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Representations and Characters of Groups Now in its second edition, this text provides a modern introduction to the representation theory of ®nite groups. The authors have revised the popular ®rst edition and added a considerable amount of new material. The theory is developed in terms of modules, since this is appropriate for more advanced work, but considerable emphasis is placed upon constructing characters. The character tables of many groups are given, including all groups of order less than 32, and all simple groups of order less than 1000. Among the applications covered are Burnside's pa q b theorem, the use of character theory in studying subgroup structure and permutation groups, and a description of how to use representation theory to investigate molecular vibration. Each chapter is accompanied by a variety of exercises, and full solutions to all the exercises are provided at the end of the book. This will be ideal as a text for a course in representation theory, and in view of the applications of the subject, will be of interest to mathematicians, chemists and physicists alike.

**R E P R E S E N TAT ION S AN D C H AR ACT E R S OF G ROU P S
**

G O R D O N JA M E S a n d M A RT I N L I E B E C K

Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London

Second Edition

PUBLISHED BY CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS (VIRTUAL PUBLISHING) FOR AND ON BEHALF OF THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 IRP 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia http://www.cambridge.org © Cambridge University Press 1993, 2001 This edition © Cambridge University Press (Virtual Publishing) 2003 First published in printed format 1993 Second edition 2001 A catalogue record for the original printed book is available from the British Library and from the Library of Congress Original ISBN 0 521 81205 4 hardback Original ISBN 0 521 00392 X paperback

ISBN 0 511 01700 6 virtual (netLibrary Edition)

Contents

Preface 1 Groups and homomorphisms 2 Vector spaces and linear transformations 3 Group representations 4 FG-modules 5 FG-submodules and reducibility 6 Group algebras 7 FG-homomorphisms 8 Maschke's Theorem 9 Schur's Lemma 10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra 11 More on the group algebra 12 Conjugacy classes 13 Characters 14 Inner products of characters 15 The number of irreducible characters 16 Character tables and orthogonality relations 17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters 18 Some elementary character tables 19 Tensor products 20 Restriction to a subgroup 21 Induced modules and characters 22 Algebraic integers 23 Real representations 24 Summary of properties of character tables 25 Characters of groups of order pq 26 Characters of some p-groups 27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 v

page vii 1 14 30 38 49 53 61 70 78 89 95 104 117 133 152 159 168 179 188 210 224 244 263 283 288 298 311

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28 Character table of GL(2, q) 322 29 Permutations and characters 337 30 Applications to group theory 348 31 Burnside's Theorem 361 32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 367 Solutions to exercises 397 Bibliography 454 Index 455

Preface

We have attempted in this book to provide a leisurely introduction to the representation theory of groups. But why should this subject interest you? Representation theory is concerned with the ways of writing a group as a group of matrices. Not only is the theory beautiful in its own right, but it also provides one of the keys to a proper understanding of ®nite groups. For example, it is often vital to have a concrete description of a particular group; this is achieved by ®nding a representation of the group as a group of matrices. Moreover, by studying the different representations of the group, it is possible to prove results which lie outside the framework of representation theory. One simple example: all groups of order p2 (where p is a prime number) are abelian; this can be shown quickly using only group theory, but it is also a consequence of basic results about representations. More generally, all groups of order pa q b ( p and q primes) are soluble; this again is a statement purely about groups, but the best proof, due to Burnside, is an outstanding example of the use of representation theory. In fact, the range of applications of the theory extends far beyond the boundaries of pure mathematics, and includes theoretical physics and chemistry ± we describe one such application in the last chapter. The book is suitable for students who have taken ®rst undergraduate courses involving group theory and linear algebra. We have included two preliminary chapters which cover the necessary background material. The basic theory of representations is developed in Chapters 3±23, and our methods concentrate upon the use of modules; although this accords with the more modern style of algebra, in several instances our proofs differ from those found in other textbooks. The main results are elegant and surprising, but at ®rst sight they sometimes have an air of mystery vii

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Representations and characters of groups

about them; we have chosen the approach which we believe to be the most transparent. We also emphasize the practical aspects of the subject, and the text is illustrated with a wealth of examples. A feature of the book is the wide variety of groups which we investigate in detail. By the end of Chapter 28, we have presented the character tables of all groups of order less than 32, of all p-groups of order at most p4 , and of all the simple groups of order less than 1000. Every chapter is accompanied by a set of Exercises, and the solutions to all of these are provided at the end of the book. We would like to thank Dr Hans Liebeck for his careful reading of our manuscript and the many helpful suggestions which he made.

In this second edition, we have included two new chapters; one (Chapter 28) deals with the character tables of an in®nite series of groups, and the other (Chapter 29) covers aspects of the representation theory of permutation groups. We have also added a considerable amount of new material to Chapters 20, 23 and 30, and made minor amendments elsewhere.

Preface to Second Edition

together with a rule for combining any two elements g. ( gh)k g(hk). and any book on basic group theory will supply you with further details.1 Groups and homomorphisms This book is devoted to the study of an aspect of group theory. Groups A group consists of a set G. (3) for all g in G. this rule must satisfy the following axioms: (1) for all g. h. so we begin with a resume of facts about groups. In addition. An elementary course on abstract algebra would normally cover all the material in the chapter. most of which you should Â Â know already. h of G to form another element of G. 1 . eg ge g. such as dihedral groups and symmetric groups. (2) there exists an element e in G such that for all g in G. there exists an element gÀ1 in G such that gg À1 g À1 g eX We refer to the rule for combining elements of G as the product operation on G. we introduce several examples. One or two results which we shall use only infrequently are demoted to the exercises at the end of the chapter ± you can refer to the solutions if necessary. k in G. written gh. which we shall use extensively to illustrate the later theory.

is written g 2 . rather than e. is a group of order n. r nÀ1 where r k is the (clockwise) rotation about the centre O through an angle 2ðkan. If the number of elements in G is ®nite. a2 . (3) Let n be an integer with n > 3. . . then Cn f1. The set of nth roots of unity in C. gg. X X X . and is written |G|. . similarly 3 g g 2 g. These 2n rotations and re¯ections form a group under the product operation of composition (that is. Write b for the re¯ection in the . Also. with the usual multiplication of complex numbers. Usually we write 1. and gÀ1 is an inverse of g in axiom (3). then we call G a ®nite group. for two symmetries f and g. a nÀ1 g. is a group. This group is called the dihedral group of order 2n. and denote by C the set of all complex numbers.2 Representations and characters of groups Axiom (1) states that the product operation is associative. then do g'). g0 1. and an 1. a. Let A be a corner of the polygon. It is written as Cn and is called the cyclic group of order n. r1 . and that every g in G has just one inverse. 1. (2) The set Z of all integers. There are n rotation symmetries: these are r0 . for the identity element of G. the element e in axiom (2) is an identity element of G. and consider the rotation and re¯ection symmetries of a regular n-sided polygon. gÀ2 ( gÀ1 )2 . . under addition. The product of an element g with itself. There are also n re¯ection symmetries: these are re¯ections in the n lines passing through O and a corner or the mid-point of a side of the polygon. If a e2ðia n . It is elementary to see that G has just one identity element.1 Examples (1) Let n be a positive integer. and is written D2 n. the product fg means `®rst do f. and so on. the number of elements in G is called the order of G.

Subgroups Let G be a group. (5) Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). We use the notation H < G to indicate that H is a subgroup of G. b: an 1. The identity of GL(n. For example. a nÀ1 (where 1 denotes the identity. . Then the n rotations are 1. and hence (a i b)(a j b) a i ba j b a i aÀ j bb a iÀ j X We summarize all this in the presentation D2 n ha. a2 . . which leaves the polygon ®xed). . F). forms a group. and is written Sn . It is called the symmetric group of degree n. the set of all permutations of {1. b2 1. Check that an 1. A group G is said to be abelian if gh hg for all g and h in G. under the product operation of composition. a nÀ1 bX Thus all elements of D2 n are products of powers of a and b ± that is. and the n re¯ections are b. which we denote by In or just I. under matrix multiplication. 2. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX (4) For n a positive integer. D2 n is generated by a and b. ab. While Cn and Z are abelian. . a. is a group. b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X These relations determine the product of any two elements of the group. n}. . This group is called the general linear group of degree n over F. X X X . a2 b. X X X . It is an in®nite group. The order of Sn is n!. and is denoted by GL(n. we have ba j aÀ j b (using the relation ba aÀ1 b). most of the other examples given above are non-abelian groups.Groups and homomorphisms 3 line through O and A. F) is of course the identity matrix. The set of all invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. and write a for the rotation r1 . A subset H of G is said to be a subgroup if H is itself a group under the product operation inherited from G.

b P G. If gn 1 for some n > 1. where ik . 1. De®ne H to be the subset of G consisting of all elements which are products of powers of a and b ± that is. and (2) if h. If G k gl for some g P G then we call G a cyclic group. h gi f1. and write H ha. g rÀ1 gX We call r the order of the element g. called the cyclic subgroup generated by g. (3) Let G be a group and let a. we can similarly de®ne hSi.1 are cyclic. we call H the subgroup generated by a and b.4 Representations and characters of groups It is easy to see that a subset H of a group G is a subgroup if and only if the following two conditions hold: (1) 1 P H. let r be the least positive integer such that g r 1. biX Given any ®nite set S of elements of G. In this case. and again in Example 1. g 2 . The groups Cn and Z in Examples 1. Then H is a subgroup of G.5 below. (2) Let G be a group and g P G. the subgroup of G generated by S. This construction gives a powerful method of ®nding new groups as subgroups of given groups. all elements of the form a i1 b j1 a i2 b j2 X X Xa i n b j n for some n. B X 0 Ài À1 0 . g. both {1} and G are subgroups of G. then r is equal to the number of elements in k gl ± indeed. jk P Z for 1 < k < n. The subset h gi f g n : n P Zg is a subgroup of G. then k gl is ®nite. We illustrate the construction in the next example. C). such as general linear or symmetric groups. k P H then hkÀ1 P H. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in C. (4) Let G GL(2.2 Examples (1) For every group G. and let i 0 0 1 A . X X X .

2. n and ®xes the other n À 2 numbers. B: A4 I. so we have the presentation Q8 hA. . h)( g9. . called the alternating group of degree n. . and consider G 3 H f( g. and using the ®rst two relations. the subgroup of G generated by A and B. we see that every element of H has the form A i B j for some integers i. The group H is called the quaternion group of order 8. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X 5 Using the third relation. Bl. A2 B2 . Let G and H be groups. A2 B2 . and is written Q8.Groups and homomorphisms Put H kA. called the direct product of G and H. g9 P G and all h. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 iX (5) A transposition in the symmetric group Sn is a permutation which interchanges two of the numbers 1. hh9) for all g. The subset An f g P Sn : g is an even permutationg is a subgroup of Sn . h9) ( gg9. It can be shown that either all such expressions for g have an even number of transpositions. The above three relations determine the product of any two elements of Q8 . or they all have an odd number of transpositions. h): g P G and h P HgX De®ne a product operation on G 3 H by ( g. h9 P H. With this product operation. G 3 H is a group. 0 < j < 1) are all distinct. Every permutation g in Sn can be expressed as a product of transpositions. j. accordingly. . Direct products We describe a construction which produces a new group from given ones. Since the matrices Ai B j (0 < i < 3. Check that A4 I. we can take 0 < i < 3 and 0 < j < 1. . we call g an even or an odd permutation. in fact j Hj 8. Hence H has at most eight elements.

X X X . . h P H. A function W: G 3 H is invertible if there is a function ö: H 3 G such that for all g P G. |Gr |. g r g9 )X 1 r 1 r If all the groups Gi are ®nite. Homomorphisms Given groups G and H. . g1 W g2 W for g1 . X X X . In this book. . We often indicate that W is a function from G to H by the notation W: G 3 H. . . ( gW)ö g and (hö)W hX Then ö is called the inverse of W. for every h P H there exists g P G such that gW h). we mean that h gW. . 3 Gr is also ®nite. if G1 . and is written as WÀ1 . Functions A function from one set G to another set H is a rule which assigns a unique element of H to each element of G. . 3 C2 (r factors) has order 2 r and all its nonidentity elements have order 2. of order |G1 | . A function W from G to H is invertible if and only if it is both injective (that is. g 2 P GX .3 Example The group C2 3 . g9 ) ( g 1 g9 .6 Representations and characters of groups More generally. the image of g under a function W is written as gW. then G1 3 . g2 P G implies that g1 g2 ) and surjective (that is. . g r ): g i P Gi for 1 < i < rg. By an expression W: g 3 h. then the direct product G1 3 X X X 3 Gr is f( g 1 . where g P G and h P H. . An invertible function is also called a bijection. 1. g r )( g9 . If G and H are groups. we generally apply functions on the right ± that is. those functions from G to H which `preserve the group structure' ± the so-called homomorphisms ± are of particular importance. X X X . . with product operation de®ned by ( g1 . X X X . Gr are groups. then a homomorphism from G to H is a function W: G 3 H which satis®es ( g1 g 2 )W ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g 1 . not as W g.

4 Example Let G D2 n ka.Groups and homomorphisms 7 An invertible homomorphism is called an isomorphism. 0 < t < n À 1. we can also deduce that xr ys xt yu x i y j X Therefore. so H G. Moreover. If there is an isomorphism W from G to H.5 Example Let G S5 and let x. and we write G H. 0 < j < 1. and so W is a homomorphism. (ar bs at bu )W (a i b j )W x i y j x r y s x t y u (ar bs )W . also. WÀ1 is an isomorphism from H to G. 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X Since we have x n y 2 1. y be the following permutations in G: x (1 2 3 4 5).4 in action. i and j are determined by repeatedly using the relations an b2 1. 0 < u < 1. y (2 5)(3 4)X . and write the 2n elements of G in the form ai b j with 0 < i < n À 1. Then ar bs at bu a i b j for some i. 0 < s < 1. y À1 xy x À1 . Suppose that 0 < r < n À 1. b: an b2 1. 1. j with 0 < i < n À 1. y À1 xy x À1 X We shall prove that the function W: G 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < n À 1. Let H be any group. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. We now demonstrate the technique of Example 1. (at bu )W. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. then G and H are said to be isomorphic. The following example displays a technique which can often be used to prove that certain functions are homomorphisms. and suppose that H contains elements x and y which satisfy x n y 2 1. 0 < j < 1.

Using the above relations. yl D10. and so j Hxi j j Hj. For all i. we see that H fx i y j : 0 < i < 4. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. Suppose now that G is ®nite. For x in G. and so on. . yl of G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX By Example 1. Since W is invertible. and Hxi Hxj is empty if i T j. Cosets Let G be a group and let H be a subgroup of G. Hxr be all the distinct right cosets of H in G.) Check that x 5 y 2 1. a group of order 10. (1 2 3 4 5) denotes the permutation 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 1. b: a5 b2 1. it is an isomorphism. Thus. The distinct right cosets of H in G form a partition of G (that is. we deduce that jGj rj HjX In particular. . Now recall that D10 ha. the function h 3 hxi (h P H) is a bijection from H to Hxi . . Since G Hx1 X X X Hxr .4. y À1 xy x À1 X Let H be the subgroup kx.8 Representations and characters of groups (Here we adopt the usual cycle notation ± thus. every element of G is in precisely one of the cosets). . H kx. the function W: D10 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 4. 0 < j < 1g. and let Hx1 . the subset Hx fhx: h P Hg of G is called a right coset of H in G. we have .

7 Examples (1) For every group G.Groups and homomorphisms 1.6 Lagrange's Theorem If G is a ®nite group and H is a subgroup of G. The importance of the condition gÀ1 Ng N (for all g P G) is that it can be used to show that for all g. called the factor group of G by N. the sub-groups {1} and G are normal subgroups of G. but the subgroup H kbl is not normal in G. b: a4 b2 1. and so Sn aAn C2 . ka2 l {1. 1. and An (1 2) f g P Sn : g oddgX Thus |Sn :An | 2. we have An v Sn . Thus jG: Hj jGjaj Hj when G is ®nite. we see that GaN C2 3 C2 . (2) For n > 1. If n > 2 then there are just two right cosets of An in Sn . The subgroup kal is also normal in G. (3) Let G D8 ka. since b P H while aÀ1 ba a2 b P H. Then N v G and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let N GaN fN . and is written as jG: Hj. Nb. namely An f g P Sn : g eveng. h P G. h P GX This makes GaN into a group. Suppose that N v G and let GaN be the set of right cosets of N in G. a2 }. 9 The number r of distinct right cosets of H in G is called the index of H in G. a . Na. NabgX Since (Na)2 (Nb)2 (Nab)2 N. we have fxy: x P Ng and y P Nhg NghX Hence we can de®ne a product operation on GaN by (Ng)(Nh) Ngh for all g. Normal subgroups A subgroup N of a group G is said to be a normal subgroup of G if gÀ1 Ng N for all g P G (where gÀ1 Ng f gÀ1 ng: n P Ng). then j Hj divides |G|. we write N v G to indicate that N is a normal subgroup of G.

The following result describes the way in which the kernel and image of W are related. then G has a normal subgroup N such that both N and G/N have smaller order than G. simple groups are fundamental to the study of ®nite groups. G is `built' out of these two smaller groups. Also. We de®ne the kernel of W by (1X8) Ker W f g P G: gW 1gX Then Ker W is a normal subgroup of G. Then GaKer W Im WX An isomorphism is given by the function Kg 3 gW where K Ker W. the image of W is (1X9) Im W f gW: g P Gg. (This is analogous to the fact that every positive integer is built out of its prime factors.10 Representations and characters of groups Simple groups A group G is said to be simple if G T {1} and the only normal subgroups of G are {1} and G. and in a sense.10 Theorem Suppose that G and H are groups and let W: G 3 H be a homomorphism. we eventually see that G is `built' out of a collection of simple groups. the cyclic group Cp . If G is a ®nite group which is not simple. Continuing this process with the smaller groups. We shall give examples of non-abelian simple groups in later chapters ± the smallest one is A5 . is simple. For example. we relate normal subgroups and factor groups to homomorphisms. Kernels and images To conclude the chapter. Let G and H be groups and suppose that W: G 3 H is a homomorphism. 1. with p a prime number. ( g P G) .) Thus. and Im W is a subgroup of H.

bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. A normal subgroup N of G is a subgroup such that gÀ1 Ng N for all g in G. Show that if G is an abelian group which is simple. the direct product of the groups G1 . D2 n ka. We have Ker W An . then G is cyclic of prime order. is a normal subgroup of G. Ker W. b: a4 1. The factor group GaN consists of the right cosets Ng ( g P G). if g is an odd permutation. if g is an even permutation. . Suppose that G and H are groups. C) the group of invertible n 3 n matrices over C. and that W: G 3 H is a surjective homomorphism. 2. . . Gr . A homomorphism W: G 3 H is a function such that ( g1 g 2 )W ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g1 . and the image. 3 Gr . and for n > 2. W: g 3 À1. is a subgroup of H. . We know from Example 1. Sn the symmetric group of degree n. The factor group GaKer W is isomorphic to Im W. Exercises for Chapter 1 1. Summary of Chapter 1 1. . 2. Im W. Im W C2 . b: an b2 1.7(2) that Sn /An C2 . An the alternating group of degree n.10. G1 3 . . Examples of groups are Cn ka: an 1l. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. . The kernel. with multiplication (Ng)(Nh) NghX 3. illustrating Theorem 1. Show that either W is an isomorphism or H {1}. g2 in G. a2 b2 . Q8 ka.Groups and homomorphisms 1. GL(n. 11 is a homomorphism.11 Example The function W: Sn 3 C2 given by & 1. with G simple.

ø: cr d s 3 x r y s (0 < r < 3. d: c4 1. show that x is a power of y. i 0 1 0 and let L be the subgroup hX . (c) If G is a ®nite cyclic group and x. Prove that G An is a normal subgroup of G. Prove that f g P G: g n 1g is a cylic subgroup of G of order n. de®ned by ë: ar bs 3 X r Y s . y (3 4). (b) Let X. ì: cr d s 3 X r Y s (0 < r < 3. (a) Show that every subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic. and let K be the subgroup kx. 5. c2 d 2 . 0 < s < 1). 0 < s < 1). C). is a homomorphism. Show that both the functions ö: G 3 K and ø: H 3 K. and Ga (G An ) C2 X 4.Y . are homomorphisms. Prove that this homomorphism is an isomorphism. Y i of GL(2. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. Find Ker ö and Ker ø. Let G D8 ha. . and let n be a positive integer which divides |G|.12 Representations and characters of groups 3. Show that just one of the functions ë: G 3 L and ì: H 3 L. yl of S4 . y are elements of G with the same order. and that G is not contained in An . d À1 cd cÀ1 iX (a) Let x. Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . Y be the 2 3 2 matrices which are given by 0 i 0 À1 X . and H Q8 hc. de®ned by ö: ar bs 3 x r y s . b: a4 b2 1. 6. (b) Let G be a ®nite cyclic group. Prove that D4 m D2 m 3 C2 if m is odd. y be the permutations in S4 which are given by x (1 2).

under the usual multiplication. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G with |G: H| 2. (Hint: compare Q8 in Example 1. C) such that A has order 8. Bl has order 16. and B2 A4 and BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X Show that the group kA. Prove that H v G. 9. Show that every group of even order contains an element of order 2.2(4). .) 10.Groups and homomorphisms 13 7. 8. Find elements A and B of GL(2. is a group. B has order 4. Show that the set of non-zero complex numbers. Prove that every ®nite subgroup of this group is cyclic.

We write 0 for the identity element of the abelian group V under addition. linear transformations and matrices which we shall use later. A vector space over F is a set V. namely group theory and linear algebra. here. v of V to form an element u v of V.2 Vector spaces and linear transformations An attractive feature of representation theory is that it combines two strands of mainstream mathematics. (3) (ëì)v ë(ìv). For reference purposes. and those of F are called scalars. so we omit the proofs. where we deal with projections. these rules must satisfy: (2. in case you have not come across projections before. ì in F. (1) ë(u v) ëu ëv. we gather the results from linear algebra concerning vector spaces. Most of the material will be familiar to you if you have taken a ®rst course on linear algebra. (b) for all u. The elements of V are called vectors. Vector spaces Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). (4) 1v v. v in V and all ë. together with a rule for adding any two elements u. (2) (ë ì)v ëv ìv. and a rule for multiplying any element v of V by any element ë of F to form an element ëv of V. 14 .) Moreover. An exception occurs in the last section. (The latter rule is called scalar multiplication.1) (a) V is an abelian group under addition. we explain in detail how the results work.

. X X X . If V {0} then dim V 0. . . v n are linearly dependent if ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n 0 for some ë1 . x2 . . v n . The vectors v1 . X X X . v n if v ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n for some ë1 . . . . . Bases of vector spaces Let v1 .2 Examples (1) Let R2 denote the set of all ordered pairs (x. y) where x and y are real numbers. . . ë n in F. we shall consider only vector spaces V which are ®nite-dimensional ± this means that V has a basis consisting of ®nitely many vectors. 1 n 1 n ë(x1 . and de®ne addition and scalar multiplication on F n by (x1 . . . . ë(x. X X X . y) (x9. . . ë n in F. It turns out that any two bases of V have the same number of vectors. A vector v in V is a linear combination of v1 . . y9) (x x9. The vectors v1 . x9 ) (x1 x9 . . v n are said to span V if every vector in V is a linear combination of v1 . . . ë y)X Then R2 is a vector space over R. . v n are linearly independent.Vector spaces and linear transformations 15 2. . X X X . as above. . for each positive integer n. De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on R2 by (x. . . . y) (ëx. v n be vectors in a vector space V over F. xn x9 ). not all of which are zero. . . we consider row vectors (x1 . The number of vectors in a basis of V is called the dimension of V and is written as dim V. . xn ) (ëx1 . . . (2) More generally. X X X . . . . . v1 . xn belong to F. We say that v1 . Throughout this book. We denote the set of all such row vectors by F n. ëxn )X Then F n is a vector space over F. . . otherwise. xn ) where x1 . x2 . X X X . v n form a basis of V if they span V and are linearly independent. xn ) (x9 . . The vector space V is n-dimensional if dim V n. . . y y9). . .

2. 0). ur ) to be the set of all linear combinations of u1 .5). (0. . . v n form a basis of V. 0. . . Another basis is (1. . . 1. (1. . X X X . 0). v n in V such that v1 . (1. 0. . (2) Let u1 . 1)X Given a basis v1 . . X X X . and it is called the subspace spanned by u1 . 1) is a basis of V. . Then (1. . 0). 1. . each vector v in V can be written in a unique way as v ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n . ur ) is a subspace of V.4) If v1 . (2) if u. (3) if ë P F and u P U then ëu P U. . Except in the case where V {0}. X X X . then there exist v k1 . that is. . so dim V n. there are many bases of V.3 Example Let V F n. v k are linearly independent vectors in V. . X X X . 0. ur ) fë1 u1 X X X ë r ur : ë1 .6 Examples (1) {0} and V are subspaces of V. . . v n of a vector space V. 1. . . . . . The vector v therefore determines the scalars ë1 . sp (u1 . . . 0. . Subspaces A subspace of a vector space V over F is a subset of V which is itself a vector space under the addition and scalar multiplication inherited from V. 0. . . sp (u1 . . X X X . . . . . X X X . X X X . . For a subset U of V to be a subspace. ë n . . ur be vectors in V. . 0. X X X . . ë r P FgX By (2. ur . X X X . . v P U then u v P U. 0). .16 Representations and characters of groups 2. (2. 0. 1. Indeed. . . it is necessary and suf®cient that all the following conditions hold: (2.5) (1) 0 P U. . We de®ne sp (u1 . . ë n in F. 0. (0. the next result says that any linearly independent vectors can be extended to a basis. ur . . X X X . with ë1 . . .

.Vector spaces and linear transformations Notice that the following fact is a consequence of (2. . You should consult the solutions to Exercises 2. v k to a basis v1 . . ur with ui P Ui for 1 < i < r. Then V U È WX From this construction it follows that there are in®nitely many subspaces W with V U È W. . . Direct sums of subspaces 17 If U1. Ur is a direct sum if every element of the sum can be written in a unique way as u1 . . .9) Suppose that V U W. . then the sum U1 . . If the sum is direct. ur is a basis of U and that w1. . . . . .5). We say that the sum U1 . U1 .3 and 2. Then dim U < dim V Also. (3) U W {0}. . (2. unless U is {0} or V. . . . then we write it as U1 È X X X È Ur X 2. . . v n ). that u1 . . ur . The next result is frequently useful when dealing with the direct sum of two subspaces. w1. Ur is a subspace of V. . . . . . Ur is de®ned by U1 X X X Ur fu1 X X X ur : ui P Ui for 1 < i < rgX By (2. . .4). v k be a basis of U. . . .7) Suppose that U is a subspace of the vector space V . . . . . . . . Then V U1 È X X X È Un X (2) Let U be a subspace of V and let v1 . only if U V. . Ur are subspaces of a vector space V. . (2. and let W sp (v k1 . . .8 Examples (1) Suppose that v1 . and for 1 < i < n. . . (2) u1 . let Ui be the subspace spanned by v i. ws is a basis of V.4 if you have dif®culty with the proof. dim U dim V if and . v n of V (see (2. . Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) V U È W. . ws is a basis of W. v n is a basis of V. . .4)). Extend v1. .

X X X . v P V . Ua. . ur ) (ëu1 . we write V U1 È X X X È Ur X Linear transformations Let V and W be vector spaces over F. involving the direct sum of several subspaces. then it is immediate that V U1 È X X X È U 9X 9 r We call V the external direct sum of U1. ëur )X With these de®nitions. . (2. ur ): ui P U i for 1 < i < rgX De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on V as follows: for all ui . A linear transformation from V to W is a function W: V 3 W which satis®es (u v)W uW vW (ëv)W ë(vW) for all u. If. 1 r 1 r ë(u1 . . then V U1 È X X X È Ua È W 1 È X X X È W b X We now introduce a construction for vector spaces which is analogous to the construction of direct products for groups. can be deduced immediately from the de®nition of a direct sum. let (u1 . . W1.18 Representations and characters of groups Our next result. Let U1. for 1 < i < r. . If V U È W and also U U1 È X X X È Ua . . . ur u9 ). X X X . ui . abusing notation slightly. and for all ë P F and v P V X . V is a vector space over F. Ur be vector spaces over F. . Ur. ur ) (u9 . and. . X X X . we put U 9 f(0. and W W1 È X X X È Wb . X X X .10) Suppose that U. Wb are subspaces of a vector space V. X X X . U1. u9 ) (u1 u9 . . . X X X . . u9 i in Ui (1 < i < r) and all ë in F. . . . X X X . X X X . 0): ui P U i g i (where the ui is in the ith position). W. and let V f(u1 . .

. . Kernels and images Suppose that W: V 3 W is a linear transformation. by specifying the values of ö on a basis of V. and Ker W f0g. The kernel of W (written Ker W) and the image of W (written Im W) are de®ned as follows: (2X11) Ker W fv P V : vW 0g. . Im W V X . W is determined by its action on a basis. which is known as the Rank±Nullity Theorem: (2X12) dim V dim (Ker W) dim (Im W)X 2. . Im W f0gX (2) If W: V 3 V is de®ned by vW 3v for all v P V. . and Ker W V . . then W is a linear transformation. . v n of V and any n vectors w1. it is easy to check that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. . . there is a unique linear transformation ö: V 3 W such that v i ö wi for all i. Notice that if W: V 3 W is a linear transformation and v1. . and then saying `extend the action of ö to be linear'. given any basis v1 . ë n in F we have (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n )W ë1 (v1 W) X X X ë n (v n W)X Thus. . the linear transformation ö is given by (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n )ö ë1 w1 X X X ë n wn X We sometimes construct a linear transformation ö: V 3 W in this way.13 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW 0 for all v P V. . . so a linear transformation preserves addition and scalar multiplication. Furthermore. then W is a linear transformation. . Im W fvW: v P V gX Using (2.Vector spaces and linear transformations 19 Just as a group homomorphism preserves the group multiplication. then for ë1 . . wn in W.5). . Their dimensions are connected by the following equation. v n is a basis of V.

It turns out that the inverse of an invertible linear transformation is also a linear transformation (see Exercise 2. y. (2) Ker W {0}. y. let V and W be vector spaces over F. Then W ö. for all v P V.12). À3. v(Wö) (vW)ö. If there exists an invertible linear transformation from V to W. then V and W are said to be isomorphic vector spaces. v(ëW) ë(vW).7) into account. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. z P R.1). (3) Im W V. so dim (Ker W) 1 and dim (Im W) 2.20 Representations and characters of groups (3) If W: R3 3 R2 is given by (x. By applying (2. Im W R2 . Endomorphisms A linear transformation from a vector space V to itself is called an endomorphism of V. then W is a linear transformation.14) Let W be a linear transformation from V to itself. A linear transformation W from V to W is injective if and only if Ker W {0}. Wö and ëW are endomorphisms of V. We de®ne the functions W ö. À1)).2). we see that isomorphic vector spaces have the same dimension. . we obtain the next result (see Exercise 2. Invertible linear transformations Again. z)W (x 2 y z. À y 3z) for all x. We write W2 for WW. By also taking (2. we have Ker W sp ((7. Wö and ëW from V to V by (2X15) v(W ö) vW vö. Suppose that W and ö are endomorphisms of V and ë P F. and hence W is invertible precisely when W is surjective and Ker W {0}. (2.

and let W be an endomorphism of V. y)(3W) (3x 3 y. . 1 < j < n) such that for all i. . v i W a i1 v1 X X X ain v n X 2.16 Examples (1) The identity function 1 V de®ned by 1 V : v 3 v for all v P V 21 is an endomorphism of V. v n is a basis of V and call it B . (x. y)(Wö) (Àx 5 y. and is denoted by [W]B . 3W and W2 are given by (x. Note that Ker (W À ë1 V ) fv P V : vW ëvgX (2) Let V R2. Wö. and W ö. 1) of V and B 9 is the basis . y)W2 (2x À y. (2) Let V R2 and let W be the endomorphism (x. Then there are scalars aij in F (1 < i < n. ö be the functions from V to V de®ned by (x. . (x. (0. then [W]B In for all bases B of V.Vector spaces and linear transformations 2. (x. y)(W ö) (2x À y. then so is W À ë1 V . 2. x À 2 y) of V. for all ë P F. . 3x À 6 y). and let W. If W is an endomorphism of V. 0).17 De®nition The n 3 n matrix (aij ) is called the matrix of W relative to the basis B .18 Examples (1) If W 1 V (so that vW v for all v P V). À2x 4 y)X Then W and ö are endomorphisms of V. Àx 5 y)X Matrices Let V be a vector space over F. where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. y)ö (x À 2 y. (x. Suppose that v1 . y) 3 (x y. x À 2 y). If B is the basis (1. 2x À 10 y). Àx 2 y). y)W (x y.

22 Representations and characters of groups 1 . Given an m 3 n matrix A (aij ) and an n 3 p matrix B (bij ). 1) of V. AB 3 . À2 [W]B 9 1 X À1 (1. (1. 3A X À3 9 6 3 4 2 2 À13 À12 À5 The matrix of the sum or product of two endomorphisms (relative to some basis) is related to the matrices of the individual endomorphisms in the way you would expect: (2. the product of two matrices is de®ned in a less transparent way. their sum A B is the m 3 n matrix over F whose ij-entry is aij bij for all i. then we describe A as a matrix over F. 2 À1 5 À2 À4 3 0 3 3 .19 Example Let A Then A B 2 BA À1 3 2 0 . their product AB is the m 3 p matrix whose ij-entry is n k1 aik bkj X 2. j. the matrix ëA is the m 3 n matrix over F obtained from A by multiplying all the entries by ë. Given two m 3 n matrices A (aij ) and B (bij ) over F. As you know. B 1 2 2 3 À4 X À1 2 . 0). and for ë P F.20) Suppose that B is a basis of the vector space V. then [W]B 1 1 0 3 If we wish to indicate that the entries in a matrix A come from F. and that W and ö are endomorphisms of V. Then [W ö]B [W]B [ö]B . and [Wö]B [W]B [ö]B X .

y) (x 3 y. given a basis of V. . is unique. We concentrate on a particular way of doing this. The connection between invertible endomorphisms and invertible matrices is straightforward. it is called the inverse of A and is written as AÀ1 . An invertible matrix converts one basis into another. Then for all v in V. Àx 2 y)X 3 2 Invertible matrices An n 3 n matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists an n 3 n matrix B with AB BA In . (2. the matrix product vA also lies in V. Suppose that A is an n 3 n matrix over F. and this same matrix is used to describe the way in which the matrix of an . y)W (x. and follows from (2. The following remark is easily justi®ed. Write det A for the determinant of A. It is easy enough to reverse this process and use a matrix to de®ne an endomorphism. where 1 À1 (x. for all scalars ë. . Such a matrix B. xn ) with each xi in F.Vector spaces and linear transformations Also. an endomorphism W of V is invertible if and only if the matrix [W]B is invertible. 2. the vector space of row vectors (x1 .20): given a basis B of V.17) how to get a matrix from an endomorphism of a vector space V. Then a necessary and suf®cient condition for A to be invertible is that det A T 0. if it exists.21) If A is an n 3 n matrix over F then the function . [ëW]B ë[W]B X 23 We showed you in (2. . . Invertible matrices turn up when we relate two bases of a vector space. v 3 vA (v P F n ) is an endomorphism of F n.22 Example Let A 1 3 À1 X 2 Then A gives us an endomorphism W of F 2. and let V F n.

25 Example Suppose that V R2. The n 3 n matrix T (tij ) is invertible. (2. The scalar ë is said to be an eigenvalue of W if vW ëv for some non-zero vector v in V. 0). 0). y) 3 (x y. . 1) of V. . 1) and B 9 the basis (1. Let B be the basis (1. 2. then 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 T X À1 1 3 À1 1 1 1 À2 Eigenvalues Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F. The precise meaning of these remarks is revealed in the de®nition (2. .18(2). Such a vector v is called an eigenvector of W. . then [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 T . . v n be a basis B of the vector space V. (1. x À 2 y) of V. v9 1 n be a basis B 9 of V. . where T is the change of basis matrix from B to B 9. Then 1 0 1 0 À1 T . as in Example 2. The inverse of T is the change of basis matrix from B 9 to B . (0.24) If B and B 9 are bases of V and W is an endomorphism of V. . Then for 1 < i < n. and let v9 . and suppose that W is an endomorphism of V. 2. .23) and the result (2.24 Representations and characters of groups endomorphism depends upon the basis.23 De®nition Let v1 .24) below. . and is called the change of basis matrix from B to B 9.T X 1 1 À1 1 If W is the endomorphism W: (x. v9 t i1 v1 X X X tin v n i for certain scalars tij .

(0. For an n 3 n matrix A over F. which occurs if and only if W À ë1 V is not invertible.Vector spaces and linear transformations 25 Now ë is an eigenvalue of W if and only if Ker (W À ë1 V ) T {0}. Corresponding eigenvectors are (1. i). 2. then i 0 [W]B 9 X 0 Ài (2) Let V R2 and let W again be the endomorphism which is given by (x. Ài) and (1. we deduce the following result. and let W be an endomorphism of V. y)W (À y. Note that if B 9 is the basis (1. x)X This time. y)W (À y. Then W has an eigenvalue. then 0 1 [W]B X À1 0 We have det ([W]B À ëI2 ) ë2 1. 0). V is a vector space over R. (2. if B is a basis of V. i) of V. (1. and W has no eigenvalues in R. x)X If B is the basis (1. then the eigenvalues of W are those scalars ë in F which satisfy the equation det ([W]B À ëI n ) 0X Solving this equation involves ®nding the roots of a polynomial of degree n.26). Thus we depend upon F being C in result (2. The eigenvalues of A are those elements ë of F which satisfy det (A À ëI n ) 0X .26) Let V be a non-zero vector space over C. Ài).27 Examples (1) Let V C2 and let W be the endomorphism of V which is given by (x. the element ë of F is said to be an eigenvalue of A if vA ëv for some non-zero row vector v in F n. so i and Ài are the eigenvalues of W. Therefore. Since every non-constant polynomial with coef®cients in C has a root in C. 1) of V.

Ker ð W and ð2 ðX Proof Since every vector in V has a unique expression in the form u w with u P U. u9 in U and w. for ë in F. w9 in W. . and since uð u for all u in U. . w P W X Then ð is an endomorphism of V. . . that aii ë i for 1 < i < n.26 Representations and characters of groups 2. ë n . Im ð U . in addition. We often display such a matrix in the form H I ë1 0 f g FF Ad e F ën 0 which indicates. we have Im U. the eigenvalues are ë1 .28 Example We say that an n 3 n matrix A (aij ) is diagonal if aij 0 for all i and j with i T j. We have (v v9)ð (u u9 w w9)ð u u9 (u w)ð (u9 w9)ð vð v9ðX Also. Also. Clearly Im ð # U. then we can construct a special endomorphism of V which depends upon the expression V U È W: 2. (ëv)ð (ëu ëw)ð ëu ë(vð)X Therefore. De®ne ð: V 3 V by (u w)ð u for all u P U . Further. w P W. Projections If a vector space V is a direct sum of two subspaces U and W. . For this diagonal matrix A.29 Proposition Suppose that V U È W. Let v and v9 belong to V. ð is an endomorphism of V. it follows that ð is a function on V. Then v u w and v9 u9 w9 for some u.

j . and so Ker ð W. 2. y) 3 (2x 2 y.31 Example The endomorphism (x. 2. since (v À vð)ð vð À vð2 vð À vð 0X This establishes that V Im ð Ker ð. As v P Im ð. 27 j 2. it follows that v vð 0. Thus Im ð Ker ð f0g. (u w)ð2 uð u (u w)ð. Clearly the ®rst term vð belongs to Im ð. Now suppose that v lies in Im ð Ker ð. Àx À y) of R2 is a projection. as in Proposition 2. and so ð2 ð. Then V Im ð È Ker ðX Proof If v P V then v vð (v À vð). Therefore vð uð2 uð vX Since v P Ker ð. We now show that every projection can be constructed using a direct sum.29.32 Proposition Suppose that ð is a projection of a vector space V. we have v uð for some u P V.30 De®nition An endomorphism ð of a vector space V which satis®es ð2 ð is called a projection of V. and (2. Finally.9) now shows that V Im ð È Ker ð.Vector spaces and linear transformations (u w)ð 0 D u 0 D u w P W . and the second term v À vð lies in Ker ð.

Ker ð f(x. For example.31. A linear transformation W: V 3 W is invertible if and only if Ker W {0} and Im W W. 2. and dim V dim (Ker W) dim (Im W)X 4.33 Example If ð: (x. V U È W if and only if V U W and U W {0}. Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. Àx À y) is the projection of R2 which appears in Example 2. Also. Exercises for Chapter 2 1. Given two bases B and B 9 of V. È Ur if each Ui is a subspace of V. Eigenvalues ë of an endomorphism W satisfy vW ëv for some nonzero v in V. . Àx): x P Rg. . .28 Representations and characters of groups 2. 3. and an endomorphism W of V. Àx): x P RgX Summary of Chapter 2 1. Given a basis B of the n-dimensional vector space V. All our vector spaces are ®nite-dimensional over F. x n ) with each xi in F. F n is the set of row vectors (x1 . and dimF n n. and every element v of V has a unique expression of the form v u1 . 7. where F C or R. there is a correspondence between the endomorphisms W of V and the n 3 n matrices [W]B over F. V U1 È . then Im ð f(2x. F F F . y) 3 (2x 2 y. . A projection is an endomorphism ð of V which satis®es ð2 ð. A linear transformation W: V 3 W satis®es (u v)W uW vW and (ëv)W ë(vW) for all u. ur (ui P Ui ). there exists an invertible matrix T such that [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 TX 6. . 5. Show that if V and W are vector spaces and W: V 3 W is an invertible linear transformation then WÀ1 is a linear transformation. v in V and all ë in F.

. . ws is a basis of V. but V T U1 È U2 È U3. . U2 and U3 be subspaces of a vector space V. . . with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or À1. Let V be a vector space and let W be an endomorphism of V. 9. . Suppose that U1. Prove that dim V dim U1 X X X dim U r X 7. U2 and U3 such that V U1 U2 U3 and U1 U 2 U1 U3 U2 U 3 f0g. . but V T Im ö È Ker ö. (a) Let U1. 6. with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or 0. 5. . . . and that V U1 È . 8. . . ur is a basis of U and w1. . . È Ur. with V U1 U2 U3. Suppose that u1 . Prove that V U È W if and only if V U W and U W = {0}. Show that V U È W. ur . Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. 4. . (3) Im W V. . . 3. . where U fv P V : vW vg.Vector spaces and linear transformations 29 2. W fv P V : vW ÀvgX Deduce that V has a basis B such that [W]B is diagonal. w1. . . . Show that V U1 È U2 È U3 D U 1 (U 2 U3 ) U 2 (U 1 U3 ) U 3 (U 1 U2 ) f0gX (b) Give an example of a vector space V with three subspaces U1. Give an example of a vector space V with endomorphisms W and ö such that V Im W È Ker W. Show that V U È W if and only if u1 . (2) Ker W {0}. . Show that the following are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. ws is a basis of W. Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V and W2 1 V . Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. Ur are subspaces of the vector space V. Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V. . Show that W is a projection if and only if there is a basis B of V such that [W]B is diagonal.

1 De®nition A representation of G over F is a homomorphism r from G to GL (n. and give some examples of representations. for some n. and g À1 r ( gr)À1 for all g P G. it follows that for every representation r: G 3 GL (n. F). We set out this idea in more detail.3 Group representations A representation of a group G gives us a way of visualizing G as a group of matrices. We also introduce the concept of equivalence of representations. and consider the kernel of a representation. F). 30 . To be precise. a representation is a homomorphism from G into a group of invertible matrices. then r is a representation if and only if ( gh)r ( gr)(hr) for all g. The degree of r is the integer n. h P GX Since a representation is a homomorphism. where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. Thus if r is a function from G to GL (n. we have 1r I n . Representations Let G be a group and let F be R or C. 3. F). Recall from the ®rst chapter that GL (n. F) denotes the group of invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F.

.4) that the function r: G 3 GL (2. Then ( gh)r I n I n I n ( gr)(hr) for all g. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X It follows (see Example 1. h P G. where In is the n 3 n identity matrix. F) which is given by r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. The matrices gr for g in D8 are given in the following table: g gr 1 1 0 0 1 a 0 1 À1 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 a3 0 À1 1 0 g gr b 1 0 0 À1 ab 0 À1 À1 0 2 a b À1 0 0 1 3 a b 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G be any group. B À1 0 0 À1 and check that A4 B2 I. Equivalent representations We now look at a way of converting a given representation into another one. The degree of r is 2. so r is a representation of G. as usual. De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 1 1 0 A . b: a4 b2 1.Group representations 31 3. De®ne r: G 3 GL (n. This shows that every group has representations of arbitrarily large degree. F) by gr I n for all g P G. 0 < j < 1) is a representation of D8 over F. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.2 Examples (1) Let G be the dihedral group D8 ka.

2(1). indeed. and let T be an invertible n 3 n matrix over F. and so ó is. 3.32 Representations and characters of groups Let r: G 3 GL (n. ó and ô of G over F. We say that r is equivalent to ó if n m and there exists an invertible n 3 n matrix T such that for all g P G. gó T À1 ( gr)TX Note that for all representations r.4): (1) r is equivalent to r. 3. In other words. b: a4 b2 1. we simply de®ne gó T À1 ( gr)T Then for all g. Note that for all n 3 n matrices A and B.3 De®nition Let r: G 3 GL (m. we have (see Exercise 3. h P G. a representation. Thus ar A for all g P GX . we have (T À1 AT )(T À1 BT ) T À1 (AB)TX We can use this observation to produce a new representation ó from r. then r is equivalent to ô. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. (2) if r is equivalent to ó then ó is equivalent to r. equivalence of representations is an equivalence relation.4 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. F) be a representation. (3) if r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô. ( gh)ó T À1 (( gh)r)T T À1 (( gr)(hr))T T À1 ( gr)T . T À1 (hr)T ( gó )(hó ). F) and ó : G 3 GL (n. F) be representations of G over F. and consider the representation r of G which appears in Example 3.

we have i 0 0 1 À1 À1 T AT . and de®ne 1 T p 2 Then 1 i 1 T À1 p 2 In fact. where A 1 1 . bó aó 1 0 0 Ài The representations r and ó are equivalent. À1 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of G for which 1 0 1 0 . 0 Ài 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of D8 for which 0 1 i 0 X . T BT . T has been constructed so that T À1 AT is diagonal. (2) Let G C2 ka: a2 1l and let À5 A À2 12 X 5 Check that A2 I. a 3 A is a representation of G. . B 0 0 1 X Ài 1 Ài X 1 i 0 X À1 33 0 À1 Assume that F C. . T 1 À1 then T À1 AT 0 . aó 1ó 0 À1 0 1 and ó is equivalent to r. Hence r: 1 3 I. If 2 À3 .Group representations and br B.

as is shown by the following de®nition. In agreement with De®nition 1. F) which is de®ned by gr (1) for all g P G. that is.7 Proposition A representation r of a ®nite group G is faithful if and only if Im r is isomorphic to G. is called the trivial representation of G. Of particular interest are those representations whose kernel is just the identity subgroup. F). if the identity element of G is the only element g for which gr In . the trivial representation of G is the representation where every group element is sent to the 1 3 1 identity matrix. this consists of the group elements g in G for which gr is the identity matrix. 3. It can happen that the kernel of a representation is the whole of G. 3. Kernels of representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the kernel of a representation r: G 3 GL (n.5 De®nition The representation r: G 3 GL (1.8. Thus Ker r f g P G: gr I n gX Note that Ker r is a normal subgroup of G.34 Representations and characters of groups There are two easily recognized situations where the only representation which is equivalent to r is r itself. F) is said to be faithful if Ker r {1}. To put the de®nition another way. 3.6 De®nition A representation r: G 3 GL (n. . and when gr In for all g in G. However. these are when the degree of r is 1. there are usually lots of representations which are equivalent to r.

the factor group G/ Ker r is isomorphic to Im r.2(1) is faithful. In Chapter 6 we shall show that every ®nite group has a faithful representation.10. r is faithful. Summary of Chapter 3 1. (2) Since T À1 AT In if and only if A In . Therefore. A representation of a group G is a homomorphism from G into GL(n. if Ker r {1} then G Im r. A representation is faithful if it is injective. and so |Ker r| 1. that is. it follows that all representations which are equivalent to a faithful representation are faithful. The basic problem of representation theory is to discover and understand representations of ®nite groups. . 2. The group generated by the matrices 0 1 1 0 and À1 0 0 À1 is therefore isomorphic to D8. F). if G Im r. since the identity is the only element g which satis®es gr I.8 Examples (1) The representation r of D8 given by j i 1 0 0 1 i j (a b )r 0 À1 À1 0 as in Example 3. Conversely. for some n. j 3. Representations r and ó of G are equivalent if and only if there exists an invertible matrix T such that for all g P G. (3) The trivial representation of a group G if faithful if and only if G {1}. then these two groups have the same (®nite) order.Group representations 35 Proof We know that Ker r v G and by Theorem 1. gó T À1 ( gr)T X 3.

36 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 3 1. r2 : ar 3 Br . Show that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (1. 3. C. b: a6 b2 1. Which of these representations are faithful? 3. F) such that ar (1) and br (À1). then ó is equivalent to r. Show that each of the functions r j : G 3 GL (2. Let G be the cyclic group of order m. ó and ô are representations of G over F. Let G D12 ka. given by . B. b: an b2 1. Suppose that G D2 n ka. C) (1 < j < 3). (2) if r is equivalent to ó.C 0 À1 1 À1 e2ðia3 and let G ka: a3 1l C3 . then r is equivalent to ô. Suppose that A P GL (n. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. say G ka: am 1l. and ó is equivalent to ô. C). B . D X À 3a2 1a2 0 À1 Prove that each of the functions r k : G 3 GL (2. 5. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. B 0 1 0 . 4. Let A (0 < r < m À 1)X Show that r is a representation of G over C if and only if Am I. D over C by 0 1 eiða3 0 A . r3 : a r 3 C r (0 < r < 2). 4). (3) if r is equivalent to ó. de®ned by r1 : ar 3 Ar . 2. and de®ne r: G 3 GL (n. and F R or C. Prove: (1) r is equivalent to r. 1 0 0 eÀiða3 p 1a2 3a2 1 0 p C . Suppose that r. C) by r: ar 3 Ar 2. 1 0 1 0 . C) (k 1. is a representation of G over C. De®ne the matrices A.

Suppose that g and h are elements of G such that ( gr)(hr) (hr)( gr). Let r be a representation of the group G. Suppose that r is a representation of G of degree 1. r 4 : ar bs 3 C r D s (0 < r < 5. r3 : ar bs 3 (ÀA) r Bs . Prove that Ga Ker r is abelian. r2 : ar bs 3 A3 r (ÀB) s . 37 is a representation of G.Group representations r1 : ar bs 3 Ar Bs . Which of these representations are faithful? Which are equivalent? 6. 7. Give an example of a faithful representation of D8 of degree 3. 0 < s < 1). 8. Does it follow that gh hg? .

is a row vector in V (since the product of a 1 3 n matrix with an n 3 n matrix is again a 1 3 n matrix). FG-modules Let G be a group and let F be R or C. of the row vector v with the n 3 n matrix gr. We now list some basic properties of the multiplication v( gr). . Finally. h P G. First. For all v P V and g P G. the fact that r is a homomorphism shows that v(( gh)r) v( gr)(hr) for all v P V and all g. F) is a representation of G. the matrix product v( gr). Much of the material in the remainder of the book will be presented in terms of FG-modules.4 FG-modules We now introduce the concept of an FG-module. 38 . Next. and show that there is a close connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F. ë n ) with ë i P F. . Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. . the vector space of all row vectors (ë1 . since 1r is the identity matrix. Write V F n . as there are several advantages to this approach to representation theory. we have v(1r) v for all v P V. . the properties of matrix multiplication give (ëv)( gr) ë(v( gr)).

for example. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. satisfying the following conditions for all u. (u v) g ug v g.FG-modules (u v)( gr) u( gr) v( gr) for all u. 39 4.1 Example Let G D8 ka. Note that conditions (1). (ëv) g ë(v g). Then V is an FG-module if a multiplication v g (v P V. (v P V ) . ë P F and g P G. Àë2 ). ë2 ) P F 2 then. v P V. v1 v. the function v 3 vg is an endomorphism of V.2 De®nition Let V be a vector space over F and let G be a group. ë1 ). b: a4 b2 1. v(ar) (Àë2 . 4. Àë1 )X Motivated by the above observations on the product v( gr). v( gh) (v g)h. Thus 1 0 0 1 X . and let r: G 3 GL (2. br ar 0 À1 À1 0 If v (ë1 . v(br) (ë1 . v(a3 r) (ë2 . (4) and (5) in the de®nition ensure that for all g P G. h P G: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) v g P V. g P G) is de®ned. v P V. F) be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. We use the letters F and G in the name `FG-module' to indicate that V is a vector space over F and that G is the group from which we are taking the elements g to form the products v g (v P V). ë P F and g.2(1). we now de®ne an FG-module.

4 Theorem (1) If r: G 3 GL(n. 0. if we let B be the basis (1. let [ g]B denote the matrix of the endomorphism v 3 v g of V. and V F n. v(1r) v.40 Representations and characters of groups 4. 0. X X X . The connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F is revealed in the following basic result. 1) of F n. X X X . (0. (0. relative to the basis B . 4. we have v( gr) P F n . X X X . 1. F) is a representation of G over F. there is a basis B of V such that (2) Assume that V is an FG-module and let B be a basis of V. v(( gh)r) (v( gr))(hr). then V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne the multiplication v g by v g v( gr) gr [ g]B (v P V . and let B be a basis of V. For each g P G. 0). h P G. Then the function g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F. 0. ë P F and g. g P GX Moreover. 0.3 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. Proof (1) We have already observed that for all u. g P G)X for all g P GX Moreover. ( g P G) . then gr [ g]B for all g P G. v P F n. 0). X X X . 0. (u v)( gr) u( gr) v( gr)X Therefore. (ëv)( gr) ë(v( gr)). F n becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g v( gr) for all v P F n .

Therefore each matrix [ g]B is invertible (with inverse [ gÀ1 ]B ).4(1) again). v2 b Àv2 X ( g P G) If B denotes the basis v1 . and hence is a representation of G over F. 0)a (1. In Example . v2 is the basis (1. h P G and all v in the basis B of V. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. a2 b2 . [1]B [ g]B [ g À1 ]B for all g P G. 4. so 0 1 1 0 ar . We have proved that the function g 3 [ g]B is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. F) (where n dim V ). 0) À1 1 0 If v1 . b: a4 b2 1. 1)X 0 (1. v2 . 0). it follows that [ gh]B [ g]B [h]B X In particular.FG-modules 41 (2) Let V be an FG-module with basis B . (2) Let G Q8 ka. then we have v1 a v2 . (0. g P G)X For instance. v2 a Àv1 .4.2(1).4(1). V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g v( gr) (v P V . Now v1 v for all v P V. j Our next example illustrates part (1) of Theorem 4. g 3 [ g]B v1 b v1 .5 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let r be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. 1) of V. then the representation is just the representation r (see Theorem 4. so [1]B is the identity matrix. By Theorem 4. br X À1 0 0 À1 Write V F 2. Since v( gh) (v g)h for all g. (0. b: a4 1.

C) generated by 0 1 i 0 . and then de®ne (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n ) g to be ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g)X As you might expect. that we have a multiplication v g for all v in V and g in G which (ë i P F) . (v1 2v2 )ab v1 ab 2v2 ab v2 b À 2v1 b Àv2 À 2v1 X A similar remark holds for all FG-modules V: if v1 . . . . Shortly.6 Proposition Assume that v1 . we ®rst de®ne v i g for each i and each g in G. v n of V and then extending the action to be linear on the whole of V. To illustrate Theorem 4. To do this. . v2 a Àiv2 . v2 a. The next result will often be used to show that our chosen multiplication turns V into an FG-module.4(1) we must this time take F C. . in Example 4. we shall show you various ways of constructing FG-modules directly. . . then the vectors v i g j (1 < i < n. v n is a basis of a vector space V over F Suppose .42 Representations and characters of groups 1. .2(4) we de®ned Q8 to be the subgroup of GL (2. We then obtain a CG-module with basis v1 . . . v2 such that v1 a iv1 . 1 < j < r) determine v g for all v P V and g P G. without using a representation. For instance. v n is a basis of V and g1 . . F F F . and B A À1 0 0 Ài so we already have a representation of G over C. v1 b v2 . v1 b and v2 b determine v g for all v P V and g P G. 4. gr generate G. we turn a vector space V over F into an FG-module by specifying the action of group elements on a basis v1 . v2 b Àv1 X Notice that in the above examples. that is. . the vectors v1 a. there are restrictions on how we may de®ne the vectors v i g.5(1).

FG-modules

43

satis®es the following conditions for all i with 1 < i < n, for all g, h P G, and for all ë1 , F F F , ë n P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) v i g P V; v i ( gh) (v i g)h; vi 1 vi ; (ë1 v1 . . . ë n v n ) g ë1 (v1 g) . . . ë n (v n g).

Then V is an FG-module. Proof It is clear from (3) and (4) that v1 v for all v P V. Conditions (1) and (4) ensure that for all g in G, the function v 3 v g (v P V) is an endomorphism of V. That is, vg P V, (ëv) g ë(v g), (u v) g ug v g, for all u, v P V, ë P F and g P G. Hence (4X7) (ë1 u1 X X X ë n u n )h ë1 (u1 h) X X X ë n (un h) for all ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, all u1 , . . . , un P V and all h P G. Now let v P V and g, h P G. Then v ë1 v1 . . . ë n v n for some ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, and v( gh) ë1 (v1 ( gh)) X X X ë n (v n ( gh)) (ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g))h (v g)h by condition (4)X by condition (4) ë1 ((v1 g)h) X X X ë n ((v n g)h) by condition (2) by (4X7)

We have now checked all the axioms which are required for V to be an FG-module. j Our next de®nitions translate the concepts of the trivial representation and a faithful representation into module terms. 4.8 De®nitions (1) The trivial FG-module is the 1-dimensional vector space V over F with vg v for all v P V , g P GX

44

Representations and characters of groups

(2) An FG-module V is faithful if the identity element of G is the only element g for which v g v for all v P V X For instance, the FD8 -module which appears in Example 4.5(1) is faithful. Our next aim is to use Proposition 4.6 to construct faithful FGmodules for all subgroups of symmetric groups. Permutation modules Let G be a subgroup of Sn , so that G is a group of permutations of {1, . . . , n}. Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , . . . , v n . For each i with 1 < i < n and each permutation g in G, de®ne v i g v ig X Then v i g P V and v i 1 v i . Also, for g, h in G, v i ( gh) v i( gh) v(ig) h (v i g)hX We now extend the action of each g linearly to the whole of V; that is, for all ë1 , . . . , ë n in F and g in G, we de®ne (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n ) g ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g)X Then V is an FG-module, by Proposition 4.6. 4.9 Example Let G S4 and let B denote the basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 of V. If g (1 2), then v1 g v2 , v2 g v1 , v3 g v3 , v4 g v4 X And if h (1 3 4), then v1 h v3 , v2 h v2 , v3 h v4 , v4 h v1 X We have [ g]B 0 f1 f d0 0 H 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 H I 0 0 f0 0g g, [h]B f d0 0e 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 I 0 0g gX 1e 0

FG-modules

45

4.10 De®nition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . The FG-module V with basis v1 , . . . , v n such that v i g v ig for all i, and all g P G, is called the permutation module for G over F. We call v1 , . . . , v n the natural basis of V. Note that if we write B for the basis v1 , . . . , v n of the permutation module, then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has precisely one nonzero entry in each row and column, and this entry is 1. Such a matrix is called a permutation matrix. Since the only element of G which ®xes every v i is the identity, we see that the permutation module is a faithful FG-module. If you are aware of the fact that every group G of order n is isomorphic to a subgroup of Sn , then you should be able to see that G has a faithful FG-module of dimension n. We shall go into this in more detail in Chapter 6. 4.11 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. Then G is isomorphic to the cyclic subgroup of S3 which is generated by the permutation (1 2 3). This alerts us to the fact that if V is a 3-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , then we may make V into an FG-module in which v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v3 1 v3 , v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 , v1 a2 v3 , v2 a2 v1 , v3 a2 v2 X Of course, we de®ne v g, for v an arbitrary vector in V and g 1, a or a2 , by (ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ë3 v3 ) g ë1 (v1 g) ë2 (v2 g) ë3 (v3 g) for all ë1 , ë2 , ë3 P F. Proposition 4.6 can be used to verify that V is an FG-module, but we have been motivated by the de®nition of permutation modules in our construction. FG-modules and equivalent representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the relationship between FG-modules and equivalent representations of G over F. An FG-

46

Representations and characters of groups

module gives us many representations, all of the form g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) for some basis B of V. The next result shows that all these representations are equivalent to each other (see De®nition 3.3); and moreover, any two equivalent representations of G arise from some FG-module in this way. 4.12 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B , and let r be the representation of G over F de®ned by r: g 3 [ g]B ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 ( g P G)X ( g P G) (1) If B 9 is a basis of V, then the representation of G is equivalent to r. (2) If ó is a representation of G which is equivalent to r, then there is a basis B 0 of V such that ó : g 3 [ g]B 0 ( g P G)X

Proof (1) Let T be the change of basis matrix from B to B 9 (see De®nition 2.23). Then by (2.24), for all g P G, we have [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 9 TX Therefore ö is equivalent to r. (2) Suppose that r and ó are equivalent representations of G. Then for some invertible matrix T, we have gr T À1 ( gó )T for all g P GX Let B 0 be the basis of V such that the change of basis matrix from B to B 0 is T. Then for all g P G, [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 0 T , and so gó [ g]B 0 .

j

4.13 Example Again let G C3 ka: a3 1l. There is a representation r of G which is given by

1r

1 0

FG-modules 0 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a r , ar X À1 À1 1 1 0

47

(To see this, simply note that (ar)2 a2 r and (ar)3 I; see Exercise 3.2.) If V is a 2-dimensional vector space over C, with basis v1 , v2 (which we call B ), then we can turn V into a CG-module as in Theorem 4.4(1) by de®ning v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v1 a v2 , v1 a2 Àv1 À v2 , v2 a2 v1 X À1 X 0

v2 a Àv1 À v2 ,

We then have 1 0 0 [1]B , [a]B 0 1 À1

1 À1 2 , [a ]B À1 1

Now let u1 v1 and u2 v1 v2 . Then u1 , u2 is another basis of V, which we call B 9. Since u1 1 u 1 , u2 1 u 2 , u1 a Àu1 u2 , u2 a Àu1 , u1 a2 Àu2 , u2 a2 u1 À u2 ,

we obtain the representation ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 where 1 0 À1 1 0 À1 2 [1]B 9 , [a]B 9 , [a ]B 9 X 0 1 À1 0 1 À1 Note that if T then for all g in G, we have [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 9 T , and so r and ö are equivalent, in agreement with Theorem 4.12(1).

1 0 1 1

Summary of Chapter 4 1. An FG-module is a vector space over F, together with a multiplication by elements of G on the right. The multiplication satis®es properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4.2.

48

Representations and characters of groups

2. There is a correspondence between representations of G over F and FG-modules, as follows. (a) Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n, F) is a representation of G. Then F n is an FG-module, if we de®ne v g v( gr) (v P F n , g P G)X (b) If V is an FG-module, with basis B , then r: g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F.

3. If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the permutation FG-module has basis v1 , F F F , v n , and v i g v ig for all i with 1 < i < n, and all g in G. Exercises for Chapter 4 1. Suppose that G S3 , and that V sp (v1 , v2 , v3 ) is the permutation module for G over C, as in De®nition 4.10. Let B 1 be the basis v1 , v2 , v3 of V and let B 2 be the basis v1 v2 v3 , v1 À v2 , v1 À v3 . Calculate the 3 3 3 matrices [ g]B 1 and [ g]B 2 for all g in S3 . What do you notice about the matices [ g]B 2 ? 2. Let G Sn and let V becomes an FG-module & v, vg Àv, be a vector space over F. Show that V if we de®ne, for all v in V, if g is an even permutation, if g is an odd permutation.

3. Let Q8 ka, b: a4 1, b2 a2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l, the quaternion group of order 8. Show that there is an RQ8 -module V of dimension 4 with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 such that v1 a v 2 , v1 b v 3 , v2 a Àv1 , v2 b v4 , v3 a Àv4 , v4 a v3 , and v3 b Àv1 , v4 b Àv2 X

4. Let A be an n 3 n matrix and let B be a matrix obtained from A by permuting the rows. Show that there is an n 3 n permutation matrix P such that B PA. Find a similar result for a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns.

5 FG-submodules and reducibility

We begin the study of FG-modules by introducing the basic building blocks of the theory ± the irreducible FG-modules. First we require the notion of an FG-submodule of an FG-module. Throughout, G is a group and F is R or C. FG-submodules 5.1 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. A subset W of V is said to be an FGsubmodule of V if W is a subspace and wg P W for all w P W and all g P G. Thus an FG-submodule of V is a subspace which is also an FGmodule. 5.2 Examples (1) For every FG-module V, the zero subspace {0}, and V itself, are FG-submodules of V. (2) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l, and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule de®ned in Example 4.11. Thus, V has basis v1 , v2 , v3 , and v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v3 1 v3 , v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 , v1 a2 v3 , v2 a2 v1 , v3 a2 v2 X Put w v1 v2 v3, and let W sp (w), the 1-dimensional subspace spanned by w. Since 49

50

Representations and characters of groups w1 wa wa2 w,

W is an FG-submodule of V. However, sp (v1 v2 ) is not an FGsubmodule, since (v1 v2 )a v2 v3 P sp (v1 v2 )X a Irreducible FG-modules 5.3 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be irreducible if it is non-zero and it has no FG-submodules apart from {0} and V. If V has an FG-submodule W with W not equal to {0} or V, then V is reducible. Similarly, a representation r: G 3 GL (n, F) is irreducible if the corresponding FG-module F n given by v g v( gr) (v P F n , g P G) (see Theorem 4.4(1)) is irreducible; and r is reducible if F n is reducible. Suppose that V is a reducible FG-module, so that there is an FGsubmodule W with 0 , dim W , dim V. Take a basis B 1 of W and extend it to a basis B of V. Then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has the form H I Xg 0 d e (5X4) Yg Z g for some matrices Xg , Yg and Zg , where Xg is k 3 k (k dim W). A representation of degree n is reducible if and only if it is equivalent to a representation of the form (5.4), where X g is k 3 k and 0 , k , n. Notice that in (5.4), the functions g 3 Xg and g 3 Z g are representations of G: to see this, let g, h P G and multiply the matrices [ g]B and [h]B given by (5.4). Notice also that if V is reducible then dim V > 2. 5.5 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule with basis v1 , v2 , v3 such that

FG-submodules and reducibility v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 ,

51

as in Example 4.11. We saw in Example 5.2(2) that V is a reducible FG-module, and has an FG-submodule W sp (v1 v2 v3 ). Let B be the basis v1 v2 v3 , v1 , v2 of V. Then H H I I 1 0 0 1 0 0 f f g g [1]B f 0 1 0 g, [a]B f 0 0 1 g, d d e e 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 H I 1 0 0 f g [a2 ]B f 1 À1 À1 gX d e 0 1 0 This reducible representation gives us two other representations: at the `top left' we have the trivial representation and at the `bottom right' we have the representation which is given by 0 1 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a 3 ,a3 X 13 À1 À1 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G D8 and let V F 2 be the 2-dimensional FG-module described in Example 4.5(1). Thus G ka, bl, and for all (ë, ì) P V we have (ë, ì)a (Àì, ë), (ë, ì)b (ë, Àì)X

We claim that V is an irreducible FG-module. To see this, suppose that there is an FG-submodule U which is not equal to V. Then dim U < 1, so U sp ((á, â)) for some á, â P F. As U is an FGmodule, (á, â)b is a scalar multiple of (á, â), and hence either á 0 or â 0. Since (á, â)a is also a scalar multiple of (á, â), this forces á â 0, so U {0}. Consequently V is irreducible, as claimed.

Summary of Chapter 5 1. If V is an FG-module, and W is a subspace of V which is itself an FG-module, then W is an FG-submodule of V. 2. The FG-module V is irreducible if it is non-zero and the only FGsubmodules are {0} and V.

c P S6 by a (1 2 3). â) and (á. 2. Let G C2 ka: a 1l. Find a CG-module which is neither reducible nor irreducible. de®ne (á. (b) Suppose that å and ç are complex cube roots of unity. á). â)1 (á. ab ba. ç is r irreducible? 5. c (2 3)(4 5). b (4 5 6). b. â) P V. â)a (â. Prove that there is a representation r of G over C such that å 0 ç 0 0 1 ar X .5 are irreducible? 4. Which of the four representations of D12 de®ned in Exercise 3. cÀ1 ac aÀ1 and cÀ1 bc bÀ1 X Deduce that G has order 18. and let V F 2. For (á. 2 . 3. (a) Check that a3 b3 c2 1. cr 0 å À1 0 çÀ1 1 0 (c) For which values of å. Let G C13 .52 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 5 1. Let r and ó be equivalent representations of the group G over F. ç is r faithful? (d) For which values of å. and let G ka. b. De®ne the permutations a. cl. Prove that if r is reducible then ó is reducible. Verify that V is an FG-module and ®nd all the FG-submodules of V. br .

. . which will be explored in greater detail later on. . . After de®ning the group algebra of G. group algebras are the source of all you need to know about representation theory. g n . The group algebra of G Let G be a ®nite group whose elements are g1 . known as the regular representation of G. . . Group algebras are therefore of great interest. if u n i1 ë i g i and v n i1 ìi g i are elements of FG. then 53 .6 Group algebras The group algebra of a ®nite group G is a vector space of dimension |G| which also carries extra structure involving the product operation on G. . In a sense. and we call this vector space FG. We de®ne a vector space over F with g1 . g n as a basis. . the ultimate goal of representation theory ± that of understanding all the representations of ®nite groups ± would be achieved if group algebras could be fully analysed. Take as the elements of FG all expressions of the form ë1 g 1 X X X ë n g n (all ë i P F)X The rules for addition and scalar multiplication in FG are the natural ones: namely. we shall use it to construct an important faithful representation. and let F be R or C. In particular. and ë P F.

. v are the elements of CG which appear in Example 6.1.hPG where all ë g . (To avoid confusion with the element 1 of F. . . . FG is a vector space over F of dimension n. g n .1 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 el. in this example. 6. g n is called the natural basis of FG. we write e for the identity element of G. The basis g1 . . . with basis g1 . .54 Representations and characters of groups uv n n (ë i ì i ) g i and ëu (ëë i ) g i X i1 i1 With these rules. then uv (e À a 2a2 )(1 e 5a) 2 1 2e 5a À 1 a À 5a2 a2 10a3 2 9 a À 4a2 X 2 21 2e . (ë h ì hÀ1 g ) g gPG hPG 6.) The vector space CG contains u e À a 2a2 and v 1 e 5aX 2 We have u v 3 e 4a 2a2 .2 Example If G C3 and u. FG carries more structure than that of a vector space ± we can use the product operation on G to de®ne multiplication in FG as follows: 3 2 32 ëg g ìh h ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. ì h P F. 1 u 1 e À 1 a 2 a2 X 2 3 3 3 3 Sometimes we write elements of FG in the form ë g g (ë g P F)X gPG Now. .

namely the element 1e (where 1 is the identity of F and e is the identity of G). (r s)t rt st. 6. r(st) (rs)t. for all r. is called the group algebra of G over F.Group algebras 6.4 Proposition Multiplication in FG satis®es the following properties.kPG r(st)X We leave the proofs of the other equations as easy exercises. ì g . í g P F). We write this element simply as 1. t P FG and ë P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) rs P FG. s ì g g. s. Then (rs)t g. ì h P F).kPG ë g ì h í k ( gh)k ë g ì h í k g(hk) g. r0 0r 0. with multiplication de®ned by 3 2 32 ëg g ìh h ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. The group algebra FG contains an identity for multiplication. r1 1r r. r(s t) rs rt. j .h. gPG gPG gPG (ë g .hPG 55 (ë g . (ër)s ë(rs) r(ës).3 De®nition The vector space FG.h. Proof (1) It follows immediately from the de®nition of rs that rs P FG. (2) Let r ë g g. t í g g.

j 6.4 is called an algebra. with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG.5 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group and F be R or C. v( gh) (v g)h. The elements of FG have the form . Proof Suppose that g P G and v g v for all v P FG. (4) and (5) of Proposition 6.56 Representations and characters of groups In fact. v1 v. so g 1. by parts (1). but it is worth pointing out that the axioms for an algebra mean that it is both a vector space and a ring. The representation g 3 [ g]B obtained by taking B to be the natural basis of FG is called the regular representation of G over F. Then 1 g 1. (ëv) g ë(v g). h P G. and the result follows. 6. (u v) g ug v g. respectively. Let V FG. Therefore V is an FG-module. (3). The regular FG-module We now use the group algebra to de®ne an important FG-module. 6. (2). Note that the regular FG-module has dimension equal to |G|. v P V. any vector space equipped with a multiplication satisfying properties (1)±(7) of Proposition 6.4. For all u. so that V is a vector space of dimension n over F. The vector space FG. ë P F and g. is called the regular FG-module. We shall be concerned only with group algebras. where n |G|. we have vg P V.7 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 el.6 Proposition The regular FG-module is faithful. g P G).

a2 3 d 1 0 0 eX 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 FG acts on an FG-module You will remember that an FG-module is a vector space over F. If r ë(1 2) ì(1 3 4) then v1 r ëv1 (1 2) ìv1 (1 3 4) ëv2 ìv3 . and that v P V and r P FG. De®ne vr by vr ì g (v g)X gPG 6. 6. as described in Example 4. ì P F) . v2 r ëv1 ìv2 . (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )a2 ë2 e ë3 a ë1 a2 X (ë i P F)X 57 By taking matrices relative to the basis e. it is sometimes helpful to extend the de®nition of the multiplication so that we have an element vr of V for all elements r in the group algebra FG. Now. a 3 d 0 0 1 e. This is done in the following natural way. we obtain the regular representation of G: H I H I H I 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 e 3 d 0 1 0 e. (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )a ë3 e ë1 a ë2 a2 . together with a multiplication v g for v P V and g P G (and the multiplication satis®es various axioms).Group algebras ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 We have (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )e ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 .9. (2v1 v2 )r ëv1 (2ë ì)v2 2ìv3 X (ë. a2 of FG.8 De®nition Suppose that V is an FG-module. say r gPG ì g g (ì g P F).9 Examples (1) Let V be the permutation module for S4 . a.

all ë P F and all r.4. and let r. v0 0r 0.58 Representations and characters of groups (2) If V is the regular FG-module. Compare the next result with Proposition 6. (6) j (vr)sX .h g. the element vr is simply the product of v and r as elements of the group algebra. v1 v. 6. s ì h hX gPG hPG Then 2 3 v(rs) v ë g ì h ( gh) g.h 2 g 3 32 ë g (v g) ìh h h by (4). assuming the other parts. v P V. Then the following properties hold for all u. given by De®nition 6. s P FG with r ë g g. (u v)r ur vr.h ë g ì h (v( gh)) ë g ì h ((v g)h) by (4) and (6) g. then for all v P V and r P FG. (ëv)r ë(vr) v(ër).3. We shall give a proof of part (2). (5). and we leave them to you. Proof All parts except (2) are straightforward.10 Proposition Suppose that V is an FG-module. s P FG: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) vr P V. Let v P V. v(rs) (vr)s. v(r s) vr vs.

Show that for every ®nite group G. where the symbol 0 is used for the zero elements of V and FG. Assume that G is a ®nite group. but neither v nor r is 0. .Group algebras Summary of Chapter 6 59 1. The regular FG-module is faithful. The group algebra FG of G over F consists of all linear combinations of elements of G. (b) Let z b a2 b. What is the matrix [W]B . say G { g1 . Show that zg gz for all g in G. does rs 0 imply that r 0 or s 0? 4. prove from the de®nition that 0r 0 for all r P FG. r P FG such that vr 0. Suppose that G D8 ka. (a) Let x and y be the following elements of CG: x a 2a2 . 3. with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. 1. . and write c n for the element i1 g i of CG. For r and s in CG. 2. and v0 0 for all v P V . (a) Prove that ch hc c for all h in G. . . The vector space FG. there exists an FG-module V and elements v P V. . 2. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. (c) Let W: CG 3 CG be the linear transformation sending v to vc for all v in CG. . (b) Deduce that c2 |G|c. where B is the basis g1 . yx and x 2 . b: a4 b2 1. Exercises for Chapter 6 1. gn of CG? 5. with |G| . g P G) is the regular FG-module. . Work out matrices for the regular representation of C2 3 C2 over F. and has a natural multiplication de®ned on it. Let G C2 . . g n }. 3. If V is an FG-module. Deduce that zr rz for all r in CG. y b ab À a2 X Calculate xy. .

. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. b ù2 ab ùa2 b). Prove that the 2-dimensional subspace W of CG. de®ned by W sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . and let ù e2ðia3 . is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CG-module. b: a3 b2 1. Suppose that G D6 ka.60 Representations and characters of groups 6.

we have (vr)W (vW)r since (vr)W gPG ë g (v g)W gPG ë g (vW) g (vW)rX The next result shows that FG-homomorphisms give rise to FGsubmodules in a natural way. respectively. g P GX In other words. Note that if G is a ®nite group and W: V 3 W is an FG-homomorph ism. A function W: V 3 W is said to be an FG-homomorphism if W is a linear transformation and (v g)W (vW) g for all v P V . the `structure-preserving' functions are. FG-homomorphisms 7. The analogous functions for FG-modules are called FG-homomorphisms. submodule of W. group homomorphisms and linear transformations. Then Ker W is an FG-submodule of V and Im W is an FG. then for all v P V and r gPG ë g g P FG. and we introduce these in this chapter. if W sends v to w then it sends v g to wg. 61 .1 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules. 7.7 FG-homomorphisms For groups and vector spaces.2 Proposition Let V and W be FG-modules and let W: V 3 W be an FG-homomorphism.

