conjugate to y in G. Hence every conjugacy class of G consists of just one element. j Conjugacy class sizes The next theorem determines the sizes of the conjugacy classes in G in terms of certain subgroups which we now de®ne.106 Representations and characters of groups (3) If G is abelian then gÀ1 xg ˆ x for all x.) It is easy to check that CG (x) is a subgroup of G (Exercise 12. r . Observe that x P CG (x) and indeed. Proof Observe that for a. kxl # CG (x) for all x P G. and x and y have the same order. CG (x) ˆ f g P G: xg ˆ gxgX (So also CG (x) ˆ { g P G: gÀ1 xg ˆ x}. g P G.1). The centralizer of x in G.7 De®nition Let x P G. Then y n ˆ gÀ1 x n g and therefore x n is conjugate to y n in G. so y also has order m. Then the size of the conjugacy class x G is given by jx G j ˆ jG: CG (x)j ˆ jGjajCG (x)jX In particular. and so x G ˆ {x}. m. . so that y ˆ gÀ1 xg for some g P G. written CG (x). b P G. we have gÀ1 abg ˆ ( g À1 ag)( g À1 bg)X Hence gÀ1 x n g ˆ ( gÀ1 xg) n . |x G | divides |G|. is the set of elements of G which commute with x.6 Proposition Let x. y r ˆ gÀ1 x r g Tˆ 1. then x n is conjugate to y n in G for every integer n. y P G. The next proposition is often useful when calculating conjugacy classes. and for 0 . Then y m ˆ gÀ1 x m g ˆ 1.

xl be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. jGj ˆ j Z(G)j ‡ i xiP Z(G) a for all g P G where |x G | i ˆ |G:CG (xi )|.8 by ®nding the conjugacy classes of all dihedral groups. h P G. Thus G ˆ ha. . We have now proved all parts of the following result. jG: CG (ai )j < jG: haij ˆ 2X . we make the observation that (12X9) jx G j ˆ 1 D g À1 xg ˆ x D x P Z(G). 12. the dihedral group of order 2n.10 The Class Equation Let x1 . (1) n odd First consider ai (1 < i < n À 1). and both | Z(G)| and |x G | divide |G|. . b: an ˆ b2 ˆ 1. j Before summarizing our results on conjugacy classes. as de®ned in 9.Conjugacy classes Proof Observe ®rst that for g. proving that |x G | ˆ |G:CG (x)|. Let G ˆ D2 n. it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. . where Z(G) is the centre of G.15. . Then ˆ jx G j. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 iX In ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. i Conjugacy classes of dihedral groups We illustrate the use of Theorem 12. Since CG (ai ) contains kal. Hence f is a bijection. we have g À1 xg ˆ hÀ1 xh D hg À1 x ˆ xhg À1 D hg À1 P CG (x) D CG (x) g ˆ CG (x)hX 107 By dint of this. we may de®ne an injective function f from x G to the set of right cosets of CG (x) in G by f : g À1 xg 3 CG (x) g ( g P G)X Clearly f is surjective.

8. As bÀ1 am b ˆ aÀ m ˆ am . As in case (1). and so |(ai ) G | > 2.11) The dihedral group D2 n (n odd) has precisely 1(n ‡ 3) con2 jugacy classes: {1}. Since all the elements ai have been accounted for. . a j (ab)aÀ j ˆ a2 j‡1 bX It follows that bG ˆ fa2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1g. b}. X X X . . . bG must consist of the remaining n elements of G. .12) The dihedral group D2 n (n even. (ai ) G ˆ fai . aÀ( nÀ1)a2 }. . no element ai or ai b (with 1 < i < n À 1) commutes with b. we have 2 > jG: CG (ai )j ˆ j(ai ) G j > 2X Hence equality holds here. Therefore the conjugacy class of am in G is just fam g. aÀ1 }. That is. {a( nÀ1)a2 . bgX Therefore by Theorem 12. {a. aÀ m‡1 }. so {ai . ai Tˆ aÀi . . . n ˆ 2m) has precisely m ‡ 3 conjugacy classes: {1}. {a. Thus CG (b) ˆ f1. . aÀi } # (ai ) G . As n is odd. {b. . and CG (ai ) ˆ hai. ab. aÀi gX Next. CG (b) contains {1. and as bÀ1 ai b ˆ aÀi . bG ˆ fb. {a2 j‡1 b: 0 < j < m À 1}. a j baÀ j ˆ a2 j b. ab. the centralizer of am in G contains both a and b.108 Representations and characters of groups Also bÀ1 ai b ˆ aÀi . {a mÀ1 . Using Theorem 12. . aÀi } for 1 < i < m À 1. (ai ) G ˆ {ai . (ab) G ˆ fa2 j‡1 b: 0 < j < m À 1gX Hence (12. |bG | ˆ n. . {a2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1}. (2) n even Write n ˆ 2m. a nÀ1 b}. {a m }. a nÀ1 bgX We have shown (12. .8. and hence CG (am ) ˆ G. aÀ1 }. For every integer j. .

. Our ®rst observation is simple but crucial. . ir g( g À1 xg) ˆ i r xg ˆ i r‡1 g (or i1 g if r ˆ k)X Also.14) g À1 xg ˆ g À1 (a1 X X X a k 1 ) gg À1 (b1 X X X b k 2 ) g X X X g À1 (c1 X X X ck s ) g ˆ (a1 g X X X a k 1 g)(b1 g X X X b k 2 g) X X X (c1 g X X X c k s g)X We call (k1 . . say x ˆ (a1 X X X a k 1 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). 1 k g À1 xg ˆ yX We have proved the following result. . . ik g). ik ) g ˆ (i1 g i2 g . for g P Sn we have (12. . 12. .13 Proposition Let x be a k-cycle (i1 i2 . For ir P A. exists g P Sn sending j .14). y ˆ (a9 X X X a9 1 ) X X X (c9 X X X c9 s ). Proof Write A ˆ {i1 . y of the same cycle-shape.13. . with k1 > k2 > . ik g). . . and note that x and gÀ1 xg have the same cycle-shape. a product of disjoint cycles. . . given any two permutations x. and so by (12. Then gÀ1 xg is the k-cycle (i1 g i2 g . Write x ˆ (a1 X X X ak 1 )(b1 X X X bk 2 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). . . On the other hand. . a ig( gÀ1 xg) ˆ ixg ˆ igX Hence gÀ1 (i1 i2 . as required. . . . By Proposition 12. . ik }. Now consider an arbitrary permutation x P Sn . . 1 k 1 k (products of disjoint cycles). ik ) in Sn .Conjugacy classes Conjugacy classes of S n 109 We shall later need to know the conjugacy classes of the symmetric group Sn . . . there a1 3 a9 . and let g P Sn . for 1 < i < n and i P A. > ks . ks ) the cycle-shape of x. ck s 3 c9 s .

Thus for G ˆ S4 . 2) and is f(1 2)(3 4). Similarly. (1 3). The number of 2-cycles is equal to the number of pairs that can be chosen from {1. 12. the conjugacy class sizes | gG | and the centralizer orders |CG ( g)| (obtained using Theorem 12. (1 2). the conjugacy class representatives g. (The notation … n † means the binomial coef®cient 2 r n3a(r3(n À r)3). 3-cycles. with representatives (see De®nition 12. (1 3)(2 4). 4}. (1 3 2)} Cycle-shape (1) (2) (3) (2) The conjugacy class of (1 2)(3 4) in S4 consists of all the elements of cycle-shape (2. 3.16 Examples (1) The conjugacy classes of S3 are Class {1} {(1 2).) The number of 3-cycles is 4 3 2 (4 for the choice of ®xed point and 2 because there are two 3-cycles ®xing a given point). (1 4)(2 3)gX (3) There are precisely ®ve conjugacy classes of S4 . (1 2 3 4)X To calculate the sizes of the conjugacy classes.8) are as follows: Representative Class size g | gG | |CG ( g)| 1 1 24 (1 2) 6 4 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 3 8 (1 2 3 4) 6 4 We check our arithmetic by noting that jS4 j ˆ 1 ‡ 6 ‡ 8 ‡ 3 ‡ 6X . and so on. the conjugacy class x Sn of x in Sn consists of all permutations in Sn which have the same cycle-shape as x. (1 2)(3 4). there are three elements of cycle-shape (2.110 Representations and characters of groups 12. 2) and there are six 4-cycles. we simply count the number of 2-cycles. ÀÁ which is 4 ˆ 6.15 Theorem For x P Sn . 2. (1 2 3).4): 1. (2 3)} {(1 2 3).

Then CSn (x) ˆ CAn (x)X . here x A3 ˆ fxg. given by x A n ˆ f g À1 xg: g P An g. with representatives x and (1 2)À1 x(1 2). so that y ˆ hÀ1 xh for some h P Sn . (2) If x does not commute with any odd permutation in Sn then x Sn splits into two conjugacy classes in An of equal size. Let y P x S n . For an easy example where equality does not hold. If h is even then y P x An . the corresponding table for G ˆ S5 is Rep. and so x Sn ˆ x An . consider x ˆ (1 2 3) P A3 . x A n might not be equal to x S n . (1) If x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . Proof (1) Assume that x commutes with an odd permutation g. however. and if h is odd then gh P An and y ˆ hÀ1 xh ˆ hÀ1 g À1 xgh ˆ ( gh)À1 x( gh). then x Sn ˆ x An . is of course contained in x S n . x À1 }. and what happens when equality fails. while x S3 ˆ {x. (2) Assume that x does not commute with any odd permutation. The conjugacy class x A n of x in A n . g 1 (1 2) | gG | 1 10 |CG ( g)| 120 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 20 15 6 8 (1 2 3 4) 30 4 111 (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 24 6 5 Conjugacy classes of A n Given an even permutation x P A n .15 that the conjugacy class x S n consists of all permutations in S n which have the same cycle-shape as x. The next result determines precisely when x An and x Sn are equal. Thus x Sn # x An . so again y P x An . we have seen in Theorem 12. 12.17 Proposition Let x P An with n .Conjugacy classes (4) Similarly. 1.

18 Examples (1) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A4 . Thus the conjugacy classes of A4 are Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 12 (1 2)(3 4) 3 4 (1 2 3) 4 3 (1 3 2) 4 3 (as jAn j ˆ 1jSn j) 2 (2) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A5 .112 Representations and characters of groups Hence by Theorem 12. the 3-cycle (1 2 3) commutes with no odd permutation: for if gÀ1 (1 2 3) g ˆ (1 2 3) then (1 2 3) ˆ (1 g 2 g 3 g) by Proposition 12. an even permutation. Proposition 12.13. the . (Check this by using the argument in (1) above. The elements (1 2 3) and (2 3)(4 5) commute with the odd permutation (4 5). Since (1 2)(3 4) commutes with the odd permutation (1 2). The elements of A4 are the identity. with representatives (1 2 3) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3)(1 2) ˆ (1 3 2). (1 3)(2 4). the conjugacy classes x An and ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An must 2 be disjoint and of equal size.) Hence by Proposition 12. (1 2 3) S4 splits into two conjugacy classes in A4 of size 4. The non-identity even permutations in S5 are those of cycle-shapes (3). (1 2 3) or (1 3 2). Now x Sn ˆ fhÀ1 xh: h is eveng ‘ fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg ˆ x An ‘ ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An X Since |x An | ˆ 1|x Sn |. 2) and (5). j 12. 2) and (3). so g is 1.8. together with the permutations of cycle-shapes (2. as we wished to show. but (1 2 3 4 5) commutes with no odd permutation. (2.17 implies that (1 2)(3 4) A4 ˆ (1 2)(3 4) S4 ˆ f(1 2)(3 4). Hence by Proposition 12. jx An j ˆ jAn : CAn (x)j ˆ 1jSn : CAn (x)j 2 ˆ 1jSn : CSn (x)j ˆ 1jx Sn jX 2 2 Next.17. we observe that fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg ˆ ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An since every odd permutation has the form (1 2)a for some a P An .17. (1 4)(2 3)gX However.

(1 2 3 4 5) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3 4 5)(1 2) ˆ (1 3 4 5 2). 6. (1 2 3). Since j Hj divides 24 by Lagrange's Theorem. there are just four possibilities: j Hj ˆ 1. Conversely. Therefore ‘ Hˆ hG . j 12. hP H and so H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. these conjugacy classes have sizes 1. we see that the class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows: Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 60 (1 2 3) 20 3 (1 2)(3 4) 15 4 (1 2 3 4 5) 12 5 (1 3 4 5 2) 12 5 Normal subgroups Normal subgroups are related to conjugacy classes by the following elementary result. As we saw in Example 12. g P G. Proof If H is a union of conjugacy classes. 1 ‡ 8 ‡ 3 or 1 ‡ 6 ‡ 8 ‡ 3 ‡ 6X . 1 ‡ 3. Then by Proposition 12. 6.Conjugacy classes 113 conjugacy classes of A5 are represented by 1. g P G A g À1 hg P H. 8. and so hG # H. so gÀ1 Hg # H. H is a union of conjugacy classes of S4 . then h P H.16(3). Let H v S4 . Then H v G if and only if H is a union of conjugacy classes of G.17(2).19 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. Thus H v G.20 Example We ®nd all the normal subgroups of S4 . (1 2)(3 4). we have gÀ1 hg P H. Using Proposition 12. if H v G then for all h P H. 12.19. and 1 P H. 3.

we have H ˆ 1 S4 ‘ (1 2)(3 4) S4 ˆ f1. . There is a convenient basis for this subspace which can be described in terms of the conjugacy classes of G. de®ne ˆ Ci ˆ g P CGX gPCi The elements C1 . yÀ1 gyr of an element g. C l of CG are called class sums. . We have now shown that S4 has exactly four normal subgroups: f1g. . (1 3)(2 4). we write it as V4 (V stands for `Viergruppe'. . .22 Proposition The class sums C1 . Let Ci consist of the r distinct conjugates yÀ1 gy1. . For 1 < i < l. . Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G. C l form a basis of Z(CG). 12. (1 2)(3 4). (1 4)(2 3)gX The centre of a group algebra In this ®nal section we link the conjugacy classes of the group G to the centre of the group algebra CG. Proof First we show that each C i belongs to Z(CG). 12. . A4 and V4 ˆ f1.114 Representations and characters of groups In the ®rst case H ˆ {1}. meaning `four-group').12 that the centre of CG is Z(CG) ˆ fz P CG: zr ˆ rz for all r P CGgX We know that Z(CG) is a subspace of the vector space CG. Recall from De®nition 9. hÀ1 C i h ˆ r ˆ jˆ1 r ˆ jˆ1 yÀ1 gyj X j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj hX j . in the last case H ˆ S4 .21 De®nition Let C1 . . . . so 1 r Ci ˆ For all h P G. and in the third case H ˆ A4 . (1 4)(2 3)gX This is easily checked to be a subgroup of S4 . S4 . (1 2)(3 4). . In the case where j Hj ˆ 1 ‡ 3. . . . (1 3)(2 4). .

ˆ ˆ ë g hÀ1 gh ˆ ë g gX gPG gPG So for every h P G.Conjugacy classes 115 As j runs from 1 to r. b ‡ a2 b. For an element x of a group G. (1 2 3) ‡ (1 3 2)X (2) From (12. a ‡ a3 . C l are linearly independent: for if €l iˆ1 ë i C i ˆ 0 (ë i P C). . That is to say. then all ë i ˆ 0 as the classes C1 . the coef®cient ë g of g is equal to the coef®cient ë hÀ1 gh of hÀ1 gh. .3. we have rh ˆ hr. hence with all € hPG ë h h P CG. Let r ˆ € À1 gPG ë g g P Z(CG). . so h rh ˆ r. Cl are pairwise disjoint by Corollary 12. 12.16(1). a basis for Z(CD8 ) is 1.12). . . (1 2) ‡ (1 3) ‡ (2 3). It remains to show that C1 . j and so h C i h ˆ C i . C l span Z(CG). ab ‡ a3 bX Summary of Chapter 12 1. C i h ˆ hC i X Therefore each C i commutes with all h P G. and so C i P Z(CG). . the elements hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h run through Ci . . a2 .23 Examples (1) From Example 12. the centralizer CG (x) is the set of . Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. This completes the proof. . That is. . . It follows that r ˆ iˆ1 ë i C i where ë i is the j coef®cient ë gi for some gi P Ci . the function g 3 ë g is constant on €l conjugacy classes of G. and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. . That is. since j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h ˆ hÀ1 yÀ1 gyk h D yÀ1 gyj ˆ yÀ1 gyk X j k j k Hence r ˆ jˆ1 À1 hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h ˆ C i . observe that C1 . For h P G. . 2. a basis for Z(CS3 ) is 1. Next.

Let G be a ®nite group and suppose that g P G and z P Z(G).10 to show that Z(G) Tˆ {1}. Show that j(1 2 3)(4 5 6) G j ˆ 40 and j(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G j ˆ 15. Exercises for Chapter 12 1. It is a subgroup of G. Prove that G has a conjugacy class of size p. (b) Suppose that n > 3 and that | Z(G)| ˆ p. 4.) 4. Prove that the conjugacy classes gG and ( gz) G have the same size. Suppose that G is a group of order pn . and ®nd the sizes of the other conjugacy classes of S6 . n n (b) Show that j(1 2 3) G j ˆ 2…3 † and j(1 2)(3 4) G j ˆ 3…4 †. show that CG (x) is a subgroup of G which contains Z(G). (c) Now let n ˆ 6.20. Let p be a prime number. What are the cycle-shapes of those permutations x P A6 for which x A6 Tˆ x S6 ? 5. 3.) 6. (There are 11 conjugacy classes in all. If x P An then x Sn ˆ x An if and only if x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . n (a) Prove that j(1 2) G j ˆ …2 † and ®nd CG ((1 2)).8. The class sums in CG form a basis for the centre of CG. 5. Verify that your solution satis®es Theorem 12. Find the conjugacy classes of the quaternion group Q8. 3. Let G ˆ Sn . (a) Use the Class Equation 12. and the number of elements in the conjugacy class x G is equal to |G:CG (x)|. 7. Give a basis of the centre of the group algebra CQ8. Show that A5 is a simple group. 2. and let n be a positive integer. . (Hint: use the method of Example 12. If G is a group and x P G.116 Representations and characters of groups elements of G which commute with x. The conjugacy classes of Sn correspond to the cycle-shapes of permutations in Sn .

The theory of characters will occupy a considerable portion of the rest of the book. 117 . In this chapter we present some basic properties and examples. Moreover. With each n 3 n matrix gr ( g P G) we associate the complex number given by adding all the diagonal entries of the matrix. and they are the fundamental tools for performing calculations in representation theory. and call this number ÷( g). since from the de®nition of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. can be resolved by doing some easy arithmetic with the character of the representation. it appears that we must keep track of all the n2 entries in each matrix gr. whereas the character records just one number for each matrix. basic problems. written tr A. The function ÷: G 3 C is called the character of the representation r. C) is a representation of the ®nite group G. then the trace of A. such as deciding whether or not a given representation is irreducible.1 De®nition If A ˆ (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix.13 Characters Suppose that r: G 3 GL(n. Characters of representations have many remarkable properties. These facts are surprising. The trace of a matrix 13. the trace of A is the sum of the diagonal entries of A. C). is given by tr A ˆ n ˆ iˆ1 aii X That is. For example. we shall show later that two representations have the same character if and only if they are equivalent.

Characters 13.3 De®nition Suppose that V is a CG-module with a basis B . that is. and the ii-entry of AB is €n jˆ1 aij bji. Then tr (A ‡ B) ˆ tr A ‡ tr B.2 Proposition Let A ˆ (aij ) and B ˆ (bij ) be n 3 n matrices. Then the character of V is the function ÷: G 3 C de®ned by ÷( g) ˆ tr [ g]B ( g P G)X The character of V does not depend on the basis B . the trace function is not multiplicative. Therefore tr (A ‡ B) ˆ and tr (AB) ˆ For the last part. aij bji ˆ n n ˆ ˆ jˆ1 iˆ1 bji aij ˆ tr (BA)X Notice that. and tr (AB) ˆ tr (BA)X Moreover. tr (T À1 AT ) ˆ tr ((T À1 A)T ) ˆ tr (T (T À1 A)) ˆ tr AX (by the second part ) j n n ˆ ˆ iˆ1 jˆ1 n ˆ iˆ1 (aii ‡ bii ) ˆ n ˆ iˆ1 aii ‡ n ˆ iˆ1 bii ˆ tr A ‡ tr B.118 Representations and characters of groups 13. tr (AB) need not equal (tr A)(tr B). then tr (T À1 AT ) ˆ tr AX Proof The ii-entry of A ‡ B is aii ‡ bii . then [ g]B 9 ˆ T À1 [ g]B T . unlike the determinant function. if T is an invertible n 3 n matrix. since if B and B 9 are bases of V.

and so V and W have the same character. .24)). and let B be a basis of V.2. (2) If x and y are conjugate elements of the group G. we have tr [x]B ˆ tr [ y]B . and ÷ is reducible if it is the character of a reducible CG-module. Further. Then by (7. we write ÷( g) and not g÷. then ÷(x) ˆ ÷( y) for all characters ÷ of G.5(1) for representations is that equivalent representations have the same character.Characters 119 for some invertible matrix T (see (2. where ÷ is the character of V. Proof (1) Suppose that V and W are isomorphic CG-modules.5 Proposition (1) Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. tr [ g]B 9 ˆ tr [ g]B for all g P GX Naturally enough. (2) Assume that x and y are conjugate elements of G.4 De®nition We say that ÷ is a character of G if ÷ is the character of some CGmodule. Therefore ÷(x) ˆ ÷( y).2. Then [x]B ˆ [ g À1 yg]B ˆ [ g]À1 [ y]B [ g]B X B Hence by Proposition 13.7). we de®ne the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. ÷ is an irreducible character of G if ÷ is the character of an irreducible CG-module. C) to be the character ÷ of the corresponding CGmodule C n . Let V be a CG-module. That is. and so by Proposition 13. namely ÷( g) ˆ tr ( gr) ( g P G)X 13. 13. You will have noticed that we are writing characters as functions on the left. there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 ˆ [ g]B 2 for all g P GX Consequently tr [ g]B 1 ˆ tr [ g]B 2 for all g P G. so that x ˆ gÀ1 yg for some g P G. j The result corresponding to Proposition 13.

then they are isomorphic. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. and take V to be the 3-dimensional permutation module for G over C (see De®nition 4. br ˆ ar ˆ 0 À1 À1 0 (see Example 3. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. gr and ÷( g) as g runs through G. C) be the representation for which     1 0 0 1 . v2 . (We obtain ÷( g) by adding the two entries on the diagonal of gr.2(1)). thus B is the basis v1 .6 Examples (1) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka.10). we shall prove an astonishing converse of Proposition 13. v3 . Let B be the natural basis of V.120 Representations and characters of groups Later. The following table records g. together with the character ÷ of V.) g gr ÷( g) 1 1 0 0 1 2 a 0 1 À1 0 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 À2 a3 0 À1 1 0 0         g gr ÷( g)  b 1 0 0 À1 0   ab 0 À1 0 À1 0   a2 b À1 0 0 1 0   a3 b 0 1 0 1 0  (2) Let G ˆS3 .1. g [ g]B ÷( g) 1 (1 2) (1 3) H 1 d0 0 0 0 1 0e 0 1 3 I H 0 d1 0 1 0 0 0e 0 1 1 I H 0 0 d0 1 1 0 1 I 1 0e 0 . where v i g ˆ v ig for 1 < i < 3 and all g P G. We record these matrices. 13. and let r: G 3 GL(2. The matrices [ g]B ( g P G) are given by Exercise 4.5(1): if two CG-modules have the same character. Let ÷ be the character of this representation.

the character encapsulates a great deal of information about the representation. Moreover. (4) Let G ˆ D6 ˆ ka. By Theorem 9. The values of these characters on the elements of G can be calculated from the corresponding representations r1 . with values g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù where ù ˆ e2ðia3 . . In Example 10. we found a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules U1. This will become clear as the theory of characters develops. then the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . ÷3 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l (so G  S3 ). and they are as follows: g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Notice that in all the above examples. ÷2 . U3. Nevertheless.Characters g [ g]B ÷( g) H (2 3) I H (1 2 3) I H (1 3 2) I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 0 121 1 0 0 d0 0 1e 0 1 0 1 0 1 d0 0 1 0 0 0 1e 0 0 d1 0 (3) Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ha: a3 ˆ 1 i. G has just three irreducible characters ÷1 .8. Thus if ÷ i is the character of Ui for 1 < i < 3.8(2).8(2). the characters given take few distinct values. This re¯ects the fact that by Proposition 13. r3 given in Example 10. r2 . b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1.5(2). every character is constant on conjugacy classes of G. ÷2 and ÷3 . it is much quicker to write down the single complex number ÷( g) for the group element g than to record the matrix which corresponds to g. U2.

6(4) we saw that the irreducible characters of D6 have degrees 1. Suppose that g P G and g has order m. irreducible characters. they are. (3) The character of the trivial CG-module (see De®nition 4. in 13. In fact. Every linear character of G is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers.4).9 Proposition Let ÷ be the character of a CG-module V. of course. Observe that Theorem 9.8 Examples (1) In Example 13. where ÷ is a character of G and g P G. The values of a character The next result gives information about the complex numbers ÷( g).6(1) we gave a character of D8 of degree 2.7 De®nition If ÷ is the character of the CG-module V. we therefore know at least one of the irreducible characters of G.6(2) we gave a character of S3 of degree 3. Characters of degree 1 are called linear characters. 13. and in 13. they are all linear characters. We denote it by 1 G .8 gives all the irreducible characters of ®nite abelian groups. 13. 1 and 2. Then for all v P V X . (2) If V is any 1-dimensional CG-module. in particular.8(1)) is a linear character. namely the trivial character. then for each g P G there is a complex number ë g such that v g ˆ ë gv The character ÷ of V is given by ÷( g) ˆ ë g ( g P G) and ÷ has degree 1. Thus 1 G : g 3 1 for all g P GX Given any group G. then the dimension of V is called the degree of ÷. these are the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms (see Exercise 13. Finding all the irreducible characters is usually dif®cult.122 Representations and characters of groups 13. called the trivial character of G.

. we can be much more speci®c about the possibilities for ÷( g): . which is the complex conjugate of eiW . When the element g of G has order 2. (3) We have H f [ gÀ1 ]B ˆ d ùÀ1 1 0 FF 0 F ùÀ1 n I g e and so ÷( gÀ1 ) ˆ ùÀ1 ‡ .11 there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B ˆ d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. ÷( gÀ1 ) ˆ ÷( g). a sum of mth roots of unity. ÷( g) is a sum of mth roots of unity. Consequently ÷(1) ˆ tr [1]B ˆ tr I n ˆ n. ÷( g) is a real number if g is conjugate to gÀ1 .Characters (1) (2) (3) (4) ÷(1) ˆ dim V. Therefore ÷( g À1 ) ˆ ù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù n ˆ ÷( g)X (4) If g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) ˆ ÷( gÀ1 ) by Proposition 13. ÷( g) is j real. 123 Proof (1) Let n ˆ dim V. Therefore ÷( g) ˆ ù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù n . that is. Also ÷( gÀ1 ) ˆ ÷( g) by (3). and let B be a basis of V. Every complex mth root of unity ù 1 n satis®es ùÀ1 ˆ ù. since for all real W. (2) By Proposition 9. (eiW )À1 ˆ eÀiW .5(2). Then the matrix [1]B of the identity element 1 relative to B is equal to In . and so ÷( g) ˆ ÷( g). the n 3 n identity matrix. ‡ ùÀ1 . . and so ÷(1) ˆ dim V.

11 Theorem Let r: G 3 GL(n.9. where n ˆ ÷(1) and each ù i is a square root of unity. By Proposition 9. and since r À s ˆ r ‡ s À 2s  r ‡ s mod 2. If gr ˆ ëIn with ë P C.11. 13. suppose that |÷( g)| ˆ ÷(1). C) be a representation of G. Suppose r of them are ‡1. ÷( g) P Z. and let g be an element of order 2 in G. Conversely. we have ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod 2. (1) For g P G. then ë is an mth root of unity. and s are À1. j÷( g)j ˆ ÷(1) D gr ˆ ëI n (2) Ker r ˆ { g P G: ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1)}. Proof (1) Let g P G. and let ÷ be the character of r. j Our next result gives the ®rst inkling of the importance of characters.10 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G. we have ÷( g) ˆ ù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù n . and ÷(1) ˆ r ‡ sX Certainly then. showing that we can determine the kernel of a representation just from knowledge of its character. and ÷( g) ˆ në.124 Representations and characters of groups 13. Then each ù i is ‡1 or À1. there is a basis B of C n such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B ˆ d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. so that ÷( g) ˆ r À s. Then ÷( g) is an integer. and ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod 2X Proof By Proposition 13. and suppose that g has order m. Then (13X12) j÷( g)j ˆ jù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù n j ˆ ÷(1) ˆ nX for some ë P CX . so |÷( g)| ˆ n ˆ ÷(1).

then the kernel of ÷. is de®ned by Ker ÷ ˆ f g P G: ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1)gX By Theorem 13. Thus H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B ˆ d e ˆ ù1 I n X F ù1 0 Hence for all bases B 9 of C n we have [ g]B 9 ˆ ù1 In . . In particular.Characters Note now that for any complex numbers z1 . we have gr ˆ ëIn for some ë P C. then Ker r ˆ Ker ÷. This implies that ÷( g) ˆ ë÷(1). Conversely.6(4). This completes the proof of (1).14 Examples (1) According to Example 13.11(2). ÷3 . . . if r is a representation of G with character ÷. 13. written Ker ÷. . we have jz1 ‡ X X X ‡ zn j < jz1 j ‡ X X X ‡ jzn j.) Since |ù i | ˆ 1 for all i. j. . Therefore gr ˆ In . .13 De®nition If ÷ is a character of G. and so g P Ker r. (2) If g P Ker r then gr ˆ In . (To see this. 13. Ker ÷ v G. we de®ne the kernel of a character as follows. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l are ÷1 . zn . zn are all equal. . suppose that ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1). and so gr ˆ ù1 In . and so ÷( g) ˆ n ˆ ÷(1). b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. consider the picture in the Argand diagram. we deduce from (13. with the following values: . . whence ë ˆ 1. ÷2 .11(2). Then by (1). We call ÷ a faithful character if Ker ÷ ˆ {1}. 125 with equality if and only if the arguments of z1 . j Motivated by Theorem 13.12) that ù i ˆ ù j for all i. Part (2) follows. the irreducible characters of the group G ˆ D6 ˆ ka.

Ker ÷2 ˆ kal and Ker ÷3 ˆ {1}. Thus ÷( g) ˆ tr ( gr) ( g P G)X If A ˆ (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix over C. then (13X16) (AB) ˆ A B. then so is ÷. then a2 r ˆ ÀI. (2) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. so ÷ is a faithful character. Proof Suppose that ÷ is the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. then we de®ne A to be the n 3 n matrix (a ij ). ÷3 is a faithful irreducible character of D6. In particular. de®ne ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ˆ ÷( g) ( g P G)X Thus the values of ÷ are the complex conjugates of the values of ÷. . 13.11(1) implies that if r: G 3 GL(2. Theorem 13.126 g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 Representations and characters of groups a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Then Ker ÷1 ˆ G. Then ÷ is a character of G. For a character ÷ of G. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. and let ÷ be the character of G given in Example 13. C).15 Proposition Let ÷ be a character of G. If ÷ is irreducible.6(1): g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 Then Ker ÷ ˆ {1}. We next prove a result which is sometimes useful for constructing a new character from a given one. C) is a representation with character ÷. And since |÷(a2 )| ˆ |À2| ˆ ÷(1). Observe that if A ˆ (aij ) and B ˆ (bij ) are n 3 n matrices over C.

.Characters since the ij-entry of A B is n ˆ kˆ1 127 a ik b kj . It is clear that if r is reducible then r is reducible. the character of the representation r is ÷. Then ÷reg ˆ d 1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ d k ÷ k X . we shall express the regular character in terms of the irreducible characters of G.19 Theorem Let V1 . €n which is equal to the complex conjugate of kˆ1 aik bkj . . Proof This is immediate from (7. First we need a preliminary result. We write the regular character as ÷reg . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui. and for i ˆ 1. Ur. k let ÷ i be the character of Vi and di ˆ ÷ i (1). j The regular character 13. . and suppose that V ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur . It follows from (13. the ij-entry of AB. 13.11). In Theorem 13. Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible.16) that the function r: G 3 GL(n. Since tr ( gr) ˆ tr ( gr) ˆ tr ( gr) ˆ ÷( g) ( g P G). X X X . . C) de®ned by gr ˆ ( gr) is a representation of G. j ( g P G) 13.18 Proposition Let V be a CG-module.10). .19. V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11.17 De®nition The regular character of G is the character of the regular CG-module. Then the character of V is equal to the sum of the characters of the CG-modules U1. . . .

It follows that ÷reg ( g) ˆ tr [ g]B ˆ 0X j 13. where for each i there are di factors V i .128 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Theorem 11. . . and are given in the next result. gn of CG. j The values of ÷reg on the elements of G are easily described. ÷ 3 : g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 We calculate ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ 2÷3 : (÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ 2÷3 )( g) 6 0 0 0 0 0 . the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . ÷2 . gn be the elements of G. .6(4). we have gi g ˆ gj for some j with j Tˆ i.21 Example We illustrate Theorem 13. and let B be the basis g1 . Then for 1 < i < n. Now let g P G with g Tˆ 1.20 for the group G ˆ D6 . in particular.9(1). .20 Proposition If ÷reg is the regular character of G. By Proposition 13. . CG  (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). ÷reg (1) ˆ dim CG ˆ |G|. the ii-entry is zero for all i. Now the result follows from Proposition 13. 13. and ÷reg ( g) ˆ 0 if g Tˆ 1X Proof Let g1 .9.19 and Proposition 13.18. . . then ÷reg (1) ˆ jGj. . Therefore the ith row of the matrix [ g]B has zeros in every place except column j. By Example 13.

Then the iientry in the matrix [ g]B is 0 if ig Tˆ i. illustrating Proposition 13. . . and it takes the value |G| on 1. (1 2)(3 4). . . 13.23 Example Let G ˆ S4 . .16(3). . by Theorem 13. v i g ˆ v ig (1 < i < n) (see De®nition 4. there is an easy construction using the permutation module which produces a character of degree n. Permutation characters In the case where G is a subgroup of the symmetric group Sn . let fix ( g) ˆ fi: 1 < i < n and ig ˆ igX Then (13X22) ð( g) ˆ jfix( g)j ( g P G)X We call ð the permutation character of G. . where for all g P G. (1 2 3 4)X The permutation character ð takes the values gi ð( gi ) 1 4 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 1 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . (1 2). Therefore the character ð of the permutation module V is given by ð( g) ˆ (the number of i such that ig ˆ i)X For g P G. and is 1 if ig ˆ i. v n . . Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . .Characters 129 This is the regular character of G. Let B denote the basis v1 . .20. v n . so that G is a group of permutations of {1. Then by Example 12.10). The permutation module V for G over C has basis v1 . and the value 0 on all non-identity elements of G. and we now describe this. (1 2 3). n}. .19. . G has ®ve conjugacy classes. with representatives 1.

. the conjugacy classes of G are represented by 1. Indeed. . U is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module. By Maschke's Theorem 8. (1 2 3). and therefore í( g) ˆ jfix( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X j ( g P G) 13. there is a CG-submodule W of V such that V ˆ U È WX Let í be the character of W.24 Proposition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . 2. and let u ˆ v1 ‡ X X X ‡ v n . A character is obtained from a representation by taking the trace of each matrix.25 Example Let G ˆ A4 . Proof Let v1 .130 Representations and characters of groups 13. (1 2)(3 4).8(3)). a subgroup of S4 . Characters are constant on conjugacy classes. so U is a CG-submodule of V. so |®x( g)| ˆ 1 ‡ í( g) for all g P G. so the character of U is the trivial character 1 G (see Example 13.1.18(1). v n be the basis of the permutation module V as above. By Example 12. Then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) ˆ jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. Then ð ˆ 1 G ‡ í. . (1 3 2)X The values of the character í of G are gi í( gi ) 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 3 2) 0 Summary of Chapter 13 1. and U ˆ sp (u)X Observe that ug ˆ u for all g P G. . .

then the function í which is given by í( g) ˆ jfix( g)j À 1 is a character of G. br1 ˆ (where ù ˆ e2ðia3 ) 0 ùÀ1 1 0 and ar2 ˆ  À1 0   0 1 .Characters 3. Assume that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. 3. Find ÷(x) for x ˆ (1 2) and for x ˆ (1 6)(2 3 5). Prove that the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms are the linear characters. check that your answers are consistent with Theorem 13. ÷(zg) ˆ ë÷( g)X 6. Find also Ker r1 and Ker r2 . 2. then Z(G) ˆ { g P G: |÷( g)| ˆ ÷(1)}. 5. r2 be the representations of G for which     ù 0 0 1 ar1 ˆ . Let ÷ be the character of the 7-dimensional permutation module for S7 . . Prove that there exists an mth root of unity ë P C such that for all g P G. The regular character ÷reg of G takes the value |G| on the identity and the value 0 on all other elements of G. 6. 7. Suppose that z P Z(G) and that z has order m.11. b: a6 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. Find all the irreducible characters of C4 . Write the regular character of C4 as a linear combination of these. If G is a subgroup of Sn . the complex number ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity. Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. Exercises for Chapter 13 1. Prove that if ÷ is a faithful irreducible character of the group G. The character of a representation determines the kernel of the representation. 131 4. and let r1 . For all characters ÷ of G. 4. 5. br2 ˆ 1 0  0 X À1 ( g P G) Find the characters of r1 and r2 . and ÷( gÀ1 ) ˆ ÷( g). and all g P G. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. Let G ˆ D12 ˆ ka.

Show that either (1) ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod 4. (b) Prove that G/Ker ä is abelian. (c) Assume that ä( g) ˆ À1 for some g P G.10. By considering the regular representation of G. Prove that if x is a non-identity element of the group G. (a) Show that ä: g 3 det ( gr) ( g P G) is a linear character of G. then ÷(x) Tˆ ÷(1) for some irreducible character ÷ of G. Let ÷ be a character of a group G. or (2) G has a normal subgroup of index 2.132 Representations and characters of groups 7. Show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2. Hint: use Exercise 7.) 10. where k is an odd integer. (Compare Corollary 13. 8. Let g be a group of order 2k. 9. show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2. . Let r be a representation of the group G over C. and let g be an element of order 2 in G.

and in particular we prove the striking result (Theorem 14. and suppose that W: G 3 C and ö: G 3 C are given by 133 . then we de®ne W ‡ ö: G 3 C by (W ‡ ö)( g) ˆ W( g) ‡ ö( g) and we de®ne ëW: G 3 C by ëW( g) ˆ ë(W( g)) ( g P G)X ( g P G) (We write these functions on the left to agree with our notation for characters.1 Example Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l. That is. we describe a method for decomposing a given CG-module as a direct sum of CG-submodules. and we describe this ®rst. ö are functions from G to C. using characters. Inner products The characters of a ®nite group G are certain functions from G to C.14 Inner products of characters We establish some signi®cant properties of characters in this chapter. if we adopt the natural rules for adding functions and multiplying functions by complex numbers. if W.) 14. Also. and ë P C.21) that if two CG-modules have the same character then they are isomorphic. The set of all functions from G to C forms a vector space over C. The proofs rely on an inner product involving the characters of a group.

W1 i ‡ ë2 hö. The de®nition of an inner product on a vector space over C runs as follows. ö. With every ordered pair of vectors W.3 De®nition Suppose that W and ö are functions from G to C. öl which satis®es the following conditions: (14. öl ‡ ë2 kW2 . De®ne 1 ˆ hW. The vector space of all functions from G to C can be equipped with an inner product in a way which we shall describe shortly. 0 if W Tˆ 0. (b) kë1 W1 ‡ ë2 W2 . öi ˆ W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG .134 Representations and characters of groups 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 This means that W(1) ˆ 2. ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . We now introduce an inner product on the vector space of all functions from G to C. W2 . ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . (c) kW. W(a) ˆ i. ö. Notice that condition (a) implies that kW. öl for all ë1 . öl ˆ hö. öl ˆ ë1 kW1 . This will be of basic importance in our study of characters. ë1 è1 ‡ ë2 W2 i ˆ ë1 hö. W2 i for all ë1 . 14. there is associated a complex number kW. W(a2 ) ˆ À1 and ö(1) ˆ ö(a) ˆ ö(a2 ) ˆ 1. Then W ‡ ö and 3W are given by 1 W ‡ö 3W 3 6 a 1‡i 3i a2 0 À3 We shall often think of functions from G to C as row vectors. W2 . Wl is always real. Wi for all W. Wl . ö in the vector space.2) (a) kW. as in this example. ö. and that conditions (a) and (b) give hö.

4 Example As in Example 14. . èi ˆ 1(2 . 3 3 hè. (À1)) ˆ 2. Therefore 1 ˆ h÷. 1 ˆ (1) h÷. 14. öi ˆ 1(1 . 1 À 1 .Inner products of characters 135 It is transparent that the conditions of (14. øi ˆ hø.9(3). 1 ‡ i . suppose that G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l and that W and ö are given by 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 Then hè. Let ÷ and ø be characters of G. l is an inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C. 1) ˆ 1X 3 Inner products of characters We can exploit the fact that characters are constant on conjugacy classes to simplify slightly the calculation of the inner product of two characters. and this is a real numberX jGj gPG (2) h÷.5 Proposition Assume that G has exactly l conjugacy classes.2) hold. 1 ‡ 1 . 1) ˆ 1(1 ‡ i). . by Proposition 13. øi ˆ ÷( g)ø( g À1 )X jGj gPG .1. with representatives g1 . 3 hö. ÷i ˆ ÷( g)ø( g À1 ). . i ‡ (À1) . so k . 1 ‡ 1 . öi ˆ 1(2 . gl . 14. . 2 ‡ i . øi ˆ l ˆ ÷( g i )ø( g i ) iˆ1 jCG ( g i )j X Proof (1) We have ø( g) ˆ ø( gÀ1 ) for all g P G.

øi.8. øi is real. i i by Corollary 12. øi ˆ l 1 ˆ 1 ˆˆ ÷( g)ø( g) ˆ ÷( g)ø( g) jGj gPG jGj iˆ1 G gP g i ˆ ˆ l ˆ j gGj iˆ1 l ˆ iˆ1 jGj i ÷( g i )ø( g i ) j 1 ÷( g i )ø( g i )X jCG ( g i )j 14.136 Representations and characters of groups Since { gÀ1 : g P G} ˆ G. in fact. g 4 ˆ (1 3 2) (see Example 12. øi is.) (2) Recall that g G denotes the conjugacy class of G which contains i gi . g 2 ˆ (1 2)(3 4). Since characters are constant on conjugacy classes. øi ˆ ÷( g À1 )ø( g) ˆ hø. it follows that h÷.6 Example The alternating group A4 has four conjugacy classes. Hence h÷.3 and Theorem 12. We shall see in Chapter 18 that there are characters ÷ and ø of A4 which take the following values on the representatives gi : gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø g1 12 1 4 g2 4 1 0 g3 3 ù ù2 g4 3 ù2 ù . (We shall prove later that h÷. ÷iX jGj gPG Since kø. an integer. ˆ ÷( g)ø( g) ˆ j g G j÷( g i )ø( g i )X i gP g G i Now Gˆ l ‘ iˆ1 g G and j g G j ˆ jGjajCG ( g i )j. ÷l ˆ h÷. with representatives g 1 ˆ 1. we also have 1 ˆ h÷.18(1)). g 3 ˆ (1 2 3).

øi ˆ 0. we shall derive a formula for e1 in terms of the character of W 1 . . ù ‡ ‡ ˆ 0.5.4). Write 1 ˆ e1 ‡ e2 where e1 P W1 and e2 P W2. øi ˆ 137 We advise you to check also that k÷. ù hø. therefore. we temporarily adopt the following Hypothesis: 14. . There are several ways of choosing CG-submodules W1 and W2 of CG such that CG ˆ W1 È W2 and W1 and W2 have no common composition factor (see De®nition 10. Ur. . where W1 and W2 are CG-submodules which have no common composition factor. 0 ù . for distinct irreducible characters ÷ and ø of G. We shall investigate some consequences of writing CG like this. We are now going to pave the way to proving the key fact (Theorem 14. We ®rst look at the effect of applying the elements e1 and e2 of CG to W1 and W 2 . we have 1 . 0 ù 2 . ‡ 12 4 3 3 4 . and that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CGmodules U1. say CG ˆ U 1 È X X X È U r . øi ˆ ‡ ‡ ˆ 2X ‡ 12 4 3 3 h÷. that is. we may take W1 to be the sum of those irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to a given irreducible CG-module. ÷l ˆ 1. Recall from Chapter 10 that the regular CG-module is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. . ÷i ˆ 1 and h÷. we have h÷. Using part (2) of Proposition 14.12) that the irreducible characters of G form an orthonormal set of vectors in the vector space of functions from G to C. and to ®nd the inner products of ÷ and ø with the trivial character (which takes the value 1 on all elements of A4 ). 4 1 . and then let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-modules U i . . Among other results. ù2 ù2 .Inner products of characters (where ù ˆ e2ðia3 ). For example.7 Hypothesis Let CG ˆ W 1 È W 2 . 4 0 . ù2 ù .

In particular. we have e2 ˆ e1 . w1 e2 ˆ 0. Then 1 ˆ e1 ˆ ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Proof Let x P G. w2 e1 ˆ 0. The function W: w 3 we1 x À1 (w P CG) is an endomorphism of CG. w2 P W 2 . and w2 ˆ w2 1 ˆ w2 (e1 ‡ e2 ) ˆ w2 e2 . take w1 ˆ e1 and w2 ˆ e2 . we have w1 e1 ˆ w1 . w2 e 2 ˆ w2 X Proof If w1 P W1 then the function w2 3 w1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to W 1 . Therefore w1 w2 ˆ 0 for all w1 P W 1 .7. w1 e2 ˆ w2 e1 ˆ 0. 14. j 14. and this completes the proof. j .3. by Proposition 11. Proposition Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14.9 Corollary For the elements e1 and e2 of CG which appear in Hypothesis 14. Now w1 ˆ w1 1 ˆ w1 (e1 ‡ e2 ) ˆ w1 e1 . e2 ˆ e2 and e1 e2 ˆ e2 e1 ˆ 0X 1 2 Proof In Proposition 14. Next.7. But W2 and W1 have no common composition factor. we evaluate e1 .8. We shall calculate the trace of W in two ways. so every CG-homomorphism from W2 to W1 is zero. Similarly w2 w1 ˆ 0.138 Representations and characters of groups 14.8 Proposition For all w1 P W1 and w2 P W2.10.

w2 W ˆ w2 e1 x À1 ˆ 0X Thus W acts on W1 by w1 3 w1 x À1 and on W2 by w2 3 0. we see that for all x P G.11 Corollary Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14. for w1 P W1 and w2 P W2 we have. so e1 ˆ ˆ gPG ëg g for some ë g P C.Inner products of characters 139 First. we have tr W ˆ ë x jGjX Comparing our two expressions for tr W.3 of the multiplication in CG. w1 W ˆ w1 e1 x À1 ˆ w1 x À1 . By Proposition 13. as W: w 3 w gPG ë g gx À1 .8. the endomorphism w 3 wgx À1 (w P CG) of CG has trace 0 if g Tˆ x and has trace |G| if g ˆ x. Then h÷. in view of Proposition 14. the endomorphism w1 3 w1 x À1 of W1 has trace equal to ÷(x À1 ). Therefore tr W ˆ ÷(x À1 )X Secondly.20. e1 P CG. we deduce from Proposition 14.10 that the coef®cient of 1 in e2 is 1 ˆ 1 1 h÷. By the de®nition of the character ÷ of W 1 . € Hence.7. ë x ˆ ÷(x À1 )ajGjX Therefore e1 ˆ 1 ˆ ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG j 14. ÷iX ÷( g À1 )÷( g) ˆ jGj2 gPG jGj . ÷i ˆ ÷(1)X Proof Using the de®nition 6. and of course the endomorphism w2 3 0 of W2 has trace 0.

we know from Corollary 14. . since W is the direct sum of m CG-submodules. l. let X be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. this yields h÷. m÷i ˆ m÷(1)X As ÷(1) ˆ dim U ˆ m. each of which has character ÷. ÷l ˆ ÷(1). respectively. and de®ne W to be the sum of the m irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U. 14. Then CG ˆ W È X X Moreover. ÷i ˆ 1. say CG ˆ U1 È X X X È Ur . In particular.11 to the character of W. Next. øi ˆ 0X Proof Recall from Theorem 11. where the number of CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U is dim U. with characters ÷ and ø.12 Theorem Let U and V be non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. ÷i ˆ 1. We now apply Corollary 14. let Y be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui of CG which are isomorphic to either U or V. as required. and h÷. Let m ˆ dim U. and the 1 coef®cient of 1 in e1 is ÷(1)/|G|. and let Z be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. every composition factor of W is isomorphic to U.9 that CG is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.140 Representations and characters of groups On the other hand. The character of W is m÷. and no composition factor of X is isomorphic to U. Hence k÷. Then h÷. and obtain hm÷.9 that e2 ˆ e1 . W and X have no common composition factor. j We can now prove the main theorem concerning the inner product k . Then CG ˆ Y È Z.

12 Let G be a ®nite group. where n ˆ dim V. where ä ij is the Kronecker delta function (that is.5(1). . . øi ‡ hø. By Corollary 14. j. If ÷ i is the character of Vi (1 < i < k). øi ‡ hø. and hence k÷. V k be a complete set of nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11. Therefore h÷. by the part of the theorem which we have already proved. so there are non-negative integers d1. ÷ i i ˆ h÷ i . .Inner products of characters 141 and Y and Z have no common composition factor. . ÷ k are all distinct. we have . ÷i)X Now h÷.11. ø(1) ˆ n. j Applications of Theorem 14. m÷(1) ‡ nø(1) ˆ hm÷ ‡ nø. there are d i factors Vi X Therefore the character ø of V is given by (14X15) ø ˆ d 1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ d k ÷ k X Using (14. ÷i ‡ n2 hø. ÷i ˆ hø. k÷.7. . øi ‡ mn(h÷. ÷ j i ˆ ä ij for all i. øl ˆ 0. where for each i. In particular. ÷i ˆ 0X By Proposition 14.11). this implies that the irreducible characters ÷1 . then by Theorem 14. m÷ ‡ nøi ˆ m2 h÷. øl ˆ kø. . and ÷(1) ˆ m. and hø.12. ä ij is 1 if i ˆ j and is 0 if i Tˆ j). V is equal to a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. dk such that (14X14) V  (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). øi ˆ d 2 ‡ X X X ‡ d 2 X 1 k Summarizing.13). we have (14X13) h÷ i . Each of these is isomorphic to some V i . and let V1 . øi ˆ d i for 1 < i < k. X X X . . . ÷l. Now let V be a CG-module. we obtain from this (14X16) hø. By Theorem 8. The character of Y is m÷ ‡ nø. øi ˆ 1.

.5(2). and d2X i 14.1 ‡ ‡ 0 ˆ 1X 6 2 Similarly. .6(4) that the irreducible characters of S3  D6 are ÷1 . (1 2 3): Now let ø be the character of the 3-dimensional permutation module gi |CS3 ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 for S3 . . we know that ø(1) ˆ 3.6(2). øi ˆ k ˆ iˆ1 for 1 < i < k. ø(1 2) ˆ 1. ÷3 . ÷2 l ˆ 0 and kø. ø ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 X (This can of course be checked immediately by comparing the values of ø and ÷1 ‡ ÷3 on each conjugacy class representative. hø. . d i ˆ hø. ÷1 i ˆ 3. ÷2 . .17 Theorem Let ÷1 . . by Proposition 14. .17. ø(1 2 3) ˆ 0X Therefore. . If ø is any character of G. taking the following values on the conjugacy class representatives 1. ÷3 l ˆ 1.) A more substantial calculation along these lines is given in Example 15. Moreover. (1 2). By Example 13.18 Example Recall from Example 13. dk . ÷ i i hø. then ø ˆ d 1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers d1. kø.7. Thus by Theorem 14.1 1. . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G.142 Representations and characters of groups 14.

21 Theorem Suppose that V and W are CG-modules.5 we proved the elementary fact that if V  W then ÷ ˆ ø. We have ø ˆ d 1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers di.17.16). It is the converse which is the substantial part of this theorem. 14. Then by (14. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Then V is irreducible if and only if kø. ‡ dk ÷ k is non-zero. . We say that ÷ is a constituent of ø if kø. It is this fact which motivates our study of characters in much of the rest of the book. the constituents of ø are the irreducible characters ÷ i of G for which the integer di in the expression ø ˆ d1 ÷1 ‡ .Inner products of characters 143 We shall see many more applications of the important Theorem 14.20 Theorem Let V be a CG-module with character ø. 1 ˆ hø. Proof If V is irreducible then kø.19 De®nition Suppose that ø is a character of G. øl ˆ 1 by Theorem 14. respectively. and so V is irreducible. 14. It gives us a quick and effective method of determining whether or not a given CG-module is irreducible. j We are now in a position to prove the remarkable result that `a CGmodule is determined by its character'. Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if ÷ ˆ ø. with characters ÷ and ø. and by (14.14). . ÷l Tˆ 0. øl ˆ 1. V  Vi for some i. 14. Thus. øl ˆ 1. for it means that many questions about CG-modules can be answered using character theory. øi ˆ d 2 ‡ X X X ‡ d 2 X 1 k It follows that one of the integers di is 1 and the rest are zero. assume that kø.12. .12. Conversely. The next result is another signi®cant consequence of Theorem 14. Proof In Proposition 13.

Vk be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules with characters ÷1 . r2 .12. ar1 ˆ . ÷ k . ÷ i i. suppose that ÷ ˆ ø. We know by (14. . di (1 < i < k) such that V  (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. j 14. . and hence V  W. 2. ar2 ˆ 0 ù 0 ùÀ1 2 3 2 3 0 1 1 ùÀ1 ar3 ˆ . and let r1 . .22 Example Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l.21. Again let V1 . ar4 ˆ À1 À1 0 ù (ù ˆ e2ðia3 ). it follows that ci ˆ di for all i.14) that there are non-negative integers ci . . . r3 . 3. the representations r2 and r3 are equivalent. ÷ i i (1 < i < k)X Since ÷ ˆ ø. The characters ø i of the representations r i (i ˆ 1. r2 . r3 and r4 . The next theorem is another consequence of Theorem 14. but there are no other equivalences among r1 . X X X . r4 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 ù 0 ù 0 . and W  (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i.16).144 Representations and characters of groups Thus. d i ˆ hø. 4) are 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 2 2 2 2 a 2ù À1 À1 1‡ù a2 2ù2 À1 À1 1 ‡ ù2 Hence by Theorem 14. ci ˆ h÷. By (14.

Vj )) ˆ ä ij X Hence. øiX Proof We know from (14. Then dim (HomCG (V . . Proof Assume that ë1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë k ÷ k ˆ 0 (ë i P C)X Then for all i. 14. W )) ˆ h÷. By Proposition 11.23 Theorem Let ÷1 . . Then ÷1 . j we have dim (HomCG (Vi . . di (1 < i < k) such that V  (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. . W )) ˆ k ˆ iˆ1 ci d i X . .13) we have 0 ˆ hë1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë k ÷ k . .5)(3) we see that dim (HomCG (V . using (14. . ÷ k are linearly independent vectors in the vector space of all functions from G to C. . . .Inner products of characters 145 14. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. and W  (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i. j We now relate inner products of characters to the spaces of CGhomomorphisms which we constructed in Chapter 11.24 Theorem Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. . respectively. for any i. ÷ k are linearly independent. using (11.14) that there are non-negative integers ci . ÷ i i ˆ ë i X Therefore ÷1 . .2.

where the CG-modules W1 and W2 have no common composition factor. and 1 ˆ e1 ‡ e2 with e1 P W 1 . e2 P W 2 .13) implies that h÷. Since W2 and V1 have no common composition factor. øi ˆ The result follows.146 Representations and characters of groups k ˆ iˆ1 k ˆ iˆ1 On the other hand. then 2ˆ 3 À1 V ÷( g ) g gPG . for all v1 P V1 and v2 P V2 we have v1 e1 ˆ v1 . ÷ˆ ci ÷ i and ø ˆ di÷i and so (14. Once more we adopt Hypothesis 14. Decomposing CG-modules It is sometimes of practical importance to be able to decompose a given CG-module into a direct sum of CG-submodules. j 14. 14. Let V be any CG-module. v2 e1 ˆ 0.25 Proposition With the above notation.7: CG ˆ W 1 È W 2 . where every composition factor of V1 is a composition factor of W1 and every composition factor of V2 is a composition factor of W2. v 2 e2 ˆ v 2 X k ˆ iˆ1 j ci d i X Proof If v1 P V1 then the function w2 3 v1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to V1. v1 e2 ˆ 0. and we now describe a process for doing this.8. We can write V ˆ V1 È V2 . and V is any CG-module. we deduce the stated results just as in the proof of Proposition 14.26 Proposition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G.

Taking ÷ to be the trivial character of G in Proposition 14. The character of V÷ is a multiple of ÷. The procedure is as follows: (14. (2) For each irreducible character ÷ of G. Clearly we may omit the constant multiplier m/|G|. . and by Proposition 14. so 2ˆ 3 À1 V1 ˆ V ÷( g ) g X gPG j Once the irreducible characters of our group G are known. . the element e1 of W1 is given by m ˆ e1 ˆ ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Let V1 be the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷. Then the character of W1 is m÷ where m ˆ ÷(1). we see that .27) (1) Choose a basis v1 .25 shows that Ve1 ˆ V1. Proof Write CG ˆ U 1 È X X X È U r . . (3) Then V is the direct sum of the CG-modules V÷ as ÷ runs over the irreducible characters of G.Inner products of characters 147 is equal to the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷ (where for r P CG. calculate the vectors € v i ( gPG ÷( gÀ1 ) g) for 1 < i < n. Also W1 and W2 satisfy Hypothesis 14. and let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui.26 provides a useful practical tool for ®nding CG-submodules of a given CG-module V. we de®ne Vr ˆ fvr: v P V g). and let V÷ be the subspace of V spanned by these vectors. We illustrate this method with a couple of simple examples. Proposition 14.7.28 Examples (1) Let G be any ®nite group and let V be any non-zero CG-module. Some more complicated uses of the method can be found in Chapter 32.26. . v n of V. by Theorem 11. Let W1 be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui which have character ÷. Then Proposition 14.10.9. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. 14.

. . . Ve4 ˆ sp (v1 À v2 ‡ v3 À v4 ). For example. Then 2 Ve1 ˆ sp (v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 ‡ v4 ). . v2 À v4 )X .148 Representations and characters of groups 2ˆ 3 V g gPG is the sum of all the trivial CG-submodules of V. e5 ˆ 1(1 À a2 ). v3 . . Here is a list of the irreducible characters ÷1 . .3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 Let V be the permutation module for G. For 1 < i < 5. let G ˆ Sn and let V be the permutation module. with basis v1 . Ve2 ˆ 0. . v n such that v i g ˆ v ig for all i and all g P G. (2) Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by a ˆ (1 2 3 4) and b ˆ (1 2)(3 4)X Then G  D8 (compare Example 1. . Ve3 ˆ 0.5). Ve5 ˆ sp (v1 À v3 . with basis v1 . v2 . v4 such that v i g ˆ v ig for all i and all g P G. Then 2ˆ 3 V g ˆ sp (v1 ‡ X X X ‡ v n )X gPG Hence V has a unique trivial CG-submodule. let ÷ i (1) ˆ ei ˆ ÷ i ( g À1 ) gX 8 gPG For example. ÷5 of D8 (see Example 16.

and ø is any character. ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. The inner product of two functions W. . e2 ˆ ei for 1 < i < 5. . . 3. then ø ˆ d 1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ d k ÷ k where d i ˆ hø. i ei ej ˆ 0 for i Tˆ jX Compare these results with Corollary 14. øl ˆ 1. 149 and so we have expressed V as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules whose characters are ÷1 . respectively. . ÷ j i ˆ ä ij for all i. The irreducible characters ÷1 . Every CG-module is determined by its character. ö from G to C is given by 1 ˆ hW. Summary of Chapter 14 1. Also.Inner products of characters We have V ˆ Ve1 È Ve4 È Ve5 . ø is irreducible if and only if kø. öi ˆ W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG 2. . h÷ i . Note that the procedure described in (14. ÷ k of G form an orthonormal set.9. ÷ i iX Each di is a non-negative integer. j. . ÷4 and ÷5 . . . . 4. If ÷1 . that is.27) does not in general enable us to write a given CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules (since V÷ is not in general irreducible). You might like to check that e1 ‡ X X X ‡ e5 ˆ 1.

b2 ˆ a2 .150 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 14 1. b: a4 ˆ 1. øi and hø. 3. Which of ÷ and ø is irreducible? 2. i 0 1 0 2 3 2 3 À1 0 1 0 ar3 ˆ . r2 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. br3 ˆ X 0 1 0 À1 Show that r1 and r2 are equivalent. and that for each g in G there is an invertible matrix Tg such that gó ˆ T À1 ( gr)Tg X g Prove that there is an invertible matrix T such that for all g in G. ÷i ˆ ÷(1)X . gó ˆ T À1 ( gr)TX 4. 5. Let G ˆ Q8 ˆ ka. Prove that ÷ is reducible. ÷i. h÷. Suppose that ÷ is a non-zero. Let G ˆ S4 . Suppose that r and ó are representations of G. r3 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 ar1 ˆ . and let r1 . show that h÷reg . We shall see in Chapter 18 that G has characters ÷ and ø which take the following values on the conjugacy classes: Class representative |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø 1 24 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 Calculate h÷. 0 Ài À1 0 2 3 2 3 0 i 0 À1 ar2 ˆ . but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. br1 ˆ . non-trivial character of G. øi. br2 ˆ . and that ÷( g) is a non-negative real number for all g in G. If ÷ is a character of G.

If ð is the permutation character of Sn .Inner products of characters 6. . Let ÷1 . and suppose that ø ˆ d 1 ÷1 ‡ X X Xd k ÷ k is a character of G. What can you say about the integers di in the cases kø.4 relevant.) 151 7. prove that hð. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of the group G. Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and that for every g P G. . . ÷( g) is an even integer. . 2. 3 or 4? 8. øl ˆ 1. 1 S n i ˆ 1X (Hint: you may ®nd Exercise 11. Does it follow that ÷ ˆ 2ö for some character ö? .

the characters of G are class functions on G.1 De®nition A class function on G is a function ø: G 3 C such that ø(x) ˆ ø( y) whenever x and y are conjugate elements of G (that is.15 The number of irreducible characters We devote this chapter to the theorem which states that the number of irreducible characters of a ®nite group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. the theorem provides machinery for investigating characters which is used in the remainder of the book. if l is the number of conjugacy classes of G. Class functions 15. 152 . Together with the material from Chapter 14. ø is constant on conjugacy classes). A basis of C is given by those functions which take the value 1 on precisely one conjugacy class and zero on all other classes. and to some consequences of this theorem. then (15X2) dim C ˆ lX 15. By Proposition 13. G is as usual a ®nite group.3 Theorem The number of irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. Throughout.5(2). Thus. The set C of all class functions on G is a subspace of the vector space of all functions from G to C.

f k .14. dim C ˆ l. . In order to prove the reverse inequality l < k.2) implies that k < l. . so (15. . By (15. and let l be the number of conjugacy classes of G. . and in particular. W i is isomorphic to a direct sum of copies of V i . f iz ˆ ëi f i It follows that z ˆ 1z ˆ ( f 1 ‡ X X X ‡ f k )z ˆ f 1 z ‡ X X X ‡ f k z ˆ ë1 f 1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë k f k X This shows that Z(CG) is contained in the subspace of CG spanned by f 1 . . . we know from Theorem 8. By Theorem 14. if ø is a class function. Proof Since ÷1 . we deduce that l < k. j (1 < i < k)X 15. . V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. we consider the regular CG-module. By Proposition 9. vz ˆ ë i vX Hence wz ˆ ë i w for all w P W i . This completes the proof that k ˆ l. Now let z P Z(CG).The number of irreducible characters 153 Proof Let ÷1 . where for each i. ÷1 . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. Indeed. ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G.4 Corollary The irreducible characters ÷1 . the centre of CG. then øˆ where ë i ˆ kø. ÷ k are linearly independent elements of C. they span a subspace of C of dimension k. If V1 . Since CG contains the identity element 1. . which is equal to k by k ˆ iˆ1 ëi÷i .22. . X X X . ÷ i l for 1 < i < k. X X X . for each i there exists ë i P C such that for all v P Vi. . ÷ k are linearly independent. .7 that CG ˆ W 1 È X X X È W k .23. X X X . we can write 1 ˆ f1 ‡ X X X ‡ fk with f i P W i for 1 < i < k. .2). Since Z(CG) has dimension l by Proposition 12.

4. we regard a character ÷ of G as a row vector. . .7 Example We shall see in Section 18.3. 15. Proof If g is conjugate to h then ÷( g) ˆ ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. Then by Corollary 15.6 Corollary Suppose that g P G. j 15. We conclude the chapter with an example illustrating some practical methods of expressing characters and class functions of a group as combinations of irreducible characters. Then g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G.4 that there is a certain group G of order 12 which has exactly six conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . this is true for the class function ø which takes the value 1 on the conjugacy class of g and takes the value 0 elsewhere. . Conversely.9(3)). ÷ k span C. . by Proposition 13. Then g is conjugate to h if and only if ÷( g) ˆ ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. . . g6 (where g1 ˆ 1).13). .5(2). Hence ÷1 . whose k entries are the values of ÷ on the k conjugacy classes of G.154 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 15. In particular. the result follows immediately from Proposition 15. . .4 has the following useful consequence. . and so they form a basis of C. and six irreducible characters ÷1 . j Corollary 15. h P G. Then ø( g) ˆ ø(h) ˆ 1. using (14. ÷6 given as follows: . ø( g) ˆ ø(h) for all class functions ø on G. . The last part follows.5 Proposition Suppose that g. suppose that ÷( g) ˆ ÷(h) for all characters ÷. 15. .5. As in previous examples. and so g is conjugate to h. Proof Since ÷( g) is real if and only if ÷( g) ˆ ÷( gÀ1 ) (see Proposition j 13.

We suggest that you use the `guesswork method' to express the following characters ë.The number of irreducible characters gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 g3 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g4 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 155 g6 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 Suppose we are given characters ÷ and ø of G as follows: g1 ÷ ø 3 4 g2 À3 0 g3 0 0 g4 0 4 g5 i 0 g6 Ài 0 Then it is easy to spot that ÷ ˆ ÷2 ‡ ÷6 . ÷6 : g1 ë ì 2 4 g2 À2 4 g3 À2 1 g4 2 1 g5 0 0 g6 0 0 . ø ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 X For example. it is not hard to use tactical guesswork to express ö as a combination of the irreducible characters. . The reason for this is that the required coef®cients are known to be non-negative integers. In fact. . they are the degrees of the ÷ i ). Inspecting the values of the irreducible characters ÷ i . . The correct answer now comes quickly to mind. and the entries in the column corresponding to g1 ˆ 1 are positive integers (indeed. ÷4 and ÷6 . we see that ÷ must be a combination of ÷2 . . the second entry in the row vector for ÷ is equal to minus the ®rst entry. given any character ö of G whose degree is not large compared with the degrees of the ÷ i . ì of G as combinations of ÷1 .

1 (À1 ‡ 2i) . (À1) ‡ ˆ 2. 1 ‡ ˆ 1.4 that the coef®cients ë i in the expression ö ˆ ë1 ÷1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë6 ÷6 are given by ë i ˆ hö. ÷4 l ˆ 1. 1 5 . 1 5 . i ˆ 3. 4 hö. 1 À3 . ÷ i i (1 < i < 6)X Using Proposition 14. . (À1) (À3) . ÷6 l ˆ 0. l.5(2). The number of irreducible characters of a group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. kö. (À1) hö. 1 3 . 1 (À1 ‡ 2i) . 1 3 . ÷1 i ˆ and similarly kö. ÷5 l ˆ 2 and kö. ÷2 i ˆ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . like the following one? g1 ö 11 g2 3 g3 À3 g4 5 g5 À1 ‡ 2i g6 À1 À 2i The answer is to use the inner product k .156 Representations and characters of groups How do we cope with a class function or with a more dif®cult character. 1 (À1 ‡ 2i) . (Ài) hö. ‡ 4 11 . 4 11 . 1 3 . we calculate these inner products: 11 . 1 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . (À1) 5 . ÷3 i ˆ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . Therefore ö ˆ ÷1 ‡ 3÷2 ‡ 2÷3 ‡ ÷4 ‡ 2÷5 X Summary of Chapter 15 1. 1 À3 . We know from Corollary 15.

. Let ø1 . ø2 and ø3 as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. . . The irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷3 : 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 Let ÷ be the class function on S3 with the following values: 1 ÷ 19 (1 2) À1 (1 2 3) À2 Express ÷ as a linear combination of ÷1 . The three irreducible characters of S3 are ÷1 . . Is ÷ a character of S3 ? 2. . ø2 and ø3 be the class functions on S3 taking the following values: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 0 0 (1 2) 0 1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 1 Express ø1 . ÷2 . ÷2 and ÷3 .The number of irreducible characters 157 2. ÷2 and ÷3 of S3 . then øˆ k ˆ iˆ1 ë i ÷ i where ë i ˆ hø. ÷ i iX Exercises for Chapter 15 1. If ø is a class function.

