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Representations and Characters of Groups Now in its second edition, this text provides a modern introduction to the representation theory of ®nite groups. The authors have revised the popular ®rst edition and added a considerable amount of new material. The theory is developed in terms of modules, since this is appropriate for more advanced work, but considerable emphasis is placed upon constructing characters. The character tables of many groups are given, including all groups of order less than 32, and all simple groups of order less than 1000. Among the applications covered are Burnside's pa q b theorem, the use of character theory in studying subgroup structure and permutation groups, and a description of how to use representation theory to investigate molecular vibration. Each chapter is accompanied by a variety of exercises, and full solutions to all the exercises are provided at the end of the book. This will be ideal as a text for a course in representation theory, and in view of the applications of the subject, will be of interest to mathematicians, chemists and physicists alike.

**R E P R E S E N TAT ION S AN D C H AR ACT E R S OF G ROU P S
**

G O R D O N JA M E S a n d M A RT I N L I E B E C K

Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London

Second Edition

PUBLISHED BY CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS (VIRTUAL PUBLISHING) FOR AND ON BEHALF OF THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 IRP 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia http://www.cambridge.org © Cambridge University Press 1993, 2001 This edition © Cambridge University Press (Virtual Publishing) 2003 First published in printed format 1993 Second edition 2001 A catalogue record for the original printed book is available from the British Library and from the Library of Congress Original ISBN 0 521 81205 4 hardback Original ISBN 0 521 00392 X paperback

ISBN 0 511 01700 6 virtual (netLibrary Edition)

Contents

Preface 1 Groups and homomorphisms 2 Vector spaces and linear transformations 3 Group representations 4 FG-modules 5 FG-submodules and reducibility 6 Group algebras 7 FG-homomorphisms 8 Maschke's Theorem 9 Schur's Lemma 10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra 11 More on the group algebra 12 Conjugacy classes 13 Characters 14 Inner products of characters 15 The number of irreducible characters 16 Character tables and orthogonality relations 17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters 18 Some elementary character tables 19 Tensor products 20 Restriction to a subgroup 21 Induced modules and characters 22 Algebraic integers 23 Real representations 24 Summary of properties of character tables 25 Characters of groups of order pq 26 Characters of some p-groups 27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 v

page vii 1 14 30 38 49 53 61 70 78 89 95 104 117 133 152 159 168 179 188 210 224 244 263 283 288 298 311

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28 Character table of GL(2, q) 322 29 Permutations and characters 337 30 Applications to group theory 348 31 Burnside's Theorem 361 32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 367 Solutions to exercises 397 Bibliography 454 Index 455

Preface

We have attempted in this book to provide a leisurely introduction to the representation theory of groups. But why should this subject interest you? Representation theory is concerned with the ways of writing a group as a group of matrices. Not only is the theory beautiful in its own right, but it also provides one of the keys to a proper understanding of ®nite groups. For example, it is often vital to have a concrete description of a particular group; this is achieved by ®nding a representation of the group as a group of matrices. Moreover, by studying the different representations of the group, it is possible to prove results which lie outside the framework of representation theory. One simple example: all groups of order p2 (where p is a prime number) are abelian; this can be shown quickly using only group theory, but it is also a consequence of basic results about representations. More generally, all groups of order pa q b ( p and q primes) are soluble; this again is a statement purely about groups, but the best proof, due to Burnside, is an outstanding example of the use of representation theory. In fact, the range of applications of the theory extends far beyond the boundaries of pure mathematics, and includes theoretical physics and chemistry ± we describe one such application in the last chapter. The book is suitable for students who have taken ®rst undergraduate courses involving group theory and linear algebra. We have included two preliminary chapters which cover the necessary background material. The basic theory of representations is developed in Chapters 3±23, and our methods concentrate upon the use of modules; although this accords with the more modern style of algebra, in several instances our proofs differ from those found in other textbooks. The main results are elegant and surprising, but at ®rst sight they sometimes have an air of mystery vii

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Representations and characters of groups

about them; we have chosen the approach which we believe to be the most transparent. We also emphasize the practical aspects of the subject, and the text is illustrated with a wealth of examples. A feature of the book is the wide variety of groups which we investigate in detail. By the end of Chapter 28, we have presented the character tables of all groups of order less than 32, of all p-groups of order at most p4 , and of all the simple groups of order less than 1000. Every chapter is accompanied by a set of Exercises, and the solutions to all of these are provided at the end of the book. We would like to thank Dr Hans Liebeck for his careful reading of our manuscript and the many helpful suggestions which he made.

In this second edition, we have included two new chapters; one (Chapter 28) deals with the character tables of an in®nite series of groups, and the other (Chapter 29) covers aspects of the representation theory of permutation groups. We have also added a considerable amount of new material to Chapters 20, 23 and 30, and made minor amendments elsewhere.

Preface to Second Edition

h of G to form another element of G. so we begin with a resume of facts about groups. and any book on basic group theory will supply you with further details. written gh. An elementary course on abstract algebra would normally cover all the material in the chapter. there exists an element gÀ1 in G such that gg À1 g À1 g eX We refer to the rule for combining elements of G as the product operation on G. such as dihedral groups and symmetric groups. k in G. Groups A group consists of a set G.1 Groups and homomorphisms This book is devoted to the study of an aspect of group theory. most of which you should Â Â know already. which we shall use extensively to illustrate the later theory. One or two results which we shall use only infrequently are demoted to the exercises at the end of the chapter ± you can refer to the solutions if necessary. In addition. ( gh)k g(hk). h. this rule must satisfy the following axioms: (1) for all g. eg ge g. (3) for all g in G. 1 . we introduce several examples. together with a rule for combining any two elements g. (2) there exists an element e in G such that for all g in G.

Also. then we call G a ®nite group. then do g'). a nÀ1 g. similarly 3 g g 2 g. r nÀ1 where r k is the (clockwise) rotation about the centre O through an angle 2ðkan. and is written D2 n. is a group of order n. If a e2ðia n . for two symmetries f and g. These 2n rotations and re¯ections form a group under the product operation of composition (that is. This group is called the dihedral group of order 2n. gÀ2 ( gÀ1 )2 . It is elementary to see that G has just one identity element. and so on. . then Cn f1. gg. . Write b for the re¯ection in the . is written g 2 . (2) The set Z of all integers. . Let A be a corner of the polygon. a. Usually we write 1. There are also n re¯ection symmetries: these are re¯ections in the n lines passing through O and a corner or the mid-point of a side of the polygon. 1. for the identity element of G. and is written |G|. The product of an element g with itself. and that every g in G has just one inverse. The set of nth roots of unity in C. under addition. If the number of elements in G is ®nite. the element e in axiom (2) is an identity element of G. There are n rotation symmetries: these are r0 . with the usual multiplication of complex numbers. and consider the rotation and re¯ection symmetries of a regular n-sided polygon. . a2 . is a group. and denote by C the set of all complex numbers. It is written as Cn and is called the cyclic group of order n. r1 . and gÀ1 is an inverse of g in axiom (3). and an 1. (3) Let n be an integer with n > 3. X X X . the number of elements in G is called the order of G. rather than e. the product fg means `®rst do f.2 Representations and characters of groups Axiom (1) states that the product operation is associative. g0 1.1 Examples (1) Let n be a positive integer.

While Cn and Z are abelian. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX (4) For n a positive integer. We use the notation H < G to indicate that H is a subgroup of G. and is written Sn . X X X . (5) Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). most of the other examples given above are non-abelian groups.Groups and homomorphisms 3 line through O and A. F) is of course the identity matrix. and hence (a i b)(a j b) a i ba j b a i aÀ j bb a iÀ j X We summarize all this in the presentation D2 n ha. It is an in®nite group. is a group. a2 . A group G is said to be abelian if gh hg for all g and h in G. b2 1. forms a group. . Subgroups Let G be a group. n}. which leaves the polygon ®xed). ab. under matrix multiplication. and the n re¯ections are b. b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X These relations determine the product of any two elements of the group. and is denoted by GL(n. The order of Sn is n!. X X X . A subset H of G is said to be a subgroup if H is itself a group under the product operation inherited from G. under the product operation of composition. . the set of all permutations of {1. F). The identity of GL(n. . and write a for the rotation r1 . which we denote by In or just I. D2 n is generated by a and b. a nÀ1 (where 1 denotes the identity. 2. It is called the symmetric group of degree n. For example. . a2 b. Then the n rotations are 1. . we have ba j aÀ j b (using the relation ba aÀ1 b). This group is called the general linear group of degree n over F. The set of all invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. a nÀ1 bX Thus all elements of D2 n are products of powers of a and b ± that is. b: an 1. Check that an 1. a.

If gn 1 for some n > 1.2 Examples (1) For every group G. The groups Cn and Z in Examples 1. We illustrate the construction in the next example. g 2 . jk P Z for 1 < k < n. (4) Let G GL(2. Then H is a subgroup of G. we can similarly de®ne hSi. then k gl is ®nite. and write H ha. we call H the subgroup generated by a and b. biX Given any ®nite set S of elements of G. then r is equal to the number of elements in k gl ± indeed. k P H then hkÀ1 P H. g. where ik . b P G. (2) Let G be a group and g P G. The subset h gi f g n : n P Zg is a subgroup of G. If G k gl for some g P G then we call G a cyclic group. De®ne H to be the subset of G consisting of all elements which are products of powers of a and b ± that is. (3) Let G be a group and let a. C). and (2) if h. In this case. called the cyclic subgroup generated by g. both {1} and G are subgroups of G. X X X . the subgroup of G generated by S. This construction gives a powerful method of ®nding new groups as subgroups of given groups. all elements of the form a i1 b j1 a i2 b j2 X X Xa i n b j n for some n. let r be the least positive integer such that g r 1. and let i 0 0 1 A .4 Representations and characters of groups It is easy to see that a subset H of a group G is a subgroup if and only if the following two conditions hold: (1) 1 P H.5 below. 1. g rÀ1 gX We call r the order of the element g. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in C. such as general linear or symmetric groups. B X 0 Ài À1 0 .1 are cyclic. h gi f1. and again in Example 1.

. The above three relations determine the product of any two elements of Q8 . n and ®xes the other n À 2 numbers. we can take 0 < i < 3 and 0 < j < 1. we see that every element of H has the form A i B j for some integers i. and using the ®rst two relations. the subgroup of G generated by A and B. 2. Since the matrices Ai B j (0 < i < 3. and consider G 3 H f( g. Hence H has at most eight elements. G 3 H is a group. A2 B2 . called the alternating group of degree n. Every permutation g in Sn can be expressed as a product of transpositions. j. Direct products We describe a construction which produces a new group from given ones. called the direct product of G and H. g9 P G and all h. Check that A4 I. in fact j Hj 8. h)( g9. so we have the presentation Q8 hA. hh9) for all g. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 iX (5) A transposition in the symmetric group Sn is a permutation which interchanges two of the numbers 1. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X 5 Using the third relation. . It can be shown that either all such expressions for g have an even number of transpositions. accordingly. B: A4 I. . With this product operation. . The group H is called the quaternion group of order 8. The subset An f g P Sn : g is an even permutationg is a subgroup of Sn . . h): g P G and h P HgX De®ne a product operation on G 3 H by ( g. and is written Q8. or they all have an odd number of transpositions. 0 < j < 1) are all distinct. h9) ( gg9. Let G and H be groups. A2 B2 . h9 P H. Bl. we call g an even or an odd permutation.Groups and homomorphisms Put H kA.

A function W from G to H is invertible if and only if it is both injective (that is. . g2 P G implies that g1 g2 ) and surjective (that is. X X X . X X X . . we generally apply functions on the right ± that is. . Homomorphisms Given groups G and H. 3 Gr is also ®nite. . the image of g under a function W is written as gW. A function W: G 3 H is invertible if there is a function ö: H 3 G such that for all g P G. 3 C2 (r factors) has order 2 r and all its nonidentity elements have order 2. then the direct product G1 3 X X X 3 Gr is f( g 1 . X X X . not as W g. Functions A function from one set G to another set H is a rule which assigns a unique element of H to each element of G. h P H. g 2 P GX . 1. g r g9 )X 1 r 1 r If all the groups Gi are ®nite. An invertible function is also called a bijection. with product operation de®ned by ( g1 . . g9 ) ( g 1 g9 . . those functions from G to H which `preserve the group structure' ± the so-called homomorphisms ± are of particular importance.6 Representations and characters of groups More generally. . and is written as WÀ1 . g1 W g2 W for g1 . g r ): g i P Gi for 1 < i < rg. |Gr |. where g P G and h P H. then a homomorphism from G to H is a function W: G 3 H which satis®es ( g1 g 2 )W ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g 1 . for every h P H there exists g P G such that gW h). . If G and H are groups. Gr are groups. . we mean that h gW. g r )( g9 . then G1 3 . By an expression W: g 3 h.3 Example The group C2 3 . In this book. . ( gW)ö g and (hö)W hX Then ö is called the inverse of W. of order |G1 | . X X X . We often indicate that W is a function from G to H by the notation W: G 3 H. if G1 .

y À1 xy x À1 . 0 < t < n À 1. If there is an isomorphism W from G to H. and so W is a homomorphism.5 Example Let G S5 and let x. 1. and we write G H. and write the 2n elements of G in the form ai b j with 0 < i < n À 1. We now demonstrate the technique of Example 1. The following example displays a technique which can often be used to prove that certain functions are homomorphisms. Then ar bs at bu a i b j for some i. y be the following permutations in G: x (1 2 3 4 5). 0 < j < 1. i and j are determined by repeatedly using the relations an b2 1. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism.4 Example Let G D2 n ka. 0 < j < 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 1. WÀ1 is an isomorphism from H to G. then G and H are said to be isomorphic. j with 0 < i < n À 1. we can also deduce that xr ys xt yu x i y j X Therefore. 0 < s < 1. b: an b2 1. (ar bs at bu )W (a i b j )W x i y j x r y s x t y u (ar bs )W .4 in action. also. and suppose that H contains elements x and y which satisfy x n y 2 1. y (2 5)(3 4)X . Suppose that 0 < r < n À 1. Let H be any group. so H G.Groups and homomorphisms 7 An invertible homomorphism is called an isomorphism. 0 < u < 1. y À1 xy x À1 X We shall prove that the function W: G 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < n À 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X Since we have x n y 2 1. Moreover. (at bu )W.

we see that H fx i y j : 0 < i < 4. Since G Hx1 X X X Hxr . Since W is invertible. The distinct right cosets of H in G form a partition of G (that is. and let Hx1 .4. y À1 xy x À1 X Let H be the subgroup kx. Now recall that D10 ha. Cosets Let G be a group and let H be a subgroup of G. every element of G is in precisely one of the cosets). we have . a group of order 10. For x in G. the function h 3 hxi (h P H) is a bijection from H to Hxi . Using the above relations. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. yl of G. . H kx. Suppose now that G is ®nite. and Hxi Hxj is empty if i T j. it is an isomorphism. Hxr be all the distinct right cosets of H in G. . the function W: D10 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 4. Thus. . . 0 < j < 1g. b: a5 b2 1. yl D10. and so on.) Check that x 5 y 2 1. we deduce that jGj rj HjX In particular.8 Representations and characters of groups (Here we adopt the usual cycle notation ± thus. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX By Example 1. and so j Hxi j j Hj. (1 2 3 4 5) denotes the permutation 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 1. For all i. the subset Hx fhx: h P Hg of G is called a right coset of H in G.

(2) For n > 1. but the subgroup H kbl is not normal in G. we see that GaN C2 3 C2 . NabgX Since (Na)2 (Nb)2 (Nab)2 N. we have fxy: x P Ng and y P Nhg NghX Hence we can de®ne a product operation on GaN by (Ng)(Nh) Ngh for all g. a . since b P H while aÀ1 ba a2 b P H. and is written as jG: Hj. we have An v Sn . Suppose that N v G and let GaN be the set of right cosets of N in G. Nb. called the factor group of G by N. The importance of the condition gÀ1 Ng N (for all g P G) is that it can be used to show that for all g. The subgroup kal is also normal in G. ka2 l {1. 9 The number r of distinct right cosets of H in G is called the index of H in G. b: a4 b2 1. Thus jG: Hj jGjaj Hj when G is ®nite. and An (1 2) f g P Sn : g oddgX Thus |Sn :An | 2. 1. h P G.7 Examples (1) For every group G. and so Sn aAn C2 . namely An f g P Sn : g eveng. then j Hj divides |G|. the sub-groups {1} and G are normal subgroups of G.Groups and homomorphisms 1. h P GX This makes GaN into a group.6 Lagrange's Theorem If G is a ®nite group and H is a subgroup of G. (3) Let G D8 ka. Na. we write N v G to indicate that N is a normal subgroup of G. a2 }. Normal subgroups A subgroup N of a group G is said to be a normal subgroup of G if gÀ1 Ng N for all g P G (where gÀ1 Ng f gÀ1 ng: n P Ng). Then N v G and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let N GaN fN . If n > 2 then there are just two right cosets of An in Sn .

Then GaKer W Im WX An isomorphism is given by the function Kg 3 gW where K Ker W. the image of W is (1X9) Im W f gW: g P Gg. The following result describes the way in which the kernel and image of W are related. Kernels and images To conclude the chapter. with p a prime number. G is `built' out of these two smaller groups. simple groups are fundamental to the study of ®nite groups. ( g P G) . is simple. If G is a ®nite group which is not simple. and Im W is a subgroup of H. For example. Continuing this process with the smaller groups. and in a sense. we eventually see that G is `built' out of a collection of simple groups. We de®ne the kernel of W by (1X8) Ker W f g P G: gW 1gX Then Ker W is a normal subgroup of G. Let G and H be groups and suppose that W: G 3 H is a homomorphism. 1.) Thus. we relate normal subgroups and factor groups to homomorphisms. then G has a normal subgroup N such that both N and G/N have smaller order than G.10 Representations and characters of groups Simple groups A group G is said to be simple if G T {1} and the only normal subgroups of G are {1} and G. (This is analogous to the fact that every positive integer is built out of its prime factors. We shall give examples of non-abelian simple groups in later chapters ± the smallest one is A5 . Also. the cyclic group Cp .10 Theorem Suppose that G and H are groups and let W: G 3 H be a homomorphism.

if g is an odd permutation.10. then G is cyclic of prime order. 2. Im W C2 . illustrating Theorem 1. is a subgroup of H. Summary of Chapter 1 1. is a normal subgroup of G. Q8 ka. if g is an even permutation. W: g 3 À1. Suppose that G and H are groups. Examples of groups are Cn ka: an 1l. 11 is a homomorphism. . 2. Im W. The factor group GaKer W is isomorphic to Im W. b: a4 1. . with G simple. g2 in G.7(2) that Sn /An C2 . . . The factor group GaN consists of the right cosets Ng ( g P G). A normal subgroup N of G is a subgroup such that gÀ1 Ng N for all g in G. Ker W. and the image. Show that if G is an abelian group which is simple. and for n > 2. 3 Gr . . D2 n ka. We have Ker W An . G1 3 . the direct product of the groups G1 . a2 b2 . A homomorphism W: G 3 H is a function such that ( g1 g 2 )W ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. b: an b2 1. An the alternating group of degree n. with multiplication (Ng)(Nh) NghX 3. C) the group of invertible n 3 n matrices over C. We know from Example 1. Exercises for Chapter 1 1.11 Example The function W: Sn 3 C2 given by & 1. and that W: G 3 H is a surjective homomorphism. The kernel. . . Sn the symmetric group of degree n. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. GL(n.Groups and homomorphisms 1. Show that either W is an isomorphism or H {1}. Gr .

ì: cr d s 3 X r Y s (0 < r < 3. (b) Let X. C). (c) If G is a ®nite cyclic group and x. Y be the 2 3 2 matrices which are given by 0 i 0 À1 X . and let K be the subgroup kx. ø: cr d s 3 x r y s (0 < r < 3. and that G is not contained in An .12 Representations and characters of groups 3. Let G D8 ha. d: c4 1. are homomorphisms. and Ga (G An ) C2 X 4. Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . b: a4 b2 1. Find Ker ö and Ker ø. y (3 4). d À1 cd cÀ1 iX (a) Let x. Prove that G An is a normal subgroup of G. 0 < s < 1). de®ned by ö: ar bs 3 x r y s . and H Q8 hc. Show that both the functions ö: G 3 K and ø: H 3 K. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. and let n be a positive integer which divides |G|. y are elements of G with the same order. Prove that this homomorphism is an isomorphism. . de®ned by ë: ar bs 3 X r Y s . yl of S4 . 0 < s < 1). Prove that f g P G: g n 1g is a cylic subgroup of G of order n. 6. Show that just one of the functions ë: G 3 L and ì: H 3 L. i 0 1 0 and let L be the subgroup hX . show that x is a power of y. is a homomorphism. y be the permutations in S4 which are given by x (1 2). c2 d 2 . Y i of GL(2. (b) Let G be a ®nite cyclic group. Prove that D4 m D2 m 3 C2 if m is odd. 5. (a) Show that every subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic.Y .

Prove that H v G.) 10. 8.2(4). is a group. B has order 4. C) such that A has order 8. 9. Bl has order 16. Show that the set of non-zero complex numbers. and B2 A4 and BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X Show that the group kA. . Show that every group of even order contains an element of order 2.Groups and homomorphisms 13 7. Prove that every ®nite subgroup of this group is cyclic. under the usual multiplication. (Hint: compare Q8 in Example 1. Find elements A and B of GL(2. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G with |G: H| 2.

ì in F.2 Vector spaces and linear transformations An attractive feature of representation theory is that it combines two strands of mainstream mathematics. so we omit the proofs. Most of the material will be familiar to you if you have taken a ®rst course on linear algebra. (2) (ë ì)v ëv ìv. (b) for all u. Vector spaces Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). (1) ë(u v) ëu ëv. we gather the results from linear algebra concerning vector spaces. namely group theory and linear algebra. (3) (ëì)v ë(ìv). linear transformations and matrices which we shall use later. we explain in detail how the results work. (The latter rule is called scalar multiplication. here. 14 . in case you have not come across projections before. (4) 1v v. where we deal with projections. these rules must satisfy: (2. and a rule for multiplying any element v of V by any element ë of F to form an element ëv of V. The elements of V are called vectors. and those of F are called scalars. We write 0 for the identity element of the abelian group V under addition. v of V to form an element u v of V.) Moreover. For reference purposes. together with a rule for adding any two elements u. v in V and all ë.1) (a) V is an abelian group under addition. An exception occurs in the last section. A vector space over F is a set V.

. X X X . . . x9 ) (x1 x9 . ë y)X Then R2 is a vector space over R. . We say that v1 . The vectors v1 . xn ) where x1 . ë(x. . v n are said to span V if every vector in V is a linear combination of v1 . v n if v ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n for some ë1 . . . as above. . for each positive integer n. . X X X . 1 n 1 n ë(x1 . xn ) (x9 . . v n form a basis of V if they span V and are linearly independent. . we consider row vectors (x1 . It turns out that any two bases of V have the same number of vectors. Throughout this book. ë n in F. we shall consider only vector spaces V which are ®nite-dimensional ± this means that V has a basis consisting of ®nitely many vectors. . . X X X . . v n be vectors in a vector space V over F. y) where x and y are real numbers. xn x9 ). . . X X X . We denote the set of all such row vectors by F n. De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on R2 by (x. . y) (x9. . . v n . A vector v in V is a linear combination of v1 . X X X . . x2 . x2 . The vector space V is n-dimensional if dim V n. ë n in F. . y y9). X X X . . otherwise. v1 . . v n are linearly independent. . (2) More generally. . . . The vectors v1 . . not all of which are zero. The number of vectors in a basis of V is called the dimension of V and is written as dim V. y9) (x x9.2 Examples (1) Let R2 denote the set of all ordered pairs (x. . xn belong to F.Vector spaces and linear transformations 15 2. y) (ëx. . xn ) (ëx1 . . . and de®ne addition and scalar multiplication on F n by (x1 . . ëxn )X Then F n is a vector space over F. . . . v n are linearly dependent if ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n 0 for some ë1 . . . If V {0} then dim V 0. . . . Bases of vector spaces Let v1 .

. Except in the case where V {0}. 0. X X X . . . .5). 0). X X X . . .6 Examples (1) {0} and V are subspaces of V. 0. . . ur ) to be the set of all linear combinations of u1 . . v n form a basis of V. 0. . ur ) fë1 u1 X X X ë r ur : ë1 . 1. . X X X . . 0). (0. . We de®ne sp (u1 . v k are linearly independent vectors in V. . X X X . ur .5) (1) 0 P U. . with ë1 . . For a subset U of V to be a subspace. . 0. .4) If v1 . . X X X . ë n in F. (0. . sp (u1 . ë r P FgX By (2. . .16 Representations and characters of groups 2. v n of a vector space V. v n in V such that v1 . . ë n . (3) if ë P F and u P U then ëu P U. . 0. sp (u1 . . . Indeed. 1. . there are many bases of V. Another basis is (1. Then (1. and it is called the subspace spanned by u1 . . 0). it is necessary and suf®cient that all the following conditions hold: (2. . . . ur . . (2) if u. so dim V n. v P U then u v P U. that is. 0. 1) is a basis of V. The vector v therefore determines the scalars ë1 . each vector v in V can be written in a unique way as v ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n . then there exist v k1 . X X X . 0. . X X X . . . . (2) Let u1 . (1. (1. . the next result says that any linearly independent vectors can be extended to a basis. . . 0. 0). . X X X . .3 Example Let V F n. . X X X . 1)X Given a basis v1 . Subspaces A subspace of a vector space V over F is a subset of V which is itself a vector space under the addition and scalar multiplication inherited from V. ur ) is a subspace of V. 2. (2. 1. . ur be vectors in V. X X X . . . 1.

9) Suppose that V U W. w1. . . dim U dim V if and . that u1 . . . Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) V U È W. Ur is a direct sum if every element of the sum can be written in a unique way as u1 . . v n ). unless U is {0} or V. . Ur are subspaces of a vector space V. (2) u1 . ur . . . . v n is a basis of V. . . . . .8 Examples (1) Suppose that v1 . . . . . . (3) U W {0}. ur with ui P Ui for 1 < i < r. U1 . . . v n of V (see (2. . . . Then V U1 È X X X È Un X (2) Let U be a subspace of V and let v1 .Vector spaces and linear transformations Notice that the following fact is a consequence of (2. Ur is de®ned by U1 X X X Ur fu1 X X X ur : ui P Ui for 1 < i < rgX By (2. . then the sum U1 . . . . (2. then we write it as U1 È X X X È Ur X 2. . . and for 1 < i < n. v k be a basis of U. . only if U V. . . (2. . and let W sp (v k1 . let Ui be the subspace spanned by v i.5). . Then dim U < dim V Also. .4)). You should consult the solutions to Exercises 2. Extend v1. . . . . ws is a basis of W. .4). . . The next result is frequently useful when dealing with the direct sum of two subspaces. . Ur is a subspace of V.4 if you have dif®culty with the proof. . ur is a basis of U and that w1.3 and 2. We say that the sum U1 . v k to a basis v1 . . Then V U È WX From this construction it follows that there are in®nitely many subspaces W with V U È W. . If the sum is direct.7) Suppose that U is a subspace of the vector space V . . Direct sums of subspaces 17 If U1. ws is a basis of V. .

. and W W1 È X X X È Wb . X X X . 0): ui P U i g i (where the ui is in the ith position). . . (2. If. X X X . let (u1 . 1 r 1 r ë(u1 . X X X . . we write V U1 È X X X È Ur X Linear transformations Let V and W be vector spaces over F.10) Suppose that U. v P V . can be deduced immediately from the de®nition of a direct sum. Ur. . V is a vector space over F. W1. involving the direct sum of several subspaces. X X X . . . . . we put U 9 f(0. then it is immediate that V U1 È X X X È U 9X 9 r We call V the external direct sum of U1. . X X X . u9 i in Ui (1 < i < r) and all ë in F. ur ) (u9 . . Ua. U1. ur u9 ). If V U È W and also U U1 È X X X È Ua . and for all ë P F and v P V X . A linear transformation from V to W is a function W: V 3 W which satis®es (u v)W uW vW (ëv)W ë(vW) for all u. . ur ): ui P U i for 1 < i < rgX De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on V as follows: for all ui . X X X . Ur be vector spaces over F. X X X . Wb are subspaces of a vector space V. W. for 1 < i < r. and let V f(u1 . . ëur )X With these de®nitions. . abusing notation slightly. . Let U1. and. ur ) (ëu1 . X X X . ui . . then V U1 È X X X È Ua È W 1 È X X X È W b X We now introduce a construction for vector spaces which is analogous to the construction of direct products for groups. u9 ) (u1 u9 .18 Representations and characters of groups Our next result.

. by specifying the values of ö on a basis of V. . . v n is a basis of V. . . given any basis v1 . W is determined by its action on a basis. Kernels and images Suppose that W: V 3 W is a linear transformation. . then W is a linear transformation. . ë n in F we have (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n )W ë1 (v1 W) X X X ë n (v n W)X Thus. . it is easy to check that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W.5). . so a linear transformation preserves addition and scalar multiplication. then for ë1 . the linear transformation ö is given by (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n )ö ë1 w1 X X X ë n wn X We sometimes construct a linear transformation ö: V 3 W in this way. there is a unique linear transformation ö: V 3 W such that v i ö wi for all i. and then saying `extend the action of ö to be linear'. . Notice that if W: V 3 W is a linear transformation and v1.13 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW 0 for all v P V. which is known as the Rank±Nullity Theorem: (2X12) dim V dim (Ker W) dim (Im W)X 2. then W is a linear transformation. and Ker W f0g. The kernel of W (written Ker W) and the image of W (written Im W) are de®ned as follows: (2X11) Ker W fv P V : vW 0g. wn in W. Their dimensions are connected by the following equation. and Ker W V . .Vector spaces and linear transformations 19 Just as a group homomorphism preserves the group multiplication. . . . Im W fvW: v P V gX Using (2. Im W V X . . Im W f0gX (2) If W: V 3 V is de®ned by vW 3v for all v P V. Furthermore. . v n of V and any n vectors w1.

1). By also taking (2. v(Wö) (vW)ö. (2. (2) Ker W {0}.7) into account. Endomorphisms A linear transformation from a vector space V to itself is called an endomorphism of V. We de®ne the functions W ö. z)W (x 2 y z. We write W2 for WW.14) Let W be a linear transformation from V to itself. Invertible linear transformations Again. for all v P V. let V and W be vector spaces over F. y.20 Representations and characters of groups (3) If W: R3 3 R2 is given by (x. then W is a linear transformation. then V and W are said to be isomorphic vector spaces. and hence W is invertible precisely when W is surjective and Ker W {0}.2). we have Ker W sp ((7. À y 3z) for all x. . (3) Im W V. v(ëW) ë(vW). we see that isomorphic vector spaces have the same dimension. y. By applying (2. À3. A linear transformation W from V to W is injective if and only if Ker W {0}. we obtain the next result (see Exercise 2. z P R. It turns out that the inverse of an invertible linear transformation is also a linear transformation (see Exercise 2. Im W R2 . Suppose that W and ö are endomorphisms of V and ë P F. Wö and ëW from V to V by (2X15) v(W ö) vW vö. À1)). Then W ö. so dim (Ker W) 1 and dim (Im W) 2. If there exists an invertible linear transformation from V to W. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. Wö and ëW are endomorphisms of V.12).

Suppose that v1 . 1 < j < n) such that for all i. v i W a i1 v1 X X X ain v n X 2.Vector spaces and linear transformations 2. (x. and let W be an endomorphism of V.17 De®nition The n 3 n matrix (aij ) is called the matrix of W relative to the basis B . 2. 0). y)W2 (2x À y. If B is the basis (1. Note that Ker (W À ë1 V ) fv P V : vW ëvgX (2) Let V R2. and W ö. (x. y)(W ö) (2x À y. . 2x À 10 y). x À 2 y). where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. If W is an endomorphism of V. . and is denoted by [W]B . and let W. (2) Let V R2 and let W be the endomorphism (x. y)ö (x À 2 y. . for all ë P F.16 Examples (1) The identity function 1 V de®ned by 1 V : v 3 v for all v P V 21 is an endomorphism of V. x À 2 y) of V.18 Examples (1) If W 1 V (so that vW v for all v P V). 3W and W2 are given by (x. (x. Wö. . then [W]B In for all bases B of V. Then there are scalars aij in F (1 < i < n. then so is W À ë1 V . À2x 4 y)X Then W and ö are endomorphisms of V. y)(Wö) (Àx 5 y. Àx 5 y)X Matrices Let V be a vector space over F. (0. v n is a basis of V and call it B . y)(3W) (3x 3 y. (x. y)W (x y. y) 3 (x y. ö be the functions from V to V de®ned by (x. 3x À 6 y). 1) of V and B 9 is the basis . Àx 2 y).

their sum A B is the m 3 n matrix over F whose ij-entry is aij bij for all i. j.19 Example Let A Then A B 2 BA À1 3 2 0 . À2 [W]B 9 1 X À1 (1. then we describe A as a matrix over F. Given an m 3 n matrix A (aij ) and an n 3 p matrix B (bij ). 1) of V. 3A X À3 9 6 3 4 2 2 À13 À12 À5 The matrix of the sum or product of two endomorphisms (relative to some basis) is related to the matrices of the individual endomorphisms in the way you would expect: (2. Then [W ö]B [W]B [ö]B . the matrix ëA is the m 3 n matrix over F obtained from A by multiplying all the entries by ë. and that W and ö are endomorphisms of V.22 Representations and characters of groups 1 . B 1 2 2 3 À4 X À1 2 . 0).20) Suppose that B is a basis of the vector space V. and [Wö]B [W]B [ö]B X . As you know. Given two m 3 n matrices A (aij ) and B (bij ) over F. then [W]B 1 1 0 3 If we wish to indicate that the entries in a matrix A come from F. the product of two matrices is de®ned in a less transparent way. their product AB is the m 3 p matrix whose ij-entry is n k1 aik bkj X 2. and for ë P F. (1. 2 À1 5 À2 À4 3 0 3 3 . AB 3 .

given a basis of V. an endomorphism W of V is invertible if and only if the matrix [W]B is invertible.22 Example Let A 1 3 À1 X 2 Then A gives us an endomorphism W of F 2. 2.Vector spaces and linear transformations Also. the matrix product vA also lies in V. . . Such a matrix B. The connection between invertible endomorphisms and invertible matrices is straightforward. Àx 2 y)X 3 2 Invertible matrices An n 3 n matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists an n 3 n matrix B with AB BA In . .17) how to get a matrix from an endomorphism of a vector space V. is unique. the vector space of row vectors (x1 . y)W (x. Then a necessary and suf®cient condition for A to be invertible is that det A T 0. The following remark is easily justi®ed. and this same matrix is used to describe the way in which the matrix of an . y) (x 3 y. Then for all v in V. and let V F n. where 1 À1 (x. We concentrate on a particular way of doing this. Write det A for the determinant of A.21) If A is an n 3 n matrix over F then the function . it is called the inverse of A and is written as AÀ1 . [ëW]B ë[W]B X 23 We showed you in (2. It is easy enough to reverse this process and use a matrix to de®ne an endomorphism. xn ) with each xi in F. Invertible matrices turn up when we relate two bases of a vector space. and follows from (2. v 3 vA (v P F n ) is an endomorphism of F n.20): given a basis B of V. if it exists. (2. . for all scalars ë. An invertible matrix converts one basis into another. Suppose that A is an n 3 n matrix over F.

The scalar ë is said to be an eigenvalue of W if vW ëv for some non-zero vector v in V. (1. . Such a vector v is called an eigenvector of W. . The precise meaning of these remarks is revealed in the de®nition (2. 1) of V. 2.24) If B and B 9 are bases of V and W is an endomorphism of V. 0). v9 1 n be a basis B 9 of V. The inverse of T is the change of basis matrix from B 9 to B . Let B be the basis (1. Then for 1 < i < n.24) below. Then 1 0 1 0 À1 T . 0). . as in Example 2.23) and the result (2. . The n 3 n matrix T (tij ) is invertible.T X 1 1 À1 1 If W is the endomorphism W: (x. and is called the change of basis matrix from B to B 9. v n be a basis B of the vector space V.23 De®nition Let v1 .24 Representations and characters of groups endomorphism depends upon the basis. y) 3 (x y. . 2. then [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 T . 1) and B 9 the basis (1.18(2). v9 t i1 v1 X X X tin v n i for certain scalars tij . and suppose that W is an endomorphism of V. . . where T is the change of basis matrix from B to B 9.25 Example Suppose that V R2. x À 2 y) of V. . (2. (0. and let v9 . then 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 T X À1 1 3 À1 1 1 1 À2 Eigenvalues Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F. .

For an n 3 n matrix A over F. (2. Since every non-constant polynomial with coef®cients in C has a root in C. 1) of V.Vector spaces and linear transformations 25 Now ë is an eigenvalue of W if and only if Ker (W À ë1 V ) T {0}. and let W be an endomorphism of V. and W has no eigenvalues in R. Thus we depend upon F being C in result (2.26). Ài) and (1. then the eigenvalues of W are those scalars ë in F which satisfy the equation det ([W]B À ëI n ) 0X Solving this equation involves ®nding the roots of a polynomial of degree n. which occurs if and only if W À ë1 V is not invertible. then i 0 [W]B 9 X 0 Ài (2) Let V R2 and let W again be the endomorphism which is given by (x. (0. Ài). V is a vector space over R. (1. 2. Note that if B 9 is the basis (1. we deduce the following result. Corresponding eigenvectors are (1. y)W (À y. y)W (À y. 0). Therefore. The eigenvalues of A are those elements ë of F which satisfy det (A À ëI n ) 0X . the element ë of F is said to be an eigenvalue of A if vA ëv for some non-zero row vector v in F n. so i and Ài are the eigenvalues of W.26) Let V be a non-zero vector space over C. then 0 1 [W]B X À1 0 We have det ([W]B À ëI2 ) ë2 1. if B is a basis of V. i) of V.27 Examples (1) Let V C2 and let W be the endomorphism of V which is given by (x. x)X This time. Then W has an eigenvalue. x)X If B is the basis (1. i).

Ker ð W and ð2 ðX Proof Since every vector in V has a unique expression in the form u w with u P U. it follows that ð is a function on V. De®ne ð: V 3 V by (u w)ð u for all u P U . For this diagonal matrix A.29 Proposition Suppose that V U È W. Clearly Im ð # U.26 Representations and characters of groups 2. Projections If a vector space V is a direct sum of two subspaces U and W. Im ð U . that aii ë i for 1 < i < n. . . then we can construct a special endomorphism of V which depends upon the expression V U È W: 2. w9 in W. w P W. the eigenvalues are ë1 . (ëv)ð (ëu ëw)ð ëu ë(vð)X Therefore. We have (v v9)ð (u u9 w w9)ð u u9 (u w)ð (u9 w9)ð vð v9ðX Also. ë n . Also. We often display such a matrix in the form H I ë1 0 f g FF Ad e F ën 0 which indicates. in addition. we have Im U. . Then v u w and v9 u9 w9 for some u. Further. u9 in U and w. for ë in F.28 Example We say that an n 3 n matrix A (aij ) is diagonal if aij 0 for all i and j with i T j. ð is an endomorphism of V. . Let v and v9 belong to V. and since uð u for all u in U. . w P W X Then ð is an endomorphism of V.

31 Example The endomorphism (x. since (v À vð)ð vð À vð2 vð À vð 0X This establishes that V Im ð Ker ð.29.30 De®nition An endomorphism ð of a vector space V which satis®es ð2 ð is called a projection of V. and so ð2 ð. 2. j . As v P Im ð. y) 3 (2x 2 y. and the second term v À vð lies in Ker ð. Then V Im ð È Ker ðX Proof If v P V then v vð (v À vð). as in Proposition 2. it follows that v vð 0. and (2. Thus Im ð Ker ð f0g. Clearly the ®rst term vð belongs to Im ð. Now suppose that v lies in Im ð Ker ð.9) now shows that V Im ð È Ker ð. 2. we have v uð for some u P V. 27 j 2. (u w)ð2 uð u (u w)ð.32 Proposition Suppose that ð is a projection of a vector space V. Therefore vð uð2 uð vX Since v P Ker ð. Àx À y) of R2 is a projection. We now show that every projection can be constructed using a direct sum.Vector spaces and linear transformations (u w)ð 0 D u 0 D u w P W . Finally. and so Ker ð W.

Exercises for Chapter 2 1. ur (ui P Ui ). Àx): x P RgX Summary of Chapter 2 1. and dimF n n. For example. . F n is the set of row vectors (x1 . 5. F F F . A linear transformation W: V 3 W satis®es (u v)W uW vW and (ëv)W ë(vW) for all u. . Àx À y) is the projection of R2 which appears in Example 2.28 Representations and characters of groups 2. V U È W if and only if V U W and U W {0}. A projection is an endomorphism ð of V which satis®es ð2 ð. A linear transformation W: V 3 W is invertible if and only if Ker W {0} and Im W W. 7. x n ) with each xi in F.33 Example If ð: (x. . and every element v of V has a unique expression of the form v u1 . then Im ð f(2x.31. . y) 3 (2x 2 y. Given two bases B and B 9 of V. v in V and all ë in F. All our vector spaces are ®nite-dimensional over F. . 2. and an endomorphism W of V. Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. È Ur if each Ui is a subspace of V. 3. Eigenvalues ë of an endomorphism W satisfy vW ëv for some nonzero v in V. there is a correspondence between the endomorphisms W of V and the n 3 n matrices [W]B over F. V U1 È . Àx): x P Rg. there exists an invertible matrix T such that [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 TX 6. Given a basis B of the n-dimensional vector space V. Ker ð f(x. Show that if V and W are vector spaces and W: V 3 W is an invertible linear transformation then WÀ1 is a linear transformation. where F C or R. and dim V dim (Ker W) dim (Im W)X 4. Also.

Show that V U È W. Show that V U È W if and only if u1 . (a) Let U1. ws is a basis of V. with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or 0. . . 5. Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. and that V U1 È . Prove that dim V dim U1 X X X dim U r X 7. . . Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or À1. Show that V U1 È U2 È U3 D U 1 (U 2 U3 ) U 2 (U 1 U3 ) U 3 (U 1 U2 ) f0gX (b) Give an example of a vector space V with three subspaces U1. . Let V be a vector space and let W be an endomorphism of V. . 4. (2) Ker W {0}. . . . but V T U1 È U2 È U3. Suppose that U1. .Vector spaces and linear transformations 29 2. . . . . W fv P V : vW ÀvgX Deduce that V has a basis B such that [W]B is diagonal. ur . . Prove that V U È W if and only if V U W and U W = {0}. . ur is a basis of U and w1. with V U1 U2 U3. (3) Im W V. . Ur are subspaces of the vector space V. where U fv P V : vW vg. È Ur. 3. 9. 8. Show that the following are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. . but V T Im ö È Ker ö. . Show that W is a projection if and only if there is a basis B of V such that [W]B is diagonal. Suppose that u1 . Give an example of a vector space V with endomorphisms W and ö such that V Im W È Ker W. U2 and U3 be subspaces of a vector space V. . w1. U2 and U3 such that V U1 U2 U3 and U1 U 2 U1 U3 U2 U 3 f0g. 6. ws is a basis of W. . Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V and W2 1 V . . . Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V.

F). We set out this idea in more detail. F). We also introduce the concept of equivalence of representations. 30 . To be precise. for some n. Representations Let G be a group and let F be R or C. The degree of r is the integer n. 3. h P GX Since a representation is a homomorphism.1 De®nition A representation of G over F is a homomorphism r from G to GL (n. Thus if r is a function from G to GL (n. it follows that for every representation r: G 3 GL (n. then r is a representation if and only if ( gh)r ( gr)(hr) for all g. where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. and g À1 r ( gr)À1 for all g P G. a representation is a homomorphism from G into a group of invertible matrices. we have 1r I n . F) denotes the group of invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F.3 Group representations A representation of a group G gives us a way of visualizing G as a group of matrices. Recall from the ®rst chapter that GL (n. F). and give some examples of representations. and consider the kernel of a representation.

bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 0 < j < 1) is a representation of D8 over F. Then ( gh)r I n I n I n ( gr)(hr) for all g. so r is a representation of G. F) by gr I n for all g P G. h P G. The degree of r is 2. b: a4 b2 1. B À1 0 0 À1 and check that A4 B2 I.2 Examples (1) Let G be the dihedral group D8 ka. where In is the n 3 n identity matrix. as usual. The matrices gr for g in D8 are given in the following table: g gr 1 1 0 0 1 a 0 1 À1 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 a3 0 À1 1 0 g gr b 1 0 0 À1 ab 0 À1 À1 0 2 a b À1 0 0 1 3 a b 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G be any group. F) which is given by r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. De®ne r: G 3 GL (n. Equivalent representations We now look at a way of converting a given representation into another one. .4) that the function r: G 3 GL (2. De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 1 1 0 A .Group representations 31 3. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X It follows (see Example 1. This shows that every group has representations of arbitrarily large degree.

then r is equivalent to ô.3 De®nition Let r: G 3 GL (m. and consider the representation r of G which appears in Example 3. we have (see Exercise 3. F) and ó : G 3 GL (n. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Note that for all n 3 n matrices A and B. b: a4 b2 1.4): (1) r is equivalent to r. T À1 (hr)T ( gó )(hó ). h P G. F) be a representation.32 Representations and characters of groups Let r: G 3 GL (n. indeed.4 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. Thus ar A for all g P GX . ( gh)ó T À1 (( gh)r)T T À1 (( gr)(hr))T T À1 ( gr)T . (3) if r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô. ó and ô of G over F. and so ó is. We say that r is equivalent to ó if n m and there exists an invertible n 3 n matrix T such that for all g P G. a representation. F) be representations of G over F. and let T be an invertible n 3 n matrix over F. (2) if r is equivalent to ó then ó is equivalent to r. equivalence of representations is an equivalence relation. gó T À1 ( gr)TX Note that for all representations r. 3. we simply de®ne gó T À1 ( gr)T Then for all g. we have (T À1 AT )(T À1 BT ) T À1 (AB)TX We can use this observation to produce a new representation ó from r. 3. In other words.2(1).

a 3 A is a representation of G. (2) Let G C2 ka: a2 1l and let À5 A À2 12 X 5 Check that A2 I. 0 Ài 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of D8 for which 0 1 i 0 X . Hence r: 1 3 I. T 1 À1 then T À1 AT 0 . À1 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of G for which 1 0 1 0 . bó aó 1 0 0 Ài The representations r and ó are equivalent. If 2 À3 . we have i 0 0 1 À1 À1 T AT . . . where A 1 1 . and de®ne 1 T p 2 Then 1 i 1 T À1 p 2 In fact. T has been constructed so that T À1 AT is diagonal. B 0 0 1 X Ài 1 Ài X 1 i 0 X À1 33 0 À1 Assume that F C. aó 1ó 0 À1 0 1 and ó is equivalent to r.Group representations and br B. T BT .

8. as is shown by the following de®nition. F) which is de®ned by gr (1) for all g P G. Of particular interest are those representations whose kernel is just the identity subgroup. Kernels of representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the kernel of a representation r: G 3 GL (n. these are when the degree of r is 1. F). there are usually lots of representations which are equivalent to r. that is.7 Proposition A representation r of a ®nite group G is faithful if and only if Im r is isomorphic to G. However.6 De®nition A representation r: G 3 GL (n. To put the de®nition another way.5 De®nition The representation r: G 3 GL (1. . In agreement with De®nition 1. the trivial representation of G is the representation where every group element is sent to the 1 3 1 identity matrix. Thus Ker r f g P G: gr I n gX Note that Ker r is a normal subgroup of G. and when gr In for all g in G. this consists of the group elements g in G for which gr is the identity matrix. It can happen that the kernel of a representation is the whole of G. 3. 3.34 Representations and characters of groups There are two easily recognized situations where the only representation which is equivalent to r is r itself. 3. is called the trivial representation of G. F) is said to be faithful if Ker r {1}. if the identity element of G is the only element g for which gr In .

A representation is faithful if it is injective.2(1) is faithful. Representations r and ó of G are equivalent if and only if there exists an invertible matrix T such that for all g P G. the factor group G/ Ker r is isomorphic to Im r. that is.Group representations 35 Proof We know that Ker r v G and by Theorem 1. then these two groups have the same (®nite) order. The group generated by the matrices 0 1 1 0 and À1 0 0 À1 is therefore isomorphic to D8. for some n. if G Im r.10.8 Examples (1) The representation r of D8 given by j i 1 0 0 1 i j (a b )r 0 À1 À1 0 as in Example 3. and so |Ker r| 1. r is faithful. Therefore. gó T À1 ( gr)T X 3. F). (2) Since T À1 AT In if and only if A In . it follows that all representations which are equivalent to a faithful representation are faithful. Summary of Chapter 3 1. . In Chapter 6 we shall show that every ®nite group has a faithful representation. since the identity is the only element g which satis®es gr I. (3) The trivial representation of a group G if faithful if and only if G {1}. A representation of a group G is a homomorphism from G into GL(n. The basic problem of representation theory is to discover and understand representations of ®nite groups. 2. j 3. Conversely. if Ker r {1} then G Im r.

C) (1 < j < 3). C) (k 1. F) such that ar (1) and br (À1). 1 0 1 0 . 1 0 0 eÀiða3 p 1a2 3a2 1 0 p C . B . and de®ne r: G 3 GL (n. say G ka: am 1l. D over C by 0 1 eiða3 0 A . B. b: an b2 1. and ó is equivalent to ô. De®ne the matrices A.C 0 À1 1 À1 e2ðia3 and let G ka: a3 1l C3 . and F R or C. Prove: (1) r is equivalent to r. Show that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (1. given by . 5. C). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.36 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 3 1. 2. Suppose that A P GL (n. then r is equivalent to ô. 4). Which of these representations are faithful? 3. de®ned by r1 : ar 3 Ar . C. r2 : ar 3 Br . is a representation of G over C. Let A (0 < r < m À 1)X Show that r is a representation of G over C if and only if Am I. 4. Let G be the cyclic group of order m. (2) if r is equivalent to ó. D X À 3a2 1a2 0 À1 Prove that each of the functions r k : G 3 GL (2. C) by r: ar 3 Ar 2. then ó is equivalent to r. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Let G D12 ka. (3) if r is equivalent to ó. Show that each of the functions r j : G 3 GL (2. B 0 1 0 . ó and ô are representations of G over F. 3. Suppose that r. b: a6 b2 1. r3 : a r 3 C r (0 < r < 2). Suppose that G D2 n ka.

r2 : ar bs 3 A3 r (ÀB) s . Suppose that r is a representation of G of degree 1. Let r be a representation of the group G. Does it follow that gh hg? . 7. Give an example of a faithful representation of D8 of degree 3.Group representations r1 : ar bs 3 Ar Bs . Suppose that g and h are elements of G such that ( gr)(hr) (hr)( gr). r3 : ar bs 3 (ÀA) r Bs . 0 < s < 1). 37 is a representation of G. Which of these representations are faithful? Which are equivalent? 6. Prove that Ga Ker r is abelian. r 4 : ar bs 3 C r D s (0 < r < 5. 8.

since 1r is the identity matrix. the fact that r is a homomorphism shows that v(( gh)r) v( gr)(hr) for all v P V and all g.4 FG-modules We now introduce the concept of an FG-module. . Much of the material in the remainder of the book will be presented in terms of FG-modules. Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. h P G. First. as there are several advantages to this approach to representation theory. . we have v(1r) v for all v P V. . For all v P V and g P G. We now list some basic properties of the multiplication v( gr). the properties of matrix multiplication give (ëv)( gr) ë(v( gr)). Finally. Next. Write V F n . FG-modules Let G be a group and let F be R or C. 38 . is a row vector in V (since the product of a 1 3 n matrix with an n 3 n matrix is again a 1 3 n matrix). and show that there is a close connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F. ë n ) with ë i P F. of the row vector v with the n 3 n matrix gr. the matrix product v( gr). . the vector space of all row vectors (ë1 . F) is a representation of G.

2 De®nition Let V be a vector space over F and let G be a group.2(1). ë1 ). (u v) g ug v g. for example. the function v 3 vg is an endomorphism of V. (ëv) g ë(v g). br ar 0 À1 À1 0 If v (ë1 . Thus 1 0 0 1 X . ë2 ) P F 2 then. v P V. Àë1 )X Motivated by the above observations on the product v( gr). (v P V ) . v P V. Note that conditions (1).1 Example Let G D8 ka. satisfying the following conditions for all u. Then V is an FG-module if a multiplication v g (v P V. (4) and (5) in the de®nition ensure that for all g P G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. v(br) (ë1 . 39 4. v(ar) (Àë2 . ë P F and g. g P G) is de®ned. 4. v1 v. We use the letters F and G in the name `FG-module' to indicate that V is a vector space over F and that G is the group from which we are taking the elements g to form the products v g (v P V). Àë2 ). we now de®ne an FG-module. v(a3 r) (ë2 . and let r: G 3 GL (2. v( gh) (v g)h. h P G: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) v g P V. F) be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. ë P F and g P G.FG-modules (u v)( gr) u( gr) v( gr) for all u. b: a4 b2 1.

v(( gh)r) (v( gr))(hr). if we let B be the basis (1. 0). (0. Then the function g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F. (0. (u v)( gr) u( gr) v( gr)X Therefore. 1) of F n. F n becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g v( gr) for all v P F n . Proof (1) We have already observed that for all u. relative to the basis B . 0. and let B be a basis of V. and V F n. X X X .3 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. 0. (ëv)( gr) ë(v( gr)). F) is a representation of G over F. X X X . X X X . 0. ( g P G) .40 Representations and characters of groups 4. then gr [ g]B for all g P G. g P G)X for all g P GX Moreover. g P GX Moreover. then V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne the multiplication v g by v g v( gr) gr [ g]B (v P V . there is a basis B of V such that (2) Assume that V is an FG-module and let B be a basis of V. The connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F is revealed in the following basic result. h P G. we have v( gr) P F n . 4. v(1r) v. v P F n. ë P F and g.4 Theorem (1) If r: G 3 GL(n. 0. 0. For each g P G. X X X . let [ g]B denote the matrix of the endomorphism v 3 v g of V. 1. 0).

j Our next example illustrates part (1) of Theorem 4. so 0 1 1 0 ar . a2 b2 . Since v( gh) (v g)h for all g. Therefore each matrix [ g]B is invertible (with inverse [ gÀ1 ]B ). 4. h P G and all v in the basis B of V. 0)a (1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let r be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. so [1]B is the identity matrix. and hence is a representation of G over F. (2) Let G Q8 ka. (0. v2 . g 3 [ g]B v1 b v1 . it follows that [ gh]B [ g]B [h]B X In particular. 0) À1 1 0 If v1 . We have proved that the function g 3 [ g]B is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g v( gr) (v P V . (0. g P G)X For instance. v2 is the basis (1. 1)X 0 (1. [1]B [ g]B [ g À1 ]B for all g P G.4(1) again). v2 b Àv2 X ( g P G) If B denotes the basis v1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 1) of V. b: a4 1. then the representation is just the representation r (see Theorem 4.4. v2 a Àv1 . br X À1 0 0 À1 Write V F 2.2(1). 0). Now v1 v for all v P V. In Example . By Theorem 4.5 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka.FG-modules 41 (2) Let V be an FG-module with basis B .4(1). b: a4 b2 1. then we have v1 a v2 . F) (where n dim V ).

To illustrate Theorem 4. v n is a basis of V and g1 . . then the vectors v i g j (1 < i < n. v n of V and then extending the action to be linear on the whole of V. . . (v1 2v2 )ab v1 ab 2v2 ab v2 b À 2v1 b Àv2 À 2v1 X A similar remark holds for all FG-modules V: if v1 . . the vectors v1 a. there are restrictions on how we may de®ne the vectors v i g. . that is. . v1 b and v2 b determine v g for all v P V and g P G. v2 a. We then obtain a CG-module with basis v1 .42 Representations and characters of groups 1. To do this. v2 such that v1 a iv1 . For instance. Shortly. F F F . and B A À1 0 0 Ài so we already have a representation of G over C. . v n is a basis of a vector space V over F Suppose . The next result will often be used to show that our chosen multiplication turns V into an FG-module. we turn a vector space V over F into an FG-module by specifying the action of group elements on a basis v1 . in Example 4. v2 b Àv1 X Notice that in the above examples. we shall show you various ways of constructing FG-modules directly. 4. without using a representation. gr generate G. v1 b v2 . . 1 < j < r) determine v g for all v P V and g P G.6 Proposition Assume that v1 . . C) generated by 0 1 i 0 . that we have a multiplication v g for all v in V and g in G which (ë i P F) .4(1) we must this time take F C.2(4) we de®ned Q8 to be the subgroup of GL (2. and then de®ne (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n ) g to be ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g)X As you might expect. . we ®rst de®ne v i g for each i and each g in G. v2 a Àiv2 . . .5(1).

FG-modules

43

satis®es the following conditions for all i with 1 < i < n, for all g, h P G, and for all ë1 , F F F , ë n P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) v i g P V; v i ( gh) (v i g)h; vi 1 vi ; (ë1 v1 . . . ë n v n ) g ë1 (v1 g) . . . ë n (v n g).

Then V is an FG-module. Proof It is clear from (3) and (4) that v1 v for all v P V. Conditions (1) and (4) ensure that for all g in G, the function v 3 v g (v P V) is an endomorphism of V. That is, vg P V, (ëv) g ë(v g), (u v) g ug v g, for all u, v P V, ë P F and g P G. Hence (4X7) (ë1 u1 X X X ë n u n )h ë1 (u1 h) X X X ë n (un h) for all ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, all u1 , . . . , un P V and all h P G. Now let v P V and g, h P G. Then v ë1 v1 . . . ë n v n for some ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, and v( gh) ë1 (v1 ( gh)) X X X ë n (v n ( gh)) (ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g))h (v g)h by condition (4)X by condition (4) ë1 ((v1 g)h) X X X ë n ((v n g)h) by condition (2) by (4X7)

We have now checked all the axioms which are required for V to be an FG-module. j Our next de®nitions translate the concepts of the trivial representation and a faithful representation into module terms. 4.8 De®nitions (1) The trivial FG-module is the 1-dimensional vector space V over F with vg v for all v P V , g P GX

44

Representations and characters of groups

(2) An FG-module V is faithful if the identity element of G is the only element g for which v g v for all v P V X For instance, the FD8 -module which appears in Example 4.5(1) is faithful. Our next aim is to use Proposition 4.6 to construct faithful FGmodules for all subgroups of symmetric groups. Permutation modules Let G be a subgroup of Sn , so that G is a group of permutations of {1, . . . , n}. Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , . . . , v n . For each i with 1 < i < n and each permutation g in G, de®ne v i g v ig X Then v i g P V and v i 1 v i . Also, for g, h in G, v i ( gh) v i( gh) v(ig) h (v i g)hX We now extend the action of each g linearly to the whole of V; that is, for all ë1 , . . . , ë n in F and g in G, we de®ne (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n ) g ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g)X Then V is an FG-module, by Proposition 4.6. 4.9 Example Let G S4 and let B denote the basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 of V. If g (1 2), then v1 g v2 , v2 g v1 , v3 g v3 , v4 g v4 X And if h (1 3 4), then v1 h v3 , v2 h v2 , v3 h v4 , v4 h v1 X We have [ g]B 0 f1 f d0 0 H 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 H I 0 0 f0 0g g, [h]B f d0 0e 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 I 0 0g gX 1e 0

FG-modules

45

4.10 De®nition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . The FG-module V with basis v1 , . . . , v n such that v i g v ig for all i, and all g P G, is called the permutation module for G over F. We call v1 , . . . , v n the natural basis of V. Note that if we write B for the basis v1 , . . . , v n of the permutation module, then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has precisely one nonzero entry in each row and column, and this entry is 1. Such a matrix is called a permutation matrix. Since the only element of G which ®xes every v i is the identity, we see that the permutation module is a faithful FG-module. If you are aware of the fact that every group G of order n is isomorphic to a subgroup of Sn , then you should be able to see that G has a faithful FG-module of dimension n. We shall go into this in more detail in Chapter 6. 4.11 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. Then G is isomorphic to the cyclic subgroup of S3 which is generated by the permutation (1 2 3). This alerts us to the fact that if V is a 3-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , then we may make V into an FG-module in which v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v3 1 v3 , v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 , v1 a2 v3 , v2 a2 v1 , v3 a2 v2 X Of course, we de®ne v g, for v an arbitrary vector in V and g 1, a or a2 , by (ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ë3 v3 ) g ë1 (v1 g) ë2 (v2 g) ë3 (v3 g) for all ë1 , ë2 , ë3 P F. Proposition 4.6 can be used to verify that V is an FG-module, but we have been motivated by the de®nition of permutation modules in our construction. FG-modules and equivalent representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the relationship between FG-modules and equivalent representations of G over F. An FG-

46

Representations and characters of groups

module gives us many representations, all of the form g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) for some basis B of V. The next result shows that all these representations are equivalent to each other (see De®nition 3.3); and moreover, any two equivalent representations of G arise from some FG-module in this way. 4.12 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B , and let r be the representation of G over F de®ned by r: g 3 [ g]B ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 ( g P G)X ( g P G) (1) If B 9 is a basis of V, then the representation of G is equivalent to r. (2) If ó is a representation of G which is equivalent to r, then there is a basis B 0 of V such that ó : g 3 [ g]B 0 ( g P G)X

Proof (1) Let T be the change of basis matrix from B to B 9 (see De®nition 2.23). Then by (2.24), for all g P G, we have [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 9 TX Therefore ö is equivalent to r. (2) Suppose that r and ó are equivalent representations of G. Then for some invertible matrix T, we have gr T À1 ( gó )T for all g P GX Let B 0 be the basis of V such that the change of basis matrix from B to B 0 is T. Then for all g P G, [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 0 T , and so gó [ g]B 0 .

j

4.13 Example Again let G C3 ka: a3 1l. There is a representation r of G which is given by

1r

1 0

FG-modules 0 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a r , ar X À1 À1 1 1 0

47

(To see this, simply note that (ar)2 a2 r and (ar)3 I; see Exercise 3.2.) If V is a 2-dimensional vector space over C, with basis v1 , v2 (which we call B ), then we can turn V into a CG-module as in Theorem 4.4(1) by de®ning v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v1 a v2 , v1 a2 Àv1 À v2 , v2 a2 v1 X À1 X 0

v2 a Àv1 À v2 ,

We then have 1 0 0 [1]B , [a]B 0 1 À1

1 À1 2 , [a ]B À1 1

Now let u1 v1 and u2 v1 v2 . Then u1 , u2 is another basis of V, which we call B 9. Since u1 1 u 1 , u2 1 u 2 , u1 a Àu1 u2 , u2 a Àu1 , u1 a2 Àu2 , u2 a2 u1 À u2 ,

we obtain the representation ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 where 1 0 À1 1 0 À1 2 [1]B 9 , [a]B 9 , [a ]B 9 X 0 1 À1 0 1 À1 Note that if T then for all g in G, we have [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 9 T , and so r and ö are equivalent, in agreement with Theorem 4.12(1).