Provided ë T 0. Therefore Ker W is an FG-submodule of V. Then (v g)W (vW) g 0 g 0. so vg P Ker W. wg (vW) g (v g)W P Im W.8). then W is an FGhomomorphism. De®ne 2 n 3 n W: ëivi 3 ë i w (ë i P F)X i1 i1 Thus v i W w for all i.3 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW 0 for all v P V. j 7. Im W V. we have Ker W {0}. We construct an FG-homomorphism W from V to W.10). Then W is an FG-homomorphism. Now let w P Im W. (2) Let ë P F. and 2 3 2 3 (vW) g ë i wg ë i wX Therefore W is an FG-homomorphism. and so Im W is an FG-submodule of W. . Here. v n ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4. Im W {0}. we have 2 3 2 3 (v g)W ë i v ig W ë i w. . and Ker W V. .62 Representations and characters of groups Proof First note that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. and let W sp (w) be the trivial FG-module (see De®nition 4. i1 i1 Im W W X . (3) Suppose that G is a subgroup of S n . Let v P Ker W and g P G. so that w vW for some v P V. and for all v ë i v i P V and all g P G. . Then W is a linear transformation. since W is a linear transformation. and de®ne W: V 3 V by vW ëv for all v P V. @ n A n Ker W ëi vi : ëi 0 . Let V sp (v1 . For all g P G.

If there is such an FG-isomorphism. we check that if V W then W V. (2) V is irreducible if and only if W is irreducible (since X is an FGsubmodule of V if and only if XW is an FG-submodule of W). . . We call a function W: V 3 W an FGisomorphism if W is an FG-homomorphism and W is invertible. . Then we may use W and WÀ1 to translate back and forth between the isomorphic FGmodules V and W. v n is a basis of V if and only if v1 W. We list some examples below: (1) dim V dim W (since v1 . j as W is an FG-homomorphism Suppose that W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. Proof Certainly WÀ1 is an invertible linear transformation. then the inverse WÀ1 : W 3 V is also an FG-isomorphism. . 7. For w P W and g P G. then we say that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules and write V W. Ker W is an FG-submodule of the permutation module V.4 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules. (3) V contains a trivial FG-submodule if and only if W contains a trivial FG-submodule (since X is a trivial FG-submodule of V if and only if XW is a trivial FG-submodule of W). .5 Proposition If W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. . v n W is a basis of W). . and prove that V and W share the same structural properties.2.FG-homomorphisms 63 By Proposition 7. as required. In the next result. so we need only show that WÀ1 is an FG-homomorphism. . Isomorphic FG-modules 7. . ((wWÀ1 ) g)W ((wWÀ1 )W) g wg ((wg)WÀ1 )WX Hence (wWÀ1 ) g (wg)WÀ1 .

. we deduce that (v i g)W (v i W) g for all i.7). w n is a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P G. This completes the proof of (7. De®ne a representation ö of G by ö: g 3 [ g]B 1 . and let v1 . it follows that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 . . suppose that r and ó are equivalent. . v n W is a basis B 2 of W. Then by Theorem 4. 7. .12(1). . and hence W is an FG-isomorphism. . though. there is a basis B 0 of V such that gó [ g]B 0 for all g P G. Since (v i g)W (v i W) g for each i. Conversely. Let g P G.12(2). there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P G. suppose ®rst that W is an FG-isomorphism from V to W. In the next result. and W is an FGmodule with basis B 9. Conversely. v n be a basis B 1 of V. then v1 W. Let W be the invertible linear transformation from V to W for which v i W w i for all i. suppose that v1 . . Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if the representations r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 are equivalent. . we continue simply to emphasize the similarity between isomorphic FG-modules. Since [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 . ö is equivalent to both r and ó. we show that isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. . For the moment. . . . Then by Theorem 4. .7) The FG-modules V and W are isomorphic if and only if there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P GX To see this.6 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B . we frequently disdain to distinguish between isomorphic FG-modules.64 Representations and characters of groups Just as we often regard isomorphic groups as being identical.7). . By (7. Proof We ®rst establish the following fact: (7. Let g P G. v n is a basis B 1 of V and w1. Now assume that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. . . . Hence r and ó are equivalent.

d d e e 0 0 1 1 0 0 H 0 0 0 1 1 0 I f [a2 ]B 9 f 1 d 0 g 0 gX e Compare the FG-module V de®ned in Example 4.FG-homomorphisms 65 that is.11. We have H H I I 1 0 0 0 1 0 f f g g [1]B 9 f 0 1 0 g.4(1) we encountered two equivalent representations r and ó of G. 7. a. the FG-modules V and W are therefore isomorphic. v2 . and let W denote the regular FG-module.8 Example Let G ka: a3 1l. v2 a v3 . v3 such that v1 a v2 .7). the function W: ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ë3 v3 3 ë1 1 ë2 a ë3 a2 is an FG-isomorphism from V to W. bó Ài 1 1 X 0 (ë i P F) . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. a2 is a basis of W. a cyclic group of order 3. we have [ g]B [ g]B 9 for all g P GX According to (7. call it B 9. v3 of V. v2 . with basis v1 .7). where 0 1 1 0 ar . j 7. [ g]B 9 [ g]B 0 for all g P G. Then 1.9 Example Let G D8 ka. br À1 0 0 À1 and aó i 0 0 0 . b: a4 b2 1. by (7. v3 a v1 X Writing B for the basis v1 . Indeed. In Example 3. [a]B 9 f 0 0 1 g. Therefore V and W are isomorphic FG-modules.

where U and W are FG-submodules of V. and w1. .66 Representations and characters of groups Let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . Let u1 .6. and suppose that V U È W. w2 for which w1 a iw1 . v1 b v1 . and for g P G. if we write B for the basis v1 . w2 of W.4(1). w1. . the CG-modules V and W are isomorphic. w1 b w2 . and we show that these give rise to FG-homomorphisms. let W be the CG-module with basis w1. . . let W: V 3 W be the invertible linear transformation such that W: v1 3 w1 w2 .9). . . .) Direct sums We conclude the chapter with a discussion of direct sums of FGmodules. (Compare Example 3. then we can amalgamate B 1 . . H I 0 [ g]B 1 eX [ g]B d 0 [ g]B 2 More generally. . w n is a basis B of V. v2 3 iw1 À iw2 X Then (v j a)W (v j W)a and (v j b)W (v j W)b for j 1. u m . . v2 a Àv1 . . v2 b Àv2 (see Example 4. a direct sum of FG-submodules Ui. . . w2 a Àiw2 . . v2 for which v1 a v2 . B r to . v2 of V and B 9 for the basis w1. u1 . . w n be a basis B 2 of W. È Ur. and hence W is a CG-isomorphism from V to W. To verify this directly. then for all g P G we have r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 X According to Theorem 7. since r and ó are equivalent. and. . and B i is a basis of Ui.5(1)). 2. w2 b w1 Thus. . . Then by (2. if V U1 È . . in a similar way. . u m be a basis B 1 of U. . . Let V be an FG-module.

. ur for unique vectors ui P Ui. i so ð2 ð i . and ð i is an FG-homomorphism. H [ g]B 1 f FF [ g]B d (7X10) F 67 I g eX 0 [ g]B r 0 The next result shows that direct sums give rise naturally to FGhomomorphisms. and is also a projection of V .FG-homomorphisms obtain a basis B of V. where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V Then V is a direct .30). For v P V we have . j . Proof Clearly ð i is a linear transformation. i We now present a technical result concerning sums of irreducible FG-modules which will be used at a later stage. and suppose that V U1 È X X X È U r where each Ui is an FG-submodule of V. 7.11 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. .12 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. and g P G. u r (u j P U j for all j). Thus ð i is a projection (see De®nition 2. and we de®ne ð i : V 3 V (1 < i < r) by setting vð i ui X Then each ð i is an FG-homomorphism. vð 2 ui ð i ui vð i . and for g P G. 7. . v u1 . since for v P V with v u1 . we have (v g)ð i (u1 g X X X ur g)ð i ui g (vð i ) gX Also. sum of some of the FG-submodules Ui. . and suppose that V U1 X X X Ur .

. If V and W are FG-modules and W: V 3 W is a linear transformation which satis®es (v g)W (vW) g for all v P V. . X X X . and Ui is irreducible. v r ) g (v1 g. but W 1 X X X W s U i is not direct. Then W Ui is not a direct sum. . Isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. . . . so assume that Ui P Y. then we can make the external direct sum V1 È F F F ÈVr (see Chapter 2) into an FGmodule by de®ning (v1 . . If Ui P Y this is clear. Ur so that the sum of our chosen FG-submodules is direct. 3. . F F F . then W is an FG-homomorphism. Summary of Chapter 7 1. . Since U i W for all i with 1 < i < r. Ws } of {U1. Exercises for Chapter 7 1. V and W be FG-modules. But W Ui a is an FG-submodule of Ui. To this end. . . X X X . and so Ui # W.68 Representations and characters of groups Proof The idea is to choose as many as we can of the FG-submodules U1. v r g) for all v i P Vi (1 < i < r) and all g P G. and let W: U 3 V and ö: V 3 W be FG-homomorphisms. as claimed. 2. we have V W W 1 È F F F ÈW s . Prove that Wö: U 3 W is an FG-homomorphism. if Ui P Y X a Let W W1 X X X WsX We claim that Ui # W for all i. Ur } which has the properties that W 1 X X X W s is direct (iXeX equal to W 1 È X X X È W s ). so W Ui T {0}. . Kernels and images of FG-homomorphisms are FG-modules. Let U. V r are FG-modules. therefore W Ui Ui. we remark that if V1 . as required. . g P G. choose a subset Y {W1. j Finally.

â P F) is an FG-homomorphism from the regular FG-module to itself. Is it necessarily surjective? 4. De®ne the FGsubmodules V0 and W0 of V and W as in Exercise 3. Let G C2 kx: x 2 1l. Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by (1 2) and (3 4). Assume that V is an FG-module.FG-homomorphisms 69 2. Show that the function W: v 3 v g (v P V ) gPG is an FG-homomorphism from V to V0 . (c) Find a basis B of FG such that 2 0 [W]B X 0 0 . Prove that the permutation module for G over F is isomorphic to the regular FG-module. (a) Show that the function W: á1 âx 3 (á À â)(1 À x) (á. Let G be the subgroup of S5 which is generated by (1 2 3 4 5). 3. Suppose that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. (b) Prove that W2 2W. Prove that the subset V0 fv P V : v g v for all g P Gg is an FG-submodule of V. Prove that V0 and W0 are isomorphic FG-modules. 5. Is the permutation module for G over F isomorphic to the regular FG-module? 6.

v3 ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4. we illustrate it with some examples.2(2) below.8 Maschke's Theorem We now come to our ®rst major result in representation theory. Put u v1 v2 v3 and U sp (u)X Then U is an FG-submodule of V. Maschke's Theorem 8. where as usual F R or C. namely Maschke's Theorem. and let V be an FG-module. v2 . We shall ®nd this W in an 70 . (The assumption on F is important ± see Example 8. v2 À 2v3 ).) This essentially reduces representation theory to the study of irreducible FG-modules. let F be R or C. then there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È WX Before proving Maschke's Theorem.1 Maschke's Theorem Let G be a ®nite group. A consequence of this theorem is that every FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. If U is an FG-submodule of V. only one FGsubmodule W of V with V U È W.10). since ug u for all g P G. for instance sp (v2 . in fact. v3 ) and sp (v1 . 8.2 Examples (1) Let G S3 and let V sp (v1 . There are many subspaces W of V such that V U È W. But there is.

and let W0 sp (v m1 . and take F to be the ®eld of integers modulo p.1 We are given U. . Choose any subspace W0 of V such that V U È W0X (There are many choices for W0 ± simply take a basis v1 .29. . . let p be a prime number. For v P V and x P G. ö is a projection of V with kernel W0 and image U. v m of U. de®ne W: V 3 V by (8X3) vW 1 v gö g À1 jGj gPG (v P V )X It is clear that W is an endomorphism of V and Im W # U. v n ). an FG-submodule of the FG-module V. v2 ). and we de®ne ö: V 3 V by setting vö u. The corresponding FG-module is V sp (v1 . To this end. . as can easily be seen. X X X . (2) The conclusion of Maschke's Theorem can fail if F is not R or C. 1. . . since U is the only 1-dimensional FG-submodule of V. F). . U sp (v1 ) is an FG-submodule of V.Maschke's Theorem 71 example after proving Maschke's Theorem (but you may like to look for it yourself now). . But there is no FGsubmodule W such that V U È W. For example. extend it to a basis v1 . . We aim to modify the projection ö to create an FG-homomorphism from V to V with image U. Check that the function 1 0 j a 3 ( j 0. v1 a j v1 . v n of V. let G C p ka: a p 1l. We show ®rst that W is an FG-homomorphism. Proof of Maschke's Theorem 8. where. v2 a j jv1 v2 X Clearly. we have v u w for unique vectors u P U and w P W 0. . . for 0 < j < p À 1.) For v P V. By Proposition 2. . (vx)W 1 (vx) gö g À1 X jGj gPG . p À 1) j 1 is a representation from G to GL (2.

so does h xg. Let W Ker W. We use the proof of Maschke's Theorem to ®nd an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È W. First. as in Example 8. let W0 sp (v1 . we prove that W2 W. Then W is an FG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. First note that for u P U. We have now established that W: V 3 V is a projection and an FGhomomorphism.32. Then V U È W0 (but of course W0 is not an FG-submodule).4) shows that Im W U. so W sp (v1 À v2 . and V U È W by Proposition 2. W ë i v i : ë i 0 . Next. Using this. The projection ö onto U is given by ö: v1 3 0. v2 3 0. v3 ) be the permutation module. 3)X 3 The required FG-submodule W is then Ker W.72 Representations and characters of groups As g runs over the elements of G. v3 3 v1 v2 v3 X Check now that the FG-homomorphism W given by (8. the FG-submodule constructed in Example 7. we have ug P U. 2. with submodule U sp (v1 v2 v3 ). Then vW P U. g P G.4) we have (vW)W vW. j 8.2.5 Example Let G S3 and let V sp (v1 . (8. v2 ). and so (ug)ö ug. 1 1 1 uW (8X4) ugö g À1 (ug) g À1 u uX jGj gPG jGj gPG jGj gPG Now let v P V. Moreover.3(3). as claimed.3) is W: v i 3 1(v1 v2 v3 ) (i 1.) . v2 À v3 )X È É (In fact. so by (8. This completes the proof of Maschke's Theorem.2(1). Consequently W2 W. Hence 1 (vx)W vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG 2 3 1 vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG (vW)xX Thus W is an FG-homomorphism. v2 .

. if we can choose a basis B of an FGmodule V such that [ g]B has the form H I Ã 0 d e Ã Ã for all g P G (see (5. the matrix [ g]B has the form H I j 0 0 [ g]B d j j j eX j j j The zeros re¯ect the fact that U is an FG-submodule of V (see (5. then we get H I j 0 0 [ g]B 9 d 0 j j e. g 3d Yg Zg for some matrices X g . Z g . If instead we use v1 v2 v3 . 0 j j because sp (v1 À v2 . n. then we can ®nd a basis B 9 such that [ g]B 9 has the form H I Ã 0 d e 0 Ã for all g P G. To put this another way.4)). suppose that r is a reducible representation of a ®nite group G over F of degree n. v2 À v3 ) is also an FG-submodule of V. k . where X g is k 3 k with 0 .4)). Yg. v1 . then for all g P G. Then we know that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G). v2 À v3 as a basis B 9. v1 À v2 .Maschke's Theorem 73 Note that if B is the basis v1 v2 v3 . v2 of V. This example illustrates the matrix version of Maschke's Theorem: for an arbitrary ®nite group G.

dim V. The proof goes by induction on dim V.10).74 Representations and characters of groups Maschke's Theorem asserts further that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Ag 0 e. Consequences of Maschke's Theorem We now use Maschke's Theorem to show that every non-zero FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. By Maschke's Theorem. W W 1 È X X X È W s . we simply mean an FG-submodule which is an irreducible FG-module. where each Ui and W j is an irreducible FG-module. Since dim U . g 3d 0 Bg where A g is also a k 3 k matrix. then every non-zero FG-module is completely reducible.) 8. Then by (2. so suppose that V is reducible. Proof Let V be a non-zero FG-module. The result is true if dim V 1. since V is irreducible in this case. dim V and dim W . Then V has an FG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V.7 Theorem If G is a ®nite group and F R or C. U U1 È X X X È Ur . . 8. we have. (By an irreducible FG-submodule.6 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be completely reducible if V U1 È F F F ÈU r . If V is irreducible then the result holds. where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V. by induction. a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules. V U1 È X X X È Ur È W 1 È X X X È W s . j Another useful consequence of Maschke's Theorem is the next proposition. there is an FG-submodule W such that V U È W.

express the group algebra RG as a direct sum of 1-dimensional RG-submodules. We begin our study of these in the next chapter. we may concentrate upon the irreducible FG-modules. Maschke's Theorem says that for every FG-submodule U of an FGmodule V. in order to understand FG-modules. by Proposition 7. where v1 x v2 . 2. w P W ) j is an FG-homomorphism onto U. and let V be the 2-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 .11. Proof By Maschke's Theorem. If G C2 3 C2 .7 tells us that every non-zero FG-module is a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules. v2 x Àv1 À v2 X (This is a CG-module.2.8 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. . Let G kx: x 3 1l C3 . Theorem 8. Summary of Chapter 8 Assume that G is a ®nite group and F R or C.Maschke's Theorem 75 8. there is an FG-submodule W with V U È WX 2. Every non-zero FG-module V is a direct sum of irreducible FGmodules: V U1 È X X X È Ur X Exercises for Chapter 8 1. Thus.) Express V as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Then there exists a surjective FG-homomorphism from V onto U. v2 . Suppose that U is an FG-submodule of V. there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È W. where F R or C and G is a ®nite group. Then the function ð: V 3 U which is de®ned by ð: u w 3 u (u P U . 1. by Exercise 3.

Suppose that G is the in®nite group & ' 1 0 : nPZ n 1 and let V be the CG-module C2 . v P V and g P GX (2) Suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V.2(2). ì j P C. (You may care to revisit Example 5. An alternative proof of Maschke's Theorem for CG-modules. . De®ne a complex inner product ( . 4. ] is a complex inner product. h in G such that the matrices gr and hr do not commute. 5. 2 n 3 n n ëi vi . v] for all u. Show that V is not completely reducible. ) on V as follows (see (14. . a CG-module V and a CG-homomorphism W: V 3 V such that V T Ker W È Im W.5(2) and Exercises 5.1. C) be a representation of G. Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 .) 5. which satis®es [ug. Prove that r is irreducible. ì jv j ëi ìiX i1 j1 i1 De®ne another complex inner product [ . v n and suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. the vector vg is just the product of the row vector v with the matrix g). ] on V by [u. with the natural multiplication by elements of G (so that for v P V. Find a group G. .) 6. 5.3. v] 0 for all u P U gX Show that U c is a CG-submodule of V. .2) for the de®nition of a complex inner product): for ë i . Let G be a ®nite group and let r: G 3 GL (2. 6. Suppose that there are elements g.6 in the light of this result. vg] [u. and de®ne U c fv P V : [u. vx) (u. g P G. v] (ux.4. v P V )X xPG (1) Verify that [ . (This shows that Maschke's Theorem fails for in®nite groups ± compare Example 8.76 Representations and characters of groups 3. .

Maschke's Theorem 77 (3) Deduce Maschke's Theorem. there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module.) 7. (Hint: it is a standard property of complex inner products that V U È U c for all subspaces U of V. Prove that for every ®nite simple group G. .

(2) If W: V 3 V is a CG-isomorphism. As Im W is a CG-submodule of W by Proposition 7. Proof (1) Suppose that vW T 0 for some v P V. Then Im W T {0}. Thus W is invertible. and so Ker (W À ë1 V ) T {0}.9 Schur's Lemma Schur's Lemma is a basic result concerning irreducible modules. Though simple in both statement and proof. as Ker W T V and V is irreducible. Thus Ker (W À ë1 V ) is a non-zero CG-submodule 78 . Also by Proposition 7. and hence is a CG-isomorphism.1 Schur's Lemma Let V and W be irreducible CG-modules. then W is a scalar multiple of the identity endomorphism 1 V . (2) By (2. then either W is a CGisomorphism. or vW 0 for all v P V. we shall deal with CG-modules for the remainder of the book (except in Chapter 23). (1) If W: V 3 W is a CG-homomorphism. Ker W is a CG-submodule of V. G denotes a ®nite group. Ker W {0}.26). Schur's Lemma is fundamental to representation theory. and since much of the ensuing theory depends on it. we have Im W W. Schur's Lemma concerns CG-modules rather than RG-modules. Throughout. and we give an immediate application by determining all the irreducible representations of ®nite abelian groups. and W is irreducible.2. the endomorphism W has an eigenvalue ë P C. Schur's Lemma 9.2.

for all g P G . Therefore v(W À ë1 V ) 0 That is. Part (2) of Schur's Lemma has the following converse. for all v P V X 79 j 9. Hence V is irreducible. g P G. which is a contradiction. j We next interpret Schur's Lemma and its converse in terms of representations. and suppose that every CG-homomorphism from V to V is a scalar multiple of 1 V .4(1). Then r is irreducible if and only if every n 3 n matrix A which satis®es ( gr)A A( gr) has the form A ëI n with ë P C. Then V is irreducible. 9. there is a CGsubmodule W of V such that V U È WX Then the projection ð: V 3 V de®ned by (u w)ð u for all u P U. Since V is irreducible. so that V has a CG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. Proof As in Theorem 4. g P G. Let A be an n 3 n matrix over C. Proof Suppose that V is reducible.11).2 Proposition Let V be a non-zero CG-module. w P W is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. By Maschke's Theorem.Schur's Lemma of V.3 Corollary Let r: G 3 GL (n. C) be a representation of G. Ker (W À ë1 V ) V. The endomorphism v 3 vA of C n is a CG-homomorphism if and only if (v g)A (vA) g for all v P C n . and is not a scalar multiple of 1 V . W ë1 V . as required. regard C n as a CG-module by de®ning v g v( gr) for all v P C n .

C) for which ar Assume that the matrix A á ã â ä ù 0 0 . and let ù e2ðia5 . and then (br)A A(br) gives á ä. Hence A á 0 0 á áIX Consequently r is irreducible. Since the matrix 0 À1 1 À1 commutes with all gr ( g P G).4 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l.1 and Proposition 9. j 9. Corollary 9.2.3 implies that r is reducible. The fact that (ar)A A(ar) forces â ã 0.3.2). . C) be the representation for which ar 0 À1 1 À1 (see Exercise 3.80 Representations and characters of groups that is. and let r: G 3 GL (2. Check that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (2. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. ùÀ1 br 0 1 1 X 0 commutes with both ar and br. b: a5 b2 1. by Corollary 9. if and only if ( gr)A A( gr) for all g P GX The result now follows from Schur's Lemma 9. (2) Let G D10 ka.

The next result is a major structure theorem for ®nite abelian groups. with g in i 1 and g i g j g j g i for all i. and let V be an irreducible CGmodule. and for 1 < i < r. Write g i (1.1(2). 3 C n r . Thus vx ë x v for all v P V X This implies that every subspace of V is a CG-submodule. jX Now let r: G 3 GL (n. .6. . then every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. g r i. and hence the endomorphism v 3 vx of V is a CG-homomorphism. . n r are positive integers.6 Theorem Every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. but refer you to Chapter 9 of the book of J. . By Schur's Lemma 9. this endomorphism is a scalar multiple of the identity 1 V .Schur's Lemma Representation theory of ®nite abelian groups 81 Let G be a ®nite abelian group. C) be an irreducible representation of G (ci in ith position)X . this covers the irreducible representations of all ®nite abelian groups. we deduce that dim V 1. say ë x 1 V .5 Proposition If G is a ®nite abelian group. ci . 1) Then G h g1 . . Let G C n1 3 . Thus we have proved 9. We shall not prove it here. As V is irreducible. let c i be a generator for C n i . B. v gx vxg for all g P G. X X X . By Theorem 9. . X X X . Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. Pick x P G. 9. Since G is abelian. X X X . We shall determine the irreducible representations of all direct products C n1 3 C n2 3 X X X 3 C n r where n1 .

g irr for some integers i1 . and put ù e2ðia n . i r . . There are |G| of these representations. . 3 C n r . we have g g11 . We have proved the following theorem. v1 g 2 v2 . The n irreducible representations of G over C are rù j (0 < j < n À 1). there exists ë i P C such that g i r (ë i ) (where of course (ë i ) is a 1 3 1 matrix). 2. where ak rù j (ù jk ) (0 < k < n À 1)X (2) The four irreducible CG-modules for G C2 3 C2 k g1 .XXX. we have ë in i 1. v4 g 2 Àv4 X . n r such representations. 3. .82 Representations and characters of groups over C. . . Also. . the values ë1 . . v4 g 1 Àv4 . write r rë1 . V4 .XXX. As g i has order n i . and every irreducible representation of G over C is equivalent to precisely one of them. ë r i determine r.ë r of G constructed above are irreducible and have degree 1. . .ë r X Conversely. . . v2 g 1 v2 .7) for all i1 .5. since for g P G. v2 g 2 Àv2 . given any n i th roots of unity ë i (1 < i < r). that is. . g2 l are V1 . 9. ë i is an n i th root of unity. and no two of them are equivalent.9 Examples (1) Let G C n ka: a n 1l. . where Vi is a 1-dimensional space with basis v i (i 1. and then (9X7) i i gr ( g 11 X X X g irr )r (ë11 X X Xë irr )X For a representation r of G satisfying (9. v3 g 1 Àv3 . . V2 . v3 g 2 v3 . Then n 1 by Proposition 9.8 Theorem Let G be the abelian group C n1 3 . so for 1 < i < r. . The representations rë1 . i r . . There are n1 n2 . 4) and v1 g 1 v1 . . . V3 . the function i i g 11 X X X g irr 3 (ë11 X X Xë irr ) is a representation of G. 9.

u r of V. there exists an integer m i such that ui g ù m i u i X Thus if B is the basis u1 . . By Theorem 8. is de®ned by Z(CG) fz P CG: zr rz for all r P CGgX Using (2. . V U1 È X X X È Ur . Put ù e2ðia n .5). and let V be a non-zero C H-module.7. we shall see that Z(CG) plays a crucial role in . If g P G.12 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group. the result follows from (9. For abelian groups G. a direct sum of irreducible C H-submodules Ui of V. then the entries on the diagonal of [ g]B are nth roots of unity.Schur's Lemma Diagonalization 83 Let H k gl be a cyclic group of order n. 9. by Proposition 9. written Z(CG). If g has order n. Each Ui has dimension 1. 9. then H m1 I ù 0 f g FF (9X10) [ g]B d eX F 0 ù mr The following useful result is an immediate consequence of this. As V is also a C H-module. let u i be a vector spanning Ui. the centre Z(CG) is the whole group algebra. j Some further applications of Schur's Lemma Our next application concerns an important subspace of the group algebra CG.10). then there is a basis B of V such that the matrix [ g]B is diagonal.5. . For arbitrary groups G. Proof Let H k gl.11 Proposition Let G be a ®nite group and V a CG-module. . it is easy to check that Z(CG) is a subspace of CG. Then for each i. The centre of the group algebra CG.

write z h. so the elements 1. and the result follows. its dimension is equal to the number of irreducible representations of G ± see Chapter 15). For example. 9. then {1}. Consequently zr rz for all r P CG. hP H hP H hP H hP H and so zg gz. b: a3 b2 1. then h P Z(CG)X To see this. if G D6 ka. which we now de®ne. We use Schur's Lemma to prove the following important property of the elements of Z(CG).1(2). we have vrz vzr. . Then for all g P G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. and let z P Z(CG).84 Representations and characters of groups the study of representations of G (for example. By Schur's Lemma 9. if H is any normal subgroup of G. this CG-homomorphism is equal to ë1 V for some ë P C. j Some elements of the centre of CG are provided by the centre of G. g À1 zg g À1 hg h z.13 Example The elements 1 and gPG g lie in Z(CG). and hence the function v 3 vz is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. Indeed. Then there exists ë P C such that vz ëv for all v P V X Proof For all r P CG and v P V.14 Proposition Let V be an irreducible CG-module. 9. 1 a a2 and 1 a a2 b ab a2 b lie in Z(CG). kal and G are normal subgroups of G. We shall see later that these elements in fact form a basis of Z(CG).

9. written Z(G). Proof Let V be a faithful irreducible CG-module. then Z(G) is cyclic. C2 3 C2 has no faithful irreducible representation (compare Example 9. j We remark that the converse of Proposition 9. they . there exists ë z P C such that vz ë z v for all v P V X Since V is faithful. Although we have seen in Proposition 6. the following result shows that the existence of a faithful irreducible CG-module imposes a strong restriction on the structure of G.6 that for every ®nite group G there is a faithful CG-module. since in Exercise 25. then G Z(G). Indeed. For example. The irreducible representations of non-abelian groups are more dif®cult to construct than those of abelian groups.17 Example If G is an abelian group.16. 9. Therefore Z(G) {ë z : z P Z(G)}.Schur's Lemma 9.16 Proposition If there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module. we give an example of a group G such that Z(G) is cyclic but there exists no faithful irreducible CG-module.16 is false. is cyclic (see Exercise 1. and hence by Proposition 9. In particular. which. there is no faithful irreducible CG-module unless G is cyclic.14.7).6. the function z 3 ëz (z P Z(G)) is an injective homomorphism from Z(G) into the multiplicative group CÃ of non-zero complex numbers. and is a subset of Z(CG).15 De®nition The centre of G. being a ®nite subgroup of CÃ . and so by Proposition 9.9(2)). it is not necessarily the case that there is a faithful irreducible CG-module. If z P Z(G) then z lies in Z(CG). is de®ned by Z(G) fz P G: zg gz for all g P GgX 85 Clearly Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G.

where each Vi is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule CG. . the matrices [x]B and [ y]B are diagonal. and hence they commute.18 Proposition Suppose that G is a ®nite group such that every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. 3. Then G is abelian. Schur's Lemma states that every CG-homomorphism between irreducible CG-modules is either zero or a CG-isomorphism. as required. Then v1 . C3 and C2 3 C2 . Hence G is abelian. Since the representation g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) of G is faithful (see Proposition 6. since we are assuming that all irreducible CG-modules have dimension 1. . For all x. y P G. j Summary of Chapter 9 1. . For 1 < i < n. call it B . the only CG-homomorphisms from an irreducible CG-module to itself are scalar multiples of the identity.86 Representations and characters of groups do not all have degree 1. Proof By Theorem 8. The centre Z(CG) of the group algebra CG consists of those elements which commute with all elements of CG. and there are precisely |G| of them. we deduce that x and y commute. . v n is a basis of CG.6). Also.5. . we can write CG V1 È X X X È Vn . as is shown by the following converse to Proposition 9. Write down the irreducible representations over C of the groups C2 . Then dim Vi 1 for all i. 9. All irreducible CG-modules for a ®nite abelian group G have dimension 1. let v i be a vector spanning V i . Exercises for Chapter 9 1. 2.7. The elements of Z(CG) act as scalar multiples of the identity on all irreducible CGmodules.

Prove that G has a faithful representation of degree r. bó 4 À5 M( gr) ( gr)M for all g P G. (b) Find ë P C such that w(a aÀ1 ) ëw for all w P W. irreducible. . (Compare Proposition 9.) . Let G be the ®nite abelian group C n1 3 . br X À5 7 À4 5 Find all 2 3 2 matrices M such that Hence determine whether or not r is Do the same for the representation 5 À6 aó .6). (a) Show that a aÀ1 P Z(CG). Can G have a faithful representation of degree less than r? 4. Let G C4 3 C4 . 3. then there exists ë P C such that 2 3 v g ëv for all v P V X gPG 6. Check that there is a representation r of G over C such that À7 10 À5 6 ar . . b: a3 b2 1. b: a4 b2 1. b ù2 ab ùa2 b) (see Exercise 6.14. Show that if V is an irreducible CG-module. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.Schur's Lemma 87 2. (a) Find a non-trivial irreducible representation r of G such that g2 r (1) for all g P G. Suppose that G D8 ka. where À5 6 X À4 5 5. Write ù e2ðia3 . and let W be the irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule de®ned by W sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Let G D6 ka. 3 C n r . (b) Prove that there is no irreducible representation ó of G such that gó (À1) for all elements g of order 2 in G. ó of G.

(d) C3 3 D8. (b) D8 .88 Representations and characters of groups 7. (c) C2 3 D8 . Which of the following groups have a faithful irreducible representation? (a) C n (n a positive integer). .

. to ®nd all irreducible CG-modules. De®ne a function W: U 3 Im W by uW uW (u P U )X 89 . Proof Since Ker W is a CG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. we can write CG U1 È X X X È Ur where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. .8). there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (a result which has already been established for abelian groups in Theorem 9.7. unless G is a small group. Also. By Theorem 8.1 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules and let W: V 3 W be a CG-homomorphism. in theory. Then there is a CG-submodule U of V such that V Ker W È U and U Im W. this is not really a practical way of ®nding the irreducible CG-modules. . it is suf®cient to decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra Let G be a ®nite group and CG be the group algebra of G over C. there is by Maschke's Theorem a CG-submodule U of V such that V Ker W È U . As a consequence. Irreducible submodules of CG We begin with another consequence of Maschke's Theorem. Ur. We shall show in this chapter that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules U1. However. . 10.2. Consider CG as the regular CG-module.

as the following example shows. Therefore U Ui. Proof For u P U.2 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. 10. As U and Ui are irreducible. hence Ker W {0}. Thus U Im W. we have u u1 .3 Example Let G be any group and let V be a 2-dimensional CG-module. as required.90 Representations and characters of groups We show that W is a CG-isomorphism from U to Im W. and write V U1 È X X X È Us . Now ð i is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7.11). since W is a CG-homomorphism. . . . We have now established that W: U 3 Im W is an invertible CG-homomorphism. Then V U1 È U2 . However. 10. us for unique vectors ui P Ui (1 < i < s). then we say that U is a composition factor of V if V has a CG-submodule which is isomorphic to U. È Us (each Ui irreducible) without U being equal to any Ui. 10. U sp (v1 v2 ) is an irreducible CG-submodule which is not equal to U1 or U2. If u P Ker W then u P Ker W U {0}. so w vW for some v P V. Now let w P Im W. Clearly W is a CG-homomorphism. . such that v g v for all v P V and g P G. De®ne ð i : U 3 Ui by setting uð i ui . u P U. Choosing i such that ui T 0 for some u P U. Write v k u with k P Ker W. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. j Of course it can happen that U is an irreducible CG-submodule of U1 È . If U is any irreducible CG-submodule of V. . Then w vW kW uW uW uWX Therefore Im W Im W. then U Ui for some i. v2 . Schur's Lemma 9. where U1 sp (v1 ) and U2 sp (v2 ) are irreducible CG-submodules. we have ð i T 0. and ð i T 0. with basis v1 .1(1) implies that ð i is a CG-isomorphism.4 De®nitions (1) If V is a CG-module and U is an irreducible CG-module.

(rs)W w(rs) (wr)s (rW)sX By Proposition 10. which shows that every irreducible CG-module is a composition factor of the regular CG-module.Irreducible modules and the group algebra 91 (2) Two CG-modules V and W are said to have a common composition factor if there is an irreducible CG-module which is a composition factor of both V and W. it follows that (10X6) W fwr: r P CGgX Now de®ne W: CG 3 W by rW wr (r P CG)X Clearly W is a linear transformation. since for r.5 shows that there is a ®nite set of irreducible CGmodules such that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of them. since W is irreducible. then W Ui. W is a CG-homomorphism. . 10. and write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . Observe that {wr: r P CG} is a CG-submodule of W. We record this fact in the following corollary. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.2 we have U Ui for some i. j Theorem 10.6). Proof Let W be an irreducible CG-module. and the result is proved. s P CG. 10. there is a CG-submodule U of CG such that CG U È Ker W and U Im W W X As W is irreducible.1.5 Theorem Regard CG as the regular CG-module. Then every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules Ui. and choose a non-zero vector w P W. By Proposition 10. Moreover. and Im W W by (10. then there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.7 Corollary If G is a ®nite group. We now come to the main result of the chapter. so is U.

b: a3 b2 1. v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 . 1. w2 bv2 X ( b ba ba2 ). w0 bv0 w1 bv1 . U1 or U2. 2. As in (1) above.5.5. v2 b w1 . 2X Hence Ui is a CG-submodule of CG for i 0. and write ù e2ðia3 . and similarly vi a ùi vi for i 0. w2 b v1 X . We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. By Theorem 10. 2.8 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. We now do this for a couple of examples. Next. however. Then v1 a a ù2 a2 ù1 ùv1 . this is not a practical method for studying CG-modules in general. and so sp (v i ) and sp (wi ) are Ckal-modules. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. v2 1 ùa ù2 a2 . It is easy to check that v0 . v2 is a basis of CG. every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to U0. v1 b w2 . and hence CG U0 È U 1 È U2 . note that v0 b w 0 . The irreducible representation of G corresponding to Ui is the representation rù i of Example 9. 1. 1. Let ù e2ðia3 and de®ne v0 1 a a2 . w1 b v2 . v1 . v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 . v2 1 ùa ù2 a2 . v2 P CG by v0 1 a a2 . v1 .9(1).92 Representations and characters of groups According to Theorem 10. and let Ui sp (v i ) for i 0. 10. w0 b v0 . 1. v i a ù i v i for i 0. 2. to ®nd all the irreducible CG-modules we need only decompose the regular CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. (2) Let G D6 ka. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. De®ne v0 .

every irreducible representation of D6 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r1 : a 3 (1). the other 1-dimensional Ui. We conclude from Theorem 10. w0 ) is reducible. sp (v1 . sp (v0 . w2 is a basis of CG. w2 ) and sp (v2 . However. 2. w2 3 v2 ).5 that there are exactly three nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules.b3 X 1 0 0 ùÀ1 Summary of Chapter 10 1. Now v0. sp(v0 . w1 ) are Ckbl-modules. But U3 U4 (there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1 . b 3 (À1).Irreducible modules and the group algebra 93 Therefore. r2 : a 3 (1). b 3 (1). There are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. the CG-submodules U3 sp (v1 . U2 and U3. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. and hence CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 . Exercises for Chapter 10 1. Is there only one such CGsubmodule? 2. v2 . (Hint: copy the method of Example 10. Let G be a ®nite group. w0 ). and U1 is not isomorphic to U2.5(2). w2 ) and U4 sp (v2 . Find a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module. namely U1. Correspondingly.8(1). 0 1 ù 0 r3 : a 3 . Let G C4 . Express CG as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules. Note that U1 is the trivial CG-module. w0.) . as U 1 sp(v0 w0 ) and U2 sp(v0 À w0 ) are CG-submodules. By the argument in Example 5. w1 ) are irreducible. and hence are CG-submodules of CG. Every irreducible CG-module occurs as a composition factor of the regular CG-module. v1 . w1.

v1 b v2 . Use the method of Example 10. such that u2 a Àu2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.5(2). of CG such that u1 a u1 . v2 b Àv1 X Show that V is irreducible. 5. b: a4 b2 1.94 Representations and characters of groups 3. and u3 b Àu3 X 4. u1 b Àu1 X Find also 1-dimensional CG-submodules. Let G D8 ka. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. v2 and v1 a iv1 . u3 a Àu3 . sp (u1 ) say. . Let G Q8 ka. b2 a2 .8(2) to ®nd all the irreducible representations of D8 over C. and let V be the CG-module given in Example 4. v2 a Àiv2 . Suppose that V is a where U1 and U2 are CG-submodule U of isomorphic to both of non-zero CG-module such that V U1 È U2. u2 b u2 . Thus V has basis v1 . 6. but is them. isomorphic CG-modules. and ®nd a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. Find a 1-dimensional CG-submodule. sp (u2 ) and sp (u3 ). Show that there is a V which is not equal to U1 or U2. b: a4 1.

11 More on the group algebra We now go further into the structure of the group algebra CG of a ®nite group G. W ). de®ne W ö and ëW by v(W ö) vW vö. In Theorem 10. De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on HomCG (V . we write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . 95 . As in Chapter 10. W ) as follows: for W. W ) for the set of all CG-homomorphisms from V to W. Our proof of Theorem 11. With these de®nitions. ö P HomCG (V . The space of CG-homomorphisms 11.1 De®nition Let V and W be CG-modules. We begin our study of the vector space HomCG (V. W) with an easy consequence of Schur's Lemma.5 we proved that every irreducible CG-module U is isomorphic to one of the Ui. ëW P HomCG (V . The question arises: how many of the Ui are isomorphic to U ? There is an elegant and signi®cant answer to this question: the number is precisely dim U (see Theorem 11. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui. v(ëW) ë(vW) for all v P V . W ) is a vector space over C.9 is based on a study of the vector space of CG-homomorphisms from one CG-module to another.9). Then W ö. We write HomCG (V . W ) and ë P C. it is easily checked that HomCG (V.

if V T W X Proof If V T W then this is immediate from Schur's Lemma 9. Then (1) dim (HomCG (V. W1 )) dim (HomCG (V. 11. W ). Now suppose that V W.1(2). and let W: V 3 W be a CG-isomorphism. so by Schur's Lemma 9.4. Schur's Lemma 9. Then V and W have a common composition factor. (2) dim (HomCG (V1 È V2 . . Let X be an irreducible CG-submodule of U. W ) T f0g. W ) in general. W )) dim (HomCG (V1 . W )) 0. then öWÀ1 is a CG-isomorphism from V to V. 11. and so HomCG (V .1(1).96 Representations and characters of groups 11.1(1) implies that XW X. W 1 . dim (HomCG (V . W ).3 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules. Then & 1. Therefore X is a common composition factor of V and W. V2 and W .4 Proposition Let V . by Maschke's Theorem. W2 )). a 1-dimensional space. Since XW T {0}. and suppose that HomCG (V . W1 È W2 )) dim (HomCG (V. j The next few results show how to calculate the dimension of HomCG (V . V1 . Proof Let W be a non-zero element of HomCG (V . recall the de®nition of a composition factor of a CG-module from 10. W ) fëW: ë P Cg. j For the next result. there exists ë P C such that öWÀ1 ë1 V X Then ö ëW. Then V Ker W È U for some non-zero CG-module U. W )). The key step is the following proposition.2 Proposition Suppose that V and W are irreducible CG-modules. W 2 be CG-modules. If ö P HomCG (V . W)) dim (HomCG (V2 . if V W .

2) to be the restriction of W to V i . 2. We now de®ne a function f from HomCG (V. 2). for all w1 P W 1 . W 1 È W 2 ))X Clearly f is a linear transformation. If W P Ker f. that is. then Wð1 P HomCG (V . and (1) follows. Therefore W 0. W1 È W2 ) to the (external) direct sum of HomCG (V. de®ne W Vi : Vi 3 W (i 1. and the image of ö under f is (ö1 .More on the group algebra Proof (1) De®ne W 1 È W 2 3 W 2 by the functions ð1 : W1 È W2 3 W1 (w1 w2 )ð2 w2 and 97 ð2 : (w1 w2 )ð1 w1 . W V2 ) (W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . Consequently these two vector spaces have equal dimensions. W1 È W2 ). j . W ) and has image (ö1 . the function ö: v 3 vö1 vö2 (v P V ) lies in HomCG (V. W2 ) by f : W 3 (Wð1 . W 1 È W 2 ).11. (2) For W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . W2 ) (see Exercise 7. We have shown that h is an invertible linear transformation. then vWð1 0 and vWð2 0 for all v P V. ö2 ). ð1 and ð2 are CG-homomorphisms. We have established that f is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (V. Wi ) (i 1. W ) which is given by h: W 3 (W V1 . W ) for i 1. Given Clearly h is an injective linear HomCG (Vi . Given ö i P HomCG (V. Now let h be the function from HomCG (V1 È V2 . W ) HomCG (V1 . We show that f is invertible. so Ker f {0} and f is injective. W1 ) È HomCG (V. the function ö: v1 v2 3 v1 ö1 v2 ö2 öi P (v i P Vi for i 1. ö2 ) under h. W1 ) and HomCG (V. W ). 2) lies in HomCG (V1 È V2 . By Proposition 7. W1 È W2 ) to HomCG (V. W 1 ) and Wð2 P HomCG (V. Hence f is surjective. so vW vW(ð1 ð2 ) 0. Hence h is surjective. w2 P W 2 .1). and (2) follows. Wð2 ) (W P HomCG (V . W ) È HomCG (V2 . 2). W2 ). W Vi is the function v i W Vi v i W (v i P Vi )X to Then W Vi P HomCG (V i . W ) (i 1. W ))X transformation. If W P HomCG (V .

dim (HomCG (V . and using Proposition 11.5). . . 11. By applying (3) when all Vi and Wj are irreducible. W )). Proof By (11. 1 < j < s). Wj )). Wj (1 < i < r. W ) and HomCG (W . V ) are both equal to the number of CG-modules Ui such that Ui W. where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. W1 È .2. V )) s i1 s i1 dim (HomCG (Ui . Vi. U i ))X . È Ws )) s j1 dim (HomCG (V.4. . W1 È . . we can ®nd dim (HomCG (V. Then the dimensions of HomCG (V . È Vr .5) (1) dim (HomCG (V. Let W be any irreducible CG-module. W. W )) r i1 dim (HomCG (Vi. and dim (HomCG (W . . These in turn imply (3) dim (HomCG (V1 È .98 Representations and characters of groups Now suppose that we have CG-modules V.6 Corollary Let V be a CG-module with V U1 È X X X È Us . (2) dim(HomCG (V1 È F F F ÈV r . Wj )). . W )) dim (HomCG (W . we have (11. È Ws )) r s i1 j1 dim (HomCG (Vi. In the following corollary we single out the case where one of the CGmodules is irreducible. W)). W )) in general. By an obvious induction using Proposition 11.

Since ö is a CG-homomorphism. s P CG. & 99 1. U) since for all r. ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. it will give the main result of this chapter. Choose a basis u1 . 11. When combined with Corollary 11. Thus by Corollary 11.8 Proposition If U is a CG-module. 11.8(2) that CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 .2. . U )) dim U X Proof Let d dim U. if U i W . for all r P CG we have . de®ne ö i : CG 3 U by rö i ui r (r P CG)X Then ö i P HomCG (CG. . . The next proposition investigates the space of CG-homomorphisms from the regular CG-module to any other CG-module. . ud of U. we saw in Example 10. . with U3 U4 but U3 not isomorphic to U1 or U2. . U3 )) dim (HomCG (U3 .6.6. . CG)) 2X You are asked in Exercise 11. Suppose that ö P HomCG (CG. U ). For 1 < i < d. .More on the group algebra And by Proposition 11. if U i T W X j a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. U ). 0. W )) dim (HomCG (W . dim (HomCG (Ui .5 to ®nd bases for these two vector spaces of CG-homomorphisms. Ui )) The result follows. Then 1ö ë1 u1 X X X ë d u d for some ë i P C.7 Example For G D6. then dim (HomCG (CG. we have dim (HomCG (CG. (rs)ö i ui (rs) (ui r)s (rö i )sX We shall prove that ö1 .

. U2 are non-isomorphic 1-dimensional CG-modules. and by Corollary 11. Now assume that Therefore ö1 .9 Theorem Suppose that CG U1 È X X X È Ur . ö d span ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d 0 (ë i P C)X Evaluating both sides at the identity 1. which therefore has dimension d. . j 11. then the number of CG-modules Ui with Ui U is equal to dim U. Hence ö1 .100 Representations and characters of groups rö (1r)ö (1ö)r ë1 u1 r X X X ë d u d r r(ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d )X Hence ö ë1 ö1 . which tells us how often each irreducible CG-module occurs in the regular CGmodule. this is equal to the number of Ui with Ui U. If U is any irreducible CG-module. U ). U ). where U1. . 11. dim U dim (HomCG (CG. .8(2) that if G D6 then CG U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 .6.10 Example Recall again from Example 10. which forces ë i 0 for all i. . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. . . we have 0 1(ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d ) ë1 u1 X X X ë d u d .8. ë d ö d . Proof By Proposition 11. j We now come to the main theorem of the chapter. . . U )). and . HomCG (CG. . ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG.

11 De®nition We say that the irreducible CG-modules V1 . X X X . . Therefore dim CG dim U 1 X X X dim Ur k i1 k i1 d i (dim Vi ) d2X i j As dim CG |G|.12. . k i1 d 2 8X i . È Ur. X X X . write d i dim V i . . dim U3 2X We conclude the chapter with a signi®cant consequence of Theorem 11.12 Theorem Let V1 . V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules if every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to some V i . dk be the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. 11. . and no two of V1 . V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. U4 are isomorphic irreducible 2-dimensional CG-modules. the number of CG-modules Uj with Uj Vi is equal to di .9 concerning the dimensions of all irreducible CG-modules. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. (By Corollary 10. for any ®nite group G there exists a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. V k are isomorphic. 11. Then k (dim Vi )2 jGjX i1 Proof Let CG U1 È . U2 occurs once. This illustrates Theorem 11.More on the group algebra 101 U3. dim U1 1. . the result follows.9: U1 occurs once.) 11. for each i. By Theorem 11. By Theorem 11.13 Example Let G be a group of order 8. X X X . dim U2 1. U3 occurs twice.7.9. . and let d1. For 1 < i < k.

dk are 1. . W j ))X 2. 1. combined with Theorem 11. W 1 È X X X È W s )) r s i1 j1 and dim (HomCG (Vi . dim (HomCG (V1 È X X X È V r . 1. .102 Representations and characters of groups Observe that the trivial CG-module is irreducible of dimension 1. È Ur. If G is a non-abelian group of order 6. then k (dim Vi )2 jGjX i1 Exercises for Chapter 11 1. is quite a powerful tool in ®nding the dimensions of irreducible CG-modules.5). a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. and let U be any irreducible CG-module. 2. . and so di 1 for some i. . dim (HomCG (CG.12. Then the number of Ui with Ui U is equal to dim U.4). CG). 1. Find a basis for HomCG (CG. Summary of Chapter 11 1. 3. . Let CG U1 È . 1. U )) dim U . 1 1. ®nd the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. X X X .3. 1. If G is a group of order 12. (Hint: use Exercise 5. We shall see later that dim Vi divides |G| for all i. V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. 1. 4. 1. 2X Both these possibilities do occur: the ®rst holds when G is an abelian group (see Proposition 9. If V1 . . and the second when G D8 (see Exercise 10. . Hence the possibilities for d1.) 3. and this fact. Let G be a ®nite group. 1. 1. what are the possible degrees of all the irreducible representations of G? Find the degrees of the irreducible representations of D12.

Suppose that G Sn and V is the n-dimensional permutation module for G over C. and let V. Vi ))X k Show that dim (HomCG (V . U3 ) and a basis for HomCG (U3. as in Example 10.More on the group algebra 103 4. U) has dimension 1. Find a basis for HomCG (CG. W )) i1 d i ei . X X X . as de®ned in 4. Let G D6 and let CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. d i dim (HomCG (V . Vi )) and ei dim (HomCG (W . If U is the trivial CGmodule. Let V1 . Assume that for 1 < i < k. show that HomCG (V. . 5.10.8(2). W be arbitrary CG-modules. CG). 6. V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.

symmetric and alternating groups. Proof Suppose that x G y G is not empty. y P G. Throughout the chapter. G is a ®nite group. we develop enough theory to determine the conjugacy classes of dihedral. 12. Conjugacy classes 12. and pick z P x G y G. At the end of the chapter we prove a result linking the conjugacy classes of a group to the structure of its group algebra. h P G such that z gÀ1 xg hÀ1 yhX 104 .12 Conjugacy classes We take a break from representation theory to discuss some topics in group theory which will be relevant in our further study of representations. and is called the conjugacy class of x in G.2 Proposition If x. then either x G y G or x G y G is empty. After de®ning conjugacy classes. y P G.1 De®nition Let x. Our ®rst result shows that two distinct conjugacy classes have no elements in common. Then there exist g. We say that x is conjugate to y in G if y g À1 xg for some g P GX The set of all elements conjugate to x in G is x G f g À1 xg: g P Gg.

and bÀ1 ab a2 . 12. we have aG fa. a2 bgX . . . and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. fa.3 is to observe that conjugacy is an equivalence relation. .5 Examples (1) For every group G.3 Corollary Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. (2) Let G D6 ka. then we call x1 . a2 g. xl representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Since gÀ1 ag is a or a2 for every g P G. Similarly y G # x G (using y kxkÀ1 ). fb. a.Conjugacy classes Hence x ghÀ1 yhgÀ1 kÀ1 yk. 12. and that the conjugacy classes are the equivalence classes. Another way of seeing this Corollary 12. . aÀi ba i aÀ2i b for all integers i. . ab.4 De®nition G G If G x1 . where the conjugacy classes x1 . ab. 1 G {1} is a conjugacy class of G. b. . . The elements of G are 1. ab. . a2 gX Also. so bG fb. where k hgÀ1 . a2 bgX Thus the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. and so xG yG . . j Since every element x of G lies in the conjugacy class x G (as x 1À1 x1 with 1 P G). a2 . a2 b. x G are l l distinct. x G . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. . b: a3 b2 1. So a P x G A a bÀ1 xb A a cÀ1 yc AaP y X G 105 for some b P G where c kb A a bÀ1 k À1 ykb Therefore x G # y G. G is the union of its conjugacy classes and so we deduce immediately 12.

The centralizer of x in G. 12. then x n is conjugate to y n in G for every integer n. we have gÀ1 abg ( g À1 ag)( g À1 bg)X Hence gÀ1 x n g ( gÀ1 xg) n . g P G. written CG (x). . If x is conjugate to y in G.8 Theorem Let x P G.7 De®nition Let x P G. Then y n gÀ1 x n g and therefore x n is conjugate to y n in G. so y also has order m. r . 12. 12. Then the size of the conjugacy class x G is given by jx G j jG: CG (x)j jGjajCG (x)jX In particular. and x and y have the same order. Hence every conjugacy class of G consists of just one element. and so x G {x}. j Conjugacy class sizes The next theorem determines the sizes of the conjugacy classes in G in terms of certain subgroups which we now de®ne. Suppose that x is conjugate to y in G. kxl # CG (x) for all x P G. y P G.6 Proposition Let x.1). Let x have order m. The next proposition is often useful when calculating conjugacy classes. |x G | divides |G|.106 Representations and characters of groups (3) If G is abelian then gÀ1 xg x for all x. and for 0 .) It is easy to check that CG (x) is a subgroup of G (Exercise 12. CG (x) f g P G: xg gxgX (So also CG (x) { g P G: gÀ1 xg x}. that is. y r gÀ1 x r g T 1. Proof Observe that for a. m. Then y m gÀ1 x m g 1. is the set of elements of G which commute with x. Observe that x P CG (x) and indeed. b P G. so that y gÀ1 xg for some g P G.

. jG: CG (ai )j < jG: haij 2X .8 by ®nding the conjugacy classes of all dihedral groups. where Z(G) is the centre of G. we may de®ne an injective function f from x G to the set of right cosets of CG (x) in G by f : g À1 xg 3 CG (x) g ( g P G)X Clearly f is surjective. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX In ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. Hence f is a bijection. i Conjugacy classes of dihedral groups We illustrate the use of Theorem 12. b: an b2 1. xl be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Since CG (ai ) contains kal. . and both | Z(G)| and |x G | divide |G|. Then jx G j. the dihedral group of order 2n.10 The Class Equation Let x1 .Conjugacy classes Proof Observe ®rst that for g. Let G D2 n. . jGj j Z(G)j i xiP Z(G) a for all g P G where |x G | i |G:CG (xi )|. (1) n odd First consider ai (1 < i < n À 1). Thus G ha. as de®ned in 9. h P G. proving that |x G | |G:CG (x)|. . 12. we make the observation that (12X9) jx G j 1 D g À1 xg x D x P Z(G).15. We have now proved all parts of the following result. j Before summarizing our results on conjugacy classes. it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. we have g À1 xg hÀ1 xh D hg À1 x xhg À1 D hg À1 P CG (x) D CG (x) g CG (x)hX 107 By dint of this.

. {b. |bG | n. ab. n 2m) has precisely m 3 conjugacy classes: {1}.108 Representations and characters of groups Also bÀ1 ai b aÀi . {a2 j1 b: 0 < j < m À 1}. {a mÀ1 . That is. and CG (ai ) hai. .8. ab. aÀ1 }. a j baÀ j a2 j b. . we have 2 > jG: CG (ai )j j(ai ) G j > 2X Hence equality holds here. For every integer j. bG fb. {a( nÀ1)a2 . (ai ) G fai . aÀ m1 }. the centralizer of am in G contains both a and b. no element ai or ai b (with 1 < i < n À 1) commutes with b. . Therefore the conjugacy class of am in G is just fam g. {a m }. so {ai . {a. . CG (b) contains {1. . (2) n even Write n 2m. b}. aÀi } # (ai ) G . aÀi gX Next.11) The dihedral group D2 n (n odd) has precisely 1(n 3) con2 jugacy classes: {1}. and as bÀ1 ai b aÀi .12) The dihedral group D2 n (n even. a j (ab)aÀ j a2 j1 bX It follows that bG fa2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1g. Using Theorem 12. As n is odd. . and so |(ai ) G | > 2. X X X . As in case (1). {a. Thus CG (b) f1. As bÀ1 am b aÀ m am . ai T aÀi . Since all the elements ai have been accounted for. a nÀ1 b}. . .8. {a2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1}. . bG must consist of the remaining n elements of G. and hence CG (am ) G. (ab) G fa2 j1 b: 0 < j < m À 1gX Hence (12. . aÀ( nÀ1)a2 }. a nÀ1 bgX We have shown (12. aÀ1 }. (ai ) G {ai . aÀi } for 1 < i < m À 1. bgX Therefore by Theorem 12. . .

Write x (a1 X X X ak 1 )(b1 X X X bk 2 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). . . Proof Write A {i1 . . . exists g P Sn sending j . say x (a1 X X X a k 1 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). and let g P Sn . . . . there a1 3 a9 . as required. 1 k 1 k (products of disjoint cycles). > ks . . For ir P A. ik ) g (i1 g i2 g . . a product of disjoint cycles. for g P Sn we have (12. . . By Proposition 12. ks ) the cycle-shape of x. On the other hand. Our ®rst observation is simple but crucial. Then gÀ1 xg is the k-cycle (i1 g i2 g . ik }. Now consider an arbitrary permutation x P Sn . and so by (12. y of the same cycle-shape. . ck s 3 c9 s .13 Proposition Let x be a k-cycle (i1 i2 .14).13. ik g). a ig( gÀ1 xg) ixg igX Hence gÀ1 (i1 i2 . .Conjugacy classes Conjugacy classes of S n 109 We shall later need to know the conjugacy classes of the symmetric group Sn . for 1 < i < n and i P A.14) g À1 xg g À1 (a1 X X X a k 1 ) gg À1 (b1 X X X b k 2 ) g X X X g À1 (c1 X X X ck s ) g (a1 g X X X a k 1 g)(b1 g X X X b k 2 g) X X X (c1 g X X X c k s g)X We call (k1 . ir g( g À1 xg) i r xg i r1 g (or i1 g if r k)X Also. . . . 1 k g À1 xg yX We have proved the following result. and note that x and gÀ1 xg have the same cycle-shape. with k1 > k2 > . . ik ) in Sn . given any two permutations x. . y (a9 X X X a9 1 ) X X X (c9 X X X c9 s ). . . . . 12. ik g).

3. ÀÁ which is 4 6. we simply count the number of 2-cycles. (1 2 3 4)X To calculate the sizes of the conjugacy classes. 4}. 3-cycles. (1 2)(3 4). (1 3)(2 4). Similarly.15 Theorem For x P Sn . (The notation n means the binomial coef®cient 2 r n3a(r3(n À r)3). (1 3). 2) and there are six 4-cycles. the conjugacy class sizes | gG | and the centralizer orders |CG ( g)| (obtained using Theorem 12. Thus for G S4 . (1 2 3). there are three elements of cycle-shape (2.16 Examples (1) The conjugacy classes of S3 are Class {1} {(1 2). (1 3 2)} Cycle-shape (1) (2) (3) (2) The conjugacy class of (1 2)(3 4) in S4 consists of all the elements of cycle-shape (2. (2 3)} {(1 2 3). (1 2).8) are as follows: Representative Class size g | gG | |CG ( g)| 1 1 24 (1 2) 6 4 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 3 8 (1 2 3 4) 6 4 We check our arithmetic by noting that jS4 j 1 6 8 3 6X . 2. the conjugacy class representatives g. 2) and is f(1 2)(3 4). 12. (1 4)(2 3)gX (3) There are precisely ®ve conjugacy classes of S4 .) The number of 3-cycles is 4 3 2 (4 for the choice of ®xed point and 2 because there are two 3-cycles ®xing a given point).4): 1.110 Representations and characters of groups 12. the conjugacy class x Sn of x in Sn consists of all permutations in Sn which have the same cycle-shape as x. with representatives (see De®nition 12. The number of 2-cycles is equal to the number of pairs that can be chosen from {1. and so on.

consider x (1 2 3) P A3 . so again y P x An . The conjugacy class x A n of x in A n . Let y P x S n . (2) If x does not commute with any odd permutation in Sn then x Sn splits into two conjugacy classes in An of equal size. The next result determines precisely when x An and x Sn are equal. with representatives x and (1 2)À1 x(1 2). is of course contained in x S n . and so x Sn x An . Proof (1) Assume that x commutes with an odd permutation g. Then CSn (x) CAn (x)X . x À1 }.15 that the conjugacy class x S n consists of all permutations in S n which have the same cycle-shape as x. and what happens when equality fails. however.Conjugacy classes (4) Similarly. we have seen in Theorem 12. and if h is odd then gh P An and y hÀ1 xh hÀ1 g À1 xgh ( gh)À1 x( gh). 1. If h is even then y P x An .17 Proposition Let x P An with n . (2) Assume that x does not commute with any odd permutation. 12. here x A3 fxg. while x S3 {x. (1) If x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . x A n might not be equal to x S n . For an easy example where equality does not hold. given by x A n f g À1 xg: g P An g. so that y hÀ1 xh for some h P Sn . then x Sn x An . g 1 (1 2) | gG | 1 10 |CG ( g)| 120 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 20 15 6 8 (1 2 3 4) 30 4 111 (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 24 6 5 Conjugacy classes of A n Given an even permutation x P A n . Thus x Sn # x An . the corresponding table for G S5 is Rep.

) Hence by Proposition 12. (Check this by using the argument in (1) above.17 implies that (1 2)(3 4) A4 (1 2)(3 4) S4 f(1 2)(3 4). the . Now x Sn fhÀ1 xh: h is eveng fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg x An ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An X Since |x An | 1|x Sn |. so g is 1. The elements of A4 are the identity. 2) and (3). together with the permutations of cycle-shapes (2. (1 3)(2 4). (1 2 3) S4 splits into two conjugacy classes in A4 of size 4. (1 2 3) or (1 3 2). Proposition 12.8.112 Representations and characters of groups Hence by Theorem 12. but (1 2 3 4 5) commutes with no odd permutation. as we wished to show. Since (1 2)(3 4) commutes with the odd permutation (1 2).18 Examples (1) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A4 . with representatives (1 2 3) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3)(1 2) (1 3 2). The elements (1 2 3) and (2 3)(4 5) commute with the odd permutation (4 5). an even permutation.13. Thus the conjugacy classes of A4 are Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 12 (1 2)(3 4) 3 4 (1 2 3) 4 3 (1 3 2) 4 3 (as jAn j 1jSn j) 2 (2) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A5 . (1 4)(2 3)gX However. 2) and (5).17. the 3-cycle (1 2 3) commutes with no odd permutation: for if gÀ1 (1 2 3) g (1 2 3) then (1 2 3) (1 g 2 g 3 g) by Proposition 12. Hence by Proposition 12. The non-identity even permutations in S5 are those of cycle-shapes (3). the conjugacy classes x An and ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An must 2 be disjoint and of equal size. jx An j jAn : CAn (x)j 1jSn : CAn (x)j 2 1jSn : CSn (x)j 1jx Sn jX 2 2 Next. we observe that fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An since every odd permutation has the form (1 2)a for some a P An . (2. j 12.17.

16(3). 6. there are just four possibilities: j Hj 1. 8. 6. Thus H v G. and so hG # H. Conversely. these conjugacy classes have sizes 1. 3. we have gÀ1 hg P H. 1 3. 12.20 Example We ®nd all the normal subgroups of S4 .19.17(2).19 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. Then H v G if and only if H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. Then by Proposition 12. hP H and so H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. 1 8 3 or 1 6 8 3 6X . so gÀ1 Hg # H. Using Proposition 12. if H v G then for all h P H. Let H v S4 . (1 2 3 4 5) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3 4 5)(1 2) (1 3 4 5 2). Therefore H hG . (1 2)(3 4). g P G. and 1 P H. we see that the class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows: Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 60 (1 2 3) 20 3 (1 2)(3 4) 15 4 (1 2 3 4 5) 12 5 (1 3 4 5 2) 12 5 Normal subgroups Normal subgroups are related to conjugacy classes by the following elementary result. g P G A g À1 hg P H. Proof If H is a union of conjugacy classes. Since j Hj divides 24 by Lagrange's Theorem. As we saw in Example 12.Conjugacy classes 113 conjugacy classes of A5 are represented by 1. then h P H. H is a union of conjugacy classes of S4 . j 12. (1 2 3).

so 1 r Ci For all h P G. 12. In the case where j Hj 1 3. and in the third case H A4 . Let Ci consist of the r distinct conjugates yÀ1 gy1. . (1 3)(2 4).12 that the centre of CG is Z(CG) fz P CG: zr rz for all r P CGgX We know that Z(CG) is a subspace of the vector space CG. . (1 2)(3 4). . . (1 4)(2 3)gX This is easily checked to be a subgroup of S4 . . we have H 1 S4 (1 2)(3 4) S4 f1. de®ne Ci g P CGX gPCi The elements C1 . . For 1 < i < l. Proof First we show that each C i belongs to Z(CG).21 De®nition Let C1 . (1 4)(2 3)gX The centre of a group algebra In this ®nal section we link the conjugacy classes of the group G to the centre of the group algebra CG.22 Proposition The class sums C1 . in the last case H S4 . 12. meaning `four-group').114 Representations and characters of groups In the ®rst case H {1}. S4 . C l form a basis of Z(CG). hÀ1 C i h r j1 r j1 yÀ1 gyj X j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj hX j . We have now shown that S4 has exactly four normal subgroups: f1g. we write it as V4 (V stands for `Viergruppe'. . . There is a convenient basis for this subspace which can be described in terms of the conjugacy classes of G. (1 3)(2 4). . . . . A4 and V4 f1. yÀ1 gyr of an element g. Recall from De®nition 9. . Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G. . . (1 2)(3 4). C l of CG are called class sums. .

That is. . . 12.3. . ë g hÀ1 gh ë g gX gPG gPG So for every h P G. That is. and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. b a2 b. a a3 . . For an element x of a group G. the centralizer CG (x) is the set of . a basis for Z(CD8 ) is 1. the elements hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h run through Ci . . Cl are pairwise disjoint by Corollary 12.23 Examples (1) From Example 12. . C l span Z(CG). That is to say. C l are linearly independent: for if l i1 ë i C i 0 (ë i P C). a2 . the coef®cient ë g of g is equal to the coef®cient ë hÀ1 gh of hÀ1 gh. j and so h C i h C i . . (1 2 3) (1 3 2)X (2) From (12.12). hence with all hPG ë h h P CG. the function g 3 ë g is constant on l conjugacy classes of G. (1 2) (1 3) (2 3).16(1). . and so C i P Z(CG). C i h hC i X Therefore each C i commutes with all h P G. . a basis for Z(CS3 ) is 1. observe that C1 . Let r À1 gPG ë g g P Z(CG). It remains to show that C1 . we have rh hr.Conjugacy classes 115 As j runs from 1 to r. Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. since j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h hÀ1 yÀ1 gyk h D yÀ1 gyj yÀ1 gyk X j k j k Hence r j1 À1 hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h C i . For h P G. then all ë i 0 as the classes C1 . . so h rh r. ab a3 bX Summary of Chapter 12 1. It follows that r i1 ë i C i where ë i is the j coef®cient ë gi for some gi P Ci . Next. . This completes the proof. . 2.

3.10 to show that Z(G) T {1}. 2. Let G Sn . (c) Now let n 6. Show that j(1 2 3)(4 5 6) G j 40 and j(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G j 15.) 4. What are the cycle-shapes of those permutations x P A6 for which x A6 T x S6 ? 5. 7. 4.8. If x P An then x Sn x An if and only if x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . Let G be a ®nite group and suppose that g P G and z P Z(G). 5. and let n be a positive integer. and the number of elements in the conjugacy class x G is equal to |G:CG (x)|. (b) Suppose that n > 3 and that | Z(G)| p. Prove that the conjugacy classes gG and ( gz) G have the same size. Suppose that G is a group of order pn .) 6. Verify that your solution satis®es Theorem 12. (a) Use the Class Equation 12. show that CG (x) is a subgroup of G which contains Z(G). The conjugacy classes of Sn correspond to the cycle-shapes of permutations in Sn . If G is a group and x P G. Show that A5 is a simple group. Prove that G has a conjugacy class of size p. Let p be a prime number. (Hint: use the method of Example 12.116 Representations and characters of groups elements of G which commute with x. . Give a basis of the centre of the group algebra CQ8. and ®nd the sizes of the other conjugacy classes of S6 . It is a subgroup of G. Find the conjugacy classes of the quaternion group Q8. n n (b) Show that j(1 2 3) G j 2 3 and j(1 2)(3 4) G j 3 4 . n (a) Prove that j(1 2) G j 2 and ®nd CG ((1 2)). 3. Exercises for Chapter 12 1.20. The class sums in CG form a basis for the centre of CG. (There are 11 conjugacy classes in all.

1 De®nition If A (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix. Moreover. written tr A. The function ÷: G 3 C is called the character of the representation r. basic problems.13 Characters Suppose that r: G 3 GL(n. since from the de®nition of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. For example. These facts are surprising. C). and they are the fundamental tools for performing calculations in representation theory. we shall show later that two representations have the same character if and only if they are equivalent. then the trace of A. it appears that we must keep track of all the n2 entries in each matrix gr. and call this number ÷( g). The trace of a matrix 13. The theory of characters will occupy a considerable portion of the rest of the book. whereas the character records just one number for each matrix. such as deciding whether or not a given representation is irreducible. With each n 3 n matrix gr ( g P G) we associate the complex number given by adding all the diagonal entries of the matrix. the trace of A is the sum of the diagonal entries of A. 117 . In this chapter we present some basic properties and examples. Characters of representations have many remarkable properties. is given by tr A n i1 aii X That is. C) is a representation of the ®nite group G. can be resolved by doing some easy arithmetic with the character of the representation.

since if B and B 9 are bases of V.3 De®nition Suppose that V is a CG-module with a basis B . Then the character of V is the function ÷: G 3 C de®ned by ÷( g) tr [ g]B ( g P G)X The character of V does not depend on the basis B . then [ g]B 9 T À1 [ g]B T .118 Representations and characters of groups 13. aij bji n n j1 i1 bji aij tr (BA)X Notice that. then tr (T À1 AT ) tr AX Proof The ii-entry of A B is aii bii . tr (T À1 AT ) tr ((T À1 A)T ) tr (T (T À1 A)) tr AX (by the second part ) j n n i1 j1 n i1 (aii bii ) n i1 aii n i1 bii tr A tr B. if T is an invertible n 3 n matrix. tr (AB) need not equal (tr A)(tr B). unlike the determinant function.2 Proposition Let A (aij ) and B (bij ) be n 3 n matrices. Characters 13. and the ii-entry of AB is n j1 aij bji. the trace function is not multiplicative. Then tr (A B) tr A tr B. and tr (AB) tr (BA)X Moreover. that is. Therefore tr (A B) and tr (AB) For the last part.

we have tr [x]B tr [ y]B . Let V be a CG-module. and so by Proposition 13.4 De®nition We say that ÷ is a character of G if ÷ is the character of some CGmodule. so that x gÀ1 yg for some g P G. tr [ g]B 9 tr [ g]B for all g P GX Naturally enough. .24)). there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P GX Consequently tr [ g]B 1 tr [ g]B 2 for all g P G. and so V and W have the same character. we de®ne the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. 13. (2) Assume that x and y are conjugate elements of G. j The result corresponding to Proposition 13. Therefore ÷(x) ÷( y). Then by (7. C) to be the character ÷ of the corresponding CGmodule C n . then ÷(x) ÷( y) for all characters ÷ of G.5(1) for representations is that equivalent representations have the same character. You will have noticed that we are writing characters as functions on the left. (2) If x and y are conjugate elements of the group G. namely ÷( g) tr ( gr) ( g P G)X 13.Characters 119 for some invertible matrix T (see (2. and let B be a basis of V.2.2. Further. and ÷ is reducible if it is the character of a reducible CG-module.7).5 Proposition (1) Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. we write ÷( g) and not g÷. Then [x]B [ g À1 yg]B [ g]À1 [ y]B [ g]B X B Hence by Proposition 13. That is. Proof (1) Suppose that V and W are isomorphic CG-modules. ÷ is an irreducible character of G if ÷ is the character of an irreducible CG-module. where ÷ is the character of V.

The matrices [ g]B ( g P G) are given by Exercise 4. g [ g]B ÷( g) 1 (1 2) (1 3) H 1 d0 0 0 0 1 0e 0 1 3 I H 0 d1 0 1 0 0 0e 0 1 1 I H 0 0 d0 1 1 0 1 I 1 0e 0 . br ar 0 À1 À1 0 (see Example 3. and take V to be the 3-dimensional permutation module for G over C (see De®nition 4. together with the character ÷ of V. (We obtain ÷( g) by adding the two entries on the diagonal of gr. 13. We record these matrices.1.120 Representations and characters of groups Later.10). Let B be the natural basis of V. and let r: G 3 GL(2. gr and ÷( g) as g runs through G.6 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. then they are isomorphic. Let ÷ be the character of this representation. b: a4 b2 1. The following table records g. C) be the representation for which 1 0 0 1 . v2 . thus B is the basis v1 .) g gr ÷( g) 1 1 0 0 1 2 a 0 1 À1 0 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 À2 a3 0 À1 1 0 0 g gr ÷( g) b 1 0 0 À1 0 ab 0 À1 0 À1 0 a2 b À1 0 0 1 0 a3 b 0 1 0 1 0 (2) Let G S3 . where v i g v ig for 1 < i < 3 and all g P G. v3 . we shall prove an astonishing converse of Proposition 13.2(1)). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.5(1): if two CG-modules have the same character.

G has just three irreducible characters ÷1 .8(2). The values of these characters on the elements of G can be calculated from the corresponding representations r1 . the characters given take few distinct values. ÷2 and ÷3 . b: a3 b2 1.8. Nevertheless. with values g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l (so G S3 ).8(2). Moreover. Thus if ÷ i is the character of Ui for 1 < i < 3. every character is constant on conjugacy classes of G. U3. the character encapsulates a great deal of information about the representation. (4) Let G D6 ka. and they are as follows: g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Notice that in all the above examples. This re¯ects the fact that by Proposition 13. . U2. we found a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules U1. then the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . This will become clear as the theory of characters develops. r3 given in Example 10. it is much quicker to write down the single complex number ÷( g) for the group element g than to record the matrix which corresponds to g.5(2).Characters g [ g]B ÷( g) H (2 3) I H (1 2 3) I H (1 3 2) I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 0 121 1 0 0 d0 0 1e 0 1 0 1 0 1 d0 0 1 0 0 0 1e 0 0 d1 0 (3) Let G C3 ha: a3 1 i. r2 . In Example 10. By Theorem 9. ÷3 . ÷2 .

(2) If V is any 1-dimensional CG-module. Suppose that g P G and g has order m. they are all linear characters. In fact. 13. irreducible characters.122 Representations and characters of groups 13. Observe that Theorem 9. Characters of degree 1 are called linear characters. Then for all v P V X .6(1) we gave a character of D8 of degree 2. then for each g P G there is a complex number ë g such that v g ë gv The character ÷ of V is given by ÷( g) ë g ( g P G) and ÷ has degree 1. 1 and 2. in 13.8(1)) is a linear character.6(2) we gave a character of S3 of degree 3. they are. Finding all the irreducible characters is usually dif®cult. Thus 1 G : g 3 1 for all g P GX Given any group G. in particular. and in 13.7 De®nition If ÷ is the character of the CG-module V. namely the trivial character. we therefore know at least one of the irreducible characters of G. The values of a character The next result gives information about the complex numbers ÷( g).9 Proposition Let ÷ be the character of a CG-module V.6(4) we saw that the irreducible characters of D6 have degrees 1. then the dimension of V is called the degree of ÷. We denote it by 1 G . 13.8 gives all the irreducible characters of ®nite abelian groups.8 Examples (1) In Example 13. called the trivial character of G. where ÷ is a character of G and g P G. of course. (3) The character of the trivial CG-module (see De®nition 4.4). these are the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms (see Exercise 13. Every linear character of G is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers.