.2. Let ø be the class function on G taking the following values: g1 ø 6 g2 0 g3 3 g4 À3 g5 À1 À i g6 À1 ‡ i Express ø as a linear combination of ÷1 .) (b) Using the solution to Exercise 11. . . . g6 and irreducible characters ÷1 .158 Representations and characters of groups 3. . Suppose that G is the group of order 12 in Example 15. . . prove that G has 4. Is ø a character of G? 4. . 6 or 12 conjugacy classes. . . ÷6 . Find groups G in which each of these possibilities is realized. (a) Show that G cannot have exactly 9 conjugacy classes. Let G be a group of order 12. .7. ÷6 as in that example. (Hint: show that Z(G) cannot have order 6. . . with conjugacy class representatives g1 .

X X X . Much of the later material in the book will be devoted to understanding character tables. and g1 ˆ 1.1 De®nition Let ÷1 . and the number of them is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. many problems in representation theory can be solved by considering characters. by conjugacy class representatives). It is usual to number the irreducible characters and conjugacy classes of G so that ÷1 ˆ 1 G . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let g 1 . 1 < j < k) is called the character table of G. The k 3 k matrix whose ij-entry is ÷ i ( g j ) (for all i. many of which are encapsulated in the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16. the rows are indexed by the irreducible characters of G and the columns are indexed by the conjugacy classes (or. in practice. which tells us that every CG-module is determined by its character.21. g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. the numbering is arbitrary. This matrix is called the character table of G. Note that in the character table.4). the identity element of G. The entries in a character table are related to each other in subtle ways. The motivation for this is Theorem 14.16 Character tables and orthogonality relations The irreducible characters of a ®nite group G are class functions. Beyond this. X X X . j with 1 < i < k. 159 . Thus. the trivial character. Character tables 16. It is therefore convenient to record all the values of all the irreducible characters of G in a square matrix.

You found all the irreducible representations of G in Exercise 10. We take 1.23). The irreducible characters of G are given in Example 13. j 16. a. the character table of C2 ˆ ha: a2 ˆ 1i is 1 ÷1 ÷2 1 1 a 1 À1 and the character table of C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù (ù ˆ e2ðia3 ) (3) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka.160 Representations and characters of groups 16.3 Examples (1) Let G ˆ D6 ˆ ka.6(4). b as representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Proof This follows immediately from the fact that the irreducible characters of G. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. and hence also the rows of the character table. are linearly independent (Theorem 14. For example. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. and then the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 (2) We can write down the character table of any ®nite abelian group using Theorem 9.4. The conjugacy classes .2 Proposition The character table of G is an invertible matrix.8.

s P {1.Character tables and orthogonality relations 161 of G are given by (12. ab.12). a. among the irreducible characters ÷1 . Hence the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 The character tables of all dihedral groups will be found in Chapter 18. and representatives are 1. h÷ r . . g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. by writing them as k ˆ ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) ˆ ä rs jCG ( g i )j iˆ1 (see Proposition 14. a2 . .5(2)). . Similar relations exist between the columns of the character table. 16. .4 Theorem Let ÷1 . and these are given by part (2) of our next result. X X X . . ÷ k of G. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. Then the following relations hold for any r. k}. These relations can be expressed in terms of the rows of the character table. . . . (1) The row orthogonality relations: k ˆ ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) iˆ1 jCG ( g i )j ˆ ä rs X (2) The column orthogonality relations: k ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ˆ ä rs jCG ( g r )jX . ÷ s i ˆ ä rs . b. The orthogonality relations We have already seen many uses for the relations (14. .13). and let g 1 . . . .

162 Representations and characters of groups Proof The row orthogonality relations have already been proved. . . They are recorded here merely for comparison with the column relations. so ë i ˆ hø s . . ÷ i i ˆ 1 ˆ ø s ( g)÷ i ( g)X jGj gPG Now ø s ( g) ˆ 1 if g is conjugate to g s . j and the column orthogonality relations follow.8.4. For 1 < s < k. say øs ˆ ëi ÷i (ë i P C)X We know that h÷ i . and this time we record the order of the centralizer C G ( g i ) next to each conjugacy class representative gi : gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 a 3 1 1 À1 b 2 1 À1 0 . . (1) Let G ˆ D6. 16.5 Examples We illustrate the column orthogonality relations.3(1). by Theorem 12. also there are jGjajC G ( g s )j elements of G which are conjugate to g s . ÷ j i ˆ ä ij . let ø s be the class function which satis®es ø s ( g r ) ˆ ä rs k ˆ iˆ1 (1 < r < k)X By Corollary 15. ÷ k . We copy the character table of G from Example 16. Hence ëi ˆ Therefore ä rs ˆ ø s ( g r ) ˆ k ˆ iˆ1 1 ˆ ÷ i ( gs ) ø s ( g)÷ i ( g) ˆ X jGj gP g G jCG ( g s )j s ëi ÷i ( gr ) ˆ k ˆ ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) iˆ1 jCG ( g s )j . and ø s ( g) ˆ 0 otherwise. ø s is a linear combination of ÷1 .

1 ‡ 1 . and is the number at the top of the column (that is. 1 ‡ 2 . 1 ‡ 1 . 1 ‡ (À1) . we read down columns r and s of the character table. (À1) ˆ 0. By considering the orthogonality relations between the ®rst column and columns 3 and 4. 1 ‡ 1 . 1 ‡ 1 . the order of the centralizer of g r ) if r ˆ s. 1 ‡ 1 . (À1) ˆ 3. s ˆ 2: s ˆ 2: s ˆ 3: 1 . taking the products of the numbers which appear. We shall use the column orthogonality relations to determine the last row of the character table. 1 . The sum of the products is 0 if r Tˆ s. 1 . (À1) ‡ 2 . By the column orthogonality relations with r ˆ s ˆ 1. so they are positive integers. the sum of the squares of these numbers is 12 (this also follows from Theorem 11. 0 ˆ 0X 163 In each case. Let x denote the number at the foot of the second column. we obtain the complete character table as . The column orthogonality relation 4 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) ˆ 0 gives 1 . (2) Suppose we are given the following part of the character table of a group G of order 12 which has exactly four conjugacy classes: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 12 1 1 1 g2 4 1 1 1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 g4 3 1 ù2 ù (where ù ˆ e2ðia3 ).12). 1 ‡ 3x ˆ 0X Therefore x ˆ À1. r ˆ 1. Hence the last entry in the ®rst column is 3.Character tables and orthogonality relations € Consider the sums 3 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) for various cases: iˆ1 r ˆ 1. r ˆ 2. The entries in the ®rst column of the character table are the degrees of the irreducible characters.

1 ‡ ù . although our calculation has used only those relations which involve the ®rst column. 0 ˆ 3. Those column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column of the character table were proved in Chapter 13. ù ‡ 0 . 4 ˆ iˆ1 4 ˆ iˆ1 4 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 2 ) ˆ 1 . By taking the complex conjugate of each side of this equation. ù2 ‡ ù2 . 0 ˆ 0X We shall see later that the character table which we have constructed here is that of A4 . ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 3 ) ˆ 1 . 1 ‡ 1 .19 and Proposition 13. where d i ˆ ÷ i (1). For example. if g ˆ 1.164 follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 Representations and characters of groups g1 12 1 1 1 3 g2 4 1 1 1 À1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 0 g4 3 1 ù2 ù 0 Notice that the orthogonality relations hold between all pairs of columns. we get V ` jGj. since Theorem 13. ˆ d i ÷ i ( g) ˆ X iˆ1 0. . ù2 ‡ 0 . ù ‡ ù2 . if g Tˆ 1. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) ˆ 1 . 1 ‡ ù . if g Tˆ 1.20 give V k ` jGj. k ˆ ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) ˆ X iˆ1 0. if g ˆ 1. 1 ‡ 1 . 1 ‡ (À1) . (À1) ˆ 4.

An alternative approach would have been to use the row orthogonality relations h÷ i . the equation M M t ˆ I is just another way of expressing the row orthogonality relations. so M M t ˆ I.5(2). by the row orthogonality relations. Although the calculation with the column orthogonality relations was easier to perform. Indeed. More importantly. so M t M ˆ I. as we shall now show. the row and column orthogonality relations encapsulate the same information. Now the rs-entry in M M t is k ˆ ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) iˆ1 jCG ( g i )j ˆ ä rs .Character tables and orthogonality relations 165 and these are just the column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column. Since the properties M t M ˆ I and M M t ˆ I of a square matrix M are equivalent to each other. the rs-entry in M t M is k ˆ 1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ˆ ä rs . . The character table of G is a k 3 k matrix. where we were given three of the four irreducible characters of G. ÷4 i ˆ ä i4 to obtain four equations in the four unknown values ÷4 ( g j ) (1 < j < 4). jCG ( g r )j1a2 jCG ( g s )j1a2 iˆ1 by the column orthogonality relations. and we adjust the entries ÷ i ( g j ) in this matrix to obtain another k 3 k matrix M. it is a fact that the column orthogonality relations contain precisely the same information as the row orthogonality relations. On the other hand. Rows versus columns Notice that in Example 16. we calculated the values of the last character one at a time using the column orthogonality relations. we see that the row and column orthogonality relations are equivalent. by letting the ij-entry of M be ÷ i ( gj ) X jCG ( g j )j1a2 Let M t denote the transpose of the complex conjugate of M. We could have used the above argument to deduce the column orthogonality relations from the row ones.

we can deduce exactly the same results using either set of relations. 2.166 Representations and characters of groups so when we are working with character tables. g4 . 3. . There exists a group G of order 10 which has precisely four conjugacy classes. 1. The character table of G is the k 3 k matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( g j ). . and four linear characters ÷1 . . ÷ k and conjugacy class representatives g1 . k ˆ ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) iˆ1 jCG ( g i )j ˆ ä rs X 3. k ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ˆ ä rs jCG ( g r )jX Exercises for Chapter 16 1. . . 2. The row orthogonality relations state that for all r. gk . . with representatives g1 . ÷4 taking the following values: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 8 1 1 1 1 g2 8 1 1 1 1 g3 4 1 1 À1 À1 g4 4 1 À1 1 À1 g5 4 1 À1 À1 1 Find the complete character table of G. ÷2 as follows: . The column orthogonality relations state that for all r. . with representatives g1 . . A certain group G of order 8 is known to have a total of ®ve conjugacy classes. g5 . . . . Write down the character table of C2 3 C2 . . s. s. Summary of Chapter 16 Let G be a ®nite group with irreducible characters ÷1 . and has irreducible characters ÷1 . . . . . . . . .

÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. Let ÷1 . and that jdet Cj2 ˆ Find Æ(det C) when G ˆ C3 . Let G be a ®nite group with conjugacy class representatives g1 . (Hint: ®rst ®nd the values of the remaining irreducible characters on g1 . A certain group G has two columns of its character table as follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 g1 21 1 1 1 3 3 g2 7 1 1 1 æ æ where g1 ˆ 1 and æ P C.) 4. Find the complete character table of G. . (a) Find æ. . g k and character table C. k ‰ iˆ1 jCG ( g i )jX . Show that @ A k ˆ Z(G) ˆ g P G: ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) ˆ jGj X iˆ1 6. (b) Find another column of the character table.Character tables and orthogonality relations gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 g1 10 1 2 g2 5 1 á g3 5 1 â g4 2 1 0 167 p p where á ˆ (À1 ‡ 5)a2 and ⠈ (À1 À 5)a2.10. 5. then on g4 ± use Corollary 13. . . X X X . Show that det C is either real or purely imaginary.

and N Tˆ {1}.17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters If N is a normal subgroup of the ®nite group G. (The derived subgroup is de®ned below in De®nition 17. and let ~ be a character of GaN . then the factor group GaN is smaller than G. C) be a representation of GaN with 168 .7. it is easy to tell from the character table whether or not G is simple. The linear characters of G (i.) The linear characters. ÷ ~ Proof Let r: GaN 3 GL (n. normal subgroups help us to ®nd characters of G. the characters of degree 1) are obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaN in the case where N is the derived subgroup of G. In the opposite direction. De®ne ÷ ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ˆ ~(Ng) ( g P G)X ÷ Then ÷ is a character of G. in a way which we shall describe. in particular. in turn. we can use the characters of GaN to get some of the characters of G. The characters of GaN should therefore be easier to ®nd than the characters of G.1 Proposition Assume that N v G. and ÷ and ~ have the same degree. Thus.e. In fact. it is also true that the character table of G enables us to ®nd the normal subgroups of G. by a process which is known as lifting. can be used to get new irreducible characters from a given irreducible character. Lifted characters We begin by constructing a character of G from a character of GaN . 17.

and hence 2 2 ~ g1 r ˆ g2 r. We may therefore de®ne a function r: GaN 3 GL (n.3 Theorem Assume that N v G. r r ( g P G)X ( g P G) . g2 P G and Ng1 ˆ Ng2 then g1 gÀ1 P N. so ( g1 gÀ1 )r ˆ I. ÷ ÷ so N < Ker ÷. ÷ 17. if k P N then ÷ ÷(k) ˆ ~(Nk) ˆ ~(N ) ˆ ÷(1). The function r: G 3 GL (n. j 17. we obtain a bijective correspondence between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters ÷ of G which satisfy N < Ker ÷. C) is a representation of G with character ÷. then ÷ ~(N) ˆ ÷(1). If g 1 . Moreover. C). and ÷ is the lift of ~ to G. so ÷ and ~ have the same ÷ ÷ degree. Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. h P G we have ((Ng)(Nh))~ ˆ (Ngh)~ ˆ ( gh)r ˆ ( gr)(hr) r r ˆ ((Ng)~)((Nh)~). Irreducible characters of GaN correspond to irreducible characters of G which have N in their kernel. C) which is given by the ÷ composition g 3 Ng 3 (Ng)~ r ( g P G) is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. C) by (Ng)~ ˆ gr r Then for all g. then the character ÷ of G ÷ which is given by ÷( g) ˆ ~(Ng) ÷ is called the lift of ~ to G.2 De®nition If N v G and ~ is a character of GaN . ~ Proof If ÷ is a character of GaN . The character ÷ of r satis®es ÷( g) ˆ tr ( gr) ˆ tr ((Ng)~) ˆ ~(Ng) r ÷ for all g P G. Now let ÷ be a character of G with N < Ker ÷. ÷(1) ˆ ~(N).Normal subgroups and lifted characters 169 character ~. Also. By associating each character of GaN with its lift to G. Thus r is a representation of G.

U is a CG-submodule of C n if and only if U is a C(GaN )submodule of C n . so that N v G (see Example 12. (1 3)(2 4). and note that u( gr) P U for all u P U D u(Ng)~ P U for all u P U X r Thus. (1 4)(2 3)g. so GaN  D6 .3(1) that the character table of GaN is N ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 2 N (1 2) 1 À1 0 N(1 2 3) 1 1 À1 . If ~ is the character of r then ÷ ~(Ng) ˆ ÷( g) ( g P G)X ÷ ~ Thus ÷ is the lift of ÷. ÷ j If we know the character table of GaN for some normal subgroup N of G.170 Representations and characters of groups ~ ~ so r is a representation of GaN . The representation r is therefore irreducible if and ~ only if the representation r is irreducible. then Theorem 17.20). bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 .3 enables us to write down as many irreducible characters of G as there are irreducible characters of GaN . We have now established that the function which sends each character of GaN to its lift to G is a bijection between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters of G which have N in their kernel. Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ~ is irreducible. To see this. We know from Example 16. let U be a subspace of C n .4 Example Let G ˆ S4 and N ˆ V4 ˆ f1. 17. (1 2)(3 4). bi and a3 ˆ b2 ˆ N . It remains to show that irreducible characters correspond to irreducible characters. If we put a ˆ N(1 2 3) and b ˆ N(1 2) then GaN ˆ ha.

Recall that we can easily locate the kernel of an irreducible character ÷ from the character table. ~2 . Finding normal subgroups The character table contains accessible information about the structure of a group. ÷ s of G such that Nˆ s ’ iˆ1 Ker ÷ i X Proof If g belongs to the kernel of each irreducible character of G. Of course. since Ker ÷ ˆ f g P G: ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1)g (see De®nition 13. which are given by ÷ ÷ ÷ 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 171 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 Then ÷1 . X X X .Normal subgroups and lifted characters To calculate the lift ÷ of a character ~ of GaN . ÷2 . Also Ker ÷ v G. The following proposition shows that every normal subgroup arises in this way. so g ˆ 1 by Proposition 15.5. ÷3 are irreducible characters of G.13). 17. ÷ ÷((1 2 3 4)) ˆ ~(N (1 3)) since N (1 2 3 4) ˆ N (1 3)X ÷ Hence the lifts of ~1 . as our next two propositions will demonstrate. once the character table of G is known. then ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1) for all characters ÷.5 Proposition If N v G then there exist irreducible characters ÷1 . First we shall show how to ®nd all the normal subgroups of G. ~3 are ÷1 . ~3 are ÷ ÷ ÷ irreducible characters of GaN . ~2 . . since ~1 . ÷2 . we note that ÷ ÷((1 2)(3 4)) ˆ ~(N ) since (1 2)(3 4) P N . Hence the intersection of the kernels of all the irreducible characters of G is {1}. any subgroup which is the intersection of the kernels of irreducible characters is a normal subgroup too. ÷3 .

Then g P Ker ÷. We shall show how to ®nd all linear characters of any group G. then Ker ÷ ˆ Ker r by Theorem 13.172 Representations and characters of groups Now let ~1 . Proof Suppose there is a non-trivial irreducible character ÷ such that ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1) for some non-identity element g.5. Then by Proposition 17. and so G is not simple. ~ s be the irreducible characters of GaN . and so g P N. and some nonidentity element g of G. let ÷ i be the lift to G of ~ i . we have ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1).11(2). j Linear characters Recall that a linear character of a group is a character of degree 1. . so Ker ÷ Tˆ {1}. Therefore if g P Ker ÷ i then Ng P Ker ~ i ˆ ÷ ÷ {N}. so that there is a normal subgroup N of G with N Tˆ {1} and N Tˆ G. Since ÷ is non-trivial and irreducible. Ker r Tˆ G. By the ÷ ÷ above observation. since the . If r is a representation of G with character ÷. s ’ iˆ1 Ker ~ i ˆ fN gX ÷ For 1 < i < s. . ÷ ÷ „ „ and so Ng P Ker ~ i. Conversely. ÷ is non-trivial.6 Proposition The group G is not simple if and only if ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1) for some non-trivial irreducible character ÷ of G. As Ker ÷ Tˆ G. Hence Nˆ s ’ iˆ1 Ker ÷ i X j It is particularly easy to tell from the character table of G whether or not G is simple: 17. . there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that Ker ÷ is not {1} or G. hence Ker ÷ Tˆ G. and taking 1 Tˆ g P Ker ÷. . suppose that G is not simple. Thus Ker ÷ is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to {1} of G. If g P Ker ÷ i then ÷ ~ i (N ) ˆ ÷ i (1) ˆ ÷ i ( g) ˆ ~ i (Ng).

so G9 < A3 . One step is provided by the following proposition.7 De®nition For a group G. We are going to show that G9 v G and that the linear characters of G are the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. then G9 < Ker ÷. so G9 ˆ {1}. (2) Let G ˆ S3 . we explore some group-theoretic properties of the derived subgroup. h P G. h P G. . j Next. h] is always an even permutation. Clearly [ g. h P G)X Then G9 is called the derived subgroup of G. Therefore. which is de®ned in the following way. 17. Hence G9 ˆ h(1 2 3)i ˆ A3 . ÷( g À1 hÀ1 gh) ˆ ÷( g)À1 ÷(h)À1 ÷( g)÷(h) ˆ 1X Hence G9 < Ker ÷. If g ˆ (1 2) and h ˆ (2 3) then [ g. h P GiX 17. Then ÷ is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers. it is necessary to determine the derived subgroup of G. 17.9 Proposition If ÷ is a linear character of G. We abbreviate gÀ1 hÀ1 gh as [ g.8 Examples (1) If G is abelian then [ g. Proof Let ÷ be a linear character of G. h]. As a preliminary step.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 173 ®rst move in constructing the character table of G is often to write down the linear characters. h] ˆ (1 2 3). Thus G9 ˆ h[ g. let G9 be the subgroup of G which is generated by all elements of the form g À1 hÀ1 gh ( g. for all g. h] ˆ 1 for all g. h]: g.

. we have x À1 (ab)x ˆ (x À1 ax)(x À1 bx). In particular. all of degree 1. . (1) G9 v G. the number of distinct linear characters of G is equal to jGaG9j. ÷ ÷ The lifts ÷1 . h]x ˆ x À1 g À1 hÀ1 ghx ˆ (x À1 gx)À1 (x À1 hx)À1 (x À1 gx)(x À1 hx) ˆ [x À1 gx. GaG9 is abelian. We have ghgÀ1 hÀ1 P N D Ngh ˆ Nhg D (Ng)(Nh) ˆ (Nh)(Ng)X Hence G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. h]x P G9 for all g. (2) G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. Therefore.3 they are precisely the irreducible characters ÷ of G . 17. b. Since we have proved that G9 v G. and by Theorem 17. ~ m . and so divides |G|. x P G. h. . h P G. j It follows from Proposition 17. . to prove that G9 v G it is suf®cient by the ®rst sentence to prove that x À1 [ g. Proof Let m ˆ jGaG9j. x P G.8 shows that GaG9 has exactly m irreducible characters ~1 . . Since GaG9 is abelian. Theorem 9.11 Theorem The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. But x À1 [ g. . ÷ m of these characters to G also have degree 1. x À1 hx]X Therefore G9 v G. h] and their inverses. and x À1 aÀ1 x ˆ (x À1 ax)À1 X Now G9 consists of products of elements of the form [ g. we can obtain the linear characters of G by applying the next theorem. we deduce that GaG9 is abelian.174 Representations and characters of groups 17. Proof (1) Note that for all a.10 Proposition Assume that N v G. In particular. . Given the derived subgroup G9. (2) Let g. .10 that G9 is the smallest normal subgroup of G with abelian factor group.

11. . ÷ m are therefore all the linear characters of G. But every product of two transpositions is equal to the identity. where ÷ ÷ n ~1 (An (1 2)) ˆ 1. 17. ÷ ~2 (An (1 2)) ˆ À1X ÷ Therefore by Theorem 17. From the last example. Since Sn aS9 ˆ fAn . We proved that S9 ˆ A3 in Example 3 17. 2). ÷2 .8(2).Normal subgroups and lifted characters 175 such that G9 < Ker ÷. j 17. If g ˆ (1 2). S n has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . all the elements in (1 2 3) G and (1 4)(2 3) G belong to G9. if g P An . the group n n S n aS9 has two linear characters ~1 and ~2. h ˆ (2 3) and k ˆ (1 2)(3 4). An (1 2)g  C2 . we have G9 < A n by Proposition 17. if g P An X a À1. Therefore. We shall show that G9 ˆ An . which are given by ÷1 ˆ 1 Sn .13 Example We ®nd the linear characters of S n (n > 2). Not only are the linear characters of G important in being irreducible characters.9. G9 contains all 3-cycles and all elements of cycle-shape (2. a 3-cycle or an element of cycle-shape (2. we know that S9 ˆ An . and A n consists of permutations. as the next result shows. the characters ÷1 . Therefore A n < G9. . [h.15. k] ˆ (1 4)(2 3)X Since G9 v G.12 Example Let G ˆ S n . We have now proved that G9 ˆ A n . h] ˆ (1 2 3). so we assume that n > 4. 2). . . If n ˆ 1 or 2 then S n is abelian. each of which is the product of an even number of transpositions. then [ g. @ ÷2 ( g) ˆ 1. by Theorem 12. In view of Proposition 17.10(2). As S n aA n  C2 . so G9 ˆ {1} ˆ A n . . but they can also be used to construct new irreducible characters from old.

Since r and ë are homomorphisms it follows easily that rë is a homomorphism. The character of G which corresponds to the character ~ ÷ of GaN is the lift of ~. Characters of GaN correspond to characters ÷ of G for which N < Ker ÷.20. Moreover. Hence rë is a representation of G with character ÷ë. if ÷ is irreducible. then so is ÷ë. Summary of Chapter 17 1.14 Proposition Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and ë is a linear character of G. and is given by ÷( g) ˆ ~(Ng) ( g P G). which is ë( g)÷( g). C) by g(rë) ˆ ë( g)( gr) ( g P G)X Thus g(rë) is the matrix gr multiplied by the complex number ë( g). The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. The matrix g(rë) has trace ë( g) tr ( gr). de®ned by ÷ë( g) ˆ ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G) is a character of G. 3. so ë( g)ë( g) ˆ 1.176 Representations and characters of groups 17. Proof Let r: G 3 GL (n. Now for all g P G. j The general case of a product of two characters will be discussed in Chapter 19. De®ne rë: G 3 GL (n. Then the product ÷ë. ÷ ÷ 2. . ÷ëi ˆ ÷( g)ë( g)÷( g)ë( g) jGj gPG ˆ 1 ˆ ÷( g)÷( g) ˆ h÷. The normal subgroups of G can be found from the character table of G. Therefore 1 ˆ h÷ë. C) be a representation with character ÷. ÷iX jGj gPG By Theorem 14. the complex number ë( g) is a root of unity. it follows that ÷ë is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible.

. b ˆ (2 3 5)(4 7 6)X Let G ˆ ka.3(3)). (b) Find the conjugacy classes of G. b: a4 ˆ 1. ö with values as follows: g1 ÷ ö 1 2 g2 Ài 0 g3 i 0 g4 1 À1 g5 À1 À1 g6 À1 2 Use Proposition 17. (c) Complete the character table of G. (c) Find the character table of G. bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 X (a) Show that G has order 21. a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b. and construct all the linear characters of G. bl.3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a. Check that a7 ˆ b3 ˆ 1.14 to complete the character table of G. with representatives g1 . . 4 or 12 linear characters. g6 (where g1 ˆ 1). What are the sizes of the conjugacy classes of G? 5.Normal subgroups and lifted characters Exercises for Chapter 17 177 1. Let a and b be the following permutations in S7 : a ˆ (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). and hence cannot be simple. Show that every group of order 12 has 3. (b) Find G9. b2 ˆ a2 . 3. (a) Find the ®ve conjugacy classes of G. . Let G ˆ Q8 ˆ ka. a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab. 4. 2. Compare your table with the character table of D8 (Example 16. The character table of D8 is as shown (see Example 16. . a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 . and has irreducible characters ÷. A certain group G of order 12 has precisely six conjugacy classes. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l.

then there is a representation of U6n over C which sends     0 å ù 0 X a3 . then there is a representation of V8 n over C which sends     å 0 0 1 X a3 . b: a2 n ˆ 1.178 Representations and characters of groups Express each normal subgroup of D8 as an intersection of kernels of irreducible characters. aÀ1 ba ˆ bÀ1 i has order 6n. (a) Show that if å is any nth root of unity in C. Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i has order 4n. as in Proposition 17. then there is a representation of T4 n over C which sends     å 0 0 1 a3 .b3 0 Àå À1 À1 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of V8 n . You are given that the group T4 n ˆ ha.) (a) Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C.5. (It is known as a dicyclic group. bÀ1 a ˆ aÀ1 bi has order 8n. Let n be an odd positive integer. The group V8 n ˆ ha. For n > 1. ba ˆ aÀ1 bÀ1 . b: a2 n ˆ b4 ˆ 1. 8. an ˆ b2 . the group U6 n ˆ ha. b: a2 n ˆ b3 ˆ 1. (a) Let ù ˆ e2ðia3 . 7. 6.b3 å 0 0 ù2 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of U6 n.b3 X 0 å À1 ån 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of T4 n. .

and all dihedral groups. The values of ÷2 .14. the product ÷4 ÷2 is also a character of S4 .1 The group S4 In Example 17. ÷4 and ÷4 ÷2 are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷2 ÷4 ÷4 ÷2 1 24 1 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 1 Note that h÷4 . to complete the character table of S4 . ÷2 . ÷4 i ˆ 9 1 1 1 ‡ ‡ ‡ ˆ 1. Let ÷4 be the character ÷4 ( g) ˆ jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P S4 ) which is given in Proposition 13. which deals with the product of a character with a linear character. 18. We shall now use Proposition 17.18 Some elementary character tables We now illustrate the techniques we have presented so far by constructing the character tables of several groups. 24 4 8 4 179 .4.24. ÷3 of S4 by lifting characters of the factor group S4 aV4 .14. we produced three irreducible characters ÷1 . By Proposition 17. including the groups S4 and A4 .

and G has four conjugacy classes. there must be exactly three linear characters of G. so that í( g) ˆ |®x ( g)| À 1 for all g P A4 .11. and the sum of the squares of their degrees is 12.2 The group A4 Let G ˆ A4 . Since G has four irreducible characters.180 Representations and characters of groups so ÷4 is irreducible. the alternating group of degree 4. The values of í are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| í 1 12 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 (1 3 2) 3 0 Note that hí. Character table of S4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 18. It is not dif®cult to con®rm this by showing that .18(1)). The character ÷4 ÷2 is also irreducible. Then |G| ˆ 12. íi ˆ 9 1 ‡ ˆ 1.14. 12 4 so í is an irreducible character of G of degree 3. as shown. (1 3 2) (see Example 12. (1 2 3). Since S4 has ®ve conjugacy classes. Thus jGaG9j ˆ 3 by Theorem 17.24. either by using the same calculation or by quoting the result of Proposition 17. and we have produced ®ve irreducible characters. with representatives 1. Let ÷5 ˆ ÷4 ÷2 . (1 2)(3 4). we have now found the complete character table of S4 . Let í be the character of A4 given by Proposition 13.

(1 3)(2 4). b: an ˆ b2 ˆ 1. G9(1 2 3). and the character table of GaG9 is G9 ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 1 G9(1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 G9(1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù ~ ÷ ÷ (where ù ˆ e2ðia3 ).3 The dihedral groups Let G be the dihedral group D2 n of order 2n. with n > 3. (1 4)(2 3)gX 181 Now GaG9 ˆ fG9. Bj ˆ X 1 0 0 åÀ j Check that A n ˆ B2 ˆ I. For each integer j with 1 < j . C) by (ar bs )r j ˆ (Aj ) r (Bj ) s (r. ~3 to G. s P Z). G9(1 3 2)g  C3. together with the character ÷4 ˆ í.Some elementary character tables G9 ˆ V4 ˆ f1. Write å ˆ e2ðia n . BÀ1 Aj Bj ˆ AÀ1 X j j j j It follows that by de®ning r j : G 3 GL(2. na2. The lifts of ÷1 . . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 iX We shall derive the character table of G. de®ne  j    0 1 å 0 Aj ˆ . give the complete character table of A4 : Character table of A4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 18. na2. (1 2)(3 4). we obtain a representation r j of G for each j with 1 < j . ~2 . so that G ˆ ha.

fas b: 0 < s < n À 1gX Thus there are (n ‡ 3)a2 conjugacy classes.) The character table of D2 n (n odd) is therefore as follows (where å ˆ e2ðia n ): gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 øj (1 < j < (n À 1)/2) 1 2n 1 1 2 ar (1 < r < (n À 1)/2) n 1 1 ‡ å À jr b 2 1 À1 0 å jr . na2 and 1 < j .4. there are two more to be found. X X X . aÀ r g(1 < r < (n À 1)a2). At this point it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. Let ø j be the character of r j . The (n À 1)a2 irreducible characters ø1 . ÷2 of G by lifting the irreducible characters of Gahai to G.11. As G has (n ‡ 3)/2 irreducible characters in all. We have now constructed distinct irreducible characters ø j of G. ÷2 ( g) ˆ À1 if g ˆ ar b for some rX We have now found all the irreducible characters of D2 n (n odd). (Incidentally. far . we have proved that D9 n ˆ kal for n odd. then å i Tˆ å j and å i Tˆ å À j . in view of 2 Theorem 17. and so r i and r j are not equivalent. ø2 . so ar i and ar j have different eigenvalues. ø( nÀ1)a2 each have degree 2. These characters ÷1 and ÷2 are given by ÷1 ˆ 1 G and & 1 if g ˆ ar for some r.5(2) or by applying the result of Exercise 8. na2. one for each j which satis®es 1 < j . Therefore there is no matrix T with ar i ˆ T À1 (ar j )T. Since kal v G and Gahai  C2. na2. If i and j are distinct integers with 1 < i . we obtain two linear characters ÷1 .182 Representations and characters of groups Each r j is an irreducible representation. Case 1: n odd By (12.11) the conjugacy classes of D2 n (n odd) are f1g. either by the proof of Example 5.

they are easy to calculate. ha2 ib. as supplied by (12. ÷2 . X X X .12). ha2 iabg  C2 3 C2 X Therefore G has four linear characters ÷1 . Since these linear characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of G/ka2 l. then the conjugacy classes of D2 n. ø2 . we ®rst note that ha2 i ˆ fa j : j eveng is a normal subgroup of G and Gaha2 i ˆ fha2 i. ha2 ia.Some elementary character tables 183 Case 2: n even If n is even. far . ÷4 (and G9 ˆ ka2 l).4 Another group of order 12 We shall now describe a non-abelian group G of order 12 which is not isomorphic to either A4 or D12. and their values appear in the following complete character table of D2 n (n even. n ˆ 2m. and we shall construct the character table of G. ø mÀ1 X To ®nd the remaining four irreducible characters. ÷3 . å ˆ e2ðia n ). fam g. of which m À 1 are given by ø1 . are f1g. aÀ r g(1 < r < m À 1). fas b: s oddgX Hence G has m ‡ 3 irreducible characters. say n ˆ 2m. fas b: s eveng. It is in fact known that every non-abelian group of order . gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (1 < j < m À 1) 1 2n 1 1 1 1 2 am 2n 1 1 (À1) m (À1) m 2(À1) j a r (1 < r < m À 1) n 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r jr å ‡ å À jr b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 18.

and so |G| ˆ 12. aÀ2 } {b. a3 b. a2 .184 Representations and characters of groups 12 is isomorphic to A4 . CG (b) ˆ f1. a4 b} {ab. but we shall not prove this result here. ÷2 . Let a and b be the following permutations in S12 : a ˆ (1 2 3 4 5 6)(7 8 9 10 11 12). Since a has order 6 and b P kal. a3 bgX These. ÷4 of G given below: . a4 } v G. namely ar . ar b (0 < r < 5)X Check that a and b satisfy a6 ˆ 1. bl. help us to ®nd the conjugacy classes of G. a5 b} Representative gi 1 a3 a a2 b ab |CG ( gi )| 12 12 6 6 4 4 Therefore G has six irreducible characters. b ˆ (1 7 4 10)(2 12 5 9)(3 11 6 8). bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 X It follows from these relations that every element of G has the form ar bs with 0 < r < 5. b. The relations further imply that CG (a) ˆ hai. a3 . and similar facts. and let G ˆ ka. and Gaha2 i ˆ fha2 i. a the group G has at least 12 elements. ÷3 . we have Gaha2 i  C4 . a3 ˆ b2 . which are tabulated below: Conjugacy class {1} {a3 } {a. we obtain the linear characters ÷1 . a subgroup of S12 . ha2 ib. 0 < s < 1 as given above. By lifting the irreducible characters of C4 to G. a2 b. Observe that ka2 l ˆ {1. CG (a3 ) ˆ G. ha2 ia. ha2 iabgX Since ka2 la ˆ ka2 lb2 . aÀ1 } {a2 . D12 or G.

Explicitly: r ˆ 3: r ˆ 4: r ˆ 5: r ˆ 6: 2á3 ‡ 2â3 ˆ 0. 1 1 4 ‡ á2 ‡ â2 ˆ 12. also a3 is an element of order 2. so á2 and â2 are integers by Corollary 13. the ®rst equation gives á1 ˆ â1 ˆ 2. The other two equations then imply that á2 ˆ Àâ2 ˆ Æ2. ÷6 . 2á6 ‡ 2â6 ˆ 0. Since we have not yet distinguished between ÷5 and ÷6 . 2á5 ‡ 2â5 ˆ 0. 4 ‡ 2á3 À 2â3 ˆ 0. 2. For this. so they are positive integers. ÷6 . we shall use the column orthogonality relations. 2á6 À 2â6 ˆ 0X .4(2).10. â1 are positive integers. 4 ‡ 2á4 ‡ 2â4 ˆ 0. the column orthogonality relations 6 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 1 ) ˆ 0 and 6 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 2 ) ˆ 0 now give us two equations involving 2á r ‡ 2â r and 2á r À 2â r . 2á4 À 2â4 ˆ 0. â1 are the degrees of ÷5 . â r taken by the last two irreducible characters ÷5 . so we can solve them for á r and â r . 2á5 À 2â5 ˆ 0. we have 4 ‡ á2 ‡ â2 ˆ 12. we may take á2 ˆ 2 and â2 ˆ À2. By the column orthogonality relations applied to columns 1 and 2. Observe that á1 .Some elementary character tables gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 á1 â1 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 á2 â2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 á3 â3 a2 6 1 1 1 1 á4 â4 b 4 1 i À1 Ài á5 â5 185 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i á6 â6 It remains to ®nd the values á r . For r . respectively. 2 2 á1 á2 ‡ â1 â2 ˆ 0X Since á1 . Theorem 16.

It is instructive to note that we produced the last two irreducible characters of G by simply using the orthogonality relations. Section 18.) Summary of Chapter 18 In this chapter we gave the character tables of various groups. á6 ˆ 0.2: the group A4 . 2. (In fact. Section 18. Section 18. it is not hard to construct the representations of the above group G with characters ÷5 and ÷6 ± see Exercise 17. 3. This is typical of more advanced calculations.1: the group S4 . â5 ˆ 0.186 Hence Representations and characters of groups á3 ˆ À1. â3 ˆ 1. 1. â6 ˆ 0X The complete character table of G is therefore as follows: gi CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 We can deduce that G is not isomorphic to A4 or D12 from the fact that the character table of G is different from those of A4 and D12. á5 ˆ 0.3: the dihedral groups. â4 ˆ À1. and illustrates the fact that it is usually much easier to construct an irreducible character of a group than to obtain an irreducible representation. without constructing the corresponding CG-modules. as follows. . á4 ˆ À1.6.

1(3). bÀ1 a ˆ aÀ1 bi. (Hint: use the result of Exercise 17. Regard D8 as a subgroup of S4 permuting the four corners of a square. Find the character table of G. Use the character table to ®nd seven distinct normal subgroups of D12. 2. Let ð be the corresponding permutation character of D8.6. . Write down explicitly the character table of D12. an ˆ b2 .6. and express ð as a sum of irreducible characters. as in Example 1. b: a2n ˆ b3 ˆ 1. b: a2n ˆ b4 ˆ 1. ba ˆ aÀ1 bÀ1 . aÀ1 ba ˆ bÀ1 l.) 3. It is a good idea to do the cases n odd and n even separately. Find the character table of G. Find the values of ð on the elements of D8. Let G ˆ V8 n ˆ ha.) 4. with n odd. (Hint: use Proposition 17. as in Exercise 17. as in Exercise 17. as in Exercise 17. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i. b: a2 n ˆ 1.7. Let G ˆ T 4n ˆ ha.Some elementary character tables Exercises for Chapter 18 187 1. Let G ˆ U6 n ˆ ka. 5.5. and show that all its entries are integers.8. Find the character table of G.

. respectively. we apply tensor products in a different way. ÷ 2 . The plan is to take CG-modules V and W with characters ÷ and ø respectively. given those of G and H. . . ÷ 4 . wn . Tensor product spaces Let V and W be vector spaces over C with bases v1 . Potentially. we have a chance of getting a large proportion of the character table of G from just one non-linear character ÷ of G. 1 < j < n.19 Tensor products The idea of multiplying a character of a group G by a linear character of G was introduced at the end of Chapter 17. . and more generally ÷ 3 . . The tensor product space V  W is de®ned to be the mn-dimensional vector space over C with a basis given by 188 . . We shall illustrate this by constructing the character tables of S5 and S6 . and by taking successive powers of ÷ we obtain arbitrarily many new characters. we introduce a symbol v i  wj. . v m and w1 . It is therefore straightforward to calculate the product. The value of the product ÷ø on an element g of G is simply ÷( g)ø( g). and it can be extended to include the product of any pair of characters ÷ and ø. to ®nd all the irreducible characters of a direct product G 3 H. products of characters provide a very good source of new characters from given ones. j with 1 < i < m. which has character ÷ø. so we consider the character ÷ 2 . called the tensor product of V and W. If ÷ is not linear. increase. but a little ingenuity is required in order to justify the conclusion that the product ÷ø is a character of G. and so on. and to put them together to form a new CG-module. At the end of the chapter. then. For each i. X X X . then the degrees of ÷. and indeed. An important special case of the product ÷ø occurs when ÷ ˆ ø.

j ˆ ˆ i. . . 19. 1 < j < ngX Thus V  W consists of all expressions of the form ˆ ë ij (v i  wj ) (ë ij P C)X €m For v P V and w P W with v ˆ iˆ1 ë i v i and (ë i . j i. yb P W. it is impossible to express v1  w1 ‡ v2  w2 in the form v  w. Then jˆ1 2 3 2 3 ˆ ˆ ˆ v  (ëw) ˆ ëi vi  ëì j w j ˆ ëë i ì j (v i  wj ). . i j i. ì j P C). j (ëv)  w ˆ 2 ˆ i 3 ëë i v i  2ˆ j 3 ì jw j ˆ i. . j 189 wˆ €n jˆ1 ì j wj For example. ë(v  w) ˆ ë ˆ i. .1 Proposition (1) If v P V. j €m € Proof (1) Let v ˆ iˆ1 ë i v i and w ˆ n ì j w j. For instance. w P W and ë P C. we de®ne v  w P V  W by ˆ vwˆ ë i ì j (v i  wj )X i. then 2 a 3 H b I ˆ ˆ ˆ xi  d yj e ˆ xi  yj X iˆ1 jˆ1 i. . xa P V and y1. (2v1 À v2 )  (w1 ‡ w2 ) ˆ 2v1  w1 ‡ 2v1  w2 À v2  w1 À v2  w2 X Do not be misled by the notation into believing that every element of V  W has the form v  w. because this is not the case. j ë i ì j (v i  wj ) ˆ ëë i ì j (v i  wj )X . . then v  (ëw) ˆ (ëv)  w ˆ ë(v  w)X (2) If x1 .Tensor products fv i  wj : 1 < i < m. j ëë i ì j (v i  wj ). .

j Our construction of V  W depended upon choosing a basis of V and a basis of W at the beginning.1. 1 < j < n) are a basis of the mn elements ek  fl (1 < k < m. Tensor product modules We have introduced the tensor product of two vector spaces. the next proposition shows that other bases of V and W work equally well. . Let G be a ®nite group and let V and W be CG-modules with bases v1 . 1 < j < ng give a basis of V  W. em is a basis of V and f1 . so we are now in a position to de®ne the tensor product of two CG-modules. The multiplication of v i  wj by an element of . 1 < l < n) V  W has dimension mn. 19. X X X . wj ˆ n ˆ lˆ1 ì jl f l (ë ik . . it follows that the also a basis of V  W. . . then the elements in fei  f j : 1 < i < m. Since elements ek  fl are v i  wj (1 < i < m. respectively. . . we have ˆ v i  wj ˆ ë ik ì jl (ek  f l )X k. The proof of part (2) is equally straightforward.2 Proposition If e1 . . fn is a basis of W. . and we leave it as an exercise. and hence span V  W. . v m and w1 . Proof Write vi ˆ m ˆ kˆ1 ë ik ek . w n. . . l Now the elements V  W .190 Representations and characters of groups Therefore v  (ëw) ˆ (ëv)  w ˆ ë(v  w). We know that the elements v i  wj (1 < i < m. ì jl P C)X Then by Proposition 19. 1 < j < n) give a basis of V  W. .

For example. consider what happens when r is a scalar multiple of g.3 De®nition Let g P G. which is then extended linearly to a multiplication on the whole of V  W. j for arbitrary complex numbers ë ij .3. 19. let 2ˆ 3 ˆ ë ij (v i  wj ) g ˆ ë ij (v i g  wj g) i. makes the vector space V  W into a CGmodule. Then jˆ1 2ˆ 3 (v  w) g ˆ ë i ì j (v i  wj ) g by Proposition 19X1 iˆ1 i. . more generally. j ë i ì j (v i g  wj g) 3 ëivi g  2ˆ j j ˆ i 3 ì j wj g by Proposition 19X1 ˆ v g  wgX You should be warned that (v  w)r Tˆ vr  wr for most elements r in CG. j. 19. j €m ˆ ˆ ˆ 2 i.4 Proposition For all v P V. we have (v  w) g ˆ v g  wgX Proof Let v ˆ € ë i v i and w ˆ n ì j wj.5 Proposition The rule for multiplying an element of V  W by an element of G. j i. w P W and all g P G. de®ne (v i  wj ) g ˆ v i g  w j g and. For all i. 19.Tensor products 191 G is de®ned in the following simple way. given in De®nition 19.

em of V and a basis f1 .11 we can choose a basis e1 .192 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let 1 < i < m. (ei  f j ) g ˆ ei g  f j g ˆ ë i ì j (ei  f j ). j Therefore all the conditions of Proposition 4. . and g. j by Proposition 19X4 3 ˆ ë ij (v i  wj ) g ˆ ë ij ((v i  wj ) g)X i. . . Then (v i  wj ) g ˆ v i g  wj g P V  W . and 2ˆ i. and V  W is a CG-module.2. ø( g) ˆ ì jX Now for 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. 19. fn of W such that ei g ˆ ë i e i (1 < i < m) and f j g ˆ ì j f j m ˆ iˆ1 n ˆ jˆ1 (1 < j < n) for some complex numbers ë i . .6 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. . ì j . (v i  wj )( gh) ˆ v i ( gh)  wj ( gh) ˆ (v i g)h  (wj g)h ˆ (v i g  wj g)h ˆ ((v i  wj ) g)h. Then ÷( g) ˆ ë i . Hence. . 1 < j < n. j We now calculate the character of V  W.6 are ful®lled. where ÷ø( g) ˆ ÷( g)ø( g) for all g P GX Proof Let g P G. (v i  wj )1 ˆ v i  wj . these vectors ei  fj form a basis of V  W. Then the character of the CG-module V  W is the product character ÷ø. . h P G. and by Proposition 19. respectively. By Proposition 9. if ö is the character of V  W then . .

gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷4 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 6 9 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 We see that ÷3 ÷4 ˆ ÷4 ‡ ÷5 . .Tensor products 2 32 ˆ ˆ ˆ 3 ö( g) ˆ ëi ì j ˆ ëi ì j ˆ ÷( g)ø( g). i. 19. the product of ÷ with itself. We reproduce it here. More generally.1. where ÷ 2 ˆ ÷÷. An inductive proof using Corollary 19. as can be seen from Theorem 19.7 shows that if ÷ is a character of G then so is ÷ 2 . the powers of ÷ carry a lot of information about the whole character table of G. j 19. for every nonnegative integer n. Ker ˆ {1}). j i j 193 as required.7 shows that ÷ n is a character of G. When ÷ is a faithful character (that is.10 below. and ÷4 ÷4 ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 ‡ ÷5 X Powers of characters Corollary 19.7 Corollary The product of two characters of G is again a character of G. we de®ne ÷ n by ÷ n ( g) ˆ (÷( g)) n 0 for all g P GX Thus ÷ ˆ 1 G .8 Example The character table of S4 was given in Section 18. and calculate ÷3 ÷4 and ÷4 ÷4 .

we shall need the following result concerning the so-called `Vandermonde matrix'. Suppose that x1 . .9) If á1 . . xr are indeterminates. we must take x1 from the rÀ2 ®rst row of the matrix. so Ä ˆ 0. to obtain x1 x2 X X X x rÀ1 rÀ1 in the expansion of the determinant Ä. x rÀ1 in Ä is Æ1. (19. . We ®rst sketch a proof of this result. x2 from the second row.194 Representations and characters of groups In the course of the proof of Theorem 19. . Hence rÀ1 rÀ2 the coef®cient of x1 x2 . á r are distinct H 1 á1 f1 á 2 f Aˆf dX X 1 is invertible. . j complex numbers. then the matrix rÀ1 I á2 X X X á1 1 rÀ1 á2 X X X á2 g g 2 g X XXX X e á2 r XXX á rÀ1 r ár 3 (x2 À x3 ) X X X (x2 À xr ) F F F 3 (x rÀ1 À xr )X rÀ1 rÀ2 Now the coef®cient of x1 x2 X X Xx rÀ1 in this product is 1: for in the rÀ1 way we have displayed the product. . and consider H rÀ1 I 1 x1 x2 X X X x1 1 f 1 x x2 X X X x rÀ1 g 2 f g 2 2 Ä ˆ detf gX dX X X XXX X e 1 xr x2 r XXX x rÀ1 r If i Tˆ j and xi ˆ xj then two rows of the given matrix are equal. and so on. It follows that ‰ ÄˆÆ (xi À xj )X i. and so on. . x2 must come from all the factors in the rÀ1 rÀ2 second row. On the other hand. j . . . It follows that Ä is divisible by ‰ (xi À x j ) ˆ (x1 À x2 )(x1 À x3 ) X X X (x1 À xr ) i. . the term x1 must come from all rÀ2 the factors in the ®rst row.10.

19. and for 1 < i < r. For 1 < i < r. We must show that h÷ j . (2) Let G ˆ S4 . . . ÷ 1 . X X X . gPG i and note that â1 ˆ ø(1) Tˆ 0. and refer to Example 19. â r )X Now A is invertible by (19.8. let ˆ âi ˆ ø( g). øi. we know this already.11 Examples (1) If G Tˆ {1} and ÷ is the regular character of G.20). . Then ÷( g) takes four different values. h÷ j . hence bA Tˆ 0. and deduce that the matrix A is invertible since its determinant is non-zero.5. G1 ˆ {1}. as we wished to prove. We have seen that ÷ 2 ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 ‡ ÷5 . de®ne Gi ˆ f g P G: ÷( g) ˆ á i gX Take á1 ˆ ÷(1). øi Tˆ 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. Then every irreducible character of G is a constituent of one of the powers ÷ 0 .Tensor products 195 To obtain (19. As ÷ is faithful. Now let ø be an irreducible character of G. . øi Tˆ 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1.10 says that every irreducible character of G is a constituent of 1 G or ÷. . . Proof Let the r values taken by ÷ be á1 . and thus h÷ j . á r . we substitute á i for xi (1 < i < r). Then for all j > 0. ÷ rÀ1 .9).9).10 Theorem Let ÷ be a faithful character of G. and b Tˆ 0 since â1 Tˆ 0. and let b be the row vector which is given by b ˆ (â1 . Let ÷ ˆ ÷4 . and suppose that ÷( g) takes precisely r different values as g varies over all the elements of G. . øi ˆ r 1 ˆ 1 ˆ (÷( g)) j ø( g) ˆ (á i ) j â i X jGj gPG jGj iˆ1 Let A be the r 3 r matrix with ij-entry (á i ) jÀ1 . . But the ( j ‡ 1)th entry in the row vector bA is equal to jGjh÷ j . then ÷( g) takes just two different values (see Proposition 13. j 19. by Theorem 10. so Theorem 19. so that G1 ˆ Ker ÷.

. . ÷ 1 . in this case. ÷2 i ˆ 1X and we ®nd that Thus ÷ 0 . 2ˆ 3 ˆ ë ij (v i  v j ) T ˆ ë ij (v j  v i )X i. V  V ˆ S(V  V ) È A(V  V )X .10. w P V.196 Representations and characters of groups h÷ 3 . . ÷ 3 ) have between them as constituents all the irreducible characters ÷1 . Let v1 .10. 19. A(V  V ) ˆ fx P V  V : xT ˆ Àxg. v n be a basis of V. illustrating Theorem 19. . it is of some importance to be able to decompose powers of a character ÷ into sums of irreducible characters. This special case is particularly useful in ®nding irreducible characters.12 Proposition The subspaces S(V  V) and A(V  V) are CG-submodules of V  V. . j and extending linearly ± that is. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. they are eigenspaces of T). the module V  V has character ÷ 2 .6. it is easy to see that S(V  V) and A(V  V) are subspaces of V  V (indeed. ÷ 3 (indeed. Since T is linear. . j i. the square of ÷. The subspace S(V  V) is called the symmetric part of V  V. and the subspace A(V  V ) is known as the antisymmetric part of V  V. as we shall see. We are going to provide a method for decomposing ÷ 2 . ÷ 2 . . we have (v  w)T ˆ w  vX Hence T is independent of the choice of basis. Now de®ne subsets of V  V as follows: S(V  V ) ˆ fx P V  V : xT ˆ xg. Decomposing ÷ 2 In view of Theorem 19. By Proposition 19. ÷5 of G. just ÷ 2 . Also. and de®ne a linear transformation T: V  V 3 V  V by (v i  v j )T ˆ v j  v i for all i. j Check that for all v. .

(2) The vectors v i  v j À v j  v i (1 < i . 1 2(x ‡ xT ) P S(V  V ) and 1 2(x À xT ) P j V  V ˆ S(V  V ) È A(V  V )X Note that the symmetric part of V  V contains all vectors which have the form v  w ‡ w  v with v. The dimension of S(V  V ) is n(n ‡ 1)a2. 2ˆ 3 ˆ ë ij (v i  v j ) Tg ˆ ë ij (v j g  v i g) i. Thus S(V  V) and A(V  V) are CG-submodules of V  V. so x ˆ 0. and ( yg)T ˆ ( yT ) g ˆ À yg. The dimension of A(V  V ) is n(n À 1)a2.13 Proposition Let v1 . for all x P V we have x ˆ 1(x ‡ xT ) ‡ 1(x À xT )X 2 2 Since T 2 is the identity. (1) The vectors v i  v j ‡ v j  v i (1 < i < j < n) form a basis of S(V  V ).Tensor products Proof For all ë ij P C and g P G. . Hence. j i. A(V  V ). j < n) form a basis of A(V  V). . j 197 ˆ ˆ ˆ i. we have (xg)T ˆ (xT ) g ˆ xg. j Therefore T is a CG-homomorphism from V  V to itself. so xg P S(V  V) and yg P A(V  V). 19. for x P S(V  V). . Further. while the antisymmetric part of V  V contains all vectors of the form v  w À w  v. w P V. . If x P S(V  V) ’ A(V  V) then x ˆ xT ˆ Àx. v n be a basis of V. We now present bases of the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of V  V which consist of elements like these. Therefore. . y P A(V  V) and g P G. j ë ij (v i g  v j g)T 3 ë ij (v i  v j ) gT X 2ˆ i.

Hence dim S(V  V ) > n(n ‡ 1)a2. we have ÷ S ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) ‡ ÷( g 2 )). and ÷ A to be the character of the CG-module A(V  V ). ÷ 2 ˆ ÷ S ‡ ÷ A . j i i. j Hence ÷ A ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Also. i € i. By Proposition 19. j dim A(V  V ) > n(n À 1)a2X De®ne ÷ S to be the character of the CG-module S(V  V ). and hence from Proposition 19. which implies that ÷ S ( g) ˆ ÷ 2 ( g) À ÷ A ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) ‡ ÷( g 2 ))X 2 j . . Then (ei  ej À ej  ei ) g ˆ ë i ë j (ei  ej À ej  ei ). j < n) are linearly independent elements of A(V  V ). . and the vectors v i  v j À v j  v i (1 < i . By Proposition 19. . ˆ ÷ A ( g) ˆ ëi ë j X Now e i g ˆ € so ÷( g) ˆ i ë i and ÷( g2 ) ˆ i ë2 . dim S(V  V ) ‡ dim A(V  V ) ˆ dim V  V ˆ n2 X Hence the above inequalities are equalities.12.14 Proposition For g P G.12.13(2). en of V such that e i g ˆ ë i e i (1 < i < n) for some complex numbers ë i . . Therefore i ˆ 2 ˆ ÷ 2 ( g) ˆ (÷( g))2 ˆ ëi ‡ 2 ë i ë j ˆ ÷( g 2 ) ‡ 2÷ A ( g)X 2 ë2 ei. and the result follows. and 2 ÷ A ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Proof By Proposition 9.11 we can choose a basis e1 . 19. ÷2 ˆ ÷S ‡ ÷ AX The next result gives the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A .198 Representations and characters of groups Proof Clearly the vectors v i  v j ‡ v j  v i (1 < i < j < n) are linearly independent elements of S(V  V ).

conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders |CG ( gi )| as follows: gi Class size |CG ( gi )| 1 1 120 (1 2) 10 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 15 30 20 24 6 8 4 6 5 Thus G has exactly seven irreducible characters. then form ø S and ø A and repeat. and the values of ÷ S and ÷ A .13. The character table of G is given in Example 19. given by Proposition 19.15 Example Let G ˆ S4 .16 Example The character table of S5 Let G ˆ S5 . gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷S ÷A 1 24 3 6 3 (1 2) 4 1 2 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 À1 2 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 0 1 We ®nd that ÷ S ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 and ÷ A ˆ ÷5 .Tensor products 199 19. The techniques which we have developed so far give a useful method for ®nding new irreducible characters of a group. We illustrate this strategy with two examples. and use inner products to analyse ÷ S and ÷ A for new irreducible characters. G has conjugacy class representatives gi . The values of ÷.14. the symmetric group of degree 5.16(4). appear below. We have .8. (a) Linear characters By Example 17. The strategy is simple: (1) Given a character ÷. G9 ˆ A5 and G has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . form ÷ S and ÷ A . given one or two irreducible characters to start with. Let ÷ ˆ ÷4 . obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaG9. 19. By Example 12. ÷2 . (2) If ø is a new character found in (1).

20. if g is an even permutation.14 shows that ÷4 ˆ ÷3 ÷2 is also an irreducible character. ÷3 i ˆ ÷3 ( g) ˆ jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X 42 22 12 (À1)2 (À1)2 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ˆ 1X 120 12 6 6 5 Hence ÷3 is irreducible. and 1. Write ÷ ˆ ÷3 . By Proposition 19.14 the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷S ÷A 1 120 10 6 (1 2) 12 4 0 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 0 2 À2 0 0 1 0 0 1 Thus.24 gives us a character ÷3 (b) Permutation character of G with values Observe that h÷3 . Next. if g is an odd permutationX Proposition 13. À1. by Theorem 14. At this point we have the following portion of the character table of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 120 1 1 4 4 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 À1 (c) Tensor products We now use tensor products to construct the last three irreducible characters of G. .200 Representations and characters of groups & ÷2 ( g) ˆ ÷1 ˆ 1 G . Proposition 17.

Character table of S5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 120 1 1 4 4 6 5 5 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 À2 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 19. We have now found all seven irreducible characters of S5 . which we call ÷5 . For ease of printing. and 120 12 6 6 100 16 1 4 1 h÷ S . ÷ S ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ø. 120 8 5 201 and so ÷ A is a new irreducible character. ÷ A i ˆ 36 4 1 ‡ ‡ ˆ 1. Let ÷6 ˆ ø. Finally. 120 12 6 8 6 h÷ S . 10 4 1 2 1 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ˆ 1. Let G ˆ S6 . we then ®nd the last three irreducible characters by using the orthogonality relations. of order 720.Tensor products h÷ A . Using . ÷7 ˆ ÷6 ÷2 is a different irreducible character of degree 5. so that ÷6 ˆ ÷ S À ÷1 À ÷3 . The character table of S5 is as shown.17 Example The character table of S6 In this example. ÷1 i ˆ Therefore. ÷3 i ˆ ‡ ‡ À ˆ 1. it is convenient to label each conjugacy class by the cycle-shape of its elements. we use techniques similar to those of the previous example to ®nd 8 of the 11 irreducible characters of the symmetric group S6 . Next. where ø is an irreducible character of degree 5. ÷ S i ˆ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ˆ 3. 120 12 6 8 6 40 8 1 1 h÷ S .

(b) Permutation character and tensor products is given by ÷3 ( g) ˆ jfix ( g)j À 1 The function ÷3 which ÷1 ˆ 1 G . and we get exactly two linear characters ÷1 and ÷2 . it has 11 irreducible characters. 1. ÷1 i ˆ 1.24. h÷ S .3): Cycle-shape Class size |CG ( gi )| (1) (2) 1 15 720 48 (3) 40 18 (2. ÷3 i ˆ 1. ÷ S i ˆ 3X h÷ A .2) (3. (a) Linear characters As with all symmetric groups Sn (n > 2). ÷ A i ˆ 1. the derived subgroup is An .2) (3. if g is odd ( g P G) is a character of G.202 Representations and characters of groups this notation.3) (4.2. The values of ÷. Let ÷ ˆ ÷3 .2) (5) (2. ÷3 i ˆ 1. À1.2) (6) 120 144 15 40 90 120 6 5 48 18 8 6 Since G has 11 conjugacy classes. if g is even. .2) 16 1 3 À2 (4) 8 1 1 0 (3.3) (4. h÷ S .2) 45 16 (4) 90 8 (3.13). by Proposition 13.2) (6) 48 18 8 6 À1 3 À2 À1 0 1 À1 1 0 À1 0 1 We calculate that h÷3 . h÷ S .2) 6 0 1 À1 (5) 5 0 0 0 (2. where & ÷2 ( g) ˆ (see Example 17. ÷ S and ÷ A are as follows: Class |CG ( gi )| ÷ ˆ ÷3 ÷S ÷A (1) (2) 720 48 5 15 10 3 7 2 (3) 18 2 3 1 (2.2. the conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows (see Exercise 12.

so that we can guarantee that the solutions to the equations which we deal with are integers.Tensor products 203 Therefore ÷3 is irreducible. Ingeniously. where ÷7 is another irreducible character.16) that all the entries in the character tables of all symmetric groups are integers. ÷8 are recorded in the following portion of the character table of G. of degree 9. in the ordering which we have adopted. Finally. . . ÷10 and ÷11 . It will be shown later (Corollary 22. Also. Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 (2. Further. Thus the conjugacy classes of s and t correspond to the second and fourth columns of the character table. . The column orthogonality relations give 11 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i (s)2 ˆ 48X . we call the three irreducible characters of G which have yet to be found ÷9 . The irreducible characters ÷1 . respectively. so is ÷4 ˆ ÷3 ÷2 .3) (4.10 we know that ÷(s) and ÷(t) are integers for all characters ÷ of G. . It is therefore convenient ®rst to concentrate on elements of order 2. From Corollary 13.2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 (3. ÷8 ˆ ÷7 ÷2 is also irreducible.2) (6) 48 18 8 6 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 (c) Orthogonality relations We now use the column orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. Let s denote the permutation (1 2) and t denote the permutation (1 2)(3 4). ÷5 ˆ ÷ A is irreducible. ÷ S ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷7 .2.2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 (2. as is ÷6 ˆ ÷5 ÷2 .10).2) (3. but for the moment we know for certain only that ÷( g) is an integer if g2 ˆ 1 (see Corollary 13.

. without loss of generality. and is not equal to any of ÷1 . a ˆ b ˆ 5X . . . That is.2) d e f The column orthogonality relations give 11 ˆ iˆ1 11 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i (1)÷ i (s) ˆ 0. ÷ i (1)÷ i (t) ˆ 0. 0 is d ˆ e ˆ 1. Therefore. 0 and b . d À e ˆ 0. we see that ÷9 ÷2 is not ÷9 or ÷11 . . 10. d 2 ‡ e 2 ‡ f 2 ˆ 2. ÷10 (s) ˆ À1X The plan is now to ®nd ÷ i (1) and ÷ i (t) for i ˆ 9. b. ÷ i (t)÷ i (t) ˆ 16. f in the following portion of the character table: Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) a b c s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2. ad ‡ be ‡ cf ˆ 10X The only solution to these equations in integers with a . 11 ˆ iˆ1 11 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i (s)÷ i (t) ˆ 0. ÷11 (s)2 ˆ 0X Now ÷9 ÷2 is an irreducible character. d. whence a À b ˆ 0. 11. e. that ÷9 (s)2 ˆ ÷10 (s)2 ˆ 1. ÷8 . c. ÷9 ÷2 ˆ ÷10 X Once more. Moreover. since ÷9 ÷2 (s) ˆ À÷9 (s).204 Hence Representations and characters of groups ÷9 (s)2 ‡ ÷10 (s)2 ‡ ÷11 (s)2 ˆ 2X We can assume. f ˆ 0. we aim to evaluate the integers a. we lose no generality in assuming that ÷9 (s) ˆ 1.

given the character tables of G and H.3) (4.2) 48 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 À3 3 0 (3. Having done these calculations.2) (6) 18 8 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 2 2 À2 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 Direct products We conclude the chapter by showing that tensor products can be used to determine the character table of a direct product G 3 H. .Tensor products Finally. we ®nd that the complete character table of S6 is as shown.2) 1 1 0 We can now determine the three unknown entries in each further column. . v m . and let W be a . Let V be a CG-module. Character table of S6 Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 5 5 16 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 1 À1 0 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 À1 À1 À2 (2.2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 (2. since the column orthogonality relations will give three independent equations in these unknowns (as the above 3 3 3 matrix is invertible). we ®nd that c ˆ 16 by using the relation 11 ˆ iˆ1 205 ÷ i (1)2 ˆ 720X The above portion of the character table is therefore Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) 5 5 16 s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2.2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 1 1 0 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 0 (3. with basis v1 . . .2.

x P G and h.206 Representations and characters of groups C H-module. and all g P G. ÷ a be the distinct irreducible characters of G and let ø1 .5 shows that V  W is a C(G 3 H)-module. . Let ÷ be the character of V and ø be the character of W. For all i. . and these are ÷ i 3 ø j (1 < i < a. for all v P V. note that for all g. . ø l i H ˆ ä ik ä jl X (Here the subscripts G 3 H. y) ˆ (x À1 gx. . we have (x.4. w P W. de®ne (v i  wj )( g. . G and H indicate inner products of characters of G 3 H. we ®nd that (v  w)( g. where (÷ 3 ø)( g. h P H. h)(x. 1 < j < b)X Proof For all i. h÷ i 3 ø j . y À1 hy)X . . j. y)À1 ( g. ÷ k 3 ÷ l i G3 H ˆ ˆ 1 ÷ i ( g)ø j (h)÷ k ( g)ø l (h) jG 3 Hj gPG 2 ˆ 3 32 1 ˆ 1 ˆ ÷ i ( g)÷ k ( g) ø j (h)ø l (h) jGj gPG j Hj hP H hP H ˆ h÷ i . Then G 3 H has precisely ab distinct irreducible characters. . Then a proof similar to that of Proposition 19. h) ˆ ÷( g)ø(h) ( g P G. 2ˆ 3 ˆ ë ij (v i  wj ) ( g. that is. G and H. .6. l. h P H)X 19. .18 Theorem Let ÷1 . j i. ÷ k i G hø j . for ë ij P C. . . h) ˆ v i g  wj h and extend this de®nition linearly to the whole of V  W. ø b be the distinct irreducible characters of H.) Thus the ab characters ÷ i 3 ø j are distinct and irreducible. j with 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. k. h) ˆ v g  wh. Next. . with basis w1. h) ˆ ë ij (v i g  wj h)X i. By the proof of Proposition 19. wn. y P H. respectively. j As in Proposition 19. the character of V  W is ÷ 3 ø.

À1). By Theorem 15. À1) 12 4 6 12 4 6 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 . G 3 H has exactly ab irreducible characters. hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ø1 ø1 ø1 ø2 ø2 ø2 (1. ((1 2 3). ga are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G and h1 . h) and ( g9. (1. . ((1 2). We reproduce it here.3. 1). j 19.Tensor products 207 Hence elements ( g. Character table of S3 3 C2 ( gi .19 Example The character table of S3 3 C2 The character table of S3 ( D6 ) is given in Example 16. 1 < j < b) are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G 3 H. . À1) ((1 2). À1). then the elements ( g i . . hj ) (1 < i < a. À1) ((1 2 3). alongside the character table of C2 . hb are representatives of the conjugacy classes of H. 1). In particular. 1) (1. G 3 H has precisely ab conjugacy classes. so the irreducible characters ÷ i 3 ø j which we have found must be all the irreducible characters of G 3 H. hj ) |CG3 H ( g i .3(1). . ((1 2). and by Theorem 19. 1) ((1 2). ((1 2 3). the character table of S3 3 C2 is as shown. Consequently. . h9) of G 3 H are conjugate if and only if the elements g and g9 are conjugate in G and the elements h and h9 are conjugate in H. . 1). Character table of S3 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 Character table of C2 hi |CH (hi )| ø1 ø2 1 2 1 1 À1 2 1 À1 The conjugacy classes of S3 3 C2 are represented by (1. 1) ((1 2 3). À1). if g1 .18. . .

The values of ÷ 3 ø are given by (÷ 3 ø)( g. Show that there is some irreducible character ø of G such that k÷ n .) 4. 1 G i ˆ 0. 2. h P H. Exercises for Chapter 19 1. The product of any two characters of G is a character of G. where ÷ S ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) ‡ ÷( g 2 )). if ÷ ˆ ø. ø and ö be characters of the group G. Summary of Chapter 19 1. øl ˆ 0 for all integers n with n > 0. h) ˆ ÷( g)ø(h) for all g P G. Let ÷ be a character of G which is not faithful. h÷ø. Show that h÷ø.10. Prove that & 1.13 of the next chapter we shall show that there exist irreducible characters ÷ and ö of A5 which take the following values: . 2 ÷ A ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 )) 2 for all g P G. Let ÷. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ø is an irreducible character of H. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A .2. where we give the character table of D12 (Exercise 1. øöi ˆ hø.5 shows that D12  S3 3 C2 ). 3. if ÷ Tˆ øX 3. In Example 20. The irreducible characters of G 3 H are those characters ÷ 3 ø. ÷öiX 2. If ÷ is a character of G. Suppose that ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of G. öi ˆ h÷.208 Representations and characters of groups Compare the solution to Exercise 18. (This shows that the hypothesis that ÷ is faithful cannot be dropped from Theorem 19.

g7 . further. 5. . G has a character ÷ with values as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ g1 24 2 g2 24 À2 g3 4 0 g4 6 Àù2 g5 6 Àù g6 6 ù g7 6 ù2 where ù ˆ e2ðia3 . ®nd the character table of G. g2 . g2 . ÷ A . g2 are con1 2 3 4 5 6 7 jugate to g1 . g4 . . g5 . g2 . g2 . . g2 . By forming products of the irreducible characters found so far. Write down the character table of D6 3 D6. . respectively.Tensor products 1 ÷ ö 5 3 (1 2 3) À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) (1 ‡ 0 p 5)a2 (1 3 4 5 2) (1 À 0 p 5)a2 209 Calculate the values of ÷ S . . A certain group G or order 24 has precisely seven conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . g4 . g1 . . g5 . . ö S and ö A .13. 6. and show that both are irreducible. . Find ÷ S and ÷ A . Express these characters as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ø1 . g2 . . Moreover. ø5 of A5 which are given in Example 20. g2 .