1 0 1 1

Summary of Chapter 4 1. An FG-module is a vector space over F, together with a multiplication by elements of G on the right. The multiplication satis®es properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4.2.

48

Representations and characters of groups

2. There is a correspondence between representations of G over F and FG-modules, as follows. (a) Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n, F) is a representation of G. Then F n is an FG-module, if we de®ne v g v( gr) (v P F n , g P G)X (b) If V is an FG-module, with basis B , then r: g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F.

3. If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the permutation FG-module has basis v1 , F F F , v n , and v i g v ig for all i with 1 < i < n, and all g in G. Exercises for Chapter 4 1. Suppose that G S3 , and that V sp (v1 , v2 , v3 ) is the permutation module for G over C, as in De®nition 4.10. Let B 1 be the basis v1 , v2 , v3 of V and let B 2 be the basis v1 v2 v3 , v1 À v2 , v1 À v3 . Calculate the 3 3 3 matrices [ g]B 1 and [ g]B 2 for all g in S3 . What do you notice about the matices [ g]B 2 ? 2. Let G Sn and let V becomes an FG-module & v, vg Àv, be a vector space over F. Show that V if we de®ne, for all v in V, if g is an even permutation, if g is an odd permutation.

3. Let Q8 ka, b: a4 1, b2 a2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l, the quaternion group of order 8. Show that there is an RQ8 -module V of dimension 4 with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 such that v1 a v 2 , v1 b v 3 , v2 a Àv1 , v2 b v4 , v3 a Àv4 , v4 a v3 , and v3 b Àv1 , v4 b Àv2 X

4. Let A be an n 3 n matrix and let B be a matrix obtained from A by permuting the rows. Show that there is an n 3 n permutation matrix P such that B PA. Find a similar result for a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns.

5 FG-submodules and reducibility

We begin the study of FG-modules by introducing the basic building blocks of the theory ± the irreducible FG-modules. First we require the notion of an FG-submodule of an FG-module. Throughout, G is a group and F is R or C. FG-submodules 5.1 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. A subset W of V is said to be an FGsubmodule of V if W is a subspace and wg P W for all w P W and all g P G. Thus an FG-submodule of V is a subspace which is also an FGmodule. 5.2 Examples (1) For every FG-module V, the zero subspace {0}, and V itself, are FG-submodules of V. (2) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l, and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule de®ned in Example 4.11. Thus, V has basis v1 , v2 , v3 , and v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v3 1 v3 , v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 , v1 a2 v3 , v2 a2 v1 , v3 a2 v2 X Put w v1 v2 v3, and let W sp (w), the 1-dimensional subspace spanned by w. Since 49

50

Representations and characters of groups w1 wa wa2 w,

W is an FG-submodule of V. However, sp (v1 v2 ) is not an FGsubmodule, since (v1 v2 )a v2 v3 P sp (v1 v2 )X a Irreducible FG-modules 5.3 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be irreducible if it is non-zero and it has no FG-submodules apart from {0} and V. If V has an FG-submodule W with W not equal to {0} or V, then V is reducible. Similarly, a representation r: G 3 GL (n, F) is irreducible if the corresponding FG-module F n given by v g v( gr) (v P F n , g P G) (see Theorem 4.4(1)) is irreducible; and r is reducible if F n is reducible. Suppose that V is a reducible FG-module, so that there is an FGsubmodule W with 0 , dim W , dim V. Take a basis B 1 of W and extend it to a basis B of V. Then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has the form H I Xg 0 d e (5X4) Yg Z g for some matrices Xg , Yg and Zg , where Xg is k 3 k (k dim W). A representation of degree n is reducible if and only if it is equivalent to a representation of the form (5.4), where X g is k 3 k and 0 , k , n. Notice that in (5.4), the functions g 3 Xg and g 3 Z g are representations of G: to see this, let g, h P G and multiply the matrices [ g]B and [h]B given by (5.4). Notice also that if V is reducible then dim V > 2. 5.5 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule with basis v1 , v2 , v3 such that

FG-submodules and reducibility v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 ,

51

as in Example 4.11. We saw in Example 5.2(2) that V is a reducible FG-module, and has an FG-submodule W sp (v1 v2 v3 ). Let B be the basis v1 v2 v3 , v1 , v2 of V. Then H H I I 1 0 0 1 0 0 f f g g [1]B f 0 1 0 g, [a]B f 0 0 1 g, d d e e 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 H I 1 0 0 f g [a2 ]B f 1 À1 À1 gX d e 0 1 0 This reducible representation gives us two other representations: at the `top left' we have the trivial representation and at the `bottom right' we have the representation which is given by 0 1 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a 3 ,a3 X 13 À1 À1 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G D8 and let V F 2 be the 2-dimensional FG-module described in Example 4.5(1). Thus G ka, bl, and for all (ë, ì) P V we have (ë, ì)a (Àì, ë), (ë, ì)b (ë, Àì)X

We claim that V is an irreducible FG-module. To see this, suppose that there is an FG-submodule U which is not equal to V. Then dim U < 1, so U sp ((á, â)) for some á, â P F. As U is an FGmodule, (á, â)b is a scalar multiple of (á, â), and hence either á 0 or â 0. Since (á, â)a is also a scalar multiple of (á, â), this forces á â 0, so U {0}. Consequently V is irreducible, as claimed.

Summary of Chapter 5 1. If V is an FG-module, and W is a subspace of V which is itself an FG-module, then W is an FG-submodule of V. 2. The FG-module V is irreducible if it is non-zero and the only FGsubmodules are {0} and V.

â) P V. de®ne (á. and let V F 2. De®ne the permutations a. Find a CG-module which is neither reducible nor irreducible. Prove that there is a representation r of G over C such that å 0 ç 0 0 1 ar X . â)1 (á. (b) Suppose that å and ç are complex cube roots of unity. ab ba. Which of the four representations of D12 de®ned in Exercise 3. Let G C2 ka: a 1l. cr 0 å À1 0 çÀ1 1 0 (c) For which values of å.5 are irreducible? 4. Let r and ó be equivalent representations of the group G over F. ç is r faithful? (d) For which values of å. b. 2. Let G C13 .52 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 5 1. á). 2 . c P S6 by a (1 2 3). ç is r irreducible? 5. cÀ1 ac aÀ1 and cÀ1 bc bÀ1 X Deduce that G has order 18. (a) Check that a3 b3 c2 1. â)a (â. b. For (á. 3. cl. â) and (á. c (2 3)(4 5). and let G ka. br . Verify that V is an FG-module and ®nd all the FG-submodules of V. Prove that if r is reducible then ó is reducible. b (4 5 6).

g n as a basis. we shall use it to construct an important faithful representation.6 Group algebras The group algebra of a ®nite group G is a vector space of dimension |G| which also carries extra structure involving the product operation on G. We de®ne a vector space over F with g1 . the ultimate goal of representation theory ± that of understanding all the representations of ®nite groups ± would be achieved if group algebras could be fully analysed. . if u n i1 ë i g i and v n i1 ìi g i are elements of FG. g n . . and we call this vector space FG. In particular. . known as the regular representation of G. Group algebras are therefore of great interest. . . and let F be R or C. Take as the elements of FG all expressions of the form ë1 g 1 X X X ë n g n (all ë i P F)X The rules for addition and scalar multiplication in FG are the natural ones: namely. . then 53 . . . In a sense. which will be explored in greater detail later on. After de®ning the group algebra of G. The group algebra of G Let G be a ®nite group whose elements are g1 . and ë P F. group algebras are the source of all you need to know about representation theory.

.1.54 Representations and characters of groups uv n n (ë i ì i ) g i and ëu (ëë i ) g i X i1 i1 With these rules. FG carries more structure than that of a vector space ± we can use the product operation on G to de®ne multiplication in FG as follows: 3 2 32 ëg g ìh h ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g.2 Example If G C3 and u. . . g n is called the natural basis of FG.1 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 el. g n . v are the elements of CG which appear in Example 6. . with basis g1 . . . then uv (e À a 2a2 )(1 e 5a) 2 1 2e 5a À 1 a À 5a2 a2 10a3 2 9 a À 4a2 X 2 21 2e . (ë h ì hÀ1 g ) g gPG hPG 6. 1 u 1 e À 1 a 2 a2 X 2 3 3 3 3 Sometimes we write elements of FG in the form ë g g (ë g P F)X gPG Now. in this example. . FG is a vector space over F of dimension n. The basis g1 .) The vector space CG contains u e À a 2a2 and v 1 e 5aX 2 We have u v 3 e 4a 2a2 . 6. . we write e for the identity element of G. ì h P F.hPG where all ë g . (To avoid confusion with the element 1 of F.

kPG ë g ì h í k ( gh)k ë g ì h í k g(hk) g. 6. í g P F). (2) Let r ë g g. ì h P F). gPG gPG gPG (ë g . r1 1r r. t í g g. j . s. r(s t) rs rt. (ër)s ë(rs) r(ës). for all r. r(st) (rs)t. namely the element 1e (where 1 is the identity of F and e is the identity of G).4 Proposition Multiplication in FG satis®es the following properties. r0 0r 0. We write this element simply as 1.h.Group algebras 6. Proof (1) It follows immediately from the de®nition of rs that rs P FG. s ì g g.3 De®nition The vector space FG. t P FG and ë P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) rs P FG.hPG 55 (ë g .h. with multiplication de®ned by 3 2 32 ëg g ìh h ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. The group algebra FG contains an identity for multiplication. ì g . is called the group algebra of G over F. Then (rs)t g.kPG r(st)X We leave the proofs of the other equations as easy exercises. (r s)t rt st.

h P G.7 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 el. The elements of FG have the form . (4) and (5) of Proposition 6. Note that the regular FG-module has dimension equal to |G|. we have vg P V. (2). For all u. g P G). so that V is a vector space of dimension n over F. with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. 6. v P V. The regular FG-module We now use the group algebra to de®ne an important FG-module. and the result follows. v( gh) (v g)h. by parts (1). v1 v. (3). 6. (u v) g ug v g.4 is called an algebra. ë P F and g. We shall be concerned only with group algebras. respectively.5 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group and F be R or C. any vector space equipped with a multiplication satisfying properties (1)±(7) of Proposition 6. where n |G|. Let V FG.56 Representations and characters of groups In fact. Proof Suppose that g P G and v g v for all v P FG.4.6 Proposition The regular FG-module is faithful. but it is worth pointing out that the axioms for an algebra mean that it is both a vector space and a ring. so g 1. Therefore V is an FG-module. is called the regular FG-module. j 6. The vector space FG. Then 1 g 1. The representation g 3 [ g]B obtained by taking B to be the natural basis of FG is called the regular representation of G over F. (ëv) g ë(v g).

v2 r ëv1 ìv2 . a 3 d 0 0 1 e. it is sometimes helpful to extend the de®nition of the multiplication so that we have an element vr of V for all elements r in the group algebra FG. If r ë(1 2) ì(1 3 4) then v1 r ëv1 (1 2) ìv1 (1 3 4) ëv2 ìv3 .8 De®nition Suppose that V is an FG-module.9 Examples (1) Let V be the permutation module for S4 . together with a multiplication v g for v P V and g P G (and the multiplication satis®es various axioms). a. (2v1 v2 )r ëv1 (2ë ì)v2 2ìv3 X (ë. say r gPG ì g g (ì g P F). (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )a2 ë2 e ë3 a ë1 a2 X (ë i P F)X 57 By taking matrices relative to the basis e. This is done in the following natural way.Group algebras ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 We have (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )e ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 . (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )a ë3 e ë1 a ë2 a2 .9. we obtain the regular representation of G: H I H I H I 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 e 3 d 0 1 0 e. De®ne vr by vr ì g (v g)X gPG 6. and that v P V and r P FG. ì P F) . as described in Example 4. 6. a2 3 d 1 0 0 eX 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 FG acts on an FG-module You will remember that an FG-module is a vector space over F. a2 of FG. Now.

(ëv)r ë(vr) v(ër).58 Representations and characters of groups (2) If V is the regular FG-module. Proof All parts except (2) are straightforward. Then the following properties hold for all u. then for all v P V and r P FG. and we leave them to you. assuming the other parts. given by De®nition 6. Compare the next result with Proposition 6.10 Proposition Suppose that V is an FG-module. the element vr is simply the product of v and r as elements of the group algebra.h ë g ì h (v( gh)) ë g ì h ((v g)h) by (4) and (6) g. s ì h hX gPG hPG Then 2 3 v(rs) v ë g ì h ( gh) g. 6. v(rs) (vr)s. (u v)r ur vr. We shall give a proof of part (2). s P FG: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) vr P V. (6) j (vr)sX . v(r s) vr vs. s P FG with r ë g g. all ë P F and all r. and let r. v P V.h 2 g 3 32 ë g (v g) ìh h h by (4). (5). Let v P V.4.3. v1 v. v0 0r 0.h g.

The vector space FG. gn of CG? 5. and v0 0 for all v P V . Show that zg gz for all g in G.Group algebras Summary of Chapter 6 59 1. Suppose that G D8 ka. with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. say G { g1 . The group algebra FG of G over F consists of all linear combinations of elements of G. where the symbol 0 is used for the zero elements of V and FG. (b) Let z b a2 b. 3. Assume that G is a ®nite group. (a) Let x and y be the following elements of CG: x a 2a2 . For r and s in CG. The regular FG-module is faithful. Let G C2 . yx and x 2 . but neither v nor r is 0. (a) Prove that ch hc c for all h in G. g P G) is the regular FG-module. . . and has a natural multiplication de®ned on it. . with |G| . and write c n for the element i1 g i of CG. . (b) Deduce that c2 |G|c. r P FG such that vr 0. Deduce that zr rz for all r in CG. If V is an FG-module. What is the matrix [W]B . Show that for every ®nite group G. b: a4 b2 1. . . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Exercises for Chapter 6 1. . Work out matrices for the regular representation of C2 3 C2 over F. where B is the basis g1 . g n }. there exists an FG-module V and elements v P V. . prove from the de®nition that 0r 0 for all r P FG. does rs 0 imply that r 0 or s 0? 4. 2. (c) Let W: CG 3 CG be the linear transformation sending v to vc for all v in CG. 1. 3. . 2. y b ab À a2 X Calculate xy.

Prove that the 2-dimensional subspace W of CG. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Suppose that G D6 ka. b: a3 b2 1. . de®ned by W sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . b ù2 ab ùa2 b).60 Representations and characters of groups 6. and let ù e2ðia3 . is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CG-module.

group homomorphisms and linear transformations. the `structure-preserving' functions are. respectively. 61 . submodule of W. then for all v P V and r gPG ë g g P FG. A function W: V 3 W is said to be an FG-homomorphism if W is a linear transformation and (v g)W (vW) g for all v P V . The analogous functions for FG-modules are called FG-homomorphisms. Then Ker W is an FG-submodule of V and Im W is an FG.7 FG-homomorphisms For groups and vector spaces. 7. g P GX In other words.2 Proposition Let V and W be FG-modules and let W: V 3 W be an FG-homomorphism. FG-homomorphisms 7. Note that if G is a ®nite group and W: V 3 W is an FG-homomorph ism. we have (vr)W (vW)r since (vr)W gPG ë g (v g)W gPG ë g (vW) g (vW)rX The next result shows that FG-homomorphisms give rise to FGsubmodules in a natural way. and we introduce these in this chapter. if W sends v to w then it sends v g to wg.1 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules.

De®ne 2 n 3 n W: ëivi 3 ë i w (ë i P F)X i1 i1 Thus v i W w for all i. i1 i1 Im W W X .3 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW 0 for all v P V. then W is an FGhomomorphism. (3) Suppose that G is a subgroup of S n . and so Im W is an FG-submodule of W. v n ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4. since W is a linear transformation. we have 2 3 2 3 (v g)W ë i v ig W ë i w.8). Let v P Ker W and g P G. We construct an FG-homomorphism W from V to W. so that w vW for some v P V. Provided ë T 0. wg (vW) g (v g)W P Im W. and let W sp (w) be the trivial FG-module (see De®nition 4.62 Representations and characters of groups Proof First note that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. . Now let w P Im W. Here. (2) Let ë P F. @ n A n Ker W ëi vi : ëi 0 . . Then (v g)W (vW) g 0 g 0. Im W V. For all g P G. so vg P Ker W. . Then W is a linear transformation. and de®ne W: V 3 V by vW ëv for all v P V. and 2 3 2 3 (vW) g ë i wg ë i wX Therefore W is an FG-homomorphism. and for all v ë i v i P V and all g P G. Therefore Ker W is an FG-submodule of V. we have Ker W {0}. Then W is an FG-homomorphism. and Ker W V. j 7. . Let V sp (v1 . Im W {0}.10).

so we need only show that WÀ1 is an FG-homomorphism. . Then we may use W and WÀ1 to translate back and forth between the isomorphic FGmodules V and W. j as W is an FG-homomorphism Suppose that W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. . Ker W is an FG-submodule of the permutation module V. .2. and prove that V and W share the same structural properties. We call a function W: V 3 W an FGisomorphism if W is an FG-homomorphism and W is invertible. . (3) V contains a trivial FG-submodule if and only if W contains a trivial FG-submodule (since X is a trivial FG-submodule of V if and only if XW is a trivial FG-submodule of W). We list some examples below: (1) dim V dim W (since v1 . ((wWÀ1 ) g)W ((wWÀ1 )W) g wg ((wg)WÀ1 )WX Hence (wWÀ1 ) g (wg)WÀ1 . 7. In the next result. then the inverse WÀ1 : W 3 V is also an FG-isomorphism. as required. . we check that if V W then W V. Isomorphic FG-modules 7. If there is such an FG-isomorphism.5 Proposition If W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism.4 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules. v n W is a basis of W). Proof Certainly WÀ1 is an invertible linear transformation. .FG-homomorphisms 63 By Proposition 7. For w P W and g P G. . v n is a basis of V if and only if v1 W. . (2) V is irreducible if and only if W is irreducible (since X is an FGsubmodule of V if and only if XW is an FG-submodule of W). then we say that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules and write V W. .

By (7.7) The FG-modules V and W are isomorphic if and only if there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P GX To see this. . . . Conversely. Now assume that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. Since (v i g)W (v i W) g for each i. .12(2). and W is an FGmodule with basis B 9. we deduce that (v i g)W (v i W) g for all i. Proof We ®rst establish the following fact: (7. Let g P G.7). . Since [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 . there is a basis B 0 of V such that gó [ g]B 0 for all g P G. w n is a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P G. suppose that v1 . then v1 W. we continue simply to emphasize the similarity between isomorphic FG-modules. . Then by Theorem 4. v n W is a basis B 2 of W. Let g P G. and let v1 . it follows that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 . . though. suppose that r and ó are equivalent.6 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B . v n is a basis B 1 of V and w1. . For the moment. Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if the representations r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 are equivalent. . suppose ®rst that W is an FG-isomorphism from V to W. and hence W is an FG-isomorphism. 7. . . .7). . . De®ne a representation ö of G by ö: g 3 [ g]B 1 . In the next result. Hence r and ó are equivalent. Conversely. Then by Theorem 4. ö is equivalent to both r and ó.12(1). we show that isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. This completes the proof of (7. .64 Representations and characters of groups Just as we often regard isomorphic groups as being identical. there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P G. we frequently disdain to distinguish between isomorphic FG-modules. . . v n be a basis B 1 of V. Let W be the invertible linear transformation from V to W for which v i W w i for all i.

and let W denote the regular FG-module. v3 of V. 7. the function W: ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ë3 v3 3 ë1 1 ë2 a ë3 a2 is an FG-isomorphism from V to W. the FG-modules V and W are therefore isomorphic. v2 . a cyclic group of order 3.4(1) we encountered two equivalent representations r and ó of G.FG-homomorphisms 65 that is. with basis v1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. by (7. where 0 1 1 0 ar . we have [ g]B [ g]B 9 for all g P GX According to (7. j 7. d d e e 0 0 1 1 0 0 H 0 0 0 1 1 0 I f [a2 ]B 9 f 1 d 0 g 0 gX e Compare the FG-module V de®ned in Example 4. [a]B 9 f 0 0 1 g. Then 1. a2 is a basis of W. v2 . We have H H I I 1 0 0 0 1 0 f f g g [1]B 9 f 0 1 0 g. v2 a v3 . b: a4 b2 1. br À1 0 0 À1 and aó i 0 0 0 .11.7).9 Example Let G D8 ka.7). call it B 9. v3 such that v1 a v2 . Therefore V and W are isomorphic FG-modules.8 Example Let G ka: a3 1l. In Example 3. [ g]B 9 [ g]B 0 for all g P G. bó Ài 1 1 X 0 (ë i P F) . a. Indeed. v3 a v1 X Writing B for the basis v1 .

66 Representations and characters of groups Let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . the CG-modules V and W are isomorphic. v2 for which v1 a v2 . . w1. v1 b v1 .9). if V U1 È . a direct sum of FG-submodules Ui. . . B r to . w n be a basis B 2 of W. . . (Compare Example 3. where U and W are FG-submodules of V.4(1). v2 3 iw1 À iw2 X Then (v j a)W (v j W)a and (v j b)W (v j W)b for j 1. and w1. and for g P G. u1 . . H I 0 [ g]B 1 eX [ g]B d 0 [ g]B 2 More generally. w2 for which w1 a iw1 . let W: V 3 W be the invertible linear transformation such that W: v1 3 w1 w2 . w2 b w1 Thus. v2 b Àv2 (see Example 4.) Direct sums We conclude the chapter with a discussion of direct sums of FGmodules. w2 a Àiw2 . u m be a basis B 1 of U. then for all g P G we have r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 X According to Theorem 7. . and suppose that V U È W. Let V be an FG-module. w n is a basis B of V. and we show that these give rise to FG-homomorphisms. v2 of V and B 9 for the basis w1. w1 b w2 . Then by (2.5(1)). . . . . È Ur. . and hence W is a CG-isomorphism from V to W. . w2 of W. and. . let W be the CG-module with basis w1. . . since r and ó are equivalent. . Let u1 . if we write B for the basis v1 . in a similar way. .6. . v2 a Àv1 . and B i is a basis of Ui. To verify this directly. . 2. . . u m . then we can amalgamate B 1 .

. ur for unique vectors ui P Ui. Thus ð i is a projection (see De®nition 2. and for g P G. H [ g]B 1 f FF [ g]B d (7X10) F 67 I g eX 0 [ g]B r 0 The next result shows that direct sums give rise naturally to FGhomomorphisms. Proof Clearly ð i is a linear transformation. 7. and ð i is an FG-homomorphism. For v P V we have . v u1 . and g P G. . and we de®ne ð i : V 3 V (1 < i < r) by setting vð i ui X Then each ð i is an FG-homomorphism.FG-homomorphisms obtain a basis B of V. since for v P V with v u1 . and suppose that V U1 X X X Ur . . . i so ð2 ð i . sum of some of the FG-submodules Ui. where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V Then V is a direct . and is also a projection of V .11 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. j . u r (u j P U j for all j). vð 2 ui ð i ui vð i . 7. and suppose that V U1 È X X X È U r where each Ui is an FG-submodule of V.30).12 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. i We now present a technical result concerning sums of irreducible FG-modules which will be used at a later stage. we have (v g)ð i (u1 g X X X ur g)ð i ui g (vð i ) gX Also.

j Finally. X X X . Ur } which has the properties that W 1 X X X W s is direct (iXeX equal to W 1 È X X X È W s ). as required. . If Ui P Y this is clear. and let W: U 3 V and ö: V 3 W be FG-homomorphisms. so W Ui T {0}.68 Representations and characters of groups Proof The idea is to choose as many as we can of the FG-submodules U1. g P G. Then W Ui is not a direct sum. so assume that Ui P Y. Prove that Wö: U 3 W is an FG-homomorphism. Since U i W for all i with 1 < i < r. Let U. as claimed. . V and W be FG-modules. we have V W W 1 È F F F ÈW s . . 2. then we can make the external direct sum V1 È F F F ÈVr (see Chapter 2) into an FGmodule by de®ning (v1 . therefore W Ui Ui. v r ) g (v1 g. but W 1 X X X W s U i is not direct. . . . Summary of Chapter 7 1. But W Ui a is an FG-submodule of Ui. . . we remark that if V1 . Ur so that the sum of our chosen FG-submodules is direct. v r g) for all v i P Vi (1 < i < r) and all g P G. 3. To this end. Exercises for Chapter 7 1. if Ui P Y X a Let W W1 X X X WsX We claim that Ui # W for all i. . X X X . choose a subset Y {W1. . . . V r are FG-modules. and Ui is irreducible. Isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. If V and W are FG-modules and W: V 3 W is a linear transformation which satis®es (v g)W (vW) g for all v P V. Ws } of {U1. Kernels and images of FG-homomorphisms are FG-modules. then W is an FG-homomorphism. F F F . and so Ui # W. .

Prove that the subset V0 fv P V : v g v for all g P Gg is an FG-submodule of V. Is it necessarily surjective? 4. De®ne the FGsubmodules V0 and W0 of V and W as in Exercise 3. Suppose that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. Let G be the subgroup of S5 which is generated by (1 2 3 4 5). Assume that V is an FG-module. (b) Prove that W2 2W. Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by (1 2) and (3 4). 3. 5. Prove that the permutation module for G over F is isomorphic to the regular FG-module. (a) Show that the function W: á1 âx 3 (á À â)(1 À x) (á. Show that the function W: v 3 v g (v P V ) gPG is an FG-homomorphism from V to V0 . Prove that V0 and W0 are isomorphic FG-modules. â P F) is an FG-homomorphism from the regular FG-module to itself. Is the permutation module for G over F isomorphic to the regular FG-module? 6. (c) Find a basis B of FG such that 2 0 [W]B X 0 0 .FG-homomorphisms 69 2. Let G C2 kx: x 2 1l.

8. v3 ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4. v2 . where as usual F R or C. We shall ®nd this W in an 70 . then there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È WX Before proving Maschke's Theorem. we illustrate it with some examples. for instance sp (v2 . let F be R or C.10).2(2) below. only one FGsubmodule W of V with V U È W. (The assumption on F is important ± see Example 8.8 Maschke's Theorem We now come to our ®rst major result in representation theory. There are many subspaces W of V such that V U È W. If U is an FG-submodule of V. v3 ) and sp (v1 . and let V be an FG-module.1 Maschke's Theorem Let G be a ®nite group. namely Maschke's Theorem. since ug u for all g P G. in fact. Put u v1 v2 v3 and U sp (u)X Then U is an FG-submodule of V.) This essentially reduces representation theory to the study of irreducible FG-modules. But there is. Maschke's Theorem 8.2 Examples (1) Let G S3 and let V sp (v1 . v2 À 2v3 ). A consequence of this theorem is that every FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules.

. we have v u w for unique vectors u P U and w P W 0. The corresponding FG-module is V sp (v1 . let p be a prime number. 1. v n of V. v m of U. . ö is a projection of V with kernel W0 and image U. v2 ). . where. and let W0 sp (v m1 . .29. For example. F). p À 1) j 1 is a representation from G to GL (2. since U is the only 1-dimensional FG-submodule of V. X X X . For v P V and x P G. de®ne W: V 3 V by (8X3) vW 1 v gö g À1 jGj gPG (v P V )X It is clear that W is an endomorphism of V and Im W # U. . We aim to modify the projection ö to create an FG-homomorphism from V to V with image U. extend it to a basis v1 . Choose any subspace W0 of V such that V U È W0X (There are many choices for W0 ± simply take a basis v1 . v2 a j jv1 v2 X Clearly. . . Proof of Maschke's Theorem 8. an FG-submodule of the FG-module V. and take F to be the ®eld of integers modulo p. . U sp (v1 ) is an FG-submodule of V. . Check that the function 1 0 j a 3 ( j 0. as can easily be seen. To this end. .1 We are given U. .) For v P V. We show ®rst that W is an FG-homomorphism. v n ).Maschke's Theorem 71 example after proving Maschke's Theorem (but you may like to look for it yourself now). (vx)W 1 (vx) gö g À1 X jGj gPG . . (2) The conclusion of Maschke's Theorem can fail if F is not R or C. for 0 < j < p À 1. By Proposition 2. and we de®ne ö: V 3 V by setting vö u. v1 a j v1 . But there is no FGsubmodule W such that V U È W. let G C p ka: a p 1l.

Hence 1 (vx)W vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG 2 3 1 vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG (vW)xX Thus W is an FG-homomorphism. Then V U È W0 (but of course W0 is not an FG-submodule). as in Example 8. we prove that W2 W. v2 ). and V U È W by Proposition 2. 2. with submodule U sp (v1 v2 v3 ). 3)X 3 The required FG-submodule W is then Ker W. Moreover.2. First. Next. so W sp (v1 À v2 . so does h xg.4) shows that Im W U. as claimed. v3 3 v1 v2 v3 X Check now that the FG-homomorphism W given by (8. W ë i v i : ë i 0 . Using this. and so (ug)ö ug.72 Representations and characters of groups As g runs over the elements of G. Consequently W2 W. v2 3 0. let W0 sp (v1 . j 8. we have ug P U.5 Example Let G S3 and let V sp (v1 . Let W Ker W.) . First note that for u P U. This completes the proof of Maschke's Theorem. We have now established that W: V 3 V is a projection and an FGhomomorphism. the FG-submodule constructed in Example 7. v2 À v3 )X È É (In fact. (8. g P G.3(3). v3 ) be the permutation module. Then vW P U.4) we have (vW)W vW.3) is W: v i 3 1(v1 v2 v3 ) (i 1. so by (8. v2 . 1 1 1 uW (8X4) ugö g À1 (ug) g À1 u uX jGj gPG jGj gPG jGj gPG Now let v P V.2(1).32. Then W is an FG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. The projection ö onto U is given by ö: v1 3 0. We use the proof of Maschke's Theorem to ®nd an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È W.

v1 . if we can choose a basis B of an FGmodule V such that [ g]B has the form H I Ã 0 d e Ã Ã for all g P G (see (5. the matrix [ g]B has the form H I j 0 0 [ g]B d j j j eX j j j The zeros re¯ect the fact that U is an FG-submodule of V (see (5. g 3d Yg Zg for some matrices X g . This example illustrates the matrix version of Maschke's Theorem: for an arbitrary ®nite group G. Z g .4)). where X g is k 3 k with 0 . then for all g P G. then we can ®nd a basis B 9 such that [ g]B 9 has the form H I Ã 0 d e 0 Ã for all g P G. Yg.Maschke's Theorem 73 Note that if B is the basis v1 v2 v3 . k . v2 À v3 as a basis B 9. v2 À v3 ) is also an FG-submodule of V. . then we get H I j 0 0 [ g]B 9 d 0 j j e. To put this another way. If instead we use v1 v2 v3 . n. Then we know that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G). suppose that r is a reducible representation of a ®nite group G over F of degree n. 0 j j because sp (v1 À v2 . v2 of V. v1 À v2 .4)).

a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules. so suppose that V is reducible. dim V and dim W . . 8. since V is irreducible in this case.6 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be completely reducible if V U1 È F F F ÈU r .10).74 Representations and characters of groups Maschke's Theorem asserts further that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Ag 0 e. The result is true if dim V 1. there is an FG-submodule W such that V U È W. (By an irreducible FG-submodule. by induction. W W 1 È X X X È W s . V U1 È X X X È Ur È W 1 È X X X È W s .7 Theorem If G is a ®nite group and F R or C. The proof goes by induction on dim V. By Maschke's Theorem. Then V has an FG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. U U1 È X X X È Ur . j Another useful consequence of Maschke's Theorem is the next proposition. we have. If V is irreducible then the result holds. dim V. g 3d 0 Bg where A g is also a k 3 k matrix. then every non-zero FG-module is completely reducible. Then by (2.) 8. Since dim U . Consequences of Maschke's Theorem We now use Maschke's Theorem to show that every non-zero FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V. we simply mean an FG-submodule which is an irreducible FG-module. where each Ui and W j is an irreducible FG-module. Proof Let V be a non-zero FG-module.

2. Then there exists a surjective FG-homomorphism from V onto U. Every non-zero FG-module V is a direct sum of irreducible FGmodules: V U1 È X X X È Ur X Exercises for Chapter 8 1. where v1 x v2 . Then the function ð: V 3 U which is de®ned by ð: u w 3 u (u P U .Maschke's Theorem 75 8.7 tells us that every non-zero FG-module is a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules. v2 x Àv1 À v2 X (This is a CG-module. w P W ) j is an FG-homomorphism onto U. Theorem 8. If G C2 3 C2 . by Exercise 3. express the group algebra RG as a direct sum of 1-dimensional RG-submodules. Proof By Maschke's Theorem. where F R or C and G is a ®nite group. there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È W. v2 .) Express V as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. 2. and let V be the 2-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 . We begin our study of these in the next chapter. Suppose that U is an FG-submodule of V.8 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. . Maschke's Theorem says that for every FG-submodule U of an FGmodule V. in order to understand FG-modules. there is an FG-submodule W with V U È WX 2. Summary of Chapter 8 Assume that G is a ®nite group and F R or C. by Proposition 7. we may concentrate upon the irreducible FG-modules.11. 1. Thus. Let G kx: x 3 1l C3 .

Show that V is not completely reducible. Let G be a ®nite group and let r: G 3 GL (2. Suppose that there are elements g. 2 n 3 n n ëi vi . Prove that r is irreducible. 5. the vector vg is just the product of the row vector v with the matrix g). v] (ux. De®ne a complex inner product ( . ì jv j ëi ìiX i1 j1 i1 De®ne another complex inner product [ . (You may care to revisit Example 5. g P G.76 Representations and characters of groups 3. An alternative proof of Maschke's Theorem for CG-modules. ì j P C. with the natural multiplication by elements of G (so that for v P V. ] is a complex inner product. h in G such that the matrices gr and hr do not commute. 5. . v] for all u.2(2). . C) be a representation of G. which satis®es [ug. v P V and g P GX (2) Suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. (This shows that Maschke's Theorem fails for in®nite groups ± compare Example 8. Suppose that G is the in®nite group & ' 1 0 : nPZ n 1 and let V be the CG-module C2 .3. vg] [u. . v P V )X xPG (1) Verify that [ . ] on V by [u. vx) (u.2) for the de®nition of a complex inner product): for ë i . 6. Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 . v n and suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V.5(2) and Exercises 5. and de®ne U c fv P V : [u.) 6.1. . ) on V as follows (see (14. Find a group G.6 in the light of this result.) 5. . v] 0 for all u P U gX Show that U c is a CG-submodule of V. 4. a CG-module V and a CG-homomorphism W: V 3 V such that V T Ker W È Im W.4.

.Maschke's Theorem 77 (3) Deduce Maschke's Theorem. (Hint: it is a standard property of complex inner products that V U È U c for all subspaces U of V.) 7. Prove that for every ®nite simple group G. there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module.

1 Schur's Lemma Let V and W be irreducible CG-modules. Then Im W T {0}. Ker W is a CG-submodule of V. Schur's Lemma 9. we have Im W W. Also by Proposition 7. As Im W is a CG-submodule of W by Proposition 7. G denotes a ®nite group. and since much of the ensuing theory depends on it. the endomorphism W has an eigenvalue ë P C.2. Proof (1) Suppose that vW T 0 for some v P V. or vW 0 for all v P V. and we give an immediate application by determining all the irreducible representations of ®nite abelian groups.9 Schur's Lemma Schur's Lemma is a basic result concerning irreducible modules. Ker W {0}.26). and hence is a CG-isomorphism. as Ker W T V and V is irreducible. Schur's Lemma concerns CG-modules rather than RG-modules. (2) If W: V 3 V is a CG-isomorphism. (1) If W: V 3 W is a CG-homomorphism.2. Though simple in both statement and proof. (2) By (2. Thus Ker (W À ë1 V ) is a non-zero CG-submodule 78 . Throughout. Thus W is invertible. then W is a scalar multiple of the identity endomorphism 1 V . Schur's Lemma is fundamental to representation theory. and so Ker (W À ë1 V ) T {0}. and W is irreducible. we shall deal with CG-modules for the remainder of the book (except in Chapter 23). then either W is a CGisomorphism.

W ë1 V . for all v P V X 79 j 9.4(1). Then r is irreducible if and only if every n 3 n matrix A which satis®es ( gr)A A( gr) has the form A ëI n with ë P C.3 Corollary Let r: G 3 GL (n. w P W is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. Since V is irreducible. C) be a representation of G. Ker (W À ë1 V ) V. Part (2) of Schur's Lemma has the following converse. and is not a scalar multiple of 1 V . g P G.11).Schur's Lemma of V. which is a contradiction. for all g P G . By Maschke's Theorem. so that V has a CG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. as required. Let A be an n 3 n matrix over C. there is a CGsubmodule W of V such that V U È WX Then the projection ð: V 3 V de®ned by (u w)ð u for all u P U. Hence V is irreducible. Then V is irreducible. g P G. Proof As in Theorem 4. The endomorphism v 3 vA of C n is a CG-homomorphism if and only if (v g)A (vA) g for all v P C n . Therefore v(W À ë1 V ) 0 That is. regard C n as a CG-module by de®ning v g v( gr) for all v P C n .2 Proposition Let V be a non-zero CG-module. j We next interpret Schur's Lemma and its converse in terms of representations. and suppose that every CG-homomorphism from V to V is a scalar multiple of 1 V . 9. Proof Suppose that V is reducible.

by Corollary 9. and then (br)A A(br) gives á ä. Hence A á 0 0 á áIX Consequently r is irreducible. Check that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (2.2). j 9.4 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. Since the matrix 0 À1 1 À1 commutes with all gr ( g P G). b: a5 b2 1. Corollary 9. . and let r: G 3 GL (2. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. The fact that (ar)A A(ar) forces â ã 0. C) for which ar Assume that the matrix A á ã â ä ù 0 0 .3 implies that r is reducible.1 and Proposition 9.80 Representations and characters of groups that is.2. if and only if ( gr)A A( gr) for all g P GX The result now follows from Schur's Lemma 9. C) be the representation for which ar 0 À1 1 À1 (see Exercise 3.3. ùÀ1 br 0 1 1 X 0 commutes with both ar and br. and let ù e2ðia5 . (2) Let G D10 ka.

Write g i (1.Schur's Lemma Representation theory of ®nite abelian groups 81 Let G be a ®nite abelian group. X X X . . 9. We shall not prove it here. 1) Then G h g1 . 3 C n r . . Let G C n1 3 . then every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. Thus vx ë x v for all v P V X This implies that every subspace of V is a CG-submodule. but refer you to Chapter 9 of the book of J. By Theorem 9. We shall determine the irreducible representations of all direct products C n1 3 C n2 3 X X X 3 C n r where n1 . . and for 1 < i < r. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. let c i be a generator for C n i . n r are positive integers. ci . this endomorphism is a scalar multiple of the identity 1 V .1(2).5 Proposition If G is a ®nite abelian group. X X X . By Schur's Lemma 9. and hence the endomorphism v 3 vx of V is a CG-homomorphism.6. and let V be an irreducible CGmodule. .6 Theorem Every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. X X X . this covers the irreducible representations of all ®nite abelian groups. with g in i 1 and g i g j g j g i for all i. . . g r i. Thus we have proved 9. B. Since G is abelian. Pick x P G. As V is irreducible. v gx vxg for all g P G. C) be an irreducible representation of G (ci in ith position)X . say ë x 1 V . we deduce that dim V 1. jX Now let r: G 3 GL (n. The next result is a major structure theorem for ®nite abelian groups.

3 C n r . 9.5. . .XXX. . . and every irreducible representation of G over C is equivalent to precisely one of them. ë r i determine r.82 Representations and characters of groups over C.XXX. v3 g 2 v3 .8 Theorem Let G be the abelian group C n1 3 . . .7) for all i1 . . The n irreducible representations of G over C are rù j (0 < j < n À 1). g irr for some integers i1 . There are n1 n2 . The representations rë1 . . . v4 g 1 Àv4 . 2.ë r X Conversely. that is. We have proved the following theorem. . we have ë in i 1. 9. V2 . v1 g 2 v2 . V4 . Also. n r such representations. . given any n i th roots of unity ë i (1 < i < r). where Vi is a 1-dimensional space with basis v i (i 1. . v4 g 2 Àv4 X . i r . g2 l are V1 . . 3. . since for g P G. i r .ë r of G constructed above are irreducible and have degree 1. As g i has order n i . there exists ë i P C such that g i r (ë i ) (where of course (ë i ) is a 1 3 1 matrix). where ak rù j (ù jk ) (0 < k < n À 1)X (2) The four irreducible CG-modules for G C2 3 C2 k g1 . . 4) and v1 g 1 v1 . There are |G| of these representations. . and put ù e2ðia n . write r rë1 . V3 . . so for 1 < i < r. the function i i g 11 X X X g irr 3 (ë11 X X Xë irr ) is a representation of G. ë i is an n i th root of unity. and no two of them are equivalent. . and then (9X7) i i gr ( g 11 X X X g irr )r (ë11 X X Xë irr )X For a representation r of G satisfying (9. v3 g 1 Àv3 . we have g g11 . the values ë1 . Then n 1 by Proposition 9.9 Examples (1) Let G C n ka: a n 1l. v2 g 2 Àv2 . v2 g 1 v2 .

then there is a basis B of V such that the matrix [ g]B is diagonal. there exists an integer m i such that ui g ù m i u i X Thus if B is the basis u1 .11 Proposition Let G be a ®nite group and V a CG-module. 9. The centre of the group algebra CG. . u r of V. If g has order n.5. Put ù e2ðia n . For abelian groups G. Each Ui has dimension 1. then H m1 I ù 0 f g FF (9X10) [ g]B d eX F 0 ù mr The following useful result is an immediate consequence of this.Schur's Lemma Diagonalization 83 Let H k gl be a cyclic group of order n.12 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group. As V is also a C H-module.5). the centre Z(CG) is the whole group algebra. . . written Z(CG).10). For arbitrary groups G. j Some further applications of Schur's Lemma Our next application concerns an important subspace of the group algebra CG. a direct sum of irreducible C H-submodules Ui of V. 9.7. Then for each i. it is easy to check that Z(CG) is a subspace of CG. . the result follows from (9. V U1 È X X X È Ur . let u i be a vector spanning Ui. By Theorem 8. then the entries on the diagonal of [ g]B are nth roots of unity. by Proposition 9. is de®ned by Z(CG) fz P CG: zr rz for all r P CGgX Using (2. we shall see that Z(CG) plays a crucial role in . Proof Let H k gl. If g P G. and let V be a non-zero C H-module.

Then for all g P G. then h P Z(CG)X To see this. kal and G are normal subgroups of G.13 Example The elements 1 and gPG g lie in Z(CG). j Some elements of the centre of CG are provided by the centre of G. we have vrz vzr. this CG-homomorphism is equal to ë1 V for some ë P C. Indeed. We shall see later that these elements in fact form a basis of Z(CG). if G D6 ka. For example. and let z P Z(CG). 9. g À1 zg g À1 hg h z. then {1}. By Schur's Lemma 9.84 Representations and characters of groups the study of representations of G (for example. and the result follows. Consequently zr rz for all r P CG. 1 a a2 and 1 a a2 b ab a2 b lie in Z(CG).14 Proposition Let V be an irreducible CG-module. if H is any normal subgroup of G. Then there exists ë P C such that vz ëv for all v P V X Proof For all r P CG and v P V. . hP H hP H hP H hP H and so zg gz. so the elements 1. b: a3 b2 1. write z h. its dimension is equal to the number of irreducible representations of G ± see Chapter 15). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 9. and hence the function v 3 vz is a CG-homomorphism from V to V.1(2). We use Schur's Lemma to prove the following important property of the elements of Z(CG). which we now de®ne.

Schur's Lemma 9. and hence by Proposition 9. j We remark that the converse of Proposition 9.15 De®nition The centre of G. then G Z(G).6.17 Example If G is an abelian group. In particular. Proof Let V be a faithful irreducible CG-module.16 Proposition If there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module. we give an example of a group G such that Z(G) is cyclic but there exists no faithful irreducible CG-module. 9. C2 3 C2 has no faithful irreducible representation (compare Example 9. which.7).9(2)). it is not necessarily the case that there is a faithful irreducible CG-module. being a ®nite subgroup of CÃ .16 is false. 9. If z P Z(G) then z lies in Z(CG). is cyclic (see Exercise 1. and so by Proposition 9. there exists ë z P C such that vz ë z v for all v P V X Since V is faithful. is de®ned by Z(G) fz P G: zg gz for all g P GgX 85 Clearly Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G. the function z 3 ëz (z P Z(G)) is an injective homomorphism from Z(G) into the multiplicative group CÃ of non-zero complex numbers. For example. The irreducible representations of non-abelian groups are more dif®cult to construct than those of abelian groups. Although we have seen in Proposition 6. they . written Z(G). the following result shows that the existence of a faithful irreducible CG-module imposes a strong restriction on the structure of G. Indeed. there is no faithful irreducible CG-module unless G is cyclic.6 that for every ®nite group G there is a faithful CG-module. then Z(G) is cyclic. since in Exercise 25.14. Therefore Z(G) {ë z : z P Z(G)}.16. and is a subset of Z(CG).

For all x. and hence they commute. and there are precisely |G| of them. Then G is abelian. For 1 < i < n. Also. . j Summary of Chapter 9 1.18 Proposition Suppose that G is a ®nite group such that every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. the only CG-homomorphisms from an irreducible CG-module to itself are scalar multiples of the identity. v n is a basis of CG. Exercises for Chapter 9 1. we can write CG V1 È X X X È Vn .7. as required. we deduce that x and y commute. . The centre Z(CG) of the group algebra CG consists of those elements which commute with all elements of CG. since we are assuming that all irreducible CG-modules have dimension 1. 2. Then v1 . call it B . . y P G. The elements of Z(CG) act as scalar multiples of the identity on all irreducible CGmodules.5. the matrices [x]B and [ y]B are diagonal. where each Vi is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule CG. Since the representation g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) of G is faithful (see Proposition 6.86 Representations and characters of groups do not all have degree 1. as is shown by the following converse to Proposition 9. Schur's Lemma states that every CG-homomorphism between irreducible CG-modules is either zero or a CG-isomorphism. All irreducible CG-modules for a ®nite abelian group G have dimension 1. .6). Hence G is abelian. Write down the irreducible representations over C of the groups C2 . . 9. let v i be a vector spanning V i . Then dim Vi 1 for all i. 3. C3 and C2 3 C2 . Proof By Theorem 8.

Schur's Lemma 87 2. Show that if V is an irreducible CG-module. (b) Find ë P C such that w(a aÀ1 ) ëw for all w P W.14. (Compare Proposition 9.) . 3 C n r . . where À5 6 X À4 5 5. ó of G. Check that there is a representation r of G over C such that À7 10 À5 6 ar . b ù2 ab ùa2 b) (see Exercise 6. then there exists ë P C such that 2 3 v g ëv for all v P V X gPG 6.6). Let G be the ®nite abelian group C n1 3 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Prove that G has a faithful representation of degree r. (b) Prove that there is no irreducible representation ó of G such that gó (À1) for all elements g of order 2 in G. 3. (a) Find a non-trivial irreducible representation r of G such that g2 r (1) for all g P G. Let G D6 ka. bó 4 À5 M( gr) ( gr)M for all g P G. and let W be the irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule de®ned by W sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . . irreducible. b: a4 b2 1. Write ù e2ðia3 . Suppose that G D8 ka. (a) Show that a aÀ1 P Z(CG). Let G C4 3 C4 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. b: a3 b2 1. Can G have a faithful representation of degree less than r? 4. br X À5 7 À4 5 Find all 2 3 2 matrices M such that Hence determine whether or not r is Do the same for the representation 5 À6 aó .

. (d) C3 3 D8.88 Representations and characters of groups 7. Which of the following groups have a faithful irreducible representation? (a) C n (n a positive integer). (b) D8 . (c) C2 3 D8 .

to ®nd all irreducible CG-modules. this is not really a practical way of ®nding the irreducible CG-modules. Consider CG as the regular CG-module. .10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra Let G be a ®nite group and CG be the group algebra of G over C.8). We shall show in this chapter that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules U1. Also. we can write CG U1 È X X X È Ur where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. Ur. By Theorem 8. . unless G is a small group. it is suf®cient to decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. there is by Maschke's Theorem a CG-submodule U of V such that V Ker W È U . Then there is a CG-submodule U of V such that V Ker W È U and U Im W. there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (a result which has already been established for abelian groups in Theorem 9.7.2. Proof Since Ker W is a CG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. . .1 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules and let W: V 3 W be a CG-homomorphism. De®ne a function W: U 3 Im W by uW uW (u P U )X 89 . in theory. Irreducible submodules of CG We begin with another consequence of Maschke's Theorem. As a consequence. However. 10.

Schur's Lemma 9. where U1 sp (v1 ) and U2 sp (v2 ) are irreducible CG-submodules. j Of course it can happen that U is an irreducible CG-submodule of U1 È . . v2 . u P U. Choosing i such that ui T 0 for some u P U. . such that v g v for all v P V and g P G.1(1) implies that ð i is a CG-isomorphism. U sp (v1 v2 ) is an irreducible CG-submodule which is not equal to U1 or U2. and write V U1 È X X X È Us . with basis v1 . and ð i T 0. then we say that U is a composition factor of V if V has a CG-submodule which is isomorphic to U. If u P Ker W then u P Ker W U {0}. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. È Us (each Ui irreducible) without U being equal to any Ui. Clearly W is a CG-homomorphism. If U is any irreducible CG-submodule of V. so w vW for some v P V. Therefore U Ui. 10. Now ð i is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. We have now established that W: U 3 Im W is an invertible CG-homomorphism. then U Ui for some i.11). As U and Ui are irreducible. we have ð i T 0. . De®ne ð i : U 3 Ui by setting uð i ui . since W is a CG-homomorphism. we have u u1 .2 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. hence Ker W {0}. 10. Proof For u P U.3 Example Let G be any group and let V be a 2-dimensional CG-module. Then w vW kW uW uW uWX Therefore Im W Im W. 10. Then V U1 È U2 . as required. us for unique vectors ui P Ui (1 < i < s). . Write v k u with k P Ker W. Now let w P Im W. as the following example shows. Thus U Im W.4 De®nitions (1) If V is a CG-module and U is an irreducible CG-module. .90 Representations and characters of groups We show that W is a CG-isomorphism from U to Im W. However.

it follows that (10X6) W fwr: r P CGgX Now de®ne W: CG 3 W by rW wr (r P CG)X Clearly W is a linear transformation. since W is irreducible. there is a CG-submodule U of CG such that CG U È Ker W and U Im W W X As W is irreducible. s P CG. We now come to the main result of the chapter. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. and the result is proved.2 we have U Ui for some i. 10. Moreover. (rs)W w(rs) (wr)s (rW)sX By Proposition 10. so is U. then there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.7 Corollary If G is a ®nite group. and write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . . Observe that {wr: r P CG} is a CG-submodule of W. and choose a non-zero vector w P W. We record this fact in the following corollary. 10. j Theorem 10. By Proposition 10.5 shows that there is a ®nite set of irreducible CGmodules such that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of them.5 Theorem Regard CG as the regular CG-module. Then every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules Ui. which shows that every irreducible CG-module is a composition factor of the regular CG-module. and Im W W by (10. W is a CG-homomorphism.1. then W Ui. since for r.6). Proof Let W be an irreducible CG-module.Irreducible modules and the group algebra 91 (2) Two CG-modules V and W are said to have a common composition factor if there is an irreducible CG-module which is a composition factor of both V and W.

w1 b v2 . to ®nd all the irreducible CG-modules we need only decompose the regular CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. w2 b v1 X . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. Next. however. and write ù e2ðia3 . v2 b w1 . (2) Let G D6 ka. and hence CG U0 È U 1 È U2 . and let Ui sp (v i ) for i 0. 1. 2. w0 b v0 . w0 bv0 w1 bv1 .92 Representations and characters of groups According to Theorem 10. v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 . 2. every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to U0.5.8 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. 2. b: a3 b2 1. this is not a practical method for studying CG-modules in general. By Theorem 10. and so sp (v i ) and sp (wi ) are Ckal-modules.9(1). De®ne v0 . 1. 1. It is easy to check that v0 . Let ù e2ðia3 and de®ne v0 1 a a2 . We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. v i a ù i v i for i 0. v1 . v2 P CG by v0 1 a a2 . v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 . v2 1 ùa ù2 a2 . We now do this for a couple of examples. U1 or U2. As in (1) above. 1. v2 1 ùa ù2 a2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.5. w2 bv2 X ( b ba ba2 ). Then v1 a a ù2 a2 ù1 ùv1 . The irreducible representation of G corresponding to Ui is the representation rù i of Example 9. v2 is a basis of CG. note that v0 b w 0 . v1 . v1 b w2 . 10. and similarly vi a ùi vi for i 0. 2X Hence Ui is a CG-submodule of CG for i 0.

v1 . the other 1-dimensional Ui. sp (v0 . Find a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module. However. and hence CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 . w2 is a basis of CG. Correspondingly. There are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. as U 1 sp(v0 w0 ) and U2 sp(v0 À w0 ) are CG-submodules. w1 ) are Ckbl-modules. Let G C4 . v2 . By the argument in Example 5. and hence are CG-submodules of CG. But U3 U4 (there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1 .8(1). w1 ) are irreducible.b3 X 1 0 0 ùÀ1 Summary of Chapter 10 1. Exercises for Chapter 10 1. Express CG as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules. b 3 (1). sp (v1 . and U1 is not isomorphic to U2. Now v0. w2 ) and sp (v2 . 2. U2 and U3. (Hint: copy the method of Example 10. every irreducible representation of D6 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r1 : a 3 (1). Every irreducible CG-module occurs as a composition factor of the regular CG-module. namely U1. We conclude from Theorem 10. w0 ). w2 ) and U4 sp (v2 . Is there only one such CGsubmodule? 2. Let G be a ®nite group.5(2).Irreducible modules and the group algebra 93 Therefore. w0 ) is reducible.5 that there are exactly three nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. sp(v0 . the CG-submodules U3 sp (v1 . w2 3 v2 ). 0 1 ù 0 r3 : a 3 . b 3 (À1). r2 : a 3 (1). Note that U1 is the trivial CG-module. w1.) . w0.

v2 and v1 a iv1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Find a 1-dimensional CG-submodule. Show that there is a V which is not equal to U1 or U2. and u3 b Àu3 X 4.5(2). 5. u2 b u2 . v2 a Àiv2 .94 Representations and characters of groups 3. b: a4 1. Thus V has basis v1 . Suppose that V is a where U1 and U2 are CG-submodule U of isomorphic to both of non-zero CG-module such that V U1 È U2. b2 a2 . v2 b Àv1 X Show that V is irreducible. sp (u2 ) and sp (u3 ). and let V be the CG-module given in Example 4. u3 a Àu3 . but is them. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. such that u2 a Àu2 . of CG such that u1 a u1 . Use the method of Example 10. v1 b v2 . Let G Q8 ka. .8(2) to ®nd all the irreducible representations of D8 over C. sp (u1 ) say. Let G D8 ka. and ®nd a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. isomorphic CG-modules. u1 b Àu1 X Find also 1-dimensional CG-submodules. b: a4 b2 1. 6.

1 De®nition Let V and W be CG-modules. W ) as follows: for W. W ). W ) and ë P C. De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on HomCG (V .5 we proved that every irreducible CG-module U is isomorphic to one of the Ui. 95 . We write HomCG (V . The question arises: how many of the Ui are isomorphic to U ? There is an elegant and signi®cant answer to this question: the number is precisely dim U (see Theorem 11. W) with an easy consequence of Schur's Lemma. Then W ö. With these de®nitions. de®ne W ö and ëW by v(W ö) vW vö. ö P HomCG (V . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui. The space of CG-homomorphisms 11. we write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . ëW P HomCG (V . As in Chapter 10.9). We begin our study of the vector space HomCG (V. it is easily checked that HomCG (V. Our proof of Theorem 11. v(ëW) ë(vW) for all v P V . W ) is a vector space over C. W ) for the set of all CG-homomorphisms from V to W.11 More on the group algebra We now go further into the structure of the group algebra CG of a ®nite group G.9 is based on a study of the vector space of CG-homomorphisms from one CG-module to another. In Theorem 10.

Let X be an irreducible CG-submodule of U. Since XW T {0}.1(2). V2 and W . W1 )) dim (HomCG (V. then öWÀ1 is a CG-isomorphism from V to V. W ) fëW: ë P Cg. Now suppose that V W. if V W . W )). if V T W X Proof If V T W then this is immediate from Schur's Lemma 9. W )) 0. Proof Let W be a non-zero element of HomCG (V . a 1-dimensional space. If ö P HomCG (V . Schur's Lemma 9. W ) in general.4 Proposition Let V . W 1 . and so HomCG (V . The key step is the following proposition. W ). there exists ë P C such that öWÀ1 ë1 V X Then ö ëW. W ) T f0g. V1 . W2 )). W )) dim (HomCG (V1 . j The next few results show how to calculate the dimension of HomCG (V . Then & 1.1(1) implies that XW X.3 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules. j For the next result. W1 È W2 )) dim (HomCG (V. 11.2 Proposition Suppose that V and W are irreducible CG-modules. dim (HomCG (V .4. W ). W 2 be CG-modules. by Maschke's Theorem. . and let W: V 3 W be a CG-isomorphism. (2) dim (HomCG (V1 È V2 . Then (1) dim (HomCG (V. 11. recall the de®nition of a composition factor of a CG-module from 10.96 Representations and characters of groups 11. Therefore X is a common composition factor of V and W. W)) dim (HomCG (V2 . and suppose that HomCG (V . Then V and W have a common composition factor.1(1). so by Schur's Lemma 9. Then V Ker W È U for some non-zero CG-module U.

If W P Ker f. W1 È W2 ) to HomCG (V. W V2 ) (W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . W ) (i 1. W ) which is given by h: W 3 (W V1 .More on the group algebra Proof (1) De®ne W 1 È W 2 3 W 2 by the functions ð1 : W1 È W2 3 W1 (w1 w2 )ð2 w2 and 97 ð2 : (w1 w2 )ð1 w1 . so Ker f {0} and f is injective. W2 ) (see Exercise 7. ö2 ). Therefore W 0. the function ö: v1 v2 3 v1 ö1 v2 ö2 öi P (v i P Vi for i 1. Wi ) (i 1.11. ö2 ) under h. W ))X transformation. W1 È W2 ). W ) for i 1. Hence f is surjective. W1 È W2 ) to the (external) direct sum of HomCG (V. de®ne W Vi : Vi 3 W (i 1. and the image of ö under f is (ö1 . j . By Proposition 7. Wð2 ) (W P HomCG (V . W ) and has image (ö1 . We show that f is invertible. We now de®ne a function f from HomCG (V. 2). W1 ) È HomCG (V. and (1) follows. W2 ). then vWð1 0 and vWð2 0 for all v P V. and (2) follows. W1 ) and HomCG (V. W 1 È W 2 ))X Clearly f is a linear transformation. Given ö i P HomCG (V. If W P HomCG (V . so vW vW(ð1 ð2 ) 0.1). Consequently these two vector spaces have equal dimensions. W 1 ) and Wð2 P HomCG (V. W ) HomCG (V1 . W Vi is the function v i W Vi v i W (v i P Vi )X to Then W Vi P HomCG (V i . then Wð1 P HomCG (V . W2 ) by f : W 3 (Wð1 . ð1 and ð2 are CG-homomorphisms. 2) lies in HomCG (V1 È V2 . (2) For W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . 2). Hence h is surjective. We have shown that h is an invertible linear transformation. 2. Now let h be the function from HomCG (V1 È V2 . Given Clearly h is an injective linear HomCG (Vi . the function ö: v 3 vö1 vö2 (v P V ) lies in HomCG (V. W 1 È W 2 ). that is. 2) to be the restriction of W to V i . for all w1 P W 1 . W ) È HomCG (V2 . We have established that f is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (V. w2 P W 2 . W ).

È Vr . U i ))X . W )) r i1 dim (HomCG (Vi. Wj )).6 Corollary Let V be a CG-module with V U1 È X X X È Us . 11. W )) dim (HomCG (W . 1 < j < s). W ) and HomCG (W . (2) dim(HomCG (V1 È F F F ÈV r . . È Ws )) r s i1 j1 dim (HomCG (Vi.5) (1) dim (HomCG (V. W)). where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. W1 È . W1 È . Wj )). By applying (3) when all Vi and Wj are irreducible. These in turn imply (3) dim (HomCG (V1 È . Let W be any irreducible CG-module. V ) are both equal to the number of CG-modules Ui such that Ui W. and using Proposition 11. . .2. and dim (HomCG (W . . In the following corollary we single out the case where one of the CGmodules is irreducible.98 Representations and characters of groups Now suppose that we have CG-modules V. . we have (11. . Vi.4. È Ws )) s j1 dim (HomCG (V. dim (HomCG (V . Then the dimensions of HomCG (V . W )) in general. W )). W. Proof By (11. Wj (1 < i < r. By an obvious induction using Proposition 11.5). we can ®nd dim (HomCG (V. V )) s i1 s i1 dim (HomCG (Ui .

6. s P CG. & 99 1. . dim (HomCG (Ui .7 Example For G D6. if U i T W X j a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. U ). Since ö is a CG-homomorphism. ud of U. Thus by Corollary 11. .2. . 11. de®ne ö i : CG 3 U by rö i ui r (r P CG)X Then ö i P HomCG (CG. The next proposition investigates the space of CG-homomorphisms from the regular CG-module to any other CG-module. we saw in Example 10. Choose a basis u1 .More on the group algebra And by Proposition 11. 11. Ui )) The result follows.6. (rs)ö i ui (rs) (ui r)s (rö i )sX We shall prove that ö1 . . we have dim (HomCG (CG. with U3 U4 but U3 not isomorphic to U1 or U2. U) since for all r. . Suppose that ö P HomCG (CG. W )) dim (HomCG (W . U ). 0.5 to ®nd bases for these two vector spaces of CG-homomorphisms. CG)) 2X You are asked in Exercise 11. ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. U )) dim U X Proof Let d dim U. U3 )) dim (HomCG (U3 . then dim (HomCG (CG. if U i W . it will give the main result of this chapter. .8 Proposition If U is a CG-module. . Then 1ö ë1 u1 X X X ë d u d for some ë i P C. When combined with Corollary 11. for all r P CG we have . .8(2) that CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 . For 1 < i < d.

ë d ö d . . then the number of CG-modules Ui with Ui U is equal to dim U. . Hence ö1 . . which tells us how often each irreducible CG-module occurs in the regular CGmodule.6. j 11. . . U )). . 11. Now assume that Therefore ö1 . this is equal to the number of Ui with Ui U. which therefore has dimension d.8(2) that if G D6 then CG U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . dim U dim (HomCG (CG. U ). . and . where U1. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Proof By Proposition 11. HomCG (CG.10 Example Recall again from Example 10. ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. j We now come to the main theorem of the chapter.9 Theorem Suppose that CG U1 È X X X È Ur . U2 are non-isomorphic 1-dimensional CG-modules. . ö d span ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d 0 (ë i P C)X Evaluating both sides at the identity 1. U ).100 Representations and characters of groups rö (1r)ö (1ö)r ë1 u1 r X X X ë d u d r r(ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d )X Hence ö ë1 ö1 . and by Corollary 11. If U is any irreducible CG-module. .8. . which forces ë i 0 for all i. we have 0 1(ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d ) ë1 u1 X X X ë d u d .