Also ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g) by (3). which is the complex conjugate of eiW . the n 3 n identity matrix. (3) We have H f [ gÀ1 ]B d ùÀ1 1 0 FF 0 F ùÀ1 n I g e and so ÷( gÀ1 ) ùÀ1 . and so ÷( g) ÷( g). . ÷( g) is j real.11 there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. that is.Characters (1) (2) (3) (4) ÷(1) dim V. . we can be much more speci®c about the possibilities for ÷( g): . Every complex mth root of unity ù 1 n satis®es ùÀ1 ù. ùÀ1 . since for all real W. Therefore ÷( g À1 ) ù1 X X X ù n ÷( g)X (4) If g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) ÷( gÀ1 ) by Proposition 13. Then the matrix [1]B of the identity element 1 relative to B is equal to In .5(2). 123 Proof (1) Let n dim V. (2) By Proposition 9. Therefore ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù n . Consequently ÷(1) tr [1]B tr I n n. (eiW )À1 eÀiW . a sum of mth roots of unity. and let B be a basis of V. ÷( g) is a real number if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . and so ÷(1) dim V. ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g). ÷( g) is a sum of mth roots of unity. When the element g of G has order 2.

j Our next result gives the ®rst inkling of the importance of characters. and ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 2X Proof By Proposition 13. so that ÷( g) r À s. and s are À1. showing that we can determine the kernel of a representation just from knowledge of its character. By Proposition 9. ÷( g) P Z. there is a basis B of C n such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. suppose that |÷( g)| ÷(1). Then (13X12) j÷( g)j jù1 X X X ù n j ÷(1) nX for some ë P CX . Then each ù i is 1 or À1.124 Representations and characters of groups 13. and suppose that g has order m. and since r À s r s À 2s r s mod 2. Proof (1) Let g P G.11. we have ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 2. and ÷( g) në. Then ÷( g) is an integer.9. j÷( g)j ÷(1) D gr ëI n (2) Ker r { g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)}. then ë is an mth root of unity. we have ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù n . where n ÷(1) and each ù i is a square root of unity.10 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G. 13. so |÷( g)| n ÷(1). and ÷(1) r sX Certainly then. and let ÷ be the character of r. Conversely. Suppose r of them are 1. If gr ëIn with ë P C. C) be a representation of G.11 Theorem Let r: G 3 GL(n. (1) For g P G. and let g be an element of order 2 in G.

written Ker ÷. zn . we de®ne the kernel of a character as follows. then Ker r Ker ÷.11(2). ÷2 . . we deduce from (13. . .Characters Note now that for any complex numbers z1 . zn are all equal.14 Examples (1) According to Example 13. ÷3 . and so ÷( g) n ÷(1). We call ÷ a faithful character if Ker ÷ {1}. . (2) If g P Ker r then gr In . Therefore gr In . (To see this. and so gr ù1 In . . if r is a representation of G with character ÷. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l are ÷1 . then the kernel of ÷. In particular. we have gr ëIn for some ë P C. 125 with equality if and only if the arguments of z1 . Ker ÷ v G. 13. Part (2) follows.6(4). j Motivated by Theorem 13. This completes the proof of (1). whence ë 1.) Since |ù i | 1 for all i. we have jz1 X X X zn j < jz1 j X X X jzn j.11(2). b: a3 b2 1. suppose that ÷( g) ÷(1). Then by (1). is de®ned by Ker ÷ f g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)gX By Theorem 13. consider the picture in the Argand diagram. . 13. .13 De®nition If ÷ is a character of G. This implies that ÷( g) ë÷(1).12) that ù i ù j for all i. and so g P Ker r. Conversely. j. Thus H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e ù1 I n X F ù1 0 Hence for all bases B 9 of C n we have [ g]B 9 ù1 In . the irreducible characters of the group G D6 ka. with the following values: .

13. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. then we de®ne A to be the n 3 n matrix (a ij ). then so is ÷.126 g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 Representations and characters of groups a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Then Ker ÷1 G. then (13X16) (AB) A B. then a2 r ÀI. Then ÷ is a character of G. and let ÷ be the character of G given in Example 13. (2) Let G D8 ka. In particular. b: a4 b2 1. so ÷ is a faithful character. For a character ÷ of G. C) is a representation with character ÷. ÷3 is a faithful irreducible character of D6.6(1): g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 Then Ker ÷ {1}.15 Proposition Let ÷ be a character of G. de®ne ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ÷( g) ( g P G)X Thus the values of ÷ are the complex conjugates of the values of ÷.11(1) implies that if r: G 3 GL(2. If ÷ is irreducible. . Thus ÷( g) tr ( gr) ( g P G)X If A (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix over C. Ker ÷2 kal and Ker ÷3 {1}. Proof Suppose that ÷ is the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. C). And since |÷(a2 )| |À2| ÷(1). Observe that if A (aij ) and B (bij ) are n 3 n matrices over C. Theorem 13. We next prove a result which is sometimes useful for constructing a new character from a given one.

In Theorem 13. 13. and for i 1. V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11. C) de®ned by gr ( gr) is a representation of G. First we need a preliminary result. Then the character of V is equal to the sum of the characters of the CG-modules U1.19 Theorem Let V1 . the character of the representation r is ÷. Proof This is immediate from (7.Characters since the ij-entry of A B is n k1 127 a ik b kj . It is clear that if r is reducible then r is reducible. j The regular character 13. k let ÷ i be the character of Vi and di ÷ i (1). Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible. .17 De®nition The regular character of G is the character of the regular CG-module. Then ÷reg d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k X . the ij-entry of AB.16) that the function r: G 3 GL(n. j ( g P G) 13.11). .10). . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui. X X X . . Ur. we shall express the regular character in terms of the irreducible characters of G. . . . and suppose that V U1 È X X X È Ur . We write the regular character as ÷reg . It follows from (13. n which is equal to the complex conjugate of k1 aik bkj . Since tr ( gr) tr ( gr) tr ( gr) ÷( g) ( g P G).18 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. .19.

20 for the group G D6 . the ii-entry is zero for all i. 13. and let B be the basis g1 .18. It follows that ÷reg ( g) tr [ g]B 0X j 13. Then for 1 < i < n. .20 Proposition If ÷reg is the regular character of G. By Example 13. gn be the elements of G.19 and Proposition 13. . . ÷ 3 : g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 We calculate ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 : (÷1 ÷2 2÷3 )( g) 6 0 0 0 0 0 . . ÷reg (1) dim CG |G|. and ÷reg ( g) 0 if g T 1X Proof Let g1 . .9. ÷2 . j The values of ÷reg on the elements of G are easily described. By Proposition 13. we have gi g gj for some j with j T i.128 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Theorem 11. the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . where for each i there are di factors V i .6(4). CG (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). then ÷reg (1) jGj. Therefore the ith row of the matrix [ g]B has zeros in every place except column j. . Now let g P G with g T 1. Now the result follows from Proposition 13. in particular. and are given in the next result.9(1).21 Example We illustrate Theorem 13. . . gn of CG.

13. there is an easy construction using the permutation module which produces a character of degree n. Let B denote the basis v1 . and we now describe this. . . let fix ( g) fi: 1 < i < n and ig igX Then (13X22) ð( g) jfix( g)j ( g P G)X We call ð the permutation character of G. Then the iientry in the matrix [ g]B is 0 if ig T i. G has ®ve conjugacy classes. and is 1 if ig i. .Characters 129 This is the regular character of G. . (1 2). . . .10). v i g v ig (1 < i < n) (see De®nition 4. and it takes the value |G| on 1. (1 2)(3 4). Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn .20. with representatives 1. The permutation module V for G over C has basis v1 . (1 2 3). . . . and the value 0 on all non-identity elements of G. Therefore the character ð of the permutation module V is given by ð( g) (the number of i such that ig i)X For g P G. illustrating Proposition 13. . where for all g P G. so that G is a group of permutations of {1.16(3).23 Example Let G S4 . (1 2 3 4)X The permutation character ð takes the values gi ð( gi ) 1 4 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 1 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 .19. n}. Permutation characters In the case where G is a subgroup of the symmetric group Sn . by Theorem 13. Then by Example 12. . v n . v n .

Proof Let v1 . . and U sp (u)X Observe that ug u for all g P G. . the conjugacy classes of G are represented by 1. (1 3 2)X The values of the character í of G are gi í( gi ) 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 3 2) 0 Summary of Chapter 13 1. A character is obtained from a representation by taking the trace of each matrix. a subgroup of S4 . (1 2 3). Characters are constant on conjugacy classes. . and let u v1 X X X v n . 2.1. Indeed. so U is a CG-submodule of V. By Maschke's Theorem 8. U is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module. so the character of U is the trivial character 1 G (see Example 13. Then ð 1 G í. .18(1). . v n be the basis of the permutation module V as above. Then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G.25 Example Let G A4 .130 Representations and characters of groups 13.8(3)). so |®x( g)| 1 í( g) for all g P G. (1 2)(3 4). there is a CG-submodule W of V such that V U È WX Let í be the character of W.24 Proposition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . By Example 12. and therefore í( g) jfix( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X j ( g P G) 13.

Find also Ker r1 and Ker r2 . The regular character ÷reg of G takes the value |G| on the identity and the value 0 on all other elements of G. Assume that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. br1 (where ù e2ðia3 ) 0 ùÀ1 1 0 and ar2 À1 0 0 1 . Let G D12 ka. Write the regular character of C4 as a linear combination of these. the complex number ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity. Find ÷(x) for x (1 2) and for x (1 6)(2 3 5). Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. Exercises for Chapter 13 1. Find all the irreducible characters of C4 . 2. check that your answers are consistent with Theorem 13. and let r1 .Characters 3. b: a6 b2 1. ÷(zg) ë÷( g)X 6. 3. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 131 4. 5. r2 be the representations of G for which ù 0 0 1 ar1 . If G is a subgroup of Sn . For all characters ÷ of G.11. 4. Prove that the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms are the linear characters. then Z(G) { g P G: |÷( g)| ÷(1)}. 7. Prove that there exists an mth root of unity ë P C such that for all g P G. 6. Let ÷ be the character of the 7-dimensional permutation module for S7 . then the function í which is given by í( g) jfix( g)j À 1 is a character of G. br2 1 0 0 X À1 ( g P G) Find the characters of r1 and r2 . and all g P G. 5. Prove that if ÷ is a faithful irreducible character of the group G. The character of a representation determines the kernel of the representation. and ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g). Suppose that z P Z(G) and that z has order m.

show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2. Show that either (1) ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 4. then ÷(x) T ÷(1) for some irreducible character ÷ of G. and let g be an element of order 2 in G. . Let g be a group of order 2k. (c) Assume that ä( g) À1 for some g P G. 8.) 10. Prove that if x is a non-identity element of the group G. (b) Prove that G/Ker ä is abelian. By considering the regular representation of G.10. (Compare Corollary 13. Show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2. 9. where k is an odd integer. Let ÷ be a character of a group G.132 Representations and characters of groups 7. (a) Show that ä: g 3 det ( gr) ( g P G) is a linear character of G. Let r be a representation of the group G over C. or (2) G has a normal subgroup of index 2. Hint: use Exercise 7.

Inner products The characters of a ®nite group G are certain functions from G to C. Also.1 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l.14 Inner products of characters We establish some signi®cant properties of characters in this chapter.21) that if two CG-modules have the same character then they are isomorphic.) 14. ö are functions from G to C. if we adopt the natural rules for adding functions and multiplying functions by complex numbers. The set of all functions from G to C forms a vector space over C. That is. then we de®ne W ö: G 3 C by (W ö)( g) W( g) ö( g) and we de®ne ëW: G 3 C by ëW( g) ë(W( g)) ( g P G)X ( g P G) (We write these functions on the left to agree with our notation for characters. and we describe this ®rst. and suppose that W: G 3 C and ö: G 3 C are given by 133 . The proofs rely on an inner product involving the characters of a group. and in particular we prove the striking result (Theorem 14. we describe a method for decomposing a given CG-module as a direct sum of CG-submodules. using characters. and ë P C. if W.

ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . there is associated a complex number kW. W(a2 ) À1 and ö(1) ö(a) ö(a2 ) 1. W1 i ë2 hö.2) (a) kW. 14. (b) kë1 W1 ë2 W2 . (c) kW. öl hö. ö. Then W ö and 3W are given by 1 W ö 3W 3 6 a 1i 3i a2 0 À3 We shall often think of functions from G to C as row vectors. öl which satis®es the following conditions: (14. ö in the vector space. With every ordered pair of vectors W. This will be of basic importance in our study of characters. öi W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG . öl for all ë1 . W2 . öl ë2 kW2 . W(a) i. We now introduce an inner product on the vector space of all functions from G to C. Notice that condition (a) implies that kW. 0 if W T 0. Wl is always real. as in this example. Wl . öl ë1 kW1 . ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . ë1 è1 ë2 W2 i ë1 hö. De®ne 1 hW. ö. and that conditions (a) and (b) give hö. ö. W2 i for all ë1 .3 De®nition Suppose that W and ö are functions from G to C. W2 .134 Representations and characters of groups 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 This means that W(1) 2. Wi for all W. The de®nition of an inner product on a vector space over C runs as follows. The vector space of all functions from G to C can be equipped with an inner product in a way which we shall describe shortly.

2 i .5 Proposition Assume that G has exactly l conjugacy classes. 3 3 hè. 1 1 . Therefore 1 h÷. Let ÷ and ø be characters of G. l is an inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C. øi l ÷( g i )ø( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j X Proof (1) We have ø( g) ø( gÀ1 ) for all g P G. (À1)) 2. èi 1(2 . . and this is a real numberX jGj gPG (2) h÷. suppose that G C3 ka: a3 1l and that W and ö are given by 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 Then hè.1. öi 1(1 . øi hø. by Proposition 13. øi ÷( g)ø( g À1 )X jGj gPG . i (À1) . gl .Inner products of characters 135 It is transparent that the conditions of (14. 1 (1) h÷. 1) 1X 3 Inner products of characters We can exploit the fact that characters are constant on conjugacy classes to simplify slightly the calculation of the inner product of two characters. ÷i ÷( g)ø( g À1 ). 3 hö. 1) 1(1 i). 14. 1 i .4 Example As in Example 14. . 14. öi 1(2 . .2) hold. 1 1 . so k . 1 À 1 . with representatives g1 . .9(3).

÷l h÷.) (2) Recall that g G denotes the conjugacy class of G which contains i gi .136 Representations and characters of groups Since { gÀ1 : g P G} G. We shall see in Chapter 18 that there are characters ÷ and ø of A4 which take the following values on the representatives gi : gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø g1 12 1 4 g2 4 1 0 g3 3 ù ù2 g4 3 ù2 ù .8. øi is. in fact. øi ÷( g À1 )ø( g) hø. ÷( g)ø( g) j g G j÷( g i )ø( g i )X i gP g G i Now G l i1 g G and j g G j jGjajCG ( g i )j. ÷iX jGj gPG Since kø. g 3 (1 2 3). Hence h÷. øi l 1 1 ÷( g)ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) jGj gPG jGj i1 G gP g i l j gGj i1 l i1 jGj i ÷( g i )ø( g i ) j 1 ÷( g i )ø( g i )X jCG ( g i )j 14.6 Example The alternating group A4 has four conjugacy classes.3 and Theorem 12. Since characters are constant on conjugacy classes. øi is real. (We shall prove later that h÷.18(1)). øi. it follows that h÷. we also have 1 h÷. g 2 (1 2)(3 4). with representatives g 1 1. g 4 (1 3 2) (see Example 12. an integer. i i by Corollary 12.

therefore. say CG U 1 È X X X È U r . that is. For example. .5. We shall investigate some consequences of writing CG like this. . and then let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-modules U i . 12 4 3 3 4 . 4 1 . we have h÷. Among other results. ù2 ù . we shall derive a formula for e1 in terms of the character of W 1 . øi 2X 12 4 3 3 h÷. we temporarily adopt the following Hypothesis: 14.7 Hypothesis Let CG W 1 È W 2 . There are several ways of choosing CG-submodules W1 and W2 of CG such that CG W1 È W2 and W1 and W2 have no common composition factor (see De®nition 10. . and to ®nd the inner products of ÷ and ø with the trivial character (which takes the value 1 on all elements of A4 ). 0 ù 2 . ù hø. ù2 ù2 . ÷l 1. .Inner products of characters (where ù e2ðia3 ). Using part (2) of Proposition 14. for distinct irreducible characters ÷ and ø of G. 0 ù . ÷i 1 and h÷. we may take W1 to be the sum of those irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to a given irreducible CG-module. and that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CGmodules U1. . ù 0. We ®rst look at the effect of applying the elements e1 and e2 of CG to W1 and W 2 .4). we have 1 . øi 137 We advise you to check also that k÷. Write 1 e1 e2 where e1 P W1 and e2 P W2.12) that the irreducible characters of G form an orthonormal set of vectors in the vector space of functions from G to C. where W1 and W2 are CG-submodules which have no common composition factor. Recall from Chapter 10 that the regular CG-module is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Ur. øi 0. We are now going to pave the way to proving the key fact (Theorem 14. 4 0 .

14. Now w1 w1 1 w1 (e1 e2 ) w1 e1 . and w2 w2 1 w2 (e1 e2 ) w2 e2 . and this completes the proof. e2 e2 and e1 e2 e2 e1 0X 1 2 Proof In Proposition 14. w1 e2 0. We shall calculate the trace of W in two ways. w2 e1 0.7. In particular. But W2 and W1 have no common composition factor. w2 e 2 w2 X Proof If w1 P W1 then the function w2 3 w1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to W 1 . w2 P W 2 .7. we have e2 e1 . Similarly w2 w1 0. we have w1 e1 w1 . j .3. we evaluate e1 .8 Proposition For all w1 P W1 and w2 P W2. Then 1 e1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Proof Let x P G. take w1 e1 and w2 e2 . Next. w1 e2 w2 e1 0. Proposition Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14. The function W: w 3 we1 x À1 (w P CG) is an endomorphism of CG. Therefore w1 w2 0 for all w1 P W 1 .138 Representations and characters of groups 14.10. j 14.9 Corollary For the elements e1 and e2 of CG which appear in Hypothesis 14. by Proposition 11. so every CG-homomorphism from W2 to W1 is zero.8.

÷iX ÷( g À1 )÷( g) jGj2 gPG jGj . in view of Proposition 14. so e1 gPG ëg g for some ë g P C. for w1 P W1 and w2 P W2 we have. as W: w 3 w gPG ë g gx À1 .7. e1 P CG. By the de®nition of the character ÷ of W 1 . Then h÷.20.11 Corollary Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14. w2 W w2 e1 x À1 0X Thus W acts on W1 by w1 3 w1 x À1 and on W2 by w2 3 0. w1 W w1 e1 x À1 w1 x À1 . Therefore tr W ÷(x À1 )X Secondly. the endomorphism w 3 wgx À1 (w P CG) of CG has trace 0 if g T x and has trace |G| if g x. and of course the endomorphism w2 3 0 of W2 has trace 0.Inner products of characters 139 First.3 of the multiplication in CG.8. ë x ÷(x À1 )ajGjX Therefore e1 1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG j 14. we deduce from Proposition 14. we have tr W ë x jGjX Comparing our two expressions for tr W. Hence.10 that the coef®cient of 1 in e2 is 1 1 1 h÷. we see that for all x P G. By Proposition 13. the endomorphism w1 3 w1 x À1 of W1 has trace equal to ÷(x À1 ). ÷i ÷(1)X Proof Using the de®nition 6.

each of which has character ÷. In particular. say CG U1 È X X X È Ur . j We can now prove the main theorem concerning the inner product k . . The character of W is m÷. and h÷.9 that CG is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. and obtain hm÷. øi 0X Proof Recall from Theorem 11. every composition factor of W is isomorphic to U. as required. and the 1 coef®cient of 1 in e1 is ÷(1)/|G|. and de®ne W to be the sum of the m irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U. We now apply Corollary 14. Let m dim U. Next. let X be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. where the number of CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U is dim U.140 Representations and characters of groups On the other hand. m÷i m÷(1)X As ÷(1) dim U m. ÷i 1. l. Hence k÷. and let Z be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. since W is the direct sum of m CG-submodules.11 to the character of W. respectively.12 Theorem Let U and V be non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. Then h÷. this yields h÷. Then CG W È X X Moreover. W and X have no common composition factor. ÷l ÷(1).9 that e2 e1 . with characters ÷ and ø. 14. Then CG Y È Z. ÷i 1. let Y be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui of CG which are isomorphic to either U or V. we know from Corollary 14. and no composition factor of X is isomorphic to U.

12 Let G be a ®nite group. Now let V be a CG-module. øi d i for 1 < i < k. this implies that the irreducible characters ÷1 . we have . ÷i 0X By Proposition 14. By Theorem 8. Therefore h÷. we have (14X13) h÷ i . ÷i hø. j Applications of Theorem 14. V k be a complete set of nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11. by the part of the theorem which we have already proved. X X X .11). øi mn(h÷. and hø. ÷ i i h÷ i . By Corollary 14. øi hø. and hence k÷. ø(1) n. there are d i factors Vi X Therefore the character ø of V is given by (14X15) ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k X Using (14. and let V1 .12. then by Theorem 14. In particular. ÷i n2 hø. and ÷(1) m. Each of these is isomorphic to some V i . .5(1). where for each i. øi d 2 X X X d 2 X 1 k Summarizing. where n dim V. ÷ k are all distinct. øl kø.13). . ÷i)X Now h÷. . øi hø. If ÷ i is the character of Vi (1 < i < k). j. so there are non-negative integers d1. we obtain from this (14X16) hø.Inner products of characters 141 and Y and Z have no common composition factor.11. . m÷ nøi m2 h÷. . ÷l. m÷(1) nø(1) hm÷ nø.7. ÷ j i ä ij for all i. dk such that (14X14) V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). øl 0. øi 1. . The character of Y is m÷ nø. . . k÷. where ä ij is the Kronecker delta function (that is. V is equal to a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. ä ij is 1 if i j and is 0 if i T j).

. ÷3 l 1. . . Thus by Theorem 14.6(2).142 Representations and characters of groups 14.6(4) that the irreducible characters of S3 D6 are ÷1 . hø.7. If ø is any character of G. ÷2 l 0 and kø.17 Theorem Let ÷1 . by Proposition 14. ÷ i i hø. øi k i1 for 1 < i < k. then ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers d1. (1 2 3): Now let ø be the character of the 3-dimensional permutation module gi |CS3 ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 for S3 .1 0 1X 6 2 Similarly. . kø. ÷3 . taking the following values on the conjugacy class representatives 1. ÷1 i 3. . dk . d i hø. .5(2).18 Example Recall from Example 13. ÷2 . By Example 13. (1 2). and d2X i 14.) A more substantial calculation along these lines is given in Example 15. ø(1 2) 1. ø(1 2 3) 0X Therefore. Moreover. .1 1. ø ÷1 ÷3 X (This can of course be checked immediately by comparing the values of ø and ÷1 ÷3 on each conjugacy class representative.17. we know that ø(1) 3. . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. .

1 hø. and by (14. øl 1. We have ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers di. j We are now in a position to prove the remarkable result that `a CGmodule is determined by its character'. Then V is irreducible if and only if kø.5 we proved the elementary fact that if V W then ÷ ø.20 Theorem Let V be a CG-module with character ø. Conversely. . It is this fact which motivates our study of characters in much of the rest of the book.17. dk ÷ k is non-zero. and so V is irreducible.21 Theorem Suppose that V and W are CG-modules. the constituents of ø are the irreducible characters ÷ i of G for which the integer di in the expression ø d1 ÷1 . ÷l T 0. We say that ÷ is a constituent of ø if kø. Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if ÷ ø. 14. respectively. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Proof In Proposition 13. Then by (14. It gives us a quick and effective method of determining whether or not a given CG-module is irreducible. Proof If V is irreducible then kø. The next result is another signi®cant consequence of Theorem 14.Inner products of characters 143 We shall see many more applications of the important Theorem 14. assume that kø. It is the converse which is the substantial part of this theorem. with characters ÷ and ø. .12. øi d 2 X X X d 2 X 1 k It follows that one of the integers di is 1 and the rest are zero. for it means that many questions about CG-modules can be answered using character theory. øl 1. .16). 14.14). V Vi for some i. øl 1 by Theorem 14. Thus.19 De®nition Suppose that ø is a character of G. 14.12.

. j 14.144 Representations and characters of groups Thus. . and W (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i. ar2 0 ù 0 ùÀ1 2 3 2 3 0 1 1 ùÀ1 ar3 . We know by (14. ar1 . . 2.16). 3. . ÷ k . and hence V W. ar4 À1 À1 0 ù (ù e2ðia3 ). The next theorem is another consequence of Theorem 14. it follows that ci di for all i. d i hø. Vk be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules with characters ÷1 . r3 . r3 and r4 . Again let V1 . r2 . X X X . but there are no other equivalences among r1 . r4 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 ù 0 ù 0 . By (14. and let r1 . 4) are 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 2 2 2 2 a 2ù À1 À1 1ù a2 2ù2 À1 À1 1 ù2 Hence by Theorem 14. ÷ i i (1 < i < k)X Since ÷ ø.12.22 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. . r2 . ci h÷.14) that there are non-negative integers ci . The characters ø i of the representations r i (i 1. di (1 < i < k) such that V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. suppose that ÷ ø. the representations r2 and r3 are equivalent.21. ÷ i i.

23 Theorem Let ÷1 . .Inner products of characters 145 14. . . Vj )) ä ij X Hence.5)(3) we see that dim (HomCG (V . ÷ k are linearly independent. . W )) k i1 ci d i X . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G.13) we have 0 hë1 ÷1 X X X ë k ÷ k . using (11. . j We now relate inner products of characters to the spaces of CGhomomorphisms which we constructed in Chapter 11.24 Theorem Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. 14. . and W (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i. . . using (14. Then ÷1 . di (1 < i < k) such that V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. Proof Assume that ë1 ÷1 X X X ë k ÷ k 0 (ë i P C)X Then for all i. . respectively. .2. By Proposition 11. j we have dim (HomCG (Vi . for any i. Then dim (HomCG (V . ÷ k are linearly independent vectors in the vector space of all functions from G to C. øiX Proof We know from (14. . . W )) h÷. ÷ i i ë i X Therefore ÷1 .14) that there are non-negative integers ci .

14. then 2 3 À1 V ÷( g ) g gPG . We can write V V1 È V2 . Decomposing CG-modules It is sometimes of practical importance to be able to decompose a given CG-module into a direct sum of CG-submodules. j 14. Let V be any CG-module. Since W2 and V1 have no common composition factor. and we now describe a process for doing this. and 1 e1 e2 with e1 P W 1 .13) implies that h÷. where the CG-modules W1 and W2 have no common composition factor. øi The result follows.25 Proposition With the above notation. we deduce the stated results just as in the proof of Proposition 14.146 Representations and characters of groups k i1 k i1 On the other hand.7: CG W 1 È W 2 .26 Proposition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. ÷ ci ÷ i and ø di÷i and so (14.8. e2 P W 2 . for all v1 P V1 and v2 P V2 we have v1 e1 v1 . where every composition factor of V1 is a composition factor of W1 and every composition factor of V2 is a composition factor of W2. v 2 e2 v 2 X k i1 j ci d i X Proof If v1 P V1 then the function w2 3 v1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to V1. v1 e2 0. Once more we adopt Hypothesis 14. and V is any CG-module. v2 e1 0.

27) (1) Choose a basis v1 . v n of V. Proposition 14. . Some more complicated uses of the method can be found in Chapter 32. Clearly we may omit the constant multiplier m/|G|. we see that . . we de®ne Vr fvr: v P V g). Then the character of W1 is m÷ where m ÷(1). Also W1 and W2 satisfy Hypothesis 14. . so 2 3 À1 V1 V ÷( g ) g X gPG j Once the irreducible characters of our group G are known. Then Proposition 14. Proof Write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . (2) For each irreducible character ÷ of G. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. calculate the vectors v i ( gPG ÷( gÀ1 ) g) for 1 < i < n. The procedure is as follows: (14.26 provides a useful practical tool for ®nding CG-submodules of a given CG-module V.9. 14. The character of V÷ is a multiple of ÷.Inner products of characters 147 is equal to the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷ (where for r P CG.26. and let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui.7. (3) Then V is the direct sum of the CG-modules V÷ as ÷ runs over the irreducible characters of G.10. Let W1 be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui which have character ÷.28 Examples (1) Let G be any ®nite group and let V be any non-zero CG-module. Taking ÷ to be the trivial character of G in Proposition 14. We illustrate this method with a couple of simple examples. and let V÷ be the subspace of V spanned by these vectors. and by Proposition 14. by Theorem 11. .25 shows that Ve1 V1. the element e1 of W1 is given by m e1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Let V1 be the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷.

v4 such that v i g v ig for all i and all g P G. . v2 . let ÷ i (1) ei ÷ i ( g À1 ) gX 8 gPG For example.148 Representations and characters of groups 2 3 V g gPG is the sum of all the trivial CG-submodules of V. . . Here is a list of the irreducible characters ÷1 .5). . e5 1(1 À a2 ). with basis v1 . . Ve4 sp (v1 À v2 v3 À v4 ). ÷5 of D8 (see Example 16. v n such that v i g v ig for all i and all g P G. with basis v1 . let G Sn and let V be the permutation module. . . Then 2 3 V g sp (v1 X X X v n )X gPG Hence V has a unique trivial CG-submodule.3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 Let V be the permutation module for G. . Ve2 0. (2) Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by a (1 2 3 4) and b (1 2)(3 4)X Then G D8 (compare Example 1. For 1 < i < 5. Ve3 0. v2 À v4 )X . Ve5 sp (v1 À v3 . For example. v3 . Then 2 Ve1 sp (v1 v2 v3 v4 ).

The irreducible characters ÷1 . . ø is irreducible if and only if kø. . .27) does not in general enable us to write a given CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules (since V÷ is not in general irreducible). . . and ø is any character. öi W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG 2. h÷ i . øl 1. ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. ÷4 and ÷5 .Inner products of characters We have V Ve1 È Ve4 È Ve5 . 4. that is. 149 and so we have expressed V as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules whose characters are ÷1 . then ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k where d i hø. Also. . ö from G to C is given by 1 hW.9. ÷ i iX Each di is a non-negative integer. j. . If ÷1 . . i ei ej 0 for i T jX Compare these results with Corollary 14. You might like to check that e1 X X X e5 1. The inner product of two functions W. Note that the procedure described in (14. ÷ j i ä ij for all i. Summary of Chapter 14 1. . respectively. e2 ei for 1 < i < 5. ÷ k of G form an orthonormal set. Every CG-module is determined by its character. 3.

÷i ÷(1)X . br3 X 0 1 0 À1 Show that r1 and r2 are equivalent. h÷. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 3. br2 . If ÷ is a character of G. b: a4 1. non-trivial character of G. gó T À1 ( gr)TX 4. Prove that ÷ is reducible. but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. We shall see in Chapter 18 that G has characters ÷ and ø which take the following values on the conjugacy classes: Class representative |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø 1 24 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 Calculate h÷. and let r1 . r3 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 ar1 . øi and hø. 5. Let G S4 . ÷i. r2 . øi. 0 Ài À1 0 2 3 2 3 0 i 0 À1 ar2 . Which of ÷ and ø is irreducible? 2. and that ÷( g) is a non-negative real number for all g in G. show that h÷reg . and that for each g in G there is an invertible matrix Tg such that gó T À1 ( gr)Tg X g Prove that there is an invertible matrix T such that for all g in G. Let G Q8 ka. Suppose that r and ó are representations of G. b2 a2 . Suppose that ÷ is a non-zero. br1 . i 0 1 0 2 3 2 3 À1 0 1 0 ar3 .150 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 14 1.

) 151 7. What can you say about the integers di in the cases kø. ÷( g) is an even integer. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of the group G. 3 or 4? 8. Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and that for every g P G.4 relevant. If ð is the permutation character of Sn . 2. Does it follow that ÷ 2ö for some character ö? .Inner products of characters 6. and suppose that ø d 1 ÷1 X X Xd k ÷ k is a character of G. . . Let ÷1 . 1 S n i 1X (Hint: you may ®nd Exercise 11. . øl 1. prove that hð. .

the theorem provides machinery for investigating characters which is used in the remainder of the book. the characters of G are class functions on G. if l is the number of conjugacy classes of G. The set C of all class functions on G is a subspace of the vector space of all functions from G to C. Thus.5(2). then (15X2) dim C lX 15.3 Theorem The number of irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. G is as usual a ®nite group. and to some consequences of this theorem.1 De®nition A class function on G is a function ø: G 3 C such that ø(x) ø( y) whenever x and y are conjugate elements of G (that is.15 The number of irreducible characters We devote this chapter to the theorem which states that the number of irreducible characters of a ®nite group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. A basis of C is given by those functions which take the value 1 on precisely one conjugacy class and zero on all other classes. Throughout. By Proposition 13. ø is constant on conjugacy classes). 152 . Together with the material from Chapter 14. Class functions 15.

so (15. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. X X X . vz ë i vX Hence wz ë i w for all w P W i .2). .22. ÷ k are linearly independent elements of C. we deduce that l < k. f iz ëi f i It follows that z 1z ( f 1 X X X f k )z f 1 z X X X f k z ë1 f 1 X X X ë k f k X This shows that Z(CG) is contained in the subspace of CG spanned by f 1 . which is equal to k by k i1 ëi÷i . . we can write 1 f1 X X X fk with f i P W i for 1 < i < k. This completes the proof that k l.14. If V1 . . . and in particular. we consider the regular CG-module. W i is isomorphic to a direct sum of copies of V i . . they span a subspace of C of dimension k. ÷ i l for 1 < i < k. . V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.4 Corollary The irreducible characters ÷1 . and let l be the number of conjugacy classes of G. Proof Since ÷1 . j (1 < i < k)X 15. Since CG contains the identity element 1.The number of irreducible characters 153 Proof Let ÷1 . Indeed. By Proposition 9.7 that CG W 1 È X X X È W k . .2) implies that k < l. By (15. X X X . In order to prove the reverse inequality l < k. then ø where ë i kø. the centre of CG. . we know from Theorem 8. f k . X X X . ÷ k are linearly independent. where for each i. . . ÷1 . By Theorem 14. if ø is a class function.23. . Now let z P Z(CG). Since Z(CG) has dimension l by Proposition 12. . dim C l. for each i there exists ë i P C such that for all v P Vi.

using (14. we regard a character ÷ of G as a row vector. ÷ k span C. Hence ÷1 . . Then g is conjugate to h if and only if ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. Then by Corollary 15. j Corollary 15.4. ø( g) ø(h) for all class functions ø on G.4 has the following useful consequence.9(3)). by Proposition 13. Proof Since ÷( g) is real if and only if ÷( g) ÷( gÀ1 ) (see Proposition j 13. . Then g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G. and so they form a basis of C. and so g is conjugate to h. g6 (where g1 1). . 15. . . We conclude the chapter with an example illustrating some practical methods of expressing characters and class functions of a group as combinations of irreducible characters. .5(2).154 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 15. whose k entries are the values of ÷ on the k conjugacy classes of G. The last part follows.3. . this is true for the class function ø which takes the value 1 on the conjugacy class of g and takes the value 0 elsewhere. Then ø( g) ø(h) 1. In particular. As in previous examples. Conversely. suppose that ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷. ÷6 given as follows: . 15. . and six irreducible characters ÷1 . .13).4 that there is a certain group G of order 12 which has exactly six conjugacy classes with representatives g1 .5 Proposition Suppose that g. . h P G. .7 Example We shall see in Section 18.6 Corollary Suppose that g P G. j 15. Proof If g is conjugate to h then ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. the result follows immediately from Proposition 15. .5.

it is not hard to use tactical guesswork to express ö as a combination of the irreducible characters. The correct answer now comes quickly to mind. the second entry in the row vector for ÷ is equal to minus the ®rst entry. We suggest that you use the `guesswork method' to express the following characters ë. given any character ö of G whose degree is not large compared with the degrees of the ÷ i .The number of irreducible characters gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 g3 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g4 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 155 g6 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 Suppose we are given characters ÷ and ø of G as follows: g1 ÷ ø 3 4 g2 À3 0 g3 0 0 g4 0 4 g5 i 0 g6 Ài 0 Then it is easy to spot that ÷ ÷2 ÷6 . . ì of G as combinations of ÷1 . ø ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 X For example. they are the degrees of the ÷ i ). we see that ÷ must be a combination of ÷2 . Inspecting the values of the irreducible characters ÷ i . In fact. The reason for this is that the required coef®cients are known to be non-negative integers. ÷6 : g1 ë ì 2 4 g2 À2 4 g3 À2 1 g4 2 1 g5 0 0 g6 0 0 . . . ÷4 and ÷6 . and the entries in the column corresponding to g1 1 are positive integers (indeed. .

1 1. ÷2 i 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . kö. ÷1 i and similarly kö. 1 (À1 2i) . ÷3 i 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) .5(2). ÷6 l 0. (À1) 5 . 4 11 . i 3. ÷5 l 2 and kö. (À1) (À3) . 1 3 . 1 5 . we calculate these inner products: 11 . 1 À3 . 1 (À1 2i) . (À1) hö. 1 3 . 4 hö. 1 (À1 2i) . 1 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . like the following one? g1 ö 11 g2 3 g3 À3 g4 5 g5 À1 2i g6 À1 À 2i The answer is to use the inner product k .156 Representations and characters of groups How do we cope with a class function or with a more dif®cult character. The number of irreducible characters of a group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. ÷4 l 1. Therefore ö ÷1 3÷2 2÷3 ÷4 2÷5 X Summary of Chapter 15 1. 1 5 . (Ài) hö. 1 À3 . 1 3 . . l. (À1) 2.4 that the coef®cients ë i in the expression ö ë1 ÷1 X X X ë6 ÷6 are given by ë i hö. We know from Corollary 15. 4 11 . ÷ i i (1 < i < 6)X Using Proposition 14.

The irreducible characters ÷1 . . then ø k i1 ë i ÷ i where ë i hø. . ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. ÷ i iX Exercises for Chapter 15 1. ÷2 and ÷3 . . Let ø1 .The number of irreducible characters 157 2. If ø is a class function. The three irreducible characters of S3 are ÷1 . ø2 and ø3 as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷3 : 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 Let ÷ be the class function on S3 with the following values: 1 ÷ 19 (1 2) À1 (1 2 3) À2 Express ÷ as a linear combination of ÷1 . . ÷2 . . ÷2 and ÷3 of S3 . ø2 and ø3 be the class functions on S3 taking the following values: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 0 0 (1 2) 0 1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 1 Express ø1 . Is ÷ a character of S3 ? 2.

Let ø be the class function on G taking the following values: g1 ø 6 g2 0 g3 3 g4 À3 g5 À1 À i g6 À1 i Express ø as a linear combination of ÷1 .) (b) Using the solution to Exercise 11. . Let G be a group of order 12. . . . Suppose that G is the group of order 12 in Example 15. . prove that G has 4. 6 or 12 conjugacy classes. .2.158 Representations and characters of groups 3.7. . Find groups G in which each of these possibilities is realized. ÷6 . . . . . (Hint: show that Z(G) cannot have order 6. with conjugacy class representatives g1 . (a) Show that G cannot have exactly 9 conjugacy classes. g6 and irreducible characters ÷1 . . Is ø a character of G? 4. ÷6 as in that example. .

The entries in a character table are related to each other in subtle ways.4). and g1 1. the numbering is arbitrary.16 Character tables and orthogonality relations The irreducible characters of a ®nite group G are class functions. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let g 1 .21. The k 3 k matrix whose ij-entry is ÷ i ( g j ) (for all i. many of which are encapsulated in the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16. Beyond this. 159 . X X X . Character tables 16. and the number of them is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. the identity element of G. many problems in representation theory can be solved by considering characters. in practice. the rows are indexed by the irreducible characters of G and the columns are indexed by the conjugacy classes (or. Thus. This matrix is called the character table of G. the trivial character. It is usual to number the irreducible characters and conjugacy classes of G so that ÷1 1 G . g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Much of the later material in the book will be devoted to understanding character tables. 1 < j < k) is called the character table of G.1 De®nition Let ÷1 . X X X . j with 1 < i < k. Note that in the character table. which tells us that every CG-module is determined by its character. The motivation for this is Theorem 14. It is therefore convenient to record all the values of all the irreducible characters of G in a square matrix. by conjugacy class representatives).

For example. the character table of C2 ha: a2 1i is 1 ÷1 ÷2 1 1 a 1 À1 and the character table of C3 ka: a3 1l is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù (ù e2ðia3 ) (3) Let G D8 ka. b: a4 b2 1.160 Representations and characters of groups 16.2 Proposition The character table of G is an invertible matrix. and hence also the rows of the character table. and then the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 (2) We can write down the character table of any ®nite abelian group using Theorem 9. are linearly independent (Theorem 14. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.4. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. The irreducible characters of G are given in Example 13.3 Examples (1) Let G D6 ka. Proof This follows immediately from the fact that the irreducible characters of G. You found all the irreducible representations of G in Exercise 10.23). b as representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. The conjugacy classes .8. a. b: a3 b2 1.6(4). j 16. We take 1.

. g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Hence the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 The character tables of all dihedral groups will be found in Chapter 18. Then the following relations hold for any r. and these are given by part (2) of our next result. . s P {1. . ÷ s i ä rs . (1) The row orthogonality relations: k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs X (2) The column orthogonality relations: k i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs jCG ( g r )jX . and let g 1 . among the irreducible characters ÷1 . .4 Theorem Let ÷1 . a2 . and representatives are 1. . . b. These relations can be expressed in terms of the rows of the character table.Character tables and orthogonality relations 161 of G are given by (12. . . The orthogonality relations We have already seen many uses for the relations (14. . ÷ k of G. h÷ r . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G.12). a. 16. X X X . ab. k}.13). . . .5(2)). Similar relations exist between the columns of the character table. by writing them as k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) ä rs jCG ( g i )j i1 (see Proposition 14.

Hence ëi Therefore ä rs ø s ( g r ) k i1 1 ÷ i ( gs ) ø s ( g)÷ i ( g) X jGj gP g G jCG ( g s )j s ëi ÷i ( gr ) k ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) i1 jCG ( g s )j . j and the column orthogonality relations follow. (1) Let G D6. ÷ j i ä ij .8.4. also there are jGjajC G ( g s )j elements of G which are conjugate to g s . . by Theorem 12. let ø s be the class function which satis®es ø s ( g r ) ä rs k i1 (1 < r < k)X By Corollary 15.5 Examples We illustrate the column orthogonality relations. . 16. ÷ i i 1 ø s ( g)÷ i ( g)X jGj gPG Now ø s ( g) 1 if g is conjugate to g s . and this time we record the order of the centralizer C G ( g i ) next to each conjugacy class representative gi : gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 a 3 1 1 À1 b 2 1 À1 0 . . .162 Representations and characters of groups Proof The row orthogonality relations have already been proved. and ø s ( g) 0 otherwise. They are recorded here merely for comparison with the column relations.3(1). ÷ k . say øs ëi ÷i (ë i P C)X We know that h÷ i . For 1 < s < k. so ë i hø s . We copy the character table of G from Example 16. ø s is a linear combination of ÷1 .

Hence the last entry in the ®rst column is 3. 1 . r 2. r 1.Character tables and orthogonality relations Consider the sums 3 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) for various cases: i1 r 1. the sum of the squares of these numbers is 12 (this also follows from Theorem 11. We shall use the column orthogonality relations to determine the last row of the character table. s 2: s 2: s 3: 1 . (À1) 3. we read down columns r and s of the character table. The column orthogonality relation 4 i1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives 1 . taking the products of the numbers which appear. 0 0X 163 In each case. Let x denote the number at the foot of the second column. (2) Suppose we are given the following part of the character table of a group G of order 12 which has exactly four conjugacy classes: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 12 1 1 1 g2 4 1 1 1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 g4 3 1 ù2 ù (where ù e2ðia3 ). the order of the centralizer of g r ) if r s. The sum of the products is 0 if r T s. 1 1 . By the column orthogonality relations with r s 1. (À1) 0. 1 1 . The entries in the ®rst column of the character table are the degrees of the irreducible characters. 1 1 . 1 (À1) . 1 . so they are positive integers.12). (À1) 2 . 1 2 . 1 3x 0X Therefore x À1. By considering the orthogonality relations between the ®rst column and columns 3 and 4. and is the number at the top of the column (that is. 1 1 . we obtain the complete character table as . 1 1 .

since Theorem 13. 1 1 . if g T 1. ù2 0 . d i ÷ i ( g) X i1 0.20 give V k ` jGj. ù 0 . By taking the complex conjugate of each side of this equation. 1 (À1) . k ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) X i1 0. ù ù2 . ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 3 ) 1 . 0 0X We shall see later that the character table which we have constructed here is that of A4 . although our calculation has used only those relations which involve the ®rst column. 4 i1 4 i1 4 i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 1 . we get V ` jGj. ù2 ù2 . ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 1 . For example.19 and Proposition 13. . 1 ù .164 follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 Representations and characters of groups g1 12 1 1 1 3 g2 4 1 1 1 À1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 0 g4 3 1 ù2 ù 0 Notice that the orthogonality relations hold between all pairs of columns. where d i ÷ i (1). 1 ù . 1 1 . if g 1. if g 1. Those column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column of the character table were proved in Chapter 13. 0 3. if g T 1. (À1) 4.

Although the calculation with the column orthogonality relations was easier to perform. by letting the ij-entry of M be ÷ i ( gj ) X jCG ( g j )j1a2 Let M t denote the transpose of the complex conjugate of M. More importantly.5(2). . jCG ( g r )j1a2 jCG ( g s )j1a2 i1 by the column orthogonality relations. the row and column orthogonality relations encapsulate the same information. where we were given three of the four irreducible characters of G. An alternative approach would have been to use the row orthogonality relations h÷ i . we see that the row and column orthogonality relations are equivalent. Indeed. Since the properties M t M I and M M t I of a square matrix M are equivalent to each other. the equation M M t I is just another way of expressing the row orthogonality relations. Rows versus columns Notice that in Example 16. The character table of G is a k 3 k matrix. ÷4 i ä i4 to obtain four equations in the four unknown values ÷4 ( g j ) (1 < j < 4). Now the rs-entry in M M t is k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs . We could have used the above argument to deduce the column orthogonality relations from the row ones. by the row orthogonality relations. so M M t I. the rs-entry in M t M is k 1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs . so M t M I. it is a fact that the column orthogonality relations contain precisely the same information as the row orthogonality relations.Character tables and orthogonality relations 165 and these are just the column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column. On the other hand. as we shall now show. we calculated the values of the last character one at a time using the column orthogonality relations. and we adjust the entries ÷ i ( g j ) in this matrix to obtain another k 3 k matrix M.

k i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs jCG ( g r )jX Exercises for Chapter 16 1. ÷4 taking the following values: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 8 1 1 1 1 g2 8 1 1 1 1 g3 4 1 1 À1 À1 g4 4 1 À1 1 À1 g5 4 1 À1 À1 1 Find the complete character table of G. s. . s. Summary of Chapter 16 Let G be a ®nite group with irreducible characters ÷1 . . k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs X 3. . and has irreducible characters ÷1 . . . with representatives g1 . The column orthogonality relations state that for all r. . ÷ k and conjugacy class representatives g1 . . we can deduce exactly the same results using either set of relations. g5 .166 Representations and characters of groups so when we are working with character tables. . . . . g4 . . . . There exists a group G of order 10 which has precisely four conjugacy classes. 2. . . and four linear characters ÷1 . Write down the character table of C2 3 C2 . gk . . 3. 1. 2. with representatives g1 . . ÷2 as follows: . . The row orthogonality relations state that for all r. The character table of G is the k 3 k matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( g j ). . A certain group G of order 8 is known to have a total of ®ve conjugacy classes.

) 4. Show that det C is either real or purely imaginary. (Hint: ®rst ®nd the values of the remaining irreducible characters on g1 . g k and character table C. and that jdet Cj2 Find Æ(det C) when G C3 . . k i1 jCG ( g i )jX . Show that @ A k Z(G) g P G: ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) jGj X i1 6. A certain group G has two columns of its character table as follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 g1 21 1 1 1 3 3 g2 7 1 1 1 æ æ where g1 1 and æ P C. Let G be a ®nite group with conjugacy class representatives g1 . . Find the complete character table of G.10. then on g4 ± use Corollary 13. . Let ÷1 .Character tables and orthogonality relations gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 g1 10 1 2 g2 5 1 á g3 5 1 â g4 2 1 0 167 p p where á (À1 5)a2 and â (À1 À 5)a2. X X X . (b) Find another column of the character table. (a) Find æ. 5. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. .

In fact. In the opposite direction. it is easy to tell from the character table whether or not G is simple. (The derived subgroup is de®ned below in De®nition 17. ÷ ~ Proof Let r: GaN 3 GL (n. we can use the characters of GaN to get some of the characters of G. 17.17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters If N is a normal subgroup of the ®nite group G. in particular. the characters of degree 1) are obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaN in the case where N is the derived subgroup of G. by a process which is known as lifting. in turn.1 Proposition Assume that N v G. The characters of GaN should therefore be easier to ®nd than the characters of G. and N T {1}. De®ne ÷ ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ( g P G)X ÷ Then ÷ is a character of G. normal subgroups help us to ®nd characters of G. C) be a representation of GaN with 168 . then the factor group GaN is smaller than G.) The linear characters. can be used to get new irreducible characters from a given irreducible character.7. Lifted characters We begin by constructing a character of G from a character of GaN . in a way which we shall describe. and ÷ and ~ have the same degree. The linear characters of G (i. Thus. and let ~ be a character of GaN . it is also true that the character table of G enables us to ®nd the normal subgroups of G.e.

C) by (Ng)~ gr r Then for all g. C) which is given by the ÷ composition g 3 Ng 3 (Ng)~ r ( g P G) is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. so ÷ and ~ have the same ÷ ÷ degree. and ÷ is the lift of ~ to G. The character ÷ of r satis®es ÷( g) tr ( gr) tr ((Ng)~) ~(Ng) r ÷ for all g P G. Thus r is a representation of G. g2 P G and Ng1 Ng2 then g1 gÀ1 P N. if k P N then ÷ ÷(k) ~(Nk) ~(N ) ÷(1). ~ Proof If ÷ is a character of GaN .3 Theorem Assume that N v G. We may therefore de®ne a function r: GaN 3 GL (n. Moreover. Now let ÷ be a character of G with N < Ker ÷. The function r: G 3 GL (n. ÷ ÷ so N < Ker ÷. ÷ 17. ÷(1) ~(N).Normal subgroups and lifted characters 169 character ~. r r ( g P G)X ( g P G) .2 De®nition If N v G and ~ is a character of GaN . we obtain a bijective correspondence between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters ÷ of G which satisfy N < Ker ÷. so ( g1 gÀ1 )r I. h P G we have ((Ng)(Nh))~ (Ngh)~ ( gh)r ( gr)(hr) r r ((Ng)~)((Nh)~). Also. Irreducible characters of GaN correspond to irreducible characters of G which have N in their kernel. j 17. C) is a representation of G with character ÷. Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. then the character ÷ of G ÷ which is given by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ÷ is called the lift of ~ to G. If g 1 . then ÷ ~(N) ÷(1). By associating each character of GaN with its lift to G. and hence 2 2 ~ g1 r g2 r. C).

If ~ is the character of r then ÷ ~(Ng) ÷( g) ( g P G)X ÷ ~ Thus ÷ is the lift of ÷. It remains to show that irreducible characters correspond to irreducible characters. (1 2)(3 4). (1 4)(2 3)g. so that N v G (see Example 12. To see this. 17. so GaN D6 . U is a CG-submodule of C n if and only if U is a C(GaN )submodule of C n . The representation r is therefore irreducible if and ~ only if the representation r is irreducible. (1 3)(2 4). then Theorem 17.170 Representations and characters of groups ~ ~ so r is a representation of GaN . If we put a N(1 2 3) and b N(1 2) then GaN ha. ÷ j If we know the character table of GaN for some normal subgroup N of G. We have now established that the function which sends each character of GaN to its lift to G is a bijection between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters of G which have N in their kernel.20). let U be a subspace of C n . Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ~ is irreducible. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . and note that u( gr) P U for all u P U D u(Ng)~ P U for all u P U X r Thus.3 enables us to write down as many irreducible characters of G as there are irreducible characters of GaN . We know from Example 16.3(1) that the character table of GaN is N ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 2 N (1 2) 1 À1 0 N(1 2 3) 1 1 À1 .4 Example Let G S4 and N V4 f1. bi and a3 b2 N .

any subgroup which is the intersection of the kernels of irreducible characters is a normal subgroup too. Finding normal subgroups The character table contains accessible information about the structure of a group. since Ker ÷ f g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)g (see De®nition 13. once the character table of G is known. ~3 are ÷1 . ~2 . which are given by ÷ ÷ ÷ 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 171 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 Then ÷1 . First we shall show how to ®nd all the normal subgroups of G. 17. ÷3 . X X X . Also Ker ÷ v G. ÷2 .13). . Hence the intersection of the kernels of all the irreducible characters of G is {1}. since ~1 . Of course. so g 1 by Proposition 15. Recall that we can easily locate the kernel of an irreducible character ÷ from the character table. ~3 are ÷ ÷ ÷ irreducible characters of GaN . ~2 . ÷3 are irreducible characters of G. ÷ ÷((1 2 3 4)) ~(N (1 3)) since N (1 2 3 4) N (1 3)X ÷ Hence the lifts of ~1 . we note that ÷ ÷((1 2)(3 4)) ~(N ) since (1 2)(3 4) P N . The following proposition shows that every normal subgroup arises in this way. then ÷( g) ÷(1) for all characters ÷.5 Proposition If N v G then there exist irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷ s of G such that N s i1 Ker ÷ i X Proof If g belongs to the kernel of each irreducible character of G. as our next two propositions will demonstrate. ÷2 .5.Normal subgroups and lifted characters To calculate the lift ÷ of a character ~ of GaN .

11(2). Since ÷ is non-trivial and irreducible. hence Ker ÷ T G. Then g P Ker ÷. then Ker ÷ Ker r by Theorem 13. s i1 Ker ~ i fN gX ÷ For 1 < i < s.6 Proposition The group G is not simple if and only if ÷( g) ÷(1) for some non-trivial irreducible character ÷ of G. since the . Ker r T G. By the ÷ ÷ above observation. If r is a representation of G with character ÷. Hence N s i1 Ker ÷ i X j It is particularly easy to tell from the character table of G whether or not G is simple: 17. Thus Ker ÷ is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to {1} of G.5. . and some nonidentity element g of G. and so g P N. ÷ is non-trivial. and so G is not simple. let ÷ i be the lift to G of ~ i . Proof Suppose there is a non-trivial irreducible character ÷ such that ÷( g) ÷(1) for some non-identity element g. we have ÷( g) ÷(1). and taking 1 T g P Ker ÷. Conversely. .172 Representations and characters of groups Now let ~1 . We shall show how to ®nd all linear characters of any group G. ÷ ÷ and so Ng P Ker ~ i. so that there is a normal subgroup N of G with N T {1} and N T G. . If g P Ker ÷ i then ÷ ~ i (N ) ÷ i (1) ÷ i ( g) ~ i (Ng). so Ker ÷ T {1}. . ~ s be the irreducible characters of GaN . j Linear characters Recall that a linear character of a group is a character of degree 1. Then by Proposition 17. suppose that G is not simple. As Ker ÷ T G. there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that Ker ÷ is not {1} or G. Therefore if g P Ker ÷ i then Ng P Ker ~ i ÷ ÷ {N}.

We abbreviate gÀ1 hÀ1 gh as [ g. h] (1 2 3). Clearly [ g. Thus G9 h[ g.9 Proposition If ÷ is a linear character of G. We are going to show that G9 v G and that the linear characters of G are the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. Therefore. so G9 {1}. h P G. ÷( g À1 hÀ1 gh) ÷( g)À1 ÷(h)À1 ÷( g)÷(h) 1X Hence G9 < Ker ÷. h P GiX 17. (2) Let G S3 .8 Examples (1) If G is abelian then [ g. then G9 < Ker ÷. which is de®ned in the following way.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 173 ®rst move in constructing the character table of G is often to write down the linear characters.7 De®nition For a group G. 17. h P G. As a preliminary step. it is necessary to determine the derived subgroup of G. for all g. let G9 be the subgroup of G which is generated by all elements of the form g À1 hÀ1 gh ( g. If g (1 2) and h (2 3) then [ g. 17. so G9 < A3 . h]. j Next. h]: g. h] is always an even permutation. Proof Let ÷ be a linear character of G. Then ÷ is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers. we explore some group-theoretic properties of the derived subgroup. One step is provided by the following proposition. h] 1 for all g. h P G)X Then G9 is called the derived subgroup of G. . Hence G9 h(1 2 3)i A3 .

. to prove that G9 v G it is suf®cient by the ®rst sentence to prove that x À1 [ g. .3 they are precisely the irreducible characters ÷ of G . Since GaG9 is abelian.11 Theorem The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. we can obtain the linear characters of G by applying the next theorem.10 Proposition Assume that N v G. . In particular. . h. h] and their inverses. j It follows from Proposition 17.10 that G9 is the smallest normal subgroup of G with abelian factor group. 17. We have ghgÀ1 hÀ1 P N D Ngh Nhg D (Ng)(Nh) (Nh)(Ng)X Hence G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. .8 shows that GaG9 has exactly m irreducible characters ~1 . h]x P G9 for all g. In particular. x À1 hx]X Therefore G9 v G. Theorem 9. (1) G9 v G. Therefore. x P G. Proof (1) Note that for all a. Given the derived subgroup G9. GaG9 is abelian. Since we have proved that G9 v G. ~ m . b. . (2) Let g. Proof Let m jGaG9j. ÷ m of these characters to G also have degree 1. all of degree 1. we deduce that GaG9 is abelian.174 Representations and characters of groups 17. x P G. But x À1 [ g. the number of distinct linear characters of G is equal to jGaG9j. . and x À1 aÀ1 x (x À1 ax)À1 X Now G9 consists of products of elements of the form [ g. and so divides |G|. h]x x À1 g À1 hÀ1 ghx (x À1 gx)À1 (x À1 hx)À1 (x À1 gx)(x À1 hx) [x À1 gx. . h P G. (2) G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. ÷ ÷ The lifts ÷1 . we have x À1 (ab)x (x À1 ax)(x À1 bx). and by Theorem 17.

If g (1 2). so G9 {1} A n . ÷ m are therefore all the linear characters of G. G9 contains all 3-cycles and all elements of cycle-shape (2. But every product of two transpositions is equal to the identity. by Theorem 12. 2). An (1 2)g C2 . We have now proved that G9 A n .8(2). k] (1 4)(2 3)X Since G9 v G. We shall show that G9 An . so we assume that n > 4. each of which is the product of an even number of transpositions. As S n aA n C2 . S n has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . ÷ ~2 (An (1 2)) À1X ÷ Therefore by Theorem 17. If n 1 or 2 then S n is abelian.10(2). h (2 3) and k (1 2)(3 4). @ ÷2 ( g) 1.11. if g P An X a À1. and A n consists of permutations.9. Since Sn aS9 fAn . Not only are the linear characters of G important in being irreducible characters. but they can also be used to construct new irreducible characters from old. . 17. . which are given by ÷1 1 Sn . as the next result shows. the group n n S n aS9 has two linear characters ~1 and ~2. then [ g. where ÷ ÷ n ~1 (An (1 2)) 1. . h] (1 2 3). . we have G9 < A n by Proposition 17. We proved that S9 A3 in Example 3 17.15. if g P An .Normal subgroups and lifted characters 175 such that G9 < Ker ÷. the characters ÷1 . all the elements in (1 2 3) G and (1 4)(2 3) G belong to G9.13 Example We ®nd the linear characters of S n (n > 2). From the last example. a 3-cycle or an element of cycle-shape (2. 2). Therefore A n < G9. [h. Therefore. .12 Example Let G S n . we know that S9 An . ÷2 . In view of Proposition 17. j 17.

The character of G which corresponds to the character ~ ÷ of GaN is the lift of ~. then so is ÷ë. The matrix g(rë) has trace ë( g) tr ( gr). Since r and ë are homomorphisms it follows easily that rë is a homomorphism. Moreover. which is ë( g)÷( g). Now for all g P G. C) by g(rë) ë( g)( gr) ( g P G)X Thus g(rë) is the matrix gr multiplied by the complex number ë( g). . if ÷ is irreducible.176 Representations and characters of groups 17. Then the product ÷ë. Characters of GaN correspond to characters ÷ of G for which N < Ker ÷. Proof Let r: G 3 GL (n. ÷ ÷ 2.20. j The general case of a product of two characters will be discussed in Chapter 19. 3. de®ned by ÷ë( g) ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G) is a character of G. Hence rë is a representation of G with character ÷ë. The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. C) be a representation with character ÷. it follows that ÷ë is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible. so ë( g)ë( g) 1. and is given by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ( g P G). Summary of Chapter 17 1. the complex number ë( g) is a root of unity. ÷ëi ÷( g)ë( g)÷( g)ë( g) jGj gPG 1 ÷( g)÷( g) h÷. ÷iX jGj gPG By Theorem 14. De®ne rë: G 3 GL (n.14 Proposition Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and ë is a linear character of G. The normal subgroups of G can be found from the character table of G. Therefore 1 h÷ë.

3(3)). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. b (2 3 5)(4 7 6)X Let G ka. . . a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab. Compare your table with the character table of D8 (Example 16. Show that every group of order 12 has 3. bl. Let a and b be the following permutations in S7 : a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). 4. and construct all the linear characters of G. b: a4 1. What are the sizes of the conjugacy classes of G? 5. Let G Q8 ka. (c) Find the character table of G. bÀ1 ab a2 X (a) Show that G has order 21. . The character table of D8 is as shown (see Example 16. a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b. (b) Find G9. Check that a7 b3 1.Normal subgroups and lifted characters Exercises for Chapter 17 177 1. g6 (where g1 1).14 to complete the character table of G. . ö with values as follows: g1 ÷ ö 1 2 g2 Ài 0 g3 i 0 g4 1 À1 g5 À1 À1 g6 À1 2 Use Proposition 17. 4 or 12 linear characters. and hence cannot be simple. (b) Find the conjugacy classes of G. 3. a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 .3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a. and has irreducible characters ÷. b2 a2 . 2. with representatives g1 . (a) Find the ®ve conjugacy classes of G. (c) Complete the character table of G. A certain group G of order 12 has precisely six conjugacy classes.

. (a) Let ù e2ðia3 .b3 X 0 å À1 ån 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of T4 n. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i has order 4n.5. Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. the group U6 n ha. (a) Show that if å is any nth root of unity in C. The group V8 n ha. as in Proposition 17. an b2 .b3 å 0 0 ù2 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of U6 n. aÀ1 ba bÀ1 i has order 6n. ba aÀ1 bÀ1 . You are given that the group T4 n ha.b3 0 Àå À1 À1 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of V8 n . b: a2 n 1.) (a) Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. For n > 1. b: a2 n b3 1. then there is a representation of V8 n over C which sends å 0 0 1 X a3 . then there is a representation of T4 n over C which sends å 0 0 1 a3 . then there is a representation of U6n over C which sends 0 å ù 0 X a3 . 7. Let n be an odd positive integer. bÀ1 a aÀ1 bi has order 8n. (It is known as a dicyclic group. 6.178 Representations and characters of groups Express each normal subgroup of D8 as an intersection of kernels of irreducible characters. 8. b: a2 n b4 1.

the product ÷4 ÷2 is also a character of S4 .14.1 The group S4 In Example 17.18 Some elementary character tables We now illustrate the techniques we have presented so far by constructing the character tables of several groups. to complete the character table of S4 .4. Let ÷4 be the character ÷4 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P S4 ) which is given in Proposition 13. We shall now use Proposition 17. we produced three irreducible characters ÷1 . including the groups S4 and A4 . By Proposition 17. 24 4 8 4 179 . ÷4 i 9 1 1 1 1. ÷4 and ÷4 ÷2 are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷2 ÷4 ÷4 ÷2 1 24 1 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 1 Note that h÷4 . and all dihedral groups. ÷2 . which deals with the product of a character with a linear character. The values of ÷2 .24. ÷3 of S4 by lifting characters of the factor group S4 aV4 . 18.14.

either by using the same calculation or by quoting the result of Proposition 17. íi 9 1 1.14. and we have produced ®ve irreducible characters.180 Representations and characters of groups so ÷4 is irreducible. The values of í are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| í 1 12 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 (1 3 2) 3 0 Note that hí. Character table of S4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 18. (1 2 3).11. Thus jGaG9j 3 by Theorem 17. Since S4 has ®ve conjugacy classes. Since G has four irreducible characters. Then |G| 12. and the sum of the squares of their degrees is 12. Let í be the character of A4 given by Proposition 13. Let ÷5 ÷4 ÷2 . so that í( g) |®x ( g)| À 1 for all g P A4 . The character ÷4 ÷2 is also irreducible. (1 2)(3 4). as shown. (1 3 2) (see Example 12. there must be exactly three linear characters of G. and G has four conjugacy classes. the alternating group of degree 4. It is not dif®cult to con®rm this by showing that . we have now found the complete character table of S4 . with representatives 1.24.18(1)). 12 4 so í is an irreducible character of G of degree 3.2 The group A4 Let G A4 .

~3 to G. . C) by (ar bs )r j (Aj ) r (Bj ) s (r. Write å e2ðia n . with n > 3. BÀ1 Aj Bj AÀ1 X j j j j It follows that by de®ning r j : G 3 GL(2.Some elementary character tables G9 V4 f1. together with the character ÷4 í. (1 2)(3 4). G9(1 3 2)g C3. na2. give the complete character table of A4 : Character table of A4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 18. (1 4)(2 3)gX 181 Now GaG9 fG9. and the character table of GaG9 is G9 ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 1 G9(1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 G9(1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù ~ ÷ ÷ (where ù e2ðia3 ). For each integer j with 1 < j . (1 3)(2 4). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX We shall derive the character table of G. The lifts of ÷1 .3 The dihedral groups Let G be the dihedral group D2 n of order 2n. we obtain a representation r j of G for each j with 1 < j . na2. G9(1 2 3). Bj X 1 0 0 åÀ j Check that A n B2 I. so that G ha. ~2 . b: an b2 1. s P Z). de®ne j 0 1 å 0 Aj .

and so r i and r j are not equivalent. If i and j are distinct integers with 1 < i . X X X . then å i T å j and å i T å À j .4. The (n À 1)a2 irreducible characters ø1 . Case 1: n odd By (12.182 Representations and characters of groups Each r j is an irreducible representation. one for each j which satis®es 1 < j . At this point it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. We have now constructed distinct irreducible characters ø j of G. aÀ r g(1 < r < (n À 1)a2). (Incidentally. These characters ÷1 and ÷2 are given by ÷1 1 G and & 1 if g ar for some r.11. Therefore there is no matrix T with ar i T À1 (ar j )T. we obtain two linear characters ÷1 .5(2) or by applying the result of Exercise 8. As G has (n 3)/2 irreducible characters in all. ø( nÀ1)a2 each have degree 2. ÷2 of G by lifting the irreducible characters of Gahai to G. ø2 . na2 and 1 < j . na2. fas b: 0 < s < n À 1gX Thus there are (n 3)a2 conjugacy classes. so ar i and ar j have different eigenvalues. we have proved that D9 n kal for n odd. there are two more to be found. na2. in view of 2 Theorem 17.) The character table of D2 n (n odd) is therefore as follows (where å e2ðia n ): gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 øj (1 < j < (n À 1)/2) 1 2n 1 1 2 ar (1 < r < (n À 1)/2) n 1 1 å À jr b 2 1 À1 0 å jr . Let ø j be the character of r j . either by the proof of Example 5.11) the conjugacy classes of D2 n (n odd) are f1g. ÷2 ( g) À1 if g ar b for some rX We have now found all the irreducible characters of D2 n (n odd). Since kal v G and Gahai C2. far .

÷3 . aÀ r g(1 < r < m À 1). ha2 ib. and we shall construct the character table of G. It is in fact known that every non-abelian group of order . as supplied by (12.4 Another group of order 12 We shall now describe a non-abelian group G of order 12 which is not isomorphic to either A4 or D12. and their values appear in the following complete character table of D2 n (n even. Since these linear characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of G/ka2 l. n 2m. fam g. fas b: s oddgX Hence G has m 3 irreducible characters. ÷4 (and G9 ka2 l). say n 2m. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (1 < j < m À 1) 1 2n 1 1 1 1 2 am 2n 1 1 (À1) m (À1) m 2(À1) j a r (1 < r < m À 1) n 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r jr å å À jr b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 18.Some elementary character tables 183 Case 2: n even If n is even. are f1g. ha2 ia.12). we ®rst note that ha2 i fa j : j eveng is a normal subgroup of G and Gaha2 i fha2 i. ø2 . far . they are easy to calculate. fas b: s eveng. of which m À 1 are given by ø1 . X X X . ÷2 . å e2ðia n ). ø mÀ1 X To ®nd the remaining four irreducible characters. then the conjugacy classes of D2 n. ha2 iabg C2 3 C2 X Therefore G has four linear characters ÷1 .

ar b (0 < r < 5)X Check that a and b satisfy a6 1. ÷4 of G given below: . a3 bgX These. a2 b. ha2 iabgX Since ka2 la ka2 lb2 . a3 b. CG (a3 ) G. aÀ1 } {a2 . 0 < s < 1 as given above. but we shall not prove this result here. and so |G| 12. Observe that ka2 l {1. we obtain the linear characters ÷1 . a4 } v G. ÷3 . namely ar . CG (b) f1. which are tabulated below: Conjugacy class {1} {a3 } {a. ÷2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X It follows from these relations that every element of G has the form ar bs with 0 < r < 5. a4 b} {ab. a the group G has at least 12 elements. a subgroup of S12 . By lifting the irreducible characters of C4 to G. b. ha2 ib. and Gaha2 i fha2 i. a3 b2 . ha2 ia. a2 . Since a has order 6 and b P kal. b (1 7 4 10)(2 12 5 9)(3 11 6 8). aÀ2 } {b. a5 b} Representative gi 1 a3 a a2 b ab |CG ( gi )| 12 12 6 6 4 4 Therefore G has six irreducible characters. and let G ka. help us to ®nd the conjugacy classes of G. and similar facts.184 Representations and characters of groups 12 is isomorphic to A4 . The relations further imply that CG (a) hai. Let a and b be the following permutations in S12 : a (1 2 3 4 5 6)(7 8 9 10 11 12). a3 . bl. D12 or G. we have Gaha2 i C4 .

For r . the column orthogonality relations 6 i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 1 ) 0 and 6 i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 now give us two equations involving 2á r 2â r and 2á r À 2â r . so they are positive integers. Observe that á1 . so á2 and â2 are integers by Corollary 13. so we can solve them for á r and â r .4(2). â1 are positive integers. â r taken by the last two irreducible characters ÷5 . Explicitly: r 3: r 4: r 5: r 6: 2á3 2â3 0. ÷6 . we may take á2 2 and â2 À2.Some elementary character tables gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 á1 â1 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 á2 â2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 á3 â3 a2 6 1 1 1 1 á4 â4 b 4 1 i À1 Ài á5 â5 185 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i á6 â6 It remains to ®nd the values á r . 2á5 À 2â5 0. ÷6 . 1 1 4 á2 â2 12. 2. By the column orthogonality relations applied to columns 1 and 2. Since we have not yet distinguished between ÷5 and ÷6 . Theorem 16. respectively. 2á5 2â5 0. 2á4 À 2â4 0.10. 2á6 À 2â6 0X . we have 4 á2 â2 12. The other two equations then imply that á2 Àâ2 Æ2. 4 2á3 À 2â3 0. the ®rst equation gives á1 â1 2. â1 are the degrees of ÷5 . For this. 2 2 á1 á2 â1 â2 0X Since á1 . 4 2á4 2â4 0. also a3 is an element of order 2. we shall use the column orthogonality relations. 2á6 2â6 0.

it is not hard to construct the representations of the above group G with characters ÷5 and ÷6 ± see Exercise 17.) Summary of Chapter 18 In this chapter we gave the character tables of various groups. á5 0. It is instructive to note that we produced the last two irreducible characters of G by simply using the orthogonality relations. 1. á4 À1.1: the group S4 . â5 0. â6 0X The complete character table of G is therefore as follows: gi CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 We can deduce that G is not isomorphic to A4 or D12 from the fact that the character table of G is different from those of A4 and D12.186 Hence Representations and characters of groups á3 À1.3: the dihedral groups. 3. â3 1. without constructing the corresponding CG-modules. (In fact.6. as follows. 2. â4 À1. This is typical of more advanced calculations. Section 18. Section 18. á6 0. and illustrates the fact that it is usually much easier to construct an irreducible character of a group than to obtain an irreducible representation. . Section 18.2: the group A4 .

6. Let ð be the corresponding permutation character of D8. as in Exercise 17. Find the values of ð on the elements of D8. aÀ1 ba bÀ1 l. Find the character table of G. Find the character table of G. Regard D8 as a subgroup of S4 permuting the four corners of a square.5. ba aÀ1 bÀ1 . 2. with n odd. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. 5. and show that all its entries are integers. (Hint: use Proposition 17. Use the character table to ®nd seven distinct normal subgroups of D12. as in Exercise 17.Some elementary character tables Exercises for Chapter 18 187 1. Write down explicitly the character table of D12. Let G T 4n ha. bÀ1 a aÀ1 bi.1(3). as in Exercise 17. . b: a2 n 1. b: a2n b3 1. as in Example 1. b: a2n b4 1.) 4.6.8.) 3.7. (Hint: use the result of Exercise 17. an b2 . and express ð as a sum of irreducible characters. Let G V8 n ha. Let G U6 n ka. Find the character table of G. It is a good idea to do the cases n odd and n even separately.

and indeed. j with 1 < i < m. . . It is therefore straightforward to calculate the product. given those of G and H. The tensor product space V W is de®ned to be the mn-dimensional vector space over C with a basis given by 188 . called the tensor product of V and W. which has character ÷ø. and to put them together to form a new CG-module. If ÷ is not linear. An important special case of the product ÷ø occurs when ÷ ø. we apply tensor products in a different way. we introduce a symbol v i wj. and so on. The plan is to take CG-modules V and W with characters ÷ and ø respectively. We shall illustrate this by constructing the character tables of S5 and S6 . At the end of the chapter. . then the degrees of ÷. but a little ingenuity is required in order to justify the conclusion that the product ÷ø is a character of G. ÷ 2 . to ®nd all the irreducible characters of a direct product G 3 H. v m and w1 . . .19 Tensor products The idea of multiplying a character of a group G by a linear character of G was introduced at the end of Chapter 17. and by taking successive powers of ÷ we obtain arbitrarily many new characters. . products of characters provide a very good source of new characters from given ones. respectively. 1 < j < n. Potentially. Tensor product spaces Let V and W be vector spaces over C with bases v1 . For each i. wn . and more generally ÷ 3 . increase. so we consider the character ÷ 2 . The value of the product ÷ø on an element g of G is simply ÷( g)ø( g). we have a chance of getting a large proportion of the character table of G from just one non-linear character ÷ of G. and it can be extended to include the product of any pair of characters ÷ and ø. then. . ÷ 4 . X X X .

j i. j (ëv) w 2 i 3 ëë i v i 2 j 3 ì jw j i. Then j1 2 3 2 3 v (ëw) ëi vi ëì j w j ëë i ì j (v i wj ). j ëë i ì j (v i wj ). ë(v w) ë i. 19. because this is not the case. then v (ëw) (ëv) w ë(v w)X (2) If x1 . . . For instance. j m Proof (1) Let v i1 ë i v i and w n ì j w j. xa P V and y1. j 189 w n j1 ì j wj For example. w P W and ë P C. we de®ne v w P V W by vw ë i ì j (v i wj )X i. 1 < j < ngX Thus V W consists of all expressions of the form ë ij (v i wj ) (ë ij P C)X m For v P V and w P W with v i1 ë i v i and (ë i . ì j P C). i j i. j ë i ì j (v i wj ) ëë i ì j (v i wj )X .Tensor products fv i wj : 1 < i < m.1 Proposition (1) If v P V. . then 2 a 3 H b I xi d yj e xi yj X i1 j1 i. . . it is impossible to express v1 w1 v2 w2 in the form v w. . (2v1 À v2 ) (w1 w2 ) 2v1 w1 2v1 w2 À v2 w1 À v2 w2 X Do not be misled by the notation into believing that every element of V W has the form v w. . yb P W. . j i.

1. it follows that the also a basis of V W. . so we are now in a position to de®ne the tensor product of two CG-modules. then the elements in fei f j : 1 < i < m. we have v i wj ë ik ì jl (ek f l )X k. Proof Write vi m k1 ë ik ek . . . Since elements ek fl are v i wj (1 < i < m.2 Proposition If e1 . . . v m and w1 . w n. . . fn is a basis of W. . wj n l1 ì jl f l (ë ik . and we leave it as an exercise. We know that the elements v i wj (1 < i < m. The proof of part (2) is equally straightforward. 1 < j < n) are a basis of the mn elements ek fl (1 < k < m. X X X . . l Now the elements V W . 19. The multiplication of v i wj by an element of . . ì jl P C)X Then by Proposition 19. em is a basis of V and f1 . 1 < j < n) give a basis of V W. j Our construction of V W depended upon choosing a basis of V and a basis of W at the beginning. 1 < j < ng give a basis of V W. Let G be a ®nite group and let V and W be CG-modules with bases v1 . and hence span V W. . the next proposition shows that other bases of V and W work equally well. Tensor product modules We have introduced the tensor product of two vector spaces.190 Representations and characters of groups Therefore v (ëw) (ëv) w ë(v w). . respectively. 1 < l < n) V W has dimension mn.

4 Proposition For all v P V. j. let 2 3 ë ij (v i wj ) g ë ij (v i g wj g) i.3 De®nition Let g P G. de®ne (v i wj ) g v i g w j g and. given in De®nition 19. 19. Then j1 2 3 (v w) g ë i ì j (v i wj ) g by Proposition 19X1 i1 i. For example. .3. j for arbitrary complex numbers ë ij . For all i. j i.5 Proposition The rule for multiplying an element of V W by an element of G. 19. 19. which is then extended linearly to a multiplication on the whole of V W. j m 2 i. more generally. makes the vector space V W into a CGmodule.Tensor products 191 G is de®ned in the following simple way. j ë i ì j (v i g wj g) 3 ëivi g 2 j j i 3 ì j wj g by Proposition 19X1 v g wgX You should be warned that (v w)r T vr wr for most elements r in CG. we have (v w) g v g wgX Proof Let v ë i v i and w n ì j wj. w P W and all g P G. consider what happens when r is a scalar multiple of g.

these vectors ei fj form a basis of V W. (v i wj )1 v i wj . and by Proposition 19. . . and 2 i. Then (v i wj ) g v i g wj g P V W . . 19. ø( g) ì jX Now for 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. . h P G. and g.2. j Therefore all the conditions of Proposition 4.6 are ful®lled. j by Proposition 19X4 3 ë ij (v i wj ) g ë ij ((v i wj ) g)X i. fn of W such that ei g ë i e i (1 < i < m) and f j g ì j f j m i1 n j1 (1 < j < n) for some complex numbers ë i . Then the character of the CG-module V W is the product character ÷ø. (v i wj )( gh) v i ( gh) wj ( gh) (v i g)h (wj g)h (v i g wj g)h ((v i wj ) g)h. em of V and a basis f1 . Hence. . By Proposition 9. Then ÷( g) ë i . .11 we can choose a basis e1 . and V W is a CG-module. . j We now calculate the character of V W. if ö is the character of V W then .192 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let 1 < i < m. where ÷ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) for all g P GX Proof Let g P G. ì j . respectively. 1 < j < n.6 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. (ei f j ) g ei g f j g ë i ì j (ei f j ). .

j i j 193 as required. and calculate ÷3 ÷4 and ÷4 ÷4 . the powers of ÷ carry a lot of information about the whole character table of G. i. Ker {1}). An inductive proof using Corollary 19.7 Corollary The product of two characters of G is again a character of G. and ÷4 ÷4 ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 X Powers of characters Corollary 19.7 shows that ÷ n is a character of G. we de®ne ÷ n by ÷ n ( g) (÷( g)) n 0 for all g P GX Thus ÷ 1 G .Tensor products 2 32 3 ö( g) ëi ì j ëi ì j ÷( g)ø( g). where ÷ 2 ÷÷.1. j 19. We reproduce it here. the product of ÷ with itself.8 Example The character table of S4 was given in Section 18. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷4 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 6 9 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 We see that ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷5 . for every nonnegative integer n. . When ÷ is a faithful character (that is. as can be seen from Theorem 19.10 below. More generally. 19.7 shows that if ÷ is a character of G then so is ÷ 2 .