Restriction Let H be a subgroup of the ®nite group G. We apply this result in the situation where H is of index 2 in G. we are going to look at ways of relating the representations of a group to the representations of its subgroups. v1 b ˆ v1 . h P H if they hold for all g. and Clifford's Theorem 20. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. and refer to it as the restriction of ÷ to H. As in Example 4. v2 b ˆ Àv2 X 210 . and illustrate its use. We write this character of H as ÷ 5 H. h P G. if f: G 3 C is any function. If V is a CG-module.1 Example Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka.8 gives important information in this case. when G ˆ S n and H ˆ A n . The character of V 5 H is obtained from the character ÷ of V by evaluating ÷ on the elements of H only. v2 a ˆ Àv1 .20 Restriction to a subgroup In this chapter and the next. then V is also a C H-module. This simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module is known as restricting from G to H. and call it the restriction of V to H. Then C H is a subset of CG. If V is a CG-module then we write the corresponding C H-module as V 5 H. 20. v2 for which v1 a ˆ v2 .5(1). More generally. then f 5 H denotes the restriction of f to H (so that ( f 5 H)(h) ˆ f (h) for all h P H).2 certainly hold for all g. The case where H is a normal subgroup of G is of particular interest. we introduce the elementary idea of restricting a CG-module to a subgroup H of G. let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . which occurs. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. since properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4. for example. Here.

2. v2 b ˆ Àv2 X and the character ÷ 5 H of V 5 H is given by h ÷(h) 1 2 a2 À2 b 0 a2 b 0 If V is a CG-module and H is a subgroup of G. if V 5 H is an irreducible C H-module then V is an irreducible CG-module. the character table of H is gi jC H ( g i )j ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 . Example 20. 2. b. However. then V 5 H is the C Hmodule with basis v1 . 20.Restriction to a subgroup 211 If H is the subgroup {1. v2 a2 ˆ Àv2 . 4} ®xing 5. then dim V ˆ dim (V 5 H). a2 b} of G.1 illustrates this fact. 3. On the other hand. then U 5 H is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. a2 . The character ÷ of V is given by g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 v1 b ˆ v1 . v2 for which v1 a2 ˆ Àv1 . By 18.2 Example Let G ˆ S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G consisting of all even permutations of {1. it might be the case that V is an irreducible CG-module while V 5 H is not an irreducible C H-module. for if U is a CG-submodule of V.

Thus. de®ned similarly. then 1 ˆ hW1 . ÷3 5 H ˆ ÷4 5 H and ÷6 5 H ˆ ÷7 5 HX Therefore we need only consider ÷1 5 H. These have values 1 ÷1 5 ÷3 5 ÷5 5 ÷6 5 H H H H 1 4 6 5 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 À2 1 (1 2 3) (1 3 2) 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 À1 It is easy to spot that ÷ 1 5 H ˆ ø1 . we introduce the following notation. jGj gPG . l H is the inner product on the vector space of functions from H to C. For each i with 1 < i < 7. with irreducible characters labelled ÷1 . and k . . ÷ 6 5 H ˆ ø2 ‡ ø 3 ‡ ø 4 X Constituents of a restricted character To help us discuss the way in which a restricted character ÷ 5 H can be expressed in terms of the irreducible characters of H. From Example 19.16 we see that ÷1 5 H ˆ ÷2 5 H. if W1 and W2 are functions from G to C. W2 i G ˆ W1 ( g)W2 ( g). The character table of G is given in Example 19. . . ÷ 3 5 H ˆ ø1 ‡ ø 4 . 20.16. l G is the inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C which we have de®ned earlier. we calculate the character ÷ i 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters ø j .3 De®nitions The inner product k .212 Representations and characters of groups (where ù ˆ e2ðia3 ). . ÷7 . ÷3 5 H. ÷5 5 H ˆ 2ø4 . ÷5 5 H and ÷6 5 H.

Restriction to a subgroup and if ö1 and ö2 are functions from H to C. ø i i H X We say that ø i is a constituent of ÷ 5 H if the coef®cient d i in the above expression is non-zero. . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. then by Theorem 14.4 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G and let ø be a non-zero character of H. . iˆ1 Now 0 Tˆ k ˆ jGj ø(1) ˆ h÷reg 5 H. øi H Tˆ 0X Proof Let ÷1 . . . Unfortunately.4. we could hope to ®nd the character table of the subgroup H by restricting the irreducible characters ÷ of G to H. In the light of Proposition 20.19 and Proposition 13. . øi H X j Hj iˆ1 j Therefore h÷ i 5 H. it may be very dif®cult in practice to write down the restrictions ÷ 5 H in terms of irreducible characters of H. Recall from Theorem 13. The best . The next proposition shows that every irreducible character of H is a constituent of the restriction of some irreducible character of G. 20. then 1 ˆ hö1 . øi H ˆ ÷ i (1)h÷ i 5 H. . . Suppose that we know the character table of G.20 that the regular character ÷reg of G satis®es & k ˆ jGj if g ˆ 1. . ÷reg ( g) ˆ and ÷reg ˆ ÷ i (1)÷ i X 0 if g Tˆ 1. ö2 i H ˆ ö1 (h)ö2 (h)X j Hj hP H 213 If ÷ is a character of G and ø1 . Then there exists an irreducible character ÷ of G such that h÷ 5 H. d r which are given by d i ˆ h÷ 5 H. ø r are the irreducible characters of the subgroup H of G. øi H Tˆ 0 for some i. ÷ 5 H ˆ d 1 ø1 ‡ X X X ‡ d r ø r for some non-negative integers d 1 . X X X .17.

Then ÷ 5 H ˆ d 1 ø1 ‡ X X X ‡ d r ø r . since the restrictions ÷ 5 H then do not have many constituents. j We can say more about the constituents of ÷ 5 H in the case where H is a normal subgroup of G.5 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. we have r ˆ iˆ1 d 2 ˆ h÷ 5 H. as the following result shows. where the non-negative integers d 1 . let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. The way to exploit the fact that H v G us revealed in the following proposition. and let ø1 . jGj iˆ1 i € where K ˆ (1ajGj) ga H ÷( g)÷( g)X Now K > 0. X X X . For example. we have equality in (20.6) if and only if ÷( g) ˆ 0 for all elements g of G which lie outside H. . 1 ˆ h÷. ÷ 5 Hi H ˆ i 1 ˆ ÷(h)÷(h)X j Hj hP H Also. F F F . d r satisfy (20X6) r ˆ iˆ1 d 2 < jG: HjX i Moreover. ÷i G ˆ ˆ ˆ 1 ˆ ÷( g)÷( g) jGj gPG 1 ˆ ÷(h)÷(h) ‡ K jGj hP H r j Hj ˆ 2 d ‡ K.214 Representations and characters of groups chance of doing this occurs when the index jG: Hj(ˆ jGjaj Hj) is small. and K ˆ 0 if and only P if ÷( g) ˆ 0 for all g with g P H. since ÷ is irreducible.17. Proof By Theorem 14. 20. we will see that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. ø r be the irreducible characters of H. The conclusions of the proposition a follow at once.

so dim U ˆ dim Ug. V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. Moreover. Ug is a subspace of V. u 3 ug (u P U) is an invertible linear transformation from U to Ug. WgÀ1 ˆ {0} or U. and (wgh)è ˆ (wh9 g)è ˆ (wh9ö) g ˆ (wö)h9 g ˆ (wö) gh ˆ (wgè)hX Therefore. (2) The sum of all the subspaces Ug with g P G is a CG-submodule of V. then WgÀ1 is a C H-submodule of U. Therefore. since U is irreducible. Then (1) The set Ug is an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H and dim Ug ˆ dim U . Suppose that h P H. whence W ˆ {0} or Ug. g2 . è is a C H-isomorphism. and since H v G we have ghgÀ1 P H for all h P H. Proof (1) Clearly. since V is irreducible. Then gh ˆ h9 g for some h9 P H. so (ug)h ˆ u( ghg À1 ) g P Ug (u P U). (3) Now let ö be a C H-isomorphism from Ug1 to Ug2 . as claimed. (2) As a C H-module. then Ug1 g and Ug2 g are isomorphic C H-modules. (3) If g1 . Therefore. proving that Ug is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. and the proof of the proposition is complete.7 Proposition Suppose that H v G. Let V be an irreducible CG-module and U be an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H. j .12. Further. For every g P G let Ug ˆ fug: u P U g. Ug is an irreducible C H-module. g P G and Ug1 and Ug2 are isomorphic C H-modules.Restriction to a subgroup 215 20. if W is a C Hsubmodule of Ug. De®ne è : Ug1 g 3 Ug2 g by è : wg 3 (wö) g (w P Ug 1 )X Then è is clearly an isomorphism of vector spaces. V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. we have ˆ Vˆ UgX gPG Then by Proposition 7.

7(3). Then (1) all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. Let e ˆ h÷ 5 H. . ÷ 5 H ˆ e(ø1 ‡ X X X ‡ ø m )X j Our main applications of Clifford's Theorem will concern the case where jG: Hj ˆ 2. . and which is therefore a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules. but you might like to look at Corollary 22.7. Examples where this happens are G ˆ Sn . each having character ø1 .14 in Chapter 22 to see an advanced use of the theorem. that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. Hence V has the form V ˆ X1 È X X X È X m where each Xi is a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules.7(2).8 Clifford's Theorem Suppose that H v G and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. then ÷ 5 H ˆ e(ø1 ‡ X X X ‡ ø m ) for some positive integer e. 20. ø m are the constituents of ÷ 5 H. parts (1) and (2). . ø1 i. Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. by Proposition 20. if g P G then X1 g is a direct sum of isomorphic C H-modules. jG: Hj ˆ 2). Then V contains a C H-module X1 whose character is eø1 .216 Representations and characters of groups We now come the fundamental theorem on the restriction of a character to a normal subgroup. . and (2) if ø1 . Therefore. Normal subgroups of index 2 We are shortly going to give more precise information about the constituents of ÷ 5 H when H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2 (that is. Then it follows from Proposition 20. . V is a sum of C Hmodules of the form X1 g. On the other hand. and Xi T X j if i Tˆ j. say X 1 ˆ U1 È X X X È U e X By Proposition 20.

and we then illustrate the results by ®nding the character table of A5 from that of S5 (which we have already obtained in Example 19.5.14). .Restriction to a subgroup 217 H ˆ A n . ÷ and ÷ë are irreducible characters of the same degree (see Proposition 17. 20. or (2) ÷ 5 H is the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. ë( g) ˆ À1 if g P HX a Note that for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. ø r are the irreducible characters of H. Then either (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. Since GaH  C2 .9. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i. Since d 1 . the character tables of G and H are closely related. or G ˆ D2 n ˆ ha. or ÷ 5 H ˆ ø i ‡ ø j for some i. then by Proposition 20.8 j €r ÷ 5 H ˆ d 1 ø1 ‡ X X X ‡ d r ø r . ø i and ø j have the same degree. When H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. We describe this relationship in (20.9 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. In the latter case.10). and we shall supply these next. . it is often desirable to have more details about the two cases in Proposition 20. Also.16). we deduce that either ÷ 5 H ˆ ø i for some i. since ë(h) ˆ 1 for all h P H. 2 where iˆ1 d i < 2. we may lift the non-trivial linear character of GaH to obtain a linear character ë of G which satis®es @ 1 if g P H. and that ÷ is . For practical purposes.10 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. X X X . . ÷ 5 H ˆ ÷ë 5 H. . b: a n ˆ b2 ˆ 1. 20.13) below. Proof If ø1 . j with i Tˆ j. d r are non-negative integers. then H must be normal in G (see Exercise 1. by Clifford's Theorem 20. H ˆ hai. if H is a subgroup of index 2 in G. In fact.

6) is strict. then ÷ 5 H is the sum of one or two irreducible characters of H. a so ÷( g) Tˆ 0 for some g with g P H if and only if ÷ë Tˆ ÷. if H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2. and this happens if and only if ÷( g) Tˆ 0 for some g P G with g P H.5.218 Representations and characters of groups an irreducible character of G.9. Thus (1) is equivalent to a (2). Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. ÷ 5 H is irreducible if and only if the inequality in (20. since jG: Hj ˆ 2. (2) ÷( g) Tˆ 0 for some g P G with g P H. If ö is an irreducible character of G which satis®es ö 5 H ˆ ÷ 5 H. and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. a (3) the characters ÷ and ÷ë of G are not equal. if g P HX a . 20. Proof We have (÷ ‡ ÷ë)( g) ˆ Hence @ 2÷( g) 0 if g P H. To see that (2) is equivalent to (3). ÷ë( g) ˆ À÷( g) if g P H. observe that @ ÷( g) if g P H. then either ö ˆ ÷ or ö ˆ ÷ë.11 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. In the next proposition we consider the ®rst possibility. Proof We use Proposition 20. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible. a j According to Proposition 20.

and so either ö ˆ ÷ or j ö ˆ ÷ë. by explaining how to list the irreducible characters of H on the assumption that we know the character table of G.10.12 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible characters of H.10. so kö. (1) Each irreducible character ÷ of G which is nonzero somewhere outside H restricts to be an irreducible character of H. If ble character of G such that ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 then ö ˆ ÷. then hö 5 H.11). ÷i G ˆ ö( g)÷( g) ˆ ö( g)÷( g) jGj gPG jGj gP H ˆ 1hö 5 H. ÷l G Tˆ 0. Therefore k÷ ‡ ÷ë. 1 ˆ 1 ˆ hö. G. 20. a Therefore. and hence ö ˆ ÷. ÷ 5 Hi H Tˆ 0. ö 5 Hi H X Now k÷ 5 H. Such characters of G occur in pairs (÷ and ÷ë) which have the same restriction to H (Propositions 20. ÷( g) ˆ 0 for all g with g P H. Finally. ö 5 Hl H ˆ 1. Proof In view of Proposition 20. 20.13) Let H be a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group G. we look at the case where ÷ 5 H is reducible. say ÷ 5 H ˆ ø1 ‡ ø2. ÷ 5 Hi H X 2 If ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 as a constituent.Restriction to a subgroup h÷ ‡ ÷ë. öi G ˆ ˆ 1 ˆ 2÷( g)ö( g) jGj gP H 1 ˆ ÷( g)ö( g) j Hj gP H 219 ˆ h÷ 5 H. j We summarize our results on subgroups of index 2. and that ÷ is the sum of two ö is an irreducias a constituent. öl G ˆ 1. since ÷ 5 H is irreducible and ö 5 H ˆ ÷ 5 H. . (20.

and the irreducible characters ÷1 .9.4). In case (2) of (20. Also. 20. extra work is needed to calculate the values taken by the two constituents of ÷ 5 H. The results we have obtained so far have been deduced from our summary (20. . and hence ø1 . Fortunately. so by (20.18(2).14 Example The character table of A5 Write H ˆ A5 .13) of facts about characters of subgroups of index 2. Call them ø1 . Observe that ÷1 . .16. ÷3 and ÷6 are non-zero somewhere outside H.13)(3). 20. ÷1 5 H. ÷5 5 H ˆ ø4 ‡ ø5 where ø4 and ø5 are distinct irreducible characters of H of degree 3. (3) Every irreducible character of H appears among those obtained by restricting irreducible characters of G. ÷5 ( g) ˆ 0 for all g P H.13)(2). ø5 are the distinct irreducible characters of H by (20. ø2 and ø3 . as in parts (1) and (2) (Proposition 20. then ÷ restricts to be the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree.220 Representations and characters of groups (2) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G which is zero everywhere outside H. They can also be veri®ed by calculating inner products. . Note that ÷2 5 H ˆ ÷1 5 H. in practice case (1) occurs more frequently than case (2). . ÷7 of S5 can be found in Example 19. .10. We have established that the character table of H is gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 á2 â2 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 á3 â3 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á4 â4 (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 á5 â5 . and note that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group S5 . The conjugacy classes of H and their sizes are given in Example 12. ÷4 5 H ˆ ÷3 5 H and ÷7 5 H ˆ ÷6 5 H. ÷3 5 H and ÷6 5 H are irreducible characters of H.13)(1). .12). The two characters of H which we get from ÷ in this way come from no other irreducible character of G (Propositions 20. .13). . respectively. 20. a so by (20.

Character table of A5 gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 â á where á ˆ 1(1 ‡ 2 p 5). Hence by Proposition 13.Restriction to a subgroup 221 We use the column orthogonality relations to calculate the unknowns á i and â i . â4 ˆ 1(1 À 5)X 2 2 p Similarly. â5 ˆ 1(1 ‡ 5)X 2 2 Thus the character table of A5 is as shown. we see that each element of A5 is conjugate to its inverse. By the orthogonality relation for column i with itself (2 < i < 5).9(4). á5 and â5 are 1(1 Æ 5). 3 3 5 ˆ 2 ‡ á2 ‡ â2 ˆ 2 ‡ á2 ‡ â2 X 4 4 5 5 Hence á2 ˆ â2 ˆ 0. we have 2 p p á5 ˆ 1(1 À 5). Since we have not yet distinguished between ø4 and ø5 . We get á2 ‡ â2 ˆ 0. . we obtain 3 ˆ 3 ‡ á2 ‡ â2 . á3 ‡ â3 ˆ À2. á3 ˆ â3 ˆ À1. 2 2 4 ˆ 2 ‡ á2 ‡ â2 .13. The values of á i ‡ â i for 2 < i < 5 are given by noting that ø4 ‡ ø5 ˆ ÷5 5 H (or by using the column orthogonality relations for column 1 and column i). and we ®nd that á4 and â4 are the solutions of the quadratic x 2 À x À 1 ˆ 0. Since ø4 Tˆ ø5 . ⠈ 1(1 À 2 p 5). á4 ‡ â4 ˆ á5 ‡ â5 ˆ 1X Using Proposition 12. all the numbers in the character table are real. we may take p p á4 ˆ 1(1 ‡ 5).

4.6 allows us to deduce from the character table that A5 is a simple group. (1 3)l of G. Let G ˆ S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3 4). ø r are the irreducible characters of H. ÷ and ÷ 5 H have the same degree. to ®nd the character table of A6 . 4.17.) 3. Exercises for Chapter 20 1. 1. Let G be a group with an abelian subgroup H of index n. (The seven conjugacy classes of A6 can be found by consulting the solutions to Exercises 12. 2. Prove that ÷(1) < n for every irreducible character ÷ of G. Suppose that G is a group with a subgroup H of index 3. Summary of Chapter 20 Assume throughout that H is a subgroup of G. if ø1 . In particular. X X X . If H v G and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. 2 or 3X Give examples to show that each possibility can occur. The values of ÷ 5 H are given by (÷ 5 H)(h) ˆ ÷(h) for all h P H.3 and 12. 2. The number of irreducible constituents of ÷ 5 H is bounded above by jG : Hj. then ÷ 5 H is a character of H. ÷ 5 Hi H ˆ 1. given in Example 19. Prove that h÷ 5 H. If ÷ is a character of G. and ÷ 5 H ˆ d 1 ø1 ‡ X X X ‡ d r ø r. (a) Show that H  D8. Use the restrictions of the irreducible characters of S6 . (b) For each irreducible character ÷ of G (given in Section 18. . and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. then all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. express ÷ 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters of H.222 Representations and characters of groups Proposition 17. then r ˆ iˆ1 d 2 < jG : HjX i 3. Indeed.1).

.Restriction to a subgroup 223 5. 14. It is known that the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of S7 is 1. 14. 6. 35X Also. 6. 15. 1. 21. 35. Find the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of A7 . 14. A7 has nine conjugacy classes. 21. 20. 14. 15.

then there exists r P CG such that uW ˆ ru for all u P U X 224 . we require some results which connect C H-homomorphisms with CG-homomorphisms. We now prove the striking fact that every C Hhomomorphism from U to CG has this simple form. We shall see many applications of this method in later chapters. Before describing the process of induction. We saw in the last chapter that restriction gives a simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module. As H is smaller than G. since for all s P C H. so induction can often give us an important handle on the representations of a group if we know some representations of its subgroups. then W: u 3 ru (u P U ) de®nes a C H-homomorphism from U to CG. If W is a C H-homomorphism from U to CG.21 Induced modules and characters Throughout this chapter we assume that H is a subgroup of the ®nite group G. which constructs a CG-module from a given C H-module. (us)W ˆ rus ˆ (uW)s. 21.1 Proposition Assume that H < G. Much more subtle than this is the process of induction. If r P CG. it is usually the case that C H-modules are easier to understand and construct than CG-modules. and let U be a C H-submodule of C H. C H-homomorphisms and CG-homomorphisms Let U be a C H-submodule of the regular C H-module C H. and induction is the main concern of this chapter.

Therefore by Corollary 21. 21. r(u ‡ v) ˆ uX Then ru ˆ u if u P U. there exists r P CG such that for all u P U. ru ˆ u and rv ˆ 0X Proof Assume that U ’ V ˆ {0}.2. De®ne ö: C H 3 CG by ö: u ‡ w 3 uW (u P U. assume that for some r P CG we have ru ˆ u and rv ˆ 0 for all u P U.3 Corollary Let U and V be CG-submodules of CG.1. Then the sum U ‡ V is a direct sum. there is a C H-submodule W of C H such that C H ˆ U È W. moreover. For u P U.1. so u‡v3 u (u P U . v P V ) is a function. Conversely. w P W )X Then ö is easily seen to be a C H-homomorphism. the ®rst of which is just the case H ˆ G of the proposition. j We give two corollaries of Proposition 21. Let r ˆ 1ö. j . v P V. Consequently U ’ V ˆ {0}. v P V.2 Corollary Let U be a CG-submodule of CG. and rv ˆ 0 if v P V. If x P U ’ V then rx ˆ x and rx ˆ 0. and so x ˆ 0. uW ˆ uö ˆ (1u)ö ˆ (1ö)u ˆ ru. Then the following two statements are equivalent: (1) U ’ V ˆ {0}. 21.Induced modules and characters 225 Proof By Maschke's Theorem 8. and so W is of the required form. v P V. (2) there exists r P CG such that for all u P U.11). Then every CG-homomorphism from U to CG has the form u 3 ru (u P U ) for some r P CG. it is a CG-homomorphism from U È V to CG (see Proposition 7.

That is. Remember that H is a subgroup of G. W 1 ˆ sp (1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 ). Then U 4 G is called the CG-module induced from U. and let U 4 G denote the CG-module U(CG). g P G. Let ù ˆ e2ðia3 . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules U i . and let H ˆ kal. U2 ˆ sp (1 ‡ a ‡ a2 À b À ab À a2 b). so C H is a subset of CG.8(2) that CG ˆ U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . 21.226 Representations and characters of groups Induction from H to G For any subset X of CG. 21. we write X(CG) for the subspace of CG which is spanned by all the elements xg with x P X. and de®ne W 0 ˆ sp (1 ‡ a ‡ a2 ). W 0 4 G ˆ sp (1 ‡ a ‡ a2 . W 2 4 G ˆ sp (1 ‡ ùa ‡ ù2 a2 . U4 ˆ sp (1 ‡ ùa ‡ ù2 a2 . Let U be a C H-submodule of C H.5 Example Let G ˆ D6 ˆ ka.4 De®nition Assume that H is a subgroup of G. W 2 4 G ˆ U4 X . b ‡ ù2 ab ‡ ùa2 b). a cyclic subgroup of G of order 3. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. W 1 4 G ˆ U3 . g P GgX Clearly. Clearly.8(1)). W 2 ˆ sp (1 ‡ ùa ‡ ù2 a2 )X These are C H-submodules of C H (see Example 10. where U1 ˆ sp (1 ‡ a ‡ a2 ‡ b ‡ ab ‡ a2 b). b ‡ ù2 ab ‡ ùa2 b). W 1 4 G ˆ sp (1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 . b ‡ ùab ‡ ù2 a2 b)X Recall from Example 10. X(CG) is then a CG-submodule of CG. X (CG) ˆ sp fxg: x P X . U3 ˆ sp (1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 . b ‡ ab ‡ a2 b). b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. b ‡ ùab ‡ ù2 a2 b)X Thus W 0 4 G ˆ U1 È U2 .

proving that U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. Then U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. rsb ˆ b Hence the function b 3 sb (b P V 4 G) is the inverse of ö. Since sru ˆ u and rsv ˆ v for all u P U. as (aö) g ˆ rag ˆ (ag)ö (a P U 4 G. Moreover.7 Proposition Assume that U and V are C H-submodules of C H with U ’ V ˆ {0}. 21. b P V 4 GX . 21.6 Proposition Assume that H < G. we have sra ˆ a. v P V. there exists r P CG such that uW ˆ ru for all u P U.1. Proof Let W: U 3 V be a C H-isomorphism. By Proposition 21. Therefore ö: a 3 ra (a P U 4 G) is a function from U 4 G to V 4 G. W 0 4 G is reducible. g P G). ö is a CG-homomorphism.Induced modules and characters 227 In particular. and also there exists s P CG such that vWÀ1 ˆ sv for all v P V. and hence ra P V 4 G. while W 1 4 G and W 2 4 G are irreducible. v P V X If a P U 4 G then a is a linear combination of elements ug (u P U. so ra is a linear combination of elements rug. Then (U 4 G) ’ (V 4 G) ˆ f0g. Therefore ö is a CG-isomorphism. for all a P U 4 G. j The next proposition and its corollary enable us to de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C H-module U. Consequently sru ˆ u and rsv ˆ v for all u P U . g P G). We now show that isomorphic C H-modules give isomorphic induced CG-modules. Suppose that U and V are C H-submodules of C H and that U is C H-isomorphic to V.

9 De®nition Let U be a C H-module.7 and 10. It is trivial for m ˆ 1. we obtain U 4 G ˆ (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G). j We can now de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C Hmodule U (where U is not necessarily a C H-submodule of C H). this implies that ru9 ˆ u9 and similarly. The de®nition of U 4 G implies that U 4 G ˆ (U1 4 G) ‡ (V 4 G)X Therefore by Proposition 21. there exists r P CG such that ru ˆ u and rv ˆ 0 for all u P U.3.228 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Corollary 21. Then for all u P U. and hence. Then U 4 G ˆ (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Proof We prove this by induction on m. Now U ˆ U1 È V. Therefore (U 4 G) ’ (V 4 G) ˆ f0g by Corollary 21. 21.10). a direct sum of C H-submodules U i . as required. where V ˆ U2 È X X X È U m . U  U1 È X X X È Um . U 4 G ˆ (U1 4 G) È (V 4 G)X By induction.5). 21.3. rv9 ˆ 0 for all v9 P V 4 GX j for all u9 P U 4 G. using (2. v P V. v P V and all g P G. and suppose that U ˆ U1 È X X X È Um . V 4 G ˆ (U 2 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G).7. g P G). rug ˆ ug and rvg ˆ 0X Since U 4 G is spanned by elements of the form ug (u P U.8 Corollary Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. Then (by Theorems 8.

6 and Corollary 21. k P K. U 4 K  (U1 4 K) È X X X È (Um 4 K)X Since K < G. (U(CK))(CG) is spanned by elements of the form (u P U . g P G)X (U 4 K) 4 G ˆ U 4 GX U  U1 È X X X È Um for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. De®ne U 4 G to be the following (external) direct sum: U 4 G ˆ (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G)X Proposition 21. If U is a C H-module.10). Then U(CK) is spanned by elements of the form uk ukg (21X12) (u P U .9) that (21X10) (U1 È X X X È Um ) 4 G  (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Our ®rst major result on general induced modules is known as `the transitivity of induction'.4. then (U 4 K) 4 G  U 4 GX Proof Assume ®rst that U is a C H-submodule of C H.8 ensure that this de®nition is consistent with De®nition 21. By (21.11 Theorem Suppose that H and K are subgroups of G such that H < K < G. Then . k P K)X Therefore. Now let U be an arbitrary C H-module. it follows that (U(CK))(CG) ˆ U(CG). That is. We emphasize that the de®nition of the induced module U 4 G in the case where U is a C H-submodule of C H is a natural one: U 4 G ˆ U (CG)X We shall always prove results for general induced modules U 4 G by ®rst dealing with the special case where U is a C H-submodule of C H. and then applying the fact (which is immediate from De®nition 21.Induced modules and characters 229 for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. 21.

. ÷ 2 5 H ˆ ø1 .14 Example Let G ˆ S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G. .16). ÷7 are the irreducible characters of G (given in Example 19.13 De®nition If ø is the character of a C H-module U. . We showed in that example that if ÷1 . ø j i H for appropriate i. and is called the character induced from ø. the coef®cients which appear here are the values of h÷ i 5 H. as in Example 20. ÷ 4 5 H ˆ ø1 ‡ ø4 . by (21X12) j Induced characters 21. The next example illustrates an important relationship between induced characters and restrictions of characters. . j.9.2) then ÷ 1 5 H ˆ ø1 . . ÷ 3 5 H ˆ ø1 ‡ ø4 . .230 Therefore Representations and characters of groups (U 4 K) 4 G  (U1 4 K) 4 G È X X X È (Um 4 K) 4 G by (21X10) ˆ (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G) U4G by Definition 21. 21. ÷ 7 5 H ˆ ø 2 ‡ ø 3 ‡ ø4 X By Theorem 14. then the character of the induced CG-module U 4 G is denoted by ø 4 G. ÷ 6 5 H ˆ ø 2 ‡ ø 3 ‡ ø4 .2. . . ÷5 5 H ˆ 2ø4 . ø4 are the irreducible characters of H (given in 18. We record these coef®cients in a .17. and ø1 .

and ø4 4 G ˆ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 ‡ 2÷5 ‡ ÷6 ‡ ÷7 X Thus the ij-entry in our matrix. it turns out that the columns of the matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of H induce to G. we need the following preliminary result. row 3 gives ÷3 5 H ˆ 1 . V 5 H) have equal dimensions. In fact. ø 4 Gi G ˆ h÷ 5 H. and we devote the next section to a proof of this result. ÷7 X Similarly. it is true that h÷. ø3 ‡ 1 . 21. For example. the seven integers in column 1 give ø1 4 G ˆ 1 .Induced modules and characters matrix whose ij-entry is h÷ i 5 H. ø2 ‡ 0 . which is known as the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. and let V be a CG-submodule of CG. ø j i H . which we already know to be equal to h÷ i 5 H. ø j 4 Gi G . ø4 X Remarkably. ø2 4 G ˆ ø3 4 G ˆ ÷6 ‡ ÷7 . ÷3 ‡ 1 . To be precise. ø1 ‡ 0 . . øi H for all characters ÷ of G and ø of H. ÷2 ‡ 1 . The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Before proving the theorem. V ) and HomC H (U . ÷4 ‡ 0 . Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. ÷6 ‡ 0 . ø j i H : ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 H ø1 1 f 1 f f 1 f f 1 f f 0 f d 0 0 ø2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø4 I 0 0 g g 1 g g 1 g g 2 g g 1 e 1 231 The rows of this matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of G restrict to H. is also equal to h÷ i . Then the vector spaces HomCG (U 4 G.15 Proposition Assume that H < G. ÷5 ‡ 0 . ÷1 ‡ 1 .

note that if r1. V 5 H). Finally. By Theorem 14. V )). Then there is a C H-submodule U of C H which has character ø. ÷i G ˆ dim (HomCG (U 4 G. there is an element r P CG such that sW ˆ rs for all s P U 4 GX De®ne W: U 3 CG to be the restriction of W to U. Moreover.24. and so it is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. and there is a CG-submodule V of CG which has character ÷. V 5 H). ÷i G ˆ hø. and hø.2.16 The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Assume that H < G. V ). then r1 s ˆ r2 s for all s P U 4 G. r2 P CG and r1 u ˆ r2 u for all u P U. V ) to HomC H (U . as required. ÷ 5 Hi H ˆ dim (HomC H (U . Hence the function W 3 W is injective. j 21. V ). V ) to HomC H (U . that is. Then by Corollary 21. since s is a linear combination of elements ug with u P U. there exists r P CG such that uö ˆ ru for all u P U. we have hø 4 G. Let ÷ be a character of G and let ø be a character of H. We shall show that this linear transformation is invertible. g P G. ÷ 5 Hi H X Proof First assume that the characters ÷ and ø are irreducible. Let ö P HomC H (U . Then hø 4 G. Therefore the function W 3 W is surjective. uW ˆ ru for all u P U X Then W P HomC H (U . Thus the function W3W is a linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G.232 Representations and characters of groups Proof Suppose that W P HomCG (U 4 G. ö ˆ W. V 5 H))X . De®ne W from U 4 G to CG by sW ˆ rs (s P U 4 G)X Then W P HomCG (U 4 G.1. V 5 H). Then by Proposition 21. These two vector spaces therefore have the same dimension. V 5 H).

. For the general case. 21. de®ne the j . . ÷ i i G ej d i hø j . j The values of induced characters We now show how to evaluate induced characters. namely when ÷ and ø are irreducible.15. ÷ 5 Hi H X This completes the proof of the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. . ÷i G ˆ hø. f i G ˆ hø.4.18 Corollary If f is a class function on G. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let ø1 . ø m be the irreducible characters of H. and for convenience of notation. the characters of G span the vector space of class functions on G. Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G. we therefore deduce that (21X17) hø 4 G. since by Corollary 15.Induced modules and characters From Proposition 21. . . ÷i G ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ k ˆ iˆ1 d i ÷ i and ø ˆ m ˆ jˆ1 ej ø j X C B m ˆ jˆ1 ej ø j 4 G. ˆ hø. ÷ 5 Hi H 233 in the special case we are considering. k ˆ iˆ1 d i ÷i G m k ˆˆ jˆ1 iˆ1 m k ˆˆ ej d i hø j 4 G. Then for some integers di . and ø is a character of H. f 5 Hi H X Proof This follows at once from the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. . ej we have ÷ˆ Therefore hø 4 G. then hø 4 G. . let ÷1 . . ÷ i 5 Hi H k ˆ iˆ1 by (21X17) B jˆ1 iˆ1 m ˆ jˆ1 C di÷i 5 H H ej ø j .

if g P HX a 21.19 Proposition The values of the induced character ø 4 G are given by 1 ˆ • (ø 4 G)( g) ˆ ø( y À1 gy) j Hj yPG for all g P G. ÷i G ˆ f ( g)÷( g) jGj gPG ˆ Put x ˆ y À1 gy. Proof Let f: G 3 C be the function given by 1 ˆ • f ( g) ˆ ø( y À1 gy) ( g P G)X j Hj yPG We aim to prove that f ˆ ø 4 G. ÷i G ˆ ˆ 1 1 ˆˆ • ø(x)÷( yxy À1 )X jGj j Hj xPG yPG 1 ˆ ø(x)÷(x) j Hj xP H 1 1 ˆˆ • ø( y À1 gy)÷( g)X jGj j Hj gPG yPG .4.234 Representations and characters of groups @ • function ø: G 3 C by • ø( g) ˆ ø( g) 0 if g P H. it is suf®cient to show that h f . ÷i G ˆ hø 4 G. Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. ÷i G for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. Then 1 ˆ h f . If w P G then 1 ˆ • f (w À1 gw) ˆ ø( y À1 w À1 gwy) ˆ f ( g) j Hj yPG since wy runs through G as y runs through G. Then h f . Therefore f is a class function. and so by Corollary 15.

then h÷. de®ne the class function f G on G by x & 1 if y P x G f G ( y) ˆ ( y P G)X x 0 if y P x G a Thus f is the characteristic function of the conjugacy class x G .Induced modules and characters 235 • since ø(x) ˆ 0 if x P H. Alternatively.23 below). the stated degree of ø 4 G can be found using just the de®nition of induced modules (see Exercise 21. a formula for the values of induced characters different from that given in Proposition 21. ÷i G ˆ hø.3). so the proof is complete. f G i G ˆ x ÷(x) X jCG (x)j .20 Corollary If ø is a character of the subgroup H of G. Therefore a h f .19. 21. and ÷( yxy À1 ) ˆ ÷(x) for all y P G. then the degree of ø 4 G is given by (ø 4 G)(1) ˆ jGj ø(1)X j Hj Proof This follows immediately by evaluating (ø 4 G)(1) using Proposition 21. ÷i G X This was the equation required to show that f ˆ ø 4 G. ÷ 5 Hi H and so by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. j 21. h f . For x P G. and we shall derive this next (it is given in Proposition 21. ÷i G ˆ hø 4 G.19 is more useful.21 Proposition If ÷ is a character of G and x P G. j For practical purposes.

. we have: (21. x m . then (ø 4 G)(x) ˆ 0. f G i G ˆ x ˆ ˆ Note that a result similar to Proposition 21. X X X . To put this another way. (2) If some element of x G lies in H. f G i G ˆ hø. but if g P G then g G may contain 0. with representatives x1 . then there are elements x1 . x (2) If some element of x G lies in H. . then f G 5 H ˆ 0. xm P H and f G 5 H ˆ f x1 ‡ F F F ‡ f x m (as in (21. 21. then   ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)(x) ˆ jCG (x)j ‡X X X‡ .21 was used in the proof of Theorem 16. 1. we have (ø 4 G)(x) ˆ hø 4 G. x Proof By Proposition 21.22)). xm P H such that H H f G 5 H ˆ f x1 ‡ X X X ‡ f x m X x Statement (2) just says that H ’ x G breaks up into m conjugacy classes of H.236 Proof We have Representations and characters of groups 1 ˆ ÷( g) f G ( g) x jGj gPG 1 ˆ jx G j ÷(x) ÷( g) ˆ jGj gPx G jGj ÷(x) jCG (x)j by Theorem 12X8X j h÷. . . f G 5 Hi H X x x jCG (x)j . . .23 Proposition Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G. (1) If no element of x G lies in H.21 and Corollary 21. If H < G and h P H then h H  h G . . . 2 or more conjugacy classes of H.4. and suppose that x P G.18.22) Suppose that x P G. (1) If no element of x G lies in H. jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where x1 .

12). 21. fa2 ˆ (1 3)(2 4)g. with representatives (1 3)(2 4) and (1 2)(3 4). bl. then f G 5 H ˆ 0. then x (ø 4 G)(x) H H ˆ hø. We have G H f1 5 H ˆ f1 . a2 b ˆ (2 4)g. f x1 i H ‡ X X X ‡ hø. fa ˆ (1 2 3 4). since a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1 and bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 . And if some element of x G lies in H.24 Example Let G ˆ S4 and let H ˆ ka. f x m i H ˆ ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) ‡X X X‡ jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j by Proposition 21X21X j The result follows. the statement G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H ˆ f (1 3)(2 4) ‡ f (1 2)(3 4) records the fact that the G-conjugacy class (1 2)(3 4) G contains exactly two H-conjugacy classes. G f (1 2 3) 5 H ˆ 0. By (12. f x1 ‡ X X X ‡ f x m i H jCG (x)j H H ˆ hø. a3 ˆ (1 4 3 2)g. . G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H ˆ f (1 3)(2 4) ‡ f (1 2)(3 4) .Induced modules and characters 237 If no element of x G lies in H. and G H f (1 2 3 4) 5 H ˆ f (1 2 3 4) X For example. G H f (1 3) 5 H ˆ f (1 3) . the conjugacy classes of H are f1g. fb ˆ (1 3). and H H f G 5 H ˆ f x1 ‡ X X X ‡ f x m as in (21. b ˆ (1 3)X Then H  D8.22)(2). where a ˆ (1 2 3 4). and hence x (ø 4 G)(x) ˆ 0.

. Then according to Proposition 21.23.25 Example (cf. b ˆ (2 3 5)(4 7 6) . 21. Referring to Example 16.238 Representations and characters of groups The orders of the centralizers of the elements of H are as follows: h |CG (h)| |C H (h)| 1 24 8 (1 3)(2 4) 8 8 (1 2 3 4) 4 4 (1 3) 4 4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 4 Suppose that ø is a character of H. we therefore have 1 ÷1 4 G ÷2 4 G ÷3 4 G ÷4 4 G ÷5 4 G 3 3 3 3 6 (1 2) 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À1 À1 3 À2 (1 2 3 4) 1 1 À1 À1 0 In the next example. b in S7 by a ˆ (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). we have (ø 4 G)(1) ˆ 24 ø(1) . ÷5 of H  D8. we use induced characters to ®nd the character table of a group of order 21. . 8 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3 4)) ˆ 4 ø((1 2 3 4)) X 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3)) ˆ 0.2) De®ne permutations a. Exercise 17. 8 ø((1 3)) (ø 4 G)((1 3)) ˆ 4 . 4   ø((1 3)(2 4)) ø((1 2)(3 4)) (ø 4 G)((1 2)(3 4)) ˆ 8 ‡ . . .3(3) for the irreducible characters ÷1 .

23 for calculating ø k 4 G. a. we see that the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. and similarly jC G (b)j ˆ 3. We shall obtain the last two irreducible characters of G by inducing linear characters of H. fa3 . 7 divides jC G (a)j. a6 g. ÷3 of G as the lifts of the linear characters of Gahai. and since b P C G (a). a jC G (a)j . For 1 < k < 6. Notice that G has exactly ®ve irreducible characters. we obtain three linear characters ÷1 . note that H H H f G 5 H ˆ f a ‡ f a2 ‡ f a4 a .Induced modules and characters and let G be the subgroup ka. Also. b and b2 to be representatives of the conjugacy classes. Let H ˆ kal. a5 . First we ®nd the conjugacy classes. a2 . We aim to ®nd the character table of G. Since hai < C G (a). bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 X 239 It follows from these relations that the elements of G are all of the form ai bj with 0 < i < 6. Hence jC G (a)j ˆ 7. Check that a7 ˆ b3 ˆ 1. fa. Let ç ˆ e2ðia7 . bl of S7 . there is a character ø k of H given by ø k (a j ) ˆ ç jk (0 < j < 6)X To use the formula in Proposition 21. fai b: 0 < i < 6g. Since kal v G and Gahai  C3. 21. a4 g. G has order 21. a3 . fai b2 : 0 < i < 6gX We take 1. 0 < j < 2. ÷2 . Their values are shown below: g |CG ( g)| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù ˆ e2ðia3 . Using this.

(ø3 4 G)(a3 ) ˆ ç ‡ ç2 ‡ ç4 . Therefore ÷4 Tˆ ÷5 . b: a7 ˆ b3 ˆ 1. . Character table of ha. . . (ø3 4 G)(a) ˆ ç3 ‡ ç5 ‡ ç6 . since ø1 . ø6 are linearly independent. (ø1 4 G)(1) ˆ 3X And since no G-conjugate of b or b2 lies in H. (ø1 4 G)(b) ˆ (ø1 4 G)(b2 ) ˆ 0X Similarly (ø3 4 G)(1) ˆ 3. 21 7 7 3 3 and similarly h÷5 . and the character table of G is as shown. ÷5 i G ˆ 1. then the values of ÷4 and ÷5 are 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a ç ‡ ç2 ‡ ç4 ç3 ‡ ç5 ‡ ç6 a3 ç3 ‡ ç5 ‡ ç6 ç ‡ ç2 ‡ ç4 b 0 0 b2 0 0 Now ÷4 5 H ˆ ø1 ‡ ø2 ‡ ø4 and ÷5 5 H ˆ ø3 ‡ ø5 ‡ ø6 . . and (ø3 4 G)(b) ˆ (ø3 4 G)(b2 ) ˆ 0X Thus if we write ÷4 ˆ ø1 4 G and ÷5 ˆ ø3 4 G. (ø1 4 G)(a) ˆ ç ‡ ç2 ‡ ç4 and similarly (ø1 4 G)(a3 ) ˆ ç3 ‡ ç5 ‡ ç6 . bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 i g |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 21 1 1 1 3 3 a 7 1 1 1 ç ‡ ç2 ‡ ç4 ç3 ‡ ç5 ‡ ç6 a3 7 1 1 1 ç3 ‡ ç5 ‡ ç6 ç ‡ ç2 ‡ ç4 b 3 1 ù ù2 0 0 b2 3 1 ù2 ù 0 0 . We now calculate that h÷4 . Hence by Proposition 21. ÷4 i G ˆ 9 2 2 0 0 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ˆ 1.23. Thus ÷4 and ÷5 are our last two irreducible characters. a4 are conjugate in H.240 Representations and characters of groups since no two of the elements a. a2 .

. ÷i G ˆ hø. 241 1. where ø is a character of H and ÷ is a character of G. Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. 2.Induced modules and characters Summary of Chapter 21 Assume that H is a subgroup of G. If ø is a character of H then the induced character ø 4 G is given by 1 ˆ • (ø 4 G)( g) ˆ ø( y À1 gy)X j Hj yPG In particular. then (ø 4 G)( g) ˆ 0X If some element of g G lies in H. The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem states that hø 4 G. If no element of g G lies in H. Is U 4 G irreducible? 2. bl. 3. ÷5 are the irreducible characters of G. . If U is a C H-module of C H. (c) Write down the character of the C H-module U and the character of the CG-module U 4 G. . (b) Find a basis of the induced CG-module U 4 G. Exercises for Chapter 21 1. For each C H-module U. (a) If ÷1 . then   ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)( g) ˆ jCG ( g)j ‡X X X‡ jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where f G 5 H ˆ f x1 ‡ X X X ‡ f x m . g 4. Let G ˆ S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3)l  C3 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l and let H be the subgroup ka2 . an induced CG-module U 4 G can be de®ned. De®ne U to be the 1-dimensional subspace of C H spanned by 1 À a2 ‡ b À a2 bX (a) Check that U is a C H-submodule of C H. . ÷ 5 Hi H . then U 4 G is simply U(CG). as given in . the degree of ø:G is |G: H|ø(1).

242 Representations and characters of groups Section 18. 6. d k . ø2 . where a ˆ (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). ø3 of C3 . Show direct from the de®nition that if H < G and ø is a character of H. Let H be a subgroup of G.25. . Let G ˆ S7 and let H ˆ ka.) . bl. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. Let ö and ø be the irreducible characters of H which are given by gi |C H ( g i )| ö ø 1 21 1 3 a 7 a3 7 b 3 1 0 b2 3 1 0 1 1 ç ‡ ç2 ‡ ç4 ç3 ‡ ç5 ‡ ç6 where ç ˆ e2ðia7 (see Example 21. .5. X X X . Calculate the values of the induced characters ö 4 G and ø 4 G.25). then jGj (ø 4 G)(1) ˆ ø(1)X j Hj 4. and let ÷1 . . b ˆ (2 3 5)(4 7 6). and let ÷ be a character of G. 3.1.) 5. satisfy k ˆ iˆ1 d 2 < jG : HjX i (Compare Proposition 20. work out the restrictions ÷ i 5 H (1 < i < 5) as sums of the irreducible characters ø1 . Let ø be an irreducible character of H. and use the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. Show that the integers d 1 . Suppose that H is a subgroup of G. (b) Calculate the induced characters ø j 4 G (1 < j < 3) as sums of the irreducible characters ÷ i of G. You are given that jC G (a)j ˆ 7 and jC G (b)j ˆ 18. Prove that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G ˆ (ø 4 G)÷X (Hint: consider the inner product of each side with an arbitrary irreducible character of G. . as in Example 21. which are given by ø 4 G ˆ d 1 ÷1 ‡ X X X d k ÷k . let ø be a character of H.

Induced modules and characters 243 7. . Discover and prove results for ø 4 G which are similar to those presented in Chapter 20 for the restriction of irreducible characters of G to H. Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. and let ø be an irreducible character of H.

1 De®nition A complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is an eigenvalue of some matrix. And we prove some useful congruence properties. We discuss properties of a group element g P G which ensure that ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. perhaps the most opaque is that which states that the degree of an irreducible character of a ®nite group G must divide the order of G. Algebraic integers 22. for ë to be an algebraic integer. We remark that ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form 244 . if p is a prime number and g P G is an element of order pr for some r. This is one of several results which we shall prove in this chapter. all of whose entries are integers. we have uA ˆ ëu for some non-zero row vector u. for the same matrix A. Thus. Most of the results concern arithmetic properties of character values.22 Algebraic integers Among the properties of characters which may be regarded as fundamental. we require that det (A À ëI) ˆ 0 for some square matrix A with integer entries. Equivalently. then ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod p for any character ÷ of G for which ÷( g) is an integer. using algebraic integers. for example.

1) ˆ ùuX This shows that every nth root of unity is an algebraic integer. . Then uA ˆ (ù. ù2 . where u is the row vector obtained from u by replacing each entry by its complex conjugate. ù nÀ1 . ù.3 Theorem If ë and ì are algebraic integers. Proof There exist square matrices A and B. (4) Let A be the n 3 n matrix H 0 0 f1 0 f f0 1 Aˆf f f d0 0 0 0 given by 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 1 0 0g g 0 0g gX g g 0 0e 1 0 Suppose that ù is an nth root of unity. ù nÀ1 ). algebraic integers are usually de®ned in this way. 22. since it is an eigenvalue of the 0 1 matrix X 2 0 (3) If ë is an algebraic integer. . then so are Àë and the complex conjugate ë of ë. and let u be the row vector (1.2 Examples (1) Every integer n is an algebraic integer. vB ˆ ìvX Suppose that A is an m 3 m matrix and B is an n 3 n matrix. note that if A is an integer matrix and u is a row vector with uA ˆ ëu.Algebraic integers x n ‡ a nÀ1 x nÀ1 ‡ X X X ‡ a1 x ‡ a0 245 where a0 . then u(ÀA) ˆ (Àë)u and uA ˆ ëu. ù2 . then ëì and ë ‡ ì are also algebraic integers. In fact. . such that uA ˆ ëu. since n is an eigenvalue of the 1 3 1 matrix (n). a nÀ1 are integers (see Exercise 22. 22. To see this. .7). all of whose entries are integers. p (2) 2 is an algebraic integer. . and non-zero row vectors u and v. X X X . X X X .

3. then ÷( g) is an algebraic integer.4 Corollary If ÷ is a character of G and g P G.3 shows that the set of all algebraic integers forms a subring of C. j Theorem 22. respectively. f n be a basis of C n . 1 < j < n).246 Representations and characters of groups Let e1 . Hence ÷( g) is an algebraic integer. . Then (u  v)(A  I n ‡ I m  B) ˆ uA  vI n ‡ uI m  vB ˆ ëu  v ‡ u  ìv ˆ (ë ‡ ì)(u  v). so any sum of roots of unity is an algebraic integer by Theorem 22. we have (x  y)(A  B) ˆ xA  yBX Hence (u  v)(A  B) ˆ uA  vB ˆ ëu  ìv ˆ ëì(u  v)X Therefore ëì is an eigenvalue of A  B. and we deduce as above that ë ‡ ì is an algebraic integer.9. em be a basis of C m and f 1 .2(4). ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity.5 Proposition If ë is both a rational number and an algebraic integer. by Example 22. De®ne an endomorphism A  B of V by (ei  f j )(A  B) ˆ ei A  f j B (1 < i < m. ( ë ij (ei  f j ))(A  B) ˆ ë ij (ei A  f j B)). X X X . 1 < j < n) form a basis of the tensor product space V ˆ C m  C n.4 that for all vectors x P C m . Proof By Proposition 13. j 22. Each root of unity is an algebraic integer. It is easy to check as in the proof of Proposition 19. y P C n. Since the matrix of A  B relative to the basis ei  fj (1 < i < m. The next result provides a link between algebraic integers and characters. . . € € extending linearly (that is. . Let Im and In denote the identity m 3 m and n 3 n matrices. . 22. then ë is an integer. Then the vectors ei  fj (1 < i < m. 1 < j < n) has integer entries. it follows that ëì is an algebraic integer.

Let p be a prime number which divides s. Recall from De®nition 12. (Example 22. the entries of sA À rI which are not on the diagonal are divisible by s. with character ÷.) The degree of every irreducible character divides |G| To prepare for the proof that |G| is divisible by the degree of each irreducible character of G.5.7 Lemma Suppose that g P G and that C is the conjugacy class of G which contains g. note that we have. j The next result is an immediate consequence of Corollary 22.4 and Proposition 22.5.21 that if C is a conjugacy class of G. and hence also by p. Let U be an irreducible CG-module. Therefore det (sA À rI) ˆ (Àr) n ‡ mp for some integer m. s and hence ë is not an algebraic integer. where r and s are coprime integers and s Tˆ Æ1. then ˆ Cˆ x P CGX xPC 22. As p does not divide r (since r and s are coprime). Then . 22. which is enough to establish the proposition. p the well known result that 2 is irrational. as a special case of Proposition 22. For every n 3 n matrix A of integers.2(2) shows p that 2 is an algebraic integer. Write ë ˆ ras. then ÷( g) is an integer.6 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G and let g P G. In passing. If ÷( g) is a rational number. we deduce that det (sA À rI) Tˆ 0.Algebraic integers 247 Proof Suppose that ë is a rational number which is not an integer. Thus  n 1 det (A À ëI) ˆ det (sA À rI) Tˆ 0. we establish two preliminary lemmas. We shall show that ë is not an algebraic integer.

where each á g is an integer.8 Lemma € Let r ˆ gPG á g g P CG. Then ë is an algebraic integer. . j 22. As |C| ˆ |G:CG ( g)| by Theorem 12.8. we know by Proposition 9. this yields jCj÷( g) ˆ ë÷(1)X Thus ë ˆ jCj÷( g)a÷(1).22). that is. gn be the elements of G. ˆ u x ˆ ëu for all u P U X xPC Consequently if B is a basis of U. . . we obtain ˆ ÷(x) ˆ ë÷(1). where ë P C. where ëˆ jGj ÷( g) X jCG ( g)j ÷(1) Proof Since C lies in the centre of CG (see Proposition 12. Then for 1 < i < n. xPC and since ÷ is constant on the conjugacy class C.14 that there exists ë P C such that uC ˆ ëu for all u P U. then ˆ [x]B ˆ ëIX xPC Taking the traces of both sides of this equation. the result follows.248 Representations and characters of groups uC ˆ ëu for all u P U . we have gi r ˆ n ˆ jˆ1 aij g j . . Suppose that u is a non-zero element of CG such that ur ˆ ëu. Proof Let g1 .

Hence by Theorem 22.10 Corollary If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and g P G. by Lemma 22. then ÷(1) divides |G|. 22. .9 Example Let G ˆ Cn ˆ kx: x n ˆ 1l. Then uC ˆ ëu for all u P U.2(4). aij ˆ á g where g ˆ gÀ1 gj . gk be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Proof Let U be an irreducible CG-submodule of CG with character ÷. by Corollaries 22.4.Algebraic integers 249 for certain integers aij . j 22.) The i statement that ur ˆ ëu (with u Tˆ 0) says that ë is an eigenvalue of the integer matrix A ˆ (aij ). .7. . and de®ne u ˆ 1 ‡ ùx À1 ‡ ù2 x À2 ‡ X X X ‡ ù nÀ1 x P CG. Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. then ëˆ is an algebraic integer. Notice that this example is just a reworking of Example 22.8 con®rms that ù is an algebraic integer. . k ˆ iˆ1 jGj ÷( g i )÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) .10 and 22. Then for all i. by Lemma 22. Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. where ù is an nth root of unity.11 Theorem If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. (In fact. both jGj ÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) and ÷( g i ) jGj ÷( g) jCG ( g)j ÷(1) are algebraic integers. j 22. Then ux ˆ ùu and so Lemma 22.3. and let C be the sum of the elements in the conjugacy class of G which contains g.8. Proof Let g1 .

) 22. Theorem 22. either the degrees of the irreducible characters of G are all 1. we recover the well known result that groups of order p2 are abelian. Hence. as the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is equal to |G|. 2. by Proposition 9. That is. X X X . By Theorem 17. the number of linear characters of G divides |G|. Let r: G 3 GL(2. and so r is injective. p. Theorem 16.11. Proof Suppose that G is a simple group which has an irreducible character ÷ of degree 2. j 22.7(a)). This algebraic integer is equal to jGja÷(1). ÷(1) divides |G|. observe that G is non-abelian.18.5. As jGja÷(1) is a rational number. and hence satis®es p < n.11.5 now implies that jGja÷(1) is an integer. 2 (with ( p À 1)a2 degrees 2)X (3) If G ˆ Sn then every prime p which divides the degree of an irreducible character of G also divides n!.13 Corollary No simple group has an irreducible character of degree 2. and so G9 ˆ G as G is simple.250 Representations and characters of groups is an algebraic integer. Therefore by Theorem 17. First. (2) Let G be a group of order 2 p. or they are 1. Hence G9 Tˆ 1. Since Ker r v G and G is simple. where p is prime. then ÷(1) is a power of p for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. But g 3 det ( gr) is a linear character of G (see Exercise 13. if jGj ˆ p2 then ÷(1) ˆ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷.11 also has the following interesting consequences concerning irreducible characters of simple groups. we have Ker r ˆ f1g. G has no non-trivial linear characters. Proposition 22. (Note that ÷(1) . 1.11. using Proposition 9.) Hence. the degree of each irreducible character of G is 1 or 2 (it cannot be p for the reason noted in (1) above). by the row orthogonality relations.4(1).12 Examples (1) If p is a prime number and G is a group of order pn for some n. C) be a representation of G with character ÷. In particular. and this implies that det ( gr) ˆ 1 for all g P GX . (Recall that a group G is simple if it has no normal subgroups apart from {1} and G. By Theorem 22.

11 give us the equation ˆ jGj ˆ jGaG9j ‡ ÷(1)2 . xr has order 2. This time. Therefore G contains an element x of order 2 (see Exercise 1. 1. there is a 2 3 2 matrix T such that T À1 (xr)T is a diagonal matrix with diagonal entries Æ1. so we assume that G is non-abelian.11. by Theorem 22. so p divides |G| by . while jG: N j is a power of p. and jN j is coprime to p. and by Proposition 9. 1 for some irreducible character ÷ of G. Consider the 2 3 2 matrix xr.12 and 17. j Our next result again shows that information about character degrees can sometimes be used to learn about the structure of a group. and we deduce that G has an abelian normal pcomplement N. Since G is non-abelian. N is an abelian normal subgroup of G. that is. Since det (xr) ˆ 1. Proof The result is correct if G is abelian (see Theorem 9. by our hypothesis.8). G is not simple unless G has prime order. Theorems 11. ÷(1) . Then G has an abelian normal p-complement. 22.Algebraic integers 251 Now G has even order.6). As r is injective. In particular. and hence hxi v GX This is a contradiction. this means that xg ˆ gx for all g P G. we conclude that   À1 0 À1 T (xr)T ˆ X 0 À1 Thus xr ˆ T(ÀI)T À1 ˆ ÀIX Consequently (xr)( gr) ˆ ( gr)(xr) for all g P G. As r is injective.11.14 Corollary Suppose that p is a prime and the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p. Then ÷(1) is divisible by p. we assume that every irreducible character of G has degree a power of a prime p. as G is simple. the sum being over the irreducible characters ÷ of G for which ÷(1) .

We have that |N| is coprime to p and jG : N j is a power of p.1.16 is evidently a useful result. by Proposition 20. Then g P H. Finally. a similar argument shows that g P N. Theorem 22. Clifford's Theorem 20. 22. that for all n. so it remains to prove that N v G.16 below we give a group-theoretic condition on an element g of G which implies that ÷( g) is an integer for every character ÷ of G. for integers d and n. Since every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. Bearing in mind the dif®culties we encountered in constructing the character tables of Sn for small values of n (we reached n ˆ 6 in Example 19. But an abelian simple group has prime order.17). j A condition which ensures that ÷( g) is an integer In Theorem 22. so ø(1) is a power of p.8 shows that ø(1) divides ÷(1). we have Z(G) ˆ G.15 Lemma If ù is an nth root of unity. øi Tˆ 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. On the other hand. we write d|n to denote the fact that d divides n. Next. and from this fact it follows easily that N v G. because G is simple. If N ˆ f1g then G is a p-group so Z(G) Tˆ {1} (see Exercise 12. for example. Also. so either N ˆ {1} or N ˆ G.16. every entry in the character table of Sn is an integer (see Corollary 22. b). we require a preliminary lemma concerning roots of unity. Then h÷ 5 H. We may now apply induction on |G| to deduce that H has an abelian normal p-complement N. assume that G is simple. then we denote their highest common factor by (a. if N ˆ G then G is again abelian.17). If a and b are positive integers.7). since otherwise p divides the order of gH which in turn divides the order of g. and we deduce from the equation above that p divides the order of the abelian group GaG9.252 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 22. so G is abelian. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is coprime to p. G has prime order. then . Before proving Theorem 22. Hence G has a normal subgroup H of index p. This result implies. Hence N consists of those elements of G whose order is coprime to p.11. it follows that GaG9 has a subgroup of index p.4. Therefore. by Exercise 1. Let ø be an irreducible character of H.

n) ˆ 1.11.nad)ˆ1 It follows that ˆ 1<i< n. and if in addition d . It is trivial for n ˆ 1. 22. ( j. Then ù is a root of the polynomial €n (x n À 1)a(x À 1) ˆ x nÀ1 ‡ X X X ‡ x ‡ 1X Therefore iˆ1 ù i ˆ 0. (i. there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B ˆ d e F ùm 0 . 1. ˆ ù dj P ZX 1< j< nad. ( j. Then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G.n)ˆ1 ùi ˆ n ˆ iˆ1 ùi À ˆ ˆ ù dj P Z. 1 ( j. d . Proof We prove the result by induction on n.Algebraic integers ˆ ùi 1<i< n. if ù ˆ 1 then the result is immediate. Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷ of degree m. 1< j< nad. then by our induction hypothesis. €n i Now we partition the sum iˆ1 ù according to the highest common factor d of i and n: 0ˆ n ˆ iˆ1 ùi ˆ ˆ ˆ dj n 1<i< n (i. (i.nad)ˆ1 If djn then ù d is an (nad)th root of unity.nad)ˆ1 j as required.16 Theorem Let g be an element of order n in G. Also. By Proposition 9.n)ˆ1 253 is an integer.n)ˆd ùi ˆ ˆ ˆ ù dj X dj n 1< j< nad. Suppose that g is conjugate to gi for all i with 1 < i < n and (i. So suppose that ù is an nth root of unity and ù Tˆ 1. dj n.

. Proof If g P Sn and i is coprime to the order of g. (i. namely that if ÷( g i ) P Z for all characters ÷ of G. and so ÷( g) is an integer by Corollary 22. then the permutations g and g i have the same cycle-shape.16. . . . j We remark that using Galois theory it is possible to prove the converse of Theorem 22. Before going into the character theory. .n)ˆ1 As g is conjugate to gi if 1 < i < n and (i. The result now follows from Theorem 22. For example. then ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod p.15. j The p9-part of a group element The rest of the chapter is devoted to some important congruence properties of character values. we have ÷( g i ) ˆ ÷( g) for such i. then g is conjugate to g i whenever i is coprime to n. ù m are nth roots of unity. 22.16. The de®nition will emerge from the following lemma.6. n) ˆ 1. where s is the number of integers i with 1 < i < n and (i. For 1 < i < n. and ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z. we need to de®ne the p9-part of a group element. .15. . and so i ÷( g i ) ˆ ù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù im X Therefore by Lemma 22. n) ˆ 1. g is an element of G of order pr for some r. . Consequently ÷( g) is a rational number. the matrix i [ g i ]B has diagonal entries ù1 . . and hence s÷( g) P Z.17 Corollary All the character values of symmetric groups are integers. ù im .254 Representations and characters of groups where ù1 . one particularly useful consequence of our results is that if p is a prime number. and hence are conjugate by Theorem 12. ˆ ÷( g i ) P ZX 1<i< n.

xy ˆ g ˆ x9 y9. so is coprime to p. and so x ˆ x9 and y ˆ y9.18 Lemma Let p be a prime number and let g P G. it follows that x À1 x9 has order a power of p. where u.Algebraic integers 255 22. p) ˆ 1. Therefore x and y satisfy conditions (1)±(3). g ˆ x9 y9 ˆ y9x9. Similarly. Finally. Moreover. (2) the order of x is a power of p. the order of x9 is a power of p and the order of y9 is coprime to p. Proof Let the order of g be upv . Now suppose that x9. y P G such that (1) g ˆ xy ˆ yx. Then there exist integers a. Then xy ˆ yx ˆ g au‡bp ˆ g. so x À1 x9 ˆ y( y9)À1 X If z ˆ x À1 x9 ˆ y( y9)À1 . j v v v v v . the elements x and y of G which satisfy conditions (1)±(3) are unique. so x9 commutes with g. then we have shown that the order of z is both a power of p and coprime to p. y u ˆ g bup ˆ 1X Hence the order of x is a power of p and the order of y divides u. y9 commutes with y and y( y9)À1 has order coprime to p. and (3) the order of y is coprime to p. Therefore z ˆ 1. We have x9 g ˆ x9 y9x9 ˆ gx9. hence also with gau ˆ x. that is. b such that au ‡ bpv ˆ 1X Put x ˆ gau and y ˆ gbp . We must show that x ˆ x9 and y ˆ y9. y9 P G also satisfy (1)±(3). x p ˆ g aup ˆ 1. Then there exist x. Since both x and x9 have order a power of p. as required. v P Z and (u.

Let n be a positive integer and let æ ˆ e2ðia n . y ˆ gÀ2 . a principal ideal of Z[æ]. we conclude that Z[æ]a pZ[æ] is ®nite. this has as its elements all the cosets pZ[æ] ‡ r with r P Z[æ]. b with au ‡ bpv ˆ 1.19 De®nition We call the element y which appears in Lemma 22. we need a few basic facts about a certain subring of C in which all our character values will lie. then the p9-part of g is g . De®ne Z[æ] to be the subring of C generated by Z and æ. . À2 A little ring theory To prepare for our main result on congruence properties of character values. (22. if p ˆ 2 and g has order 6. . æ nÀ1 . Every such coset contains an element of the form a0 ‡ a1 æ ‡ X X X ‡ a nÀ1 æ nÀ1 . that is. 0 < ai < p À 1 for all iX As there are only ®nitely many such elements. v Then the p9. .21 Proposition There are only ®nitely many ideals I of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ]. Proof Consider the factor ring Z[æ]a pZ[æ]. The ideals of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ] are in . p) ˆ 1. For example.part of g is gbp .18 has x ˆ g3 .18. every element of Z[æ] is an integer combination of the powers 1. . 22.256 Representations and characters of groups 22. We extract the following statement from the proof of Lemma 22. and choose integers a. the expression g ˆ xy in Lemma 22. where u.20) Let the order of g be upv . æ. with ai P Z. so in fact Z[æ] ˆ f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x] of degree < n À 1gX Now let p be a prime number and let pZ[æ] ˆ f pr: r P Z[æ]g. v P Z and (u. By de®nition. æ2 .18 the p9-part of g. Z[æ] ˆ f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x]gX Clearly.

s P Z[æ] and rs P P. then r P P.) We now prove two easy results about the maximal ideal P. this implies that either r P P or r nÀ1 P P. that is. b P P such that 1 ˆ ra ‡ bX Then s ˆ rsa ‡ sbX As rs P P and b P P.23 Proposition We have P ’ Z ˆ pZ. Repeating this argument. we conclude that r P P.Algebraic integers 257 bijective correspondence with the ideals of Z[æ]a pZ[æ] (the correspondence being I 3 Ia pZ[æ]). since P Tˆ Z[æ]. Proof Let m P P ’ Z. the ideal rZ[æ] ‡ P of Z[æ] strictly contains P. b with j am ‡ bp ˆ 1. We must show that s P P. then either r P P or s P P. we also have pZ  P ’ Z. Since n r ˆ rr nÀ1 .22 Proposition If r. it follows that s P P. assume that r n P P. 22. For the last statement of the proposition. (A proper ideal of Z[æ] is an ideal which is not equal to Z[æ]. Therefore there are only ®nitely many such ideals. as required. if r n P P for some positive integer n. there exist a P Z[æ]. As P is a maximal.21 that there is a maximal ideal of P of Z[æ] which contains pZ[æ]. j 22. Since p P P. P is a proper ideal which is contained in no larger proper ideal of Z[æ]. j . but this implies that 1 P P. If p B m then there are integers a. and the proof is complete. which establishes that P ’ Z  pZ. In particular. Thus pjm. which is false. j We deduce from Proposition 22. we therefore have rZ[æ] ‡ P ˆ Z[æ]X Consequently. Proof Assume that rs P P and r P P. a Since r P P.

if p Tˆ 2.part of g. and so v v 2v 2v ù p ˆ ù aup . b with au ‡ bpv ˆ 1. Hence (ù À ù bp ) p ˆ ù p ‡ (À1) p ù bp ‡ pá. 22. where á P Z[æ]. since ù p ˆ ù bp . where u. By the Binomial Theorem. pv pv bp2v ù ‡ (À1) ù ˆ pv 2ù .24 Theorem Let g P G and let y be the p9. Then y ˆ g bp (see (22.11).  v vÀ r v p bpv pv pv v pvÀ1 bpv (ù À ù ) ˆ ù À p ù ù ‡ X X X Æ ù p ù rbp r ‡ X X X ‡ (À1) p ù bp X For 0 . The ring Z[æ] is of interest because all the character values of G lie in Z[æ] (see Proposition 9. v P Z and v (u. we have @ 0. let p be a prime number and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing pZ[æ]. Then v ù ˆ ù au‡bp . pv . then ÷( g) À ÷( y) P PX Proof Suppose that g has order m ˆ upv . p) ˆ 1. ù bp ˆ ù bp X Consider the number (ù À ù bp ) p .20)). if p ˆ 2. As in the previous section.258 Representations and characters of groups Congruences At last we are ready to prove our results on congruences of character values. The orders of g and of y divide n ˆ |G|. and hence lie in Z[æ].22 now forces v v v v v 2v v v v v 2v v v 2v v v . Moreover. Choose integers a. the binomial coef®cient ( rp ) is divisible by p. Application of Proposition 22. Let G be a group of order n and let æ ˆ e2ðia n . Now let ù be an mth root of unity (so ù P Z[æ] as mjn). so it follows that (ù À ù bp ) p P pZ[æ]X Thus (ù À ù bp ) p lies in the maximal ideal P. so ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both sums of nth roots of unity. r . If ÷ is any character of G.