13 Example Let G be a group of order 8. dim U3 2X We conclude the chapter with a signi®cant consequence of Theorem 11.12. . U2 occurs once. This illustrates Theorem 11. . for each i. U4 are isomorphic irreducible 2-dimensional CG-modules. dk be the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. dim U2 1. For 1 < i < k. .9. Therefore dim CG dim U 1 X X X dim Ur k i1 k i1 d i (dim Vi ) d2X i j As dim CG |G|.9 concerning the dimensions of all irreducible CG-modules. 11. By Theorem 11. X X X . È Ur. V k are isomorphic. dim U1 1. .9: U1 occurs once. Then k (dim Vi )2 jGjX i1 Proof Let CG U1 È . (By Corollary 10. and no two of V1 .11 De®nition We say that the irreducible CG-modules V1 .7. By Theorem 11. . X X X . the number of CG-modules Uj with Uj Vi is equal to di . the result follows. and let d1. V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. k i1 d 2 8X i . . U3 occurs twice. for any ®nite group G there exists a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.More on the group algebra 101 U3. 11. write d i dim V i . V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules if every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to some V i .12 Theorem Let V1 . X X X . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.) 11.

then k (dim Vi )2 jGjX i1 Exercises for Chapter 11 1. (Hint: use Exercise 5. Summary of Chapter 11 1. ®nd the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. 1. 1 1. If G is a non-abelian group of order 6. what are the possible degrees of all the irreducible representations of G? Find the degrees of the irreducible representations of D12.5).4). We shall see later that dim Vi divides |G| for all i. Hence the possibilities for d1. Then the number of Ui with Ui U is equal to dim U. dk are 1. . dim (HomCG (CG. is quite a powerful tool in ®nding the dimensions of irreducible CG-modules. . X X X . 1. and so di 1 for some i. and the second when G D8 (see Exercise 10. 1. and this fact. 3. 1. dim (HomCG (V1 È X X X È V r .) 3.102 Representations and characters of groups Observe that the trivial CG-module is irreducible of dimension 1. Let CG U1 È . . Find a basis for HomCG (CG. W 1 È X X X È W s )) r s i1 j1 and dim (HomCG (Vi . Let G be a ®nite group.12. 1. .3. . and let U be any irreducible CG-module. 1. È Ur. 1. . 1. CG). If V1 . If G is a group of order 12. U )) dim U . W j ))X 2. 2X Both these possibilities do occur: the ®rst holds when G is an abelian group (see Proposition 9. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. combined with Theorem 11. 2. . 4. 1.

U) has dimension 1.8(2). Let V1 . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. as in Example 10. W be arbitrary CG-modules. Suppose that G Sn and V is the n-dimensional permutation module for G over C.More on the group algebra 103 4. W )) i1 d i ei . .10. X X X . as de®ned in 4. CG). Assume that for 1 < i < k. Vi ))X k Show that dim (HomCG (V . Vi )) and ei dim (HomCG (W . V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. Find a basis for HomCG (CG. If U is the trivial CGmodule. 5. Let G D6 and let CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4. d i dim (HomCG (V . U3 ) and a basis for HomCG (U3. show that HomCG (V. 6. and let V.

h P G such that z gÀ1 xg hÀ1 yhX 104 . G is a ®nite group. and pick z P x G y G. Our ®rst result shows that two distinct conjugacy classes have no elements in common. and is called the conjugacy class of x in G. At the end of the chapter we prove a result linking the conjugacy classes of a group to the structure of its group algebra.1 De®nition Let x. Conjugacy classes 12. Throughout the chapter. then either x G y G or x G y G is empty. symmetric and alternating groups. y P G. y P G.12 Conjugacy classes We take a break from representation theory to discuss some topics in group theory which will be relevant in our further study of representations. Proof Suppose that x G y G is not empty. we develop enough theory to determine the conjugacy classes of dihedral. 12. After de®ning conjugacy classes. We say that x is conjugate to y in G if y g À1 xg for some g P GX The set of all elements conjugate to x in G is x G f g À1 xg: g P Gg.2 Proposition If x. Then there exist g.

5 Examples (1) For every group G. .4 De®nition G G If G x1 . ab. x G . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. fa. 12. a2 . . and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. a2 g. G is the union of its conjugacy classes and so we deduce immediately 12.Conjugacy classes Hence x ghÀ1 yhgÀ1 kÀ1 yk. we have aG fa. . . . b. xl representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. So a P x G A a bÀ1 xb A a cÀ1 yc AaP y X G 105 for some b P G where c kb A a bÀ1 k À1 ykb Therefore x G # y G. The elements of G are 1. . so bG fb. aÀi ba i aÀ2i b for all integers i. x G are l l distinct. j Since every element x of G lies in the conjugacy class x G (as x 1À1 x1 with 1 P G). .3 Corollary Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. . Another way of seeing this Corollary 12. and bÀ1 ab a2 . Similarly y G # x G (using y kxkÀ1 ). where k hgÀ1 . fb. and so xG yG . then we call x1 . and that the conjugacy classes are the equivalence classes.3 is to observe that conjugacy is an equivalence relation. ab. . (2) Let G D6 ka. a2 b. 1 G {1} is a conjugacy class of G. . a2 bgX . 12. where the conjugacy classes x1 . a2 bgX Thus the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. ab. a. b: a3 b2 1. a2 gX Also. Since gÀ1 ag is a or a2 for every g P G.

The centralizer of x in G.1). CG (x) f g P G: xg gxgX (So also CG (x) { g P G: gÀ1 xg x}. Then y n gÀ1 x n g and therefore x n is conjugate to y n in G. m. then x n is conjugate to y n in G for every integer n. y P G. Let x have order m. Suppose that x is conjugate to y in G. . g P G.8 Theorem Let x P G.) It is easy to check that CG (x) is a subgroup of G (Exercise 12.6 Proposition Let x. Then the size of the conjugacy class x G is given by jx G j jG: CG (x)j jGjajCG (x)jX In particular. The next proposition is often useful when calculating conjugacy classes. we have gÀ1 abg ( g À1 ag)( g À1 bg)X Hence gÀ1 x n g ( gÀ1 xg) n . |x G | divides |G|. and for 0 . that is. b P G. so that y gÀ1 xg for some g P G. so y also has order m. 12. Then y m gÀ1 x m g 1. y r gÀ1 x r g T 1. Observe that x P CG (x) and indeed. Hence every conjugacy class of G consists of just one element.106 Representations and characters of groups (3) If G is abelian then gÀ1 xg x for all x. and x and y have the same order. written CG (x). Proof Observe that for a. j Conjugacy class sizes The next theorem determines the sizes of the conjugacy classes in G in terms of certain subgroups which we now de®ne. and so x G {x}. r . If x is conjugate to y in G. 12. kxl # CG (x) for all x P G. is the set of elements of G which commute with x.7 De®nition Let x P G. 12.

we have g À1 xg hÀ1 xh D hg À1 x xhg À1 D hg À1 P CG (x) D CG (x) g CG (x)hX 107 By dint of this. j Before summarizing our results on conjugacy classes. it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. b: an b2 1. Let G D2 n. . Then jx G j. Thus G ha. i Conjugacy classes of dihedral groups We illustrate the use of Theorem 12.15. the dihedral group of order 2n. . We have now proved all parts of the following result.8 by ®nding the conjugacy classes of all dihedral groups. we make the observation that (12X9) jx G j 1 D g À1 xg x D x P Z(G). . . Hence f is a bijection. 12. proving that |x G | |G:CG (x)|. where Z(G) is the centre of G. (1) n odd First consider ai (1 < i < n À 1). jG: CG (ai )j < jG: haij 2X . jGj j Z(G)j i xiP Z(G) a for all g P G where |x G | i |G:CG (xi )|. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX In ®nding the conjugacy classes of G.10 The Class Equation Let x1 . h P G. Since CG (ai ) contains kal. xl be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. we may de®ne an injective function f from x G to the set of right cosets of CG (x) in G by f : g À1 xg 3 CG (x) g ( g P G)X Clearly f is surjective. as de®ned in 9. and both | Z(G)| and |x G | divide |G|.Conjugacy classes Proof Observe ®rst that for g.

X X X . . aÀ m1 }. As bÀ1 am b aÀ m am . (ai ) G {ai . a j baÀ j a2 j b. . .11) The dihedral group D2 n (n odd) has precisely 1(n 3) con2 jugacy classes: {1}. . . That is. a nÀ1 bgX We have shown (12. {a mÀ1 . . no element ai or ai b (with 1 < i < n À 1) commutes with b. aÀi } # (ai ) G . ab. b}. . Using Theorem 12.8. As in case (1). . {a2 j1 b: 0 < j < m À 1}. (ab) G fa2 j1 b: 0 < j < m À 1gX Hence (12.12) The dihedral group D2 n (n even. CG (b) contains {1. the centralizer of am in G contains both a and b. and CG (ai ) hai. a j (ab)aÀ j a2 j1 bX It follows that bG fa2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1g. (2) n even Write n 2m. Therefore the conjugacy class of am in G is just fam g. .108 Representations and characters of groups Also bÀ1 ai b aÀi . aÀi } for 1 < i < m À 1. {b. Thus CG (b) f1. bG must consist of the remaining n elements of G. |bG | n. . aÀ1 }. {a( nÀ1)a2 . aÀ1 }. (ai ) G fai . {a m }. . n 2m) has precisely m 3 conjugacy classes: {1}. . Since all the elements ai have been accounted for. For every integer j. so {ai . aÀ( nÀ1)a2 }. ab. and hence CG (am ) G. As n is odd. . and so |(ai ) G | > 2.8. aÀi gX Next. bgX Therefore by Theorem 12. bG fb. {a. ai T aÀi . and as bÀ1 ai b aÀi . a nÀ1 b}. we have 2 > jG: CG (ai )j j(ai ) G j > 2X Hence equality holds here. {a2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1}. {a.

as required. . . For ir P A. y of the same cycle-shape.13 Proposition Let x be a k-cycle (i1 i2 . . y (a9 X X X a9 1 ) X X X (c9 X X X c9 s ). . ks ) the cycle-shape of x. . On the other hand. with k1 > k2 > . 1 k g À1 xg yX We have proved the following result. Our ®rst observation is simple but crucial. and let g P Sn . and note that x and gÀ1 xg have the same cycle-shape. . . 1 k 1 k (products of disjoint cycles). .14). for g P Sn we have (12. 12. . . Write x (a1 X X X ak 1 )(b1 X X X bk 2 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). for 1 < i < n and i P A. say x (a1 X X X a k 1 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). ik g). . ik ) in Sn . ck s 3 c9 s . . > ks . given any two permutations x. ik }. . there a1 3 a9 . .13. . Then gÀ1 xg is the k-cycle (i1 g i2 g . Proof Write A {i1 . . ir g( g À1 xg) i r xg i r1 g (or i1 g if r k)X Also. exists g P Sn sending j .14) g À1 xg g À1 (a1 X X X a k 1 ) gg À1 (b1 X X X b k 2 ) g X X X g À1 (c1 X X X ck s ) g (a1 g X X X a k 1 g)(b1 g X X X b k 2 g) X X X (c1 g X X X c k s g)X We call (k1 . ik g). . Now consider an arbitrary permutation x P Sn . ik ) g (i1 g i2 g .Conjugacy classes Conjugacy classes of S n 109 We shall later need to know the conjugacy classes of the symmetric group Sn . . . a product of disjoint cycles. and so by (12. . . a ig( gÀ1 xg) ixg igX Hence gÀ1 (i1 i2 . . By Proposition 12.

2) and there are six 4-cycles. 12. the conjugacy class sizes | gG | and the centralizer orders |CG ( g)| (obtained using Theorem 12. (1 2 3 4)X To calculate the sizes of the conjugacy classes. the conjugacy class x Sn of x in Sn consists of all permutations in Sn which have the same cycle-shape as x. and so on. (The notation n means the binomial coef®cient 2 r n3a(r3(n À r)3). ÀÁ which is 4 6. (1 3)(2 4).15 Theorem For x P Sn . The number of 2-cycles is equal to the number of pairs that can be chosen from {1. 3. (1 2 3). (1 3 2)} Cycle-shape (1) (2) (3) (2) The conjugacy class of (1 2)(3 4) in S4 consists of all the elements of cycle-shape (2.8) are as follows: Representative Class size g | gG | |CG ( g)| 1 1 24 (1 2) 6 4 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 3 8 (1 2 3 4) 6 4 We check our arithmetic by noting that jS4 j 1 6 8 3 6X . (1 2)(3 4). (1 4)(2 3)gX (3) There are precisely ®ve conjugacy classes of S4 . 2) and is f(1 2)(3 4). (1 2).4): 1. Thus for G S4 . with representatives (see De®nition 12. 2.) The number of 3-cycles is 4 3 2 (4 for the choice of ®xed point and 2 because there are two 3-cycles ®xing a given point). 3-cycles.16 Examples (1) The conjugacy classes of S3 are Class {1} {(1 2). there are three elements of cycle-shape (2. 4}. we simply count the number of 2-cycles.110 Representations and characters of groups 12. the conjugacy class representatives g. Similarly. (2 3)} {(1 2 3). (1 3).

Proof (1) Assume that x commutes with an odd permutation g. and so x Sn x An . For an easy example where equality does not hold. 12. here x A3 fxg. is of course contained in x S n . (1) If x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . x À1 }. the corresponding table for G S5 is Rep.Conjugacy classes (4) Similarly. we have seen in Theorem 12. so that y hÀ1 xh for some h P Sn .17 Proposition Let x P An with n . g 1 (1 2) | gG | 1 10 |CG ( g)| 120 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 20 15 6 8 (1 2 3 4) 30 4 111 (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 24 6 5 Conjugacy classes of A n Given an even permutation x P A n . The next result determines precisely when x An and x Sn are equal. and if h is odd then gh P An and y hÀ1 xh hÀ1 g À1 xgh ( gh)À1 x( gh). 1. (2) Assume that x does not commute with any odd permutation. If h is even then y P x An . Let y P x S n . with representatives x and (1 2)À1 x(1 2). however. then x Sn x An . consider x (1 2 3) P A3 . Then CSn (x) CAn (x)X .15 that the conjugacy class x S n consists of all permutations in S n which have the same cycle-shape as x. while x S3 {x. Thus x Sn # x An . so again y P x An . x A n might not be equal to x S n . (2) If x does not commute with any odd permutation in Sn then x Sn splits into two conjugacy classes in An of equal size. and what happens when equality fails. given by x A n f g À1 xg: g P An g. The conjugacy class x A n of x in A n .

jx An j jAn : CAn (x)j 1jSn : CAn (x)j 2 1jSn : CSn (x)j 1jx Sn jX 2 2 Next. an even permutation. but (1 2 3 4 5) commutes with no odd permutation. (1 2 3) S4 splits into two conjugacy classes in A4 of size 4. 2) and (3). The elements (1 2 3) and (2 3)(4 5) commute with the odd permutation (4 5). we observe that fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An since every odd permutation has the form (1 2)a for some a P An .17 implies that (1 2)(3 4) A4 (1 2)(3 4) S4 f(1 2)(3 4).13.18 Examples (1) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A4 .17. with representatives (1 2 3) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3)(1 2) (1 3 2). The non-identity even permutations in S5 are those of cycle-shapes (3).17. (Check this by using the argument in (1) above. j 12. The elements of A4 are the identity. 2) and (5).) Hence by Proposition 12. (1 2 3) or (1 3 2). so g is 1. (1 4)(2 3)gX However.8. Hence by Proposition 12. (2. as we wished to show. the . Since (1 2)(3 4) commutes with the odd permutation (1 2).112 Representations and characters of groups Hence by Theorem 12. Now x Sn fhÀ1 xh: h is eveng fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg x An ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An X Since |x An | 1|x Sn |. Proposition 12. the 3-cycle (1 2 3) commutes with no odd permutation: for if gÀ1 (1 2 3) g (1 2 3) then (1 2 3) (1 g 2 g 3 g) by Proposition 12. Thus the conjugacy classes of A4 are Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 12 (1 2)(3 4) 3 4 (1 2 3) 4 3 (1 3 2) 4 3 (as jAn j 1jSn j) 2 (2) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A5 . together with the permutations of cycle-shapes (2. (1 3)(2 4). the conjugacy classes x An and ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An must 2 be disjoint and of equal size.

j 12. g P G A g À1 hg P H. Then H v G if and only if H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. if H v G then for all h P H. and 1 P H. these conjugacy classes have sizes 1. As we saw in Example 12. g P G. (1 2)(3 4).17(2). so gÀ1 Hg # H. (1 2 3 4 5) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3 4 5)(1 2) (1 3 4 5 2). 3.19. Thus H v G. Since j Hj divides 24 by Lagrange's Theorem. hP H and so H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. (1 2 3). and so hG # H. we see that the class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows: Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 60 (1 2 3) 20 3 (1 2)(3 4) 15 4 (1 2 3 4 5) 12 5 (1 3 4 5 2) 12 5 Normal subgroups Normal subgroups are related to conjugacy classes by the following elementary result. Then by Proposition 12. 6. Conversely. we have gÀ1 hg P H. H is a union of conjugacy classes of S4 . 1 3.16(3). Let H v S4 . there are just four possibilities: j Hj 1. 12. 8.Conjugacy classes 113 conjugacy classes of A5 are represented by 1. 6.19 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. Using Proposition 12. 1 8 3 or 1 6 8 3 6X .20 Example We ®nd all the normal subgroups of S4 . then h P H. Proof If H is a union of conjugacy classes. Therefore H hG .

114 Representations and characters of groups In the ®rst case H {1}. . hÀ1 C i h r j1 r j1 yÀ1 gyj X j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj hX j . C l form a basis of Z(CG). . C l of CG are called class sums. . in the last case H S4 .21 De®nition Let C1 . . Let Ci consist of the r distinct conjugates yÀ1 gy1. . 12. (1 2)(3 4). Proof First we show that each C i belongs to Z(CG). so 1 r Ci For all h P G.22 Proposition The class sums C1 . . Recall from De®nition 9. In the case where j Hj 1 3. S4 . (1 4)(2 3)gX This is easily checked to be a subgroup of S4 . 12.12 that the centre of CG is Z(CG) fz P CG: zr rz for all r P CGgX We know that Z(CG) is a subspace of the vector space CG. We have now shown that S4 has exactly four normal subgroups: f1g. . we have H 1 S4 (1 2)(3 4) S4 f1. yÀ1 gyr of an element g. . . and in the third case H A4 . (1 2)(3 4). . we write it as V4 (V stands for `Viergruppe'. A4 and V4 f1. . Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G. (1 3)(2 4). . For 1 < i < l. . (1 4)(2 3)gX The centre of a group algebra In this ®nal section we link the conjugacy classes of the group G to the centre of the group algebra CG. de®ne Ci g P CGX gPCi The elements C1 . (1 3)(2 4). . There is a convenient basis for this subspace which can be described in terms of the conjugacy classes of G. meaning `four-group'). . .

12. the function g 3 ë g is constant on l conjugacy classes of G. since j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h hÀ1 yÀ1 gyk h D yÀ1 gyj yÀ1 gyk X j k j k Hence r j1 À1 hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h C i . . . This completes the proof. we have rh hr. . ab a3 bX Summary of Chapter 12 1. . the coef®cient ë g of g is equal to the coef®cient ë hÀ1 gh of hÀ1 gh. . That is. the elements hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h run through Ci . and so C i P Z(CG). a2 . ë g hÀ1 gh ë g gX gPG gPG So for every h P G. Let r À1 gPG ë g g P Z(CG). . a a3 . It follows that r i1 ë i C i where ë i is the j coef®cient ë gi for some gi P Ci . . For h P G. Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. . C l span Z(CG). and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint.Conjugacy classes 115 As j runs from 1 to r. That is. C l are linearly independent: for if l i1 ë i C i 0 (ë i P C). a basis for Z(CS3 ) is 1. For an element x of a group G. C i h hC i X Therefore each C i commutes with all h P G. . . then all ë i 0 as the classes C1 . . j and so h C i h C i . the centralizer CG (x) is the set of .3. b a2 b. so h rh r. hence with all hPG ë h h P CG. That is to say. Cl are pairwise disjoint by Corollary 12. It remains to show that C1 .23 Examples (1) From Example 12. 2.12). Next. a basis for Z(CD8 ) is 1.16(1). (1 2 3) (1 3 2)X (2) From (12. observe that C1 . (1 2) (1 3) (2 3). .

Verify that your solution satis®es Theorem 12. The conjugacy classes of Sn correspond to the cycle-shapes of permutations in Sn . (Hint: use the method of Example 12. n (a) Prove that j(1 2) G j 2 and ®nd CG ((1 2)). Suppose that G is a group of order pn .8. 3. n n (b) Show that j(1 2 3) G j 2 3 and j(1 2)(3 4) G j 3 4 . 3. (b) Suppose that n > 3 and that | Z(G)| p. and ®nd the sizes of the other conjugacy classes of S6 . 7. and let n be a positive integer. Let G Sn . If G is a group and x P G.116 Representations and characters of groups elements of G which commute with x.10 to show that Z(G) T {1}.) 4. 5. Exercises for Chapter 12 1. It is a subgroup of G. Find the conjugacy classes of the quaternion group Q8.) 6. If x P An then x Sn x An if and only if x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . Prove that the conjugacy classes gG and ( gz) G have the same size. . (There are 11 conjugacy classes in all. 2.20. (c) Now let n 6. Give a basis of the centre of the group algebra CQ8. Let p be a prime number. 4. Let G be a ®nite group and suppose that g P G and z P Z(G). (a) Use the Class Equation 12. Prove that G has a conjugacy class of size p. What are the cycle-shapes of those permutations x P A6 for which x A6 T x S6 ? 5. and the number of elements in the conjugacy class x G is equal to |G:CG (x)|. show that CG (x) is a subgroup of G which contains Z(G). Show that j(1 2 3)(4 5 6) G j 40 and j(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G j 15. Show that A5 is a simple group. The class sums in CG form a basis for the centre of CG.

C) is a representation of the ®nite group G. whereas the character records just one number for each matrix.1 De®nition If A (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix. Moreover. The trace of a matrix 13. basic problems. and they are the fundamental tools for performing calculations in representation theory. In this chapter we present some basic properties and examples. These facts are surprising. is given by tr A n i1 aii X That is.13 Characters Suppose that r: G 3 GL(n. written tr A. since from the de®nition of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. such as deciding whether or not a given representation is irreducible. and call this number ÷( g). Characters of representations have many remarkable properties. For example. 117 . The function ÷: G 3 C is called the character of the representation r. The theory of characters will occupy a considerable portion of the rest of the book. the trace of A is the sum of the diagonal entries of A. we shall show later that two representations have the same character if and only if they are equivalent. it appears that we must keep track of all the n2 entries in each matrix gr. then the trace of A. can be resolved by doing some easy arithmetic with the character of the representation. With each n 3 n matrix gr ( g P G) we associate the complex number given by adding all the diagonal entries of the matrix. C).

and tr (AB) tr (BA)X Moreover. aij bji n n j1 i1 bji aij tr (BA)X Notice that. unlike the determinant function. Characters 13. Therefore tr (A B) and tr (AB) For the last part. Then the character of V is the function ÷: G 3 C de®ned by ÷( g) tr [ g]B ( g P G)X The character of V does not depend on the basis B . tr (AB) need not equal (tr A)(tr B). then tr (T À1 AT ) tr AX Proof The ii-entry of A B is aii bii .118 Representations and characters of groups 13. and the ii-entry of AB is n j1 aij bji.2 Proposition Let A (aij ) and B (bij ) be n 3 n matrices. Then tr (A B) tr A tr B. if T is an invertible n 3 n matrix. tr (T À1 AT ) tr ((T À1 A)T ) tr (T (T À1 A)) tr AX (by the second part ) j n n i1 j1 n i1 (aii bii ) n i1 aii n i1 bii tr A tr B. since if B and B 9 are bases of V. that is. the trace function is not multiplicative.3 De®nition Suppose that V is a CG-module with a basis B . then [ g]B 9 T À1 [ g]B T .

That is. Then [x]B [ g À1 yg]B [ g]À1 [ y]B [ g]B X B Hence by Proposition 13. and ÷ is reducible if it is the character of a reducible CG-module. where ÷ is the character of V. C) to be the character ÷ of the corresponding CGmodule C n . there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P GX Consequently tr [ g]B 1 tr [ g]B 2 for all g P G. (2) If x and y are conjugate elements of the group G. tr [ g]B 9 tr [ g]B for all g P GX Naturally enough. (2) Assume that x and y are conjugate elements of G. and so by Proposition 13. Then by (7.Characters 119 for some invertible matrix T (see (2. we de®ne the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. so that x gÀ1 yg for some g P G. . Further. Therefore ÷(x) ÷( y). we write ÷( g) and not g÷. ÷ is an irreducible character of G if ÷ is the character of an irreducible CG-module.24)). j The result corresponding to Proposition 13. then ÷(x) ÷( y) for all characters ÷ of G. and let B be a basis of V.2. Proof (1) Suppose that V and W are isomorphic CG-modules. 13. Let V be a CG-module. namely ÷( g) tr ( gr) ( g P G)X 13.2.4 De®nition We say that ÷ is a character of G if ÷ is the character of some CGmodule.7). and so V and W have the same character.5(1) for representations is that equivalent representations have the same character. we have tr [x]B tr [ y]B .5 Proposition (1) Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. You will have noticed that we are writing characters as functions on the left.

and take V to be the 3-dimensional permutation module for G over C (see De®nition 4. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. we shall prove an astonishing converse of Proposition 13. where v i g v ig for 1 < i < 3 and all g P G. thus B is the basis v1 .1. Let ÷ be the character of this representation. v2 . g [ g]B ÷( g) 1 (1 2) (1 3) H 1 d0 0 0 0 1 0e 0 1 3 I H 0 d1 0 1 0 0 0e 0 1 1 I H 0 0 d0 1 1 0 1 I 1 0e 0 .120 Representations and characters of groups Later. then they are isomorphic. together with the character ÷ of V. 13. (We obtain ÷( g) by adding the two entries on the diagonal of gr.6 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. The matrices [ g]B ( g P G) are given by Exercise 4. b: a4 b2 1. v3 . and let r: G 3 GL(2.5(1): if two CG-modules have the same character. C) be the representation for which 1 0 0 1 .10). br ar 0 À1 À1 0 (see Example 3.) g gr ÷( g) 1 1 0 0 1 2 a 0 1 À1 0 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 À2 a3 0 À1 1 0 0 g gr ÷( g) b 1 0 0 À1 0 ab 0 À1 0 À1 0 a2 b À1 0 0 1 0 a3 b 0 1 0 1 0 (2) Let G S3 . The following table records g. Let B be the natural basis of V. gr and ÷( g) as g runs through G. We record these matrices.2(1)).

In Example 10. r3 given in Example 10. G has just three irreducible characters ÷1 . it is much quicker to write down the single complex number ÷( g) for the group element g than to record the matrix which corresponds to g.8(2). Moreover. U3. with values g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 .Characters g [ g]B ÷( g) H (2 3) I H (1 2 3) I H (1 3 2) I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 0 121 1 0 0 d0 0 1e 0 1 0 1 0 1 d0 0 1 0 0 0 1e 0 0 d1 0 (3) Let G C3 ha: a3 1 i. then the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 .8. ÷2 and ÷3 . This will become clear as the theory of characters develops. (4) Let G D6 ka. By Theorem 9. Nevertheless. the character encapsulates a great deal of information about the representation. the characters given take few distinct values. U2. and they are as follows: g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Notice that in all the above examples. we found a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules U1. Thus if ÷ i is the character of Ui for 1 < i < 3. ÷3 .8(2). . The values of these characters on the elements of G can be calculated from the corresponding representations r1 .5(2). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l (so G S3 ). b: a3 b2 1. ÷2 . r2 . This re¯ects the fact that by Proposition 13. every character is constant on conjugacy classes of G.

6(2) we gave a character of S3 of degree 3.8 Examples (1) In Example 13. In fact.7 De®nition If ÷ is the character of the CG-module V. The values of a character The next result gives information about the complex numbers ÷( g). they are. (3) The character of the trivial CG-module (see De®nition 4. Characters of degree 1 are called linear characters. these are the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms (see Exercise 13. in 13. Every linear character of G is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers. namely the trivial character. called the trivial character of G. (2) If V is any 1-dimensional CG-module.9 Proposition Let ÷ be the character of a CG-module V. Then for all v P V X .4). in particular. Finding all the irreducible characters is usually dif®cult.6(1) we gave a character of D8 of degree 2.8(1)) is a linear character.122 Representations and characters of groups 13. then the dimension of V is called the degree of ÷. where ÷ is a character of G and g P G. 1 and 2. and in 13. Observe that Theorem 9. Thus 1 G : g 3 1 for all g P GX Given any group G. irreducible characters. Suppose that g P G and g has order m. we therefore know at least one of the irreducible characters of G. then for each g P G there is a complex number ë g such that v g ë gv The character ÷ of V is given by ÷( g) ë g ( g P G) and ÷ has degree 1. 13. 13.6(4) we saw that the irreducible characters of D6 have degrees 1. We denote it by 1 G . of course. they are all linear characters.8 gives all the irreducible characters of ®nite abelian groups.

Therefore ÷( g À1 ) ù1 X X X ù n ÷( g)X (4) If g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) ÷( gÀ1 ) by Proposition 13. and so ÷(1) dim V. that is. Every complex mth root of unity ù 1 n satis®es ùÀ1 ù. ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g). a sum of mth roots of unity.11 there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. . ÷( g) is a sum of mth roots of unity.5(2).Characters (1) (2) (3) (4) ÷(1) dim V. (eiW )À1 eÀiW . When the element g of G has order 2. Then the matrix [1]B of the identity element 1 relative to B is equal to In . 123 Proof (1) Let n dim V. ùÀ1 . Also ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g) by (3). which is the complex conjugate of eiW . ÷( g) is a real number if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . ÷( g) is j real. Therefore ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù n . . the n 3 n identity matrix. (2) By Proposition 9. and let B be a basis of V. since for all real W. and so ÷( g) ÷( g). we can be much more speci®c about the possibilities for ÷( g): . Consequently ÷(1) tr [1]B tr I n n. (3) We have H f [ gÀ1 ]B d ùÀ1 1 0 FF 0 F ùÀ1 n I g e and so ÷( gÀ1 ) ùÀ1 .

C) be a representation of G. and since r À s r s À 2s r s mod 2.124 Representations and characters of groups 13. Suppose r of them are 1. ÷( g) P Z. and let g be an element of order 2 in G.10 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G. By Proposition 9.11. and let ÷ be the character of r. and ÷( g) në. we have ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 2. 13. j÷( g)j ÷(1) D gr ëI n (2) Ker r { g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)}.11 Theorem Let r: G 3 GL(n. (1) For g P G. and s are À1. j Our next result gives the ®rst inkling of the importance of characters. then ë is an mth root of unity. Then (13X12) j÷( g)j jù1 X X X ù n j ÷(1) nX for some ë P CX . Then each ù i is 1 or À1. and ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 2X Proof By Proposition 13.9. Conversely. we have ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù n . so that ÷( g) r À s. and ÷(1) r sX Certainly then. Proof (1) Let g P G. and suppose that g has order m. where n ÷(1) and each ù i is a square root of unity. there is a basis B of C n such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. If gr ëIn with ë P C. suppose that |÷( g)| ÷(1). showing that we can determine the kernel of a representation just from knowledge of its character. Then ÷( g) is an integer. so |÷( g)| n ÷(1).

Ker ÷ v G. j. we have gr ëIn for some ë P C.14 Examples (1) According to Example 13. with the following values: . j Motivated by Theorem 13. b: a3 b2 1. 13. ÷2 . we deduce from (13.11(2). ÷3 . . In particular. consider the picture in the Argand diagram. Thus H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e ù1 I n X F ù1 0 Hence for all bases B 9 of C n we have [ g]B 9 ù1 In . whence ë 1. and so g P Ker r. .12) that ù i ù j for all i. suppose that ÷( g) ÷(1). (To see this.13 De®nition If ÷ is a character of G. we have jz1 X X X zn j < jz1 j X X X jzn j. Then by (1). written Ker ÷. . . Part (2) follows. zn are all equal. This implies that ÷( g) ë÷(1). is de®ned by Ker ÷ f g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)gX By Theorem 13.6(4). 125 with equality if and only if the arguments of z1 . zn . Conversely. . and so ÷( g) n ÷(1). if r is a representation of G with character ÷. 13. . then the kernel of ÷. We call ÷ a faithful character if Ker ÷ {1}. we de®ne the kernel of a character as follows. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l are ÷1 .Characters Note now that for any complex numbers z1 . Therefore gr In . (2) If g P Ker r then gr In .) Since |ù i | 1 for all i. This completes the proof of (1).11(2). the irreducible characters of the group G D6 ka. . then Ker r Ker ÷. . and so gr ù1 In .

126 g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 Representations and characters of groups a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Then Ker ÷1 G. then (13X16) (AB) A B. Then ÷ is a character of G. de®ne ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ÷( g) ( g P G)X Thus the values of ÷ are the complex conjugates of the values of ÷. We next prove a result which is sometimes useful for constructing a new character from a given one. and let ÷ be the character of G given in Example 13. then a2 r ÀI. . In particular. C) is a representation with character ÷. then so is ÷. C). And since |÷(a2 )| |À2| ÷(1). Proof Suppose that ÷ is the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. Theorem 13. Ker ÷2 kal and Ker ÷3 {1}. For a character ÷ of G. (2) Let G D8 ka. ÷3 is a faithful irreducible character of D6. then we de®ne A to be the n 3 n matrix (a ij ).15 Proposition Let ÷ be a character of G. b: a4 b2 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. so ÷ is a faithful character.6(1): g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 Then Ker ÷ {1}. 13. If ÷ is irreducible. Thus ÷( g) tr ( gr) ( g P G)X If A (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix over C. Observe that if A (aij ) and B (bij ) are n 3 n matrices over C.11(1) implies that if r: G 3 GL(2.

It follows from (13. j ( g P G) 13. . the character of the representation r is ÷. .18 Proposition Let V be a CG-module.17 De®nition The regular character of G is the character of the regular CG-module. We write the regular character as ÷reg . First we need a preliminary result.16) that the function r: G 3 GL(n.19 Theorem Let V1 . . Ur.19. Proof This is immediate from (7. Since tr ( gr) tr ( gr) tr ( gr) ÷( g) ( g P G). Then the character of V is equal to the sum of the characters of the CG-modules U1.10). the ij-entry of AB. V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui. j The regular character 13. 13. In Theorem 13. Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible. . Then ÷reg d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k X . . and suppose that V U1 È X X X È Ur . X X X . and for i 1. . n which is equal to the complex conjugate of k1 aik bkj . we shall express the regular character in terms of the irreducible characters of G. It is clear that if r is reducible then r is reducible. .Characters since the ij-entry of A B is n k1 127 a ik b kj . k let ÷ i be the character of Vi and di ÷ i (1). . C) de®ned by gr ( gr) is a representation of G.11).

÷2 . gn be the elements of G.9. ÷reg (1) dim CG |G|. we have gi g gj for some j with j T i. . the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . It follows that ÷reg ( g) tr [ g]B 0X j 13. the ii-entry is zero for all i.6(4). ÷ 3 : g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 We calculate ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 : (÷1 ÷2 2÷3 )( g) 6 0 0 0 0 0 . Therefore the ith row of the matrix [ g]B has zeros in every place except column j. j The values of ÷reg on the elements of G are easily described. then ÷reg (1) jGj. where for each i there are di factors V i . By Proposition 13.21 Example We illustrate Theorem 13. . CG (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). By Example 13. . . Now let g P G with g T 1. and are given in the next result. . . 13.128 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Theorem 11. and let B be the basis g1 .18.20 for the group G D6 .20 Proposition If ÷reg is the regular character of G. in particular. gn of CG.9(1). Now the result follows from Proposition 13. Then for 1 < i < n. and ÷reg ( g) 0 if g T 1X Proof Let g1 .19 and Proposition 13. . .

. . (1 2). illustrating Proposition 13.19. The permutation module V for G over C has basis v1 . by Theorem 13. v n . . with representatives 1. . let fix ( g) fi: 1 < i < n and ig igX Then (13X22) ð( g) jfix( g)j ( g P G)X We call ð the permutation character of G. .Characters 129 This is the regular character of G. . Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn .16(3). and is 1 if ig i. . there is an easy construction using the permutation module which produces a character of degree n. Let B denote the basis v1 . n}.10). Therefore the character ð of the permutation module V is given by ð( g) (the number of i such that ig i)X For g P G. where for all g P G. (1 2 3 4)X The permutation character ð takes the values gi ð( gi ) 1 4 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 1 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . Permutation characters In the case where G is a subgroup of the symmetric group Sn . . so that G is a group of permutations of {1. and we now describe this. G has ®ve conjugacy classes. . 13. v n . and it takes the value |G| on 1. . Then by Example 12.20.23 Example Let G S4 . v i g v ig (1 < i < n) (see De®nition 4. (1 2 3). . . Then the iientry in the matrix [ g]B is 0 if ig T i. and the value 0 on all non-identity elements of G. (1 2)(3 4).

24 Proposition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . By Maschke's Theorem 8. Characters are constant on conjugacy classes. . . A character is obtained from a representation by taking the trace of each matrix. and let u v1 X X X v n . Then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. . so U is a CG-submodule of V. so |®x( g)| 1 í( g) for all g P G. the conjugacy classes of G are represented by 1. Then ð 1 G í. (1 2 3). 2.8(3)). v n be the basis of the permutation module V as above. . . Indeed.18(1). so the character of U is the trivial character 1 G (see Example 13. Proof Let v1 .1. a subgroup of S4 . U is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module. (1 3 2)X The values of the character í of G are gi í( gi ) 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 3 2) 0 Summary of Chapter 13 1. and therefore í( g) jfix( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X j ( g P G) 13. there is a CG-submodule W of V such that V U È WX Let í be the character of W. and U sp (u)X Observe that ug u for all g P G. By Example 12.25 Example Let G A4 . (1 2)(3 4).130 Representations and characters of groups 13.

and all g P G. ÷(zg) ë÷( g)X 6. Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. Assume that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. and ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g). 5. 5. Find also Ker r1 and Ker r2 . then the function í which is given by í( g) jfix( g)j À 1 is a character of G.11. Prove that there exists an mth root of unity ë P C such that for all g P G. If G is a subgroup of Sn . Prove that the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms are the linear characters. For all characters ÷ of G. 6. The character of a representation determines the kernel of the representation. . check that your answers are consistent with Theorem 13. br2 1 0 0 X À1 ( g P G) Find the characters of r1 and r2 . Let G D12 ka. 2. Find all the irreducible characters of C4 . 7. Let ÷ be the character of the 7-dimensional permutation module for S7 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Suppose that z P Z(G) and that z has order m. 131 4. r2 be the representations of G for which ù 0 0 1 ar1 . and let r1 . Prove that if ÷ is a faithful irreducible character of the group G. b: a6 b2 1. br1 (where ù e2ðia3 ) 0 ùÀ1 1 0 and ar2 À1 0 0 1 . the complex number ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity. then Z(G) { g P G: |÷( g)| ÷(1)}. The regular character ÷reg of G takes the value |G| on the identity and the value 0 on all other elements of G. Find ÷(x) for x (1 2) and for x (1 6)(2 3 5). Write the regular character of C4 as a linear combination of these.Characters 3. 4. 3. Exercises for Chapter 13 1.

(Compare Corollary 13. (c) Assume that ä( g) À1 for some g P G. Let r be a representation of the group G over C.10. Hint: use Exercise 7. 9. Show that either (1) ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 4. or (2) G has a normal subgroup of index 2. and let g be an element of order 2 in G. Prove that if x is a non-identity element of the group G. By considering the regular representation of G. (b) Prove that G/Ker ä is abelian. then ÷(x) T ÷(1) for some irreducible character ÷ of G. where k is an odd integer. (a) Show that ä: g 3 det ( gr) ( g P G) is a linear character of G. Show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2.) 10. show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2. 8. Let ÷ be a character of a group G.132 Representations and characters of groups 7. . Let g be a group of order 2k.

The proofs rely on an inner product involving the characters of a group. if we adopt the natural rules for adding functions and multiplying functions by complex numbers. The set of all functions from G to C forms a vector space over C.14 Inner products of characters We establish some signi®cant properties of characters in this chapter. we describe a method for decomposing a given CG-module as a direct sum of CG-submodules. Inner products The characters of a ®nite group G are certain functions from G to C. ö are functions from G to C. using characters. That is. then we de®ne W ö: G 3 C by (W ö)( g) W( g) ö( g) and we de®ne ëW: G 3 C by ëW( g) ë(W( g)) ( g P G)X ( g P G) (We write these functions on the left to agree with our notation for characters. Also.21) that if two CG-modules have the same character then they are isomorphic. and suppose that W: G 3 C and ö: G 3 C are given by 133 . and in particular we prove the striking result (Theorem 14. if W. and we describe this ®rst.) 14.1 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. and ë P C.

öl for all ë1 . (c) kW. This will be of basic importance in our study of characters. We now introduce an inner product on the vector space of all functions from G to C. (b) kë1 W1 ë2 W2 . and that conditions (a) and (b) give hö. there is associated a complex number kW. 0 if W T 0. öl which satis®es the following conditions: (14. öl hö. Then W ö and 3W are given by 1 W ö 3W 3 6 a 1i 3i a2 0 À3 We shall often think of functions from G to C as row vectors. ö in the vector space. The vector space of all functions from G to C can be equipped with an inner product in a way which we shall describe shortly. ö. öl ë2 kW2 . ö. ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . De®ne 1 hW. Notice that condition (a) implies that kW. W(a) i. W(a2 ) À1 and ö(1) ö(a) ö(a2 ) 1. öl ë1 kW1 . 14. Wl is always real.134 Representations and characters of groups 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 This means that W(1) 2. W2 . ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . öi W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG . Wl . W2 i for all ë1 . The de®nition of an inner product on a vector space over C runs as follows. as in this example. Wi for all W.3 De®nition Suppose that W and ö are functions from G to C. With every ordered pair of vectors W. ö. W2 . ë1 è1 ë2 W2 i ë1 hö. W1 i ë2 hö.2) (a) kW.

1 1 . øi l ÷( g i )ø( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j X Proof (1) We have ø( g) ø( gÀ1 ) for all g P G. 14. 3 hö. so k . øi hø. 1 i . with representatives g1 .4 Example As in Example 14. 14. 1 1 . and this is a real numberX jGj gPG (2) h÷. øi ÷( g)ø( g À1 )X jGj gPG . (À1)) 2. . . 1 (1) h÷. by Proposition 13.5 Proposition Assume that G has exactly l conjugacy classes. 1 À 1 . 1) 1(1 i).2) hold.1. ÷i ÷( g)ø( g À1 ). . Therefore 1 h÷. i (À1) . 3 3 hè.Inner products of characters 135 It is transparent that the conditions of (14. 1) 1X 3 Inner products of characters We can exploit the fact that characters are constant on conjugacy classes to simplify slightly the calculation of the inner product of two characters. gl . suppose that G C3 ka: a3 1l and that W and ö are given by 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 Then hè. öi 1(1 . l is an inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C. èi 1(2 . öi 1(2 . Let ÷ and ø be characters of G. . 2 i .9(3).

øi l 1 1 ÷( g)ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) jGj gPG jGj i1 G gP g i l j gGj i1 l i1 jGj i ÷( g i )ø( g i ) j 1 ÷( g i )ø( g i )X jCG ( g i )j 14. it follows that h÷. in fact. øi ÷( g À1 )ø( g) hø.8. an integer. øi is. Since characters are constant on conjugacy classes. ÷iX jGj gPG Since kø.6 Example The alternating group A4 has four conjugacy classes. ÷( g)ø( g) j g G j÷( g i )ø( g i )X i gP g G i Now G l i1 g G and j g G j jGjajCG ( g i )j. g 4 (1 3 2) (see Example 12. Hence h÷. g 3 (1 2 3). We shall see in Chapter 18 that there are characters ÷ and ø of A4 which take the following values on the representatives gi : gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø g1 12 1 4 g2 4 1 0 g3 3 ù ù2 g4 3 ù2 ù .18(1)).) (2) Recall that g G denotes the conjugacy class of G which contains i gi . g 2 (1 2)(3 4). øi is real. with representatives g 1 1. øi. i i by Corollary 12. we also have 1 h÷. (We shall prove later that h÷.3 and Theorem 12. ÷l h÷.136 Representations and characters of groups Since { gÀ1 : g P G} G.

we temporarily adopt the following Hypothesis: 14. . ù hø. 4 1 . for distinct irreducible characters ÷ and ø of G. øi 0. ù2 ù . we shall derive a formula for e1 in terms of the character of W 1 . . ù 0. we have h÷. where W1 and W2 are CG-submodules which have no common composition factor.7 Hypothesis Let CG W 1 È W 2 . ÷l 1. 12 4 3 3 4 . There are several ways of choosing CG-submodules W1 and W2 of CG such that CG W1 È W2 and W1 and W2 have no common composition factor (see De®nition 10. .12) that the irreducible characters of G form an orthonormal set of vectors in the vector space of functions from G to C. therefore. 0 ù . we have 1 . we may take W1 to be the sum of those irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to a given irreducible CG-module. We are now going to pave the way to proving the key fact (Theorem 14. . Ur. Recall from Chapter 10 that the regular CG-module is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. and then let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-modules U i .4). øi 2X 12 4 3 3 h÷. For example. and that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CGmodules U1. say CG U 1 È X X X È U r . Using part (2) of Proposition 14. ù2 ù2 . ÷i 1 and h÷.Inner products of characters (where ù e2ðia3 ). Among other results. 4 0 . We ®rst look at the effect of applying the elements e1 and e2 of CG to W1 and W 2 . .5. Write 1 e1 e2 where e1 P W1 and e2 P W2. that is. øi 137 We advise you to check also that k÷. and to ®nd the inner products of ÷ and ø with the trivial character (which takes the value 1 on all elements of A4 ). 0 ù 2 . We shall investigate some consequences of writing CG like this.

and this completes the proof. Proposition Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14. we evaluate e1 . w2 e 2 w2 X Proof If w1 P W1 then the function w2 3 w1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to W 1 . e2 e2 and e1 e2 e2 e1 0X 1 2 Proof In Proposition 14. j . Therefore w1 w2 0 for all w1 P W 1 . we have w1 e1 w1 . w2 P W 2 . we have e2 e1 . The function W: w 3 we1 x À1 (w P CG) is an endomorphism of CG. j 14. by Proposition 11.3. In particular. and w2 w2 1 w2 (e1 e2 ) w2 e2 .8.10. But W2 and W1 have no common composition factor.9 Corollary For the elements e1 and e2 of CG which appear in Hypothesis 14.138 Representations and characters of groups 14. Similarly w2 w1 0. 14. w1 e2 0. Next. so every CG-homomorphism from W2 to W1 is zero. w1 e2 w2 e1 0.7. take w1 e1 and w2 e2 . Now w1 w1 1 w1 (e1 e2 ) w1 e1 .8 Proposition For all w1 P W1 and w2 P W2. We shall calculate the trace of W in two ways.7. Then 1 e1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Proof Let x P G. w2 e1 0.

8. ÷i ÷(1)X Proof Using the de®nition 6. Hence. the endomorphism w1 3 w1 x À1 of W1 has trace equal to ÷(x À1 ).3 of the multiplication in CG. and of course the endomorphism w2 3 0 of W2 has trace 0. the endomorphism w 3 wgx À1 (w P CG) of CG has trace 0 if g T x and has trace |G| if g x.Inner products of characters 139 First. ÷iX ÷( g À1 )÷( g) jGj2 gPG jGj . in view of Proposition 14. e1 P CG. Therefore tr W ÷(x À1 )X Secondly. we have tr W ë x jGjX Comparing our two expressions for tr W.11 Corollary Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14. so e1 gPG ëg g for some ë g P C. By Proposition 13. w1 W w1 e1 x À1 w1 x À1 . w2 W w2 e1 x À1 0X Thus W acts on W1 by w1 3 w1 x À1 and on W2 by w2 3 0. By the de®nition of the character ÷ of W 1 .20. for w1 P W1 and w2 P W2 we have. ë x ÷(x À1 )ajGjX Therefore e1 1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG j 14. as W: w 3 w gPG ë g gx À1 .10 that the coef®cient of 1 in e2 is 1 1 1 h÷. we deduce from Proposition 14.7. we see that for all x P G. Then h÷.

øi 0X Proof Recall from Theorem 11. Then CG Y È Z. and de®ne W to be the sum of the m irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U. We now apply Corollary 14. Hence k÷. 14. Next. l. Then CG W È X X Moreover. The character of W is m÷. let Y be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui of CG which are isomorphic to either U or V. this yields h÷. with characters ÷ and ø. Then h÷. W and X have no common composition factor. let X be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. ÷i 1. .12 Theorem Let U and V be non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.9 that e2 e1 .11 to the character of W. every composition factor of W is isomorphic to U. and h÷. ÷l ÷(1). respectively. and let Z be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. and the 1 coef®cient of 1 in e1 is ÷(1)/|G|. as required.9 that CG is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. and no composition factor of X is isomorphic to U. since W is the direct sum of m CG-submodules. each of which has character ÷. m÷i m÷(1)X As ÷(1) dim U m. j We can now prove the main theorem concerning the inner product k . and obtain hm÷. say CG U1 È X X X È Ur . Let m dim U. ÷i 1. we know from Corollary 14.140 Representations and characters of groups On the other hand. where the number of CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U is dim U. In particular.

12. ÷ j i ä ij for all i. Each of these is isomorphic to some V i . øi mn(h÷. m÷(1) nø(1) hm÷ nø. øi d i for 1 < i < k. The character of Y is m÷ nø.5(1). . where n dim V. this implies that the irreducible characters ÷1 . j Applications of Theorem 14. øi hø. by the part of the theorem which we have already proved.13).7. ÷ k are all distinct. we have .11). . Therefore h÷. there are d i factors Vi X Therefore the character ø of V is given by (14X15) ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k X Using (14. where for each i. ÷i hø. ÷l. and hence k÷. In particular. ø(1) n. X X X . ÷ i i h÷ i . øi d 2 X X X d 2 X 1 k Summarizing. and hø. . ÷i)X Now h÷. øl 0. we have (14X13) h÷ i . ä ij is 1 if i j and is 0 if i T j). V is equal to a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. If ÷ i is the character of Vi (1 < i < k). . where ä ij is the Kronecker delta function (that is. . ÷i n2 hø. and ÷(1) m. øi 1. so there are non-negative integers d1. . dk such that (14X14) V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). By Theorem 8. Now let V be a CG-module. and let V1 . then by Theorem 14. øl kø. . V k be a complete set of nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11. By Corollary 14. m÷ nøi m2 h÷. .Inner products of characters 141 and Y and Z have no common composition factor.12 Let G be a ®nite group. we obtain from this (14X16) hø. øi hø. j. ÷i 0X By Proposition 14.11. k÷.

. ÷2 l 0 and kø.17.1 0 1X 6 2 Similarly. and d2X i 14. we know that ø(1) 3. (1 2).18 Example Recall from Example 13. øi k i1 for 1 < i < k. Thus by Theorem 14.142 Representations and characters of groups 14.7. .6(2). then ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers d1. ÷ i i hø. By Example 13.6(4) that the irreducible characters of S3 D6 are ÷1 . ÷3 . d i hø.1 1. ÷3 l 1.17 Theorem Let ÷1 . Moreover. ÷1 i 3. If ø is any character of G. . kø. by Proposition 14. taking the following values on the conjugacy class representatives 1. ø(1 2 3) 0X Therefore. . .) A more substantial calculation along these lines is given in Example 15. ø(1 2) 1. . . . dk . ø ÷1 ÷3 X (This can of course be checked immediately by comparing the values of ø and ÷1 ÷3 on each conjugacy class representative. . ÷2 .5(2). (1 2 3): Now let ø be the character of the 3-dimensional permutation module gi |CS3 ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 for S3 . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. hø.

with characters ÷ and ø. and so V is irreducible. respectively. 1 hø.5 we proved the elementary fact that if V W then ÷ ø. Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if ÷ ø.17. Proof In Proposition 13. It is the converse which is the substantial part of this theorem. for it means that many questions about CG-modules can be answered using character theory.Inner products of characters 143 We shall see many more applications of the important Theorem 14. j We are now in a position to prove the remarkable result that `a CGmodule is determined by its character'.16). Conversely.20 Theorem Let V be a CG-module with character ø. 14.12. dk ÷ k is non-zero. It gives us a quick and effective method of determining whether or not a given CG-module is irreducible. and by (14.19 De®nition Suppose that ø is a character of G. øi d 2 X X X d 2 X 1 k It follows that one of the integers di is 1 and the rest are zero. 14.14). V Vi for some i. We have ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers di. Proof If V is irreducible then kø. .12. Then by (14. 14. .21 Theorem Suppose that V and W are CG-modules. . and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. The next result is another signi®cant consequence of Theorem 14. Thus. the constituents of ø are the irreducible characters ÷ i of G for which the integer di in the expression ø d1 ÷1 . It is this fact which motivates our study of characters in much of the rest of the book. øl 1. Then V is irreducible if and only if kø. ÷l T 0. assume that kø. øl 1 by Theorem 14. We say that ÷ is a constituent of ø if kø. øl 1.

. 4) are 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 2 2 2 2 a 2ù À1 À1 1ù a2 2ù2 À1 À1 1 ù2 Hence by Theorem 14. . r2 . . Vk be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules with characters ÷1 . X X X . 3. . and W (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i. ÷ i i (1 < i < k)X Since ÷ ø. d i hø. . The next theorem is another consequence of Theorem 14. ar1 . The characters ø i of the representations r i (i 1.14) that there are non-negative integers ci . ar2 0 ù 0 ùÀ1 2 3 2 3 0 1 1 ùÀ1 ar3 . Again let V1 . j 14. suppose that ÷ ø. r3 and r4 . and hence V W. but there are no other equivalences among r1 .22 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. 2. r3 . and let r1 .144 Representations and characters of groups Thus. ÷ k . it follows that ci di for all i. We know by (14. ÷ i i. ar4 À1 À1 0 ù (ù e2ðia3 ). di (1 < i < k) such that V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. By (14.16). r2 .21. r4 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 ù 0 ù 0 . ci h÷. the representations r2 and r3 are equivalent.12.

. for any i. 14. W )) h÷. Then ÷1 . øiX Proof We know from (14.14) that there are non-negative integers ci . ÷ k are linearly independent. di (1 < i < k) such that V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. using (14. . . Then dim (HomCG (V . ÷ i i ë i X Therefore ÷1 . using (11. W )) k i1 ci d i X . . By Proposition 11. .Inner products of characters 145 14. . and W (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i. .2.5)(3) we see that dim (HomCG (V .23 Theorem Let ÷1 . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. respectively. .24 Theorem Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. . j We now relate inner products of characters to the spaces of CGhomomorphisms which we constructed in Chapter 11. .13) we have 0 hë1 ÷1 X X X ë k ÷ k . Proof Assume that ë1 ÷1 X X X ë k ÷ k 0 (ë i P C)X Then for all i. j we have dim (HomCG (Vi . ÷ k are linearly independent vectors in the vector space of all functions from G to C. Vj )) ä ij X Hence. . .

Since W2 and V1 have no common composition factor. and 1 e1 e2 with e1 P W 1 .8. for all v1 P V1 and v2 P V2 we have v1 e1 v1 . j 14. and V is any CG-module. Let V be any CG-module. then 2 3 À1 V ÷( g ) g gPG . v 2 e2 v 2 X k i1 j ci d i X Proof If v1 P V1 then the function w2 3 v1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to V1. Decomposing CG-modules It is sometimes of practical importance to be able to decompose a given CG-module into a direct sum of CG-submodules. Once more we adopt Hypothesis 14. we deduce the stated results just as in the proof of Proposition 14. e2 P W 2 .146 Representations and characters of groups k i1 k i1 On the other hand. where the CG-modules W1 and W2 have no common composition factor. We can write V V1 È V2 . where every composition factor of V1 is a composition factor of W1 and every composition factor of V2 is a composition factor of W2. 14.25 Proposition With the above notation. ÷ ci ÷ i and ø di÷i and so (14.26 Proposition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. øi The result follows.7: CG W 1 È W 2 . v2 e1 0. and we now describe a process for doing this.13) implies that h÷. v1 e2 0.

. Then the character of W1 is m÷ where m ÷(1). . Clearly we may omit the constant multiplier m/|G|. we de®ne Vr fvr: v P V g).26. and by Proposition 14. Some more complicated uses of the method can be found in Chapter 32. Proof Write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . the element e1 of W1 is given by m e1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Let V1 be the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷. 14. The procedure is as follows: (14.28 Examples (1) Let G be any ®nite group and let V be any non-zero CG-module. Taking ÷ to be the trivial character of G in Proposition 14. and let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. We illustrate this method with a couple of simple examples. (2) For each irreducible character ÷ of G. v n of V.25 shows that Ve1 V1. we see that .27) (1) Choose a basis v1 .7.9. The character of V÷ is a multiple of ÷.Inner products of characters 147 is equal to the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷ (where for r P CG. so 2 3 À1 V1 V ÷( g ) g X gPG j Once the irreducible characters of our group G are known. . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. Also W1 and W2 satisfy Hypothesis 14. Let W1 be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui which have character ÷. and let V÷ be the subspace of V spanned by these vectors.10. . calculate the vectors v i ( gPG ÷( gÀ1 ) g) for 1 < i < n. (3) Then V is the direct sum of the CG-modules V÷ as ÷ runs over the irreducible characters of G.26 provides a useful practical tool for ®nding CG-submodules of a given CG-module V. by Theorem 11. Then Proposition 14. Proposition 14.

Here is a list of the irreducible characters ÷1 . . For example. v2 . v3 . .148 Representations and characters of groups 2 3 V g gPG is the sum of all the trivial CG-submodules of V. For 1 < i < 5. v n such that v i g v ig for all i and all g P G. (2) Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by a (1 2 3 4) and b (1 2)(3 4)X Then G D8 (compare Example 1. . . v2 À v4 )X . with basis v1 . . Ve3 0. Then 2 Ve1 sp (v1 v2 v3 v4 ).5). Ve2 0. ÷5 of D8 (see Example 16. e5 1(1 À a2 ).3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 Let V be the permutation module for G. Ve5 sp (v1 À v3 . Ve4 sp (v1 À v2 v3 À v4 ). . v4 such that v i g v ig for all i and all g P G. Then 2 3 V g sp (v1 X X X v n )X gPG Hence V has a unique trivial CG-submodule. let ÷ i (1) ei ÷ i ( g À1 ) gX 8 gPG For example. . with basis v1 . let G Sn and let V be the permutation module. .

. The irreducible characters ÷1 . i ei ej 0 for i T jX Compare these results with Corollary 14. øl 1. Summary of Chapter 14 1. . Note that the procedure described in (14. ö from G to C is given by 1 hW. If ÷1 . 149 and so we have expressed V as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules whose characters are ÷1 . then ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k where d i hø. You might like to check that e1 X X X e5 1. ÷ i iX Each di is a non-negative integer. ÷ j i ä ij for all i. . ÷4 and ÷5 . Every CG-module is determined by its character. . The inner product of two functions W.Inner products of characters We have V Ve1 È Ve4 È Ve5 . . j. .27) does not in general enable us to write a given CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules (since V÷ is not in general irreducible). respectively. that is. e2 ei for 1 < i < 5. 3. . . ÷ k of G form an orthonormal set. . Also. and ø is any character. 4. öi W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG 2. ø is irreducible if and only if kø.9. ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. h÷ i .

br2 . Which of ÷ and ø is irreducible? 2. 5. b2 a2 . gó T À1 ( gr)TX 4. ÷i ÷(1)X . Suppose that ÷ is a non-zero. Let G S4 . 3. r2 . and that for each g in G there is an invertible matrix Tg such that gó T À1 ( gr)Tg X g Prove that there is an invertible matrix T such that for all g in G. øi. i 0 1 0 2 3 2 3 À1 0 1 0 ar3 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. h÷. 0 Ài À1 0 2 3 2 3 0 i 0 À1 ar2 . show that h÷reg .150 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 14 1. and let r1 . If ÷ is a character of G. r3 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 ar1 . Prove that ÷ is reducible. but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. øi and hø. ÷i. Let G Q8 ka. and that ÷( g) is a non-negative real number for all g in G. br1 . b: a4 1. We shall see in Chapter 18 that G has characters ÷ and ø which take the following values on the conjugacy classes: Class representative |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø 1 24 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 Calculate h÷. non-trivial character of G. br3 X 0 1 0 À1 Show that r1 and r2 are equivalent. Suppose that r and ó are representations of G.

Let ÷1 . and suppose that ø d 1 ÷1 X X Xd k ÷ k is a character of G.4 relevant. Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and that for every g P G. . If ð is the permutation character of Sn . prove that hð. ÷( g) is an even integer. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of the group G.Inner products of characters 6. . . 3 or 4? 8. . øl 1. 2. What can you say about the integers di in the cases kø. Does it follow that ÷ 2ö for some character ö? .) 151 7. 1 S n i 1X (Hint: you may ®nd Exercise 11.