. It follows that Ä is divisible by (xi À x j ) (x1 À x2 )(x1 À x3 ) X X X (x1 À xr ) i. j complex numbers. we shall need the following result concerning the so-called `Vandermonde matrix'.194 Representations and characters of groups In the course of the proof of Theorem 19.9) If á1 . . and so on. to obtain x1 x2 X X X x rÀ1 rÀ1 in the expansion of the determinant Ä. we must take x1 from the rÀ2 ®rst row of the matrix. . so Ä 0. x2 from the second row. (19. Suppose that x1 . then the matrix rÀ1 I á2 X X X á1 1 rÀ1 á2 X X X á2 g g 2 g X XXX X e á2 r XXX á rÀ1 r ár 3 (x2 À x3 ) X X X (x2 À xr ) F F F 3 (x rÀ1 À xr )X rÀ1 rÀ2 Now the coef®cient of x1 x2 X X Xx rÀ1 in this product is 1: for in the rÀ1 way we have displayed the product. It follows that ÄÆ (xi À xj )X i. . . and so on. . . x rÀ1 in Ä is Æ1. . x2 must come from all the factors in the rÀ1 rÀ2 second row. j . the term x1 must come from all rÀ2 the factors in the ®rst row. We ®rst sketch a proof of this result.10. . xr are indeterminates. and consider H rÀ1 I 1 x1 x2 X X X x1 1 f 1 x x2 X X X x rÀ1 g 2 f g 2 2 Ä detf gX dX X X XXX X e 1 xr x2 r XXX x rÀ1 r If i T j and xi xj then two rows of the given matrix are equal. On the other hand. á r are distinct H 1 á1 f1 á 2 f Af dX X 1 is invertible. Hence rÀ1 rÀ2 the coef®cient of x1 x2 . .

and suppose that ÷( g) takes precisely r different values as g varies over all the elements of G. we substitute á i for xi (1 < i < r). But the ( j 1)th entry in the row vector bA is equal to jGjh÷ j .10 Theorem Let ÷ be a faithful character of G. and let b be the row vector which is given by b (â1 . øi T 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. hence bA T 0. á r . . we know this already. h÷ j .11 Examples (1) If G T {1} and ÷ is the regular character of G. . .9).8. øi. and deduce that the matrix A is invertible since its determinant is non-zero. â r )X Now A is invertible by (19. For 1 < i < r. Then for all j > 0. . G1 {1}. . Then every irreducible character of G is a constituent of one of the powers ÷ 0 .Tensor products 195 To obtain (19. j 19. . so that G1 Ker ÷.9). as we wished to prove. As ÷ is faithful. . Then ÷( g) takes four different values. ÷ rÀ1 . de®ne Gi f g P G: ÷( g) á i gX Take á1 ÷(1). Proof Let the r values taken by ÷ be á1 . Now let ø be an irreducible character of G. so Theorem 19. then ÷( g) takes just two different values (see Proposition 13. Let ÷ ÷4 .10 says that every irreducible character of G is a constituent of 1 G or ÷. and for 1 < i < r. øi r 1 1 (÷( g)) j ø( g) (á i ) j â i X jGj gPG jGj i1 Let A be the r 3 r matrix with ij-entry (á i ) jÀ1 . ÷ 1 . (2) Let G S4 . and b T 0 since â1 T 0.5. 19. .20). gPG i and note that â1 ø(1) T 0. We have seen that ÷ 2 ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 . by Theorem 10. øi T 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. and thus h÷ j . X X X . and refer to Example 19. We must show that h÷ j . let âi ø( g).

÷ 1 . ÷ 3 (indeed.6. Let v1 .196 Representations and characters of groups h÷ 3 . j and extending linearly ± that is. . . it is of some importance to be able to decompose powers of a character ÷ into sums of irreducible characters.10. . w P V. . Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. The subspace S(V V) is called the symmetric part of V V. We are going to provide a method for decomposing ÷ 2 . ÷5 of G. ÷ 3 ) have between them as constituents all the irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷ 2 . v n be a basis of V. j Check that for all v. Since T is linear. . . the square of ÷. 2 3 ë ij (v i v j ) T ë ij (v j v i )X i. Also.10. and the subspace A(V V ) is known as the antisymmetric part of V V. . in this case. Now de®ne subsets of V V as follows: S(V V ) fx P V V : xT xg. illustrating Theorem 19. we have (v w)T w vX Hence T is independent of the choice of basis. j i. and de®ne a linear transformation T: V V 3 V V by (v i v j )T v j v i for all i. just ÷ 2 .12 Proposition The subspaces S(V V) and A(V V) are CG-submodules of V V. the module V V has character ÷ 2 . ÷2 i 1X and we ®nd that Thus ÷ 0 . Decomposing ÷ 2 In view of Theorem 19. as we shall see. V V S(V V ) È A(V V )X . it is easy to see that S(V V) and A(V V) are subspaces of V V (indeed. This special case is particularly useful in ®nding irreducible characters. they are eigenspaces of T). By Proposition 19. 19. . A(V V ) fx P V V : xT Àxg.

13 Proposition Let v1 . so x 0. 1 2(x xT ) P S(V V ) and 1 2(x À xT ) P j V V S(V V ) È A(V V )X Note that the symmetric part of V V contains all vectors which have the form v w w v with v. The dimension of S(V V ) is n(n 1)a2. If x P S(V V) A(V V) then x xT Àx. . j 197 i. . for all x P V we have x 1(x xT ) 1(x À xT )X 2 2 Since T 2 is the identity. (1) The vectors v i v j v j v i (1 < i < j < n) form a basis of S(V V ). . . j ë ij (v i g v j g)T 3 ë ij (v i v j ) gT X 2 i. while the antisymmetric part of V V contains all vectors of the form v w À w v. The dimension of A(V V ) is n(n À 1)a2. w P V. Thus S(V V) and A(V V) are CG-submodules of V V. A(V V ). Hence. (2) The vectors v i v j À v j v i (1 < i . Therefore. . for x P S(V V). j Therefore T is a CG-homomorphism from V V to itself. Further. j i. v n be a basis of V. so xg P S(V V) and yg P A(V V). and ( yg)T ( yT ) g À yg. j < n) form a basis of A(V V). y P A(V V) and g P G. 19.Tensor products Proof For all ë ij P C and g P G. We now present bases of the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of V V which consist of elements like these. we have (xg)T (xT ) g xg. 2 3 ë ij (v i v j ) Tg ë ij (v j g v i g) i.

and the vectors v i v j À v j v i (1 < i . and the result follows. i i. . .198 Representations and characters of groups Proof Clearly the vectors v i v j v j v i (1 < i < j < n) are linearly independent elements of S(V V ). and hence from Proposition 19. we have ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )).12. Hence dim S(V V ) > n(n 1)a2. ÷ 2 ÷ S ÷ A .13(2). ÷2 ÷S ÷ AX The next result gives the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A . . j dim A(V V ) > n(n À 1)a2X De®ne ÷ S to be the character of the CG-module S(V V ). 19.14 Proposition For g P G. j i i. and ÷ A to be the character of the CG-module A(V V ). Therefore i 2 ÷ 2 ( g) (÷( g))2 ëi 2 ë i ë j ÷( g 2 ) 2÷ A ( g)X 2 ë2 ei. which implies that ÷ S ( g) ÷ 2 ( g) À ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 ))X 2 j . . dim S(V V ) dim A(V V ) dim V V n2 X Hence the above inequalities are equalities. By Proposition 19. j Hence ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Also. and 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Proof By Proposition 9. By Proposition 19.11 we can choose a basis e1 . Then (ei ej À ej ei ) g ë i ë j (ei ej À ej ei ). ÷ A ( g) ëi ë j X Now e i g so ÷( g) i ë i and ÷( g2 ) i ë2 . en of V such that e i g ë i e i (1 < i < n) for some complex numbers ë i . j < n) are linearly independent elements of A(V V ).12.

and the values of ÷ S and ÷ A .Tensor products 199 19.16(4). and use inner products to analyse ÷ S and ÷ A for new irreducible characters.16 Example The character table of S5 Let G S5 .13.15 Example Let G S4 . the symmetric group of degree 5. given one or two irreducible characters to start with. 19. ÷2 . We illustrate this strategy with two examples. given by Proposition 19. appear below.14. The values of ÷. Let ÷ ÷4 . G9 A5 and G has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . We have .8. obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaG9. (2) If ø is a new character found in (1). The character table of G is given in Example 19. By Example 12. The strategy is simple: (1) Given a character ÷. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷S ÷A 1 24 3 6 3 (1 2) 4 1 2 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 À1 2 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 0 1 We ®nd that ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 and ÷ A ÷5 . G has conjugacy class representatives gi . (a) Linear characters By Example 17. The techniques which we have developed so far give a useful method for ®nding new irreducible characters of a group. form ÷ S and ÷ A . conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders |CG ( gi )| as follows: gi Class size |CG ( gi )| 1 1 120 (1 2) 10 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 15 30 20 24 6 8 4 6 5 Thus G has exactly seven irreducible characters. then form ø S and ø A and repeat.

by Theorem 14.20. By Proposition 19.14 the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷S ÷A 1 120 10 6 (1 2) 12 4 0 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 0 2 À2 0 0 1 0 0 1 Thus.14 shows that ÷4 ÷3 ÷2 is also an irreducible character. At this point we have the following portion of the character table of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 120 1 1 4 4 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 À1 (c) Tensor products We now use tensor products to construct the last three irreducible characters of G. ÷3 i ÷3 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X 42 22 12 (À1)2 (À1)2 1X 120 12 6 6 5 Hence ÷3 is irreducible. À1. Next. Proposition 17.200 Representations and characters of groups & ÷2 ( g) ÷1 1 G .24 gives us a character ÷3 (b) Permutation character of G with values Observe that h÷3 . Write ÷ ÷3 . and 1. if g is an even permutation. if g is an odd permutationX Proposition 13. .

we then ®nd the last three irreducible characters by using the orthogonality relations. ÷7 ÷6 ÷2 is a different irreducible character of degree 5. For ease of printing. which we call ÷5 . ÷3 i À 1. ÷1 i Therefore. Next. Finally. The character table of S5 is as shown.Tensor products h÷ A . Let G S6 . ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ø. ÷ S i 3. we use techniques similar to those of the previous example to ®nd 8 of the 11 irreducible characters of the symmetric group S6 . where ø is an irreducible character of degree 5. of order 720. it is convenient to label each conjugacy class by the cycle-shape of its elements. ÷ A i 36 4 1 1.17 Example The character table of S6 In this example. 120 8 5 201 and so ÷ A is a new irreducible character. Let ÷6 ø. Character table of S5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 120 1 1 4 4 6 5 5 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 À2 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 19. 120 12 6 8 6 h÷ S . We have now found all seven irreducible characters of S5 . 120 12 6 8 6 40 8 1 1 h÷ S . 10 4 1 2 1 1. Using . so that ÷6 ÷ S À ÷1 À ÷3 . and 120 12 6 6 100 16 1 4 1 h÷ S .

h÷ S .2) (5) (2. the conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows (see Exercise 12.2.2) 6 0 1 À1 (5) 5 0 0 0 (2. and we get exactly two linear characters ÷1 and ÷2 . (a) Linear characters As with all symmetric groups Sn (n > 2). if g is odd ( g P G) is a character of G.2) 45 16 (4) 90 8 (3. Let ÷ ÷3 .2) (6) 120 144 15 40 90 120 6 5 48 18 8 6 Since G has 11 conjugacy classes.3) (4.2) (3. ÷ S and ÷ A are as follows: Class |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷3 ÷S ÷A (1) (2) 720 48 5 15 10 3 7 2 (3) 18 2 3 1 (2. The values of ÷. ÷1 i 1. ÷3 i 1. . (b) Permutation character and tensor products is given by ÷3 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 The function ÷3 which ÷1 1 G . h÷ S . where & ÷2 ( g) (see Example 17. 1. ÷ A i 1.3): Cycle-shape Class size |CG ( gi )| (1) (2) 1 15 720 48 (3) 40 18 (2. if g is even.2) (3. by Proposition 13. the derived subgroup is An . À1.202 Representations and characters of groups this notation.13).24. ÷ S i 3X h÷ A . h÷ S .2. it has 11 irreducible characters.2) 16 1 3 À2 (4) 8 1 1 0 (3.2) (6) 48 18 8 6 À1 3 À2 À1 0 1 À1 1 0 À1 0 1 We calculate that h÷3 . ÷3 i 1.3) (4.

Thus the conjugacy classes of s and t correspond to the second and fourth columns of the character table. where ÷7 is another irreducible character. The irreducible characters ÷1 . Finally.2. Also. From Corollary 13. . It will be shown later (Corollary 22. . ÷5 ÷ A is irreducible.Tensor products 203 Therefore ÷3 is irreducible.2) (3. ÷8 are recorded in the following portion of the character table of G. It is therefore convenient ®rst to concentrate on elements of order 2. The column orthogonality relations give 11 i1 ÷ i (s)2 48X . but for the moment we know for certain only that ÷( g) is an integer if g2 1 (see Corollary 13. as is ÷6 ÷5 ÷2 . we call the three irreducible characters of G which have yet to be found ÷9 .10). respectively.10 we know that ÷(s) and ÷(t) are integers for all characters ÷ of G. . Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 (2. ÷8 ÷7 ÷2 is also irreducible. in the ordering which we have adopted. Ingeniously.3) (4. of degree 9.16) that all the entries in the character tables of all symmetric groups are integers.2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 (2.2) (6) 48 18 8 6 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 (c) Orthogonality relations We now use the column orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ÷7 . Further. ÷10 and ÷11 . Let s denote the permutation (1 2) and t denote the permutation (1 2)(3 4).2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 (3. . so that we can guarantee that the solutions to the equations which we deal with are integers. so is ÷4 ÷3 ÷2 .

11. ÷8 . f 0. we aim to evaluate the integers a. and is not equal to any of ÷1 . . ÷10 (s) À1X The plan is now to ®nd ÷ i (1) and ÷ i (t) for i 9. Moreover. That is. 0 and b . . without loss of generality. a b 5X . . we lose no generality in assuming that ÷9 (s) 1. that ÷9 (s)2 ÷10 (s)2 1. ad be cf 10X The only solution to these equations in integers with a . since ÷9 ÷2 (s) À÷9 (s). whence a À b 0. d À e 0. b. we see that ÷9 ÷2 is not ÷9 or ÷11 . Therefore. f in the following portion of the character table: Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) a b c s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2. ÷ i (1)÷ i (t) 0. 11 i1 11 i1 ÷ i (s)÷ i (t) 0. 0 is d e 1.204 Hence Representations and characters of groups ÷9 (s)2 ÷10 (s)2 ÷11 (s)2 2X We can assume. c. .2) d e f The column orthogonality relations give 11 i1 11 i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i (s) 0. 10. ÷9 ÷2 ÷10 X Once more. d. e. ÷11 (s)2 0X Now ÷9 ÷2 is an irreducible character. d 2 e 2 f 2 2. ÷ i (t)÷ i (t) 16.

2) (6) 18 8 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 2 2 À2 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 Direct products We conclude the chapter by showing that tensor products can be used to determine the character table of a direct product G 3 H.2. since the column orthogonality relations will give three independent equations in these unknowns (as the above 3 3 3 matrix is invertible). .2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 (2. . Having done these calculations. and let W be a . Character table of S6 Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 5 5 16 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 1 À1 0 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 À1 À1 À2 (2.2) 48 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 À3 3 0 (3. we ®nd that the complete character table of S6 is as shown.2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 1 1 0 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 0 (3. Let V be a CG-module. we ®nd that c 16 by using the relation 11 i1 205 ÷ i (1)2 720X The above portion of the character table is therefore Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) 5 5 16 s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2. with basis v1 .Tensor products Finally. .2) 1 1 0 We can now determine the three unknown entries in each further column. given the character tables of G and H. . v m .3) (4.

. For all i. .6. .) Thus the ab characters ÷ i 3 ø j are distinct and irreducible. ÷ k i G hø j . j As in Proposition 19. Next. y) (x À1 gx. ø b be the distinct irreducible characters of H. . x P G and h. 1 < j < b)X Proof For all i. h P H. for ë ij P C. where (÷ 3 ø)( g. for all v P V. and all g P G. respectively.5 shows that V W is a C(G 3 H)-module. h) v i g wj h and extend this de®nition linearly to the whole of V W. h÷ i 3 ø j . . y P H. G and H indicate inner products of characters of G 3 H. we ®nd that (v w)( g. . wn. j with 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. l. . . w P W. ø l i H ä ik ä jl X (Here the subscripts G 3 H.18 Theorem Let ÷1 . G and H. h)(x. y À1 hy)X .4. . h) ë ij (v i g wj h)X i. Then G 3 H has precisely ab distinct irreducible characters. j. . h) ÷( g)ø(h) ( g P G. By the proof of Proposition 19. Then a proof similar to that of Proposition 19.206 Representations and characters of groups C H-module. Let ÷ be the character of V and ø be the character of W. 2 3 ë ij (v i wj ) ( g. . the character of V W is ÷ 3 ø. and these are ÷ i 3 ø j (1 < i < a. we have (x. with basis w1. note that for all g. y)À1 ( g. j i. h P H)X 19. h) v g wh. ÷ k 3 ÷ l i G3 H 1 ÷ i ( g)ø j (h)÷ k ( g)ø l (h) jG 3 Hj gPG 2 3 32 1 1 ÷ i ( g)÷ k ( g) ø j (h)ø l (h) jGj gPG j Hj hP H hP H h÷ i . . k. that is. de®ne (v i wj )( g. ÷ a be the distinct irreducible characters of G and let ø1 .

then the elements ( g i .18. h) and ( g9. 1) ((1 2 3). . We reproduce it here. h9) of G 3 H are conjugate if and only if the elements g and g9 are conjugate in G and the elements h and h9 are conjugate in H. Character table of S3 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 Character table of C2 hi |CH (hi )| ø1 ø2 1 2 1 1 À1 2 1 À1 The conjugacy classes of S3 3 C2 are represented by (1. hj ) (1 < i < a. À1). By Theorem 15. ga are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G and h1 . ((1 2). alongside the character table of C2 . À1). Consequently.Tensor products 207 Hence elements ( g. ((1 2 3). 1) (1. À1) ((1 2 3). À1). À1) ((1 2). ((1 2 3). G 3 H has exactly ab irreducible characters. . 1). . (1. 1). 1) ((1 2). if g1 . Character table of S3 3 C2 ( gi . . ((1 2). À1) 12 4 6 12 4 6 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 .3(1). and by Theorem 19. so the irreducible characters ÷ i 3 ø j which we have found must be all the irreducible characters of G 3 H. In particular. . the character table of S3 3 C2 is as shown. G 3 H has precisely ab conjugacy classes. hj ) |CG3 H ( g i . .19 Example The character table of S3 3 C2 The character table of S3 ( D6 ) is given in Example 16.3. . j 19. . 1). 1 < j < b) are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G 3 H. hb are representatives of the conjugacy classes of H. hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ø1 ø1 ø1 ø2 ø2 ø2 (1.

5 shows that D12 S3 3 C2 ). where ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ø is an irreducible character of H.10.208 Representations and characters of groups Compare the solution to Exercise 18. if ÷ ø. h P H. Prove that & 1. where ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). Exercises for Chapter 19 1. The product of any two characters of G is a character of G.) 4.13 of the next chapter we shall show that there exist irreducible characters ÷ and ö of A5 which take the following values: . h÷ø.2. h) ÷( g)ø(h) for all g P G. Show that there is some irreducible character ø of G such that k÷ n . 1 G i 0. The values of ÷ 3 ø are given by (÷ 3 ø)( g. Show that h÷ø. øl 0 for all integers n with n > 0. (This shows that the hypothesis that ÷ is faithful cannot be dropped from Theorem 19. In Example 20. öi h÷. 2. ø and ö be characters of the group G. Summary of Chapter 19 1. Suppose that ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of G. if ÷ T øX 3. The irreducible characters of G 3 H are those characters ÷ 3 ø. øöi hø. 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 )) 2 for all g P G. ÷öiX 2. 3. where we give the character table of D12 (Exercise 1. Let ÷ be a character of G which is not faithful. Let ÷. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A . If ÷ is a character of G.

g4 . . G has a character ÷ with values as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ g1 24 2 g2 24 À2 g3 4 0 g4 6 Àù2 g5 6 Àù g6 6 ù g7 6 ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . Moreover. . 6. Write down the character table of D6 3 D6. respectively.Tensor products 1 ÷ ö 5 3 (1 2 3) À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) (1 0 p 5)a2 (1 3 4 5 2) (1 À 0 p 5)a2 209 Calculate the values of ÷ S . . ö S and ö A . By forming products of the irreducible characters found so far. g2 are con1 2 3 4 5 6 7 jugate to g1 . g1 . . g2 . . and show that both are irreducible. g2 . g4 . g5 . g2 . . ®nd the character table of G. ø5 of A5 which are given in Example 20. . . g5 . g2 . further. g2 . 5. g7 . g2 . Find ÷ S and ÷ A . A certain group G or order 24 has precisely seven conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . .13. ÷ A . Express these characters as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ø1 . g2 .

Then C H is a subset of CG. This simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module is known as restricting from G to H. More generally. we are going to look at ways of relating the representations of a group to the representations of its subgroups. let V be the CG-module with basis v1 .1 Example Let G D8 ka. we introduce the elementary idea of restricting a CG-module to a subgroup H of G. If V is a CG-module then we write the corresponding C H-module as V 5 H. v2 b Àv2 X 210 . b: a4 b2 1. and Clifford's Theorem 20.2 certainly hold for all g. and illustrate its use. As in Example 4. If V is a CG-module. then V is also a C H-module. h P H if they hold for all g. Here. then f 5 H denotes the restriction of f to H (so that ( f 5 H)(h) f (h) for all h P H). We write this character of H as ÷ 5 H.20 Restriction to a subgroup In this chapter and the next. for example. when G S n and H A n .5(1). v2 for which v1 a v2 . and call it the restriction of V to H. which occurs. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Restriction Let H be a subgroup of the ®nite group G. since properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4. We apply this result in the situation where H is of index 2 in G. and refer to it as the restriction of ÷ to H. The character of V 5 H is obtained from the character ÷ of V by evaluating ÷ on the elements of H only. The case where H is a normal subgroup of G is of particular interest.8 gives important information in this case. h P G. if f: G 3 C is any function. v2 a Àv1 . 20. v1 b v1 .

then dim V dim (V 5 H). 3.2 Example Let G S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G consisting of all even permutations of {1. then U 5 H is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. By 18.Restriction to a subgroup 211 If H is the subgroup {1. b. a2 . if V 5 H is an irreducible C H-module then V is an irreducible CG-module. then V 5 H is the C Hmodule with basis v1 . v2 a2 Àv2 . for if U is a CG-submodule of V. v2 b Àv2 X and the character ÷ 5 H of V 5 H is given by h ÷(h) 1 2 a2 À2 b 0 a2 b 0 If V is a CG-module and H is a subgroup of G. However. 4} ®xing 5.2. the character table of H is gi jC H ( g i )j ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 . Example 20.1 illustrates this fact. 2. it might be the case that V is an irreducible CG-module while V 5 H is not an irreducible C H-module. a2 b} of G. v2 for which v1 a2 Àv1 . On the other hand. The character ÷ of V is given by g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 v1 b v1 . 20.

÷7 . jGj gPG .16. ÷3 5 H. de®ned similarly. we introduce the following notation.16 we see that ÷1 5 H ÷2 5 H.3 De®nitions The inner product k . ÷5 5 H and ÷6 5 H. if W1 and W2 are functions from G to C. we calculate the character ÷ i 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters ø j . ÷5 5 H 2ø4 . . These have values 1 ÷1 5 ÷3 5 ÷5 5 ÷6 5 H H H H 1 4 6 5 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 À2 1 (1 2 3) (1 3 2) 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 À1 It is easy to spot that ÷ 1 5 H ø1 . W2 i G W1 ( g)W2 ( g). . For each i with 1 < i < 7. 20. ÷3 5 H ÷4 5 H and ÷6 5 H ÷7 5 HX Therefore we need only consider ÷1 5 H. . and k . l H is the inner product on the vector space of functions from H to C. l G is the inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C which we have de®ned earlier. . then 1 hW1 .212 Representations and characters of groups (where ù e2ðia3 ). Thus. ÷ 3 5 H ø1 ø 4 . ÷ 6 5 H ø2 ø 3 ø 4 X Constituents of a restricted character To help us discuss the way in which a restricted character ÷ 5 H can be expressed in terms of the irreducible characters of H. with irreducible characters labelled ÷1 . The character table of G is given in Example 19. From Example 19.

20 that the regular character ÷reg of G satis®es & k jGj if g 1. . . X X X . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. . 20. øi H X j Hj i1 j Therefore h÷ i 5 H. øi H ÷ i (1)h÷ i 5 H. Suppose that we know the character table of G. it may be very dif®cult in practice to write down the restrictions ÷ 5 H in terms of irreducible characters of H. Unfortunately. then by Theorem 14. . In the light of Proposition 20. ø i i H X We say that ø i is a constituent of ÷ 5 H if the coef®cient d i in the above expression is non-zero. d r which are given by d i h÷ 5 H. . then 1 hö1 . The best .19 and Proposition 13. . ø r are the irreducible characters of the subgroup H of G. Then there exists an irreducible character ÷ of G such that h÷ 5 H. ö2 i H ö1 (h)ö2 (h)X j Hj hP H 213 If ÷ is a character of G and ø1 . . øi H T 0X Proof Let ÷1 . i1 Now 0 T k jGj ø(1) h÷reg 5 H. The next proposition shows that every irreducible character of H is a constituent of the restriction of some irreducible character of G.4 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G and let ø be a non-zero character of H. øi H T 0 for some i.17.4. Recall from Theorem 13. . ÷reg ( g) and ÷reg ÷ i (1)÷ i X 0 if g T 1. ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r for some non-negative integers d 1 . we could hope to ®nd the character table of the subgroup H by restricting the irreducible characters ÷ of G to H.Restriction to a subgroup and if ö1 and ö2 are functions from H to C.

since the restrictions ÷ 5 H then do not have many constituents. ÷ 5 Hi H i 1 ÷(h)÷(h)X j Hj hP H Also. and K 0 if and only P if ÷( g) 0 for all g with g P H. and let ø1 . where the non-negative integers d 1 .17. X X X . let ÷ be an irreducible character of G.6) if and only if ÷( g) 0 for all elements g of G which lie outside H. Proof By Theorem 14. we will see that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. jGj i1 i where K (1ajGj) ga H ÷( g)÷( g)X Now K > 0.5 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. ø r be the irreducible characters of H. we have r i1 d 2 h÷ 5 H. . 20. j We can say more about the constituents of ÷ 5 H in the case where H is a normal subgroup of G. Then ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r . d r satisfy (20X6) r i1 d 2 < jG: HjX i Moreover. The way to exploit the fact that H v G us revealed in the following proposition. as the following result shows. ÷i G 1 ÷( g)÷( g) jGj gPG 1 ÷(h)÷(h) K jGj hP H r j Hj 2 d K. we have equality in (20. F F F . The conclusions of the proposition a follow at once.214 Representations and characters of groups chance of doing this occurs when the index jG: Hj( jGjaj Hj) is small. For example. 1 h÷. since ÷ is irreducible.

(2) As a C H-module. we have V UgX gPG Then by Proposition 7. g P G and Ug1 and Ug2 are isomorphic C H-modules. Therefore. (3) Now let ö be a C H-isomorphism from Ug1 to Ug2 . whence W {0} or Ug. u 3 ug (u P U) is an invertible linear transformation from U to Ug. Ug is a subspace of V. Then (1) The set Ug is an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H and dim Ug dim U . V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. since V is irreducible. (3) If g1 . then Ug1 g and Ug2 g are isomorphic C H-modules. if W is a C Hsubmodule of Ug. g2 . and the proof of the proposition is complete. Suppose that h P H. so dim U dim Ug. Ug is an irreducible C H-module. Therefore. and (wgh)è (wh9 g)è (wh9ö) g (wö)h9 g (wö) gh (wgè)hX Therefore. For every g P G let Ug fug: u P U g. (2) The sum of all the subspaces Ug with g P G is a CG-submodule of V. then WgÀ1 is a C H-submodule of U. since U is irreducible. WgÀ1 {0} or U. Let V be an irreducible CG-module and U be an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H. proving that Ug is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. Proof (1) Clearly. De®ne è : Ug1 g 3 Ug2 g by è : wg 3 (wö) g (w P Ug 1 )X Then è is clearly an isomorphism of vector spaces. as claimed. V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. so (ug)h u( ghg À1 ) g P Ug (u P U). Then gh h9 g for some h9 P H.Restriction to a subgroup 215 20. è is a C H-isomorphism. Further.7 Proposition Suppose that H v G.12. j . Moreover. and since H v G we have ghgÀ1 P H for all h P H.

. Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. 20. . but you might like to look at Corollary 22.7(3). parts (1) and (2). ø m are the constituents of ÷ 5 H. and (2) if ø1 . by Proposition 20.7. Normal subgroups of index 2 We are shortly going to give more precise information about the constituents of ÷ 5 H when H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2 (that is.7(2). Then (1) all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. . and which is therefore a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules. ÷ 5 H e(ø1 X X X ø m )X j Our main applications of Clifford's Theorem will concern the case where jG: Hj 2. On the other hand. each having character ø1 . then ÷ 5 H e(ø1 X X X ø m ) for some positive integer e.14 in Chapter 22 to see an advanced use of the theorem. if g P G then X1 g is a direct sum of isomorphic C H-modules. Hence V has the form V X1 È X X X È X m where each Xi is a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules. that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. . and Xi T X j if i T j. V is a sum of C Hmodules of the form X1 g. .8 Clifford's Theorem Suppose that H v G and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Examples where this happens are G Sn . say X 1 U1 È X X X È U e X By Proposition 20. Therefore. jG: Hj 2). ø1 i. Then V contains a C H-module X1 whose character is eø1 . Then it follows from Proposition 20. Let e h÷ 5 H.216 Representations and characters of groups We now come the fundamental theorem on the restriction of a character to a normal subgroup.

. Since d 1 . by Clifford's Theorem 20. We describe this relationship in (20.16). . d r are non-negative integers. or (2) ÷ 5 H is the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. 20. 20. Also. and we then illustrate the results by ®nding the character table of A5 from that of S5 (which we have already obtained in Example 19. if H is a subgroup of index 2 in G.10 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. .8 j r ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r . ø i and ø j have the same degree. we may lift the non-trivial linear character of GaH to obtain a linear character ë of G which satis®es @ 1 if g P H. ë( g) À1 if g P HX a Note that for all irreducible characters ÷ of G.10). then by Proposition 20. For practical purposes. Since GaH C2 . j with i T j. or G D2 n ha. the character tables of G and H are closely related. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i.Restriction to a subgroup 217 H A n . In the latter case. and that ÷ is .9 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. ø r are the irreducible characters of H. In fact. X X X . Proof If ø1 . it is often desirable to have more details about the two cases in Proposition 20. ÷ 5 H ÷ë 5 H.9. When H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. we deduce that either ÷ 5 H ø i for some i.14). then H must be normal in G (see Exercise 1.5. b: a n b2 1. ÷ and ÷ë are irreducible characters of the same degree (see Proposition 17. and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G.13) below. since ë(h) 1 for all h P H. 2 where i1 d i < 2. and we shall supply these next. Then either (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. H hai. or ÷ 5 H ø i ø j for some i.

then ÷ 5 H is the sum of one or two irreducible characters of H.11 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G.6) is strict. observe that @ ÷( g) if g P H.218 Representations and characters of groups an irreducible character of G. since jG: Hj 2. ÷ 5 H is irreducible if and only if the inequality in (20.5. a so ÷( g) T 0 for some g with g P H if and only if ÷ë T ÷. and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. a (3) the characters ÷ and ÷ë of G are not equal. In the next proposition we consider the ®rst possibility. To see that (2) is equivalent to (3). If ö is an irreducible character of G which satis®es ö 5 H ÷ 5 H. then either ö ÷ or ö ÷ë. if H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2. a j According to Proposition 20. if g P HX a . Proof We have (÷ ÷ë)( g) Hence @ 2÷( g) 0 if g P H. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible. Thus (1) is equivalent to a (2). 20. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible.9. (2) ÷( g) T 0 for some g P G with g P H. ÷ë( g) À÷( g) if g P H. and this happens if and only if ÷( g) T 0 for some g P G with g P H. Proof We use Proposition 20.

we look at the case where ÷ 5 H is reducible. ÷( g) 0 for all g with g P H. say ÷ 5 H ø1 ø2. öl G 1. by explaining how to list the irreducible characters of H on the assumption that we know the character table of G.12 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible characters of H. ÷ 5 Hi H X 2 If ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 as a constituent. 20. 1 1 hö. ÷i G ö( g)÷( g) ö( g)÷( g) jGj gPG jGj gP H 1hö 5 H. ÷ 5 Hi H T 0.10. Therefore k÷ ÷ë. then hö 5 H. and so either ö ÷ or j ö ÷ë. so kö.11). Proof In view of Proposition 20. Such characters of G occur in pairs (÷ and ÷ë) which have the same restriction to H (Propositions 20. G. a Therefore. since ÷ 5 H is irreducible and ö 5 H ÷ 5 H. and that ÷ is the sum of two ö is an irreducias a constituent. j We summarize our results on subgroups of index 2. If ble character of G such that ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 then ö ÷.10. ö 5 Hl H 1. (1) Each irreducible character ÷ of G which is nonzero somewhere outside H restricts to be an irreducible character of H. Finally. öi G 1 2÷( g)ö( g) jGj gP H 1 ÷( g)ö( g) j Hj gP H 219 h÷ 5 H.13) Let H be a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group G.Restriction to a subgroup h÷ ÷ë. (20. and hence ö ÷. ö 5 Hi H X Now k÷ 5 H. . 20. ÷l G T 0.

In case (2) of (20. in practice case (1) occurs more frequently than case (2).10. and the irreducible characters ÷1 . . Observe that ÷1 .12). ÷1 5 H. and hence ø1 .220 Representations and characters of groups (2) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G which is zero everywhere outside H. We have established that the character table of H is gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 á2 â2 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 á3 â3 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á4 â4 (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 á5 â5 .13) of facts about characters of subgroups of index 2. Call them ø1 . a so by (20. The two characters of H which we get from ÷ in this way come from no other irreducible character of G (Propositions 20.13)(2). extra work is needed to calculate the values taken by the two constituents of ÷ 5 H. . . 20. Note that ÷2 5 H ÷1 5 H. ÷3 5 H and ÷6 5 H are irreducible characters of H. . The conjugacy classes of H and their sizes are given in Example 12. . then ÷ restricts to be the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. so by (20.4). as in parts (1) and (2) (Proposition 20. respectively.14 Example The character table of A5 Write H A5 . They can also be veri®ed by calculating inner products. ø2 and ø3 . Fortunately. ÷5 ( g) 0 for all g P H.9.13)(1). ÷7 of S5 can be found in Example 19. ø5 are the distinct irreducible characters of H by (20. ÷4 5 H ÷3 5 H and ÷7 5 H ÷6 5 H.13)(3). ÷5 5 H ø4 ø5 where ø4 and ø5 are distinct irreducible characters of H of degree 3. 20. Also. ÷3 and ÷6 are non-zero somewhere outside H. .13). The results we have obtained so far have been deduced from our summary (20. 20.16. . . (3) Every irreducible character of H appears among those obtained by restricting irreducible characters of G.18(2). and note that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group S5 .

By the orthogonality relation for column i with itself (2 < i < 5).Restriction to a subgroup 221 We use the column orthogonality relations to calculate the unknowns á i and â i . á5 and â5 are 1(1 Æ 5). and we ®nd that á4 and â4 are the solutions of the quadratic x 2 À x À 1 0. Since ø4 T ø5 . á3 â3 À2. we see that each element of A5 is conjugate to its inverse. á3 â3 À1. â 1(1 À 2 p 5). We get á2 â2 0. â5 1(1 5)X 2 2 Thus the character table of A5 is as shown. we may take p p á4 1(1 5).13. we have 2 p p á5 1(1 À 5).9(4). 2 2 4 2 á2 â2 . . 3 3 5 2 á2 â2 2 á2 â2 X 4 4 5 5 Hence á2 â2 0. Since we have not yet distinguished between ø4 and ø5 . Character table of A5 gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 â á where á 1(1 2 p 5). á4 â4 á5 â5 1X Using Proposition 12. â4 1(1 À 5)X 2 2 p Similarly. The values of á i â i for 2 < i < 5 are given by noting that ø4 ø5 ÷5 5 H (or by using the column orthogonality relations for column 1 and column i). all the numbers in the character table are real. we obtain 3 3 á2 â2 . Hence by Proposition 13.

4. Prove that h÷ 5 H. The values of ÷ 5 H are given by (÷ 5 H)(h) ÷(h) for all h P H. Summary of Chapter 20 Assume throughout that H is a subgroup of G. (The seven conjugacy classes of A6 can be found by consulting the solutions to Exercises 12. (b) For each irreducible character ÷ of G (given in Section 18. Exercises for Chapter 20 1.222 Representations and characters of groups Proposition 17. and ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r. Indeed. express ÷ 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters of H. given in Example 19. then ÷ 5 H is a character of H. Use the restrictions of the irreducible characters of S6 . X X X . to ®nd the character table of A6 . 2 or 3X Give examples to show that each possibility can occur. In particular. ø r are the irreducible characters of H.6 allows us to deduce from the character table that A5 is a simple group. If ÷ is a character of G. Let G S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3 4). Let G be a group with an abelian subgroup H of index n. and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. (a) Show that H D8. Prove that ÷(1) < n for every irreducible character ÷ of G.1).17. 1.3 and 12. ÷ 5 Hi H 1.4. 2. ÷ and ÷ 5 H have the same degree. The number of irreducible constituents of ÷ 5 H is bounded above by jG : Hj. then r i1 d 2 < jG : HjX i 3. . if ø1 . 2. If H v G and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. then all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. Suppose that G is a group with a subgroup H of index 3.) 3. (1 3)l of G.

20. 6. 14. 15. 14. It is known that the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of S7 is 1. 15. 1. 6. 35. 21. . 14. 21. Find the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of A7 . A7 has nine conjugacy classes. 35X Also. 14.Restriction to a subgroup 223 5.

We saw in the last chapter that restriction gives a simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module. (us)W rus (uW)s.21 Induced modules and characters Throughout this chapter we assume that H is a subgroup of the ®nite group G. then there exists r P CG such that uW ru for all u P U X 224 .1 Proposition Assume that H < G. Before describing the process of induction. As H is smaller than G. since for all s P C H. we require some results which connect C H-homomorphisms with CG-homomorphisms. If W is a C H-homomorphism from U to CG. which constructs a CG-module from a given C H-module. and induction is the main concern of this chapter. it is usually the case that C H-modules are easier to understand and construct than CG-modules. We shall see many applications of this method in later chapters. and let U be a C H-submodule of C H. 21. so induction can often give us an important handle on the representations of a group if we know some representations of its subgroups. C H-homomorphisms and CG-homomorphisms Let U be a C H-submodule of the regular C H-module C H. then W: u 3 ru (u P U ) de®nes a C H-homomorphism from U to CG. If r P CG. Much more subtle than this is the process of induction. We now prove the striking fact that every C Hhomomorphism from U to CG has this simple form.

the ®rst of which is just the case H G of the proposition. so uv3 u (u P U . uW uö (1u)ö (1ö)u ru.Induced modules and characters 225 Proof By Maschke's Theorem 8. there exists r P CG such that for all u P U. and so W is of the required form. v P V. Consequently U V {0}. j . v P V ) is a function. 21. De®ne ö: C H 3 CG by ö: u w 3 uW (u P U. Then every CG-homomorphism from U to CG has the form u 3 ru (u P U ) for some r P CG. Let r 1ö. Then the sum U V is a direct sum. there is a C H-submodule W of C H such that C H U È W. If x P U V then rx x and rx 0. j We give two corollaries of Proposition 21. (2) there exists r P CG such that for all u P U. and rv 0 if v P V. it is a CG-homomorphism from U È V to CG (see Proposition 7.1. Then the following two statements are equivalent: (1) U V {0}.11).1.2. and so x 0. Conversely. w P W )X Then ö is easily seen to be a C H-homomorphism.3 Corollary Let U and V be CG-submodules of CG. ru u and rv 0X Proof Assume that U V {0}. Therefore by Corollary 21. 21. assume that for some r P CG we have ru u and rv 0 for all u P U. For u P U. v P V. r(u v) uX Then ru u if u P U. moreover. v P V.2 Corollary Let U be a CG-submodule of CG.

b ab a2 b). 21. so C H is a subset of CG. W 1 4 G U3 . and let H kal. Clearly. U4 sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 . U2 sp (1 a a2 À b À ab À a2 b). b: a3 b2 1.4 De®nition Assume that H is a subgroup of G. Remember that H is a subgroup of G. and de®ne W 0 sp (1 a a2 ). W 0 4 G sp (1 a a2 . we write X(CG) for the subspace of CG which is spanned by all the elements xg with x P X.5 Example Let G D6 ka. b ù2 ab ùa2 b). b ùab ù2 a2 b)X Recall from Example 10. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules U i . W 2 sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 )X These are C H-submodules of C H (see Example 10. W 2 4 G U4 X . W 2 4 G sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 .8(1)). b ù2 ab ùa2 b). X(CG) is then a CG-submodule of CG. W 1 4 G sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . g P GgX Clearly. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. W 1 sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 ). where U1 sp (1 a a2 b ab a2 b). X (CG) sp fxg: x P X .8(2) that CG U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . b ùab ù2 a2 b)X Thus W 0 4 G U1 È U2 . U3 sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . and let U 4 G denote the CG-module U(CG). Let ù e2ðia3 . That is. g P G. Then U 4 G is called the CG-module induced from U. Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. 21. a cyclic subgroup of G of order 3.226 Representations and characters of groups Induction from H to G For any subset X of CG.

We now show that isomorphic C H-modules give isomorphic induced CG-modules. ö is a CG-homomorphism. we have sra a.6 Proposition Assume that H < G. Then U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. Consequently sru u and rsv v for all u P U . g P G). 21. Then (U 4 G) (V 4 G) f0g. Proof Let W: U 3 V be a C H-isomorphism. and hence ra P V 4 G. and also there exists s P CG such that vWÀ1 sv for all v P V. b P V 4 GX . Suppose that U and V are C H-submodules of C H and that U is C H-isomorphic to V. g P G). so ra is a linear combination of elements rug. v P V.1. for all a P U 4 G. while W 1 4 G and W 2 4 G are irreducible. as (aö) g rag (ag)ö (a P U 4 G. j The next proposition and its corollary enable us to de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C H-module U. v P V X If a P U 4 G then a is a linear combination of elements ug (u P U. proving that U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. there exists r P CG such that uW ru for all u P U. Moreover.7 Proposition Assume that U and V are C H-submodules of C H with U V {0}. rsb b Hence the function b 3 sb (b P V 4 G) is the inverse of ö. W 0 4 G is reducible. By Proposition 21. Since sru u and rsv v for all u P U. Therefore ö is a CG-isomorphism.Induced modules and characters 227 In particular. 21. Therefore ö: a 3 ra (a P U 4 G) is a function from U 4 G to V 4 G.

this implies that ru9 u9 and similarly. rug ug and rvg 0X Since U 4 G is spanned by elements of the form ug (u P U. Then U 4 G (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Proof We prove this by induction on m. 21.7. g P G). 21. using (2. V 4 G (U 2 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G).10).228 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Corollary 21. Therefore (U 4 G) (V 4 G) f0g by Corollary 21. there exists r P CG such that ru u and rv 0 for all u P U. Now U U1 È V. we obtain U 4 G (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G). and hence.9 De®nition Let U be a C H-module. j We can now de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C Hmodule U (where U is not necessarily a C H-submodule of C H).3. and suppose that U U1 È X X X È Um . rv9 0 for all v9 P V 4 GX j for all u9 P U 4 G.7 and 10. v P V and all g P G. It is trivial for m 1.8 Corollary Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. where V U2 È X X X È U m . U U1 È X X X È Um . Then (by Theorems 8.3. Then for all u P U. U 4 G (U1 4 G) È (V 4 G)X By induction.5). a direct sum of C H-submodules U i . v P V. The de®nition of U 4 G implies that U 4 G (U1 4 G) (V 4 G)X Therefore by Proposition 21. as required.

If U is a C H-module.4. k P K)X Therefore.6 and Corollary 21.8 ensure that this de®nition is consistent with De®nition 21. By (21. U 4 K (U1 4 K) È X X X È (Um 4 K)X Since K < G.Induced modules and characters 229 for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H.9) that (21X10) (U1 È X X X È Um ) 4 G (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Our ®rst major result on general induced modules is known as `the transitivity of induction'. Now let U be an arbitrary C H-module.11 Theorem Suppose that H and K are subgroups of G such that H < K < G. De®ne U 4 G to be the following (external) direct sum: U 4 G (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G)X Proposition 21. That is. Then . 21. (U(CK))(CG) is spanned by elements of the form (u P U .10). and then applying the fact (which is immediate from De®nition 21. k P K. then (U 4 K) 4 G U 4 GX Proof Assume ®rst that U is a C H-submodule of C H. We emphasize that the de®nition of the induced module U 4 G in the case where U is a C H-submodule of C H is a natural one: U 4 G U (CG)X We shall always prove results for general induced modules U 4 G by ®rst dealing with the special case where U is a C H-submodule of C H. it follows that (U(CK))(CG) U(CG). g P G)X (U 4 K) 4 G U 4 GX U U1 È X X X È Um for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. Then U(CK) is spanned by elements of the form uk ukg (21X12) (u P U .

17. ø4 are the irreducible characters of H (given in 18.13 De®nition If ø is the character of a C H-module U.9. We showed in that example that if ÷1 . ÷ 7 5 H ø 2 ø 3 ø4 X By Theorem 14. . ÷ 3 5 H ø1 ø4 . by (21X12) j Induced characters 21. ÷ 2 5 H ø1 . We record these coef®cients in a . . 21. The next example illustrates an important relationship between induced characters and restrictions of characters. ÷7 are the irreducible characters of G (given in Example 19. . and is called the character induced from ø. then the character of the induced CG-module U 4 G is denoted by ø 4 G. ø j i H for appropriate i. the coef®cients which appear here are the values of h÷ i 5 H. j.2. .2) then ÷ 1 5 H ø1 . .14 Example Let G S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G. . and ø1 . . ÷ 4 5 H ø1 ø4 .230 Therefore Representations and characters of groups (U 4 K) 4 G (U1 4 K) 4 G È X X X È (Um 4 K) 4 G by (21X10) (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G) U4G by Definition 21. ÷ 6 5 H ø 2 ø 3 ø4 . . as in Example 20. ÷5 5 H 2ø4 .16).

and ø4 4 G ÷3 ÷4 2÷5 ÷6 ÷7 X Thus the ij-entry in our matrix. ø j i H : ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 H ø1 1 f 1 f f 1 f f 1 f f 0 f d 0 0 ø2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø4 I 0 0 g g 1 g g 1 g g 2 g g 1 e 1 231 The rows of this matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of G restrict to H. ø j 4 Gi G . ø2 0 . To be precise. Let U be a C H-submodule of C H.Induced modules and characters matrix whose ij-entry is h÷ i 5 H. For example. ø1 0 . ÷1 1 . which we already know to be equal to h÷ i 5 H. The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Before proving the theorem. ÷5 0 . øi H for all characters ÷ of G and ø of H. ÷7 X Similarly. In fact. ø 4 Gi G h÷ 5 H. 21. ø3 1 . it is true that h÷. ÷3 1 . ø j i H . V ) and HomC H (U . ÷6 0 . Then the vector spaces HomCG (U 4 G. . V 5 H) have equal dimensions. we need the following preliminary result. the seven integers in column 1 give ø1 4 G 1 . it turns out that the columns of the matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of H induce to G. ÷4 0 . ø4 X Remarkably. and we devote the next section to a proof of this result. row 3 gives ÷3 5 H 1 . ÷2 1 . which is known as the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. and let V be a CG-submodule of CG. ø2 4 G ø3 4 G ÷6 ÷7 . is also equal to h÷ i .15 Proposition Assume that H < G.

÷ 5 Hi H X Proof First assume that the characters ÷ and ø are irreducible. V ). j 21. Then by Proposition 21. Thus the function W3W is a linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. Therefore the function W 3 W is surjective. since s is a linear combination of elements ug with u P U. Finally.1. Then by Corollary 21. ö W. Then there is a C H-submodule U of C H which has character ø. V 5 H))X . Let ö P HomC H (U . We shall show that this linear transformation is invertible. g P G.16 The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Assume that H < G. V 5 H). and there is a CG-submodule V of CG which has character ÷. Then hø 4 G. then r1 s r2 s for all s P U 4 G. ÷ 5 Hi H dim (HomC H (U . as required. V 5 H).232 Representations and characters of groups Proof Suppose that W P HomCG (U 4 G. By Theorem 14. r2 P CG and r1 u r2 u for all u P U. we have hø 4 G.24. and so it is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. Let ÷ be a character of G and let ø be a character of H. and hø. there exists r P CG such that uö ru for all u P U. that is. Moreover. V ) to HomC H (U . uW ru for all u P U X Then W P HomC H (U . V 5 H). De®ne W from U 4 G to CG by sW rs (s P U 4 G)X Then W P HomCG (U 4 G.2. ÷i G hø. Hence the function W 3 W is injective. there is an element r P CG such that sW rs for all s P U 4 GX De®ne W: U 3 CG to be the restriction of W to U. V 5 H). ÷i G dim (HomCG (U 4 G. V )). note that if r1. V ). These two vector spaces therefore have the same dimension. V ) to HomC H (U .

÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let ø1 . . ÷ i i G ej d i hø j . f 5 Hi H X Proof This follows at once from the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. ø m be the irreducible characters of H. . hø. ÷ 5 Hi H 233 in the special case we are considering. ÷i G k i1 d i ÷ i and ø m j1 ej ø j X C B m j1 ej ø j 4 G. f i G hø. j The values of induced characters We now show how to evaluate induced characters. let ÷1 . . ÷i G hø. ÷ i 5 Hi H k i1 by (21X17) B j1 i1 m j1 C di÷i 5 H H ej ø j .Induced modules and characters From Proposition 21. . 21. . ÷ 5 Hi H X This completes the proof of the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. and ø is a character of H. k i1 d i ÷i G m k j1 i1 m k ej d i hø j 4 G. . . then hø 4 G. and for convenience of notation. namely when ÷ and ø are irreducible. the characters of G span the vector space of class functions on G. For the general case. ej we have ÷ Therefore hø 4 G. .15. since by Corollary 15. we therefore deduce that (21X17) hø 4 G. Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G.4. Then for some integers di . de®ne the j .18 Corollary If f is a class function on G.

Then 1 h f .234 Representations and characters of groups @ function ø: G 3 C by ø( g) ø( g) 0 if g P H.19 Proposition The values of the induced character ø 4 G are given by 1 (ø 4 G)( g) ø( y À1 gy) j Hj yPG for all g P G. ÷i G 1 1 ø(x)÷( yxy À1 )X jGj j Hj xPG yPG 1 ø(x)÷(x) j Hj xP H 1 1 ø( y À1 gy)÷( g)X jGj j Hj gPG yPG . Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. ÷i G for all irreducible characters ÷ of G.4. Therefore f is a class function. if g P HX a 21. it is suf®cient to show that h f . ÷i G f ( g)÷( g) jGj gPG Put x y À1 gy. ÷i G hø 4 G. and so by Corollary 15. Then h f . If w P G then 1 f (w À1 gw) ø( y À1 w À1 gwy) f ( g) j Hj yPG since wy runs through G as y runs through G. Proof Let f: G 3 C be the function given by 1 f ( g) ø( y À1 gy) ( g P G)X j Hj yPG We aim to prove that f ø 4 G.

3). so the proof is complete. a formula for the values of induced characters different from that given in Proposition 21. ÷i G hø 4 G.23 below). j For practical purposes. ÷i G X This was the equation required to show that f ø 4 G. and we shall derive this next (it is given in Proposition 21.19 is more useful.21 Proposition If ÷ is a character of G and x P G.20 Corollary If ø is a character of the subgroup H of G.19. 21. f G i G x ÷(x) X jCG (x)j . Alternatively.Induced modules and characters 235 since ø(x) 0 if x P H. ÷ 5 Hi H and so by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. Therefore a h f . de®ne the class function f G on G by x & 1 if y P x G f G ( y) ( y P G)X x 0 if y P x G a Thus f is the characteristic function of the conjugacy class x G . then h÷. ÷i G hø. h f . For x P G. the stated degree of ø 4 G can be found using just the de®nition of induced modules (see Exercise 21. then the degree of ø 4 G is given by (ø 4 G)(1) jGj ø(1)X j Hj Proof This follows immediately by evaluating (ø 4 G)(1) using Proposition 21. and ÷( yxy À1 ) ÷(x) for all y P G. j 21.

236 Proof We have Representations and characters of groups 1 ÷( g) f G ( g) x jGj gPG 1 jx G j ÷(x) ÷( g) jGj gPx G jGj ÷(x) jCG (x)j by Theorem 12X8X j h÷. 21. To put this another way. . .21 and Corollary 21. . x Proof By Proposition 21. with representatives x1 . but if g P G then g G may contain 0. . then ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)(x) jCG (x)j X X X . . then (ø 4 G)(x) 0. (1) If no element of x G lies in H. 2 or more conjugacy classes of H.4. and suppose that x P G.18. xm P H such that H H f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m X x Statement (2) just says that H x G breaks up into m conjugacy classes of H. If H < G and h P H then h H h G . we have (ø 4 G)(x) hø 4 G. x m . then f G 5 H 0. jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where x1 . f G i G x Note that a result similar to Proposition 21. then there are elements x1 . . x (2) If some element of x G lies in H.23 Proposition Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G. (1) If no element of x G lies in H. we have: (21. f G 5 Hi H X x x jCG (x)j . xm P H and f G 5 H f x1 F F F f x m (as in (21. X X X .22) Suppose that x P G. (2) If some element of x G lies in H.21 was used in the proof of Theorem 16. 1. f G i G hø. . .22)).

a2 b (2 4)g.12). fa2 (1 3)(2 4)g. f x1 X X X f x m i H jCG (x)j H H hø. with representatives (1 3)(2 4) and (1 2)(3 4). G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H f (1 3)(2 4) f (1 2)(3 4) . G f (1 2 3) 5 H 0. the conjugacy classes of H are f1g.Induced modules and characters 237 If no element of x G lies in H. By (12. and G H f (1 2 3 4) 5 H f (1 2 3 4) X For example. then f G 5 H 0. fa (1 2 3 4). We have G H f1 5 H f1 . . b (1 3)X Then H D8. fb (1 3). bl. and hence x (ø 4 G)(x) 0. since a4 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . a3 (1 4 3 2)g. the statement G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H f (1 3)(2 4) f (1 2)(3 4) records the fact that the G-conjugacy class (1 2)(3 4) G contains exactly two H-conjugacy classes. G H f (1 3) 5 H f (1 3) . And if some element of x G lies in H. 21.22)(2). then x (ø 4 G)(x) H H hø. where a (1 2 3 4). f x m i H ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) X X X jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j by Proposition 21X21X j The result follows. and H H f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m as in (21.24 Example Let G S4 and let H ka. f x1 i H X X X hø.

8 ø((1 3)) (ø 4 G)((1 3)) 4 . ÷5 of H D8. we use induced characters to ®nd the character table of a group of order 21. .3(3) for the irreducible characters ÷1 . . Referring to Example 16. 21. Exercise 17.2) De®ne permutations a.23. Then according to Proposition 21. we therefore have 1 ÷1 4 G ÷2 4 G ÷3 4 G ÷4 4 G ÷5 4 G 3 3 3 3 6 (1 2) 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À1 À1 3 À2 (1 2 3 4) 1 1 À1 À1 0 In the next example.238 Representations and characters of groups The orders of the centralizers of the elements of H are as follows: h |CG (h)| |C H (h)| 1 24 8 (1 3)(2 4) 8 8 (1 2 3 4) 4 4 (1 3) 4 4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 4 Suppose that ø is a character of H. 4 ø((1 3)(2 4)) ø((1 2)(3 4)) (ø 4 G)((1 2)(3 4)) 8 . b (2 3 5)(4 7 6) . we have (ø 4 G)(1) 24 ø(1) . . 8 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3 4)) 4 ø((1 2 3 4)) X 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3)) 0. . b in S7 by a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7).25 Example (cf.

Their values are shown below: g |CG ( g)| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . and similarly jC G (b)j 3. there is a character ø k of H given by ø k (a j ) ç jk (0 < j < 6)X To use the formula in Proposition 21. Since hai < C G (a). ÷3 of G as the lifts of the linear characters of Gahai. First we ®nd the conjugacy classes. We aim to ®nd the character table of G. a4 g. b and b2 to be representatives of the conjugacy classes. Since kal v G and Gahai C3. we see that the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. Notice that G has exactly ®ve irreducible characters. Check that a7 b3 1.23 for calculating ø k 4 G. fa. and since b P C G (a). a5 . Using this. a jC G (a)j . ÷2 . We shall obtain the last two irreducible characters of G by inducing linear characters of H. bl of S7 . fai b: 0 < i < 6g.Induced modules and characters and let G be the subgroup ka. G has order 21. Let H kal. a6 g. fa3 . Let ç e2ðia7 . a2 . bÀ1 ab a2 X 239 It follows from these relations that the elements of G are all of the form ai bj with 0 < i < 6. we obtain three linear characters ÷1 . Hence jC G (a)j 7. Also. fai b2 : 0 < i < 6gX We take 1. For 1 < k < 6. note that H H H f G 5 H f a f a2 f a4 a . a3 . 0 < j < 2. 7 divides jC G (a)j. a. 21.

. (ø1 4 G)(1) 3X And since no G-conjugate of b or b2 lies in H. a4 are conjugate in H. since ø1 . and (ø3 4 G)(b) (ø3 4 G)(b2 ) 0X Thus if we write ÷4 ø1 4 G and ÷5 ø3 4 G. ÷5 i G 1. a2 . .23. Therefore ÷4 T ÷5 . Hence by Proposition 21. 21 7 7 3 3 and similarly h÷5 . bÀ1 ab a2 i g |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 21 1 1 1 3 3 a 7 1 1 1 ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 a3 7 1 1 1 ç3 ç5 ç6 ç ç2 ç4 b 3 1 ù ù2 0 0 b2 3 1 ù2 ù 0 0 . (ø3 4 G)(a) ç3 ç5 ç6 . Thus ÷4 and ÷5 are our last two irreducible characters. . (ø1 4 G)(b) (ø1 4 G)(b2 ) 0X Similarly (ø3 4 G)(1) 3.240 Representations and characters of groups since no two of the elements a. (ø1 4 G)(a) ç ç2 ç4 and similarly (ø1 4 G)(a3 ) ç3 ç5 ç6 . b: a7 b3 1. then the values of ÷4 and ÷5 are 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 a3 ç3 ç5 ç6 ç ç2 ç4 b 0 0 b2 0 0 Now ÷4 5 H ø1 ø2 ø4 and ÷5 5 H ø3 ø5 ø6 . (ø3 4 G)(a3 ) ç ç2 ç4 . . Character table of ha. ÷4 i G 9 2 2 0 0 1. ø6 are linearly independent. and the character table of G is as shown. We now calculate that h÷4 .

Exercises for Chapter 21 1. an induced CG-module U 4 G can be de®ned. ÷i G hø. 241 1. For each C H-module U. The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem states that hø 4 G. then ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)( g) jCG ( g)j X X X jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m . Let G S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3)l C3 . 3. then U 4 G is simply U(CG). as given in . If no element of g G lies in H. ÷5 are the irreducible characters of G. De®ne U to be the 1-dimensional subspace of C H spanned by 1 À a2 b À a2 bX (a) Check that U is a C H-submodule of C H. . g 4. the degree of ø:G is |G: H|ø(1). . . 2. Let G D8 ka. (a) If ÷1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let H be the subgroup ka2 . If U is a C H-module of C H. ÷ 5 Hi H .Induced modules and characters Summary of Chapter 21 Assume that H is a subgroup of G. If ø is a character of H then the induced character ø 4 G is given by 1 (ø 4 G)( g) ø( y À1 gy)X j Hj yPG In particular. where ø is a character of H and ÷ is a character of G. . (c) Write down the character of the C H-module U and the character of the CG-module U 4 G. Is U 4 G irreducible? 2. (b) Find a basis of the induced CG-module U 4 G. b: a4 b2 1. bl. then (ø 4 G)( g) 0X If some element of g G lies in H.

Show direct from the de®nition that if H < G and ø is a character of H. then jGj (ø 4 G)(1) ø(1)X j Hj 4. Let G S7 and let H ka.242 Representations and characters of groups Section 18. which are given by ø 4 G d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷k .25. satisfy k i1 d 2 < jG : HjX i (Compare Proposition 20.1.5. 6. Let ø be an irreducible character of H. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. Prove that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G (ø 4 G)÷X (Hint: consider the inner product of each side with an arbitrary irreducible character of G. (b) Calculate the induced characters ø j 4 G (1 < j < 3) as sums of the irreducible characters ÷ i of G. . Let ö and ø be the irreducible characters of H which are given by gi |C H ( g i )| ö ø 1 21 1 3 a 7 a3 7 b 3 1 0 b2 3 1 0 1 1 ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 where ç e2ðia7 (see Example 21. let ø be a character of H. where a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). . . bl. b (2 3 5)(4 7 6). ø3 of C3 . work out the restrictions ÷ i 5 H (1 < i < 5) as sums of the irreducible characters ø1 . Let H be a subgroup of G. You are given that jC G (a)j 7 and jC G (b)j 18. and let ÷ be a character of G.) . Show that the integers d 1 . 3. ø2 . and use the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. X X X .25). d k . and let ÷1 . Calculate the values of the induced characters ö 4 G and ø 4 G. as in Example 21. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G. .) 5.

Induced modules and characters 243 7. and let ø be an irreducible character of H. Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. . Discover and prove results for ø 4 G which are similar to those presented in Chapter 20 for the restriction of irreducible characters of G to H.

perhaps the most opaque is that which states that the degree of an irreducible character of a ®nite group G must divide the order of G. all of whose entries are integers. Algebraic integers 22. Most of the results concern arithmetic properties of character values. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod p for any character ÷ of G for which ÷( g) is an integer. using algebraic integers. We remark that ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form 244 .22 Algebraic integers Among the properties of characters which may be regarded as fundamental. for ë to be an algebraic integer. We discuss properties of a group element g P G which ensure that ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. we have uA ëu for some non-zero row vector u.1 De®nition A complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is an eigenvalue of some matrix. Equivalently. we require that det (A À ëI) 0 for some square matrix A with integer entries. for example. This is one of several results which we shall prove in this chapter. And we prove some useful congruence properties. Thus. if p is a prime number and g P G is an element of order pr for some r. for the same matrix A.

algebraic integers are usually de®ned in this way. . In fact. ù nÀ1 ). X X X . . . (4) Let A be the n 3 n matrix H 0 0 f1 0 f f0 1 Af f f d0 0 0 0 given by 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 1 0 0g g 0 0g gX g g 0 0e 1 0 Suppose that ù is an nth root of unity.2 Examples (1) Every integer n is an algebraic integer. Then uA (ù. since it is an eigenvalue of the 0 1 matrix X 2 0 (3) If ë is an algebraic integer.Algebraic integers x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 245 where a0 . note that if A is an integer matrix and u is a row vector with uA ëu. ù. such that uA ëu. and non-zero row vectors u and v. ù nÀ1 . 1) ùuX This shows that every nth root of unity is an algebraic integer. since n is an eigenvalue of the 1 3 1 matrix (n). ù2 . vB ìvX Suppose that A is an m 3 m matrix and B is an n 3 n matrix. all of whose entries are integers.3 Theorem If ë and ì are algebraic integers. To see this. then so are Àë and the complex conjugate ë of ë. p (2) 2 is an algebraic integer. X X X . ù2 . then ëì and ë ì are also algebraic integers. where u is the row vector obtained from u by replacing each entry by its complex conjugate. a nÀ1 are integers (see Exercise 22. 22. . . 22. and let u be the row vector (1. Proof There exist square matrices A and B.7). then u(ÀA) (Àë)u and uA ëu.

Hence ÷( g) is an algebraic integer. extending linearly (that is. respectively. 1 < j < n) form a basis of the tensor product space V C m C n.9. De®ne an endomorphism A B of V by (ei f j )(A B) ei A f j B (1 < i < m. Let Im and In denote the identity m 3 m and n 3 n matrices. ( ë ij (ei f j ))(A B) ë ij (ei A f j B)). . f n be a basis of C n . Proof By Proposition 13. j Theorem 22.2(4). Each root of unity is an algebraic integer. . The next result provides a link between algebraic integers and characters. . we have (x y)(A B) xA yBX Hence (u v)(A B) uA vB ëu ìv ëì(u v)X Therefore ëì is an eigenvalue of A B. . and we deduce as above that ë ì is an algebraic integer. y P C n. then ë is an integer. It is easy to check as in the proof of Proposition 19. it follows that ëì is an algebraic integer. em be a basis of C m and f 1 . . X X X . 1 < j < n) has integer entries. so any sum of roots of unity is an algebraic integer by Theorem 22. 22. j 22.3 shows that the set of all algebraic integers forms a subring of C. then ÷( g) is an algebraic integer. Then the vectors ei fj (1 < i < m. 1 < j < n). by Example 22. Then (u v)(A I n I m B) uA vI n uI m vB ëu v u ìv (ë ì)(u v). ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity.4 Corollary If ÷ is a character of G and g P G.3. Since the matrix of A B relative to the basis ei fj (1 < i < m.246 Representations and characters of groups Let e1 .5 Proposition If ë is both a rational number and an algebraic integer.4 that for all vectors x P C m .

j The next result is an immediate consequence of Corollary 22. s and hence ë is not an algebraic integer. with character ÷. In passing. Write ë ras. (Example 22. Therefore det (sA À rI) (Àr) n mp for some integer m. then ÷( g) is an integer.21 that if C is a conjugacy class of G. we establish two preliminary lemmas.5. we deduce that det (sA À rI) T 0.5. Then . As p does not divide r (since r and s are coprime).7 Lemma Suppose that g P G and that C is the conjugacy class of G which contains g. where r and s are coprime integers and s T Æ1. which is enough to establish the proposition.6 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G and let g P G.4 and Proposition 22. We shall show that ë is not an algebraic integer. and hence also by p. note that we have. For every n 3 n matrix A of integers. p the well known result that 2 is irrational. as a special case of Proposition 22. Let U be an irreducible CG-module.2(2) shows p that 2 is an algebraic integer.) The degree of every irreducible character divides |G| To prepare for the proof that |G| is divisible by the degree of each irreducible character of G. Thus n 1 det (A À ëI) det (sA À rI) T 0. the entries of sA À rI which are not on the diagonal are divisible by s. Recall from De®nition 12. If ÷( g) is a rational number. 22.Algebraic integers 247 Proof Suppose that ë is a rational number which is not an integer. Let p be a prime number which divides s. then C x P CGX xPC 22.

where ë P C. Then ë is an algebraic integer. where ë jGj ÷( g) X jCG ( g)j ÷(1) Proof Since C lies in the centre of CG (see Proposition 12.14 that there exists ë P C such that uC ëu for all u P U. xPC and since ÷ is constant on the conjugacy class C. . Then for 1 < i < n.248 Representations and characters of groups uC ëu for all u P U .8 Lemma Let r gPG á g g P CG. the result follows. . Proof Let g1 . this yields jCj÷( g) ë÷(1)X Thus ë jCj÷( g)a÷(1).22). we obtain ÷(x) ë÷(1). Suppose that u is a non-zero element of CG such that ur ëu. gn be the elements of G. then [x]B ëIX xPC Taking the traces of both sides of this equation. . that is. we know by Proposition 9. we have gi r n j1 aij g j . .8. where each á g is an integer. j 22. As |C| |G:CG ( g)| by Theorem 12. u x ëu for all u P U X xPC Consequently if B is a basis of U.

and let C be the sum of the elements in the conjugacy class of G which contains g. aij á g where g gÀ1 gj . by Lemma 22. .10 and 22. 22. where ù is an nth root of unity.3. Notice that this example is just a reworking of Example 22. Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. Then for all i. Then uC ëu for all u P U.8. by Lemma 22. k i1 jGj ÷( g i )÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) . Then ux ùu and so Lemma 22.10 Corollary If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and g P G.7. gk be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. then ë is an algebraic integer. and de®ne u 1 ùx À1 ù2 x À2 X X X ù nÀ1 x P CG. then ÷(1) divides |G|. Proof Let g1 . Hence by Theorem 22. j 22. j 22.) The i statement that ur ëu (with u T 0) says that ë is an eigenvalue of the integer matrix A (aij ). by Corollaries 22. (In fact.8 con®rms that ù is an algebraic integer.2(4). .4. . both jGj ÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) and ÷( g i ) jGj ÷( g) jCG ( g)j ÷(1) are algebraic integers.9 Example Let G Cn kx: x n 1l. .11 Theorem If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Proof Let U be an irreducible CG-submodule of CG with character ÷.Algebraic integers 249 for certain integers aij . Therefore ë is an algebraic integer.

2 (with ( p À 1)a2 degrees 2)X (3) If G Sn then every prime p which divides the degree of an irreducible character of G also divides n!. First. But g 3 det ( gr) is a linear character of G (see Exercise 13. Let r: G 3 GL(2. Theorem 22. This algebraic integer is equal to jGja÷(1). As jGja÷(1) is a rational number.5. and so r is injective. observe that G is non-abelian. by the row orthogonality relations. the number of linear characters of G divides |G|.7(a)). In particular. as the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is equal to |G|. using Proposition 9.11. and hence satis®es p < n. if jGj p2 then ÷(1) 1 for all irreducible characters ÷. Proof Suppose that G is a simple group which has an irreducible character ÷ of degree 2. we recover the well known result that groups of order p2 are abelian.) Hence. X X X . p.18. the degree of each irreducible character of G is 1 or 2 (it cannot be p for the reason noted in (1) above). (2) Let G be a group of order 2 p. (Note that ÷(1) . either the degrees of the irreducible characters of G are all 1. C) be a representation of G with character ÷. where p is prime. Hence.11. 1. G has no non-trivial linear characters.13 Corollary No simple group has an irreducible character of degree 2.11. 2.) 22. Theorem 16.12 Examples (1) If p is a prime number and G is a group of order pn for some n.11 also has the following interesting consequences concerning irreducible characters of simple groups. That is. By Theorem 17. and so G9 G as G is simple. Hence G9 T 1. then ÷(1) is a power of p for all irreducible characters ÷ of G.250 Representations and characters of groups is an algebraic integer. By Theorem 22. Since Ker r v G and G is simple. (Recall that a group G is simple if it has no normal subgroups apart from {1} and G. j 22.4(1). and this implies that det ( gr) 1 for all g P GX . or they are 1. Therefore by Theorem 17. Proposition 22. by Proposition 9.5 now implies that jGja÷(1) is an integer. we have Ker r f1g. ÷(1) divides |G|.

by Theorem 22. this means that xg gx for all g P G. As r is injective. and jN j is coprime to p.12 and 17. we conclude that À1 0 À1 T (xr)T X 0 À1 Thus xr T(ÀI)T À1 ÀIX Consequently (xr)( gr) ( gr)(xr) for all g P G. that is. In particular. As r is injective. there is a 2 3 2 matrix T such that T À1 (xr)T is a diagonal matrix with diagonal entries Æ1. by our hypothesis. the sum being over the irreducible characters ÷ of G for which ÷(1) .Algebraic integers 251 Now G has even order. Therefore G contains an element x of order 2 (see Exercise 1. Then G has an abelian normal p-complement.14 Corollary Suppose that p is a prime and the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p. G is not simple unless G has prime order. as G is simple. ÷(1) . Since G is non-abelian.8). and hence hxi v GX This is a contradiction.11. 22. and we deduce that G has an abelian normal pcomplement N. 1 for some irreducible character ÷ of G.11 give us the equation jGj jGaG9j ÷(1)2 . Then ÷(1) is divisible by p. Theorems 11. so p divides |G| by .6). Since det (xr) 1. 1. and by Proposition 9. This time.11. Consider the 2 3 2 matrix xr. we assume that every irreducible character of G has degree a power of a prime p. N is an abelian normal subgroup of G. while jG: N j is a power of p. xr has order 2. j Our next result again shows that information about character degrees can sometimes be used to learn about the structure of a group. Proof The result is correct if G is abelian (see Theorem 9. so we assume that G is non-abelian.

Hence G has a normal subgroup H of index p.1. Next. Theorem 22. so either N {1} or N G. On the other hand. Clifford's Theorem 20. Hence N consists of those elements of G whose order is coprime to p.8 shows that ø(1) divides ÷(1).17). by Exercise 1. so it remains to prove that N v G. Then h÷ 5 H. We may now apply induction on |G| to deduce that H has an abelian normal p-complement N. we require a preliminary lemma concerning roots of unity. We have that |N| is coprime to p and jG : N j is a power of p. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is coprime to p.7).16 is evidently a useful result. If N f1g then G is a p-group so Z(G) T {1} (see Exercise 12. Let ø be an irreducible character of H. Therefore. we have Z(G) G. Finally. then . we write d|n to denote the fact that d divides n. so G is abelian. øi T 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. since otherwise p divides the order of gH which in turn divides the order of g.17). If a and b are positive integers. b). j A condition which ensures that ÷( g) is an integer In Theorem 22.15 Lemma If ù is an nth root of unity. assume that G is simple. G has prime order. for integers d and n. it follows that GaG9 has a subgroup of index p.11. for example. so ø(1) is a power of p.16. Before proving Theorem 22. that for all n. by Proposition 20. Since every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. every entry in the character table of Sn is an integer (see Corollary 22. a similar argument shows that g P N. because G is simple. if N G then G is again abelian. Then g P H. Bearing in mind the dif®culties we encountered in constructing the character tables of Sn for small values of n (we reached n 6 in Example 19.4.252 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 22. and from this fact it follows easily that N v G. 22. But an abelian simple group has prime order. Also. then we denote their highest common factor by (a.16 below we give a group-theoretic condition on an element g of G which implies that ÷( g) is an integer for every character ÷ of G. and we deduce from the equation above that p divides the order of the abelian group GaG9. This result implies.

16 Theorem Let g be an element of order n in G. It is trivial for n 1. ( j. By Proposition 9. d . 1 ( j. Then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. Proof We prove the result by induction on n. So suppose that ù is an nth root of unity and ù T 1. Also.Algebraic integers ùi 1<i< n.n)d ùi ù dj X dj n 1< j< nad. and if in addition d .n)1 ùi n i1 ùi À ù dj P Z. 1< j< nad. then by our induction hypothesis.n)1 253 is an integer. Suppose that g is conjugate to gi for all i with 1 < i < n and (i. ù dj P ZX 1< j< nad. Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷ of degree m. n i Now we partition the sum i1 ù according to the highest common factor d of i and n: 0 n i1 ùi dj n 1<i< n (i.nad)1 It follows that 1<i< n. n) 1. there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùm 0 . 22. (i.nad)1 If djn then ù d is an (nad)th root of unity.11. 1.nad)1 j as required. dj n. if ù 1 then the result is immediate. (i. Then ù is a root of the polynomial n (x n À 1)a(x À 1) x nÀ1 X X X x 1X Therefore i1 ù i 0. ( j.

÷( g i ) P ZX 1<i< n. then the permutations g and g i have the same cycle-shape.15.16. the matrix i [ g i ]B has diagonal entries ù1 . g is an element of G of order pr for some r. and hence are conjugate by Theorem 12. and so i ÷( g i ) ù1 X X X ù im X Therefore by Lemma 22. . . . n) 1. and so ÷( g) is an integer by Corollary 22. Before going into the character theory. The de®nition will emerge from the following lemma. namely that if ÷( g i ) P Z for all characters ÷ of G. . then g is conjugate to g i whenever i is coprime to n. . n) 1.15. . Proof If g P Sn and i is coprime to the order of g. one particularly useful consequence of our results is that if p is a prime number. The result now follows from Theorem 22. ù m are nth roots of unity. 22. . For 1 < i < n.254 Representations and characters of groups where ù1 . . we have ÷( g i ) ÷( g) for such i. ù im .16. we need to de®ne the p9-part of a group element.n)1 As g is conjugate to gi if 1 < i < n and (i. and ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z. j The p9-part of a group element The rest of the chapter is devoted to some important congruence properties of character values. and hence s÷( g) P Z. For example. (i. j We remark that using Galois theory it is possible to prove the converse of Theorem 22.6. Consequently ÷( g) is a rational number. where s is the number of integers i with 1 < i < n and (i. . then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod p.17 Corollary All the character values of symmetric groups are integers.

and so x x9 and y y9. p) 1. as required. y9 P G also satisfy (1)±(3). the elements x and y of G which satisfy conditions (1)±(3) are unique. Moreover. Similarly. We must show that x x9 and y y9. so x À1 x9 y( y9)À1 X If z x À1 x9 y( y9)À1 . Then there exist x. that is. v P Z and (u. y P G such that (1) g xy yx. b such that au bpv 1X Put x gau and y gbp . y u g bup 1X Hence the order of x is a power of p and the order of y divides u. Now suppose that x9. and (3) the order of y is coprime to p. Then xy yx g aubp g. g x9 y9 y9x9. Finally. so is coprime to p. Therefore x and y satisfy conditions (1)±(3). j v v v v v . (2) the order of x is a power of p. so x9 commutes with g. hence also with gau x. it follows that x À1 x9 has order a power of p. then we have shown that the order of z is both a power of p and coprime to p. Proof Let the order of g be upv . the order of x9 is a power of p and the order of y9 is coprime to p. xy g x9 y9.Algebraic integers 255 22. x p g aup 1. Therefore z 1.18 Lemma Let p be a prime number and let g P G. We have x9 g x9 y9x9 gx9. Then there exist integers a. y9 commutes with y and y( y9)À1 has order coprime to p. where u. Since both x and x9 have order a power of p.

b with au bpv 1.21 Proposition There are only ®nitely many ideals I of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ]. We extract the following statement from the proof of Lemma 22. with ai P Z.part of g is gbp . æ nÀ1 . æ. . v P Z and (u. Proof Consider the factor ring Z[æ]a pZ[æ]. De®ne Z[æ] to be the subring of C generated by Z and æ.18 has x g3 . 22. if p 2 and g has order 6. where u. v Then the p9. . this has as its elements all the cosets pZ[æ] r with r P Z[æ]. . we need a few basic facts about a certain subring of C in which all our character values will lie. 0 < ai < p À 1 for all iX As there are only ®nitely many such elements. a principal ideal of Z[æ].256 Representations and characters of groups 22. that is. we conclude that Z[æ]a pZ[æ] is ®nite. (22.20) Let the order of g be upv . Every such coset contains an element of the form a0 a1 æ X X X a nÀ1 æ nÀ1 . æ2 . . and choose integers a. the expression g xy in Lemma 22. By de®nition. then the p9-part of g is g . p) 1. Z[æ] f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x]gX Clearly.18 the p9-part of g.18. Let n be a positive integer and let æ e2ðia n . For example. so in fact Z[æ] f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x] of degree < n À 1gX Now let p be a prime number and let pZ[æ] f pr: r P Z[æ]g. every element of Z[æ] is an integer combination of the powers 1. y gÀ2 . À2 A little ring theory To prepare for our main result on congruence properties of character values. The ideals of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ] are in .19 De®nition We call the element y which appears in Lemma 22.