.25). j 22. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is a power of p.26 Corollary Let p be a prime number.24 and Proposition 22. Suppose that g P G and that y is the p9. .part of g.27 Corollary Let p be a prime number.23 give ÷( g) À ÷( y) P P ’ Z ˆ pZX Therefore ÷( g)  ÷( y) mod p.26. We shall use the congruence results 22.11. we just illustrate the results with reference to some character tables which we already know. . by (22. d v v which. then ÷( g)  ÷( y) mod pX Proof As ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers.24±22.27 in which g has order 2. j 22. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z. so the result is immediate from Corollary 22. there are mth roots of unity ù1 .10 is the special case of Corollary 22. then ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod pX Proof As the order of g is a power of p.Algebraic integers (22X25) (ù À ù bp ) P PX v 259 By Proposition 9. j Notice that Corollary 13. . lies in P. ù d such that bp ÷( g) ˆ ù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù d and ÷( y) ˆ ù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù bp X d v v Then bp ÷( g) À ÷( y) ˆ (ù1 À ù1 ) ‡ X X X ‡ (ù d À ù bp ). Theorem 22. the p9-part of g is 1. .27 extensively in our character calculations in Chapters 25±7. For the moment. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers.

p p Then ( 5)2 P P. 2.260 Representations and characters of groups 22. 1(1 À 5) ˆ â 5X 2 Put æ ˆ e2ðia60 . and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing 5Z[æ]. ÷4 ((1 2 3 4 5)) ˆ á P Z. The degree of every irreducible character of G divides |G|.14 that the character table of A5 is as shown. Character values are algebraic integers. If we take p ˆ 5 and g ˆ (1 2 3 4 5). We illustrate Theorem 22. 2. Thus the corresponding entries in columns 1 and 2 Character table of A5 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 1 À1 0 â á of the character table are congruent modulo 3. and p ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) ˆ á À 3 ˆ 1(1 ‡ 5 À 6) 2 p p p ˆ 5 .26 implies that ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod 3 whenever ÷( g) P Z. p p where á ˆ (1 ‡ 5)a2. Since â P Z[æ] (see p Proposition 9. ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) P PX This illustrates Theorem 22. then the p9-part of g is 1. If g ˆ (1 2 3) then Corollary 22. Also ÷ i ((1 2 3 4 5))  ÷ i (1) mod 5 for i ˆ 1. we have â 5 P P. Summary of Chapter 22 1.11). 3X However. .28 Example Recall from Example 20. so 5 P P by Proposition 22.24.22.24 for this a value. Similarly the entries in columns 1 and 3 are congruent modulo 2. That is. as can be seen by inspecting the table. ⠈ (1 À 5)a2.

jGj where á is an algebraic integer. 2. 3. (a) Prove that if g P G and g ˆ gÀ1 . Let G be a group and let ö be a character of G such that ö( g) ˆ ö(h) for all non-identity elements g and h of G. (c) Show that if ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G. (b) Now let ÷ be an irreducible character of G with ÷ ˆ ÷. 10 or 16.11 and 22. Let G be a group of order 15. Exercises for Chapter 22 1. . and let G be a nonabelian group of order pq. If g P G and y is the p9-part of g. Use Theorems 11. then ÷( g) is an integer. If g is conjugate to g i for all integers i which are coprime to the order of g. (d) Deduce that both a and b are integers. (a) Find the degrees of all the irreducible characters of G. q. (a) Show that ö ˆ a1 G ‡ b÷reg for some a. Let p be a prime number. 17. This exercise shows that the only irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷ ˆ ÷ is the trivial character. for all characters ÷. then b÷(1) is an integer. then ÷( g)  ÷( y) mod p for all characters ÷ of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are integers. Prove that h÷. b P C. (b) Show that a ‡ b and a ‡ b|G| are integers.Algebraic integers 261 3.12. Suppose that G is a group of odd order. 5. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . 1 G i ˆ 1 (÷(1) ‡ 2á). (b) Show that |G9| ˆ p.11 to show that every irreducible character of G has degree 1. then g ˆ 1. Deduce that G is abelian. (c) Show that q divides p À 1 and that G has q ‡ (( p À 1)aq) conjugacy classes. Prove that the number of conjugacy classes in a group of order 16 is 7. (c) Deduce that ÷ ˆ 1 G . 4. 4.

. and that the conjugacy classes of G have representatives g1 . g2 . (c) Find ÷(1) and ÷( g) for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. . (b) Use Corollary 22. ®nd the character table of G.262 Representations and characters of groups 6. (a) Show that for every irreducible character ÷ of G. 1 or À1. Moreover. ÷( g) is 0. g3 and g4 are conjugate in G. A certain group G of order 120 has exactly seven conjugacy classes. . It is often possible to calculate the character table from limited arithmetic information about the group G.26 and the column orthogonality relations. 7. Prove that a complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form x n ‡ a nÀ1 x nÀ1 ‡ X X X ‡ a1 x ‡ a0 . (d) You are given that all entries in the character table of G are integers.27 to deduce that G has two irreducible characters of degree 5. . . and contains an element g of order 5 such that jCG ( g)j ˆ 5. g. g7 with orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 120 g2 2 12 g3 2 8 g4 3 6 g5 4 4 g6 6 6 g7 5 5 Using Corollary 22. where each ar (0 < r < n À 1) is an integer. This exercise illustrates this point with the group G ˆ S5 .

Various criteria for whether or not a character corresponds to a representation over R lead us to the remarkable Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. Let r be a representation of G. while there is no representation ó equivalent to r with all the matrices gó having real entries. and if g is real. There is a subtle interplay between representations over C and representations over R.23 Real representations Since Chapter 9. and the ®rst main result of the chapter describes the number of real-valued irreducible characters of G. Often. some results in representation theory work equally well for the ®eld R of real numbers. we have always taken our representations to be over the ®eld C of complex numbers. the converse is not true: it can happen that the character of r is realvalued. This is used in the last section to prove a famous result of Brauer and Fowler concerning centralizers of involutions in ®nite simple groups. Real characters An element g of the ®nite group G is said to be real if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . then the conjugacy class g G is also said to be 263 . The material in this chapter is perhaps at a slightly more advanced level than that in the rest of the book. but also gives delicate information about characters which often comes into play in more dif®cult calculations. the subject of real representations not only is elegant and interesting. Nevertheless. which we shall explore in this chapter. However. If all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. which consist largely of the calculation of character tables and applications of character theory. then of course the character of r is real-valued. and is not used in the ensuing chapters. However. characters of CG-modules are real-valued.

Notice that if a conjugacy class is real. since ( g À1 ) G ˆ fx À1 : x P g G g.15). the entries in the column of X which corresponds to g G are the complex conjugates of the entries in the column of X which corresponds to ( g À1 ) G . 23. For every conjugacy class g G of G. Since the trace of a permutation matrix is equal to the number of points ®xed by the corresponding permutation.2. Proof Let X denote the character table of G.1 Theorem The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. X is invertible.5.264 Representations and characters of groups real. then it contains the inverse of each of its elements. the result is proved. and let X denote the complex conjugate of the matrix X. and so there is a permutation matrix Q such that XQ ˆ X By Proposition 16. the complex conjugate ÷ is also an irreducible character (see Proposition 13. Therefore X can be obtained from X be permuting the columns. . Hence there is a permutation matrix P such that PX ˆ X (see Exercise 4.2. by Proposition 13. we have the number of real irreducible characters of G is tr (P). and the number of real conjugacy classes of G is tr (Q)X j As these numbers are equal. Therefore Q ˆ X À1 X ˆ X À1 PX X Consequently P and Q have the same trace. and the trivial character of G is real. the conjugacy class {1} of G is real. Thus for example.4). so X can be obtained from X by permuting the rows. On the other hand. For every irreducible character ÷ of G. Part of the following corollary was obtained by a different method in Exercise 22. a character ÷ of G is real if ÷( g) is real for all g P G.

and there is a basis v1 . such that for all g P G and 1 < i < n. then no non-identity element of G is real (see the solution to Exercise 23. . b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. . and so G has at least two real irreducible characters by Theorem 23.1. b: a4 ˆ 1. Hence G has at least two real conjugacy classes. 23.1). br ˆ ar ˆ 0 1 À1 0 provides a representation r of G with character ÷ such that all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. (2) Let G ˆ Q8 ˆ ka. b2 ˆ a2 . Then ÷ can be realized over R. v i g is a linear combination of v1 .3(3)).Real representations 265 23. This is the same as saying that there is some CG-module V with character ÷. . . . G has an element g of order 2. Therefore by Theorem 23.2 Corollary The group G has a non-trivial real irreducible character if and only if the order of G is even. then by Exercise 1. and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Example 16.3 Examples (1) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. C) with character ÷. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. v n of V. {1} and g G.8.1. If G has even order. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Exercise 17. . j Characters which can be realized over R Let ÷ be a character of the group G. since     À1 0 0 1 .1). v n with real coef®cients. We say that ÷ can be realized over R if there is a representation r: G 3 GL (n. . The values of ÷ are as follows: 1 ÷ 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 . such that all the entries in each matrix gr ( g P G) are real. the only real character of G is the trivial character. Proof If G has odd order. .

Therefore we obtain a representation r: G 3 GL (n. ÷ cannot be realized over R.3(1)). Example 23. C). Notice that a character ÷ of G can be . with a multiplication by elements of G satisfying the conditions of De®nition 4. v2 x ˆ Àv1 À v2 X   0 1 (This gives the representation x 3 of Exercise 3. .) À1 À1 Every RG-module can easily be converted into a CG-module. RG-modules Recall that in Chapter 4 we de®ned an FG-module. Thus an RG-module is a vector space over R.2. v n . v2 . This new vector space is clearly a CG-module (with v i g de®ned as before). v1 b ˆ Àv1 . (1) V becomes an RD8 -module if we de®ne v1 a ˆ v2 . and hence also in C.4 Examples Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over R.266 Representations and characters of groups Thus ÷ is real. . . 23. if we de®ne v1 x ˆ v2 .3(2) tells us that the converse is false. where F is R or C.2.) Although every character which can be realized over R is perforce a real character. . (2) V becomes an RC3 -module. R) is a representation then for each g P G.18(3) below. v n of the RG-module. . In fact. with basis v1 . . . and consider the vector space over C with basis v1 . The construction is even easier to understand in terms of representations: if r: G 3 GL (n. but it is at the moment unclear how to prove this. v2 a ˆ Àv1 . v2 b ˆ v2 (compare Example 23. where C3 ˆ kx: x 3 ˆ 1l. (We shall eventually establish this in Example 23. the matrix gr has its entries in R. Simply take a basis v1 . In this section we shall study the relationship between RG-modules and CGmodules. .

.5) makes VR into an RGmodule. Rather more subtle than this is the construction of an RG-module from a given CG-module. . v n . regarding v j and iv j as elements of VR . and (À yjk v k ‡ xjk (iv k )) (1 < j < n). then ÷( g) ˆ n ˆ kˆ1 zkk X The character of VR . We summarize the basic properties of VR in the next proposition. In this way we de®ne v g for all v P VR and all g P G. h P G. Regarding v j as an element of the CG-module V. . Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 . X X X .6. evaluated at g. If ÷ is the character of V.Real representations 267 realized over R if and only if there exists an RG-module with character ÷. y jk P R. v n . . 1 < j < nX It follows easily that. is 2 n ˆ kˆ1 xkk ˆ ÷( g) ‡ ÷( g)X Hence the character of VR is ÷ ‡ ÷. X X X . There exist complex numbers z jk such that vj g ˆ n ˆ kˆ1 zjk v k (1 < j < n)X Now let VR be the vector space over R with basis v1 . iv n X Write z jk ˆ x jk ‡ iyjk with x jk . and let g P G. iv1 . and extending linearly to de®ne v g for all v P VR . we have (v j g)h ˆ v j ( gh) and ((iv j ) g)h ˆ (iv j )( gh)X Hence using Proposition 4. we have (v j g)h ˆ v j ( gh) for all g. We de®ne a multiplication of VR by g by putting (23X5) vj g ˆ (iv j ) g ˆ n ˆ kˆ1 n ˆ kˆ1 (xjk v k ‡ yjk (iv k )). we see that (23. .

Proof We have already proved part (1). (2) If V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RGmodule. then ÷ can be realized over R. and let V be the 2dimensional CG-module with basis v1 .6 Proposition Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. v2 . where H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f 0 0 0 À1 g f g g. namely U. v1 b ˆ v2 . v2 a ˆ Àiv2 . we obtain the representation r. With respect to this basis. Then by part (1). br ˆ f 1 0 0 0 gX ar ˆ f d À1 0 0 e d0 0 0 1e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 The subspace of VR which is spanned by v1 ‡ v4 and v2 ‡ v3 is an RG-submodule. suppose that V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RG-module. where v3 ˆ iv1 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. v3 .7 Examples (1) Let G ˆ C3 ˆ kx: x 3 ˆ 1l. and so ÷ can be realized over R.268 Representations and characters of groups 23. dim VR ˆ 2 dim V. v4 ˆ iv2 . x is represented by the matrix   p À1a2 3a2 p X À 3a2 À1a2 (2) Let G ˆ D8 ˆ ka. v4 . and with 2 respect to this basis. Then VR has basis v1 . j 23. with character ÷. Therefore the character of V can be realized over R. VR ˆ U È W where U is an RG-module with character ÷ and W is an RG-module with character ÷. (1) The RG-module VR has character ÷ ‡ ÷. . and let V be the 1-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 such that p v1 x ˆ 1(À1 ‡ i 3)v1 2 p (note that 1(À1 ‡ i 3) ˆ e2ðia3 ). Thus there is an RG-module. v2 b ˆ v1 X Then VR has basis v1 . For part (2). b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. iv1 . v2 such that v1 a ˆ iv1 . in particular.

v2 P V and ë1 . v) and y 3 â(u. v) ˆ â(v.6(2). (Thus for ®xed u. A bilinear form â on V is a function which associates with each ordered pair (u. Bilinear forms The question of whether or not a given character can be realized over R turns out to be related to the existence of a certain bilinear form on the corresponding CG-module. where F is R or C. v. then there exists a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V such that â(v. v P V X And the bilinear form â is skew-symmetric if â(u. A similar result for CG-modules was given in Exercise 8. 23. y) are both linear ± hence the term bilinear. v.Real representations 269 by Proposition 23. â(u. v1 ) ‡ ë2 â(u. ë1 v1 ‡ ë2 v2 ) ˆ ë1 â(u. vg) ˆ â(u. v) of F. v) for all u. In fact. then a bilinear form â on V is said to be Ginvariant if â(ug.6. v) of vectors in V an element â(u. we already know this from Example 23.8 Theorem If V is an RG-module. u1 . v) ˆ Àâ(v.) The bilinear form â is symmetric if â(u. for all u. v2 ). v) . v P V and g P GX Our next result shows that every RG-module has a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form with a strong positivity property. v1 . u) for all u. 0 for all non-zero v P V X . ë2 P F. v). the functions x 3 â(x. v) ˆ ë1 â(u1 . Let V be a vector space over F. v P V X If V is an FG-module. u2 . v) ‡ ë2 â(u2 .3(1). u) for all u. and which has the following properties: â(ë1 u1 ‡ ë2 u2 .

. so â(u. u) . v P V with â(u. vx) (u. . v)X xPG Therefore â is G-invariant and the theorem is proved. j 23. v) ˆ n ˆ jˆ1 ì2 . If U is an RG-submodule of V then so is . so W is an RG-submodule of V. w) ˆ 0X Thus wg P W. wg) ˆ â(ug À1 . v gx) ˆ â(u. If g P G.10 Proposition Suppose that â is a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the RGmodule V. 0 for all non-zero v P V. 0 and â(v. we have ugÀ1 P U. Proof Let v1 . and hence ˆ â(ug. â is a symmetric bilinear form on V. for non-zero v P V. Then V is a reducible RG-module. vg) ˆ ã(ugx. For u ˆ €n jˆ1 ì j v j P V with ë j . ã(v. and â(v. v) ˆ n ˆ jˆ1 vˆ ë j ì jX Then ã is a symmetric bilinear form on V. j 23. ì j P R. de®ne ã(u. . . and that there exist u. w) ˆ 0 for all u P U gX Proof It is easy to see that W is a subspace of V. v) ˆ Now let â(u. Now let w P W and g P G. v n be a basis of V. v) . 0X j ˆ xPG ã(ux. W ˆ fw P V : â(u.9 Proposition Let V be an RG-module and let â be a G-invariant bilinear form on V. wgg À1 ) ˆ â(ug À1 . Moreover. For all u P U. . v) . then gx runs through G as x runs through G. 0.270 Representations and characters of groups €n jˆ1 ë j v j . v P V )X Again.

1 ã(v2 . v1 ) ˆ 0X Therefore. 0. 23. then W is non-zero. 0 for all non-zero w P V X By a general result on bilinear forms (see Exercise 23. Moreover. v j ) ˆ â(v i . j if i Tˆ j. . and is an RG-submodule of V by Proposition 23. v P V )X x Since â and â1 are G-invariant symmetric bilinear forms on V. there is a basis v1 . . and de®ne ã by 1 ã(u. v j ) ˆ 0 and â1 (v i . v) (u.Real representations 271 Proof Theorem 23. (2) there exists a CG-module V with character ÷. The following two conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ can be realized over R. v1 ) . v i ) ˆ 1 â(v1 . for all i. . w) ˆ 0 for all v P V g. v2 ) . v1 ) ˆ x. x so W Tˆ V.8 supplies us with a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â1 on V such that â1 (w. v2 ) .7). Therefore V is a reducible RG-module. â(v2 . v2 ) ˆ 1 À â(v2 . v) ˆ â1 (u.9. if we de®ne W ˆ fw P V : ã(v. €n But for all v ˆ iˆ1 ë i v i P V (ë i P R). so is ã. we have ã(v. and a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on V . . We can now relate bilinear forms to the question of whether or not a given character of G can be realized over R. 0X Let â(v1 . v) À â(u. v1 ) ˆ ë1 ã(v1 . .11 Theorem Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. v n of V such that â1 (v i . 0. w) .

there exists w P V with â(w. v n .272 Representations and characters of groups Proof We ®rst show that (2) implies (1). we have (23X12) (w1 ‡ w2 )W ˆ w1 W ‡ w2 W. . v n of V. by Proposition 23. v) ˆ â(v. As explained earlier. iv1 ) ˆ À1X Therefore VR is a reducible RG-module. u) ‡ â(v. suppose that ÷ can be realized over R. v P VR . v) ‡ 2â(u. v P VR )X ~ You can readily check. u n be a basis of U. By Theorem 23. and for all w1 . v) ˆ the real part of â(uW. using the properties (23. w) Tˆ 0. Let â(w. . vW) (u. . iv1 . and let V be the vector space over C with basis u1 . De®ne a function W from VR to V by n n n ˆ ˆ ˆ W: ë jv j ‡ ì j (iv j ) 3 (ë j ‡ iì j )v j (ë j . . v1 ) ˆ 1 and â(iv1 .12). and suppose that â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. (v g)W ˆ (vW) gX ~ Now de®ne a function â on ordered pairs of elements of VR by ~ â(u. . u ‡ v) ˆ â(u. u) Tˆ 0. X X X . v1 ) ˆ 1X Extend v1 to a basis v1 . . that â is a Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on VR . v). u n . . . . Conversely. It now follows from Proposition 23. iv n is a basis of the RG-module VR . Notice that ~ ~ â(v1 . v P V with â(u. . Let u1 . u k ) jˆ1 kˆ1 jˆ1 kˆ1 .8. and let U be an RG-module with character ÷. This establishes that (2) implies (1) in the theorem. V is a CG-module (with u i g de®ned as for U). all ë P R and all g P G. ” De®ne ã on V by 2 n 3 n n n ˆ ˆˆ ˆ ” ã ë j u j. Then v1 . ìk uk ˆ ë j ì k ã(u j . there is a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form ã on U. There exist u. X X X . .6(2) that ÷ can be realized over R. w) ˆ z and v1 ˆ z À1a2 w. w2 . . ì j P R)X jˆ1 jˆ1 jˆ1 Then W is a bijection. (ëv)W ˆ ë(vW).10. Then â(v1 . Since â(u ‡ v. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷.

We shall see later that this number tells us whether or not ÷ can be realized over R. and ÷ A is the character of the antisymmetric part of V  V. and ÷2 ˆ ÷S ‡ ÷ A . Observe that 1 ˆ h÷ 2 . if ÷ is realX Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. which is always 0.Real representations 273 ” (where ë j . Recall from Chapter 19 that ÷ 2 is the character of the CG-module V  V.13 De®nition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. The next result gives a signi®cant property of the indicator function. 1 G i ˆ ÷( g)÷( g) ˆ h÷. Note that é÷ Tˆ 0 if and only if ÷ is real. if ÷ is not real. 2 h÷ . if 1G is a constituent of ÷ A X We call é the indicator function on the set of irreducible characters of G. we have @ 0. and V has character ÷. for irreducible characters ÷. relating it to the internal structure of the group G. where ÷ S is the character of the symmetric part of V  V. j The indicator function We now associate with each irreducible character ÷ of G a certain number. . 1 G i ˆ 1. Then ã is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the CG-module V. 1 or À1. 23. then precisely one of ÷ S and ÷ A has 1 G as a constituent. Thus (1) implies (2). 1 G i ˆ 1. ÷iX jGj gPG Therefore. if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . Hence if h÷ 2 . then we de®ne the indicator é÷ of ÷ by V if ÷ is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A . and the proof of the theorem is complete. b b X À1. called the indicator of ÷. b ` é÷ ˆ 1. b 0. ì k P C).

23. and the result follows. since for g P G we have y 2 ˆ x D ( g À1 yg)2 ˆ g À1 xgX Therefore by Corollary 15.274 23. Proof De®ne a function W: G 3 C by W(x) ˆ jf y P G: y 2 ˆ xgj (x P G)X Note that W is a class function on G. The de®nition of é÷ gives é÷ ˆ h÷ S À ÷A .15 Example Let G ˆ S3 . ÷ where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. W is a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G.4.14 Theorem For all x P G. ÷iX € Therefore. 1 G i 1 ˆ ˆ ÷( g 2 ) by Proposition 19X14 jGj gPG ˆ ˆ 1 ˆ ˆ ÷( g 2 ) jGj xPG gPG: g2 ˆx 1 ˆ W(x)÷(x) jGj xPG ˆ hW. W ˆ (é÷)÷. The character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 j . Representations and characters of groups ˆ (é÷)÷(x) ˆ jf y P G: y 2 ˆ xgj.

no elements square to be (1 2). (1) There exists a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ Tˆ 0. in accordance with Theorem 23. . namely 1. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ 2 .14. (1 3) and (2 3). and hence there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism W from V  V onto the trivial CG-module C. four elements of G square to be 1.Real representations 275 Using Proposition 19. (2) There exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ ˆ 1. By Proposition 8.14 we calculate that é÷ ˆ 1 for each irreducible € character ÷ of G.8. Using this. (1) Suppose that é÷ Tˆ 0. Back to reality We now relate the indicator function to the previous material on bilinear forms. and one element. we show that the indicator of an irreducible character determines whether or not it can be realized over R. and hence the CG-module V  V has a trivial CG-submodule. and de®ne a multiplication of C by elements of G by ëg ˆ ë (ë P C. C becomes a trivial CG-module. g P G)X In this way. (1 3 2). and deduce the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. (1 2). there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V  V onto this trivial CG-submodule. 23. Proof In this proof we regard C as a 1-dimensional vector space over C. which takes the following values: 1 ÷ 1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ ÷3 4 (1 2) 0 (1 2 3) 1 Sure enough. squares to be (1 2 3). so (é÷)÷ ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ ÷3 . (3) There exists a non-zero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ ˆ À1.16 Theorem Let V be an irreducible CG-module with character ÷.

Conversely. and for u. v)X Thus â is G-invariant. v P V )X Then â is a non-zero bilinear form on V. 1 < j < n) and extending linearly to the whole of V  V. If follows that ÷ 2 has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent. v P V )X Then â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. we have â(ug. . v) ˆ (u  v)W (u. V  V has a trivial CGsubmodule. Since â is symmetric. v j ) as â is G-invariant ˆ (v i  v j )WX Hence W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V  V onto the trivial CG-module C. v j g) ˆ â(v i . (2) Suppose that é÷ ˆ 1. the symmetric part of V  V. Let v1 . As in (1). v P V and g P G. v j ) (1 < i < n. so that v i  v j (1 < i < n. De®ne W: V  V 3 C by putting (v i  v j )W ˆ â(v i . it follows by Proposition 8. by Proposition 10. and therefore é÷ Tˆ 0. we have ((v i  v j ) g)W ˆ (v i g  v j g)W ˆ â(v i g. and W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from S(V  V) onto the trivial CG- . j < n) and extending linearly.276 Representations and characters of groups Now de®ne â by â(u. which is the character of the CG-module S(V  V). Thus. suppose that there is a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form â on V. and de®ne W: S(V  V) 3 C by putting (v i  v j ‡ v j  v i )W ˆ â(v i . .8 that there is a non-zero CGhomomorphism W from S(V  V) onto the trivial CG-module C. W is well-de®ned. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S .1. v n be a basis of V. suppose that there exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V. Let v1 . De®ne â(u. . v j ) (1 < i. Conversely. For g P G. v) ˆ (u  v ‡ v  u)W (u. v n be a basis of V. 1 < j < n) form a basis of V  V. X X X . . vg) ˆ (ug  v g)W ˆ ((u  v) g)W ˆ ((u  v)W) g ˆ (u  v)W ˆ â(u.

Real representations

277

module C. Hence ÷ S has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent, and so é÷ ˆ 1. (3) The proof of (3) is very similar to that of (2), and is omitted. j We can now relate real representations of G to involutions in G, where by an involution we mean an element of order 2. 23.17 Corollary (The Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions) For each irreducible character ÷ of G, we have V if ÷ is not real, b 0, b ` é÷ ˆ 1, if ÷ can be realized over R, b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but ÷ cannot be realized over RX Moreover, for all x P G, ˆ (é÷)÷(x) ˆ jf y P G: y 2 ˆ xgj,
÷

where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. In particular, ˆ (é÷)÷(1) ˆ 1 ‡ t,
÷

where t is equal to the number of involutions in G. Proof When we de®ned the indicator function, we showed that é÷ Tˆ 0 if and only if ÷ is real. And Theorems 23.11 and 23.16(2) show that ÷ can be realized over R if and only if é÷ ˆ 1. This proves that é÷ is determined as in the statement of the corollary. € The expression for ÷ (é÷)÷(x) was obtained in Theorem 23.14. € Putting x ˆ 1, we see that ÷ (é÷)÷(1) is equal to the number of elements y of G satisfying y 2 ˆ 1. These elements are just the involutions in G, together with the identity, so the number of them is precisely 1 ‡ t. j We conclude with some examples illustrating the use of Corollary 23.17. 23.18 Examples (1) Let ÷ be a linear character. Then é÷ ˆ 1 if ÷ is real, and é÷ ˆ 0 if ÷ is non-real.

278

Representations and characters of groups

For an abelian group, the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions shows that the number of real irreducible (linear) characters is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes, since in this case g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if g2 ˆ 1. This special case of Theorem 23.1 can be proved directly without much dif®culty (see Exercise 23.2). (2) We know that all the irreducible characters of D8 ˆ ka, b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1, bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l can be realized over R (see Example 23.3(1), and note that all four linear characters are real). Thus é÷ ˆ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of D8, and so ˆ (é÷)÷(1) ˆ 1 ‡ 1 ‡ 1 ‡ 1 ‡ 2 ˆ 6X
÷

The ®ve involutions in D8 which are predicted by the Frobenius± Schur Count of Involutions are a2 , b, ab, a2 b and a3 b. (3) In the group Q8 ˆ ka, b: a4 ˆ 1, a2 ˆ b2 , bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l, there is just one involution, namely a2 . Now é÷ ˆ 1 for each of the four linear characters, and ˆ (é÷)÷(1) ˆ 2
÷

by the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. Therefore, if ø is the irreducible character of degree 2, then éø ˆ À1. In particular ø cannot be realized over R. (4) The symmetric group S4 has ten elements whose square is 1, namely the identity, the six elements which are conjugate to (1 2), and the three elements which are conjugate to (1 2)(3 4). Since the degrees 1, 1, 2, 3, 3 of the irreducible characters of S4 sum to be 10 (see Section 18.1), we see that all the characters of S4 can be realized over R. The Brauer±Fowler Theorem We now apply Corollary 23.17 to give a proof of a famous theorem of Brauer and Fowler. 23.19 Brauer±Fowler Theorem Let n be a positive integer. Then there exist only ®nitely many nonisomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with centralizer of order n.

Real representations

279

Despite its fairly elementary proof, this result is of great historical importance in ®nite group theory. It led Brauer to propose the programme of determining, for each ®nite group C, all the simple groups G possessing an involution u with CG (u)  C. This programme was the start of the modern attempt to classify all ®nite simple groups, which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s. For further information about this, see the book by D. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography. In Exercise 10 at the end of the chapter you are asked to carry out Brauer's programme in the case where C  C2 . This should not trouble you too much. In Chapter 30, Theorem 30.8, you will ®nd a much more sophisticated case, in which C  D8. For proof of Theorem 23.19 we require two preliminary lemmas. 23.20 Lemma € € If a1 , . . . , a n are real numbers, then a2 > … a i †2 an. i Proof This follows from the Cauchy±Schwarz inequality kvk kwk > jvXwj, taking v ˆ (a1 , . . . , a n ) and w ˆ (1, . . . , 1). j 23.21 Lemma Let G be a group of even order m, and let t be the number of involutions in G (so t . 0 by Exercise 8 of Chapter 1). Write a ˆ (m À 1)at. Then G contains a non-identity element x such that jG : C G (x)j < a2 . Proof By Corollary 23.17, we have ˆ t< ÷(1)
÷

where the sum is over all non-trivial irreducible characters ÷ of G. Writing k for the number of irreducible characters of G, we deduce using Lemma 23.20 and Theorem 11.12 that ˆ ˆ t2 < ( ÷(1))2 < (k À 1) ÷(1)2 ˆ (k À 1)(m À 1),
÷

and hence m À 1 < (k À 1)(m À 1)2 at 2 ˆ (k À 1)a2 . Now k À 1 is the number of non-identity conjugacy classes of G. If every nonidentity conjugacy class has size more then a2 , then (k À 1)a2 .

280

Representations and characters of groups

jGj À 1 ˆ m À 1, a contradiction. Therefore some non-identity class x G has size at most a2 . Then jG : C G (x)j < a2 , giving the result. j Proof of Theorem 23.19 Suppose G is simple and contains an involution u such that jC G (u)j ˆ n. Let jGj ˆ m, and let t be the number of involutions in G. By Proposition 12.6, every element of the conjugacy class u G is an involution, and hence t > ju G j ˆ jG : C G (u)j ˆ manX Therefore (m À 1)at , n, and so by Lemma 23.21, there is a nonidentity element x P G such that jG : C G (x)j , n2 . Let H ˆ C G (x). If H ˆ G then x lies in Z(G), the centre of G, which is a normal subgroup of G. Since G is simple it follows that G ˆ Z(G), so G is abelian and therefore G  C2 . Now suppose that H Tˆ G. Write r ˆ jG : Hj, so r , n2 . By Exercise 9 at the end of the chapter, there is a non-trivial homomorphism è from G to the symmetric group S r . As G is simple, the normal subgroup Ker è ˆ f1g. Thus G is isomorphic to a subgroup of S r , hence of S n2 . In particular, given n, there are only ®nitely many possibilities for G. j

Summary of Chapter 23 1. The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. Let é be the indicator function, and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. V if ÷ is non-real, b 0, b b b 1, ` if there exists an RG-module U with character ÷, 2X é÷ ˆ with character ÷ b b b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but there does not exist an RG-moduleX V if 1 G is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A , b 0, ` 3X é÷ ˆ 1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S , b X À1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ A X € 2 4. ÷ (é÷)÷(1) ˆ |{ g P G: g ˆ 1}|.

Real representations Exercises for Chapter 23

281

1. Prove that if G is a group of odd order then no non-identity element of G is real. 2. Let G be a ®nite abelian group. Use the description of the irreducible characters of G, given in Theorem 9.8, to prove directly that the number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of elements g in G for which g2 ˆ 1. 3. Let G ˆ D2 n and consult Section 18.3 for the character table of G. How many elements g of G satisfy g2 ˆ 1? Deduce that é÷ ˆ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. 4. Let r be an irreducible representation of degree 2 of a group G, and let ÷ be the character of r. Prove that ÷ A ( g) ˆ det ( gr) for all g P G. Deduce that é÷ ˆ À1 if and only if det ( gr) ˆ 1 for all g P G. 5. Let G ˆ T 4 n ˆ ha, b: a2 n ˆ 1, a n ˆ b2 , bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i, as in Exercise 17.6. Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 , v2 and let å be a (2n)th root of unity in C with å Tˆ Æ1. Exercise 17.6 shows that V becomes an irreducible CG-module if we de®ne v1 a ˆ åv1 , v2 a ˆ å À1 v2 , v1 b ˆ v2 , v2 b ˆ å n v1 X

Let ÷ be the character of this CG-module V. (a) Note that å n ˆ Æ1. Use Exercise 4 to show that é÷ ˆ 1 if å n ˆ 1 and é÷ ˆ À1 if å n ˆ À1. (b) Let â be the bilinear form on V for which â(v1 , v1 ) ˆ â(v2 , v2 ) ˆ 0, â(v1 , v2 ) ˆ 1, â(v2 , v1 ) ˆ å n X Prove that the bilinear form â is G-invariant, and use Theorem 23.16 to provide a second proof that é÷ ˆ 1 if å n ˆ 1 and é÷ ˆ À1 if å n ˆ À1. (c) Prove that a n is the only element of order 2 in T4 n. (d) Use the character table of G, which appears in the solution to Exercise 18.3, to ®nd é÷ for each irreducible character ÷ of G. Check that

282

Representations and characters of groups ˆ (é÷)÷(1) ˆ 2,
÷

in agreement with the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 6. Prove that if ÷ is an irreducible character of a group G, and é÷ ˆ À1, then ÷(1) is even. (Hint: the solution uses a well known result about skew-symmetric bilinear forms.) 7. Suppose that V is a vector space over R and that â1 and â are symmetric bilinear forms on V. Assume that â1 (w, w) . 0 for all non-zero w in V. Prove that there is a basis e1 , X X X , e n of V such that â1 (ei , ei ) ˆ 1 for all i, and â1 (ei , ej ) ˆ â(ei , ej ) ˆ 0 for all i Tˆ jX 8. Schur's Lemma is crucial for the development of the theory of CG-modules. This exercise indicates the extent to which results like Schur's Lemma hold for RG-modules. Let V and W be irreducible RG-modules. (a) Prove that if W: V 3 W is an RG-homomorphism then either W is an RG-isomorphism or vW ˆ 0 for all v P V. (b) Prove that if W: V 3 V is an RG-isomorphism and V remains irreducible as a CG-module, then W ˆ ë1 V for some real number ë. . (c) Give an example of a group G, an irreducible RG-module V and an RG-homomorphism W: V 3 V which is not a multiple of 1 V . 9. Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. Let Ù be the set of n right cosets Hx of H in G. For g P G, de®ne a function r g : Ù 3 Ù by ( Hx)r g ˆ Hxg for all x P G. Prove that r g is a permutation of Ù, and that the function r : g 3 r g is a homomorphism from G to the symmetric group on Ù. „ Show that the kernel of r is xPG x À1 Hx. Deduce that if a group G has a subgroup H of index n, then there is a homomorphism G 3 S n with kernel contained in H. 10. Suppose that G is a ®nite group containing and involution t with CG (t)  C2 . Prove that |G : G9| ˆ 2. Deduce that if G is simple, then G  C2 .

24 Summary of properties of character tables

In this short chapter we present no new results, but instead we gather together from previous chapters various properties which are helpful when we try to ®nd the character table of a particular group. In the next four chapters we shall calculate several character tables in detail. Usually we begin by working out the conjugacy classes and centralizer orders of our given ®nite group G. The size of the character table is determined by the number k of conjugacy classes of G; the character table is then a k 3 k matrix, with columns indexed by the conjugacy classes of G (the ®rst column corresponding to the conjugacy class {1}), and with rows indexed by the irreducible characters of G. When doing calculations, we commonly come across a new character ÷, which may or may not be irreducible. We can then calculate h÷, ÷i, which is given by h÷, ÷i ˆ 1 ˆ ÷( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG

The character ÷ is irreducible if and only if h÷, ÷i ˆ 1 (see Theorem 14.20). If ÷ is reducible then we calculate h÷, ÷ i i for each of the irreducible characters ÷ i which we already know, and then ÷À ˆ h÷, ÷ i i÷ i
i

will also be a character. We can thus determine whether ÷ is a linear combination of the irreducible characters we already know; and if it is not, then we can obtain from ÷ a linear combination of irreducible characters, all of which are new. We have developed a number of methods for producing characters ÷ 283

284

Representations and characters of groups

on which to perform such calculations. For example, every subgroup of Sn has a permutation character (see (13.22)); the product of two characters is again a character (Proposition 19.6); given a character ø we can form the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of its square, ø S and ø A (see Proposition 19.14); and if H is a subgroup of G then we can restrict characters of G to H, and induce characters of H to G. These and other properties of characters are summarized in the following list.

Properties of characters Assume that ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. (1) (Example 13.8(3)) There is a (trivial) character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) ˆ 1 for all g P GX (2) (Theorem 17.11) The group G has precisely jGaG9j linear characters. These are the characters ÷ given by ÷( g) ˆ ø( gG9) ( g P G) as ø varies over the irreducible (linear) characters of GaG9. (3) (Theorem 17.3) As a generalization of (2), if N v G and ø is an irreducible character of GaN , then we get an irreducible character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) ˆ ø( gN ) ( g P G) (÷ is the lift of ø). This method gives precisely those irreducible characters of G which have N contained in their kernel. (4) (Theorem 19.18) If G ˆ G1 3 G2 then all the irreducible characters ÷ of G are given by ÷( g1 , g 2 ) ˆ ö1 ( g 1 )ö2 ( g 2 ) ( g 1 P G1 , g 2 P G2 ), as ö i varies over the irreducible characters of Gi (i ˆ 1, 2). (5) (Proposition 13.24) If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) ˆ jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. ( g P G)

Summary of properties of character tables

285

(6) (Theorems 11.12 and 22.11) The entries ÷ i (1) (1 < i < k) in the ®rst column of the character table of G are positive integers, and satisfy
k ˆ iˆ1

÷ i (1)2 ˆ jGjX

Moreover, each integer ÷ i (1) divides |G|. (7) (Row orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(1)) For all i, j, we have h÷ i , ÷ j i ˆ ä ij . (8) (Column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2)) For all g, h P G, we have @ k ˆ jCG ( g)j, if g and h are conjugate, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (h) ˆ 0, otherwiseX iˆ1 (9) (Exercise 13.5) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and z P Z(G), then there exists a root of unity å such that for all g P G, ÷(zg) ˆ å÷( g)X (10) (Proposition 13.9(2)) If g is an element of order n in G, and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g) is a sum of nth roots of unity. Moreover, |÷( g)| < ÷(1). (11) (Proposition 13.9(3, 4)) If g P G and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g À1 ) ˆ ÷( g)X In particular, if g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G. (12) (Corollary 15.6) If g P G and g is not conjugate to gÀ1 , then ÷( g) is non-real for some character ÷ of G. (13) (Theorem 22.16) Let g P G. If g is conjugate to gi for all positive integers i which are coprime to the order of g, then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. (14) (Corollary 22.26) Suppose that p is a prime number and that y is the p9-part of the element g of G. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers, then ÷( g)  ÷( y) mod pX

Two important normal subgroups are G9 and Z(G). The derived subgroup G9 consists of those elements g in G which satisfy ÷( g) ˆ 1 for all linear characters ÷ of G. The centre Z(G) can be found by noting which elements g of G satisfy . (21) (Chapter 20) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of G. then so is the product ÷ø. where ÷ø( g) ˆ ÷( g)ø( g) ( g P G)X (19) (Proposition 19. where ÷ë( g) ˆ ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G)X (18) (Proposition 19. For example. (17) (Proposition 17. these can be determined in the following ways. then ÷( g)  ÷(1) mod pX (15) (Proposition 13. then ø 5 H is a character of H.6) If ÷ and ø are characters of G. 2 ÷ A ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 (20) (De®nition 21.6). then so is ÷. ÷ S ( g) ˆ 1(÷ 2 ( g) ‡ ÷( g 2 )).1) The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. if the order of g is a power of p. where (ø 5 H)(h) ˆ ø(h) (h P H)X We have seen that the character table of a group G gives grouptheoretic information about G. Proposition 21. then ø 4 G is a character of G. where for all g P G.13.5).23.23) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of H.286 Representations and characters of groups In particular. We can see from the character table whether or not G is simple (Proposition 17. the ®rst column determines |G| and jGaG9j (by (6) and (2)). where ÷( g) ˆ ÷( g) ( g P G)X (16) (Theorem 23. indeed.14) If ÷ is a character of G. then ÷ë is an irreducible character of G. with values given by Proposition 21. we can ®nd all the normal subgroups of G (Proposition 17. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A .15) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G.14) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ë is a linear character of G.

which can be deduced from the character table. In Chapter 30 we shall see some more impressive results about subgroups of G. the sum being over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. D8 and Q8 . with the same character table. As a ®nal remark.1 we gave examples of non-isomorphic groups. however. it is of course true that isomorphic groups have the same character table.Summary of properties of character tables 287 € ÷( g)÷( g) ˆ |G|. the converse is false: in Exercise 17. .

with addition and multiplication modulo p.1 Theorem The multiplicative group Zà is cyclic. and n r T 1 mod p for 0 . We shall not provide a proof of Theorem 25. A number of these groups are so-called Frobenius groups. and Zà ˆ Z p À f0g is an abelian group p under multiplication. Clearly Z p is a cyclic group under addition. Primitive roots modulo p Recall that the set Z p ˆ f0. generated by 1. 1. that is. is a ®eld. that is. Z p is an abelian group under addition. In particular. there exists an integer n p such that n pÀ1  1 mod p.25 Characters of groups of order pq By the end of the next chapter. this will give the character tables of all groups whose order is the product of two prime numbers. It is also true. and in this chapter we shall describe a class of Frobenius groups and ®nd the character tables of the groups in this class. but for a good 288 . but not at all obvious. p À 1g. p À 1X An integer n of order p À 1 in Zà is called a primitive root modulo p p. we shall have determined the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. X X X . r .1. p will denote a prime number. Throughout the chapter. that Zà is cyclic: p 25.

G is a group of order p( p À 1) (see Exercise 25. y P Z X : xPZp p x Under matrix multiplication.4 Example De®ne Gˆ & 1 0  ' y Ã. 0 1 0 u and let F ˆ hA. As an immediate consequence of Theorem 25. and 3 is a primitive root modulo 7. Bˆ . Now let q| p À 1.1). Then   1 u À1 B AB ˆ ˆ Au . qX Frobenius groups of order pq. such that u q  1 mod p.3 Proposition If q| p À 1 then there is an integer u such that u has order q modulo p ± that is. 11 and 13. we refer you to Theorem 45.Characters of groups of order pq 289 account. 0 1 and so we have the relations (25X5) Ap ˆ Bq ˆ I. These pq elements are dis- . the subgroup of G generated by A and B.2 Example The number 2 is a primitive root modulo 3. and u r T 1 mod p for 0 .3 of the book by J. r . we see that every element of F is of the form A i B j with 0 < i < p À 1. 25. 0 < j < q À 1. 5. where q| p 2 1 25. De®ne p     1 1 1 0 Aˆ . Bi. BÀ1 AB ˆ Au X Using these relations. but not modulo 7. B. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. and let u be an element of order q in the multiplicative group Zà .1 we have 25.

so bÀ1 ab ˆ au for some integer u. B. where p and q are prime numbers with p . then G is generated by a and b.q ˆ ha.q . The next result classi®es all groups whose order is the product of two distinct prime numbers. then we write F p. Since bq P H but b does not have order pq (as G is non-abelian).6 De®nition If p is a prime and q| p À 1. Passman listed in the Bibliography. up to isomorphism. S. 25. B: Ap ˆ Bq ˆ I. p . p It is not hard to show that. Thus the order of u in the group Zà divides q. Moreover the relations (25. Further. It follows from Exercise 22. Suppose that H ˆ kal and Ga H ˆ h Hbi.5) determine all products in F. We shall not give the general de®nition of these here.q for the group of order pq with presentation F p. b: a p ˆ b q ˆ 1. so we have the presentation F ˆ hA. (Alternatively.3 that q divides p À 1 and G has a normal subgroup H of order p.) Both H and Ga H are cyclic. The groups F p.q does not depend on which integer u of order q we choose (see Exercise 25. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography). F p. as we shall only be dealing with F p. the interested reader can ®nd more information in the book by D. a ˆ bÀq abq ˆ a u q and so u q  1 mod p. it follows that b has order q.3). where u is an element of order q in Zà . so jFj ˆ pq.q belong to a wider class of groups known as Frobenius groups. q. Then either G is abelian.290 Representations and characters of groups tinct. BÀ1 AB ˆ Au iX 25. Now H v G.q . these facts follow readily from Sylow's Theorems (see Chapter 18 of the book by J. bÀ1 ab ˆ au i.7 Proposition Suppose that G is a group of order pq. Proof Assume that G is non-abelian. or q divides p À 1 and G  F p. since they have prime order.

(av i ) G ˆ fav i s : s P Sg (1 < i < r).q : the dihedral group of order 2 p is the case where q ˆ 2.q ˆ ha. and choose coset representatives v1 . b: ap ˆ bq ˆ 1. (bn ) G ˆ fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g (1 < n < q À 1)X Proof The equation bÀ j av b j ˆ avu j shows that av is conjugate to avs for all s P S.3. and since kal < CG (av i ). already found the character tables of certain of the groups F p. and the groups of order 21 are C3 3 C7 and F7. and G would be abelian. q| p À 1 (q not necessarily prime).q in general. this size is at most q. Therefore the order of u is q. Thus p jSj ˆ q.7.8 Example By Proposition 25.q We have.25 we dealt with F7. isomorphic to C3 3 C5 ). and u has order q modulo p. every group of order 15 is abelian (indeed.3 . Thus let G ˆ Fp. and has the form stated in the proposition. The character table of F p. We have now established that a p ˆ b q ˆ 1. Let S be the subgroup of Zà consisting of the powers of u.Characters of groups of order pq 291 If the order of u were 1 then we would have bÀ1 ab ˆ a. in fact. bÀ1 ab ˆ au . Write r ˆ ( p À 1)aq.q are f1g. j 25. v r for S in Zà . Hence (av i ) G has size q.q . .9 Proposition The conjugacy classes of G ˆ F p. bÀ1 ab ˆ au i where p is prime. p 25. Therefore the conjugacy class of av i has size at least q. and in Example 21. X X X . We now construct the character table of F p. also the size of this conjugacy class is equal to |G: CG (av i )|. order of u in Zà is qX p Hence G  F p.

where ÷ n (a x b y ) ˆ e2ði nyaq (0 < x < p À 1. ö j i G X Hence ö j 5 hai ˆ hö j . First.23. These are given by ÷ n (0 < n < q À 1). it follows that for n T 0 mod q.292 Representations and characters of groups Since CG (bn ) contains kbl. so GaG9 has order q and therefore by Theorem 17. and øv 4 G ˆ øvs 4 G if s P SX For each coset representative v j (1 < j < r) of S in Zà . and kbl has index p in G. . By the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. observe that the derived subgroup G9 ˆ kal. 0 < y < q À 1)X We shall show that G has r irreducible characters of degree q. On the other hand. øv j s 4 Gi G ˆ hö j .11. and so the conjugacy class of bn has size p. We obtain (øv 4 G)(ax by ) ˆ 0 if 1 < y < q À 1.9. G has q ‡ r conjugacy classes. Let å ˆ e2ðia p . and ˆ (øv 4 G)(ax ) ˆ å vsx (0 < x < p À 1)X sPS Note that øv 4 G has degree q. G has precisely q linear characters. hö j 5 hai. For v P Zà . as Gahai is abelian. Hence (bn ) G ˆ fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g and the proof is complete. using Proposition 21. we have |CG (bn )| ˆ q. every conjugate of bn has the form am bn for some m. øv j s ihai ˆ hö j . for all s P S. j By Proposition 25. denote by øv the character of kal which p is given by øv (ax ) ˆ å vx (0 < x < p À 1)X We calculate the values of the induced character øv 4 G. let p ö j ˆ øv j 4 GX We now prove that each ö j is irreducible. ö j i G ˆ sPS øv j s ‡ ÷. so we seek q ‡ r irreducible characters.16.

bÀ1 ab ˆ au i ˆ fax by : 0 < x < p À 1. We have now found q ‡ r distinct irreducible characters ÷ n . 1 < j < r). . 0 < y < q À 1g has q ‡ r irreducible characters. ö j i G X Since ö j (1) ˆ q ˆ jSj. so we have the complete character table of G. . bÀ1 ab ˆ au i .10 Theorem Let p be a prime number. Then the group F p. and hence ö1 5 kal.23. ö r 5 kal are distinct. b: a p ˆ bq ˆ 1. we deduce that kö j . ö j i G øv j s X sPS By Theorem 14. Of these. sPS for 1 < j < r. This proves that ö j is irreducible. q have degree 1 and are given by ÷ n (ax by ) ˆ e2ði nyaq (0 < n < q À 1) and r have degree q and are given by ö j (ax by ) ˆ 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. Taking degrees. q| p À 1 and r ˆ ( p À 1)aq. We conclude by illustrating Theorem 25. X X X . . the characters øv (v P Zà ) are linearly indepenp dent. ˆ ö j (ax ) ˆ e2ðiv j sxa p . ö j l G ˆ 1. it follows that ö j (1) > jSjhö j . We summarize in the following theorem. . where v1 S. ö r are distinct. Consequently the irreducible characters ö1 . 25. and also that ˆ ö j 5 hai ˆ hö j .Characters of groups of order pq 293 where ÷ is either 0 or a character of kal. 25. ö j of G (0 < n < q À 1.11 Example Let G ˆ F p. .q ˆ ha. b: a p ˆ b pÀ1 ˆ 1. pÀ1 ˆ ha. . .10 in some examples. . v r S are the cosets in Zà of the p subgroup S generated by u.

and let á ˆ å ‡ å 5 ‡ å 8 ‡ å 12 . ⠈ å 2 ‡ å 3 ‡ å 10 ‡ å 11 .4 is as shown opposite.3.294 Representations and characters of groups where u is a primitive root modulo p. b: a13 ˆ b4 ˆ 1. if 1 < x < p À 1X 25. Character table of F5.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö 1 20 1 1 1 1 4 a 5 1 1 1 1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 x if 1 < y < p À 2. You may like . bÀ1 ab ˆ a5 iX Write å ˆ e2ðia13 . bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 X Hence if G ˆ ka.13 Example We consider the case p ˆ 13. Then G has p À 1 linear characters.4 ˆ ha. bl. with values given by ö(ax by ) ˆ 0 ö(a ) ˆ À1 25.4 .10. Here F13. then G  F5. In Example 21. b ˆ (2 3 5 4)X Check that a5 ˆ b4 ˆ 1.25 we found the character table of F7.12 Example Let a. b P S5 be the permutations a ˆ (1 2 3 4 5). q ˆ 4. and one irreducible character ö of degree p À 1. the character table of F13. and so by the previous example the character table of G is as shown. 㠈 å4 ‡ å6 ‡ å7 ‡ å9 X By Theorem 25.

with p prime and q| p À 1. 3.10. Exercises for Chapter 25 1. Suppose that p is prime and q divides p À 1. p 0 x under matrix multiplication.Characters of groups of order pq 295 to check that this agrees with the description of the character table provided by Theorem 25. is a group of order p( p À 1). Let u be an element of order q in Zà .q. 2.5 of order 55. Let p and q be positive integers. Then p Fp. Prove that  & ' 1 y : x P Zà .10. q. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . and de®ne . Let p be a prime number. y P Z p .q are described in Theorem 25. 2. Write down the character table of the non-abelian group F11. bÀ1 ab ˆ au iX The irreducible characters of Fp. Let u and v be two integers which are of order q modulo p. Character table of F13. If G has order pq. b: ap ˆ bq ˆ 1.q ˆ ha.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö1 ö2 ö3 1 52 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 a 13 1 1 1 1 á â ã a2 13 1 1 1 1 â ã á a4 13 1 1 1 1 ã á â b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 0 Summary of Chapter 25 1. then either G is abelian or G  F p.

with p Tˆ 2. Let q ˆ ( p À 1)a2 and let G ˆ Fp.6. (a) Show that there exists an integer m such that u m  À1 mod p if and only if p  1 mod 4. By inducing linear characters of this subgroup. (Thus. b: ap ˆ bq ˆ 1. as in Exercise 5. ab ˆ ba. (a) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are .q ˆ ha. ö2 of G of degree q have values p 1 (ä p)) 2(À1 Æ on the element a. (b) Deduce that a is conjugate to aÀ1 if and only if p  1 mod 4. where ä ˆ 1 if p  1 mod 4. b: ap ˆ bq ˆ 1.4. b. X X X . (d) Deduce that if å ˆ e2ðia p then ˆ p å s ˆ (À1 Æ (ä p)). 22 . (c) Using the orthogonality relations. where u is an element of order q modulo p. bÀ1 ab ˆ av iX Prove that G1  G2 . Note that ka.) 7. but E has no faithful irreducible representation. Q ˆ f12 . G2 ˆ ha. 6. bÀ1 ab ˆ au i. Suppose that p is a prime number. (( p À 1)a2)2 g). 5. bl is a normal subgroup of E which is isomorphic to C3 3 C3 . Show that the group E of Exercise 5 has the properties that Z(E) is cyclic.q in 25. and ä ˆ À1 if p  À1 mod 4. cÀ1 bc ˆ bÀ1 i. c: a3 ˆ b3 ˆ c2 ˆ 1.) 4. show that the two irreducible characters ö1 . b: ap ˆ bq ˆ 1. obtain the character table of E. Let E be the group of order 18 which is given by E ˆ ha. E provides a counterexample to the converse of Proposition 9. cÀ1 ac ˆ aÀ1 . bÀ1 ab ˆ au i.16. sPQ where Q is the set of quadratic residues modulo p (that is. (This justi®es the comment which follows the de®nition of Fp.296 Representations and characters of groups G1 ˆ ha.

1. 3. 3. 3. 3X (c) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. b: a9 ˆ b6 ˆ 1. 2. 3. 2. 1. 1. 297 . bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 iX Find the character table of G. 2. 3. 3. 1. 1. 1. 3. 6X 8. 3. 3. 6. Let G be the group of order 54 which is given by G ˆ ha. 3. 3. 1. 3. 1. 3. 3X (b) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 3. 3. 1. 3. 3. 6. 3. 1. 1. 1.Characters of groups of order pq 1. 6.

with references. and before explaining the method. The method consists of examining the characters of those p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. (1) If {1} Tˆ H v G then H ’ Z(G) Tˆ {1}. At the end of the chapter we point out. indeed.1 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with n > 1. and H ’ Z(G) consists of those conjugacy classes in H which have size 1. then G is abelian.15). we show that all groups of order pn with 1 < n < 4 do. Recall that Z(G) denotes the centre of G (see De®nition 9. Z(G) Tˆ {1}. p will be a prime number. (2) If K < Z(G) and GaK is cyclic. H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. Elementary properties of p-groups A p-group is a group whose order is a power of the prime number p. We later give explicitly the irreducible characters of all groups of order p3 and of all groups of order 16. Proof (1) Since H v G. Therefore 298 . We shall show how to obtain the character tables of all groups of order pn for n < 4. that we have found the character tables of all groups of order less than 32.26 Characters of some p-groups Throughout this chapter. (3) If n < 2 then G is abelian. all of which have size a power of p. In the ®rst lemma we collect several well known properties of pgroups. In particular. have an abelian subgroup of index p. 26.

Proof The result is immediate if n ˆ 1. Then x1 ˆ g i k 1 . so suppose that 2 < n < 4. x2 P G. Assume that Z(G) contains a subgroup K of order p nÀ2 . j Hj ˆ jGjajx G j ˆ p3 . x2 ˆ g j k 2 for some integers i. 26. and so Z( H) > p2 . Let x1 . Then we can ®nd a subgroup H of G such that K < H and j Hj ˆ p nÀ1 . (2) Suppose that GaK is cyclic. Then by Theorem 12. recall that the derived subgroup of G is denoted by G9 (see De®nition 17.1(1). As K < Z( H) and. Ha Z( H) is not of order p. Since Z(G) Tˆ f1g by Lemma 26.7). j For our ®nal result on the structure of p-groups.Characters of some p-groups j Hj ˆ j H ’ Z(G)j ‡ (a multiple of p)X 299 As | H| is a multiple of p and | H ’ Z(G)| Tˆ 0. Therefore H is an abelian subgroup of index p in G. Since k1 . Z(G) and kxl are distinct nonidentity subgroups of Z( H).2 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with 1 < n < 4. the only possibility is that |G| ˆ p4 and | Z(G)| ˆ p.3 Lemma Let G be a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p. and H is an abelian subgroup of index p. Then by Exercise 12. Moreover. we deduce that Z( H) ˆ H. by Lemma 26. k2 P Z(G). j and some k1 . Hence again Z( H) ˆ H by Lemma 26. Then G contains an abelian subgroup of index p. (3) By (1).8. 26. Therefore G is abelian. it follows that x1 x2 ˆ x2 x1 .7. we deduce that H ’ Z(G) Tˆ {1}. G has an element x whose conjugacy class x G is of size p. generated by gK. Then there exists a normal subgroup K of G such that K < H ’ G9 ’ Z(G) and jKj ˆ pX .1(2). Now assume that Z(G) has no subgroup of order p nÀ2 . jGa Z(G)j < p nÀ1 . k2 P K.1(2). Let H ˆ CG (x). Hence if n < 2 then Ga Z(G) is j cyclic and so G is abelian by (2).

again by Theorem 11. we have {1} Tˆ G9 v G. Proof Let |G| ˆ pn .12. Let K be a subgroup of order p in G9 ’ Z(G). Let K be a normal subgroup of G as in Lemma 26. for some linear character ø of H which satis®es K T< Ker ø. 26. First note that if ÷ is a character of G of degree p. the irreducible characters of GaK lift to give precisely those irreducible characters of G which have K in their kernel.3.3. By Theorem 17. Then every irreducible character of G is given by either (1) the lift of an irreducible character of GaK. the next theorem provides us with all the irreducible characters of non-abelian groups of order p3 or p4 . we have KH ˆ H. or (2) ø 4 G. Since G is non-abelian and |G: H| ˆ p. The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters obtained in this way is jGaKj ˆ p nÀ1 . by Theorem 11. and hence K < G9 < Ker ÷.4 Theorem Assume that G is a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p. Since p nÀ1 ‡ ( p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 ) p2 ˆ pn ˆ jGj.300 Representations and characters of groups Proof Since G is non-abelian.1(1). and hence G9 ’ Z(G) Tˆ {1} by Lemma 26. we have G9 < Ker ÷. as G9 is in the kernel of every linear character. and therefore K < H.2. This establishes (26X5) if ÷(1) ˆ p and K T< Ker ÷. (à ) we shall then have obtained all the irreducible characters of G. We shall construct p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 further irreducible characters of G. h P H}). Now K < Z(G) implies that K v G and that KH is an abelian subgroup of G (where KH ˆ {kh: k P K.11. the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p). j Characters of p-groups with an abelian subgroup of index p In view of Lemma 26.12.8 that all the p nÀ1 irreducible characters of the abelian group H are linear. In the latter case. then either ÷ is irreducible or ÷ is a sum of linear characters (since by Theorem 22. Let Ö denote the set of linear . then ÷ is irreducibleX We know by Theorem 9. each of degree p.

ø1 i H X Since (ø 4 G) 5 H has degree p. G has at most p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 such characters. Suppose now that ø1 is a linear character of H such that ø 4 G ˆ ø1 4 G. Write Z ˆ Z(G). ø 4 G is an irreducible character of G. bZ such that Ga Z ˆ haZ.Characters of some p-groups 301 characters of H which do not have K in their kernel.4 further by constructing the character tables of all the non-abelian groups of order 16.1. Now let G be a non-abelian group of order p3 . bZi. j We now use Theorem 26.6. Choose aZ. By Lemma 26. (ø 4 G)(k) ˆ pø(k) for all k P KX Thus ø 4 G has degree p and does not have K in its kernel.8. 1 ˆ hø 4 G. we have jÖj ˆ p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 X Let ø P Ö. Since the linear characters of H which do have K in their kernel are precisely the lifts of linear characters of HaK. C p2 3 Cp and Cp 3 Cp 3 Cp X The character tables of these groups are given by Theorem 9. since K < Z(G). Therefore by (26.23. As we saw in (à ). Then by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. this implies that there are at most p elements ø1 of Ö such that ø1 4 G ˆ ø 4 G. Z Tˆ {1} and Ga Z is non-cyclic. Hence Ga Z  Cp 3 Cp and Z ˆ kzl  Cp . We shall then illustrate Theorem 26. Therefore fø 4 G: ø P Ög consists precisely of the p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 irreducible characters we seek. Then . By Proposition 21.5).4 to give an explicit construction of the irreducible characters of the non-abelian groups of order p3 .16. ø1 4 Gi G ˆ h(ø 4 G) 5 H. It follows that fø 4 G: ø P Ög gives at least jÖja p ˆ ( p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 )a p distinct irreducible characters of G of degree p which do not have K in their kernel. and the proof is complete. Groups of order p3 By Theorem 9. the abelian groups of order p3 are C p3 .

Proof By Theorem 9. Let r be an integer with 1 < r < p À 1. where ø u.v (ar bs Z) ˆ å ru‡sv X The lift to G of ø u.8. ÷ u. s. ö u (ar bs z t ) ˆ 0.v is the linear character ÷ u. the irreducible characters of Ga Z are ø u. t. t < p À 1. otherwiseX (0 < u < p À 1. zl. 0 < s < p À 1g and in particular. then ar Z is conjugate to gZ in the abelian group Ga Z. and hence (ar ) G ˆ far z t : 0 < t < p À 1gX . Then the irreducible characters of G are ÷ u. s. t with 0 < r. Let H ˆ ka. s. 26.v öu where for all r. t < p À 1} be a non-abelian group of order p3 . every element of G is of the form ar bs z t for some r. as above. For 1 < u < p À 1. 0 < v < p À 1). Write å ˆ e2ðia p . v < p À 1). and (1 < u < p À 1).302 Representations and characters of groups Ga Z ˆ far bs Z: 0 < r < p À 1. If ar is conjugate to an element g of G. @ ut if r ˆ s ˆ 0.v which appears in the statement of the theorem. s. Since ar P Z. so ar Z ˆ gZ.v (ar bs z t ) ˆ å ru‡sv . a the conjugacy class (ar ) G does not have size 1. and therefore g ˆ ar z t for some t. so that H is an abelian subgroup of order p2 .v (0 < u. choose a character ø u of H which satis®es ø u (z t ) ˆ å ut (0 < t < p À 1)X We shall calculate ø u 4 G.6 Theorem Let G ˆ {ar bs z t : 0 < r. på .

they are . If p ˆ 2. In fact. then ö u takes the values stated in the theorem. (ø u 4 G)(z t ) ˆ pø u (z t ) ˆ på ut .6 is a special case of the proof of Theorem 26.v (0 < u. they are D8 and Q8. and (ø u 4 G)( g) ˆ 0 if g P HX a pÀ1 ˆ sˆ0 pÀ1 ˆ sˆ0 303 ø u (z s ) å us We have now established that if ö u ˆ ø u 4 G. up to isomorphism. (ø u 4 G)(ar z t ) ˆ ø u (ar ) ‡ ø u (ar z) ‡ X X X ‡ ø u (ar z pÀ1 ) ˆ ø u (ar ) ˆ ø u (ar ) ˆ 0X Also. there are precisely two non-abelian groups of order p3 . and the sum of the squares of their degrees is p2 . And if p is odd. Clearly the irreducible characters ÷ u. j Notice that the calculation in the proof of Theorem 26. We ®nd that 1 ˆ hö u .4 (with K ˆ Z(G)). ö u i G ˆ 3 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p gPG ˆ ˆ 1 ˆ ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p3 gP Z 1 ˆ 2 p p3 gP Z ˆ 1X Therefore ö u is irreducible. p2 ˆ jGjX Hence we have found all the irreducible characters of G.23. v < p À 1) and ö u (1 < u < p À 1) are all distinct. 12 ‡ ( p À 1) .Characters of some p-groups Then by Proposition 21.

G3 ˆ ha. These are G of order 16 with G1 ˆ ha. b in H1 and H2 will serve for the elements a. there are precisely fourteen groups of order 16 (see p. bÀ1 ab ˆ a3 iX . bz ˆ zb. b: a8 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. and H 2 ˆ ha.8 The groups of order 16 It is known that.6. We shall describe all these groups and their character tables. 134 of the book by Coxeter and Moser listed in the Bibliography). .8. bÀ1 ab ˆ a p‡1 i.3 is given by K ˆ G9 ’ Z(G)X Now GaK is a group of order 8. C8 3 C2 . C4 3 C2 or C2 3 C2 3 C2 X We shall divide our descriptions into three parts. so the subgroup K described in Lemma 26. By Theorem 9. b: a8 ˆ 1. b. . It is not C8 by Lemma 26. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i ˆ D16 .5. 26. (A) There are three non-abelian groups GaK  D8 . . The elements a. Hence GaK  D8 . it is possible to see.1(2). b chosen in the statement of Theorem 26.7). the abelian groups of order 16 are C16 . G9 given below do indeed have order 16. and their character tables are given by Theorem 9. az ˆ za. C4 3 C4 . For each of the nine non-abelian groups G of order 16 it is the case that |G9 ’ Z(G)| ˆ 2 (see Exercise 26. using Exercise 26. b2 ˆ a4 . and it is not Q8 by Exercise 26. that all the nine groups G1 . . bÀ1 ab ˆ aziX 2 We have Z( H1 ) ˆ ka p l. according to these three possibilities for GaK.8. Our descriptions will be in terms of presentations.304 (26X7) Representations and characters of groups H 1 ˆ ha. z: a p ˆ b p ˆ z p ˆ 1. Z( H2 ) ˆ kzl. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i. b: a8 ˆ b2 ˆ 1.6. C4 3 C2 3 C2 and C2 3 C2 3 C2 3 C2 . up to isomorphism. b: a p ˆ b p ˆ 1. G2 ˆ ha.

z: a4 ˆ 1. G2 G3 1 1 C2 a4 a4 C3 a2 . a5 a5 . . a6 a2 . b. . b2 ˆ z. G6 ˆ ha. we obtain the character tables of G1 . z 2 ˆ 1. K ˆ G9 ’ Z(G). bÀ1 ab ˆ azi. they can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. . The last two characters can be obtained as in Theorem 26. as before. G2 . Note that a is conjugate to aÀ1 in G1 and G2 . b2 ˆ z 2 ˆ 1. a7 C6 ai b (i even) ai b (i even) C7 ai b (i odd) ai b (i odd) Using Theorem 26. a6 C4 a. C7 . but not in G3 . and these are given in the following table. z: a4 ˆ 1. bz ˆ zbiX . b. (B) There are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK  C4 3 C2 (where. . Each of the groups has seven conjugacy classes C1 . G5 ˆ ha. alternatively. C1 G1 . of order 2).6). a3 C5 a3 . b2 ˆ z 2 ˆ 1. where ø is a linear character of the abelian subgroup kal of index 2. G2 and G3 : Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 2 À2 À2 C3 8 1 1 1 1 À2 0 0 C4 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 á â C5 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 â á C6 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 C7 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 where ሠ2 ˆ Àâ for G1 . az ˆ za. a7 a. z: a4 ˆ z.4. bÀ1 ab ˆ azi. These are G4 ˆ ha. p á ˆ i 2 ˆ Àâ for G3 X p The ®rst ®ve characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of GaK  D8 .Characters of some p-groups 305 In each case K ˆ ka4 l. hence the values in the columns C4 and C5 are all real for G1 and G2 .4(2) as induced characters ø 4 G. but not for G3 (see Corollary 15. b. bÀ1 ab ˆ az.

az ˆ za. . These are G7 ˆ ha. G6 X (C) Finally. G8 ˆ ha. but they are in a form which allows us to describe the conjugacy classes C1 . . az a3 . G9 ˆ ha. a3 z b. z is redundant). z: a2 ˆ b2 ˆ z 4 ˆ 1. b. bz ˆ zbi  Q8 3 C2 . a3 bz a. . G5 and G6 can again be found using Theorem 26. a2 ˆ b2 . bÀ1 ab ˆ az 2 . abz C10 a3 b. a2 bz C9 ab.306 Representations and characters of groups The given presentations are somewhat cumbersome (for example. C10 of all three groups G4 . The character tables of G4 . G6 simultaneously: C1 1 C2 z C3 a2 C4 a2 z C5 C6 C7 C8 a2 b. K ˆ kzl. bz ˆ zbiX . z: a4 ˆ z 2 ˆ 1. bz In each case. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 . for G5 . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 . b. az ˆ za. G5 . since a4 ˆ z in G4 . there are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK  C2 3 C2 3 C2 (where K ˆ G9 ’ Z(G). of order 2). bz ˆ zbi  D8 3 C2 . b.4: Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 á â C4 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 â á C5 8 1 i À1 Ài 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 C6 8 1 Ài À1 i 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 C7 8 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 i À1 Ài À1 Ài 1 i 0 0 C10 8 1 Ài À1 i À1 i 1 Ài 0 0 where á ˆ 2i ˆ Àâ á ˆ 2 ˆ Àâ for G4 . . az ˆ za. z: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ z 2 ˆ 1.