1 De®nition A class function on G is a function ø: G 3 C such that ø(x) ø( y) whenever x and y are conjugate elements of G (that is. G is as usual a ®nite group. the theorem provides machinery for investigating characters which is used in the remainder of the book. Class functions 15. The set C of all class functions on G is a subspace of the vector space of all functions from G to C. then (15X2) dim C lX 15.5(2). ø is constant on conjugacy classes). By Proposition 13. A basis of C is given by those functions which take the value 1 on precisely one conjugacy class and zero on all other classes. and to some consequences of this theorem. 152 . Together with the material from Chapter 14. if l is the number of conjugacy classes of G. the characters of G are class functions on G.3 Theorem The number of irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G.15 The number of irreducible characters We devote this chapter to the theorem which states that the number of irreducible characters of a ®nite group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. Throughout. Thus.

f iz ëi f i It follows that z 1z ( f 1 X X X f k )z f 1 z X X X f k z ë1 f 1 X X X ë k f k X This shows that Z(CG) is contained in the subspace of CG spanned by f 1 . Since CG contains the identity element 1. X X X .2) implies that k < l.7 that CG W 1 È X X X È W k . . In order to prove the reverse inequality l < k. we consider the regular CG-module. . By Proposition 9.4 Corollary The irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷1 . By (15. and let l be the number of conjugacy classes of G. Now let z P Z(CG). .2). then ø where ë i kø. . we can write 1 f1 X X X fk with f i P W i for 1 < i < k. ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. . . which is equal to k by k i1 ëi÷i . W i is isomorphic to a direct sum of copies of V i . Indeed. and in particular. so (15. if ø is a class function. f k . . ÷ k are linearly independent. . Since Z(CG) has dimension l by Proposition 12. By Theorem 14. we deduce that l < k. for each i there exists ë i P C such that for all v P Vi. j (1 < i < k)X 15. dim C l. . they span a subspace of C of dimension k. If V1 . ÷ i l for 1 < i < k. X X X .The number of irreducible characters 153 Proof Let ÷1 . . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. the centre of CG.22. V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.14. X X X .23. Proof Since ÷1 . . vz ë i vX Hence wz ë i w for all w P W i . This completes the proof that k l. where for each i. . we know from Theorem 8. ÷ k are linearly independent elements of C.

j 15. 15.7 Example We shall see in Section 18.3. . ÷6 given as follows: . The last part follows. Hence ÷1 . using (14. We conclude the chapter with an example illustrating some practical methods of expressing characters and class functions of a group as combinations of irreducible characters. g6 (where g1 1). . whose k entries are the values of ÷ on the k conjugacy classes of G. and six irreducible characters ÷1 . Proof If g is conjugate to h then ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. Then g is conjugate to h if and only if ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. Proof Since ÷( g) is real if and only if ÷( g) ÷( gÀ1 ) (see Proposition j 13. h P G.4. . Then by Corollary 15. ÷ k span C. Conversely. ø( g) ø(h) for all class functions ø on G. . . suppose that ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷. In particular. and so they form a basis of C. Then ø( g) ø(h) 1. As in previous examples. .5 Proposition Suppose that g. . . .154 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 15.9(3)). the result follows immediately from Proposition 15. .4 that there is a certain group G of order 12 which has exactly six conjugacy classes with representatives g1 .5. and so g is conjugate to h. we regard a character ÷ of G as a row vector. this is true for the class function ø which takes the value 1 on the conjugacy class of g and takes the value 0 elsewhere. 15. Then g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G.13). j Corollary 15.4 has the following useful consequence. . .6 Corollary Suppose that g P G. by Proposition 13.5(2).

In fact. ø ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 X For example. it is not hard to use tactical guesswork to express ö as a combination of the irreducible characters. we see that ÷ must be a combination of ÷2 . We suggest that you use the `guesswork method' to express the following characters ë. ÷4 and ÷6 . ì of G as combinations of ÷1 .The number of irreducible characters gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 g3 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g4 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 155 g6 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 Suppose we are given characters ÷ and ø of G as follows: g1 ÷ ø 3 4 g2 À3 0 g3 0 0 g4 0 4 g5 i 0 g6 Ài 0 Then it is easy to spot that ÷ ÷2 ÷6 . The correct answer now comes quickly to mind. they are the degrees of the ÷ i ). and the entries in the column corresponding to g1 1 are positive integers (indeed. the second entry in the row vector for ÷ is equal to minus the ®rst entry. . The reason for this is that the required coef®cients are known to be non-negative integers. given any character ö of G whose degree is not large compared with the degrees of the ÷ i . Inspecting the values of the irreducible characters ÷ i . . . . ÷6 : g1 ë ì 2 4 g2 À2 4 g3 À2 1 g4 2 1 g5 0 0 g6 0 0 .

÷5 l 2 and kö. (À1) 2. i 3. 4 11 . 1 (À1 2i) . like the following one? g1 ö 11 g2 3 g3 À3 g4 5 g5 À1 2i g6 À1 À 2i The answer is to use the inner product k . 1 (À1 2i) . ÷6 l 0. (Ài) hö. ÷ i i (1 < i < 6)X Using Proposition 14. The number of irreducible characters of a group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. ÷3 i 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) .4 that the coef®cients ë i in the expression ö ë1 ÷1 X X X ë6 ÷6 are given by ë i hö. Therefore ö ÷1 3÷2 2÷3 ÷4 2÷5 X Summary of Chapter 15 1.5(2). (À1) (À3) . 4 11 . (À1) hö. 1 5 . We know from Corollary 15. 1 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . 1 (À1 2i) . 1 3 . 1 3 . l. we calculate these inner products: 11 . 1 5 . 1 1. 1 À3 .156 Representations and characters of groups How do we cope with a class function or with a more dif®cult character. 1 À3 . 1 3 . 4 hö. ÷4 l 1. . (À1) 5 . ÷2 i 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . kö. ÷1 i and similarly kö.

÷2 . ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. . Let ø1 . . ø2 and ø3 as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ÷1 . If ø is a class function. . ÷3 : 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 Let ÷ be the class function on S3 with the following values: 1 ÷ 19 (1 2) À1 (1 2 3) À2 Express ÷ as a linear combination of ÷1 . ø2 and ø3 be the class functions on S3 taking the following values: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 0 0 (1 2) 0 1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 1 Express ø1 . ÷2 and ÷3 . The three irreducible characters of S3 are ÷1 . The irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷2 and ÷3 of S3 .The number of irreducible characters 157 2. ÷ i iX Exercises for Chapter 15 1. then ø k i1 ë i ÷ i where ë i hø. . Is ÷ a character of S3 ? 2. .

g6 and irreducible characters ÷1 . prove that G has 4. . Is ø a character of G? 4.158 Representations and characters of groups 3. . . Find groups G in which each of these possibilities is realized. ÷6 . . .) (b) Using the solution to Exercise 11. Let ø be the class function on G taking the following values: g1 ø 6 g2 0 g3 3 g4 À3 g5 À1 À i g6 À1 i Express ø as a linear combination of ÷1 . Let G be a group of order 12. . (Hint: show that Z(G) cannot have order 6. . . . Suppose that G is the group of order 12 in Example 15. .2. . . 6 or 12 conjugacy classes. . (a) Show that G cannot have exactly 9 conjugacy classes.7. with conjugacy class representatives g1 . ÷6 as in that example.

It is therefore convenient to record all the values of all the irreducible characters of G in a square matrix. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let g 1 . the numbering is arbitrary. Character tables 16. the identity element of G. The k 3 k matrix whose ij-entry is ÷ i ( g j ) (for all i. which tells us that every CG-module is determined by its character. The motivation for this is Theorem 14. the rows are indexed by the irreducible characters of G and the columns are indexed by the conjugacy classes (or.4). Beyond this. X X X . many of which are encapsulated in the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16. The entries in a character table are related to each other in subtle ways. This matrix is called the character table of G. It is usual to number the irreducible characters and conjugacy classes of G so that ÷1 1 G . 1 < j < k) is called the character table of G. and the number of them is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. by conjugacy class representatives). Much of the later material in the book will be devoted to understanding character tables.16 Character tables and orthogonality relations The irreducible characters of a ®nite group G are class functions.21. the trivial character.1 De®nition Let ÷1 . many problems in representation theory can be solved by considering characters. Note that in the character table. and g1 1. in practice. j with 1 < i < k. 159 . X X X . g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Thus.

The irreducible characters of G are given in Example 13. and then the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 (2) We can write down the character table of any ®nite abelian group using Theorem 9.23). b: a4 b2 1. b as representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.4. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.8.3 Examples (1) Let G D6 ka. The conjugacy classes . Proof This follows immediately from the fact that the irreducible characters of G. We take 1. are linearly independent (Theorem 14. the character table of C2 ha: a2 1i is 1 ÷1 ÷2 1 1 a 1 À1 and the character table of C3 ka: a3 1l is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù (ù e2ðia3 ) (3) Let G D8 ka. a. j 16. b: a3 b2 1. For example.6(4).2 Proposition The character table of G is an invertible matrix.160 Representations and characters of groups 16. and hence also the rows of the character table. You found all the irreducible representations of G in Exercise 10.

. These relations can be expressed in terms of the rows of the character table. .12). .4 Theorem Let ÷1 . . and representatives are 1. by writing them as k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) ä rs jCG ( g i )j i1 (see Proposition 14. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. b. k}. a. ab. . Then the following relations hold for any r. . . X X X . The orthogonality relations We have already seen many uses for the relations (14. Hence the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 The character tables of all dihedral groups will be found in Chapter 18. . g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G.Character tables and orthogonality relations 161 of G are given by (12. h÷ r . a2 . . 16. s P {1. .5(2)). . Similar relations exist between the columns of the character table. among the irreducible characters ÷1 . and let g 1 . .13). (1) The row orthogonality relations: k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs X (2) The column orthogonality relations: k i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs jCG ( g r )jX . and these are given by part (2) of our next result. ÷ s i ä rs . ÷ k of G.

. also there are jGjajC G ( g s )j elements of G which are conjugate to g s . ø s is a linear combination of ÷1 . ÷ i i 1 ø s ( g)÷ i ( g)X jGj gPG Now ø s ( g) 1 if g is conjugate to g s . by Theorem 12. For 1 < s < k. . and this time we record the order of the centralizer C G ( g i ) next to each conjugacy class representative gi : gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 a 3 1 1 À1 b 2 1 À1 0 . They are recorded here merely for comparison with the column relations. j and the column orthogonality relations follow.4. . We copy the character table of G from Example 16.8. so ë i hø s . ÷ j i ä ij . (1) Let G D6. and ø s ( g) 0 otherwise. 16.5 Examples We illustrate the column orthogonality relations. ÷ k .162 Representations and characters of groups Proof The row orthogonality relations have already been proved. . Hence ëi Therefore ä rs ø s ( g r ) k i1 1 ÷ i ( gs ) ø s ( g)÷ i ( g) X jGj gP g G jCG ( g s )j s ëi ÷i ( gr ) k ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) i1 jCG ( g s )j . let ø s be the class function which satis®es ø s ( g r ) ä rs k i1 (1 < r < k)X By Corollary 15.3(1). say øs ëi ÷i (ë i P C)X We know that h÷ i .

we read down columns r and s of the character table.Character tables and orthogonality relations Consider the sums 3 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) for various cases: i1 r 1. The entries in the ®rst column of the character table are the degrees of the irreducible characters. 0 0X 163 In each case. the order of the centralizer of g r ) if r s. taking the products of the numbers which appear. The column orthogonality relation 4 i1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives 1 . 1 (À1) . By the column orthogonality relations with r s 1. 1 1 .12). we obtain the complete character table as . (À1) 2 . Hence the last entry in the ®rst column is 3. 1 1 . Let x denote the number at the foot of the second column. 1 3x 0X Therefore x À1. so they are positive integers. (2) Suppose we are given the following part of the character table of a group G of order 12 which has exactly four conjugacy classes: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 12 1 1 1 g2 4 1 1 1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 g4 3 1 ù2 ù (where ù e2ðia3 ). 1 . 1 1 . 1 . the sum of the squares of these numbers is 12 (this also follows from Theorem 11. 1 1 . (À1) 0. The sum of the products is 0 if r T s. r 2. s 2: s 2: s 3: 1 . and is the number at the top of the column (that is. 1 2 . (À1) 3. r 1. By considering the orthogonality relations between the ®rst column and columns 3 and 4. 1 1 . We shall use the column orthogonality relations to determine the last row of the character table.

19 and Proposition 13. ù 0 . if g T 1.164 follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 Representations and characters of groups g1 12 1 1 1 3 g2 4 1 1 1 À1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 0 g4 3 1 ù2 ù 0 Notice that the orthogonality relations hold between all pairs of columns. ù2 0 . For example. . 0 3. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 1 . ù2 ù2 . since Theorem 13. (À1) 4.20 give V k ` jGj. 1 1 . where d i ÷ i (1). 1 ù . By taking the complex conjugate of each side of this equation. if g T 1. if g 1. 1 (À1) . if g 1. Those column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column of the character table were proved in Chapter 13. 1 ù . d i ÷ i ( g) X i1 0. we get V ` jGj. 1 1 . ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 3 ) 1 . ù ù2 . k ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) X i1 0. 0 0X We shall see later that the character table which we have constructed here is that of A4 . 4 i1 4 i1 4 i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 1 . although our calculation has used only those relations which involve the ®rst column.

Rows versus columns Notice that in Example 16.5(2). Since the properties M t M I and M M t I of a square matrix M are equivalent to each other. An alternative approach would have been to use the row orthogonality relations h÷ i . by the row orthogonality relations. On the other hand. The character table of G is a k 3 k matrix. Indeed. by letting the ij-entry of M be ÷ i ( gj ) X jCG ( g j )j1a2 Let M t denote the transpose of the complex conjugate of M. where we were given three of the four irreducible characters of G. the row and column orthogonality relations encapsulate the same information. Although the calculation with the column orthogonality relations was easier to perform. we calculated the values of the last character one at a time using the column orthogonality relations. We could have used the above argument to deduce the column orthogonality relations from the row ones. . the equation M M t I is just another way of expressing the row orthogonality relations. jCG ( g r )j1a2 jCG ( g s )j1a2 i1 by the column orthogonality relations. we see that the row and column orthogonality relations are equivalent. so M M t I. so M t M I. ÷4 i ä i4 to obtain four equations in the four unknown values ÷4 ( g j ) (1 < j < 4). the rs-entry in M t M is k 1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs .Character tables and orthogonality relations 165 and these are just the column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column. and we adjust the entries ÷ i ( g j ) in this matrix to obtain another k 3 k matrix M. Now the rs-entry in M M t is k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs . as we shall now show. More importantly. it is a fact that the column orthogonality relations contain precisely the same information as the row orthogonality relations.

. k i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs jCG ( g r )jX Exercises for Chapter 16 1. with representatives g1 .166 Representations and characters of groups so when we are working with character tables. ÷ k and conjugacy class representatives g1 . . g4 . . The row orthogonality relations state that for all r. s. Summary of Chapter 16 Let G be a ®nite group with irreducible characters ÷1 . we can deduce exactly the same results using either set of relations. Write down the character table of C2 3 C2 . . A certain group G of order 8 is known to have a total of ®ve conjugacy classes. . . 3. . ÷2 as follows: . . ÷4 taking the following values: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 8 1 1 1 1 g2 8 1 1 1 1 g3 4 1 1 À1 À1 g4 4 1 À1 1 À1 g5 4 1 À1 À1 1 Find the complete character table of G. . and has irreducible characters ÷1 . 2. . There exists a group G of order 10 which has precisely four conjugacy classes. s. . g5 . . The character table of G is the k 3 k matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( g j ). The column orthogonality relations state that for all r. . 1. with representatives g1 . . . . gk . . . and four linear characters ÷1 . 2. k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs X 3. . .

Show that @ A k Z(G) g P G: ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) jGj X i1 6. 5. (Hint: ®rst ®nd the values of the remaining irreducible characters on g1 . then on g4 ± use Corollary 13. . k i1 jCG ( g i )jX . and that jdet Cj2 Find Æ(det C) when G C3 .10. Show that det C is either real or purely imaginary. A certain group G has two columns of its character table as follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 g1 21 1 1 1 3 3 g2 7 1 1 1 æ æ where g1 1 and æ P C. Find the complete character table of G. (b) Find another column of the character table. Let ÷1 .) 4. Let G be a ®nite group with conjugacy class representatives g1 . (a) Find æ.Character tables and orthogonality relations gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 g1 10 1 2 g2 5 1 á g3 5 1 â g4 2 1 0 167 p p where á (À1 5)a2 and â (À1 À 5)a2. . g k and character table C. . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. . X X X .

In the opposite direction. and let ~ be a character of GaN . and N T {1}. The characters of GaN should therefore be easier to ®nd than the characters of G. ÷ ~ Proof Let r: GaN 3 GL (n. in turn. in a way which we shall describe. it is also true that the character table of G enables us to ®nd the normal subgroups of G. C) be a representation of GaN with 168 . and ÷ and ~ have the same degree. by a process which is known as lifting. it is easy to tell from the character table whether or not G is simple. (The derived subgroup is de®ned below in De®nition 17. we can use the characters of GaN to get some of the characters of G.1 Proposition Assume that N v G.17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters If N is a normal subgroup of the ®nite group G. then the factor group GaN is smaller than G. De®ne ÷ ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ( g P G)X ÷ Then ÷ is a character of G. the characters of degree 1) are obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaN in the case where N is the derived subgroup of G. normal subgroups help us to ®nd characters of G. The linear characters of G (i.7. 17. Lifted characters We begin by constructing a character of G from a character of GaN . can be used to get new irreducible characters from a given irreducible character. in particular.e.) The linear characters. In fact. Thus.

The character ÷ of r satis®es ÷( g) tr ( gr) tr ((Ng)~) ~(Ng) r ÷ for all g P G. and hence 2 2 ~ g1 r g2 r. C) is a representation of G with character ÷. Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. if k P N then ÷ ÷(k) ~(Nk) ~(N ) ÷(1).3 Theorem Assume that N v G. C) which is given by the ÷ composition g 3 Ng 3 (Ng)~ r ( g P G) is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. The function r: G 3 GL (n. r r ( g P G)X ( g P G) . Moreover. so ( g1 gÀ1 )r I. and ÷ is the lift of ~ to G. so ÷ and ~ have the same ÷ ÷ degree. C). Also. We may therefore de®ne a function r: GaN 3 GL (n. ÷ ÷ so N < Ker ÷. then the character ÷ of G ÷ which is given by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ÷ is called the lift of ~ to G. h P G we have ((Ng)(Nh))~ (Ngh)~ ( gh)r ( gr)(hr) r r ((Ng)~)((Nh)~). ÷ 17.2 De®nition If N v G and ~ is a character of GaN . ~ Proof If ÷ is a character of GaN . j 17. If g 1 . then ÷ ~(N) ÷(1). Thus r is a representation of G. By associating each character of GaN with its lift to G. we obtain a bijective correspondence between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters ÷ of G which satisfy N < Ker ÷. C) by (Ng)~ gr r Then for all g. Irreducible characters of GaN correspond to irreducible characters of G which have N in their kernel.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 169 character ~. g2 P G and Ng1 Ng2 then g1 gÀ1 P N. Now let ÷ be a character of G with N < Ker ÷. ÷(1) ~(N).

3(1) that the character table of GaN is N ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 2 N (1 2) 1 À1 0 N(1 2 3) 1 1 À1 . If ~ is the character of r then ÷ ~(Ng) ÷( g) ( g P G)X ÷ ~ Thus ÷ is the lift of ÷. then Theorem 17. so that N v G (see Example 12.20). We know from Example 16. let U be a subspace of C n . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . (1 2)(3 4). If we put a N(1 2 3) and b N(1 2) then GaN ha. To see this. and note that u( gr) P U for all u P U D u(Ng)~ P U for all u P U X r Thus. bi and a3 b2 N . U is a CG-submodule of C n if and only if U is a C(GaN )submodule of C n . (1 4)(2 3)g. 17. (1 3)(2 4). It remains to show that irreducible characters correspond to irreducible characters.4 Example Let G S4 and N V4 f1. Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ~ is irreducible.3 enables us to write down as many irreducible characters of G as there are irreducible characters of GaN . ÷ j If we know the character table of GaN for some normal subgroup N of G. We have now established that the function which sends each character of GaN to its lift to G is a bijection between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters of G which have N in their kernel. The representation r is therefore irreducible if and ~ only if the representation r is irreducible. so GaN D6 .170 Representations and characters of groups ~ ~ so r is a representation of GaN .

since ~1 . ~2 . then ÷( g) ÷(1) for all characters ÷. Hence the intersection of the kernels of all the irreducible characters of G is {1}. ÷3 are irreducible characters of G. since Ker ÷ f g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)g (see De®nition 13.5. we note that ÷ ÷((1 2)(3 4)) ~(N ) since (1 2)(3 4) P N . ~2 .Normal subgroups and lifted characters To calculate the lift ÷ of a character ~ of GaN . First we shall show how to ®nd all the normal subgroups of G. as our next two propositions will demonstrate. once the character table of G is known. Also Ker ÷ v G. so g 1 by Proposition 15. The following proposition shows that every normal subgroup arises in this way. ÷2 . ÷3 . which are given by ÷ ÷ ÷ 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 171 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 Then ÷1 .13). Finding normal subgroups The character table contains accessible information about the structure of a group. any subgroup which is the intersection of the kernels of irreducible characters is a normal subgroup too. ÷ ÷((1 2 3 4)) ~(N (1 3)) since N (1 2 3 4) N (1 3)X ÷ Hence the lifts of ~1 . ÷2 . .5 Proposition If N v G then there exist irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷ s of G such that N s i1 Ker ÷ i X Proof If g belongs to the kernel of each irreducible character of G. 17. ~3 are ÷1 . Of course. X X X . Recall that we can easily locate the kernel of an irreducible character ÷ from the character table. ~3 are ÷ ÷ ÷ irreducible characters of GaN .

and so G is not simple.11(2). ~ s be the irreducible characters of GaN . hence Ker ÷ T G. suppose that G is not simple. Proof Suppose there is a non-trivial irreducible character ÷ such that ÷( g) ÷(1) for some non-identity element g. and some nonidentity element g of G. and so g P N. we have ÷( g) ÷(1). . so that there is a normal subgroup N of G with N T {1} and N T G. We shall show how to ®nd all linear characters of any group G. ÷ ÷ and so Ng P Ker ~ i.6 Proposition The group G is not simple if and only if ÷( g) ÷(1) for some non-trivial irreducible character ÷ of G. ÷ is non-trivial.5. Ker r T G. If g P Ker ÷ i then ÷ ~ i (N ) ÷ i (1) ÷ i ( g) ~ i (Ng). j Linear characters Recall that a linear character of a group is a character of degree 1. By the ÷ ÷ above observation. Since ÷ is non-trivial and irreducible. Thus Ker ÷ is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to {1} of G. let ÷ i be the lift to G of ~ i . Hence N s i1 Ker ÷ i X j It is particularly easy to tell from the character table of G whether or not G is simple: 17. then Ker ÷ Ker r by Theorem 13. there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that Ker ÷ is not {1} or G.172 Representations and characters of groups Now let ~1 . If r is a representation of G with character ÷. . Therefore if g P Ker ÷ i then Ng P Ker ~ i ÷ ÷ {N}. Then g P Ker ÷. As Ker ÷ T G. so Ker ÷ T {1}. Then by Proposition 17. . since the . Conversely. . and taking 1 T g P Ker ÷. s i1 Ker ~ i fN gX ÷ For 1 < i < s.

9 Proposition If ÷ is a linear character of G. Therefore. We abbreviate gÀ1 hÀ1 gh as [ g. Clearly [ g. Then ÷ is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers. h]. h] is always an even permutation.7 De®nition For a group G. If g (1 2) and h (2 3) then [ g. As a preliminary step. Thus G9 h[ g. so G9 {1}. then G9 < Ker ÷. it is necessary to determine the derived subgroup of G. which is de®ned in the following way. we explore some group-theoretic properties of the derived subgroup. h]: g. j Next. We are going to show that G9 v G and that the linear characters of G are the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. for all g. One step is provided by the following proposition. Hence G9 h(1 2 3)i A3 . h P G. h P GiX 17. 17. 17. ÷( g À1 hÀ1 gh) ÷( g)À1 ÷(h)À1 ÷( g)÷(h) 1X Hence G9 < Ker ÷. Proof Let ÷ be a linear character of G. h P G. h P G)X Then G9 is called the derived subgroup of G.8 Examples (1) If G is abelian then [ g. let G9 be the subgroup of G which is generated by all elements of the form g À1 hÀ1 gh ( g. h] 1 for all g. . so G9 < A3 .Normal subgroups and lifted characters 173 ®rst move in constructing the character table of G is often to write down the linear characters. (2) Let G S3 . h] (1 2 3).

8 shows that GaG9 has exactly m irreducible characters ~1 . Proof Let m jGaG9j. Theorem 9. Therefore. Given the derived subgroup G9. and x À1 aÀ1 x (x À1 ax)À1 X Now G9 consists of products of elements of the form [ g. we deduce that GaG9 is abelian. all of degree 1. the number of distinct linear characters of G is equal to jGaG9j. h. x P G.3 they are precisely the irreducible characters ÷ of G . 17.11 Theorem The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. b.174 Representations and characters of groups 17. ~ m . . In particular. ÷ ÷ The lifts ÷1 . h P G. Since we have proved that G9 v G. h]x P G9 for all g. x À1 hx]X Therefore G9 v G. (2) G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. (2) Let g. j It follows from Proposition 17. (1) G9 v G. In particular. Proof (1) Note that for all a. we have x À1 (ab)x (x À1 ax)(x À1 bx). h]x x À1 g À1 hÀ1 ghx (x À1 gx)À1 (x À1 hx)À1 (x À1 gx)(x À1 hx) [x À1 gx. x P G. . . we can obtain the linear characters of G by applying the next theorem.10 that G9 is the smallest normal subgroup of G with abelian factor group. and by Theorem 17. But x À1 [ g. . .10 Proposition Assume that N v G. ÷ m of these characters to G also have degree 1. . We have ghgÀ1 hÀ1 P N D Ngh Nhg D (Ng)(Nh) (Nh)(Ng)X Hence G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. . Since GaG9 is abelian. . and so divides |G|. GaG9 is abelian. h] and their inverses. to prove that G9 v G it is suf®cient by the ®rst sentence to prove that x À1 [ g.

17. if g P An . where ÷ ÷ n ~1 (An (1 2)) 1. but they can also be used to construct new irreducible characters from old. In view of Proposition 17. Not only are the linear characters of G important in being irreducible characters. h] (1 2 3). 2).9. so we assume that n > 4. j 17. G9 contains all 3-cycles and all elements of cycle-shape (2. as the next result shows. all the elements in (1 2 3) G and (1 4)(2 3) G belong to G9. then [ g. .8(2).15.12 Example Let G S n . Therefore.10(2). the characters ÷1 .11. . if g P An X a À1. . we know that S9 An . S n has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . . which are given by ÷1 1 Sn . But every product of two transpositions is equal to the identity. [h. by Theorem 12. ÷ m are therefore all the linear characters of G. If n 1 or 2 then S n is abelian. the group n n S n aS9 has two linear characters ~1 and ~2.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 175 such that G9 < Ker ÷. . If g (1 2). ÷ ~2 (An (1 2)) À1X ÷ Therefore by Theorem 17. We proved that S9 A3 in Example 3 17. each of which is the product of an even number of transpositions. a 3-cycle or an element of cycle-shape (2. As S n aA n C2 . ÷2 . @ ÷2 ( g) 1. We have now proved that G9 A n . so G9 {1} A n . 2). h (2 3) and k (1 2)(3 4). we have G9 < A n by Proposition 17. and A n consists of permutations. Therefore A n < G9. From the last example. We shall show that G9 An . Since Sn aS9 fAn .13 Example We ®nd the linear characters of S n (n > 2). An (1 2)g C2 . k] (1 4)(2 3)X Since G9 v G.

Therefore 1 h÷ë. which is ë( g)÷( g). Characters of GaN correspond to characters ÷ of G for which N < Ker ÷. C) be a representation with character ÷. Summary of Chapter 17 1.20.176 Representations and characters of groups 17. The normal subgroups of G can be found from the character table of G. 3. ÷ëi ÷( g)ë( g)÷( g)ë( g) jGj gPG 1 ÷( g)÷( g) h÷. Now for all g P G. Moreover. . ÷iX jGj gPG By Theorem 14. and is given by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ( g P G). The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. Proof Let r: G 3 GL (n. Then the product ÷ë. Since r and ë are homomorphisms it follows easily that rë is a homomorphism. ÷ ÷ 2. The character of G which corresponds to the character ~ ÷ of GaN is the lift of ~. j The general case of a product of two characters will be discussed in Chapter 19. C) by g(rë) ë( g)( gr) ( g P G)X Thus g(rë) is the matrix gr multiplied by the complex number ë( g). de®ned by ÷ë( g) ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G) is a character of G. De®ne rë: G 3 GL (n. the complex number ë( g) is a root of unity. Hence rë is a representation of G with character ÷ë. it follows that ÷ë is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible. so ë( g)ë( g) 1. The matrix g(rë) has trace ë( g) tr ( gr). then so is ÷ë. if ÷ is irreducible.14 Proposition Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and ë is a linear character of G.

bl. .Normal subgroups and lifted characters Exercises for Chapter 17 177 1. The character table of D8 is as shown (see Example 16. Let a and b be the following permutations in S7 : a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). (b) Find the conjugacy classes of G. and construct all the linear characters of G. with representatives g1 . (c) Complete the character table of G. . Let G Q8 ka. What are the sizes of the conjugacy classes of G? 5. b2 a2 . b: a4 1. a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 . a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b. 4 or 12 linear characters. (a) Find the ®ve conjugacy classes of G. bÀ1 ab a2 X (a) Show that G has order 21. (b) Find G9. g6 (where g1 1). 3. . b (2 3 5)(4 7 6)X Let G ka. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a. a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab. 4. A certain group G of order 12 has precisely six conjugacy classes. Show that every group of order 12 has 3. Check that a7 b3 1.3(3)).14 to complete the character table of G. (c) Find the character table of G. and hence cannot be simple. 2. . and has irreducible characters ÷. Compare your table with the character table of D8 (Example 16. ö with values as follows: g1 ÷ ö 1 2 g2 Ài 0 g3 i 0 g4 1 À1 g5 À1 À1 g6 À1 2 Use Proposition 17.

8. b: a2 n b3 1. then there is a representation of T4 n over C which sends å 0 0 1 a3 . (a) Show that if å is any nth root of unity in C. Let n be an odd positive integer. ba aÀ1 bÀ1 . The group V8 n ha.b3 0 Àå À1 À1 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of V8 n .) (a) Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. You are given that the group T4 n ha.b3 å 0 0 ù2 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of U6 n. then there is a representation of V8 n over C which sends å 0 0 1 X a3 . (a) Let ù e2ðia3 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i has order 4n. (It is known as a dicyclic group. 7. b: a2 n 1. then there is a representation of U6n over C which sends 0 å ù 0 X a3 . aÀ1 ba bÀ1 i has order 6n. an b2 . . 6. the group U6 n ha. For n > 1. as in Proposition 17. bÀ1 a aÀ1 bi has order 8n.5.b3 X 0 å À1 ån 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of T4 n. b: a2 n b4 1.178 Representations and characters of groups Express each normal subgroup of D8 as an intersection of kernels of irreducible characters.

which deals with the product of a character with a linear character. to complete the character table of S4 .14. 24 4 8 4 179 . ÷4 and ÷4 ÷2 are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷2 ÷4 ÷4 ÷2 1 24 1 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 1 Note that h÷4 . We shall now use Proposition 17. Let ÷4 be the character ÷4 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P S4 ) which is given in Proposition 13. we produced three irreducible characters ÷1 .1 The group S4 In Example 17. ÷4 i 9 1 1 1 1.14. ÷2 . ÷3 of S4 by lifting characters of the factor group S4 aV4 . 18. The values of ÷2 . the product ÷4 ÷2 is also a character of S4 . including the groups S4 and A4 .24.4. and all dihedral groups. By Proposition 17.18 Some elementary character tables We now illustrate the techniques we have presented so far by constructing the character tables of several groups.

and we have produced ®ve irreducible characters. so that í( g) |®x ( g)| À 1 for all g P A4 . (1 2 3). Character table of S4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 18. Let ÷5 ÷4 ÷2 . there must be exactly three linear characters of G. Thus jGaG9j 3 by Theorem 17. (1 3 2) (see Example 12. It is not dif®cult to con®rm this by showing that . we have now found the complete character table of S4 . Then |G| 12. and G has four conjugacy classes. íi 9 1 1. The character ÷4 ÷2 is also irreducible. (1 2)(3 4). either by using the same calculation or by quoting the result of Proposition 17. Since S4 has ®ve conjugacy classes. Since G has four irreducible characters. The values of í are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| í 1 12 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 (1 3 2) 3 0 Note that hí. and the sum of the squares of their degrees is 12.180 Representations and characters of groups so ÷4 is irreducible.18(1)).14. as shown. with representatives 1.24. the alternating group of degree 4.11.2 The group A4 Let G A4 . Let í be the character of A4 given by Proposition 13. 12 4 so í is an irreducible character of G of degree 3.

For each integer j with 1 < j . and the character table of GaG9 is G9 ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 1 G9(1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 G9(1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù ~ ÷ ÷ (where ù e2ðia3 ). (1 3)(2 4). (1 4)(2 3)gX 181 Now GaG9 fG9. C) by (ar bs )r j (Aj ) r (Bj ) s (r. G9(1 2 3). so that G ha. Write å e2ðia n . na2. G9(1 3 2)g C3. BÀ1 Aj Bj AÀ1 X j j j j It follows that by de®ning r j : G 3 GL(2. ~3 to G. together with the character ÷4 í. s P Z). with n > 3. Bj X 1 0 0 åÀ j Check that A n B2 I. na2. (1 2)(3 4). b: an b2 1. .Some elementary character tables G9 V4 f1. we obtain a representation r j of G for each j with 1 < j . give the complete character table of A4 : Character table of A4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 18. de®ne j 0 1 å 0 Aj .3 The dihedral groups Let G be the dihedral group D2 n of order 2n. The lifts of ÷1 . ~2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX We shall derive the character table of G.

182 Representations and characters of groups Each r j is an irreducible representation. ø2 . Let ø j be the character of r j . Case 1: n odd By (12. na2 and 1 < j . As G has (n 3)/2 irreducible characters in all. and so r i and r j are not equivalent. The (n À 1)a2 irreducible characters ø1 .5(2) or by applying the result of Exercise 8. one for each j which satis®es 1 < j . (Incidentally. If i and j are distinct integers with 1 < i . Therefore there is no matrix T with ar i T À1 (ar j )T. na2. ø( nÀ1)a2 each have degree 2.4.11. either by the proof of Example 5. At this point it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. Since kal v G and Gahai C2. then å i T å j and å i T å À j . there are two more to be found. aÀ r g(1 < r < (n À 1)a2). ÷2 ( g) À1 if g ar b for some rX We have now found all the irreducible characters of D2 n (n odd). we have proved that D9 n kal for n odd. so ar i and ar j have different eigenvalues. in view of 2 Theorem 17. We have now constructed distinct irreducible characters ø j of G.11) the conjugacy classes of D2 n (n odd) are f1g. na2. X X X . far .) The character table of D2 n (n odd) is therefore as follows (where å e2ðia n ): gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 øj (1 < j < (n À 1)/2) 1 2n 1 1 2 ar (1 < r < (n À 1)/2) n 1 1 å À jr b 2 1 À1 0 å jr . These characters ÷1 and ÷2 are given by ÷1 1 G and & 1 if g ar for some r. fas b: 0 < s < n À 1gX Thus there are (n 3)a2 conjugacy classes. ÷2 of G by lifting the irreducible characters of Gahai to G. we obtain two linear characters ÷1 .

and we shall construct the character table of G. as supplied by (12. far . å e2ðia n ).12). of which m À 1 are given by ø1 . ÷4 (and G9 ka2 l). ø mÀ1 X To ®nd the remaining four irreducible characters. and their values appear in the following complete character table of D2 n (n even. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (1 < j < m À 1) 1 2n 1 1 1 1 2 am 2n 1 1 (À1) m (À1) m 2(À1) j a r (1 < r < m À 1) n 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r jr å å À jr b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 18. fam g. ha2 ib. ÷3 . ha2 iabg C2 3 C2 X Therefore G has four linear characters ÷1 . Since these linear characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of G/ka2 l.4 Another group of order 12 We shall now describe a non-abelian group G of order 12 which is not isomorphic to either A4 or D12. X X X . ÷2 . ø2 .Some elementary character tables 183 Case 2: n even If n is even. fas b: s oddgX Hence G has m 3 irreducible characters. aÀ r g(1 < r < m À 1). say n 2m. It is in fact known that every non-abelian group of order . they are easy to calculate. n 2m. fas b: s eveng. ha2 ia. then the conjugacy classes of D2 n. are f1g. we ®rst note that ha2 i fa j : j eveng is a normal subgroup of G and Gaha2 i fha2 i.

Let a and b be the following permutations in S12 : a (1 2 3 4 5 6)(7 8 9 10 11 12). aÀ1 } {a2 . a2 . a3 b2 . ha2 ib. and let G ka. and similar facts. a the group G has at least 12 elements. ha2 ia. and Gaha2 i fha2 i. a subgroup of S12 . ha2 iabgX Since ka2 la ka2 lb2 . b. ÷4 of G given below: . namely ar . a3 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X It follows from these relations that every element of G has the form ar bs with 0 < r < 5. Since a has order 6 and b P kal. bl. ar b (0 < r < 5)X Check that a and b satisfy a6 1. The relations further imply that CG (a) hai. aÀ2 } {b. ÷3 . a3 b. and so |G| 12. a4 } v G. a2 b. which are tabulated below: Conjugacy class {1} {a3 } {a. CG (b) f1. we obtain the linear characters ÷1 . CG (a3 ) G. help us to ®nd the conjugacy classes of G. b (1 7 4 10)(2 12 5 9)(3 11 6 8).184 Representations and characters of groups 12 is isomorphic to A4 . a5 b} Representative gi 1 a3 a a2 b ab |CG ( gi )| 12 12 6 6 4 4 Therefore G has six irreducible characters. a4 b} {ab. D12 or G. but we shall not prove this result here. By lifting the irreducible characters of C4 to G. we have Gaha2 i C4 . a3 bgX These. 0 < s < 1 as given above. Observe that ka2 l {1. ÷2 .

we have 4 á2 â2 12. we shall use the column orthogonality relations. so they are positive integers. the ®rst equation gives á1 â1 2. 1 1 4 á2 â2 12. so we can solve them for á r and â r . the column orthogonality relations 6 i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 1 ) 0 and 6 i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 now give us two equations involving 2á r 2â r and 2á r À 2â r . â1 are the degrees of ÷5 . 2á4 À 2â4 0. respectively. 2á5 À 2â5 0. so á2 and â2 are integers by Corollary 13. â r taken by the last two irreducible characters ÷5 . Since we have not yet distinguished between ÷5 and ÷6 . 4 2á3 À 2â3 0. 2. The other two equations then imply that á2 Àâ2 Æ2. ÷6 . ÷6 .Some elementary character tables gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 á1 â1 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 á2 â2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 á3 â3 a2 6 1 1 1 1 á4 â4 b 4 1 i À1 Ài á5 â5 185 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i á6 â6 It remains to ®nd the values á r . For this.10. Theorem 16. 4 2á4 2â4 0. 2á6 À 2â6 0X . also a3 is an element of order 2. 2 2 á1 á2 â1 â2 0X Since á1 . By the column orthogonality relations applied to columns 1 and 2. 2á5 2â5 0. â1 are positive integers.4(2). For r . Explicitly: r 3: r 4: r 5: r 6: 2á3 2â3 0. 2á6 2â6 0. we may take á2 2 and â2 À2. Observe that á1 .

á6 0. (In fact. as follows.) Summary of Chapter 18 In this chapter we gave the character tables of various groups. á4 À1.2: the group A4 . â5 0.1: the group S4 . Section 18. It is instructive to note that we produced the last two irreducible characters of G by simply using the orthogonality relations.186 Hence Representations and characters of groups á3 À1. 1. â6 0X The complete character table of G is therefore as follows: gi CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 We can deduce that G is not isomorphic to A4 or D12 from the fact that the character table of G is different from those of A4 and D12. 2. Section 18. Section 18. This is typical of more advanced calculations. .3: the dihedral groups. 3. and illustrates the fact that it is usually much easier to construct an irreducible character of a group than to obtain an irreducible representation. â3 1. á5 0. it is not hard to construct the representations of the above group G with characters ÷5 and ÷6 ± see Exercise 17. without constructing the corresponding CG-modules. â4 À1.6.

bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i.1(3). Regard D8 as a subgroup of S4 permuting the four corners of a square. Use the character table to ®nd seven distinct normal subgroups of D12. aÀ1 ba bÀ1 l. It is a good idea to do the cases n odd and n even separately. Let G T 4n ha.6. 2. Find the character table of G. b: a2n b4 1. as in Exercise 17. b: a2 n 1. as in Exercise 17.Some elementary character tables Exercises for Chapter 18 187 1.7. with n odd. (Hint: use Proposition 17. as in Exercise 17. b: a2n b3 1. (Hint: use the result of Exercise 17. Let ð be the corresponding permutation character of D8. an b2 . as in Example 1.) 4. ba aÀ1 bÀ1 . bÀ1 a aÀ1 bi. Find the character table of G. Let G U6 n ka. and show that all its entries are integers. and express ð as a sum of irreducible characters. . 5.8.6.5.) 3. Find the character table of G. Write down explicitly the character table of D12. Let G V8 n ha. Find the values of ð on the elements of D8.

then the degrees of ÷. we introduce a symbol v i wj. and it can be extended to include the product of any pair of characters ÷ and ø. j with 1 < i < m. called the tensor product of V and W. 1 < j < n. . . The value of the product ÷ø on an element g of G is simply ÷( g)ø( g). For each i. . respectively. . and more generally ÷ 3 . and to put them together to form a new CG-module. to ®nd all the irreducible characters of a direct product G 3 H. increase. The tensor product space V W is de®ned to be the mn-dimensional vector space over C with a basis given by 188 . . . products of characters provide a very good source of new characters from given ones. given those of G and H. At the end of the chapter. and so on. X X X . we have a chance of getting a large proportion of the character table of G from just one non-linear character ÷ of G. . We shall illustrate this by constructing the character tables of S5 and S6 . and by taking successive powers of ÷ we obtain arbitrarily many new characters. but a little ingenuity is required in order to justify the conclusion that the product ÷ø is a character of G. we apply tensor products in a different way. ÷ 4 . and indeed. It is therefore straightforward to calculate the product. If ÷ is not linear. which has character ÷ø. Tensor product spaces Let V and W be vector spaces over C with bases v1 . ÷ 2 . Potentially. so we consider the character ÷ 2 . v m and w1 . An important special case of the product ÷ø occurs when ÷ ø. wn .19 Tensor products The idea of multiplying a character of a group G by a linear character of G was introduced at the end of Chapter 17. then. The plan is to take CG-modules V and W with characters ÷ and ø respectively.

ì j P C). because this is not the case. j i. . . yb P W. i j i. .Tensor products fv i wj : 1 < i < m. 1 < j < ngX Thus V W consists of all expressions of the form ë ij (v i wj ) (ë ij P C)X m For v P V and w P W with v i1 ë i v i and (ë i . j 189 w n j1 ì j wj For example. ë(v w) ë i. it is impossible to express v1 w1 v2 w2 in the form v w. j (ëv) w 2 i 3 ëë i v i 2 j 3 ì jw j i. j m Proof (1) Let v i1 ë i v i and w n ì j w j.1 Proposition (1) If v P V. Then j1 2 3 2 3 v (ëw) ëi vi ëì j w j ëë i ì j (v i wj ). (2v1 À v2 ) (w1 w2 ) 2v1 w1 2v1 w2 À v2 w1 À v2 w2 X Do not be misled by the notation into believing that every element of V W has the form v w. then v (ëw) (ëv) w ë(v w)X (2) If x1 . j i. xa P V and y1. For instance. j ëë i ì j (v i wj ). . then 2 a 3 H b I xi d yj e xi yj X i1 j1 i. j ë i ì j (v i wj ) ëë i ì j (v i wj )X . . we de®ne v w P V W by vw ë i ì j (v i wj )X i. w P W and ë P C. . . 19. .

. w n. wj n l1 ì jl f l (ë ik . . respectively. .1. we have v i wj ë ik ì jl (ek f l )X k. then the elements in fei f j : 1 < i < m. X X X . 1 < j < n) give a basis of V W. The multiplication of v i wj by an element of . and we leave it as an exercise. v m and w1 . .2 Proposition If e1 . fn is a basis of W. 1 < j < ng give a basis of V W. ì jl P C)X Then by Proposition 19. . em is a basis of V and f1 . . Since elements ek fl are v i wj (1 < i < m. so we are now in a position to de®ne the tensor product of two CG-modules. . 1 < j < n) are a basis of the mn elements ek fl (1 < k < m. The proof of part (2) is equally straightforward. . . and hence span V W. Tensor product modules We have introduced the tensor product of two vector spaces. . 19. 1 < l < n) V W has dimension mn. l Now the elements V W . We know that the elements v i wj (1 < i < m. Let G be a ®nite group and let V and W be CG-modules with bases v1 . Proof Write vi m k1 ë ik ek . j Our construction of V W depended upon choosing a basis of V and a basis of W at the beginning. . it follows that the also a basis of V W.190 Representations and characters of groups Therefore v (ëw) (ëv) w ë(v w). the next proposition shows that other bases of V and W work equally well. .

19. we have (v w) g v g wgX Proof Let v ë i v i and w n ì j wj. given in De®nition 19.4 Proposition For all v P V. makes the vector space V W into a CGmodule.3. . 19.5 Proposition The rule for multiplying an element of V W by an element of G.Tensor products 191 G is de®ned in the following simple way. For all i. 19. j for arbitrary complex numbers ë ij . which is then extended linearly to a multiplication on the whole of V W. consider what happens when r is a scalar multiple of g.3 De®nition Let g P G. For example. de®ne (v i wj ) g v i g w j g and. w P W and all g P G. j ë i ì j (v i g wj g) 3 ëivi g 2 j j i 3 ì j wj g by Proposition 19X1 v g wgX You should be warned that (v w)r T vr wr for most elements r in CG. j i. j. let 2 3 ë ij (v i wj ) g ë ij (v i g wj g) i. j m 2 i. more generally. Then j1 2 3 (v w) g ë i ì j (v i wj ) g by Proposition 19X1 i1 i.

j Therefore all the conditions of Proposition 4. these vectors ei fj form a basis of V W. em of V and a basis f1 . By Proposition 9. . Then the character of the CG-module V W is the product character ÷ø. .6 are ful®lled. j We now calculate the character of V W. if ö is the character of V W then .11 we can choose a basis e1 . Then (v i wj ) g v i g wj g P V W . Hence. where ÷ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) for all g P GX Proof Let g P G.6 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. . . .2. Then ÷( g) ë i . 1 < j < n. j by Proposition 19X4 3 ë ij (v i wj ) g ë ij ((v i wj ) g)X i. (v i wj )( gh) v i ( gh) wj ( gh) (v i g)h (wj g)h (v i g wj g)h ((v i wj ) g)h. and V W is a CG-module. and g. (ei f j ) g ei g f j g ë i ì j (ei f j ). . and 2 i. ì j . (v i wj )1 v i wj . h P G. ø( g) ì jX Now for 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. 19. respectively.192 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let 1 < i < m. . . fn of W such that ei g ë i e i (1 < i < m) and f j g ì j f j m i1 n j1 (1 < j < n) for some complex numbers ë i . and by Proposition 19.

More generally. j i j 193 as required.10 below. . and calculate ÷3 ÷4 and ÷4 ÷4 . the product of ÷ with itself. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷4 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 6 9 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 We see that ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷5 .Tensor products 2 32 3 ö( g) ëi ì j ëi ì j ÷( g)ø( g).7 shows that if ÷ is a character of G then so is ÷ 2 . for every nonnegative integer n. the powers of ÷ carry a lot of information about the whole character table of G. 19. j 19. Ker {1}). We reproduce it here. as can be seen from Theorem 19.7 Corollary The product of two characters of G is again a character of G. i. where ÷ 2 ÷÷. An inductive proof using Corollary 19.7 shows that ÷ n is a character of G.8 Example The character table of S4 was given in Section 18. When ÷ is a faithful character (that is. we de®ne ÷ n by ÷ n ( g) (÷( g)) n 0 for all g P GX Thus ÷ 1 G . and ÷4 ÷4 ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 X Powers of characters Corollary 19.1.

. then the matrix rÀ1 I á2 X X X á1 1 rÀ1 á2 X X X á2 g g 2 g X XXX X e á2 r XXX á rÀ1 r ár 3 (x2 À x3 ) X X X (x2 À xr ) F F F 3 (x rÀ1 À xr )X rÀ1 rÀ2 Now the coef®cient of x1 x2 X X Xx rÀ1 in this product is 1: for in the rÀ1 way we have displayed the product. .10. á r are distinct H 1 á1 f1 á 2 f Af dX X 1 is invertible. . we shall need the following result concerning the so-called `Vandermonde matrix'. On the other hand. It follows that ÄÆ (xi À xj )X i. . Hence rÀ1 rÀ2 the coef®cient of x1 x2 . . so Ä 0. x2 from the second row. j . . x2 must come from all the factors in the rÀ1 rÀ2 second row. It follows that Ä is divisible by (xi À x j ) (x1 À x2 )(x1 À x3 ) X X X (x1 À xr ) i. and so on. . and consider H rÀ1 I 1 x1 x2 X X X x1 1 f 1 x x2 X X X x rÀ1 g 2 f g 2 2 Ä detf gX dX X X XXX X e 1 xr x2 r XXX x rÀ1 r If i T j and xi xj then two rows of the given matrix are equal. . Suppose that x1 . (19. . We ®rst sketch a proof of this result. the term x1 must come from all rÀ2 the factors in the ®rst row. and so on. we must take x1 from the rÀ2 ®rst row of the matrix. to obtain x1 x2 X X X x rÀ1 rÀ1 in the expansion of the determinant Ä.9) If á1 .194 Representations and characters of groups In the course of the proof of Theorem 19. xr are indeterminates. j complex numbers. x rÀ1 in Ä is Æ1. .

we know this already. øi T 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. 19. . de®ne Gi f g P G: ÷( g) á i gX Take á1 ÷(1). and refer to Example 19. as we wished to prove. øi. and suppose that ÷( g) takes precisely r different values as g varies over all the elements of G.11 Examples (1) If G T {1} and ÷ is the regular character of G.10 Theorem Let ÷ be a faithful character of G. so Theorem 19. hence bA T 0. and thus h÷ j . . . . j 19. Now let ø be an irreducible character of G. Then ÷( g) takes four different values. and for 1 < i < r. and deduce that the matrix A is invertible since its determinant is non-zero. . But the ( j 1)th entry in the row vector bA is equal to jGjh÷ j . so that G1 Ker ÷.9). øi T 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. For 1 < i < r. Let ÷ ÷4 . As ÷ is faithful. and b T 0 since â1 T 0. â r )X Now A is invertible by (19.20). ÷ rÀ1 . then ÷( g) takes just two different values (see Proposition 13.5.Tensor products 195 To obtain (19. by Theorem 10.8. øi r 1 1 (÷( g)) j ø( g) (á i ) j â i X jGj gPG jGj i1 Let A be the r 3 r matrix with ij-entry (á i ) jÀ1 . . (2) Let G S4 . we substitute á i for xi (1 < i < r). let âi ø( g). X X X . h÷ j . . Then for all j > 0.9). G1 {1}. á r . . Proof Let the r values taken by ÷ be á1 .10 says that every irreducible character of G is a constituent of 1 G or ÷. and let b be the row vector which is given by b (â1 . We have seen that ÷ 2 ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 . gPG i and note that â1 ø(1) T 0. Then every irreducible character of G is a constituent of one of the powers ÷ 0 . ÷ 1 . We must show that h÷ j .

Also. A(V V ) fx P V V : xT Àxg. they are eigenspaces of T). illustrating Theorem 19. in this case. The subspace S(V V) is called the symmetric part of V V. . and de®ne a linear transformation T: V V 3 V V by (v i v j )T v j v i for all i. it is of some importance to be able to decompose powers of a character ÷ into sums of irreducible characters.10. just ÷ 2 . v n be a basis of V.196 Representations and characters of groups h÷ 3 . ÷ 2 . it is easy to see that S(V V) and A(V V) are subspaces of V V (indeed. By Proposition 19. the square of ÷. ÷5 of G. .10. .12 Proposition The subspaces S(V V) and A(V V) are CG-submodules of V V. j Check that for all v. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. Now de®ne subsets of V V as follows: S(V V ) fx P V V : xT xg. w P V. 2 3 ë ij (v i v j ) T ë ij (v j v i )X i. Decomposing ÷ 2 In view of Theorem 19. Since T is linear. This special case is particularly useful in ®nding irreducible characters. ÷ 3 ) have between them as constituents all the irreducible characters ÷1 . j and extending linearly ± that is. . j i. We are going to provide a method for decomposing ÷ 2 . .6. . 19. . ÷2 i 1X and we ®nd that Thus ÷ 0 . ÷ 3 (indeed. as we shall see. Let v1 . and the subspace A(V V ) is known as the antisymmetric part of V V. the module V V has character ÷ 2 . ÷ 1 . we have (v w)T w vX Hence T is independent of the choice of basis. . V V S(V V ) È A(V V )X .

so xg P S(V V) and yg P A(V V). w P V. so x 0. . j Therefore T is a CG-homomorphism from V V to itself. for all x P V we have x 1(x xT ) 1(x À xT )X 2 2 Since T 2 is the identity. (2) The vectors v i v j À v j v i (1 < i . we have (xg)T (xT ) g xg. . If x P S(V V) A(V V) then x xT Àx.13 Proposition Let v1 . while the antisymmetric part of V V contains all vectors of the form v w À w v.Tensor products Proof For all ë ij P C and g P G. . (1) The vectors v i v j v j v i (1 < i < j < n) form a basis of S(V V ). Hence. We now present bases of the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of V V which consist of elements like these. 1 2(x xT ) P S(V V ) and 1 2(x À xT ) P j V V S(V V ) È A(V V )X Note that the symmetric part of V V contains all vectors which have the form v w w v with v. j 197 i. The dimension of A(V V ) is n(n À 1)a2. The dimension of S(V V ) is n(n 1)a2. Thus S(V V) and A(V V) are CG-submodules of V V. Therefore. . v n be a basis of V. j ë ij (v i g v j g)T 3 ë ij (v i v j ) gT X 2 i. 19. j i. A(V V ). for x P S(V V). Further. j < n) form a basis of A(V V). . and ( yg)T ( yT ) g À yg. y P A(V V) and g P G. 2 3 ë ij (v i v j ) Tg ë ij (v j g v i g) i.

Hence dim S(V V ) > n(n 1)a2.198 Representations and characters of groups Proof Clearly the vectors v i v j v j v i (1 < i < j < n) are linearly independent elements of S(V V ). Therefore i 2 ÷ 2 ( g) (÷( g))2 ëi 2 ë i ë j ÷( g 2 ) 2÷ A ( g)X 2 ë2 ei.14 Proposition For g P G. and the result follows. Then (ei ej À ej ei ) g ë i ë j (ei ej À ej ei ).12. ÷ 2 ÷ S ÷ A . en of V such that e i g ë i e i (1 < i < n) for some complex numbers ë i . 19. and hence from Proposition 19. j < n) are linearly independent elements of A(V V ).13(2).12. ÷ A ( g) ëi ë j X Now e i g so ÷( g) i ë i and ÷( g2 ) i ë2 . we have ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). By Proposition 19. i i. which implies that ÷ S ( g) ÷ 2 ( g) À ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 ))X 2 j . ÷2 ÷S ÷ AX The next result gives the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A . j i i. . and 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Proof By Proposition 9. . By Proposition 19. . . dim S(V V ) dim A(V V ) dim V V n2 X Hence the above inequalities are equalities. and ÷ A to be the character of the CG-module A(V V ). j dim A(V V ) > n(n À 1)a2X De®ne ÷ S to be the character of the CG-module S(V V ). and the vectors v i v j À v j v i (1 < i .11 we can choose a basis e1 . j Hence ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Also.

given by Proposition 19. and the values of ÷ S and ÷ A . then form ø S and ø A and repeat. 19.8. We have . G9 A5 and G has exactly two linear characters ÷1 .15 Example Let G S4 . gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷S ÷A 1 24 3 6 3 (1 2) 4 1 2 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 À1 2 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 0 1 We ®nd that ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 and ÷ A ÷5 . The techniques which we have developed so far give a useful method for ®nding new irreducible characters of a group.16 Example The character table of S5 Let G S5 . conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders |CG ( gi )| as follows: gi Class size |CG ( gi )| 1 1 120 (1 2) 10 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 15 30 20 24 6 8 4 6 5 Thus G has exactly seven irreducible characters. We illustrate this strategy with two examples. G has conjugacy class representatives gi . By Example 12. (a) Linear characters By Example 17. the symmetric group of degree 5. obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaG9. The character table of G is given in Example 19. The values of ÷.14. Let ÷ ÷4 . form ÷ S and ÷ A .Tensor products 199 19. The strategy is simple: (1) Given a character ÷. appear below. (2) If ø is a new character found in (1).16(4). ÷2 . and use inner products to analyse ÷ S and ÷ A for new irreducible characters. given one or two irreducible characters to start with.13.

. if g is an odd permutationX Proposition 13.200 Representations and characters of groups & ÷2 ( g) ÷1 1 G . and 1. ÷3 i ÷3 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X 42 22 12 (À1)2 (À1)2 1X 120 12 6 6 5 Hence ÷3 is irreducible. Write ÷ ÷3 . Next.24 gives us a character ÷3 (b) Permutation character of G with values Observe that h÷3 .14 the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷S ÷A 1 120 10 6 (1 2) 12 4 0 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 0 2 À2 0 0 1 0 0 1 Thus. À1. if g is an even permutation. At this point we have the following portion of the character table of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 120 1 1 4 4 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 À1 (c) Tensor products We now use tensor products to construct the last three irreducible characters of G.14 shows that ÷4 ÷3 ÷2 is also an irreducible character. by Theorem 14. Proposition 17. By Proposition 19.20.

where ø is an irreducible character of degree 5. which we call ÷5 . of order 720. so that ÷6 ÷ S À ÷1 À ÷3 . ÷1 i Therefore.Tensor products h÷ A . we then ®nd the last three irreducible characters by using the orthogonality relations. ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ø. ÷ S i 3. Character table of S5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 120 1 1 4 4 6 5 5 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 À2 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 19. Next. Using . ÷ A i 36 4 1 1. Finally. and 120 12 6 6 100 16 1 4 1 h÷ S . 120 12 6 8 6 h÷ S . it is convenient to label each conjugacy class by the cycle-shape of its elements. The character table of S5 is as shown. 120 12 6 8 6 40 8 1 1 h÷ S . we use techniques similar to those of the previous example to ®nd 8 of the 11 irreducible characters of the symmetric group S6 . We have now found all seven irreducible characters of S5 .17 Example The character table of S6 In this example. Let ÷6 ø. 10 4 1 2 1 1. ÷3 i À 1. Let G S6 . For ease of printing. 120 8 5 201 and so ÷ A is a new irreducible character. ÷7 ÷6 ÷2 is a different irreducible character of degree 5.

÷3 i 1.2) (6) 120 144 15 40 90 120 6 5 48 18 8 6 Since G has 11 conjugacy classes. ÷1 i 1. (b) Permutation character and tensor products is given by ÷3 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 The function ÷3 which ÷1 1 G . if g is odd ( g P G) is a character of G.202 Representations and characters of groups this notation.2) (3.3) (4.2. ÷3 i 1. by Proposition 13. it has 11 irreducible characters.2) (5) (2. ÷ A i 1. ÷ S and ÷ A are as follows: Class |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷3 ÷S ÷A (1) (2) 720 48 5 15 10 3 7 2 (3) 18 2 3 1 (2.13). and we get exactly two linear characters ÷1 and ÷2 .2) 16 1 3 À2 (4) 8 1 1 0 (3.2. Let ÷ ÷3 .24.2) 45 16 (4) 90 8 (3. the conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows (see Exercise 12. À1. (a) Linear characters As with all symmetric groups Sn (n > 2). the derived subgroup is An . where & ÷2 ( g) (see Example 17.2) (6) 48 18 8 6 À1 3 À2 À1 0 1 À1 1 0 À1 0 1 We calculate that h÷3 .2) 6 0 1 À1 (5) 5 0 0 0 (2. if g is even. The values of ÷. .2) (3.3): Cycle-shape Class size |CG ( gi )| (1) (2) 1 15 720 48 (3) 40 18 (2. h÷ S . h÷ S . h÷ S . 1. ÷ S i 3X h÷ A .3) (4.

of degree 9.2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 (2. we call the three irreducible characters of G which have yet to be found ÷9 .10). Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 (2. . It is therefore convenient ®rst to concentrate on elements of order 2.10 we know that ÷(s) and ÷(t) are integers for all characters ÷ of G. so is ÷4 ÷3 ÷2 . ÷10 and ÷11 . . respectively. Thus the conjugacy classes of s and t correspond to the second and fourth columns of the character table. ÷8 ÷7 ÷2 is also irreducible. The column orthogonality relations give 11 i1 ÷ i (s)2 48X . Finally. Let s denote the permutation (1 2) and t denote the permutation (1 2)(3 4). .2) (6) 48 18 8 6 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 (c) Orthogonality relations We now use the column orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. as is ÷6 ÷5 ÷2 . ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ÷7 .Tensor products 203 Therefore ÷3 is irreducible.2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 (3. The irreducible characters ÷1 . Further.3) (4. so that we can guarantee that the solutions to the equations which we deal with are integers. . ÷8 are recorded in the following portion of the character table of G.2) (3. Also.16) that all the entries in the character tables of all symmetric groups are integers. From Corollary 13. where ÷7 is another irreducible character. in the ordering which we have adopted. ÷5 ÷ A is irreducible. but for the moment we know for certain only that ÷( g) is an integer if g2 1 (see Corollary 13. Ingeniously.2. It will be shown later (Corollary 22.

. 0 and b . 11. ÷11 (s)2 0X Now ÷9 ÷2 is an irreducible character. ÷ i (t)÷ i (t) 16. and is not equal to any of ÷1 . b. f 0. Therefore. . d. ÷ i (1)÷ i (t) 0.2) d e f The column orthogonality relations give 11 i1 11 i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i (s) 0. 11 i1 11 i1 ÷ i (s)÷ i (t) 0. . 0 is d e 1. d 2 e 2 f 2 2. we see that ÷9 ÷2 is not ÷9 or ÷11 . ÷10 (s) À1X The plan is now to ®nd ÷ i (1) and ÷ i (t) for i 9. ÷9 ÷2 ÷10 X Once more. that ÷9 (s)2 ÷10 (s)2 1. That is. 10. . ad be cf 10X The only solution to these equations in integers with a . without loss of generality. we lose no generality in assuming that ÷9 (s) 1. we aim to evaluate the integers a. Moreover. f in the following portion of the character table: Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) a b c s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2. c. e. since ÷9 ÷2 (s) À÷9 (s). d À e 0. whence a À b 0. ÷8 . a b 5X .204 Hence Representations and characters of groups ÷9 (s)2 ÷10 (s)2 ÷11 (s)2 2X We can assume.

Tensor products Finally. v m .2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 1 1 0 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 0 (3. given the character tables of G and H. Character table of S6 Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 5 5 16 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 1 À1 0 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 À1 À1 À2 (2. we ®nd that the complete character table of S6 is as shown. since the column orthogonality relations will give three independent equations in these unknowns (as the above 3 3 3 matrix is invertible).3) (4. Having done these calculations. we ®nd that c 16 by using the relation 11 i1 205 ÷ i (1)2 720X The above portion of the character table is therefore Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) 5 5 16 s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2. .2) 1 1 0 We can now determine the three unknown entries in each further column. with basis v1 .2. . Let V be a CG-module. . .2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 (2.2) 48 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 À3 3 0 (3.2) (6) 18 8 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 2 2 À2 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 Direct products We conclude the chapter by showing that tensor products can be used to determine the character table of a direct product G 3 H. and let W be a .