Since p P P.) We now prove two easy results about the maximal ideal P. We must show that s P P. j 22. we conclude that r P P. j We deduce from Proposition 22. In particular. we also have pZ P Z.22 Proposition If r. Since n r rr nÀ1 . but this implies that 1 P P.Algebraic integers 257 bijective correspondence with the ideals of Z[æ]a pZ[æ] (the correspondence being I 3 Ia pZ[æ]). P is a proper ideal which is contained in no larger proper ideal of Z[æ]. s P Z[æ] and rs P P. then either r P P or s P P. Therefore there are only ®nitely many such ideals. which establishes that P Z pZ. assume that r n P P. then r P P. Repeating this argument. j . Thus pjm.21 that there is a maximal ideal of P of Z[æ] which contains pZ[æ]. if r n P P for some positive integer n. it follows that s P P. that is.23 Proposition We have P Z pZ. since P T Z[æ]. the ideal rZ[æ] P of Z[æ] strictly contains P. Proof Assume that rs P P and r P P. and the proof is complete. b P P such that 1 ra bX Then s rsa sbX As rs P P and b P P. (A proper ideal of Z[æ] is an ideal which is not equal to Z[æ]. as required. b with j am bp 1. this implies that either r P P or r nÀ1 P P. we therefore have rZ[æ] P Z[æ]X Consequently. there exist a P Z[æ]. As P is a maximal. a Since r P P. If p B m then there are integers a. 22. which is false. For the last statement of the proposition. Proof Let m P P Z.

ù bp ù bp X Consider the number (ù À ù bp ) p . pv . r . if p 2.11). where u. p) 1.258 Representations and characters of groups Congruences At last we are ready to prove our results on congruences of character values. By the Binomial Theorem. Hence (ù À ù bp ) p ù p (À1) p ù bp pá. If ÷ is any character of G. and so v v 2v 2v ù p ù aup . Application of Proposition 22.22 now forces v v v v v 2v v v v v 2v v v 2v v v . v vÀ r v p bpv pv pv v pvÀ1 bpv (ù À ù ) ù À p ù ù X X X Æ ù p ù rbp r X X X (À1) p ù bp X For 0 . Now let ù be an mth root of unity (so ù P Z[æ] as mjn). where á P Z[æ]. let p be a prime number and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing pZ[æ]. pv pv bp2v ù (À1) ù pv 2ù . Then v ù ù aubp . the binomial coef®cient ( rp ) is divisible by p. Then y g bp (see (22. The orders of g and of y divide n |G|. As in the previous section. 22. so it follows that (ù À ù bp ) p P pZ[æ]X Thus (ù À ù bp ) p lies in the maximal ideal P. Let G be a group of order n and let æ e2ðia n . and hence lie in Z[æ]. Choose integers a. The ring Z[æ] is of interest because all the character values of G lie in Z[æ] (see Proposition 9.part of g.24 Theorem Let g P G and let y be the p9. then ÷( g) À ÷( y) P PX Proof Suppose that g has order m upv .20)). since ù p ù bp . v P Z and v (u. if p T 2. Moreover. b with au bpv 1. so ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both sums of nth roots of unity. we have @ 0.

11. j Notice that Corollary 13. we just illustrate the results with reference to some character tables which we already know. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z.24±22. j 22.27 extensively in our character calculations in Chapters 25±7. .26. lies in P.25). Theorem 22. j 22. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is a power of p. We shall use the congruence results 22. by (22. . If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers.23 give ÷( g) À ÷( y) P P Z pZX Therefore ÷( g) ÷( y) mod p.24 and Proposition 22.10 is the special case of Corollary 22. Suppose that g P G and that y is the p9. .part of g. there are mth roots of unity ù1 . then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod pX Proof As the order of g is a power of p. For the moment.26 Corollary Let p be a prime number.27 in which g has order 2.27 Corollary Let p be a prime number. . d v v which. so the result is immediate from Corollary 22. . the p9-part of g is 1. then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod pX Proof As ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers.Algebraic integers (22X25) (ù À ù bp ) P PX v 259 By Proposition 9. ù d such that bp ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù d and ÷( y) ù1 X X X ù bp X d v v Then bp ÷( g) À ÷( y) (ù1 À ù1 ) X X X (ù d À ù bp ).

so 5 P P by Proposition 22. Thus the corresponding entries in columns 1 and 2 Character table of A5 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 1 À1 0 â á of the character table are congruent modulo 3. That is. 1(1 À 5) â 5X 2 Put æ e2ðia60 . we have â 5 P P. p p where á (1 5)a2. If g (1 2 3) then Corollary 22. If we take p 5 and g (1 2 3 4 5). 2. ÷4 ((1 2 3 4 5)) á P Z.22. 3X However.24. Character values are algebraic integers. â (1 À 5)a2. The degree of every irreducible character of G divides |G|.14 that the character table of A5 is as shown. Similarly the entries in columns 1 and 3 are congruent modulo 2.260 Representations and characters of groups 22. Also ÷ i ((1 2 3 4 5)) ÷ i (1) mod 5 for i 1.24 for this a value. We illustrate Theorem 22. 2. as can be seen by inspecting the table. p p Then ( 5)2 P P. then the p9-part of g is 1. and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing 5Z[æ]. Summary of Chapter 22 1.11). Since â P Z[æ] (see p Proposition 9. ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) P PX This illustrates Theorem 22.26 implies that ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 3 whenever ÷( g) P Z. . and p ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) á À 3 1(1 5 À 6) 2 p p p 5 .28 Example Recall from Example 20.

If g is conjugate to g i for all integers i which are coprime to the order of g. 5.12. (c) Deduce that ÷ 1 G . (c) Show that q divides p À 1 and that G has q (( p À 1)aq) conjugacy classes. 10 or 16. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . 2. (a) Find the degrees of all the irreducible characters of G.11 to show that every irreducible character of G has degree 1. This exercise shows that the only irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷ ÷ is the trivial character. If g P G and y is the p9-part of g. . Deduce that G is abelian. (b) Now let ÷ be an irreducible character of G with ÷ ÷.11 and 22. 1 G i 1 (÷(1) 2á). Prove that the number of conjugacy classes in a group of order 16 is 7. then g 1. Prove that h÷. Suppose that G is a group of odd order. Exercises for Chapter 22 1. (c) Show that if ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G. (b) Show that |G9| p. (d) Deduce that both a and b are integers. for all characters ÷. (b) Show that a b and a b|G| are integers. and let G be a nonabelian group of order pq. jGj where á is an algebraic integer. (a) Prove that if g P G and g gÀ1 .Algebraic integers 261 3. Use Theorems 11. 4. 17. q. (a) Show that ö a1 G b÷reg for some a. Let G be a group and let ö be a character of G such that ö( g) ö(h) for all non-identity elements g and h of G. 4. then b÷(1) is an integer. Let G be a group of order 15. b P C. 3. then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod p for all characters ÷ of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are integers. then ÷( g) is an integer. Let p be a prime number.

g7 with orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 120 g2 2 12 g3 2 8 g4 3 6 g5 4 4 g6 6 6 g7 5 5 Using Corollary 22. It is often possible to calculate the character table from limited arithmetic information about the group G.26 and the column orthogonality relations. A certain group G of order 120 has exactly seven conjugacy classes.27 to deduce that G has two irreducible characters of degree 5. g2 . This exercise illustrates this point with the group G S5 . Prove that a complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 . (d) You are given that all entries in the character table of G are integers. . g3 and g4 are conjugate in G. where each ar (0 < r < n À 1) is an integer. . ®nd the character table of G. . (b) Use Corollary 22. (a) Show that for every irreducible character ÷ of G.262 Representations and characters of groups 6. 1 or À1. and that the conjugacy classes of G have representatives g1 . ÷( g) is 0. and contains an element g of order 5 such that jCG ( g)j 5. . 7. g. (c) Find ÷(1) and ÷( g) for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. Moreover. .

and the ®rst main result of the chapter describes the number of real-valued irreducible characters of G. If all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. some results in representation theory work equally well for the ®eld R of real numbers. Often. which consist largely of the calculation of character tables and applications of character theory. Real characters An element g of the ®nite group G is said to be real if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . Nevertheless. which we shall explore in this chapter. Various criteria for whether or not a character corresponds to a representation over R lead us to the remarkable Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. and is not used in the ensuing chapters. However. and if g is real. but also gives delicate information about characters which often comes into play in more dif®cult calculations. However. This is used in the last section to prove a famous result of Brauer and Fowler concerning centralizers of involutions in ®nite simple groups. we have always taken our representations to be over the ®eld C of complex numbers. characters of CG-modules are real-valued. then the conjugacy class g G is also said to be 263 .23 Real representations Since Chapter 9. while there is no representation ó equivalent to r with all the matrices gó having real entries. then of course the character of r is real-valued. There is a subtle interplay between representations over C and representations over R. The material in this chapter is perhaps at a slightly more advanced level than that in the rest of the book. the converse is not true: it can happen that the character of r is realvalued. Let r be a representation of G. the subject of real representations not only is elegant and interesting.

15). Part of the following corollary was obtained by a different method in Exercise 22.4). so X can be obtained from X by permuting the rows. Proof Let X denote the character table of G. since ( g À1 ) G fx À1 : x P g G g. For every irreducible character ÷ of G. the conjugacy class {1} of G is real. the result is proved. Notice that if a conjugacy class is real.264 Representations and characters of groups real. 23. and the trivial character of G is real. For every conjugacy class g G of G. and the number of real conjugacy classes of G is tr (Q)X j As these numbers are equal. Hence there is a permutation matrix P such that PX X (see Exercise 4. we have the number of real irreducible characters of G is tr (P).2. On the other hand. Since the trace of a permutation matrix is equal to the number of points ®xed by the corresponding permutation.1 Theorem The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. . the complex conjugate ÷ is also an irreducible character (see Proposition 13.2. Therefore Q X À1 X X À1 PX X Consequently P and Q have the same trace. and let X denote the complex conjugate of the matrix X. Thus for example. and so there is a permutation matrix Q such that XQ X By Proposition 16. the entries in the column of X which corresponds to g G are the complex conjugates of the entries in the column of X which corresponds to ( g À1 ) G . then it contains the inverse of each of its elements.5. X is invertible. a character ÷ of G is real if ÷( g) is real for all g P G. by Proposition 13. Therefore X can be obtained from X be permuting the columns.

and so G has at least two real irreducible characters by Theorem 23. j Characters which can be realized over R Let ÷ be a character of the group G. such that for all g P G and 1 < i < n. and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Exercise 17. (2) Let G Q8 ka. . v n with real coef®cients. br ar 0 1 À1 0 provides a representation r of G with character ÷ such that all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. . Therefore by Theorem 23. v i g is a linear combination of v1 . b2 a2 . . Proof If G has odd order. . such that all the entries in each matrix gr ( g P G) are real. Hence G has at least two real conjugacy classes. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.8. then no non-identity element of G is real (see the solution to Exercise 23. G has an element g of order 2.3 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. since À1 0 0 1 . v n of V. If G has even order.2 Corollary The group G has a non-trivial real irreducible character if and only if the order of G is even. Then ÷ can be realized over R. 23.1. and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Example 16. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.1). and there is a basis v1 . the only real character of G is the trivial character. b: a4 1. {1} and g G.3(3)). .1). The values of ÷ are as follows: 1 ÷ 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 . b: a4 b2 1.1. We say that ÷ can be realized over R if there is a representation r: G 3 GL (n. . . C) with character ÷.Real representations 265 23. . then by Exercise 1. This is the same as saying that there is some CG-module V with character ÷.

v1 b Àv1 . C). In fact. v2 b v2 (compare Example 23.) Although every character which can be realized over R is perforce a real character. In this section we shall study the relationship between RG-modules and CGmodules. . RG-modules Recall that in Chapter 4 we de®ned an FG-module. . . and consider the vector space over C with basis v1 . (1) V becomes an RD8 -module if we de®ne v1 a v2 . where F is R or C. The construction is even easier to understand in terms of representations: if r: G 3 GL (n. v2 x Àv1 À v2 X 0 1 (This gives the representation x 3 of Exercise 3. 23. Thus an RG-module is a vector space over R. if we de®ne v1 x v2 . (2) V becomes an RC3 -module.) À1 À1 Every RG-module can easily be converted into a CG-module. v n . v2 .3(2) tells us that the converse is false. Notice that a character ÷ of G can be . .3(1)).2.18(3) below. (We shall eventually establish this in Example 23. Simply take a basis v1 . Therefore we obtain a representation r: G 3 GL (n. .266 Representations and characters of groups Thus ÷ is real. v2 a Àv1 . and hence also in C. . with basis v1 . .4 Examples Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over R. .2. ÷ cannot be realized over R. with a multiplication by elements of G satisfying the conditions of De®nition 4. v n of the RG-module. R) is a representation then for each g P G. Example 23. where C3 kx: x 3 1l. the matrix gr has its entries in R. This new vector space is clearly a CG-module (with v i g de®ned as before). but it is at the moment unclear how to prove this.

y jk P R. . X X X . 1 < j < nX It follows easily that.6. evaluated at g. Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 . Regarding v j as an element of the CG-module V. we have (v j g)h v j ( gh) and ((iv j ) g)h (iv j )( gh)X Hence using Proposition 4. In this way we de®ne v g for all v P VR and all g P G. we have (v j g)h v j ( gh) for all g. and (À yjk v k xjk (iv k )) (1 < j < n). We de®ne a multiplication of VR by g by putting (23X5) vj g (iv j ) g n k1 n k1 (xjk v k yjk (iv k )). and let g P G. . h P G. then ÷( g) n k1 zkk X The character of VR . we see that (23. . We summarize the basic properties of VR in the next proposition. iv n X Write z jk x jk iyjk with x jk . regarding v j and iv j as elements of VR . v n . If ÷ is the character of V. iv1 . is 2 n k1 xkk ÷( g) ÷( g)X Hence the character of VR is ÷ ÷. v n . There exist complex numbers z jk such that vj g n k1 zjk v k (1 < j < n)X Now let VR be the vector space over R with basis v1 . X X X . . .5) makes VR into an RGmodule.Real representations 267 realized over R if and only if there exists an RG-module with character ÷. Rather more subtle than this is the construction of an RG-module from a given CG-module. and extending linearly to de®ne v g for all v P VR .

b: a4 b2 1. in particular. Thus there is an RG-module. VR U È W where U is an RG-module with character ÷ and W is an RG-module with character ÷. then ÷ can be realized over R. br f 1 0 0 0 gX ar f d À1 0 0 e d0 0 0 1e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 The subspace of VR which is spanned by v1 v4 and v2 v3 is an RG-submodule. For part (2). v4 . dim VR 2 dim V. and let V be the 2dimensional CG-module with basis v1 . Therefore the character of V can be realized over R. namely U.6 Proposition Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Proof We have already proved part (1). x is represented by the matrix p À1a2 3a2 p X À 3a2 À1a2 (2) Let G D8 ka. (1) The RG-module VR has character ÷ ÷. and so ÷ can be realized over R. v2 . suppose that V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RG-module.7 Examples (1) Let G C3 kx: x 3 1l. where v3 iv1 . v1 b v2 . Then VR has basis v1 . and with 2 respect to this basis. v3 . and let V be the 1-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 such that p v1 x 1(À1 i 3)v1 2 p (note that 1(À1 i 3) e2ðia3 ). j 23. Then by part (1). With respect to this basis.268 Representations and characters of groups 23. iv1 . with character ÷. v2 a Àiv2 . where H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f 0 0 0 À1 g f g g. v2 such that v1 a iv1 . we obtain the representation r. v4 iv2 . v2 b v1 X Then VR has basis v1 . (2) If V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RGmodule.

the functions x 3 â(x. v) ë2 â(u2 . u) for all u. ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ) ë1 â(u. 23. v1 ) ë2 â(u. A bilinear form â on V is a function which associates with each ordered pair (u.8 Theorem If V is an RG-module. A similar result for CG-modules was given in Exercise 8. 0 for all non-zero v P V X . v). u1 .) The bilinear form â is symmetric if â(u. v) and y 3 â(u. v P V and g P GX Our next result shows that every RG-module has a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form with a strong positivity property. v. v) â(v. y) are both linear ± hence the term bilinear. v) of vectors in V an element â(u.6. v P V X And the bilinear form â is skew-symmetric if â(u.Real representations 269 by Proposition 23. v2 P V and ë1 . vg) â(u. v) Àâ(v. v) for all u. u) for all u. where F is R or C. v) of F.6(2). v) . then a bilinear form â on V is said to be Ginvariant if â(ug. v1 . for all u. then there exists a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V such that â(v. v. â(u. we already know this from Example 23. v) ë1 â(u1 . ë2 P F. (Thus for ®xed u.3(1). Let V be a vector space over F. and which has the following properties: â(ë1 u1 ë2 u2 . In fact. u2 . v2 ). Bilinear forms The question of whether or not a given character can be realized over R turns out to be related to the existence of a certain bilinear form on the corresponding CG-module. v P V X If V is an FG-module.

for non-zero v P V. wgg À1 ) â(ug À1 . . j 23. 0. .10 Proposition Suppose that â is a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the RGmodule V. Proof Let v1 . v gx) â(u. v) . w) 0X Thus wg P W. we have ugÀ1 P U. v n be a basis of V. Then V is a reducible RG-module. W fw P V : â(u. and that there exist u. If g P G. and hence â(ug. so â(u. 0 for all non-zero v P V. v) n j1 ì2 .270 Representations and characters of groups n j1 ë j v j . then gx runs through G as x runs through G. For u n j1 ì j v j P V with ë j . . de®ne ã(u. j 23. Moreover. vx) (u. â is a symmetric bilinear form on V. Now let w P W and g P G. v) Now let â(u. For all u P U. v P V )X Again. v)X xPG Therefore â is G-invariant and the theorem is proved. and â(v. If U is an RG-submodule of V then so is . . 0X j xPG ã(ux. wg) â(ug À1 .9 Proposition Let V be an RG-module and let â be a G-invariant bilinear form on V. 0 and â(v. v P V with â(u. so W is an RG-submodule of V. vg) ã(ugx. ì j P R. . v) . v) n j1 v ë j ì jX Then ã is a symmetric bilinear form on V. w) 0 for all u P U gX Proof It is easy to see that W is a subspace of V. ã(v. u) .

23. so is ã. v) â1 (u. . (2) there exists a CG-module V with character ÷. .8 supplies us with a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â1 on V such that â1 (w.Real representations 271 Proof Theorem 23. and a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on V .7). v P V )X x Since â and â1 are G-invariant symmetric bilinear forms on V. we have ã(v. . 0X Let â(v1 . â(v2 . v n of V such that â1 (v i . v j ) 0 and â1 (v i . v2 ) . x so W T V. v1 ) . v1 ) x.11 Theorem Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. . v) À â(u. 0 for all non-zero w P V X By a general result on bilinear forms (see Exercise 23. n But for all v i1 ë i v i P V (ë i P R). . j if i T j. v i ) 1 â(v1 . We can now relate bilinear forms to the question of whether or not a given character of G can be realized over R. v1 ) 0X Therefore. and de®ne ã by 1 ã(u.9. Therefore V is a reducible RG-module. The following two conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ can be realized over R. there is a basis v1 . 1 ã(v2 . v2 ) . 0. v1 ) ë1 ã(v1 . Moreover. and is an RG-submodule of V by Proposition 23. for all i. w) . v j ) â(v i . 0. v) (u. then W is non-zero. w) 0 for all v P V g. v2 ) 1 À â(v2 . if we de®ne W fw P V : ã(v.

(v g)W (vW) gX ~ Now de®ne a function â on ordered pairs of elements of VR by ~ â(u. ì j P R)X j1 j1 j1 Then W is a bijection. u n . . using the properties (23. v) the real part of â(uW. u n be a basis of U. and for all w1 . .272 Representations and characters of groups Proof We ®rst show that (2) implies (1). v n of V. vW) (u. v). v P V with â(u. ìk uk ë j ì k ã(u j .12). and let V be the vector space over C with basis u1 . . . . v P VR . u v) â(u. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. Conversely. X X X . (ëv)W ë(vW). and let U be an RG-module with character ÷. v) â(v. there exists w P V with â(w. . that â is a Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on VR . . . It now follows from Proposition 23. Let u1 . Then â(v1 . De®ne ã on V by 2 n 3 n n n ã ë j u j. iv n is a basis of the RG-module VR . we have (23X12) (w1 w2 )W w1 W w2 W. w) z and v1 z À1a2 w. . Let â(w. v1 ) 1 and â(iv1 . u) T 0. . u) â(v. V is a CG-module (with u i g de®ned as for U). and suppose that â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. Then v1 . . By Theorem 23. v P VR )X ~ You can readily check. Notice that ~ ~ â(v1 . X X X . v1 ) 1X Extend v1 to a basis v1 . all ë P R and all g P G.8. by Proposition 23. iv1 .10. there is a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form ã on U. v n . There exist u.6(2) that ÷ can be realized over R. This establishes that (2) implies (1) in the theorem. Since â(u v. w2 . De®ne a function W from VR to V by n n n W: ë jv j ì j (iv j ) 3 (ë j iì j )v j (ë j . u k ) j1 k1 j1 k1 . iv1 ) À1X Therefore VR is a reducible RG-module. . suppose that ÷ can be realized over R. As explained earlier. v) 2â(u. w) T 0.

relating it to the internal structure of the group G. Thus (1) implies (2). 2 h÷ . We shall see later that this number tells us whether or not ÷ can be realized over R. if 1G is a constituent of ÷ A X We call é the indicator function on the set of irreducible characters of G. . b 0. ì k P C). 1 G i ÷( g)÷( g) h÷. if ÷ is not real. Then ã is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the CG-module V. 1 or À1. which is always 0. 23. Note that é÷ T 0 if and only if ÷ is real. The next result gives a signi®cant property of the indicator function. Hence if h÷ 2 . then precisely one of ÷ S and ÷ A has 1 G as a constituent. b ` é÷ 1. and V has character ÷.13 De®nition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. for irreducible characters ÷. we have @ 0. j The indicator function We now associate with each irreducible character ÷ of G a certain number. where ÷ S is the character of the symmetric part of V V. called the indicator of ÷. and the proof of the theorem is complete. b b X À1. ÷iX jGj gPG Therefore. 1 G i 1. and ÷2 ÷S ÷ A . if ÷ is realX Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. then we de®ne the indicator é÷ of ÷ by V if ÷ is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A . and ÷ A is the character of the antisymmetric part of V V. 1 G i 1. if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . Recall from Chapter 19 that ÷ 2 is the character of the CG-module V V.Real representations 273 (where ë j . Observe that 1 h÷ 2 .

W (é÷)÷. W is a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G. 1 G i 1 ÷( g 2 ) by Proposition 19X14 jGj gPG 1 ÷( g 2 ) jGj xPG gPG: g2 x 1 W(x)÷(x) jGj xPG hW. The de®nition of é÷ gives é÷ h÷ S À ÷A .14 Theorem For all x P G. since for g P G we have y 2 x D ( g À1 yg)2 g À1 xgX Therefore by Corollary 15.15 Example Let G S3 .274 23. Representations and characters of groups (é÷)÷(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj.4. Proof De®ne a function W: G 3 C by W(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj (x P G)X Note that W is a class function on G. and the result follows. The character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 j . 23. ÷ where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. ÷iX Therefore.

(2) There exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ 1. (1 2). and one element. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ 2 .14. we show that the indicator of an irreducible character determines whether or not it can be realized over R. (1) There exists a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ T 0. so (é÷)÷ ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 . (1) Suppose that é÷ T 0. four elements of G square to be 1.14 we calculate that é÷ 1 for each irreducible character ÷ of G. Proof In this proof we regard C as a 1-dimensional vector space over C. squares to be (1 2 3). there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V V onto this trivial CG-submodule. and hence there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism W from V V onto the trivial CG-module C. and deduce the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. g P G)X In this way. Back to reality We now relate the indicator function to the previous material on bilinear forms. no elements square to be (1 2). in accordance with Theorem 23.Real representations 275 Using Proposition 19. and de®ne a multiplication of C by elements of G by ëg ë (ë P C. By Proposition 8. (3) There exists a non-zero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ À1. C becomes a trivial CG-module. which takes the following values: 1 ÷ 1 ÷2 ÷3 4 (1 2) 0 (1 2 3) 1 Sure enough.8. and hence the CG-module V V has a trivial CG-submodule. (1 3 2). 23. Using this. (1 3) and (2 3). namely 1. .16 Theorem Let V be an irreducible CG-module with character ÷.

Since â is symmetric. . which is the character of the CG-module S(V V). X X X . and therefore é÷ T 0. we have â(ug. (2) Suppose that é÷ 1. De®ne W: V V 3 C by putting (v i v j )W â(v i . W is well-de®ned. De®ne â(u. Let v1 .1. v j ) as â is G-invariant (v i v j )WX Hence W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V V onto the trivial CG-module C. If follows that ÷ 2 has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent. v) (u v)W (u. suppose that there exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V. 1 < j < n) form a basis of V V. vg) (ug v g)W ((u v) g)W ((u v)W) g (u v)W â(u. we have ((v i v j ) g)W (v i g v j g)W â(v i g. v) (u v v u)W (u. v P V )X Then â is a non-zero bilinear form on V. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . Conversely. v)X Thus â is G-invariant. 1 < j < n) and extending linearly to the whole of V V. .276 Representations and characters of groups Now de®ne â by â(u. v P V and g P G. j < n) and extending linearly. Thus. by Proposition 10. it follows by Proposition 8. As in (1). v j ) (1 < i < n. and for u. V V has a trivial CGsubmodule. so that v i v j (1 < i < n. For g P G. v j g) â(v i . v P V )X Then â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. and W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from S(V V) onto the trivial CG- . v j ) (1 < i. v n be a basis of V. the symmetric part of V V. Let v1 . . and de®ne W: S(V V) 3 C by putting (v i v j v j v i )W â(v i .8 that there is a non-zero CGhomomorphism W from S(V V) onto the trivial CG-module C. Conversely. v n be a basis of V. . suppose that there is a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form â on V.

Real representations

277

module C. Hence ÷ S has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent, and so é÷ 1. (3) The proof of (3) is very similar to that of (2), and is omitted. j We can now relate real representations of G to involutions in G, where by an involution we mean an element of order 2. 23.17 Corollary (The Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions) For each irreducible character ÷ of G, we have V if ÷ is not real, b 0, b ` é÷ 1, if ÷ can be realized over R, b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but ÷ cannot be realized over RX Moreover, for all x P G, (é÷)÷(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj,

÷

**where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. In particular, (é÷)÷(1) 1 t,
**

÷

where t is equal to the number of involutions in G. Proof When we de®ned the indicator function, we showed that é÷ T 0 if and only if ÷ is real. And Theorems 23.11 and 23.16(2) show that ÷ can be realized over R if and only if é÷ 1. This proves that é÷ is determined as in the statement of the corollary. The expression for ÷ (é÷)÷(x) was obtained in Theorem 23.14. Putting x 1, we see that ÷ (é÷)÷(1) is equal to the number of elements y of G satisfying y 2 1. These elements are just the involutions in G, together with the identity, so the number of them is precisely 1 t. j We conclude with some examples illustrating the use of Corollary 23.17. 23.18 Examples (1) Let ÷ be a linear character. Then é÷ 1 if ÷ is real, and é÷ 0 if ÷ is non-real.

278

Representations and characters of groups

For an abelian group, the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions shows that the number of real irreducible (linear) characters is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes, since in this case g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if g2 1. This special case of Theorem 23.1 can be proved directly without much dif®culty (see Exercise 23.2). (2) We know that all the irreducible characters of D8 ka, b: a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l can be realized over R (see Example 23.3(1), and note that all four linear characters are real). Thus é÷ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of D8, and so (é÷)÷(1) 1 1 1 1 2 6X

÷

The ®ve involutions in D8 which are predicted by the Frobenius± Schur Count of Involutions are a2 , b, ab, a2 b and a3 b. (3) In the group Q8 ka, b: a4 1, a2 b2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l, there is just one involution, namely a2 . Now é÷ 1 for each of the four linear characters, and (é÷)÷(1) 2

÷

by the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. Therefore, if ø is the irreducible character of degree 2, then éø À1. In particular ø cannot be realized over R. (4) The symmetric group S4 has ten elements whose square is 1, namely the identity, the six elements which are conjugate to (1 2), and the three elements which are conjugate to (1 2)(3 4). Since the degrees 1, 1, 2, 3, 3 of the irreducible characters of S4 sum to be 10 (see Section 18.1), we see that all the characters of S4 can be realized over R. The Brauer±Fowler Theorem We now apply Corollary 23.17 to give a proof of a famous theorem of Brauer and Fowler. 23.19 Brauer±Fowler Theorem Let n be a positive integer. Then there exist only ®nitely many nonisomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with centralizer of order n.

Real representations

279

Despite its fairly elementary proof, this result is of great historical importance in ®nite group theory. It led Brauer to propose the programme of determining, for each ®nite group C, all the simple groups G possessing an involution u with CG (u) C. This programme was the start of the modern attempt to classify all ®nite simple groups, which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s. For further information about this, see the book by D. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography. In Exercise 10 at the end of the chapter you are asked to carry out Brauer's programme in the case where C C2 . This should not trouble you too much. In Chapter 30, Theorem 30.8, you will ®nd a much more sophisticated case, in which C D8. For proof of Theorem 23.19 we require two preliminary lemmas. 23.20 Lemma If a1 , . . . , a n are real numbers, then a2 >
a i 2 an. i Proof This follows from the Cauchy±Schwarz inequality kvk kwk > jvXwj, taking v (a1 , . . . , a n ) and w (1, . . . , 1). j 23.21 Lemma Let G be a group of even order m, and let t be the number of involutions in G (so t . 0 by Exercise 8 of Chapter 1). Write a (m À 1)at. Then G contains a non-identity element x such that jG : C G (x)j < a2 . Proof By Corollary 23.17, we have t< ÷(1)

÷

where the sum is over all non-trivial irreducible characters ÷ of G. Writing k for the number of irreducible characters of G, we deduce using Lemma 23.20 and Theorem 11.12 that t2 < ( ÷(1))2 < (k À 1) ÷(1)2 (k À 1)(m À 1),

÷

and hence m À 1 < (k À 1)(m À 1)2 at 2 (k À 1)a2 . Now k À 1 is the number of non-identity conjugacy classes of G. If every nonidentity conjugacy class has size more then a2 , then (k À 1)a2 .

280

Representations and characters of groups

jGj À 1 m À 1, a contradiction. Therefore some non-identity class x G has size at most a2 . Then jG : C G (x)j < a2 , giving the result. j Proof of Theorem 23.19 Suppose G is simple and contains an involution u such that jC G (u)j n. Let jGj m, and let t be the number of involutions in G. By Proposition 12.6, every element of the conjugacy class u G is an involution, and hence t > ju G j jG : C G (u)j manX Therefore (m À 1)at , n, and so by Lemma 23.21, there is a nonidentity element x P G such that jG : C G (x)j , n2 . Let H C G (x). If H G then x lies in Z(G), the centre of G, which is a normal subgroup of G. Since G is simple it follows that G Z(G), so G is abelian and therefore G C2 . Now suppose that H T G. Write r jG : Hj, so r , n2 . By Exercise 9 at the end of the chapter, there is a non-trivial homomorphism è from G to the symmetric group S r . As G is simple, the normal subgroup Ker è f1g. Thus G is isomorphic to a subgroup of S r , hence of S n2 . In particular, given n, there are only ®nitely many possibilities for G. j

Summary of Chapter 23 1. The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. Let é be the indicator function, and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. V if ÷ is non-real, b 0, b b b 1, ` if there exists an RG-module U with character ÷, 2X é÷ with character ÷ b b b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but there does not exist an RG-moduleX V if 1 G is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A , b 0, ` 3X é÷ 1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S , b X À1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ A X 2 4. ÷ (é÷)÷(1) |{ g P G: g 1}|.

Real representations Exercises for Chapter 23

281

1. Prove that if G is a group of odd order then no non-identity element of G is real. 2. Let G be a ®nite abelian group. Use the description of the irreducible characters of G, given in Theorem 9.8, to prove directly that the number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of elements g in G for which g2 1. 3. Let G D2 n and consult Section 18.3 for the character table of G. How many elements g of G satisfy g2 1? Deduce that é÷ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. 4. Let r be an irreducible representation of degree 2 of a group G, and let ÷ be the character of r. Prove that ÷ A ( g) det ( gr) for all g P G. Deduce that é÷ À1 if and only if det ( gr) 1 for all g P G. 5. Let G T 4 n ha, b: a2 n 1, a n b2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i, as in Exercise 17.6. Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 , v2 and let å be a (2n)th root of unity in C with å T Æ1. Exercise 17.6 shows that V becomes an irreducible CG-module if we de®ne v1 a åv1 , v2 a å À1 v2 , v1 b v2 , v2 b å n v1 X

Let ÷ be the character of this CG-module V. (a) Note that å n Æ1. Use Exercise 4 to show that é÷ 1 if å n 1 and é÷ À1 if å n À1. (b) Let â be the bilinear form on V for which â(v1 , v1 ) â(v2 , v2 ) 0, â(v1 , v2 ) 1, â(v2 , v1 ) å n X Prove that the bilinear form â is G-invariant, and use Theorem 23.16 to provide a second proof that é÷ 1 if å n 1 and é÷ À1 if å n À1. (c) Prove that a n is the only element of order 2 in T4 n. (d) Use the character table of G, which appears in the solution to Exercise 18.3, to ®nd é÷ for each irreducible character ÷ of G. Check that

282

**Representations and characters of groups (é÷)÷(1) 2,
**

÷

in agreement with the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 6. Prove that if ÷ is an irreducible character of a group G, and é÷ À1, then ÷(1) is even. (Hint: the solution uses a well known result about skew-symmetric bilinear forms.) 7. Suppose that V is a vector space over R and that â1 and â are symmetric bilinear forms on V. Assume that â1 (w, w) . 0 for all non-zero w in V. Prove that there is a basis e1 , X X X , e n of V such that â1 (ei , ei ) 1 for all i, and â1 (ei , ej ) â(ei , ej ) 0 for all i T jX 8. Schur's Lemma is crucial for the development of the theory of CG-modules. This exercise indicates the extent to which results like Schur's Lemma hold for RG-modules. Let V and W be irreducible RG-modules. (a) Prove that if W: V 3 W is an RG-homomorphism then either W is an RG-isomorphism or vW 0 for all v P V. (b) Prove that if W: V 3 V is an RG-isomorphism and V remains irreducible as a CG-module, then W ë1 V for some real number ë. . (c) Give an example of a group G, an irreducible RG-module V and an RG-homomorphism W: V 3 V which is not a multiple of 1 V . 9. Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. Let Ù be the set of n right cosets Hx of H in G. For g P G, de®ne a function r g : Ù 3 Ù by ( Hx)r g Hxg for all x P G. Prove that r g is a permutation of Ù, and that the function r : g 3 r g is a homomorphism from G to the symmetric group on Ù. Show that the kernel of r is xPG x À1 Hx. Deduce that if a group G has a subgroup H of index n, then there is a homomorphism G 3 S n with kernel contained in H. 10. Suppose that G is a ®nite group containing and involution t with CG (t) C2 . Prove that |G : G9| 2. Deduce that if G is simple, then G C2 .

24 Summary of properties of character tables

In this short chapter we present no new results, but instead we gather together from previous chapters various properties which are helpful when we try to ®nd the character table of a particular group. In the next four chapters we shall calculate several character tables in detail. Usually we begin by working out the conjugacy classes and centralizer orders of our given ®nite group G. The size of the character table is determined by the number k of conjugacy classes of G; the character table is then a k 3 k matrix, with columns indexed by the conjugacy classes of G (the ®rst column corresponding to the conjugacy class {1}), and with rows indexed by the irreducible characters of G. When doing calculations, we commonly come across a new character ÷, which may or may not be irreducible. We can then calculate h÷, ÷i, which is given by h÷, ÷i 1 ÷( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG

The character ÷ is irreducible if and only if h÷, ÷i 1 (see Theorem 14.20). If ÷ is reducible then we calculate h÷, ÷ i i for each of the irreducible characters ÷ i which we already know, and then ÷À h÷, ÷ i i÷ i

i

will also be a character. We can thus determine whether ÷ is a linear combination of the irreducible characters we already know; and if it is not, then we can obtain from ÷ a linear combination of irreducible characters, all of which are new. We have developed a number of methods for producing characters ÷ 283

284

Representations and characters of groups

on which to perform such calculations. For example, every subgroup of Sn has a permutation character (see (13.22)); the product of two characters is again a character (Proposition 19.6); given a character ø we can form the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of its square, ø S and ø A (see Proposition 19.14); and if H is a subgroup of G then we can restrict characters of G to H, and induce characters of H to G. These and other properties of characters are summarized in the following list.

Properties of characters Assume that ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. (1) (Example 13.8(3)) There is a (trivial) character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) 1 for all g P GX (2) (Theorem 17.11) The group G has precisely jGaG9j linear characters. These are the characters ÷ given by ÷( g) ø( gG9) ( g P G) as ø varies over the irreducible (linear) characters of GaG9. (3) (Theorem 17.3) As a generalization of (2), if N v G and ø is an irreducible character of GaN , then we get an irreducible character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) ø( gN ) ( g P G) (÷ is the lift of ø). This method gives precisely those irreducible characters of G which have N contained in their kernel. (4) (Theorem 19.18) If G G1 3 G2 then all the irreducible characters ÷ of G are given by ÷( g1 , g 2 ) ö1 ( g 1 )ö2 ( g 2 ) ( g 1 P G1 , g 2 P G2 ), as ö i varies over the irreducible characters of Gi (i 1, 2). (5) (Proposition 13.24) If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. ( g P G)

Summary of properties of character tables

285

(6) (Theorems 11.12 and 22.11) The entries ÷ i (1) (1 < i < k) in the ®rst column of the character table of G are positive integers, and satisfy

k i1

÷ i (1)2 jGjX

Moreover, each integer ÷ i (1) divides |G|. (7) (Row orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(1)) For all i, j, we have h÷ i , ÷ j i ä ij . (8) (Column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2)) For all g, h P G, we have @ k jCG ( g)j, if g and h are conjugate, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (h) 0, otherwiseX i1 (9) (Exercise 13.5) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and z P Z(G), then there exists a root of unity å such that for all g P G, ÷(zg) å÷( g)X (10) (Proposition 13.9(2)) If g is an element of order n in G, and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g) is a sum of nth roots of unity. Moreover, |÷( g)| < ÷(1). (11) (Proposition 13.9(3, 4)) If g P G and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g À1 ) ÷( g)X In particular, if g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G. (12) (Corollary 15.6) If g P G and g is not conjugate to gÀ1 , then ÷( g) is non-real for some character ÷ of G. (13) (Theorem 22.16) Let g P G. If g is conjugate to gi for all positive integers i which are coprime to the order of g, then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. (14) (Corollary 22.26) Suppose that p is a prime number and that y is the p9-part of the element g of G. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers, then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod pX

6). where for all g P G. where ÷ë( g) ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G)X (18) (Proposition 19.14) If ÷ is a character of G. then ÷ë is an irreducible character of G. the ®rst column determines |G| and jGaG9j (by (6) and (2)). Two important normal subgroups are G9 and Z(G). where ÷( g) ÷( g) ( g P G)X (16) (Theorem 23. indeed. (17) (Proposition 17. where (ø 5 H)(h) ø(h) (h P H)X We have seen that the character table of a group G gives grouptheoretic information about G.23. The derived subgroup G9 consists of those elements g in G which satisfy ÷( g) 1 for all linear characters ÷ of G. where ÷ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) ( g P G)X (19) (Proposition 19. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod pX (15) (Proposition 13.23) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of H. 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 (20) (De®nition 21.15) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )).14) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ë is a linear character of G.5).13. if the order of g is a power of p. Proposition 21. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A .1) The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. then so is the product ÷ø. We can see from the character table whether or not G is simple (Proposition 17.286 Representations and characters of groups In particular. then ø 5 H is a character of H. we can ®nd all the normal subgroups of G (Proposition 17. The centre Z(G) can be found by noting which elements g of G satisfy .6) If ÷ and ø are characters of G. For example. with values given by Proposition 21. then ø 4 G is a character of G. (21) (Chapter 20) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of G. these can be determined in the following ways. then so is ÷.

In Chapter 30 we shall see some more impressive results about subgroups of G. the converse is false: in Exercise 17. which can be deduced from the character table. . it is of course true that isomorphic groups have the same character table.Summary of properties of character tables 287 ÷( g)÷( g) |G|. D8 and Q8 . As a ®nal remark. with the same character table. the sum being over all irreducible characters ÷ of G.1 we gave examples of non-isomorphic groups. however.

Clearly Z p is a cyclic group under addition. p will denote a prime number. It is also true.1 Theorem The multiplicative group ZÃ is cyclic.25 Characters of groups of order pq By the end of the next chapter. X X X . 1. we shall have determined the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. and n r T 1 mod p for 0 . with addition and multiplication modulo p. but for a good 288 . there exists an integer n p such that n pÀ1 1 mod p. is a ®eld. In particular. and ZÃ Z p À f0g is an abelian group p under multiplication. We shall not provide a proof of Theorem 25. Z p is an abelian group under addition. generated by 1. and in this chapter we shall describe a class of Frobenius groups and ®nd the character tables of the groups in this class. Throughout the chapter. A number of these groups are so-called Frobenius groups. that is. p À 1g. that ZÃ is cyclic: p 25. this will give the character tables of all groups whose order is the product of two prime numbers. Primitive roots modulo p Recall that the set Z p f0. r . p À 1X An integer n of order p À 1 in ZÃ is called a primitive root modulo p p. but not at all obvious.1. that is.

5. but not modulo 7.4 Example De®ne G & 1 0 ' y Ã. and 3 is a primitive root modulo 7. and let u be an element of order q in the multiplicative group ZÃ . 11 and 13.Characters of groups of order pq 289 account. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. such that u q 1 mod p. r .3 of the book by J. 0 1 0 u and let F hA.2 Example The number 2 is a primitive root modulo 3. we see that every element of F is of the form A i B j with 0 < i < p À 1. Then 1 u À1 B AB Au . 0 1 and so we have the relations (25X5) Ap Bq I. 25. qX Frobenius groups of order pq. Now let q| p À 1. Bi. where q| p 2 1 25.1). we refer you to Theorem 45. the subgroup of G generated by A and B. 0 < j < q À 1. and u r T 1 mod p for 0 .1 we have 25. y P Z X : xPZp p x Under matrix multiplication. B .3 Proposition If q| p À 1 then there is an integer u such that u has order q modulo p ± that is. G is a group of order p( p À 1) (see Exercise 25. As an immediate consequence of Theorem 25. These pq elements are dis- . BÀ1 AB Au X Using these relations. B. De®ne p 1 1 1 0 A .

Moreover the relations (25. or q divides p À 1 and G F p. Suppose that H kal and Ga H h Hbi. B. a bÀq abq a u q and so u q 1 mod p.3 that q divides p À 1 and G has a normal subgroup H of order p.5) determine all products in F.6 De®nition If p is a prime and q| p À 1. Then either G is abelian.290 Representations and characters of groups tinct. It follows from Exercise 22. F p. B: Ap Bq I. these facts follow readily from Sylow's Theorems (see Chapter 18 of the book by J. b: a p b q 1. S. Passman listed in the Bibliography.q ha.7 Proposition Suppose that G is a group of order pq.q for the group of order pq with presentation F p. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography). The next result classi®es all groups whose order is the product of two distinct prime numbers.q . 25. q. The groups F p.q does not depend on which integer u of order q we choose (see Exercise 25. Proof Assume that G is non-abelian.) Both H and Ga H are cyclic. so bÀ1 ab au for some integer u. Further. the interested reader can ®nd more information in the book by D.q . then we write F p. where p and q are prime numbers with p . where u is an element of order q in ZÃ . Now H v G. (Alternatively. as we shall only be dealing with F p. bÀ1 ab au i. then G is generated by a and b. We shall not give the general de®nition of these here. p . it follows that b has order q. Thus the order of u in the group ZÃ divides q. p It is not hard to show that. Since bq P H but b does not have order pq (as G is non-abelian). BÀ1 AB Au iX 25.q belong to a wider class of groups known as Frobenius groups.3). so jFj pq. so we have the presentation F hA. up to isomorphism. since they have prime order.

and since kal < CG (av i ). order of u in ZÃ is qX p Hence G F p. b: ap bq 1. and has the form stated in the proposition.8 Example By Proposition 25. bÀ1 ab au . The character table of F p. We have now established that a p b q 1. every group of order 15 is abelian (indeed. p 25. bÀ1 ab au i where p is prime.9 Proposition The conjugacy classes of G F p.25 we dealt with F7. Write r ( p À 1)aq. v r for S in ZÃ . We now construct the character table of F p.q : the dihedral group of order 2 p is the case where q 2.7. Therefore the conjugacy class of av i has size at least q. X X X .3. and G would be abelian. Therefore the order of u is q. Hence (av i ) G has size q. and in Example 21.Characters of groups of order pq 291 If the order of u were 1 then we would have bÀ1 ab a.3 . and u has order q modulo p. Thus p jSj q. j 25. Let S be the subgroup of ZÃ consisting of the powers of u.q We have. this size is at most q. in fact. (bn ) G fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g (1 < n < q À 1)X Proof The equation bÀ j av b j avu j shows that av is conjugate to avs for all s P S. already found the character tables of certain of the groups F p. isomorphic to C3 3 C5 ). .q . Thus let G Fp. and choose coset representatives v1 .q ha.q in general. q| p À 1 (q not necessarily prime). (av i ) G fav i s : s P Sg (1 < i < r).q are f1g. and the groups of order 21 are C3 3 C7 and F7. also the size of this conjugacy class is equal to |G: CG (av i )|.

16. j By Proposition 25. and (øv 4 G)(ax ) å vsx (0 < x < p À 1)X sPS Note that øv 4 G has degree q. observe that the derived subgroup G9 kal. Hence (bn ) G fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g and the proof is complete. for all s P S. ö j i G sPS øv j s ÷. and so the conjugacy class of bn has size p. øv j s 4 Gi G hö j . let p ö j øv j 4 GX We now prove that each ö j is irreducible. øv j s ihai hö j . G has precisely q linear characters. Let å e2ðia p . These are given by ÷ n (0 < n < q À 1).11. every conjugate of bn has the form am bn for some m. and øv 4 G øvs 4 G if s P SX For each coset representative v j (1 < j < r) of S in ZÃ . 0 < y < q À 1)X We shall show that G has r irreducible characters of degree q. G has q r conjugacy classes.292 Representations and characters of groups Since CG (bn ) contains kbl. ö j i G X Hence ö j 5 hai hö j . By the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. so we seek q r irreducible characters. so GaG9 has order q and therefore by Theorem 17. . where ÷ n (a x b y ) e2ði nyaq (0 < x < p À 1. denote by øv the character of kal which p is given by øv (ax ) å vx (0 < x < p À 1)X We calculate the values of the induced character øv 4 G. and kbl has index p in G.9. hö j 5 hai. it follows that for n T 0 mod q. we have |CG (bn )| q. On the other hand. as Gahai is abelian. For v P ZÃ .23. using Proposition 21. We obtain (øv 4 G)(ax by ) 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. First.

ö j (ax ) e2ðiv j sxa p . . Of these. and also that ö j 5 hai hö j .11 Example Let G F p. 25. 25.10 Theorem Let p be a prime number. .Characters of groups of order pq 293 where ÷ is either 0 or a character of kal. ö j of G (0 < n < q À 1. q| p À 1 and r ( p À 1)aq. b: a p b pÀ1 1. . .q ha. ö j l G 1. q have degree 1 and are given by ÷ n (ax by ) e2ði nyaq (0 < n < q À 1) and r have degree q and are given by ö j (ax by ) 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. . Consequently the irreducible characters ö1 . . ö j i G X Since ö j (1) q jSj. we deduce that kö j . 1 < j < r).23. X X X . Then the group F p. where v1 S. 0 < y < q À 1g has q r irreducible characters. and hence ö1 5 kal. We conclude by illustrating Theorem 25. v r S are the cosets in ZÃ of the p subgroup S generated by u. so we have the complete character table of G. sPS for 1 < j < r. the characters øv (v P ZÃ ) are linearly indepenp dent. We summarize in the following theorem. pÀ1 ha. ö j i G øv j s X sPS By Theorem 14. b: a p bq 1. . This proves that ö j is irreducible. bÀ1 ab au i . We have now found q r distinct irreducible characters ÷ n . ö r are distinct. Taking degrees. bÀ1 ab au i fax by : 0 < x < p À 1. . it follows that ö j (1) > jSjhö j .10 in some examples. ö r 5 kal are distinct.

b: a13 b4 1.25 we found the character table of F7.4 ha. ã å4 å6 å7 å9 X By Theorem 25.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö 1 20 1 1 1 1 4 a 5 1 1 1 1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 x if 1 < y < p À 2. bl. b P S5 be the permutations a (1 2 3 4 5). In Example 21. and one irreducible character ö of degree p À 1.12 Example Let a. b (2 3 5 4)X Check that a5 b4 1.4 . Here F13.4 is as shown opposite. â å 2 å 3 å 10 å 11 .294 Representations and characters of groups where u is a primitive root modulo p. bÀ1 ab a2 X Hence if G ka. with values given by ö(ax by ) 0 ö(a ) À1 25. You may like . the character table of F13.3. Character table of F5.10. Then G has p À 1 linear characters.13 Example We consider the case p 13. and so by the previous example the character table of G is as shown. and let á å å 5 å 8 å 12 . bÀ1 ab a5 iX Write å e2ðia13 . q 4. if 1 < x < p À 1X 25. then G F5.

Character table of F13. Suppose that p is prime and q divides p À 1.q are described in Theorem 25. then either G is abelian or G F p. with p prime and q| p À 1. and de®ne .10. If G has order pq.q. p 0 x under matrix multiplication. b: ap bq 1. 2. q. Prove that & ' 1 y : x P ZÃ . Let p and q be positive integers. y P Z p . is a group of order p( p À 1). Let p and q be prime numbers with p .q ha. 3. bÀ1 ab au iX The irreducible characters of Fp. Exercises for Chapter 25 1. 2. Let u be an element of order q in ZÃ . Let u and v be two integers which are of order q modulo p.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö1 ö2 ö3 1 52 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 a 13 1 1 1 1 á â ã a2 13 1 1 1 1 â ã á a4 13 1 1 1 1 ã á â b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 0 Summary of Chapter 25 1.10. Write down the character table of the non-abelian group F11.5 of order 55.Characters of groups of order pq 295 to check that this agrees with the description of the character table provided by Theorem 25. Then p Fp. Let p be a prime number.

q ha.q in 25.) 7. (a) Show that there exists an integer m such that u m À1 mod p if and only if p 1 mod 4. Let q ( p À 1)a2 and let G Fp. and ä À1 if p À1 mod 4. (( p À 1)a2)2 g). 22 . Show that the group E of Exercise 5 has the properties that Z(E) is cyclic. show that the two irreducible characters ö1 . as in Exercise 5. Suppose that p is a prime number. bÀ1 ab au i.4. bl is a normal subgroup of E which is isomorphic to C3 3 C3 . ö2 of G of degree q have values p 1 (ä p)) 2(À1 Æ on the element a. with p T 2. Note that ka. but E has no faithful irreducible representation. (This justi®es the comment which follows the de®nition of Fp. (d) Deduce that if å e2ðia p then p å s (À1 Æ (ä p)).) 4. X X X . b: ap bq 1. b: ap bq 1. bÀ1 ab av iX Prove that G1 G2 . 5. obtain the character table of E. sPQ where Q is the set of quadratic residues modulo p (that is. 6. (b) Deduce that a is conjugate to aÀ1 if and only if p 1 mod 4. c: a3 b3 c2 1. (c) Using the orthogonality relations. (a) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are . Q f12 . where u is an element of order q modulo p. where ä 1 if p 1 mod 4. G2 ha. E provides a counterexample to the converse of Proposition 9. (Thus. b. ab ba. Let E be the group of order 18 which is given by E ha. b: ap bq 1. By inducing linear characters of this subgroup. cÀ1 ac aÀ1 . bÀ1 ab au i.296 Representations and characters of groups G1 ha.16. cÀ1 bc bÀ1 i.6.

1. 3. 3. 1. 3. 297 . b: a9 b6 1. 1. 3. 3. Let G be the group of order 54 which is given by G ha. 3. bÀ1 ab a2 iX Find the character table of G. 3. 6X 8. 1. 3X (b) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 1. 6. 3. 1. 2. 3. 3. 3. 3X (c) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 1. 1. 3. 1. 6. 3. 2. 1.Characters of groups of order pq 1. 3. 6. 3. 3. 3. 1. 1. 3. 2.

Proof (1) Since H v G. indeed. H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. that we have found the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. We later give explicitly the irreducible characters of all groups of order p3 and of all groups of order 16. all of which have size a power of p. (3) If n < 2 then G is abelian. In particular. Z(G) T {1}.26 Characters of some p-groups Throughout this chapter. then G is abelian. Therefore 298 . Elementary properties of p-groups A p-group is a group whose order is a power of the prime number p. We shall show how to obtain the character tables of all groups of order pn for n < 4. 26. have an abelian subgroup of index p. At the end of the chapter we point out. p will be a prime number. and H Z(G) consists of those conjugacy classes in H which have size 1. In the ®rst lemma we collect several well known properties of pgroups. with references. we show that all groups of order pn with 1 < n < 4 do.15). Recall that Z(G) denotes the centre of G (see De®nition 9.1 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with n > 1. and before explaining the method. (2) If K < Z(G) and GaK is cyclic. The method consists of examining the characters of those p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. (1) If {1} T H v G then H Z(G) T {1}.

recall that the derived subgroup of G is denoted by G9 (see De®nition 17. As K < Z( H) and. Now assume that Z(G) has no subgroup of order p nÀ2 . Let x1 . Z(G) and kxl are distinct nonidentity subgroups of Z( H). G has an element x whose conjugacy class x G is of size p. Let H CG (x). Since k1 .7. we deduce that H Z(G) T {1}. Then there exists a normal subgroup K of G such that K < H G9 Z(G) and jKj pX .1(1). (2) Suppose that GaK is cyclic. Therefore G is abelian. by Lemma 26. and so Z( H) > p2 . Then x1 g i k 1 . k2 P K.1(2). jGa Z(G)j < p nÀ1 . and H is an abelian subgroup of index p. Therefore H is an abelian subgroup of index p in G. j Hj jGjajx G j p3 . Then we can ®nd a subgroup H of G such that K < H and j Hj p nÀ1 . x2 P G.2 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with 1 < n < 4. Assume that Z(G) contains a subgroup K of order p nÀ2 . so suppose that 2 < n < 4.7). Then by Exercise 12.8. k2 P Z(G). we deduce that Z( H) H. 26. the only possibility is that |G| p4 and | Z(G)| p.1(2). Since Z(G) T f1g by Lemma 26. x2 g j k 2 for some integers i. Then G contains an abelian subgroup of index p. Then by Theorem 12.Characters of some p-groups j Hj j H Z(G)j (a multiple of p)X 299 As | H| is a multiple of p and | H Z(G)| T 0. Moreover. Proof The result is immediate if n 1.3 Lemma Let G be a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p. Hence if n < 2 then Ga Z(G) is j cyclic and so G is abelian by (2). generated by gK. Ha Z( H) is not of order p. Hence again Z( H) H by Lemma 26. j and some k1 . it follows that x1 x2 x2 x1 . (3) By (1). j For our ®nal result on the structure of p-groups. 26.

Since G is non-abelian and |G: H| p. as G9 is in the kernel of every linear character.12. we have {1} T G9 v G. the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p). then either ÷ is irreducible or ÷ is a sum of linear characters (since by Theorem 22.11. by Theorem 11. Since p nÀ1 ( p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 ) p2 pn jGj. Then every irreducible character of G is given by either (1) the lift of an irreducible character of GaK. Now K < Z(G) implies that K v G and that KH is an abelian subgroup of G (where KH {kh: k P K. In the latter case. By Theorem 17. Let K be a normal subgroup of G as in Lemma 26. j Characters of p-groups with an abelian subgroup of index p In view of Lemma 26. This establishes (26X5) if ÷(1) p and K T< Ker ÷. (Ã ) we shall then have obtained all the irreducible characters of G. we have G9 < Ker ÷.3.4 Theorem Assume that G is a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p.1(1). the irreducible characters of GaK lift to give precisely those irreducible characters of G which have K in their kernel. h P H}). for some linear character ø of H which satis®es K T< Ker ø. Let Ö denote the set of linear . we have KH H.8 that all the p nÀ1 irreducible characters of the abelian group H are linear. The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters obtained in this way is jGaKj p nÀ1 . We shall construct p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 further irreducible characters of G. each of degree p.2. or (2) ø 4 G.12.300 Representations and characters of groups Proof Since G is non-abelian. and hence K < G9 < Ker ÷. the next theorem provides us with all the irreducible characters of non-abelian groups of order p3 or p4 . Proof Let |G| pn . and therefore K < H. Let K be a subgroup of order p in G9 Z(G). and hence G9 Z(G) T {1} by Lemma 26. again by Theorem 11.3. First note that if ÷ is a character of G of degree p. 26. then ÷ is irreducibleX We know by Theorem 9.

C p2 3 Cp and Cp 3 Cp 3 Cp X The character tables of these groups are given by Theorem 9. ø1 i H X Since (ø 4 G) 5 H has degree p. Z T {1} and Ga Z is non-cyclic. and the proof is complete.6. Choose aZ. bZi. the abelian groups of order p3 are C p3 . Therefore by (26.16. We shall then illustrate Theorem 26. Hence Ga Z Cp 3 Cp and Z kzl Cp . By Lemma 26.4 to give an explicit construction of the irreducible characters of the non-abelian groups of order p3 .8. Now let G be a non-abelian group of order p3 . we have jÖj p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 X Let ø P Ö. (ø 4 G)(k) pø(k) for all k P KX Thus ø 4 G has degree p and does not have K in its kernel. this implies that there are at most p elements ø1 of Ö such that ø1 4 G ø 4 G.23. ø1 4 Gi G h(ø 4 G) 5 H. Therefore fø 4 G: ø P Ög consists precisely of the p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 irreducible characters we seek. Write Z Z(G). Then .5). Since the linear characters of H which do have K in their kernel are precisely the lifts of linear characters of HaK. since K < Z(G). By Proposition 21. Suppose now that ø1 is a linear character of H such that ø 4 G ø1 4 G. Then by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. Groups of order p3 By Theorem 9.Characters of some p-groups 301 characters of H which do not have K in their kernel.1. 1 hø 4 G. It follows that fø 4 G: ø P Ög gives at least jÖja p ( p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 )a p distinct irreducible characters of G of degree p which do not have K in their kernel.4 further by constructing the character tables of all the non-abelian groups of order 16. ø 4 G is an irreducible character of G. G has at most p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 such characters. As we saw in (Ã ). j We now use Theorem 26. bZ such that Ga Z haZ.

and therefore g ar z t for some t. where ø u.302 Representations and characters of groups Ga Z far bs Z: 0 < r < p À 1. s.v is the linear character ÷ u. zl.8. Let H ka. then ar Z is conjugate to gZ in the abelian group Ga Z. t < p À 1} be a non-abelian group of order p3 . 0 < v < p À 1).v which appears in the statement of the theorem. Then the irreducible characters of G are ÷ u. s. 0 < s < p À 1g and in particular. the irreducible characters of Ga Z are ø u. ö u (ar bs z t ) 0. If ar is conjugate to an element g of G. so ar Z gZ. as above. For 1 < u < p À 1. på . Let r be an integer with 1 < r < p À 1.v (0 < u.v (ar bs Z) å rusv X The lift to G of ø u. Since ar P Z. so that H is an abelian subgroup of order p2 .v (ar bs z t ) å rusv . t with 0 < r. 26. and hence (ar ) G far z t : 0 < t < p À 1gX . and (1 < u < p À 1). choose a character ø u of H which satis®es ø u (z t ) å ut (0 < t < p À 1)X We shall calculate ø u 4 G. every element of G is of the form ar bs z t for some r. s. s. Proof By Theorem 9. t < p À 1. v < p À 1). a the conjugacy class (ar ) G does not have size 1. Write å e2ðia p .v öu where for all r. t. otherwiseX (0 < u < p À 1.6 Theorem Let G {ar bs z t : 0 < r. @ ut if r s 0. ÷ u.

up to isomorphism. p2 jGjX Hence we have found all the irreducible characters of G. they are . We ®nd that 1 hö u . (ø u 4 G)(z t ) pø u (z t ) på ut . 12 ( p À 1) .23. and (ø u 4 G)( g) 0 if g P HX a pÀ1 s0 pÀ1 s0 303 ø u (z s ) å us We have now established that if ö u ø u 4 G. and the sum of the squares of their degrees is p2 . there are precisely two non-abelian groups of order p3 .6 is a special case of the proof of Theorem 26.v (0 < u. ö u i G 3 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p gPG 1 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p3 gP Z 1 2 p p3 gP Z 1X Therefore ö u is irreducible. (ø u 4 G)(ar z t ) ø u (ar ) ø u (ar z) X X X ø u (ar z pÀ1 ) ø u (ar ) ø u (ar ) 0X Also. If p 2.Characters of some p-groups Then by Proposition 21. In fact. they are D8 and Q8. j Notice that the calculation in the proof of Theorem 26. Clearly the irreducible characters ÷ u. v < p À 1) and ö u (1 < u < p À 1) are all distinct. then ö u takes the values stated in the theorem. And if p is odd.4 (with K Z(G)).

and their character tables are given by Theorem 9.5. b: a8 b2 1. bÀ1 ab a3 iX . and it is not Q8 by Exercise 26. Hence GaK D8 . az za. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. C4 3 C2 3 C2 and C2 3 C2 3 C2 3 C2 .8. b: a p b p 1. . bÀ1 ab a p1 i.8. . Our descriptions will be in terms of presentations.304 (26X7) Representations and characters of groups H 1 ha. b chosen in the statement of Theorem 26. C8 3 C2 . b2 a4 . so the subgroup K described in Lemma 26. it is possible to see. and H 2 ha. .1(2).7). there are precisely fourteen groups of order 16 (see p. b: a8 1. bz zb. 134 of the book by Coxeter and Moser listed in the Bibliography). the abelian groups of order 16 are C16 . It is not C8 by Lemma 26. G3 ha. b: a8 b2 1. (A) There are three non-abelian groups GaK D8 .3 is given by K G9 Z(G)X Now GaK is a group of order 8. G9 given below do indeed have order 16. that all the nine groups G1 .6. C4 3 C2 or C2 3 C2 3 C2 X We shall divide our descriptions into three parts. The elements a.6. For each of the nine non-abelian groups G of order 16 it is the case that |G9 Z(G)| 2 (see Exercise 26. C4 3 C4 . . b.8 The groups of order 16 It is known that. These are G of order 16 with G1 ha. using Exercise 26. z: a p b p z p 1. bÀ1 ab aziX 2 We have Z( H1 ) ka p l. according to these three possibilities for GaK. b in H1 and H2 will serve for the elements a. By Theorem 9. Z( H2 ) kzl. 26. G2 ha. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i D16 . up to isomorphism. We shall describe all these groups and their character tables.

b2 z 2 1. we obtain the character tables of G1 . . G2 and G3 : Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 2 À2 À2 C3 8 1 1 1 1 À2 0 0 C4 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 á â C5 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 â á C6 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 C7 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 where á 2 Àâ for G1 . G6 ha. of order 2). a7 C6 ai b (i even) ai b (i even) C7 ai b (i odd) ai b (i odd) Using Theorem 26. b2 z. G2 . z 2 1. but not for G3 (see Corollary 15. az za. C1 G1 . These are G4 ha. as before. z: a4 1. . K G9 Z(G). . b. bz zbiX . The last two characters can be obtained as in Theorem 26. p á i 2 Àâ for G3 X p The ®rst ®ve characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of GaK D8 . Each of the groups has seven conjugacy classes C1 . a6 C4 a. b2 z 2 1. bÀ1 ab azi. a7 a. z: a4 1. bÀ1 ab azi. . hence the values in the columns C4 and C5 are all real for G1 and G2 . z: a4 z. alternatively.Characters of some p-groups 305 In each case K ka4 l.6). and these are given in the following table. C7 . b. where ø is a linear character of the abelian subgroup kal of index 2. a5 a5 . a6 a2 . a3 C5 a3 . they can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. but not in G3 .4(2) as induced characters ø 4 G. Note that a is conjugate to aÀ1 in G1 and G2 . G2 G3 1 1 C2 a4 a4 C3 a2 . (B) There are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK C4 3 C2 (where. b.4. G5 ha. bÀ1 ab az.

b. for G5 . a2 bz C9 ab. . az za. b. These are G7 ha. there are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK C2 3 C2 3 C2 (where K G9 Z(G). C10 of all three groups G4 . bz zbi D8 3 C2 . G5 . bz In each case. G6 X (C) Finally. The character tables of G4 . z: a4 b2 z 2 1. bÀ1 ab az 2 . K kzl. G5 and G6 can again be found using Theorem 26. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . a3 bz a. az za. bz zbiX . z is redundant). bz zbi Q8 3 C2 . of order 2). . since a4 z in G4 .306 Representations and characters of groups The given presentations are somewhat cumbersome (for example. G9 ha. . b. G6 simultaneously: C1 1 C2 z C3 a2 C4 a2 z C5 C6 C7 C8 a2 b. z: a2 b2 z 4 1. az za. G8 ha. a2 b2 . z: a4 z 2 1. az a3 .4: Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 á â C4 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 â á C5 8 1 i À1 Ài 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 C6 8 1 Ài À1 i 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 C7 8 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 i À1 Ài À1 Ài 1 i 0 0 C10 8 1 Ài À1 i À1 i 1 Ài 0 0 where á 2i Àâ á 2 Àâ for G4 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . . but they are in a form which allows us to describe the conjugacy classes C1 . abz C10 a3 b. a3 z b.

Apart from abelian groups and dihedral groups. Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 á â C4 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 â á C5 8 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 0 0 C6 8 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 C7 8 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 C10 8 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 0 0 where á 2 Àâ á 2i Àâ for G7 . a2 b bz. for G9 .Characters of some p-groups Each of these groups has ten conjugacy classes. whose character tables are given by Theorem 9. with references for their character tables. abz3 We have K @ ha2 i hz 2 i for G7 .8 and Section 18. az 2 az. and the character tables of G7 . for G9 X 26. are as follows.9 The groups of order less than 32 At this point. bz 2 bz. a3 z z z 3 a. abz 2 abz. a2 bz ab. are as follows: . G8 and G9 .3. G8 G9 1 a2 1 z2 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 307 z a2 z a. G8 . a3 b abz. we have in fact found the character tables of all groups of order 31 or less. bz 3 ab.4. given by Theorem 26. which are given by C1 C2 C3 C4 G7 . G8 . a3 bz b. az 3 b. the groups. a3 az.

4 F7. with an abelian subgroup H of index p. A4 3 C2 .4: p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. Section 26.2 Exercise 18.1 Section 18.18 Exercise 25. we gave the irreducible characters of various nonabelian p-groups G. Suppose that G is a group of order pn ( p prime. Q8 3 C3 .18 Section 18.8: groups of order 16. Theorem 26.10 Theorem 19.5 Theorem 26. Exercises for Chapter 26 1.10 Theorem 25.2 Exercise 18.308 |G| 8 12 16 18 20 21 24 Representations and characters of groups G Q8 A4 T12 G1 . as follows. D10 3 C3 Reference for character table Exercise 17. .5 Exercise 18. . G9 D6 3 C3 E T20 F5. Theorem 26. T12 3 C2 D8 3 C3 .3 Theorem 19. 2. H2 T28 D6 3 C5 . 1.1 Exercise 27. n > 2). D6 3 C4 S4 SL (2.4 Exercise 18.3 Exercise 18. .6: groups of order p3 .8 Theorem 19.6 Exercise 18.18 27 28 30 Summary of Chapter 26 In this chapter.18 Theorem 19.3 D12 3 C2 . . Show that for some integer m > 2. 3. .3 Theorem 25.3 Section 26. 3) T24 U24 V24 H1 . G has pm linear characters and p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 irreducible characters of degree p.

or otherwise. z: a3 b3 z 3 1. C. 0g e 0 I g 0g g g. G9 be the non-abelian groups of order 16 with presentations as given in the text.4. Find the conjugacy classes of H. . . (a) Prove that all pairs of generators commute modulo h Zi. G2 . 5. 4.) (d) Show that |G| 32. 3.7)). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX Using Theorem 26. . and deduce that G9 h Zi. G6 . Let H be the group of order 27 which is given by H ha. ®nd the character table of G. Let A. (b) Show that for all g in G. g 2 P h Zi. Write Z ÀI. bz zb. Dl.Characters of some p-groups 2. B. and ®nd all the irreducible representations of G. and use Theorem 26. Ài g e 0 g 0g g g. Let G1 . b: a16 1. (Hint: use Corollary 9. G4 and G9 . (a) Find faithful irreducible representations of degree 2 for G1 . (c) Prove that the given representation of G of degree 4 is irreducible. (b) Why do the remaining groups G5 . b. fi 0 1 0g 0 0 e d 0 0 0 0 Ài À1 0 I 0 f f0 f Df f0 d 1 H 0 Ài 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 0 g Ài g g g. az za. . B. G3 . G7 and G8 have no faithful irreducible representations? . C.3. Let G be the group of order 32 which is given by G ha. b2 a8 .6 to write down the character table of H. 0g e 0 and let G kA. and deduce that G is a 2group of order at most 32. bÀ1 ab azi 309 (see (26. D H À1 f f 0 f Af f 0 d 0 f fi f Cf f0 d 0 H i 0 0 0 be the following 4 3 4 matrices: I H 0 0 0 0 0 i g f f0 1 0 0g 0 0 g f Bf g.

(a) Prove that if G is any group.) (b) Deduce from the result of Exercise 7 that if G is a group of order 16. 8. 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 eX 0 0 1 (d) Find faithful representations of degree 3 for G7 D8 3 C2 and G8 Q8 3 C2 . 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 e. bZ: a4 P Z. a2 b2 mod Z. then Ga(G9 Z(G)) T Q8 . 0 0 1 H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 G6 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. . .310 (c) Representations and characters of groups Check that the following give faithful representations of G5 and G6 : H I H I 0 1 0 i 0 0 G5 : a 3 d 1 0 0 e. Prove that no two of the groups G1 . (Note: This exercise can be used to con®rm that the presentations of G1 . Let G be a non-abelian group of order p4 . (a) Prove that | Z(G)| p or p2 . . . . .) 6. and that if |G9| p2 then G has 2 p2 À 1 conjugacy classes. Prove that a2 commutes with b. (b) Prove that |G9| p or p2 . b 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. G9 given in the text do indeed give groups of order 16. . G9 are isomorphic. and hence that a2 P Z. . . (Hint: assume that Ga Z haZ. 7. and that if | Z(G)| p2 then G has p3 p2 À p conjugacy classes. (c) Deduce that |G9 Z(G)| p. b 3 d 1 0 0 e. then Ga Z(G) T Q8 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 mod Zi.

and in this chapter we shall describe this group and ®nd its character table. d 311 . and is called the 2-dimensional special linear group over Z p. b are arbitrary. d P Z p . is the smallest non-abelian simple group. b. To calculate the order of the group SL (2. and recall that Z p is the ®eld which consists of the numbers 0. ad À bc 1)X c d If c 0. b. with addition and multiplication modulo p. And there are p2 ( p À 1) choices for a.27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 Recall that a simple group is a non-trivial group G such that the only normal subgroups of G are f1g and G itself. Denote by SL (2. we count the matrices a b (a. We discussed brie¯y in Chapter 1 the signi®cance of simple groups in the theory of ®nite groups. . p). The group belongs to a whole family of simple groups. and we begin with a description of this family. . p) is a group under matrix multiplication. c. p) the set of all 2 3 2 matrices M with entries in Z p such that det M 1. Then SL (2. c. Examples of simple groups which we have met so far are cyclic groups of prime order. then there are p( p À 1) choices for a. A5 and A6 . Special linear groups Let p be a prime number. The next smallest is a certain group of order 168. . b. of order 60. In fact the group A5 . except that a T 0. . p À 1. and d is determined by a). d which make ad À bc 1 (since a.

1. In the exercises. PSL (2.4) and congruence properties (Corollary 22. the centre of SL (2. Rotman listed in the Bibliography).1 Lemma The group PSL (2. 5) A5 . 3) A4 . The simple group G PSL (2. we have jPSL(2. p)j p( p À 1) p2 ( p À 1) p( p2 À 1)X If p 2 then SL (2. Therefore jSL (2. and that for p > 5. p)j p( p2 À 1)a2X It is known that PSL (2. The power of these techniques is therefore well illustrated. together with the order of gi . . the group PSL (2. By Exercise 27. 7) 27. Thus PSL (2. 7) has exactly six conjugacy classes. c is any non-zero element of Z p . p) has order 6. and the size of the conjugacy class containing gi . d may be chosen arbitrarily. and then b is determined). notably the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16. The following table records representatives gi (1 < i < 6) for the conjugacy classes. ÀIg (where I is the 2 3 2 identity matrix). p) is simple (see Theorem 8. p).312 Representations and characters of groups with c T 0. and we shall construct the character table of this group. The factor group SL (2. p)| p( p2 À 1).26). p)a Z is called the 2-dimensional projective special linear group. p) SL (2. 7) has order 168. After ®nding the conjugacy classes of G.19 of the book by J. so assume that p is an odd prime. we indicate other ways of obtaining characters of G. The conjugacy classes of PSL (2. p)afÆIgX Since |SL (2. such that ad À bc 1 (since a. the order of CG ( gi ). we shall ®nd the character table using only numerical calculations. and it is easy to see that this group is isomorphic to S3 . p) is Z fI. and is written as PSL (2. using information about subgroups. J.

Suppose that a b Z c d commutes with g4 . d ' Z X 4 0 0 2 3 À2 3 2 0 À1 1 0 . a c b . .Character table of the simple group of order 168 Order of gi g1 g2 g3 g4 g5 g6 1 0 0 1 Z Z 2 4 3 7 7 8 4 3 7 7 21 42 56 24 24 1 168 |CG ( gi )| | gG | i 1 313 0 1 À1 0 2 2 2 0 1 0 1 0 À2 Z 2 0 Z 4 1 Z 1 À1 Z 1 Proof For each i. we verify that gi has the stated order. X 3 À2 4 À2 À2 2 2 2 Also. for example. . . CG ( gi ) k gi l for i 3. . 6. . . . Consequently & 1 0 2 Z. the only elements with the same order are g5 . g6 . . . CG ( g 4 ) 0 1 0 Similarly CG ( g2 ) & 0 4 0 4 Z. Among g1 . g4 . Then a b 2 0 2 Æ c d 0 4 0 and hence b c 0. MZ: M À2 4 2 4 1 0 0 1 ' 2 3 2 4 2 2 2 À2 . 5. and then use direct calculation to ®nd all the elements of G which commute with g i . Consider.

then ÷( gi ) is an integer.19). j The character table of G PSL (2. ÷6 be the irreducible characters of G.314 Representations and characters of groups and g6 . which is impossible for a P Z7 . and so a ab aÀc Æ c cd c bÀd d with ad À bc 1X It follows that c 0. . it also has six irreducible characters. Proof (1) By Lemma 27. it is easy to check that G is indeed simple. Hence the conclusion follows from Theorem 22. a T 0. (2) Notice that g6 gÀ1 . d aÀ1 and a ab a b À aÀ1 X 0 aÀ1 0 aÀ1 Therefore a2 À1.16. where ÷1 is the . gi is conjugate to ( gi ) k whenever gi and ( gi ) k have the same order. except possibly g5 and g6 . Suppose that gÀ1 g6 g g5 with a b g Z P GX c d Then gg5 g6 g. . these exhaust the conjugacy i classes of G. Thus g5 is not conjugate to g6 . ÷( g5 ) is non-real.1. so g5 is not conjugate to its inverse.2 Corollary (1) If 1 < i < 4 and ÷ is a character of G. The size of the conjugacy class g G is obtained by dividing 168 by i |CG ( gi )| (Theorem 12.6. Since the sum of the sizes of the six conjugacy classes g G (1 < i < 6) is 168. g6 are conjugate. Let ÷1 . 5 Therefore (2) follows from Corollary 15.1.8). so no two of these six elements are conjugate. and we have established that no two of the elements g1 . j Notice that using Lemma 27. . since any normal subgroup is a union of conjugacy classes (see Proposition 12. (2) For some character ÷ of G. . 27. . . 7) Since G has six conjugacy classes. . . for 1 < i < 4.