4. bz 2 bz. abz3 We have Kˆ @ ha2 i hz 2 i for G7 .Characters of some p-groups Each of these groups has ten conjugacy classes. given by Theorem 26. Apart from abelian groups and dihedral groups. are as follows: . which are given by C1 C2 C3 C4 G7 . a3 b abz. bz 3 ab. G8 G9 1 a2 1 z2 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 307 z a2 z a. a3 az. a3 z z z 3 a. a2 bz ab. we have in fact found the character tables of all groups of order 31 or less. are as follows. a2 b bz. for G9 . whose character tables are given by Theorem 9. G8 .8 and Section 18. Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 á â C4 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 â á C5 8 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 0 0 C6 8 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 C7 8 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 C10 8 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 0 0 where á ˆ 2 ˆ Àâ á ˆ 2i ˆ Àâ for G7 . az 3 b. a3 bz b. with references for their character tables. G8 . and the character tables of G7 .3. abz 2 abz. G8 and G9 . for G9 X 26.9 The groups of order less than 32 At this point. the groups. az 2 az.

Theorem 26. 2.18 Section 18. .1 Exercise 27. n > 2).3 Theorem 19. 1.8: groups of order 16. G has pm linear characters and p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 irreducible characters of degree p.3 Theorem 25.4 Exercise 18.18 Theorem 19. .10 Theorem 25.6 Exercise 18. we gave the irreducible characters of various nonabelian p-groups G. D10 3 C3 Reference for character table Exercise 17.6: groups of order p3 .4: p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p.3 Exercise 18.1 Section 18. . Suppose that G is a group of order pn ( p prime. D6 3 C4 S4 SL (2.8 Theorem 19. A4 3 C2 .2 Exercise 18.308 |G| 8 12 16 18 20 21 24 Representations and characters of groups G Q8 A4 T12 G1 . . 3. 3) T24 U24 V24 H1 .2 Exercise 18.3 Section 26. Section 26.10 Theorem 19. H2 T28 D6 3 C5 . as follows. Exercises for Chapter 26 1. Theorem 26. G9 D6 3 C3 E T20 F5. Show that for some integer m > 2. Q8 3 C3 .5 Theorem 26.5 Exercise 18.4 F7.3 D12 3 C2 .18 Exercise 25.18 27 28 30 Summary of Chapter 26 In this chapter. . T12 3 C2 D8 3 C3 . with an abelian subgroup H of index p.

. Write Z ˆ ÀI. or otherwise.) (d) Show that |G| ˆ 32. . and deduce that G is a 2group of order at most 32. (b) Show that for all g in G. B. bÀ1 ab ˆ azi 309 (see (26.6 to write down the character table of H. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 iX Using Theorem 26. . (a) Prove that all pairs of generators commute modulo h Zi. Let A. G9 be the non-abelian groups of order 16 with presentations as given in the text. ®nd the character table of G.3. G6 . b. Let H be the group of order 27 which is given by H ˆ ha. D H À1 f f 0 f Aˆf f 0 d 0 f fi f Cˆf f0 d 0 H i 0 0 0 be the following 4 3 4 matrices: I H 0 0 0 0 0 i g f f0 1 0 0g 0 0 g f Bˆf g. G4 and G9 . b: a16 ˆ 1. (c) Prove that the given representation of G of degree 4 is irreducible. Dl. (b) Why do the remaining groups G5 . and use Theorem 26. 0g e 0 I g 0g g g. Ài g e 0 g 0g g g. z: a3 ˆ b3 ˆ z 3 ˆ 1. . 0g e 0 and let G ˆ kA.7)). (a) Find faithful irreducible representations of degree 2 for G1 . and ®nd all the irreducible representations of G. G7 and G8 have no faithful irreducible representations? . az ˆ za.4. fi 0 1 0g 0 0 e d 0 0 0 0 Ài À1 0 I 0 f f0 f Dˆf f0 d 1 H 0 Ài 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 0 g Ài g g g. C.Characters of some p-groups 2. bz ˆ zb. and deduce that G9 ˆ h Zi. Let G be the group of order 32 which is given by G ˆ ha. 5. Find the conjugacy classes of H. 3. B. g 2 P h Zi. G3 . 4. (Hint: use Corollary 9. G2 . C. Let G1 . b2 ˆ a8 .

Let G be a non-abelian group of order p4 . (a) Prove that | Z(G)| ˆ p or p2 . and hence that a2 P Z.) 6. . and that if |G9| ˆ p2 then G has 2 p2 À 1 conjugacy classes. (a) Prove that if G is any group.310 (c) Representations and characters of groups Check that the following give faithful representations of G5 and G6 : H I H I 0 1 0 i 0 0 G5 : a 3 d 1 0 0 e. 0 0 1 H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 G6 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. . . bZ: a4 P Z. then Ga Z(G) T Q8 . (Hint: assume that Ga Z ˆ haZ. .) (b) Deduce from the result of Exercise 7 that if G is a group of order 16. G9 are isomorphic. . Prove that no two of the groups G1 . (Note: This exercise can be used to con®rm that the presentations of G1 . 8. (b) Prove that |G9| ˆ p or p2 . 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 e. 7. . a2  b2 mod Z. then Ga(G9 ’ Z(G)) T Q8 . . 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 eX 0 0 1 (d) Find faithful representations of degree 3 for G7  D8 3 C2 and G8  Q8 3 C2 . G9 given in the text do indeed give groups of order 16. . . and that if | Z(G)| ˆ p2 then G has p3 ‡ p2 À p conjugacy classes. b 3 d 1 0 0 e. bÀ1 ab  aÀ1 mod Zi. b 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. (c) Deduce that |G9 ’ Z(G)| ˆ p. Prove that a2 commutes with b.

b. To calculate the order of the group SL (2. and recall that Z p is the ®eld which consists of the numbers 0. ad À bc ˆ 1)X c d If c ˆ 0. with addition and multiplication modulo p. . d which make ad À bc ˆ 1 (since a. then there are p( p À 1) choices for a. and d is determined by a). of order 60. we count the matrices   a b (a. d 311 . b are arbitrary. In fact the group A5 . c. p) the set of all 2 3 2 matrices M with entries in Z p such that det M ˆ 1. Examples of simple groups which we have met so far are cyclic groups of prime order.27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 Recall that a simple group is a non-trivial group G such that the only normal subgroups of G are f1g and G itself. The group belongs to a whole family of simple groups. We discussed brie¯y in Chapter 1 the signi®cance of simple groups in the theory of ®nite groups. and we begin with a description of this family. d P Z p . . p) is a group under matrix multiplication. p À 1. . p). . Special linear groups Let p be a prime number. b. The next smallest is a certain group of order 168. Denote by SL (2. Then SL (2. except that a Tˆ 0. b. c. A5 and A6 . and in this chapter we shall describe this group and ®nd its character table. and is called the 2-dimensional special linear group over Z p. And there are p2 ( p À 1) choices for a. is the smallest non-abelian simple group.

26). so assume that p is an odd prime. By Exercise 27. Therefore jSL (2. p)| ˆ p( p2 À 1). the group PSL (2. and is written as PSL (2. using information about subgroups. The factor group SL (2. p) ˆ SL (2. The conjugacy classes of PSL (2. and it is easy to see that this group is isomorphic to S3 . p) has order 6. p). and we shall construct the character table of this group. Thus PSL (2. The power of these techniques is therefore well illustrated. 7) has exactly six conjugacy classes. The simple group G ˆ PSL (2. we shall ®nd the character table using only numerical calculations. p)j ˆ p( p À 1) ‡ p2 ( p À 1) ˆ p( p2 À 1)X If p ˆ 2 then SL (2.312 Representations and characters of groups with c Tˆ 0. and the size of the conjugacy class containing gi . p) is simple (see Theorem 8. Rotman listed in the Bibliography). . and then b is determined). 5)  A5 . p)a Z is called the 2-dimensional projective special linear group. we have jPSL(2. together with the order of gi .19 of the book by J. the centre of SL (2. 3)  A4 .1. d may be chosen arbitrarily. the order of CG ( gi ). p)afÆIgX Since |SL (2.4) and congruence properties (Corollary 22. p) is Z ˆ fI. J. After ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. The following table records representatives gi (1 < i < 6) for the conjugacy classes. c is any non-zero element of Z p .1 Lemma The group PSL (2. 7) has order 168. and that for p > 5. we indicate other ways of obtaining characters of G. In the exercises. such that ad À bc ˆ 1 (since a. notably the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16. PSL (2. 7) 27. p)j ˆ p( p2 À 1)a2X It is known that PSL (2. ÀIg (where I is the 2 3 2 identity matrix).

d  ' Z X  4 0 0 2        3 À2 3 2 0 À1 1 0 . . Consider. g4 . CG ( g 4 ) ˆ 0 1 0 Similarly CG ( g2 ) ˆ &  0 4 0 4  Z. Among g1 . and then use direct calculation to ®nd all the elements of G which commute with g i . the only elements with the same order are g5 . X 3 À2 4 À2 À2 2 2 2 Also. Consequently &   1 0 2 Z. . . . Then     a b 2 0 2 ˆÆ c d 0 4 0 and hence b ˆ c ˆ 0. g6 . we verify that gi has the stated order. CG ( gi ) ˆ k gi l for i ˆ 3. .  a c  b . 5. . . . MZ: M ˆ À2 4 2 4 1 0 0 1        ' 2 3 2 4 2 2 2 À2 . for example.Character table of the simple group of order 168 Order of gi  g1 ˆ  g2 ˆ  g3 ˆ  g4 ˆ  g5 ˆ  g6 ˆ 1 0 0 1  Z  Z 2 4 3 7 7 8 4 3 7 7 21 42 56 24 24 1 168 |CG ( gi )| | gG | i 1 313 0 1 À1 0 2 2 2 0 1 0 1 0  À2 Z 2  0 Z 4  1 Z 1  À1 Z 1 Proof For each i. Suppose that   a b Z c d commutes with g4 . 6. .

d ˆ aÀ1 and     a a‡b a b À aÀ1 ˆ X 0 aÀ1 0 aÀ1 Therefore a2 ˆ À1. which is impossible for a P Z7 . 7) Since G has six conjugacy classes. gi is conjugate to ( gi ) k whenever gi and ( gi ) k have the same order. ÷( g5 ) is non-real. Suppose that gÀ1 g6 g ˆ g5 with   a b gˆ Z P GX c d Then gg5 ˆ g6 g. these exhaust the conjugacy i classes of G. . (2) For some character ÷ of G. so g5 is not conjugate to its inverse. ÷6 be the irreducible characters of G. . so no two of these six elements are conjugate. Since the sum of the sizes of the six conjugacy classes g G (1 < i < 6) is 168.19). for 1 < i < 4. and we have established that no two of the elements g1 . j The character table of G PSL (2.16. Thus g5 is not conjugate to g6 . (2) Notice that g6 ˆ gÀ1 . where ÷1 is the . then ÷( gi ) is an integer.2 Corollary (1) If 1 < i < 4 and ÷ is a character of G. Proof (1) By Lemma 27. The size of the conjugacy class g G is obtained by dividing 168 by i |CG ( gi )| (Theorem 12.1.6. . except possibly g5 and g6 . and so    a a‡b aÀc ˆÆ c c‡d c bÀd d  with ad À bc ˆ 1X It follows that c ˆ 0.8). a Tˆ 0. . it also has six irreducible characters. . Let ÷1 . Hence the conclusion follows from Theorem 22. since any normal subgroup is a union of conjugacy classes (see Proposition 12. it is easy to check that G is indeed simple. 27. .314 Representations and characters of groups and g6 . . . g6 are conjugate.1. j Notice that using Lemma 27. 5 Therefore (2) follows from Corollary 15.

The entries in the column of g4 are integers. By . and the entries in column g2 are 1. Æ1. 0. so di is the entry on row i of column 1. g4 .27. 0 in some order. Æ1. Let di ˆ ÷ i (1). Æ1.e. and so ÷( g 2 )  ÷( g 3 ) mod 2X Since we also know that 6 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) ˆ 0. 0 in some order.27 for the elements g2 . Æ1. We shall repeatedly exploit the column orthogonality relations. and ÷( g 3 )  ÷(1) mod 2. Æ1. The entries must therefore be 1. For the moment we concentrate on the entries in the ®rst column of the character table (i. ÷6 . Theorem 16. for which the character values are known to be integers. Now for all characters ÷ of G. 0. .4(2).Character table of the simple group of order 168 315 trivial character (so that ÷1 ( g) ˆ 1 for all g P G). and the sum of the squares of these integers is equal to |CG ( g4 )| ˆ 3. and the congruence properties given by Corollaries 22. Recall that the character table is the 6 3 6 matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( gj ). we see that. ÷( g 2 )  ÷(1) mod 2. 0. Æ1. . Æ2. Æ1.2. . part of the character table of G is as follows: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 We shall determine the signs later. with a suitable ordering of ÷2 . Æ1. we have by Corollary 22. the degrees ÷ i (1)). . 0 in some order. g3 .) Similarly the entries in the column of g3 are 1. (We know that the entry in the ®rst row is ÷1 ( g4 ) ˆ 1.26 and 22. by Corollary 27.

2 Now 1 ‡ d 2 ‡ d 2 ‡ 32 ‡ 32 ‡ 62 ˆ 168. and hence d6 ˆ 6. we have d2 ˆ 7 and d3 ˆ 8. The only solutions to this equation with d2. we have d6 Tˆ 12. we have d 4  0 mod 3. d 2 < 168X 4 The only positive integer d4 which satis®es these conditions is d4 ˆ 3. d 4 divides jGj ˆ 168. d 6  0 mod 3. d 2 < 168X 6 Therefore d6 is 6 or 12. so as d 2 < 168. But 0ˆ 6 ˆ iˆ1 316 and and ÷ i ( g 2 )d i ˆ 1 Æ d 2 Æ 3 Æ 3 Æ 2d 6 . 8 in some order. d3 2 3 positive integers have d2.11 and the fact that iˆ1 d i ˆ 168. d 6  0 mod 2. 2 3 so d 2 ‡ d 2 ˆ 113.Representations and characters of groups €6 2 Corollary 22. In the same way.27. d5 ˆ 3. Since d 2  1 mod 2. and have the following portion: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 . Theorem 22. d 6 divides 168. We have now found the ®rst column of the character table. d 4  1 mod 2. d3 equal to 7. Next.

(Note that ÷2 ( g5 )  ÷2 (1) mod 7. Let ÷4 ( g5 ) ˆ ÷5 ( g 5 ) ˆ z. We obtain Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 Next. but we could not use this fact as we were not sure that ÷2 ( g5 ) was an integer. Hence ÷4 and ÷5 (being the only two irreducible characters with the same degree) must be complex conjugates of each other. for j ˆ 5.Character table of the simple group of order 168 The equations 6 ˆ iˆ1 317 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g j ) ˆ 0 for j ˆ 2. 3.2. and let ÷6 ( g5 ) ˆ t. For this character ÷. g4 . g3 .) Also. Thus the column for g5 is . the complex conjugate ÷ will be a different character of the same degree. 6. the equation 1 ˆ h÷2 . 0ˆ 6 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g 4 )÷ i ( g j ) ˆ 1 À ÷3 ( g j ) and so ÷3 ( g5 ) ˆ ÷3 ( g6 ) ˆ 1. ÷2 i ˆ ˆ 6 ˆ ÷2 ( g i )÷2 ( g i ) iˆ1 jCG ( g i )j 7X7 1 1 1 ÷2 ( g 5 )÷2 ( g 5 ) ÷2 ( g 6 )÷2 ( g 6 ) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 168 8 4 3 7 7 gives ÷2 ( g5 ) ˆ ÷2 ( g6 ) ˆ 0. 4 now enable us to determine the signs in the columns for g2 . there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷( g5 ) is non-real. By Corollary 27.

as shown. ÷ i ( g 5 )÷ i ( g 5 ) ˆ 2 ‡ 2zz ‡ ttX Solving these equations. we have ÷( g6 ) ˆ ÷( g 5 ) for all characters ÷ of G. we obtain p t ˆ À1.318 Representations and characters of groups Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g5 7 1 0 1 z z t Now 0ˆ 0ˆ 7ˆ 6 ˆ iˆ1 6 ˆ iˆ1 6 ˆ iˆ1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 5 ) ˆ 1 À z À z ‡ 2t. . 7). z ˆ (À1 Æ i 7)a2X Since g6 ˆ gÀ1 . 7) Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á ˆ (À1 ‡ i 7)a2. We give you the character tables of all of these. g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 1 0 1 á á À1 It is known that there are precisely ®ve non-abelian simple groups of order less than 1000. 5 We have now completely determined the character table of G ˆ PSL (2. Character table of PSL (2. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 5 ) ˆ 1 ‡ z ‡ z.

as follows: &  ' a b Tˆ Z : a P Zà . 3. d jSL (2. c. jPSL (2. 7) A6 PSL (2. Exercises for Chapter 27 1. 2. ad À bc ˆ 1 . p) ˆ SL (2. and show that (1 T ) 4 G ˆ 1 G ‡ ÷. 7) that this group is simple. . given the conjugacy classes of G. 7). 4.Character table of the simple group of order 168 as follows: G A5 PSL (2. the simple group of order 168. 7).3 Exercise 27. p)afÆIg. Prove that Z(SL (2. d P Z p .13 This chapter Exercise 20. 2.1.6 & 1. Calculate the values of the induced character (1 T ) 4 G. b. 11) Order of G 60 168 360 504 660 319 Reference for character table Example 20. of order 21. 8) PSL (2. PSL (2. b P Z7 7 0 aÀ1 (where Z ˆ {ÆI}). We constructed the character table of PSL (2. as in Lemma 27. p) ˆ a c Summary of Chapter 27  ' b : a. 3.2 Exercise 28. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. p)) ˆ fÆIg. 3). (a) De®ne the subgroup T of G. SL (2. Find the character table of SL (2. In this exercise we present an alternative construction of the character table of G ˆ PSL (2. p)j ˆ p( p2 À 1)a2 ( p odd). p)j ˆ p( p2 À 1). Deduce directly from the character table of PSL (2.

320 Representations and characters of groups (b) Let ë be a non-trivial linear character of T. 5. (c) By considering ÷ S (see Proposition 19. (b). Use orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. the group of all 2 3 2 matrices of determinant 1. Calculate the values of ë 4 G and prove that this is an irreducible character of G. 8 and 6. (a) Show that G has 11 conjugacy classes with representatives gi as follows: gi  g1 ˆ  g2 ˆ 1 0 0 1  1 2 4 8 8 3 6 7 14 7 14 336 336 8 8 8 6 6 14 14 14 14 1 1 42 42 42 56 56 24 24 24 24 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i  À1 0 0 À1   0 1 g3 ˆ À1 0   2 À2 g4 ˆ 2 2   À2 2 g5 ˆ À2 À2   2 0 g6 ˆ 0 4   À2 0 g7 ˆ 0 À4   1 1 g8 ˆ 0 1   À1 À1 g9 ˆ 0 À1   1 À1 g 10 ˆ 0 1   À1 1 g 11 ˆ 0 À1 . with entries in the ®eld Z7 .14). obtain an irreducible character of G of degree 6. Let G ˆ SL (2. (c). 7. The character table of SL (2. we now have irreducible characters of G of degrees 1. 7). 7). (d) From (a).

(c) Let ÷7 . 11). gÀ1 . gÀ1 . .Character table of the simple group of order 168 321 (b) Use the character table of PSL (2. g8 . ÷10 . gÀ1 are conjugate to g5 . . we have ÷ j ( g) ˆ À÷ j (À g). g3 and g6 (see Proposition 19. g7 . and congruences modulo 3. g2 . Deduce the values of the irreducible characters of degree 4 on all gi . This group has eight conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . g8 having orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 660 g2 2 12 g3 3 6 g4 6 6 g5 5 5 g6 5 5 g7 11 11 g8 11 11 Also. . gÀ1 . 6. and ®nd ÷ j ( g6 ) for 7 < j < 11. . By considering the values of ø A on g1 . 6. Show that for any j with 7 < j < 11 and any g P G. (g) Complete the character table of G. show that the degrees of ÷7 . 6. 11). . ÷9 . . .14). Find the character table of G. ÷11 be the remaining irreducible characters of G. ÷11 are 4. and deduce that ÷ j (1) is even. respec5 6 7 8 tively. (e) By considering the column of g6 in the character table. ÷8 . prove that ø A is equal to the irreducible character of G of degree 6 whose kernel contains Z. Let G ˆ PSL (2. . The character table of PSL (2. (f) Let ø be one of the irreducible characters of degree 4. (d) Prove that ÷ j ( g3 ) ˆ 0 for 7 < j < 11. g6 . 8.7) to write down the six irreducible characters of G with kernel containing Z ˆ {ÆI}. 4. .

At ®rst sight. Finally.28 Character table of GL(2. First. c P F. b. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. B. The ®elds F q and F q 2 We consider ®nite ®elds. Recall that a ®eld (F. ‡. with the usual de®nitions of ‡ and 3. we can display the character values in a 4 3 4 matrix. Consequently. We shall determine the character tables of some matrix groups with entries from an arbitrary ®nite ®eld. For example. with identity element 0. Secondly. we shall see that the conjugacy classes of our groups fall into four families. However. with identity element 1. this is a daunting task. In the last chapter and its exercises. as do the irreducible characters. then (F à . The basic properties of ®nite ®elds which we will use without proof are these: 322 . since the number of irreducible characters increases with the size of the ®eld. C and Z p ( p prime) are ®elds. that is (a ‡ b)c ˆ ac ‡ bc for all a. (F. 3) is a set F with two binary operations ‡ and 3 such that the following properties hold. and we shall tell you which properties of these ®elds we will use. ‡) is an abelian group. 3) is an abelian group. we found the character tables of certain groups of 2 3 2 matrices with entries in Z7 and Z11 . and one of the exercises will show you how to use the results of this chapter to determine the character tables of in®nitely many simple groups. if you are unfamiliar with ®nite ®elds then you might like to consult the book by J. R. the distributive law holds. q) We are now going to calculate the character tables of an important in®nite series of groups. if we write F à ˆ Fnf0g.

we see that r q ˆ r for all q q q q q2 q r P F.2 with the ®eld F q . and hence S  F q .3) Let å be a generator of the cyclic group FÃ2 and let q 2 ù ˆ e(2ðia(q À1)) . r 1‡q P S. in short. 28. q) (28. t P S. namely Theorem 28. and write q ˆ pn . 2 (2) Since FÃ2 is a group of order q 2 À 1. We may write q r ˆ å m for some m and we let r ˆ ù m . Moreq over. Suppose that r P FÃ2 . Then there exists a ®eld F q of order q and every ®eld of order q is isomorphic to F q . 3) are abelian groups. Then r 3 r is an irreducible character of FÃ2 . For every s P F q the sum of s with itself p times is zero. ps ˆ 0.5.Character table of GL(2. so s ‡ t P S.1) Let p be a prime and n be a positive integer. Proof (1) Suppose that s. (2) If r P F then r ‡ r q . and k k k hence (s ‡ t) p ˆ s p ‡ t p for all positive integers k. it follows that (s ‡ t) p ˆ s p ‡ t p for all s. Hereafter. 3) is cyclic. we shall identify the sub®eld S of F q 2 in Proposition 28. Then (s ‡ t) q ˆ s q ‡ t q ˆ s ‡ t. so r ‡ r q . . (28. r 1‡q P S. We use this remark in the proof of the next proposition. ‡) and (Snf0g. You are now in a position to appreciate the statement of the main result of this chapter.2 Proposition Let F ˆ F q 2 and S ˆ fs P F : s q ˆ sg. We introduce the following useful notation. q 323 Notice that the binomial coef®cients ( ip ) with 1 < i < p À 1 are all divisible by p. This implies that (r ‡ r ) ˆ r ‡ r ˆ r ‡ r and (r 1‡q ) q ˆ j r 1‡q . It is now easy to check that (S. every irreducible character of FÃ2 has the form q r 3 r j for some integer j. The group (Fà . t P F q . so S is a ®eld. (1) The set S is a sub®eld of F of order q.

q) is de®ned to be the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in F q . consider the matrices  s us ˆ 0 Let give us q À 1 conjugacy classes of  1 s (s P Fà )X q . q). and remember that the matrix   a b c d belongs to G if and only if its rows are linearly independent.324 Representations and characters of groups The conjugacy classes of GL(2. and we talked about some special linear groups in the last chapter. The number of such matrices is found by noting that (a. (c.   a b 0 c can be conjugate to  a9 0 b9 c9  only if fa. q). Let G ˆ GL(2. First. giving us q 2 À q choices. b). cg ˆ fa9. q) The general linear group GL(2. jGj ˆ (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) ˆ q(q À 1)2 (q ‡ 1)X There are four families of conjugacy classes of G. q). d) can be any row vector which is not a multiple of (a. Next. Here. b) has been chosen. Therefore. since conjugate matrices have the same eigenvalues. we are going to calculate the character table of GL(2. Keep this in mind during the following discussion. b) can be any non-zero row vector. The subgroup consisting of all matrices of determinant 1 is the special linear group SL(2. of which three are easy to describe. The matrices   s 0 sI ˆ (s P Fà ) q 0 s belong to the centre of G. and once (a. c9g. They size 1. giving us q 2 À 1 choices.

t g if and only if b ˆ c ˆ 0. the matrices us (s P Fà ) give us q À 1 conjugacy classes. Now. t 0 1 1 0  ˆ d t. Thus. each conjugacy class contains q 2 À 1 elements. so v r has eigenvalues r and r q. Finally. q)   a b P GX gˆ c d Then gus ˆ   and us g ˆ   325 as cs a ‡ bs c ‡ ds as cs d ‡ bs ds so g belongs to the centralizer of us if and only if c ˆ 0 and a ˆ d. Since r P F q we see that v r lies in a none of the conjugacy classes we have constructed so far. if s Tˆ t. then we have that gd s. The characteristic polynomial of v r is det(xI À v r ) ˆ x(x À (r ‡ r q )) ‡ r 1‡q ˆ (x À r)(x À r q ). the matrices d s. Thus. v r P G. by Theorem 12. Now. s Tˆ t) give us q (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes.Character table of GL(2.2. t P Fà . 2 3 Àbr 1‡q a ‡ b(r ‡ r q ) gv r ˆ and Àdr 1‡q c ‡ d(r ‡ r q ) 2 3 c d vr g ˆ X Àar 1‡q ‡ c(r ‡ r q ) Àbr 1‡q ‡ d(r ‡ r q ) .s X On the other hand.8. so. so each conjugacy class contains q(q ‡ 1) elements. let   s 0 d s. consider   0 1 vr ˆ (r P F q 2 nF q )X Àr 1‡q r ‡ r q By Proposition 28. the q centralizer order is (q À 1)q. t P Fà ) q 0 t and note that  0 1 1 0 À1  d s. t (s. the centralizer order is (q À 1)2 . t ˆ P G (s. t ˆ d s.

q). q). g P CG (v r ) if and only if   a b gˆ X Àbr 1‡q a ‡ b(r ‡ r q ) Thus. We therefore partition F q 2 nF q into subsets fr. and the conjugacy class containing v r has size q 2 À q. The matrix v t has eigenvalues t and t q. q The family of conjugacy class representatives d s. Therefore. tg of distinct elements of Fà .326 Representations and characters of groups Hence gv r ˆ v r g only if c ˆ Àbr 1‡q and d ˆ a ‡ b(r ‡ r q ). j . jCG (v r )j ˆ q 2 À 1. so it is not conjugate to v r unless t ˆ r or t ˆ r q. We have now found all the conjugacy classes of G. r q g. r q g of elements of FÃ2 nFà . Class rep.4 Proposition There are q 2 À 1 conjugacy classes in GL(2. q The family of conjugacy class representatives v r is indexed by unordered pairs fr. t is indexed by unordered pairs fs. g sI |CG ( g)| (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) No. b) Tˆ (0. q q Proof The conjugacy classes we have found account for (q À 1) ‡ (q À 1)(q 2 À 1) ‡ (q À 1)(q À 2)q(q ‡ 1)a2 ‡ (q 2 À q)(q 2 À q)a2 elements altogether. If these conditions hold. then ad À bc ˆ a2 ‡ ab(r ‡ r q ) ‡ b2 r 1‡q ˆ (a ‡ br)(a ‡ br q )X Since (a. so we have found all the conjugacy classes. r q P F q. t (q À 1)2 (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 vr q2 À 1 (q 2 À q)a2 The families of conjugacy class representatives sI and us are indexed by elements s of Fà . each subset gives us a conjugacy class representative v r and different subsets give us representatives of different conjugacy classes. of classes qÀ1 us (q À 1)q qÀ1 d s. we see that a ‡ br and a ‡ br q a are non-zero. 0) and r. described as follows. 28. But this sum is equal to the order of GL(2.

(b) For ø i we have 0 < i < q À 2. each of degree q ‡ 1.4. ø i .5 Theorem Label the conjugacy classes of GL(2. (a) For ë i we have 0 < i < q À 2. and of the remaining q 2 À q elements of K. Then the q irreducible characters of GL(2. . t (st) i (st) i si t j ‡ s j t i 0 vr r i(1‡q) Àr i(1‡q) 0 À(r i ‡ r iq ) Here. Then jKj ˆ q 2 À 1. j < q À 2. Hence. j ÷i s 2i qs 2i (q ‡ 1)s i‡ j (q À 1)s i us s 2i 0 s i‡ j Às i d s. there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 characters ø i. j we have 0 < i . j . q) are given by ë i .q) We are now in a position to describe the character table of G. Recall that å is our chosen generator for FÃ2 and q   0. q) The characters of GL(2. we present a proposition which will be useful later. we ®rst consider the set of integers j with 0 < j < q 2 À 1 and (q ‡ 1) T j j. we have the following restrictions on the subscripts. q) as in Proposition 28.Character table of GL(2.6 Proposition Let K ˆ hvå i. 1 X vå ˆ å ‡ åq Àå 1‡q 28. ø i. if j1 and j2 belong to this set and j1  j2 q mod (q 2 À 1) then we choose precisely one of j1 and j2 to belong to the indexing set for the characters ÷ i . and let r 3 r be the function from FÃ2 to C described in (28. there are (q 2 À q)a2 characters ÷ i . Thus. each of degree q À 1. The group K contains the q À 1 scalar matrices sI in G. there are q À 1 characters ø i . there are q À 1 characters ë i . ÷ i as follows. sI ëi øi ø i. each of degree 1. j . each of degree q. 327 28. Thus. Before we embark upon the task of calculating the irreducible characters of G. (d) For ÷ i.3). Thus. (c) For ø i.

q As i varies between 0 and q À 2 inclusive. Hence two elements a of K belong to the conjugacy class of vå i .328 Representations and characters of groups precisely two belong to each of the conjugacy classes represented by v r with r P FÃ2 nFà . j (q ‡ 1)s i‡ j us s i‡ j d s. since vå has eigenvalues in F q and vå is diagonalizable.5. t si t j ‡ s j t i vr 0 . sI ø i. j We shall construct. If å i Tˆ å iq then i i iq å P F q and vå and vå must be conjugate to vå i . 28. are as follows. j We will see later that the linear characters ë i (0 < i < q À 2) which appear in Proposition 28.7 are all the linear characters of G. j there is a character ø i.5.8 Proposition For all integers i. as described in Proposition 28. and they are given in Theorem 28. 28. ø i. so vå has order q 2 À 1. and this case accounts for the q À 1 scalar matrices. whose values appear in Theorem 28. ø i . i i i If å i ˆ å iq then vå ˆ å i I. Proof The map det : g 3 det g is a homomorphism from G onto Fà . the irreducible characters ë i .7 Proposition There are q À 1 linear characters ë i of G. j and ÷ i which appear in Theorem 28. j of G whose values on the conjugacy class representatives. i iq The eigenvalues of vå and of vå are å i and å iq . q q Proof The eigenvalues of vå are å and å q. the functions ë i : g 3 (det g) i ( g P G) give q À 1 distinct linear characters of G.4.5. in turn.

Character table of GL(2. ø i. j : 3 s i t jX 0 t Then ë i.23 to calculate ø i.8 gives us ø i. j are as stated in the proposition. Remember that the complex conjugate of s i is s Ài . there is an irreducible character ø i of G whose values are given in Theorem 28.i . j ( g) jC B ( g)j jC G ( g)j ë i.i i and hø i. j ( g) jC B ( g)j   ë i.i which appears in Proposition 28. j ˆ ëi.i . j ( g) ˆ ø i. j ( g) ˆ jC G ( g)j ë i. the values of ø i. t : g ˆ vr : ø i. j ( g) for each conjugacy class representative g. j : B 3 C by   s r ë i. j ( g9) ø i. q) Proof Let Bˆ &  ' PG X 329 a 0 b c Then B is a subgroup of G with jBj ˆ (q À 1)2 q. Proof We shall demonstrate that the character ø i. where g9 ˆ d t.9 Proposition For each integer i. We use Proposition 21. j ( g) ë i. We let ø i. j ( g) ˆ jC G ( g)j ‡ . the ®rst term corresponds to the conjugacy classes of elements 4 (q À 1)(q À 2) (q À 1)2 2 . j 4 G. The characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. De®ne ë i.i . ë i i.i i ˆ (q ‡ 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) ‡ 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q ‡ ˆ 2X Here. j ( g) ˆ 0X j Hence.5. We have hø i. we calculate hø i. To this end. g ˆ sI : g ˆ us : g ˆ d s. 28.s jC B ( g)j jC B ( g9)j ø i. ø i. as follows. j is a character of B.i ˆ ë i ‡ ø i .

330 Representations and characters of groups sI. q To evaluate C. Let s be an element of Fà of order q À 1. ë i i ˆ 1 and hø i. Subtract ë i from ø i. (2) jC G (sI)j ˆ (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q)X (3) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the forms sI. Then the character ø i.8. ø i. tg of distinct elements of Fà . ø i. t 3 s i t j ‡ s j t i then ó is a sum of two . The remaining terms in hø i. hø i. ø i. Using the values of ø i. Bˆ 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 1 1ˆ i j Cˆ (s t ‡ s j t i )(s Ài t À j ‡ s À j t Ài )X (q À 1)2 2 sTˆ t Aˆ and 2 (q À 1)(q À 2) 2 (q À 1) 2 The coef®cent 1 appears in C because we have just one conjugacy 2 class for each unordered pair fs.i .i i are calculated in a similar fashion. t P Fà g is an abelian group of q order (q À 1)2. we obtain hø i. (1) ø i.i .5.1 3 s i .i (sI) ˆ (q ‡ 1)2 . t : s. q Hence the characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different.i to get the values of ø i as given in Theorem 28. j . note that fd s.i . and if ó : d s. j .i ˆ ë i ‡ ø i for some irreducible character ø i. Proof We shall show that hø i. j < q À 2. j i ˆ 1. j which appears in Proposition 28. and the calculation of this ®rst term involves the following three observations.i (sI)ø i. Then ø i : d s. j i ˆ A ‡ B ‡ C. ø i.i .10 Proposition Suppose that 0 < i . where (q ‡ 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1). j 28.8 is irreducible. ë i i ˆ (q ‡ 1) 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) ‡ (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q ‡ ˆ 1X The facts that hø i. Next.i i ˆ 2 imply that ø i. j which are given in Proposition 28.

j < q À 2 and 0 < i9 . j characters of G. j differs from ø i9. j Tˆ ø i9. Consider the group B and its linear characters ë i.11 Corollary The characters ø i. We must prove that ø i. Therefore. t 0 vr r i ‡ r iq .8. for 0 < i . j9 on a conjugacy class j of G.12 Proposition For each integer i.i : 3 s i t j ‡ s j t iX 0 t Since ë i.Character table of GL(2. q) 331 inequivalent irreducible characters of this group. hø i. Therefore. j 28. ø i. and (i. there exists complex (q À 1)th roots of unity s and t such that either s Tˆ t and s i t j ‡ s j t i Tˆ s i9 t j9 ‡ s j9 t i9 or s ˆ t and s i‡ j Tˆ s i9‡ j9 . there exists a character ö i of G which takes the following values. j ‡ ë j. j which were used in the proof of Proposition 28. In either case.i9 . j i ˆ 1. j ‡ ë j. 2 3 ˆ 1 i j j i Ài À j À j Ài 4(q À 1) ‡ (s t ‡ s t )(s t ‡ s t ) ˆ 2X (q À 1)2 sTˆ t Hence. sI öi q(q À 1)s i us 0 d s. j9 < q À 2. j9 . ó i ˆ 2X That is. j) Tˆ (i9. Cˆ qÀ3 X qÀ1 And now we ®nd that A ‡ B ‡ C ˆ 1. j < q À 2 are distinct irreducible Proof Suppose that 0 < i . hó . 28.i Tˆ ë i9. We have   s b ë i. we see that ø i. j Tˆ ø i9. and ø i. j is irreducible. Thus. j9 . j9). ø i. j9 ‡ ë j9. j .

by Proposition 28.   á i ( g) ái( g q) ö i ( g) ˆ jC G ( g)j ‡ jC K ( g)j jC K ( g)j ˆ á i ( g) ‡ á i ( g q ) ˆ r i ‡ r iq X Thus.6. Now. t (s Tˆ t). Suppose that g P K and g is conjugate in G to v r . ®rst recall that á i 4 G is zero on all elements which are not conjugate to an element of K. Also. Then. If g ˆ sI with s P Fà then g P K and q ö i ( g) ˆ jC G ( g)j á i ( g) ˆ q(q À 1)s i X jC K ( g)j Suppose that r P F q 2 nF q . respectively. ö i has the values stated in the proposition. Then g has eigenvalues r and r q . v r is conjugate to an element of g of K. Then ˆ (r i ‡ r iq )(r Ài ‡ r Àiq ) ˆ 2(q À 1)2 X rPF q 2 nF q Proof Note that & r G1 ˆ 0 0 rq  : r P FÃ2 q ' and G2 ˆ & r 0 0 rq  : r P Fà q ' are abelian groups of orders q 2 À 1 and q À 1. Hence á i ( g) ˆ r i or r iq and á i ( g) ‡ á i ( g q ) ˆ r i ‡ r iq X Let ö i ˆ á i 4 G. ö i is zero on the elements of the form u s and d s.332 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let K ˆ hvå i. In order to calculate ö i . as in Proposition 28. . we shall the use the following lemma. and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i . j To be able to work out certain inner products involving our characters ö i .6. 28. Thus.6.13 Lemma Assume that i is an integer and (q ‡ 1) T j i. by Proposition 28.

Recall the characters ø i. we get 1 ˆ i (r ‡ r iq )(r Ài ‡ r Àiq ) ˆ 2 2À1 q rPFà 2 q and doing the same for the character ÷ of G2 .Ài ø i À ø0. 28. Now. the character ÷ is twice an irreducible character. ÷ i is the class function on G which is given by ÷ i ˆ ø0.Character table of GL(2. since r q ˆ r for r P FÃ. ø i and ö i given in Propositions 28.8.i À ö i X . For G1.9 and 28.12. since (q ‡ 1) T j i implies that å i Tˆ å iq . let ÷ i be the class function on G with the following values. q)   r 0 3 r i ‡ r iq 0 rq 333 gives a character ÷ of degree 2 for each group. Proof We can justify the manoeuvre which we now perform only by saying that it gives the correct answer. j . and for G2. t 0 vr À(r i ‡ r iq ) If (q ‡ 1) T j i then ÷ i is an irreducible character of G. the character ÷ is a sum of two inequivalent irreducible characters. we get 1 ˆ i (r ‡ r iq )(r Ài ‡ r Àiq ) ˆ 4X qÀ1 à rPF q Hence ˆ rPF q 2 nF q (r i ‡ r iq )(r Ài ‡ r Àiq ) ˆ 2(q 2 À 1) À 4(q À 1) ˆ 2(q À 1)2 X j 28.14 Proposition For each integer i. sI ÷i (q À 1)s i us Às i d s. Taking the inner product of the q character ÷ of G1 with itself.

as in Proposition 28. h÷ i . Then the characters ÷ i and ÷ j of G are different. sI ø0. j We have now completed the proof of Theorem 28.6. Since j T i. which is the same as the number of conjugacy classes of G. ÷ i Tˆ ÷ j .334 Representations and characters of groups The table below allows us to verify this. 0.5. and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i . q If g is conjugate to v r where r P F q 2 nF q then (á i ‡ á iq )( g) ˆ r i ‡ r iq . and h÷ i . Suppose that g P K.13. assume that (q ‡ 1) T j i. iq mod(q 2 À 1).i öi ÷i (q ‡ 1)s Ài qs 2i q(q ‡ 1)s i (q ‡ 1)s i q(q À 1)s i (q À 1)s i us s Ài 0 0 si 0 Às Ài d s. so either s i Tˆ s j for some s P Fà or q r i ‡ r iq Tˆ r j ‡ r jq for some r P F q 2 nF q .Ài ø i ø0. It is possible to use the character table of GL(2. t s Ài ‡ t Ài (st) i i s ‡ ti si ‡ t i 0 0 vr 0 Àr i(1‡q) 0 0 r i ‡ r iq À(r i ‡ r iq ) Next. We work out h÷ i . ÷ i i ˆ 1 and ÷ i (1) . and the number of them is q 2 À 1. since we have shown that the class functions given in the theorem are inequivalent irreducible characters. as we wished to show. Proof Let K ˆ hvå i. the characters á i ‡ á iq and á j ‡ á jq of K are different.Ài øi ø0.15 Proposition Suppose that i and j are integers with (q ‡ 1) T j i and (q ‡ 1) T j j and j T i. ÷ i i using Lemma 28. j 28. with integer coef®cients. If g ˆ sI where s P Fà then (á i ‡ á iq )( g) ˆ 2s i . q) to ®nd the . ÷ i i ˆ (q À 1)2 1 (q À 1)2 (q À 1) ‡ 2 (q À 1) ‡ 2 ˆ 1X q Àq (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q À1 Since ÷ i is a linear combination of irreducible characters of G. Therefore. iq mod(q 2 À 1). it follows that ÷ i is an irreducible character of G.

q). you are asked to consider the easiest case. (c) There are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives   s 0 of the form d s. since most of the irreducible characters remain irreducible when restricted. (d) There are (q 2 À q)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives of the . and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of 0 s degree 1. q) is rather easier to ®nd than that of SL(2. q) was ®rst given in 1907. Among the characters of SL(2. in 1955. q). and there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 0 t irreducible characters of degree q ‡ 1. q) for all positive integers n. q). q) provide the characters of the groups PSL(2. q). A. q) has the following properties. t ˆ (s Tˆ t).Character table of GL(2.2. q) when q  1 mod 4 or q  3 mod 4 from the character table of GL(2. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of degree 0 s q. and they depend upon whether q is a power of 2 or q  1 mod 4 or q  3 mod 4. We do not go fully into this. since the answers are quite complicated. J. q)  PSL(2. those with kernel containing the centre of SL(2. q) 335 character table of SL(2. q) was found. Green determined the character table of GL(n. q) ± compare Chapter 27 ± and so the character table of PSL(2. A challenging exercise is to determine the character table of PSL(2. q). (a) Thereare q  1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form À s 0 sI ˆ . Then. In Exercise 28. (b) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form   s 1 us ˆ . namely that where q is a power of 2. q) when q is a power of 2. it was not until the 1950's that the character table of GL(3. Although the character table of GL(2. Summary of Chapter 28 The character table of GL(2. Since SL(2. this gives the character tables of an in®nite series of simple groups PSL(2. though.

8). 2. q) is simple. Suppose that q is a power of 2. q)  Z 3 SL(2. q) from that of GL(2. q). Use Theorem 28. Use your solution to Exercise 28. .2 to write down explicitly the character table of PSL(2. and there are (q 2 À q)a2 irreducible form v r ˆ Àr 1‡q r ‡ r q characters of degree q À 1. Let Z ˆ fsI : s P Fà g. Prove that q GL(2. Prove that if q Tˆ 2 then SL(2. 3.336 Representations and characters of groups   0 1 . q)X Deduce the character table of SL(2. 3).5 to write down explicitly the character table of GL(2. Exercises for Chapter 28 1.

F F F . jgg for all g P Sn and 1 < i .e. denote by Sym(Ù) the group of all permutations of Ù. 337 . particularly about irreducible characters of symmetric groups (see Theorem 29. jg( gö) ˆ fig. jg of elements of f1. De®nition Let G be a group and Ù a set.29 Permutations and characters We have already seen in Chapter 13 that if G is a permutation group.1 Examples (1) If G < Sn then the identity map is an action of G on f1. 3g 3 f2. ng then Sym(Ù) ˆ Sn . (2) Let G ˆ Sn and let Ù be the set consisting of all pairs fi. F F F . In particular. a subgroup of Sn for some n. F F F . An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism ö: G 3 Sym(Ù). then G has a permutation character ð de®ned by ð( g) ˆ jfix( g)j for g P G.) Check that ö is an action of Sn . 3g. In this chapter we take the theory of permutation groups and characters somewhat further. (So for example. We also say that G acts on Ù (via ö). If Ù is a set. ng. a fact which proved useful in many of our subsequent character table calculations. 29. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting fi. if Ù ˆ f1. ng. j < n. it is called the action of Sn on pairs. (1 2)ö sends f1. 2. i.12 below). Group actions We begin with a more general notion than that of a permutation group. and develop some useful results.

b)i 3 h(a. we have á $ â if and only if there exists g P G such that á g ˆ â. given any á. in other words. â P Ù.338 Representations and characters of groups (3) Let G ˆ GL(2. as de®ned in Chapter 28.2 Examples (1) Let G ˆ C4 . h P G. a ‡ b)iX Then ö is an action of G on Ù. for ù P Ù and g P G we usually just write ù g instead of ù( gö). and let ö: G 3 S8 be the action . g P G. de®ne a relation $ on Ù as follows: for á. 29. if   1 1 gˆ 0 1 then gö sends h(a. It is easy to see that $ is an equivalence relation on Ù. To simplify notation. the fact that ö is a homomorphism simply says that ù( gh) ˆ (ù g)h for all ù P Ù and g. and Ker ö ˆ xPG x À1 Hx < H. With this notation. and let Ù be the set of all right cosets Hx of H in G (so jÙj ˆ n). generated by x. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting hvi( gö) ˆ hv gi for all hvi P Ù and g P G. â P Ù. say. and let Ù be the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces hvi of V. b P F q . Ù) for the number of orbits of G on Ù. The group G is said to be transitive on Ù if orb(G. Ù) ˆ 1. Then by Exercise 9 of Chapter 23. Adopting this notation. ö is an action of „ G. there exists g P G such that á g ˆ â. b) with a. q). Let V be the 2-dimensional vector space over F q consisting of all row vectors (a. Write orb(G. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices over the ®nite ®eld F q. if ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) is an action. For example. Thus Ù is the disjoint union of the orbits of G. The equivalence classes are called the orbits of G on Ù. G is transitive if. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by ( Hx)( gö) ˆ Hxg for all x. (4) Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n.

Then G has three orbits on Ù ˆ f1. jù G j ˆ jG : Gù jX Proof If g. j Permutation characters Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. given two right cosets Hx. Let G be a group acting on a set Ù. Also gÀ1 P Gù . Gù x ˆ Gù y D xy À1 P Gù D ùxy À1 ˆ ù D ùx ˆ ù yX Hence we can de®ne an injective function ã : Ä 3 ù G by ã(Gù x) ˆ ùx for all x P G. hence gh P Gù . 3. (2) The group G is transitive on the set Ù in each of Examples 29. to verify it for Example (3) you need to convince yourself that for any two non-zero row vectors v. 29. Observe that for x. For ù P Ù. CÙ consists of all expressions of the form . that is. the element g ˆ x À1 y P G has the property that ( Hx) g ˆ Hy. as required. y P G. w P V there is an invertible 2 3 2 matrix A P GL(2. 8g. Hy P Ù. q) such that vA ˆ w. 6g and f7. write ù G for the orbit of G which contains ù. 8g. and de®ne Gù ˆ f g P G : ù g ˆ ùgX We call Gù the stabilizer of ù in G. Now let Ä be the set of right cosets Gù x of Gù in G. so ù G ˆ fù g : g P Gg. f5. 2. Moreover.1(2. and in Example (4). 4g. the size of the orbit ù G is equal to the index of Gù in G.Permutations and characters 339 de®ned by xö ˆ (1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8) (and of course x k ö ˆ ((1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8)) k for any k). h P Gù then ù( gh) ˆ (ù g)h ˆ ùh ˆ ù. In other words. 4). F F F . and Gù contains the identity. and hence jÄj ˆ jù G j. namely f1.3 Proposition The stabilizer Gù is a subgroup of G. Clearly ã is also surjective. This is clear in Example (2). so Gù is a subgroup. simply observe that. 3. Denote by CÙ the vector space over C for which Ù is a basis.

4 Proposition Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. First. we can make CÙ into a CG-module. pick ù i P Ä i . 1 G i ˆ 1 ˆ 1 ˆ ð( g) ˆ jfixÙ ( g)jX jGj gPG jGj gPG Let Ä1 . for each g. We call ð the permutation character of G on Ù. called the permutation module. and provides a basic link between the permutation character and the action of G. the number of ù P Ù such that ù g ˆ ù is equal to jfixÙ ( g)j.3. It is often referred to as ``Burnside's Lemma''. for 1 < i < t we have jÄ i j ˆ jù G j ˆ jG : Gù i jX i Hence jÄ i j jGù i j ˆ jGj. By Proposition 29. Ù)X jGj gPG Proof First note that hð. Ä t be the orbits of G on Ù. ù g ˆ ùg. though elementary. 129) that if ð is the character of this permutation module. F F F . 29. where fixÙ ( g) ˆ fù P Ù : ù g ˆ ùg. We see just as in Chapter 13 (p. As in Chapter 13. We calculate jÖj in two different ways. then for g P G. g) : ù P Ù. g P G. is rather famous. Now de®ne Ö ˆ f(ù. but is in fact due to Cauchy and Frobenius. ð( g) ˆ jfixÙ ( g)j.340 Representations and characters of groups ˆ ëù ù (ëù P C) ùPÙ with the obvious addition and scalar multiplication. hence . Then 1 ˆ hð. and for each i. and let ð be the permutation character. by de®ning 2 3 ˆ ˆ ëù ù g ˆ ëù (ù g) for all g P G. The next result. 1 G i ˆ jfixÙ ( g)j ˆ orb(G.

Ù1 3 Ù2 )X Proof We have hð1 . the number of g P G such that ù g ˆ ù is equal to jGù j. with corresponding permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively. with permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively. jGj gPG jGj gPG j which is equal to orb(G. 29.5 Corollary G is transitive on Ù if and only if hð. ð2 i ˆ orb(G. 1 G i ˆ 1. In the rest of the chapter we apply Proposition 29. Then we can de®ne an action of G on the Cartesian product Ù1 3 Ù2 by setting (ù1 .6 in a number of situations. ù2 g) for all ù i P Ù i . for each ù. and the conclusion follows. Then hð1 . Ù1 3 Ù2 ) by Proposition 29. Hence if ð is the permutation character of G on Ù1 3 Ù2 . the ®rst being the case where Ù1 ˆ Ù2 . then ð( g) ˆ ð1 ( g)ð2 ( g) for all g P G. and suppose that G acts on two sets Ù1 and Ù2 . hence jÖj ˆ Therefore € gPG ˆ ùPÙ jGù j ˆ t ˆ iˆ1 jÄ i j jGù i j ˆ t ˆ 1 jGj ˆ tjGjX j jfixÙ ( g)j ˆ tjGj. ù2 ) g ˆ (ù1 g. Now let G be a group. 29. .6 Proposition Let G act on Ù1 and Ù2 . It is clear that fixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g) ˆ fixÙ1 ( g) 3 fixÙ2 ( g) for any g P G. ð2 i ˆ 1 ˆ 1 ˆ jfixÙ1 ( g)kfixÙ2 ( g)j ˆ jfixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g)j.4.Permutations and characters ˆ jÖj ˆ jfixÙ ( g)jX gPG 341 Secondly. g P G.

with permutation character ð. j . with á1 Tˆ á2 . using Theorem 14.8 Proposition Let G act on Ù. 29.9 De®nition Let G be transitive on Ù. then ð ˆ 1 G ‡ ÷. there exists g P G such that á1 g ˆ â1 and á2 g ˆ â2 . Then G is said to be 2-transitive on Ù if r(G. ði ˆ 2 by Proposition 29. â2 ) in Ù 3 Ù.342 Representations and characters of groups Suppose G acts on Ù. á2 ) and (â1 .7 De®nition The number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù is called the rank of G on Ù. written r(G. and hð.5. ù2 ) g ˆ (ù1 g. G is 2-transitive if. Proof We have hð. 29. 29. namely (ù1 . Then G also acts on Ù 3 Ù in the way de®ned above. Then Ä ˆ f(ù. 1 G i ˆ 1 by Corollary 29. In other words. ðiX Now suppose G is transitive on Ù and jÙj . Ù 3 Ù)X The next result is immediate from Proposition 29.10 Corollary If G is 2-transitive on Ù. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G.6. Then r(G. ù2 P Ù. â1 Tˆ â2 .17. g P G. Ù) ˆ orb(G. The case where equality holds is of particular interest. and hence certainly r(G. ù2 g) for all ù1 . Ù) > 2. The result follows. for any ordered pairs (á1 . Ù). Ù) ˆ hð. Ù) ˆ 2. Thus r(G.8. with permutation character ð. ù) : ù P Ùg is an orbit of G on Ù 3 Ù. 29. 1.

By Theorem 15. and Ä1 ˆ f(fi. q) given in Example 29. hw2 i) be two pairs of distinct 1-spaces in Ù. jg ’ fk. F F F . q) which sends hv1 i 3 hw1 i. We claim that G is 2-transitive on Ù. Hence these groups have an irreducible character ÷ given by ÷( g) ˆ jfix( g)j À 1X We have seen this irreducible character in a number of previous examples (see 18. (3) Consider the action of Sn on pairs de®ned in Example 29. fk. there is no element of Sn which sends (f1. The linear transformation from V to V which sends v1 3 w1 . jg. an irreducible character ÷ ë . Ä1 and Ä2 . as claimed. 19. ði ˆ r(G. In fact it is easy to see that the orbits of G ˆ Sn on Ù 3 Ù are Ä. fk. lg) : jfi. v2 and w1. To see this. where Ä is as above. Ä2 ˆ f(fi. Also An is 2-transitive. This action is not 2-transitive. where ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of Sn . with n > 4. ë s ) of positive integers ë i such that ë1 > ë2 > F F F > ë s and ë1 ‡ F F F ‡ ë s ˆ n. provided n > 4. lgj ˆ 1g. A key aim is therefore to construct.15 we know that the conjugacy classes of Sn are in bijective correspondence with the set of all possible cycle-shapes of permutations. lgj ˆ 0gX Thus hð.1(2). Some irreducible characters of S n By Theorem 12.3. Here Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of the 2-dimensional vector space V.1(3). hv2 i 3 hw2 i.5. Then v1 . the irreducible characters of Sn are also in bijective correspondence with the partitions ë of n.Permutations and characters 343 29. for each partition ë.1. and we call such a sequence a partition of n. hv2 i) and (hw1 i. the irreducible character ÷ of G given by Corollary 29. 3g). Since jÙj ˆ q ‡ 1 (see Exercise 1 at the end of the chapter). Each cycle-shape (including 1-cycles) is a sequence ë ˆ (ë1 . let (hv1 i.11 Examples (1) The symmetric group Sn is 2-transitive on f1. for example.10 is the character ø0 of degree q in Theorem 28. F F F . ng. lg) : jfi. jg. jg ’ fk. f2. 2g. (2) Consider the action of G ˆ GL(2. w2 are both bases of V. 19.16. and so ð ˆ 1 G ‡ ÷ ‡ ø.17). 2g. Hence G is 2-transitive on Ù. since. Ù) ˆ 3. 4g) to (f1. f3. v2 3 w2 is therefore invertible. giving an element of GL(2.

Just as in Example 29. I k 3 I l ) ˆ l ‡ 1. and much more.1(2) we can de®ne an action of G on I k as follows: for any subset A ˆ fi1 . F F F . Then Sn has distinct irreducible characters ÷ ( n) ˆ 1 G . F F F . ð l i ˆ l ‡ 1. ÷ ( nÀ1. and m ˆ (n À 1)a2 if n is odd. F F F . we refer you to the book by G.13 below). k). by induction on k. m) such that for all k < m. Then . 2. ÷ ( nÀ k.344 Representations and characters of groups of Sn . ð k ˆ ÷ ( n) ‡ ÷ ( nÀ1.13 Theorem Let m ˆ na2 if n is even. F F F . Let G ˆ Sn and I ˆ f1. This holds for k ˆ 1 by Corollary 29. Proof We prove the existence of irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . k) ˆ ð k À ð kÀ1 . James listed in the Bibliography. k) such that ð k ˆ ÷ ( n) ‡ ÷ ( nÀ1.1) . a 2-part partition (see Theorem 29. Now assume the statement holds for all values less than k. The ideas can be developed to carry out the aim in general. ik ggX Let ð k be the permutation character of G in its action on I k .1) ‡ F F F ‡ ÷ ( nÀ k. on the character theory of Sn . The orbits of G ˆ Sn on I k 3 I l are easily seen to be J 0 . ÷ ( nÀ1. j 29. J s ˆ f(A.10.12 Proposition If l < k < na2. Observe that   n ð k (1) ˆ jI k j ˆ X k 29. k) X In particular. hð k .1) ‡ F F F ‡ ÷ ( nÀ k. ÷ ( nÀ k. k) .6. ÷ ( nÀ2. de®ne I k to be the set consisting of all subsets of I of size k. F F F J l . then hð k .1) . giving the conclusion. ÷ ( nÀ m. ð l i ˆ orb(G. I k 3 I l ). Proof By Proposition 29. ng.2) . F F F . if you want to see this. J 1 . We shall apply the material of this chapter to carry out this aim in the case where ë ˆ (n À k. where for 0 < s < l. in a natural way. let Ag ˆ fi1 g. ik g P I k and any g P G. but we do not do this. B) P I k 3 I l : jA ’ Bj ˆ sgX Hence orb(G. For an integer k < na2.

hð k . ÷ (4.1) ‡ F F F ‡ ÷ ( nÀi. F F F .3) . Summary of Chapter 29 1. The rank r(G. Now by Proposition 29. k) . ð kÀ1 i ˆ k. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù). hð k . kÀ1) such that ð i ˆ ÷ ( n) ‡ ÷ ( nÀ1.12.1) . . 2. ði. Writing ÷ ˆ ÷ ( nÀ k.17. Ù) is the number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù. j 29. The number of orbits is equal to hð. the degree is     n n ( nÀ k.2) on a 3-cycle: ÷ (5. Ù) ˆ 2 and ð ˆ 1 G ‡ ÷ with ÷ irreducible. 1 G i ˆ 1.14 Examples (1) The formula ÷ ( nÀ k.1) ‡ F F F ‡ ÷ ( nÀ k. respectively. as required. hð k . ð k i ˆ k ‡ 1X It follows that ð k ˆ ð kÀ1 ‡ ÷ for some irreducible character ÷.Permutations and characters 345 there exist irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . ÷ ( nÀ1.13.2) . The irreducible characters of Sn are in bijective correspondence with partitions of n. 3.2) (123) ˆ ð2 (123) À ð1 (123) ˆ jfix I 2 (123)j À jfix I 1 (123)j ˆ 6 À 4 ˆ 2X (2) In the character table of S6 given in Example 19. If G acts on Ù then CÙ is the permutation module. If G is 2-transitive then r(G. ÷ ( nÀ k‡1. hð k . ÷7 . Ù) ˆ hð. k) ˆ ð k À ð kÀ1 makes it easy to calculate the values of the characters ÷ ( nÀ k. k. k) . ð1 i ˆ 2. k) ÷ (1) ˆ ð k (1) À ð kÀ1 (1) ˆ À X k kÀ1 As another example. ÷ (3. The size of the orbit ù G containing ù is jù G j ˆ jG : Gù j. k) . ÷ (5. 4. ÷3 .1) . the irreducible characters ÷1 . k) corresponding to 2-part partitions have values given by Theorem 29. ÷9 are equal to ÷ (6) . and the corresponding character of G is ð. where ð( g) ˆ jfixÙ ( g)j. F F F . and r(G. The orbits are the equivalence classes in Ù of the relation de®ned by á $ â D á g ˆ â for some g P G. 1 G i. For example. The irreducible characters ÷ ( nÀ k. suppose n ˆ 7 and let us calculate the value of the irreducible character ÷ (5. we have ð k ˆ ÷ ( n) ‡ ÷ ( nÀ1.i) for all i .

and the permutation character ð is ðˆ ˆ ÷ ÷ 3 ÷. q) (the latter are given by Theorem 28.346 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 29 1. and ®nd the kernel of ö. 3.18.5. and ÷ 3 ÷ is the irreducible character of G 3 G given by Theorem 19. (c) Show that the rank of this action r(G 3 G. Decompose ð as a sum of irreducible characters of GL(2. and de®ne an action ö : G 3 Sym(V à ) by v( gö) ˆ v g for v P V Ã.) . g P G. h P G.5). Let G ˆ GL(2. Prove that if G is abelian. Let G be a ®nite group. 2 de®ne Ù i to be the set of right cosets of H i in G.1(3)). and let H 1 . (a) Show that ö is an action of G 3 G on G. 5. which is transitive. then H 1 ˆ H 2 X Give an example to show that this need not be the case in general. g.1(4). Show that if Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of a 2dimensional vector space over F q (as in Example 29. Suppose that ð1 ˆ ð2 . then jÙj ˆ q ‡ 1. where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. 2. ( Hint: one way to do this is to write down the values of ð on the conjugacy classes of G. let ð i be the permutation character of G in the action on Ù i . H 2 be subgroups of G. h)ö) ˆ g À1 xh for all x. Let G be a ®nite group.1(2).) 4. so that G acts on Ù i as in Example 29. (Such an element is called a ®xed-point-free element of G. (b) Find the stabilizer (G 3 G)1 of the identity 1 P G. and take inner products with the irreducible characters of G given in 28. q) and let V ˆ F2 as in Example 29. and de®ne a function ö : G 3 G 3 Sym(G) by x(( g. Let q V à ˆ V À f0g. Let ð be the permutation character of G in this action. For i ˆ 1. G) is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. Prove that G contains an element g such that jfixÙ ( g)j ˆ 0. Let G be a ®nite group acting transitively on a set Ù of size greater than 1.

and let Ù be the set of all ordered pairs (i.1) ? . (i.1) . ng and i Tˆ j.13.1) .1) ˆ 1 ‡ 2÷ ( nÀ1. In the character table of S6 given in Example 19.1. Let n be a positive integer.17. F F F . prove that ð( nÀ2.1. j) g ˆ (ig. jg) for g P Sn ). j) with i.1) ‡ ÷ ( nÀ2. Let Sn act on Ù in the obvious way (namely.1. By considering inner products as in the proof of Theorem 29. which irreducible character is equal to ÷ (4. and let the permutation character of Sn in this action be ð( nÀ2.1.Permutations and characters 347 6. calculate the degree of ÷ ( nÀ2. where ÷ is an irreducible character.2) ‡ ÷. j P f1. and calculate its value on the elements (12) and (123) of Sn .1) . Writing ÷ ˆ ÷ ( nÀ2.1.

In this chapter we present some rather deeper applications.30 Applications to group theory There are several ways of using the character theory of a group to determine information about the structure of the group. . . Recall from Proposition 12. Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G. and so on ± require little calculation. The ®rst involves doing arithmetic with character values to determine certain numbers. Using a little group theory and a lot of character theory we shall carry out such a study in the case where C ˆ D8 . The second application takes this much further: the Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23. The examples which we have come across so far ± ®nding the centre of the group. known as the class algebra constants. 30. and they can be used to investigate the subgroup structure of G.22 that the class sums C1 . the dihedral group of order 8. Class algebra constants Let G be a ®nite group and let C1 . seeing whether or not the group is simple. 348 .19 motivates the study of simple groups containing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to a given group C. C l form a basis for the centre of the group algebra CG € (where C i ˆ gPC i g). . . as we shall demonstrate. These constants carry information about the multiplication in G. . . .1 Proposition There exist non-negative integers aijk such that for 1 < i < l and 1 < j < l. .

. . This number is a non-negative integer. k.1 is to note that C i C j belongs to Z(CG). j.2 De®nition The integers aijk in the formula Ci C j ˆ l ˆ kˆ1 aijk C k are the class algebra constants of G. . As the centre of the group algebra plays an important role in representation theory. . Then for all i. . j Another way of looking at Proposition 30. C l .4 Theorem Let gi P Ci for 1 < i < l. and is independent of the chosen element g of Ck . 30. Our next theorem shows that this is indeed the case. b P Cj and ab ˆ g. . the constants aijk determine the product of any two elements in the centre Z(CG) of the group algebra. so it must be a linear combination of C1 . . From their very de®nition. The result follows. b) with a P Ci . since C1 . C l is a basis of Z(CG).Applications to group theory Ci C j ˆ l ˆ kˆ1 349 aijk C k X Proof For g P Ck the coef®cient of g in the product C i C j is equal to the number of pairs (a. the numbers aijk carry information about the multiplication in G: (30X3) For all g P Ck and all i. 30. j we have aijk ˆ the number of pairs (a. you might suspect that the class algebra constants are determined by the character table of G. . b) with a P Ci . b P Cj and ab ˆ gX Also. . we have aijk ˆ ˆ ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all the irreducible characters ÷ of G.

5) by ÷( g k ) and sum over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. for all u P U we have uC i ˆ Therefore uC i C j ˆ and l ˆ mˆ1 jGj÷( g i ) uX jCG ( g i )j÷(1) ÷( g i )÷( g j ) jGj2 u jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j (÷(1))2 aijm uC m ˆ l ˆ mˆ1 aijm jGj÷( g m ) uX jCG ( g m )j÷(1) Since C i C j ˆ (30X5) € m aijm C m . Multiply both sides of equation (30. Let G ˆ S4 . Theorem 16.6 Example In this example we shall use the class algebra constants to prove some facts about the elements and subgroups of the symmetric group S4 . and let U be a CGmodule with character ÷. to obtain l ˆ mˆ1 aijm ˆ ÷( g m )÷( g k ) ÷ jCG ( g m )j ˆ ˆ ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) By the column orthogonality relations.4(2). we deduce that l ˆ mˆ1 aijm ÷( g i )÷( g j ) ÷( g m ) jGj ˆ X jCG ( g m )j jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷(1) Pick k with 1 < k < l.350 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. this yields aijk ˆ ˆ ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) j Examples 30.7. these results can readily be proved directly. Then by Lemma 22. but they serve as a useful illustration of the method.1. By Section 18. the character table of G is as shown: .

1) that S4 has a subgroup which is isomorphic to D8. S4 does not possess elements a. so ka. S4 is generated by a and b.4 to calculate the class algebra constant a555 :   24 1 À1 0 À1 1 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ˆ 0X a555 ˆ X 44 1 1 2 3 3 Hence. In fact. b of order 2 such that ab has order 4.Applications to group theory Character table of S4 Class Ci gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 C1 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 C2 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 C3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 C4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 351 C5 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 (1) We use Theorem 30. b: a2 ˆ b3 ˆ (ab)4 ˆ 1iX In other words. Writing x ˆ ab. by (30. We deduce the fact (which we already know from Exercise 18. (3) Finally.4. We supply a . b of order 4 such that the product ab also has order 4. We deduce from this that S4 does not have a subgroup which is isomorphic to the quaternion group Q8 : for Q8 does have two elements of order 4 with product of order 4.3). 24 a235 ˆ X (1 ‡ 1) ˆ 4. 43 so S4 has elements a of order 2 and b of order 3 with ab of order 4. (2) By Theorem 30.   24 1 1 a245 ˆ X 1‡1‡ ‡ ˆ 2X 48 3 3 Hence S4 has elements a. aÀ1 xa ˆ ba ˆ (ab)À1 ˆ x À1 . and all products of elements of S4 are determined by the given relations. it can be shown that S4 has a presentation as follows: S4 ˆ ha. we have x 4 ˆ 1. bl  D8.