Then a proof similar to that of Proposition 19. G and H indicate inner products of characters of G 3 H. . y) (x À1 gx. for ë ij P C. where (÷ 3 ø)( g. . and all g P G. 2 3 ë ij (v i wj ) ( g. Let ÷ be the character of V and ø be the character of W. respectively. G and H.) Thus the ab characters ÷ i 3 ø j are distinct and irreducible. h P H)X 19. j As in Proposition 19. note that for all g. y P H. the character of V W is ÷ 3 ø. w P W. . Then G 3 H has precisely ab distinct irreducible characters. Next.206 Representations and characters of groups C H-module. ÷ a be the distinct irreducible characters of G and let ø1 . j i. h P H. By the proof of Proposition 19. . and these are ÷ i 3 ø j (1 < i < a. . h) ë ij (v i g wj h)X i. l. k.4. we ®nd that (v w)( g.6. . y)À1 ( g. ø b be the distinct irreducible characters of H. . . h) ÷( g)ø(h) ( g P G. . with basis w1. . j with 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. h÷ i 3 ø j . ÷ k 3 ÷ l i G3 H 1 ÷ i ( g)ø j (h)÷ k ( g)ø l (h) jG 3 Hj gPG 2 3 32 1 1 ÷ i ( g)÷ k ( g) ø j (h)ø l (h) jGj gPG j Hj hP H hP H h÷ i .5 shows that V W is a C(G 3 H)-module. For all i. ÷ k i G hø j . wn. we have (x. 1 < j < b)X Proof For all i. h)(x.18 Theorem Let ÷1 . h) v g wh. . j. that is. . ø l i H ä ik ä jl X (Here the subscripts G 3 H. h) v i g wj h and extend this de®nition linearly to the whole of V W. x P G and h. for all v P V. de®ne (v i wj )( g. y À1 hy)X .

Consequently. ((1 2). 1) ((1 2 3). . À1). hb are representatives of the conjugacy classes of H. We reproduce it here. 1) (1. hj ) (1 < i < a. À1). then the elements ( g i .18. À1) 12 4 6 12 4 6 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 . 1) ((1 2). . ga are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G and h1 . G 3 H has precisely ab conjugacy classes.Tensor products 207 Hence elements ( g. 1). j 19. (1. h) and ( g9. À1) ((1 2 3). . so the irreducible characters ÷ i 3 ø j which we have found must be all the irreducible characters of G 3 H. G 3 H has exactly ab irreducible characters. . 1). hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ø1 ø1 ø1 ø2 ø2 ø2 (1. hj ) |CG3 H ( g i . In particular. . Character table of S3 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 Character table of C2 hi |CH (hi )| ø1 ø2 1 2 1 1 À1 2 1 À1 The conjugacy classes of S3 3 C2 are represented by (1. and by Theorem 19. À1) ((1 2). . À1).3. the character table of S3 3 C2 is as shown. alongside the character table of C2 . By Theorem 15. Character table of S3 3 C2 ( gi . ((1 2 3). if g1 . h9) of G 3 H are conjugate if and only if the elements g and g9 are conjugate in G and the elements h and h9 are conjugate in H. . . 1 < j < b) are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G 3 H. 1).3(1).19 Example The character table of S3 3 C2 The character table of S3 ( D6 ) is given in Example 16. ((1 2 3). ((1 2).

then so are ÷ S and ÷ A . 2. øöi hø. Suppose that ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of G. h÷ø.13 of the next chapter we shall show that there exist irreducible characters ÷ and ö of A5 which take the following values: . where ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ø is an irreducible character of H. Exercises for Chapter 19 1.2. Show that there is some irreducible character ø of G such that k÷ n . (This shows that the hypothesis that ÷ is faithful cannot be dropped from Theorem 19.208 Representations and characters of groups Compare the solution to Exercise 18. In Example 20. Prove that & 1. where ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). öi h÷. øl 0 for all integers n with n > 0. if ÷ T øX 3. Let ÷. ÷öiX 2. ø and ö be characters of the group G. Let ÷ be a character of G which is not faithful. 3. If ÷ is a character of G. 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 )) 2 for all g P G. 1 G i 0. h) ÷( g)ø(h) for all g P G. The values of ÷ 3 ø are given by (÷ 3 ø)( g. The irreducible characters of G 3 H are those characters ÷ 3 ø. Show that h÷ø.5 shows that D12 S3 3 C2 ). where we give the character table of D12 (Exercise 1. h P H. The product of any two characters of G is a character of G. if ÷ ø.10.) 4. Summary of Chapter 19 1.

. g2 . g2 . 5. g2 . Find ÷ S and ÷ A . . ®nd the character table of G. . . g2 . Express these characters as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ø1 . and show that both are irreducible. . ö S and ö A .Tensor products 1 ÷ ö 5 3 (1 2 3) À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) (1 0 p 5)a2 (1 3 4 5 2) (1 À 0 p 5)a2 209 Calculate the values of ÷ S . g4 .13. . g2 . respectively. . Moreover. ø5 of A5 which are given in Example 20. By forming products of the irreducible characters found so far. g5 . g1 . g4 . g5 . ÷ A . g2 . . G has a character ÷ with values as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ g1 24 2 g2 24 À2 g3 4 0 g4 6 Àù2 g5 6 Àù g6 6 ù g7 6 ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . g2 . g2 are con1 2 3 4 5 6 7 jugate to g1 . . A certain group G or order 24 has precisely seven conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . 6. Write down the character table of D6 3 D6. g7 . further.

b: a4 b2 1. h P G. We apply this result in the situation where H is of index 2 in G. then V is also a C H-module. This simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module is known as restricting from G to H. Here. and refer to it as the restriction of ÷ to H. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. for example. which occurs. We write this character of H as ÷ 5 H. The case where H is a normal subgroup of G is of particular interest.2 certainly hold for all g. If V is a CG-module then we write the corresponding C H-module as V 5 H. and illustrate its use. Restriction Let H be a subgroup of the ®nite group G. v1 b v1 . 20.8 gives important information in this case. when G S n and H A n . v2 a Àv1 . v2 b Àv2 X 210 . The character of V 5 H is obtained from the character ÷ of V by evaluating ÷ on the elements of H only. if f: G 3 C is any function. let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . v2 for which v1 a v2 . and call it the restriction of V to H. Then C H is a subset of CG.1 Example Let G D8 ka. If V is a CG-module.20 Restriction to a subgroup In this chapter and the next. As in Example 4. we introduce the elementary idea of restricting a CG-module to a subgroup H of G.5(1). then f 5 H denotes the restriction of f to H (so that ( f 5 H)(h) f (h) for all h P H). we are going to look at ways of relating the representations of a group to the representations of its subgroups. h P H if they hold for all g. since properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4. and Clifford's Theorem 20. More generally.

if V 5 H is an irreducible C H-module then V is an irreducible CG-module. b. 2. for if U is a CG-submodule of V. v2 b Àv2 X and the character ÷ 5 H of V 5 H is given by h ÷(h) 1 2 a2 À2 b 0 a2 b 0 If V is a CG-module and H is a subgroup of G. 20. a2 b} of G.1 illustrates this fact. 3.Restriction to a subgroup 211 If H is the subgroup {1. a2 .2 Example Let G S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G consisting of all even permutations of {1. By 18. then V 5 H is the C Hmodule with basis v1 . then U 5 H is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. On the other hand. it might be the case that V is an irreducible CG-module while V 5 H is not an irreducible C H-module. 4} ®xing 5. v2 a2 Àv2 . Example 20. then dim V dim (V 5 H). the character table of H is gi jC H ( g i )j ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 . However. v2 for which v1 a2 Àv1 . The character ÷ of V is given by g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 v1 b v1 .2.

with irreducible characters labelled ÷1 . l H is the inner product on the vector space of functions from H to C. Thus.3 De®nitions The inner product k . then 1 hW1 . . . These have values 1 ÷1 5 ÷3 5 ÷5 5 ÷6 5 H H H H 1 4 6 5 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 À2 1 (1 2 3) (1 3 2) 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 À1 It is easy to spot that ÷ 1 5 H ø1 . ÷7 . For each i with 1 < i < 7. l G is the inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C which we have de®ned earlier. . W2 i G W1 ( g)W2 ( g). and k .16. ÷5 5 H 2ø4 . From Example 19. we introduce the following notation. if W1 and W2 are functions from G to C.212 Representations and characters of groups (where ù e2ðia3 ). ÷ 6 5 H ø2 ø 3 ø 4 X Constituents of a restricted character To help us discuss the way in which a restricted character ÷ 5 H can be expressed in terms of the irreducible characters of H. ÷ 3 5 H ø1 ø 4 . jGj gPG . ÷5 5 H and ÷6 5 H. ÷3 5 H. The character table of G is given in Example 19. we calculate the character ÷ i 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters ø j . 20.16 we see that ÷1 5 H ÷2 5 H. ÷3 5 H ÷4 5 H and ÷6 5 H ÷7 5 HX Therefore we need only consider ÷1 5 H. de®ned similarly. .

i1 Now 0 T k jGj ø(1) h÷reg 5 H.20 that the regular character ÷reg of G satis®es & k jGj if g 1. ö2 i H ö1 (h)ö2 (h)X j Hj hP H 213 If ÷ is a character of G and ø1 . it may be very dif®cult in practice to write down the restrictions ÷ 5 H in terms of irreducible characters of H. then 1 hö1 . d r which are given by d i h÷ 5 H. ø r are the irreducible characters of the subgroup H of G. Suppose that we know the character table of G. ÷reg ( g) and ÷reg ÷ i (1)÷ i X 0 if g T 1. øi H T 0 for some i. ø i i H X We say that ø i is a constituent of ÷ 5 H if the coef®cient d i in the above expression is non-zero. . . 20. . Unfortunately.4 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G and let ø be a non-zero character of H. .19 and Proposition 13. . Recall from Theorem 13. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. The best . In the light of Proposition 20. ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r for some non-negative integers d 1 . øi H ÷ i (1)h÷ i 5 H. .4. we could hope to ®nd the character table of the subgroup H by restricting the irreducible characters ÷ of G to H.Restriction to a subgroup and if ö1 and ö2 are functions from H to C. øi H T 0X Proof Let ÷1 . The next proposition shows that every irreducible character of H is a constituent of the restriction of some irreducible character of G. then by Theorem 14. øi H X j Hj i1 j Therefore h÷ i 5 H. . X X X . Then there exists an irreducible character ÷ of G such that h÷ 5 H. .17.

214 Representations and characters of groups chance of doing this occurs when the index jG: Hj( jGjaj Hj) is small. ÷ 5 Hi H i 1 ÷(h)÷(h)X j Hj hP H Also. ø r be the irreducible characters of H.5 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. and K 0 if and only P if ÷( g) 0 for all g with g P H. . ÷i G 1 ÷( g)÷( g) jGj gPG 1 ÷(h)÷(h) K jGj hP H r j Hj 2 d K. j We can say more about the constituents of ÷ 5 H in the case where H is a normal subgroup of G.17. we will see that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. The conclusions of the proposition a follow at once. For example. 1 h÷. jGj i1 i where K (1ajGj) ga H ÷( g)÷( g)X Now K > 0. The way to exploit the fact that H v G us revealed in the following proposition. since the restrictions ÷ 5 H then do not have many constituents. Proof By Theorem 14. Then ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r . X X X . since ÷ is irreducible. and let ø1 . 20. we have r i1 d 2 h÷ 5 H.6) if and only if ÷( g) 0 for all elements g of G which lie outside H. d r satisfy (20X6) r i1 d 2 < jG: HjX i Moreover. as the following result shows. where the non-negative integers d 1 . let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. we have equality in (20. F F F .

(2) As a C H-module. then WgÀ1 is a C H-submodule of U. De®ne è : Ug1 g 3 Ug2 g by è : wg 3 (wö) g (w P Ug 1 )X Then è is clearly an isomorphism of vector spaces. Therefore. V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. Further. since U is irreducible. (3) Now let ö be a C H-isomorphism from Ug1 to Ug2 . Proof (1) Clearly. Suppose that h P H. so dim U dim Ug.7 Proposition Suppose that H v G. we have V UgX gPG Then by Proposition 7.Restriction to a subgroup 215 20. u 3 ug (u P U) is an invertible linear transformation from U to Ug. g P G and Ug1 and Ug2 are isomorphic C H-modules. Ug is an irreducible C H-module. if W is a C Hsubmodule of Ug. Moreover. Then (1) The set Ug is an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H and dim Ug dim U . then Ug1 g and Ug2 g are isomorphic C H-modules. so (ug)h u( ghg À1 ) g P Ug (u P U). Ug is a subspace of V.12. as claimed. Let V be an irreducible CG-module and U be an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H. and the proof of the proposition is complete. WgÀ1 {0} or U. For every g P G let Ug fug: u P U g. è is a C H-isomorphism. and (wgh)è (wh9 g)è (wh9ö) g (wö)h9 g (wö) gh (wgè)hX Therefore. g2 . V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. (2) The sum of all the subspaces Ug with g P G is a CG-submodule of V. and since H v G we have ghgÀ1 P H for all h P H. whence W {0} or Ug. Then gh h9 g for some h9 P H. j . since V is irreducible. (3) If g1 . Therefore. proving that Ug is a C H-submodule of V 5 H.

Then (1) all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. Let e h÷ 5 H. and (2) if ø1 . Then V contains a C H-module X1 whose character is eø1 . Hence V has the form V X1 È X X X È X m where each Xi is a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules. . then ÷ 5 H e(ø1 X X X ø m ) for some positive integer e.8 Clifford's Theorem Suppose that H v G and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Examples where this happens are G Sn . . and Xi T X j if i T j.7(2). V is a sum of C Hmodules of the form X1 g. . and which is therefore a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules. . each having character ø1 .14 in Chapter 22 to see an advanced use of the theorem. Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. say X 1 U1 È X X X È U e X By Proposition 20.216 Representations and characters of groups We now come the fundamental theorem on the restriction of a character to a normal subgroup. On the other hand. but you might like to look at Corollary 22. ø m are the constituents of ÷ 5 H. if g P G then X1 g is a direct sum of isomorphic C H-modules. Therefore. by Proposition 20. ø1 i.7. 20. Then it follows from Proposition 20. Normal subgroups of index 2 We are shortly going to give more precise information about the constituents of ÷ 5 H when H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2 (that is.7(3). . jG: Hj 2). ÷ 5 H e(ø1 X X X ø m )X j Our main applications of Clifford's Theorem will concern the case where jG: Hj 2. parts (1) and (2).

Proof If ø1 . H hai.13) below. 2 where i1 d i < 2. d r are non-negative integers. Also. or ÷ 5 H ø i ø j for some i. and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. We describe this relationship in (20. we may lift the non-trivial linear character of GaH to obtain a linear character ë of G which satis®es @ 1 if g P H.14). When H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. Since GaH C2 .16).10). ø r are the irreducible characters of H. . . if H is a subgroup of index 2 in G.10 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. it is often desirable to have more details about the two cases in Proposition 20. and we shall supply these next. Then either (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. ÷ and ÷ë are irreducible characters of the same degree (see Proposition 17. X X X . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. or G D2 n ha. and that ÷ is . ÷ 5 H ÷ë 5 H. 20. or (2) ÷ 5 H is the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree.5.8 j r ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r . and we then illustrate the results by ®nding the character table of A5 from that of S5 (which we have already obtained in Example 19. ø i and ø j have the same degree. by Clifford's Theorem 20.9 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. we deduce that either ÷ 5 H ø i for some i. ë( g) À1 if g P HX a Note that for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. In the latter case. b: a n b2 1. For practical purposes.9. then by Proposition 20. In fact.Restriction to a subgroup 217 H A n . Since d 1 . . j with i T j. the character tables of G and H are closely related. . since ë(h) 1 for all h P H. then H must be normal in G (see Exercise 1. 20.

(2) ÷( g) T 0 for some g P G with g P H. Thus (1) is equivalent to a (2). if g P HX a . In the next proposition we consider the ®rst possibility. observe that @ ÷( g) if g P H. ÷ 5 H is irreducible if and only if the inequality in (20. a so ÷( g) T 0 for some g with g P H if and only if ÷ë T ÷. since jG: Hj 2. To see that (2) is equivalent to (3). a j According to Proposition 20.218 Representations and characters of groups an irreducible character of G. ÷ë( g) À÷( g) if g P H. If ö is an irreducible character of G which satis®es ö 5 H ÷ 5 H. and this happens if and only if ÷( g) T 0 for some g P G with g P H.9. and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. then ÷ 5 H is the sum of one or two irreducible characters of H. 20. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. Proof We have (÷ ÷ë)( g) Hence @ 2÷( g) 0 if g P H.6) is strict. then either ö ÷ or ö ÷ë.11 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. a (3) the characters ÷ and ÷ë of G are not equal. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible. if H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2.5. Proof We use Proposition 20.

öi G 1 2÷( g)ö( g) jGj gP H 1 ÷( g)ö( g) j Hj gP H 219 h÷ 5 H. ö 5 Hl H 1. Finally. and that ÷ is the sum of two ö is an irreducias a constituent. ÷ 5 Hi H X 2 If ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 as a constituent. (20. Therefore k÷ ÷ë.12 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible characters of H. ÷i G ö( g)÷( g) ö( g)÷( g) jGj gPG jGj gP H 1hö 5 H. ÷( g) 0 for all g with g P H. ÷l G T 0.Restriction to a subgroup h÷ ÷ë. 20.10. and hence ö ÷.13) Let H be a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group G. öl G 1. a Therefore. j We summarize our results on subgroups of index 2. If ble character of G such that ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 then ö ÷. say ÷ 5 H ø1 ø2. .11). 20. (1) Each irreducible character ÷ of G which is nonzero somewhere outside H restricts to be an irreducible character of H. since ÷ 5 H is irreducible and ö 5 H ÷ 5 H. ÷ 5 Hi H T 0. then hö 5 H. and so either ö ÷ or j ö ÷ë. Such characters of G occur in pairs (÷ and ÷ë) which have the same restriction to H (Propositions 20. by explaining how to list the irreducible characters of H on the assumption that we know the character table of G. 1 1 hö. so kö. G. ö 5 Hi H X Now k÷ 5 H.10. we look at the case where ÷ 5 H is reducible. Proof In view of Proposition 20.

÷7 of S5 can be found in Example 19. extra work is needed to calculate the values taken by the two constituents of ÷ 5 H. ÷3 and ÷6 are non-zero somewhere outside H.13)(2). ÷4 5 H ÷3 5 H and ÷7 5 H ÷6 5 H. . The results we have obtained so far have been deduced from our summary (20. . 20. 20. . Note that ÷2 5 H ÷1 5 H. a so by (20.13)(3). .4).16. so by (20. ÷1 5 H. ÷5 ( g) 0 for all g P H. . They can also be veri®ed by calculating inner products. (3) Every irreducible character of H appears among those obtained by restricting irreducible characters of G.13). as in parts (1) and (2) (Proposition 20. The two characters of H which we get from ÷ in this way come from no other irreducible character of G (Propositions 20.10. and hence ø1 . and note that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group S5 . and the irreducible characters ÷1 . Fortunately. in practice case (1) occurs more frequently than case (2).13) of facts about characters of subgroups of index 2.9. ÷3 5 H and ÷6 5 H are irreducible characters of H. respectively. Also. Observe that ÷1 . ø2 and ø3 .18(2). ÷5 5 H ø4 ø5 where ø4 and ø5 are distinct irreducible characters of H of degree 3. Call them ø1 .220 Representations and characters of groups (2) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G which is zero everywhere outside H. . .12). ø5 are the distinct irreducible characters of H by (20. We have established that the character table of H is gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 á2 â2 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 á3 â3 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á4 â4 (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 á5 â5 . The conjugacy classes of H and their sizes are given in Example 12. then ÷ restricts to be the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. In case (2) of (20. 20.13)(1). .14 Example The character table of A5 Write H A5 .

. 2 2 4 2 á2 â2 . Hence by Proposition 13. á4 â4 á5 â5 1X Using Proposition 12. we obtain 3 3 á2 â2 . á3 â3 À2. The values of á i â i for 2 < i < 5 are given by noting that ø4 ø5 ÷5 5 H (or by using the column orthogonality relations for column 1 and column i). Since ø4 T ø5 . á5 and â5 are 1(1 Æ 5). We get á2 â2 0. By the orthogonality relation for column i with itself (2 < i < 5). Since we have not yet distinguished between ø4 and ø5 . we may take p p á4 1(1 5). á3 â3 À1.9(4).13. Character table of A5 gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 â á where á 1(1 2 p 5). we see that each element of A5 is conjugate to its inverse. and we ®nd that á4 and â4 are the solutions of the quadratic x 2 À x À 1 0. 3 3 5 2 á2 â2 2 á2 â2 X 4 4 5 5 Hence á2 â2 0.Restriction to a subgroup 221 We use the column orthogonality relations to calculate the unknowns á i and â i . we have 2 p p á5 1(1 À 5). â4 1(1 À 5)X 2 2 p Similarly. all the numbers in the character table are real. â 1(1 À 2 p 5). â5 1(1 5)X 2 2 Thus the character table of A5 is as shown.

The values of ÷ 5 H are given by (÷ 5 H)(h) ÷(h) for all h P H. and ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r. Use the restrictions of the irreducible characters of S6 . Summary of Chapter 20 Assume throughout that H is a subgroup of G. and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. ÷ 5 Hi H 1. If H v G and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. In particular.222 Representations and characters of groups Proposition 17. (1 3)l of G. to ®nd the character table of A6 . (The seven conjugacy classes of A6 can be found by consulting the solutions to Exercises 12. Let G be a group with an abelian subgroup H of index n. (b) For each irreducible character ÷ of G (given in Section 18. 2. X X X . Let G S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3 4). given in Example 19. 2 or 3X Give examples to show that each possibility can occur. If ÷ is a character of G. 4. Prove that h÷ 5 H. 1. then r i1 d 2 < jG : HjX i 3. Prove that ÷(1) < n for every irreducible character ÷ of G. 2.1).6 allows us to deduce from the character table that A5 is a simple group. Suppose that G is a group with a subgroup H of index 3.4. .) 3. express ÷ 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters of H. then all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. ÷ and ÷ 5 H have the same degree. (a) Show that H D8. Exercises for Chapter 20 1.17.3 and 12. Indeed. ø r are the irreducible characters of H. then ÷ 5 H is a character of H. The number of irreducible constituents of ÷ 5 H is bounded above by jG : Hj. if ø1 .

Restriction to a subgroup 223 5. 14. 14. 35. 14. 21. 1. It is known that the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of S7 is 1. 20. 21. 15. . 15. 6. 14. Find the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of A7 . 6. A7 has nine conjugacy classes. 35X Also.

and induction is the main concern of this chapter. Much more subtle than this is the process of induction. As H is smaller than G. it is usually the case that C H-modules are easier to understand and construct than CG-modules.21 Induced modules and characters Throughout this chapter we assume that H is a subgroup of the ®nite group G. (us)W rus (uW)s. we require some results which connect C H-homomorphisms with CG-homomorphisms. and let U be a C H-submodule of C H. Before describing the process of induction. so induction can often give us an important handle on the representations of a group if we know some representations of its subgroups. which constructs a CG-module from a given C H-module. then there exists r P CG such that uW ru for all u P U X 224 . 21. then W: u 3 ru (u P U ) de®nes a C H-homomorphism from U to CG. If r P CG.1 Proposition Assume that H < G. We saw in the last chapter that restriction gives a simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module. If W is a C H-homomorphism from U to CG. C H-homomorphisms and CG-homomorphisms Let U be a C H-submodule of the regular C H-module C H. We now prove the striking fact that every C Hhomomorphism from U to CG has this simple form. since for all s P C H. We shall see many applications of this method in later chapters.

j We give two corollaries of Proposition 21. Let r 1ö. j . Then the sum U V is a direct sum.2 Corollary Let U be a CG-submodule of CG.1. the ®rst of which is just the case H G of the proposition.11). Therefore by Corollary 21. For u P U. r(u v) uX Then ru u if u P U. and rv 0 if v P V. uW uö (1u)ö (1ö)u ru. w P W )X Then ö is easily seen to be a C H-homomorphism. v P V ) is a function. v P V. 21. De®ne ö: C H 3 CG by ö: u w 3 uW (u P U. v P V. moreover. assume that for some r P CG we have ru u and rv 0 for all u P U. Conversely. If x P U V then rx x and rx 0.Induced modules and characters 225 Proof By Maschke's Theorem 8. (2) there exists r P CG such that for all u P U. and so W is of the required form. ru u and rv 0X Proof Assume that U V {0}. v P V. it is a CG-homomorphism from U È V to CG (see Proposition 7. there is a C H-submodule W of C H such that C H U È W.3 Corollary Let U and V be CG-submodules of CG. so uv3 u (u P U . 21. Then every CG-homomorphism from U to CG has the form u 3 ru (u P U ) for some r P CG. Consequently U V {0}. Then the following two statements are equivalent: (1) U V {0}.1. and so x 0.2. there exists r P CG such that for all u P U.

W 1 sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 ). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. a cyclic subgroup of G of order 3. 21. X (CG) sp fxg: x P X . we write X(CG) for the subspace of CG which is spanned by all the elements xg with x P X. X(CG) is then a CG-submodule of CG. Then U 4 G is called the CG-module induced from U.8(2) that CG U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . where U1 sp (1 a a2 b ab a2 b). g P G. and let U 4 G denote the CG-module U(CG).226 Representations and characters of groups Induction from H to G For any subset X of CG. U3 sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . b ùab ù2 a2 b)X Recall from Example 10. g P GgX Clearly. b ùab ù2 a2 b)X Thus W 0 4 G U1 È U2 . b ab a2 b). W 1 4 G U3 .4 De®nition Assume that H is a subgroup of G. W 2 sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 )X These are C H-submodules of C H (see Example 10. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules U i . Remember that H is a subgroup of G. W 1 4 G sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . 21. b: a3 b2 1. W 0 4 G sp (1 a a2 .8(1)). so C H is a subset of CG. Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. U4 sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 . and de®ne W 0 sp (1 a a2 ). Clearly. Let ù e2ðia3 . b ù2 ab ùa2 b). W 2 4 G U4 X . b ù2 ab ùa2 b). That is. U2 sp (1 a a2 À b À ab À a2 b). and let H kal. W 2 4 G sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 .5 Example Let G D6 ka.

rsb b Hence the function b 3 sb (b P V 4 G) is the inverse of ö. Therefore ö is a CG-isomorphism. Since sru u and rsv v for all u P U. b P V 4 GX . and hence ra P V 4 G. Therefore ö: a 3 ra (a P U 4 G) is a function from U 4 G to V 4 G. v P V.Induced modules and characters 227 In particular. Then U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. we have sra a.6 Proposition Assume that H < G. Consequently sru u and rsv v for all u P U . We now show that isomorphic C H-modules give isomorphic induced CG-modules.7 Proposition Assume that U and V are C H-submodules of C H with U V {0}. for all a P U 4 G. as (aö) g rag (ag)ö (a P U 4 G. Then (U 4 G) (V 4 G) f0g. g P G). v P V X If a P U 4 G then a is a linear combination of elements ug (u P U. By Proposition 21. Proof Let W: U 3 V be a C H-isomorphism. 21. while W 1 4 G and W 2 4 G are irreducible. W 0 4 G is reducible. ö is a CG-homomorphism. proving that U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. 21. Suppose that U and V are C H-submodules of C H and that U is C H-isomorphic to V.1. so ra is a linear combination of elements rug. there exists r P CG such that uW ru for all u P U. g P G). and also there exists s P CG such that vWÀ1 sv for all v P V. Moreover. j The next proposition and its corollary enable us to de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C H-module U.

21. using (2.228 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Corollary 21.5). Then (by Theorems 8. g P G). It is trivial for m 1. Then for all u P U. V 4 G (U 2 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G). this implies that ru9 u9 and similarly. rug ug and rvg 0X Since U 4 G is spanned by elements of the form ug (u P U. we obtain U 4 G (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G).3. and suppose that U U1 È X X X È Um .7 and 10. U 4 G (U1 4 G) È (V 4 G)X By induction.8 Corollary Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. rv9 0 for all v9 P V 4 GX j for all u9 P U 4 G. there exists r P CG such that ru u and rv 0 for all u P U.7. Therefore (U 4 G) (V 4 G) f0g by Corollary 21. Now U U1 È V. 21. j We can now de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C Hmodule U (where U is not necessarily a C H-submodule of C H). as required. The de®nition of U 4 G implies that U 4 G (U1 4 G) (V 4 G)X Therefore by Proposition 21. v P V.9 De®nition Let U be a C H-module. where V U2 È X X X È U m .3. Then U 4 G (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Proof We prove this by induction on m. a direct sum of C H-submodules U i . v P V and all g P G. U U1 È X X X È Um .10). and hence.

Then . U 4 K (U1 4 K) È X X X È (Um 4 K)X Since K < G. De®ne U 4 G to be the following (external) direct sum: U 4 G (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G)X Proposition 21. (U(CK))(CG) is spanned by elements of the form (u P U .10). If U is a C H-module.4.8 ensure that this de®nition is consistent with De®nition 21. By (21. Then U(CK) is spanned by elements of the form uk ukg (21X12) (u P U . then (U 4 K) 4 G U 4 GX Proof Assume ®rst that U is a C H-submodule of C H. 21. That is.9) that (21X10) (U1 È X X X È Um ) 4 G (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Our ®rst major result on general induced modules is known as `the transitivity of induction'. it follows that (U(CK))(CG) U(CG). k P K.11 Theorem Suppose that H and K are subgroups of G such that H < K < G. and then applying the fact (which is immediate from De®nition 21. k P K)X Therefore. We emphasize that the de®nition of the induced module U 4 G in the case where U is a C H-submodule of C H is a natural one: U 4 G U (CG)X We shall always prove results for general induced modules U 4 G by ®rst dealing with the special case where U is a C H-submodule of C H.6 and Corollary 21. g P G)X (U 4 K) 4 G U 4 GX U U1 È X X X È Um for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. Now let U be an arbitrary C H-module.Induced modules and characters 229 for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H.

by (21X12) j Induced characters 21. and is called the character induced from ø. We showed in that example that if ÷1 . ÷ 2 5 H ø1 . and ø1 .9. ÷7 are the irreducible characters of G (given in Example 19. .2. 21. ÷ 4 5 H ø1 ø4 . ÷ 3 5 H ø1 ø4 . the coef®cients which appear here are the values of h÷ i 5 H. ø4 are the irreducible characters of H (given in 18. ÷5 5 H 2ø4 . .17.16). . . ÷ 7 5 H ø 2 ø 3 ø4 X By Theorem 14. as in Example 20. .13 De®nition If ø is the character of a C H-module U. .14 Example Let G S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G. ÷ 6 5 H ø 2 ø 3 ø4 . We record these coef®cients in a .2) then ÷ 1 5 H ø1 .230 Therefore Representations and characters of groups (U 4 K) 4 G (U1 4 K) 4 G È X X X È (Um 4 K) 4 G by (21X10) (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G) U4G by Definition 21. The next example illustrates an important relationship between induced characters and restrictions of characters. then the character of the induced CG-module U 4 G is denoted by ø 4 G. ø j i H for appropriate i. j. . .

ø j i H . Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. ø2 0 . which is known as the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. øi H for all characters ÷ of G and ø of H. ø4 X Remarkably. the seven integers in column 1 give ø1 4 G 1 . V ) and HomC H (U .Induced modules and characters matrix whose ij-entry is h÷ i 5 H. it is true that h÷. To be precise. ø j i H : ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 H ø1 1 f 1 f f 1 f f 1 f f 0 f d 0 0 ø2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø4 I 0 0 g g 1 g g 1 g g 2 g g 1 e 1 231 The rows of this matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of G restrict to H. ÷1 1 . ÷7 X Similarly. ø1 0 . The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Before proving the theorem. is also equal to h÷ i . . ÷5 0 . and let V be a CG-submodule of CG. In fact. and we devote the next section to a proof of this result. ø2 4 G ø3 4 G ÷6 ÷7 . it turns out that the columns of the matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of H induce to G. 21.15 Proposition Assume that H < G. ø j 4 Gi G . Then the vector spaces HomCG (U 4 G. ÷2 1 . ÷6 0 . and ø4 4 G ÷3 ÷4 2÷5 ÷6 ÷7 X Thus the ij-entry in our matrix. For example. which we already know to be equal to h÷ i 5 H. row 3 gives ÷3 5 H 1 . V 5 H) have equal dimensions. ø3 1 . ÷3 1 . we need the following preliminary result. ø 4 Gi G h÷ 5 H. ÷4 0 .

Then by Proposition 21. and there is a CG-submodule V of CG which has character ÷. then r1 s r2 s for all s P U 4 G. V 5 H). as required. We shall show that this linear transformation is invertible. uW ru for all u P U X Then W P HomC H (U . Then there is a C H-submodule U of C H which has character ø. V 5 H). V 5 H))X . Let ö P HomC H (U . and hø. and so it is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. V ).1. Moreover. there is an element r P CG such that sW rs for all s P U 4 GX De®ne W: U 3 CG to be the restriction of W to U. note that if r1. Thus the function W3W is a linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. there exists r P CG such that uö ru for all u P U. Let ÷ be a character of G and let ø be a character of H. g P G. ÷i G hø. V ). ÷i G dim (HomCG (U 4 G. Hence the function W 3 W is injective. since s is a linear combination of elements ug with u P U. V ) to HomC H (U . By Theorem 14. V 5 H). j 21. Finally. Then hø 4 G. ÷ 5 Hi H X Proof First assume that the characters ÷ and ø are irreducible. Therefore the function W 3 W is surjective. ö W.16 The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Assume that H < G. V ) to HomC H (U . V )). ÷ 5 Hi H dim (HomC H (U . Then by Corollary 21. These two vector spaces therefore have the same dimension. that is. we have hø 4 G.2. V 5 H).232 Representations and characters of groups Proof Suppose that W P HomCG (U 4 G.24. r2 P CG and r1 u r2 u for all u P U. De®ne W from U 4 G to CG by sW rs (s P U 4 G)X Then W P HomCG (U 4 G.

Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G.4. let ÷1 . de®ne the j . 21. . f i G hø. . ÷ i 5 Hi H k i1 by (21X17) B j1 i1 m j1 C di÷i 5 H H ej ø j . j The values of induced characters We now show how to evaluate induced characters. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let ø1 . For the general case. the characters of G span the vector space of class functions on G. ÷ 5 Hi H 233 in the special case we are considering. and for convenience of notation. since by Corollary 15. we therefore deduce that (21X17) hø 4 G.Induced modules and characters From Proposition 21. Then for some integers di . ÷ i i G ej d i hø j . .15. namely when ÷ and ø are irreducible.18 Corollary If f is a class function on G. . f 5 Hi H X Proof This follows at once from the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. ej we have ÷ Therefore hø 4 G. . hø. and ø is a character of H. ÷i G hø. ÷ 5 Hi H X This completes the proof of the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. ø m be the irreducible characters of H. . . . k i1 d i ÷i G m k j1 i1 m k ej d i hø j 4 G. then hø 4 G. ÷i G k i1 d i ÷ i and ø m j1 ej ø j X C B m j1 ej ø j 4 G.

234 Representations and characters of groups @ function ø: G 3 C by ø( g) ø( g) 0 if g P H. if g P HX a 21. ÷i G for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. ÷i G hø 4 G. it is suf®cient to show that h f .4. Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G.19 Proposition The values of the induced character ø 4 G are given by 1 (ø 4 G)( g) ø( y À1 gy) j Hj yPG for all g P G. ÷i G 1 1 ø(x)÷( yxy À1 )X jGj j Hj xPG yPG 1 ø(x)÷(x) j Hj xP H 1 1 ø( y À1 gy)÷( g)X jGj j Hj gPG yPG . Then h f . and so by Corollary 15. Then 1 h f . If w P G then 1 f (w À1 gw) ø( y À1 w À1 gwy) f ( g) j Hj yPG since wy runs through G as y runs through G. ÷i G f ( g)÷( g) jGj gPG Put x y À1 gy. Proof Let f: G 3 C be the function given by 1 f ( g) ø( y À1 gy) ( g P G)X j Hj yPG We aim to prove that f ø 4 G. Therefore f is a class function.

Induced modules and characters 235 since ø(x) 0 if x P H.19. f G i G x ÷(x) X jCG (x)j . Alternatively. a formula for the values of induced characters different from that given in Proposition 21. then the degree of ø 4 G is given by (ø 4 G)(1) jGj ø(1)X j Hj Proof This follows immediately by evaluating (ø 4 G)(1) using Proposition 21.19 is more useful. ÷ 5 Hi H and so by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. and we shall derive this next (it is given in Proposition 21. so the proof is complete. j For practical purposes. de®ne the class function f G on G by x & 1 if y P x G f G ( y) ( y P G)X x 0 if y P x G a Thus f is the characteristic function of the conjugacy class x G . the stated degree of ø 4 G can be found using just the de®nition of induced modules (see Exercise 21. h f .20 Corollary If ø is a character of the subgroup H of G.21 Proposition If ÷ is a character of G and x P G. then h÷. Therefore a h f .23 below). ÷i G hø. For x P G. j 21. and ÷( yxy À1 ) ÷(x) for all y P G. ÷i G X This was the equation required to show that f ø 4 G. 21. ÷i G hø 4 G.3).

To put this another way. then f G 5 H 0.4. x m . x Proof By Proposition 21. If H < G and h P H then h H h G . . we have: (21. with representatives x1 . and suppose that x P G. we have (ø 4 G)(x) hø 4 G. 1. X X X . . (1) If no element of x G lies in H. f G 5 Hi H X x x jCG (x)j .23 Proposition Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G. xm P H such that H H f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m X x Statement (2) just says that H x G breaks up into m conjugacy classes of H. then there are elements x1 . . then (ø 4 G)(x) 0.22)). xm P H and f G 5 H f x1 F F F f x m (as in (21.21 and Corollary 21.21 was used in the proof of Theorem 16. . 2 or more conjugacy classes of H.236 Proof We have Representations and characters of groups 1 ÷( g) f G ( g) x jGj gPG 1 jx G j ÷(x) ÷( g) jGj gPx G jGj ÷(x) jCG (x)j by Theorem 12X8X j h÷. jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where x1 . .18. f G i G x Note that a result similar to Proposition 21. . f G i G hø.22) Suppose that x P G. . (1) If no element of x G lies in H. but if g P G then g G may contain 0. 21. (2) If some element of x G lies in H. . x (2) If some element of x G lies in H. then ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)(x) jCG (x)j X X X .

21. fa2 (1 3)(2 4)g. then f G 5 H 0. f x1 X X X f x m i H jCG (x)j H H hø. G H f (1 3) 5 H f (1 3) . And if some element of x G lies in H. By (12. . and hence x (ø 4 G)(x) 0.22)(2). G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H f (1 3)(2 4) f (1 2)(3 4) . with representatives (1 3)(2 4) and (1 2)(3 4). b (1 3)X Then H D8. the statement G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H f (1 3)(2 4) f (1 2)(3 4) records the fact that the G-conjugacy class (1 2)(3 4) G contains exactly two H-conjugacy classes. where a (1 2 3 4).Induced modules and characters 237 If no element of x G lies in H.24 Example Let G S4 and let H ka. the conjugacy classes of H are f1g. G f (1 2 3) 5 H 0.12). fb (1 3). then x (ø 4 G)(x) H H hø. since a4 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . a3 (1 4 3 2)g. a2 b (2 4)g. We have G H f1 5 H f1 . bl. and H H f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m as in (21. fa (1 2 3 4). f x1 i H X X X hø. and G H f (1 2 3 4) 5 H f (1 2 3 4) X For example. f x m i H ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) X X X jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j by Proposition 21X21X j The result follows.

21. 8 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3 4)) 4 ø((1 2 3 4)) X 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3)) 0. we therefore have 1 ÷1 4 G ÷2 4 G ÷3 4 G ÷4 4 G ÷5 4 G 3 3 3 3 6 (1 2) 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À1 À1 3 À2 (1 2 3 4) 1 1 À1 À1 0 In the next example. .3(3) for the irreducible characters ÷1 .2) De®ne permutations a. 8 ø((1 3)) (ø 4 G)((1 3)) 4 . 4 ø((1 3)(2 4)) ø((1 2)(3 4)) (ø 4 G)((1 2)(3 4)) 8 . ÷5 of H D8.25 Example (cf. . b (2 3 5)(4 7 6) .238 Representations and characters of groups The orders of the centralizers of the elements of H are as follows: h |CG (h)| |C H (h)| 1 24 8 (1 3)(2 4) 8 8 (1 2 3 4) 4 4 (1 3) 4 4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 4 Suppose that ø is a character of H. . we use induced characters to ®nd the character table of a group of order 21. Then according to Proposition 21. we have (ø 4 G)(1) 24 ø(1) . Exercise 17.23. b in S7 by a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). . Referring to Example 16.

a6 g. Also. we obtain three linear characters ÷1 . bl of S7 . and similarly jC G (b)j 3.Induced modules and characters and let G be the subgroup ka. there is a character ø k of H given by ø k (a j ) ç jk (0 < j < 6)X To use the formula in Proposition 21.23 for calculating ø k 4 G. fai b2 : 0 < i < 6gX We take 1. G has order 21. We aim to ®nd the character table of G. Since kal v G and Gahai C3. a. Since hai < C G (a). a4 g. and since b P C G (a). First we ®nd the conjugacy classes. 0 < j < 2. fa3 . Hence jC G (a)j 7. a3 . 7 divides jC G (a)j. For 1 < k < 6. Using this. a jC G (a)j . Notice that G has exactly ®ve irreducible characters. Check that a7 b3 1. Let ç e2ðia7 . a2 . 21. bÀ1 ab a2 X 239 It follows from these relations that the elements of G are all of the form ai bj with 0 < i < 6. Let H kal. fai b: 0 < i < 6g. We shall obtain the last two irreducible characters of G by inducing linear characters of H. ÷3 of G as the lifts of the linear characters of Gahai. ÷2 . note that H H H f G 5 H f a f a2 f a4 a . we see that the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. a5 . fa. b and b2 to be representatives of the conjugacy classes. Their values are shown below: g |CG ( g)| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 .

since ø1 .240 Representations and characters of groups since no two of the elements a. ÷5 i G 1. (ø3 4 G)(a3 ) ç ç2 ç4 . a2 . (ø1 4 G)(a) ç ç2 ç4 and similarly (ø1 4 G)(a3 ) ç3 ç5 ç6 . Therefore ÷4 T ÷5 . (ø1 4 G)(1) 3X And since no G-conjugate of b or b2 lies in H. Character table of ha. Hence by Proposition 21. then the values of ÷4 and ÷5 are 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 a3 ç3 ç5 ç6 ç ç2 ç4 b 0 0 b2 0 0 Now ÷4 5 H ø1 ø2 ø4 and ÷5 5 H ø3 ø5 ø6 .23. b: a7 b3 1. We now calculate that h÷4 . ÷4 i G 9 2 2 0 0 1. a4 are conjugate in H. 21 7 7 3 3 and similarly h÷5 . and (ø3 4 G)(b) (ø3 4 G)(b2 ) 0X Thus if we write ÷4 ø1 4 G and ÷5 ø3 4 G. Thus ÷4 and ÷5 are our last two irreducible characters. (ø3 4 G)(a) ç3 ç5 ç6 . . (ø1 4 G)(b) (ø1 4 G)(b2 ) 0X Similarly (ø3 4 G)(1) 3. . . . bÀ1 ab a2 i g |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 21 1 1 1 3 3 a 7 1 1 1 ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 a3 7 1 1 1 ç3 ç5 ç6 ç ç2 ç4 b 3 1 ù ù2 0 0 b2 3 1 ù2 ù 0 0 . and the character table of G is as shown. ø6 are linearly independent.

Let G S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3)l C3 . the degree of ø:G is |G: H|ø(1). then (ø 4 G)( g) 0X If some element of g G lies in H. ÷i G hø. then ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)( g) jCG ( g)j X X X jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m . where ø is a character of H and ÷ is a character of G. ÷5 are the irreducible characters of G. g 4. ÷ 5 Hi H . b: a4 b2 1. then U 4 G is simply U(CG). Let G D8 ka. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let H be the subgroup ka2 . For each C H-module U. If ø is a character of H then the induced character ø 4 G is given by 1 (ø 4 G)( g) ø( y À1 gy)X j Hj yPG In particular. . If no element of g G lies in H. bl. an induced CG-module U 4 G can be de®ned. 3. . . If U is a C H-module of C H. (c) Write down the character of the C H-module U and the character of the CG-module U 4 G. 241 1. Is U 4 G irreducible? 2. The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem states that hø 4 G. . Exercises for Chapter 21 1. as given in . 2. (b) Find a basis of the induced CG-module U 4 G. De®ne U to be the 1-dimensional subspace of C H spanned by 1 À a2 b À a2 bX (a) Check that U is a C H-submodule of C H. (a) If ÷1 .Induced modules and characters Summary of Chapter 21 Assume that H is a subgroup of G.

25. where a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). as in Example 21. let ø be a character of H. ø3 of C3 . and let ÷1 . b (2 3 5)(4 7 6).) 5.5. You are given that jC G (a)j 7 and jC G (b)j 18. work out the restrictions ÷ i 5 H (1 < i < 5) as sums of the irreducible characters ø1 . (b) Calculate the induced characters ø j 4 G (1 < j < 3) as sums of the irreducible characters ÷ i of G. satisfy k i1 d 2 < jG : HjX i (Compare Proposition 20. 6. and use the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. and let ÷ be a character of G. Show direct from the de®nition that if H < G and ø is a character of H. Show that the integers d 1 . . X X X .25). Let ø be an irreducible character of H. Let H be a subgroup of G. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G. then jGj (ø 4 G)(1) ø(1)X j Hj 4. Let ö and ø be the irreducible characters of H which are given by gi |C H ( g i )| ö ø 1 21 1 3 a 7 a3 7 b 3 1 0 b2 3 1 0 1 1 ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 where ç e2ðia7 (see Example 21. Calculate the values of the induced characters ö 4 G and ø 4 G. . 3. bl.242 Representations and characters of groups Section 18. ø2 . which are given by ø 4 G d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷k . .) .1. . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. Let G S7 and let H ka. Prove that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G (ø 4 G)÷X (Hint: consider the inner product of each side with an arbitrary irreducible character of G. d k .

and let ø be an irreducible character of H. .Induced modules and characters 243 7. Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. Discover and prove results for ø 4 G which are similar to those presented in Chapter 20 for the restriction of irreducible characters of G to H.

And we prove some useful congruence properties.22 Algebraic integers Among the properties of characters which may be regarded as fundamental.1 De®nition A complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is an eigenvalue of some matrix. perhaps the most opaque is that which states that the degree of an irreducible character of a ®nite group G must divide the order of G. We discuss properties of a group element g P G which ensure that ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. Algebraic integers 22. using algebraic integers. Equivalently. if p is a prime number and g P G is an element of order pr for some r. we require that det (A À ëI) 0 for some square matrix A with integer entries. for example. all of whose entries are integers. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod p for any character ÷ of G for which ÷( g) is an integer. for the same matrix A. Most of the results concern arithmetic properties of character values. for ë to be an algebraic integer. Thus. This is one of several results which we shall prove in this chapter. We remark that ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form 244 . we have uA ëu for some non-zero row vector u.

then so are Àë and the complex conjugate ë of ë. X X X . all of whose entries are integers. since it is an eigenvalue of the 0 1 matrix X 2 0 (3) If ë is an algebraic integer. vB ìvX Suppose that A is an m 3 m matrix and B is an n 3 n matrix. then u(ÀA) (Àë)u and uA ëu. 22. . a nÀ1 are integers (see Exercise 22. ù nÀ1 . 22. 1) ùuX This shows that every nth root of unity is an algebraic integer. ù2 . where u is the row vector obtained from u by replacing each entry by its complex conjugate. Proof There exist square matrices A and B. and non-zero row vectors u and v. To see this. Then uA (ù. .2 Examples (1) Every integer n is an algebraic integer. note that if A is an integer matrix and u is a row vector with uA ëu. . In fact.Algebraic integers x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 245 where a0 . ù2 . algebraic integers are usually de®ned in this way. ù nÀ1 ). X X X . such that uA ëu. ù. since n is an eigenvalue of the 1 3 1 matrix (n). then ëì and ë ì are also algebraic integers.7). (4) Let A be the n 3 n matrix H 0 0 f1 0 f f0 1 Af f f d0 0 0 0 given by 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 1 0 0g g 0 0g gX g g 0 0e 1 0 Suppose that ù is an nth root of unity.3 Theorem If ë and ì are algebraic integers. . and let u be the row vector (1. p (2) 2 is an algebraic integer. .

( ë ij (ei f j ))(A B) ë ij (ei A f j B)). 1 < j < n) has integer entries.2(4). Hence ÷( g) is an algebraic integer. then ÷( g) is an algebraic integer. ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity. j 22. em be a basis of C m and f 1 . Then (u v)(A I n I m B) uA vI n uI m vB ëu v u ìv (ë ì)(u v). . X X X . Proof By Proposition 13. Each root of unity is an algebraic integer. respectively. De®ne an endomorphism A B of V by (ei f j )(A B) ei A f j B (1 < i < m.5 Proposition If ë is both a rational number and an algebraic integer. f n be a basis of C n . . Since the matrix of A B relative to the basis ei fj (1 < i < m. 1 < j < n). 1 < j < n) form a basis of the tensor product space V C m C n. j Theorem 22.246 Representations and characters of groups Let e1 . 22. then ë is an integer. . It is easy to check as in the proof of Proposition 19.3. y P C n.3 shows that the set of all algebraic integers forms a subring of C. The next result provides a link between algebraic integers and characters. . it follows that ëì is an algebraic integer.4 that for all vectors x P C m .9. extending linearly (that is. so any sum of roots of unity is an algebraic integer by Theorem 22.4 Corollary If ÷ is a character of G and g P G. by Example 22. and we deduce as above that ë ì is an algebraic integer. we have (x y)(A B) xA yBX Hence (u v)(A B) uA vB ëu ìv ëì(u v)X Therefore ëì is an eigenvalue of A B. Let Im and In denote the identity m 3 m and n 3 n matrices. . Then the vectors ei fj (1 < i < m.

the entries of sA À rI which are not on the diagonal are divisible by s. Let p be a prime number which divides s. where r and s are coprime integers and s T Æ1.) The degree of every irreducible character divides |G| To prepare for the proof that |G| is divisible by the degree of each irreducible character of G.21 that if C is a conjugacy class of G. If ÷( g) is a rational number. Therefore det (sA À rI) (Àr) n mp for some integer m. Then . which is enough to establish the proposition. then C x P CGX xPC 22. (Example 22. we establish two preliminary lemmas. note that we have.4 and Proposition 22.6 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G and let g P G. we deduce that det (sA À rI) T 0. and hence also by p.2(2) shows p that 2 is an algebraic integer. In passing. Let U be an irreducible CG-module. We shall show that ë is not an algebraic integer. 22. As p does not divide r (since r and s are coprime). Recall from De®nition 12.7 Lemma Suppose that g P G and that C is the conjugacy class of G which contains g. p the well known result that 2 is irrational. For every n 3 n matrix A of integers. Thus n 1 det (A À ëI) det (sA À rI) T 0. as a special case of Proposition 22.5. then ÷( g) is an integer.Algebraic integers 247 Proof Suppose that ë is a rational number which is not an integer. j The next result is an immediate consequence of Corollary 22. Write ë ras. with character ÷. s and hence ë is not an algebraic integer.5.

gn be the elements of G. Then ë is an algebraic integer. we know by Proposition 9. .248 Representations and characters of groups uC ëu for all u P U . that is. Suppose that u is a non-zero element of CG such that ur ëu. . then [x]B ëIX xPC Taking the traces of both sides of this equation.22).8 Lemma Let r gPG á g g P CG. . where ë jGj ÷( g) X jCG ( g)j ÷(1) Proof Since C lies in the centre of CG (see Proposition 12. xPC and since ÷ is constant on the conjugacy class C. . the result follows. where ë P C. Then for 1 < i < n. we have gi r n j1 aij g j .8.14 that there exists ë P C such that uC ëu for all u P U. we obtain ÷(x) ë÷(1). Proof Let g1 . this yields jCj÷( g) ë÷(1)X Thus ë jCj÷( g)a÷(1). As |C| |G:CG ( g)| by Theorem 12. where each á g is an integer. j 22. u x ëu for all u P U X xPC Consequently if B is a basis of U.

both jGj ÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) and ÷( g i ) jGj ÷( g) jCG ( g)j ÷(1) are algebraic integers. then ë is an algebraic integer.2(4). Then ux ùu and so Lemma 22. Hence by Theorem 22.8. . (In fact. k i1 jGj ÷( g i )÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) . Then uC ëu for all u P U. Notice that this example is just a reworking of Example 22. and de®ne u 1 ùx À1 ù2 x À2 X X X ù nÀ1 x P CG.10 Corollary If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and g P G. by Corollaries 22. then ÷(1) divides |G|. and let C be the sum of the elements in the conjugacy class of G which contains g. where ù is an nth root of unity. by Lemma 22. j 22.8 con®rms that ù is an algebraic integer. .9 Example Let G Cn kx: x n 1l.) The i statement that ur ëu (with u T 0) says that ë is an eigenvalue of the integer matrix A (aij ). .3. Then for all i. aij á g where g gÀ1 gj . by Lemma 22. .7.10 and 22.11 Theorem If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. j 22.4. gk be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Proof Let g1 . 22. Proof Let U be an irreducible CG-submodule of CG with character ÷.Algebraic integers 249 for certain integers aij . Therefore ë is an algebraic integer.

÷(1) divides |G|. j 22. First. Theorem 22. Since Ker r v G and G is simple. 2.11.250 Representations and characters of groups is an algebraic integer. (2) Let G be a group of order 2 p. observe that G is non-abelian.) 22. By Theorem 22. This algebraic integer is equal to jGja÷(1). and so G9 G as G is simple. As jGja÷(1) is a rational number. Therefore by Theorem 17. By Theorem 17. either the degrees of the irreducible characters of G are all 1. the degree of each irreducible character of G is 1 or 2 (it cannot be p for the reason noted in (1) above).4(1). Hence G9 T 1. Proposition 22. and so r is injective. we recover the well known result that groups of order p2 are abelian. (Note that ÷(1) . But g 3 det ( gr) is a linear character of G (see Exercise 13. then ÷(1) is a power of p for all irreducible characters ÷ of G.11 also has the following interesting consequences concerning irreducible characters of simple groups.11. and hence satis®es p < n. That is. using Proposition 9.11. X X X .5 now implies that jGja÷(1) is an integer. if jGj p2 then ÷(1) 1 for all irreducible characters ÷. we have Ker r f1g. G has no non-trivial linear characters.13 Corollary No simple group has an irreducible character of degree 2.12 Examples (1) If p is a prime number and G is a group of order pn for some n. Let r: G 3 GL(2. 1. Theorem 16.18. (Recall that a group G is simple if it has no normal subgroups apart from {1} and G.7(a)). Proof Suppose that G is a simple group which has an irreducible character ÷ of degree 2. In particular. 2 (with ( p À 1)a2 degrees 2)X (3) If G Sn then every prime p which divides the degree of an irreducible character of G also divides n!. C) be a representation of G with character ÷. Hence. as the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is equal to |G|. the number of linear characters of G divides |G|. by Proposition 9. where p is prime. and this implies that det ( gr) 1 for all g P GX .5.) Hence. by the row orthogonality relations. or they are 1. p.

N is an abelian normal subgroup of G. Since det (xr) 1. 1. Then ÷(1) is divisible by p. so we assume that G is non-abelian. by our hypothesis. Then G has an abelian normal p-complement. and jN j is coprime to p. j Our next result again shows that information about character degrees can sometimes be used to learn about the structure of a group. ÷(1) .6). xr has order 2.12 and 17. In particular. the sum being over the irreducible characters ÷ of G for which ÷(1) . this means that xg gx for all g P G. so p divides |G| by . Proof The result is correct if G is abelian (see Theorem 9. there is a 2 3 2 matrix T such that T À1 (xr)T is a diagonal matrix with diagonal entries Æ1.11 give us the equation jGj jGaG9j ÷(1)2 . As r is injective. and by Proposition 9. G is not simple unless G has prime order. and hence hxi v GX This is a contradiction. that is. 22. while jG: N j is a power of p.11. we assume that every irreducible character of G has degree a power of a prime p.Algebraic integers 251 Now G has even order.8). As r is injective. as G is simple. and we deduce that G has an abelian normal pcomplement N. we conclude that À1 0 À1 T (xr)T X 0 À1 Thus xr T(ÀI)T À1 ÀIX Consequently (xr)( gr) ( gr)(xr) for all g P G. This time. by Theorem 22. 1 for some irreducible character ÷ of G.11. Therefore G contains an element x of order 2 (see Exercise 1. Consider the 2 3 2 matrix xr. Since G is non-abelian.14 Corollary Suppose that p is a prime and the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p. Theorems 11.

We have that |N| is coprime to p and jG : N j is a power of p. Hence G has a normal subgroup H of index p. øi T 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. If a and b are positive integers. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is coprime to p.16 below we give a group-theoretic condition on an element g of G which implies that ÷( g) is an integer for every character ÷ of G. for example.16 is evidently a useful result. Bearing in mind the dif®culties we encountered in constructing the character tables of Sn for small values of n (we reached n 6 in Example 19.16. Therefore. since otherwise p divides the order of gH which in turn divides the order of g.8 shows that ø(1) divides ÷(1). j A condition which ensures that ÷( g) is an integer In Theorem 22. every entry in the character table of Sn is an integer (see Corollary 22.17).4. a similar argument shows that g P N. This result implies. then . But an abelian simple group has prime order. On the other hand.15 Lemma If ù is an nth root of unity. We may now apply induction on |G| to deduce that H has an abelian normal p-complement N. assume that G is simple.252 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 22. Also. then we denote their highest common factor by (a. that for all n. so either N {1} or N G. b). If N f1g then G is a p-group so Z(G) T {1} (see Exercise 12.7). Since every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. Theorem 22. by Proposition 20. because G is simple. Then h÷ 5 H.17). so it remains to prove that N v G. Hence N consists of those elements of G whose order is coprime to p. Let ø be an irreducible character of H.11. we have Z(G) G. and we deduce from the equation above that p divides the order of the abelian group GaG9. so ø(1) is a power of p. it follows that GaG9 has a subgroup of index p. G has prime order. if N G then G is again abelian. so G is abelian. for integers d and n. 22. Before proving Theorem 22. we write d|n to denote the fact that d divides n.1. we require a preliminary lemma concerning roots of unity. Next. and from this fact it follows easily that N v G. Then g P H. Clifford's Theorem 20. by Exercise 1. Finally.

ù dj P ZX 1< j< nad.nad)1 j as required.n)1 253 is an integer. (i. It is trivial for n 1. ( j.nad)1 It follows that 1<i< n. and if in addition d . n) 1. Proof We prove the result by induction on n. then by our induction hypothesis. dj n.11. Then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. n i Now we partition the sum i1 ù according to the highest common factor d of i and n: 0 n i1 ùi dj n 1<i< n (i. By Proposition 9. Then ù is a root of the polynomial n (x n À 1)a(x À 1) x nÀ1 X X X x 1X Therefore i1 ù i 0. there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùm 0 .n)1 ùi n i1 ùi À ù dj P Z. d .Algebraic integers ùi 1<i< n. 22. (i.16 Theorem Let g be an element of order n in G. 1 ( j. Suppose that g is conjugate to gi for all i with 1 < i < n and (i. ( j. Also.n)d ùi ù dj X dj n 1< j< nad. if ù 1 then the result is immediate. 1. 1< j< nad.nad)1 If djn then ù d is an (nad)th root of unity. So suppose that ù is an nth root of unity and ù T 1. Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷ of degree m.

. and so ÷( g) is an integer by Corollary 22. Before going into the character theory. then the permutations g and g i have the same cycle-shape.17 Corollary All the character values of symmetric groups are integers.254 Representations and characters of groups where ù1 . and so i ÷( g i ) ù1 X X X ù im X Therefore by Lemma 22.6. . . g is an element of G of order pr for some r. and hence s÷( g) P Z. .16.16. n) 1. Proof If g P Sn and i is coprime to the order of g. ù m are nth roots of unity. The result now follows from Theorem 22. For 1 < i < n. . we need to de®ne the p9-part of a group element.n)1 As g is conjugate to gi if 1 < i < n and (i. Consequently ÷( g) is a rational number. . . . then g is conjugate to g i whenever i is coprime to n. and hence are conjugate by Theorem 12. (i.15. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod p. j We remark that using Galois theory it is possible to prove the converse of Theorem 22. where s is the number of integers i with 1 < i < n and (i. we have ÷( g i ) ÷( g) for such i. namely that if ÷( g i ) P Z for all characters ÷ of G. ù im . one particularly useful consequence of our results is that if p is a prime number. 22. the matrix i [ g i ]B has diagonal entries ù1 . and ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z.15. . j The p9-part of a group element The rest of the chapter is devoted to some important congruence properties of character values. For example. The de®nition will emerge from the following lemma. n) 1. ÷( g i ) P ZX 1<i< n.

as required. v P Z and (u. so x9 commutes with g. Then xy yx g aubp g. the elements x and y of G which satisfy conditions (1)±(3) are unique. y u g bup 1X Hence the order of x is a power of p and the order of y divides u. so x À1 x9 y( y9)À1 X If z x À1 x9 y( y9)À1 . y9 commutes with y and y( y9)À1 has order coprime to p. We must show that x x9 and y y9. Then there exist integers a. Proof Let the order of g be upv . Moreover. Since both x and x9 have order a power of p. hence also with gau x. Therefore x and y satisfy conditions (1)±(3).18 Lemma Let p be a prime number and let g P G. j v v v v v . it follows that x À1 x9 has order a power of p. Finally. so is coprime to p. and so x x9 and y y9. the order of x9 is a power of p and the order of y9 is coprime to p. g x9 y9 y9x9. Now suppose that x9. b such that au bpv 1X Put x gau and y gbp . where u. and (3) the order of y is coprime to p. We have x9 g x9 y9x9 gx9. that is. xy g x9 y9. Therefore z 1.Algebraic integers 255 22. Then there exist x. (2) the order of x is a power of p. y9 P G also satisfy (1)±(3). x p g aup 1. p) 1. then we have shown that the order of z is both a power of p and coprime to p. y P G such that (1) g xy yx. Similarly.

De®ne Z[æ] to be the subring of C generated by Z and æ. .part of g is gbp . this has as its elements all the cosets pZ[æ] r with r P Z[æ]. 0 < ai < p À 1 for all iX As there are only ®nitely many such elements. with ai P Z. .19 De®nition We call the element y which appears in Lemma 22. . Z[æ] f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x]gX Clearly.18.20) Let the order of g be upv . Every such coset contains an element of the form a0 a1 æ X X X a nÀ1 æ nÀ1 .256 Representations and characters of groups 22. The ideals of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ] are in . æ nÀ1 . . For example. (22. every element of Z[æ] is an integer combination of the powers 1.21 Proposition There are only ®nitely many ideals I of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ]. the expression g xy in Lemma 22. 22. so in fact Z[æ] f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x] of degree < n À 1gX Now let p be a prime number and let pZ[æ] f pr: r P Z[æ]g. p) 1. v Then the p9. b with au bpv 1.18 has x g3 . By de®nition. we need a few basic facts about a certain subring of C in which all our character values will lie. and choose integers a. À2 A little ring theory To prepare for our main result on congruence properties of character values. then the p9-part of g is g . that is. æ. y gÀ2 . a principal ideal of Z[æ]. we conclude that Z[æ]a pZ[æ] is ®nite.18 the p9-part of g. Proof Consider the factor ring Z[æ]a pZ[æ]. We extract the following statement from the proof of Lemma 22. if p 2 and g has order 6. Let n be a positive integer and let æ e2ðia n . æ2 . v P Z and (u. where u.