0 in some order. . The entries in the column of g4 are integers. so di is the entry on row i of column 1. for which the character values are known to be integers. . 0 in some order.) Similarly the entries in the column of g3 are 1. . Now for all characters ÷ of G. and so ÷( g 2 ) ÷( g 3 ) mod 2X Since we also know that 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 0.2. g4 . 0.26 and 22. 0. By . .Character table of the simple group of order 168 315 trivial character (so that ÷1 ( g) 1 for all g P G).e. part of the character table of G is as follows: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 We shall determine the signs later. Æ1. Æ1. ÷6 . and the congruence properties given by Corollaries 22.27 for the elements g2 . Æ1. and the sum of the squares of these integers is equal to |CG ( g4 )| 3. Æ1. Æ2. Æ1. Æ1. Æ1. with a suitable ordering of ÷2 .27. For the moment we concentrate on the entries in the ®rst column of the character table (i. (We know that the entry in the ®rst row is ÷1 ( g4 ) 1. by Corollary 27. Recall that the character table is the 6 3 6 matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( gj ).4(2). Let di ÷ i (1). The entries must therefore be 1. 0 in some order. the degrees ÷ i (1)). and the entries in column g2 are 1. 0. we see that. ÷( g 2 ) ÷(1) mod 2. and ÷( g 3 ) ÷(1) mod 2. We shall repeatedly exploit the column orthogonality relations. Theorem 16. we have by Corollary 22. g3 . Æ1.

11 and the fact that i1 d i 168. so as d 2 < 168. d3 2 3 positive integers have d2. d3 equal to 7. d 6 0 mod 3. d 6 0 mod 2. 2 3 so d 2 d 2 113. d 4 1 mod 2. d 4 divides jGj 168. Theorem 22. and have the following portion: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 . d 2 < 168X 6 Therefore d6 is 6 or 12. we have d 4 0 mod 3. and hence d6 6. 8 in some order. We have now found the ®rst column of the character table. But 0 6 i1 316 and and ÷ i ( g 2 )d i 1 Æ d 2 Æ 3 Æ 3 Æ 2d 6 .27.Representations and characters of groups 6 2 Corollary 22. Since d 2 1 mod 2. 2 Now 1 d 2 d 2 32 32 62 168. In the same way. d 6 divides 168. d5 3. we have d6 T 12. Next. d 2 < 168X 4 The only positive integer d4 which satis®es these conditions is d4 3. we have d2 7 and d3 8. The only solutions to this equation with d2.

(Note that ÷2 ( g5 ) ÷2 (1) mod 7.Character table of the simple group of order 168 The equations 6 i1 317 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g j ) 0 for j 2. For this character ÷. ÷2 i 6 ÷2 ( g i )÷2 ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j 7X7 1 1 1 ÷2 ( g 5 )÷2 ( g 5 ) ÷2 ( g 6 )÷2 ( g 6 ) 168 8 4 3 7 7 gives ÷2 ( g5 ) ÷2 ( g6 ) 0. By Corollary 27. 4 now enable us to determine the signs in the columns for g2 . Thus the column for g5 is . 3. the equation 1 h÷2 . We obtain Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 Next. but we could not use this fact as we were not sure that ÷2 ( g5 ) was an integer. 6.) Also. Hence ÷4 and ÷5 (being the only two irreducible characters with the same degree) must be complex conjugates of each other. 0 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 4 )÷ i ( g j ) 1 À ÷3 ( g j ) and so ÷3 ( g5 ) ÷3 ( g6 ) 1. g3 . Let ÷4 ( g5 ) ÷5 ( g 5 ) z. for j 5.2. and let ÷6 ( g5 ) t. there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷( g5 ) is non-real. the complex conjugate ÷ will be a different character of the same degree. g4 .

we have ÷( g6 ) ÷( g 5 ) for all characters ÷ of G. 7). 5 We have now completely determined the character table of G PSL (2. we obtain p t À1. . z (À1 Æ i 7)a2X Since g6 gÀ1 . We give you the character tables of all of these. 7) Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 1 0 1 á á À1 It is known that there are precisely ®ve non-abelian simple groups of order less than 1000. Character table of PSL (2. ÷ i ( g 5 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 2 2zz ttX Solving these equations.318 Representations and characters of groups Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g5 7 1 0 1 z z t Now 0 0 7 6 i1 6 i1 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 1 À z À z 2t. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 1 z z. as shown.

7). 7) that this group is simple. p)) fÆIg. 7). 3. of order 21.13 This chapter Exercise 20. 11) Order of G 60 168 360 504 660 319 Reference for character table Example 20. SL (2. p) SL (2. p) a c Summary of Chapter 27 ' b : a. 4. jPSL (2. 8) PSL (2. ad À bc 1 . p)j p( p2 À 1)a2 ( p odd). Deduce directly from the character table of PSL (2. PSL (2. 3). and show that (1 T ) 4 G 1 G ÷. We constructed the character table of PSL (2. d P Z p .6 & 1.2 Exercise 28. b P Z7 7 0 aÀ1 (where Z {ÆI}). where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. b. (a) De®ne the subgroup T of G. Find the character table of SL (2. 7) A6 PSL (2.Character table of the simple group of order 168 as follows: G A5 PSL (2. the simple group of order 168. p)j p( p2 À 1).1. Prove that Z(SL (2. as follows: & ' a b T Z : a P ZÃ . 2. as in Lemma 27. d jSL (2. In this exercise we present an alternative construction of the character table of G PSL (2. c. . Calculate the values of the induced character (1 T ) 4 G. 3. given the conjugacy classes of G. 2.3 Exercise 27. Exercises for Chapter 27 1. p)afÆIg.

14).320 Representations and characters of groups (b) Let ë be a non-trivial linear character of T. with entries in the ®eld Z7 . 8 and 6. 5. Calculate the values of ë 4 G and prove that this is an irreducible character of G. (d) From (a). The character table of SL (2. (c). (b). 7. (a) Show that G has 11 conjugacy classes with representatives gi as follows: gi g1 g2 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 8 8 3 6 7 14 7 14 336 336 8 8 8 6 6 14 14 14 14 1 1 42 42 42 56 56 24 24 24 24 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i À1 0 0 À1 0 1 g3 À1 0 2 À2 g4 2 2 À2 2 g5 À2 À2 2 0 g6 0 4 À2 0 g7 0 À4 1 1 g8 0 1 À1 À1 g9 0 À1 1 À1 g 10 0 1 À1 1 g 11 0 À1 . 7). the group of all 2 3 2 matrices of determinant 1. 7). Let G SL (2. (c) By considering ÷ S (see Proposition 19. Use orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. we now have irreducible characters of G of degrees 1. obtain an irreducible character of G of degree 6.

6. . . gÀ1 . Let G PSL (2. and ®nd ÷ j ( g6 ) for 7 < j < 11. ÷11 be the remaining irreducible characters of G. gÀ1 are conjugate to g5 . show that the degrees of ÷7 .7) to write down the six irreducible characters of G with kernel containing Z {ÆI}. and deduce that ÷ j (1) is even.14). ÷9 . (d) Prove that ÷ j ( g3 ) 0 for 7 < j < 11. 6. . g2 . ÷11 are 4. (c) Let ÷7 . (e) By considering the column of g6 in the character table. ÷10 . 4. g8 . g6 . prove that ø A is equal to the irreducible character of G of degree 6 whose kernel contains Z. This group has eight conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . respec5 6 7 8 tively. Deduce the values of the irreducible characters of degree 4 on all gi . gÀ1 . 11). and congruences modulo 3. (g) Complete the character table of G. . we have ÷ j ( g) À÷ j (À g). g8 having orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 660 g2 2 12 g3 3 6 g4 6 6 g5 5 5 g6 5 5 g7 11 11 g8 11 11 Also. . . ÷8 . . (f) Let ø be one of the irreducible characters of degree 4. . g7 . Show that for any j with 7 < j < 11 and any g P G. g3 and g6 (see Proposition 19. Find the character table of G. By considering the values of ø A on g1 .Character table of the simple group of order 168 321 (b) Use the character table of PSL (2. 8. The character table of PSL (2. 6. gÀ1 . . 11).

Consequently. with the usual de®nitions of and 3. Finally. that is (a b)c ac bc for all a. At ®rst sight. since the number of irreducible characters increases with the size of the ®eld. with identity element 1. R. if we write F Ã Fnf0g. we shall see that the conjugacy classes of our groups fall into four families. However. We shall determine the character tables of some matrix groups with entries from an arbitrary ®nite ®eld. First. (F. Recall that a ®eld (F. For example. The ®elds F q and F q 2 We consider ®nite ®elds. if you are unfamiliar with ®nite ®elds then you might like to consult the book by J. B. 3) is an abelian group. we can display the character values in a 4 3 4 matrix. Secondly. q) We are now going to calculate the character tables of an important in®nite series of groups. as do the irreducible characters. C and Z p ( p prime) are ®elds. The basic properties of ®nite ®elds which we will use without proof are these: 322 . b. 3) is a set F with two binary operations and 3 such that the following properties hold. the distributive law holds. then (F Ã . c P F. In the last chapter and its exercises. . this is a daunting task. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. with identity element 0. ) is an abelian group. and one of the exercises will show you how to use the results of this chapter to determine the character tables of in®nitely many simple groups. and we shall tell you which properties of these ®elds we will use.28 Character table of GL(2. we found the character tables of certain groups of 2 3 2 matrices with entries in Z7 and Z11 .

The group (FÃ . so s t P S. Then r 3 r is an irreducible character of FÃ2 . Proof (1) Suppose that s. 3) is cyclic. namely Theorem 28. This implies that (r r ) r r r r and (r 1q ) q j r 1q . 2 (2) Since FÃ2 is a group of order q 2 À 1. (1) The set S is a sub®eld of F of order q. and hence S F q . t P S.1) Let p be a prime and n be a positive integer. we see that r q r for all q q q q q2 q r P F.3) Let å be a generator of the cyclic group FÃ2 and let q 2 ù e(2ðia(q À1)) . and k k k hence (s t) p s p t p for all positive integers k. 28. in short. Then (s t) q s q t q s t. we shall identify the sub®eld S of F q 2 in Proposition 28. and write q pn . Then there exists a ®eld F q of order q and every ®eld of order q is isomorphic to F q .2 with the ®eld F q . Moreq over. q) (28. For every s P F q the sum of s with itself p times is zero. We introduce the following useful notation. (2) If r P F then r r q . ) and (Snf0g. r 1q P S. Hereafter. We may write q r å m for some m and we let r ù m . You are now in a position to appreciate the statement of the main result of this chapter.5. so r r q . . (28. ps 0. q 323 Notice that the binomial coef®cients ( ip ) with 1 < i < p À 1 are all divisible by p.2 Proposition Let F F q 2 and S fs P F : s q sg. We use this remark in the proof of the next proposition.Character table of GL(2. it follows that (s t) p s p t p for all s. Suppose that r P FÃ2 . It is now easy to check that (S. every irreducible character of FÃ2 has the form q r 3 r j for some integer j. r 1q P S. t P F q . so S is a ®eld. 3) are abelian groups.

we are going to calculate the character table of GL(2. consider the matrices s us 0 Let give us q À 1 conjugacy classes of 1 s (s P FÃ )X q . since conjugate matrices have the same eigenvalues. and we talked about some special linear groups in the last chapter. q) is de®ned to be the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in F q . and remember that the matrix a b c d belongs to G if and only if its rows are linearly independent. and once (a. They size 1. First. Keep this in mind during the following discussion. (c. Therefore. d) can be any row vector which is not a multiple of (a. b) can be any non-zero row vector. of which three are easy to describe. q). The matrices s 0 sI (s P FÃ ) q 0 s belong to the centre of G. q). b). a b 0 c can be conjugate to a9 0 b9 c9 only if fa. Here. The number of such matrices is found by noting that (a. The subgroup consisting of all matrices of determinant 1 is the special linear group SL(2. q) The general linear group GL(2. Next. c9g. b) has been chosen. giving us q 2 À q choices. Let G GL(2. giving us q 2 À 1 choices.324 Representations and characters of groups The conjugacy classes of GL(2. q). cg fa9. jGj (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q(q À 1)2 (q 1)X There are four families of conjugacy classes of G.

Now. let s 0 d s.s X On the other hand. t (s.Character table of GL(2. Thus. the centralizer order is (q À 1)2 . then we have that gd s. s T t) give us q (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes. t 0 1 1 0 d t. if s T t. consider 0 1 vr (r P F q 2 nF q )X Àr 1q r r q By Proposition 28. by Theorem 12. t g if and only if b c 0. q) a b P GX g c d Then gus and us g 325 as cs a bs c ds as cs d bs ds so g belongs to the centralizer of us if and only if c 0 and a d. t P FÃ . so each conjugacy class contains q(q 1) elements. Now.8. The characteristic polynomial of v r is det(xI À v r ) x(x À (r r q )) r 1q (x À r)(x À r q ). t d s. the q centralizer order is (q À 1)q. Since r P F q we see that v r lies in a none of the conjugacy classes we have constructed so far. t P G (s. Thus. each conjugacy class contains q 2 À 1 elements. 2 3 Àbr 1q a b(r r q ) gv r and Àdr 1q c d(r r q ) 2 3 c d vr g X Àar 1q c(r r q ) Àbr 1q d(r r q ) . v r P G. t P FÃ ) q 0 t and note that 0 1 1 0 À1 d s. Finally.2. so. so v r has eigenvalues r and r q. the matrices us (s P FÃ ) give us q À 1 conjugacy classes. the matrices d s.

t (q À 1)2 (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 vr q2 À 1 (q 2 À q)a2 The families of conjugacy class representatives sI and us are indexed by elements s of FÃ .326 Representations and characters of groups Hence gv r v r g only if c Àbr 1q and d a b(r r q ). t is indexed by unordered pairs fs. j . then ad À bc a2 ab(r r q ) b2 r 1q (a br)(a br q )X Since (a. and the conjugacy class containing v r has size q 2 À q. r q g. Therefore. We therefore partition F q 2 nF q into subsets fr. q q Proof The conjugacy classes we have found account for (q À 1) (q À 1)(q 2 À 1) (q À 1)(q À 2)q(q 1)a2 (q 2 À q)(q 2 À q)a2 elements altogether. If these conditions hold. The matrix v t has eigenvalues t and t q. q The family of conjugacy class representatives d s. we see that a br and a br q a are non-zero. q). described as follows. q The family of conjugacy class representatives v r is indexed by unordered pairs fr. Class rep. so it is not conjugate to v r unless t r or t r q. 28. r q g of elements of FÃ2 nFÃ . jCG (v r )j q 2 À 1. q). tg of distinct elements of FÃ .4 Proposition There are q 2 À 1 conjugacy classes in GL(2. But this sum is equal to the order of GL(2. each subset gives us a conjugacy class representative v r and different subsets give us representatives of different conjugacy classes. b) T (0. of classes qÀ1 us (q À 1)q qÀ1 d s. so we have found all the conjugacy classes. We have now found all the conjugacy classes of G. 0) and r. r q P F q. g sI |CG ( g)| (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) No. g P CG (v r ) if and only if a b g X Àbr 1q a b(r r q ) Thus.

(c) For ø i. Hence.6 Proposition Let K hvå i. Thus. and let r 3 r be the function from FÃ2 to C described in (28. Thus.5 Theorem Label the conjugacy classes of GL(2. there are q À 1 characters ë i . j . there are (q 2 À q)a2 characters ÷ i . each of degree q À 1. each of degree q 1. there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 characters ø i. j we have 0 < i . each of degree 1. ø i . ø i. q) are given by ë i . q) The characters of GL(2. (b) For ø i we have 0 < i < q À 2. (a) For ë i we have 0 < i < q À 2. 327 28. each of degree q. if j1 and j2 belong to this set and j1 j2 q mod (q 2 À 1) then we choose precisely one of j1 and j2 to belong to the indexing set for the characters ÷ i . we ®rst consider the set of integers j with 0 < j < q 2 À 1 and (q 1) T j j.4. we have the following restrictions on the subscripts. Before we embark upon the task of calculating the irreducible characters of G.Character table of GL(2. . Then jKj q 2 À 1. j < q À 2. 1 X vå å åq Àå 1q 28. Thus. q) as in Proposition 28. The group K contains the q À 1 scalar matrices sI in G. sI ëi øi ø i. j ÷i s 2i qs 2i (q 1)s i j (q À 1)s i us s 2i 0 s i j Às i d s.3). ÷ i as follows. there are q À 1 characters ø i . (d) For ÷ i.q) We are now in a position to describe the character table of G. t (st) i (st) i si t j s j t i 0 vr r i(1q) Àr i(1q) 0 À(r i r iq ) Here. Recall that å is our chosen generator for FÃ2 and q 0. Then the q irreducible characters of GL(2. and of the remaining q 2 À q elements of K. we present a proposition which will be useful later. j .

sI ø i. j We will see later that the linear characters ë i (0 < i < q À 2) which appear in Proposition 28. the irreducible characters ë i . j there is a character ø i. so vå has order q 2 À 1.4. 28. q q Proof The eigenvalues of vå are å and å q.8 Proposition For all integers i. 28. j and ÷ i which appear in Theorem 28. ø i. whose values appear in Theorem 28. as described in Proposition 28. and they are given in Theorem 28.328 Representations and characters of groups precisely two belong to each of the conjugacy classes represented by v r with r P FÃ2 nFÃ . If å i T å iq then i i iq å P F q and vå and vå must be conjugate to vå i .7 Proposition There are q À 1 linear characters ë i of G. j of G whose values on the conjugacy class representatives. j (q 1)s i j us s i j d s.5.5. in turn. are as follows. since vå has eigenvalues in F q and vå is diagonalizable. Hence two elements a of K belong to the conjugacy class of vå i .5. Proof The map det : g 3 det g is a homomorphism from G onto FÃ . i i i If å i å iq then vå å i I. q As i varies between 0 and q À 2 inclusive.7 are all the linear characters of G. and this case accounts for the q À 1 scalar matrices. the functions ë i : g 3 (det g) i ( g P G) give q À 1 distinct linear characters of G. i iq The eigenvalues of vå and of vå are å i and å iq . ø i . j We shall construct. t si t j s j t i vr 0 .

5. We use Proposition 21. ø i.i .i . t : g vr : ø i.i i and hø i. we calculate hø i. where g9 d t. the ®rst term corresponds to the conjugacy classes of elements 4 (q À 1)(q À 2) (q À 1)2 2 .8 gives us ø i. We have hø i. 28. there is an irreducible character ø i of G whose values are given in Theorem 28. j : B 3 C by s r ë i. To this end. j ( g) jC G ( g)j ë i. j ( g) jC B ( g)j jC G ( g)j ë i. j ( g9) ø i. j is a character of B. j are as stated in the proposition. j ( g) jC B ( g)j ë i.23 to calculate ø i. j ëi. Proof We shall demonstrate that the character ø i. j ( g) ë i. j ( g) for each conjugacy class representative g.i which appears in Proposition 28.i ë i ø i .s jC B ( g)j jC B ( g9)j ø i. j 4 G. j : 3 s i t jX 0 t Then ë i. ë i i.Character table of GL(2. ø i. De®ne ë i. q) Proof Let B & ' PG X 329 a 0 b c Then B is a subgroup of G with jBj (q À 1)2 q.i i (q 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 2X Here. as follows. Remember that the complex conjugate of s i is s Ài . j ( g) 0X j Hence. j ( g) jC G ( g)j . g sI : g us : g d s. j ( g) ø i. the values of ø i. We let ø i. The characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different.9 Proposition For each integer i.i .

ø i.10 Proposition Suppose that 0 < i . hø i.8 is irreducible. Then the character ø i.1 3 s i .i i are calculated in a similar fashion.i .i (sI)ø i. ë i i 1 and hø i. Next.i ë i ø i for some irreducible character ø i.i i 2 imply that ø i.8. j which appears in Proposition 28. Let s be an element of FÃ of order q À 1. ø i.i . The remaining terms in hø i. q To evaluate C. j .330 Representations and characters of groups sI. j i A B C. t P FÃ g is an abelian group of q order (q À 1)2. j < q À 2. note that fd s.i (sI) (q 1)2 . Proof We shall show that hø i.i . j i 1. Then ø i : d s.i . (1) ø i. (2) jC G (sI)j (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q)X (3) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the forms sI. Using the values of ø i. j 28. t : s. Subtract ë i from ø i. j which are given in Proposition 28. j . and if ó : d s. t 3 s i t j s j t i then ó is a sum of two . we obtain hø i. where (q 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1). tg of distinct elements of FÃ . q Hence the characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. and the calculation of this ®rst term involves the following three observations.5.i to get the values of ø i as given in Theorem 28. ø i. ø i. B 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 1 1 i j C (s t s j t i )(s Ài t À j s À j t Ài )X (q À 1)2 2 sT t A and 2 (q À 1)(q À 2) 2 (q À 1) 2 The coef®cent 1 appears in C because we have just one conjugacy 2 class for each unordered pair fs. ë i i (q 1) 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q 1X The facts that hø i.

j is irreducible. j which were used in the proof of Proposition 28. for 0 < i . ó i 2X That is. j i 1. j < q À 2 and 0 < i9 . and (i.11 Corollary The characters ø i. j T ø i9.i T ë i9. and ø i. ø i. there exists complex (q À 1)th roots of unity s and t such that either s T t and s i t j s j t i T s i9 t j9 s j9 t i9 or s t and s i j T s i9 j9 . there exists a character ö i of G which takes the following values.8. We have s b ë i. j9). j9 . j < q À 2 are distinct irreducible Proof Suppose that 0 < i . j9 on a conjugacy class j of G. ø i. j) T (i9. Therefore. 28. t 0 vr r i r iq .i9 . Therefore. j9 ë j9. we see that ø i. C qÀ3 X qÀ1 And now we ®nd that A B C 1. j characters of G. Consider the group B and its linear characters ë i. j9 < q À 2. 2 3 1 i j j i Ài À j À j Ài 4(q À 1) (s t s t )(s t s t ) 2X (q À 1)2 sT t Hence.i : 3 s i t j s j t iX 0 t Since ë i. hó . hø i.12 Proposition For each integer i. We must prove that ø i. j9 . q) 331 inequivalent irreducible characters of this group.Character table of GL(2. j 28. In either case. j ë j. j ë j. Thus. j T ø i9. j . j differs from ø i9. sI öi q(q À 1)s i us 0 d s.

j To be able to work out certain inner products involving our characters ö i . we shall the use the following lemma. ®rst recall that á i 4 G is zero on all elements which are not conjugate to an element of K. In order to calculate ö i .332 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let K hvå i.13 Lemma Assume that i is an integer and (q 1) T j i. 28. á i ( g) ái( g q) ö i ( g) jC G ( g)j jC K ( g)j jC K ( g)j á i ( g) á i ( g q ) r i r iq X Thus. Also. as in Proposition 28. If g sI with s P FÃ then g P K and q ö i ( g) jC G ( g)j á i ( g) q(q À 1)s i X jC K ( g)j Suppose that r P F q 2 nF q . t (s T t).6. ö i is zero on the elements of the form u s and d s. Then g has eigenvalues r and r q . Then (r i r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2(q À 1)2 X rPF q 2 nF q Proof Note that & r G1 0 0 rq : r P FÃ2 q ' and G2 & r 0 0 rq : r P FÃ q ' are abelian groups of orders q 2 À 1 and q À 1. and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i .6. Suppose that g P K and g is conjugate in G to v r . respectively. Then.6. Thus. . by Proposition 28. Now. by Proposition 28. ö i has the values stated in the proposition. v r is conjugate to an element of g of K. Hence á i ( g) r i or r iq and á i ( g) á i ( g q ) r i r iq X Let ö i á i 4 G.

i À ö i X . since (q 1) T j i implies that å i T å iq . t 0 vr À(r i r iq ) If (q 1) T j i then ÷ i is an irreducible character of G. since r q r for r P FÃ. the character ÷ is twice an irreducible character. Proof We can justify the manoeuvre which we now perform only by saying that it gives the correct answer. ÷ i is the class function on G which is given by ÷ i ø0. the character ÷ is a sum of two inequivalent irreducible characters. 28. let ÷ i be the class function on G with the following values.8. For G1.14 Proposition For each integer i.9 and 28. we get 1 i (r r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2 2À1 q rPFÃ 2 q and doing the same for the character ÷ of G2 .Ài ø i À ø0. and for G2. Now. Taking the inner product of the q character ÷ of G1 with itself. Recall the characters ø i. sI ÷i (q À 1)s i us Às i d s.12. j . q) r 0 3 r i r iq 0 rq 333 gives a character ÷ of degree 2 for each group. we get 1 i (r r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 4X qÀ1 Ã rPF q Hence rPF q 2 nF q (r i r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2(q 2 À 1) À 4(q À 1) 2(q À 1)2 X j 28. ø i and ö i given in Propositions 28.Character table of GL(2.

We work out h÷ i . If g sI where s P FÃ then (á i á iq )( g) 2s i .15 Proposition Suppose that i and j are integers with (q 1) T j i and (q 1) T j j and j T i. as in Proposition 28.5. Therefore. the characters á i á iq and á j á jq of K are different. Suppose that g P K.6. ÷ i i 1 and ÷ i (1) . since we have shown that the class functions given in the theorem are inequivalent irreducible characters.i öi ÷i (q 1)s Ài qs 2i q(q 1)s i (q 1)s i q(q À 1)s i (q À 1)s i us s Ài 0 0 si 0 Às Ài d s. Proof Let K hvå i. so either s i T s j for some s P FÃ or q r i r iq T r j r jq for some r P F q 2 nF q . which is the same as the number of conjugacy classes of G. with integer coef®cients. 0. It is possible to use the character table of GL(2. iq mod(q 2 À 1). Then the characters ÷ i and ÷ j of G are different. and the number of them is q 2 À 1.Ài øi ø0. ÷ i T ÷ j . q If g is conjugate to v r where r P F q 2 nF q then (á i á iq )( g) r i r iq .334 Representations and characters of groups The table below allows us to verify this. j We have now completed the proof of Theorem 28. ÷ i i (q À 1)2 1 (q À 1)2 (q À 1) 2 (q À 1) 2 1X q Àq (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q À1 Since ÷ i is a linear combination of irreducible characters of G. t s Ài t Ài (st) i i s ti si t i 0 0 vr 0 Àr i(1q) 0 0 r i r iq À(r i r iq ) Next. as we wished to show. ÷ i i using Lemma 28. sI ø0. h÷ i . q) to ®nd the . Since j T i. iq mod(q 2 À 1). and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i .Ài ø i ø0.13. j 28. assume that (q 1) T j i. it follows that ÷ i is an irreducible character of G. and h÷ i .

q). q) was ®rst given in 1907. q) provide the characters of the groups PSL(2. Then. in 1955. this gives the character tables of an in®nite series of simple groups PSL(2. you are asked to consider the easiest case. q). A challenging exercise is to determine the character table of PSL(2. q). Summary of Chapter 28 The character table of GL(2. q). Although the character table of GL(2. We do not go fully into this. since most of the irreducible characters remain irreducible when restricted. though. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of degree 0 s q. Among the characters of SL(2. since the answers are quite complicated. it was not until the 1950's that the character table of GL(3. (d) There are (q 2 À q)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives of the . namely that where q is a power of 2. q) PSL(2. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of 0 s degree 1. q). In Exercise 28. q) ± compare Chapter 27 ± and so the character table of PSL(2. (c) There are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives s 0 of the form d s. J. q) for all positive integers n. and they depend upon whether q is a power of 2 or q 1 mod 4 or q 3 mod 4. Green determined the character table of GL(n. q) when q is a power of 2. q) is rather easier to ®nd than that of SL(2. (a) Thereare q 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form À s 0 sI . A. Since SL(2. q) has the following properties. and there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 0 t irreducible characters of degree q 1.2.Character table of GL(2. q) when q 1 mod 4 or q 3 mod 4 from the character table of GL(2. those with kernel containing the centre of SL(2. q) was found. t (s T t). q) 335 character table of SL(2. (b) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form s 1 us .

Let Z fsI : s P FÃ g. 8). 2. Use your solution to Exercise 28. and there are (q 2 À q)a2 irreducible form v r Àr 1q r r q characters of degree q À 1. q)X Deduce the character table of SL(2. . 3. q) Z 3 SL(2. q) from that of GL(2.336 Representations and characters of groups 0 1 . Suppose that q is a power of 2. Use Theorem 28. q).2 to write down explicitly the character table of PSL(2. Prove that q GL(2. Exercises for Chapter 28 1. 3). q) is simple.5 to write down explicitly the character table of GL(2. Prove that if q T 2 then SL(2.

and develop some useful results.12 below). Group actions We begin with a more general notion than that of a permutation group. a fact which proved useful in many of our subsequent character table calculations. ng then Sym(Ù) Sn . (1 2)ö sends f1. particularly about irreducible characters of symmetric groups (see Theorem 29. F F F . then G has a permutation character ð de®ned by ð( g) jfix( g)j for g P G. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting fi.e.) Check that ö is an action of Sn . i. denote by Sym(Ù) the group of all permutations of Ù. F F F . 337 . (So for example. 2. ng. if Ù f1. We also say that G acts on Ù (via ö). 29.29 Permutations and characters We have already seen in Chapter 13 that if G is a permutation group. a subgroup of Sn for some n. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism ö: G 3 Sym(Ù). ng. In this chapter we take the theory of permutation groups and characters somewhat further. 3g. F F F . jg of elements of f1. jgg for all g P Sn and 1 < i . If Ù is a set. In particular. 3g 3 f2. De®nition Let G be a group and Ù a set.1 Examples (1) If G < Sn then the identity map is an action of G on f1. it is called the action of Sn on pairs. jg( gö) fig. j < n. (2) Let G Sn and let Ù be the set consisting of all pairs fi.

338 Representations and characters of groups (3) Let G GL(2. and let Ù be the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces hvi of V. (4) Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. the fact that ö is a homomorphism simply says that ù( gh) (ù g)h for all ù P Ù and g. â P Ù. With this notation. and Ker ö xPG x À1 Hx < H. we have á $ â if and only if there exists g P G such that á g â.2 Examples (1) Let G C4 . It is easy to see that $ is an equivalence relation on Ù. The group G is said to be transitive on Ù if orb(G. G is transitive if. Adopting this notation. if 1 1 g 0 1 then gö sends h(a. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by ( Hx)( gö) Hxg for all x. Ù) for the number of orbits of G on Ù. q). b)i 3 h(a. in other words. and let ö: G 3 S8 be the action . Let V be the 2-dimensional vector space over F q consisting of all row vectors (a. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices over the ®nite ®eld F q. a b)iX Then ö is an action of G on Ù. say. b) with a. Write orb(G. if ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) is an action. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting hvi( gö) hv gi for all hvi P Ù and g P G. given any á. for ù P Ù and g P G we usually just write ù g instead of ù( gö). generated by x. g P G. and let Ù be the set of all right cosets Hx of H in G (so jÙj n). â P Ù. To simplify notation. The equivalence classes are called the orbits of G on Ù. h P G. b P F q . Ù) 1. 29. For example. Then by Exercise 9 of Chapter 23. ö is an action of G. there exists g P G such that á g â. Thus Ù is the disjoint union of the orbits of G. as de®ned in Chapter 28. de®ne a relation $ on Ù as follows: for á.

that is. 3. Clearly ã is also surjective. namely f1. For ù P Ù. given two right cosets Hx. This is clear in Example (2). 8g. Moreover. f5. to verify it for Example (3) you need to convince yourself that for any two non-zero row vectors v.1(2. h P Gù then ù( gh) (ù g)h ùh ù. Denote by CÙ the vector space over C for which Ù is a basis. In other words. Now let Ä be the set of right cosets Gù x of Gù in G. and hence jÄj jù G j. and Gù contains the identity. and in Example (4). 4). as required.3 Proposition The stabilizer Gù is a subgroup of G. Let G be a group acting on a set Ù.Permutations and characters 339 de®ned by xö (1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8) (and of course x k ö ((1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8)) k for any k). so ù G fù g : g P Gg. hence gh P Gù . and de®ne Gù f g P G : ù g ùgX We call Gù the stabilizer of ù in G. the size of the orbit ù G is equal to the index of Gù in G. write ù G for the orbit of G which contains ù. simply observe that. Also gÀ1 P Gù . y P G. 8g. 4g. 29. 3. 2. the element g x À1 y P G has the property that ( Hx) g Hy. so Gù is a subgroup. Then G has three orbits on Ù f1. j Permutation characters Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. 6g and f7. Hy P Ù. (2) The group G is transitive on the set Ù in each of Examples 29. CÙ consists of all expressions of the form . F F F . Gù x Gù y D xy À1 P Gù D ùxy À1 ù D ùx ù yX Hence we can de®ne an injective function ã : Ä 3 ù G by ã(Gù x) ùx for all x P G. q) such that vA w. jù G j jG : Gù jX Proof If g. w P V there is an invertible 2 3 2 matrix A P GL(2. Observe that for x.

29. and provides a basic link between the permutation character and the action of G. and for each i.340 Representations and characters of groups ëù ù (ëù P C) ùPÙ with the obvious addition and scalar multiplication.3. 129) that if ð is the character of this permutation module. g P G. We see just as in Chapter 13 (p. then for g P G. is rather famous. We call ð the permutation character of G on Ù. ù g ùg. Ä t be the orbits of G on Ù. It is often referred to as ``Burnside's Lemma''. 1 G i jfixÙ ( g)j orb(G. We calculate jÖj in two different ways. Then 1 hð. Now de®ne Ö f(ù. As in Chapter 13. but is in fact due to Cauchy and Frobenius. 1 G i 1 1 ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)jX jGj gPG jGj gPG Let Ä1 . pick ù i P Ä i . where fixÙ ( g) fù P Ù : ù g ùg. hence . called the permutation module. Ù)X jGj gPG Proof First note that hð. though elementary. g) : ù P Ù. The next result. ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)j. By Proposition 29. by de®ning 2 3 ëù ù g ëù (ù g) for all g P G. the number of ù P Ù such that ù g ù is equal to jfixÙ ( g)j. F F F . we can make CÙ into a CG-module. for 1 < i < t we have jÄ i j jù G j jG : Gù i jX i Hence jÄ i j jGù i j jGj. First. for each g. and let ð be the permutation character.4 Proposition Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù.

6 Proposition Let G act on Ù1 and Ù2 . the ®rst being the case where Ù1 Ù2 . Then we can de®ne an action of G on the Cartesian product Ù1 3 Ù2 by setting (ù1 . hence jÖj Therefore gPG ùPÙ jGù j t i1 jÄ i j jGù i j t 1 jGj tjGjX j jfixÙ ( g)j tjGj. 1 G i 1. the number of g P G such that ù g ù is equal to jGù j. ù2 g) for all ù i P Ù i . Now let G be a group. with corresponding permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively. Hence if ð is the permutation character of G on Ù1 3 Ù2 . jGj gPG jGj gPG j which is equal to orb(G.6 in a number of situations. 29.5 Corollary G is transitive on Ù if and only if hð. ù2 ) g (ù1 g. In the rest of the chapter we apply Proposition 29. and suppose that G acts on two sets Ù1 and Ù2 . then ð( g) ð1 ( g)ð2 ( g) for all g P G.Permutations and characters jÖj jfixÙ ( g)jX gPG 341 Secondly. with permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively.4. and the conclusion follows. for each ù. g P G. Ù1 3 Ù2 )X Proof We have hð1 . Ù1 3 Ù2 ) by Proposition 29. 29. Then hð1 . ð2 i orb(G. It is clear that fixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g) fixÙ1 ( g) 3 fixÙ2 ( g) for any g P G. . ð2 i 1 1 jfixÙ1 ( g)kfixÙ2 ( g)j jfixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g)j.

342 Representations and characters of groups Suppose G acts on Ù. there exists g P G such that á1 g â1 and á2 g â2 . Then r(G. Ù) orb(G. g P G. 29. ù) : ù P Ùg is an orbit of G on Ù 3 Ù. 29. á2 ) and (â1 . for any ordered pairs (á1 . Ù) > 2.8. Then G is said to be 2-transitive on Ù if r(G.7 De®nition The number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù is called the rank of G on Ù. 29. then ð 1 G ÷.17.8 Proposition Let G act on Ù. and hð. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. ù2 g) for all ù1 . and hence certainly r(G. with permutation character ð. namely (ù1 . j . using Theorem 14. G is 2-transitive if. with permutation character ð.6. ðiX Now suppose G is transitive on Ù and jÙj . ù2 P Ù.5. In other words. with á1 T á2 . The case where equality holds is of particular interest. Ù) hð. Then Ä f(ù. written r(G. ù2 ) g (ù1 g. Ù) 2.9 De®nition Let G be transitive on Ù. â1 T â2 . Thus r(G. 29. â2 ) in Ù 3 Ù. Proof We have hð. Ù 3 Ù)X The next result is immediate from Proposition 29. Then G also acts on Ù 3 Ù in the way de®ned above.10 Corollary If G is 2-transitive on Ù. 1. 1 G i 1 by Corollary 29. The result follows. Ù). ði 2 by Proposition 29.

3. for each partition ë. with n > 4. v2 and w1.1(3). (3) Consider the action of Sn on pairs de®ned in Example 29. lgj 0gX Thus hð. Hence these groups have an irreducible character ÷ given by ÷( g) jfix( g)j À 1X We have seen this irreducible character in a number of previous examples (see 18. We claim that G is 2-transitive on Ù. Also An is 2-transitive. and so ð 1 G ÷ ø.1. ði r(G. there is no element of Sn which sends (f1. f2. the irreducible character ÷ of G given by Corollary 29. 19. jg fk. and Ä1 f(fi.16. 3g). Since jÙj q 1 (see Exercise 1 at the end of the chapter).10 is the character ø0 of degree q in Theorem 28. The linear transformation from V to V which sends v1 3 w1 . In fact it is easy to see that the orbits of G Sn on Ù 3 Ù are Ä. where ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of Sn . 4g) to (f1. and we call such a sequence a partition of n.5. Ä1 and Ä2 . since. giving an element of GL(2. Each cycle-shape (including 1-cycles) is a sequence ë (ë1 .11 Examples (1) The symmetric group Sn is 2-transitive on f1. fk. Some irreducible characters of S n By Theorem 12. ë s ) of positive integers ë i such that ë1 > ë2 > F F F > ë s and ë1 F F F ë s n. jg. provided n > 4. an irreducible character ÷ ë . (2) Consider the action of G GL(2. q) given in Example 29. lg) : jfi. as claimed. This action is not 2-transitive. fk. for example. A key aim is therefore to construct. 2g. hv2 i 3 hw2 i. v2 3 w2 is therefore invertible. F F F . Here Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of the 2-dimensional vector space V. where Ä is as above. Ù) 3. f3. w2 are both bases of V. jg fk. Hence G is 2-transitive on Ù. 2g. lg) : jfi.15 we know that the conjugacy classes of Sn are in bijective correspondence with the set of all possible cycle-shapes of permutations. To see this. 19. hw2 i) be two pairs of distinct 1-spaces in Ù. Then v1 . By Theorem 15.Permutations and characters 343 29. lgj 1g.17). jg. ng. Ä2 f(fi. q) which sends hv1 i 3 hw1 i. the irreducible characters of Sn are also in bijective correspondence with the partitions ë of n. hv2 i) and (hw1 i. F F F . let (hv1 i.1(2).

Proof By Proposition 29. k) such that ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. ÷ ( nÀ2. ÷ ( nÀ1. Observe that n ð k (1) jI k j X k 29. k). I k 3 I l ).1(2) we can de®ne an action of G on I k as follows: for any subset A fi1 . ik g P I k and any g P G. ð l i orb(G. J 1 . F F F . Now assume the statement holds for all values less than k. and much more. k) ð k À ð kÀ1 . hð k . by induction on k. B) P I k 3 I l : jA Bj sgX Hence orb(G. k) X In particular. James listed in the Bibliography. on the character theory of Sn . I k 3 I l ) l 1. The ideas can be developed to carry out the aim in general.13 Theorem Let m na2 if n is even. m) such that for all k < m.6.10. ÷ ( nÀ m. but we do not do this.2) . a 2-part partition (see Theorem 29. j 29. 2. we refer you to the book by G. F F F . if you want to see this. F F F J l . Just as in Example 29. de®ne I k to be the set consisting of all subsets of I of size k. This holds for k 1 by Corollary 29. For an integer k < na2. ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. Let G Sn and I f1. We shall apply the material of this chapter to carry out this aim in the case where ë (n À k.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. ð l i l 1.13 below). F F F .1) . where for 0 < s < l. ÷ ( nÀ k. ik ggX Let ð k be the permutation character of G in its action on I k .1) . Proof We prove the existence of irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . The orbits of G Sn on I k 3 I l are easily seen to be J 0 . ÷ ( nÀ k. in a natural way. F F F . let Ag fi1 g. J s f(A. then hð k . giving the conclusion. ng. F F F . Then Sn has distinct irreducible characters ÷ ( n) 1 G .344 Representations and characters of groups of Sn . and m (n À 1)a2 if n is odd. Then . k) .1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k.12 Proposition If l < k < na2. ÷ ( nÀ1.

÷7 . ÷3 .1) . The irreducible characters of Sn are in bijective correspondence with partitions of n. Writing ÷ ÷ ( nÀ k. For example. k) corresponding to 2-part partitions have values given by Theorem 29. we have ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. Ù) is the number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù. . j 29. ÷9 are equal to ÷ (6) . Ù) hð. k. ÷ ( nÀ1. where ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)j. the degree is n n ( nÀ k.17. Now by Proposition 29. The rank r(G. k) ð k À ð kÀ1 makes it easy to calculate the values of the characters ÷ ( nÀ k. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù). k) ÷ (1) ð k (1) À ð kÀ1 (1) À X k kÀ1 As another example. hð k .3) . k) .2) (123) ð2 (123) À ð1 (123) jfix I 2 (123)j À jfix I 1 (123)j 6 À 4 2X (2) In the character table of S6 given in Example 19. ð kÀ1 i k.14 Examples (1) The formula ÷ ( nÀ k. ÷ (4. the irreducible characters ÷1 . k) .2) on a 3-cycle: ÷ (5.13.Permutations and characters 345 there exist irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . respectively. kÀ1) such that ð i ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. ÷ ( nÀ k1. and the corresponding character of G is ð. If G is 2-transitive then r(G. as required.1) . ði. hð k . hð k . F F F . suppose n 7 and let us calculate the value of the irreducible character ÷ (5.2) . The orbits are the equivalence classes in Ù of the relation de®ned by á $ â D á g â for some g P G.12.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. Summary of Chapter 29 1.i) for all i . ÷ (3. k) . The irreducible characters ÷ ( nÀ k. ð k i k 1X It follows that ð k ð kÀ1 ÷ for some irreducible character ÷.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀi. 1 G i. ÷ (5. 1 G i 1. 2. The number of orbits is equal to hð. Ù) 2 and ð 1 G ÷ with ÷ irreducible. and r(G. 4. If G acts on Ù then CÙ is the permutation module. The size of the orbit ù G containing ù is jù G j jG : Gù j. hð k . ð1 i 2. 3. F F F .

Prove that if G is abelian. which is transitive. and de®ne a function ö : G 3 G 3 Sym(G) by x(( g. and take inner products with the irreducible characters of G given in 28. and de®ne an action ö : G 3 Sym(V Ã ) by v( gö) v g for v P V Ã. Let G be a ®nite group acting transitively on a set Ù of size greater than 1. Let G GL(2. where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. Prove that G contains an element g such that jfixÙ ( g)j 0. and ÷ 3 ÷ is the irreducible character of G 3 G given by Theorem 19. q) (the latter are given by Theorem 28. (a) Show that ö is an action of G 3 G on G. H 2 be subgroups of G. For i 1. Let ð be the permutation character of G in this action.346 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 29 1. g P G. 2 de®ne Ù i to be the set of right cosets of H i in G. and the permutation character ð is ð ÷ ÷ 3 ÷. and let H 1 .1(3)). Suppose that ð1 ð2 . then jÙj q 1. (Such an element is called a ®xed-point-free element of G. g. 3.18. h)ö) g À1 xh for all x. Let G be a ®nite group. q) and let V F2 as in Example 29. let ð i be the permutation character of G in the action on Ù i . and ®nd the kernel of ö. 5. h P G.1(2). Let G be a ®nite group.) 4.5). 2. Let q V Ã V À f0g. then H 1 H 2 X Give an example to show that this need not be the case in general. G) is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. ( Hint: one way to do this is to write down the values of ð on the conjugacy classes of G.1(4). Decompose ð as a sum of irreducible characters of GL(2. (c) Show that the rank of this action r(G 3 G.) . Show that if Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of a 2dimensional vector space over F q (as in Example 29.5. so that G acts on Ù i as in Example 29. (b) Find the stabilizer (G 3 G)1 of the identity 1 P G.

which irreducible character is equal to ÷ (4.1) ? .2) ÷. and calculate its value on the elements (12) and (123) of Sn .1) . j) g (ig. Let Sn act on Ù in the obvious way (namely.1. j) with i.1) . Let n be a positive integer. ng and i T j.1) 1 2÷ ( nÀ1. and let Ù be the set of all ordered pairs (i.1. F F F .1) ÷ ( nÀ2. where ÷ is an irreducible character. In the character table of S6 given in Example 19. calculate the degree of ÷ ( nÀ2. prove that ð( nÀ2.1.13. jg) for g P Sn ). By considering inner products as in the proof of Theorem 29.1. j P f1.1) .Permutations and characters 347 6. (i.1. Writing ÷ ÷ ( nÀ2.17. and let the permutation character of Sn in this action be ð( nÀ2.

known as the class algebra constants. 30.30 Applications to group theory There are several ways of using the character theory of a group to determine information about the structure of the group. . 348 . Using a little group theory and a lot of character theory we shall carry out such a study in the case where C D8 .19 motivates the study of simple groups containing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to a given group C. . These constants carry information about the multiplication in G. Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G. and they can be used to investigate the subgroup structure of G. and so on ± require little calculation. The examples which we have come across so far ± ®nding the centre of the group.22 that the class sums C1 . C l form a basis for the centre of the group algebra CG (where C i gPC i g). . . . . the dihedral group of order 8. as we shall demonstrate. In this chapter we present some rather deeper applications. .1 Proposition There exist non-negative integers aijk such that for 1 < i < l and 1 < j < l. seeing whether or not the group is simple. The ®rst involves doing arithmetic with character values to determine certain numbers. . The second application takes this much further: the Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23. Recall from Proposition 12. Class algebra constants Let G be a ®nite group and let C1 .

This number is a non-negative integer. 30. C l . b) with a P Ci . Then for all i. b P Cj and ab g. . so it must be a linear combination of C1 . . the constants aijk determine the product of any two elements in the centre Z(CG) of the group algebra. . . b) with a P Ci . and is independent of the chosen element g of Ck . . j we have aijk the number of pairs (a. j. j Another way of looking at Proposition 30. . . .4 Theorem Let gi P Ci for 1 < i < l. Our next theorem shows that this is indeed the case. . b P Cj and ab gX Also. From their very de®nition. C l is a basis of Z(CG). As the centre of the group algebra plays an important role in representation theory. the numbers aijk carry information about the multiplication in G: (30X3) For all g P Ck and all i. 30. k. we have aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all the irreducible characters ÷ of G. you might suspect that the class algebra constants are determined by the character table of G.Applications to group theory Ci C j l k1 349 aijk C k X Proof For g P Ck the coef®cient of g in the product C i C j is equal to the number of pairs (a. since C1 . The result follows.1 is to note that C i C j belongs to Z(CG).2 De®nition The integers aijk in the formula Ci C j l k1 aijk C k are the class algebra constants of G.

4(2). Then by Lemma 22. Theorem 16. for all u P U we have uC i Therefore uC i C j and l m1 jGj÷( g i ) uX jCG ( g i )j÷(1) ÷( g i )÷( g j ) jGj2 u jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j (÷(1))2 aijm uC m l m1 aijm jGj÷( g m ) uX jCG ( g m )j÷(1) Since C i C j (30X5) m aijm C m .6 Example In this example we shall use the class algebra constants to prove some facts about the elements and subgroups of the symmetric group S4 .1. Multiply both sides of equation (30.350 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. this yields aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) j Examples 30. Let G S4 . but they serve as a useful illustration of the method. By Section 18. the character table of G is as shown: . to obtain l m1 aijm ÷( g m )÷( g k ) ÷ jCG ( g m )j ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) By the column orthogonality relations. we deduce that l m1 aijm ÷( g i )÷( g j ) ÷( g m ) jGj X jCG ( g m )j jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷(1) Pick k with 1 < k < l. and let U be a CGmodule with character ÷.5) by ÷( g k ) and sum over all irreducible characters ÷ of G.7. these results can readily be proved directly.

it can be shown that S4 has a presentation as follows: S4 ha. by (30.1) that S4 has a subgroup which is isomorphic to D8. We deduce the fact (which we already know from Exercise 18. and all products of elements of S4 are determined by the given relations. S4 is generated by a and b. We supply a . b of order 2 such that ab has order 4. (2) By Theorem 30. we have x 4 1. 43 so S4 has elements a of order 2 and b of order 3 with ab of order 4. so ka. Writing x ab. aÀ1 xa ba (ab)À1 x À1 .Applications to group theory Character table of S4 Class Ci gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 C1 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 C2 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 C3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 C4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 351 C5 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 (1) We use Theorem 30. We deduce from this that S4 does not have a subgroup which is isomorphic to the quaternion group Q8 : for Q8 does have two elements of order 4 with product of order 4.4 to calculate the class algebra constant a555 : 24 1 À1 0 À1 1 0X a555 X 44 1 1 2 3 3 Hence.3). 24 a235 X (1 1) 4. In fact.4. b of order 4 such that the product ab also has order 4. 24 1 1 a245 X 11 2X 48 3 3 Hence S4 has elements a. bl D8. S4 does not possess elements a. (3) Finally. b: a2 b3 (ab)4 1iX In other words.

30.4 to ®nd a subgroup H of the simple group PSL (2. g1 1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 .7 Example We use Theorem 30. Character table of PSL (2. you may wish to puzzle out the relevance of the ®gure above.6 ± in the meantime. We found in Chapter 27 that the character table of G PSL (2. 7) Class rep. That such a subgroup exists is not obvious. and it is quite tricky to construct directly. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á (À1 i 7)a2.352 Representations and characters of groups proof in the solution to Exercise 30. 7) with H isomorphic to S4 . 7) is as follows.

This fact led Brauer to initiate a programme to ®nd. Let H be the subgroup kx. being a normal subgroup of S4 .19 states that there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with a given centralizer. This programme formed an important part of the effort of many mathematicians to classify all the ®nite simple groups. By Theorem 30. G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2. by (30. is {1}. an effort which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s (see the book by D. Then G has order 168 or 360. S4 aKer ö H. 168 1 a243 X 1 0 0 0 0 8X 83 7 353 Hence. We have chosen to present this result because it provides a wonderful illustration of the use of character theory in the service of group theory. namely xy. By Theorem 1. The Brauer programme The Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23. S3 . Since H has an element of order 4. so H is isomorphic to S4 . we conclude that H S4 X Thus we have shown that PSL (2. .10. V4 . we know that S4 ha.4. b: a2 b3 (ab)4 1iX Hence there is a homomorphism ö from S4 onto H (ö sends a to x and b to y). a dihedral group of order 8. 30. all ®nite simple groups G possessing an involution t such that C G (t) C. given a ®nite group C. yl of G. The next result carries out part of Brauer's programme in the case where C D8 . From Example 30. It determines the possible orders of simple groups G having an involution t such that C G (t) D8 . Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography). A4 or S4 (see Example 12. y has order 3 and xy has order 4.3).20).6. C2 or {1}. 7) has a subgroup which is isomorphic to S4 .Applications to group theory We calculate the class algebra constant a243 . Now Ker ö.8 Theorem Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group which has an involution t such that C G (t) D8 .

4 of the book by J.10 Lemma Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group. and let G be a ®nite group of order p a b. we require a couple of preliminary results. Let Ù be the set of right cosets Qx of Q in G. Using some rather more sophisticated group theory than that covered in this book. hence is an odd permutation. then u is conjugate to an element of Q. This means that in its action on Ù. such a subgroup is call a Sylow p-subgroup of G. the involution u is a product of m disjoint 2-cycles. and de®ne an action of G on Ù by (Qx) g Qxg for x. one can show that PSL(2. where m is odd since P is a Sylow 2-subgroup. If u is an involution in G.3 and 18. Then (1) G contains a subgroup of order p a. and A6 is a simple group of order 360 with this property (see Exercise 7 at the end of the chapter). Hence the subgroup f g P G : g acts as an even permutation on Ùg . Observe that jÙj 2jG : Pj 2m.1). Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. Now consider fixÙ (u) fù P Ù : ùu ùg If Qx P fixÙ (u). then Qxu Qx and hence xux À1 P Q.9 Sylow's Theorem Let p be a prime number. if P Q are Sylow p. then there exists g P G such that Q g Pg). and let P be a Sylow 2subgroup of G. contrary to assumption. The ®rst is Sylow's Theorem. a basic result in ®nite group theory. Suppose Q is a subgroup of P with jP : Qj 2.8. g P G (see Example 29. b are positive integers and p T j b.354 Representations and characters of groups Observe that PSL(2. (2) all Sylow p-subgroups are conjugate in G (i. Before embarking upon the proof of Theorem 30. but refer you to Theorems 18. À1 subgroups. then there is a Sylow p-subgroup of G containing R. We shall not prove this. where a. 30. 30.2(4)). Hence fixÙ (u) Æ.e. 7) and A6 are the only simple groups of order 168 or 360. (3) if R is a subgroup of G with jRj p c for some c. Proof Suppose u is not conjugate to an element of Q. 7) is a simple group of order 168 having an involution with centralizer D8 (see Lemma 27.

Notice also that the orthogonality relations give the usual inner products hø. Proof of Theorem 30. if H is a subgroup of a group G. By Lemma 26. This is simply a class function of the form ø n÷ ÷ x where the sum is over all the irreducible characters of H. the centre of D. If n÷ > 0 for all ÷ then of course ø is a character. and as t commutes with all elements of D. This is impossible since G is non-abelian and simple. â À n÷ ÷X n÷ >0 n÷ . Therefore P < . The centre of D8 is a cyclic group of order 2 (see (12. Then Z(P) < C G (t) D.19 and Corollary 21. where á and â are characters of H: take á n÷ ÷. and each n÷ P Z.1(1) we have Z(P) T 1. It is clear from this de®nition that the formulae for the values of ø 4 G given in Proposition 21. there is a Sylow 2-subgroup P of G such that D < P.8 Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group with an involution t such that C G (t) D D8 . This contradiction completes the proof. The generalized character ø can be expressed as a difference á À â. hø. so Z(P) < Z(D) hti. but this need not be the case for a generalized character.12)).0 Finally. ÷i n÷ .Applications to group theory 355 is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. the degree ø(1) can be 0 or negative for a generalized character ø. Certainly t commutes with itself. By Theorem 30. and hence Z(P) hti. In particular. so t P D. and hence Z(D) hti. we have t P Z(D).9(3). øi n2 ÷ for a generalized character ø as above. we de®ne the induced generalized character ø 4 G by ø 4 G (á 4 G) À ( â 4 G) where ø á À â as above.20 hold for generalized characters ø. j We also need to introduce the idea of a generalized character of a group H.

This is all the group theory we will need for the proof. if y À1 cy P C then y P D. Now hè 4 G. hè 4 G. 1 G i h1 C À ë. èi 3. let g P G and suppose that g À1 cg P C for some non-identity element c P C. aÀ1 . bi where a4 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . Let ë be the linear character of C such that ë(a) i. And if y À1 cy P D À C then è( y À1 cy) 0.12). every involution of G is conjugate to an involution in C. Since t c or c2. and 0 elsewhere. Let C hai be the cyclic subgroup of index 2 in D.) Hence hè. observe ®rst that by Frobenius reciprocity.11) D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. Since è vanishes on D À C. è 4 Gi h(è 4 G) 5 D. hence g P C G (t) D and so g À1 Cg C. Then t a2 . Referring to the character table of D8 in Example 16. Proposition 21. è 4 Gi 3X To see this. for any g P G we have C gÀ1 Cg f1g or C. D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. è(1) 0. 1 C i 1.3(3). and so it follows from (30. èi hè. and de®ne è (1 C 4 D) À (ë 4 D). Then è takes the value 2 on a. By Lemma 30. whence y À1 cy cÆ1 and è( y À1 cy) è(c). Also (è 4 G)(1) 0 (see Corollary 21. The rest is character theory. a generalized character of D. (In particular. and if C g À1 Cg C then g P D.12) that . we must have g À1 tg t. We summarise what we have proved so far: (30. èi Now for 1 T c P C.19 gives 1 À1 (è 4 G)(c) è( y cy)X 8 yPG By (30.10. In other words.11). It follows that (è 4 G)(c) è(c). we conclude that t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. Write D ha. èi 3. the value 4 on t. giving (30. we have è ÷1 ÷2 À ÷5 . we therefore have h(è 4 G) 5 D. We next establish (30X12) hè 4 G.20). and so P D. Next. t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G.356 Representations and characters of groups C G (t) D. As t a2 is the only such involution.

For g P G. then ã( g) a iik in the notation of (30. Now calculation in D8 shows that ã(c) 4.14) We have ã jGj ÷(t)2 ÷. If we write t G C i and g lies in the conjugacy class C k of G. ã 5 Ci 1 X4X((1 À i) 2 (1 i)) 4X jCj Hence from (30.3). Write d á(1) and e á(t) P Z. we have now proved the following.13) and (30. by Frobenius Reciprocity.14) we have 2 3 jGj á(t)2 â(t)2 hè 4 G.11). Therefore h1 C À ë. Hence Theorem 30. We shall calculate the inner product of ã and è 4 G in two ways. â are irreducible characters of G. where á.4 yields the following.15) we deduce 2 3 á(t)2 â(t)2 jGj 1 (30X16) À 28 X á(1) â(1) This equation gives us enough number-theoretic information about jGj to ®nish the proof fairly quickly. We now introduce another class function of G into the picture. ã 5 Ci.10. á(t) and â(t) are integers. Note that by Corollary 13.13) we have . 357 where á. Consider ã(c) for 1 T c P C. By (30. â are irreducible.Applications to group theory è 4 G 1 G á À â. de®ne ã( g) to be number of ordered pairs (x. Since we have shown that (è 4 G)(t) è(t) 4. y P t G . y) P t G 3 t G such that g xy. then x À1 cx yx cÀ1 . (30. from (30. (30. 1 á(1) À â(1) 0 and 1 á(t) À â(t) 4. ãi 1 (30X15) À X 64 á(1) â(1) On the other hand. First. similarly y P D. If c xy with x. jDj2 ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. ãi h1 C À ë.13) We have è 4 G 1 G á À â. hè 4 G. and hence x P D by (30.

we have 8 jC G (t)j > 1 á(t)2 â(t)2 1 e 2 (e À 3)2 . giving d 6 and jGj 168. by using the formula aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) 2. Suppose now that e 1.16) yields jGj 28 d(d 1) X (d 2)2 Reasoning as above.8. This completes the proof of Theorem 30. Finally. d) 1. . suppose that e 2. Then (30.358 Representations and characters of groups â(1) d 1.8. one of the possibilities in the conclusion of Theorem 30. It follows that r 3 and d 9. j Summary of Chapter 30 1.16) gives 1 4 jGj 1 À 28 . Moreover. a Sylow 2-subgroup of G has order 8. and hcf (d À 1. The class algebra constants aijk are given by Ci C j aijk C k X k They can be calculated from the character table.4(2). we deduce that d 2 23 . the class algebra constants of G can sometimes be used to determine whether or not G has a subgroup which isomorphic to H. â(t) e À 3X From the column orthogonality relations 16. Then (30. Hence (d À 1)2 must divide 210 . Given groups G and H. from which it follows that e 1 or 2. and so d À 1 2 r with r < 5. d d1 whence jGj 28 d(d 1) X (d À 1)2 Now the highest common factor hcf (d À 1. giving jGj 360. d 1) is 1 or 2.

if G is a group with the same character table as A5 (see Example 20. The character table of PSL (2.13). 11) is given in the solution to Exercise 27. 11) contain a subgroup which is isomorphic to A5 ? 4. together with lots of ingenious character theory. (ab)7 1l. Using Sylow's Theorem. Does PSL (2. you may assume that A5 is a simple group. b has order 3 and ab has order 7. given at the end of Chapter 27. 2. then G A5 . b: a2 b2 1. (a) Show that G is a simple group of order 360. 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2. Use the character table of PSL (2. to prove that PSL (2. and that A5 has the following presentation: A5 ha.6. Does PSL (2. and that G has the character table shown.) For the next three exercises. b: a2 b3 (ab)5 1iX 3. Exercises for Chapter 30 1. it can be shown that any simple group possessing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 must have order 168 or 360. g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 5 5 8 8 9 10 p g2 1 1 1 0 0 1 À2 g3 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 0 p 5)a2. (b) Use the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions to obtain an . 7). Prove that A5 is characterized by its character table ± that is. â (1 À 5. 7) contain a subgroup isomorphic to D14 ? (Hint: D14 ka. g4 1 2 À1 À1 À1 0 1 g5 1 À1 2 À1 À1 0 1 g6 1 0 0 á â À1 0 g7 1 0 0 â á À1 0 where á (1 5)a2. Suppose that G is a group.Applications to group theory 359 3.

8. (Hint: look for a suitable simple group PSL(2.360 Representations and characters of groups upper bound for the number of involutions in G. 7. show that G A6 . Use the ®gure which appears in Example 30. and deduce that g2 has order 2 and g3 has order 4.) t such that . Prove that PSL(2. both of which contain an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 . (c) Prove that G has a subgroup H which is isomorphic to A5 . p). 6. 360 respectively.6(3) to show that every group G which is generated by two elements a and b which satisfy a2 b3 (ab)4 1 has order at most 24. (d) Using Exercise 23. 7) and A6 are simple groups of order 168.9. Find a simple group G having an involution C G (t) D16 .

2) which is concerned with character values. then no group of order pa q b is simple. but it was only after studying Frobenius's new theory of group representations that he was able to prove the theorem in general. A preliminary lemma We prepare for the proof of Burnside's Theorem with a lemma (31. see for instance the book by Pollard and Diamond listed in the Bibliography. For example. Burnside presented group-theoretic arguments which proved the theorem for many special choices of the integers a. Then p(x) is unique and irreducible. which states that if p and q are prime numbers and a and b are positive integers. and let p(x) be a monic polynomial over Q of smallest possible degree having á as a root. The roots of p(x) are called the conjugates of á.31 Burnside's Theorem One of the most famous applications of representation theory is Burnside's Theorem. b. We omit proofs of these ± for a good account. it is called the minimal polynomial of á. An algebraic number is a complex number which is a root of some non-zero polynomial over Q. In order to establish this lemma we require some basic facts about algebraic integers and algebraic numbers. if ù is an nth root of unity then the minimal poly361 . which we now describe. until H. Indeed. Bender found one in 1972. many later attempts to ®nd a proof which does not use representation theory were unsuccessful. Let á be an algebraic number. We call a polynomial in x monic if the coef®cient of the highest power of x in it is 1. In the ®rst edition of his book Theory of groups of ®nite order (1897).

1) Let á and â be algebraic numbers. so ÷( g)a÷(1) (ù1 X X X ù d )adX Since |÷( g)| |ù1 . . where á9 is a conjugate of á and â9 is a conjugate of â.1) can be proved easily using some Galois theory. ù9 are roots of unity. each conjugate of ã is of the form (ù9 X X X ù9 )ad 1 d where ù9 . Now suppose that ÷( g)a÷(1) is an algebraic integer and j÷( g)a÷(1)j . and if 0 . . Hence each conjugate of ã has 1 d . then á is a root of a monic polynomial with integer coef®cients (see Chapter 22). see Pollard and Diamond.9 we have ÷( g) ù1 . Proof Let ÷(1) d. where each ù i is a root of unity. 1 then ÷( g)a÷(1) is not an algebraic integer. We shall require the following fact about conjugates: (31. |ù d | d. Alternatively. and let g P G. Moreover. so that p(x) x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 where ai P Z for all i. . .2 Lemma Let ÷ be a character of a ®nite group G. . Write ã ÷( g)a÷(1). By Proposition 13. where á9 is a conjugate of á. For an elementary proof of this. We prove that ÷( g) 0. Section 3. and so every conjugate of ù is also an nth root of unity. Chapter V. . j÷( g)a÷(1)j . By (31. Then every conjugate of á â is of the form á9 â9. . it follows that j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1. if r P Q then every conjugate of rá is of the form rá9. .362 Representations and characters of groups nomial of ù divides x n À 1. (31. and it turns out that the minimal polynomial of á also has integer coef®cients. . ù d | < |ù1 | . . 31.1). 1. Then j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1. ù d . If á is an algebraic integer. and let p(x) be the minimal polynomial of ã.

Burnside's Theorem

363

modulus at most 1. It follows that if ë is the product of all the conjugates of ã (including ã), then jëj , 1X But the conjugates of ã are, by de®nition, the roots of the polynomial p(x), and the product of all these roots is equal to Æa0 . Thus ë Æa0 X Since a0 P Z and |ë| , 1, it follows that a0 0. As p(x) is irreducible, this implies that p(x) x, which in turn forces ã 0. Thus ÷( g) 0, and the proof is complete.

j

Burnside's p a q b Theorem We deduce the main result, Theorem 31.4, from another interesting theorem of Burnside. 31.3 Theorem Let p be a prime number and let r be an integer with r > 1. Suppose that G is a ®nite group with a conjugacy class of size pr . Then G is not simple. Proof Let g P G with | gG | pr . Since pr . 1, G is not abelian and g T 1. As usual, denote the irreducible characters of G by ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k , and take ÷1 to be the trivial character. The column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2), applied to the columns corresponding to 1 and g in the character table of G, give 1 Therefore

k i2 k i2

÷ i ( g)÷ i (1) 0X

÷ i ( g) .

÷ i (1) 1 À X p p

Now À1a p is not an algebraic integer, by Proposition 22.5. Therefore, for some i > 2, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer (see Theorem 22.3). Since ÷ i ( g) is an algebraic integer (Corollary 22.4), it follows

364

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that ÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer; in other words, p does not divide ÷ i (1). Thus ÷ i ( g) T 0 and p T j ÷ i (1)X As | gG | pr , this means that ÷ i (1) and | gG | are coprime integers, and so there are integers a and b such that ajG:CG ( g)j b÷ i (1) 1X Hence a jGj÷ i ( g) ÷ i ( g) b÷ i ( g) X jCG ( g)j÷ i (1) ÷ i (1)

By Corollaries 22.10 and 22.4, the left-hand side of this equation is an algebraic integer; and since ÷ i ( g) T 0, it is non-zero. Now Lemma 31.2 implies that j÷ i ( g)a÷ i (1)j 1X Let r be a representation of G with character ÷ i . By Theorem 13.11(1), there exists ë P C such that gr ëIX Let K Ker r, so that K is a normal subgroup of G. Since ÷ i is not the trivial character, K T G. If K T {1} then G is not simple, as required; so assume that K {1}, that is, r is a faithful representation. Since gr is a scalar multiple of the identity, gr commutes with hr for all h P G. As r is faithful, it follows that g commutes with all h P G; in other words, g P Z(G)X Therefore Z(G) T {1}. As Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G and Z(G) T G, we conclude that G is not simple. j We now come to the main result of the chapter, Burnside's Theorem. 31.4 Burnside's paqb Theorem Let p and q be prime numbers, and let a and b be non-negative integers with a b > 2. If G is a group of order pa q b , then G is not simple. Proof First suppose that either a 0 or b 0. Then the order of G is a power of a prime, so by Lemma 26.1(1) we have Z(G) T {1}.

Burnside's Theorem

365

Choose g P Z(G) of prime order. Then k gl v G and k gl is not equal to {1} or G. Hence G is not simple. Now assume that a . 0 and b . 0. By Sylow's Theorem 30.9, G has a subgroup Q of order q b . We have Z(Q) T {1} by Lemma 26.1(1). Let g P Z(Q) with g T 1. Then Q < CG ( g), so j g G j jG:CG ( g)j pr for some r. If pr 1 then g P Z(G), so Z(G) T {1} and G is not simple as before. And if pr . 1 then G is not simple, by Theorem 31.3. j In fact Burnside's pa q b Theorem leads to a somewhat more informative result about groups of order pa q b : (31.5) Every group of order p a q b is soluble. Here, by a soluble group we mean a group G which has subgroups G0 , G1 , . . . , Gr with 1 G 0 , G1 , X X X , G r G such that for 1 < i < r, GiÀ1 v Gi and the factor group Gi aG iÀ1 is cyclic of prime order. We sketch a proof of (31.5), using induction on a b. The result is clear if a b < 1, so assume that a b > 2 and let G be a group of order pa q b . By Burnside's Theorem 31.4, G has a normal subgroup H such that H is not {1} or G. Both H and the factor group Ga H have order equal to a product of powers of p and q, and these orders are less than pa q b . Hence by induction, H and Ga H are both soluble. Therefore there are subgroups 1 G0 v G1 v X X X v Gs H, 1 Gs a H v G s1 a H v X X X v Gr a H Ga H with all factor groups Gi aG iÀ1 of prime order. Then the series 1 G0 v G 1 v X X X v G r G shows that G is soluble. Summary of Chapter 31 1. If G has a conjugacy class of size pr ( p prime, r > 1), then G is not simple.

366

Representations and characters of groups

2. If |G| pa q b ( p, q primes, a b > 2), then G is not simple. Exercises for Chapter 31 1. Show that a non-abelian simple group cannot have an abelian subgroup of prime power index. 2. Prove that if G is a non-abelian simple group of order less than 80, then |G| 60. (Hint: use Exercise 13.8.)

32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration

Representation theory is used extensively in many of the physical sciences. Such applications come about because every physical system has a symmetry group G, and certain vector spaces associated with the system turn out to be RG-modules. For example, the vibration of a molecule is governed by various differential equations, and the symmetry group of the molecule acts on the space of solutions of these equations. It is on this application ± the theory of molecular vibrations ± that we concentrate in this ®nal chapter. In order to keep our treatment elementary, we stay within the framework of classical mechanics throughout. (Quantum mechanical effects can be incorporated subsequently, but we shall not go into this ± for an account, consult the book by D. S. Schonland listed in the Bibliography.)

Symmetry groups Let V be R2 or R3, and for v, w P V, let d(v, w) denote the distance between v and w ± in other words, if v (x1 , x2 , . . .) and w ( y1, y2, . . .), then 3 r2 2 d(v, w) (xi À yi ) X An isometry of V is an invertible endomorphism W of V such that d(vW, wW) d(v, w) for all v, w P V X The set of all isometries of V forms a group under composition, called the orthogonal group of V, and denoted by O(V). Any rotation of R3 about an axis through the origin is an example 367

368

Representations and characters of groups

of an isometry; so is any re¯ection in a plane through the origin. The endomorphism À1R3 which sends every vector v to Àv is another example of an element in the orthogonal group O(R3 ). It turns out that the composition of two rotations is again a rotation, and that for every isometry g in O(R3 ), either g or À g is a rotation (see Exercise 32.1). The orthogonal group O(R3 ) therefore contains a subgroup of index 2 which consists of the rotations. The same is true of the group O(R2 ). If Ä is a subset of V , where V R2 or R3, then we de®ne G(Ä) to be the set of isometries which leave Ä invariant ± that is, G(Ä) f g P O(V ): Ä g Äg (where Ä g {v g: v P Ä}). Then G(Ä) is a subgroup of called the symmetry group of Ä. The subgroup of G(Ä) the rotations in G(Ä) is called the rotation group of Ä. the rotation group of Ä in the symmetry group G(Ä) is 1 O(V ), and is consisting of The index of or 2.

32.1 Example Let V R2, and let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon, with n > 3, centred at the origin. The symmetry group of Ä is easily seen to be the dihedral group D2n , which was de®ned as a group of n rotations and n re¯ections preserving Ä (see Example 1.1(3)). Now let V R3, and again let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon (n > 3) centred at the origin. This time, G(Ä) D2 n 3 C2 ; the extra elements arise because there is an isometry which ®xes all points of Ä, namely the re¯ection in the plane of Ä. 32.2 Example Let Ä be a regular tetrahedron in R3 centred at the origin:

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 369 Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1, 2, 3, 4. We claim that each permutation of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry of Ä. For example, the 2-cycle (1 2) corresponds to a re¯ection in the plane which contains the origin and the edge 34; similarly each 2-cycle corresponds to a re¯ection. Since S4 is generated by the 2-cycles, each of the 24 permutations of 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry, as claimed. No non-identity endomorphism of R3 ®xes all the corners of Ä, since Ä contains three linearly independent vectors. Therefore we have found all the isometries, and G(Ä) S4 . Notice that the rotation group of Ä is isomorphic to A4 ; for example, (1 2)(3 4) corresponds to a rotation through ð about the axis through the mid-points of the edges 12 and 34, and (1 2 3) corresponds to a rotation through 2ða3 about the axis through the origin and the corner 4. Finally, observe that the group G(Ä) is unchanged if we take Ä to consist of just the four corners of the tetrahedron. 32.3 Example In this example we describe the symmetry groups of the molecules H2 O (water), CH3 Cl (methyl chloride) and CH4 (methane). The symmetry group of a molecule is de®ned to be the group of isometries which not only preserve the position of the molecule in space, but also send each atom to an atom of the same kind. The shapes of the three molecules are as follows.

370

Representations and characters of groups

We always assume that the centroid of our molecule lies at the origin in R3 . The CH4 molecule has four hydrogen atoms at the corners of a regular tetrahedron, and a carbon atom at the centre of the tetrahedron. So the symmetry group of the molecule CH4 is equal to the symmetry group of the tetrahedron, as given in Example 32.2. This group is isomorphic to S4 , permuting the four hydrogen atoms among themselves and ®xing the carbon atom. As for the CH3 Cl molecule, this possesses a rotation symmetry a of order 3 about the vertical axis, and three re¯ection symmetries in the planes containing the C, Cl and one of the H atoms. If b is one of these re¯ections, then the symmetry group is f1, a, a2 , b, ab, a2 bg and is isomorphic to S3 , permuting the three H atoms and ®xing the C and Cl atoms. Finally, the H2 O molecule possesses two re¯ection symmetries, one in the plane of the molecule, and one in a plane perpendicular to this one passing through the O atom; and it has a rotation symmetry of order 2. Hence the symmetry group is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . Vibration of a physical system We prepare for a description of the general problem with an example. 32.4 Example Suppose we have a spring stretched between two points P and Q on a smooth horizontal table, with equal masses m attached at the points of trisection of the spring:

The masses are displaced slightly, and released. What can we say about the subsequent motion of the system? To investigate this problem, we let x1 and x2 be the displacements of the two masses at time t. We measure x1 from left to right, and x2 from right to left, as indicated in the ®gure above. Let k be the

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 371 stiffness of the spring ± in other words, if the extension in the spring is x, then the restoring force is kx. The spring pulls the left-hand mass towards P with force kx1 and towards Q with force Àk(x1 x2 ). By dealing with the right-hand mass similarly, we obtain the following equations of motion of the system: m1 Àkx1 À k(x1 x2 ) À2kx1 À kx2 , x m2 Àkx2 À k(x1 x2 ) Àkx1 À 2kx2 , x where xi denotes the second derivative of xi with respect to t. These are second order linear differential equations in two unknowns x1 and x2 , so the general solution involves four arbitrary constants. We shall ®nd the general solution, using a method which can be applied in a much wider context. Write x (x1 , x2 ), x (1 , x2 ) and q kam. Then the equations of x motion are equivalent to the matrix equation À2q Àq x xA, where A (32X5) X Àq À2q Notice that A is symmetric. Hence the eigenvalues of A are real, and A has two linearly independent eigenvectors. It is this property which we wish to emphasize and exploit in the present example. Before we explicitly ®nd the eigenvectors of A, let us explain why they allow us to solve the equation of motion (32.5). Suppose that u is an eigenvector of A, with eigenvalue Àù2 . For an arbitrary constant â, let x sin (ùt â) uX Then x Àù2 sin (ùt â) u sin (ùt â) uA xAX Thus x is a solution of the equation of motion. If u1 and u2 are linearly independent eigenvectors of A, with eigenvalues Àù2 and 1 Àù2 , respectively, then 2 á1 sin (ù1 t â1 ) u1 á2 sin (ù2 t â2 ) u2 (since uA Àù2 u)

x1 Àx2 sin ( q . It follows that when we apply Newton's Second Law of Motion. the state of the molecule at a given time is described by a vector in the 3n-dimensional vector space R3 n . t â2 ) (1. We assume that the internal forces are linear functions of the displacements. For the matrix given in (32. â1 . 1) Mode 1: p Here. 1) and (1. which we use to measure the displacement of the atom. á2 . at each atom the three coordinate axes .5). p sin ( (3q) t â1 ) (1.372 Representations and characters of groups is a solution of the equation of motion which involves four arbitrary constants á1 .) Here x is the displacements of all the atoms. We now adopt this line of attack in the problem to hand. that x xAX row vector in R3 n which measures the and A is a 3n 3 3n matrix with real the internal forces. t â2 ) (1. we obtain equations which may be expressed in the form (32X6) (Compare (32. Therefore the general solution of the equation of motion (32. t â2 ) and the vibration is Mode 2: p sin ( q . with corresponding eigenvectors (1. À1). 1) á2 sin ( q . entries which are determined by Assume.5) is p p á1 sin ( (3q) t â1 ) (1. They are as follows.5). for the moment. we assign three coordinate axes. â2 . À1) The general molecular vibration problem Suppose we have a molecule consisting of n atoms which vibrate under internal forces. so it is the general solution. the eigenvalues are À3q and Àq. At the equilibrium position of each atom. x1 x2 sin ( (3q) t â1 ) and the vibration is p Here. À1)X The solutions which involve just one eigenvector of A are called the normal modes of vibration. Thus.

A has real eigenvalues. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. In particular. for the general case. To solve the equation of motion (32. 32. 32. that in this special case the matrix A is symmetric. where our chosen coordinate axes are not necessarily at right angles to each other. then x 0 (t â)uA xAX This proves that the normal modes of vibration are solutions of the . Therefore we have the following proposition.9 Proposition Each normal mode of vibration is a solution of the equation of motion (32. 32. (2) (t â) u ( â constant) where u is an eigenvector of A corresponding to the eigenvalue 0.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 373 which we have chosen are at right angles to each other. then x Àù2 sin (ùt â) u sin (ùt â) uA xAX If uA 0 and x (t â)u. which we de®ne next. and for this solution all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency.6).7 Proposition All the eigenvalues of A are real. we look for normal modes of the system. from physical considerations. the effect of changing coordinate axes is merely to replace A by a matrix which is conjugate to A.6).8 De®nition A normal mode of vibration for our molecule is a vector in R3 n of one of the following forms: (1) sin (ùt â) u ( â constant) where Àù2 is a non-zero eigenvalue of A and u is a corresponding eigenvector. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. It can be shown. Now. Proof If uA Àù2 A and x sin (ùt â) u. The general solution of the equation of motion is a linear combination of the normal modes of vibration.