6 ± in the meantime.4 to ®nd a subgroup H of the simple group PSL (2.7 Example We use Theorem 30. 7) Class rep. and it is quite tricky to construct directly. 30. We found in Chapter 27 that the character table of G ˆ PSL (2. That such a subgroup exists is not obvious. 7) with H isomorphic to S4 . g1 1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 . gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á ˆ (À1 ‡ i 7)a2. Character table of PSL (2.352 Representations and characters of groups proof in the solution to Exercise 30. you may wish to puzzle out the relevance of the ®gure above. 7) is as follows.

namely xy. we know that S4 ˆ ha. By Theorem 30. 30. given a ®nite group C. C2 or {1}. y has order 3 and xy has order 4.   168 1 a243 ˆ X 1 ‡ ‡ 0 ‡ 0 ‡ 0 ‡ 0 ˆ 8X 83 7 353 Hence. a dihedral group of order 8.10. is {1}. S4 aKer ö  H. we conclude that H  S4 X Thus we have shown that PSL (2. We have chosen to present this result because it provides a wonderful illustration of the use of character theory in the service of group theory. being a normal subgroup of S4 .Applications to group theory We calculate the class algebra constant a243 . By Theorem 1. The Brauer programme The Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23. 7) has a subgroup which is isomorphic to S4 .6. by (30. This fact led Brauer to initiate a programme to ®nd. S3 . yl of G.20). Then G has order 168 or 360. Since H has an element of order 4.4. V4 .8 Theorem Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group which has an involution t such that C G (t)  D8 . . It determines the possible orders of simple groups G having an involution t such that C G (t)  D8 . Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography).19 states that there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with a given centralizer. b: a2 ˆ b3 ˆ (ab)4 ˆ 1iX Hence there is a homomorphism ö from S4 onto H (ö sends a to x and b to y). all ®nite simple groups G possessing an involution t such that C G (t)  C. The next result carries out part of Brauer's programme in the case where C ˆ D8 . Now Ker ö.3). From Example 30. A4 or S4 (see Example 12. G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2. an effort which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s (see the book by D. This programme formed an important part of the effort of many mathematicians to classify all the ®nite simple groups. so H is isomorphic to S4 . Let H be the subgroup kx.

Suppose Q is a subgroup of P with jP : Qj ˆ 2.10 Lemma Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group.2(4)). contrary to assumption.4 of the book by J. and de®ne an action of G on Ù by (Qx) g ˆ Qxg for x. Let Ù be the set of right cosets Qx of Q in G. 30. Hence fixÙ (u) ˆ Æ. one can show that PSL(2. 7) and A6 are the only simple groups of order 168 or 360. where a. Proof Suppose u is not conjugate to an element of Q.e. Using some rather more sophisticated group theory than that covered in this book.9 Sylow's Theorem Let p be a prime number. and A6 is a simple group of order 360 with this property (see Exercise 7 at the end of the chapter). hence is an odd permutation. b are positive integers and p T j b. (3) if R is a subgroup of G with jRj ˆ p c for some c. we require a couple of preliminary results. If u is an involution in G. (2) all Sylow p-subgroups are conjugate in G (i. Observe that jÙj ˆ 2jG : Pj ˆ 2m. then Qxu ˆ Qx and hence xux À1 P Q. Hence the subgroup f g P G : g acts as an even permutation on Ùg . then there exists g P G such that Q ˆ g Pg). where m is odd since P is a Sylow 2-subgroup. À1 subgroups. then u is conjugate to an element of Q. We shall not prove this. then there is a Sylow p-subgroup of G containing R. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. This means that in its action on Ù. if P Q are Sylow p. a basic result in ®nite group theory. the involution u is a product of m disjoint 2-cycles.3 and 18. The ®rst is Sylow's Theorem.354 Representations and characters of groups Observe that PSL(2. Before embarking upon the proof of Theorem 30. and let P be a Sylow 2subgroup of G.8. g P G (see Example 29. 30. but refer you to Theorems 18. 7) is a simple group of order 168 having an involution with centralizer D8 (see Lemma 27. Now consider fixÙ (u) ˆ fù P Ù : ùu ˆ ùg If Qx P fixÙ (u). Then (1) G contains a subgroup of order p a.1). and let G be a ®nite group of order p a b. such a subgroup is call a Sylow p-subgroup of G.

the centre of D. This is impossible since G is non-abelian and simple.0 Finally. Then Z(P) < C G (t) ˆ D. the degree ø(1) can be 0 or negative for a generalized character ø.12)). and hence Z(P) ˆ hti. and as t commutes with all elements of D. j We also need to introduce the idea of a generalized character of a group H. In particular. Proof of Theorem 30. ⠈ À n÷ ÷X n÷ >0 n÷ . we de®ne the induced generalized character ø 4 G by ø 4 G ˆ (á 4 G) À ( â 4 G) where ø ˆ á À â as above. This is simply a class function of the form ˆ øˆ n÷ ÷ x where the sum is over all the irreducible characters of H. By Lemma 26. so t P D. Notice also that the orthogonality relations give the usual inner products ˆ hø. The generalized character ø can be expressed as a difference á À â. so Z(P) < Z(D) ˆ hti. there is a Sylow 2-subgroup P of G such that D < P. Therefore P < . By Theorem 30.1(1) we have Z(P) Tˆ 1. where á and â are characters of H: take ˆ ˆ ሠn÷ ÷. Certainly t commutes with itself.20 hold for generalized characters ø. This contradiction completes the proof. It is clear from this de®nition that the formulae for the values of ø 4 G given in Proposition 21. ÷i ˆ n÷ . if H is a subgroup of a group G. hø. but this need not be the case for a generalized character.Applications to group theory 355 is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. If n÷ > 0 for all ÷ then of course ø is a character. øi ˆ n2 ÷ for a generalized character ø as above.8 Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group with an involution t such that C G (t) ˆ D  D8 . The centre of D8 is a cyclic group of order 2 (see (12. and each n÷ P Z. we have t P Z(D).9(3). and hence Z(D) ˆ hti.19 and Corollary 21.

and if C ’ g À1 Cg ˆ C then g P D. It follows that (è 4 G)(c) ˆ è(c). Let C ˆ hai be the cyclic subgroup of index 2 in D. Then è takes the value 2 on a.19 gives 1 ˆ • À1 (è 4 G)(c) ˆ è( y cy)X 8 yPG By (30.11) D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. for any g P G we have C ’ gÀ1 Cg ˆ f1g or C. èi ˆ 3. Next.) Hence hè. every involution of G is conjugate to an involution in C. Now hè 4 G. hence g P C G (t) ˆ D and so g À1 Cg ˆ C.20). The rest is character theory. bi where a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1 and bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 . In other words. if y À1 cy P C then y P D. 1 C i ˆ 1. hè 4 G.12) that . we therefore have h(è 4 G) 5 D. Referring to the character table of D8 in Example 16. (In particular. we conclude that t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. and so it follows from (30. We summarise what we have proved so far: (30. By Lemma 30. giving (30. t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. whence y À1 cy ˆ cÆ1 and è( y À1 cy) ˆ è(c). èi ˆ 3. Write D ˆ ha.10. the value 4 on t. and 0 elsewhere. and de®ne è ˆ (1 C 4 D) À (ë 4 D). Since è vanishes on D À C. èi Now for 1 Tˆ c P C. è 4 Gi ˆ 3X To see this.12).11).356 Representations and characters of groups C G (t) ˆ D. let g P G and suppose that g À1 cg P C for some non-identity element c P C. èi ˆ hè. Then t ˆ a2 . As t ˆ a2 is the only such involution. 1 G i ˆ h1 C À ë. a generalized character of D. Let ë be the linear character of C such that ë(a) ˆ i. This is all the group theory we will need for the proof. and so P ˆ D. we must have g À1 tg ˆ t. Since t ˆ c or c2. aÀ1 . Also (è 4 G)(1) ˆ 0 (see Corollary 21. observe ®rst that by Frobenius reciprocity. we have è ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 À ÷5 . è 4 Gi ˆ h(è 4 G) 5 D. And if y À1 cy P D À C then è( y À1 cy) ˆ 0. Proposition 21. We next establish (30X12) hè 4 G. è(1) ˆ 0.3(3).

ãi ˆ 1‡ (30X15) À X 64 á(1) â(1) On the other hand.4 yields the following. (30. â are irreducible characters of G. Note that by Corollary 13. de®ne ã( g) to be number of ordered pairs (x. then ã( g) ˆ a iik in the notation of (30. 1 ‡ á(1) À â(1) ˆ 0 and 1 ‡ á(t) À â(t) ˆ 4. then x À1 cx ˆ yx ˆ cÀ1 . Since we have shown that (è 4 G)(t) ˆ è(t) ˆ 4. ã 5 Ci ˆ 1 X4X((1 À i) ‡ 2 ‡ (1 ‡ i)) ˆ 4X jCj Hence from (30. hè 4 G. from (30. by Frobenius Reciprocity. Now calculation in D8 shows that ã(c) ˆ 4.13) and (30. If c ˆ xy with x.11). By (30. jDj2 ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. 357 where á. similarly y P D.14) We have ㈠jGj ˆ ÷(t)2 ÷. First. where á. (30. ãi ˆ h1 C À ë. we have now proved the following. and hence x P D by (30. á(t) and â(t) are integers.13) we have . â are irreducible. For g P G.13) We have è 4 G ˆ 1 G ‡ á À â.10. y P t G . Consider ã(c) for 1 Tˆ c P C. Write d ˆ á(1) and e ˆ á(t) P Z. ã 5 Ci.15) we deduce 2 3 á(t)2 â(t)2 jGj 1 ‡ (30X16) À ˆ 28 X á(1) â(1) This equation gives us enough number-theoretic information about jGj to ®nish the proof fairly quickly. Hence Theorem 30. We shall calculate the inner product of ã and è 4 G in two ways.Applications to group theory è 4 G ˆ 1 G ‡ á À â. If we write t G ˆ C i and g lies in the conjugacy class C k of G.3). y) P t G 3 t G such that g ˆ xy. Therefore h1 C À ë.14) we have 2 3 jGj á(t)2 â(t)2 hè 4 G. We now introduce another class function of G into the picture.

Moreover.4(2).8. . j Summary of Chapter 30 1. from which it follows that e ˆ 1 or 2.8.358 Representations and characters of groups â(1) ˆ d ‡ 1. Finally. giving jGj ˆ 360. Given groups G and H. we deduce that d ‡ 2 ˆ 23 . d ‡ 1) is 1 or 2. the class algebra constants of G can sometimes be used to determine whether or not G has a subgroup which isomorphic to H. by using the formula aijk ˆ ˆ ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) 2. â(t) ˆ e À 3X From the column orthogonality relations 16. This completes the proof of Theorem 30. Then (30. Then (30. suppose that e ˆ 2. d d‡1 whence jGj ˆ 28 d(d ‡ 1) X (d À 1)2 Now the highest common factor hcf (d À 1. Hence (d À 1)2 must divide 210 . and so d À 1 ˆ 2 r with r < 5. Suppose now that e ˆ 1. a Sylow 2-subgroup of G has order 8. The class algebra constants aijk are given by ˆ Ci C j ˆ aijk C k X k They can be calculated from the character table. It follows that r ˆ 3 and d ˆ 9.16) gives   1 4 jGj 1 ‡ À ˆ 28 .16) yields jGj ˆ 28 d(d ‡ 1) X (d ‡ 2)2 Reasoning as above. and hcf (d À 1. d) ˆ 1. we have 8 ˆ jC G (t)j > 1 ‡ á(t)2 ‡ â(t)2 ˆ 1 ‡ e 2 ‡ (e À 3)2 . giving d ˆ 6 and jGj ˆ 168. one of the possibilities in the conclusion of Theorem 30.

Using Sylow's Theorem. and that A5 has the following presentation: A5 ˆ ha. b: a2 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. given at the end of Chapter 27. g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 5 5 8 8 9 10 p g2 1 1 1 0 0 1 À2 g3 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 0 p 5)a2. 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2.13). it can be shown that any simple group possessing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 must have order 168 or 360. 7). Use the character table of PSL (2. then G  A5 . (b) Use the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions to obtain an . (a) Show that G is a simple group of order 360.6. if G is a group with the same character table as A5 (see Example 20. Suppose that G is a group. you may assume that A5 is a simple group. Exercises for Chapter 30 1. together with lots of ingenious character theory.Applications to group theory 359 3. 7) contain a subgroup isomorphic to D14 ? (Hint: D14 ˆ ka. Does PSL (2. The character table of PSL (2. (ab)7 ˆ 1l. and that G has the character table shown. g4 1 2 À1 À1 À1 0 1 g5 1 À1 2 À1 À1 0 1 g6 1 0 0 á â À1 0 g7 1 0 0 â á À1 0 where á ˆ (1 ‡ 5)a2. 11) contain a subgroup which is isomorphic to A5 ? 4. b: a2 ˆ b3 ˆ (ab)5 ˆ 1iX 3. ⠈ (1 À 5. 2. b has order 3 and ab has order 7. Does PSL (2.) For the next three exercises. Prove that A5 is characterized by its character table ± that is. 11) is given in the solution to Exercise 27. to prove that PSL (2.

6(3) to show that every group G which is generated by two elements a and b which satisfy a2 ˆ b3 ˆ (ab)4 ˆ 1 has order at most 24. p). Prove that PSL(2.) t such that . 7. and deduce that g2 has order 2 and g3 has order 4. (d) Using Exercise 23. (Hint: look for a suitable simple group PSL(2. both of which contain an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 . Use the ®gure which appears in Example 30.9. 7) and A6 are simple groups of order 168. 360 respectively. Find a simple group G having an involution C G (t)  D16 . 6. (c) Prove that G has a subgroup H which is isomorphic to A5 .360 Representations and characters of groups upper bound for the number of involutions in G. show that G  A6 . 8.

We call a polynomial in x monic if the coef®cient of the highest power of x in it is 1. In the ®rst edition of his book Theory of groups of ®nite order (1897). which states that if p and q are prime numbers and a and b are positive integers. and let p(x) be a monic polynomial over Q of smallest possible degree having á as a root. if ù is an nth root of unity then the minimal poly361 . For example. Bender found one in 1972.31 Burnside's Theorem One of the most famous applications of representation theory is Burnside's Theorem. see for instance the book by Pollard and Diamond listed in the Bibliography. Burnside presented group-theoretic arguments which proved the theorem for many special choices of the integers a. Let á be an algebraic number. An algebraic number is a complex number which is a root of some non-zero polynomial over Q. A preliminary lemma We prepare for the proof of Burnside's Theorem with a lemma (31. but it was only after studying Frobenius's new theory of group representations that he was able to prove the theorem in general.2) which is concerned with character values. which we now describe. then no group of order pa q b is simple. many later attempts to ®nd a proof which does not use representation theory were unsuccessful. b. The roots of p(x) are called the conjugates of á. until H. Indeed. Then p(x) is unique and irreducible. We omit proofs of these ± for a good account. In order to establish this lemma we require some basic facts about algebraic integers and algebraic numbers. it is called the minimal polynomial of á.

. Then every conjugate of á ‡ â is of the form á9 ‡ â9. and it turns out that the minimal polynomial of á also has integer coef®cients. so ÷( g)a÷(1) ˆ (ù1 ‡ X X X ‡ ù d )adX Since |÷( g)| ˆ |ù1 ‡ . We shall require the following fact about conjugates: (31. For an elementary proof of this. and if 0 . . 1. . By (31.1) Let á and â be algebraic numbers. so that p(x) ˆ x n ‡ a nÀ1 x nÀ1 ‡ X X X ‡ a1 x ‡ a0 where ai P Z for all i. Alternatively.1) can be proved easily using some Galois theory. . ‡ ù d | < |ù1 | ‡ . j÷( g)a÷(1)j . . Section 3. ù9 are roots of unity. it follows that j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1. Hence each conjugate of ã has 1 d . each conjugate of ã is of the form (ù9 ‡ X X X ‡ ù9 )ad 1 d where ù9 .2 Lemma Let ÷ be a character of a ®nite group G. Now suppose that ÷( g)a÷(1) is an algebraic integer and j÷( g)a÷(1)j . see Pollard and Diamond. . If á is an algebraic integer. Proof Let ÷(1) ˆ d. ‡ |ù d | ˆ d. if r P Q then every conjugate of rá is of the form rá9. Chapter V. where each ù i is a root of unity.362 Representations and characters of groups nomial of ù divides x n À 1. We prove that ÷( g) ˆ 0. where á9 is a conjugate of á. Then j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1. and so every conjugate of ù is also an nth root of unity. ‡ ù d . Moreover. (31. By Proposition 13. then á is a root of a monic polynomial with integer coef®cients (see Chapter 22). 1 then ÷( g)a÷(1) is not an algebraic integer. where á9 is a conjugate of á and â9 is a conjugate of â.9 we have ÷( g) ˆ ù1 ‡ . and let p(x) be the minimal polynomial of ã. . . and let g P G. Write 㠈 ÷( g)a÷(1). . .1). 31.

Burnside's Theorem

363

modulus at most 1. It follows that if ë is the product of all the conjugates of ã (including ã), then jëj , 1X But the conjugates of ã are, by de®nition, the roots of the polynomial p(x), and the product of all these roots is equal to Æa0 . Thus ë ˆ Æa0 X Since a0 P Z and |ë| , 1, it follows that a0 ˆ 0. As p(x) is irreducible, this implies that p(x) ˆ x, which in turn forces 㠈 0. Thus ÷( g) ˆ 0, and the proof is complete.
j

Burnside's p a q b Theorem We deduce the main result, Theorem 31.4, from another interesting theorem of Burnside. 31.3 Theorem Let p be a prime number and let r be an integer with r > 1. Suppose that G is a ®nite group with a conjugacy class of size pr . Then G is not simple. Proof Let g P G with | gG | ˆ pr . Since pr . 1, G is not abelian and g Tˆ 1. As usual, denote the irreducible characters of G by ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k , and take ÷1 to be the trivial character. The column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2), applied to the columns corresponding to 1 and g in the character table of G, give 1‡ Therefore
k ˆ iˆ2 k ˆ iˆ2

÷ i ( g)÷ i (1) ˆ 0X

÷ i ( g) .

÷ i (1) 1 ˆÀ X p p

Now À1a p is not an algebraic integer, by Proposition 22.5. Therefore, for some i > 2, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer (see Theorem 22.3). Since ÷ i ( g) is an algebraic integer (Corollary 22.4), it follows

364

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that ÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer; in other words, p does not divide ÷ i (1). Thus ÷ i ( g) Tˆ 0 and p T j ÷ i (1)X As | gG | ˆ pr , this means that ÷ i (1) and | gG | are coprime integers, and so there are integers a and b such that ajG:CG ( g)j ‡ b÷ i (1) ˆ 1X Hence a jGj÷ i ( g) ÷ i ( g) ‡ b÷ i ( g) ˆ X jCG ( g)j÷ i (1) ÷ i (1)

By Corollaries 22.10 and 22.4, the left-hand side of this equation is an algebraic integer; and since ÷ i ( g) Tˆ 0, it is non-zero. Now Lemma 31.2 implies that j÷ i ( g)a÷ i (1)j ˆ 1X Let r be a representation of G with character ÷ i . By Theorem 13.11(1), there exists ë P C such that gr ˆ ëIX Let K ˆ Ker r, so that K is a normal subgroup of G. Since ÷ i is not the trivial character, K Tˆ G. If K Tˆ {1} then G is not simple, as required; so assume that K ˆ {1}, that is, r is a faithful representation. Since gr is a scalar multiple of the identity, gr commutes with hr for all h P G. As r is faithful, it follows that g commutes with all h P G; in other words, g P Z(G)X Therefore Z(G) Tˆ {1}. As Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G and Z(G) Tˆ G, we conclude that G is not simple. j We now come to the main result of the chapter, Burnside's Theorem. 31.4 Burnside's paqb Theorem Let p and q be prime numbers, and let a and b be non-negative integers with a ‡ b > 2. If G is a group of order pa q b , then G is not simple. Proof First suppose that either a ˆ 0 or b ˆ 0. Then the order of G is a power of a prime, so by Lemma 26.1(1) we have Z(G) Tˆ {1}.

Burnside's Theorem

365

Choose g P Z(G) of prime order. Then k gl v G and k gl is not equal to {1} or G. Hence G is not simple. Now assume that a . 0 and b . 0. By Sylow's Theorem 30.9, G has a subgroup Q of order q b . We have Z(Q) Tˆ {1} by Lemma 26.1(1). Let g P Z(Q) with g Tˆ 1. Then Q < CG ( g), so j g G j ˆ jG:CG ( g)j ˆ pr for some r. If pr ˆ 1 then g P Z(G), so Z(G) Tˆ {1} and G is not simple as before. And if pr . 1 then G is not simple, by Theorem 31.3. j In fact Burnside's pa q b Theorem leads to a somewhat more informative result about groups of order pa q b : (31.5) Every group of order p a q b is soluble. Here, by a soluble group we mean a group G which has subgroups G0 , G1 , . . . , Gr with 1 ˆ G 0 , G1 , X X X , G r ˆ G such that for 1 < i < r, GiÀ1 v Gi and the factor group Gi aG iÀ1 is cyclic of prime order. We sketch a proof of (31.5), using induction on a ‡ b. The result is clear if a ‡ b < 1, so assume that a ‡ b > 2 and let G be a group of order pa q b . By Burnside's Theorem 31.4, G has a normal subgroup H such that H is not {1} or G. Both H and the factor group Ga H have order equal to a product of powers of p and q, and these orders are less than pa q b . Hence by induction, H and Ga H are both soluble. Therefore there are subgroups 1 ˆ G0 v G1 v X X X v Gs ˆ H, 1 ˆ Gs a H v G s‡1 a H v X X X v Gr a H ˆ Ga H with all factor groups Gi aG iÀ1 of prime order. Then the series 1 ˆ G0 v G 1 v X X X v G r ˆ G shows that G is soluble. Summary of Chapter 31 1. If G has a conjugacy class of size pr ( p prime, r > 1), then G is not simple.

366

Representations and characters of groups

2. If |G| ˆ pa q b ( p, q primes, a ‡ b > 2), then G is not simple. Exercises for Chapter 31 1. Show that a non-abelian simple group cannot have an abelian subgroup of prime power index. 2. Prove that if G is a non-abelian simple group of order less than 80, then |G| ˆ 60. (Hint: use Exercise 13.8.)

32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration

Representation theory is used extensively in many of the physical sciences. Such applications come about because every physical system has a symmetry group G, and certain vector spaces associated with the system turn out to be RG-modules. For example, the vibration of a molecule is governed by various differential equations, and the symmetry group of the molecule acts on the space of solutions of these equations. It is on this application ± the theory of molecular vibrations ± that we concentrate in this ®nal chapter. In order to keep our treatment elementary, we stay within the framework of classical mechanics throughout. (Quantum mechanical effects can be incorporated subsequently, but we shall not go into this ± for an account, consult the book by D. S. Schonland listed in the Bibliography.)

Symmetry groups Let V be R2 or R3, and for v, w P V, let d(v, w) denote the distance between v and w ± in other words, if v ˆ (x1 , x2 , . . .) and w ˆ ( y1, y2, . . .), then 3 r2ˆ 2 d(v, w) ˆ (xi À yi ) X An isometry of V is an invertible endomorphism W of V such that d(vW, wW) ˆ d(v, w) for all v, w P V X The set of all isometries of V forms a group under composition, called the orthogonal group of V, and denoted by O(V). Any rotation of R3 about an axis through the origin is an example 367

368

Representations and characters of groups

of an isometry; so is any re¯ection in a plane through the origin. The endomorphism À1R3 which sends every vector v to Àv is another example of an element in the orthogonal group O(R3 ). It turns out that the composition of two rotations is again a rotation, and that for every isometry g in O(R3 ), either g or À g is a rotation (see Exercise 32.1). The orthogonal group O(R3 ) therefore contains a subgroup of index 2 which consists of the rotations. The same is true of the group O(R2 ). If Ä is a subset of V , where V ˆ R2 or R3, then we de®ne G(Ä) to be the set of isometries which leave Ä invariant ± that is, G(Ä) ˆ f g P O(V ): Ä g ˆ Äg (where Ä g ˆ {v g: v P Ä}). Then G(Ä) is a subgroup of called the symmetry group of Ä. The subgroup of G(Ä) the rotations in G(Ä) is called the rotation group of Ä. the rotation group of Ä in the symmetry group G(Ä) is 1 O(V ), and is consisting of The index of or 2.

32.1 Example Let V ˆ R2, and let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon, with n > 3, centred at the origin. The symmetry group of Ä is easily seen to be the dihedral group D2n , which was de®ned as a group of n rotations and n re¯ections preserving Ä (see Example 1.1(3)). Now let V ˆ R3, and again let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon (n > 3) centred at the origin. This time, G(Ä) ˆ D2 n 3 C2 ; the extra elements arise because there is an isometry which ®xes all points of Ä, namely the re¯ection in the plane of Ä. 32.2 Example Let Ä be a regular tetrahedron in R3 centred at the origin:

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 369 Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1, 2, 3, 4. We claim that each permutation of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry of Ä. For example, the 2-cycle (1 2) corresponds to a re¯ection in the plane which contains the origin and the edge 34; similarly each 2-cycle corresponds to a re¯ection. Since S4 is generated by the 2-cycles, each of the 24 permutations of 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry, as claimed. No non-identity endomorphism of R3 ®xes all the corners of Ä, since Ä contains three linearly independent vectors. Therefore we have found all the isometries, and G(Ä)  S4 . Notice that the rotation group of Ä is isomorphic to A4 ; for example, (1 2)(3 4) corresponds to a rotation through ð about the axis through the mid-points of the edges 12 and 34, and (1 2 3) corresponds to a rotation through 2ða3 about the axis through the origin and the corner 4. Finally, observe that the group G(Ä) is unchanged if we take Ä to consist of just the four corners of the tetrahedron. 32.3 Example In this example we describe the symmetry groups of the molecules H2 O (water), CH3 Cl (methyl chloride) and CH4 (methane). The symmetry group of a molecule is de®ned to be the group of isometries which not only preserve the position of the molecule in space, but also send each atom to an atom of the same kind. The shapes of the three molecules are as follows.

370

Representations and characters of groups

We always assume that the centroid of our molecule lies at the origin in R3 . The CH4 molecule has four hydrogen atoms at the corners of a regular tetrahedron, and a carbon atom at the centre of the tetrahedron. So the symmetry group of the molecule CH4 is equal to the symmetry group of the tetrahedron, as given in Example 32.2. This group is isomorphic to S4 , permuting the four hydrogen atoms among themselves and ®xing the carbon atom. As for the CH3 Cl molecule, this possesses a rotation symmetry a of order 3 about the vertical axis, and three re¯ection symmetries in the planes containing the C, Cl and one of the H atoms. If b is one of these re¯ections, then the symmetry group is f1, a, a2 , b, ab, a2 bg and is isomorphic to S3 , permuting the three H atoms and ®xing the C and Cl atoms. Finally, the H2 O molecule possesses two re¯ection symmetries, one in the plane of the molecule, and one in a plane perpendicular to this one passing through the O atom; and it has a rotation symmetry of order 2. Hence the symmetry group is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . Vibration of a physical system We prepare for a description of the general problem with an example. 32.4 Example Suppose we have a spring stretched between two points P and Q on a smooth horizontal table, with equal masses m attached at the points of trisection of the spring:

The masses are displaced slightly, and released. What can we say about the subsequent motion of the system? To investigate this problem, we let x1 and x2 be the displacements of the two masses at time t. We measure x1 from left to right, and x2 from right to left, as indicated in the ®gure above. Let k be the

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 371 stiffness of the spring ± in other words, if the extension in the spring is x, then the restoring force is kx. The spring pulls the left-hand mass towards P with force kx1 and towards Q with force Àk(x1 ‡ x2 ). By dealing with the right-hand mass similarly, we obtain the following equations of motion of the system: m1 ˆ Àkx1 À k(x1 ‡ x2 ) ˆ À2kx1 À kx2 , x m2 ˆ Àkx2 À k(x1 ‡ x2 ) ˆ Àkx1 À 2kx2 , x  where xi denotes the second derivative of xi with respect to t. These are second order linear differential equations in two unknowns x1 and x2 , so the general solution involves four arbitrary constants. We shall ®nd the general solution, using a method which can be applied in a much wider context.  Write x ˆ (x1 , x2 ), x ˆ (1 , x2 ) and q ˆ kam. Then the equations of x  motion are equivalent to the matrix equation   À2q Àq  x ˆ xA, where A ˆ (32X5) X Àq À2q Notice that A is symmetric. Hence the eigenvalues of A are real, and A has two linearly independent eigenvectors. It is this property which we wish to emphasize and exploit in the present example. Before we explicitly ®nd the eigenvectors of A, let us explain why they allow us to solve the equation of motion (32.5). Suppose that u is an eigenvector of A, with eigenvalue Àù2 . For an arbitrary constant â, let x ˆ sin (ùt ‡ â) uX Then  x ˆ Àù2 sin (ùt ‡ â) u ˆ sin (ùt ‡ â) uA ˆ xAX Thus x is a solution of the equation of motion. If u1 and u2 are linearly independent eigenvectors of A, with eigenvalues Àù2 and 1 Àù2 , respectively, then 2 á1 sin (ù1 t ‡ â1 ) u1 ‡ á2 sin (ù2 t ‡ â2 ) u2 (since uA ˆ Àù2 u)

which we use to measure the displacement of the atom. t ‡ â2 ) and the vibration is Mode 2: p sin ( q .5). t ‡ â2 ) (1. À1). t ‡ â2 ) (1. p sin ( (3q) t ‡ â1 ) (1. Therefore the general solution of the equation of motion (32.5) is p p á1 sin ( (3q) t ‡ â1 ) (1. For the matrix given in (32. the eigenvalues are À3q and Àq. at each atom the three coordinate axes . 1) Mode 1: p Here. À1) The general molecular vibration problem Suppose we have a molecule consisting of n atoms which vibrate under internal forces. 1) and (1. â2 . They are as follows. We assume that the internal forces are linear functions of the displacements. It follows that when we apply Newton's Second Law of Motion. À1)X The solutions which involve just one eigenvector of A are called the normal modes of vibration. so it is the general solution.5). We now adopt this line of attack in the problem to hand. for the moment. we assign three coordinate axes. x1 ˆ Àx2 ˆ sin ( q . with corresponding eigenvectors (1. 1) ‡ á2 sin ( q . At the equilibrium position of each atom.372 Representations and characters of groups is a solution of the equation of motion which involves four arbitrary constants á1 . x1 ˆ x2 ˆ sin ( (3q) t ‡ â1 ) and the vibration is p Here. á2 . Thus.) Here x is the displacements of all the atoms. entries which are determined by Assume. â1 . that  x ˆ xAX row vector in R3 n which measures the and A is a 3n 3 3n matrix with real the internal forces. we obtain equations which may be expressed in the form (32X6) (Compare (32. the state of the molecule at a given time is described by a vector in the 3n-dimensional vector space R3 n .

where our chosen coordinate axes are not necessarily at right angles to each other. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. 32. (2) (t ‡ â) u ( â constant) where u is an eigenvector of A corresponding to the eigenvalue 0. 32. the effect of changing coordinate axes is merely to replace A by a matrix which is conjugate to A. for the general case. It can be shown. then  x ˆ 0 ˆ (t ‡ â)uA ˆ xAX This proves that the normal modes of vibration are solutions of the . A has real eigenvalues. which we de®ne next.6).8 De®nition A normal mode of vibration for our molecule is a vector in R3 n of one of the following forms: (1) sin (ùt ‡ â) u ( â constant) where Àù2 is a non-zero eigenvalue of A and u is a corresponding eigenvector. that in this special case the matrix A is symmetric. To solve the equation of motion (32. Therefore we have the following proposition. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. from physical considerations.9 Proposition Each normal mode of vibration is a solution of the equation of motion (32.6).An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 373 which we have chosen are at right angles to each other. In particular. Proof If uA ˆ Àù2 A and x ˆ sin (ùt ‡ â) u. Now. 32.7 Proposition All the eigenvalues of A are real. then  x ˆ Àù2 sin (ùt ‡ â) u ˆ sin (ùt ‡ â) uA ˆ xAX If uA ˆ 0 and x ˆ (t ‡ â)u. The general solution of the equation of motion is a linear combination of the normal modes of vibration. we look for normal modes of the system. and for this solution all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency.

the general linear combination of normal modes involves 6n arbitrary constants. negates v2 and v3. By construction. Use of the symmetry group We continue the discussion of the previous section. all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency (namely. then x ˆ e ë t u would be a solution to the equation of motion. each element of G acts as an endomorphism of the space R3 n of displacement vectors. Therefore there exist 3n linearly independent normal modes. However.7. which is nonsense. Thus.6) (as (32. 32.9 reduces the problem of solving the equations of motion to that of ®nding all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the 3n 3 3n matrix A. R3 n is an RG-module. Note that A can have no strictly positive eigenvalue. interchanges v4 and v7.10 Example Let g be the rotation of order 2 of the H2 O molecule: Assign coordinate axes at the initial positions of each atom as shown. Then g ®xes v1 .6). this can be a huge and unwieldy task if it is attempted directly ± even writing down the matrix A for a given molecule can be a painful operation! The symmetry group of the molecule and its representation theory can often be used to simplify greatly the calculation of the eigenvectors of A. Since G permutes the atoms among themselves. j Proposition 32. ù or 0) in a normal mode. so it is the general solution to the equation of motion (32.6) consists of second order differential equations in 3n unknowns). Since each normal mode involves an arbitrary constant. and . with eigenvector u. and we shall describe a method for doing this. Let G be the symmetry group of the molecule in question. for if ë were p such an eigenvalue. by Proposition 32. and for 1 < i < 9. let v i denote a unit vector along coordinate axis i.374 Representations and characters of groups equation of motion (32.

Therefore g acts on R9 as follows: (x1 . x5 . The eigenspace for the eigenvalue ë of A is. The equations of motion are x ˆ xA. x4 . Àx8 . x7 . For all g in G. and let v be a corresponding eigenvector. Àx9 . and let g P G. x6 . Choose a basis of R3 n which consists of eigenvectors of A (see Proposition 32. Àx5 . Therefore. This shows that the eigenspace for Àù2 is an RG-submodule of R3 n . (xg)A ˆ (xA) g. Àx2 . and hence . x4 . Àx3 . since the relative con®guration of the atoms is unaltered by applying g. 32. Proof Let Àù2 be a non-zero eigenvalue of A. Then v speci®es the directions and relative magnitudes of the displacements of the atoms from the equilibrium position when the molecule is vibrating in a normal mode of frequency ù. it tells us that the function x 3 xA (x P R3 n ) is an RG-homomorphism from R3 n to itself. x7 . x9 ) g ˆ (x1 . A similar argument applies to the eigenspace for the eigenvalue 0.11 Proposition For all g P G and x P R3 n . and the eigenspaces of A are RG-submodules of R3 n .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 375 interchanges v5 and v6 with the negatives of v8 and v9 . fx P R3 n : xA ˆ ëxgX We can now present the crucial proposition which allows us to exploit the symmetry group G of our molecule. In effect. j The idea now is to use representation theory to express the RGmodule R3n as a direct sum of irreducible RG-submodules. and (v g)A ˆ ë(v g) ˆ (ëv) g ˆ (vA) gX Hence (xg)A ˆ (xA) g for all x P R3 n . v g must also specify the directions and relative magnitudes of displacements in a normal mode of frequency ù. x2 . For all vectors v in the basis. with eigenvalue Àù2 . and we are trying to ®nd the eigenvectors of A. v g is an eigenvector of A. vA ˆ ëv for some ë P R.7). x8 . x3 . by de®nition. Àx6 )X  We return to the general set-up.

13 Proposition Each homogeneous component V÷ of R3 n is A-invariant ± that is. problems like this are uncommon. (This procedure sometimes needs to be modi®ed. 32.376 Representations and characters of groups to determine the eigenspaces of A.11.3. w P W ) (x P V÷ ) is an RG-homomorphism.8. this function is zero.) 32. xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ X Proof By Maschke's Theorem we may write R3n ˆ V÷ È W for some RG-module W. Let V÷ denote the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷. then the element ˆ ÷( g À1 ) g gPG sends R3 n onto the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷ (see (14. We can use character theory to see which irreducible RG-modules are contained in R3 n .27)).12 De®nition Suppose that ÷ is the character of an irreducible RG-module. (Although Proposition 11. By Proposition 11.3 is stated in terms of CG-modules.) j . by Proposition 32. and no RG-submodule of W has character ÷. since the character of the RG-module R3 n might contain an irreducible character which cannot be realized over R ± but in practice. We call V÷ a homogeneous component of R3 n . and the normal modes of the molecule. and if ÷ is the character of an irreducible RGmodule which occurs. so xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ . its proof works equally well for RG-modules ± compare Exercise 23. The function å: v ‡ w 3 w (v P V÷ . the function x 3 (xA)å is an RG-homomorphism from V÷ into W. The problem of ®nding the eigenspaces of A is considerably simpli®ed as a consequence of our next proposition. Therefore.

(5) Consider.19 below. . If V÷ i is reducible. This programme can often be successfully completed. then all the non-zero vectors in V÷ are eigenvectors of A. with eigenvalue Àù2 . 32. (4) Express R3 n as a direct sum of homogeneous components. each homogeneous component V÷ i of R3 n . with eigenvalue ë. This involves no extra work if V÷ i is irreducible (see Corollary 32. and ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i (see Proposition 32. Proof (Compare the proof of Schur's Lemma.15 Summary (1) Assign three coordinate axes at each of the n atoms of the molecule. to obtain R3n . so it must equal V÷ . say.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 377 32. to make further progress.14 Corollary If V÷ is an irreducible RG-module. (6) If v is an eigenvector of A. j We now summarize the steps in the procedure for ®nding the normal modes of vibration of a given molecule. we may choose v P V÷ such that v is an eigenvector of A. or Exercise 32. This can € À1 3n be done by applying the element for each gPG ÷ i ( g ) g to R irreducible character ÷ i of G which appears in ÷.13). in turn. where â is an arbitrary constant. or by some other method.7. as we shall illustrate in the examples which make up the rest of this chapter. (2) Calculate the symmetry group G of the molecule. It is usually necessary to know the equations of motion in order to determine the frequency ù.) Since V÷ is A-invariant. Then R3 n is an RG-module.14). (3) Calculate the character ÷ of the RG-module R3 n and express ÷ as a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G. Then the intersection of V÷ with the eigenspace for ë is a non-zero RG-submodule of V÷ . then sin (ùt ‡ â) v (or (t ‡ â)v if ù ˆ 0) is a normal mode. then see Remark 32.

ù2 are the frequencies. where xi is the displacement along axis i (1 < i < 6). This agrees with the conclusion of Example 32.4. 32. Since (x1 . where g is the re¯ection in the mid-point of PQ. . x2 ) g ˆ (x2 . â2 are constants and ù1 . the RG-submodules of R2 are sp (u1 ) and sp (u2 ). . For simplicity. .4. sin (ù2 t ‡ â2 )(1. where the three identical atoms are at the corners of an equilateral triangle. 1). The symmetry group (in two dimensions) of the molecule is the dihedral group D6. x1 ). 1). we consider only vibrations of the molecule in the plane. x2 ) form an RG-module R2 . where â1 . generated by a rotation a of order 3 and a re¯ection . so we assign two displacement coordinates to each atom. À1). where u1 ˆ (1. as shown.378 Representations and characters of groups 32.17 Example Consider a hypothetical triatomic molecule. x6 ) in R6 . The displacement vectors (x1 . À1)X It follows that the normal modes of the system are given by sin (ù1 t ‡ â1 )(1. u2 ˆ (1.16 Example We ®rst return to Example 32. with the spring and two vibrating masses: The symmetry group of this system is G ˆ h g: g 2 ˆ 1i. . Notice that we have determined the normal modes of vibration (but not their frequencies) using the symmetry group alone. We choose to take our axes along the edges of the triangle. as this eases the calculations: Thus the position of the molecule is given by a vector (x1 .

which occur for every molecule. x5 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 379 b (see Example 32. x6 )b ˆ (x2 . v3 ) P R6 pictorially by the diagram We ®rst calculate the normal modes of the form (t ‡ â)v. . we see that ÷(b) ˆ 0. For example. ÷2 . Thus. These include the rotation and translation modes. v3 are 2-dimensional displacement vectors for the three atoms. x1 . Since the rotation a does not ®x any of the atoms. It is easy to work out the action of each element of D6 on R6 . ÷3 and ÷3 . the character table of D6 is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 Hence ÷ ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ 2÷3 . x2 . if b is the re¯ection which ®xes the top atom. x4 . corresponding to the eigenspace of A for eigenvalue 0. Thus the values of ÷ are 1 ÷ 6 a 0 b 0 By Section 18. we ®rst calculate the character ÷ of the module. As a matter of notation. x3 . x6 . To do this.1). x4 . And from the action of b given above. x3 )X We want to express the RD6 -module R6 as a direct sum of irreducible RD6 -modules. then we represent the displacement vector (v1 . if v1 . then (x1 . ÷(a) ˆ 0. we seek to express R6 as a direct sum of RD6 -submodules with characters ÷1 . v2 .3. v2 . x5 .

1. where ˆ å2 ˆ ÷2 ( g À1 ) g ˆ 1 ‡ a ‡ a2 À b À ab À a2 b gP D6 (compare (14. it does not contain the rotation submodule. 1)). The modes are of the form (t ‡ â)v. ÷ R (b) ˆ À1. It is clearly an RD6 -submodule of R6 . v3 ˆ (0. v2 . Since v1 ‡ v2 ‡ v3 ˆ 0. sp (v) ˆ R6 å2 . À1. À1. Indeed. . 1.27)). If ÷ R is the character of sp (v). and is called the translation submodule.380 Representations and characters of groups Rotation mode In this mode. 0. v2 ˆ (1. À1. À1. where v is a vector in the span of v1 . À1. 1. v2 and v3. 0. so the character must be ÷3 . v3 ) has dimension 2. Translation modes These are modes in which all atoms move in the same constant direction with the same constant speed. pictorially. Thus the character of the translation submodule is part of ÷ À ÷2 ˆ ÷1 ‡ 2÷3 . these vectors being given pictorially by (thus v1 ˆ (À1. 0. and so ÷ R ˆ ÷2 . À1). the subspace sp (v1 . 0). We call sp (v) the rotation submodule of R6 . where v ˆ (1. 1. 1. ÷ R (a) ˆ 1. À1). 1. 0. The mode is given by (t ‡ â)v. the molecule rotates with constant angular velocity about the centre. À1. then ÷ R (1) ˆ 1.

Our calculation of the normal modes is now complete.18(3)) below). where vib ÷vib ˆ ÷ À (÷2 ‡ ÷3 ) ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 X In particular. . Since no mode in R6 can have vib vib any translation component. moreover. The sum of these eigenspaces forms an RD6 -submodule R6 of R6 (by Proposition 32. Its character is ÷3 and it gives us the last eigenspace for the vib matrix A.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 381 Vibratory modes The remaining normal modes correspond to eigenspaces of the matrix A with non-zero eigenvalues. every vector in R6 which satis®es these equations lies in R6 . and are called vibratory modes. u2 . and since R6 has vib vib dimension 3.11). R6 has dimension 3. u3 . u1 À u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 . R6 does not contain the rotation vib submodule. Finally. These constraints imply three independent linear equations in the coordinates of the vectors in R6 . u2 . u3 among themselves. and we summarize our ®ndings below. with character ÷vib . it is easy to see that sp (u1 À u2 . Therefore a basis of R6 is u1 . since D6 permutes the vectors u1 . if w P R6 then the total component of w vib in each direction is zero. The vibratory mode given by u1 ‡ u2 ‡ u3 is sometimes called the expansion±contraction mode (you will see the reason for this name in the picture in (32. where vib vib Clearly sp (u1 ‡ u2 ‡ u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 with characvib ter ÷1 . so that total moment of each vector in R6 about the vib centre is zero.

) We emphasize that we have found the normal modes of vibration without explicit knowledge of the equations of motion. u1 À u3 pictorially. In order to . 2u1 À u2 À u3 as the basis for the vibratory modes in (4) merely because these modes look simpler than u1 À u2 .382 (32.18) Representations and characters of groups (1) Rotation mode: (2) Translation modes: linear combinations of (3) Vibratory mode: expansion±contraction mode (4) Vibratory modes: linear combinations of (We have chosen 2u2 À u1 À u3 .

the difference in length between QR and Q9R9 is (x4 ‡ x5 ) ‡ 1(x3 ‡ x6 )X 2 (We always assume that x1 . denote the new positions of the atoms by P9. 2 k In the same way. From the diagram. Q9. x4 . x2 . . so that we may ignore second order terms. and assume that the magnitude of the force between two atoms is k times the decrease in distance between them. For a general displacement (x1 . 2 PQ À P9Q9 ˆ (x2 ‡ x3 ) ‡ 1(x1 ‡ x4 )X 2 Hence the force on the molecule at P in the direction of the ®rst coordinate axis is Àk(PR À P9R9) ˆ Àk(x1 ‡ x6 ) À 1 k(x2 ‡ x5 )X 2 Therefore. x5 . m  x1 ˆ À(x1 ‡ x6 ) À 1(x2 ‡ x5 )X 2 k m  x2 ˆ À(x2 ‡ x3 ) À 1(x1 ‡ x4 ). R9. x6 are small compared with the distance between the atoms.) Similarly. PR À P9R9 ˆ (x1 ‡ x6 ) ‡ 1(x2 ‡ x5 ). we now calculate the equations of motion. X X X . Let m be the mass of each atom. x3 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 383 check our results. x6 ).

18)(2) and (4)) because V÷3 ’ R6 vib was an A-invariant RG-submodule of V÷3 different from {0} and V÷3 . 32. . 32. The matrix A for  which x ˆ xA is therefore given by H I 1 1a2 1a2 0 0 1 f 1a2 1 1 0 0 1a2 g f g Àk f 0 1 1 1a2 1a2 0 g f gX Aˆ 1a2 1a2 1 1 0 g m f 0 f g d 1a2 0 0 1 1 1a2 e 1 0 0 1a2 1a2 1 You should check that the vectors which we gave in (32. This illustrates a method which sometimes helps to deal with reducible homogeneous components.18) are indeed eigenvectors of A. the situation is more complicated.14). x6 . since these homogenous components were irreducible (see Corollary 32.384 Representations and characters of groups   and we obtain similar equations for x3.19 Remark In Example 32. . . where we found that G is isomorphic to S4 . . Label the corners of .2. The homogeneous component V÷3 for ÷3 was reducible.17. the character ÷ of the RG-module R6 was given by ÷ ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ 2÷3 X All the non-zero vectors in the homogeneous components for ÷1 and ÷2 gave normal modes. We determined the symmetry group G of this molecule in Example 32.20 Example We analyse the normal modes for the methane molecule CH4 . In our next example. but we were able to write it as a sum of two subspaces of eigenvectors (those appearing in (32.

v23 . let v21 . Since w1 ‡ w2 ‡ w3 ‡ w4 ˆ 0. W  R3 and V and W are RG-modules. v23 . for g in G. We now introduce a new idea. 24. and so on. w2. 23. G permutes our twelve basis vectors of V. at each hydrogen atom we choose displacement axes along the edges of the tetrahedron. The action of G on V is easy to describe. 3. with w i pointing towards corner i (1 < i < 4). w4. v34 . 4. (2 3 4). v21 . v14 . and we can quickly calculate the character ÷ of V: 1 ÷ 12 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . for example. v14 be unit vectors at corner 1 in the directions of the edges 12. w3. v43 . Let v12 . the rotations about the vertical axis through 1 are written as 1. (2 4 3)X In order fully to exploit the symmetry of the methane molecule. v13 . v31 . giving twelve vectors v ij . Our main task is to ®nd RG-submodules of R15 ˆ V È W. these four vectors span a 3-dimensional space. Let V be the vector space over R with basis v12 . and identify G with S4 . as shown below. v13 .jg for all i. by taking four unit vectors w1. w2. 14.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 385 the tetrahedron 1. v42 . jX Thus. Then V  R12. 2. thus. v41 . v24 . in all. we have v ij g ˆ v ig. 13. v24 be unit vectors at corner 2 in the directions of the edges 21. w3 and w4 at the carbon atom. respectively. and let W be the vector space over R spanned by w1. v32 . similarly.

‡ w4 ˆ 0. it is easy to calculate the character ö of W ± it is 1 ö 3 (1 2) 1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3 4) À1 By Section 18.386 Representations and characters of groups For example.27)). for g in G. We ®nd that ÷ ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 ‡ 2÷4 ‡ ÷5 . . . (1 2) ®xes the basis vectors v34 and v43 only. 5. the character table of S4 is as shown at the top of p.1. . and so on. we can ®nd RG-submodules with characters ÷1 . 3. 4) to R15 . The group G acts on W as follows. ÷5 and 3÷4 (see (14. ö ˆ ÷4 X By applying the elements ˆ ÷ i ( g À1 ) g gPG (i ˆ 1. p2 ˆ (v31 À v13 ) ‡ (v14 À v41 ) ‡ (v43 À v34 ). j and this gives the expansion±contraction normal mode: We next describe the RG-submodule W5 with character ÷5 . all the basis vectors are moved by (1 2 3). 387. The RG-submodule W1 with character ÷1 is spanned by ˆ v ij i. ÷3 . we have wi g ˆ wig (1 < i < 4)X After recalling that w1 ‡ . Let p1 ˆ (v23 À v32 ) ‡ (v34 À v43 ) ‡ (v42 À v24 ).

It should be clear from the pictures that for all i with 1 < i < 4 and . p4 ˆ (v21 À v12 ) ‡ (v13 À v31 ) ‡ (v32 À v23 )X The vector pi gives a rotation about the axis through the corner i and the centroid of the tetrahedron.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 387 Character table of S4 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 À1 1 p3 ˆ (v12 À v21 ) ‡ (v41 À v14 ) ‡ (v24 À v42 ).

p3 . the dimension of W3 is 2. p2 .17.388 Representations and characters of groups all g in G.) Now we construct the RG-submodule W3 of V with character ÷3 . Therefore. p4 ). Let W3 ˆ sp (q1 . its character is ÷3 . Then W3 is an RG-submodule of V. Check that the character of W5 is ÷5 . for example. (Compare. Let q1 ˆ (v12 ‡ v21 ) ‡ (v34 ‡ v43 ) À (v13 ‡ v31 ) À (v24 ‡ v42 ).) For all i with 1 < i < 4 and g in G. The RG-module W5 is the rotation submodule. q3 ). we have pi g ˆ Æ p j for some j. Now p1 ‡ p2 ‡ p3 ‡ p4 ˆ 0. so dim W5 ˆ 3. we have q i g ˆ Æq j for some j. then W5 is an RG-submodule of V. q3 ˆ (v14 ‡ v41 ) ‡ (v23 ‡ v32 ) À (v12 ‡ v21 ) À (v34 ‡ v43 )X (Each q i is associated with an `opposite pair of edges'. q2 ˆ (v13 ‡ v31 ) ‡ (v24 ‡ v42 ) À (v14 ‡ v41 ) À (v23 ‡ v32 ). q2 . if we let W 5 ˆ sp ( p1 . . the picture for p4 with the picture for the rotation vector v in Example 32. Since q1 ‡ q2 ‡ q3 ˆ 0.

14. W 5 and W3 which we have found so far. r4 by r1 ˆ (v12 ‡ v21 ) ‡ (v13 ‡ v31 ) ‡ (v14 ‡ v41 ) À (v23 ‡ v32 ) À (v24 ‡ v42 ) À (v34 ‡ v43 ). r4 ˆ (v14 ‡ v41 ) ‡ (v24 ‡ v42 ) ‡ (v34 ‡ v43 ) À (v13 ‡ v31 ) À (v12 ‡ v21 ) À (v23 ‡ v32 )X (The vector ri is associated with corner i. De®ne the vectors r1.) . r2 ˆ (v12 ‡ v21 ) ‡ (v23 ‡ v32 ) ‡ (v24 ‡ v42 ) À (v13 ‡ v31 ) À (v14 ‡ v41 ) À (v34 ‡ v43 ).An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 389 In the RG-submodules W 1 . r3. by Corollary 32. r3 ˆ (v13 ‡ v31 ) ‡ (v23 ‡ v32 ) ‡ (v34 ‡ v43 ) À (v12 ‡ v21 ) À (v14 ‡ v41 ) À (v24 ‡ v42 ). We now come to the homogeneous component (V È W)÷4 of R15 . all the non-zero vectors are eigenvectors of A. r2.

r3. s4 ˆ (v41 ‡ v42 ‡ v43 ) À (v14 ‡ v24 ‡ v34 )X We have si g ˆ sig ( g P G. Note that r1 ‡ r2 ‡ r3 ‡ r4 ˆ 0. r4 among themselves. s3 . The character of W4 is ÷4 (see Proposition 13. Next. r2. s3 ˆ (v31 ‡ v32 ‡ v34 ) À (v13 ‡ v23 ‡ v43 ).24). so r1. r3. Thus G permutes the vectors r1. r2. we have ri g ˆ rig. de®ne the vectors s1 . . r4 span a 3-dimensional RGsubmodule W4 of V. s2 ˆ (v21 ‡ v23 ‡ v24 ) À (v12 ‡ v32 ‡ v42 ). s2 .390 Representations and characters of groups For each g in G and i with 1 < i < 4. 1 < i < 4). s1 ‡ s2 ‡ s3 ‡ s4 ˆ 0. s4 by s1 ˆ (v12 ‡ v13 ‡ v14 ) À (v21 ‡ v31 ‡ v41 ).

To see why. it follows that U1 is A-invariant. and no central atom. .21) (1) The vectors r1 À 2s1 . and so they give the ®nal 3-dimenvib sional space of eigenvectors (see Remark 32. In this case. w3 . s2 . r2 À 2s2 . (2) The vectors r1. We shall therefore press on and explain how to reduce the dif®culty to that of calculating the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. The normal mode (sin ùt)r1 is sometimes called an `umbrella mode'. s4 span a 3-dimensional RG-submodule W9 of V with 4 character ÷4 . in fact. the space W does not enter our calculations. w1 ‡ w2 ‡ w3 ‡ w4 ˆ 0. upon the constants which appear in the equations of motion. so 9 (V È W )÷4 ˆ W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 We now break off temporarily from studying the methane molecule. r2. 1 < i < 4). s3 . look at the picture of the vector r1 ! We return now to the methane molecule. and we can decompose V÷4 ˆ W 4 È W 4 in the following way. r4 span the subspace V÷4 ’ R12 of V÷4 . W 4 and W is direct.19). and the character of W is ÷4 . and let U1 ˆ fv P (V È W )÷4 : vh ˆ v for all h P HgX Since (vh)A ˆ (vA)h for all v P V÷4 and all h P H. The task in front of us is to ®nd the eigenvectors of A which lie in (V È W )÷4 ˆ W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 The solution of this problem depends. Now recall that w1 . 9 (32. r3 À 2s3 . w2 . we have wi g ˆ wig ( g P G. Let H be the subgroup of S4 consisting of those permutations which ®x the number 1. r4 À 2s4 span the 3-dimensional space of translation modes. The sum of W 4 . Since dim (V È W )÷4 ˆ 9. it is very dif®cult to calculate the eigenvectors of A in (V È W )÷4 directly. w4 span W. r3.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 391 and s1 . so we cannot complete the work using only representation theory. in order to deal with the easier case of a molecule with identical atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron.

have been calculated. s1 . r2 À 2s2 ‡ 3 cos Ww2 . A similar remark applies to U3. s2 . . By means of representation theory. w1 (1 2) ˆ w2 . The eigenvectors of B then give three eigenvectors of A. r1 (1 2) ˆ r2 . and so dim U1 ˆ 3. Therefore U 1 ˆ sp (r1 . de®ned by U2 ˆ sp (r2 . w1 is easy to ®nd. s1 (1 2) ˆ s2 .5). r3 À 2s3 ‡ 3 cos Ww3 ). Better still. w1 (see Exercise 32. s1 h ˆ s1 and w1 h ˆ w1 . namely the translation vector r1 À 2s1 ‡ 3 cos Ww1 . where W is the angle between an edge of the tetrahedron and the line joining a corner on the edge to the centroid. w3 )X Therefore. 1 H i H ˆ 3. It is hard to imagine a more spectacular application of representation theory with which to conclude our text. s2 . the process of calculating the eigenvectors of the 3 3 3 matrix B gives nine eigenvectors of A which form a basis of (V È W )÷4 . w2 ) is A-invariant. and the matrix of A acting on r2. it is possible to calculate the 3 3 3 matrix B of the action of A on r1. and hence the matrix A. s1 . One eigenvector of A acting on r1. s1 . w1 )X Once the equations of motion. s3 .392 We ®nd that Representations and characters of groups h3÷4 5 H. But for all h P H. Thus we obtain the translation submodule sp (r1 À 2s1 ‡ 3 cos Ww1 . the space U 2 . where U 3 ˆ sp (r3 . w2 is again B. we have therefore reduced the initial problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of a 15 3 15 matrix A to that of calculating two of the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. r1 h ˆ r1. and since A commutes with the action of G.

Deduce that det B ˆ Æ1.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 393 Summary of Chapter 32 1. (d) Show that if b is a rotation through an angle ö about some axis. 2. (b) Let C ˆ (det B)B. and let e1 ˆ (1. 0). All solutions are linear combinations of normal modes. The space R3n of displacement vectors is an RG-module. 0). 2. The action of any g P G on R3 n commutes with A. e3 ˆ (0. with eigenvalue Àù2 . 1). (c) Deduce from (a) and (b) that b is a rotation if det B ˆ 1. e2 ˆ (0. 0. and is called a normal mode. e2 . then all non-zero vectors in V÷ i are eigenvectors of A. (a) Show that the matrix B of b with respect to the basis e1 . To determine the eigenvectors of A (and hence all solutions of the equations of motion). . The symmetry group G of a molecule with n atoms consists of those distance-preserving endomorphisms of R3 which send each atom to an atom of the same kind. 0. Suppose that G is the symmetry group of some molecule in R3 . (iii) 1 is an eigenvalue of C. it is suf®cient to ®nd the eigenvectors of A restricted to each homogeneous component V÷ i of the RG-module R3 n . If u is an eigenvector of A. e3 of R3 satis®es BBt ˆ I (where Bt denotes the transpose of B). then tr B ˆ 1 ‡ 2 cos ö. 4. 3. and Àb is a rotation otherwise. If V÷ i is irreducible. Prove successively that (i) C has a real eigenvalue. Exercises for Chapter 32 1. Suppose that b P O(R3 ). The equations of motion of the molecule have the form  x ˆ xA. where x P R3 n and the 3n 3 3n matrix A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. 1. then x ˆ sin (ùt ‡ â)u (or x ˆ (t ‡ â)u if ù ˆ 0) is a solution of the equations of motion. (ii) C has a positive eigenvalue. 5.

Consider the triatomic molecule studied in Example 32. and verify that A is symmetric. . 2. r3. 3. What property of r1. Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1. r4 prompted us to use these vectors? 5. (See the paragraph before Proposition 32. r2. and so ®nd explicitly the 3 3 3 matrix B which appears at the end of Example 32. b b X 0.20. Consider the space spanned by the vectors r1. r4 given in Example 32. r3. and let the position vector of the molecule be ˆ iTˆ j xij v ij ‡ p 3 ˆ iˆ1 yi wi X (a) Prove that cos (/ 012) ˆ (2a3) and cos (/ 102) ˆ À1a3. Find a basis for this space which is simpler than the one which we have used.20.7. w2 .17. w3 as described in Example 32. X X X . if g is a rotation b ` through angle ö (÷ T ‡ ÷ R )( g) ˆ about some axis.) 4. if g is not a rotationX 3. The purpose of this exercise is to derive the equations of motion of the methane molecule. 4 and let 0 denote the centroid of the tetrahedron.20. Work with 15 unit displacement vectors v12 . v13 . r2.394 Representations and characters of groups Show that the sum of the character ÷ T of the translation submodule and the character ÷ R of the rotation submodule has value at g P G given by V b 2(1 ‡ 2 cos ö). w1 . Take the axes for the displacement coordinates as shown below:  Calculate the equations of motion x ˆ xA with respect to these axes. v43 .

Finally. 3   with similar expressions for y2 and y3 . Also. x23 . 34. 2 with similar expressions for the edges 13. x34 . q1 . p2 . show p  m2 y1 ˆ Àk 2 [ (2a3)(x12 ‡ x13 ‡ x14 À x41 À x42 À x43 ) ‡ 4 y1 ]. q2 . 14. and the magnitude of the force between a hydrogen atom and a carbon atom is k2 times the decrease in distance between them. Prove that  m1 x12 ˆ À k 1 [x12 ‡ x21 ‡ 1(x13 ‡ x14 ‡ x23 ‡ x24 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x12 ‡ x13 ‡ x14 ‡ (3a2)( y1 À 1 y2 À 1 y3 )]. (d) The equations in part (c) determine the 15 3 15 matrix A in the  equations of motion x ˆ xA. show that the length of the edge 04 has decreased by p (2a3)(x41 ‡ x42 ‡ x43 ) À 1( y1 ‡ y2 ‡ y3 )X 3 (c) Let m1 denote the mass of a hydrogen atom. 3 3         with similar expressions for x13. x31 . x14 . 23. j . i. x32 . Also. Assume that the magnitude of the force between hydrogen atoms is k1 times the decrease in distance between them. show that the length of the edge 01 has decreased by p (2a3)(x12 ‡ x13 ‡ x14 ) ‡ y1 À 1( y2 ‡ y3 ). x24 . p3 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 395 (b) Show that the decrease in the length of the edge 12 from its original length is x12 ‡ x21 ‡ 1(x13 ‡ x14 ‡ x23 ‡ x24 ). 24. 3 with similar expressions for the edges 02. and m2 the mass of a carbon atom. Verify that the vectors ˆ v ij . show  m1 x41 ˆ À k 1 [x14 ‡ x41 ‡ 1(x42 ‡ x43 ‡ x12 ‡ x13 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x41 ‡ x42 ‡ x43 À 1 (3a2)( y1 ‡ y2 ‡ y3 )]. 03. Finally. 3   with similar expressions for x42 and x43 . x21 . p1 .

 (b) Calculate the equations of motion. where the vectors r1. . . À2. X X X . (e) Find the entries b ij in the 3 3 3 matrix B which are given by r1 A ˆ b11 r1 ‡ b12 s1 ‡ b13 w1 . let W i be an RG-isomorphism from U1 to Ui .15(5). s1 A ˆ b21 r1 ‡ b22 s1 ‡ b23 w1 . s1 . (a) Prove that for all non-zero u in U1. 7. uW m . In this exercise. . w1 A ˆ b31 r1 ‡ b32 s1 ‡ b33 w1 .20. For 1 < i < m.20. Consider a hypothetical molecule in which there are four identical atoms at the corners of a square. uW m ) is an A-invariant vector space of dimension m. eigenvectors of A. 6. Show how to ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i . sp (uW1 . then Au ˆ Av . Assume that the only internal forces are along the sides of the square. Suppose that V÷ i ˆ U1 È . We reduce our problem to that of ®nding the eigenvectors of an m 3 m matrix. 6) is an eigenvector of B. (See 32.8. . and check that the vectors you found in part (a) are. . w1 are as in Example 32. . . È Um. (a) Find the normal modes of the molecule. and use Exercise 23. Prove that if u and v are non-zero elements of U1. a sum of m isomorphic irreducible RG-modules. . indeed. (f) Verify that p (1. we derive a method for simplifying the problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of A when the homogeneous component V÷ i is reducible. (c) Assume that the eigenvectors of the m 3 m matrix A u are known. (Hint: compose the function w 3 wA with a projection. uW m ) with respect to the basis uW1 .) (b) Let A u denote the matrix of the endomorphism w 3 wA of sp (uW1 .) We assume that ÷ i is the character of an irreducible RG-module which remains irreducible as a CGmodule.396 Representations and characters of groups which appear in Example 32. . x ˆ xA. . are eigenvectors of A. .

(b) Since b2 ë ˆ I but (bë)2 ˆ Y 2 ˆ ÀI.4 again that ì is a homomorphism. a2 } and Ker ø ˆ {1.4. and so G is cyclic of prime order. Since G is simple and Ker W v G. 2. (À1) k ) for 0 < i < m À 1. If Ker W ˆ f1g then W is an isomorphism. and D2 m ˆ hc. it is routine to verify that ö and ø are homomorphisms. either Ker W ˆ f1g or Ker W ˆ G. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i. so ì is an isomorphism. c2 }. it follows that ë is not a homomorphism. so G ’ An v G. Note that all subgroups of G are normal. since G is abelian. Check using the method of Example 1. If G were in®nite. hence G is ®nite. Then h g p i is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to G. Therefore G ’ An and (G ’ An )h are the only right cosets of G ’ An in G. 1). Then kgl is a normal subgroup of G. Let D4 m ˆ ha. Since G ’ An Tˆ G. Therefore g p ˆ 1.4. À1) and y ˆ (d. 0 < j < 1. we may choose h P G with h P An . 4. d À1 cd ˆ cÀ1 i. and G Tˆ {1} since G is simple. 5. then h g 2 i would be a normal subgroup different from G and {1}. Let p be a prime number which divides |G|. Also Ker ì ˆ {1} and Im ì ˆ L. For all odd g in G. and if Ker W ˆ G then H ˆ f1g. b: a2 m ˆ b2 ˆ 1. (a) Using the method of Example 1. Let g be a non-identity element of G. so kgl ˆ G.Solutions to exercises Chapter 1 1. 3. where m is odd. Check that x 2 m ˆ y 2 ˆ 1. and Ga(G ’ A n )  C2 . First. d: cm ˆ d 2 ˆ 1. y À1 xy ˆ x À1 X By Example 1. G ’ An ˆ f g P G: g is even}. the function W: D4 m 3 D2 m 3 C2 de®ned by 397 . Ker ö ˆ {1. The elements of D2 m 3 C2 are (c i d j . 0 < k < 1. Let x ˆ (c( m‡1)a2 . we have g ˆ a (ghÀ1 )h P (G ’ An )h.

g À1 g has size 1. De®ne matrices A. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. Therefore H < f g P G: g n ˆ 1g ˆ he2ðia n iX Since j Hj ˆ n ˆ jhe2ðia n ij. which is a cyclic group of order n. Bl has the form A j B k with 0 < j < 7. B as follows:   eiða4 0 Aˆ . also H has order n. 0 and a k P H. 6. thus H is cyclic. We deduce that hxi ˆ H ˆ h yiX Thus x P h yi. then x. by Lagrange's Theorem). 0 such that ai P H. Moreover. Let G be the set of non-zero complex numbers. g À1 g ( g P G). 7. and gÀ1 g ˆ ggÀ1 ˆ 1. h. Since r . if g P G then g À1 ˆ 1a g P G. r with 0 < r . As |D4 m | ˆ |D2 m 3 C2 |. Bl has order 16. yl. If g P G and g n ˆ 1. k P G then (gh)k ˆ g(hk). k. hence g P kad l. . 8. Since Im W ˆ kx. B2 ˆ A4 and BÀ1 AB ˆ AÀ1 . À1) and hence Im W ˆ D2 m 3 C2 . are all distinct. then h n ˆ 1 for all h P H (since the order of h divides n. by part (b). Hence a r ˆ a j aÀqk ˆ a j (a k )Àq P H. if jGj is even then there exists g P G such that g Tˆ 1 and the subset f g. Hence. and the identity element is in a subset of size 1. with 0 < j < 7. we conclude that W is an isomorphism. so gh P G. 1) and x m ˆ (1. Therefore a j ˆ a kq and so H ˆ kak l. If H is a subgroup of G of order n. These relations show that every element of the group kA. we have r ˆ 0. 0 eÀiða4  Bˆ  1 X 0 0 À1 Check that A8 ˆ I. kA. it follows that H ˆ ke2ðia n l. y P H. Finally. If g. (a) Let G ˆ kal and suppose that 1 Tˆ H < G. then g ˆ a j for some integer j and dnj jn. If 1 Tˆ a j P H then j ˆ qk ‡ r for some integers q. Each such subset has size 1 or 2. and so x is a power of y. (c) If x and y are elements of order n in the ®nite cyclic group G. (b) Assume that G ˆ hai and jGj ˆ dn. h P G then gh Tˆ 0. First observe that there exists i . so g ˆ gÀ1 and g has order 2. 9. so dj j.     ei jða4 0 0 ei jða4 j j . It follows that f g P G: g n ˆ 1g ˆ had i. k. Thus G is a group under multiplication. A Bˆ A ˆ X 0 eÀi jða4 ÀeÀi jða4 0 Since these matrices.398 Representations and characters of groups W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 2m À 1. 0 < k < 1. where H ˆ { g P G: gn ˆ 1}. it contains x 2 ˆ (c. Choose k as small as possible such that k . Partition G into subsets f g. If g. also 1 P G and 1g ˆ g1 ˆ g for all g P G. Now kxl and k yl have order n.

j. Thus W is injective. suppose that u1 . . so Im W ˆ V (by (2. (2) A (3): If Ker W ˆ {0} then dim (Im W) ˆ dim V (by (2. F F F . . w1. Since such expressions are unique. ws span V. Hence H v G. ì j P F. since u1 . V ˆ U È W. Conversely. . Then v ˆ v ‡ 0 ˆ 0 ‡ v and this gives us two expressions for v as the sum of an element in U and an element in W. . and so ë1 u1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë r ur ˆ ì1 w1 ‡ X X X ‡ ì s ws ˆ 0X As u1 . w1. . . If v P U ’ W then v ˆ ë1 u1 ‡ . ws are linearly independent. . Since u1 ‡ 0 ‡ 0 ˆ 0 ‡ u2 ‡ u3 and the sum U1 ‡ U2 ‡ U3 is direct. .Chapter 2 399 10. (3) A (1): Assume that Im W ˆ V. Suppose that ë1 u1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë r ur ‡ ì1 w1 ‡ X X X ‡ ì s ws ˆ 0 with all ë i . . ‡ ì s ws for some ë i . . Thus v ˆ 0 and so U ’ W ˆ {0}. ur are linearly independent. If g P H then gÀ1 Hg ˆ H. the expression 0 ˆ 0 ‡ 0 is the unique expression for 0 as the sum of vectors in U and W. Let u. . w1 . . so by Exercise 3. 2.12)). w s . . . Assume ®rst that V ˆ U È W. it follows that v is a linear combination of u1 . w2 P W.12). v ˆ 0.7)). First suppose that V ˆ U È W. W is invertible. . Now suppose that V ˆ U ‡ W and U ’ W ˆ {0}. Since V ˆ U È W. . ur . we have (uWÀ1 ‡ wWÀ1 )W ˆ (uWÀ1 )W ‡ (wWÀ1 )W ˆ u ‡ w. hence they form a basis of V. Thus U ’ W ˆ {0}. . . . . gH are a the two left cosets. Let v P U ’ W. ì j in F. F F F . F F F . . so Ker W ˆ {0}. . (ë(wWÀ1 ))W ˆ ë(wWÀ1 )W ˆ ëwX Hence (u ‡ w)WÀ1 ˆ uWÀ1 ‡ wWÀ1 and (ëw)WÀ1 ˆ ë(wWÀ1 ). . v P V and uW ˆ vW then (u À v)W ˆ 0. Ker W ˆ {0}. w s . Let u P U1 ’ (U2 ‡ U3 ). . . w P W and ë P F. w1. then u1 À u2 ˆ w2 À w1 P U ’ W ˆ {0}. ur . Hg are the two right cosets of H in G. ws are linearly independent. since u is a linear combination of u1 . . this gives ë i ˆ ì j ˆ 0 for all i. Therefore u1 . this forces ë i ˆ 0 for all i. As W is surjective and injective. If v P V then v ˆ u ‡ w for some u P U and w P W. . Chapter 2 1. If u1 ‡ w1 ˆ u2 ‡ w2 with u1 . . so W is surjective. . . By (2. so u À v P Ker W ˆ {0}. . . . . while H. u2 P U and w1. . we have u1 ˆ . Therefore Hg ˆ gH. (1) A (2): If W is invertible then W is injective. . . similarly ì i ˆ 0 for all i. u r . Then u ˆ u1 ˆ u2 ‡ u3 for some ui P Ui (1 < i < 3). . . And if g P H then H. . ur . and so gÀ1 Hg ˆ H again. . and so u ˆ v. . Then V ˆ U ‡ W. w1. This shows that V ˆ U È W. so WÀ1 is a linear transformation. . ur and w is a linear combination of w1 . hence u1 ˆ u2 and w1 ˆ w2. Suppose jG: Hj ˆ 2 and let g P G. ws is a basis of V. 4. 3. ur . ‡ ë r ur ˆ ì1 w1 ‡ . Since W is a linear transformation. If u. . It is easy to see that V ˆ U ‡ W. 5. Therefore u1 . (a) Assume ®rst that V ˆ U1 È U2 È U3.