As P is a maximal. a Since r P P.21 that there is a maximal ideal of P of Z[æ] which contains pZ[æ]. the ideal rZ[æ] P of Z[æ] strictly contains P. Since p P P. b with j am bp 1. Repeating this argument. that is. assume that r n P P. we conclude that r P P. Proof Let m P P Z. s P Z[æ] and rs P P. Proof Assume that rs P P and r P P. then either r P P or s P P. P is a proper ideal which is contained in no larger proper ideal of Z[æ]. Thus pjm. as required. j . but this implies that 1 P P. we therefore have rZ[æ] P Z[æ]X Consequently. then r P P. j We deduce from Proposition 22. We must show that s P P. j 22. there exist a P Z[æ]. Since n r rr nÀ1 . In particular. and the proof is complete.Algebraic integers 257 bijective correspondence with the ideals of Z[æ]a pZ[æ] (the correspondence being I 3 Ia pZ[æ]). Therefore there are only ®nitely many such ideals. If p B m then there are integers a. which is false. (A proper ideal of Z[æ] is an ideal which is not equal to Z[æ]. which establishes that P Z pZ.22 Proposition If r. b P P such that 1 ra bX Then s rsa sbX As rs P P and b P P. it follows that s P P. For the last statement of the proposition. this implies that either r P P or r nÀ1 P P. 22. if r n P P for some positive integer n.23 Proposition We have P Z pZ.) We now prove two easy results about the maximal ideal P. we also have pZ P Z. since P T Z[æ].

if p 2.11). As in the previous section. The ring Z[æ] is of interest because all the character values of G lie in Z[æ] (see Proposition 9.part of g. Choose integers a. The orders of g and of y divide n |G|.24 Theorem Let g P G and let y be the p9. then ÷( g) À ÷( y) P PX Proof Suppose that g has order m upv . Let G be a group of order n and let æ e2ðia n . Then y g bp (see (22. and so v v 2v 2v ù p ù aup . v vÀ r v p bpv pv pv v pvÀ1 bpv (ù À ù ) ù À p ù ù X X X Æ ù p ù rbp r X X X (À1) p ù bp X For 0 . r . so it follows that (ù À ù bp ) p P pZ[æ]X Thus (ù À ù bp ) p lies in the maximal ideal P.258 Representations and characters of groups Congruences At last we are ready to prove our results on congruences of character values. since ù p ù bp . b with au bpv 1.20)). 22. the binomial coef®cient ( rp ) is divisible by p. pv . where u. By the Binomial Theorem. Now let ù be an mth root of unity (so ù P Z[æ] as mjn). if p T 2. v P Z and v (u. Hence (ù À ù bp ) p ù p (À1) p ù bp pá.22 now forces v v v v v 2v v v v v 2v v v 2v v v . so ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both sums of nth roots of unity. If ÷ is any character of G. pv pv bp2v ù (À1) ù pv 2ù . let p be a prime number and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing pZ[æ]. ù bp ù bp X Consider the number (ù À ù bp ) p . and hence lie in Z[æ]. p) 1. Application of Proposition 22. Moreover. we have @ 0. Then v ù ù aubp . where á P Z[æ].

27 extensively in our character calculations in Chapters 25±7.25). j 22.24±22.Algebraic integers (22X25) (ù À ù bp ) P PX v 259 By Proposition 9. by (22.10 is the special case of Corollary 22.23 give ÷( g) À ÷( y) P P Z pZX Therefore ÷( g) ÷( y) mod p. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is a power of p.part of g. . so the result is immediate from Corollary 22. ù d such that bp ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù d and ÷( y) ù1 X X X ù bp X d v v Then bp ÷( g) À ÷( y) (ù1 À ù1 ) X X X (ù d À ù bp ). Suppose that g P G and that y is the p9. the p9-part of g is 1. there are mth roots of unity ù1 . .27 in which g has order 2.11. j Notice that Corollary 13. lies in P. . then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod pX Proof As the order of g is a power of p. we just illustrate the results with reference to some character tables which we already know. d v v which.26 Corollary Let p be a prime number.24 and Proposition 22. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers. j 22. Theorem 22. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z. .27 Corollary Let p be a prime number. For the moment. .26. We shall use the congruence results 22. then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod pX Proof As ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers.

24. 2.26 implies that ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 3 whenever ÷( g) P Z. We illustrate Theorem 22. 1(1 À 5) â 5X 2 Put æ e2ðia60 . .24 for this a value. Character values are algebraic integers.11). That is. 3X However.260 Representations and characters of groups 22. we have â 5 P P. p p Then ( 5)2 P P. Since â P Z[æ] (see p Proposition 9.28 Example Recall from Example 20.14 that the character table of A5 is as shown. Similarly the entries in columns 1 and 3 are congruent modulo 2.22. and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing 5Z[æ]. If g (1 2 3) then Corollary 22. and p ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) á À 3 1(1 5 À 6) 2 p p p 5 . The degree of every irreducible character of G divides |G|. Also ÷ i ((1 2 3 4 5)) ÷ i (1) mod 5 for i 1. then the p9-part of g is 1. as can be seen by inspecting the table. p p where á (1 5)a2. 2. Thus the corresponding entries in columns 1 and 2 Character table of A5 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 1 À1 0 â á of the character table are congruent modulo 3. â (1 À 5)a2. Summary of Chapter 22 1. ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) P PX This illustrates Theorem 22. ÷4 ((1 2 3 4 5)) á P Z. so 5 P P by Proposition 22. If we take p 5 and g (1 2 3 4 5).

Algebraic integers 261 3. Exercises for Chapter 22 1. 10 or 16. (c) Deduce that ÷ 1 G . (d) Deduce that both a and b are integers. (a) Find the degrees of all the irreducible characters of G. q. 1 G i 1 (÷(1) 2á). (c) Show that if ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G. 5. 3. Prove that h÷. (b) Show that |G9| p. 17. (b) Now let ÷ be an irreducible character of G with ÷ ÷. 4. 2. Let G be a group and let ö be a character of G such that ö( g) ö(h) for all non-identity elements g and h of G. Deduce that G is abelian. then ÷( g) is an integer. Prove that the number of conjugacy classes in a group of order 16 is 7. If g P G and y is the p9-part of g. (c) Show that q divides p À 1 and that G has q (( p À 1)aq) conjugacy classes. for all characters ÷. If g is conjugate to g i for all integers i which are coprime to the order of g. jGj where á is an algebraic integer. 4. (b) Show that a b and a b|G| are integers. then g 1. .11 and 22. and let G be a nonabelian group of order pq. b P C. (a) Prove that if g P G and g gÀ1 . Let G be a group of order 15. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . Use Theorems 11.12. then b÷(1) is an integer. then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod p for all characters ÷ of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are integers. This exercise shows that the only irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷ ÷ is the trivial character. Suppose that G is a group of odd order. Let p be a prime number. (a) Show that ö a1 G b÷reg for some a.11 to show that every irreducible character of G has degree 1.

. (a) Show that for every irreducible character ÷ of G. (c) Find ÷(1) and ÷( g) for all irreducible characters ÷ of G.26 and the column orthogonality relations. .262 Representations and characters of groups 6. A certain group G of order 120 has exactly seven conjugacy classes. g3 and g4 are conjugate in G. g7 with orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 120 g2 2 12 g3 2 8 g4 3 6 g5 4 4 g6 6 6 g7 5 5 Using Corollary 22. . Prove that a complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 . g. 1 or À1. It is often possible to calculate the character table from limited arithmetic information about the group G. Moreover. ÷( g) is 0. and that the conjugacy classes of G have representatives g1 . This exercise illustrates this point with the group G S5 . and contains an element g of order 5 such that jCG ( g)j 5. (b) Use Corollary 22. where each ar (0 < r < n À 1) is an integer.27 to deduce that G has two irreducible characters of degree 5. (d) You are given that all entries in the character table of G are integers. 7. g2 . ®nd the character table of G. . .

the subject of real representations not only is elegant and interesting. Real characters An element g of the ®nite group G is said to be real if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . and is not used in the ensuing chapters. and the ®rst main result of the chapter describes the number of real-valued irreducible characters of G. which consist largely of the calculation of character tables and applications of character theory. then the conjugacy class g G is also said to be 263 . the converse is not true: it can happen that the character of r is realvalued. This is used in the last section to prove a famous result of Brauer and Fowler concerning centralizers of involutions in ®nite simple groups. and if g is real. characters of CG-modules are real-valued. Often. then of course the character of r is real-valued. which we shall explore in this chapter. while there is no representation ó equivalent to r with all the matrices gó having real entries. Nevertheless. we have always taken our representations to be over the ®eld C of complex numbers. some results in representation theory work equally well for the ®eld R of real numbers. However. The material in this chapter is perhaps at a slightly more advanced level than that in the rest of the book. However. If all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. There is a subtle interplay between representations over C and representations over R. Various criteria for whether or not a character corresponds to a representation over R lead us to the remarkable Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. but also gives delicate information about characters which often comes into play in more dif®cult calculations. Let r be a representation of G.23 Real representations Since Chapter 9.

1 Theorem The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G.15). then it contains the inverse of each of its elements. and let X denote the complex conjugate of the matrix X.2. Therefore X can be obtained from X be permuting the columns. so X can be obtained from X by permuting the rows. the conjugacy class {1} of G is real. Since the trace of a permutation matrix is equal to the number of points ®xed by the corresponding permutation. the result is proved. For every irreducible character ÷ of G. Notice that if a conjugacy class is real. we have the number of real irreducible characters of G is tr (P). . by Proposition 13. X is invertible. the entries in the column of X which corresponds to g G are the complex conjugates of the entries in the column of X which corresponds to ( g À1 ) G .4). and the trivial character of G is real. and so there is a permutation matrix Q such that XQ X By Proposition 16.2. Proof Let X denote the character table of G. For every conjugacy class g G of G. and the number of real conjugacy classes of G is tr (Q)X j As these numbers are equal. 23.264 Representations and characters of groups real.5. a character ÷ of G is real if ÷( g) is real for all g P G. On the other hand. Part of the following corollary was obtained by a different method in Exercise 22. Hence there is a permutation matrix P such that PX X (see Exercise 4. since ( g À1 ) G fx À1 : x P g G g. Thus for example. the complex conjugate ÷ is also an irreducible character (see Proposition 13. Therefore Q X À1 X X À1 PX X Consequently P and Q have the same trace.

Hence G has at least two real conjugacy classes.Real representations 265 23. v n with real coef®cients. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. {1} and g G.1). . This is the same as saying that there is some CG-module V with character ÷. The values of ÷ are as follows: 1 ÷ 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 . (2) Let G Q8 ka. C) with character ÷. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. b2 a2 . then by Exercise 1. .8. .1).3(3)). G has an element g of order 2. v n of V. . . and there is a basis v1 .2 Corollary The group G has a non-trivial real irreducible character if and only if the order of G is even. j Characters which can be realized over R Let ÷ be a character of the group G. . then no non-identity element of G is real (see the solution to Exercise 23. and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Example 16. since À1 0 0 1 . . . b: a4 1.3 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. b: a4 b2 1. such that all the entries in each matrix gr ( g P G) are real. We say that ÷ can be realized over R if there is a representation r: G 3 GL (n. and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Exercise 17. and so G has at least two real irreducible characters by Theorem 23.1. Therefore by Theorem 23. the only real character of G is the trivial character. br ar 0 1 À1 0 provides a representation r of G with character ÷ such that all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. such that for all g P G and 1 < i < n. If G has even order. Then ÷ can be realized over R. 23. Proof If G has odd order.1. v i g is a linear combination of v1 .

(1) V becomes an RD8 -module if we de®ne v1 a v2 .3(2) tells us that the converse is false. where F is R or C. . v2 . In fact. Notice that a character ÷ of G can be .2. . The construction is even easier to understand in terms of representations: if r: G 3 GL (n. . C). ÷ cannot be realized over R. v2 b v2 (compare Example 23.2. if we de®ne v1 x v2 . . Thus an RG-module is a vector space over R. v2 x Àv1 À v2 X 0 1 (This gives the representation x 3 of Exercise 3. . but it is at the moment unclear how to prove this. v n . R) is a representation then for each g P G.) À1 À1 Every RG-module can easily be converted into a CG-module. 23.4 Examples Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over R. Simply take a basis v1 . and consider the vector space over C with basis v1 . (We shall eventually establish this in Example 23. v2 a Àv1 . v1 b Àv1 . RG-modules Recall that in Chapter 4 we de®ned an FG-module. . . (2) V becomes an RC3 -module. Example 23.3(1)).) Although every character which can be realized over R is perforce a real character. . In this section we shall study the relationship between RG-modules and CGmodules.266 Representations and characters of groups Thus ÷ is real. and hence also in C. where C3 kx: x 3 1l. the matrix gr has its entries in R. with a multiplication by elements of G satisfying the conditions of De®nition 4.18(3) below. with basis v1 . Therefore we obtain a representation r: G 3 GL (n. This new vector space is clearly a CG-module (with v i g de®ned as before). v n of the RG-module.

1 < j < nX It follows easily that. we see that (23. . . If ÷ is the character of V. In this way we de®ne v g for all v P VR and all g P G. . We de®ne a multiplication of VR by g by putting (23X5) vj g (iv j ) g n k1 n k1 (xjk v k yjk (iv k )). There exist complex numbers z jk such that vj g n k1 zjk v k (1 < j < n)X Now let VR be the vector space over R with basis v1 . v n . is 2 n k1 xkk ÷( g) ÷( g)X Hence the character of VR is ÷ ÷.Real representations 267 realized over R if and only if there exists an RG-module with character ÷.6. X X X . iv n X Write z jk x jk iyjk with x jk . y jk P R. v n .5) makes VR into an RGmodule. then ÷( g) n k1 zkk X The character of VR . evaluated at g. X X X . we have (v j g)h v j ( gh) and ((iv j ) g)h (iv j )( gh)X Hence using Proposition 4. and extending linearly to de®ne v g for all v P VR . we have (v j g)h v j ( gh) for all g. We summarize the basic properties of VR in the next proposition. Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 . regarding v j and iv j as elements of VR . . h P G. and (À yjk v k xjk (iv k )) (1 < j < n). and let g P G. iv1 . Rather more subtle than this is the construction of an RG-module from a given CG-module. . Regarding v j as an element of the CG-module V.

bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. v4 iv2 . then ÷ can be realized over R.268 Representations and characters of groups 23. For part (2). x is represented by the matrix p À1a2 3a2 p X À 3a2 À1a2 (2) Let G D8 ka.6 Proposition Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. Then VR has basis v1 . and let V be the 2dimensional CG-module with basis v1 . and so ÷ can be realized over R. (2) If V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RGmodule. v2 b v1 X Then VR has basis v1 . v2 such that v1 a iv1 . dim VR 2 dim V. br f 1 0 0 0 gX ar f d À1 0 0 e d0 0 0 1e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 The subspace of VR which is spanned by v1 v4 and v2 v3 is an RG-submodule. v2 a Àiv2 . j 23. . with character ÷. suppose that V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RG-module. and let V be the 1-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 such that p v1 x 1(À1 i 3)v1 2 p (note that 1(À1 i 3) e2ðia3 ). in particular. With respect to this basis. we obtain the representation r. Then by part (1). v3 . v4 .7 Examples (1) Let G C3 kx: x 3 1l. VR U È W where U is an RG-module with character ÷ and W is an RG-module with character ÷. v2 . where H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f 0 0 0 À1 g f g g. where v3 iv1 . and with 2 respect to this basis. iv1 . Therefore the character of V can be realized over R. v1 b v2 . b: a4 b2 1. (1) The RG-module VR has character ÷ ÷. Thus there is an RG-module. Proof We have already proved part (1). namely U.

3(1). 0 for all non-zero v P V X . Bilinear forms The question of whether or not a given character can be realized over R turns out to be related to the existence of a certain bilinear form on the corresponding CG-module. v) ë1 â(u1 . v). v) ë2 â(u2 . then a bilinear form â on V is said to be Ginvariant if â(ug. v P V and g P GX Our next result shows that every RG-module has a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form with a strong positivity property. we already know this from Example 23. v P V X And the bilinear form â is skew-symmetric if â(u. and which has the following properties: â(ë1 u1 ë2 u2 . A similar result for CG-modules was given in Exercise 8. vg) â(u. y) are both linear ± hence the term bilinear.Real representations 269 by Proposition 23. Let V be a vector space over F. for all u. v) Àâ(v. (Thus for ®xed u. v P V X If V is an FG-module.8 Theorem If V is an RG-module. v. u) for all u. then there exists a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V such that â(v. v2 P V and ë1 . A bilinear form â on V is a function which associates with each ordered pair (u.) The bilinear form â is symmetric if â(u. v. v) â(v. v1 ) ë2 â(u. â(u.6. ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ) ë1 â(u. where F is R or C. v) and y 3 â(u. the functions x 3 â(x. v) . v2 ). ë2 P F. v) of vectors in V an element â(u. u2 . v) for all u. In fact. u) for all u.6(2). 23. v) of F. u1 . v1 .

.9 Proposition Let V be an RG-module and let â be a G-invariant bilinear form on V. v)X xPG Therefore â is G-invariant and the theorem is proved. W fw P V : â(u. 0. Now let w P W and g P G. w) 0 for all u P U gX Proof It is easy to see that W is a subspace of V. v n be a basis of V. j 23. u) . For all u P U. If U is an RG-submodule of V then so is . v) n j1 v ë j ì jX Then ã is a symmetric bilinear form on V.10 Proposition Suppose that â is a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the RGmodule V. so â(u. 0 for all non-zero v P V. and â(v. we have ugÀ1 P U. v) n j1 ì2 . 0X j xPG ã(ux. ì j P R. v P V with â(u. Proof Let v1 . v) . 0 and â(v. Moreover. wg) â(ug À1 . wgg À1 ) â(ug À1 . . v gx) â(u. . For u n j1 ì j v j P V with ë j . . vx) (u. If g P G. Then V is a reducible RG-module. so W is an RG-submodule of V. for non-zero v P V. v) Now let â(u. then gx runs through G as x runs through G. w) 0X Thus wg P W. and that there exist u.270 Representations and characters of groups n j1 ë j v j . v P V )X Again. j 23. and hence â(ug. de®ne ã(u. . vg) ã(ugx. â is a symmetric bilinear form on V. v) . ã(v.

v n of V such that â1 (v i . 0.Real representations 271 Proof Theorem 23. v j ) â(v i .11 Theorem Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. w) . v) À â(u. v) (u. if we de®ne W fw P V : ã(v. . x so W T V. v1 ) x. w) 0 for all v P V g. 0 for all non-zero w P V X By a general result on bilinear forms (see Exercise 23. v i ) 1 â(v1 . . v P V )X x Since â and â1 are G-invariant symmetric bilinear forms on V. v2 ) . n But for all v i1 ë i v i P V (ë i P R). v1 ) ë1 ã(v1 . v1 ) 0X Therefore. 0. we have ã(v.9. j if i T j. and a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on V . v2 ) . 1 ã(v2 . v j ) 0 and â1 (v i . v) â1 (u. . 0X Let â(v1 .7). so is ã. â(v2 . for all i. and de®ne ã by 1 ã(u. there is a basis v1 .8 supplies us with a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â1 on V such that â1 (w. (2) there exists a CG-module V with character ÷. v1 ) . . and is an RG-submodule of V by Proposition 23. . then W is non-zero. Moreover. Therefore V is a reducible RG-module. 23. We can now relate bilinear forms to the question of whether or not a given character of G can be realized over R. v2 ) 1 À â(v2 . The following two conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ can be realized over R.

u n . v P V with â(u. and for all w1 . u) â(v. Since â(u v. v P VR .8. . Conversely. using the properties (23. . u n be a basis of U. . iv1 ) À1X Therefore VR is a reducible RG-module. iv n is a basis of the RG-module VR . v1 ) 1 and â(iv1 . . Then â(v1 . Let u1 . there is a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form ã on U. and let V be the vector space over C with basis u1 . vW) (u. X X X . v) the real part of â(uW. (ëv)W ë(vW). w2 . v1 ) 1X Extend v1 to a basis v1 . .272 Representations and characters of groups Proof We ®rst show that (2) implies (1). . By Theorem 23. . iv1 . De®ne ã on V by 2 n 3 n n n ã ë j u j. v). . Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. X X X . u v) â(u. w) T 0. . v n . Let â(w. u) T 0. ìk uk ë j ì k ã(u j . v n of V. It now follows from Proposition 23. (v g)W (vW) gX ~ Now de®ne a function â on ordered pairs of elements of VR by ~ â(u. . v) â(v.12). This establishes that (2) implies (1) in the theorem.6(2) that ÷ can be realized over R. by Proposition 23. all ë P R and all g P G. Then v1 . we have (23X12) (w1 w2 )W w1 W w2 W. V is a CG-module (with u i g de®ned as for U). w) z and v1 z À1a2 w. De®ne a function W from VR to V by n n n W: ë jv j ì j (iv j ) 3 (ë j iì j )v j (ë j . ì j P R)X j1 j1 j1 Then W is a bijection. v) 2â(u. Notice that ~ ~ â(v1 . u k ) j1 k1 j1 k1 . and suppose that â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. v P VR )X ~ You can readily check. and let U be an RG-module with character ÷. there exists w P V with â(w. . There exist u. . that â is a Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on VR . As explained earlier.10. suppose that ÷ can be realized over R.

b b X À1. j The indicator function We now associate with each irreducible character ÷ of G a certain number. if 1G is a constituent of ÷ A X We call é the indicator function on the set of irreducible characters of G. 23. which is always 0. called the indicator of ÷. and ÷ A is the character of the antisymmetric part of V V. if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . if ÷ is realX Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. 1 or À1. and V has character ÷. and ÷2 ÷S ÷ A . 2 h÷ . 1 G i 1. We shall see later that this number tells us whether or not ÷ can be realized over R.13 De®nition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Observe that 1 h÷ 2 . The next result gives a signi®cant property of the indicator function. . then we de®ne the indicator é÷ of ÷ by V if ÷ is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A . b 0. b ` é÷ 1. ÷iX jGj gPG Therefore. and the proof of the theorem is complete. relating it to the internal structure of the group G. Hence if h÷ 2 . Thus (1) implies (2). ì k P C). 1 G i 1. then precisely one of ÷ S and ÷ A has 1 G as a constituent. 1 G i ÷( g)÷( g) h÷. Note that é÷ T 0 if and only if ÷ is real.Real representations 273 (where ë j . we have @ 0. Recall from Chapter 19 that ÷ 2 is the character of the CG-module V V. if ÷ is not real. Then ã is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the CG-module V. for irreducible characters ÷. where ÷ S is the character of the symmetric part of V V.

The character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 j . Representations and characters of groups (é÷)÷(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj.274 23.14 Theorem For all x P G. ÷ where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. The de®nition of é÷ gives é÷ h÷ S À ÷A . W is a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G. 1 G i 1 ÷( g 2 ) by Proposition 19X14 jGj gPG 1 ÷( g 2 ) jGj xPG gPG: g2 x 1 W(x)÷(x) jGj xPG hW. 23. Proof De®ne a function W: G 3 C by W(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj (x P G)X Note that W is a class function on G. W (é÷)÷. ÷iX Therefore.4. since for g P G we have y 2 x D ( g À1 yg)2 g À1 xgX Therefore by Corollary 15.15 Example Let G S3 . and the result follows.

in accordance with Theorem 23. Proof In this proof we regard C as a 1-dimensional vector space over C. no elements square to be (1 2). (3) There exists a non-zero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ À1. (1 3 2). g P G)X In this way.16 Theorem Let V be an irreducible CG-module with character ÷. By Proposition 8.8. which takes the following values: 1 ÷ 1 ÷2 ÷3 4 (1 2) 0 (1 2 3) 1 Sure enough. . (1 2). and de®ne a multiplication of C by elements of G by ëg ë (ë P C. and hence the CG-module V V has a trivial CG-submodule. four elements of G square to be 1. and hence there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism W from V V onto the trivial CG-module C. so (é÷)÷ ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 . and deduce the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. (1) There exists a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ T 0. C becomes a trivial CG-module. (2) There exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ 1. Using this. and one element. (1) Suppose that é÷ T 0. namely 1. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ 2 . Back to reality We now relate the indicator function to the previous material on bilinear forms. there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V V onto this trivial CG-submodule. (1 3) and (2 3).14. 23. squares to be (1 2 3).Real representations 275 Using Proposition 19. we show that the indicator of an irreducible character determines whether or not it can be realized over R.14 we calculate that é÷ 1 for each irreducible character ÷ of G.

1 < j < n) form a basis of V V. so that v i v j (1 < i < n. As in (1). v) (u v)W (u. 1 < j < n) and extending linearly to the whole of V V. the symmetric part of V V. . Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . For g P G. v j g) â(v i . v P V )X Then â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. it follows by Proposition 8. Since â is symmetric.1. and de®ne W: S(V V) 3 C by putting (v i v j v j v i )W â(v i . . . and W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from S(V V) onto the trivial CG- . . v j ) (1 < i.8 that there is a non-zero CGhomomorphism W from S(V V) onto the trivial CG-module C. v P V and g P G. De®ne â(u.276 Representations and characters of groups Now de®ne â by â(u. v P V )X Then â is a non-zero bilinear form on V. Let v1 . V V has a trivial CGsubmodule. v) (u v v u)W (u. and therefore é÷ T 0. X X X . v n be a basis of V. Let v1 . suppose that there is a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form â on V. De®ne W: V V 3 C by putting (v i v j )W â(v i . vg) (ug v g)W ((u v) g)W ((u v)W) g (u v)W â(u. If follows that ÷ 2 has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent. Thus. Conversely. v)X Thus â is G-invariant. by Proposition 10. we have ((v i v j ) g)W (v i g v j g)W â(v i g. j < n) and extending linearly. which is the character of the CG-module S(V V). Conversely. suppose that there exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V. (2) Suppose that é÷ 1. we have â(ug. v j ) (1 < i < n. v n be a basis of V. and for u. W is well-de®ned. v j ) as â is G-invariant (v i v j )WX Hence W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V V onto the trivial CG-module C.

Real representations

277

module C. Hence ÷ S has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent, and so é÷ 1. (3) The proof of (3) is very similar to that of (2), and is omitted. j We can now relate real representations of G to involutions in G, where by an involution we mean an element of order 2. 23.17 Corollary (The Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions) For each irreducible character ÷ of G, we have V if ÷ is not real, b 0, b ` é÷ 1, if ÷ can be realized over R, b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but ÷ cannot be realized over RX Moreover, for all x P G, (é÷)÷(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj,

÷

**where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. In particular, (é÷)÷(1) 1 t,
**

÷

where t is equal to the number of involutions in G. Proof When we de®ned the indicator function, we showed that é÷ T 0 if and only if ÷ is real. And Theorems 23.11 and 23.16(2) show that ÷ can be realized over R if and only if é÷ 1. This proves that é÷ is determined as in the statement of the corollary. The expression for ÷ (é÷)÷(x) was obtained in Theorem 23.14. Putting x 1, we see that ÷ (é÷)÷(1) is equal to the number of elements y of G satisfying y 2 1. These elements are just the involutions in G, together with the identity, so the number of them is precisely 1 t. j We conclude with some examples illustrating the use of Corollary 23.17. 23.18 Examples (1) Let ÷ be a linear character. Then é÷ 1 if ÷ is real, and é÷ 0 if ÷ is non-real.

278

Representations and characters of groups

For an abelian group, the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions shows that the number of real irreducible (linear) characters is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes, since in this case g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if g2 1. This special case of Theorem 23.1 can be proved directly without much dif®culty (see Exercise 23.2). (2) We know that all the irreducible characters of D8 ka, b: a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l can be realized over R (see Example 23.3(1), and note that all four linear characters are real). Thus é÷ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of D8, and so (é÷)÷(1) 1 1 1 1 2 6X

÷

The ®ve involutions in D8 which are predicted by the Frobenius± Schur Count of Involutions are a2 , b, ab, a2 b and a3 b. (3) In the group Q8 ka, b: a4 1, a2 b2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l, there is just one involution, namely a2 . Now é÷ 1 for each of the four linear characters, and (é÷)÷(1) 2

÷

by the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. Therefore, if ø is the irreducible character of degree 2, then éø À1. In particular ø cannot be realized over R. (4) The symmetric group S4 has ten elements whose square is 1, namely the identity, the six elements which are conjugate to (1 2), and the three elements which are conjugate to (1 2)(3 4). Since the degrees 1, 1, 2, 3, 3 of the irreducible characters of S4 sum to be 10 (see Section 18.1), we see that all the characters of S4 can be realized over R. The Brauer±Fowler Theorem We now apply Corollary 23.17 to give a proof of a famous theorem of Brauer and Fowler. 23.19 Brauer±Fowler Theorem Let n be a positive integer. Then there exist only ®nitely many nonisomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with centralizer of order n.

Real representations

279

Despite its fairly elementary proof, this result is of great historical importance in ®nite group theory. It led Brauer to propose the programme of determining, for each ®nite group C, all the simple groups G possessing an involution u with CG (u) C. This programme was the start of the modern attempt to classify all ®nite simple groups, which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s. For further information about this, see the book by D. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography. In Exercise 10 at the end of the chapter you are asked to carry out Brauer's programme in the case where C C2 . This should not trouble you too much. In Chapter 30, Theorem 30.8, you will ®nd a much more sophisticated case, in which C D8. For proof of Theorem 23.19 we require two preliminary lemmas. 23.20 Lemma If a1 , . . . , a n are real numbers, then a2 >
a i 2 an. i Proof This follows from the Cauchy±Schwarz inequality kvk kwk > jvXwj, taking v (a1 , . . . , a n ) and w (1, . . . , 1). j 23.21 Lemma Let G be a group of even order m, and let t be the number of involutions in G (so t . 0 by Exercise 8 of Chapter 1). Write a (m À 1)at. Then G contains a non-identity element x such that jG : C G (x)j < a2 . Proof By Corollary 23.17, we have t< ÷(1)

÷

where the sum is over all non-trivial irreducible characters ÷ of G. Writing k for the number of irreducible characters of G, we deduce using Lemma 23.20 and Theorem 11.12 that t2 < ( ÷(1))2 < (k À 1) ÷(1)2 (k À 1)(m À 1),

÷

and hence m À 1 < (k À 1)(m À 1)2 at 2 (k À 1)a2 . Now k À 1 is the number of non-identity conjugacy classes of G. If every nonidentity conjugacy class has size more then a2 , then (k À 1)a2 .

280

Representations and characters of groups

jGj À 1 m À 1, a contradiction. Therefore some non-identity class x G has size at most a2 . Then jG : C G (x)j < a2 , giving the result. j Proof of Theorem 23.19 Suppose G is simple and contains an involution u such that jC G (u)j n. Let jGj m, and let t be the number of involutions in G. By Proposition 12.6, every element of the conjugacy class u G is an involution, and hence t > ju G j jG : C G (u)j manX Therefore (m À 1)at , n, and so by Lemma 23.21, there is a nonidentity element x P G such that jG : C G (x)j , n2 . Let H C G (x). If H G then x lies in Z(G), the centre of G, which is a normal subgroup of G. Since G is simple it follows that G Z(G), so G is abelian and therefore G C2 . Now suppose that H T G. Write r jG : Hj, so r , n2 . By Exercise 9 at the end of the chapter, there is a non-trivial homomorphism è from G to the symmetric group S r . As G is simple, the normal subgroup Ker è f1g. Thus G is isomorphic to a subgroup of S r , hence of S n2 . In particular, given n, there are only ®nitely many possibilities for G. j

Summary of Chapter 23 1. The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. Let é be the indicator function, and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. V if ÷ is non-real, b 0, b b b 1, ` if there exists an RG-module U with character ÷, 2X é÷ with character ÷ b b b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but there does not exist an RG-moduleX V if 1 G is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A , b 0, ` 3X é÷ 1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S , b X À1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ A X 2 4. ÷ (é÷)÷(1) |{ g P G: g 1}|.

Real representations Exercises for Chapter 23

281

1. Prove that if G is a group of odd order then no non-identity element of G is real. 2. Let G be a ®nite abelian group. Use the description of the irreducible characters of G, given in Theorem 9.8, to prove directly that the number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of elements g in G for which g2 1. 3. Let G D2 n and consult Section 18.3 for the character table of G. How many elements g of G satisfy g2 1? Deduce that é÷ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. 4. Let r be an irreducible representation of degree 2 of a group G, and let ÷ be the character of r. Prove that ÷ A ( g) det ( gr) for all g P G. Deduce that é÷ À1 if and only if det ( gr) 1 for all g P G. 5. Let G T 4 n ha, b: a2 n 1, a n b2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i, as in Exercise 17.6. Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 , v2 and let å be a (2n)th root of unity in C with å T Æ1. Exercise 17.6 shows that V becomes an irreducible CG-module if we de®ne v1 a åv1 , v2 a å À1 v2 , v1 b v2 , v2 b å n v1 X

Let ÷ be the character of this CG-module V. (a) Note that å n Æ1. Use Exercise 4 to show that é÷ 1 if å n 1 and é÷ À1 if å n À1. (b) Let â be the bilinear form on V for which â(v1 , v1 ) â(v2 , v2 ) 0, â(v1 , v2 ) 1, â(v2 , v1 ) å n X Prove that the bilinear form â is G-invariant, and use Theorem 23.16 to provide a second proof that é÷ 1 if å n 1 and é÷ À1 if å n À1. (c) Prove that a n is the only element of order 2 in T4 n. (d) Use the character table of G, which appears in the solution to Exercise 18.3, to ®nd é÷ for each irreducible character ÷ of G. Check that

282

**Representations and characters of groups (é÷)÷(1) 2,
**

÷

in agreement with the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 6. Prove that if ÷ is an irreducible character of a group G, and é÷ À1, then ÷(1) is even. (Hint: the solution uses a well known result about skew-symmetric bilinear forms.) 7. Suppose that V is a vector space over R and that â1 and â are symmetric bilinear forms on V. Assume that â1 (w, w) . 0 for all non-zero w in V. Prove that there is a basis e1 , X X X , e n of V such that â1 (ei , ei ) 1 for all i, and â1 (ei , ej ) â(ei , ej ) 0 for all i T jX 8. Schur's Lemma is crucial for the development of the theory of CG-modules. This exercise indicates the extent to which results like Schur's Lemma hold for RG-modules. Let V and W be irreducible RG-modules. (a) Prove that if W: V 3 W is an RG-homomorphism then either W is an RG-isomorphism or vW 0 for all v P V. (b) Prove that if W: V 3 V is an RG-isomorphism and V remains irreducible as a CG-module, then W ë1 V for some real number ë. . (c) Give an example of a group G, an irreducible RG-module V and an RG-homomorphism W: V 3 V which is not a multiple of 1 V . 9. Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. Let Ù be the set of n right cosets Hx of H in G. For g P G, de®ne a function r g : Ù 3 Ù by ( Hx)r g Hxg for all x P G. Prove that r g is a permutation of Ù, and that the function r : g 3 r g is a homomorphism from G to the symmetric group on Ù. Show that the kernel of r is xPG x À1 Hx. Deduce that if a group G has a subgroup H of index n, then there is a homomorphism G 3 S n with kernel contained in H. 10. Suppose that G is a ®nite group containing and involution t with CG (t) C2 . Prove that |G : G9| 2. Deduce that if G is simple, then G C2 .

24 Summary of properties of character tables

In this short chapter we present no new results, but instead we gather together from previous chapters various properties which are helpful when we try to ®nd the character table of a particular group. In the next four chapters we shall calculate several character tables in detail. Usually we begin by working out the conjugacy classes and centralizer orders of our given ®nite group G. The size of the character table is determined by the number k of conjugacy classes of G; the character table is then a k 3 k matrix, with columns indexed by the conjugacy classes of G (the ®rst column corresponding to the conjugacy class {1}), and with rows indexed by the irreducible characters of G. When doing calculations, we commonly come across a new character ÷, which may or may not be irreducible. We can then calculate h÷, ÷i, which is given by h÷, ÷i 1 ÷( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG

The character ÷ is irreducible if and only if h÷, ÷i 1 (see Theorem 14.20). If ÷ is reducible then we calculate h÷, ÷ i i for each of the irreducible characters ÷ i which we already know, and then ÷À h÷, ÷ i i÷ i

i

will also be a character. We can thus determine whether ÷ is a linear combination of the irreducible characters we already know; and if it is not, then we can obtain from ÷ a linear combination of irreducible characters, all of which are new. We have developed a number of methods for producing characters ÷ 283

284

Representations and characters of groups

on which to perform such calculations. For example, every subgroup of Sn has a permutation character (see (13.22)); the product of two characters is again a character (Proposition 19.6); given a character ø we can form the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of its square, ø S and ø A (see Proposition 19.14); and if H is a subgroup of G then we can restrict characters of G to H, and induce characters of H to G. These and other properties of characters are summarized in the following list.

Properties of characters Assume that ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. (1) (Example 13.8(3)) There is a (trivial) character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) 1 for all g P GX (2) (Theorem 17.11) The group G has precisely jGaG9j linear characters. These are the characters ÷ given by ÷( g) ø( gG9) ( g P G) as ø varies over the irreducible (linear) characters of GaG9. (3) (Theorem 17.3) As a generalization of (2), if N v G and ø is an irreducible character of GaN , then we get an irreducible character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) ø( gN ) ( g P G) (÷ is the lift of ø). This method gives precisely those irreducible characters of G which have N contained in their kernel. (4) (Theorem 19.18) If G G1 3 G2 then all the irreducible characters ÷ of G are given by ÷( g1 , g 2 ) ö1 ( g 1 )ö2 ( g 2 ) ( g 1 P G1 , g 2 P G2 ), as ö i varies over the irreducible characters of Gi (i 1, 2). (5) (Proposition 13.24) If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. ( g P G)

Summary of properties of character tables

285

(6) (Theorems 11.12 and 22.11) The entries ÷ i (1) (1 < i < k) in the ®rst column of the character table of G are positive integers, and satisfy

k i1

÷ i (1)2 jGjX

Moreover, each integer ÷ i (1) divides |G|. (7) (Row orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(1)) For all i, j, we have h÷ i , ÷ j i ä ij . (8) (Column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2)) For all g, h P G, we have @ k jCG ( g)j, if g and h are conjugate, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (h) 0, otherwiseX i1 (9) (Exercise 13.5) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and z P Z(G), then there exists a root of unity å such that for all g P G, ÷(zg) å÷( g)X (10) (Proposition 13.9(2)) If g is an element of order n in G, and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g) is a sum of nth roots of unity. Moreover, |÷( g)| < ÷(1). (11) (Proposition 13.9(3, 4)) If g P G and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g À1 ) ÷( g)X In particular, if g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G. (12) (Corollary 15.6) If g P G and g is not conjugate to gÀ1 , then ÷( g) is non-real for some character ÷ of G. (13) (Theorem 22.16) Let g P G. If g is conjugate to gi for all positive integers i which are coprime to the order of g, then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. (14) (Corollary 22.26) Suppose that p is a prime number and that y is the p9-part of the element g of G. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers, then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod pX

2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 (20) (De®nition 21.5). where for all g P G.13. where (ø 5 H)(h) ø(h) (h P H)X We have seen that the character table of a group G gives grouptheoretic information about G. ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). then so is the product ÷ø. For example. where ÷ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) ( g P G)X (19) (Proposition 19. these can be determined in the following ways. where ÷ë( g) ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G)X (18) (Proposition 19.23. then ÷ë is an irreducible character of G. indeed. then so is ÷. Two important normal subgroups are G9 and Z(G).6) If ÷ and ø are characters of G.1) The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. with values given by Proposition 21. we can ®nd all the normal subgroups of G (Proposition 17.23) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of H. then ø 4 G is a character of G. We can see from the character table whether or not G is simple (Proposition 17.6). Proposition 21. the ®rst column determines |G| and jGaG9j (by (6) and (2)). if the order of g is a power of p. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A .286 Representations and characters of groups In particular. where ÷( g) ÷( g) ( g P G)X (16) (Theorem 23. (17) (Proposition 17. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod pX (15) (Proposition 13.14) If ÷ is a character of G.14) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ë is a linear character of G. (21) (Chapter 20) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of G. then ø 5 H is a character of H.15) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. The centre Z(G) can be found by noting which elements g of G satisfy . The derived subgroup G9 consists of those elements g in G which satisfy ÷( g) 1 for all linear characters ÷ of G.

the sum being over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. In Chapter 30 we shall see some more impressive results about subgroups of G. however. As a ®nal remark. D8 and Q8 . the converse is false: in Exercise 17.1 we gave examples of non-isomorphic groups. it is of course true that isomorphic groups have the same character table.Summary of properties of character tables 287 ÷( g)÷( g) |G|. which can be deduced from the character table. . with the same character table.

we shall have determined the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. p À 1X An integer n of order p À 1 in ZÃ is called a primitive root modulo p p. but for a good 288 . with addition and multiplication modulo p. A number of these groups are so-called Frobenius groups.1. r . but not at all obvious. Primitive roots modulo p Recall that the set Z p f0. In particular. and n r T 1 mod p for 0 . generated by 1. We shall not provide a proof of Theorem 25. Z p is an abelian group under addition. there exists an integer n p such that n pÀ1 1 mod p. that ZÃ is cyclic: p 25. that is. Clearly Z p is a cyclic group under addition. is a ®eld. this will give the character tables of all groups whose order is the product of two prime numbers. It is also true. p À 1g. 1. that is. and ZÃ Z p À f0g is an abelian group p under multiplication. p will denote a prime number. X X X .25 Characters of groups of order pq By the end of the next chapter. Throughout the chapter.1 Theorem The multiplicative group ZÃ is cyclic. and in this chapter we shall describe a class of Frobenius groups and ®nd the character tables of the groups in this class.

BÀ1 AB Au X Using these relations. Bi. 25.2 Example The number 2 is a primitive root modulo 3.3 Proposition If q| p À 1 then there is an integer u such that u has order q modulo p ± that is. qX Frobenius groups of order pq. 0 1 and so we have the relations (25X5) Ap Bq I. and u r T 1 mod p for 0 .1). G is a group of order p( p À 1) (see Exercise 25. As an immediate consequence of Theorem 25. 5. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. 0 1 0 u and let F hA. y P Z X : xPZp p x Under matrix multiplication. but not modulo 7.3 of the book by J. De®ne p 1 1 1 0 A . Then 1 u À1 B AB Au . 0 < j < q À 1. r .Characters of groups of order pq 289 account. we refer you to Theorem 45. and let u be an element of order q in the multiplicative group ZÃ . B . the subgroup of G generated by A and B. where q| p 2 1 25.1 we have 25. such that u q 1 mod p. 11 and 13. we see that every element of F is of the form A i B j with 0 < i < p À 1. These pq elements are dis- .4 Example De®ne G & 1 0 ' y Ã. B. Now let q| p À 1. and 3 is a primitive root modulo 7.

q for the group of order pq with presentation F p. p It is not hard to show that. Since bq P H but b does not have order pq (as G is non-abelian). up to isomorphism.q ha. these facts follow readily from Sylow's Theorems (see Chapter 18 of the book by J. 25. We shall not give the general de®nition of these here.5) determine all products in F. S. F p. Suppose that H kal and Ga H h Hbi.) Both H and Ga H are cyclic. p .q does not depend on which integer u of order q we choose (see Exercise 25. or q divides p À 1 and G F p. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography). b: a p b q 1. q. B. a bÀq abq a u q and so u q 1 mod p. since they have prime order. Passman listed in the Bibliography. Now H v G. Proof Assume that G is non-abelian. It follows from Exercise 22.q . (Alternatively. B: Ap Bq I. so bÀ1 ab au for some integer u. the interested reader can ®nd more information in the book by D.q .q belong to a wider class of groups known as Frobenius groups. Then either G is abelian. Moreover the relations (25. where p and q are prime numbers with p . then we write F p. then G is generated by a and b. Thus the order of u in the group ZÃ divides q. The next result classi®es all groups whose order is the product of two distinct prime numbers. so we have the presentation F hA.3 that q divides p À 1 and G has a normal subgroup H of order p. as we shall only be dealing with F p. where u is an element of order q in ZÃ .7 Proposition Suppose that G is a group of order pq. Further. BÀ1 AB Au iX 25.6 De®nition If p is a prime and q| p À 1. so jFj pq. bÀ1 ab au i.290 Representations and characters of groups tinct. The groups F p. it follows that b has order q.3).

q are f1g. order of u in ZÃ is qX p Hence G F p. v r for S in ZÃ . and since kal < CG (av i ). and the groups of order 21 are C3 3 C7 and F7. and choose coset representatives v1 .Characters of groups of order pq 291 If the order of u were 1 then we would have bÀ1 ab a.q . Thus let G Fp. Write r ( p À 1)aq. We now construct the character table of F p.q We have. (av i ) G fav i s : s P Sg (1 < i < r). (bn ) G fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g (1 < n < q À 1)X Proof The equation bÀ j av b j avu j shows that av is conjugate to avs for all s P S. isomorphic to C3 3 C5 ). this size is at most q. p 25. in fact. j 25. every group of order 15 is abelian (indeed.8 Example By Proposition 25. also the size of this conjugacy class is equal to |G: CG (av i )|. bÀ1 ab au i where p is prime. The character table of F p. already found the character tables of certain of the groups F p. Therefore the order of u is q. and u has order q modulo p. .9 Proposition The conjugacy classes of G F p. Hence (av i ) G has size q.25 we dealt with F7. and in Example 21. We have now established that a p b q 1.q : the dihedral group of order 2 p is the case where q 2.3. Let S be the subgroup of ZÃ consisting of the powers of u. q| p À 1 (q not necessarily prime). Therefore the conjugacy class of av i has size at least q. and has the form stated in the proposition. bÀ1 ab au . X X X .7.q in general. Thus p jSj q.q ha.3 . and G would be abelian. b: ap bq 1.

and (øv 4 G)(ax ) å vsx (0 < x < p À 1)X sPS Note that øv 4 G has degree q.11. so we seek q r irreducible characters. On the other hand.23. and øv 4 G øvs 4 G if s P SX For each coset representative v j (1 < j < r) of S in ZÃ . j By Proposition 25. every conjugate of bn has the form am bn for some m. where ÷ n (a x b y ) e2ði nyaq (0 < x < p À 1. ö j i G X Hence ö j 5 hai hö j . let p ö j øv j 4 GX We now prove that each ö j is irreducible. hö j 5 hai. so GaG9 has order q and therefore by Theorem 17. Hence (bn ) G fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g and the proof is complete. and so the conjugacy class of bn has size p.9. observe that the derived subgroup G9 kal. . øv j s ihai hö j . First. These are given by ÷ n (0 < n < q À 1). By the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. Let å e2ðia p . We obtain (øv 4 G)(ax by ) 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. as Gahai is abelian.292 Representations and characters of groups Since CG (bn ) contains kbl. for all s P S. it follows that for n T 0 mod q. For v P ZÃ . ö j i G sPS øv j s ÷.16. we have |CG (bn )| q. denote by øv the character of kal which p is given by øv (ax ) å vx (0 < x < p À 1)X We calculate the values of the induced character øv 4 G. G has q r conjugacy classes. øv j s 4 Gi G hö j . and kbl has index p in G. 0 < y < q À 1)X We shall show that G has r irreducible characters of degree q. using Proposition 21. G has precisely q linear characters.

23. sPS for 1 < j < r. We have now found q r distinct irreducible characters ÷ n . b: a p b pÀ1 1. . . ö j l G 1. Consequently the irreducible characters ö1 .q ha. ö j i G øv j s X sPS By Theorem 14. We conclude by illustrating Theorem 25. 25. 0 < y < q À 1g has q r irreducible characters.Characters of groups of order pq 293 where ÷ is either 0 or a character of kal. ö r are distinct. . This proves that ö j is irreducible. Taking degrees. bÀ1 ab au i . q| p À 1 and r ( p À 1)aq. the characters øv (v P ZÃ ) are linearly indepenp dent.11 Example Let G F p. . . q have degree 1 and are given by ÷ n (ax by ) e2ði nyaq (0 < n < q À 1) and r have degree q and are given by ö j (ax by ) 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. 25.10 Theorem Let p be a prime number. Then the group F p. 1 < j < r). ö j of G (0 < n < q À 1. ö r 5 kal are distinct. and also that ö j 5 hai hö j . Of these. ö j i G X Since ö j (1) q jSj. X X X . bÀ1 ab au i fax by : 0 < x < p À 1.10 in some examples. We summarize in the following theorem. . pÀ1 ha. it follows that ö j (1) > jSjhö j . . v r S are the cosets in ZÃ of the p subgroup S generated by u. where v1 S. . b: a p bq 1. and hence ö1 5 kal. so we have the complete character table of G. we deduce that kö j . ö j (ax ) e2ðiv j sxa p .

and let á å å 5 å 8 å 12 .3. You may like . b P S5 be the permutations a (1 2 3 4 5).4 is as shown opposite. and one irreducible character ö of degree p À 1. bl. bÀ1 ab a2 X Hence if G ka.294 Representations and characters of groups where u is a primitive root modulo p. and so by the previous example the character table of G is as shown.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö 1 20 1 1 1 1 4 a 5 1 1 1 1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 x if 1 < y < p À 2.10.4 ha. b (2 3 5 4)X Check that a5 b4 1. Here F13. the character table of F13.13 Example We consider the case p 13. In Example 21. then G F5. Character table of F5. if 1 < x < p À 1X 25. â å 2 å 3 å 10 å 11 . with values given by ö(ax by ) 0 ö(a ) À1 25.12 Example Let a.4 . bÀ1 ab a5 iX Write å e2ðia13 . b: a13 b4 1. q 4. ã å4 å6 å7 å9 X By Theorem 25. Then G has p À 1 linear characters.25 we found the character table of F7.

Let u be an element of order q in ZÃ .q are described in Theorem 25. then either G is abelian or G F p. Let u and v be two integers which are of order q modulo p. is a group of order p( p À 1). bÀ1 ab au iX The irreducible characters of Fp.5 of order 55. 3.10. Let p be a prime number. q.Characters of groups of order pq 295 to check that this agrees with the description of the character table provided by Theorem 25. and de®ne .10. b: ap bq 1. p 0 x under matrix multiplication.q. Write down the character table of the non-abelian group F11. Prove that & ' 1 y : x P ZÃ . Exercises for Chapter 25 1. y P Z p . 2.q ha. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . Let p and q be positive integers. Then p Fp.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö1 ö2 ö3 1 52 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 a 13 1 1 1 1 á â ã a2 13 1 1 1 1 â ã á a4 13 1 1 1 1 ã á â b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 0 Summary of Chapter 25 1. 2. If G has order pq. Character table of F13. Suppose that p is prime and q divides p À 1. with p prime and q| p À 1.

(a) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are . E provides a counterexample to the converse of Proposition 9. obtain the character table of E.q in 25. (b) Deduce that a is conjugate to aÀ1 if and only if p 1 mod 4. Note that ka. G2 ha. b: ap bq 1. as in Exercise 5. cÀ1 bc bÀ1 i. (d) Deduce that if å e2ðia p then p å s (À1 Æ (ä p)). ö2 of G of degree q have values p 1 (ä p)) 2(À1 Æ on the element a. 6. (This justi®es the comment which follows the de®nition of Fp. cÀ1 ac aÀ1 .4. 22 . and ä À1 if p À1 mod 4. By inducing linear characters of this subgroup. X X X . b: ap bq 1. bÀ1 ab au i. bÀ1 ab av iX Prove that G1 G2 . (c) Using the orthogonality relations. bÀ1 ab au i. Suppose that p is a prime number. b.6. 5. where ä 1 if p 1 mod 4. Let E be the group of order 18 which is given by E ha. b: ap bq 1.q ha.296 Representations and characters of groups G1 ha. (a) Show that there exists an integer m such that u m À1 mod p if and only if p 1 mod 4.16. but E has no faithful irreducible representation.) 4. ab ba. bl is a normal subgroup of E which is isomorphic to C3 3 C3 . Show that the group E of Exercise 5 has the properties that Z(E) is cyclic. Q f12 . with p T 2. where u is an element of order q modulo p. (( p À 1)a2)2 g). c: a3 b3 c2 1. (Thus. show that the two irreducible characters ö1 .) 7. sPQ where Q is the set of quadratic residues modulo p (that is. Let q ( p À 1)a2 and let G Fp.

3. 6. 3. 3. Let G be the group of order 54 which is given by G ha. 6.Characters of groups of order pq 1. 1. 297 . 1. 3. 3. 1. 3. 3. 3. 3X (b) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 3. 3. 3. 1. 3. 2. 6X 8. 3X (c) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 3. 1. 1. bÀ1 ab a2 iX Find the character table of G. 1. 1. b: a9 b6 1. 3. 3. 3. 3. 2. 3. 1. 1. 1. 6. 2. 1.

26. all of which have size a power of p. Recall that Z(G) denotes the centre of G (see De®nition 9. Therefore 298 . H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. with references. In particular. The method consists of examining the characters of those p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. (1) If {1} T H v G then H Z(G) T {1}. indeed. We later give explicitly the irreducible characters of all groups of order p3 and of all groups of order 16. p will be a prime number.26 Characters of some p-groups Throughout this chapter. (3) If n < 2 then G is abelian. have an abelian subgroup of index p. and H Z(G) consists of those conjugacy classes in H which have size 1.15). Elementary properties of p-groups A p-group is a group whose order is a power of the prime number p.1 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with n > 1. Proof (1) Since H v G. then G is abelian. (2) If K < Z(G) and GaK is cyclic. In the ®rst lemma we collect several well known properties of pgroups. we show that all groups of order pn with 1 < n < 4 do. We shall show how to obtain the character tables of all groups of order pn for n < 4. and before explaining the method. Z(G) T {1}. that we have found the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. At the end of the chapter we point out.

we deduce that H Z(G) T {1}. (3) By (1). Then by Exercise 12. jGa Z(G)j < p nÀ1 . Assume that Z(G) contains a subgroup K of order p nÀ2 . so suppose that 2 < n < 4. j Hj jGjajx G j p3 . we deduce that Z( H) H. Since k1 . k2 P K. Then we can ®nd a subgroup H of G such that K < H and j Hj p nÀ1 . x2 g j k 2 for some integers i. Hence if n < 2 then Ga Z(G) is j cyclic and so G is abelian by (2). Let x1 . k2 P Z(G). Then x1 g i k 1 . recall that the derived subgroup of G is denoted by G9 (see De®nition 17. Hence again Z( H) H by Lemma 26. x2 P G. Then there exists a normal subgroup K of G such that K < H G9 Z(G) and jKj pX .1(1). by Lemma 26. j For our ®nal result on the structure of p-groups. (2) Suppose that GaK is cyclic.1(2). the only possibility is that |G| p4 and | Z(G)| p. 26.3 Lemma Let G be a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p. it follows that x1 x2 x2 x1 . and H is an abelian subgroup of index p. Proof The result is immediate if n 1. generated by gK. Then by Theorem 12. 26.Characters of some p-groups j Hj j H Z(G)j (a multiple of p)X 299 As | H| is a multiple of p and | H Z(G)| T 0. Since Z(G) T f1g by Lemma 26. Let H CG (x).8. Then G contains an abelian subgroup of index p. Z(G) and kxl are distinct nonidentity subgroups of Z( H). Moreover.7. G has an element x whose conjugacy class x G is of size p.2 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with 1 < n < 4. Therefore H is an abelian subgroup of index p in G. Therefore G is abelian. j and some k1 .1(2). Now assume that Z(G) has no subgroup of order p nÀ2 . and so Z( H) > p2 . Ha Z( H) is not of order p. As K < Z( H) and.7).

Since G is non-abelian and |G: H| p. we have KH H. or (2) ø 4 G.8 that all the p nÀ1 irreducible characters of the abelian group H are linear. This establishes (26X5) if ÷(1) p and K T< Ker ÷. Proof Let |G| pn .1(1). then ÷ is irreducibleX We know by Theorem 9. Since p nÀ1 ( p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 ) p2 pn jGj. we have {1} T G9 v G. Let K be a normal subgroup of G as in Lemma 26. The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters obtained in this way is jGaKj p nÀ1 . by Theorem 11. Now K < Z(G) implies that K v G and that KH is an abelian subgroup of G (where KH {kh: k P K. First note that if ÷ is a character of G of degree p. (Ã ) we shall then have obtained all the irreducible characters of G.12.300 Representations and characters of groups Proof Since G is non-abelian.4 Theorem Assume that G is a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p. the next theorem provides us with all the irreducible characters of non-abelian groups of order p3 or p4 .11. then either ÷ is irreducible or ÷ is a sum of linear characters (since by Theorem 22. for some linear character ø of H which satis®es K T< Ker ø. and therefore K < H. the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p). and hence G9 Z(G) T {1} by Lemma 26. In the latter case. Let Ö denote the set of linear .12. j Characters of p-groups with an abelian subgroup of index p In view of Lemma 26. 26. and hence K < G9 < Ker ÷. again by Theorem 11. Then every irreducible character of G is given by either (1) the lift of an irreducible character of GaK. we have G9 < Ker ÷.3. each of degree p. By Theorem 17. the irreducible characters of GaK lift to give precisely those irreducible characters of G which have K in their kernel. We shall construct p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 further irreducible characters of G. h P H}). as G9 is in the kernel of every linear character.3.2. Let K be a subgroup of order p in G9 Z(G).

It follows that fø 4 G: ø P Ög gives at least jÖja p ( p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 )a p distinct irreducible characters of G of degree p which do not have K in their kernel. Therefore fø 4 G: ø P Ög consists precisely of the p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 irreducible characters we seek. Then . Write Z Z(G). 1 hø 4 G.1. bZ such that Ga Z haZ. G has at most p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 such characters.4 to give an explicit construction of the irreducible characters of the non-abelian groups of order p3 . j We now use Theorem 26.23. Groups of order p3 By Theorem 9. ø1 i H X Since (ø 4 G) 5 H has degree p. bZi.6. Suppose now that ø1 is a linear character of H such that ø 4 G ø1 4 G. By Lemma 26. ø 4 G is an irreducible character of G. Choose aZ. Hence Ga Z Cp 3 Cp and Z kzl Cp .16. this implies that there are at most p elements ø1 of Ö such that ø1 4 G ø 4 G. Then by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21.5). We shall then illustrate Theorem 26. since K < Z(G).4 further by constructing the character tables of all the non-abelian groups of order 16. we have jÖj p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 X Let ø P Ö. By Proposition 21. C p2 3 Cp and Cp 3 Cp 3 Cp X The character tables of these groups are given by Theorem 9. the abelian groups of order p3 are C p3 . Since the linear characters of H which do have K in their kernel are precisely the lifts of linear characters of HaK. Now let G be a non-abelian group of order p3 . As we saw in (Ã ).8. and the proof is complete. (ø 4 G)(k) pø(k) for all k P KX Thus ø 4 G has degree p and does not have K in its kernel. ø1 4 Gi G h(ø 4 G) 5 H.Characters of some p-groups 301 characters of H which do not have K in their kernel. Therefore by (26. Z T {1} and Ga Z is non-cyclic.

For 1 < u < p À 1. If ar is conjugate to an element g of G. where ø u.v (ar bs z t ) å rusv .302 Representations and characters of groups Ga Z far bs Z: 0 < r < p À 1.v öu where for all r. v < p À 1). a the conjugacy class (ar ) G does not have size 1. 26.6 Theorem Let G {ar bs z t : 0 < r. Let H ka. and therefore g ar z t for some t. Proof By Theorem 9. then ar Z is conjugate to gZ in the abelian group Ga Z. so ar Z gZ.v is the linear character ÷ u. s.v which appears in the statement of the theorem.v (ar bs Z) å rusv X The lift to G of ø u. Write å e2ðia p . s. t with 0 < r. every element of G is of the form ar bs z t for some r. t < p À 1. as above. and hence (ar ) G far z t : 0 < t < p À 1gX . s. t. and (1 < u < p À 1). 0 < s < p À 1g and in particular. Let r be an integer with 1 < r < p À 1. s. Then the irreducible characters of G are ÷ u. so that H is an abelian subgroup of order p2 . Since ar P Z.8. ÷ u. t < p À 1} be a non-abelian group of order p3 . the irreducible characters of Ga Z are ø u. ö u (ar bs z t ) 0. choose a character ø u of H which satis®es ø u (z t ) å ut (0 < t < p À 1)X We shall calculate ø u 4 G. på . 0 < v < p À 1). zl.v (0 < u. @ ut if r s 0. otherwiseX (0 < u < p À 1.

6 is a special case of the proof of Theorem 26.4 (with K Z(G)). Clearly the irreducible characters ÷ u. and (ø u 4 G)( g) 0 if g P HX a pÀ1 s0 pÀ1 s0 303 ø u (z s ) å us We have now established that if ö u ø u 4 G. If p 2. And if p is odd.23. they are . In fact. and the sum of the squares of their degrees is p2 . (ø u 4 G)(ar z t ) ø u (ar ) ø u (ar z) X X X ø u (ar z pÀ1 ) ø u (ar ) ø u (ar ) 0X Also.v (0 < u. up to isomorphism. ö u i G 3 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p gPG 1 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p3 gP Z 1 2 p p3 gP Z 1X Therefore ö u is irreducible. p2 jGjX Hence we have found all the irreducible characters of G. they are D8 and Q8. (ø u 4 G)(z t ) pø u (z t ) på ut .Characters of some p-groups Then by Proposition 21. there are precisely two non-abelian groups of order p3 . 12 ( p À 1) . then ö u takes the values stated in the theorem. j Notice that the calculation in the proof of Theorem 26. We ®nd that 1 hö u . v < p À 1) and ö u (1 < u < p À 1) are all distinct.

b: a8 b2 1. Z( H2 ) kzl. that all the nine groups G1 . b. it is possible to see.8 The groups of order 16 It is known that.5.6. G9 given below do indeed have order 16. C4 3 C2 or C2 3 C2 3 C2 X We shall divide our descriptions into three parts. z: a p b p z p 1.8. C8 3 C2 . By Theorem 9.6. . b: a p b p 1. so the subgroup K described in Lemma 26. bÀ1 ab a3 iX . We shall describe all these groups and their character tables. C4 3 C2 3 C2 and C2 3 C2 3 C2 3 C2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i D16 . b: a8 1. according to these three possibilities for GaK. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. . up to isomorphism. These are G of order 16 with G1 ha. 26. For each of the nine non-abelian groups G of order 16 it is the case that |G9 Z(G)| 2 (see Exercise 26. G2 ha. and H 2 ha. . and their character tables are given by Theorem 9. .3 is given by K G9 Z(G)X Now GaK is a group of order 8. (A) There are three non-abelian groups GaK D8 .7). b in H1 and H2 will serve for the elements a. the abelian groups of order 16 are C16 . b: a8 b2 1. using Exercise 26. Hence GaK D8 . 134 of the book by Coxeter and Moser listed in the Bibliography).8. b chosen in the statement of Theorem 26. Our descriptions will be in terms of presentations. G3 ha. az za. The elements a. bÀ1 ab aziX 2 We have Z( H1 ) ka p l. there are precisely fourteen groups of order 16 (see p. It is not C8 by Lemma 26. bÀ1 ab a p1 i. bz zb. C4 3 C4 .304 (26X7) Representations and characters of groups H 1 ha. and it is not Q8 by Exercise 26. b2 a4 .1(2).