32. all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency (namely.6) (as (32. Note that A can have no strictly positive eigenvalue.6) consists of second order differential equations in 3n unknowns). negates v2 and v3. then x e ë t u would be a solution to the equation of motion.6). Use of the symmetry group We continue the discussion of the previous section.374 Representations and characters of groups equation of motion (32. Since G permutes the atoms among themselves. with eigenvector u. Thus. j Proposition 32. by Proposition 32. Let G be the symmetry group of the molecule in question. Therefore there exist 3n linearly independent normal modes. so it is the general solution to the equation of motion (32. and for 1 < i < 9. Then g ®xes v1 .9 reduces the problem of solving the equations of motion to that of ®nding all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the 3n 3 3n matrix A. and we shall describe a method for doing this.10 Example Let g be the rotation of order 2 of the H2 O molecule: Assign coordinate axes at the initial positions of each atom as shown. let v i denote a unit vector along coordinate axis i. Since each normal mode involves an arbitrary constant.7. the general linear combination of normal modes involves 6n arbitrary constants. ù or 0) in a normal mode. interchanges v4 and v7. However. for if ë were p such an eigenvalue. each element of G acts as an endomorphism of the space R3 n of displacement vectors. By construction. which is nonsense. and . R3 n is an RG-module. this can be a huge and unwieldy task if it is attempted directly ± even writing down the matrix A for a given molecule can be a painful operation! The symmetry group of the molecule and its representation theory can often be used to simplify greatly the calculation of the eigenvectors of A.

7). since the relative con®guration of the atoms is unaltered by applying g. (xg)A (xA) g. 32. Àx6 )X We return to the general set-up. Àx2 . with eigenvalue Àù2 . Àx5 . A similar argument applies to the eigenspace for the eigenvalue 0. In effect. v g must also specify the directions and relative magnitudes of displacements in a normal mode of frequency ù. x4 .11 Proposition For all g P G and x P R3 n . Àx3 . x9 ) g (x1 . Then v speci®es the directions and relative magnitudes of the displacements of the atoms from the equilibrium position when the molecule is vibrating in a normal mode of frequency ù. x3 . it tells us that the function x 3 xA (x P R3 n ) is an RG-homomorphism from R3 n to itself. and let g P G. Therefore g acts on R9 as follows: (x1 . Àx9 . x7 . x8 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 375 interchanges v5 and v6 with the negatives of v8 and v9 . and let v be a corresponding eigenvector. and the eigenspaces of A are RG-submodules of R3 n . and (v g)A ë(v g) (ëv) g (vA) gX Hence (xg)A (xA) g for all x P R3 n . This shows that the eigenspace for Àù2 is an RG-submodule of R3 n . Proof Let Àù2 be a non-zero eigenvalue of A. Àx8 . vA ëv for some ë P R. and hence . The eigenspace for the eigenvalue ë of A is. For all vectors v in the basis. x6 . and we are trying to ®nd the eigenvectors of A. by de®nition. v g is an eigenvector of A. j The idea now is to use representation theory to express the RGmodule R3n as a direct sum of irreducible RG-submodules. For all g in G. The equations of motion are x xA. x7 . Choose a basis of R3 n which consists of eigenvectors of A (see Proposition 32. x2 . Therefore. fx P R3 n : xA ëxgX We can now present the crucial proposition which allows us to exploit the symmetry group G of our molecule. x5 . x4 .

by Proposition 32. w P W ) (x P V÷ ) is an RG-homomorphism.11. Therefore. problems like this are uncommon. so xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ . this function is zero.8. (Although Proposition 11.) 32. and no RG-submodule of W has character ÷. By Proposition 11.13 Proposition Each homogeneous component V÷ of R3 n is A-invariant ± that is. the function x 3 (xA)å is an RG-homomorphism from V÷ into W.3.12 De®nition Suppose that ÷ is the character of an irreducible RG-module. since the character of the RG-module R3 n might contain an irreducible character which cannot be realized over R ± but in practice. xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ X Proof By Maschke's Theorem we may write R3n V÷ È W for some RG-module W. its proof works equally well for RG-modules ± compare Exercise 23. then the element ÷( g À1 ) g gPG sends R3 n onto the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷ (see (14.376 Representations and characters of groups to determine the eigenspaces of A. (This procedure sometimes needs to be modi®ed. The function å: v w 3 w (v P V÷ .27)). and the normal modes of the molecule. 32. and if ÷ is the character of an irreducible RGmodule which occurs. We can use character theory to see which irreducible RG-modules are contained in R3 n . We call V÷ a homogeneous component of R3 n . Let V÷ denote the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷.3 is stated in terms of CG-modules. The problem of ®nding the eigenspaces of A is considerably simpli®ed as a consequence of our next proposition.) j .

with eigenvalue ë. each homogeneous component V÷ i of R3 n .19 below. This involves no extra work if V÷ i is irreducible (see Corollary 32. (4) Express R3 n as a direct sum of homogeneous components. we may choose v P V÷ such that v is an eigenvector of A.13).14 Corollary If V÷ is an irreducible RG-module.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 377 32. If V÷ i is reducible. . 32. to make further progress. to obtain R3n . (3) Calculate the character ÷ of the RG-module R3 n and express ÷ as a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G. in turn. (2) Calculate the symmetry group G of the molecule.14). then sin (ùt â) v (or (t â)v if ù 0) is a normal mode. This can À1 3n be done by applying the element for each gPG ÷ i ( g ) g to R irreducible character ÷ i of G which appears in ÷. as we shall illustrate in the examples which make up the rest of this chapter. (5) Consider. Proof (Compare the proof of Schur's Lemma. with eigenvalue Àù2 . This programme can often be successfully completed. then see Remark 32. Then R3 n is an RG-module. say. and ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i (see Proposition 32. so it must equal V÷ . It is usually necessary to know the equations of motion in order to determine the frequency ù. where â is an arbitrary constant. or by some other method. Then the intersection of V÷ with the eigenspace for ë is a non-zero RG-submodule of V÷ . j We now summarize the steps in the procedure for ®nding the normal modes of vibration of a given molecule.) Since V÷ is A-invariant.7. then all the non-zero vectors in V÷ are eigenvectors of A. or Exercise 32.15 Summary (1) Assign three coordinate axes at each of the n atoms of the molecule. (6) If v is an eigenvector of A.

where the three identical atoms are at the corners of an equilateral triangle. with the spring and two vibrating masses: The symmetry group of this system is G h g: g 2 1i.378 Representations and characters of groups 32. the RG-submodules of R2 are sp (u1 ) and sp (u2 ). À1). â2 are constants and ù1 .4. Since (x1 . 1). The displacement vectors (x1 .4. x1 ). so we assign two displacement coordinates to each atom. . generated by a rotation a of order 3 and a re¯ection . For simplicity. Notice that we have determined the normal modes of vibration (but not their frequencies) using the symmetry group alone. We choose to take our axes along the edges of the triangle. sin (ù2 t â2 )(1. 1).16 Example We ®rst return to Example 32. . The symmetry group (in two dimensions) of the molecule is the dihedral group D6. u2 (1. as this eases the calculations: Thus the position of the molecule is given by a vector (x1 . we consider only vibrations of the molecule in the plane. where â1 . x2 ) g (x2 . . À1)X It follows that the normal modes of the system are given by sin (ù1 t â1 )(1.17 Example Consider a hypothetical triatomic molecule. as shown. where g is the re¯ection in the mid-point of PQ. 32. where u1 (1. where xi is the displacement along axis i (1 < i < 6). x2 ) form an RG-module R2 . . This agrees with the conclusion of Example 32. ù2 are the frequencies. x6 ) in R6 .

x3 . the character table of D6 is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 Hence ÷ ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 . . x1 . These include the rotation and translation modes. ÷(a) 0. then (x1 . ÷3 and ÷3 . x2 . v2 . then we represent the displacement vector (v1 . For example.1). x4 . Thus the values of ÷ are 1 ÷ 6 a 0 b 0 By Section 18. which occur for every molecule. As a matter of notation. To do this. x4 . v2 . Since the rotation a does not ®x any of the atoms. we seek to express R6 as a direct sum of RD6 -submodules with characters ÷1 . corresponding to the eigenspace of A for eigenvalue 0. if b is the re¯ection which ®xes the top atom. Thus. It is easy to work out the action of each element of D6 on R6 . x6 )b (x2 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 379 b (see Example 32. x5 . we see that ÷(b) 0. ÷2 . if v1 . x5 . v3 are 2-dimensional displacement vectors for the three atoms. x6 . v3 ) P R6 pictorially by the diagram We ®rst calculate the normal modes of the form (t â)v. we ®rst calculate the character ÷ of the module. x3 )X We want to express the RD6 -module R6 as a direct sum of irreducible RD6 -modules. And from the action of b given above.3.

À1. 1. v2 (1. Translation modes These are modes in which all atoms move in the same constant direction with the same constant speed. sp (v) R6 å2 . 0. 0.380 Representations and characters of groups Rotation mode In this mode. then ÷ R (1) 1. Since v1 v2 v3 0. where v is a vector in the span of v1 . v3 ) has dimension 2. and is called the translation submodule. the subspace sp (v1 . 0). where å2 ÷2 ( g À1 ) g 1 a a2 À b À ab À a2 b gP D6 (compare (14. The modes are of the form (t â)v. these vectors being given pictorially by (thus v1 (À1. À1. Indeed. ÷ R (a) 1. so the character must be ÷3 . it does not contain the rotation submodule. À1). If ÷ R is the character of sp (v). . À1. 1. À1). 0. v3 (0. and so ÷ R ÷2 . where v (1. À1. We call sp (v) the rotation submodule of R6 . The mode is given by (t â)v. 1. 1. 0. À1. 1)). the molecule rotates with constant angular velocity about the centre. It is clearly an RD6 -submodule of R6 . v2 . 1. ÷ R (b) À1. Thus the character of the translation submodule is part of ÷ À ÷2 ÷1 2÷3 .27)). pictorially. v2 and v3. À1. 1.

if w P R6 then the total component of w vib in each direction is zero. Finally. and we summarize our ®ndings below. every vector in R6 which satis®es these equations lies in R6 . so that total moment of each vector in R6 about the vib centre is zero. The vibratory mode given by u1 u2 u3 is sometimes called the expansion±contraction mode (you will see the reason for this name in the picture in (32. u1 À u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 .11). u3 among themselves. Its character is ÷3 and it gives us the last eigenspace for the vib matrix A. where vib vib Clearly sp (u1 u2 u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 with characvib ter ÷1 . Our calculation of the normal modes is now complete. . The sum of these eigenspaces forms an RD6 -submodule R6 of R6 (by Proposition 32. with character ÷vib . and since R6 has vib vib dimension 3. since D6 permutes the vectors u1 . These constraints imply three independent linear equations in the coordinates of the vectors in R6 . moreover.18(3)) below). u2 . R6 has dimension 3. u3 . and are called vibratory modes. where vib ÷vib ÷ À (÷2 ÷3 ) ÷1 ÷3 X In particular. it is easy to see that sp (u1 À u2 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 381 Vibratory modes The remaining normal modes correspond to eigenspaces of the matrix A with non-zero eigenvalues. Since no mode in R6 can have vib vib any translation component. u2 . Therefore a basis of R6 is u1 . R6 does not contain the rotation vib submodule.

) We emphasize that we have found the normal modes of vibration without explicit knowledge of the equations of motion.382 (32.18) Representations and characters of groups (1) Rotation mode: (2) Translation modes: linear combinations of (3) Vibratory mode: expansion±contraction mode (4) Vibratory modes: linear combinations of (We have chosen 2u2 À u1 À u3 . 2u1 À u2 À u3 as the basis for the vibratory modes in (4) merely because these modes look simpler than u1 À u2 . In order to . u1 À u3 pictorially.

the difference in length between QR and Q9R9 is (x4 x5 ) 1(x3 x6 )X 2 (We always assume that x1 . m x1 À(x1 x6 ) À 1(x2 x5 )X 2 k m x2 À(x2 x3 ) À 1(x1 x4 ). x6 ). x4 . 2 k In the same way. For a general displacement (x1 . Q9. x3 . x6 are small compared with the distance between the atoms. so that we may ignore second order terms. PR À P9R9 (x1 x6 ) 1(x2 x5 ). and assume that the magnitude of the force between two atoms is k times the decrease in distance between them. X X X . R9. x5 .) Similarly. x2 . From the diagram. we now calculate the equations of motion. denote the new positions of the atoms by P9.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 383 check our results. Let m be the mass of each atom. . 2 PQ À P9Q9 (x2 x3 ) 1(x1 x4 )X 2 Hence the force on the molecule at P in the direction of the ®rst coordinate axis is Àk(PR À P9R9) Àk(x1 x6 ) À 1 k(x2 x5 )X 2 Therefore.

. The matrix A for which x xA is therefore given by H I 1 1a2 1a2 0 0 1 f 1a2 1 1 0 0 1a2 g f g Àk f 0 1 1 1a2 1a2 0 g f gX A 1a2 1a2 1 1 0 g m f 0 f g d 1a2 0 0 1 1 1a2 e 1 0 0 1a2 1a2 1 You should check that the vectors which we gave in (32.17.2. . . . This illustrates a method which sometimes helps to deal with reducible homogeneous components. since these homogenous components were irreducible (see Corollary 32.384 Representations and characters of groups and we obtain similar equations for x3. where we found that G is isomorphic to S4 . the character ÷ of the RG-module R6 was given by ÷ ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 X All the non-zero vectors in the homogeneous components for ÷1 and ÷2 gave normal modes. the situation is more complicated.19 Remark In Example 32.18)(2) and (4)) because V÷3 R6 vib was an A-invariant RG-submodule of V÷3 different from {0} and V÷3 .14). Label the corners of . We determined the symmetry group G of this molecule in Example 32. In our next example. x6 . The homogeneous component V÷3 for ÷3 was reducible.18) are indeed eigenvectors of A.20 Example We analyse the normal modes for the methane molecule CH4 . 32. 32. but we were able to write it as a sum of two subspaces of eigenvectors (those appearing in (32.

w2. 2. v23 . v13 . v21 . Our main task is to ®nd RG-submodules of R15 V È W. w4. w3. w3 and w4 at the carbon atom. jX Thus. the rotations about the vertical axis through 1 are written as 1. 13. as shown below. let v21 . by taking four unit vectors w1. and we can quickly calculate the character ÷ of V: 1 ÷ 12 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . similarly. 3. v13 . v14 . v24 be unit vectors at corner 2 in the directions of the edges 21. and let W be the vector space over R spanned by w1. 24. W R3 and V and W are RG-modules. these four vectors span a 3-dimensional space. v24 . v34 . and identify G with S4 . v32 . v41 . v23 . v43 . with w i pointing towards corner i (1 < i < 4). The action of G on V is easy to describe. and so on. w2. Then V R12. Let V be the vector space over R with basis v12 . we have v ij g v ig. for g in G. Let v12 . 14. respectively.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 385 the tetrahedron 1. (2 3 4). 23. (2 4 3)X In order fully to exploit the symmetry of the methane molecule. v42 . 4. giving twelve vectors v ij . thus. v14 be unit vectors at corner 1 in the directions of the edges 12. v31 . in all. Since w1 w2 w3 w4 0. at each hydrogen atom we choose displacement axes along the edges of the tetrahedron.jg for all i. for example. We now introduce a new idea. G permutes our twelve basis vectors of V.

We ®nd that ÷ ÷1 ÷3 2÷4 ÷5 . .27)). The RG-submodule W1 with character ÷1 is spanned by v ij i. ö ÷4 X By applying the elements ÷ i ( g À1 ) g gPG (i 1. 4) to R15 . w4 0. (1 2) ®xes the basis vectors v34 and v43 only. 5. . we can ®nd RG-submodules with characters ÷1 . The group G acts on W as follows. j and this gives the expansion±contraction normal mode: We next describe the RG-submodule W5 with character ÷5 . 3. it is easy to calculate the character ö of W ± it is 1 ö 3 (1 2) 1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3 4) À1 By Section 18. and so on. for g in G. we have wi g wig (1 < i < 4)X After recalling that w1 . p2 (v31 À v13 ) (v14 À v41 ) (v43 À v34 ).386 Representations and characters of groups For example. Let p1 (v23 À v32 ) (v34 À v43 ) (v42 À v24 ). . ÷5 and 3÷4 (see (14.1. the character table of S4 is as shown at the top of p. 387. ÷3 . all the basis vectors are moved by (1 2 3).

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 387 Character table of S4 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 À1 1 p3 (v12 À v21 ) (v41 À v14 ) (v24 À v42 ). p4 (v21 À v12 ) (v13 À v31 ) (v32 À v23 )X The vector pi gives a rotation about the axis through the corner i and the centroid of the tetrahedron. It should be clear from the pictures that for all i with 1 < i < 4 and .

its character is ÷3 . Let W3 sp (q1 . Now p1 p2 p3 p4 0. Check that the character of W5 is ÷5 . if we let W 5 sp ( p1 . q3 ). the dimension of W3 is 2. p3 . p2 . then W5 is an RG-submodule of V. Let q1 (v12 v21 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v24 v42 ). Therefore.) Now we construct the RG-submodule W3 of V with character ÷3 . we have q i g Æq j for some j. Since q1 q2 q3 0. we have pi g Æ p j for some j.388 Representations and characters of groups all g in G.17. q2 . The RG-module W5 is the rotation submodule. for example. q3 (v14 v41 ) (v23 v32 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v34 v43 )X (Each q i is associated with an `opposite pair of edges'. q2 (v13 v31 ) (v24 v42 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 ). so dim W5 3. . (Compare.) For all i with 1 < i < 4 and g in G. the picture for p4 with the picture for the rotation vector v in Example 32. p4 ). Then W3 is an RG-submodule of V.

by Corollary 32. all the non-zero vectors are eigenvectors of A. r4 by r1 (v12 v21 ) (v13 v31 ) (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 ) À (v24 v42 ) À (v34 v43 ). r4 (v14 v41 ) (v24 v42 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v23 v32 )X (The vector ri is associated with corner i. r2 (v12 v21 ) (v23 v32 ) (v24 v42 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v34 v43 ). De®ne the vectors r1. W 5 and W3 which we have found so far.) .14. r3 (v13 v31 ) (v23 v32 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v24 v42 ).An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 389 In the RG-submodules W 1 . r3. We now come to the homogeneous component (V È W)÷4 of R15 . r2.

r4 among themselves. s1 s2 s3 s4 0.24). r3. s3 . r2. s4 by s1 (v12 v13 v14 ) À (v21 v31 v41 ). r4 span a 3-dimensional RGsubmodule W4 of V. Next. 1 < i < 4). s2 (v21 v23 v24 ) À (v12 v32 v42 ). s4 (v41 v42 v43 ) À (v14 v24 v34 )X We have si g sig ( g P G. so r1. Note that r1 r2 r3 r4 0. Thus G permutes the vectors r1. r2. we have ri g rig. The character of W4 is ÷4 (see Proposition 13. r3. s2 . s3 (v31 v32 v34 ) À (v13 v23 v43 ). . de®ne the vectors s1 .390 Representations and characters of groups For each g in G and i with 1 < i < 4.

1 < i < 4). s3 . upon the constants which appear in the equations of motion. . it is very dif®cult to calculate the eigenvectors of A in (V È W )÷4 directly. and we can decompose V÷4 W 4 È W 4 in the following way. and no central atom. in fact. r4 À 2s4 span the 3-dimensional space of translation modes. The normal mode (sin ùt)r1 is sometimes called an `umbrella mode'. so we cannot complete the work using only representation theory. W 4 and W is direct. it follows that U1 is A-invariant. w3 . r3. The task in front of us is to ®nd the eigenvectors of A which lie in (V È W )÷4 W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 The solution of this problem depends. r2 À 2s2 . s4 span a 3-dimensional RG-submodule W9 of V with 4 character ÷4 . the space W does not enter our calculations. and the character of W is ÷4 . we have wi g wig ( g P G.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 391 and s1 . s2 . r3 À 2s3 . In this case. and let U1 fv P (V È W )÷4 : vh v for all h P HgX Since (vh)A (vA)h for all v P V÷4 and all h P H. The sum of W 4 . r2. look at the picture of the vector r1 ! We return now to the methane molecule. w4 span W. r4 span the subspace V÷4 R12 of V÷4 . Since dim (V È W )÷4 9.21) (1) The vectors r1 À 2s1 . so 9 (V È W )÷4 W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 We now break off temporarily from studying the methane molecule. in order to deal with the easier case of a molecule with identical atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron. Now recall that w1 .19). w1 w2 w3 w4 0. w2 . Let H be the subgroup of S4 consisting of those permutations which ®x the number 1. We shall therefore press on and explain how to reduce the dif®culty to that of calculating the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. To see why. and so they give the ®nal 3-dimenvib sional space of eigenvectors (see Remark 32. 9 (32. (2) The vectors r1.

The eigenvectors of B then give three eigenvectors of A. the process of calculating the eigenvectors of the 3 3 3 matrix B gives nine eigenvectors of A which form a basis of (V È W )÷4 . the space U 2 . w2 ) is A-invariant. 1 H i H 3. s1 (1 2) s2 . Better still. s1 .392 We ®nd that Representations and characters of groups h3÷4 5 H. de®ned by U2 sp (r2 . r3 À 2s3 3 cos Ww3 ). and hence the matrix A. s1 h s1 and w1 h w1 . where W is the angle between an edge of the tetrahedron and the line joining a corner on the edge to the centroid. r1 (1 2) r2 . w1 (see Exercise 32. and the matrix of A acting on r2. A similar remark applies to U3. it is possible to calculate the 3 3 3 matrix B of the action of A on r1. r1 h r1. namely the translation vector r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 . But for all h P H. w1 (1 2) w2 . By means of representation theory.5). r2 À 2s2 3 cos Ww2 . Therefore U 1 sp (r1 . and since A commutes with the action of G. . w1 is easy to ®nd. s1 . and so dim U1 3. s1 . s2 . w3 )X Therefore. It is hard to imagine a more spectacular application of representation theory with which to conclude our text. Thus we obtain the translation submodule sp (r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 . where U 3 sp (r3 . have been calculated. s2 . s3 . we have therefore reduced the initial problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of a 15 3 15 matrix A to that of calculating two of the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. One eigenvector of A acting on r1. w2 is again B. w1 )X Once the equations of motion.

If u is an eigenvector of A. (d) Show that if b is a rotation through an angle ö about some axis. The equations of motion of the molecule have the form x xA. (iii) 1 is an eigenvalue of C. Exercises for Chapter 32 1. 1). 3. e3 (0. and let e1 (1. 5. The space R3n of displacement vectors is an RG-module. Deduce that det B Æ1. . with eigenvalue Àù2 . 1. 0). then tr B 1 2 cos ö. If V÷ i is irreducible. and Àb is a rotation otherwise. and is called a normal mode.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 393 Summary of Chapter 32 1. The action of any g P G on R3 n commutes with A. 0). (c) Deduce from (a) and (b) that b is a rotation if det B 1. e2 (0. 0. Prove successively that (i) C has a real eigenvalue. Suppose that b P O(R3 ). e3 of R3 satis®es BBt I (where Bt denotes the transpose of B). (ii) C has a positive eigenvalue. where x P R3 n and the 3n 3 3n matrix A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. To determine the eigenvectors of A (and hence all solutions of the equations of motion). 2. 0. 2. All solutions are linear combinations of normal modes. it is suf®cient to ®nd the eigenvectors of A restricted to each homogeneous component V÷ i of the RG-module R3 n . The symmetry group G of a molecule with n atoms consists of those distance-preserving endomorphisms of R3 which send each atom to an atom of the same kind. 4. Suppose that G is the symmetry group of some molecule in R3 . then all non-zero vectors in V÷ i are eigenvectors of A. then x sin (ùt â)u (or x (t â)u if ù 0) is a solution of the equations of motion. (b) Let C (det B)B. e2 . (a) Show that the matrix B of b with respect to the basis e1 .

Work with 15 unit displacement vectors v12 .20.) 4. if g is not a rotationX 3. r4 given in Example 32. 3.394 Representations and characters of groups Show that the sum of the character ÷ T of the translation submodule and the character ÷ R of the rotation submodule has value at g P G given by V b 2(1 2 cos ö).20. and let the position vector of the molecule be iT j xij v ij p 3 i1 yi wi X (a) Prove that cos (/ 012) (2a3) and cos (/ 102) À1a3. . and so ®nd explicitly the 3 3 3 matrix B which appears at the end of Example 32. Consider the space spanned by the vectors r1. v13 . r2.7. v43 . Take the axes for the displacement coordinates as shown below: Calculate the equations of motion x xA with respect to these axes. and verify that A is symmetric.20. Find a basis for this space which is simpler than the one which we have used. Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1. (See the paragraph before Proposition 32. What property of r1. 2. r2. b b X 0. r3. X X X .17. r3. r4 prompted us to use these vectors? 5. w2 . The purpose of this exercise is to derive the equations of motion of the methane molecule. 4 and let 0 denote the centroid of the tetrahedron. if g is a rotation b ` through angle ö (÷ T ÷ R )( g) about some axis. Consider the triatomic molecule studied in Example 32. w3 as described in Example 32. w1 .

q2 . x32 . show that the length of the edge 01 has decreased by p (2a3)(x12 x13 x14 ) y1 À 1( y2 y3 ). i. x23 . x31 . Assume that the magnitude of the force between hydrogen atoms is k1 times the decrease in distance between them. 2 with similar expressions for the edges 13. Prove that m1 x12 À k 1 [x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x12 x13 x14 (3a2)( y1 À 1 y2 À 1 y3 )]. 3 with similar expressions for x42 and x43 . 3 3 with similar expressions for x13. p1 . 34. x21 . 3 with similar expressions for the edges 02. p2 . Finally. 24. 23. 3 with similar expressions for y2 and y3 . Verify that the vectors v ij . 14. j . x14 . Also. x24 . 03. Also. Finally. and the magnitude of the force between a hydrogen atom and a carbon atom is k2 times the decrease in distance between them. q1 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 395 (b) Show that the decrease in the length of the edge 12 from its original length is x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 ). show p m2 y1 Àk 2 [ (2a3)(x12 x13 x14 À x41 À x42 À x43 ) 4 y1 ]. and m2 the mass of a carbon atom. show that the length of the edge 04 has decreased by p (2a3)(x41 x42 x43 ) À 1( y1 y2 y3 )X 3 (c) Let m1 denote the mass of a hydrogen atom. p3 . (d) The equations in part (c) determine the 15 3 15 matrix A in the equations of motion x xA. show m1 x41 À k 1 [x14 x41 1(x42 x43 x12 x13 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x41 x42 x43 À 1 (3a2)( y1 y2 y3 )]. x34 .

(e) Find the entries b ij in the 3 3 3 matrix B which are given by r1 A b11 r1 b12 s1 b13 w1 . then Au Av .20. let W i be an RG-isomorphism from U1 to Ui .8. È Um. 6) is an eigenvector of B. (c) Assume that the eigenvectors of the m 3 m matrix A u are known. (Hint: compose the function w 3 wA with a projection. uW m ) with respect to the basis uW1 . sp (uW1 . . (b) Calculate the equations of motion. we derive a method for simplifying the problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of A when the homogeneous component V÷ i is reducible. w1 are as in Example 32. . Suppose that V÷ i U1 È . .20. Assume that the only internal forces are along the sides of the square. For 1 < i < m. (See 32. . s1 . uW m . . . Show how to ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i .15(5). À2. . (f) Verify that p (1. are eigenvectors of A. w1 A b31 r1 b32 s1 b33 w1 . 6. s1 A b21 r1 b22 s1 b23 w1 . . eigenvectors of A. (a) Find the normal modes of the molecule. where the vectors r1. . Consider a hypothetical molecule in which there are four identical atoms at the corners of a square. uW m ) is an A-invariant vector space of dimension m.) We assume that ÷ i is the character of an irreducible RG-module which remains irreducible as a CGmodule. indeed. and use Exercise 23.396 Representations and characters of groups which appear in Example 32. (a) Prove that for all non-zero u in U1. Prove that if u and v are non-zero elements of U1. x xA. and check that the vectors you found in part (a) are. a sum of m isomorphic irreducible RG-modules. In this exercise.) (b) Let A u denote the matrix of the endomorphism w 3 wA of sp (uW1 . X X X . 7. We reduce our problem to that of ®nding the eigenvectors of an m 3 m matrix. . .

and G T {1} since G is simple. y À1 xy x À1 X By Example 1. Then h g p i is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to G. d: cm d 2 1. If G were in®nite. Note that all subgroups of G are normal. c2 }. Check that x 2 m y 2 1. If Ker W f1g then W is an isomorphism.4 again that ì is a homomorphism. and D2 m hc. 3. Since G An T G. Then kgl is a normal subgroup of G. where m is odd.4. 0 < j < 1. 1).Solutions to exercises Chapter 1 1. 4. hence G is ®nite. so G An v G. Therefore G An and (G An )h are the only right cosets of G An in G. it follows that ë is not a homomorphism. 2. For all odd g in G. and if Ker W G then H f1g. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. Ker ö {1. d À1 cd cÀ1 i. and so G is cyclic of prime order. then h g 2 i would be a normal subgroup different from G and {1}. First. Check using the method of Example 1. so kgl G. since G is abelian. and Ga(G A n ) C2 . we may choose h P G with h P An . b: a2 m b2 1. Let g be a non-identity element of G. (À1) k ) for 0 < i < m À 1. Let p be a prime number which divides |G|. the function W: D4 m 3 D2 m 3 C2 de®ned by 397 . a2 } and Ker ø {1.4. (a) Using the method of Example 1. Let x (c( m1)a2 . either Ker W f1g or Ker W G. so ì is an isomorphism. À1) and y (d. Let D4 m ha. Also Ker ì {1} and Im ì L. Therefore g p 1. 5. it is routine to verify that ö and ø are homomorphisms. G An f g P G: g is even}. we have g a (ghÀ1 )h P (G An )h. Since G is simple and Ker W v G. The elements of D2 m 3 C2 are (c i d j . (b) Since b2 ë I but (bë)2 Y 2 ÀI. 0 < k < 1.

so gh P G. 1) and x m (1. h P G then gh T 0. it follows that H ke2ðia n l. (a) Let G kal and suppose that 1 T H < G. by part (b). These relations show that every element of the group kA. ei jða4 0 0 ei jða4 j j . 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. Since Im W kx. k. h. g À1 g has size 1. where H { g P G: gn 1}. Therefore a j a kq and so H kak l. it contains x 2 (c. are all distinct. Let G be the set of non-zero complex numbers. then h n 1 for all h P H (since the order of h divides n. 0 such that ai P H. It follows that f g P G: g n 1g had i. 0 and a k P H. so dj j. B2 A4 and BÀ1 AB AÀ1 . k P G then (gh)k g(hk). also 1 P G and 1g g1 g for all g P G. Bl has order 16. yl. r with 0 < r . Hence. hence g P kad l. À1) and hence Im W D2 m 3 C2 . We deduce that hxi H h yiX Thus x P h yi. De®ne matrices A. 0 < k < 1. B as follows: eiða4 0 A . by Lagrange's Theorem). A B A X 0 eÀi jða4 ÀeÀi jða4 0 Since these matrices. so g gÀ1 and g has order 2. If g P G and g n 1. with 0 < j < 7. we have r 0. If H is a subgroup of G of order n. 8.398 Representations and characters of groups W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 2m À 1. which is a cyclic group of order n. First observe that there exists i . (c) If x and y are elements of order n in the ®nite cyclic group G. Bl has the form A j B k with 0 < j < 7. Each such subset has size 1 or 2. Now kxl and k yl have order n. If 1 T a j P H then j qk r for some integers q. Moreover. Therefore H < f g P G: g n 1g he2ðia n iX Since j Hj n jhe2ðia n ij. if jGj is even then there exists g P G such that g T 1 and the subset f g. 9. then g a j for some integer j and dnj jn. and gÀ1 g ggÀ1 1. Choose k as small as possible such that k . k. Partition G into subsets f g. . g À1 g ( g P G). Since r . 7. thus H is cyclic. 0 eÀiða4 B 1 X 0 0 À1 Check that A8 I. kA. if g P G then g À1 1a g P G. (b) Assume that G hai and jGj dn. As |D4 m | |D2 m 3 C2 |. then x. y P H. Finally. 6. Hence a r a j aÀqk a j (a k )Àq P H. also H has order n. If g. Thus G is a group under multiplication. we conclude that W is an isomorphism. If g. and the identity element is in a subset of size 1. and so x is a power of y.

. ur . Ker W {0}. so u À v P Ker W {0}. F F F .12)). Therefore Hg gH. . F F F . 3. This shows that V U È W. while H. similarly ì i 0 for all i. . suppose that u1 . . . If g P H then gÀ1 Hg H. ë r ur ì1 w1 . . we have (uWÀ1 wWÀ1 )W (uWÀ1 )W (wWÀ1 )W u w. If u.12). It is easy to see that V U W. Since u1 0 0 0 u2 u3 and the sum U1 U2 U3 is direct. . . . w s . . this forces ë i 0 for all i. Chapter 2 1. ws are linearly independent. . . ur . w1. we have u1 . Since V U È W. ws span V. Now suppose that V U W and U W {0}. the expression 0 0 0 is the unique expression for 0 as the sum of vectors in U and W. . w1. ur and w is a linear combination of w1 . By (2. ur . (2) A (3): If Ker W {0} then dim (Im W) dim V (by (2. so Im W V (by (2. it follows that v is a linear combination of u1 . w1. . (1) A (2): If W is invertible then W is injective. gH are a the two left cosets. then u1 À u2 w2 À w1 P U W {0}. Hence H v G. . w2 P W. . . so by Exercise 3. since u is a linear combination of u1 . ì j in F. If v P V then v u w for some u P U and w P W. Let u P U1 (U2 U3 ). Then v v 0 0 v and this gives us two expressions for v as the sum of an element in U and an element in W. hence they form a basis of V. ì s ws for some ë i . . W is invertible. so W is surjective. . Thus U W {0}. u2 P U and w1. since u1 . Hg are the two right cosets of H in G. . . Then u u1 u2 u3 for some ui P Ui (1 < i < 3). v P V and uW vW then (u À v)W 0. ws are linearly independent. . . Suppose that ë1 u1 X X X ë r ur ì1 w1 X X X ì s ws 0 with all ë i .7)). w s . w P W and ë P F. As W is surjective and injective. Then V U W. j. Assume ®rst that V U È W. . . First suppose that V U È W. Therefore u1 . . If v P U W then v ë1 u1 . . Since such expressions are unique. Let v P U W. . . 4. (3) A (1): Assume that Im W V. so WÀ1 is a linear transformation. .Chapter 2 399 10. . u r . 2. w1 . . . and so u v. Let u. . so Ker W {0}. . hence u1 u2 and w1 w2. and so ë1 u1 X X X ë r ur ì1 w1 X X X ì s ws 0X As u1 . Conversely. Since W is a linear transformation. and so gÀ1 Hg H again. ì j P F. Thus v 0 and so U W {0}. V U È W. . v 0. . w1. (ë(wWÀ1 ))W ë(wWÀ1 )W ëwX Hence (u w)WÀ1 uWÀ1 wWÀ1 and (ëw)WÀ1 ë(wWÀ1 ). . ur . ws is a basis of V. . If u1 w1 u2 w2 with u1 . . this gives ë i ì j 0 for all i. . (a) Assume ®rst that V U1 È U2 È U3. ur are linearly independent. . And if g P H then H. Thus W is injective. Therefore u1 . 5. . . Suppose jG: Hj 2 and let g P G. F F F .

Check that A3 B3 C 3 I. by Exercise 4. . say B. 0) and ö: (x.10)). Conversely. . . so W is a projection. 7. 6. . 1 2(v Chapter 3 1. if [W]B has the given form. . . 2 2 2 À vW) P W. 2 3 (b) Let V R2. 1 2 3 1 Similarly. Therefore V U1 È U2 È U3. The construction of the basis B is similar to that in Solution 8. ur . 0)). Since ui W ui for all i and wj W 0 for all j. Then 1 2 3 u1 À u9 (u9 À u2 ) (u9 À u3 ) P U1 (U2 U3 ) {0}. Then u1 . . . if V U È W then dim V dim U dim W. . then clearly W2 W. 0). ws is a basis. w1. 1)). . More generally. so V Im W È Ker W. Therefore V U È W. 1)). Similarly. the matrix [W]B is diagonal. Therefore for all integers i. U3 sp ((1. ws for Ker W. . and so r is a representation. 8. 0)). . dim Ur. of V. ur for Im W and a basis w1. If v P U W then v vW Àv.400 Representations and characters of groups u2 u3 0. First. so u1 u9 . so 1(v vW) P U. u2 u9 and u3 u9 . u9 P Ui (1 < i < 3) and i u1 u2 u3 u9 u9 u9 . the diagonal entries being r 1's followed by s 0's. 0)). Then (ai )r Ai for all integers i (including i . È Ur then V U1 È (U2 È . Then I 1r (am )r (ar) m Am X Conversely. y) 3 ( y. Take a basis u1 . 2. but r1 is not. Thus V U W. if V U1 È . . by Exercise 3. . 0)X Then Im W sp ((1. U2 sp ((0. . 1)). and Im ö Ker ö sp ((1. . . The representations r2 and r3 are faithful. . j. dim (U2 È . È Ur ) dim U2 . . Let V R2. . . . By Exercise 4. Then V Im W È Ker W by Proposition 2. . suppose that r is a representation of G. Now suppose that U1 (U2 U3 ) U2 (U1 U3 ) U3 (U1 U2 ) {0}. De®ne W. . so v 0. dim Ur. and U1 sp ((1. Assume that ui . . . each r j is a representation. Similarly. Hence by Exercise 1. ö: V 3 V by W: (x. . so V T Im ö È Ker ö. Let v P V. U2 (U1 U3 ) U 3 (U1 U2 ) f0g. by induction on r. (a i a j )r (a i j )r A i j A i A j (a i r)(a j r). assume that Am I. y) 3 (x. Then v 1(v vW) 1(v À vW)X 2 2 Observe that 1(v vW)W 1(vW v).32. so dim V dim U1 . Therefore U1 (U2 U3 ) {0}. Suppose ®rst that W is a projection. 9. È Ur ) (see (2. Ker W sp ((0. m À 1 and i .

IÀ1 (gr)I gr.) If j T 2. (To ®nd T. (1) For all g P G. Check that in each of the cases (1) S A. But Im r < GL (1. 8. hence r2 is not equivalent to any of the others. And if j T 3. since a2 r2 I and a3 r3 I. so ó is equivalent to r. 0 < j < 1)X 401 It is easy to check that r is a representation of G. T B. F) and GL (1.2(1). T B. then gô (ST)À1 (gr)(ST). But r2 and r3 are not faithful. Therefore GaKer r is abelian. By Theorem 1. 0 < s < 1) are all different. so r is equivalent to ô. let T 1 1 X Ài i Then T À1 (gr4 )T gr1 for all g P G. De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 A d À1 0 H I 1 0 0 0 e. De®ne r by (a i b j )r (À1) j (0 < i < n À 1. . 5. 7.Chapter 3 3. T À1 ST S À1 X It follows that each r k is a representation (see Example 1. 6. we have S 6 T 2 I. 0 1 1 B d0 0 H I 0 0 À1 0 eX 0 1 Then the function r: a r b s 3 A r Bs (0 < r < 3. 0 < s < 1) is a faithful representation of D8 ka. T ÀB. The representations r1 and r4 are equivalent: to see this.10. then there are invertible matrices S and T such that gó SÀ1 ( gr)S and gô T À1 (gó)T for all g P G. F) is abelian. No: let G be any non-abelian group and let r be the trivial representation. (2) S A3 . b: a4 b2 1. then a2 r j T I. (3) If r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô. Similarly r4 is faithful. (4) S C.4). GaKer r Im r. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. then a3 r j T I. 4. so r1 is faithful. then gr (T À1 )À1 (gó)T À1. The matrices A r Bs (0 < r < 5. (3) S ÀA. ®rst work out the eigenvectors of C. (2) If r is equivalent to ó then there is an invertible matrix T such that gó T À1 ( gr)T for all g P G. Compare Example 3. T D. hence r3 is not equivalent to any of the others. hence r is equivalent to r.

0 < j < 1) is a representation of Q8 over R. since one of g. since either vg v vh (if g. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X Hence r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. For all u. Let g P Sn .2. so V is an FG-module. g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 H (1 2) 1 0 0 0e 0 1 I 0 0 À1 0 e À1 1 I 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 H (1 3) I 0 1 1 0e 0 0 I 0 0 1 À1 e 0 À1 [ g]B 2 g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 (2 3) 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I H (1 2 3) 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1e 0 0 I 0 0 À1 1 e À1 0 I H (1 3 2) 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 I 0 0 0 À1 e 1 À1 [ g]B 2 All the matrices [g]B 2 have the form H I 1 0 0 d 0 j j eX 0 j j 2. 3. we have v g P V . a a Then v(gh) Àv. assume that gh P An . By Theorem 4. (u v) g ug v gX It remains to check (2) of De®nition 4. and (vg)h Àv. H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f À1 0 0 f 0 0g 0 0 1g g f g.2. Let V R4. g P Q8. B2 A2 . Assume ®rst that gh P An . Next. Let v P V and g.4(1). We have now checked all the conditions in De®nition 4. h P Sn . Then v(gh) v. h is in An and the other is not. h P An ) or vg Àv vh (if g. Let A f d 0 0 0 À1 e and B d À1 0 0 0e 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 0 Check that A4 I. v1 v. v in V and ë in F. and (vg)h v. If we put . h P An ).402 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 4 1. (ëv) g ë(v g). V becomes an RQ8 -module if we de®ne vg v( gr) for all v P V.

and AM is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two columns. . â) P U with (á.5. 0. . 2. 4. and the ij-entry of PA is n pik akj a ig. 1)). Then (á. â) À (á. 1. â)a (á â. pij X 0. let g be the permutation in Sn which has the property that for all i. and let (á. . ` 1. if j T igX Then P is a permutation matrix. Suppose that r has degree n and r is reducible. First consider the FG-module V F 2. Let G D12 and let r1 . and (á. Then r is equivalent to a representation ô of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G) ô: g 3 d Yg Zg where X g is a k 3 k matrix and 0 . Then ó is equivalent to ô. â) T (0. 0. since ó is equivalent to r. v4 (0. Therefore ó is reducible. á â) P U. â À á) P U. n. 3. You may ®nd it helpful ®rst to check that if H 0 1 f1 0 f f 1 M f FF f d F 403 v1 (1. 1) or (1. Hence the FG-submodules of V are {0}. v3 (0. To solve the exercise. 0g g g g g e 1 I 0 then MA is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two rows. Since at least one of á â and á À â is non-zero. where vg v(gr1 ) for . sp ((1. sp ((1. we deduce that (1. . À1)) and V. 0). If C is a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns. r4 be the representations of G de®ned in Exercise 3. 0. 1). 0). k . the proof is similar to that for the rows. then C AQ for some permutation matrix Q. 0. Let U be a non-zero FGsubmodule of V. 0). 0. 1. â) (á. row i of B row ig of AX Let P be the n 3 n matrix ( pij ) de®ned by V if j ig.Chapter 5 then for all i. j X k1 Hence PA B. 0). v2 (0. It is easy to verify that V is an FG-module. À1) belongs to U. Chapter 5 1. 0. v i a and v i b are as required in the question. â)a (á À â.

where H is the subgroup {1. bl T G. g P G. À1) (so that u P U). By the solution to Exercise 1. Now let V F 2 with vg v(gr2 ) for v P V. by an argument similar to that for r1. (c) For every element g of ka. we may write every element of G in the form ai b j c k (0 < i < 2. let u be (1. À1) lies in U. 1)b. and also (1. bl| 9 and ka. Then U is an FH-module. (d) Let V C2 be the CG-module obtained by de®ning vg v(gr) for all v P C2 .C çÀ1 1 1 X 0 Thus jGj < 18. 1) or (1. (See Example 5. 0 < k < 1)X that |ka. accordingly. 1)a À(1. so r is reducible. Finally. 1) (1. either (1. Chapter 6 1X (a) xy À2X1 À a3 ab 3a2 b 2a3 b. Then V is neither reducible nor irreducible. Then (1. Hence. and u and ub are linearly independent unless ç 1. 4. since r1 and r4 are equivalent.5(2) for an alternative argument. where H is the subgroup {1. 1)a are linearly independent. 1) or (1. x 2 4X1 a2 4a3 X . (a) It is easy to check the given relations.404 Representations and characters of groups v P V.4). Suppose that U is a non-zero FG-submodule of V. g P G. if either å T 1 or ç T 1 then dim U 2 and so r is irreducible. À1) and (1. Hence sp ((1. C À1 AC AÀ1 and C À1 BC BÀ1 . by Lagrange's Theorem. there exists a cube root î of unity such that î 0 gr À1 X 0 î But there are only three distinct cube roots of unity. if å ç 1 then sp ((1. then U is a CHsubmodule. 1) and (1. On the other hand. (b) Let å 0 ç A . 9. However. AB BA. Consequently U V and so V is irreducible. Now u and ua are linearly independent unless å 1. so there exist distinct g1 . it follows that dim U > 2. bl. Let V {0} and let 0 g 0 for all g P G. Since (1. g2 P ka. 5. b}. it is clear Hence. 1) or (1. If U is a non-zero CG-submodule of V. Therefore r is never faithful. 1)) is a CG-submodule of V. jGj Therefore jGj 18. 0 < j < 2. 1)) is an FG-submodule of V and r2 is reducible. Using the relations. B 0 å À1 0 Check that A3 B3 C 2 I. À1) lies in U. 0 0 . Hence r is a representation (compare Example 1. c}. bl with g1 r g2 r. À1)a are linearly independent. g P G. r3 is irreducible.) Therefore r1 is irreducible. Hence either (1. by the solution to Exercise 1. is a multiple of 9 and jGj . yx À2X1 À a3 b 2a2 b 3a3 b. also r4 is irreducible.

. Relative to the basis 1. and u u u. and take r 1 a. there exists a unique h in G such that gi h gj . If r 1 À g. so (v i a)W v i1 W a i1 (v i W)a. ab bal. so rz 2. Let C2 3 C2 ka. Let a (1 2 3 4 5) and let v1 . v1 b v2 and v2 b v1. (ëu1 )Wö (ë(u1 W))ö ë(u1 (Wö)). It is easy to show that V0 is an FG-submodule of V. s 1 À a. If r P CG then r ë g gz ë g zg zr. hence W is an FG-homomorphism. Hence a i b j z za i b j for all i. No: let G ka: a2 1l. Let v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 and v2 b ù2 ab ùa2 b. Chapter 7 1. . g. ab of F(C2 3 C2 ). Then W: ë1 v1 X X X ë5 v5 3 ë1 1 ë2 a ë3 a2 ë4 a3 ë5 a4 is the required FG-isomorphism. 5. . g ë g g with ë g P C. the regular representation r is given by H I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 f1 0 0 0g f0 1 0 0g f g f g 1r f g. then vr 0 and neither v nor r is 0. ë P F and g P G. . Then . Use the argument of either Example 5. The reason is that for all i. 6. hence 0r v0 0. so do gh and hg. (Note that v i W ai . b: a2 b2 1.5(2) or the solution to Exercise 5. u2 P U. For all u1 . v5 be the natural basis for the permutation module for G over F.Chapter 7 405 (b) az ab a3 b a2 ba ba za. (a) As g runs through G. j and so gz zg for all g P G. then u 0. Hence ch hc c. Let V be the trivial FG-module and let 0 T v P V and 1 T g P G. we have (u1 u2 )Wö (u1 W u2 W)ö u1 (Wö) u2 (Wö). Now 0r (0 0)r 0r 0r. and bz 1 a2 zb. ar f d0 0 0 1e d0 0 1 0e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 H I H I 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 f0 0 1 0g f0 0 0 1g f g f g br f gX g.3 to prove that W is irreducible. (u1 g)Wö ((u1 W) g)ö ((u1 W)ö) g (u1 (Wö)) gX 2. Hence W is a CG-submodule of CG. Check that v1 a ùv1 . Note ®rst that if u is an element of a vector space. and v0 v(0 0) v0 v0. a. b. Let x P G. (ab)r f d0 1 0 0e d1 0 0 0e 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3. 4. j. v2 a ù2 v2 . (b) c2 c hPG h hPG ch jGjc. (c) All the entries in [W]B are 1 (compare the solution to Exercise 2).) 3.

ab ba). . For all w P W 0 . v2 . where ù e2ðia3 . v3 v4 ) and (FG)0 sp g X gPG Since V0 and (FG)0 have different dimensions. restricted to V0 . Also (á1 âx)xW (â1 áx)W (â À á)(1 À x) (á À â)(1 À x)x (á1 âx)WxX Hence W is an FG-homomorphism. . and so V0 ö W 0 . (a) W is easily seen to be a linear transformation. 6. and Ker W Im W sp (v2 ). V sp (Àùv1 v2 ) È sp (Àù2 v1 v2 ). (c) Let B be the basis 1 À x. (Find eigenvectors for x.) 2. Then RG sp (1 a b ab) È sp (1 a À b À ab) È sp (1 À a b À ab) È sp (1 À a À b ab)X 3. Let G {1. we see that W is an FGhomomorphism from V to V0 . De®ne vg v for all v P V. Suppose r is reducible. 5. a. Chapter 8 1. For all v P V0 . No: let v1 . 2 3 V0 sp (v1 v2 . If v P V0 then (vajGj)W v. hence W is surjective. 1 x. Hence the function ö. v4 be the natural basis of the permutation module V for G over F.406 Representations and characters of groups gPG vxg gPG vg gPG v gxX Hence (vx)W vW (vW)x. Then by Maschke's Theorem. If we let W: ëv1 ìv2 3 ëv2 (ë. g P G. In the notation of Exercise 3. . (vö)g (vg)ö vö. Let G be any group. (wöÀ1 )g (wg)öÀ1 wöÀ1 . is an FG-isomorphism from V0 to W 0 . and let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 . 4. noting that V W V0 . 4. Hence W2 2W. r is equivalent to a representation ó of the form ëg 0 gó (ë g . h P G. b. so W 0 öÀ1 V0 . . this makes V into a CGmodule. it follows from Exercise 4 that V and FG are not isomorphic FG-modules. since all diagonal matrices . ì g P C)X 0 ìg Then (gó)(hó) (hó)(gó) for all g. Let g P G. (b) (á À â)(1 À x)W ((á À â) À (â À á))(1 À x) 2(á À â)(1 À x). ab} C2 3 C2 (so a2 b2 1. Suppose that ö: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. ì P C) then W is a CG-homomorphism from V to V.

Therefore r is irreducible. For example. Irreducible representations r1 . Chapter 9 1. . È Ur. v]X xPG xPG (2) It is easy to prove that U c is a subspace of V. . v gg À1 ] by part (1) [ug À1 . if u T 0 then (ux. . r3 . ar2 (À1)X Let C3 kb: b 1l and let ù e2ðia3 . 1). Then there exist i P {1. Then V U È W. Ur are irreducible CG-submodules of CG. r4 : 3 . 6. vx) [u. . Since G a is simple. Irreducible representations r1 . . Also [ug. bi r3 (ù2i )X Let C2 3 C2 {(1. 5. and W is a CG-submodule of V by part (2). 1r2 (1). (x. [u. r2 . v gx) (ux. and so U c is a CG-submodule of V. v g] (ugx. . hence also (gr)(hr) (hr)(gr) for all g. Then for all u P U. 0 for all x P G. where U1. (1) It is straightforward to verify for [ . y). . bi r2 (ù i ). where x 2 y 2 1. y)}. r2 . De®ne K fx P G: vx v for all v P Ui gX Check that K is a normal subgroup of G. 1). also K T G since g P K. Let C2 ka: a2 1l. r} and g P G such that ug T u for some u P Ui (otherwise vg v for all v P CG). u] . This is a contradiction. r2 : 1r1 ar1 (1). . . Let CG U1 È . 0)) is the only 1-dimensional CG-submodule of V. v g] [ug À1 . Irreducible representations r1 . so there is no CG-submodule W of V with V U È W. v] 0 since ug À1 P U X Therefore vg P U c. We know that the regular CG-module CG is faithful (Proposition 6.Chapter 9 407 commute with each other. ] the axioms of a complex inner product. (1. ux) . This means that Ui is a faithful irreducible CG-module. U sp ((1. h P G. Let v P U c and g P G. (x. r3 : 1r1 br1 b2 r1 (1). . so [u. 7.6). 0. (3) Let W U c. we must therefore have K {1}.

y j )r2 (À1) j . then M ëI for some ë P C. Also bÀ1 (a aÀ1 )b aÀ1 a. n1 2. r. (b) If g1 (x 2 . a) 3 . and let å j e2ðia n j . Then H i I å11 f g i FF g r: ( g 11 . y j )r4 (À1) i j X 2.408 Representations and characters of groups gr1 (1) for all g P C2 3 C2 . 5. 6. Check that A4 B2 I. For 1 < j < r. we cannot have (g1 g2 )ó g1 ó g2 ó (À1). (b) Check that w(a aÀ1 ) Àw for all w P W. (a) r: (x i . (x i . y j ) 3 (À1) i . Let z gPG g. 3 C n r of degree r. 1). Let C4 3 C4 k(x. similarly for ó. so b commutes with a aÀ1 . (x i . BÀ1 AB AÀ1 when A ar and B br. 4. g2 and g1 g2 all have order 2. 3. 7. X X X . then i i i i ó : ( g 11 . and the result follows from Proposition 9. (a) Let Cn kx: x n 1l. g 22 ) 3 (å11 å22 ) is a faithful representation of degree 1 .14. so is not cyclic. b) 3 Àù 0 0 Àù . n2 3. y j )r3 (À1) i . let gj generate Cn j . hence ó is reducible (Corollary 9. (c) The centre of C2 3 D8 is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . y 2 ) then g1 . (x i .3).5(2)). Then r: x j 3 (e2ði ja n ) is a faithful irreducible representation of Cn . Hence r gives a representation. b3 (b) r: a 3 À1 0 0 À1 gives a faithful irreducible representation of D8 (see Example 5. y): x 4 y 4 1l. (a) Clearly a commutes with a aÀ1 .16 shows that C2 3 D8 has no faithful irreducible representation. Since (g1 g2 )ó (g1 ó)(g2 ó) for all representations ó. . (d) Let C3 kx: x 3 1l and let ù e2ðia3 . Hence r is irreducible (Corollary 9.3). . 1) and g2 (1. (x. (1. Hence z P Z(CG). 0 1 1 0 . If M(gr) (gr)M for g a and for g b. Notice that the matrix 5 À6 4 À5 commutes with gó for all g P G. Yes: if r 2. g irr ) 3 f d e F ir år 0 0 is a faithful representation of C n1 3 . Then xz z zx for all x P G. Therefore Proposition 9. Check that 0 ù ù 0 r: (x.

Thus U V. Therefore every irreducible representation of D8 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r0 : a 3 (1). Now suppose that U is an arbitrary trivial CG-submodule CG. Theorem 10. u3 1 À a a2 À a3 À b ab À a2 b a3 bX 4. Then V is a trivial CG-submodule of CG.4) and faithful. b 3 (À1) 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 r4 : a 3 .8(2). w2 ) U2 È U3 . w2 ) and sp (v3 . since there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1. u2 1 À a a2 À a3 b À ab a2 b À a3 b. sp (v2 . 409 1. w0 ) U0 È U1 . let wj bv j. We have sp (v0 . U2 . the subspaces sp (v0 . We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Let u1 1 a a2 a3 À b À ab À a2 b À a3 b. Then. Then ug u for all g P G. w3 3 v3. w1 ). namely U0 . v1 1 ia À a2 À ia3 .Chapter 10 gives a representation of C3 3 D8. u2 . U1 . w3 ). Let G kx: x 4 1l. Let U4 sp (v1 . b 3 (1) r1 : a 3 (1). where Ui sp (ui ) (0 < 3) and u1 . U5 sp (v3 . so |G|u u( gPG g) ( gPG g)u P V.b3 X 0 Ài 1 0 . as in Example 10. w0 ). Moreover U4 U5. v3 1 À ia À a2 ia3 Chapter 10 (compare the solution to Exercise 2).5(2) (or see Exercise 8. 2. so U sp (u) of for some u. It is irreducible (see for example Exercise 8.4). sp (v2 . b 3 (1) r3 : a 3 (À1). u3 are as in the solution to i< Exercise 3. w3 ). v2 1 À a a2 À a3 . while u0 gPG g. Let v0 1 a a2 a3 . For 0 < j < 3. sp (v1 . Then CG sp (1 x x 2 x 3 ) È sp (1 ix À x 2 À ix 3 ) È sp (1 À x x 2 À x 3 ) È sp (1 À ix À x 2 ix 3 )X 3. U3 and U4 . and so CG has exactly one trivial CGsubmodule. U4 and U5 are irreducible CG-modules. w1 ) are CG-submodules of CG. b 3 (À1) r2 : a 3 (À1). Let V sp ( gPG g). namely V.5 now shows that there are exactly ®ve non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. As in Example 5.

13 to see that the possible answers are 112 . È Ys. 1.2. Since G is non-abelian. CG) (compare the proof of Proposition 11. dim (HomCG (V. by the proof of Proposition 11. Then W1 . not all the dimensions are 1 (see Proposition 9. È Xr and W Y1 È . and so on). . either by the method of Example 5.5)(3) and Proposition 11. v2 3 u2 .8. A CG-isomorphism is given by v1 3 u1 . rW2 w2 r (r P CG). Therefore we have constructed in®nitely many CG-submodules Im öë of the required form.8). V is irreducible. .18). It is easy to check that if ë T ì then Im öë T Im ö ì .6.1). Let V X1 È . 14 22 and 13 3 (where 112 means twelve 1s. .4. b): X a Yb Vi gjX Now the number of integers a with X a V i is dim (HomCG (V . . 18 2 means eight 1s and one 2. Let W: U1 3 U2 be a CG-isomorphism. . Also. Then {ö g : g P G} gives a basis of HomCG (CG. the dimensions are 1. 2. . 5.6. 17.4. U)) 1. Then sp (u1 . . by Corollary 11. 3. 2.3. by Theorem 11. V i )) d i . . Therefore. equals k i1 jf(a.3) that 18 2 cannot occur. and similarly the number of integers b with Y b V i is k e i . Then by (11. Hence. D12 has at least two inequivalent irreducible representations of degree 2. Let v1 . Then sp (v1 . u2 b À iab À a2 b ia3 b. moreover. where each Xa and each Yb is an irreducible CG-module. u P Ker öë D u ëuW 0 D u 0. in turn. W)) i1 d i e i . v n ) is the unique trivial CG-submodule of V (compare Exercise 10.5(2) or by Exercise 8. Then ö1 . Chapter 11 1. 6. ö2 by uö1 u. W2 is a basis of HomCG (CG. de®ne the function öë : U1 3 V by öë : u 3 u ëuW (u P U 1 )X Then öë is easily seen to be a CG-homomorphism. CG). W)) is equal to the number of ordered pairs (a. uö2 bu (u P U3 ). Let u1 1 À ia À a2 ia3 . . de®ne ö g : CG 3 CG by rö g gr (r P CG). Hence the answer for D12 is 14 22 . dim (HomCG (V. de®ne ö1 . For each g P G. 6. 4. ö2 is a basis of HomCG (U3. Thus U1 Im öë . For ë P C. . since the sum U1 U2 is direct.8(2). U3 ).12. Hence by Corollary 11. It will be shown later (Exercises 15. . De®ne W1 and W2 by rW1 v1 r. Let v1 . v n be the natural basis of V. b) such that X a Y b .410 Representations and characters of groups 5. dim (HomCG (V. This. u2 ) is a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. By Exercise 5. 18 2. w2 be the basis of U3 described in Example 10. Compare Example 11.

Hence j Hj 1 or 60. 4 . then four choices for j. Each choice gives exactly two 3-cycles. x A6 T x S6 . so 1 P CG (x). 15. fa2 g. There are (4 ) choices for the numbers i. 6. fa. j. then we can make two different 3-cycles (k l m) and (k m l ) from the remaining numbers. An element x of cycle-shape (5) has CS6 (x) kxl (note that |x S6 | 144 and use Theorem 12. in agreement with Theorem n 12. fab. 2 40 elements in all. a2 . l distinct. (a) (1 2) G {(i j): 1 < i . Hence |(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G | 5 . ab a3 bX 7. 3 15.8). with i. j. k. l (unordered). b: a4 1. and three permutations for each choice.17. This gives 5 . and a basis of Z(CQ8 ) is 1. 2. and H is a union of conjugacy classes of A5 . (i k)( j l ) and (i l )( j k).8 (since (2 ) n3a(2X(n À 2)3)). b a2 b. 12. Now the required result follows from Theorem 12. m distinct. There are (3 ) choices for the numbers i. therefore A5 is simple. n G (b) (1 2 3) consists of all 3-cycles (i j k). namely (i j k) and (i k j). a a3 . g A6 g S6 . 2) (6) 40 90 120 4. l. a2 bg. and 1 P H. 5. Thus |CG ((1 2))| 2´(n À 2)!. namely (i j)(k l ). k (unordered). n 3. so zx xz and z P CG (x). j. 2) (5) 90 120 144 (23 ) 15 (32 ) (4. k. fb. the conjugacy classes of A5 have sizes 1. 20. a3 bg. 2) from the remaining numbers. then we can make three permutations ( j k)(l m). Assume that g.8. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. h P CG (x). The elements of (1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G have the form (1 i)( j k)(l m).18(2). a3 g. j. (1 2)(3 4) G consists of all permutations of the form (i j)(k l ) with i. Then gx xg and hx xh. The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. Therefore CG (x) is a subgroup of G. The sizes of the conjugacy classes of S6 are given in the following table: Cycle-shape (1) Class size 1 (2) 15 (3) 40 (22 ) 45 (4) (3. b2 a2 . For elements g of other cycle-shapes. By Example 12. Hence by Proposition 12. thus ghÀ1 P CG (x). We have Q8 ka. j < n} and this set has size (2 ). If H is a normal subgroup of A5 then j Hj divides 60. There are ®ve choices for i. 12. n k. where x is a permutation ®xing 1 and 2. so hÀ1 x xhÀ1 and ghÀ1 x gxhÀ1 xghÀ1 . There are ®ve choices for i. (c) Every element of (1 2 3)(4 5 6) G has the form (1 i j)(k l m). Also 1x x1. ( j l )(k m) and ( j m)(k l ) of cycle shape (2. Note that x P CG (g) D x P CG ( gz). The class equation gives . The centralizer CG ((1 2)) consists of all elements x and (1 2)x.Chapter 12 Chapter 12 411 1. If z P Z(G) then zg gz for all g P G.

10. If ÷ is a non-zero character which is a homomorphism. a i i Therefore p divides |x G |. in addition. and hence ÷(zg) ë÷(g). Let r be a representation with character ÷. This is a contradiction. for all g in G. Hence g 3 (det (gr)) is a representation of G over C of degree 1. (a) For all g. by Proposition 9. |x G | divides pn and |x G | T 1 by Theorem 12. then ( gr)(hr) (hr)(gr) for all h P G. a4 b ab. . Chapter 13 1. 6. det ((gh)r) det ((gr)(hr)) det (gr) det (hr). h PG. Let r be a representation with character ÷. The required result now follows from Theorem 13. Then zr ëI for some ë P C. If. . so ÷(1) 1. and so ä is a linear character of G.14. a2 . so ë m 1. a5 À1 0 a2 . a4 }. Since ÷(g) |®x (g)|. If g P Z(G) then gr ëI for some ë P C. 2) are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 2 2 a3 2 0 a. Thus. then p2 divides |x G | for all i xi P Z(G). Moreover. Let C4 kx: x 4 1l. The irreducible characters ÷1 . then by the class equation. we have ÷((1 2)) 5 and ÷((1 6)(2 3 5)) 2.11(1). I 1r z m r (zr) m ë m I. by Proposition 9. and hence g P Z(G) since r is faithful. a3 } and Ker r2 {1. Hence p divides |Z(G)|. 2. i (b) If no conjugacy class of G has size p. a3 b. |G| > p3 . p2 divides a |Z(G)|. a2 b.412 Representations and characters of groups jGj j Z(G)j xiP Z(G) a jx G jX i (a) For xi P Z(G).9). Conversely. 3. 4. 7.8 and (12. if gr ëI for some ë P C. (zg)r (zr)(gr) ë(gr). . a5 b 0 0 0 À2 Also Ker r1 {1. We have now proved that gr ëI for some ë P C if and only if g P Z(G).14. ÷4 of C4 are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 x 1 i À1 Ài x2 1 À1 1 À1 x3 1 Ài À1 i We have ÷reg ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 . (b) GaKer ä Im ä by Theorem 1. a4 À1 2 b. so Z(G) T f1g. The characters ÷ i of r i (i 1. . 5. then ÷(1) ÷(12 ) (÷(1))2 . and Im ä is a subgroup of the .

By Exercise 1. The required result now follows from Exercise 7. 24 4 8 4 3 . . 3 (À1)(À1) 3 . (0 1 ). Order the natural basis g1 .20 (but ÷ is not). we have ÷reg (x) T ÷reg (1) (see Proposition 13. 8. 24 4 8 4 3. 3 (À1) . . . (c) Im ä is a ®nite subgroup of CÃ .7. by Theorem 13. G has an element x of order 2. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷.10)). 2.Chapter 14 413 multiplicative group CÃ of non-zero complex numbers. we obtain 3 . which is abelian. Also À1 P Im ä. Hence Im ä contains a subgroup H of index 2. Using Proposition 14. and de®ne the character ä as in Exercise 7. . ÷i 0 2. 3). As x T 1. 2. det ([x]B ) (À1) k À1. And if s is even then Às s mod 4.3 1. so Im ä has even order. Let ÷ i be the character of r i (i 1. so ÷ i (x) T ÷ i (1) for some irreducible character ÷ i of G. so ÷( g) r À s r s ÷(1) mod 4. Say there are r entries 1 and s entries À1. øi 0 1X 24 4 8 4 Hence ø is irreducible by Theorem 14. Then I H 0 1 g f1 0 g f g f 0 1 [x]B f gX g f 1 0 e d FF F 0 0 There are k blocks and since k is odd. Thus ä(x) À1.5(2). The values of these characters are as follows: Conjugacy class ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 2 2 2 a2 À2 À2 2 a. If s is odd then ä( g) À1. 10. 1 3 . Let r be the regular representation of G.1 (À1)(À1) (À1)(À1) hø. 10 Chapter 14 1. 9. a2 b 0 0 0 ab. It is easy to check that {g P G: ä(g) P H} is a normal subgroup of G of index 2. øi 0 0. a3 0 0 0 b.20). and G has a normal subgroup of index 2 by Exercise 7. by Exercise 1. 3 (À1)(À1) h÷. a3 b 0 0 À2 .19. (À1) (À1)(À1) h÷. De®ne ä as in Exercise 7. g2 k of CG so as to obtain a basis B in which g and gx are adjacent for all g P G. We may choose a basis B of V so that [g]B is diagonal with all diagonal entries Æ1 (see (9. hence is cyclic.8. Therefore GaKer ä is abelian.

21. øl 4. by Proposition 13. ÷1 i 1(19 . Then 1 h÷. Since all the coef®cients here are non-negative integers. øl a where a 1. ÷l ÷(1). Every abelian group of order 12 has 12 conjugacy classes. we obtain ø 1 1 ÷1 1 ÷2 1 ÷3 . By the method used in the solution to Exercise 1. If kø. Chapter 15 1X h÷. Recall that hø. hence r and ó are equivalent. 5. then either exactly four of the di are 1. 1 3 . 1 3 . 3. and this gives the required matrix T. 0 and by hypothesis ÷(g) > 0 for all g P G. it follows that ÷ is a character of S3 . 6 Hence ÷ 2÷1 3÷2 7÷3 . 2 0 2 . ÷2 i 1(19 . 4. if G Z(G) Z(G)x then G Z(G). 1 2 . 2. 2 2 ø 3 1 ÷1 1 ÷2 À 1 ÷3 X 3 3 3 3.21. or exactly one of the di is 2. ÷i 1 ÷reg ( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG But ÷reg (g) is |G| if g 1 and is 0 if g T 1. by Theorem 14. Hence k÷reg .2. 1) 2. (À2) . (À2)(À1)) 7X 6 h÷. 6 h÷. We have h÷reg . Since the coef®cient of ÷2 is a negative integer. (À2) . 1) 3.4 and Theorem 14. (À1) . No: let G C2 and ÷ ÷reg . We ®nd that ø À÷2 ÷3 ÷5 2÷6 . øi i1 d 2 . 8. 6 6 3 ø 2 1 ÷1 À 1 ÷2 .24. the regular character of C2 . If |G| 12 . Therefore the centre of a group G never has index 2 in G. Hence if kø. ÷1 l T 0.17 shows that ÷ is reducible. but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. k 7. (a) For all groups G. ø is not a character of G. (À1)(À1) 2 . ÷1 i ÷( g)X jGj gPG Since ÷(1) . the rest are 0. ÷3 i 1(19 . This follows at once from Exercise 11. The representations r and ó have the same character. r1 and r2 are equivalent. 6. if x P G then the subgroup generated by x and the elements of Z(G) is abelian (since the elements of Z(G) commute with powers of x). Let ÷1 be the trivial character of G.414 Representations and characters of groups By Theorem 14. Theorem 14. we have k÷. 4. 2 or 3. then i exactly a of the integers di are 1 and the rest are 0. As ÷ T ÷1 . Hence.

together with the relation 4 4 i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 4 ) 0. y) 1 À1 À1 1 2. 6 or 12 conjugacy classes. The character table of C2 3 C2 is (cf. gives the values on g4 . the remaining conjugacy classes have size at least 2.Chapter 16 415 and G is non-abelian. 1). if G D12 then G has 6 conjugacy classes (see (12. similarly ÷4 ( g3 ) (À1 5)a2.1) (1.10. 1) 1 1 À1 À1 (1.5(2)) g1 ÷5 2 g2 À2 g3 0 g4 0 g5 0 3. so there cannot be as many as 9 conjugacy classes in total. and if G A4 then G has 4 conjugacy classes (see Example 12. y) 1 À1 1 À1 (x. (b) Since the number of irreducible representations is equal to the number of conjugacy classes. 1) ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 (x. Example 16.18(1)). similarly ÷3 (g3 ) 1. 4 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives i1 p p ÷4 ( g 2 ) (À1 À 5)a2. If G is abelian (e. G C4 3 C3 ) then G has 12 conjugacy classes.12)). Finally. (1. 2 since 4 ( ÷ i (1))2 10.g. i1 Because g4 has order 2. so |Z(G)| < 4. (x. at most 4 conjugacy classes of G have size 1 (see (12. Exercise 9. ÷4 (1) are 1. 1). then |Z(G)| divides 12 and |Z(G)| T 6 or 12. Therefore. The last row of the character table is (cf.2 and part (a) that G has 4. Corollary 13. Let C2 3 C2 {(1. Chapter 16 1.9)). it follows from the solution to Exercise 11. y). (x. The complete character table of G is gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 10 1 2 1 2 g2 5 1p (À1 5)a2 1p (À1 À 5)a2 g3 5 1p (À1 À 5)a2 1p (À1 5)a2 g4 2 1 0 À1 0 The two unknown degrees ÷3 (1). y): x 2 y 2 1}. Then i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 0 gives ÷3 ( g2 ) 1. .

(b) The column which corresponds to the conjugacy class containing gÀ1 2 has values which are the complex conjugates of those in the column of g2 (see Proposition 13. 2. fa. Use Proposition 12. a3 bg.13 to see quickly that bÀ1 ab a2 .9(3)). since æ is non-real. The character table of C2 3 C2 is given in the solution to Exercise 16. (a) 5 Representations and characters of groups i1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives 3 3æ 3æ 0. Hence the linear characters of G are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 8 1 1 1 1 a2 8 1 1 1 1 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 (c) Using the column orthogonality relations. the last irreducible character of G is 1 ÷5 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 The character table of Q8 is the same as that of D8. Hence jdet Cj2 jC G ( g i )j. G9abg C2 3 C2 . p If G C3 then det C Æi3 3. p Hence æ (À1 Æ i 7)a2. C t C is the k 3 k diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are |CG ( gi )| (1 < i < k). G9a. we have i1 ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) jC G ( g)j.1. Therefore det C Ædet C. (a) Using the relations. fb. this is a different column of the character table of G.9(3)). The matrix C is obtained from C by rearranging the columns (see Proposition 13. a3 g. By the column orthogonality relations. a2 bg and fab. (The sign depends upon the ordering of rows and columns. Let g P G. (b) G9 f1.) Chapter 17 1. every element of G has the form am bn with . 6. if det C det C then det C is real. 5. fa2 g. By the column orthogonality relations applied to the column k corresponding to g. and if det C Àdet C then det C is purely imaginary. which occurs if and only if g P Z(G). This number is equal to |G| if and only if CG (g) G. a2 g and GaG9 fG9. (a) The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. G9b.416 4. and 5 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g2 ) 7 i1 gives 3 2ææ 7. It is easy to see that a7 b3 1.

3.11. 0 < n < 2. so we get three linear characters of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . so 21 divides jGj by Lagrange's Theorem.6). Now consult the solution to Exercise 11. hence jGj < 21. ÷2 ÷. Therefore jGj 21. all of these are irreducible characters by Proposition 17. a4 g. a5 . we have ÷1 1 G . a2 . ÷3 ÷ 2 .18). But a has order 7 and b has order 3. If G has 3 or 4 linear characters then jGaG9j 3 or 4 and again G is not simple as G9 v G. Applying the column orthogonality relations. In the character table below. and the class sizes j g G j come from the equations i jGj jC G ( g i )jj g G j (Theorem 12. (c) First. If there are 12. ÷6 ö÷. we note that a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . 4 or 12 linear characters. then G is abelian (see Proposition 9. The centralizer orders are obtained by using the orthogonality relations. we have ÷(a) T ÷(a) (see Corollary 15.2 to see that there are 3. we obtain 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a á á a3 á á b 0 0 b2 0 0 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. 4. a6 g. so G is certainly not simple. fa3 .8).14. fa m b: 0 < m < 6g and fa m b2 : 0 < m < 6g. The number of linear characters of G divides jGj by Theorem 17. Hence ÷4 and ÷5 must be complex conjugates of each other. ÷4 ÷2 ÷3 . (b) The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. fa. therefore for some irreducible character ÷. ÷5 ö. i gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 4 3 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 g3 4 3 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 g4 6 2 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 6 2 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g6 12 1 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 . G9 kal.Chapter 17 417 0 < m < 6. To ®nd the two remaining irreducible characters ÷4 and ÷5 .

since they have distinct characters. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations. (For further details on the representations of degree 1. so jGaG9j 4 and there are four representations of degree 1 (see Theorem 17. For ç e2ði ja2 n with 1 < j < n À 1. 12 6n. We get further representations by ç 0 0 1 a3 . ha2 i Ker ÷2 Ker ÷3 . (b) The given representations. for å e2ði ka2 n with 0 < k < n À 1. 2.) 7. bi Ker ÷3 . these representations are irreducible and inequivalent. 8. For å e2ði ra2 n . . Moreover.4) and inequivalent (their characters are distinct). 0 å À1 0 1 0 å À1 ån 0 32 3À1 2 3À1 2 3 2 0 1 å 0 0 1 å 0 X ån 0 0 å À1 ån 0 0 å À1 Hence we have representations of T4 n (cf. we get n À 1 irreducible representations. . note that the structure of GaG9 depends upon whether n is even or odd. hai Ker ÷2 . . (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations: 2 32 n 2 3n 2 3 2 32 å 0 1 0 å 0 0 1 . . 12 4nX Hence we have found all the irreducible representations. Example 1. are irreducible (by Exercise 8. with r 1. Also G9 kbl.3. .11). they are not equivalent to any representation found earlier. (b) The given representations. by Exercise 8. Moreover G9 ka2 l. 0 çÀ1 1 0 where ç is any (2n)th root of unity in C. . see the solution to Exercise 18. n À 1.4.4). 22 4 .b3 . abi Ker ÷4 . no two of which are equivalent.418 Representations and characters of groups D8 Ker ÷1 . so we have obtained all the irreducible representations. The normal subgroups of D8 are 6. since b2 is in the kernel of each of these representations. so jGaG9j 2n and there are 2n representations of degree 1. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations. ha2 . and inequivalent (consider the character values on a2 ).4). for å e2ði ja n with 0 < j < n À 1. The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found is n . Now the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found so far is (n À 1) . by Theorem 11.12. ha2 . Note that b2 does not belong to the kernel of any of these representations. are irreducible (by Exercise 8. f1g Ker ÷5 X 5. 22 2n . (b) The representations in part (a) are irreducible unless å Æ1.

Hence. 22 4 . Character table of D12 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 À2 2 a 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 . Then ð takes the following values: 1 ð 4 a2 0 a 0 b 2 ab 0 Hence ð ÷1 ÷3 ÷5 . b2 l and GaG9 C2 3 C2. so we get four representations of degree 1. Character table of D8 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 a2 8 1 1 1 1 À2 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (See Example 16. take b to be a re¯ection in a diagonal of the square.) Regarding D8 as the symmetry group of a square. Let ù e2ðia6 . G9 ka2 .Chapter 18 419 Finally. 22 (n À 1) .3. using Section 18. We have now found all the irreducible representations. since the sum of the squares of the irreducible representations given above is n . where we took b to be a different re¯ection.28(2). The character table of D8 is as shown. (Compare Example 14. the character table of D12 is as shown. ù2 ùÀ2 ù4 ùÀ4 À1.) 2. 12 8nX Chapter 18 1.3(3) or Section 18.3. Then ù ùÀ1 1.