U2 ˆ sp ((0. so V ˆ Im W È Ker W. Then I ˆ 1r ˆ (am )r ˆ (ar) m ˆ Am X Conversely. Since ui W ˆ ui for all i and wj W ˆ 0 for all j. ur for Im W and a basis w1. if V ˆ U È W then dim V ˆ dim U ‡ dim W. Let V ˆ R2. . Assume that ui . . 0)). . Then V ˆ Im W È Ker W by Proposition 2. assume that Am ˆ I. The construction of the basis B is similar to that in Solution 8. 1 2(v Chapter 3 1. j. dim (U2 È . . say B. Conversely. y) 3 ( y. each r j is a representation. . Therefore V ˆ U È W. Similarly. and U1 ˆ sp ((1. so u1 ˆ u9 . È Ur then V ˆ U1 È (U2 È . so v ˆ 0. U3 ˆ sp ((1. .10)). È Ur ) (see (2. m À 1 and i .32. 0)). ws is a basis. 9. 2 3 (b) Let V ˆ R2. Let v P V. if [W]B has the given form. u2 ˆ u9 and u3 ˆ u9 . Ker W ˆ sp ((0. Therefore V ˆ U1 È U2 È U3. 0)X Then Im W ˆ sp ((1. By Exercise 4. by Exercise 3. De®ne W. . the matrix [W]B is diagonal. . . . . and so r is a representation. First. (a i a j )r ˆ (a i‡ j )r ˆ A i‡ j ˆ A i A j ˆ (a i r)(a j r). Then (ai )r ˆ Ai for all integers i (including i . if V ˆ U1 È . 8. by Exercise 4. . so W is a projection. so V Tˆ Im ö È Ker ö. . Check that A3 ˆ B3 ˆ C 3 ˆ I. Now suppose that U1 ’ (U2 ‡ U3 ) ˆ U2 ’ (U1 ‡ U3 ) ˆ U3 ’ (U1 ‡ U2 ) ˆ {0}. y) 3 (x. 7. 1)). . Then 1 2 3 u1 À u9 ˆ (u9 À u2 ) ‡ (u9 À u3 ) P U1 ’ (U2 ‡ U3 ) ˆ {0}. 0). 1)). The representations r2 and r3 are faithful. . More generally. If v P U ’ W then v ˆ vW ˆ Àv. ur . . Thus V ˆ U ‡ W. Similarly. by induction on r. U2 ’ (U1 ‡ U3 ) ˆ U 3 ’ (U1 ‡ U2 ) ˆ f0g. . Then v ˆ 1(v ‡ vW) ‡ 1(v À vW)X 2 2 Observe that 1(v ‡ vW)W ˆ 1(vW ‡ v). Therefore U1 ’ (U2 ‡ U3 ) ˆ {0}. . of V. Take a basis u1 . ‡ dim Ur. 0)).400 Representations and characters of groups u2 ˆ u3 ˆ 0. . 6. so 1(v ‡ vW) P U. then clearly W2 ˆ W. 2. Suppose ®rst that W is a projection. . the diagonal entries being r 1's followed by s 0's. . 1)). so dim V ˆ dim U1 ‡ . . ‡ dim Ur. . but r1 is not. suppose that r is a representation of G. ws for Ker W. Therefore for all integers i. . and Im ö ˆ Ker ö ˆ sp ((1. . u9 P Ui (1 < i < 3) and i u1 ‡ u2 ‡ u3 ˆ u9 ‡ u9 ‡ u9 . w1. 0) and ö: (x. È Ur ) ˆ dim U2 ‡ . ö: V 3 V by W: (x. 1 2 3 1 Similarly. Then u1 . . Hence by Exercise 1. 2 2 2 À vW) P W. .

T À1 ST ˆ S À1 X It follows that each r k is a representation (see Example 1.Chapter 3 3. T ˆ ÀB. Therefore GaKer r is abelian. And if j Tˆ 3. Check that in each of the cases (1) S ˆ A. T ˆ B. (To ®nd T. since a2 r2 ˆ I and a3 r3 ˆ I. hence r3 is not equivalent to any of the others.) If j Tˆ 2. 5. No: let G be any non-abelian group and let r be the trivial representation. so r1 is faithful. hence r is equivalent to r. then a2 r j Tˆ I. let  Tˆ  1 1 X Ài i Then T À1 (gr4 )T ˆ gr1 for all g P G.2(1). But r2 and r3 are not faithful. By Theorem 1. b: a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. 0 < j < 1)X 401 It is easy to check that r is a representation of G. Compare Example 3. hence r2 is not equivalent to any of the others. T ˆ B. 0 < s < 1) are all different.10. 0 < s < 1) is a faithful representation of D8 ˆ ka. Similarly r4 is faithful. De®ne r by (a i b j )r ˆ (À1) j (0 < i < n À 1. so r is equivalent to ô. The representations r1 and r4 are equivalent: to see this. then there are invertible matrices S and T such that gó ˆ SÀ1 ( gr)S and gô ˆ T À1 (gó)T for all g P G. (2) If r is equivalent to ó then there is an invertible matrix T such that gó ˆ T À1 ( gr)T for all g P G. then gô ˆ (ST)À1 (gr)(ST). so ó is equivalent to r. ®rst work out the eigenvectors of C. But Im r < GL (1. . The matrices A r Bs (0 < r < 5. F) and GL (1. 8. F) is abelian. then a3 r j Tˆ I. 0 1 1 B ˆ d0 0 H I 0 0 À1 0 eX 0 1 Then the function r: a r b s 3 A r Bs (0 < r < 3. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. IÀ1 (gr)I ˆ gr. (1) For all g P G. (3) If r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô. T ˆ D. (4) S ˆ C. GaKer r  Im r.4). De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 A ˆ d À1 0 H I 1 0 0 0 e. 7. 4. we have S 6 ˆ T 2 ˆ I. (3) S ˆ ÀA. (2) S ˆ A3 . 6. then gr ˆ (T À1 )À1 (gó)T À1.

Let g P Sn . h is in An and the other is not. By Theorem 4. h P An ). and (vg)h ˆ v. 3. Let V ˆ R4. For all u. (ëv) g ˆ ë(v g). Assume ®rst that gh P An .2. v1 ˆ v. BÀ1 AB ˆ AÀ1 X Hence r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3.2. V becomes an RQ8 -module if we de®ne vg ˆ v( gr) for all v P V.402 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 4 1. We have now checked all the conditions in De®nition 4. Let A ˆ f d 0 0 0 À1 e and B ˆ d À1 0 0 0e 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 0 Check that A4 ˆ I. and (vg)h ˆ Àv. h P An ) or vg ˆ Àv ˆ vh (if g. B2 ˆ A2 . since either vg ˆ v ˆ vh (if g. we have v g P V . Then v(gh) ˆ v. (u ‡ v) g ˆ ug ‡ v gX It remains to check (2) of De®nition 4.4(1). h P Sn . Next. g P Q8. H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f À1 0 0 f 0 0g 0 0 1g g f g. v in V and ë in F. If we put . Let v P V and g. assume that gh P An . so V is an FG-module. since one of g. a a Then v(gh) ˆ Àv. g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 H (1 2) 1 0 0 0e 0 1 I 0 0 À1 0 e À1 1 I 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 H (1 3) I 0 1 1 0e 0 0 I 0 0 1 À1 e 0 À1 [ g]B 2 g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 (2 3) 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I H (1 2 3) 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1e 0 0 I 0 0 À1 1 e À1 0 I H (1 3 2) 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 I 0 0 0 À1 e 1 À1 [ g]B 2 All the matrices [g]B 2 have the form H I 1 0 0 d 0 j j eX 0 j j 2. 0 < j < 1) is a representation of Q8 over R.

1)). 4. then C ˆ AQ for some permutation matrix Q. 0. where vg ˆ v(gr1 ) for . v4 ˆ (0. 0.Chapter 5 then for all i.5. À1) belongs to U. 3. 1). â) P U with (á. Let U be a non-zero FGsubmodule of V. If C is a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns. and the ij-entry of PA is n ˆ pik akj ˆ a ig. 0. . You may ®nd it helpful ®rst to check that if H 0 1 f1 0 f f 1 M ˆf FF f d F 403 v1 ˆ (1. â À á) P U. ` 1. To solve the exercise. Suppose that r has degree n and r is reducible. 1. pij ˆ X 0. Then r is equivalent to a representation ô of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G) ô: g 3 d Yg Zg where X g is a k 3 k matrix and 0 . â) À (á. and (á. v2 ˆ (0. n. 0). 0. â) Tˆ (0. 0). row i of B ˆ row ig of AX Let P be the n 3 n matrix ( pij ) de®ned by V if j ˆ ig. Since at least one of á ‡ â and á À â is non-zero. Chapter 5 1. r4 be the representations of G de®ned in Exercise 3. sp ((1. Therefore ó is reducible. 0g g g g g e 1 I 0 then MA is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two rows. if j Tˆ igX Then P is a permutation matrix. k . First consider the FG-module V ˆ F 2. j X kˆ1 Hence PA ˆ B. 1. 0. 0). sp ((1. Hence the FG-submodules of V are {0}. since ó is equivalent to r. À1)) and V. and AM is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two columns. 0). 1) or (1. . 0. Then (á. the proof is similar to that for the rows. 2. let g be the permutation in Sn which has the property that for all i. v3 ˆ (0. Let G ˆ D12 and let r1 . â)a ˆ (á À â. and let (á. . á ‡ â) P U. â)a ˆ (á ‡ â. Then ó is equivalent to ô. â) ‡ (á. It is easy to verify that V is an FG-module. v i a and v i b are as required in the question. . we deduce that (1.

so there exist distinct g1 . 1)) is an FG-submodule of V and r2 is reducible. g P G. yx ˆ À2X1 À a3 ‡ b ‡ 2a2 b ‡ 3a3 b. it is clear Hence. 1) ˆ (1. b}.) Therefore r1 is irreducible. 1) and (1. bl Tˆ G. g2 P ka. so r is reducible. (See Example 5. Then V is neither reducible nor irreducible. 1)a are linearly independent. 4. by an argument similar to that for r1. bl. bl| ˆ 9 and ka. À1) (so that u P U). Hence either (1. Then (1. Now u and ua are linearly independent unless å ˆ 1. where H is the subgroup {1. either (1.   0 0 . 1)b. Since (1.Cˆ çÀ1 1  1 X 0 Thus jGj < 18. À1) and (1. by the solution to Exercise 1. Consequently U ˆ V and so V is irreducible. if either å Tˆ 1 or ç Tˆ 1 then dim U ˆ 2 and so r is irreducible. Hence. AB ˆ BA. accordingly. À1) lies in U. (c) For every element g of ka. Let V ˆ {0} and let 0 g ˆ 0 for all g P G. 1) or (1. Hence r is a representation (compare Example 1.4). r3 is irreducible. g P G.404 Representations and characters of groups v P V. there exists a cube root î of unity such that   î 0 gr ˆ À1 X 0 î But there are only three distinct cube roots of unity. also r4 is irreducible. On the other hand. (b) Let    å 0 ç Aˆ . (d) Let V ˆ C2 be the CG-module obtained by de®ning vg ˆ v(gr) for all v P C2 . 9. Hence sp ((1. jGj Therefore jGj ˆ 18. (a) It is easy to check the given relations. 1) or (1. then U is a CHsubmodule. c}. Now let V ˆ F 2 with vg ˆ v(gr2 ) for v P V. C À1 AC ˆ AÀ1 and C À1 BC ˆ BÀ1 . If U is a non-zero CG-submodule of V. x 2 ˆ 4X1 ‡ a2 ‡ 4a3 X . By the solution to Exercise 1. where H is the subgroup {1. if å ˆ ç ˆ 1 then sp ((1. However. 5. Then U is an FH-module. Therefore r is never faithful. by Lagrange's Theorem. Using the relations. Bˆ 0 å À1 0 Check that A3 ˆ B3 ˆ C 2 ˆ I. bl with g1 r ˆ g2 r. À1)a are linearly independent. g P G. is a multiple of 9 and jGj . Finally. Chapter 6 1X (a) xy ˆ À2X1 À a3 ‡ ab ‡ 3a2 b ‡ 2a3 b.5(2) for an alternative argument. we may write every element of G in the form ai b j c k (0 < i < 2. 0 < k < 1)X that |ka. and u and ub are linearly independent unless ç ˆ 1. 0 < j < 2. and also (1. 1)) is a CG-submodule of V. 1) or (1. 1)a ˆ À(1. let u be (1. since r1 and r4 are equivalent. it follows that dim U > 2. À1) lies in U. Suppose that U is a non-zero FG-submodule of V.

g. and bz ˆ 1 ‡ a2 ˆ zb. hence W is an FG-homomorphism. (u1 g)Wö ˆ ((u1 W) g)ö ˆ ((u1 W)ö) g ˆ (u1 (Wö)) gX 2. Now 0r ˆ (0 ‡ 0)r ˆ 0r ‡ 0r. ab of F(C2 3 C2 ). then vr ˆ 0 and neither v nor r is 0. Let a ˆ (1 2 3 4 5) and let v1 . No: let G ˆ ka: a2 ˆ 1l. Let C2 3 C2 ˆ ka. Then . 4. ë P F and g P G. (ab)r ˆ f d0 1 0 0e d1 0 0 0e 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3. g ë g g with ë g P C. there exists a unique h in G such that gi h ˆ gj . hence 0r ˆ v0 ˆ 0. Let x P G. s ˆ 1 À a. Use the argument of either Example 5. Relative to the basis 1. For all u1 . Let V be the trivial FG-module and let 0 Tˆ v P V and 1 Tˆ g P G. b. a.Chapter 7 405 (b) az ˆ ab ‡ a3 b ˆ a2 ba ‡ ba ˆ za. Hence W is a CG-submodule of CG. and take r ˆ 1 ‡ a. Hence ch ˆ hc ˆ c. If r P CG then ˆ € € rˆ ë g gz ˆ ë g zg ˆ zr. and v0 ˆ v(0 ‡ 0) ˆ v0 ‡ v0. 6. Hence a i b j z ˆ za i b j for all i. we have (u1 ‡ u2 )Wö ˆ (u1 W ‡ u2 W)ö ˆ u1 (Wö) ‡ u2 (Wö). ab ˆ bal. j. . v2 a ˆ ù2 v2 . If r ˆ 1 À g. Then W: ë1 v1 ‡ X X X ‡ ë5 v5 3 ë1 1 ‡ ë2 a ‡ ë3 a2 ‡ ë4 a3 ‡ ë5 a4 is the required FG-isomorphism. so do gh and hg. (ëu1 )Wö ˆ (ë(u1 W))ö ˆ ë(u1 (Wö)). (a) As g runs through G. u2 P U. It is easy to show that V0 is an FG-submodule of V. v5 be the natural basis for the permutation module for G over F. so rz ˆ 2. . Check that v1 a ˆ ùv1 . (Note that v i W ˆ ai . . The reason is that for all i. . and u ‡ u ˆ u. ar ˆ f d0 0 0 1e d0 0 1 0e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 H I H I 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 f0 0 1 0g f0 0 0 1g f g f g br ˆ f gX g.) 3. Note ®rst that if u is an element of a vector space.3 to prove that W is irreducible. v1 b ˆ v2 and v2 b ˆ v1. b: a2 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. the regular representation r is given by H I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 f1 0 0 0g f0 1 0 0g f g f g 1r ˆ f g. € € (b) c2 ˆ c hPG h ˆ hPG ch ˆ jGjc. j and so gz€ zg for all g P G. then u ˆ 0. Let v1 ˆ 1 ‡ ù2 a ‡ ùa2 and v2 ˆ b ‡ ù2 ab ‡ ùa2 b. so (v i a)W ˆ v i‡1 W ˆ a i‡1 ˆ (v i W)a.5(2) or the solution to Exercise 5. 5. (c) All the entries in [W]B are 1 (compare the solution to Exercise 2). Chapter 7 1.

1 ‡ x. If we let W: ëv1 ‡ ìv2 3 ëv2 (ë. 4. Let g P G. and let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 . (c) Let B be the basis 1 À x. For all w P W 0 . Suppose r is reducible. g P G. In the notation of Exercise 3. 5. restricted to V0 . . r is equivalent to a representation ó of the form   ëg 0 gó ˆ (ë g . Hence W2 ˆ 2W. is an FG-isomorphism from V0 to W 0 . ì P C) then W is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. hence W is surjective. No: let v1 . 2ˆ 3 V0 ˆ sp (v1 ‡ v2 . Also (á1 ‡ âx)xW ˆ (â1 ‡ áx)W ˆ (â À á)(1 À x) ˆ (á À â)(1 À x)x ˆ (á1 ‡ âx)WxX Hence W is an FG-homomorphism. Chapter 8 1. 6. Then RG ˆ sp (1 ‡ a ‡ b ‡ ab) È sp (1 ‡ a À b À ab) È sp (1 À a ‡ b À ab) È sp (1 À a À b ‡ ab)X 3. De®ne vg ˆ v for all v P V. so W 0 öÀ1  V0 . b. ab}  C2 3 C2 (so a2 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. V ˆ sp (Àùv1 ‡ v2 ) È sp (Àù2 v1 ‡ v2 ). since all diagonal matrices . Hence the function ö. it follows from Exercise 4 that V and FG are not isomorphic FG-modules. (a) W is easily seen to be a linear transformation. Then by Maschke's Theorem. 4. h P G. For all v P V0 . v4 be the natural basis of the permutation module V for G over F. noting that V W  V0 . ì g P C)X 0 ìg Then (gó)(hó) ˆ (hó)(gó) for all g. v3 ‡ v4 ) and (FG)0 ˆ sp g X gPG Since V0 and (FG)0 have different dimensions. (vö)g ˆ (vg)ö ˆ vö. this makes V into a CGmodule. (wöÀ1 )g ˆ (wg)öÀ1 ˆ wöÀ1 . a. Suppose that ö: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. we see that W is an FGhomomorphism from V to V0 .) 2. and so V0 ö  W 0 . . v2 . . and Ker W ˆ Im W ˆ sp (v2 ). If v P V0 then (vajGj)W ˆ v. ab ˆ ba). Let G ˆ {1. (b) (á À â)(1 À x)W ˆ ((á À â) À (â À á))(1 À x) ˆ 2(á À â)(1 À x). . (Find eigenvectors for x. Let G be any group. where ù ˆ e2ðia3 .406 Representations and characters of groups ˆ gPG vxg ˆ ˆ gPG vg ˆ ˆ gPG v gxX Hence (vx)W ˆ vW ˆ (vW)x.

y). (x. ] the axioms of a complex inner product. 1). 0. 0 for all x P G. 0)) is the only 1-dimensional CG-submodule of V. v gg À1 ] by part (1) ˆ [ug À1 . 1r2 ˆ (1). . v] ˆ 0 since ug À1 P U X Therefore vg P U c. r2 . h P G. This means that Ui is a faithful irreducible CG-module. r3 : 1r1 ˆ br1 ˆ b2 r1 ˆ (1). . y)}. v]X xPG xPG (2) It is easy to prove that U c is a subspace of V. ar2 ˆ (À1)X Let C3 ˆ kb: b ˆ 1l and let ù ˆ e2ðia3 .Chapter 9 407 commute with each other. and W is a CG-submodule of V by part (2). bi r2 ˆ (ù i ). if u Tˆ 0 then (ux. r3 . . Chapter 9 1. . . Then there exist i P {1. r2 : 1r1 ˆ ar1 ˆ (1). where U1. . r4 : 3 . We know that the regular CG-module CG is faithful (Proposition 6. vx) ˆ [u. U ˆ sp ((1. È Ur. (1. Therefore r is irreducible. Irreducible representations r1 . Let C2 ˆ ka: a2 ˆ 1l. Irreducible representations r1 . Irreducible representations r1 . r} and g P G such that ug Tˆ u for some u P Ui (otherwise vg ˆ v for all v P CG). . u] .6). hence also (gr)(hr) ˆ (hr)(gr) for all g. so [u. 1). Then for all u P U. v gx) ˆ (ux. (3) Let W ˆ U c. . 6. Then V ˆ U È W. De®ne K ˆ fx P G: vx ˆ v for all v P Ui gX Check that K is a normal subgroup of G. r2 . (x. so there is no CG-submodule W of V with V ˆ U È W. Since G a is simple. v g] ˆ (ugx. (1) It is straightforward to verify for [ . v g] ˆ [ug À1 . also K Tˆ G since g P K. we must therefore have K ˆ {1}. For example. Ur are irreducible CG-submodules of CG. and so U c is a CG-submodule of V. [u. This is a contradiction. Let v P U c and g P G. ux) . . 5. . where x 2 ˆ y 2 ˆ 1. 7. Let CG ˆ U1 È . Also ˆ ˆ [ug. bi r3 ˆ (ù2i )X Let C2 3 C2 ˆ {(1.

y j )r3 ˆ (À1) i . (c) The centre of C2 3 D8 is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 .3). Hence r is irreducible (Corollary 9. If M(gr) ˆ (gr)M for g ˆ a and for g ˆ b. (d) Let C3 ˆ kx: x 3 ˆ 1l and let ù ˆ e2ðia3 .408 Representations and characters of groups gr1 ˆ (1) for all g P C2 3 C2 . Let C4 3 C4 ˆ k(x. Then r: x j 3 (e2ði ja n ) is a faithful irreducible representation of Cn . so b commutes with a ‡ aÀ1 . (x i . 1) and g2 ˆ (1. and the result follows from Proposition 9. Then H i I å11 f g i FF g r: ( g 11 . € 5. Hence r gives a representation. let gj generate Cn j . 6. . Also bÀ1 (a ‡ aÀ1 )b ˆ aÀ1 ‡ a. 1). b) 3 Àù 0 0 Àù . (x i . y j )r2 ˆ (À1) j . (a) Let Cn ˆ kx: x n ˆ 1l. BÀ1 AB ˆ AÀ1 when A ˆ ar and B ˆ br.14. (1.5(2)). Notice that the matrix   5 À6 4 À5 commutes with gó for all g P G. 3. n2 ˆ 3. g 22 ) 3 (å11 å22 ) is a faithful representation of degree 1 . (a) Clearly a commutes with a ‡ aÀ1 . g2 and g1 g2 all have order 2. (x. and let å j ˆ e2ðia n j . . Hence z P Z(CG). y): x 4 ˆ y 4 ˆ 1l. (a) r: (x i .3). Let z ˆ gPG g. (x i . 4. y j ) 3 (À1) i .16 shows that C2 3 D8 has no faithful irreducible representation. g irr ) 3 f d e F ir år 0 0 is a faithful representation of C n1 3 . similarly for ó. b3 (b) r: a 3 À1 0 0 À1 gives a faithful irreducible representation of D8 (see Example 5. y 2 ) then g1 . Since (g1 g2 )ó ˆ (g1 ó)(g2 ó) for all representations ó. X X X . Yes: if r ˆ 2. Check that A4 ˆ B2 ˆ I. 3 C n r of degree r. we cannot have (g1 g2 )ó ˆ g1 ó ˆ g2 ó ˆ (À1). Therefore Proposition 9. (b) Check that w(a ‡ aÀ1 ) ˆ Àw for all w P W. 7. r. Check that     0 ù ù 0 r: (x. then i i i i ó : ( g 11 .     0 1 1 0 . so is not cyclic. Then xz ˆ z ˆ zx for all x P G. hence ó is reducible (Corollary 9. then M ˆ ëI for some ë P C. (b) If g1 ˆ (x 2 . a) 3 . n1 ˆ 2. For 1 < j < r. y j )r4 ˆ (À1) i‡ j X 2.

Theorem 10. It is irreducible (see for example Exercise 8. w2 ) ˆ U2 È U3 . Then V is a trivial CG-submodule of CG.Chapter 10 gives a representation of C3 3 D8. u2 . b 3 (1) r1 : a 3 (1). 409 € 1. u3 ˆ 1 À a ‡ a2 À a3 À b ‡ ab À a2 b ‡ a3 bX 4. w3 ). We have sp (v0 . 2. We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Moreover U4  U5. As in Example 5. w1 ) are CG-submodules of CG. sp (v1 . w3 ). Thus U ˆ V.8(2). v1 ˆ 1 ‡ ia À a2 À ia3 . Therefore every irreducible representation of D8 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r0 : a 3 (1). Then ug ˆ u for all g P G. For 0 < j < 3. b 3 (À1) r2 : a 3 (À1).b3 X 0 Ài 1 0 . u2 ˆ 1 À a ‡ a2 À a3 ‡ b À ab ‡ a2 b À a3 b. Then.5(2) (or see Exercise 8.4) and faithful. Let V ˆ sp ( gPG g). w0 ). U1 . b 3 (À1) 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 r4 : a 3 . v2 ˆ 1 À a ‡ a2 À a3 .4). and so CG has exactly one trivial CGsubmodule. the subspaces sp (v0 . namely V. U3 and U4 . w0 ) ˆ U0 È U1 . U2 . so |G|u ˆ u( gPG g) ˆ € ( gPG g)u P V. Let G ˆ kx: x 4 ˆ 1l. so U ˆ sp (u) of for some u. w2 ) and sp (v3 . since there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1. sp (v2 . Let u1 ˆ 1 ‡ a ‡ a2 ‡ a3 À b À ab À a2 b À a3 b. as in Example 10. Now suppose that U is an arbitrary trivial CG-submodule € CG. b 3 (1) r3 : a 3 (À1). u3 are as in the solution to i< Exercise 3. U4 and U5 are irreducible CG-modules. v3 ˆ 1 À ia À a2 ‡ ia3 Chapter 10 (compare the solution to Exercise 2).5 now shows that there are exactly ®ve non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. sp (v2 . where Ui ˆ sp (ui ) (0 <€ 3) and u1 . U5 ˆ sp (v3 . w3 3 v3. Then CG ˆ sp (1 ‡ x ‡ x 2 ‡ x 3 ) È sp (1 ‡ ix À x 2 À ix 3 ) È sp (1 À x ‡ x 2 À x 3 ) È sp (1 À ix À x 2 ‡ ix 3 )X 3. let wj ˆ bv j. w1 ). Let v0 ˆ 1 ‡ a ‡ a2 ‡ a3 . Let U4 ˆ sp (v1 . namely U0 . while u0 ˆ gPG g.

. U3 ). 2. CG). Let v1 . This. ‡ v n ) is the unique trivial CG-submodule of V (compare Exercise 10. 18 2. For ë P C. Hence the answer for D12 is 14 22 . by Corollary 11. . rW2 ˆ w2 r (r P CG). V i )) ˆ d i . not all the dimensions are 1 (see Proposition 9. A CG-isomorphism is given by v1 3 u1 . . Since G is non-abelian. de®ne ö1 . 4. in turn. 18 2 means eight 1s and one 2. Therefore. U)) ˆ 1. . Hence. de®ne the function öë : U1 3 V by öë : u 3 u ‡ ëuW (u P U 1 )X Then öë is easily seen to be a CG-homomorphism. Hence by Corollary 11. moreover. È Xr and W ˆ Y1 È . Then W1 .5(2) or by Exercise 8. W)) ˆ iˆ1 d i e i . ö2 by uö1 ˆ u. 5.8(2). u2 ) is a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. u P Ker öë D u ‡ ëuW ˆ 0 D u ˆ 0. .6. For each g P G. Let V ˆ X1 È . where each Xa and each Yb is an irreducible CG-module.8. equals k ˆ iˆ1 jf(a.1). dim (HomCG (V. Let u1 ˆ 1 À ia À a2 ‡ ia3 . 2.4. Then {ö g : g P G} gives a basis of HomCG (CG. By Exercise 5.18). ö2 is a basis of HomCG (U3.2. 3. b): X a  Yb  Vi gjX Now the number of integers a with X a  V i is dim (HomCG (V . uö2 ˆ bu (u P U3 ). It will be shown later (Exercises 15. . v n be the natural basis of V. w2 be the basis of U3 described in Example 10. dim (HomCG (V. v2 3 u2 .410 Representations and characters of groups 5. Compare Example 11. CG) (compare the proof of Proposition 11. Also.12. u2 ˆ b À iab À a2 b ‡ ia3 b. Then ö1 . since the sum U1 ‡ U2 is direct. . b) such that X a  Y b . . W2 is a basis of HomCG (CG. Then by (11. and so on). . W)) is equal to the number of ordered pairs (a. 6. Therefore we have constructed in®nitely many CG-submodules Im öë of the required form. It is easy to check that if ë Tˆ ì then Im öë Tˆ Im ö ì . 6. 14 22 and 13 3 (where 112 means twelve 1s. de®ne ö g : CG 3 CG by rö g ˆ gr (r P CG).3) that 18 2 cannot occur. the dimensions are 1.4. by Theorem 11. De®ne W1 and W2 by rW1 ˆ v1 r. Let W: U1 3 U2 be a CG-isomorphism. È Ys. . 1. V is irreducible. .8). and similarly the number of integers b with Y b  V i is €k e i .13 to see that the possible answers are 112 . either by the method of Example 5. Let v1 . Then sp (u1 .6. Then sp (v1 ‡ . by the proof of Proposition 11. Thus U1  Im öë .5)(3) and Proposition 11. 17. Chapter 11 1.3. D12 has at least two inequivalent irreducible representations of degree 2. dim (HomCG (V.

n 3. 2) from the remaining numbers. Hence by Proposition 12. There are ®ve choices for i. Note that x P CG (g) D x P CG ( gz). so 1 P CG (x). (i k)( j l ) and (i l )( j k). j. The elements of (1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G have the form (1 i)( j k)(l m). Hence |(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G | ˆ 5 . Hence j Hj ˆ 1 or 60. j. Also 1x ˆ x1. namely (i j)(k l ). b2 ˆ a2 . There are (3 ) choices for the numbers i. h P CG (x). and three permutations for each choice. a3 bg. By Example 12. a2 . a3 g.8 (since (2 ) ˆ n3a(2X(n À 2)3)). If H is a normal subgroup of A5 then j Hj divides 60. b ‡ a2 b. 12. j < n} and this set has size (2 ). l (unordered). and a basis of Z(CQ8 ) is 1. ( j l )(k m) and ( j m)(k l ) of cycle shape (2. The class equation gives . (1 2)(3 4) G consists of all permutations of the form (i j)(k l ) with i. j. 4 . For elements g of other cycle-shapes. x A6 Tˆ x S6 .18(2). There are ®ve choices for i. b: a4 ˆ 1.17. k. ab ‡ a3 bX 7. namely (i j k) and (i k j). 15. Assume that g. We have Q8 ˆ ka. (a) (1 2) G ˆ {(i j): 1 < i . The centralizer CG ((1 2)) consists of all elements x and (1 2)x. k (unordered). then four choices for j. The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. 2 ˆ 40 elements in all. 3 ˆ 15. Then gx ˆ xg and hx ˆ xh. therefore A5 is simple. There are (4 ) choices for the numbers i. g A6 ˆ g S6 .8. where x is a permutation ®xing 1 and 2. m distinct. a ‡ a3 . fa. 2) (6) 40 90 120 4. with i. This gives 5 . n G (b) (1 2 3) consists of all 3-cycles (i j k). j. An element x of cycle-shape (5) has CS6 (x) ˆ kxl (note that |x S6 | ˆ 144 and use Theorem 12. l. then we can make three permutations ( j k)(l m). (c) Every element of (1 2 3)(4 5 6) G has the form (1 i j)(k l m). thus ghÀ1 P CG (x). so zx ˆ xz and z P CG (x). in agreement with Theorem n 12. Each choice gives exactly two 3-cycles. then we can make two different 3-cycles (k l m) and (k m l ) from the remaining numbers. fb. The sizes of the conjugacy classes of S6 are given in the following table: Cycle-shape (1) Class size 1 (2) 15 (3) 40 (22 ) 45 (4) (3. Thus |CG ((1 2))| ˆ 2´(n À 2)!.Chapter 12 Chapter 12 411 1. Therefore CG (x) is a subgroup of G. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l. 6. so hÀ1 x ˆ xhÀ1 and ghÀ1 x ˆ gxhÀ1 ˆ xghÀ1 . 2. k. Now the required result follows from Theorem 12. and H is a union of conjugacy classes of A5 . 20. fab. 5. If z P Z(G) then zg ˆ gz for all g P G. a2 bg. l distinct. 12.8). fa2 g. 2) (5) 90 120 144 (23 ) 15 (32 ) (4. n k. and 1 P H. the conjugacy classes of A5 have sizes 1.

÷4 of C4 are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 x 1 i À1 Ài x2 1 À1 1 À1 x3 1 Ài À1 i We have ÷reg ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 . If. then p2 divides |x G | for all i xi P Z(G). .9). 4. so ÷(1) ˆ 1. |x G | divides pn and |x G | Tˆ 1 by Theorem 12. (b) GaKer ä  Im ä by Theorem 1.14. so ë m ˆ 1. 3. Hence p divides |Z(G)|. The characters ÷ i of r i (i ˆ 1. a4 b ab. a5 À1 0 a2 . . (zg)r ˆ (zr)(gr) ˆ ë(gr). in addition. Chapter 13 1. Let C4 ˆ kx: x 4 ˆ 1l. 6. Then zr ˆ ëI for some ë P C. by Proposition 9. The irreducible characters ÷1 . then ÷(1) ˆ ÷(12 ) ˆ (÷(1))2 . then ( gr)(hr) ˆ (hr)(gr) for all h P G. (a) For all g. h PG. 2. i (b) If no conjugacy class of G has size p. 2) are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 2 2 a3 2 0 a. Let r be a representation with character ÷. a4 À1 2 b. a i i Therefore p divides |x G |. Moreover.412 Representations and characters of groups jGj ˆ j Z(G)j ‡ ˆ xiP Z(G) a jx G jX i (a) For xi P Z(G). The required result now follows from Theorem 13. det ((gh)r) ˆ det ((gr)(hr)) ˆ det (gr) det (hr). a4 }. and Im ä is a subgroup of the . 5.14. . If g P Z(G) then gr ˆ ëI for some ë P C. p2 divides a |Z(G)|. and hence ÷(zg) ˆ ë÷(g).10. then by the class equation. We have now proved that gr ˆ ëI for some ë P C if and only if g P Z(G). a5 b 0 0 0 À2 Also Ker r1 ˆ {1. |G| > p3 . Hence g 3 (det (gr)) is a representation of G over C of degree 1. so Z(G) Tˆ f1g. Let r be a representation with character ÷. a2 b. and so ä is a linear character of G.11(1). for all g in G. by Proposition 9. and hence g P Z(G) since r is faithful. This is a contradiction. . Conversely. Thus. 7. a2 . we have ÷((1 2)) ˆ 5 and ÷((1 6)(2 3 5)) ˆ 2. If ÷ is a non-zero character which is a homomorphism. if gr ˆ ëI for some ë P C. a3 b. I ˆ 1r ˆ z m r ˆ (zr) m ˆ ë m I. a3 } and Ker r2 ˆ {1. Since ÷(g) ˆ |®x (g)|.8 and (12.

(0 1 ). det ([x]B ) ˆ (À1) k ˆ À1. we have ÷reg (x) Tˆ ÷reg (1) (see Proposition 13. øi ˆ ‡ ‡0‡ ‡ ˆ 1X 24 4 8 4 Hence ø is irreducible by Theorem 14. If s is odd then ä( g) ˆ À1. a3 b 0 0 À2 . 1 3 . Let ÷ i be the character of r i (i ˆ 1.10)). 3).3 1. we obtain 3 . Then I H 0 1 g f1 0 g f g f 0 1 [x]B ˆ f gX g f 1 0 e d FF F 0 0 There are k blocks and since k is odd. The required result now follows from Exercise 7. 3 (À1) . De®ne ä as in Exercise 7. Order the natural basis g1 . by Exercise 1. It is easy to check that {g P G: ä(g) P H} is a normal subgroup of G of index 2.7. hence is cyclic. As x Tˆ 1. 24 4 8 4 3 . which is abelian.8. . 3 (À1)(À1) h÷. (c) Im ä is a ®nite subgroup of Cà . øi ˆ ‡ ‡0‡ ‡ ˆ 0.20). G has an element x of order 2. 10. by Theorem 13.1 (À1)(À1) (À1)(À1) hø. 3 (À1)(À1) 3 .5(2). and G has a normal subgroup of index 2 by Exercise 7.Chapter 14 413 multiplicative group Cà of non-zero complex numbers. By Exercise 1. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. . 9. 8. And if s is even then Às  s mod 4. . a2 b 0 0 0 ab. so ÷ i (x) Tˆ ÷ i (1) for some irreducible character ÷ i of G.19. Therefore GaKer ä is abelian. . 24 4 8 4 3. so ÷( g) ˆ r À s  r ‡ s ˆ ÷(1) mod 4. Say there are r entries 1 and s entries À1. a3 0 0 0 b. Using Proposition 14.20 (but ÷ is not). Hence Im ä contains a subgroup H of index 2. The values of these characters are as follows: Conjugacy class ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 2 2 2 a2 À2 À2 2 a. 10 Chapter 14 1. We may choose a basis B of V so that [g]B is diagonal with all diagonal entries Æ1 (see (9. Thus ä(x) ˆ À1. and de®ne the character ä as in Exercise 7. ÷i ˆ ‡ ‡0‡ ‡ ˆ 2. 2. g2 k of CG so as to obtain a basis B in which g and gx are adjacent for all g P G. Let r be the regular representation of G. so Im ä has even order. (À1) (À1)(À1) h÷. Also À1 P Im ä. 2.

Hence k÷reg . 4. or exactly one of the di is 2. (À2) . hence r and ó are equivalent. ÷3 i ˆ 1(19 . As ÷ Tˆ ÷1 . Since the coef®cient of ÷2 is a negative integer. 6 6 3 ø 2 ˆ 1 ÷1 À 1 ÷2 .4 and Theorem 14. r1 and r2 are equivalent. Therefore the centre of a group G never has index 2 in G. If |G| ˆ 12 . Every abelian group of order 12 has 12 conjugacy classes. 0 and by hypothesis ÷(g) > 0 for all g P G. Let ÷1 be the trivial character of G.414 Representations and characters of groups By Theorem 14. 5. by Theorem 14. 2 or 3. 3. then either exactly four of the di are 1. €k 7. The representations r and ó have the same character. 1) ˆ 3. This follows at once from Exercise 11. 4. 1 ‡ 3 . 1 ‡ 3 .24. by Proposition 13. and this gives the required matrix T. ÷1 i ˆ ÷( g)X jGj gPG Since ÷(1) . ÷1 i ˆ 1(19 . we obtain ø 1 ˆ 1 ÷1 ‡ 1 ÷2 ‡ 1 ÷3 . We ®nd that ø ˆ À÷2 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷5 ‡ 2÷6 . 6 h÷. øi ˆ iˆ1 d 2 . No: let G ˆ C2 and ÷ ˆ ÷reg . ÷1 l Tˆ 0. Recall that hø. 8. Since all the coef®cients here are non-negative integers. 2. øl ˆ a where a ˆ 1. øl ˆ 4. (À2)(À1)) ˆ 7X 6 h÷. Then 1 ˆ h÷. (À1)(À1) ‡ 2 . if x P G then the subgroup generated by x and the elements of Z(G) is abelian (since the elements of Z(G) commute with powers of x). 2 ‡ 0 ‡ 2 . but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2.2.21. 1 ‡ 2 . ÷i ˆ 1 ˆ ÷reg ( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG But ÷reg (g) is |G| if g ˆ 1 and is 0 if g Tˆ 1. By the method used in the solution to Exercise 1.21. 6 Hence ÷ ˆ 2÷1 ‡ 3÷2 ‡ 7÷3 . Hence.17 shows that ÷ is reducible. ÷2 i ˆ 1(19 . (À2) . if G ˆ Z(G) ‘ Z(G)x then G ˆ Z(G). (a) For all groups G. We have h÷reg . 1) ˆ 2. the rest are 0. Hence if kø. 6. 2 2 ø 3 ˆ 1 ÷1 ‡ 1 ÷2 À 1 ÷3 X 3 3 3 3. ø is not a character of G. we have k÷. If kø. the regular character of C2 . ÷l ˆ ÷(1). Chapter 15 1X h÷. then i exactly a of the integers di are 1 and the rest are 0. it follows that ÷ is a character of S3 . (À1) . Theorem 14.

9)). Exercise 9. iˆ1 Because g4 has order 2. ÷4 (1) are 1. y): x 2 ˆ y 2 ˆ 1}. y).g.1) (1. if G ˆ D12 then G has 6 conjugacy classes (see (12. the remaining conjugacy classes have size at least 2. (b) Since the number of irreducible representations is equal to the number of conjugacy classes. If G is abelian (e. y) 1 À1 À1 1 2. gives the values on g4 .2 and part (a) that G has 4. at most 4 conjugacy classes of G have size 1 (see (12. Corollary 13.10. together with the relation €4 €4 iˆ1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 4 ) ˆ 0. Let C2 3 C2 ˆ {(1. (x. 2 since 4 ( ÷ i (1))2 ˆ 10. 6 or 12 conjugacy classes. (x. then |Z(G)| divides 12 and |Z(G)| Tˆ 6 or 12.18(1)). . 1). Chapter 16 1. and if G ˆ A4 then G has 4 conjugacy classes (see Example 12.5(2)) g1 ÷5 2 g2 À2 g3 0 g4 0 g5 0 3. so |Z(G)| < 4.12)). it follows from the solution to Exercise 11. The last row of the character table is (cf. 1) 1 1 À1 À1 (1. The character table of C2 3 C2 is (cf. Then iˆ1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 4 ) ˆ 0 € gives ÷3 ( g2 ) ˆ 1. so there cannot be as many as 9 conjugacy classes in total.Chapter 16 415 and G is non-abelian. Therefore. (1. The complete character table of G is gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 10 1 2 1 2 g2 5 1p (À1 ‡ 5)a2 1p (À1 À 5)a2 g3 5 1p (À1 À 5)a2 1p (À1 ‡ 5)a2 g4 2 1 0 À1 0 € The two unknown degrees ÷3 (1). 4 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 2 ) ˆ 0 gives iˆ1 p p ÷4 ( g 2 ) ˆ (À1 À 5)a2. similarly ÷3 (g3 ) ˆ 1. Finally. Example 16. similarly ÷4 ( g3 ) ˆ (À1 ‡ 5)a2. y) 1 À1 1 À1 (x. 1) ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 (x. 1). G ˆ C4 3 C3 ) then G has 12 conjugacy classes.

a2 g and GaG9 ˆ fG9. and if det C ˆ Àdet C then det C is purely imaginary. and 5 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g2 ) ˆ 7 iˆ1 gives 3 ‡ 2ææ ˆ 7. (a) The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. fb. 6. a2 bg and fab. This number is equal to |G| if and only if CG (g) ˆ G. Hence  jdet Cj2 ˆ jC G ( g i )j.) Chapter 17 1. we have iˆ1 ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) ˆ jC G ( g)j. if det C ˆ det C then det C is real. the last irreducible character of G is 1 ÷5 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 The character table of Q8 is the same as that of D8. fa2 g.9(3)). (a) Using the relations. (The sign depends upon the ordering of rows and columns.1. 2. The character table of C2 3 C2 is given in the solution to Exercise 16. Let g P G. G9abg  C2 3 C2 . p If G ˆ C3 then det C ˆ Æi3 3.9(3)). Therefore det C ˆ Ædet C. C t C is the k 3 k diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are |CG ( gi )| (1 < i < k). It is easy to see that a7 ˆ b3 ˆ 1. 5. Hence the linear characters of G are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 8 1 1 1 1 a2 8 1 1 1 1 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 (c) Using the column orthogonality relations. (b) G9 ˆ f1. a3 g. since æ is non-real. a3 bg. (b) The column which corresponds to the conjugacy class containing gÀ1 2 has values which are the complex conjugates of those in the column of g2 (see Proposition 13. every element of G has the form am bn with . By the column orthogonality relations applied to the column €k corresponding to g. fa.13 to see quickly that bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 . p Hence æ ˆ (À1 Æ i 7)a2. which occurs if and only if g P Z(G). By the column orthogonality relations. (a) €5 Representations and characters of groups iˆ1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) € ˆ 0 gives 3 ‡ 3æ ‡ 3æ ˆ 0. G9a. The matrix C is obtained from C by rearranging the columns (see Proposition 13. this is a different column of the character table of G. G9b. Use Proposition 12.416 4.

we have ÷(a) Tˆ ÷(a) (see Corollary 15. therefore for some irreducible character ÷. 4 or 12 linear characters. and the class sizes j g G j come from the equations i jGj ˆ jC G ( g i )jj g G j (Theorem 12. But a has order 7 and b has order 3. The number of linear characters of G divides jGj by Theorem 17. ÷3 ˆ ÷ 2 . Therefore jGj ˆ 21. hence jGj < 21. we obtain 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a á á a3 á á b 0 0 b2 0 0 p where á ˆ (À1 ‡ i 7)a2.8). a2 . so G is certainly not simple. In the character table below. fa m b: 0 < m < 6g and fa m b2 : 0 < m < 6g. ÷2 ˆ ÷. so we get three linear characters of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù ˆ e2ðia3 .11. we have ÷1 ˆ 1 G . Hence ÷4 and ÷5 must be complex conjugates of each other. Applying the column orthogonality relations. then G is abelian (see Proposition 9. If there are 12.18). a4 g. fa.14. fa3 . If G has 3 or 4 linear characters then jGaG9j ˆ 3 or 4 and again G is not simple as G9 v G. all of these are irreducible characters by Proposition 17. To ®nd the two remaining irreducible characters ÷4 and ÷5 . 0 < n < 2. ÷4 ˆ ÷2 ÷3 . a6 g. Now consult the solution to Exercise 11. 4. (b) The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. i gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 4 3 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 g3 4 3 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 g4 6 2 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 6 2 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g6 12 1 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 . ÷6 ˆ ö÷. ÷5 ˆ ö. we note that a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . The centralizer orders are obtained by using the orthogonality relations. G9 ˆ kal.2 to see that there are 3. so 21 divides jGj by Lagrange's Theorem.Chapter 17 417 0 < m < 6. a5 . 3. (c) First.6).

.4). they are not equivalent to any representation found earlier. The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found is n .b3 . by Exercise 8. for å ˆ e2ði ja n with 0 < j < n À 1. so jGaG9j ˆ 2n and there are 2n representations of degree 1. 0 çÀ1 1 0 where ç is any (2n)th root of unity in C. are irreducible (by Exercise 8. For å ˆ e2ði ra2 n . (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations: 2 32 n 2 3n 2 3 2 32 å 0 1 0 å 0 0 1 ˆ . Now the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found so far is (n À 1) . Moreover G9 ˆ ka2 l. The normal subgroups of D8 are 6. . by Theorem 11.4. so we have obtained all the irreducible representations. and inequivalent (consider the character values on a2 ). no two of which are equivalent.11). note that the structure of GaG9 depends upon whether n is even or odd. 8. .4). with r ˆ 1.418 Representations and characters of groups D8 ˆ Ker ÷1 . ha2 . (b) The given representations.) 7. We get further representations by     ç 0 0 1 a3 . (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations. f1g ˆ Ker ÷5 X 5. these representations are irreducible and inequivalent. ˆ . hai ˆ Ker ÷2 . since they have distinct characters. bi ˆ Ker ÷3 . Also G9 ˆ kbl. we get n À 1 irreducible representations. Note that b2 does not belong to the kernel of any of these representations. For ç ˆ e2ði ja2 n with 1 < j < n À 1. 12 ˆ 6n. 0 å À1 0 1 0 å À1 ån 0 32 3À1 2 3À1 2 3 2 0 1 å 0 0 1 å 0 X ˆ ån 0 0 å À1 ån 0 0 å À1 Hence we have representations of T4 n (cf. for å ˆ e2ði ka2 n with 0 < k < n À 1. 12 ˆ 4nX Hence we have found all the irreducible representations. . so jGaG9j ˆ 4 and there are four representations of degree 1 (see Theorem 17. see the solution to Exercise 18. 22 ‡ 4 .4) and inequivalent (their characters are distinct). 2. . Example 1. since b2 is in the kernel of each of these representations. (b) The representations in part (a) are irreducible unless å ˆ Æ1.3. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations. (For further details on the representations of degree 1. 22 ‡ 2n . ha2 i ˆ Ker ÷2 ’ Ker ÷3 . n À 1.12. Moreover. are irreducible (by Exercise 8. (b) The given representations. ha2 . abi ˆ Ker ÷4 .

) Regarding D8 as the symmetry group of a square. ù2 ‡ ùÀ2 ˆ ù4 ‡ ùÀ4 ˆ À1. Then ù ‡ ùÀ1 ˆ 1. where we took b to be a different re¯ection. (Compare Example 14. Character table of D8 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 a2 8 1 1 1 1 À2 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (See Example 16. 12 ˆ 8nX Chapter 18 1. Hence.3(3) or Section 18. since the sum of the squares of the irreducible representations given above is n . G9 ˆ ka2 .3. Character table of D12 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 À2 2 a 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 . using Section 18. 22 ‡ (n À 1) . We have now found all the irreducible representations.28(2).3. Let ù ˆ e2ðia6 . 22 ‡ 4 . the character table of D12 is as shown.) 2. take b to be a re¯ection in a diagonal of the square.Chapter 18 419 Finally. so we get four representations of degree 1. b2 l and GaG9  C2 3 C2. The character table of D8 is as shown. Then ð takes the following values: 1 ð 4 a2 0 a 0 b 2 ab 0 Hence ð ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷5 .

far . a2 r b2 g. as shown. ka2 . Exercise 17. Hence we get 2n linear characters ÷ j (0 < j < 2n À 1). a2 r‡1 b. kal ˆ Ker ÷2 . The 3n conjugacy classes of G are.420 Representations and characters of groups Seven normal subgroups of D12 are G ˆ Ker ÷1 . 4. fan g. then GaG9 ˆ hG9bi  C4 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 À1 1 À1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 (À1) r 1 (À1) r b 1 i À1 Ài ab 1 Ài À1 i If n is even. The remaining four irreducible characters of G are linear. bl ˆ Ker ÷3 .7 gives us n irreducible characters ø k (0 < k < n À 1). abl ˆ Ker ÷4 . fa2 r‡1 . for 0 < r < n À 1. fa2 j b: 0 < j < n À 1g. fa2 j‡1 b: 0 < j < n À 1gX We get n À 1 irreducible characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) of G from Exercise 17. 3. ka3 l ˆ Ker ÷6 and {1} ˆ Ker ÷5 . then GaG9  C2 3 C2 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 1 1 1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r b 1 À1 1 À1 ab 1 À1 À1 1 Note that T4  C4 .6 as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| øj 1 4n 2 an 4n 2(À1) j ar (1 < r < n À 1) 2n ù rj ‡ ùÀ rj b 4 0 ab 4 0 where ù ˆ e2ðia2 n . ka2 . aÀ r g(1 < r < n À 1). . fa2 r g. T8  Q8 and T12 is the Example in Section 18.4. ka2 l ˆ Ker ÷3 ’ Ker ÷4 . a2 r‡1 b2 gX We have G9 ˆ hbi and GaG9 ˆ hG9ai  C2 n . fa2 r b. If n is odd. The n ‡ 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g.

422. . fa2s b2 . faj bk : j even. k ˆ 1 or 3g. For example. aÀ2 rÀ1 b2 g(0 < r < n À 1). .Chapter 18 Character table of U6 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷j (0 < j < 2n À 1) øk (0 < k < n À 1) Note: ù ˆ e2ðia2 n . fa2s . ÷4 . Observe that U6  D6. aÀ2s b2 g(1 < s < (n À 1)a2). aÀ2s g. we get four linear characters ÷1 . fb2 g. fa2 r‡1 . U12  T12 and U18  D6 3 C3 .8. k ˆ 1 or 3gX a2 r 6n ù2 jr 2ù2 kr a2 r b 3n ù2 jr Àù2 kr a2 r‡1 2n ù j(2 r‡1) 0 421 Using Exercise 17. . as shown below. Character table of V8 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (0 < j < n À 1) öj (1 < j < n À 1) 1 8n 1 1 1 1 2 2 a2 r‡1 (0 < r < n À 1) 8n 4n 1 1 1 1 À2 2 1 1 À1 À1 b2 a2s a2s b2 (1 < s < (n À 1)a2) 4n 4n 1 1 1 1 ù4 js ‡ùÀ4 js ù2 js ‡ùÀ2 js 1 1 1 1 Àù4 js ÀùÀ4 js ù2 js ‡ùÀ2 js b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 ù2 j(2 r‡1) ÀùÀ2 j(2 r‡1) ù j(2 r‡1) ‡ùÀ j(2 r‡1) Note: ù ˆ e2ðia2 n . n characters ø j (0 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. the character table of V24 is given at the top of p. . The 2n ‡ 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. 5. and a further n À 1 characters ö j (1 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. and faj bk : j odd.

. By Proposition 15. öl ˆ kø. Using Proposition 19. öl Tˆ 0. 2. by Exercise 1. øl ˆ 0. k÷ø. øl. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷.  V (n factors). ÷öl.14 we obtain 1 ÷S ÷A öS öA 15 10 6 3 (1 2 3) 0 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À2 2 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 0 0 1 p (1 3 4 5 2) 0 0 1 p (1 ‡ 5)a2 (1 À 5)a2 Then ÷ S ˆ ø1 ‡ ø2 ‡ 2ø3 . Hence ö( g) ˆ ö(1) for all irreducible characters ö for which k÷ n . The result now follows from Proposition 13. Therefore k÷ n .422 Representations and characters of groups Character table of V24 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ø0 ø1 ø2 ö1 ö2 1 24 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 b2 24 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 À2 2 2 a 12 1 1 À1 À1 p0 ip 3 Ài 3 1 À1 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 À2 2 a5 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 p Ài 3 p i 3 1 À1 a2 12 1 1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 À1 a2 b2 12 1 1 1 1 À2 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Chapter 19 1X h÷ø. Let n be an integer with n > 0. øöiX jGj gPG jGj gPG Similarly.13). ö S ˆ ø1 ‡ ø3 . Note that (1 2 3 4 5)2 is conjugate to (1 3 4 5 2) in A5 . Then wg ˆ w for all w P V  . ÷ A ˆ ø2 ‡ ø4 ‡ ø5 . . there exists 1 Tˆ g P G with vg ˆ v for all v P V. 4. ö A ˆ ø4 X .5 there is an irreducible character ø of G such that ø(g) Tˆ ø(1). k÷ø. 3.15 and (14. 1 G l ˆ k÷. Since ÷ is not faithful. öi ˆ 1 ˆ 1 ˆ ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) ˆ ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) ˆ h÷.

1) (1. Taking D6 ˆ ka. hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 (1. 1) (b.14. these characters are irreducible. a) (b. Exercise 27. b: a3 ˆ b2 ˆ 1. b) (a. ÷ i l ˆ 1 for i ˆ 2. the character table is complete. as in Example 1. Take b to be the re¯ection in the axis shown: . hj ) |CG ( gi . The table also records the trivial character ÷1 . 5. Character table of D6 3 D6 ( gi . bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l.1(3). Since k÷ i .2) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù ˆ e2ðia3 6. 4.15 and 17. (a) Regard D8 as the subgroup of S4 which permutes the four corners of a square. Since G has seven conjugacy classes. a) (1. b) 36 18 12 18 9 6 12 6 4 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 2 2 À2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 2 À2 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 0 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 0 0 0 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 Àù2 Àù À1 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 Àù Àù2 À1 g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 ù ù2 1 g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 ù2 ù 1 Chapter 20 1. these are irreducible by Propositions 13. ÷ S as ÷4 and ÷ A as ÷2 . the character table of D6 3 D6 is as shown. Character table of G (cf. ÷3 ˆ ÷2 . a) (a. ÷6 ˆ ÷5 and ÷7 ˆ ÷2 ÷5 . below. 1) (a. b) (b. We have recorded ÷ as ÷5 .Chapter 20 423 5.

Arguing as in Example 20. ‡ dr ø r for some non-negative integers di . . ÷3 5 H ˆ ø1 ‡ ø4 . Either by direct calculation. . we ®nd that the characters ÷ i 5 A6 (i ˆ 1. ø r be the irreducible characters of H. . . Then ÷ 5 H ˆ d1 ø1 ‡ . . The inequality k÷ 5 H. k÷11 5 A6 . . ø5 in our character table below. ÷11 be the irreducible characters of S6 . we obtain from ÷11 5 A6 the two irreducible characters which we have called ø6 and ø7 . ÷2 5 H ˆ ø4 . .17. (b) Take the irreducible characters ÷1 . or using (20. ÷ 5 Hl H . as in Example 19. We obtain ÷1 5 H ˆ ø1 . b 3 (1 3) gives the required isomorphism. . 5.3). Character table of A6 gi 1 (1 2 3) |C A6 ( g i )| 360 9 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 ø6 ø7 1 5 10 9 5 8 8 1 2 1 0 À1 À1 À1 p (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4 5) (1 3 4 5 2) (1 2 3)(4 5 6) (1 2 3 4)(5 6) 8 5 5 9 4 1 1 À2 1 1 0 0 5)a2.5. . . For examples with d ˆ 1 or 2.424 Representations and characters of groups Then a 3 (1 2 3 4).14. ÷11 5 A6 l ˆ 2. Since each ø i has degree 1.6) gives ÷(1) ˆ d 1 ‡ X X X ‡ d r < d 2 ‡ X X X ‡ d 2 < nX 1 r 4. Let ÷1 . . For an example with d ˆ 3. 9) are distinct irreducible characters of A6 .2). . H ˆ V4 and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree 3 (see Section 18. ÷5 of S4 as in Section 18. Let ø1 . . . Write d ˆ k÷ 5 H. . these give the characters ø1 . 7. . .1. and take the character table of H to be gi |CH ( gi )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 (1 3)(2 4) 8 1 1 1 1 À2 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 (1 3) 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (see Example 16. take G ˆ S3 and H a subgroup of order 2. ÷ 5 Hl H < 3 follows at once from Proposition 20. . ÷5 5 H ˆ ø2 ‡ ø5 X 2. take G ˆ A4 .13). 3. ⠈ (1 À 1 0 0 À1 0 á â p 5)a2 1 0 0 À1 0 â á 1 À1 1 0 2 À1 À1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 0 Note: á ˆ (1 ‡ 3. . the inequality (20. ÷4 5 H ˆ ø3 ‡ ø5 . Also. and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree d.3(3) or Section 18.

See (20. 10. 15. (b) Using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. and we get precisely seven if and only if the restriction of each of the fourteen characters is irreducible. upon restriction to A7 we get at least seven irreducible characters of A7 . the elements u and ua form a basis of U 4 G. Let Hgj (1 < j < m) be the distinct right . We are told that A7 has exactly nine conjugacy classes. Hence sp (u) is a C H-submodule of CH.Chapter 21 425 5. (a) ÷1 5 H ˆ ÷2 5 H ˆ ø1 . 21. Label the characters of H as follows: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 1 1 (1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 (1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù where ù ˆ e2ðia3 . ÷4 5 H ˆ ÷5 5 H ˆ ø1 ‡ ø2 ‡ ø3 . 14. Since 20 occurs only once in the list of degrees for S7 . (a) Let u ˆ 1 À a2 ‡ b À a2 b. we obtain ø1 4 G ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ ÷4 ‡ ÷5 . ø2 4 G ˆ ø3 4 G ˆ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 ‡ ÷5 X 3. the induced module U 4 G is irreducible. It is suf®cient to prove that if U is a CH-submodule of CH then dim (U 4 G) ˆ jG : Hjdim U . Then ua2 ˆ Àu and ub ˆ u.13). 2. 35X Chapter 21 1. Hence the irreducible characters of A7 have degrees 1. (b) Since every element of G belongs to H or to Ha. ø 4 Gi ˆ 1. 6. the restriction of the irreducible character of degree 20 to A7 must be the sum of two different irreducible characters of degree 10. From the remaining fourteen irreducible characters of S7 . (c) The character ø of U and the character ø 4 G of U 4 G are given by 1 ø 1 a2 À1 b 1 a2 b À1 1 ø4G 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 Since hø 4 G. ÷3 5 H ˆ ø2 ‡ ø3 . 14. 10.

17 that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G ˆ (ø 4 G)÷.1 (also twice). and on all other elements the values are zero. 5. . ÷ i 5 H ˆ di ø ‡ â where either â is a character of H or ⠈ 0. 3) 12 0 6. The sum Ug1 ‡ . that either (1) ø 4 G is irreducible. ‡ Ug m is direct (since the elements in Ugj are linear combinations of elements in the right coset Hgj ).23. Thus ÷ i (1) > di ø(1). and therefore jG: Hjø(1) > (d 2 ‡ X X X ‡ d 2 )ø(1)X 1 k The required result follows. ÷öi G ˆ h(ø 4 G)÷. . 4. øl H ˆ 1. (Compare Proposition 20. öi G X Since this holds for all irreducible characters ö of G. hence ÷ 5 H is reducible. 7. together with the result of Exercise 19. ÷ i 5 Hi H . . Let ö be an irreducible character of G. say ø 4 G ˆ ÷. the values are as follows. Cycle-shape ö4G ø4G (1) 240 720 (7) 2 À1 (3. . we obtain h(ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G. (7) and (3. say ÷ 5 H ˆ ø ‡ ö. ‡ Ugm . . ÷ 5 Hi H Tˆ 0 D ø9 ˆ ø or öX Thus If ø 4 G is irreducible. ö 5 Hi H ˆ hø. We have hø9 4 G. we deduce from Theorem 14. öi G ˆ hø(÷ 5 H). By using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem twice. Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H.) . as in the proof of Proposition 20.426 Representations and characters of groups cosets of H in G. dim (Ugj ) ˆ dim U (since u 3 ugj (u P U) is a vector space isomorphism). ÷ i i G ˆ hø. The values of ö 4 G and ø 4 G are given by Proposition 21. or (2) ø 4 G is the sum of two different irreducible characters of the same degree.11. we deduce. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. On elements of cycle-shapes (1). We have |G: H|ø(1) ˆ d1 ÷1 (1) ‡ . Then U(CG) ˆ Ug1 ‡ . where d i ˆ hø 4 G. (÷ö) 5 Hi H ˆ hø 4 G. Hence dim(U 4 G) ˆ dim(U (CG)) ˆ m dim U . Suppose ®rst that ø 4 G is irreducible. then for precisely one other irreducible character ö of H we have ø 4 G ˆ ö 4 G. where Ugj ˆ {ugj : u P U}. . by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 3). ‡ dk ÷ k (1). By applying the result of Exercise 6. since ø is irreducible. Also.9. Then ÷(1) ˆ 2ø(1) and k÷ 5 H. ÷i G Tˆ 0 D hø9. Hence.

17. Hence kö À a1 G . öi ˆ h÷reg . ÷l ˆ bjGj÷(1)ajGj ˆ b÷(1). . not every irreducible character has degree 1 (Proposition 9.11.12). Hence every irreducible character has degree 1. Then ö ˆ a1 G ‡ b÷reg . 3.11 and 22.12. each degree divides 15 (Theorem 22. öl and k÷reg . öl are integers. (c) The number of conjugacy classes of G is r ‡ s. and the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is 15 (Theorem 11. Theorems 11. (b) We have h1 G . hence ÷1 5 H ˆ ø. then ø9 ˆ ø.11). Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H.Chapter 22 427 Suppose next that ø 4 G is reducible.18. But kö À a1 G . b P C such that ö(g) ˆ a for all g Tˆ 1 and ö(1) ˆ a ‡ bjGj.12. 2.11). 1 < s and r ‡ sq 2 ˆ pqX Hence r ˆ q and s ˆ ( p À 1)/q. 22 ˆ 16X Hence r ˆ 4 or 8 or 16. (For more information on groups of order pq. then r divides 16. The degree of each irreducible character is 1 or 2. and ø9 is an irreducible character of H such that ø9 4 G has ÷1 or ÷2 as a constituent. (a) Since G is non-abelian. 12 ‡ s .11 and 22. see Chapter 25. since both sides of this equation take the same values on all elements of G. øl H ˆ 1. This time. (Compare Proposition 20. öi ˆ 1 (a ‡ bjGj ‡ (jGj À 1)a) ˆ a ‡ b.) 4. there exist a. and jGj 1 jGj(a ‡ bjGj) ˆ a ‡ bjGjX jGj Since ö is a character. Then ÷1 (1) ˆ ø(1) and k÷1 5 H. ÷l P Z and k1 G . and so G is abelian by Proposition 9.) Chapter 22 1. say ø 4 G ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2.11 show that there are r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree q. ÷l P Z. both k1 G . ÷l ˆ 0. We have hø9 4 G. ÷1 i G Tˆ 0 D hø9. where r divides pq.18). and r ‡ s ˆ 7 or 10 or 16. 17.11 again. (b) jG9j ˆ p by Theorem 17. moreover.12. ÷1 5 Hi H Tˆ 0 D ø9 ˆ øX Thus If ø 4 G ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 where ÷1 and ÷2 are irreducible characters of G. ÷l ˆ kb÷reg . then kö. and r . and if there are r characters of degree 1 and s of degree 2. (a) By hypothesis. (c) If ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G. The number of linear characters divides 15 (Theorem 17. Use Theorems 11.

(b) We deduce from part (a) that ÷ i (g) ˆ 0 for two values of i. By Corollary 22.27. then k÷. (d) We now have the following part of the character table of G: .2. a. . if g2 ˆ 1 then g ˆ 1. say i ˆ 2. 5. 1). part (c) implies that b|G| is an integer.16. The stated result follows. ÷ i (1)  ÷ i ( g) mod 5 for all i. by part (a). 6 in some order. the second possibility is ruled out by equation (II). Therefore. À1). we have ÷( g) ‡ ÷( g À1 ) ˆ ÷( g) ‡ ÷( g) ˆ 2÷( g). ÷7 be the irreducible characters of G. Let ÷1 . 4. Partition Gnf1g into subsets by putting each element with its inverse. . (6. ÷ i ( g)) with 4 < i < 7 are (1. and hence also b. Hence ˆ ÷( g) ˆ ÷(1) ‡ 2á gPG for some algebraic integer á. . 1 G i ˆ ÷( g)X jGj gPG (c) If ÷ Tˆ 1 G in part (b). 4.27. and (II) 1 ‡ 7 ˆ iˆ2 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) ˆ 0X From equation (I) we deduce that either ÷ i ( g) ˆ 0. is an integer. ÷2 (1)  ÷3 (1)  0 mod 5. hence is odd). . and ÷ i (g) ˆ Æ1 for 4 < i < 7. 1 G l ˆ 0. This contradicts Proposition 22. 3. and hence á ˆ À÷(1)a2. But À÷(1)a2 is a rational number which is not an integer (since ÷(1) divides jGj. by Lagrange's Theorem. (b) For all g P G.428 Representations and characters of groups (d) Since ÷(1) divides jGj. (a) If g P G then g has odd order. (c) By Corollary 22. (a) By Theorem 22. we have (I) 1‡ 7 ˆ iˆ2 (÷ i ( g))2 ˆ 5. Each such subset has size 2. we deduce that ÷2 (1) ˆ ÷3 (1) ˆ 5. By the column orthogonality relations. The only possibility which is consistent with equation (IV) is that the values of ÷ i (1) for 4 < i < 7 are 1. 1. 120. and ÷(g) is an algebraic integer. by part (b).5. ÷(g) is an integer for all characters ÷. since 1 ˆ h÷. Æ1 for all i. Thus ÷ ˆ 1 G . (Further information about the number of characters ÷ such that ÷ ˆ ÷ appears in Theorem 23.1 and Corollary 23. 1). Therefore. and from equation (III) we have (IV) 7 ˆ (÷ i (1))2 ˆ 69X iˆ4 Hence the possibilities for the pairs of integers (÷ i (1). Also (III) 2 2 7 ˆ iˆ1 (÷ i (1))2 ˆ 120X Since 5 ‡ 10 . or ÷ i (g) ˆ Æ2 for exactly one i and ÷ i (g) ˆ 0 for all other i . (4.) 6. with ÷1 ˆ 1 G .