G5 ha. p á i 2 Àâ for G3 X p The ®rst ®ve characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of GaK D8 . alternatively. they can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. b. z: a4 1. a7 C6 ai b (i even) ai b (i even) C7 ai b (i odd) ai b (i odd) Using Theorem 26. . G6 ha. (B) There are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK C4 3 C2 (where. b2 z 2 1. bÀ1 ab azi. as before. b. b. bÀ1 ab az. The last two characters can be obtained as in Theorem 26. .6). G2 G3 1 1 C2 a4 a4 C3 a2 . where ø is a linear character of the abelian subgroup kal of index 2. bz zbiX . C1 G1 .Characters of some p-groups 305 In each case K ka4 l. of order 2). a6 C4 a. C7 . we obtain the character tables of G1 . These are G4 ha. K G9 Z(G). G2 and G3 : Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 2 À2 À2 C3 8 1 1 1 1 À2 0 0 C4 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 á â C5 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 â á C6 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 C7 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 where á 2 Àâ for G1 . but not in G3 . z: a4 z.4(2) as induced characters ø 4 G. z 2 1. Note that a is conjugate to aÀ1 in G1 and G2 . . G2 . Each of the groups has seven conjugacy classes C1 . b2 z. a7 a. hence the values in the columns C4 and C5 are all real for G1 and G2 .4. a3 C5 a3 . and these are given in the following table. az za. a6 a2 . but not for G3 (see Corollary 15. b2 z 2 1. z: a4 1. a5 a5 . . bÀ1 ab azi.

of order 2). G9 ha. z: a4 b2 z 2 1. there are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK C2 3 C2 3 C2 (where K G9 Z(G). a3 z b. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . az za. for G5 . a3 bz a. a2 b2 . b. abz C10 a3 b. z: a4 z 2 1. G5 . b. G8 ha. The character tables of G4 . az a3 . b. since a4 z in G4 . a2 bz C9 ab. . G5 and G6 can again be found using Theorem 26. bÀ1 ab az 2 . bz zbiX . az za. . but they are in a form which allows us to describe the conjugacy classes C1 . These are G7 ha.4: Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 á â C4 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 â á C5 8 1 i À1 Ài 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 C6 8 1 Ài À1 i 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 C7 8 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 i À1 Ài À1 Ài 1 i 0 0 C10 8 1 Ài À1 i À1 i 1 Ài 0 0 where á 2i Àâ á 2 Àâ for G4 . bz zbi D8 3 C2 . . C10 of all three groups G4 . z is redundant).306 Representations and characters of groups The given presentations are somewhat cumbersome (for example. G6 X (C) Finally. K kzl. bz zbi Q8 3 C2 . z: a2 b2 z 4 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . az za. bz In each case. G6 simultaneously: C1 1 C2 z C3 a2 C4 a2 z C5 C6 C7 C8 a2 b.

3. a3 bz b. are as follows: . G8 . G8 and G9 .4. a2 b bz. abz3 We have K @ ha2 i hz 2 i for G7 .9 The groups of order less than 32 At this point. we have in fact found the character tables of all groups of order 31 or less. az 2 az. with references for their character tables. bz 3 ab.8 and Section 18.Characters of some p-groups Each of these groups has ten conjugacy classes. the groups. Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 á â C4 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 â á C5 8 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 0 0 C6 8 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 C7 8 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 C10 8 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 0 0 where á 2 Àâ á 2i Àâ for G7 . a3 z z z 3 a. for G9 X 26. are as follows. a3 az. a3 b abz. whose character tables are given by Theorem 9. G8 . bz 2 bz. Apart from abelian groups and dihedral groups. which are given by C1 C2 C3 C4 G7 . abz 2 abz. a2 bz ab. for G9 . and the character tables of G7 . G8 G9 1 a2 1 z2 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 307 z a2 z a. az 3 b. given by Theorem 26.

5 Theorem 26. Show that for some integer m > 2.18 Exercise 25.3 Theorem 25. T12 3 C2 D8 3 C3 .1 Exercise 27.6: groups of order p3 .3 Section 26. Theorem 26. 1.2 Exercise 18.1 Section 18.2 Exercise 18.6 Exercise 18.8: groups of order 16. we gave the irreducible characters of various nonabelian p-groups G. G9 D6 3 C3 E T20 F5.308 |G| 8 12 16 18 20 21 24 Representations and characters of groups G Q8 A4 T12 G1 . Suppose that G is a group of order pn ( p prime. G has pm linear characters and p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 irreducible characters of degree p.10 Theorem 19. with an abelian subgroup H of index p.4 Exercise 18. . Section 26. D6 3 C4 S4 SL (2.10 Theorem 25. 3) T24 U24 V24 H1 . A4 3 C2 . Exercises for Chapter 26 1.3 Theorem 19. 2. D10 3 C3 Reference for character table Exercise 17.3 D12 3 C2 .5 Exercise 18. . .18 27 28 30 Summary of Chapter 26 In this chapter. 3.3 Exercise 18. Theorem 26.18 Theorem 19. . Q8 3 C3 . as follows. .8 Theorem 19.4: p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. H2 T28 D6 3 C5 .4 F7. n > 2).18 Section 18.

Find the conjugacy classes of H. bz zb. (b) Show that for all g in G. Let G1 . ®nd the character table of G. 4. B. .7)).4.6 to write down the character table of H. and ®nd all the irreducible representations of G. G4 and G9 .3. fi 0 1 0g 0 0 e d 0 0 0 0 Ài À1 0 I 0 f f0 f Df f0 d 1 H 0 Ài 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 0 g Ài g g g. b. g 2 P h Zi. az za. (Hint: use Corollary 9. . Let H be the group of order 27 which is given by H ha.) (d) Show that |G| 32. Write Z ÀI. . Let A. Ài g e 0 g 0g g g. G9 be the non-abelian groups of order 16 with presentations as given in the text. or otherwise. and use Theorem 26. b: a16 1. 0g e 0 and let G kA. G3 .Characters of some p-groups 2. (a) Find faithful irreducible representations of degree 2 for G1 . b2 a8 . D H À1 f f 0 f Af f 0 d 0 f fi f Cf f0 d 0 H i 0 0 0 be the following 4 3 4 matrices: I H 0 0 0 0 0 i g f f0 1 0 0g 0 0 g f Bf g. z: a3 b3 z 3 1. bÀ1 ab azi 309 (see (26. 3. C. . and deduce that G is a 2group of order at most 32. Dl. (b) Why do the remaining groups G5 . G7 and G8 have no faithful irreducible representations? . G2 . (a) Prove that all pairs of generators commute modulo h Zi. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX Using Theorem 26. 5. 0g e 0 I g 0g g g. C. (c) Prove that the given representation of G of degree 4 is irreducible. Let G be the group of order 32 which is given by G ha. G6 . and deduce that G9 h Zi. B.

(b) Prove that |G9| p or p2 . 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 eX 0 0 1 (d) Find faithful representations of degree 3 for G7 D8 3 C2 and G8 Q8 3 C2 .) 6. . b 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. 7. b 3 d 1 0 0 e. (c) Deduce that |G9 Z(G)| p. then Ga(G9 Z(G)) T Q8 . (Note: This exercise can be used to con®rm that the presentations of G1 . 0 0 1 H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 G6 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. bZ: a4 P Z. . . 8. (a) Prove that | Z(G)| p or p2 . Let G be a non-abelian group of order p4 . then Ga Z(G) T Q8 . . G9 are isomorphic. . 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 e. and that if | Z(G)| p2 then G has p3 p2 À p conjugacy classes. .310 (c) Representations and characters of groups Check that the following give faithful representations of G5 and G6 : H I H I 0 1 0 i 0 0 G5 : a 3 d 1 0 0 e. . (Hint: assume that Ga Z haZ. G9 given in the text do indeed give groups of order 16. a2 b2 mod Z. and that if |G9| p2 then G has 2 p2 À 1 conjugacy classes. Prove that no two of the groups G1 . . Prove that a2 commutes with b. (a) Prove that if G is any group. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 mod Zi. and hence that a2 P Z.) (b) Deduce from the result of Exercise 7 that if G is a group of order 16.

Special linear groups Let p be a prime number. d which make ad À bc 1 (since a.27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 Recall that a simple group is a non-trivial group G such that the only normal subgroups of G are f1g and G itself. we count the matrices a b (a. is the smallest non-abelian simple group. The next smallest is a certain group of order 168. . c. of order 60. p). and recall that Z p is the ®eld which consists of the numbers 0. In fact the group A5 . and d is determined by a). Then SL (2. A5 and A6 . b. b. And there are p2 ( p À 1) choices for a. and in this chapter we shall describe this group and ®nd its character table. Denote by SL (2. d 311 . . b. p À 1. To calculate the order of the group SL (2. and is called the 2-dimensional special linear group over Z p. p) is a group under matrix multiplication. We discussed brie¯y in Chapter 1 the signi®cance of simple groups in the theory of ®nite groups. p) the set of all 2 3 2 matrices M with entries in Z p such that det M 1. ad À bc 1)X c d If c 0. except that a T 0. and we begin with a description of this family. b are arbitrary. . The group belongs to a whole family of simple groups. d P Z p . c. Examples of simple groups which we have met so far are cyclic groups of prime order. with addition and multiplication modulo p. then there are p( p À 1) choices for a. .

Thus PSL (2. we shall ®nd the character table using only numerical calculations. p)j p( p À 1) p2 ( p À 1) p( p2 À 1)X If p 2 then SL (2. 3) A4 . p) has order 6. PSL (2. the group PSL (2. p)afÆIgX Since |SL (2. Rotman listed in the Bibliography). The power of these techniques is therefore well illustrated. such that ad À bc 1 (since a. and that for p > 5. The conjugacy classes of PSL (2. and then b is determined). ÀIg (where I is the 2 3 2 identity matrix). The simple group G PSL (2. c is any non-zero element of Z p . After ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. and is written as PSL (2. and it is easy to see that this group is isomorphic to S3 . the order of CG ( gi ). notably the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16. . so assume that p is an odd prime. 7) 27. 7) has exactly six conjugacy classes. we have jPSL(2. we indicate other ways of obtaining characters of G. p)a Z is called the 2-dimensional projective special linear group. d may be chosen arbitrarily.312 Representations and characters of groups with c T 0. 5) A5 . Therefore jSL (2. p) is Z fI. together with the order of gi . the centre of SL (2.26).19 of the book by J.1. using information about subgroups. p) SL (2. 7) has order 168. and the size of the conjugacy class containing gi . In the exercises. The following table records representatives gi (1 < i < 6) for the conjugacy classes. The factor group SL (2.4) and congruence properties (Corollary 22. J.1 Lemma The group PSL (2. p)j p( p2 À 1)a2X It is known that PSL (2. p) is simple (see Theorem 8. p). and we shall construct the character table of this group. p)| p( p2 À 1). By Exercise 27.

. Consequently & 1 0 2 Z. Among g1 . d ' Z X 4 0 0 2 3 À2 3 2 0 À1 1 0 . 6. and then use direct calculation to ®nd all the elements of G which commute with g i . the only elements with the same order are g5 . . g4 . 5. Consider. . . X 3 À2 4 À2 À2 2 2 2 Also. g6 . . . for example. CG ( gi ) k gi l for i 3. a c b . . Then a b 2 0 2 Æ c d 0 4 0 and hence b c 0. CG ( g 4 ) 0 1 0 Similarly CG ( g2 ) & 0 4 0 4 Z. MZ: M À2 4 2 4 1 0 0 1 ' 2 3 2 4 2 2 2 À2 .Character table of the simple group of order 168 Order of gi g1 g2 g3 g4 g5 g6 1 0 0 1 Z Z 2 4 3 7 7 8 4 3 7 7 21 42 56 24 24 1 168 |CG ( gi )| | gG | i 1 313 0 1 À1 0 2 2 2 0 1 0 1 0 À2 Z 2 0 Z 4 1 Z 1 À1 Z 1 Proof For each i. . Suppose that a b Z c d commutes with g4 . we verify that gi has the stated order. .

then ÷( gi ) is an integer.2 Corollary (1) If 1 < i < 4 and ÷ is a character of G. gi is conjugate to ( gi ) k whenever gi and ( gi ) k have the same order. d aÀ1 and a ab a b À aÀ1 X 0 aÀ1 0 aÀ1 Therefore a2 À1. a T 0. .1. it also has six irreducible characters. .16.19). and so a ab aÀc Æ c cd c bÀd d with ad À bc 1X It follows that c 0. j The character table of G PSL (2.314 Representations and characters of groups and g6 . 5 Therefore (2) follows from Corollary 15. and we have established that no two of the elements g1 . 27. Proof (1) By Lemma 27. The size of the conjugacy class g G is obtained by dividing 168 by i |CG ( gi )| (Theorem 12. since any normal subgroup is a union of conjugacy classes (see Proposition 12. where ÷1 is the . g6 are conjugate. for 1 < i < 4. . . Hence the conclusion follows from Theorem 22. (2) Notice that g6 gÀ1 . j Notice that using Lemma 27. .8). it is easy to check that G is indeed simple. . Thus g5 is not conjugate to g6 . which is impossible for a P Z7 . ÷( g5 ) is non-real.6. 7) Since G has six conjugacy classes. (2) For some character ÷ of G.1. . Since the sum of the sizes of the six conjugacy classes g G (1 < i < 6) is 168. except possibly g5 and g6 . these exhaust the conjugacy i classes of G. so g5 is not conjugate to its inverse. Suppose that gÀ1 g6 g g5 with a b g Z P GX c d Then gg5 g6 g. Let ÷1 . so no two of these six elements are conjugate. . ÷6 be the irreducible characters of G.

part of the character table of G is as follows: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 We shall determine the signs later.4(2). Theorem 16. (We know that the entry in the ®rst row is ÷1 ( g4 ) 1.Character table of the simple group of order 168 315 trivial character (so that ÷1 ( g) 1 for all g P G). the degrees ÷ i (1)). ÷( g 2 ) ÷(1) mod 2. 0 in some order. By .) Similarly the entries in the column of g3 are 1. Æ2. and the congruence properties given by Corollaries 22. we see that. and ÷( g 3 ) ÷(1) mod 2.e.27 for the elements g2 . for which the character values are known to be integers. . 0 in some order. 0 in some order.26 and 22. Æ1. and so ÷( g 2 ) ÷( g 3 ) mod 2X Since we also know that 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 0. Æ1. ÷6 . Now for all characters ÷ of G. . The entries in the column of g4 are integers.27. and the sum of the squares of these integers is equal to |CG ( g4 )| 3. . Let di ÷ i (1). by Corollary 27. 0.2. and the entries in column g2 are 1. Æ1. with a suitable ordering of ÷2 . We shall repeatedly exploit the column orthogonality relations. Æ1. 0. Æ1. For the moment we concentrate on the entries in the ®rst column of the character table (i. The entries must therefore be 1. . Æ1. Æ1. we have by Corollary 22. g4 . so di is the entry on row i of column 1. Recall that the character table is the 6 3 6 matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( gj ). Æ1. 0. g3 .

d5 3. Next. d 6 0 mod 3. Since d 2 1 mod 2. Theorem 22.11 and the fact that i1 d i 168. we have d 4 0 mod 3.Representations and characters of groups 6 2 Corollary 22. and have the following portion: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 . so as d 2 < 168. 2 3 so d 2 d 2 113. 8 in some order. d 4 divides jGj 168.27. The only solutions to this equation with d2. 2 Now 1 d 2 d 2 32 32 62 168. we have d6 T 12. d 2 < 168X 4 The only positive integer d4 which satis®es these conditions is d4 3. In the same way. d3 2 3 positive integers have d2. d 6 0 mod 2. d 2 < 168X 6 Therefore d6 is 6 or 12. d3 equal to 7. d 4 1 mod 2. But 0 6 i1 316 and and ÷ i ( g 2 )d i 1 Æ d 2 Æ 3 Æ 3 Æ 2d 6 . we have d2 7 and d3 8. d 6 divides 168. and hence d6 6. We have now found the ®rst column of the character table.

for j 5. the complex conjugate ÷ will be a different character of the same degree.Character table of the simple group of order 168 The equations 6 i1 317 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g j ) 0 for j 2. 6. ÷2 i 6 ÷2 ( g i )÷2 ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j 7X7 1 1 1 ÷2 ( g 5 )÷2 ( g 5 ) ÷2 ( g 6 )÷2 ( g 6 ) 168 8 4 3 7 7 gives ÷2 ( g5 ) ÷2 ( g6 ) 0.) Also. and let ÷6 ( g5 ) t. 0 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 4 )÷ i ( g j ) 1 À ÷3 ( g j ) and so ÷3 ( g5 ) ÷3 ( g6 ) 1. For this character ÷. there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷( g5 ) is non-real. Thus the column for g5 is . g4 . 3. the equation 1 h÷2 . By Corollary 27. but we could not use this fact as we were not sure that ÷2 ( g5 ) was an integer. Hence ÷4 and ÷5 (being the only two irreducible characters with the same degree) must be complex conjugates of each other. We obtain Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 Next. g3 .2. 4 now enable us to determine the signs in the columns for g2 . Let ÷4 ( g5 ) ÷5 ( g 5 ) z. (Note that ÷2 ( g5 ) ÷2 (1) mod 7.

7) Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. z (À1 Æ i 7)a2X Since g6 gÀ1 . 7). as shown. ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 1 z z. we obtain p t À1. g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 1 0 1 á á À1 It is known that there are precisely ®ve non-abelian simple groups of order less than 1000. . ÷ i ( g 5 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 2 2zz ttX Solving these equations. Character table of PSL (2. we have ÷( g6 ) ÷( g 5 ) for all characters ÷ of G. We give you the character tables of all of these.318 Representations and characters of groups Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g5 7 1 0 1 z z t Now 0 0 7 6 i1 6 i1 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 1 À z À z 2t. 5 We have now completely determined the character table of G PSL (2.

Prove that Z(SL (2.2 Exercise 28. given the conjugacy classes of G.3 Exercise 27. 8) PSL (2. and show that (1 T ) 4 G 1 G ÷. 7). 7). Calculate the values of the induced character (1 T ) 4 G. 11) Order of G 60 168 360 504 660 319 Reference for character table Example 20. ad À bc 1 . d P Z p . p)) fÆIg. p) a c Summary of Chapter 27 ' b : a. 7) that this group is simple. 7) A6 PSL (2. . c. b P Z7 7 0 aÀ1 (where Z {ÆI}). 2. Find the character table of SL (2. Exercises for Chapter 27 1. p)j p( p2 À 1). PSL (2. b. We constructed the character table of PSL (2.1. 3.6 & 1. 3). In this exercise we present an alternative construction of the character table of G PSL (2. of order 21. Deduce directly from the character table of PSL (2. as follows: & ' a b T Z : a P ZÃ . (a) De®ne the subgroup T of G. as in Lemma 27. jPSL (2. 3.Character table of the simple group of order 168 as follows: G A5 PSL (2. p) SL (2. d jSL (2. 2. the simple group of order 168. p)j p( p2 À 1)a2 ( p odd).13 This chapter Exercise 20. 4. SL (2. p)afÆIg. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G.

14). Use orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. 7.320 Representations and characters of groups (b) Let ë be a non-trivial linear character of T. 7). (a) Show that G has 11 conjugacy classes with representatives gi as follows: gi g1 g2 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 8 8 3 6 7 14 7 14 336 336 8 8 8 6 6 14 14 14 14 1 1 42 42 42 56 56 24 24 24 24 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i À1 0 0 À1 0 1 g3 À1 0 2 À2 g4 2 2 À2 2 g5 À2 À2 2 0 g6 0 4 À2 0 g7 0 À4 1 1 g8 0 1 À1 À1 g9 0 À1 1 À1 g 10 0 1 À1 1 g 11 0 À1 . (c). The character table of SL (2. 8 and 6. (d) From (a). we now have irreducible characters of G of degrees 1. with entries in the ®eld Z7 . 7). obtain an irreducible character of G of degree 6. (b). Let G SL (2. 5. the group of all 2 3 2 matrices of determinant 1. (c) By considering ÷ S (see Proposition 19. Calculate the values of ë 4 G and prove that this is an irreducible character of G.

(f) Let ø be one of the irreducible characters of degree 4. ÷10 . g7 . By considering the values of ø A on g1 . 8. Deduce the values of the irreducible characters of degree 4 on all gi . . . 6. prove that ø A is equal to the irreducible character of G of degree 6 whose kernel contains Z. show that the degrees of ÷7 .7) to write down the six irreducible characters of G with kernel containing Z {ÆI}. . This group has eight conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . g2 . gÀ1 . gÀ1 . 4. and congruences modulo 3. 6. ÷11 be the remaining irreducible characters of G. and deduce that ÷ j (1) is even. g6 . Let G PSL (2. The character table of PSL (2. . (g) Complete the character table of G. (d) Prove that ÷ j ( g3 ) 0 for 7 < j < 11. ÷9 . Show that for any j with 7 < j < 11 and any g P G.14). we have ÷ j ( g) À÷ j (À g). ÷8 . . 6. ÷11 are 4. g8 . . Find the character table of G. 11). gÀ1 . gÀ1 are conjugate to g5 . . and ®nd ÷ j ( g6 ) for 7 < j < 11. (e) By considering the column of g6 in the character table.Character table of the simple group of order 168 321 (b) Use the character table of PSL (2. . respec5 6 7 8 tively. . g3 and g6 (see Proposition 19. g8 having orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 660 g2 2 12 g3 3 6 g4 6 6 g5 5 5 g6 5 5 g7 11 11 g8 11 11 Also. 11). (c) Let ÷7 .

The basic properties of ®nite ®elds which we will use without proof are these: 322 . Secondly. we shall see that the conjugacy classes of our groups fall into four families. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. and we shall tell you which properties of these ®elds we will use.28 Character table of GL(2. Consequently. We shall determine the character tables of some matrix groups with entries from an arbitrary ®nite ®eld. if we write F Ã Fnf0g. At ®rst sight. with identity element 1. as do the irreducible characters. In the last chapter and its exercises. if you are unfamiliar with ®nite ®elds then you might like to consult the book by J. First. and one of the exercises will show you how to use the results of this chapter to determine the character tables of in®nitely many simple groups. we can display the character values in a 4 3 4 matrix. The ®elds F q and F q 2 We consider ®nite ®elds. with the usual de®nitions of and 3. (F. the distributive law holds. since the number of irreducible characters increases with the size of the ®eld. B. b. with identity element 0. For example. However. that is (a b)c ac bc for all a. then (F Ã . Recall that a ®eld (F. we found the character tables of certain groups of 2 3 2 matrices with entries in Z7 and Z11 . q) We are now going to calculate the character tables of an important in®nite series of groups. this is a daunting task. ) is an abelian group. Finally. . 3) is an abelian group. c P F. 3) is a set F with two binary operations and 3 such that the following properties hold. R. C and Z p ( p prime) are ®elds.

we shall identify the sub®eld S of F q 2 in Proposition 28. 2 (2) Since FÃ2 is a group of order q 2 À 1.3) Let å be a generator of the cyclic group FÃ2 and let q 2 ù e(2ðia(q À1)) .5. in short. q) (28. so r r q . it follows that (s t) p s p t p for all s. Then r 3 r is an irreducible character of FÃ2 . (28. Hereafter. t P S. It is now easy to check that (S. 3) is cyclic. and hence S F q . every irreducible character of FÃ2 has the form q r 3 r j for some integer j. ) and (Snf0g. 28. 3) are abelian groups. . q 323 Notice that the binomial coef®cients ( ip ) with 1 < i < p À 1 are all divisible by p. r 1q P S. Then (s t) q s q t q s t. ps 0. Then there exists a ®eld F q of order q and every ®eld of order q is isomorphic to F q . Proof (1) Suppose that s. and write q pn . (1) The set S is a sub®eld of F of order q.1) Let p be a prime and n be a positive integer. Moreq over. We may write q r å m for some m and we let r ù m . and k k k hence (s t) p s p t p for all positive integers k. r 1q P S. so s t P S. t P F q . so S is a ®eld. This implies that (r r ) r r r r and (r 1q ) q j r 1q . You are now in a position to appreciate the statement of the main result of this chapter.2 Proposition Let F F q 2 and S fs P F : s q sg.Character table of GL(2. (2) If r P F then r r q . We use this remark in the proof of the next proposition. We introduce the following useful notation. namely Theorem 28. Suppose that r P FÃ2 . The group (FÃ . For every s P F q the sum of s with itself p times is zero.2 with the ®eld F q . we see that r q r for all q q q q q2 q r P F.

and remember that the matrix a b c d belongs to G if and only if its rows are linearly independent. giving us q 2 À 1 choices. consider the matrices s us 0 Let give us q À 1 conjugacy classes of 1 s (s P FÃ )X q . q). b) can be any non-zero row vector. The number of such matrices is found by noting that (a. q) The general linear group GL(2. and once (a. Let G GL(2. since conjugate matrices have the same eigenvalues. d) can be any row vector which is not a multiple of (a. They size 1. First. (c. c9g. b) has been chosen.324 Representations and characters of groups The conjugacy classes of GL(2. giving us q 2 À q choices. cg fa9. Here. Next. Keep this in mind during the following discussion. a b 0 c can be conjugate to a9 0 b9 c9 only if fa. q). of which three are easy to describe. q). jGj (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q(q À 1)2 (q 1)X There are four families of conjugacy classes of G. Therefore. q) is de®ned to be the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in F q . b). we are going to calculate the character table of GL(2. and we talked about some special linear groups in the last chapter. The subgroup consisting of all matrices of determinant 1 is the special linear group SL(2. The matrices s 0 sI (s P FÃ ) q 0 s belong to the centre of G.

t g if and only if b c 0. s T t) give us q (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes. consider 0 1 vr (r P F q 2 nF q )X Àr 1q r r q By Proposition 28. t P G (s. v r P G. t d s.Character table of GL(2. t P FÃ . Thus. t P FÃ ) q 0 t and note that 0 1 1 0 À1 d s. each conjugacy class contains q 2 À 1 elements. then we have that gd s. q) a b P GX g c d Then gus and us g 325 as cs a bs c ds as cs d bs ds so g belongs to the centralizer of us if and only if c 0 and a d. 2 3 Àbr 1q a b(r r q ) gv r and Àdr 1q c d(r r q ) 2 3 c d vr g X Àar 1q c(r r q ) Àbr 1q d(r r q ) . Thus. so. by Theorem 12. let s 0 d s.2. t (s. Finally. so v r has eigenvalues r and r q. so each conjugacy class contains q(q 1) elements.8. the centralizer order is (q À 1)2 . The characteristic polynomial of v r is det(xI À v r ) x(x À (r r q )) r 1q (x À r)(x À r q ). Since r P F q we see that v r lies in a none of the conjugacy classes we have constructed so far. Now. if s T t.s X On the other hand. the matrices d s. the matrices us (s P FÃ ) give us q À 1 conjugacy classes. Now. the q centralizer order is (q À 1)q. t 0 1 1 0 d t.

t is indexed by unordered pairs fs. and the conjugacy class containing v r has size q 2 À q. We therefore partition F q 2 nF q into subsets fr. We have now found all the conjugacy classes of G. Therefore. of classes qÀ1 us (q À 1)q qÀ1 d s. r q g of elements of FÃ2 nFÃ . described as follows. each subset gives us a conjugacy class representative v r and different subsets give us representatives of different conjugacy classes. r q g. q). g sI |CG ( g)| (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) No. 28. j . q The family of conjugacy class representatives d s. g P CG (v r ) if and only if a b g X Àbr 1q a b(r r q ) Thus. t (q À 1)2 (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 vr q2 À 1 (q 2 À q)a2 The families of conjugacy class representatives sI and us are indexed by elements s of FÃ . 0) and r.326 Representations and characters of groups Hence gv r v r g only if c Àbr 1q and d a b(r r q ). q The family of conjugacy class representatives v r is indexed by unordered pairs fr. But this sum is equal to the order of GL(2. then ad À bc a2 ab(r r q ) b2 r 1q (a br)(a br q )X Since (a. If these conditions hold. we see that a br and a br q a are non-zero. so it is not conjugate to v r unless t r or t r q. so we have found all the conjugacy classes. r q P F q. The matrix v t has eigenvalues t and t q. b) T (0. jCG (v r )j q 2 À 1. q q Proof The conjugacy classes we have found account for (q À 1) (q À 1)(q 2 À 1) (q À 1)(q À 2)q(q 1)a2 (q 2 À q)(q 2 À q)a2 elements altogether. Class rep. q).4 Proposition There are q 2 À 1 conjugacy classes in GL(2. tg of distinct elements of FÃ .

and let r 3 r be the function from FÃ2 to C described in (28. ø i . j < q À 2. if j1 and j2 belong to this set and j1 j2 q mod (q 2 À 1) then we choose precisely one of j1 and j2 to belong to the indexing set for the characters ÷ i . Thus. ø i. (a) For ë i we have 0 < i < q À 2. j .4. each of degree q. (d) For ÷ i. and of the remaining q 2 À q elements of K. Then jKj q 2 À 1. 1 X vå å åq Àå 1q 28. (b) For ø i we have 0 < i < q À 2. there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 characters ø i. Before we embark upon the task of calculating the irreducible characters of G. ÷ i as follows. q) The characters of GL(2. Recall that å is our chosen generator for FÃ2 and q 0. sI ëi øi ø i. The group K contains the q À 1 scalar matrices sI in G. 327 28. there are q À 1 characters ø i . . there are (q 2 À q)a2 characters ÷ i . there are q À 1 characters ë i . t (st) i (st) i si t j s j t i 0 vr r i(1q) Àr i(1q) 0 À(r i r iq ) Here. each of degree q À 1. (c) For ø i.q) We are now in a position to describe the character table of G. we ®rst consider the set of integers j with 0 < j < q 2 À 1 and (q 1) T j j. each of degree 1. Hence. q) are given by ë i .Character table of GL(2. j . each of degree q 1. we have the following restrictions on the subscripts. Thus. q) as in Proposition 28.6 Proposition Let K hvå i. j we have 0 < i . Then the q irreducible characters of GL(2. j ÷i s 2i qs 2i (q 1)s i j (q À 1)s i us s 2i 0 s i j Às i d s.5 Theorem Label the conjugacy classes of GL(2.3). Thus. we present a proposition which will be useful later.

as described in Proposition 28. sI ø i. whose values appear in Theorem 28. in turn. j of G whose values on the conjugacy class representatives. If å i T å iq then i i iq å P F q and vå and vå must be conjugate to vå i .7 are all the linear characters of G. ø i. Proof The map det : g 3 det g is a homomorphism from G onto FÃ . since vå has eigenvalues in F q and vå is diagonalizable. ø i . so vå has order q 2 À 1. and they are given in Theorem 28. the irreducible characters ë i . 28. the functions ë i : g 3 (det g) i ( g P G) give q À 1 distinct linear characters of G. t si t j s j t i vr 0 .4. and this case accounts for the q À 1 scalar matrices. q q Proof The eigenvalues of vå are å and å q.8 Proposition For all integers i.328 Representations and characters of groups precisely two belong to each of the conjugacy classes represented by v r with r P FÃ2 nFÃ . j We shall construct. Hence two elements a of K belong to the conjugacy class of vå i . i iq The eigenvalues of vå and of vå are å i and å iq . i i i If å i å iq then vå å i I.5. j there is a character ø i. 28. are as follows.5. q As i varies between 0 and q À 2 inclusive. j and ÷ i which appear in Theorem 28.7 Proposition There are q À 1 linear characters ë i of G. j (q 1)s i j us s i j d s. j We will see later that the linear characters ë i (0 < i < q À 2) which appear in Proposition 28.5.

j : 3 s i t jX 0 t Then ë i. We have hø i. ø i. q) Proof Let B & ' PG X 329 a 0 b c Then B is a subgroup of G with jBj (q À 1)2 q. j are as stated in the proposition. j ( g) jC G ( g)j .9 Proposition For each integer i.i i (q 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 2X Here.i . j ( g) jC B ( g)j jC G ( g)j ë i. 28. as follows. j ( g) ë i. ë i i.8 gives us ø i.i which appears in Proposition 28. j ( g) jC G ( g)j ë i.i . j ( g) ø i. De®ne ë i.i ë i ø i .Character table of GL(2.5. We use Proposition 21. j : B 3 C by s r ë i. The characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. j ëi. j is a character of B.s jC B ( g)j jC B ( g9)j ø i. j ( g) jC B ( g)j ë i. We let ø i. j ( g) 0X j Hence. ø i. the ®rst term corresponds to the conjugacy classes of elements 4 (q À 1)(q À 2) (q À 1)2 2 . the values of ø i. Remember that the complex conjugate of s i is s Ài .23 to calculate ø i. Proof We shall demonstrate that the character ø i. j 4 G. g sI : g us : g d s. we calculate hø i.i . where g9 d t. To this end. there is an irreducible character ø i of G whose values are given in Theorem 28. j ( g) for each conjugacy class representative g. j ( g9) ø i.i i and hø i. t : g vr : ø i.

j i A B C. ø i. j .5. ë i i (q 1) 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q 1X The facts that hø i. ø i. note that fd s. Then the character ø i. q Hence the characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. t P FÃ g is an abelian group of q order (q À 1)2. Let s be an element of FÃ of order q À 1. Using the values of ø i.i . q To evaluate C. Then ø i : d s. tg of distinct elements of FÃ .i .1 3 s i . j which appears in Proposition 28. j .i i are calculated in a similar fashion.i (sI)ø i. j which are given in Proposition 28. j < q À 2. t 3 s i t j s j t i then ó is a sum of two . ø i. where (q 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1).i . j i 1. we obtain hø i. (2) jC G (sI)j (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q)X (3) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the forms sI. B 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 1 1 i j C (s t s j t i )(s Ài t À j s À j t Ài )X (q À 1)2 2 sT t A and 2 (q À 1)(q À 2) 2 (q À 1) 2 The coef®cent 1 appears in C because we have just one conjugacy 2 class for each unordered pair fs. and the calculation of this ®rst term involves the following three observations. and if ó : d s.10 Proposition Suppose that 0 < i .8 is irreducible. Proof We shall show that hø i.i . ë i i 1 and hø i. t : s. ø i.i to get the values of ø i as given in Theorem 28. (1) ø i. Subtract ë i from ø i.8. j 28.330 Representations and characters of groups sI. The remaining terms in hø i.i i 2 imply that ø i. hø i. Next.i ë i ø i for some irreducible character ø i.i (sI) (q 1)2 .

ø i. and ø i. j differs from ø i9. j T ø i9. j 28. 2 3 1 i j j i Ài À j À j Ài 4(q À 1) (s t s t )(s t s t ) 2X (q À 1)2 sT t Hence. 28.i : 3 s i t j s j t iX 0 t Since ë i. sI öi q(q À 1)s i us 0 d s. j ë j. j9 < q À 2. for 0 < i . there exists complex (q À 1)th roots of unity s and t such that either s T t and s i t j s j t i T s i9 t j9 s j9 t i9 or s t and s i j T s i9 j9 .Character table of GL(2. and (i. hø i. j) T (i9. In either case. j9 . there exists a character ö i of G which takes the following values. we see that ø i. j i 1. We have s b ë i. ø i. j is irreducible. ó i 2X That is.12 Proposition For each integer i. j < q À 2 and 0 < i9 . j9). j9 . hó . j ë j. C qÀ3 X qÀ1 And now we ®nd that A B C 1. t 0 vr r i r iq .i T ë i9. q) 331 inequivalent irreducible characters of this group. Therefore. j characters of G. We must prove that ø i. Thus. j9 on a conjugacy class j of G. j T ø i9. j < q À 2 are distinct irreducible Proof Suppose that 0 < i . Consider the group B and its linear characters ë i.8.11 Corollary The characters ø i. j9 ë j9. Therefore.i9 . j . j which were used in the proof of Proposition 28.

®rst recall that á i 4 G is zero on all elements which are not conjugate to an element of K. ö i has the values stated in the proposition. ö i is zero on the elements of the form u s and d s. Thus. j To be able to work out certain inner products involving our characters ö i . we shall the use the following lemma.6. t (s T t). In order to calculate ö i .6. as in Proposition 28.332 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let K hvå i. Suppose that g P K and g is conjugate in G to v r . by Proposition 28. 28. á i ( g) ái( g q) ö i ( g) jC G ( g)j jC K ( g)j jC K ( g)j á i ( g) á i ( g q ) r i r iq X Thus. respectively. Then g has eigenvalues r and r q . v r is conjugate to an element of g of K. and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i .13 Lemma Assume that i is an integer and (q 1) T j i.6. by Proposition 28. Then. Hence á i ( g) r i or r iq and á i ( g) á i ( g q ) r i r iq X Let ö i á i 4 G. If g sI with s P FÃ then g P K and q ö i ( g) jC G ( g)j á i ( g) q(q À 1)s i X jC K ( g)j Suppose that r P F q 2 nF q . Then (r i r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2(q À 1)2 X rPF q 2 nF q Proof Note that & r G1 0 0 rq : r P FÃ2 q ' and G2 & r 0 0 rq : r P FÃ q ' are abelian groups of orders q 2 À 1 and q À 1. Now. . Also.

÷ i is the class function on G which is given by ÷ i ø0.12. Recall the characters ø i. 28.i À ö i X .14 Proposition For each integer i. sI ÷i (q À 1)s i us Às i d s. t 0 vr À(r i r iq ) If (q 1) T j i then ÷ i is an irreducible character of G. the character ÷ is twice an irreducible character. Taking the inner product of the q character ÷ of G1 with itself. since (q 1) T j i implies that å i T å iq .9 and 28. we get 1 i (r r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 4X qÀ1 Ã rPF q Hence rPF q 2 nF q (r i r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2(q 2 À 1) À 4(q À 1) 2(q À 1)2 X j 28. let ÷ i be the class function on G with the following values. we get 1 i (r r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2 2À1 q rPFÃ 2 q and doing the same for the character ÷ of G2 . Proof We can justify the manoeuvre which we now perform only by saying that it gives the correct answer. the character ÷ is a sum of two inequivalent irreducible characters. q) r 0 3 r i r iq 0 rq 333 gives a character ÷ of degree 2 for each group. j . since r q r for r P FÃ. ø i and ö i given in Propositions 28. and for G2. For G1.Ài ø i À ø0.Character table of GL(2. Now.8.

as we wished to show.334 Representations and characters of groups The table below allows us to verify this. as in Proposition 28. Then the characters ÷ i and ÷ j of G are different. ÷ i i 1 and ÷ i (1) . j We have now completed the proof of Theorem 28. It is possible to use the character table of GL(2.i öi ÷i (q 1)s Ài qs 2i q(q 1)s i (q 1)s i q(q À 1)s i (q À 1)s i us s Ài 0 0 si 0 Às Ài d s. Proof Let K hvå i.Ài ø i ø0. and h÷ i . Therefore. ÷ i i using Lemma 28. with integer coef®cients. We work out h÷ i . q If g is conjugate to v r where r P F q 2 nF q then (á i á iq )( g) r i r iq . j 28. 0. assume that (q 1) T j i.5.Ài øi ø0. ÷ i T ÷ j . sI ø0. ÷ i i (q À 1)2 1 (q À 1)2 (q À 1) 2 (q À 1) 2 1X q Àq (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q À1 Since ÷ i is a linear combination of irreducible characters of G. Suppose that g P K. iq mod(q 2 À 1). which is the same as the number of conjugacy classes of G. If g sI where s P FÃ then (á i á iq )( g) 2s i . it follows that ÷ i is an irreducible character of G. iq mod(q 2 À 1). so either s i T s j for some s P FÃ or q r i r iq T r j r jq for some r P F q 2 nF q . since we have shown that the class functions given in the theorem are inequivalent irreducible characters.13. h÷ i . q) to ®nd the . and the number of them is q 2 À 1.6.15 Proposition Suppose that i and j are integers with (q 1) T j i and (q 1) T j j and j T i. Since j T i. t s Ài t Ài (st) i i s ti si t i 0 0 vr 0 Àr i(1q) 0 0 r i r iq À(r i r iq ) Next. the characters á i á iq and á j á jq of K are different. and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i .

Character table of GL(2. A challenging exercise is to determine the character table of PSL(2. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of degree 0 s q. namely that where q is a power of 2. (b) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form s 1 us . Although the character table of GL(2. and there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 0 t irreducible characters of degree q 1. q) ± compare Chapter 27 ± and so the character table of PSL(2. Among the characters of SL(2. Green determined the character table of GL(n. We do not go fully into this. it was not until the 1950's that the character table of GL(3. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of 0 s degree 1. in 1955. q). Then. (c) There are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives s 0 of the form d s. q) when q 1 mod 4 or q 3 mod 4 from the character table of GL(2. q) when q is a power of 2. q). you are asked to consider the easiest case. q) provide the characters of the groups PSL(2. this gives the character tables of an in®nite series of simple groups PSL(2. q). q) was ®rst given in 1907. q) for all positive integers n. In Exercise 28. t (s T t). since most of the irreducible characters remain irreducible when restricted. and they depend upon whether q is a power of 2 or q 1 mod 4 or q 3 mod 4. q) 335 character table of SL(2. q) PSL(2.2. J. (d) There are (q 2 À q)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives of the . since the answers are quite complicated. those with kernel containing the centre of SL(2. q). though. q) is rather easier to ®nd than that of SL(2. A. q) was found. q) has the following properties. Summary of Chapter 28 The character table of GL(2. Since SL(2. q). (a) Thereare q 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form À s 0 sI .

3). Use your solution to Exercise 28. and there are (q 2 À q)a2 irreducible form v r Àr 1q r r q characters of degree q À 1. q)X Deduce the character table of SL(2. Prove that q GL(2. q) Z 3 SL(2. Use Theorem 28. Prove that if q T 2 then SL(2.5 to write down explicitly the character table of GL(2. 8). q) from that of GL(2. 2.336 Representations and characters of groups 0 1 . 3. Suppose that q is a power of 2. q).2 to write down explicitly the character table of PSL(2. Exercises for Chapter 28 1. q) is simple. Let Z fsI : s P FÃ g. .

12 below). jgg for all g P Sn and 1 < i . then G has a permutation character ð de®ned by ð( g) jfix( g)j for g P G. We also say that G acts on Ù (via ö). ng then Sym(Ù) Sn . In this chapter we take the theory of permutation groups and characters somewhat further. (So for example. j < n. i. jg( gö) fig. F F F . If Ù is a set. a subgroup of Sn for some n. (1 2)ö sends f1.e. 3g. 337 . 2.29 Permutations and characters We have already seen in Chapter 13 that if G is a permutation group. it is called the action of Sn on pairs. (2) Let G Sn and let Ù be the set consisting of all pairs fi. denote by Sym(Ù) the group of all permutations of Ù. a fact which proved useful in many of our subsequent character table calculations. De®nition Let G be a group and Ù a set. 29. ng. F F F . if Ù f1.) Check that ö is an action of Sn . Group actions We begin with a more general notion than that of a permutation group. In particular.1 Examples (1) If G < Sn then the identity map is an action of G on f1. jg of elements of f1. 3g 3 f2. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism ö: G 3 Sym(Ù). and develop some useful results. particularly about irreducible characters of symmetric groups (see Theorem 29. F F F . De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting fi. ng.

in other words. given any á. â P Ù. It is easy to see that $ is an equivalence relation on Ù. the fact that ö is a homomorphism simply says that ù( gh) (ù g)h for all ù P Ù and g.338 Representations and characters of groups (3) Let G GL(2. (4) Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by ( Hx)( gö) Hxg for all x. Ù) 1. q). we have á $ â if and only if there exists g P G such that á g â. and Ker ö xPG x À1 Hx < H. as de®ned in Chapter 28. for ù P Ù and g P G we usually just write ù g instead of ù( gö). g P G. generated by x.2 Examples (1) Let G C4 . and let Ù be the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces hvi of V. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting hvi( gö) hv gi for all hvi P Ù and g P G. if ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) is an action. and let Ù be the set of all right cosets Hx of H in G (so jÙj n). Thus Ù is the disjoint union of the orbits of G. and let ö: G 3 S8 be the action . The group G is said to be transitive on Ù if orb(G. To simplify notation. Ù) for the number of orbits of G on Ù. G is transitive if. The equivalence classes are called the orbits of G on Ù. a b)iX Then ö is an action of G on Ù. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices over the ®nite ®eld F q. 29. if 1 1 g 0 1 then gö sends h(a. h P G. Let V be the 2-dimensional vector space over F q consisting of all row vectors (a. b) with a. ö is an action of G. â P Ù. Write orb(G. For example. Then by Exercise 9 of Chapter 23. b P F q . With this notation. say. de®ne a relation $ on Ù as follows: for á. b)i 3 h(a. Adopting this notation. there exists g P G such that á g â.

For ù P Ù. Let G be a group acting on a set Ù. F F F .Permutations and characters 339 de®ned by xö (1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8) (and of course x k ö ((1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8)) k for any k). and in Example (4). Moreover. 4). In other words. the size of the orbit ù G is equal to the index of Gù in G. Denote by CÙ the vector space over C for which Ù is a basis. Also gÀ1 P Gù . 6g and f7. f5. 29. Now let Ä be the set of right cosets Gù x of Gù in G.1(2. jù G j jG : Gù jX Proof If g. j Permutation characters Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. Then G has three orbits on Ù f1. so Gù is a subgroup. 3. and Gù contains the identity. (2) The group G is transitive on the set Ù in each of Examples 29. simply observe that. CÙ consists of all expressions of the form . 4g. Clearly ã is also surjective. 8g. as required. 3. to verify it for Example (3) you need to convince yourself that for any two non-zero row vectors v. and de®ne Gù f g P G : ù g ùgX We call Gù the stabilizer of ù in G. hence gh P Gù . h P Gù then ù( gh) (ù g)h ùh ù. q) such that vA w. Observe that for x. that is. the element g x À1 y P G has the property that ( Hx) g Hy. w P V there is an invertible 2 3 2 matrix A P GL(2. write ù G for the orbit of G which contains ù. This is clear in Example (2). 8g. namely f1. given two right cosets Hx. Gù x Gù y D xy À1 P Gù D ùxy À1 ù D ùx ù yX Hence we can de®ne an injective function ã : Ä 3 ù G by ã(Gù x) ùx for all x P G. so ù G fù g : g P Gg. Hy P Ù. y P G.3 Proposition The stabilizer Gù is a subgroup of G. and hence jÄj jù G j. 2.

Then 1 hð. 1 G i 1 1 ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)jX jGj gPG jGj gPG Let Ä1 . the number of ù P Ù such that ù g ù is equal to jfixÙ ( g)j. First. pick ù i P Ä i . 29. though elementary. We calculate jÖj in two different ways. 129) that if ð is the character of this permutation module. By Proposition 29. Now de®ne Ö f(ù. The next result. g) : ù P Ù. Ù)X jGj gPG Proof First note that hð. It is often referred to as ``Burnside's Lemma''. for each g. but is in fact due to Cauchy and Frobenius.4 Proposition Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. then for g P G. As in Chapter 13. g P G. We see just as in Chapter 13 (p. by de®ning 2 3 ëù ù g ëù (ù g) for all g P G. 1 G i jfixÙ ( g)j orb(G. We call ð the permutation character of G on Ù. and let ð be the permutation character. is rather famous. and provides a basic link between the permutation character and the action of G. ù g ùg. Ä t be the orbits of G on Ù. F F F . for 1 < i < t we have jÄ i j jù G j jG : Gù i jX i Hence jÄ i j jGù i j jGj. we can make CÙ into a CG-module. where fixÙ ( g) fù P Ù : ù g ùg. and for each i.3. ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)j. called the permutation module. hence .340 Representations and characters of groups ëù ù (ëù P C) ùPÙ with the obvious addition and scalar multiplication.

6 Proposition Let G act on Ù1 and Ù2 . g P G. It is clear that fixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g) fixÙ1 ( g) 3 fixÙ2 ( g) for any g P G. jGj gPG jGj gPG j which is equal to orb(G. 1 G i 1.Permutations and characters jÖj jfixÙ ( g)jX gPG 341 Secondly. the ®rst being the case where Ù1 Ù2 . Then hð1 . ð2 i 1 1 jfixÙ1 ( g)kfixÙ2 ( g)j jfixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g)j. In the rest of the chapter we apply Proposition 29. 29. ð2 i orb(G. for each ù.4. Then we can de®ne an action of G on the Cartesian product Ù1 3 Ù2 by setting (ù1 . Ù1 3 Ù2 )X Proof We have hð1 . .6 in a number of situations. with corresponding permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively. with permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively. then ð( g) ð1 ( g)ð2 ( g) for all g P G. Now let G be a group. 29. ù2 ) g (ù1 g. and the conclusion follows. the number of g P G such that ù g ù is equal to jGù j. ù2 g) for all ù i P Ù i . Ù1 3 Ù2 ) by Proposition 29. and suppose that G acts on two sets Ù1 and Ù2 . Hence if ð is the permutation character of G on Ù1 3 Ù2 . hence jÖj Therefore gPG ùPÙ jGù j t i1 jÄ i j jGù i j t 1 jGj tjGjX j jfixÙ ( g)j tjGj.5 Corollary G is transitive on Ù if and only if hð.

g P G.8. j . 29.10 Corollary If G is 2-transitive on Ù. 29. ði 2 by Proposition 29. Ù 3 Ù)X The next result is immediate from Proposition 29. Then Ä f(ù.7 De®nition The number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù is called the rank of G on Ù. In other words. ðiX Now suppose G is transitive on Ù and jÙj . Then G also acts on Ù 3 Ù in the way de®ned above. using Theorem 14. 29. Ù) hð. Then r(G.9 De®nition Let G be transitive on Ù. 29. ù2 ) g (ù1 g. ù) : ù P Ùg is an orbit of G on Ù 3 Ù.8 Proposition Let G act on Ù. and hð. with permutation character ð. then ð 1 G ÷.5.342 Representations and characters of groups Suppose G acts on Ù. ù2 g) for all ù1 . Proof We have hð. á2 ) and (â1 . Then G is said to be 2-transitive on Ù if r(G. Thus r(G. 1. Ù) > 2. written r(G. Ù) orb(G. with á1 T á2 . â1 T â2 . Ù). G is 2-transitive if. ù2 P Ù. for any ordered pairs (á1 . with permutation character ð.17. and hence certainly r(G. â2 ) in Ù 3 Ù. The result follows. The case where equality holds is of particular interest. there exists g P G such that á1 g â1 and á2 g â2 . 1 G i 1 by Corollary 29.6. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Ù) 2. namely (ù1 .

lgj 1g. To see this. 19. lgj 0gX Thus hð. Hence G is 2-transitive on Ù. an irreducible character ÷ ë . 2g. Ù) 3. and Ä1 f(fi. We claim that G is 2-transitive on Ù.5.11 Examples (1) The symmetric group Sn is 2-transitive on f1. Each cycle-shape (including 1-cycles) is a sequence ë (ë1 . 19. for example. 4g) to (f1. 2g. (3) Consider the action of Sn on pairs de®ned in Example 29. the irreducible characters of Sn are also in bijective correspondence with the partitions ë of n.1(3). hv2 i) and (hw1 i. let (hv1 i.15 we know that the conjugacy classes of Sn are in bijective correspondence with the set of all possible cycle-shapes of permutations.1. This action is not 2-transitive. Hence these groups have an irreducible character ÷ given by ÷( g) jfix( g)j À 1X We have seen this irreducible character in a number of previous examples (see 18. jg. where ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of Sn .3. Some irreducible characters of S n By Theorem 12. with n > 4. Since jÙj q 1 (see Exercise 1 at the end of the chapter). lg) : jfi. ng.1(2). Here Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of the 2-dimensional vector space V. In fact it is easy to see that the orbits of G Sn on Ù 3 Ù are Ä.Permutations and characters 343 29.17). and so ð 1 G ÷ ø. q) given in Example 29. ði r(G. The linear transformation from V to V which sends v1 3 w1 . A key aim is therefore to construct. By Theorem 15.16. jg. there is no element of Sn which sends (f1. ë s ) of positive integers ë i such that ë1 > ë2 > F F F > ë s and ë1 F F F ë s n. jg fk. Ä1 and Ä2 . hv2 i 3 hw2 i. lg) : jfi. fk. F F F . where Ä is as above. Ä2 f(fi. (2) Consider the action of G GL(2. for each partition ë. and we call such a sequence a partition of n. jg fk. q) which sends hv1 i 3 hw1 i. giving an element of GL(2. Then v1 . the irreducible character ÷ of G given by Corollary 29. v2 and w1. f2. f3. F F F .10 is the character ø0 of degree q in Theorem 28. as claimed. 3g). provided n > 4. w2 are both bases of V. since. hw2 i) be two pairs of distinct 1-spaces in Ù. fk. Also An is 2-transitive. v2 3 w2 is therefore invertible.

÷ ( nÀ1.13 Theorem Let m na2 if n is even. J 1 .344 Representations and characters of groups of Sn . I k 3 I l ). ik g P I k and any g P G.6. We shall apply the material of this chapter to carry out this aim in the case where ë (n À k. and much more. giving the conclusion. This holds for k 1 by Corollary 29. J s f(A. k). Now assume the statement holds for all values less than k.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. let Ag fi1 g. ÷ ( nÀ1. by induction on k. ÷ ( nÀ k. Observe that n ð k (1) jI k j X k 29.13 below). ÷ ( nÀ2. For an integer k < na2. if you want to see this. ð l i orb(G. hð k .1) . 2. a 2-part partition (see Theorem 29. F F F . Then . F F F . in a natural way.1) . Just as in Example 29. and m (n À 1)a2 if n is odd. Let G Sn and I f1. then hð k . ik ggX Let ð k be the permutation character of G in its action on I k . Proof By Proposition 29. James listed in the Bibliography. B) P I k 3 I l : jA Bj sgX Hence orb(G.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. but we do not do this. I k 3 I l ) l 1. ÷ ( nÀ k. on the character theory of Sn . Proof We prove the existence of irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . we refer you to the book by G. F F F . The ideas can be developed to carry out the aim in general. k) X In particular.2) . Then Sn has distinct irreducible characters ÷ ( n) 1 G . ð l i l 1. k) .12 Proposition If l < k < na2. k) ð k À ð kÀ1 . ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1.10. F F F J l . de®ne I k to be the set consisting of all subsets of I of size k. k) such that ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. where for 0 < s < l. F F F . m) such that for all k < m. j 29.1(2) we can de®ne an action of G on I k as follows: for any subset A fi1 . F F F . ng. The orbits of G Sn on I k 3 I l are easily seen to be J 0 . ÷ ( nÀ m.

k) corresponding to 2-part partitions have values given by Theorem 29. 1 G i. k) . hð k . suppose n 7 and let us calculate the value of the irreducible character ÷ (5. If G acts on Ù then CÙ is the permutation module. the irreducible characters ÷1 . ð kÀ1 i k.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀi. If G is 2-transitive then r(G. ÷ (3. The orbits are the equivalence classes in Ù of the relation de®ned by á $ â D á g â for some g P G. 2. k) ÷ (1) ð k (1) À ð kÀ1 (1) À X k kÀ1 As another example.2) on a 3-cycle: ÷ (5. ÷ ( nÀ1. The irreducible characters of Sn are in bijective correspondence with partitions of n. k) . For example. Ù) 2 and ð 1 G ÷ with ÷ irreducible.17. The irreducible characters ÷ ( nÀ k.1) . ð1 i 2. hð k . F F F . k) . the degree is n n ( nÀ k. Summary of Chapter 29 1. ÷3 . ÷7 .3) . we have ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. Writing ÷ ÷ ( nÀ k. where ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)j. respectively.Permutations and characters 345 there exist irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . j 29. ÷ ( nÀ k1. k) ð k À ð kÀ1 makes it easy to calculate the values of the characters ÷ ( nÀ k. 3.12. The number of orbits is equal to hð.13. as required. The size of the orbit ù G containing ù is jù G j jG : Gù j. ÷9 are equal to ÷ (6) .1) . The rank r(G. 4. hð k . . 1 G i 1.2) . Ù) hð. Ù) is the number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù. Now by Proposition 29. and the corresponding character of G is ð. ð k i k 1X It follows that ð k ð kÀ1 ÷ for some irreducible character ÷.2) (123) ð2 (123) À ð1 (123) jfix I 2 (123)j À jfix I 1 (123)j 6 À 4 2X (2) In the character table of S6 given in Example 19.i) for all i . F F F . k. and r(G.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. kÀ1) such that ð i ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. hð k . ÷ (5. ÷ (4.14 Examples (1) The formula ÷ ( nÀ k. ði. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù).

(b) Find the stabilizer (G 3 G)1 of the identity 1 P G. where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. 3. Let G GL(2. H 2 be subgroups of G.) 4. 5.1(4). For i 1. ( Hint: one way to do this is to write down the values of ð on the conjugacy classes of G. G) is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. q) (the latter are given by Theorem 28. Let G be a ®nite group. Let ð be the permutation character of G in this action. h P G. Let G be a ®nite group acting transitively on a set Ù of size greater than 1. q) and let V F2 as in Example 29. Decompose ð as a sum of irreducible characters of GL(2. and ÷ 3 ÷ is the irreducible character of G 3 G given by Theorem 19. h)ö) g À1 xh for all x.346 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 29 1. then H 1 H 2 X Give an example to show that this need not be the case in general. and take inner products with the irreducible characters of G given in 28.1(3)). (Such an element is called a ®xed-point-free element of G. g P G. which is transitive. Suppose that ð1 ð2 . then jÙj q 1. let ð i be the permutation character of G in the action on Ù i . 2 de®ne Ù i to be the set of right cosets of H i in G. and de®ne an action ö : G 3 Sym(V Ã ) by v( gö) v g for v P V Ã. Let G be a ®nite group. and let H 1 . (a) Show that ö is an action of G 3 G on G. and ®nd the kernel of ö. and the permutation character ð is ð ÷ ÷ 3 ÷. g. and de®ne a function ö : G 3 G 3 Sym(G) by x(( g. Let q V Ã V À f0g. Prove that G contains an element g such that jfixÙ ( g)j 0.) .5).18. Prove that if G is abelian. 2. Show that if Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of a 2dimensional vector space over F q (as in Example 29. so that G acts on Ù i as in Example 29.5. (c) Show that the rank of this action r(G 3 G.1(2).

where ÷ is an irreducible character.1. ng and i T j.1.1) ÷ ( nÀ2. Writing ÷ ÷ ( nÀ2. and let Ù be the set of all ordered pairs (i. F F F . and calculate its value on the elements (12) and (123) of Sn .1) . and let the permutation character of Sn in this action be ð( nÀ2.13.1) 1 2÷ ( nÀ1. (i.1. calculate the degree of ÷ ( nÀ2.1. j) g (ig.1. In the character table of S6 given in Example 19. j) with i. Let Sn act on Ù in the obvious way (namely. jg) for g P Sn ).Permutations and characters 347 6.1) . By considering inner products as in the proof of Theorem 29. which irreducible character is equal to ÷ (4. prove that ð( nÀ2.1) .17. j P f1.1) ? .2) ÷. Let n be a positive integer.

22 that the class sums C1 . .19 motivates the study of simple groups containing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to a given group C. . Using a little group theory and a lot of character theory we shall carry out such a study in the case where C D8 . In this chapter we present some rather deeper applications. and so on ± require little calculation. .30 Applications to group theory There are several ways of using the character theory of a group to determine information about the structure of the group. the dihedral group of order 8. 30. . .1 Proposition There exist non-negative integers aijk such that for 1 < i < l and 1 < j < l. The examples which we have come across so far ± ®nding the centre of the group. Class algebra constants Let G be a ®nite group and let C1 . Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G. seeing whether or not the group is simple. . and they can be used to investigate the subgroup structure of G. C l form a basis for the centre of the group algebra CG (where C i gPC i g). . The ®rst involves doing arithmetic with character values to determine certain numbers. Recall from Proposition 12. These constants carry information about the multiplication in G. The second application takes this much further: the Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23. as we shall demonstrate. 348 . . known as the class algebra constants.

4 Theorem Let gi P Ci for 1 < i < l. From their very de®nition. we have aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all the irreducible characters ÷ of G. C l . the numbers aijk carry information about the multiplication in G: (30X3) For all g P Ck and all i. Our next theorem shows that this is indeed the case. 30. b) with a P Ci . b) with a P Ci .2 De®nition The integers aijk in the formula Ci C j l k1 aijk C k are the class algebra constants of G.Applications to group theory Ci C j l k1 349 aijk C k X Proof For g P Ck the coef®cient of g in the product C i C j is equal to the number of pairs (a. j.1 is to note that C i C j belongs to Z(CG). . 30. b P Cj and ab gX Also. This number is a non-negative integer. b P Cj and ab g. . . and is independent of the chosen element g of Ck . . since C1 . Then for all i. . . j we have aijk the number of pairs (a. j Another way of looking at Proposition 30. so it must be a linear combination of C1 . . you might suspect that the class algebra constants are determined by the character table of G. . the constants aijk determine the product of any two elements in the centre Z(CG) of the group algebra. As the centre of the group algebra plays an important role in representation theory. C l is a basis of Z(CG). k. The result follows. .

the character table of G is as shown: . Let G S4 . these results can readily be proved directly. and let U be a CGmodule with character ÷. Theorem 16. for all u P U we have uC i Therefore uC i C j and l m1 jGj÷( g i ) uX jCG ( g i )j÷(1) ÷( g i )÷( g j ) jGj2 u jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j (÷(1))2 aijm uC m l m1 aijm jGj÷( g m ) uX jCG ( g m )j÷(1) Since C i C j (30X5) m aijm C m .350 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G.4(2). Multiply both sides of equation (30. By Section 18. to obtain l m1 aijm ÷( g m )÷( g k ) ÷ jCG ( g m )j ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) By the column orthogonality relations. we deduce that l m1 aijm ÷( g i )÷( g j ) ÷( g m ) jGj X jCG ( g m )j jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷(1) Pick k with 1 < k < l. but they serve as a useful illustration of the method.1. this yields aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) j Examples 30.6 Example In this example we shall use the class algebra constants to prove some facts about the elements and subgroups of the symmetric group S4 .5) by ÷( g k ) and sum over all irreducible characters ÷ of G.7. Then by Lemma 22.