. as shown. ka2 . bl Ker ÷3 . ka2 .4. fa2 j1 b: 0 < j < n À 1gX We get n À 1 irreducible characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) of G from Exercise 17. kal Ker ÷2 . Hence we get 2n linear characters ÷ j (0 < j < 2n À 1). a2 r1 b2 gX We have G9 hbi and GaG9 hG9ai C2 n . 4. aÀ r g(1 < r < n À 1). a2 r b2 g. The 3n conjugacy classes of G are. fa2 j b: 0 < j < n À 1g.420 Representations and characters of groups Seven normal subgroups of D12 are G Ker ÷1 . for 0 < r < n À 1. T8 Q8 and T12 is the Example in Section 18. ka2 l Ker ÷3 Ker ÷4 .7 gives us n irreducible characters ø k (0 < k < n À 1). a2 r1 b. ka3 l Ker ÷6 and {1} Ker ÷5 . far . The remaining four irreducible characters of G are linear. then GaG9 hG9bi C4 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 À1 1 À1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 (À1) r 1 (À1) r b 1 i À1 Ài ab 1 Ài À1 i If n is even. Exercise 17. 3. fa2 r g. fa2 r b. fan g. If n is odd. fa2 r1 . abl Ker ÷4 .6 as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| øj 1 4n 2 an 4n 2(À1) j ar (1 < r < n À 1) 2n ù rj ùÀ rj b 4 0 ab 4 0 where ù e2ðia2 n . The n 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. then GaG9 C2 3 C2 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 1 1 1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r b 1 À1 1 À1 ab 1 À1 À1 1 Note that T4 C4 .

aÀ2 rÀ1 b2 g(0 < r < n À 1). 5. . U12 T12 and U18 D6 3 C3 . . fa2s b2 . . ÷4 . Character table of V8 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (0 < j < n À 1) öj (1 < j < n À 1) 1 8n 1 1 1 1 2 2 a2 r1 (0 < r < n À 1) 8n 4n 1 1 1 1 À2 2 1 1 À1 À1 b2 a2s a2s b2 (1 < s < (n À 1)a2) 4n 4n 1 1 1 1 ù4 js ùÀ4 js ù2 js ùÀ2 js 1 1 1 1 Àù4 js ÀùÀ4 js ù2 js ùÀ2 js b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 ù2 j(2 r1) ÀùÀ2 j(2 r1) ù j(2 r1) ùÀ j(2 r1) Note: ù e2ðia2 n . fa2s . n characters ø j (0 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. k 1 or 3gX a2 r 6n ù2 jr 2ù2 kr a2 r b 3n ù2 jr Àù2 kr a2 r1 2n ù j(2 r1) 0 421 Using Exercise 17. fb2 g. k 1 or 3g. For example. .Chapter 18 Character table of U6 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷j (0 < j < 2n À 1) øk (0 < k < n À 1) Note: ù e2ðia2 n . Observe that U6 D6. 422. and faj bk : j odd. aÀ2s g.8. The 2n 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. faj bk : j even. as shown below. fa2 r1 . aÀ2s b2 g(1 < s < (n À 1)a2). the character table of V24 is given at the top of p. we get four linear characters ÷1 . and a further n À 1 characters ö j (1 < j < n À 1) of degree 2.

. .422 Representations and characters of groups Character table of V24 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ø0 ø1 ø2 ö1 ö2 1 24 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 b2 24 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 À2 2 2 a 12 1 1 À1 À1 p0 ip 3 Ài 3 1 À1 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 À2 2 a5 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 p Ài 3 p i 3 1 À1 a2 12 1 1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 À1 a2 b2 12 1 1 1 1 À2 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Chapter 19 1X h÷ø. by Exercise 1. ÷ A ø2 ø4 ø5 . 2. öl T 0.5 there is an irreducible character ø of G such that ø(g) T ø(1). 1 G l k÷. By Proposition 15.14 we obtain 1 ÷S ÷A öS öA 15 10 6 3 (1 2 3) 0 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À2 2 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 0 0 1 p (1 3 4 5 2) 0 0 1 p (1 5)a2 (1 À 5)a2 Then ÷ S ø1 ø2 2ø3 . öl kø. k÷ø. ö A ø4 X . k÷ø. Then wg w for all w P V . Note that (1 2 3 4 5)2 is conjugate to (1 3 4 5 2) in A5 . 4. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. øl. The result now follows from Proposition 13. 3. V (n factors).15 and (14. ö S ø1 ø3 . øl 0. øöiX jGj gPG jGj gPG Similarly. there exists 1 T g P G with vg v for all v P V. Since ÷ is not faithful. öi 1 1 ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) h÷.13). Using Proposition 19. Hence ö( g) ö(1) for all irreducible characters ö for which k÷ n . Let n be an integer with n > 0. Therefore k÷ n . ÷öl.

below. as in Example 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. b: a3 b2 1.15 and 17. b) 36 18 12 18 9 6 12 6 4 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 2 2 À2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 2 À2 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 0 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 0 0 0 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 Àù2 Àù À1 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 Àù Àù2 À1 g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 ù ù2 1 g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 ù2 ù 1 Chapter 20 1. the character table of D6 3 D6 is as shown. We have recorded ÷ as ÷5 .1(3).14. b) (a.2) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù e2ðia3 6. Taking D6 ka. Since G has seven conjugacy classes. 1) (a. a) (b. 1) (b. ÷ i l 1 for i 2. 4. 1) (1. 5. Since k÷ i . Take b to be the re¯ection in the axis shown: . a) (1. these characters are irreducible. The table also records the trivial character ÷1 . hj ) |CG ( gi .Chapter 20 423 5. ÷ S as ÷4 and ÷ A as ÷2 . ÷3 ÷2 . ÷6 ÷5 and ÷7 ÷2 ÷5 . Exercise 27. hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 (1. a) (a. the character table is complete. Character table of G (cf. Character table of D6 3 D6 ( gi . these are irreducible by Propositions 13. (a) Regard D8 as the subgroup of S4 which permutes the four corners of a square. b) (b.

÷5 of S4 as in Section 18. . ÷4 5 H ø3 ø5 . we ®nd that the characters ÷ i 5 A6 (i 1. and take the character table of H to be gi |CH ( gi )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 (1 3)(2 4) 8 1 1 1 1 À2 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 (1 3) 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (see Example 16. We obtain ÷1 5 H ø1 . . .6) gives ÷(1) d 1 X X X d r < d 2 X X X d 2 < nX 1 r 4. . . Character table of A6 gi 1 (1 2 3) |C A6 ( g i )| 360 9 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 ø6 ø7 1 5 10 9 5 8 8 1 2 1 0 À1 À1 À1 p (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4 5) (1 3 4 5 2) (1 2 3)(4 5 6) (1 2 3 4)(5 6) 8 5 5 9 4 1 1 À2 1 1 0 0 5)a2. . . 3. . . take G A4 . Write d k÷ 5 H. For an example with d 3. . the inequality (20. b 3 (1 3) gives the required isomorphism. Let ø1 . ø5 in our character table below. For examples with d 1 or 2. â (1 À 1 0 0 À1 0 á â p 5)a2 1 0 0 À1 0 â á 1 À1 1 0 2 À1 À1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 0 Note: á (1 3.3(3) or Section 18. Either by direct calculation. . Also. The inequality k÷ 5 H. .1. ÷11 5 A6 l 2. Let ÷1 . ÷3 5 H ø1 ø4 . ÷5 5 H ø2 ø5 X 2. 9) are distinct irreducible characters of A6 . we obtain from ÷11 5 A6 the two irreducible characters which we have called ø6 and ø7 . as in Example 19. . Since each ø i has degree 1. ø r be the irreducible characters of H. 7. take G S3 and H a subgroup of order 2. Arguing as in Example 20. k÷11 5 A6 . ÷ 5 Hl H . .2).14. 5. .13). . and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree d.17. .424 Representations and characters of groups Then a 3 (1 2 3 4). .3). . dr ø r for some non-negative integers di . ÷11 be the irreducible characters of S6 . ÷ 5 Hl H < 3 follows at once from Proposition 20. or using (20. ÷2 5 H ø4 .5. these give the characters ø1 . (b) Take the irreducible characters ÷1 . H V4 and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree 3 (see Section 18. Then ÷ 5 H d1 ø1 .

See (20. (c) The character ø of U and the character ø 4 G of U 4 G are given by 1 ø 1 a2 À1 b 1 a2 b À1 1 ø4G 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 Since hø 4 G. 15. ÷3 5 H ø2 ø3 . (b) Using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. (a) ÷1 5 H ÷2 5 H ø1 . 2. 14. From the remaining fourteen irreducible characters of S7 . the induced module U 4 G is irreducible.Chapter 21 425 5. Hence the irreducible characters of A7 have degrees 1. Since 20 occurs only once in the list of degrees for S7 . ø2 4 G ø3 4 G ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 X 3. we obtain ø1 4 G ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 ÷5 . (b) Since every element of G belongs to H or to Ha. Let Hgj (1 < j < m) be the distinct right . 21. 6. Label the characters of H as follows: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 1 1 (1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 (1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . and we get precisely seven if and only if the restriction of each of the fourteen characters is irreducible. upon restriction to A7 we get at least seven irreducible characters of A7 . ÷4 5 H ÷5 5 H ø1 ø2 ø3 . 10. the elements u and ua form a basis of U 4 G. 14.13). (a) Let u 1 À a2 b À a2 b. 10. ø 4 Gi 1. 35X Chapter 21 1. Then ua2 Àu and ub u. the restriction of the irreducible character of degree 20 to A7 must be the sum of two different irreducible characters of degree 10. Hence sp (u) is a C H-submodule of CH. It is suf®cient to prove that if U is a CH-submodule of CH then dim (U 4 G) jG : Hjdim U . We are told that A7 has exactly nine conjugacy classes.

Also. or (2) ø 4 G is the sum of two different irreducible characters of the same degree. . . where Ugj {ugj : u P U}. that either (1) ø 4 G is irreducible. the values are as follows. (7) and (3. dim (Ugj ) dim U (since u 3 ugj (u P U) is a vector space isomorphism). . and therefore jG: Hjø(1) > (d 2 X X X d 2 )ø(1)X 1 k The required result follows. Hence dim(U 4 G) dim(U (CG)) m dim U .426 Representations and characters of groups cosets of H in G. 3). and on all other elements the values are zero. we obtain h(ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G. (÷ö) 5 Hi H hø 4 G. Thus ÷ i (1) > di ø(1). We have hø9 4 G. as in the proof of Proposition 20. ÷ 5 Hi H T 0 D ø9 ø or öX Thus If ø 4 G is irreducible. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. øl H 1. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H. The sum Ug1 . ÷i G T 0 D hø9. ö 5 Hi H hø. Ugm . then for precisely one other irreducible character ö of H we have ø 4 G ö 4 G. ÷ i 5 Hi H . say ø 4 G ÷. dk ÷ k (1). 4. we deduce. we deduce from Theorem 14. ÷ i i G hø. together with the result of Exercise 19. By using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem twice. ÷öi G h(ø 4 G)÷. The values of ö 4 G and ø 4 G are given by Proposition 21. . Then U(CG) Ug1 . Cycle-shape ö4G ø4G (1) 240 720 (7) 2 À1 (3. ÷ i 5 H di ø â where either â is a character of H or â 0. . Ug m is direct (since the elements in Ugj are linear combinations of elements in the right coset Hgj ). say ÷ 5 H ø ö.23. On elements of cycle-shapes (1). since ø is irreducible. (Compare Proposition 20. We have |G: H|ø(1) d1 ÷1 (1) . öi G X Since this holds for all irreducible characters ö of G. 3) 12 0 6.17 that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G (ø 4 G)÷. Let ö be an irreducible character of G. hence ÷ 5 H is reducible. By applying the result of Exercise 6.9. 7. öi G hø(÷ 5 H). Hence. 5. Suppose ®rst that ø 4 G is irreducible. .) . Then ÷(1) 2ø(1) and k÷ 5 H. where d i hø 4 G.11.1 (also twice).

÷l kb÷reg . and so G is abelian by Proposition 9. Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H. øl H 1. then r divides 16. both k1 G . The number of linear characters divides 15 (Theorem 17. see Chapter 25. öl are integers. (a) By hypothesis. Theorems 11.18). ÷1 i G T 0 D hø9. and r s 7 or 10 or 16.12. 17. (For more information on groups of order pq. and if there are r characters of degree 1 and s of degree 2. (b) jG9j p by Theorem 17.) 4. each degree divides 15 (Theorem 22. and jGj 1 jGj(a bjGj) a bjGjX jGj Since ö is a character.11 and 22. and ø9 is an irreducible character of H such that ø9 4 G has ÷1 or ÷2 as a constituent. ÷l bjGj÷(1)ajGj b÷(1).12. ÷l P Z and k1 G . (c) The number of conjugacy classes of G is r s.11 show that there are r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree q. But kö À a1 G .18.11). . ÷l P Z.12).) Chapter 22 1.11. then ø9 ø. say ø 4 G ÷1 ÷2. Hence every irreducible character has degree 1. ÷l 0. Then ÷1 (1) ø(1) and k÷1 5 H. (c) If ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G.11 again. ÷1 5 Hi H T 0 D ø9 øX Thus If ø 4 G ÷1 ÷2 where ÷1 and ÷2 are irreducible characters of G. öi h÷reg . 22 16X Hence r 4 or 8 or 16. then kö. moreover. not every irreducible character has degree 1 (Proposition 9. where r divides pq. The degree of each irreducible character is 1 or 2.11). öl and k÷reg . there exist a.12.Chapter 22 427 Suppose next that ø 4 G is reducible. 3. and r . hence ÷1 5 H ø. Use Theorems 11.11 and 22. (a) Since G is non-abelian. 2. We have hø9 4 G. and the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is 15 (Theorem 11. Then ö a1 G b÷reg . This time. (Compare Proposition 20. 12 s . 17. öi 1 (a bjGj (jGj À 1)a) a b. (b) We have h1 G . since both sides of this equation take the same values on all elements of G. 1 < s and r sq 2 pqX Hence r q and s ( p À 1)/q. b P C such that ö(g) a for all g T 1 and ö(1) a bjGj. Hence kö À a1 G .

Thus ÷ 1 G . Each such subset has size 2. ÷7 be the irreducible characters of G. and ÷(g) is an algebraic integer. is an integer. 1). 3. or ÷ i (g) Æ2 for exactly one i and ÷ i (g) 0 for all other i . if g2 1 then g 1. The only possibility which is consistent with equation (IV) is that the values of ÷ i (1) for 4 < i < 7 are 1. since 1 h÷. hence is odd). we deduce that ÷2 (1) ÷3 (1) 5.27. À1). and hence á À÷(1)a2. . a. 1. (b) For all g P G. (6. 120. by part (b). (Further information about the number of characters ÷ such that ÷ ÷ appears in Theorem 23. ÷ i (1) ÷ i ( g) mod 5 for all i. (b) We deduce from part (a) that ÷ i (g) 0 for two values of i. Therefore. we have ÷( g) ÷( g À1 ) ÷( g) ÷( g) 2÷( g). then k÷. Also (III) 2 2 7 i1 (÷ i (1))2 120X Since 5 10 . 1 G i ÷( g)X jGj gPG (c) If ÷ T 1 G in part (b). The stated result follows. ÷2 (1) ÷3 (1) 0 mod 5. Therefore. . By the column orthogonality relations. 1 G l 0. . 6 in some order. (c) By Corollary 22. (d) We now have the following part of the character table of G: . we have (I) 1 7 i2 (÷ i ( g))2 5. 1).27. and hence also b. and ÷ i (g) Æ1 for 4 < i < 7. say i 2.428 Representations and characters of groups (d) Since ÷(1) divides jGj. Hence ÷( g) ÷(1) 2á gPG for some algebraic integer á.1 and Corollary 23. . 5. with ÷1 1 G . (a) If g P G then g has odd order. by Lagrange's Theorem. Æ1 for all i. ÷(g) is an integer for all characters ÷. ÷ i ( g)) with 4 < i < 7 are (1. and (II) 1 7 i2 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) 0X From equation (I) we deduce that either ÷ i ( g) 0. part (c) implies that b|G| is an integer. But À÷(1)a2 is a rational number which is not an integer (since ÷(1) divides jGj.5. By Corollary 22. (a) By Theorem 22. 4. This contradicts Proposition 22. the second possibility is ruled out by equation (II). by part (a). 4. Let ÷1 .2. (4. Partition Gnf1g into subsets by putting each element with its inverse.) 6. and from equation (III) we have (IV) 7 (÷ i (1))2 69X i4 Hence the possibilities for the pairs of integers (÷ i (1).16.

Hence the values of i1 ÷ i (g4 ) for 1 < i < 7 are 1. we deduce that i1 ÷ i (g3 ) Æ1 for 1 < i < 4 and the values of ÷ i ( g3 ) for 5 < i < 7 are that 7 0. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 À1 1 À1 À2 2 0 g3 2 8 1 1 1 1 0 0 À2 g4 3 6 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 0 g5 4 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 g6 6 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 . Since 7 ÷ i (1)÷ i (g5 ) 0. 0. ÷ i (g5 ) ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g5 ))2 4. 0. 7. À1. From the relation i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 3 ) 0 we now deduce that the entries in column 3 are 1. i1 we deduce that ÷4 ( g5 ) À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷2 (g5 ) À÷3 (g5 ) 1. Therefore i1 ÷ i (g6 ) Æ1 for 1 < i < 6 and ÷7 (g6 ) 0. (2) Next. 1. (4) We have ÷ i (g6 ) ÷ i (g4 ) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g6 ))2 6.Chapter 22 gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 g3 2 8 1 g4 3 6 1 g5 4 4 1 g6 6 6 1 429 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 We successively calculate the ®ve remaining columns of the character table. By applying the column orthogonality relations involving column 6 and columns 3. ÷ i ( g4 ) ÷ i (1) mod 3 and 7 (÷ i ( g4 ))2 6. Æ2 in some order. 5 and 7 we obtain ÷2 (g6 ) À÷3 (g6 ) ÷4 (g6 ) À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷5 (g6 ) À÷6 (g6 ) 1. 1. These can be obtained from the column orthogonality relations. We are told that ÷ i (gj ) is integer for all i. an (1) First. À2 in order from the top. 1. 1. 0. (3) Since ÷ i (g3 ) ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g3 ))2 8. respectively. from which 7 we see that ÷ i (g3 ) 1 for 1 < i < 4. 1. 4. The character table of G is as shown. Hence ÷ i (g5 ) Æ1 i1 for 1 < i < 4 and ÷ i (g5 ) 0 for 5 < i < 7. 1. j. 0. (5) Only the entries in column 2 remain to be calculated. À1. Also i1 ÷ i (g3 )÷ i ( gr ) 0 for r 4.

m 2n 1 for some integer n. so g2 P CG (x). assume that ë is a root of the polynomial p(x) a0 a1 x . . Let m be the order of g. which is of the form x n anÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 (ar P Z)X Conversely. all of whose entries are integers. However. . either i j 0 or n j is even and i j n j a2. Since x 2 1 and x has odd order. The number of such elements is also 2 m . it follows that ë is an eigenvalue of A. a nÀ1 x nÀ1 x n (a r P Z). a i b (0 < i < n À 1) (and also a na2 if n is even)X This gives n 1 elements if n is odd. the elements g of G which satisfy g2 1 are i precisely those elements g11 . 4. and hence ë is a root of the polynomial det (xIn À A). where m is the number of the integers n1 .430 Representations and characters of groups 7. 3 C n r which is given by i i ÷( g 11 X X X g irr ) ë11 X X X ë irr is real if and only if ë i Æ1 for all i with 1 < i < r. 3. g irr where for each j. Then g g2( n1) P CG (x).14). by Lagrange's Theorem. Adopt the notation of Theorem 9. . . Assume that x P G and x is real. Let ë1 and ë2 be the eigenvalues of gr. . Hence gÀ2 xg2 x. . summing over all the irreducible characters ÷. 2. Then det (A À ëIn ) 0. Then gÀ1 xg x À1 for some g P G. . . it follows that x 1. .13 of é÷ that é÷ À1 if and only if ÷ A 1 G .8. Chapter 23 1. Since jGj is odd. Then ÷ A (g) 1 2 2 2 2((ë1 ë2 ) À (ë1 ë2 )) ë1 ë2 det (gr) (see Proposition 19. Let I H 0 1 0 XXX 0 f 0 0 1 0 g g f f 0 0 0 0 g f F Af F F gX F g F g f F d 0 0 0 1 e Àa0 Àa1 Àa2 XXX Àa nÀ1 Check that det (xIn À A) p(x). nr which are even. Since A has integer entries. The elements g of D2 n for which g2 1 are 1. As p(ë) 0. The character ÷ of G C n1 3 . . it follows from the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions that we must have é÷ 1 for all ÷. These numbers coincide with ÷(1). Since é÷ < 1 for all ÷. Therefore x À1 gÀ1 xg x. It now follows from the De®nition 23. Hence the number of real irreducible characters is 2 m . Now the ni th root of unity ë i can be À1 if and only if ni is even. and n 2 elements if n is even. . Suppose ®rst that ë is an eigenvalue of an n 3 n matrix A. ë is therefore an algebraic integer. The result follows. Since ÷(1) 2 we have ÷ A (1) 1.

The result now follows from Theorem 23. according to whether n is odd or even. nÀ1 Therefore j1 (éø j )ø j (1) 0 or À2. respectively. .Chapter 23 431 5. Since â is skew-symmetric. v1 ) å n â(v1 .3 for the characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) and ÷ j (1 < j < 4) of T4 n. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. and é÷2 é÷4 0 or 1. fn of V and de®ne the symmetric n 3 n matrices A (aij ) and B (bij ) by aij â1 ( f i . Then det (ar) 1 and det (br) Àå n . Hence an is the only element of order 2. f j )X By applying the Gram±Schmidt orthogonalization process. according to whether j is odd or even. . As â is G-invariant. . . å n v2 ) â(v1 . and de®ne the basis e1 . we get éø j À1 or 1. By part (a) (or part (b)) and the construction of the characters ø j in Exercise 17. It follows that n is even. f 9 of V such that â1 ( f 9. 2} then â(v i g. as n ÷(1) the result is proved. so é÷ Æ1. v2 of V. . we may construct a basis f 1 . â(v1 b.6. . Hence â is G-invariant. By a well known property of symmetric matrices. there is an orthogonal matrix Q (i. since V is irreducible it follows that fu P V : â(u. (a) First. (c) The elements of T4 n are ai and ai b (0 < i < 2n À 1). QQt I) such that Q(PBPt )QÀ1 is diagonal. X X X . j. it is easy to check that ÷( g) is real for all g P G. . Hence ÷ (é÷)÷(1) 2. v1 bÀ1 ). . Choose a basis f1 . a has order 2n and ai b has order 4. 6. so det A (À1) n det A. en of V by ei qij f 9 X j j t t . . v) 0 for all v P V g f0gX (Ã ) Pick a basis v1 .e. v j g À1 )X For example. respectively.16. Write Q (q ij ). f j ). respectively. v n of V and let A be the n 3 n matrix with ij-entry â(v i . j P {1. b ij â( f i . Clearly é÷1 é÷3 1. Let 9 n i j P ( pij ) be the n 3 n matrix which is given by f9 pij f j X i j Then PAP I n and PBP is symmetric. v1 ) â(v2 . according to whether n is odd or even. The result now follows from Exercise 4. Therefore det (At ) (À1) n det A. . v j ). hence det (gr) 1 for all g P G if and only if å n À1. Since é÷ À1. the subspace {u P V: â(u. . there exists a nonzero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form â on V. Let r be the representation obtained by using the basis v1 . (b) It is easy to check that if g a or b and i. so det A T 0. The de®nition of â shows that â is symmetric if å n 1 and â is skew-symmetric if å n À1. . 7. Also A is invertible by (Ã ). we have At ÀA. f 9) ä ij for all i. (d) Refer the Exercise 18. v) 0 for all v P V} is a CGsubmodule of V. v j ) â(v i .

. and since QPBPt Qt is diagonalX â(ei . since a linear character must take the value Æ1 on t. which we are assuming to be an irreducible CG-module. Hence |G : G9| 2 by Theorem 17. Let c1 . 10. 0 x 0 x9 0 xx9 associativity is a property of matrix multiplication. i. It is clear that the given set of matrices has size p( p À 1). xgx À1 Vx P G D xPG x À1 P H. ej ) 0 if i T j. we have G9 1. Let ç e2ðia5 and å e2ðia11 . . .e. 8. By the orthogonality relation for c2 we have ÷ i (t)2 |CG (t)| 2 (the sum over all irreducible characters ÷ i . so we may take ÷1 (t) 1. 2.11. Then V9 is a CG-module. so ë P R. . (b) Let v1 . Chapter 25 1. De®ne W: V 3 V by vW av (v P V). and let V be the RG-submodule of the regular RG-module which is spanned by 1 À a and 1 À a2 . identity is 1 0 1 y 1 À yx À1 . and consider the vector space V9 over C with basis v1 . . v n be a basis of the RG-module V. (c) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. if G is simple then since G9 v G. and r is a homomorphism as (Hx)(r gh ) Hxgh (Hx)(r g )(r h ). as Hxg Hyg A Hx Hy. . ÷1 and ÷2 are the only linear characters. We have g P ker r D Hxg Hx. r is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù) S n with kernel which is contained in H. â å 2 å 6 å 7 å 8 å 10 X . Now the orthogonality of c1 and c2 gives ÷1 (1) ÷2 (1) 1 and ÷2 (t) À1. For closure. Hx. 0 1 0 x 0 x À1 Therefore G is a group. . ej ) ä ij . c2 be the columns of the character table of G corresponding to the classes {1} and t G . (a) The proof is similar to that of part (1) of Schur's Lemma 9. r g is a permutation. 9. Further. Vx P G D g P xPG xÀ1 HxX Finally. with ÷1 1 G ). Hence G C2 . v n . inverse of is . ÷2 (t) Æ1 and ÷ i (t) 0 for i > 3. By Schur's Lemma there exists ë P C such that vW ëv for all v P V9. and write á å å 3 å 4 å 5 å 9 . since QPAPt Qt I n . But v1 W ëv1 P V. note that 1 y 1 y9 1 y9 yx . For the last part. G is abelian. Call it G.432 Then Representations and characters of groups â1 (ei . Then V is an irreducible RG-module.1. .

6(c). so by Exercise 1. Also. there exists an integer m p such that u m v mod p. Recall that ZÃ is cyclic. since both m and v have u order q modulo p. aG {au : m P Z}. and it follows from Corollary 15. |CG (a)| p. Let b9 bm. b9À1 ab9 av iX Hence G1 G2 . Hence p u m À1 mod p for some m D the element u of ZÃ has even order p D q is even D p 1 mod 4X (b) By Proposition 25. then a is conjugate to aÀ1 and so ÷(a) is real for all characters p so (ö1 (a))2 (ö2 (a))2 ( p 1)a2. If p 1 mod 4. then a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . Therefore aÀ1 P aG D u m À1 mod p for some m D p 1 mod 4X (c) ÷ i (a) 1 for all the q linear characters ÷ i of G. Then G1 ha. 4. This time. m is coprime to q. 5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 55 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 a 11 1 1 1 1 1 á â a2 11 1 1 1 1 1 â á b 5 1 ç ç2 ç3 ç4 0 0 b2 5 1 ç2 ç4 ç ç3 0 0 b3 5 1 ç3 ç ç4 ç2 0 0 433 b4 5 1 ç4 ç3 ç2 ç 0 0 3. If p À1 mod 4. 2ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ( p 1)a2. Hence ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) ÷.9. b9: ap b9q 1. so p ÷(a)÷(a) q ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ö2 (a)ö2 (a)X ÷ Hence ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ö2 (a)ö2 (a) ( p 1)a2. and we ®nd that p ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are (À1 Æ i p)a2. Hence bm has order q. are (À1 Æ p)a2. Also.Chapter 25 Character table of F11. Hence 0 ÷(1)÷(a) q qö1 (a) qö2 (a)X ÷ irred m Therefore ö1 (a) ö2 (a) À1. . Hence ö2 (a) ö1 (a). Also. (a) Note that À1 is the only element of order 2 in ZÃ. bÀ m abm au av .6 that ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are not both real.

(c) D6 3 F13. u 2 . ÷5 and ÷6 are obtained similarly.10). The ®nal irreducible character ÷10 can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. . bl. Hence we get six linear characters ÷1 . ö1 (a) m1 å u . 5. there exist gi P E such that gi T 1 but ÷ i (gi ) ÷ i (1) (so gi P Ker ÷ i ). fa r b2 : r 0. E9 H. fa r b4 : r 0. Let H2 ka3 . Z(E) {1}. Then ÷8 ÷7 ÷2 and ÷9 ÷7 ÷3 are also irreducible. . . 7. u ( pÀ1)a2 } is precisely the set of quadratic residues modulo p. . so E has exactly two linear characters. Then H1 v G and Ga H 1 C6 .18). fa r b4 : 3 B rg. The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. Then H2 v G and Ga H 2 h H 2 a. (b) C2 3 F13. Let H ka. say ÷1 and ÷2 . All the elements outside H form a single conjugacy class of E. . as shown. fa3 . fa r b: 0 < r < 8g. 3. fa r b2 : 3 B rg. b2 l. 3. ÷6 of G.3 (see Theorem 19. 6g.3 (see Theorem 25. 8. a6 g. . Character table of E gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 18 1 1 2 2 2 2 a 9 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 b 9 1 1 À1 2 À1 À1 ab 9 1 1 À1 À1 2 À1 a2 b 9 1 1 À1 À1 À1 2 c 2 1 À1 0 0 0 0 6. it follows that {u. . fa r b3 : 0 < r < 8g.18). 6g.3 (see Theorem 19. The result now follows from part (c). the conjugacy class hE consists of h and hÀ1 . fa r : 3 B rg. fa r b5 : 0 < r < 8gX Let H1 kal.10.434 Representations and characters of groups ( pÀ1)a2 m (d) By Theorem 25. Then for all h P H. A typical non-trivial linear character of H is 1 ÷ 1 a 1 a2 1 b ù b2 ù2 ab ù ab2 ù2 a2 b ù a2 b2 ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . H 2 bi D6 . Also. The characters ÷4 . Since ZÃ is cyclic of order p p À 1 and u has order ( p À 1)a2. Then ÷ 4 E is the irreducible character ÷3 given in the table which follows. (a) F13. . and for all i with 1 < i < 6. Lift the irreducible character of D6 of degree 2 to obtain ÷7 in the table below. .

Hence ÷(1) < p. But ø(1) 1. For all other elements h of H. and so ÷(1) 1 or p by Theorem 22. by Theorem 11X12X Since s p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 and s is an integer. hz.20. øl H T 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. 2. m is at least 2. bÀ1 ab a2 l gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 Note: ù e2ðia3 1 54 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 6 a3 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 À3 a 9 ab2 9 ab4 9 b 6 b2 18 b3 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 b4 18 435 b5 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 ù2 ù Àù ù2 1 ù ù2 ù2 ù 1 1 1 À1 1 1 ù2 ù ù ù2 1 ù ù2 Àù2 ù À1 À1 À1 0 2 À1 Àù2 Àù 0 2ù2 À1 Àù Àù2 0 2ù 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ù Àù2 ù2 ù 1 À1 ù ù2 ù2 Àù 2 0 2ù 0 2ù2 0 0 0 Chapter 26 1. the conjugacy class hH {h. Then r pm for some m. by Theorem 17X11. Character table of H (a non-abelian group of order 27) gi |C H ( g i )| ÷00 ÷01 ÷02 ÷10 ÷11 ÷12 ÷20 ÷21 ÷22 ö1 ö2 1 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 z 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù 3ù2 z2 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù2 3ù a 9 1 1 1 ù ù ù ù2 ù2 ù2 0 0 a2 9 1 1 1 ù2 ù2 ù2 ù ù ù 0 0 b 9 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 0 0 ab 9 1 ù ù2 ù ù2 1 ù2 1 ù 0 0 a2 b 9 1 ù ù2 ù2 1 ù ù ù2 1 0 0 b2 9 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 0 0 ab2 9 1 ù2 ù ù 1 ù2 ù2 ù 1 0 0 a2 b2 9 1 ù2 ù ù2 ù 1 ù 1 ù2 0 0 Note: ù e2ðia3 . {1}. and (ø 4 G)(1) p.Chapter 26 Character table of G ka. Therefore h÷. ø 4 Gi G T 0 by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. by Corollary 21. Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. since H is abelian. {z} and {z 2 } are conjugacy classes of H. and r sp2 pn . hz 2 }. Then k÷ 5 H. b: a9 b6 1.11. Assume that G has r linear characters and s irreducible characters of degree p.

C and D has the form ëI for some ë P C. l. (d) Since G has irreducible representations of degrees 1 and 4. Hence every element of G has the form A i B j C k D l Z m for some i. 3.3. Combined with part (b). The character table of D16 is given in Section 26. 7) Note: cm e2ði ma16 eÀ2ði ma16 2 cos (mð/8) 3. jGj > 12 42 17. s. 1 32 a8 32 a 16 a2 16 a3 16 a4 16 a5 16 a6 16 a7 16 b 4 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 2 2 p0 À2 0 2 0 0 p p À2 p0 2 2 2 0 Àp2 À2 Àp2 0 2 0 p p 2 2 À 2 0 2 À2 2 0 À 2 0 2 À2 cj c2 j c3 j c4 j c5 j c6 j c7 j 0 5. u P {0. B. CD ÀDC. Since G9 h Zi. since g4 1 for all g P G. t. t.4 is {1. (a) Check that AB ÀBA. . {ar . ÷7 of G as shown in the table at the top of this page. . (b) A2 ÀB2 ÀC2 D2 I. the given representation is irreducible. by Theorem 11. it follows that g 2 P h Zi for all g P G. Then the four characters ø j ( j 1. we obtain the characters ÷1 . u) with r. 5. Hence by Corollary 9. this shows that jGj 32. we get a representation A i B j C k D l Z m 3 (À1) ir js kt lu X Together with the irreducible representation of degree 4. b2 a8 .12. 1}. These are as follows: for each (r. m P f0. Hence Z P G. so jGj < 32. 1g. aÀ r } (1 < r < 7).3. . BC CB. and Gah Zi is abelian while G is non-abelian. s. 4. and GaK D16 . AC ÀCA. {ar b: r even}. BD ÀDB. {a8 }. a8 }. (c) A routine calculation shows that every matrix which commutes with each of A. 7) come from inducing to G those linear characters ÷ of kal for which ÷(a8 ) À1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 øj ( j 1. {ar b: r odd}. Here. . Therefore G9 h Zi (see Proposition 17. By lifting the irreducible characters of D16. b: a16 1. AD DA. (a) Let å e2ðia8 . these are all the irreducible representations of G. also G is a 2-group. j.436 Representations and characters of groups Character table of G ka. G has precisely 16 representations of degree 1. 5. G has 11 conjugacy classes: {1}. Since Gah Zi is abelian.8 (D16 G1 ) and in Section 18. k.10). the group K which appears in Theorem 26. We obtain representations as follows: . 3.

and g P CG ( g). z 3 d 0 1 0 eX I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 1 0 0 1 6. Hence a . Gj has no faithful irreducible representation. 2. G9 are isomorphic. . . Therefore j Z(G)j p or p2 . a2 z} C2 3 C2 . by Proposition 9. G9 : G1 Order Order Order Order 1 2 4 8 1 9 2 4 G2 1 1 10 4 G3 1 5 6 4 G4 1 3 4 8 G5 1 3 12 0 G6 1 7 8 0 G7 1 11 4 0 G8 1 3 12 0 G9 1 5 10 0 Therefore no two of G1 . i f G8 : a 3 d 0 0 H 0 0 0 À1 H I 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 g f g f g Ài 0 e. b 3 d 1 0 0 e. The following table records the numbers of elements of orders 1.b3 . À1 0 2 3 0 1 . while G8 aG8 9 C2 3 C2 3 C2 . (d) The following give faithful representations: H I H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 f g f g f g G7 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e.b3 . Also jGa Z(G)j T p by Lemma 26. Assume that j Z(G)j p2 . . 7 or 8 then Z(Gj ) {1. . (a) By Lemma 26. . z. so give representations. . a2 . .b3 . 4 and 8 in G1 . 6. Since Z(Gj ) is not cyclic.b3 3 .z3 X À1 1 0 0 i (b) If j 5. b 3 d À1 0 0 e.2 G1 : a 3 2 G2 : a 3 G3 : a 3 G4 : a 3 2 G5 : a 3 å å 0 À1 3 . It is easy to see that the matrices generate groups with more than eight elements. z 3 d 0 1 0 e. so G5 T G8 . 7. å5 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 0 0 1 i 0 .16. But G5 aG5 9 C2 3 C4 . (c) Check that the matrices satisfy the required relations. . 3 437 0 å 0 0 å À1 2 3 å 0 2 0 å 0 1 0 . so the representations are faithful.1(2). 1 0 å3 3 2 3 0 0 1 . If g P Z(G) then Z(G) < CG (g) T G. except possibly G5 and G8 .b3 2 2 Chapter 26 0 1 1 0 0 1 3 .1(1) we have {1} T Z(G) T G.

a dX 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 z À1 0 À1 z Therefore z aI. By parts (a) and (b). then by Exercise 7.438 Representations and characters of groups jC G ( g)j p3 and j gG j p. and if r p2 then r s 2 p2 À 1. (b) If G is a non-abelian group of order 16. 2. p). in which case Ga(G9 Z(G)) is abelian. p))X 1 z A c 0. Part (b) follows. if |Z(G)| p2 then |G9| p. bÀ1 abZ aÀ1 ZX Then a2 b2 z for some z P Z. (c) Note that G9 Z(G) T {1} by Lemma 26. 8. a2 Z b2 Z. Therefore Ga Z T Q8 . Since ÷(1)2 p4 (Theorem 11. The element À1 0 0 À1 lies in Z(G). Therefore. Check that and 1 0 1 1 1 À1 0 1 are elements of G SL (2. bZi. there are no irreducible characters of degree greater than p. (b) Assume that G has r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree p. either G9 Z(G) G9. Therefore jGaG9j r p2 or p3 . G has p2 ( p4 À p2 )a p conjugacy classes. so r sp2 p4 . b and all elements in Z. and assume that Ga Z haZ. so a Æ1. Hence |G9 Z(G)| p. Assume that z Then a c b d P Z(SL (2. and hence ba2 b3 z b2 zb a2 b.1(1).12). or G9 Z(G) Z(G). (a) Let Z Z(G). Since a2 commutes with a. 3) of order 3 which are not conjugate to each other. we have a2 1. and if |G9| p2 then |Z(G)| p. with a4 P Z. and 1 1 z A c Àb. we have a2 P Z. and since z P SL (2. Chapter 27 1. in which case Ga(G9 Z(G)) T Q8 by part (a). and . as r s is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G.

by Corollary 22. ÷6 and ÷7 must be real.5 implies that ÷ j ( g7 ) À÷ j ( g4 ). so by Theorem 23.27. The equation j ÷ j (g4 )÷ j ( g 4 ) 6 gives áá 1. Assume. 1). 6. á Æ1. Since ÷5 ÷2 and ÷5 ÷3 are irreducible characters of G of degree 2. Hence GafÆIg Im ö. g3 can be deduced from the column orthogonality relations. say ÷5 ÷2 ÷6 and ÷5 ÷3 ÷7 . ÷2 . which is given below. whose values on g4 are áù and áù2 . (1. therefore GafÆIg A4 . that ÷5 is real. Finally. one of ÷5 . ÷4 of G are obtained by lifting to G the irreducible characters of A4 (which are given in Section 18. The group G permutes these subspaces among themselves. 7. Then á À1 since ÷5 ( g4 ) ÷5 (1) mod 3. First observe that the vector space (Z3 )2 has exactly four 1-dimensional subspaces. ÷7 on the elements g1 . The values of ÷5 . Also á T 0. ÷6 . Now note that for j 5. they must be ÷6 and ÷7 in some order. ÷(g5 ) ÷( g4 ) and ÷(g6 ) ÷( g7 ) for all ÷. namely the spans of the vectors (0. Then ÷5 ( g4 ) á. 1). g2 . . where á is real. The characters ÷1 . so we obtain a homomorphism ö: G 3 S4 .2). Exercise 13. Hence the following are conjugacy class representatives: g1 1 0 1 24 0 1 g2 À1 0 0 À1 2 24 g3 0 À1 4 4 1 0 g4 1 1 0 1 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| 3 6 g5 1 0 À1 1 3 6 g6 À1 1 0 À1 6 6 g7 À1 À1 0 À1 6 6 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| We now describe how to construct the character table of G.Chapter 27 0 À1 1 0 439 has order 4. Note that G has three real conjugacy classes. a subgroup of S4 of order 12. (2. ÷3 . 1) and (1. 0). without loss of generality.1. Check that Ker ö {ÆI}. Since á is real.

(a) For the character table of T. h2 Z. . . h5 ZX 0 1 0 1 Two of the linear characters of T are hi |CT (h i )| 1T ë h1 21 1 1 h2 3 1 ù h3 3 1 ù2 h4 7 1 1 h5 7 1 1 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 À1 Àù Àù2 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 À1 Àù2 Àù g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 1 ù2 ù g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 1 ù ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . Hence 1 T : G 1 G ÷. 0 1 0 4 0 2 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 À1 h4 Z. h3 Z. Apply Proposition 17. Representatives of the conjugacy classes of T are h1 . kë : G. write ö ë : G. 1 T : Gl 2 and k1 T : G.6. h5 .25. 4. . where 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 0 2 0 4 0 h1 Z. . . notice that T is isomorphic to the group of order 21 whose character table is found in Exercise 17. 1 G l 1.2 and Example 21.440 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. 3) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù e2ðia3 3. The values of 1 T : G and ë : G are as follows (see Proposition 21.23): gi |CG ( g i )| 1T 4 G ë4G g1 168 8 8 g2 8 0 0 g3 4 0 0 g4 3 2 À1 g5 7 1 1 g6 7 1 1 We ®nd that k1 T : G. Also. ë : Gl 1. so ë : G is irreducible.

Further. two of ÷7 . Hence there is a character æ of G such that ÷ S 1 G ö ÷ æX The values of æ are as shown above. Æ1. . the values of ÷ j (g6 ) for 7 < j < 11 must be Æ1. ÷ j (1) is even. say ÷7 (1) and ÷8 (1). The values of ø are as shown above. the (d) Since 11 ÷ j (g3 )÷ j ( g3 ) 8.27. respectively. ÷11 (1).14): gi |CG ( g i )| ÷ ÷S æ ø g1 168 7 28 12 6 g2 8 À1 4 4 2 g3 4 À1 0 0 0 g4 3 1 1 0 0 g5 7 0 0 À2 À1 g6 7 0 0 À2 À1 441 We ®nd that k÷ S . ø A has the following values on g1 . ÷l 1. Use part (c) to ®ll in the values on g2 and g7 . ÷5 can readily be calculated using the column orthogonality relations (noting that gi is real if and only if 1 < i < 4). . (b) By lifting. in the character table of G given at the end of Chapter 27. since ÀI is not in kernel of these characters). By Corollary 22. Now 1 G . 1 G l k÷ S .14. æ cannot therefore be the sum of four irreducible characters. ö and ÷ are three of the six irreducible characters of G.16. and none is a constituent of æ.5 (noting that ÷ j (ÀI) T ÷ j (I) for 7 < j < 11. Since there are only six irreducible characters in all. have degrees 2divisible by 6. ÷2 and ÷6 . j1 (Alternatively. so either æ 2ø for some irreducible character ø.1. we deduce that ÷ j (g3 ) 0 for 7 < j < 11. . ÷(g6 ) P Z for all characters ÷. ÷11 .27 again. ÷8 (1). 5. ö.) Also. we obtain the characters ÷1 . . apply part (c). and ÷11 (1) 8. . Next. and so æ 2ø with ø irreducible. 0. The remaining irreducible characters ÷4 . 0. öl k÷ S . Æ1. (c) Use Exercise 13. or æ is the sum of four distinct irreducible characters (cf. (a) Compare the proof of Lemma 27. g2 . ÷6 in the character table shown below. . are equal to 4. by Corollary 22. ÷3 . (e) Theorem 22. . Exercise 14. 168. ÷ and ø are the characters ÷1 . The congruences ÷(1) ÷(g6 ) mod 3 now give the remaining values on g6 . Note that because g2 lies in Z(G). . and 12 6 . (d) The characters 1 G . We calculate that kæ. Since By 11 2 j1 (÷ j (g6 )) 6. The only possibility is that two of ÷7 (1). in some order. (f ) By Proposition 19. æl 4. so ÷9 (1) ÷10 (1) 6. gi and gi g2 have the same centralizer for all i. g3 and g6 : g1 øA 6 g2 6 g3 2 g6 0 .Chapter 27 (c) The values of ÷ and ÷ S are as shown below (see Proposition 19. 2 2 j1 (÷ j (1)) 168.7). 11 say ÷9 and ÷10 . ÷7 (1)2 ÷8 (1)2 ÷11 (1)2 96.

Similarly. the value on g3 forces ø A ÷6 . Since g2 is conjugate to g8 . Let x ø(g8 ).bPZ T Z: a P Z 11 11 X 0 aÀ1 Then T is generated by 1 1 2 0 x Z and y Z. ø(g5 ) 0. ÷4 . The column orthogonality relations now let us ®nd the remaining values of ÷9 and ÷10 . we have 11 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g 6 ) 0. Let Z {ÆI} and de®ne the subgroup T of G. Then 4 11 and 11 ÷ j ( g 4 )2 8 imply that j1 ÷ j ( g 1 )÷ j ( g 4 ) 0 p j1 p ÷9 (g4 ) À÷10 (g4 ) Æ 2. 0 1 0 6 and T has ®ve linear characters æ j (0 < j < 4). Then ÷8 ÷7 . Say ÷9 (g4 ) 2. and therefore. ø(g4 ) 0. (g) For i T 6. 6. Therefore x (1 Æ i 7)a2. we get 8 p (x 2 À x)a2 øp( g8 ) À1. Since g4 is conjugate to gÀ1 . ®nally. This allows us to ®ll in the j1 values of ÷11 . Then the value of ø A on g6 shows that ÷1 is not a constituent of ø A . ÷( g 10 ) ÷(g8 ). we ®ll in the values of ÷7 and ÷8 . For all ÷. Hence 4 (ø( g4 )2 À ø( g 3 ))a2 ø A ( g4 ) ÷6 ( g 4 ) 0. Now g2 is conjugate to g3 . of order 55. ÷5 and ÷6 . Say A ÷7 ( g 8 ) (1 À i 7)a2. ÷(g4 ) is real for all ÷. by & ' a b Ã. where æ j : x u y v 3 e2ði jva5 X . using this fact and part (c). thereby completing the character table of G.442 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. 7) gi g1 Order of g i 1 |CG ( g i )| 336 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 7 8 3 3 6 4 4 6 6 8 g2 2 336 1 7 8 3 3 6 À4 À4 À6 À6 À8 g3 4 8 g4 8 8 g5 8 8 g6 3 6 g7 6 6 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 g8 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g9 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 g10 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g11 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 p p 0 0 p 2 Àp 2 0 À 2 2 0 0 0 0 À1 p Note: á (À1 i 7)a2 The values of ø A on g1 and g2 show that ø A is a linear combination of ÷1 .

16. j1 ÷ j (g2 ) 12. and j1 ÷ j (g4 ) 6. we j1 can complete column 4. ÷(g2 ) ÷(g4 ) mod 3 for all ÷. respectively. Hence æ0 4 G ÷1 ÷2 for an irreducible character ÷2 of G.27. 11) gi Order of g i |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 Note: á (À1 p g1 1 660 1 11 12 12 10 10 5 5 g2 2 12 1 À1 0 0 2 À2 1 1 g3 3 6 1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 p g4 6 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 1 1 g5 5 5 1 1 á â 0 0 0 0 g6 5 5 1 1 â á 0 0 0 0 g7 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã g8 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã 5)a2. ÷6 . j1 hence |÷( g2 )| . By considering 8 ÷ j (1)÷ j (g2 ) 0. The column orthogonality relations now enable us to ®nish the character table. and ÷5 (g2 ). ÷5 (g2 ) 2 À÷6 ( g2 ). We may now conclude from the facts 8 2 that ÷(g2 ) ÷(g1 ) mod 2 and that ÷ j (g2 ) Æ2 for j 5. and 8 ÷ j (g4 )2 6. We have hæ0 4 G. they are ÷3 and ÷4 in the p table. ÷2 . But 8 (÷ j (1))2 250.Chapter 27 443 The characters æ1 4 G and æ2 4 G are irreducible. 2. æ0 4 Gi 2. 6 and ÷ j (g2 ) Æ1 for j 7. ÷6 (1). hence. without loss j5 of generality. By Corollary 22. Since ÷(1) ÷(g3 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. We have now completed columns 1. â (À1 À p 5)a2 and ã (À1 i 11)a2 Since 8 ÷ j (g5 )÷ j ( g 5 ) 5. ÷3 . we deduce that the remaining irreducible j1 characters ÷5 . 3 for all irreducible ÷. note that e2ðia5 eÀ2ðia5 (À1 5)a2X) Let ÷1 1 G . so ÷ j (g4 ) Æ1 for 5 < j < 8. without loss of generality. and 8 ÷ j ( g2 )2 12. Character table of PSL (2. the j1 values of ÷ j (g3 ) (5 < j < 8) are as shown. 8. ÷1 i 1 and hæ0 4 G. ÷4 . 10. ÷7 . (In calculating ÷3 (g5 ). 3 and 5 of the character table. ÷7 (1). 5. . ÷6 (g2 ) have opposite signs. Next. 8 2 Now ÷(g4 ) ÷(g3 ) mod 2 for all ÷. We have now found four of the eight irreducible characters of G. ÷8 (1) are 10. by Theorem 22. 5. we j1 see that ÷7 (g2 ) ÷8 (g2 ) 1. ÷5 (1). Note that ÷(gj ) is an integer for 1 < j < 4 and all characters ÷. ÷8 take the value 0 on g5 . Since ÷(g4 ) ÷(g2 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. namely ÷1 . ÷ j (1) 0 mod 5 for 5 < j < 8. and 8 ÷ j (g3 )2 6.

1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 48 1 1 3 3 4 2 2 2 g2 48 1 1 3 3 À4 À2 2 À2 g3 6 1 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 À1 g4 6 1 1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 g5 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 g6 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 2 0 g7 8 1 À1 À1 1 p0 i 2 0 p Ài 2 g8 8 1 À1 À1 1 0 p Ài 2 p0 i 2 2. a b Suppose that P GL(2. q) have representatives as follows.444 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 28 1. We may write ad À bc as s 2 for some c d Ã . Every element r of F q can be expressed as a square. 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 g2 g3 g4 1 0 2 0 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 g6 g7 g8 2 2 0 1 2 1 where 3 1 2 1 1 3 X The character table of GL(2. Each such element has centralizer of order q À 1. gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ë1 ø0 ø1 ø0. q). s À1 g of elements 0 s À1 from F q nF2 . It now follows easily that GL(2. since r r q and q is even. .s À1 . 1 1 (b) The matrix u1 has centralizer of order q. (a) The identity I has centralizer of order q 3 À q. Then s in F q a b s 0 aas bas X 0 s cas das c d The ®rst matrix in the product is sI and the second belongs to SL(2. g8 as representatives of the conjugacy classes. q) where Z fsI : s P FÃ g. We take g 1 . indexed by unordered pairs fs. 3) is then as follows. q) Z 3 SL(2. 0 1 (c) There are (q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives s 0 d s. q). q You should have no dif®culty in proving that the conjugacy classes of SL(2. X 2 1 g1 0 2 1 g5 0 X X .

we have used the function r 3 r de®ned in (28. g4 . 3. 1 ç2 g. The subscripts for ø0. b. Each such element has centralizer of order q 1. and the subscripts for ÷ i satisfy 1 < i < qa2. By restricting characters from GL(2.3). g 9 of the conjugacy classes of SL(2. indexed by unordered pairs fr. and therefore SL(2. The irreducible monic quadratics over F8 with constant term 1 are x 2 x 1. Then 64 .i satisfy 1 < i < (q À 2)a2.Chapter 28 445 (d) There are qa2 conjugacy classes with representatives 0 1 vr . 8). x 2 ç2 x 1. q) is as follows. q) is simple. 1 ç ç2 g. If q T 2 then the kernel of every non-trivial character is the identity subgroup. 8) SL(2. I ë0 ø0 ø0. g8 . x 2 çx 1. The polynomial x 3 x 1 is irreducible over F2. ç ç2 gX These give us the conjugacy class representatives g3 . 2 3 2 3 1 0 1 1 g1 g2 0 1 0 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 ç 0 1ç 0 0 ç2 g3 g4 g5 0 1 ç2 0 ç ç2 0 1 ç ç2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 g6 g9 X g7 g8 1 1 1 ç 1 ç2 1 ç ç2 We may choose a generator å of FÃ so that å 7 å À7 ç. q) to SL(2. r À1 g of elements 1 r r À1 from F q 2 nF q such that r 1q 1. c P F2 and ç3 1 çgX The pairs fs. g 7 . X X X . Hence we may write F8 fa bç cç2 : a. f1 ç.i ÷i 1 q q1 qÀ1 u1 1 0 1 À1 d s. 8).s À1 1 1 s i s Ài 0 vr 1 À1 0 À(r i r Ài ) Here. g9 below We can now list representatives g 1 . Note ®rst that PSL(2. g 5 below. q) you will quickly be able to prove that the character table of SL(2. s À1 g of elements from F8 nF2 are fç. fç2 . as follows. x 2 (ç ç2 )x 1X The companion matrices for these quadratics give use the conjugacy class representatives g 6 .

446

Representations and characters of groups

**å 14 å À14 ç2 , å 21 å À21 1 and å 28 å À28 ç4 ç ç2 . The character table of SL(2, 8) is then as follows.
**

gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ø0 ø0,1 ø0,2 ø0,3 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 504 1 8 9 9 9 7 7 7 7 g2 8 1 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 g3 7 1 1 g4 7 1 1 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 g5 7 1 1 g6 9 1 À1 0 0 0 À2 1 1 1 g7 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 g8 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 B g9 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1

Here, the 3 3 3 submatrices A and B are given by H I 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) f g A d 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) e 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) H À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) I

f g B d À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) eX À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9)

Chapter 29

1. (a) It is straightforward to check that ö is a homomorphism. For x, y P G, the element (x, y) P G 3 G sends x to y, so that action is transitive. (b) (G 3 G)1 f( g, g) : g P Gg, and ker ö f(z, z) : z P Z(G)g. (c) Every orbit of G 3 G on G 3 G contains an ordered pair of the form (1, x), and if ( g, h) sends (1, x) to (1, y) then g h and y g À1 xg. Hence if C1 , X X X , C k are the conjugacy classes of G, and xi P C i, then (1, xi ) (1 < i < k) are orbit representatives for the action of G 3 G on G 3 G, and so the rank is equal to k. Since x(( g, h)ö) x if and only if xhx À1 g, we see that ð( g, h) jfix G ( g, h)j is equal to 0 if g is not conjugate to h, and is equal to jC G (x)j if g is conjugate to h (since in the latter case, if xhx À1 g then an arbitrary element y P G such that yhy À1 g is of the form y xc with c P (x)). Hence using the column orthogonality relations we see CG that ð ÷ 3 ÷. 2. There are q 2 À 1 non-zero vectors in V, and each 1-dimensional subspace

Chapter 29

447

contains q À 1 of them; also two 1-dimensional subspaces have no non-zero vectors in common. Hence jÙj (q 2 À 1)a(q À 1) q 1. 3. Use the notation for the conjugacy classes and irreducible characters of GL(2, q) given in Proposition 28.4 and Theorem 28.5. It is easy to check that ð takes the values q 2 À 1, q À 1, q À 1 on the classes with representatives I, u1 , d 1, t respectively, and takes the value 0 on all other classes. Taking inner products we ®nd hð, 1 G i hð, ø0 i hð, ø0, j i 1 (1 < j < q À 2)X qÀ2 As 1 G ø0 1 ø0, j has degree q 2 À 1 ð(1), we conclude that qÀ2 ð 1 G ø0 1 ø0, j . 4. Observe that the coset H 1 x is ®xed by g if and only if xgx À1 P H 1 . If G is abelian this amounts to g P H 1 , and hence we see that ð1 ( g) 0 if g P H 1 a and ð1 ( g) jG : H 1 j if g P H 1 . Thus H 1 f g P G : ð1 ( g) T 0g. Likewise for H 2 ; since ð1 ð2 we deduce that H 1 H 2 . As a counterexample for G non-abelian, take G D8 ha, b : a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i with H 1 hbi, H 2 ha2 bi. Then ð1 ð2 but H 1 T H 2 . 1 5. By Proposition 29.4 we have 1 jGj gPG jfixÙ ( g)j, hence jfixÙ ( g)j jGj. Since jfixÙ ( g)j is a non-negative integer for each g, and jfixÙ (1)j jÙj . 1, we must have jfixÙ ( g)j 0 for some g. 6. Write ð ð( nÀ2,1,1) . Calculating inner products using Proposition 29.6, as in the proof of Theorem 29.13, we ®nd hð, ði 7, hð, 1i 1, hð, ð( nÀ1,1) i 3, hð, ð( nÀ2,2) i 4X Using Theorem 29.13 it follows that ð( nÀ2,1,1) 1 2÷ ( nÀ1,1) ÷ ( nÀ2,2) ÷ with ÷ irreducible. Hence ÷ 1 ð À ð( nÀ1,1) À ð( nÀ2,2) , from which it is easy to calculate that ÷(1) 1(n À 1)(n À 2), 2 ÷(12) 1(n À 2)(n À 5), ÷(123) 1(n À 4)(n À 5). For n 6, ÷ (4,1,1) is the 2 2 character ÷5 in Example 19.17.

Chapter 30

1. By Theorem 30.4, a245 168/(8´3) 7. Hence, by (30.3), PSL (2, 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2, b has order 3 and ab has order 7. p p 2. No: a225 (1 (À1 i 7)a6 (À1 À i 7)a6 À 4a6)168a(8X8) 0, and similarly a226 0. Hence PSL (2,7) does not contain two involutions whose product has order 7. 3. Yes. Number the conjugacy classes of PSL (2, 11) as in the solution to Exercise 27.6. Then 660 1 a235 X 1 10X 12 6 11 Therefore PSL (2, 11) contains elements x and y such that x, y and xy have orders 2, 3 and 5, respectively. Let H be the subgroup kx, yl of PSL (2, 11).

448

Representations and characters of groups

There is a homomorphism W from A5 onto H (W sends a 3 x, b 3 y). Since Ker W 3 A5 and A5 is simple, we deduce that H A5 . 4. Suppose that G is a group whose p character table is p where á (1 5)a2, â (1 À 5)a2.

g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 g2 1 1 À1 0 0 g3 1 0 1 À1 À1 g4 1 À1 0 á â g5 1 À1 0 â á

For 1 < i < 5 we have jC G ( g i )j 5 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g i ). Therefore the j1 centralizers of g1 , g2 , g3 , g4 , g5 have orders 60, 3, 4, 5, 5, respectively. Hence the orders of g2 , g4 and g5 are 3, 5 and 5; also the order of g3 must be 2, since for no other i (except i 1) is |CG (g i )| even. Now a324 60a(4 . 3). Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, G has a subgroup H with H A5 . Since jGj 60, we have G A5 . 5. (a) Using the fact that 7 ÷ j (g i )÷ j ( g i ) |CG (g i )|, we ®nd that the j1 centralizer orders and class sizes are as follows:

g1 |CG ( g i )| | gG | i 360 1 g2 8 45 g3 4 90 g4 9 40 g5 9 40 g6 5 72 g7 5 72

Hence jGj 360. Also G is simple, by Proposition 17.6. (b) By the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions (Corollary 23.17), the number of involutions t in G is bounded by 1 t <

7 j1

÷ j (1) 46X

By considering jC G ( g i )j, we see that g i has even order only for i 2 and 3. Since t < 45, only g2 can be an involution. Hence g3 has order 4. (This information about the orders of g2 and g3 can also be deduced using Sylow's Theorem.) (c) Clearly g6 and g7 have order 5, and at least one of g4 and g5 has order 3. If j 4 or 5 and k 6 or 7 then

Chapter 30

a2 jk ÷( g2 )÷( g j )÷ ( g k ) jGj jCG ( g 2 )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1)

449

360 5X 8.9 Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, the subgroup H kx, yl of G is isomorphic to A5 . (d) If g, h P G then ( gh)r: Hx 3 Hxgh, and ( gr)(hr): Hx 3 Hxg 3 HxghX Hence r is a homomorphism. (e) Since G is simple, Ker r {1}. Hence G is isomorphic to a subgroup K of S6 . Since jS6 : Kj 63a360 2, K must be A6 . 6. Consider the ®gure in Example 30.6(3). We shall explain how to label the vertices by elements of G. Choose a vertex and label it 1. Label the vertices according to the following inductive rule. Assume that v is a vertex and an adjacent vertex u is labelled by g. Then label v by ga gb gb

À1

if the edge uv has no arrow, if the edge uv has an arrow from u to v, if the edge uv has an arrow from v to uX

For example, if you decided to label the bottom left-hand vertex by 1, then part of the labelling would be

The relation a2 1 ensures that the labelling is consistent along unmarked edges; since b3 1, the labelling is consistent around triangles; and the relation abababab 1 deals with the octagons. Every element in G has the form given by the label of one of the 24 vertices, so jGj < 24. 7. The conjugacy classes of PSL(2, 7) are given in Lemma 27.1 The element g 2 is an involution with centralizer of order 8 given in the proof of 2 2 2 4 Lemma 27.1. Letting a , b , we see that the À2 2 4 À2 centralizer is generated by a and b, and a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 À, hence the centralizer is isomorphic to D8 . As in Exercises 12.3 and 12.4, we see that C A6 ((12)(34)) has order 8 and is generated by (1324) and (13)(24), hence as above is isomorphic to D8 .

450

Representations and characters of groups

8. Let G be the simple group PSL(2, 17). In the ®eld Z17 the element 4 is a 4 0 fourth root of unity, so t Z is an involution. Calculate that 0 À4 C G (t) is generated by the group of diagonal matrices together with 0 1 3 0 b Z, hence is generated by b and a Z. As À1 0 0 6 a 8 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1, we have C G (t) D16 .

Chapter 31

1. Assume that G has an abelian subgroup H of index p r ( p prime), and that |G| . p. If H {1} then |G| p r and so G is not simple (see Lemma 26.1(1)). So assume that H T {1}; pick 1 T h P H. Then H < CG (h) as H is abelian, so |G:CG (h)| is a power of p. If |G:CG (h)| 1 then khl v G and G is not simple. And if |G:CG (h)| . 1, then G is not simple by Theorem 31.3. 2. By Burnside's Theorem, jGj is divisible by at least three distinct primes. Since 3 . 5 . 7 . 80, jGj is even. Then by Exercise 13.8, |G| is divisible by 4. Since 4 . 3 . 7 . 80, the only possibility is that jGj 4 . 3 . 5 60.

Chapter 32

1. (a) The fact that BB I follows from the observation that for all i, j, d(ei b, ej b) d(ei , ej ) ä ij X Since 1 det I (det B)(det Bt ) (det B)2 , we have det B Æ1. (b) (i) The eigenvalues of C are the roots of det (C À xI), which is a cubic polynomial over R. Therefore, C has one or three real eigenvalues. (ii) Moreover, the product of the eigenvalues of C is det C 1. If C has three real eigenvalues, then they cannot all be negative; and if C has one real eigenvalue ë and a pair of conjugate non-real eigenvalues ì, ì, then ë ìì 1, and hence ë . 0. Therefore C has a real positive eigenvalue, say ë. (iii) Let v be an eigenvector for ë. Then d(v, v) d(vC, vC) d(ëv, ëv) ë2 d(v, v), and so ë 1. (c) Let c be the isometry v 3 vC. By (b), c ®xes a vector v; it is now easy to convince yourself that c must be a rotation about the axis through v. The required result for b follows from the de®nition of c. (d) Take three orthogonal axes, one of which is the axis of the rotation b. With respect to these axes, the matrix of b is H I 1 0 0 d 0 cos ö sin ö eX 0 Àsin ö cos ö Hence tr B 1 2 cos ö.

t

Chapter 32

451

2. We regard G as a subgroup of O(R3 ). It is easy to see that the translation submodule T (which consists of all the translation modes) is isomorphic to the RG-module given by the natural action of G on R3 . Hence by part (d) of Exercise 1, V if g is a rotation through ö, about some b 1 2 cos ö, b b b b axis, b ` ÷ T ( g) b À(1 2 cos ö), if the element À g of O(R3 ) is a rotation b b b b b X through öX Now consider the rotation submodule R, which consists of all the rotation modes. A rotation mode is speci®ed by a 3-dimensional vector öv, where v is a unit vector along the axis of the rotation and ö denotes the angle of rotation, taken positive in the right-hand screw sense. Let g P G, and consider g acting on öv. It sends v to vg, and if g is a rotation, it preserves the sense of the rotation; however, if g is a re¯ection then it transforms a right-hand screw to a left-hand screw, and hence sends öv to (Àö)(vg). Therefore @ if g is a rotation, ÷ T ( g), ÷ R ( g) À÷T ( g), if g is not a rotation, and so ÷ T ÷ R has the required form. 3. The matrix A is I H p p À3a2 0 3a4 À 3a4 p3a4 3a4 p f 0 À1a2 À 3a4 p1a4 3a4 1a4 g g f p k f 3a4 À 3a4 À3a4 3a4 0 0 g gX f p p 3a4 À5a4 0 1 g m f À 3a4 p1a4 g f p d 3a4 3a4 0 0 À3a4 À 3a4 e p p 3a4 1a4 0 1 À 3a4 À5a4 4. A simpler basis is given by

1 2(r1 1 2(r1 1 2(r1

r2 ) (v12 v21 ) À (v34 v43 ), r3 ) (v13 v31 ) À (v24 v42 ), r4 ) (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 )X

We chose r1, r2, r3, r4 to be the images of w1, w2, w3, w4 under an RGisomorphism. (Compare the construction of the matrix B, towards the end of Example 32.20.) 5. (a) This is a routine geometrical exercise. (b) Let the displaced positions of the atoms be 09, 19, 29, 39, 49. The distance of 19 from the plane through 1 perpendicular to 12 is x12 1(x13 x14 ). Similarly, the distance of 29 from the plane through 2 2 perpendicular to 12 is x21 1(x23 x24 ). Therefore 12 has decreased by 2 x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 ). The other calculations can be done in 2 the same way. (c) We express the force at each atom as a vector, and then write this vector

452

**Representations and characters of groups
**

as a linear combination of our three chosen unit vectors at the initial position of the atom. Let d ij denote the decrease in the length ij, as calculated in part (b). Then, for example, at vertex 1, the contributions to the component of the force vector in the direction 12 are as follows: Àk1 d12 from the force between atoms 1 and 2; zero from the force between atoms 1 and 3 and from the force between atoms 1 and 4; and Àk2 d10 sec (/012) from the force between atoms 1 and 0. Hence p m1 12 Àk 1 d 12 À 1 (3a2)k 2 d 10 X x 3

Upon substituting for d12 and d10 from part (b), we obtain the given expression for 12. x The other accelerations are calculated in the same way. (d) The entries in the 15 3 15 matrix A are the coef®cients which appear in the equations of motion xA. If you write down the matrix A, then x you will easily verify that the given vectors are eigenvectors of A (with eigenvalues À(4k 1 k 2 )am1 , 0, 0, 0, Àk 1 am1 , Àk 1 am1 , p p I À2k 2 a3m1 À4k 2 p 2a(m2 p3) À2k 2 a3m1 p À4k 2 2a(m2 3) eX p À2k 2 3a(9m1 2) À4k 2 a3m2 p (f ) You will ®nd that (1, À2, 6) is an eigenvector of B, with eigenvalue 0. This agrees with the statement in Example 32.20 that the translation vector r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 is an eigenvector of A. 6. (a) Assign coordinate axes along the edges of the square, as shown below. respectively). (e) The matrix B is H À(6k 1 k 2 )a3m1 d À(3k 1 k 2 )a3m1 p p Àk 2 3a(9m1 2)

The symmetry group is G D8. Let a denote the rotation sending P 3 Q 3 R 3 S 3 P, and let b denote the re¯ection in the axis PR. The character ÷ of the RG-module R8 is

1 ÷ 8

a2 0

a 0

b 0

ab 0

Chapter 32

453

We refer to the character table of D8 which is given in Example 16.3(3), and see that ÷ ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 2÷5 X The rotation mode is (t â)v, where v (1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1) P V÷2 X The translation modes are (t â)v, where v is in the span of v1 , v2 and v1 (1, 0, 0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1), v2 (0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1, 1, 0)X The homogeneous components V÷1, V÷3 and V÷4 are spanned by the vectors (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), (1, 1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1) and (1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1, 1), respectively. The ®nal set of eigen-vectors is given by V÷5 R8 which is spanned by vib (1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0, 0, 1) and (0, 1, 1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0)X (b) The matrix A is 1 f0 f f0 f k f0 À f mf0 f f0 f d0 1 H 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 I 1 0g g 0g g 0g gX 0g g 0g g 0e 1

7. (a, b) Let å i (1 < i < m) be the projection which is given by å i : u1 X X X um 3 ui (where u k P Uk for all k). Then w 3 wAå j WÀ1 W i j (w P Ui ) gives an RG-homomorphism from Ui to Ui. By Exercise 23.8, there exist ë ij P R such that for all w P Ui, Since m wAå j ë ij wWÀ1 W j X i is the identity endomorphism of U1 È . . . È Um, we have m ë ij wWÀ1 W j for all w P Ui X wA i

j1 j1 å j

Now take in turn w uW i and w vW i to obtain the results of parts (a) and (b) of the question. (c) Take a basis u1 , . . . , u n of U1. Assume that the eigenvectors of A u are known. For all k with 1 < k < n, the eigenvectors of A in sp (u k W1 , . . . , u k W m ) are given by the eigenvectors of A u (see part (b)). Hence we know all the eigenvectors of A in U1 È . . . È Um.

Bibliography

**Books mentioned in the text
**

H. S. M. Coxeter and W. J. O. Moser, Generators and Relations for Discrete Groups (Fourth Edition), Springer-Verlag, 1980. J. B. Fraleigh, A First Course in Abstract Algebra (Third Edition), AddisonWesley, 1982. D. Gorenstein, Finite Simple Groups: An Introduction to their Classi®cation, Plenum Press, New York, 1982. G. D. James, The Representation Theory of the Symmetric Groups, Lecture Notes in Mathematics No. 682, Spring-Verlag, 1978. D. S. Passman, Permutation Groups, Benjamin, 1968. H. Pollard and H. G. Diamond, The Theory of Algebraic Numbers (Second Edition), Carus Mathematical Monographs No. 9, Mathematical Association of America, 1975. J. J. Rotman, An Introduction to the Theory of Groups (Third Edition), Allyn and Bacon, 1984. D. S. Schonland, Molecular Symmetry ± an Introduction to Group Theory and its uses in Chemistry, Van Nostrand, 1965.

**Suggestions for further reading
**

M. J. Collins, Representations and Characters of Finite Groups, Cambridge University Press, 1990. C. W. Curtis and I. Reiner, Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I, Wiley-Interscience, 1981. W. Feit, Characters of Finite Groups, Benjamin, 1967. I. M. Isaacs, Character Theory of Finite Groups, Academic Press, 1976. W. Ledermann, Introduction to Group Characters (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press, 1987. J. P. Serre, Linear Representations of Finite Groups, Springer-Verlag, 1977.

454

Index A4 .7). 318 PSL(2. 112. 11. 291 GL(2. 88 centralizer. 9. 160 C4 . 262 S6 . 269 Brauer±Fowler Theroem. 269 skew-symmetric. 181 A5 .11).q). 125. 5. 160 C3 . 442 SL(2. 122. 440 SL(2. 129 product. 130. 412 C2 3 C2 . 116. 192 real. 359 A6 . 107. 363. 159 A4 . 269 symmetric. 116. 111 antisymmetric part. 15 natural. 82 D6. 416 S4 . 445 PSL(2.8). 11.q . 119 kernel of. 415 Cn . 2. 364 C. 24 character. 359 A6 . 122 character table.q). 230. 359. 220. 106 centre of group. 221. 308 A5 . 56 algebraic integer. 128. 361 alternating group. 253 irreducible. 55. 160 D8. 195 generalized. 419 D2n ( n odd). 119 regular. 354. 196. 3. 85. 337 algebra. 417 F11. 263 realized over R. 153 change of basis. 82 action. 207. 434 F7. 236 integer-valued. 81. 180 S5 . 11. 174 permutation. 355 induced. 83. 273 associative. 172. 223 An . 127. 116. 2 Cn . 10. 125 linear. 312. 182 D2n ( n even). 205 SL(2. 415 D12 S3 3 C2 . 114.5 . 9. 423 E. 54 bijection. 118 degree. 5. 186 T4 n. 244. 176. 150 trivial. 234. 181. 183 D6 3 D6. 247 faithful. 240. of order 18. 443 Q8 . 420 455 . 433 Fp. 111. 340 Burnside's Theorem. 45. 6 bilinear form. 298 of group algebra. 201. 327 PSL(2. 136. 424 C2 . 112. 362 algebraic number. 82. 265 reducible.3.3). 222. 278 Burnside's Lemma. 2 basis. 343 abelian group. 122. 360 A7 .7). 161 D10. 445 T12.

88 dicyclic. 206 order 16. 49 FG-homomorphism. 18 eigenvalue. 3 F n. 107. 56. 143. 421 direct product. 12. 259 conjugacy class. 4. 364 soluble. 5 rotation. 82. 228 inner product. 109. 1 abelian. 250. 95. 18 F R or C. 181 dimension. 9. 6 injective. 12. 32. 256 maximal. 83 dicyclic group T4 n.456 Representations and characters of groups FG-submodule. see module . 96 congruences. 273 induced character. 111 cyclic. 318. 15 direct product. 90 common. 107 class function. 216 complete set. 9 ®nite. 104 conjugate. 249 derived subgroup. 365 special linear. 304 orthogonal. 20. 50. 277 function. 11. 349 class equation.F). 79. 181 degree.q . 420 dihedral group. 363. 6 invertible. 277. 5 expansion±contraction mode. 311. 44. 10. 195 faithful module. 114 Clifford's Theorem. 66 external. 74. 107. 61 ideal. 381 external direct sum. 343 general linear group. 422 V8 n . 82 alternating. 152 class sum. 32. 368 group algebra. 6. 15 Fp. 2. 254 symmetry. 9 faithful character. 134 involution. 367 projective special linear. 85 faithful representation. 5. 324. 2. 5. 308 order p3 . 3 GL(2. 3. 4. 119 irreducible module. 257 index of subgroup. 178 dihedral. 368 simple. 116. 30. 11. 181 factor. 104. 353 irreducible character. 9 HomCG (V W). 3. 17. 91. 6 GL(n. 353. 125. 79 isomorphism. 20 equivalent. 3 H v G. 24 eigenvector. 91 irreducible representation. 7. 213 coset. 46 even permutation. 257 proper. 306. 230. 61 FG-isomorphism. 300 class algebra constants. 421 V24 . 307 order 27. 55 H < G. homogeneous component. 278. 376 homomorphism. 107. 2 order p3 . 290 FG. 2. 173 diagonalization. 34 FG-module. 8 cycle-shape. 81. 226.q). 12. 2 general linear. 6 surjective. 109 cyclic group. 311 symmetric. 236 induced module. 291 p-group. 301 order pq. 9 indicator function. 50. 12. 305. 178. 290 Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 2. 206 direct sum. 187. 88 D2n. 175. 234. 63 Frobenius group. 3 order. 302. 12. 10. 82. 2. 232 Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 63 U6n. 74 composition. 312 quaternion. 281. 6 bijective. 435 order . 122. 361 constituent. 96 . 8 cycle notation. 53 factor group. 24 endomorphism. 2 composition factor. 3 group. 101 completely reducible.

312 457 Q8 . 380. 4 cyclic. 269 special linear group. 129. 216. 150 regular module. 43 natural normal normal normal 217 basis. 336. 193 presentation. 251 subgroup. 205 S7 . 5 orbit. 109. 445 Schur's Lemma. 173 generated. 74 Sylow's Theorem. 32. 4 orthogonal group. 50 reducible representation. 344 SL(2. 342 Rank±Nullity Theorem. 39 completely reducible. 442 SL(2. 46 faithful. 62 reducible. 340 permutation character. 19. 319. 5 even. 4 derived. 44. 298 p9-part. 49 irreducible. 67 projective special linear group. 175. 23 permutation. 223 Sn . 338 order of G.11). 50 regular. 70. 2 order of g. 367 orthogonality relations. 311 stabilizer. 263 real element. 177. 54 modes of vibration. 85 permutation. 34 irreducible. 215. 3. 440 SL(2. 312 p-group. 3. 318. 44. 3. 416 R. 174 linear transformation. 254. 215. 312. 256. 379 rotation submodule. 171. 116. 340 permutation matrix. 5 permutation module. 394 S4 . 368 rotation mode. 416 quaternion group. 249 equivalent. 19 real character. 30 degree. 363. 278. 27. 343. 263 reducible character. 278. 3 rank. 201. 9. 125 Lagrange's Theorem. 311. 258 permutation. 10. 9. 384 minimal polynomial. 216. 320. 50. 359 PSL(2. 311 SL(2. 321. 34. 275 S5 . 113. 269 odd permutation. 250. 21 change of basis. 360 PSL(2. 24 diagonal. 76 matrix. 284 product of characters. 373 p-complement. 78 simple group. 45. 21 invertible. projection. 34 representatives. 127. 5 odd. 169 linear character. 365 symmetric bilinear form. 210 rotation group. 128. 113. p). 319. 79 kernel of. 30. 56. 116. 262 S6 . 318. 56 regular representation. 50 regular. 364 skew-symmetric bilinear form. 56 representation. 26 identity. 5. 45. 18 linearly dependent. 119 reducible module.7). 34. 9 lift. 10. 50. 263 real conjugacy class. 361 module. 354. 372. 359. 45 methane. 173. 122.Index kernel. 354. 45 powers of characters. 74 faithful. 56 trivial. 62. 5. 217 submodule. 278. 15 Maschke's Theorem. 124 reducible. 105 restriction. 177. 113. 85 irreducible. 116.3). 110. 3 primitive root. 50 regular character. 339 subgroup. 79. 15 linearly independent. 3. 176. 180. 161 PSL(2. 171.7). 192 . 45.q). 56 trivial. 124. 111. p). 116. 4 normal.

178. 178. 3. 190 tensor product space. 175. 187. 394 transposition. 5 . 421 Vandermonde matrix. 196. 178. 338. 379 translation submodule. 374 Z. 2 symmetric group.458 Representations and characters of groups trivial character. 420 tensor product module. 369. 341 transitivity of induction. 122 module. 381 water. 254 symmetric part. 380. 421 V8n. 187. 187. 229 translation mode. 194 vibratory modes. 43 representation. 281. 273 symmetry group. 116. 117 transitive. 188 trace. 34 U6n. 368 T4 n. 109.

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