0. € Hence ÷ i (g5 ) ˆ Æ1 iˆ1 for 1 < i < 4 and ÷ i (g5 ) ˆ 0 for 5 < i < 7. By applying the column orthogonality relations involving column 6 and columns 3. € 1. 1. 1. an (1) First. Hence the values of iˆ1 ÷ i (g4 ) for 1 < i < 7 are 1. € (3) Since ÷ i (g3 )  ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g3 ))2 ˆ 8. 1. Therefore iˆ1 ÷ i (g6 ) ˆ Æ1 for 1 < i < 6 and ÷7 (g6 ) ˆ 0. from which €7 we see that ÷ i (g3 ) ˆ 1 for 1 < i < 4. respectively. 1. € (4) We have ÷ i (g6 )  ÷ i (g4 ) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g6 ))2 ˆ 6. 4. À2 in order from the top. 0. Æ2 in some order. 0. From the relation iˆ1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 3 ) ˆ 0 we now deduce that the entries in column 3 are 1. Also iˆ1 ÷ i (g3 )÷ i ( gr ) ˆ 0 for r ˆ 4. These can be obtained from the column orthogonality relations. À1. 0.Chapter 22 gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 g3 2 8 1 g4 3 6 1 g5 4 4 1 g6 6 6 1 429 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 We successively calculate the ®ve remaining columns of the character table. ÷ i (g5 )  ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g5 ))2 ˆ 4. We are told that ÷ i (gj ) is€ integer for all i. ÷ i ( g4 )  ÷ i (1) mod 3 and 7 (÷ i ( g4 ))2 ˆ 6. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 À1 1 À1 À2 2 0 g3 2 8 1 1 1 1 0 0 À2 g4 3 6 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 0 g5 4 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 g6 6 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 . Since 7 ÷ i (1)÷ i (g5 ) ˆ 0. j. 5 and 7 we obtain ÷2 (g6 ) ˆ À÷3 (g6 ) ˆ ÷4 (g6 ) ˆ À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷5 (g6 ) ˆ À÷6 (g6 ) ˆ 1. (2) Next. iˆ1 we deduce that ÷4 ( g5 ) ˆ À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷2 (g5 ) ˆ À÷3 (g5 ) ˆ 1. 7. À1. 1. we deduce that iˆ1 ÷ i (g3 ) ˆ Æ1 for 1 < i < 4 and€ the values of ÷ i ( g3 ) for 5 < i < 7 are that 7 0. The character table of G is as shown. (5) Only the entries in column 2 remain to be calculated.

Then det (A À ëIn ) ˆ 0. by Lagrange's Theorem. g irr where for each j. it follows that x ˆ 1. it follows from the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions that we must have é÷ ˆ 1 for all ÷. the elements g of G which satisfy g2 ˆ 1 are i precisely those elements g11 . . either i j ˆ 0 or n j is even and i j ˆ n j a2. Then gÀ1 xg ˆ x À1 for some g P G. nr which are even. . ë is therefore an algebraic integer. 4.430 Representations and characters of groups 7. However. . and hence ë is a root of the polynomial det (xIn À A). Then ÷ A (g) ˆ 1 2 2 2 2((ë1 ‡ ë2 ) À (ë1 ‡ ë2 )) ˆ ë1 ë2 ˆ det (gr) (see Proposition 19. all of whose entries are integers.13 of é÷ that é÷ ˆ À1 if and only if ÷ A ˆ 1 G . Then g ˆ g2( n‡1) P CG (x). The result follows. Hence the number of real irreducible characters is 2 m . where m is the number of the integers n1 . Let ë1 and ë2 be the eigenvalues of gr. 2. Since jGj is odd. . Suppose ®rst that ë is an eigenvalue of an n 3 n matrix A. 3. 3 C n r which is given by i i ÷( g 11 X X X g irr ) ˆ ë11 X X X ë irr is real if and only if ë i ˆ Æ1 for all i with 1 < i < r. Hence gÀ2 xg2 ˆ x. summing over all the irreducible characters ÷. and n ‡ 2 elements if n is even. The character ÷ of G ˆ C n1 3 . Therefore x À1 ˆ gÀ1 xg ˆ x. € These numbers coincide with ÷(1). m ˆ 2n ‡ 1 for some integer n. The elements g of D2 n for which g2 ˆ 1 are 1. assume that ë is a root of the polynomial p(x) ˆ a0 ‡ a1 x ‡ . Since ÷(1) ˆ 2 we have ÷ A (1) ˆ 1.8. . so g2 P CG (x). Let m be the order of g. As p(ë) ˆ 0. . Adopt the notation of Theorem 9. Since é÷ < 1 for all ÷.14). ‡ a nÀ1 x nÀ1 ‡ x n (a r P Z). The number of such elements is also 2 m . Now the ni th root of unity ë i can be À1 if and only if ni is even. Since x 2 ˆ 1 and x has odd order. which is of the form x n ‡ anÀ1 x nÀ1 ‡ X X X ‡ a1 x ‡ a0 (ar P Z)X Conversely. . . a i b (0 < i < n À 1) (and also a na2 if n is even)X This gives n ‡ 1 elements if n is odd. Let I H 0 1 0 XXX 0 f 0 0 1 0 g g f f 0 0 0 0 g f F Aˆf F F gX F g F g f F d 0 0 0 1 e Àa0 Àa1 Àa2 XXX Àa nÀ1 Check that det (xIn À A) ˆ p(x). Since A has integer entries. Chapter 23 1. . it follows that ë is an eigenvalue of A. It now follows from the De®nition 23. Assume that x P G and x is real. . .

and de®ne the basis e1 . b ij ˆ â( f i . Then det (ar) ˆ 1 and det (br) ˆ Àå n . Let r be the representation obtained by using the basis v1 . 7. fn of V and de®ne the symmetric n 3 n matrices A ˆ (aij ) and B ˆ (bij ) by aij ˆ â1 ( f i . Also A is invertible by (à ).16. we may construct a basis f 1 . respectively. en of V by ˆ ei ˆ qij f 9 X j j t t . . X X X . so det A ˆ (À1) n det A. f j ). f 9 of V such that â1 ( f 9.3 for the characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) and ÷ j (1 < j < 4) of T4 n. Therefore det (At ) ˆ (À1) n det A. respectively. Let 9 n i j P ˆ ( pij ) be the n 3 n matrix which is given by ˆ f9ˆ pij f j X i j Then PAP ˆ I n and PBP is symmetric. Clearly é÷1 ˆ é÷3 ˆ 1. € nÀ1 Therefore jˆ1 (éø j )ø j (1) ˆ 0 or À2. As â is G-invariant. Since â is skew-symmetric. we have At ˆ ÀA.6. v1 ) ˆ â(v2 . . there exists a nonzero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form â on V. (a) First. we get éø j ˆ À1 or 1. (d) Refer the Exercise 18. and é÷2 ˆ é÷4 ˆ 0 or 1. . . . (c) The elements of T4 n are ai and ai b (0 < i < 2n À 1). according to whether n is odd or € even. Write Q ˆ (q ij ).Chapter 23 431 5. f j )X By applying the Gram±Schmidt orthogonalization process. . so é÷ ˆ Æ1. since V is irreducible it follows that fu P V : â(u. å n v2 ) ˆ â(v1 . v j g À1 )X For example. (b) It is easy to check that if g ˆ a or b and i. v j ). . hence det (gr) ˆ 1 for all g P G if and only if å n ˆ À1. By a well known property of symmetric matrices. It follows that n is even. respectively. . Hence â is G-invariant. 6. a has order 2n and ai b has order 4. The de®nition of â shows that â is symmetric if å n ˆ 1 and â is skew-symmetric if å n ˆ À1. v) ˆ 0 for all v P V g ˆ f0gX (à ) Pick a basis v1 .e. The result now follows from Exercise 4. v n of V and let A be the n 3 n matrix with ij-entry â(v i . v) ˆ 0 for all v P V} is a CGsubmodule of V. . . v j ) ˆ â(v i . according to whether j is odd or even. . 2} then â(v i g. The result now follows from Theorem 23. Choose a basis f1 . so det A Tˆ 0. By part (a) (or part (b)) and the construction of the characters ø j in Exercise 17. Hence an is the only element of order 2. â(v1 b. according to whether n is odd or even. as n ˆ ÷(1) the result is proved. . v2 of V. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. f 9) ˆ ä ij for all i. it is easy to check that ÷( g) is real for all g P G. j. QQt ˆ I) such that Q(PBPt )QÀ1 is diagonal. Since é÷ ˆ À1. Hence ÷ (é÷)÷(1) ˆ 2. the subspace {u P V: â(u. there is an orthogonal matrix Q (i. j P {1. v1 ) ˆ å n ˆ â(v1 . v1 bÀ1 ).

and let V be the RG-submodule of the regular RG-module which is spanned by 1 À a and 1 À a2 . (c) Let G ˆ C3 ˆ ka: a3 ˆ 1l. and r is a homomorphism as (Hx)(r gh ) ˆ Hxgh ˆ (Hx)(r g )(r h ). . . We have g P ker r D Hxg ˆ Hx. if G is simple then since G9 v G. G is abelian. Chapter 25 1. 2. (a) The proof is similar to that of part (1) of Schur's Lemma 9. Let ç ˆ e2ðia5 and å ˆ e2ðia11 . since QPAPt Qt ˆ I n . Further. ÷1 and ÷2 are the only linear characters. ej ) ˆ ä ij . De®ne W: V 3 V by vW ˆ av (v P V). we have G9 ˆ 1.1. For closure. . note that      1 y 1 y9 1 y9 ‡ yx ˆ . Vx P G D g P ’ xPG xÀ1 HxX Finally. as Hxg ˆ Hyg A Hx ˆ Hy.e. Let c1 . Call it G. v n be a basis of the RG-module V. v n . so ë P R. 0 1 0 x 0 x À1 Therefore G is a group. which we are assuming to be an irreducible CG-module. . Hence G  C2 . . c2 be the columns of the character table of G corresponding to the classes {1} and t G . For the last part. Now the orthogonality of c1 and c2 gives ÷1 (1) ˆ ÷2 (1) ˆ 1 and ÷2 (t) ˆ À1. 10. But v1 W ˆ ëv1 P V. and since QPBPt Qt is diagonalX â(ei . and consider the vector space V9 over C with basis v1 . ÷2 (t) ˆ Æ1 and ÷ i (t) ˆ 0 for i > 3. .11. identity is       1 0 1 y 1 À yx À1 . By Schur's Lemma there exists ë P C such that vW ˆ ëv for all v P V9. (b) Let v1 . so we may take ÷1 (t) ˆ 1. r g is a permutation. It is clear that the given set of matrices has size p( p À 1). By the orthogonality relation for c2 we have € ÷ i (t)2 ˆ |CG (t)| ˆ 2 (the sum over all irreducible characters ÷ i . with ÷1 ˆ 1 G ). 8. . Then V9 is a CG-module. 9.432 Then Representations and characters of groups â1 (ei . ej ) ˆ 0 if i Tˆ j. . since a linear character must take the value Æ1 on t. i. Hx. r is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù)  S n with kernel which is contained in H. inverse of is . 0 x 0 x9 0 xx9 associativity is a property of matrix multiplication. ⠈ å 2 ‡ å 6 ‡ å 7 ‡ å 8 ‡ å 10 X . xgx À1 Vx P G D „ xPG x À1 P H. Hence |G : G9| ˆ 2 by Theorem 17. Then V is an irreducible RG-module. and write á ˆ å ‡ å 3 ‡ å 4 ‡ å 5 ‡ å 9 .

Chapter 25 Character table of F11. Hence p u m  À1 mod p for some m D the element u of Zà has even order p D q is even D p  1 mod 4X (b) By Proposition 25.6 that ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are not both real. 2ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ˆ ( p ‡ 1)a2. then a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . b9À1 ab9 ˆ av iX Hence G1  G2 . Let b9 ˆ bm. b9: ap ˆ b9q ˆ 1. . aG ˆ {au : m P Z}. Also. Hence bm has order q. and we ®nd that p ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are (À1 Æ i p)a2. |CG (a)| ˆ p. since both m and v have u order q modulo p. are (À1 Æ p)a2.9. This time. bÀ m abm ˆ au ˆ av . Hence ˆ 0ˆ ÷(1)÷(a) ˆ q ‡ qö1 (a) ‡ qö2 (a)X ÷ irred m Therefore ö1 (a) ‡ ö2 (a) ˆ À1. If p  1 mod 4. Therefore aÀ1 P aG D u m  À1 mod p for some m D p  1 mod 4X (c) ÷ i (a) ˆ 1 for all the q linear characters ÷ i of G. m is coprime to q. Hence ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) ÷. Then G1 ˆ ha. (a) Note that À1 is the only element of order 2 in ZÃ. so ˆ pˆ ÷(a)÷(a) ˆ q ‡ ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ‡ ö2 (a)ö2 (a)X ÷ Hence ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ‡ ö2 (a)ö2 (a) ˆ ( p ‡ 1)a2. there exists an integer m p such that u m  v mod p.6(c). then a is conjugate to aÀ1 and so ÷(a) is real for all characters p so (ö1 (a))2 ‡ (ö2 (a))2 ˆ ( p ‡ 1)a2. and it follows from Corollary 15. so by Exercise 1. Also. Hence ö2 (a) ˆ ö1 (a). 4. Recall that Zà is cyclic. 5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 55 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 a 11 1 1 1 1 1 á â a2 11 1 1 1 1 1 â á b 5 1 ç ç2 ç3 ç4 0 0 b2 5 1 ç2 ç4 ç ç3 0 0 b3 5 1 ç3 ç ç4 ç2 0 0 433 b4 5 1 ç4 ç3 ç2 ç 0 0 3. Also. If p  À1 mod 4.

A typical non-trivial linear character of H is 1 ÷ 1 a 1 a2 1 b ù b2 ù2 ab ù ab2 ù2 a2 b ù a2 b2 ù2 where ù ˆ e2ðia3 . Let H2 ˆ ka3 .18). 8. (b) C2 3 F13. Also. (a) F13. fa3 . Then H2 v G and Ga H 2 ˆ h H 2 a. and for all i with 1 < i < 6.3 (see Theorem 25. the conjugacy class hE consists of h and hÀ1 . fa r b2 : 3 B rg. Since Zà is cyclic of order p p À 1 and u has order ( p À 1)a2. Let H ˆ ka. (c) D6 3 F13. a6 g. . fa r : 3 B rg. ÷6 of G. Then ÷8 ˆ ÷7 ÷2 and ÷9 ˆ ÷7 ÷3 are also irreducible. fa r b: 0 < r < 8g. The ®nal irreducible character ÷10 can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. so E has exactly two linear characters. Then H1 v G and Ga H 1  C6 . Lift the irreducible character of D6 of degree 2 to obtain ÷7 in the table below. Hence we get six linear characters ÷1 . b2 l. Character table of E gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 18 1 1 2 2 2 2 a 9 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 b 9 1 1 À1 2 À1 À1 ab 9 1 1 À1 À1 2 À1 a2 b 9 1 1 À1 À1 À1 2 c 2 1 À1 0 0 0 0 6. bl. ÷5 and ÷6 are obtained similarly.10. 6g. say ÷1 and ÷2 . fa r b4 : r ˆ 0. Z(E) ˆ {1}. 3. 3. u ( pÀ1)a2 } is precisely the set of quadratic residues modulo p. it follows that {u.18).3 (see Theorem 19. 7. ö1 (a) ˆ mˆ1 å u . 6g. All the elements outside H form a single conjugacy class of E. fa r b2 : r ˆ 0. E9 ˆ H. . fa r b5 : 0 < r < 8gX Let H1 ˆ kal.434 Representations and characters of groups €( pÀ1)a2 m (d) By Theorem 25.3 (see Theorem 19. Then ÷ 4 E is the irreducible character ÷3 given in the table which follows. as shown. . there exist gi P E such that gi Tˆ 1 but ÷ i (gi ) ˆ ÷ i (1) (so gi P Ker ÷ i ). . u 2 . fa r b3 : 0 < r < 8g. H 2 bi  D6 . . The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. Then for all h P H. . .10). . The result now follows from part (c). fa r b4 : 3 B rg. 5. . The characters ÷4 .

bÀ1 ab ˆ a2 l gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 Note: ù ˆ e2ðia3 1 54 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 6 a3 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 À3 a 9 ab2 9 ab4 9 b 6 b2 18 b3 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 b4 18 435 b5 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 ù2 ù Àù ù2 1 ù ù2 ù2 ù 1 1 1 À1 1 1 ù2 ù ù ù2 1 ù ù2 Àù2 ù À1 À1 À1 0 2 À1 Àù2 Àù 0 2ù2 À1 Àù Àù2 0 2ù 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ù Àù2 ù2 ù 1 À1 ù ù2 ù2 Àù 2 0 2ù 0 2ù2 0 0 0 Chapter 26 1. Hence ÷(1) < p. Therefore h÷. by Theorem 17X11. since H is abelian. For all other elements h of H. hz. and r ‡ sp2 ˆ pn . øl H Tˆ 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. {z} and {z 2 } are conjugacy classes of H.11. by Corollary 21. the conjugacy class hH ˆ {h. by Theorem 11X12X Since s ˆ p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 and s is an integer. {1}. Then k÷ 5 H. ø 4 Gi G Tˆ 0 by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. But ø(1) ˆ 1. Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. hz 2 }. 2.Chapter 26 Character table of G ˆ ka. and (ø 4 G)(1) ˆ p. b: a9 ˆ b6 ˆ 1. m is at least 2. Then r ˆ pm for some m.20. Character table of H (a non-abelian group of order 27) gi |C H ( g i )| ÷00 ÷01 ÷02 ÷10 ÷11 ÷12 ÷20 ÷21 ÷22 ö1 ö2 1 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 z 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù 3ù2 z2 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù2 3ù a 9 1 1 1 ù ù ù ù2 ù2 ù2 0 0 a2 9 1 1 1 ù2 ù2 ù2 ù ù ù 0 0 b 9 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 0 0 ab 9 1 ù ù2 ù ù2 1 ù2 1 ù 0 0 a2 b 9 1 ù ù2 ù2 1 ù ù ù2 1 0 0 b2 9 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 0 0 ab2 9 1 ù2 ù ù 1 ù2 ù2 ù 1 0 0 a2 b2 9 1 ù2 ù ù2 ù 1 ù 1 ù2 0 0 Note: ù ˆ e2ðia3 . and so ÷(1) ˆ 1 or p by Theorem 22. Assume that G has r linear characters and s irreducible characters of degree p.

10). Hence Z P G. Here. CD ˆ ÀDC. (b) A2 ˆ ÀB2 ˆ ÀC2 ˆ D2 ˆ I. it follows that g 2 P h Zi for all g P G. AD ˆ DA. . C and D has the form ëI for some ë P C. 7) Note: cm ˆ e2ði ma16 ‡ eÀ2ði ma16 ˆ 2 cos (mð/8) 3. We obtain representations as follows: . AC ˆ ÀCA. (a) Let å ˆ e2ðia8 . and Gah Zi is abelian while G is non-abelian. s. jGj > 12 ‡ 42 ˆ 17. . these are all the irreducible representations of G.8 (D16 ˆ G1 ) and in Section 18. The character table of D16 is given in Section 26. 5. k. Since Gah Zi is abelian. By lifting the irreducible characters of D16. Then the four characters ø j ( j ˆ 1. {ar . (a) Check that AB ˆ ÀBA. Therefore G9 ˆ h Zi (see Proposition 17. by Theorem 11.4 is {1. Hence every element of G has the form A i B j C k D l Z m for some i. l. b2 ˆ a8 . Combined with part (b). b: a16 ˆ 1. u P {0. . These are as follows: for each (r. bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 l gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 øj ( j ˆ 1. a8 }. also G is a 2-group. {a8 }. 3. G has precisely 16 representations of degree 1.3. {ar b: r even}. 1 32 a8 32 a 16 a2 16 a3 16 a4 16 a5 16 a6 16 a7 16 b 4 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 2 2 p0 À2 0 2 0 0 p p À2 p0 2 2 2 0 Àp2 À2 Àp2 0 2 0 p p 2 2 À 2 0 2 À2 2 0 À 2 0 2 À2 cj c2 j c3 j c4 j c5 j c6 j c7 j 0 5. 7) come from inducing to G those linear characters ÷ of kal for which ÷(a8 ) ˆ À1. u) with r. (c) A routine calculation shows that every matrix which commutes with each of A. the group K which appears in Theorem 26.436 Representations and characters of groups Character table of G ˆ ka.3. 5. 1g. and GaK  D16 . Hence by Corollary 9. m P f0. . t. s.12. this shows that jGj ˆ 32. j. we obtain the characters ÷1 . 4. aÀ r } (1 < r < 7). ÷7 of G as shown in the table at the top of this page. BC ˆ CB. G has 11 conjugacy classes: {1}. 3. we get a representation A i B j C k D l Z m 3 (À1) ir‡ js‡ kt‡ lu X Together with the irreducible representation of degree 4. Since G9 ˆ h Zi. (d) Since G has irreducible representations of degrees 1 and 4. the given representation is irreducible. so jGj < 32. since g4 ˆ 1 for all g P G. B. t. 1}. {ar b: r odd}. BD ˆ ÀDB.

so G5 T G8 . 7.z3 X À1 1 0 0 i (b) If j ˆ 5. . z. 4 and 8 in G1 . If g P Z(G) then Z(G) < CG (g) Tˆ G. b 3 d 1 0 0 e.b3 2 2 Chapter 26 0 1 1 0 0 1 3 . . while G8 aG8 9  C2 3 C2 3 C2 . . and g P CG ( g). G9 : G1 Order Order Order Order 1 2 4 8 1 9 2 4 G2 1 1 10 4 G3 1 5 6 4 G4 1 3 4 8 G5 1 3 12 0 G6 1 7 8 0 G7 1 11 4 0 G8 1 3 12 0 G9 1 5 10 0 Therefore no two of G1 .1(1) we have {1} Tˆ Z(G) Tˆ G. Since Z(Gj ) is not cyclic. a2 . (d) The following give faithful representations: H I H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 f g f g f g G7 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. å5 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 0 0 1 i 0 .1(2).b3 . b 3 d À1 0 0 e. so the representations are faithful. .b3 . The following table records the numbers of elements of orders 1.b3 3 . except possibly G5 and G8 . by Proposition 9. so give representations. 3 437 0 å 0 0 å À1 2 3 å 0 2 0 å 0 1 0 . 1 0 å3 3 2 3 0 0 1 . G9 are isomorphic. . . Gj has no faithful irreducible representation. i f G8 : a 3 d 0 0 H 0 0 0 À1 H I 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 g f g f g Ài 0 e. Therefore j Z(G)j ˆ p or p2 . (c) Check that the matrices satisfy the required relations. 6. .b3 . But G5 aG5 9  C2 3 C4 . . 7 or 8 then Z(Gj ) ˆ {1. Assume that j Z(G)j ˆ p2 . It is easy to see that the matrices generate groups with more than eight elements.16. (a) By Lemma 26. Hence a . z 3 d 0 1 0 e. a2 z}  C2 3 C2 .2 G1 : a 3 2 G2 : a 3 G3 : a 3 G4 : a 3 2 G5 : a 3 å å 0 À1 3 . z 3 d 0 1 0 eX I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 1 0 0 1 6. 2. Also jGa Z(G)j Tˆ p by Lemma 26. À1 0 2 3 0 1 .

b and all elements in Z. Since ÷(1)2 ˆ p4 (Theorem 11. Since a2 commutes with a. a2 Z ˆ b2 Z. 2. so a ˆ Æ1. p). Check that   and   1 0 1 1 1 À1 0 1 are elements of G ˆ SL (2. and . (b) Assume that G has r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible € characters of degree p. G has p2 ‡ ( p4 À p2 )a p conjugacy classes. Hence |G9 ’ Z(G)| ˆ p. there are no irreducible characters of degree greater than p. Therefore Ga Z T Q8 . (c) Note that G9 ’ Z(G) Tˆ {1} by Lemma 26. and since z P SL (2. we have a2 P Z. Part (b) follows. in which case Ga(G9 ’ Z(G)) T Q8 by part (a). so r ‡ sp2 ˆ p4 . and assume that Ga Z ˆ haZ. bÀ1 abZ ˆ aÀ1 ZX Then a2 ˆ b2 z for some z P Z. (a) Let Z ˆ Z(G). as r ‡ s is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. a ˆ dX 0   1 1 1 ˆ 0 0 1    0 1 0 z ˆ À1 0 À1 z Therefore z ˆ aI. or G9 ’ Z(G) ˆ Z(G). and hence ba2 ˆ b3 z ˆ b2 zb ˆ a2 b. bZi. Therefore. 3) of order 3 which are not conjugate to each other. in which case Ga(G9 ’ Z(G)) is abelian. Chapter 27 1. 8. By parts (a) and (b). with a4 P Z. Therefore jGaG9j ˆ r ˆ p2 or p3 .438 Representations and characters of groups jC G ( g)j ˆ p3 and j gG j ˆ p. Assume that zˆ Then   a c b d  P Z(SL (2. either G9 ’ Z(G) ˆ G9. (b) If G is a non-abelian group of order 16. and if |G9| ˆ p2 then |Z(G)| ˆ p.1(1). we have a2 ˆ 1.12). and if r ˆ p2 then r ‡ s ˆ 2 p2 À 1. if |Z(G)| ˆ p2 then |G9| ˆ p. and 1  1 z A c ˆ Àb. p))X  1 z A c ˆ 0. then by Exercise 7. The element   À1 0 0 À1 lies in Z(G).

where á is real. ÷7 on the elements g1 . The € equation j ÷ j (g4 )÷ j ( g 4 ) ˆ 6 gives áá ˆ 1. ÷2 . ÷6 . 1) and (1. Assume. 0). g2 .5 implies that ÷ j ( g7 ) ˆ À÷ j ( g4 ). ÷6 and ÷7 must be real. that ÷5 is real. which is given below.1. 1). ÷(g5 ) ˆ ÷( g4 ) and ÷(g6 ) ˆ ÷( g7 ) for all ÷. 6. a subgroup of S4 of order 12. whose values on g4 are áù and áù2 . say ÷5 ÷2 ˆ ÷6 and ÷5 ÷3 ˆ ÷7 . The values of ÷5 . therefore GafÆIg  A4 . so we obtain a homomorphism ö: G 3 S4 . Check that Ker ö ˆ {ÆI}. so by Theorem 23. (1. (2. without loss of generality. . they must be ÷6 and ÷7 in some order. ÷3 . Now note that for j ˆ 5. Hence GafÆIg  Im ö. First observe that the vector space (Z3 )2 has exactly four 1-dimensional subspaces. Exercise 13.Chapter 27  0 À1 1 0  439 has order 4. á ˆ Æ1. Hence the following are conjugacy class representatives: g1 1 0 1 24 0 1 g2 À1 0 0 À1 2 24 g3 0 À1 4 4 1 0 g4         1 1 0 1 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| 3 6  g5 1 0 À1 1 3 6   g6 À1 1 0 À1 6 6   g7 À1 À1 0 À1 6 6  Order of gi |CG ( gi )| We now describe how to construct the character table of G. The group G permutes these subspaces among themselves. 7.27. Then á ˆ À1 since ÷5 ( g4 )  ÷5 (1) mod 3. Also á Tˆ 0. by Corollary 22. one of ÷5 . ÷4 of G are obtained by lifting to G the irreducible characters of A4 (which are given in Section 18. Then ÷5 ( g4 ) ˆ á.2). The characters ÷1 . Since á is real. 1). Finally. Note that G has three real conjugacy classes. Since ÷5 ÷2 and ÷5 ÷3 are irreducible characters of G of degree 2. namely the spans of the vectors (0. g3 can be deduced from the column orthogonality relations.

0 1 0 4 0 2 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 À1 h4 ˆ Z. 3) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù ˆ e2ðia3 3. . 1 T : Gl ˆ 2 and k1 T : G.2 and Example 21. 4. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. 1 G l ˆ 1. notice that T is isomorphic to the group of order 21 whose character table is found in Exercise 17. Representatives of the conjugacy classes of T are h1 . . (a) For the character table of T.440 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. h2 ˆ Z. . .25. ë : Gl ˆ 1. The values of 1 T : G and ë : G are as follows (see Proposition 21. so ë : G is irreducible. Apply Proposition 17.6. where 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 0 2 0 4 0 h1 ˆ Z. h5 ˆ ZX 0 1 0 1 Two of the linear characters of T are hi |CT (h i )| 1T ë h1 21 1 1 h2 3 1 ù h3 3 1 ù2 h4 7 1 1 h5 7 1 1 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 À1 Àù Àù2 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 À1 Àù2 Àù g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 1 ù2 ù g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 1 ù ù2 where ù ˆ e2ðia3 . Also. write ö ˆ ë : G. Hence 1 T : G ˆ 1 G ‡ ÷. h5 . . kë : G. h3 ˆ Z.23): gi |CG ( g i )| 1T 4 G ë4G g1 168 8 8 g2 8 0 0 g3 4 0 0 g4 3 2 À1 g5 7 1 1 g6 7 1 1 We ®nd that k1 T : G.

and none is a constituent of æ. . gi and gi g2 have the same centralizer for all i. say ÷7 (1) and ÷8 (1). . öl ˆ k÷ S . Hence there is a character æ of G such that ÷ S ˆ 1 G ‡ ö ‡ ÷ ‡ æX The values of æ are as shown above. the values of ÷ j (g6 ) for 7 < j < 11 must be Æ1. Next. . Æ1. and 12 ‡ 6 . ÷11 (1). 2 2 jˆ1 (÷ j (1)) ˆ 168. g2 . we obtain the characters ÷1 .14): gi |CG ( g i )| ÷ ÷S æ ø g1 168 7 28 12 6 g2 8 À1 4 4 2 g3 4 À1 0 0 0 g4 3 1 1 0 0 g5 7 0 0 À2 À1 g6 7 0 0 À2 À1 441 We ®nd that k÷ S . ÷ j (1) is even. The values of ø are as shown above.27. Æ1.14.1. Use part (c) to ®ll in the values on g2 and g7 . . ÷5 can readily be calculated using the column orthogonality relations (noting that gi is real if and only if 1 < i < 4). (c) Use Exercise 13. ö and ÷ are three of the six irreducible characters of G. ÷11 . and ÷11 (1) ˆ 8. 0. we deduce that ÷ j (g3 ) ˆ 0 for 7 < j < 11. the (d) Since 11 ÷ j (g3 )÷ j ( g3 ) ˆ 8. ÷l ˆ 1. ÷(g6 ) P Z for all characters ÷. €11 say ÷9 and ÷10 . or æ is the sum of four distinct irreducible characters (cf.7).27 again. 5. since ÀI is not in € kernel of these characters). ÷2 and ÷6 . respectively. 0. Exercise 14. . The remaining irreducible characters ÷4 . Since there are only six irreducible characters in all. (b) By lifting. g3 and g6 : g1 øA 6 g2 6 g3 2 g6 0 . We calculate that kæ. The only possibility is that two of ÷7 (1). Since By 11 2 jˆ1 (÷ j (g6 )) ˆ 6. (e) € Theorem 22.5 (noting that ÷ j (ÀI) Tˆ ÷ j (I) for 7 < j < 11. two of ÷7 . ø A has the following values on g1 . (f ) By Proposition 19. and so æ ˆ 2ø with ø irreducible. ÷ and ø are the characters ÷1 . in some order. so either æ ˆ 2ø for some irreducible character ø. ÷7 (1)2 ‡ ÷8 (1)2 ‡ ÷11 (1)2 ˆ 96. Further. so ÷9 (1) ˆ ÷10 (1) ˆ 6. 168. . (d) The characters 1 G . ö. ÷3 . jˆ1 (Alternatively. Note that because g2 lies in Z(G).16. The congruences ÷(1)  ÷(g6 ) mod 3 now give the remaining values on g6 . 1 G l ˆ k÷ S . (a) Compare the proof of Lemma 27. are equal to 4. . ÷6 in the character table shown below. . apply part (c).) Also. æ cannot therefore be the sum of four irreducible characters. ÷8 (1). æl ˆ 4. in the character table of G given at the end of Chapter 27. have degrees 2divisible by 6.Chapter 27 (c) The values of ÷ and ÷ S are as shown below (see Proposition 19. By Corollary 22. by Corollary 22. Now 1 G .

we get 8 p (x 2 À x)a2 ˆ øp( g8 ) ˆ À1. the value on g3 forces ø A ˆ ÷6 .bPZ Tˆ Z: a P Z 11 11 X 0 aÀ1 Then T is generated by     1 1 2 0 xˆ Z and y ˆ Z. 7) gi g1 Order of g i 1 |CG ( g i )| 336 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 7 8 3 3 6 4 4 6 6 8 g2 2 336 1 7 8 3 3 6 À4 À4 À6 À6 À8 g3 4 8 g4 8 8 g5 8 8 g6 3 6 g7 6 6 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 g8 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g9 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 g10 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g11 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 p p 0 0 p 2 Àp 2 0 À 2 2 0 0 0 0 À1 p Note: á ˆ (À1 ‡ i 7)a2 The values of ø A on g1 and g2 show that ø A is a linear combination of ÷1 . Therefore x ˆ (1 Æ i 7)a2. and therefore. we ®ll in the values of ÷7 and ÷8 . ø(g5 ) ˆ 0. where æ j : x u y v 3 e2ði jva5 X . ÷4 . ø(g4 ) ˆ 0. ÷( g 10 ) ˆ ÷(g8 ).442 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. we have 11 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g 6 ) ˆ 0. For all ÷. Now g2 is conjugate to g3 . Say ÷9 (g4 ) ˆ 2. 6. The column orthogonality relations now let us ®nd the remaining values of ÷9 and ÷10 . of order 55. Since g2 is conjugate to g8 . ÷(g4 ) is real for all ÷. Let Z ˆ {ÆI} and de®ne the subgroup T of G. Say A ÷7 ( g 8 ) ˆ (1 À i 7)a2. by &  ' a b Ã. This allows us to ®ll in the jˆ1 values of ÷11 . Then the value of ø A on g6 shows that ÷1 is not a constituent of ø A . 0 1 0 6 and T has ®ve linear characters æ j (0 < j < 4). ÷5 and ÷6 . Let x ˆ ø(g8 ). Then ÷8 ˆ ÷7 . ®nally. Similarly. Hence 4 (ø( g4 )2 À ø( g 3 ))a2 ˆ ø A ( g4 ) ˆ ÷6 ( g 4 ) ˆ 0. € (g) For i Tˆ 6. thereby completing the character table of G. Then 4 €11 € and 11 ÷ j ( g 4 )2 ˆ 8 imply that jˆ1 ÷ j ( g 1 )÷ j ( g 4 ) ˆ 0 p jˆ1 p ÷9 (g4 ) ˆ À÷10 (g4 ) ˆ Æ 2. Since g4 is conjugate to gÀ1 . using this fact and part (c).

÷5 (1). (In calculating ÷3 (g5 ). Hence æ0 4 G ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 for an irreducible character ÷2 of G. namely ÷1 . ⠈ (À1 À p 5)a2 and 㠈 (À1 ‡ i 11)a2 € Since 8 ÷ j (g5 )÷ j ( g 5 ) ˆ 5. ÷6 . € Since ÷(1)  ÷(g3 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. we deduce that the remaining irreducible jˆ1 characters ÷5 . so ÷ j (g4 ) ˆ Æ1 for 5 < j < 8. without loss jˆ5 of generality. We have hæ0 4 G. by Theorem 22. and ˆ jˆ1 ÷ j (g4 ) € 6. By Corollary 22. 5. Next. 11) gi Order of g i |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 Note: á ˆ (À1 ‡ p g1 1 660 1 11 12 12 10 10 5 5 g2 2 12 1 À1 0 0 2 À2 1 1 g3 3 6 1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 p g4 6 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 1 1 g5 5 5 1 1 á â 0 0 0 0 g6 5 5 1 1 â á 0 0 0 0 g7 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã g8 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã 5)a2.27. ÷7 (1). 2. ÷4 . 5. ÷6 (1). the jˆ1 values of ÷ j (g3 ) (5 < j < 8) are as shown. ÷5 (g2 ) ˆ 2 ˆ À÷6 ( g2 ). note that e2ðia5 ‡ eÀ2ðia5 ˆ (À1 ‡ 5)a2X) Let ÷1 ˆ 1 G . We may now conclude from the facts €8 2 that ÷(g2 )  ÷(g1 ) mod 2 and that ÷ j (g2 ) ˆ Æ2 for j ˆ 5. and ÷5 (g2 ). By considering 8 ÷ j (1)÷ j (g2 ) ˆ 0. Character table of PSL (2. 3 and 5 of the character table. We have now completed columns 1. ÷(g2 )  ÷(g4 ) mod 3 for all ÷. ÷1 i ˆ 1 and hæ0 4 G. 8. € 8 2 Now ÷(g4 )  ÷(g3 ) mod 2 for all ÷. æ0 4 Gi ˆ 2. without loss of generality. 3 for all irreducible ÷. they are ÷3 and ÷4 in the p table. ÷6 (g2 ) have opposite signs. and 8 ÷ j ( g2 )2 ˆ 12. The column orthogonality relations now enable us to ®nish the character table. Note that ÷(gj ) is an integer for 1 < j < 4 and all characters ÷. and 8 ÷ j (g4 )2 ˆ 6. and 8 ÷ j (g3 )2 ˆ 6. jˆ1 hence |÷( g2 )| . ÷3 . respectively. ÷8 take the value 0 on g5 . we jˆ1 can complete column 4. We have now found four of the eight irreducible characters of G. jˆ1 ÷ j (g2 ) ˆ 12. hence.Chapter 27 443 The characters æ1 4 G and æ2 4 G are irreducible. ÷7 . .16. ÷8 (1) are 10. we jˆ1 see that ÷7 (g2 ) ˆ ÷8 (g2 ) ˆ 1. € ÷ j (1)  0 mod 5 for 5 < j < 8. € 6 and ÷ j (g2 ) ˆ Æ1 for j ˆ 7. 10. € Since ÷(g4 )  ÷(g2 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. ÷2 . But 8 (÷ j (1))2 ˆ 250.

444 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 28 1.s À1 ˆ . Then s in F q      a b s 0 aas bas ˆ X 0 s cas das c d The ®rst matrix in the product is sI and the second belongs to SL(2. Every element r of F q can be expressed as a square. X 2 1 g1 ˆ 0 2 1 g5 ˆ 0 X X . It now follows easily that GL(2. q) where Z ˆ fsI : s P Fà g. s À1 g of elements 0 s À1 from F q nF2 . q You should have no dif®culty in proving that the conjugacy classes of SL(2. q). Each such element has centralizer of order q À 1. q). g8 as representatives of the conjugacy classes. 0 1 (c) There are (q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives   s 0 d s.   a b Suppose that P GL(2. (a) The identity I has centralizer of order q 3 À q. We may write ad À bc as s 2 for some c d à . indexed by unordered pairs fs. 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 g2 ˆ g3 ˆ g4 ˆ 1 0 2 0 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 g6 ˆ g7 ˆ g8 ˆ 2 2 0 1 2 1 where 3 1 2 1 1 3 X The character table of GL(2. since r ˆ r q and q is even.1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 48 1 1 3 3 4 2 2 2 g2 48 1 1 3 3 À4 À2 2 À2 g3 6 1 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 À1 g4 6 1 1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 g5 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 g6 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 2 0 g7 8 1 À1 À1 1 p0  i 2 0 p Ài 2 g8 8 1 À1 À1 1 0 p Ài 2 p0  i 2 2. q) have representatives as follows. .   1 1 (b) The matrix u1 ˆ has centralizer of order q. 3) is then as follows. gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ë1 ø0 ø1 ø0. q)  Z 3 SL(2. We take g 1 .

g 7 . 1 ‡ ç2 g. as follows. fç2 . indexed by unordered pairs fr. X X X . g 5 below. Then 64 . s À1 g of elements from F8 nF2 are fç. Each such element has centralizer of order q ‡ 1.s À1 1 1 s i ‡ s Ài 0 vr 1 À1 0 À(r i ‡ r Ài ) Here.i ÷i 1 q q‡1 qÀ1 u1 1 0 1 À1 d s. 3. The irreducible monic quadratics over F8 with constant term 1 are x 2 ‡ x ‡ 1. r À1 g of elements 1 r ‡ r À1 from F q 2 nF q such that r 1‡q ˆ 1. Hence we may write F8 ˆ fa ‡ bç ‡ cç2 : a. The subscripts for ø0. The polynomial x 3 ‡ x ‡ 1 is irreducible over F2. I ë0 ø0 ø0. f1 ‡ ç. q) is as follows. x 2 ‡ ç2 x ‡ 1. 8). x 2 ‡ (ç ‡ ç2 )x ‡ 1X The companion matrices for these quadratics give use the conjugacy class representatives g 6 . g9 below We can now list representatives g 1 . 2 3 2 3 1 0 1 1 g1 ˆ g2 ˆ 0 1 0 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 ç 0 1‡ç 0 0 ç2 g3 ˆ g4 ˆ g5 ˆ 0 1 ‡ ç2 0 ç ‡ ç2 0 1 ‡ ç ‡ ç2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 g6 ˆ g9 ˆ X g7 ˆ g8 ˆ 1 1 1 ç 1 ç2 1 ç ‡ ç2 We may choose a generator å of Fà so that å 7 ‡ å À7 ˆ ç. 8). q) to SL(2. and the subscripts for ÷ i satisfy 1 < i < qa2.3). q) you will quickly be able to prove that the character table of SL(2. By restricting characters from GL(2. and therefore SL(2. Note ®rst that PSL(2. 8)  SL(2. c P F2 and ç3 ˆ 1 ‡ çgX The pairs fs. g 9 of the conjugacy classes of SL(2. b. 1 ‡ ç ‡ ç2 g. If q Tˆ 2 then the kernel of every non-trivial character is the identity subgroup. x 2 ‡ çx ‡ 1.Chapter 28 445 (d) There are qa2 conjugacy classes with representatives   0 1 vr ˆ . q) is simple. g4 .i satisfy 1 < i < (q À 2)a2. ç ‡ ç2 gX These give us the conjugacy class representatives g3 . g8 . we have used the function r 3 r de®ned in (28.

446

Representations and characters of groups

å 14 ‡ å À14 ˆ ç2 , å 21 ‡ å À21 ˆ 1 and å 28 ‡ å À28 ˆ ç4 ˆ ç ‡ ç2 . The character table of SL(2, 8) is then as follows.
gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ø0 ø0,1 ø0,2 ø0,3 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 504 1 8 9 9 9 7 7 7 7 g2 8 1 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 g3 7 1 1 g4 7 1 1 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 g5 7 1 1 g6 9 1 À1 0 0 0 À2 1 1 1 g7 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 g8 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 B g9 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1

Here, the 3 3 3 submatrices A and B are given by H I 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) f g A ˆ d 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) e 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) H À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) I

f g B ˆ d À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) eX À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9)

Chapter 29
1. (a) It is straightforward to check that ö is a homomorphism. For x, y P G, the element (x, y) P G 3 G sends x to y, so that action is transitive. (b) (G 3 G)1 ˆ f( g, g) : g P Gg, and ker ö ˆ f(z, z) : z P Z(G)g. (c) Every orbit of G 3 G on G 3 G contains an ordered pair of the form (1, x), and if ( g, h) sends (1, x) to (1, y) then g ˆ h and y ˆ g À1 xg. Hence if C1 , X X X , C k are the conjugacy classes of G, and xi P C i, then (1, xi ) (1 < i < k) are orbit representatives for the action of G 3 G on G 3 G, and so the rank is equal to k. Since x(( g, h)ö) ˆ x if and only if xhx À1 ˆ g, we see that ð( g, h) ˆ jfix G ( g, h)j is equal to 0 if g is not conjugate to h, and is equal to jC G (x)j if g is conjugate to h (since in the latter case, if xhx À1 ˆ g then an arbitrary element y P G such that yhy À1 ˆ g is of the form y ˆ xc with c P € (x)). Hence using the column orthogonality relations we see CG that ð ˆ ÷ 3 ÷. 2. There are q 2 À 1 non-zero vectors in V, and each 1-dimensional subspace

Chapter 29

447

contains q À 1 of them; also two 1-dimensional subspaces have no non-zero vectors in common. Hence jÙj ˆ (q 2 À 1)a(q À 1) ˆ q ‡ 1. 3. Use the notation for the conjugacy classes and irreducible characters of GL(2, q) given in Proposition 28.4 and Theorem 28.5. It is easy to check that ð takes the values q 2 À 1, q À 1, q À 1 on the classes with representatives I, u1 , d 1, t respectively, and takes the value 0 on all other classes. Taking inner products we ®nd hð, 1 G i ˆ hð, ø0 i ˆ hð, ø0, j i ˆ 1 (1 < j < q À 2)X € qÀ2 As 1 G ‡ ø0 ‡ 1 ø0, j has degree q 2 À 1 ˆ ð(1), we conclude that € qÀ2 ð ˆ 1 G ‡ ø0 ‡ 1 ø0, j . 4. Observe that the coset H 1 x is ®xed by g if and only if xgx À1 P H 1 . If G is abelian this amounts to g P H 1 , and hence we see that ð1 ( g) ˆ 0 if g P H 1 a and ð1 ( g) ˆ jG : H 1 j if g P H 1 . Thus H 1 ˆ f g P G : ð1 ( g) Tˆ 0g. Likewise for H 2 ; since ð1 ˆ ð2 we deduce that H 1 ˆ H 2 . As a counterexample for G non-abelian, take G ˆ D8 ˆ ha, b : a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1, bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 i with H 1 ˆ hbi, H 2 ˆ ha2 bi. Then ð1 ˆ ð2 but H 1 Tˆ H 2 . € € 1 5. By Proposition 29.4 we have 1 ˆ jGj gPG jfixÙ ( g)j, hence jfixÙ ( g)j ˆ jGj. Since jfixÙ ( g)j is a non-negative integer for each g, and jfixÙ (1)j ˆ jÙj . 1, we must have jfixÙ ( g)j ˆ 0 for some g. 6. Write ð ˆ ð( nÀ2,1,1) . Calculating inner products using Proposition 29.6, as in the proof of Theorem 29.13, we ®nd hð, ði ˆ 7, hð, 1i ˆ 1, hð, ð( nÀ1,1) i ˆ 3, hð, ð( nÀ2,2) i ˆ 4X Using Theorem 29.13 it follows that ð( nÀ2,1,1) ˆ 1 ‡ 2÷ ( nÀ1,1) ‡ ÷ ( nÀ2,2) ‡ ÷ with ÷ irreducible. Hence ÷ ˆ 1 ‡ ð À ð( nÀ1,1) À ð( nÀ2,2) , from which it is easy to calculate that ÷(1) ˆ 1(n À 1)(n À 2), 2 ÷(12) ˆ 1(n À 2)(n À 5), ÷(123) ˆ 1(n À 4)(n À 5). For n ˆ 6, ÷ (4,1,1) is the 2 2 character ÷5 in Example 19.17.

Chapter 30
1. By Theorem 30.4, a245 ˆ 168/(8´3) ˆ 7. Hence, by (30.3), PSL (2, 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2, b has order 3 and ab has order 7. p p 2. No: a225 ˆ (1 ‡ (À1 ‡ i 7)a6 ‡ (À1 À i 7)a6 À 4a6)168a(8X8) ˆ 0, and similarly a226 ˆ 0. Hence PSL (2,7) does not contain two involutions whose product has order 7. 3. Yes. Number the conjugacy classes of PSL (2, 11) as in the solution to Exercise 27.6. Then   660 1 a235 ˆ X 1‡ ˆ 10X 12 6 11 Therefore PSL (2, 11) contains elements x and y such that x, y and xy have orders 2, 3 and 5, respectively. Let H be the subgroup kx, yl of PSL (2, 11).

448

Representations and characters of groups

There is a homomorphism W from A5 onto H (W sends a 3 x, b 3 y). Since Ker W 3 A5 and A5 is simple, we deduce that H  A5 . 4. Suppose that G is a group whose p character table is p where á ˆ (1 ‡ 5)a2, ⠈ (1 À 5)a2.
g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 g2 1 1 À1 0 0 g3 1 0 1 À1 À1 g4 1 À1 0 á â g5 1 À1 0 â á

€ For 1 < i < 5 we have jC G ( g i )j ˆ 5 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g i ). Therefore the jˆ1 centralizers of g1 , g2 , g3 , g4 , g5 have orders 60, 3, 4, 5, 5, respectively. Hence the orders of g2 , g4 and g5 are 3, 5 and 5; also the order of g3 must be 2, since for no other i (except i ˆ 1) is |CG (g i )| even. Now a324 ˆ 60a(4 . 3). Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, G has a subgroup H with H  A5 . Since jGj ˆ 60, we have G  A5 . € 5. (a) Using the fact that 7 ÷ j (g i )÷ j ( g i ) ˆ |CG (g i )|, we ®nd that the jˆ1 centralizer orders and class sizes are as follows:
g1 |CG ( g i )| | gG | i 360 1 g2 8 45 g3 4 90 g4 9 40 g5 9 40 g6 5 72 g7 5 72

Hence jGj ˆ 360. Also G is simple, by Proposition 17.6. (b) By the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions (Corollary 23.17), the number of involutions t in G is bounded by 1‡ t <
7 ˆ jˆ1

÷ j (1) ˆ 46X

By considering jC G ( g i )j, we see that g i has even order only for i ˆ 2 and 3. Since t < 45, only g2 can be an involution. Hence g3 has order 4. (This information about the orders of g2 and g3 can also be deduced using Sylow's Theorem.) (c) Clearly g6 and g7 have order 5, and at least one of g4 and g5 has order 3. If j ˆ 4 or 5 and k ˆ 6 or 7 then

Chapter 30
a2 jk ˆ ˆ ˆ ÷( g2 )÷( g j )÷ ( g k ) jGj jCG ( g 2 )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1)

449

360 ˆ 5X 8.9 Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, the subgroup H ˆ kx, yl of G is isomorphic to A5 . (d) If g, h P G then ( gh)r: Hx 3 Hxgh, and ( gr)(hr): Hx 3 Hxg 3 HxghX Hence r is a homomorphism. (e) Since G is simple, Ker r ˆ {1}. Hence G is isomorphic to a subgroup K of S6 . Since jS6 : Kj ˆ 63a360 ˆ 2, K must be A6 . 6. Consider the ®gure in Example 30.6(3). We shall explain how to label the vertices by elements of G. Choose a vertex and label it 1. Label the vertices according to the following inductive rule. Assume that v is a vertex and an adjacent vertex u is labelled by g. Then label v by ga gb gb
À1

if the edge uv has no arrow, if the edge uv has an arrow from u to v, if the edge uv has an arrow from v to uX

For example, if you decided to label the bottom left-hand vertex by 1, then part of the labelling would be

The relation a2 ˆ 1 ensures that the labelling is consistent along unmarked edges; since b3 ˆ 1, the labelling is consistent around triangles; and the relation abababab ˆ 1 deals with the octagons. Every element in G has the form given by the label of one of the 24 vertices, so jGj < 24. 7. The conjugacy classes of PSL(2, 7) are given in Lemma 27.1 The element g 2 is an involution with centralizer of order 8 given in the proof of     2 2 2 4 Lemma 27.1. Letting a ˆ , bˆ , we see that the À2 2 4 À2 centralizer is generated by a and b, and a4 ˆ b2 ˆ 1, bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1 À, hence the centralizer is isomorphic to D8 . As in Exercises 12.3 and 12.4, we see that C A6 ((12)(34)) has order 8 and is generated by (1324) and (13)(24), hence as above is isomorphic to D8 .

450

Representations and characters of groups

8. Let G be the simple group PSL(2, 17). In the ®eld Z17 the element 4 is a   4 0 fourth root of unity, so t ˆ Z is an involution. Calculate that 0 À4 C G (t) is generated by the group of diagonal matrices together with     0 1 3 0 bˆ Z, hence is generated by b and a ˆ Z. As À1 0 0 6 a 8 ˆ b2 ˆ 1 and bÀ1 ab ˆ aÀ1, we have C G (t)  D16 .

Chapter 31
1. Assume that G has an abelian subgroup H of index p r ( p prime), and that |G| . p. If H ˆ {1} then |G| ˆ p r and so G is not simple (see Lemma 26.1(1)). So assume that H Tˆ {1}; pick 1 Tˆ h P H. Then H < CG (h) as H is abelian, so |G:CG (h)| is a power of p. If |G:CG (h)| ˆ 1 then khl v G and G is not simple. And if |G:CG (h)| . 1, then G is not simple by Theorem 31.3. 2. By Burnside's Theorem, jGj is divisible by at least three distinct primes. Since 3 . 5 . 7 . 80, jGj is even. Then by Exercise 13.8, |G| is divisible by 4. Since 4 . 3 . 7 . 80, the only possibility is that jGj ˆ 4 . 3 . 5 ˆ 60.

Chapter 32
1. (a) The fact that BB ˆ I follows from the observation that for all i, j, d(ei b, ej b) ˆ d(ei , ej ) ˆ ä ij X Since 1 ˆ det I ˆ (det B)(det Bt ) ˆ (det B)2 , we have det B ˆ Æ1. (b) (i) The eigenvalues of C are the roots of det (C À xI), which is a cubic polynomial over R. Therefore, C has one or three real eigenvalues. (ii) Moreover, the product of the eigenvalues of C is det C ˆ 1. If C has three real eigenvalues, then they cannot all be negative; and if C has one real eigenvalue ë and a pair of conjugate non-real eigenvalues ì, ì, then ë ìì ˆ 1, and hence ë . 0. Therefore C has a real positive eigenvalue, say ë. (iii) Let v be an eigenvector for ë. Then d(v, v) ˆ d(vC, vC) ˆ d(ëv, ëv) ˆ ë2 d(v, v), and so ë ˆ 1. (c) Let c be the isometry v 3 vC. By (b), c ®xes a vector v; it is now easy to convince yourself that c must be a rotation about the axis through v. The required result for b follows from the de®nition of c. (d) Take three orthogonal axes, one of which is the axis of the rotation b. With respect to these axes, the matrix of b is H I 1 0 0 d 0 cos ö sin ö eX 0 Àsin ö cos ö Hence tr B ˆ 1 ‡ 2 cos ö.
t

Chapter 32

451

2. We regard G as a subgroup of O(R3 ). It is easy to see that the translation submodule T (which consists of all the translation modes) is isomorphic to the RG-module given by the natural action of G on R3 . Hence by part (d) of Exercise 1, V if g is a rotation through ö, about some b 1 ‡ 2 cos ö, b b b b axis, b ` ÷ T ( g) ˆ b À(1 ‡ 2 cos ö), if the element À g of O(R3 ) is a rotation b b b b b X through öX Now consider the rotation submodule R, which consists of all the rotation modes. A rotation mode is speci®ed by a 3-dimensional vector öv, where v is a unit vector along the axis of the rotation and ö denotes the angle of rotation, taken positive in the right-hand screw sense. Let g P G, and consider g acting on öv. It sends v to vg, and if g is a rotation, it preserves the sense of the rotation; however, if g is a re¯ection then it transforms a right-hand screw to a left-hand screw, and hence sends öv to (Àö)(vg). Therefore @ if g is a rotation, ÷ T ( g), ÷ R ( g) ˆ À÷T ( g), if g is not a rotation, and so ÷ T ‡ ÷ R has the required form. 3. The matrix A is I H p p À3a2 0 3a4 À 3a4 p3a4 3a4 p f 0 À1a2 À 3a4 p1a4 3a4 1a4 g g f p k f 3a4 À 3a4 À3a4 3a4 0 0 g gX f p p 3a4 À5a4 0 1 g m f À 3a4 p1a4 g f p d 3a4 3a4 0 0 À3a4 À 3a4 e p p 3a4 1a4 0 1 À 3a4 À5a4 4. A simpler basis is given by
1 2(r1 1 2(r1 1 2(r1

‡ r2 ) ˆ (v12 ‡ v21 ) À (v34 ‡ v43 ), ‡ r3 ) ˆ (v13 ‡ v31 ) À (v24 ‡ v42 ), ‡ r4 ) ˆ (v14 ‡ v41 ) À (v23 ‡ v32 )X

We chose r1, r2, r3, r4 to be the images of w1, w2, w3, w4 under an RGisomorphism. (Compare the construction of the matrix B, towards the end of Example 32.20.) 5. (a) This is a routine geometrical exercise. (b) Let the displaced positions of the atoms be 09, 19, 29, 39, 49. The distance of 19 from the plane through 1 perpendicular to 12 is x12 ‡ 1(x13 ‡ x14 ). Similarly, the distance of 29 from the plane through 2 2 perpendicular to 12 is x21 ‡ 1(x23 ‡ x24 ). Therefore 12 has decreased by 2 x12 ‡ x21 ‡ 1(x13 ‡ x14 ‡ x23 ‡ x24 ). The other calculations can be done in 2 the same way. (c) We express the force at each atom as a vector, and then write this vector

452

Representations and characters of groups
as a linear combination of our three chosen unit vectors at the initial position of the atom. Let d ij denote the decrease in the length ij, as calculated in part (b). Then, for example, at vertex 1, the contributions to the component of the force vector in the direction 12 are as follows: Àk1 d12 from the force between atoms 1 and 2; zero from the force between atoms 1 and 3 and from the force between atoms 1 and 4; and Àk2 d10 sec (/012) from the force between atoms 1 and 0. Hence p m1 12 ˆ Àk 1 d 12 À 1 (3a2)k 2 d 10 X x 3

Upon substituting for d12 and d10 from part (b), we obtain the given expression for 12. x The other accelerations are calculated in the same way. (d) The entries in the 15 3 15 matrix A are the coef®cients which appear in the equations of motion  ˆ xA. If you write down the matrix A, then x you will easily verify that the given vectors are eigenvectors of A (with eigenvalues À(4k 1 ‡ k 2 )am1 , 0, 0, 0, Àk 1 am1 , Àk 1 am1 , p p I À2k 2 a3m1 À4k 2 p 2a(m2 p3) À2k 2 a3m1 p À4k 2 2a(m2 3) eX p À2k 2 3a(9m1 2) À4k 2 a3m2 p (f ) You will ®nd that (1, À2, 6) is an eigenvector of B, with eigenvalue 0. This agrees with the statement in Example 32.20 that the translation vector r1 À 2s1 ‡ 3 cos Ww1 is an eigenvector of A. 6. (a) Assign coordinate axes along the edges of the square, as shown below. respectively). (e) The matrix B is H À(6k 1 ‡ k 2 )a3m1 d À(3k 1 ‡ k 2 )a3m1 p p Àk 2 3a(9m1 2)

The symmetry group is G ˆ D8. Let a denote the rotation sending P 3 Q 3 R 3 S 3 P, and let b denote the re¯ection in the axis PR. The character ÷ of the RG-module R8 is

1 ÷ 8

a2 0

a 0

b 0

ab 0

Chapter 32

453

We refer to the character table of D8 which is given in Example 16.3(3), and see that ÷ ˆ ÷1 ‡ ÷2 ‡ ÷3 ‡ ÷4 ‡ 2÷5 X The rotation mode is (t ‡ â)v, where v ˆ (1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1) P V÷2 X The translation modes are (t ‡ â)v, where v is in the span of v1 , v2 and v1 ˆ (1, 0, 0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1), v2 ˆ (0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1, 1, 0)X The homogeneous components V÷1, V÷3 and V÷4 are spanned by the vectors (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), (1, 1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1) and (1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1, 1), respectively. The ®nal set of eigen-vectors is given by V÷5 ’ R8 which is spanned by vib (1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0, 0, 1) and (0, 1, 1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0)X (b) The matrix A is 1 f0 f f0 f k f0 À f mf0 f f0 f d0 1 H 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 I 1 0g g 0g g 0g gX 0g g 0g g 0e 1

7. (a, b) Let å i (1 < i < m) be the projection which is given by å i : u1 ‡ X X X ‡ um 3 ui (where u k P Uk for all k). Then w 3 wAå j WÀ1 W i j (w P Ui ) gives an RG-homomorphism from Ui to Ui. By Exercise 23.8, there exist ë ij P R such that for all w P Ui, Since €m wAå j ˆ ë ij wWÀ1 W j X i is the identity endomorphism of U1 È . . . È Um, we have m ˆ ë ij wWÀ1 W j for all w P Ui X wA ˆ i
jˆ1 jˆ1 å j

Now take in turn w ˆ uW i and w ˆ vW i to obtain the results of parts (a) and (b) of the question. (c) Take a basis u1 , . . . , u n of U1. Assume that the eigenvectors of A u are known. For all k with 1 < k < n, the eigenvectors of A in sp (u k W1 , . . . , u k W m ) are given by the eigenvectors of A u (see part (b)). Hence we know all the eigenvectors of A in U1 È . . . È Um.

Bibliography

Books mentioned in the text
H. S. M. Coxeter and W. J. O. Moser, Generators and Relations for Discrete Groups (Fourth Edition), Springer-Verlag, 1980. J. B. Fraleigh, A First Course in Abstract Algebra (Third Edition), AddisonWesley, 1982. D. Gorenstein, Finite Simple Groups: An Introduction to their Classi®cation, Plenum Press, New York, 1982. G. D. James, The Representation Theory of the Symmetric Groups, Lecture Notes in Mathematics No. 682, Spring-Verlag, 1978. D. S. Passman, Permutation Groups, Benjamin, 1968. H. Pollard and H. G. Diamond, The Theory of Algebraic Numbers (Second Edition), Carus Mathematical Monographs No. 9, Mathematical Association of America, 1975. J. J. Rotman, An Introduction to the Theory of Groups (Third Edition), Allyn and Bacon, 1984. D. S. Schonland, Molecular Symmetry ± an Introduction to Group Theory and its uses in Chemistry, Van Nostrand, 1965.

Suggestions for further reading
M. J. Collins, Representations and Characters of Finite Groups, Cambridge University Press, 1990. C. W. Curtis and I. Reiner, Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I, Wiley-Interscience, 1981. W. Feit, Characters of Finite Groups, Benjamin, 1967. I. M. Isaacs, Character Theory of Finite Groups, Academic Press, 1976. W. Ledermann, Introduction to Group Characters (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press, 1987. J. P. Serre, Linear Representations of Finite Groups, Springer-Verlag, 1977.

454

6 bilinear form. 308 A5 . 222. 445 T12. 220. 130. 359 A6 . 11. 9. 182 D2n ( n even). 240. 244. 107. 3. 417 F11. 445 PSL(2. 116. 186 T4 n. 201. 172. 111. 9. 85. 416 S4 . 183 D6 3 D6. 364 C. 136.Index A4 . 125 linear. 11. 122. 55. 24 character. 81. 415 D12  S3 3 C2 . 122. 160 D8. 434 F7. 5. 360 A7 . 273 associative. 221.8). 263 realized over R. 114. 2. 106 centre of group. 88 centralizer. 174 permutation. 415 Cn . 56 algebraic integer. 340 Burnside's Theorem. 181 A5 . 359. 127. 230. 236 integer-valued. 82 action. 363. 359 A6 . 223 An . 269 Brauer±Fowler Theroem. 343 abelian group. of order 18. 327 PSL(2. 253 irreducible. 82. 269 symmetric. 443 Q8 . 112. 298 of group algebra. 278 Burnside's Lemma.3). 111 antisymmetric part. 161 D10. 180 S5 . 2 basis. 362 algebraic number. 160 C4 . 119 regular. 83. 419 D2n ( n odd). 122 character table. 128. 205 SL(2. 420 455 . 116. 159 A4 . 354. 265 reducible. 176. 112. 195 generalized. 318 PSL(2. 2 Cn .3. 291 GL(2. 129 product. 361 alternating group. 54 bijection. 442 SL(2. 150 trivial. 196. 45. 207. 82 D6. 125. 119 kernel of. 192 real. 337 algebra.11). 160 C3 . 5. 269 skew-symmetric. 10. 423 E. 412 C2 3 C2 . 312. 433 Fp.5 .q).q). 153 change of basis.7). 262 S6 .q . 424 C2 . 118 degree. 15 natural. 116. 181. 440 SL(2. 355 induced. 234.7). 11. 247 faithful.

82. 6 GL(n.F). 254 symmetry. 46 even permutation. 125. 12. 82 alternating. 181 dimension. 312 quaternion. 96 . 74 composition. 324. 2. 364 soluble. 30. 6 surjective. 15 direct product. 143. 3 GL(2. 290 FG. 3 F n. 421 V24 .456 Representations and characters of groups FG-submodule. 206 direct sum. 228 inner product. 308 order p3 . 82. 257 proper. 4. 3 group. 79 isomorphism. 5 rotation. 250. 79. 152 class sum. 109 cyclic group. 55 H < G. 353. 181 degree. 307 order 27. 195 faithful module. 4. see module . 50. 61 ideal. 2. 17. 88 dicyclic. 368 simple. 349 class equation. 119 irreducible module. 213 coset. 9 HomCG (V W). 11. 363. 343 general linear group. 236 induced module. 32. 9. 12. 107. 96 congruences. 90 common. 181 factor. 116. 249 derived subgroup. 257 index of subgroup. 173 diagonalization. 95. 361 constituent. 12. 381 external direct sum. 10. 3. 104 conjugate. homogeneous component. 304 orthogonal. 7. 318. 232 Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 18 F ˆ R or C. 9 faithful character. 85 faithful representation. 44. 24 endomorphism. 277 function. 134 involution. 15 Fp. 5. 259 conjugacy class. 6. 2 composition factor. 376 homomorphism. 9 indicator function. 63 Frobenius group. 107. 311. 3. 61 FG-isomorphism. 3 H v G. 277. 9 ®nite. 206 order 16. 88 D2n. 367 projective special linear.q . 420 dihedral group. 5 expansion±contraction mode. 32. 2 order p3 . 6 bijective. 10. 230. 301 order pq. 1 abelian. 305. 49 FG-homomorphism. 2. 291 p-group. 5. 256 maximal. 421 direct product. 104. 83 dicyclic group T4 n. 11. 187. 178. 91. 175. 2. 3 order. 74. 234. 20. 107. 6 invertible. 281. 111 cyclic. 216 complete set. 6 injective. 368 group algebra. 273 induced character. 2 general linear. 422 V8 n . 109. 24 eigenvector. 122. 226. 91 irreducible representation. 353 irreducible character. 2. 56. 178 dihedral. 18 eigenvalue. 53 factor group. 107 class function. 101 completely reducible. 306. 300 class algebra constants. 50. 302. 12. 81. 114 Clifford's Theorem. 20 equivalent.q). 12. 63 U6n. 278. 290 Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 34 FG-module. 8 cycle-shape. 311 symmetric. 66 external. 365 special linear. 8 cycle notation. 435 order .

380. p). projection. 76 matrix. 367 orthogonality relations. 379 rotation submodule. 210 rotation group. 34. 128. 67 projective special linear group. 50 regular. 312 457 Q8 . 312. 216. 176. 5 permutation module.11). 201. 342 Rank±Nullity Theorem. 19 real character. 275 S5 . 15 Maschke's Theorem.q). 50. 150 regular module. 354. 45. 262 S6 . 50 reducible representation. 111. 205 S7 . 116. 9 lift. 365 symmetric bilinear form. 10. 269 special linear group. 263 reducible character. 319. 5 even. 116. 177. 34. 116. 192 . 359 PSL(2. 45. 50 regular. 46 faithful. 30 degree.3). 215. 368 rotation mode. 442 SL(2. 174 linear transformation. 34 representatives. 18 linearly dependent. 216. 278. 54 modes of vibration. 109. 113. 44. 27. 21 invertible. 23 permutation. 445 Schur's Lemma. 173 generated. 250. 336. 43 natural normal normal normal 217 basis. 56 representation. 311. 223 Sn . 416 quaternion group. 3 rank. 79 kernel of. 78 simple group. 30. 56 trivial. 44. 311 stabilizer. 263 real element. 70. 113. 361 module. 45 powers of characters. 21 change of basis. 85 permutation. 440 SL(2. 215. 4 derived. 56 regular representation. 32. 119 reducible module. 45. 3. 10. 124. 24 diagonal.7). 251 subgroup. 116. 359. 9.Index kernel. 50. 39 completely reducible. 256. 394 S4 . 340 permutation character. 62 reducible. 318. 122. 5. 105 restriction. 50 regular character. 321. 85 irreducible. 318. 62. 284 product of characters. 339 subgroup. 254. 249 equivalent. 175. 127. 2 order of g. 56 trivial. 344 SL(2. 263 real conjugacy class. 79. 180. 3. 9. 74 faithful. 171. 5. 4 normal. 113. p). 161 PSL(2. 4 orthogonal group. 193 presentation. 340 permutation matrix. 15 linearly independent. 173. 169 linear character. 363. 312 p-group. 319. 3. 360 PSL(2. 384 minimal polynomial. 4 cyclic. 177. 372. 5 odd. 343. 416 R. 49 irreducible. 74 Sylow's Theorem. 373 p-complement. 3. 354. 19. 110. 311 SL(2. 320. 278. 5 orbit. 364 skew-symmetric bilinear form.7). 129. 125 Lagrange's Theorem. 298 p9-part. 124 reducible. 278. 258 permutation. 34 irreducible. 45 methane. 269 odd permutation. 3 primitive root. 338 order of G. 217 submodule. 56. 26 identity. 171.

421 V8n. 34 U6n. 2 symmetric group. 187. 380. 394 transposition. 421 Vandermonde matrix. 3. 254 symmetric part. 117 transitive. 281. 379 translation submodule. 109. 178. 368 T4 n. 178. 187. 341 transitivity of induction.458 Representations and characters of groups trivial character. 420 tensor product module. 5 . 196. 188 trace. 194 vibratory modes. 175. 273 symmetry group. 374 Z. 190 tensor product space. 122 module. 369. 338. 116. 187. 229 translation mode. 381 water. 43 representation. 178.

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