4 to calculate the class algebra constant a555 : 24 1 À1 0 À1 1 0X a555 X 44 1 1 2 3 3 Hence.Applications to group theory Character table of S4 Class Ci gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 C1 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 C2 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 C3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 C4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 351 C5 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 (1) We use Theorem 30. b: a2 b3 (ab)4 1iX In other words. S4 does not possess elements a. we have x 4 1.3). 24 a235 X (1 1) 4. 24 1 1 a245 X 11 2X 48 3 3 Hence S4 has elements a. and all products of elements of S4 are determined by the given relations. 43 so S4 has elements a of order 2 and b of order 3 with ab of order 4. We deduce from this that S4 does not have a subgroup which is isomorphic to the quaternion group Q8 : for Q8 does have two elements of order 4 with product of order 4. so ka. We deduce the fact (which we already know from Exercise 18. S4 is generated by a and b. b of order 4 such that the product ab also has order 4. by (30. aÀ1 xa ba (ab)À1 x À1 . (2) By Theorem 30. Writing x ab. b of order 2 such that ab has order 4. it can be shown that S4 has a presentation as follows: S4 ha.1) that S4 has a subgroup which is isomorphic to D8. (3) Finally. bl D8. In fact.4. We supply a .

Character table of PSL (2. you may wish to puzzle out the relevance of the ®gure above.4 to ®nd a subgroup H of the simple group PSL (2. We found in Chapter 27 that the character table of G PSL (2. 7) Class rep. 7) with H isomorphic to S4 . g1 1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 . 30. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. 7) is as follows. and it is quite tricky to construct directly.7 Example We use Theorem 30.6 ± in the meantime.352 Representations and characters of groups proof in the solution to Exercise 30. That such a subgroup exists is not obvious.

Since H has an element of order 4. given a ®nite group C. 7) has a subgroup which is isomorphic to S4 . This fact led Brauer to initiate a programme to ®nd. V4 . namely xy. is {1}.20). y has order 3 and xy has order 4. S4 aKer ö H. Now Ker ö. a dihedral group of order 8.10. From Example 30. G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2. 30. By Theorem 30.Applications to group theory We calculate the class algebra constant a243 . all ®nite simple groups G possessing an involution t such that C G (t) C. C2 or {1}. . Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography). It determines the possible orders of simple groups G having an involution t such that C G (t) D8 . The Brauer programme The Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23. The next result carries out part of Brauer's programme in the case where C D8 . Then G has order 168 or 360. yl of G. by (30.19 states that there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with a given centralizer. This programme formed an important part of the effort of many mathematicians to classify all the ®nite simple groups. we know that S4 ha. S3 . being a normal subgroup of S4 . By Theorem 1. b: a2 b3 (ab)4 1iX Hence there is a homomorphism ö from S4 onto H (ö sends a to x and b to y).3). 168 1 a243 X 1 0 0 0 0 8X 83 7 353 Hence. so H is isomorphic to S4 . Let H be the subgroup kx. A4 or S4 (see Example 12. an effort which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s (see the book by D. We have chosen to present this result because it provides a wonderful illustration of the use of character theory in the service of group theory. we conclude that H S4 X Thus we have shown that PSL (2.4.6.8 Theorem Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group which has an involution t such that C G (t) D8 .

Now consider fixÙ (u) fù P Ù : ùu ùg If Qx P fixÙ (u). then Qxu Qx and hence xux À1 P Q. and A6 is a simple group of order 360 with this property (see Exercise 7 at the end of the chapter). such a subgroup is call a Sylow p-subgroup of G. Hence the subgroup f g P G : g acts as an even permutation on Ùg . hence is an odd permutation. The ®rst is Sylow's Theorem. Suppose Q is a subgroup of P with jP : Qj 2.1).8. Let Ù be the set of right cosets Qx of Q in G. where m is odd since P is a Sylow 2-subgroup.10 Lemma Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group.9 Sylow's Theorem Let p be a prime number. 7) and A6 are the only simple groups of order 168 or 360. one can show that PSL(2. and de®ne an action of G on Ù by (Qx) g Qxg for x. and let P be a Sylow 2subgroup of G.354 Representations and characters of groups Observe that PSL(2.2(4)). À1 subgroups. b are positive integers and p T j b. then there is a Sylow p-subgroup of G containing R. Proof Suppose u is not conjugate to an element of Q. Observe that jÙj 2jG : Pj 2m. and let G be a ®nite group of order p a b. if P Q are Sylow p. (2) all Sylow p-subgroups are conjugate in G (i.e. a basic result in ®nite group theory. Before embarking upon the proof of Theorem 30. 30. Then (1) G contains a subgroup of order p a. but refer you to Theorems 18. where a. the involution u is a product of m disjoint 2-cycles. then u is conjugate to an element of Q. If u is an involution in G. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. then there exists g P G such that Q g Pg). Using some rather more sophisticated group theory than that covered in this book. 7) is a simple group of order 168 having an involution with centralizer D8 (see Lemma 27. contrary to assumption.4 of the book by J. g P G (see Example 29. we require a couple of preliminary results. Hence fixÙ (u) Æ.3 and 18. We shall not prove this. 30. (3) if R is a subgroup of G with jRj p c for some c. This means that in its action on Ù.

and hence Z(D) hti.12)). The centre of D8 is a cyclic group of order 2 (see (12.20 hold for generalized characters ø. where á and â are characters of H: take á n÷ ÷.9(3). If n÷ > 0 for all ÷ then of course ø is a character. we have t P Z(D).0 Finally. Notice also that the orthogonality relations give the usual inner products hø. so Z(P) < Z(D) hti. This contradiction completes the proof. â À n÷ ÷X n÷ >0 n÷ . there is a Sylow 2-subgroup P of G such that D < P. if H is a subgroup of a group G. ÷i n÷ . øi n2 ÷ for a generalized character ø as above.Applications to group theory 355 is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. hø. Certainly t commutes with itself. and each n÷ P Z. and as t commutes with all elements of D. It is clear from this de®nition that the formulae for the values of ø 4 G given in Proposition 21. and hence Z(P) hti.8 Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group with an involution t such that C G (t) D D8 . In particular. Proof of Theorem 30.19 and Corollary 21. but this need not be the case for a generalized character. the degree ø(1) can be 0 or negative for a generalized character ø. so t P D. This is simply a class function of the form ø n÷ ÷ x where the sum is over all the irreducible characters of H. The generalized character ø can be expressed as a difference á À â. Therefore P < . This is impossible since G is non-abelian and simple. By Lemma 26. By Theorem 30.1(1) we have Z(P) T 1. j We also need to introduce the idea of a generalized character of a group H. we de®ne the induced generalized character ø 4 G by ø 4 G (á 4 G) À ( â 4 G) where ø á À â as above. Then Z(P) < C G (t) D. the centre of D.

By Lemma 30. hè 4 G.10. The rest is character theory. giving (30. and so it follows from (30. we conclude that t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. and so P D. It follows that (è 4 G)(c) è(c). èi 3. let g P G and suppose that g À1 cg P C for some non-identity element c P C. and de®ne è (1 C 4 D) À (ë 4 D). Then t a2 . and if C g À1 Cg C then g P D. Since è vanishes on D À C.356 Representations and characters of groups C G (t) D. Then è takes the value 2 on a. observe ®rst that by Frobenius reciprocity. a generalized character of D. t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. and 0 elsewhere. Now hè 4 G. 1 G i h1 C À ë. aÀ1 . D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G.3(3). This is all the group theory we will need for the proof. è 4 Gi 3X To see this. for any g P G we have C gÀ1 Cg f1g or C.11). hence g P C G (t) D and so g À1 Cg C. Next. Also (è 4 G)(1) 0 (see Corollary 21. è(1) 0. èi hè. we must have g À1 tg t.20). And if y À1 cy P D À C then è( y À1 cy) 0. In other words.12) that .) Hence hè. whence y À1 cy cÆ1 and è( y À1 cy) è(c). we therefore have h(è 4 G) 5 D.11) D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. Referring to the character table of D8 in Example 16. Let C hai be the cyclic subgroup of index 2 in D. As t a2 is the only such involution. We summarise what we have proved so far: (30. bi where a4 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . èi Now for 1 T c P C.12). we have è ÷1 ÷2 À ÷5 . if y À1 cy P C then y P D.19 gives 1 À1 (è 4 G)(c) è( y cy)X 8 yPG By (30. 1 C i 1. Since t c or c2. Write D ha. Let ë be the linear character of C such that ë(a) i. the value 4 on t. èi 3. è 4 Gi h(è 4 G) 5 D. Proposition 21. every involution of G is conjugate to an involution in C. We next establish (30X12) hè 4 G. (In particular.

then ã( g) a iik in the notation of (30.14) We have ã jGj ÷(t)2 ÷.10. hè 4 G.4 yields the following. Therefore h1 C À ë. y P t G . ãi h1 C À ë.13) we have . ãi 1 (30X15) À X 64 á(1) â(1) On the other hand.11).15) we deduce 2 3 á(t)2 â(t)2 jGj 1 (30X16) À 28 X á(1) â(1) This equation gives us enough number-theoretic information about jGj to ®nish the proof fairly quickly. by Frobenius Reciprocity. Since we have shown that (è 4 G)(t) è(t) 4. we have now proved the following. ã 5 Ci 1 X4X((1 À i) 2 (1 i)) 4X jCj Hence from (30.13) We have è 4 G 1 G á À â. If c xy with x. We shall calculate the inner product of ã and è 4 G in two ways. á(t) and â(t) are integers. de®ne ã( g) to be number of ordered pairs (x.14) we have 2 3 jGj á(t)2 â(t)2 hè 4 G.13) and (30. If we write t G C i and g lies in the conjugacy class C k of G. Write d á(1) and e á(t) P Z. Consider ã(c) for 1 T c P C. â are irreducible characters of G. We now introduce another class function of G into the picture. y) P t G 3 t G such that g xy. Note that by Corollary 13. For g P G. Now calculation in D8 shows that ã(c) 4. then x À1 cx yx cÀ1 . similarly y P D. â are irreducible.3). 357 where á. By (30. from (30. and hence x P D by (30. 1 á(1) À â(1) 0 and 1 á(t) À â(t) 4. ã 5 Ci. where á. (30. (30. jDj2 ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. Hence Theorem 30.Applications to group theory è 4 G 1 G á À â. First.

Then (30. Finally.16) yields jGj 28 d(d 1) X (d 2)2 Reasoning as above.8. Moreover. by using the formula aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) 2. The class algebra constants aijk are given by Ci C j aijk C k X k They can be calculated from the character table. d 1) is 1 or 2. we have 8 jC G (t)j > 1 á(t)2 â(t)2 1 e 2 (e À 3)2 . giving d 6 and jGj 168. d d1 whence jGj 28 d(d 1) X (d À 1)2 Now the highest common factor hcf (d À 1. suppose that e 2. d) 1. and hcf (d À 1. â(t) e À 3X From the column orthogonality relations 16. a Sylow 2-subgroup of G has order 8. This completes the proof of Theorem 30. Given groups G and H. and so d À 1 2 r with r < 5.358 Representations and characters of groups â(1) d 1. Hence (d À 1)2 must divide 210 . from which it follows that e 1 or 2. Suppose now that e 1.8.16) gives 1 4 jGj 1 À 28 . . j Summary of Chapter 30 1. the class algebra constants of G can sometimes be used to determine whether or not G has a subgroup which isomorphic to H. It follows that r 3 and d 9. Then (30.4(2). we deduce that d 2 23 . giving jGj 360. one of the possibilities in the conclusion of Theorem 30.

11) contain a subgroup which is isomorphic to A5 ? 4. b: a2 b3 (ab)5 1iX 3.Applications to group theory 359 3. (a) Show that G is a simple group of order 360. and that G has the character table shown. you may assume that A5 is a simple group. given at the end of Chapter 27. Exercises for Chapter 30 1. Suppose that G is a group. Using Sylow's Theorem. The character table of PSL (2. (b) Use the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions to obtain an . (ab)7 1l. 7). Use the character table of PSL (2. together with lots of ingenious character theory. g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 5 5 8 8 9 10 p g2 1 1 1 0 0 1 À2 g3 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 0 p 5)a2. b: a2 b2 1. g4 1 2 À1 À1 À1 0 1 g5 1 À1 2 À1 À1 0 1 g6 1 0 0 á â À1 0 g7 1 0 0 â á À1 0 where á (1 5)a2. 2. Does PSL (2. 11) is given in the solution to Exercise 27. b has order 3 and ab has order 7. to prove that PSL (2. 7) contain a subgroup isomorphic to D14 ? (Hint: D14 ka. if G is a group with the same character table as A5 (see Example 20. Does PSL (2.6. 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2. it can be shown that any simple group possessing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 must have order 168 or 360. then G A5 . Prove that A5 is characterized by its character table ± that is.) For the next three exercises. and that A5 has the following presentation: A5 ha. â (1 À 5.13).

Use the ®gure which appears in Example 30. and deduce that g2 has order 2 and g3 has order 4. 7) and A6 are simple groups of order 168.) t such that . p). 6. 8.6(3) to show that every group G which is generated by two elements a and b which satisfy a2 b3 (ab)4 1 has order at most 24. (c) Prove that G has a subgroup H which is isomorphic to A5 . (Hint: look for a suitable simple group PSL(2. 360 respectively. both of which contain an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 .360 Representations and characters of groups upper bound for the number of involutions in G. 7. Find a simple group G having an involution C G (t) D16 . Prove that PSL(2. show that G A6 . (d) Using Exercise 23.9.

In the ®rst edition of his book Theory of groups of ®nite order (1897). The roots of p(x) are called the conjugates of á. An algebraic number is a complex number which is a root of some non-zero polynomial over Q. it is called the minimal polynomial of á. then no group of order pa q b is simple. Bender found one in 1972. but it was only after studying Frobenius's new theory of group representations that he was able to prove the theorem in general. which we now describe. Let á be an algebraic number. many later attempts to ®nd a proof which does not use representation theory were unsuccessful. A preliminary lemma We prepare for the proof of Burnside's Theorem with a lemma (31. Then p(x) is unique and irreducible. until H. if ù is an nth root of unity then the minimal poly361 . We omit proofs of these ± for a good account. We call a polynomial in x monic if the coef®cient of the highest power of x in it is 1. see for instance the book by Pollard and Diamond listed in the Bibliography. b. For example.31 Burnside's Theorem One of the most famous applications of representation theory is Burnside's Theorem. Indeed. which states that if p and q are prime numbers and a and b are positive integers. In order to establish this lemma we require some basic facts about algebraic integers and algebraic numbers. Burnside presented group-theoretic arguments which proved the theorem for many special choices of the integers a. and let p(x) be a monic polynomial over Q of smallest possible degree having á as a root.2) which is concerned with character values.

(31. ù d | < |ù1 | . j÷( g)a÷(1)j . . . Alternatively. Then every conjugate of á â is of the form á9 â9.2 Lemma Let ÷ be a character of a ®nite group G. it follows that j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1. if r P Q then every conjugate of rá is of the form rá9. . each conjugate of ã is of the form (ù9 X X X ù9 )ad 1 d where ù9 . 31. where á9 is a conjugate of á. and it turns out that the minimal polynomial of á also has integer coef®cients. Section 3. By (31. . 1 then ÷( g)a÷(1) is not an algebraic integer. . If á is an algebraic integer. and let g P G. Moreover. Hence each conjugate of ã has 1 d . where á9 is a conjugate of á and â9 is a conjugate of â. and so every conjugate of ù is also an nth root of unity. ù9 are roots of unity. We shall require the following fact about conjugates: (31. see Pollard and Diamond.1) can be proved easily using some Galois theory. By Proposition 13. where each ù i is a root of unity. then á is a root of a monic polynomial with integer coef®cients (see Chapter 22).1). . We prove that ÷( g) 0. so that p(x) x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 where ai P Z for all i. 1. For an elementary proof of this.362 Representations and characters of groups nomial of ù divides x n À 1. Then j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1.9 we have ÷( g) ù1 . and if 0 . Chapter V. ù d . . . and let p(x) be the minimal polynomial of ã. .1) Let á and â be algebraic numbers. |ù d | d. Now suppose that ÷( g)a÷(1) is an algebraic integer and j÷( g)a÷(1)j . so ÷( g)a÷(1) (ù1 X X X ù d )adX Since |÷( g)| |ù1 . Proof Let ÷(1) d. . Write ã ÷( g)a÷(1).

Burnside's Theorem

363

modulus at most 1. It follows that if ë is the product of all the conjugates of ã (including ã), then jëj , 1X But the conjugates of ã are, by de®nition, the roots of the polynomial p(x), and the product of all these roots is equal to Æa0 . Thus ë Æa0 X Since a0 P Z and |ë| , 1, it follows that a0 0. As p(x) is irreducible, this implies that p(x) x, which in turn forces ã 0. Thus ÷( g) 0, and the proof is complete.

j

Burnside's p a q b Theorem We deduce the main result, Theorem 31.4, from another interesting theorem of Burnside. 31.3 Theorem Let p be a prime number and let r be an integer with r > 1. Suppose that G is a ®nite group with a conjugacy class of size pr . Then G is not simple. Proof Let g P G with | gG | pr . Since pr . 1, G is not abelian and g T 1. As usual, denote the irreducible characters of G by ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k , and take ÷1 to be the trivial character. The column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2), applied to the columns corresponding to 1 and g in the character table of G, give 1 Therefore

k i2 k i2

÷ i ( g)÷ i (1) 0X

÷ i ( g) .

÷ i (1) 1 À X p p

Now À1a p is not an algebraic integer, by Proposition 22.5. Therefore, for some i > 2, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer (see Theorem 22.3). Since ÷ i ( g) is an algebraic integer (Corollary 22.4), it follows

364

Representations and characters of groups

that ÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer; in other words, p does not divide ÷ i (1). Thus ÷ i ( g) T 0 and p T j ÷ i (1)X As | gG | pr , this means that ÷ i (1) and | gG | are coprime integers, and so there are integers a and b such that ajG:CG ( g)j b÷ i (1) 1X Hence a jGj÷ i ( g) ÷ i ( g) b÷ i ( g) X jCG ( g)j÷ i (1) ÷ i (1)

By Corollaries 22.10 and 22.4, the left-hand side of this equation is an algebraic integer; and since ÷ i ( g) T 0, it is non-zero. Now Lemma 31.2 implies that j÷ i ( g)a÷ i (1)j 1X Let r be a representation of G with character ÷ i . By Theorem 13.11(1), there exists ë P C such that gr ëIX Let K Ker r, so that K is a normal subgroup of G. Since ÷ i is not the trivial character, K T G. If K T {1} then G is not simple, as required; so assume that K {1}, that is, r is a faithful representation. Since gr is a scalar multiple of the identity, gr commutes with hr for all h P G. As r is faithful, it follows that g commutes with all h P G; in other words, g P Z(G)X Therefore Z(G) T {1}. As Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G and Z(G) T G, we conclude that G is not simple. j We now come to the main result of the chapter, Burnside's Theorem. 31.4 Burnside's paqb Theorem Let p and q be prime numbers, and let a and b be non-negative integers with a b > 2. If G is a group of order pa q b , then G is not simple. Proof First suppose that either a 0 or b 0. Then the order of G is a power of a prime, so by Lemma 26.1(1) we have Z(G) T {1}.

Burnside's Theorem

365

Choose g P Z(G) of prime order. Then k gl v G and k gl is not equal to {1} or G. Hence G is not simple. Now assume that a . 0 and b . 0. By Sylow's Theorem 30.9, G has a subgroup Q of order q b . We have Z(Q) T {1} by Lemma 26.1(1). Let g P Z(Q) with g T 1. Then Q < CG ( g), so j g G j jG:CG ( g)j pr for some r. If pr 1 then g P Z(G), so Z(G) T {1} and G is not simple as before. And if pr . 1 then G is not simple, by Theorem 31.3. j In fact Burnside's pa q b Theorem leads to a somewhat more informative result about groups of order pa q b : (31.5) Every group of order p a q b is soluble. Here, by a soluble group we mean a group G which has subgroups G0 , G1 , . . . , Gr with 1 G 0 , G1 , X X X , G r G such that for 1 < i < r, GiÀ1 v Gi and the factor group Gi aG iÀ1 is cyclic of prime order. We sketch a proof of (31.5), using induction on a b. The result is clear if a b < 1, so assume that a b > 2 and let G be a group of order pa q b . By Burnside's Theorem 31.4, G has a normal subgroup H such that H is not {1} or G. Both H and the factor group Ga H have order equal to a product of powers of p and q, and these orders are less than pa q b . Hence by induction, H and Ga H are both soluble. Therefore there are subgroups 1 G0 v G1 v X X X v Gs H, 1 Gs a H v G s1 a H v X X X v Gr a H Ga H with all factor groups Gi aG iÀ1 of prime order. Then the series 1 G0 v G 1 v X X X v G r G shows that G is soluble. Summary of Chapter 31 1. If G has a conjugacy class of size pr ( p prime, r > 1), then G is not simple.

366

Representations and characters of groups

2. If |G| pa q b ( p, q primes, a b > 2), then G is not simple. Exercises for Chapter 31 1. Show that a non-abelian simple group cannot have an abelian subgroup of prime power index. 2. Prove that if G is a non-abelian simple group of order less than 80, then |G| 60. (Hint: use Exercise 13.8.)

32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration

Representation theory is used extensively in many of the physical sciences. Such applications come about because every physical system has a symmetry group G, and certain vector spaces associated with the system turn out to be RG-modules. For example, the vibration of a molecule is governed by various differential equations, and the symmetry group of the molecule acts on the space of solutions of these equations. It is on this application ± the theory of molecular vibrations ± that we concentrate in this ®nal chapter. In order to keep our treatment elementary, we stay within the framework of classical mechanics throughout. (Quantum mechanical effects can be incorporated subsequently, but we shall not go into this ± for an account, consult the book by D. S. Schonland listed in the Bibliography.)

Symmetry groups Let V be R2 or R3, and for v, w P V, let d(v, w) denote the distance between v and w ± in other words, if v (x1 , x2 , . . .) and w ( y1, y2, . . .), then 3 r2 2 d(v, w) (xi À yi ) X An isometry of V is an invertible endomorphism W of V such that d(vW, wW) d(v, w) for all v, w P V X The set of all isometries of V forms a group under composition, called the orthogonal group of V, and denoted by O(V). Any rotation of R3 about an axis through the origin is an example 367

368

Representations and characters of groups

of an isometry; so is any re¯ection in a plane through the origin. The endomorphism À1R3 which sends every vector v to Àv is another example of an element in the orthogonal group O(R3 ). It turns out that the composition of two rotations is again a rotation, and that for every isometry g in O(R3 ), either g or À g is a rotation (see Exercise 32.1). The orthogonal group O(R3 ) therefore contains a subgroup of index 2 which consists of the rotations. The same is true of the group O(R2 ). If Ä is a subset of V , where V R2 or R3, then we de®ne G(Ä) to be the set of isometries which leave Ä invariant ± that is, G(Ä) f g P O(V ): Ä g Äg (where Ä g {v g: v P Ä}). Then G(Ä) is a subgroup of called the symmetry group of Ä. The subgroup of G(Ä) the rotations in G(Ä) is called the rotation group of Ä. the rotation group of Ä in the symmetry group G(Ä) is 1 O(V ), and is consisting of The index of or 2.

32.1 Example Let V R2, and let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon, with n > 3, centred at the origin. The symmetry group of Ä is easily seen to be the dihedral group D2n , which was de®ned as a group of n rotations and n re¯ections preserving Ä (see Example 1.1(3)). Now let V R3, and again let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon (n > 3) centred at the origin. This time, G(Ä) D2 n 3 C2 ; the extra elements arise because there is an isometry which ®xes all points of Ä, namely the re¯ection in the plane of Ä. 32.2 Example Let Ä be a regular tetrahedron in R3 centred at the origin:

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 369 Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1, 2, 3, 4. We claim that each permutation of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry of Ä. For example, the 2-cycle (1 2) corresponds to a re¯ection in the plane which contains the origin and the edge 34; similarly each 2-cycle corresponds to a re¯ection. Since S4 is generated by the 2-cycles, each of the 24 permutations of 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry, as claimed. No non-identity endomorphism of R3 ®xes all the corners of Ä, since Ä contains three linearly independent vectors. Therefore we have found all the isometries, and G(Ä) S4 . Notice that the rotation group of Ä is isomorphic to A4 ; for example, (1 2)(3 4) corresponds to a rotation through ð about the axis through the mid-points of the edges 12 and 34, and (1 2 3) corresponds to a rotation through 2ða3 about the axis through the origin and the corner 4. Finally, observe that the group G(Ä) is unchanged if we take Ä to consist of just the four corners of the tetrahedron. 32.3 Example In this example we describe the symmetry groups of the molecules H2 O (water), CH3 Cl (methyl chloride) and CH4 (methane). The symmetry group of a molecule is de®ned to be the group of isometries which not only preserve the position of the molecule in space, but also send each atom to an atom of the same kind. The shapes of the three molecules are as follows.

370

Representations and characters of groups

We always assume that the centroid of our molecule lies at the origin in R3 . The CH4 molecule has four hydrogen atoms at the corners of a regular tetrahedron, and a carbon atom at the centre of the tetrahedron. So the symmetry group of the molecule CH4 is equal to the symmetry group of the tetrahedron, as given in Example 32.2. This group is isomorphic to S4 , permuting the four hydrogen atoms among themselves and ®xing the carbon atom. As for the CH3 Cl molecule, this possesses a rotation symmetry a of order 3 about the vertical axis, and three re¯ection symmetries in the planes containing the C, Cl and one of the H atoms. If b is one of these re¯ections, then the symmetry group is f1, a, a2 , b, ab, a2 bg and is isomorphic to S3 , permuting the three H atoms and ®xing the C and Cl atoms. Finally, the H2 O molecule possesses two re¯ection symmetries, one in the plane of the molecule, and one in a plane perpendicular to this one passing through the O atom; and it has a rotation symmetry of order 2. Hence the symmetry group is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . Vibration of a physical system We prepare for a description of the general problem with an example. 32.4 Example Suppose we have a spring stretched between two points P and Q on a smooth horizontal table, with equal masses m attached at the points of trisection of the spring:

The masses are displaced slightly, and released. What can we say about the subsequent motion of the system? To investigate this problem, we let x1 and x2 be the displacements of the two masses at time t. We measure x1 from left to right, and x2 from right to left, as indicated in the ®gure above. Let k be the

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 371 stiffness of the spring ± in other words, if the extension in the spring is x, then the restoring force is kx. The spring pulls the left-hand mass towards P with force kx1 and towards Q with force Àk(x1 x2 ). By dealing with the right-hand mass similarly, we obtain the following equations of motion of the system: m1 Àkx1 À k(x1 x2 ) À2kx1 À kx2 , x m2 Àkx2 À k(x1 x2 ) Àkx1 À 2kx2 , x where xi denotes the second derivative of xi with respect to t. These are second order linear differential equations in two unknowns x1 and x2 , so the general solution involves four arbitrary constants. We shall ®nd the general solution, using a method which can be applied in a much wider context. Write x (x1 , x2 ), x (1 , x2 ) and q kam. Then the equations of x motion are equivalent to the matrix equation À2q Àq x xA, where A (32X5) X Àq À2q Notice that A is symmetric. Hence the eigenvalues of A are real, and A has two linearly independent eigenvectors. It is this property which we wish to emphasize and exploit in the present example. Before we explicitly ®nd the eigenvectors of A, let us explain why they allow us to solve the equation of motion (32.5). Suppose that u is an eigenvector of A, with eigenvalue Àù2 . For an arbitrary constant â, let x sin (ùt â) uX Then x Àù2 sin (ùt â) u sin (ùt â) uA xAX Thus x is a solution of the equation of motion. If u1 and u2 are linearly independent eigenvectors of A, with eigenvalues Àù2 and 1 Àù2 , respectively, then 2 á1 sin (ù1 t â1 ) u1 á2 sin (ù2 t â2 ) u2 (since uA Àù2 u)

entries which are determined by Assume. À1)X The solutions which involve just one eigenvector of A are called the normal modes of vibration.372 Representations and characters of groups is a solution of the equation of motion which involves four arbitrary constants á1 . À1) The general molecular vibration problem Suppose we have a molecule consisting of n atoms which vibrate under internal forces. We now adopt this line of attack in the problem to hand. Thus. the eigenvalues are À3q and Àq. 1) Mode 1: p Here. t â2 ) and the vibration is Mode 2: p sin ( q . t â2 ) (1. the state of the molecule at a given time is described by a vector in the 3n-dimensional vector space R3 n .5). For the matrix given in (32. with corresponding eigenvectors (1.5) is p p á1 sin ( (3q) t â1 ) (1. À1). we assign three coordinate axes. at each atom the three coordinate axes . x1 x2 sin ( (3q) t â1 ) and the vibration is p Here. They are as follows. Therefore the general solution of the equation of motion (32. á2 . At the equilibrium position of each atom. p sin ( (3q) t â1 ) (1. We assume that the internal forces are linear functions of the displacements.) Here x is the displacements of all the atoms. which we use to measure the displacement of the atom. for the moment. so it is the general solution. t â2 ) (1. â2 . x1 Àx2 sin ( q . It follows that when we apply Newton's Second Law of Motion.5). 1) and (1. that x xAX row vector in R3 n which measures the and A is a 3n 3 3n matrix with real the internal forces. we obtain equations which may be expressed in the form (32X6) (Compare (32. â1 . 1) á2 sin ( q .

A has real eigenvalues. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. In particular. 32. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. then x Àù2 sin (ùt â) u sin (ùt â) uA xAX If uA 0 and x (t â)u. where our chosen coordinate axes are not necessarily at right angles to each other. we look for normal modes of the system. from physical considerations. It can be shown.7 Proposition All the eigenvalues of A are real. the effect of changing coordinate axes is merely to replace A by a matrix which is conjugate to A.6). that in this special case the matrix A is symmetric.6). Proof If uA Àù2 A and x sin (ùt â) u. 32. The general solution of the equation of motion is a linear combination of the normal modes of vibration. Therefore we have the following proposition. and for this solution all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency. which we de®ne next.8 De®nition A normal mode of vibration for our molecule is a vector in R3 n of one of the following forms: (1) sin (ùt â) u ( â constant) where Àù2 is a non-zero eigenvalue of A and u is a corresponding eigenvector. for the general case. Now. To solve the equation of motion (32. 32. (2) (t â) u ( â constant) where u is an eigenvector of A corresponding to the eigenvalue 0.9 Proposition Each normal mode of vibration is a solution of the equation of motion (32.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 373 which we have chosen are at right angles to each other. then x 0 (t â)uA xAX This proves that the normal modes of vibration are solutions of the .

6). Since each normal mode involves an arbitrary constant. and we shall describe a method for doing this. interchanges v4 and v7.9 reduces the problem of solving the equations of motion to that of ®nding all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the 3n 3 3n matrix A. with eigenvector u. this can be a huge and unwieldy task if it is attempted directly ± even writing down the matrix A for a given molecule can be a painful operation! The symmetry group of the molecule and its representation theory can often be used to simplify greatly the calculation of the eigenvectors of A. the general linear combination of normal modes involves 6n arbitrary constants. Therefore there exist 3n linearly independent normal modes.10 Example Let g be the rotation of order 2 of the H2 O molecule: Assign coordinate axes at the initial positions of each atom as shown. which is nonsense. all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency (namely.6) consists of second order differential equations in 3n unknowns). j Proposition 32. Note that A can have no strictly positive eigenvalue. negates v2 and v3.6) (as (32.7. by Proposition 32. Then g ®xes v1 .374 Representations and characters of groups equation of motion (32. Use of the symmetry group We continue the discussion of the previous section. Let G be the symmetry group of the molecule in question. then x e ë t u would be a solution to the equation of motion. However. Since G permutes the atoms among themselves. Thus. let v i denote a unit vector along coordinate axis i. and . for if ë were p such an eigenvalue. so it is the general solution to the equation of motion (32. each element of G acts as an endomorphism of the space R3 n of displacement vectors. 32. By construction. and for 1 < i < 9. R3 n is an RG-module. ù or 0) in a normal mode.

x9 ) g (x1 . The equations of motion are x xA.7). Proof Let Àù2 be a non-zero eigenvalue of A. v g must also specify the directions and relative magnitudes of displacements in a normal mode of frequency ù. 32. v g is an eigenvector of A. Àx3 . Therefore g acts on R9 as follows: (x1 . This shows that the eigenspace for Àù2 is an RG-submodule of R3 n . and we are trying to ®nd the eigenvectors of A. by de®nition. For all vectors v in the basis. and the eigenspaces of A are RG-submodules of R3 n . Àx5 . vA ëv for some ë P R. with eigenvalue Àù2 . Àx8 . it tells us that the function x 3 xA (x P R3 n ) is an RG-homomorphism from R3 n to itself.11 Proposition For all g P G and x P R3 n . Therefore. Àx2 . The eigenspace for the eigenvalue ë of A is. x8 . Choose a basis of R3 n which consists of eigenvectors of A (see Proposition 32. since the relative con®guration of the atoms is unaltered by applying g. x2 . x7 . x4 . Àx6 )X We return to the general set-up. For all g in G. Àx9 . x3 . x6 . and (v g)A ë(v g) (ëv) g (vA) gX Hence (xg)A (xA) g for all x P R3 n .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 375 interchanges v5 and v6 with the negatives of v8 and v9 . (xg)A (xA) g. x4 . and hence . fx P R3 n : xA ëxgX We can now present the crucial proposition which allows us to exploit the symmetry group G of our molecule. x7 . In effect. and let g P G. j The idea now is to use representation theory to express the RGmodule R3n as a direct sum of irreducible RG-submodules. Then v speci®es the directions and relative magnitudes of the displacements of the atoms from the equilibrium position when the molecule is vibrating in a normal mode of frequency ù. A similar argument applies to the eigenspace for the eigenvalue 0. and let v be a corresponding eigenvector. x5 .

and if ÷ is the character of an irreducible RGmodule which occurs. The problem of ®nding the eigenspaces of A is considerably simpli®ed as a consequence of our next proposition. By Proposition 11. so xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ .8. (Although Proposition 11. and the normal modes of the molecule. Therefore. problems like this are uncommon. The function å: v w 3 w (v P V÷ . then the element ÷( g À1 ) g gPG sends R3 n onto the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷ (see (14. its proof works equally well for RG-modules ± compare Exercise 23. since the character of the RG-module R3 n might contain an irreducible character which cannot be realized over R ± but in practice.27)). w P W ) (x P V÷ ) is an RG-homomorphism. this function is zero. Let V÷ denote the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷.3 is stated in terms of CG-modules. We call V÷ a homogeneous component of R3 n . by Proposition 32. the function x 3 (xA)å is an RG-homomorphism from V÷ into W. (This procedure sometimes needs to be modi®ed. xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ X Proof By Maschke's Theorem we may write R3n V÷ È W for some RG-module W.11.) 32.12 De®nition Suppose that ÷ is the character of an irreducible RG-module.376 Representations and characters of groups to determine the eigenspaces of A.13 Proposition Each homogeneous component V÷ of R3 n is A-invariant ± that is.3. 32.) j . We can use character theory to see which irreducible RG-modules are contained in R3 n . and no RG-submodule of W has character ÷.

32.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 377 32. Then R3 n is an RG-module. as we shall illustrate in the examples which make up the rest of this chapter. This programme can often be successfully completed. (4) Express R3 n as a direct sum of homogeneous components. to obtain R3n . j We now summarize the steps in the procedure for ®nding the normal modes of vibration of a given molecule. and ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i (see Proposition 32. (2) Calculate the symmetry group G of the molecule. (3) Calculate the character ÷ of the RG-module R3 n and express ÷ as a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G.15 Summary (1) Assign three coordinate axes at each of the n atoms of the molecule.7. (6) If v is an eigenvector of A.14). Then the intersection of V÷ with the eigenspace for ë is a non-zero RG-submodule of V÷ . with eigenvalue ë. This involves no extra work if V÷ i is irreducible (see Corollary 32.13). or by some other method. . say. then sin (ùt â) v (or (t â)v if ù 0) is a normal mode. where â is an arbitrary constant. Proof (Compare the proof of Schur's Lemma. to make further progress. If V÷ i is reducible.19 below. It is usually necessary to know the equations of motion in order to determine the frequency ù. we may choose v P V÷ such that v is an eigenvector of A. then all the non-zero vectors in V÷ are eigenvectors of A. This can À1 3n be done by applying the element for each gPG ÷ i ( g ) g to R irreducible character ÷ i of G which appears in ÷. or Exercise 32.14 Corollary If V÷ is an irreducible RG-module.) Since V÷ is A-invariant. each homogeneous component V÷ i of R3 n . (5) Consider. then see Remark 32. in turn. so it must equal V÷ . with eigenvalue Àù2 .

where the three identical atoms are at the corners of an equilateral triangle.4. 1). where â1 .4. the RG-submodules of R2 are sp (u1 ) and sp (u2 ). . Since (x1 . We choose to take our axes along the edges of the triangle. x6 ) in R6 . x2 ) g (x2 . x2 ) form an RG-module R2 . Notice that we have determined the normal modes of vibration (but not their frequencies) using the symmetry group alone. â2 are constants and ù1 . À1)X It follows that the normal modes of the system are given by sin (ù1 t â1 )(1. x1 ). where xi is the displacement along axis i (1 < i < 6). 1).16 Example We ®rst return to Example 32. À1). The symmetry group (in two dimensions) of the molecule is the dihedral group D6. generated by a rotation a of order 3 and a re¯ection .17 Example Consider a hypothetical triatomic molecule. u2 (1. For simplicity. where u1 (1. sin (ù2 t â2 )(1. with the spring and two vibrating masses: The symmetry group of this system is G h g: g 2 1i. so we assign two displacement coordinates to each atom. The displacement vectors (x1 . as shown. . .378 Representations and characters of groups 32. we consider only vibrations of the molecule in the plane. where g is the re¯ection in the mid-point of PQ. . 32. as this eases the calculations: Thus the position of the molecule is given by a vector (x1 . ù2 are the frequencies. This agrees with the conclusion of Example 32.

÷2 . then (x1 . To do this. As a matter of notation. ÷3 and ÷3 . v3 ) P R6 pictorially by the diagram We ®rst calculate the normal modes of the form (t â)v. we see that ÷(b) 0. Since the rotation a does not ®x any of the atoms. x5 . ÷(a) 0.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 379 b (see Example 32. we seek to express R6 as a direct sum of RD6 -submodules with characters ÷1 . we ®rst calculate the character ÷ of the module. x6 . if v1 . These include the rotation and translation modes. For example. Thus. the character table of D6 is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 Hence ÷ ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 . if b is the re¯ection which ®xes the top atom. x5 . It is easy to work out the action of each element of D6 on R6 . x6 )b (x2 . x4 . v2 . x3 )X We want to express the RD6 -module R6 as a direct sum of irreducible RD6 -modules. And from the action of b given above. Thus the values of ÷ are 1 ÷ 6 a 0 b 0 By Section 18. x1 . which occur for every molecule. x4 . corresponding to the eigenspace of A for eigenvalue 0. v3 are 2-dimensional displacement vectors for the three atoms.3. v2 .1). then we represent the displacement vector (v1 . . x3 . x2 .

0. these vectors being given pictorially by (thus v1 (À1. 1. v2 (1. À1. 0. and is called the translation submodule. 1. The modes are of the form (t â)v. sp (v) R6 å2 . . it does not contain the rotation submodule. ÷ R (a) 1. Thus the character of the translation submodule is part of ÷ À ÷2 ÷1 2÷3 . We call sp (v) the rotation submodule of R6 . À1). Since v1 v2 v3 0. 1. It is clearly an RD6 -submodule of R6 . Translation modes These are modes in which all atoms move in the same constant direction with the same constant speed. 1. Indeed. À1. 1. 0). À1. where å2 ÷2 ( g À1 ) g 1 a a2 À b À ab À a2 b gP D6 (compare (14. the molecule rotates with constant angular velocity about the centre. then ÷ R (1) 1. where v is a vector in the span of v1 . The mode is given by (t â)v.380 Representations and characters of groups Rotation mode In this mode. 0. À1). 0. v3 ) has dimension 2. v2 and v3. À1. À1. 1)). If ÷ R is the character of sp (v). and so ÷ R ÷2 . v3 (0. so the character must be ÷3 . 1. the subspace sp (v1 . v2 . pictorially. À1. where v (1.27)). ÷ R (b) À1.

and since R6 has vib vib dimension 3. and we summarize our ®ndings below. since D6 permutes the vectors u1 . so that total moment of each vector in R6 about the vib centre is zero. u1 À u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 . with character ÷vib . Its character is ÷3 and it gives us the last eigenspace for the vib matrix A.11).18(3)) below). The vibratory mode given by u1 u2 u3 is sometimes called the expansion±contraction mode (you will see the reason for this name in the picture in (32. R6 has dimension 3. R6 does not contain the rotation vib submodule. The sum of these eigenspaces forms an RD6 -submodule R6 of R6 (by Proposition 32. where vib vib Clearly sp (u1 u2 u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 with characvib ter ÷1 . u2 . u3 among themselves. where vib ÷vib ÷ À (÷2 ÷3 ) ÷1 ÷3 X In particular. Our calculation of the normal modes is now complete. Finally. moreover. u3 . . u2 . These constraints imply three independent linear equations in the coordinates of the vectors in R6 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 381 Vibratory modes The remaining normal modes correspond to eigenspaces of the matrix A with non-zero eigenvalues. Therefore a basis of R6 is u1 . if w P R6 then the total component of w vib in each direction is zero. Since no mode in R6 can have vib vib any translation component. every vector in R6 which satis®es these equations lies in R6 . and are called vibratory modes. it is easy to see that sp (u1 À u2 .

18) Representations and characters of groups (1) Rotation mode: (2) Translation modes: linear combinations of (3) Vibratory mode: expansion±contraction mode (4) Vibratory modes: linear combinations of (We have chosen 2u2 À u1 À u3 . 2u1 À u2 À u3 as the basis for the vibratory modes in (4) merely because these modes look simpler than u1 À u2 . u1 À u3 pictorially. In order to .) We emphasize that we have found the normal modes of vibration without explicit knowledge of the equations of motion.382 (32.

From the diagram. 2 PQ À P9Q9 (x2 x3 ) 1(x1 x4 )X 2 Hence the force on the molecule at P in the direction of the ®rst coordinate axis is Àk(PR À P9R9) Àk(x1 x6 ) À 1 k(x2 x5 )X 2 Therefore. For a general displacement (x1 . x6 are small compared with the distance between the atoms. so that we may ignore second order terms. . 2 k In the same way.) Similarly. x6 ). m x1 À(x1 x6 ) À 1(x2 x5 )X 2 k m x2 À(x2 x3 ) À 1(x1 x4 ). Let m be the mass of each atom. and assume that the magnitude of the force between two atoms is k times the decrease in distance between them. denote the new positions of the atoms by P9. the difference in length between QR and Q9R9 is (x4 x5 ) 1(x3 x6 )X 2 (We always assume that x1 . x4 . PR À P9R9 (x1 x6 ) 1(x2 x5 ). Q9. X X X .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 383 check our results. R9. we now calculate the equations of motion. x3 . x5 . x2 .

x6 . .17. The homogeneous component V÷3 for ÷3 was reducible. where we found that G is isomorphic to S4 .20 Example We analyse the normal modes for the methane molecule CH4 .384 Representations and characters of groups and we obtain similar equations for x3. Label the corners of . This illustrates a method which sometimes helps to deal with reducible homogeneous components. the situation is more complicated. 32. .2. We determined the symmetry group G of this molecule in Example 32. but we were able to write it as a sum of two subspaces of eigenvectors (those appearing in (32. the character ÷ of the RG-module R6 was given by ÷ ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 X All the non-zero vectors in the homogeneous components for ÷1 and ÷2 gave normal modes. .18) are indeed eigenvectors of A. The matrix A for which x xA is therefore given by H I 1 1a2 1a2 0 0 1 f 1a2 1 1 0 0 1a2 g f g Àk f 0 1 1 1a2 1a2 0 g f gX A 1a2 1a2 1 1 0 g m f 0 f g d 1a2 0 0 1 1 1a2 e 1 0 0 1a2 1a2 1 You should check that the vectors which we gave in (32. 32. In our next example.14). .19 Remark In Example 32. since these homogenous components were irreducible (see Corollary 32.18)(2) and (4)) because V÷3 R6 vib was an A-invariant RG-submodule of V÷3 different from {0} and V÷3 .

in all. at each hydrogen atom we choose displacement axes along the edges of the tetrahedron. We now introduce a new idea. v23 .jg for all i.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 385 the tetrahedron 1. w4. and identify G with S4 . v43 . 13. v41 . The action of G on V is easy to describe. 3. v13 . 4. thus. 24. v24 be unit vectors at corner 2 in the directions of the edges 21. jX Thus. W R3 and V and W are RG-modules. w3 and w4 at the carbon atom. (2 3 4). v13 . Let v12 . 14. 23. similarly. Our main task is to ®nd RG-submodules of R15 V È W. v14 be unit vectors at corner 1 in the directions of the edges 12. w2. for example. v31 . Let V be the vector space over R with basis v12 . these four vectors span a 3-dimensional space. with w i pointing towards corner i (1 < i < 4). v23 . v21 . v34 . let v21 . the rotations about the vertical axis through 1 are written as 1. w3. v24 . respectively. Since w1 w2 w3 w4 0. we have v ij g v ig. v14 . by taking four unit vectors w1. 2. (2 4 3)X In order fully to exploit the symmetry of the methane molecule. v32 . w2. and we can quickly calculate the character ÷ of V: 1 ÷ 12 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . and let W be the vector space over R spanned by w1. as shown below. Then V R12. for g in G. giving twelve vectors v ij . v42 . and so on. G permutes our twelve basis vectors of V.

w4 0. ÷5 and 3÷4 (see (14. ÷3 . 5.27)). 4) to R15 . Let p1 (v23 À v32 ) (v34 À v43 ) (v42 À v24 ). and so on. ö ÷4 X By applying the elements ÷ i ( g À1 ) g gPG (i 1. all the basis vectors are moved by (1 2 3).1. we can ®nd RG-submodules with characters ÷1 . 3. . for g in G. 387. We ®nd that ÷ ÷1 ÷3 2÷4 ÷5 . (1 2) ®xes the basis vectors v34 and v43 only. . j and this gives the expansion±contraction normal mode: We next describe the RG-submodule W5 with character ÷5 . The group G acts on W as follows. . it is easy to calculate the character ö of W ± it is 1 ö 3 (1 2) 1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3 4) À1 By Section 18.386 Representations and characters of groups For example. we have wi g wig (1 < i < 4)X After recalling that w1 . The RG-submodule W1 with character ÷1 is spanned by v ij i. p2 (v31 À v13 ) (v14 À v41 ) (v43 À v34 ). the character table of S4 is as shown at the top of p.

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 387 Character table of S4 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 À1 1 p3 (v12 À v21 ) (v41 À v14 ) (v24 À v42 ). It should be clear from the pictures that for all i with 1 < i < 4 and . p4 (v21 À v12 ) (v13 À v31 ) (v32 À v23 )X The vector pi gives a rotation about the axis through the corner i and the centroid of the tetrahedron.

we have q i g Æq j for some j. the picture for p4 with the picture for the rotation vector v in Example 32. we have pi g Æ p j for some j. p4 ). Let W3 sp (q1 . Let q1 (v12 v21 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v24 v42 ). Therefore. Then W3 is an RG-submodule of V.388 Representations and characters of groups all g in G. for example. p3 .) For all i with 1 < i < 4 and g in G. q3 (v14 v41 ) (v23 v32 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v34 v43 )X (Each q i is associated with an `opposite pair of edges'. Check that the character of W5 is ÷5 .17. then W5 is an RG-submodule of V. q2 (v13 v31 ) (v24 v42 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 ). so dim W5 3.) Now we construct the RG-submodule W3 of V with character ÷3 . its character is ÷3 . Since q1 q2 q3 0. The RG-module W5 is the rotation submodule. p2 . . the dimension of W3 is 2. q2 . if we let W 5 sp ( p1 . Now p1 p2 p3 p4 0. q3 ). (Compare.

r2 (v12 v21 ) (v23 v32 ) (v24 v42 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v34 v43 ). r4 by r1 (v12 v21 ) (v13 v31 ) (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 ) À (v24 v42 ) À (v34 v43 ). by Corollary 32. De®ne the vectors r1. W 5 and W3 which we have found so far. r4 (v14 v41 ) (v24 v42 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v23 v32 )X (The vector ri is associated with corner i.) . r2.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 389 In the RG-submodules W 1 . r3 (v13 v31 ) (v23 v32 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v24 v42 ). r3.14. We now come to the homogeneous component (V È W)÷4 of R15 . all the non-zero vectors are eigenvectors of A.

r2. r3. s3 . s4 by s1 (v12 v13 v14 ) À (v21 v31 v41 ). de®ne the vectors s1 . Thus G permutes the vectors r1.390 Representations and characters of groups For each g in G and i with 1 < i < 4. r4 among themselves.24). so r1. Note that r1 r2 r3 r4 0. r3. s2 (v21 v23 v24 ) À (v12 v32 v42 ). r4 span a 3-dimensional RGsubmodule W4 of V. s3 (v31 v32 v34 ) À (v13 v23 v43 ). s1 s2 s3 s4 0. we have ri g rig. . The character of W4 is ÷4 (see Proposition 13. 1 < i < 4). s4 (v41 v42 v43 ) À (v14 v24 v34 )X We have si g sig ( g P G. Next. r2. s2 .

upon the constants which appear in the equations of motion. W 4 and W is direct. r2. r2 À 2s2 . r4 span the subspace V÷4 R12 of V÷4 . w2 . r3. The normal mode (sin ùt)r1 is sometimes called an `umbrella mode'. Now recall that w1 . we have wi g wig ( g P G. s3 . Since dim (V È W )÷4 9. 1 < i < 4). (2) The vectors r1. it is very dif®cult to calculate the eigenvectors of A in (V È W )÷4 directly. 9 (32. w1 w2 w3 w4 0. the space W does not enter our calculations. To see why.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 391 and s1 . s4 span a 3-dimensional RG-submodule W9 of V with 4 character ÷4 .19). and so they give the ®nal 3-dimenvib sional space of eigenvectors (see Remark 32. and no central atom.21) (1) The vectors r1 À 2s1 . We shall therefore press on and explain how to reduce the dif®culty to that of calculating the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. . and the character of W is ÷4 . The sum of W 4 . in order to deal with the easier case of a molecule with identical atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron. so 9 (V È W )÷4 W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 We now break off temporarily from studying the methane molecule. w3 . In this case. and we can decompose V÷4 W 4 È W 4 in the following way. look at the picture of the vector r1 ! We return now to the methane molecule. in fact. w4 span W. r3 À 2s3 . and let U1 fv P (V È W )÷4 : vh v for all h P HgX Since (vh)A (vA)h for all v P V÷4 and all h P H. r4 À 2s4 span the 3-dimensional space of translation modes. The task in front of us is to ®nd the eigenvectors of A which lie in (V È W )÷4 W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 The solution of this problem depends. Let H be the subgroup of S4 consisting of those permutations which ®x the number 1. so we cannot complete the work using only representation theory. s2 . it follows that U1 is A-invariant.

s1 (1 2) s2 . w1 (1 2) w2 . and the matrix of A acting on r2. Thus we obtain the translation submodule sp (r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 . w1 (see Exercise 32. namely the translation vector r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 . r1 h r1. r2 À 2s2 3 cos Ww2 . w3 )X Therefore. s2 . and since A commutes with the action of G. s1 h s1 and w1 h w1 . we have therefore reduced the initial problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of a 15 3 15 matrix A to that of calculating two of the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. w2 is again B. de®ned by U2 sp (r2 . s3 . have been calculated. where U 3 sp (r3 . One eigenvector of A acting on r1. it is possible to calculate the 3 3 3 matrix B of the action of A on r1. the process of calculating the eigenvectors of the 3 3 3 matrix B gives nine eigenvectors of A which form a basis of (V È W )÷4 . But for all h P H. w1 )X Once the equations of motion.5). where W is the angle between an edge of the tetrahedron and the line joining a corner on the edge to the centroid. s1 . By means of representation theory. The eigenvectors of B then give three eigenvectors of A. 1 H i H 3. . s1 . r3 À 2s3 3 cos Ww3 ). It is hard to imagine a more spectacular application of representation theory with which to conclude our text. r1 (1 2) r2 . s1 . s2 . Better still.392 We ®nd that Representations and characters of groups h3÷4 5 H. w1 is easy to ®nd. and so dim U1 3. w2 ) is A-invariant. Therefore U 1 sp (r1 . and hence the matrix A. the space U 2 . A similar remark applies to U3.

Deduce that det B Æ1. e3 (0. 1. The action of any g P G on R3 n commutes with A. If V÷ i is irreducible. (ii) C has a positive eigenvalue. The space R3n of displacement vectors is an RG-module. 2. (b) Let C (det B)B. with eigenvalue Àù2 . 4. If u is an eigenvector of A. The equations of motion of the molecule have the form x xA.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 393 Summary of Chapter 32 1. and is called a normal mode. 0). Suppose that G is the symmetry group of some molecule in R3 . To determine the eigenvectors of A (and hence all solutions of the equations of motion). e2 (0. 0). 0. 3. All solutions are linear combinations of normal modes. 0. and Àb is a rotation otherwise. Exercises for Chapter 32 1. The symmetry group G of a molecule with n atoms consists of those distance-preserving endomorphisms of R3 which send each atom to an atom of the same kind. 5. e3 of R3 satis®es BBt I (where Bt denotes the transpose of B). (iii) 1 is an eigenvalue of C. (a) Show that the matrix B of b with respect to the basis e1 . e2 . . then all non-zero vectors in V÷ i are eigenvectors of A. 1). Suppose that b P O(R3 ). (d) Show that if b is a rotation through an angle ö about some axis. (c) Deduce from (a) and (b) that b is a rotation if det B 1. then tr B 1 2 cos ö. then x sin (ùt â)u (or x (t â)u if ù 0) is a solution of the equations of motion. Prove successively that (i) C has a real eigenvalue. it is suf®cient to ®nd the eigenvectors of A restricted to each homogeneous component V÷ i of the RG-module R3 n . and let e1 (1. where x P R3 n and the 3n 3 3n matrix A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. 2.

Consider the space spanned by the vectors r1. The purpose of this exercise is to derive the equations of motion of the methane molecule. r2. Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1. r4 prompted us to use these vectors? 5.20. Work with 15 unit displacement vectors v12 . Find a basis for this space which is simpler than the one which we have used. What property of r1. w1 . if g is not a rotationX 3. Take the axes for the displacement coordinates as shown below: Calculate the equations of motion x xA with respect to these axes. r3.) 4. r4 given in Example 32. and so ®nd explicitly the 3 3 3 matrix B which appears at the end of Example 32. r2. and let the position vector of the molecule be iT j xij v ij p 3 i1 yi wi X (a) Prove that cos (/ 012) (2a3) and cos (/ 102) À1a3. b b X 0. X X X . Consider the triatomic molecule studied in Example 32.394 Representations and characters of groups Show that the sum of the character ÷ T of the translation submodule and the character ÷ R of the rotation submodule has value at g P G given by V b 2(1 2 cos ö). . if g is a rotation b ` through angle ö (÷ T ÷ R )( g) about some axis. r3.7.20. (See the paragraph before Proposition 32. w3 as described in Example 32. 2. v13 . w2 . and verify that A is symmetric. v43 .17. 3. 4 and let 0 denote the centroid of the tetrahedron.20.

i. show that the length of the edge 01 has decreased by p (2a3)(x12 x13 x14 ) y1 À 1( y2 y3 ). and the magnitude of the force between a hydrogen atom and a carbon atom is k2 times the decrease in distance between them. and m2 the mass of a carbon atom. 14. show that the length of the edge 04 has decreased by p (2a3)(x41 x42 x43 ) À 1( y1 y2 y3 )X 3 (c) Let m1 denote the mass of a hydrogen atom. Prove that m1 x12 À k 1 [x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x12 x13 x14 (3a2)( y1 À 1 y2 À 1 y3 )]. x32 . p3 . p1 . Verify that the vectors v ij . show m1 x41 À k 1 [x14 x41 1(x42 x43 x12 x13 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x41 x42 x43 À 1 (3a2)( y1 y2 y3 )]. 3 with similar expressions for y2 and y3 . 3 3 with similar expressions for x13. 3 with similar expressions for x42 and x43 . Also. Assume that the magnitude of the force between hydrogen atoms is k1 times the decrease in distance between them. 24. Also. 34. x14 . 2 with similar expressions for the edges 13. 23. j . x24 . Finally. x34 . show p m2 y1 Àk 2 [ (2a3)(x12 x13 x14 À x41 À x42 À x43 ) 4 y1 ]. 03. 3 with similar expressions for the edges 02. x23 . q1 . Finally. x21 . (d) The equations in part (c) determine the 15 3 15 matrix A in the equations of motion x xA.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 395 (b) Show that the decrease in the length of the edge 12 from its original length is x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 ). q2 . p2 . x31 .

For 1 < i < m. 6. and use Exercise 23. x xA. uW m . .396 Representations and characters of groups which appear in Example 32. let W i be an RG-isomorphism from U1 to Ui . (Hint: compose the function w 3 wA with a projection. (a) Find the normal modes of the molecule. Assume that the only internal forces are along the sides of the square. where the vectors r1. (f) Verify that p (1. X X X . . Show how to ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i . indeed.20. sp (uW1 . In this exercise. we derive a method for simplifying the problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of A when the homogeneous component V÷ i is reducible. Prove that if u and v are non-zero elements of U1. uW m ) is an A-invariant vector space of dimension m. Consider a hypothetical molecule in which there are four identical atoms at the corners of a square. then Au Av . We reduce our problem to that of ®nding the eigenvectors of an m 3 m matrix. .20. 6) is an eigenvector of B. . (e) Find the entries b ij in the 3 3 3 matrix B which are given by r1 A b11 r1 b12 s1 b13 w1 . (a) Prove that for all non-zero u in U1. 7. w1 A b31 r1 b32 s1 b33 w1 . s1 . . w1 are as in Example 32. . . À2.8.) We assume that ÷ i is the character of an irreducible RG-module which remains irreducible as a CGmodule. a sum of m isomorphic irreducible RG-modules. are eigenvectors of A. uW m ) with respect to the basis uW1 . . . eigenvectors of A. (See 32.15(5). s1 A b21 r1 b22 s1 b23 w1 .) (b) Let A u denote the matrix of the endomorphism w 3 wA of sp (uW1 . È Um. Suppose that V÷ i U1 È . . (b) Calculate the equations of motion. . (c) Assume that the eigenvectors of the m 3 m matrix A u are known. and check that the vectors you found in part (a) are.

the function W: D4 m 3 D2 m 3 C2 de®ned by 397 . À1) and y (d. 1). (b) Since b2 ë I but (bë)2 Y 2 ÀI. a2 } and Ker ø {1. Let x (c( m1)a2 . d: cm d 2 1.4 again that ì is a homomorphism. and D2 m hc. and if Ker W G then H f1g. 3. Then h g p i is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to G. so G An v G. since G is abelian. Since G An T G. so ì is an isomorphism. 2.4. If G were in®nite. and Ga(G A n ) C2 . 0 < j < 1. we may choose h P G with h P An . Note that all subgroups of G are normal. 4. c2 }. Therefore G An and (G An )h are the only right cosets of G An in G. (a) Using the method of Example 1. If Ker W f1g then W is an isomorphism. so kgl G. 0 < k < 1. Since G is simple and Ker W v G. The elements of D2 m 3 C2 are (c i d j . (À1) k ) for 0 < i < m À 1. Let p be a prime number which divides |G|. then h g 2 i would be a normal subgroup different from G and {1}. Check using the method of Example 1. d À1 cd cÀ1 i. it is routine to verify that ö and ø are homomorphisms. b: a2 m b2 1.4. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i.Solutions to exercises Chapter 1 1. Check that x 2 m y 2 1. Let g be a non-identity element of G. Also Ker ì {1} and Im ì L. hence G is ®nite. y À1 xy x À1 X By Example 1. Therefore g p 1. either Ker W f1g or Ker W G. For all odd g in G. and G T {1} since G is simple. we have g a (ghÀ1 )h P (G An )h. and so G is cyclic of prime order. 5. G An f g P G: g is even}. it follows that ë is not a homomorphism. Ker ö {1. where m is odd. Let D4 m ha. First. Then kgl is a normal subgroup of G.

Hence a r a j aÀqk a j (a k )Àq P H. y P H. and the identity element is in a subset of size 1. are all distinct. r with 0 < r . and gÀ1 g ggÀ1 1. kA. (b) Assume that G hai and jGj dn. (c) If x and y are elements of order n in the ®nite cyclic group G. 0 and a k P H. Bl has the form A j B k with 0 < j < 7. First observe that there exists i . by part (b). then h n 1 for all h P H (since the order of h divides n. Thus G is a group under multiplication. Finally. Moreover. Partition G into subsets f g. 0 eÀiða4 B 1 X 0 0 À1 Check that A8 I.398 Representations and characters of groups W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 2m À 1. B as follows: eiða4 0 A . If g. so gh P G. Each such subset has size 1 or 2. then x. 0 < k < 1. Therefore H < f g P G: g n 1g he2ðia n iX Since j Hj n jhe2ðia n ij. k P G then (gh)k g(hk). If g. . g À1 g has size 1. with 0 < j < 7. 0 such that ai P H. (a) Let G kal and suppose that 1 T H < G. k. it contains x 2 (c. Since r . we have r 0. These relations show that every element of the group kA. 9. We deduce that hxi H h yiX Thus x P h yi. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. k. where H { g P G: gn 1}. ei jða4 0 0 ei jða4 j j . Hence. De®ne matrices A. it follows that H ke2ðia n l. if jGj is even then there exists g P G such that g T 1 and the subset f g. hence g P kad l. so dj j. A B A X 0 eÀi jða4 ÀeÀi jða4 0 Since these matrices. Choose k as small as possible such that k . so g gÀ1 and g has order 2. g À1 g ( g P G). Since Im W kx. 8. if g P G then g À1 1a g P G. Bl has order 16. yl. 1) and x m (1. which is a cyclic group of order n. then g a j for some integer j and dnj jn. 6. It follows that f g P G: g n 1g had i. also H has order n. h. B2 A4 and BÀ1 AB AÀ1 . Let G be the set of non-zero complex numbers. Therefore a j a kq and so H kak l. Now kxl and k yl have order n. h P G then gh T 0. also 1 P G and 1g g1 g for all g P G. and so x is a power of y. If 1 T a j P H then j qk r for some integers q. 7. As |D4 m | |D2 m 3 C2 |. If H is a subgroup of G of order n. À1) and hence Im W D2 m 3 C2 . by Lagrange's Theorem). If g P G and g n 1. thus H is cyclic. we conclude that W is an isomorphism.

Thus v 0 and so U W {0}. . so WÀ1 is a linear transformation. j. and so gÀ1 Hg H again. . . By (2. and so u v. this forces ë i 0 for all i. Thus U W {0}. . Then v v 0 0 v and this gives us two expressions for v as the sum of an element in U and an element in W. First suppose that V U È W. . and so ë1 u1 X X X ë r ur ì1 w1 X X X ì s ws 0X As u1 . . hence they form a basis of V. . while H. w1. the expression 0 0 0 is the unique expression for 0 as the sum of vectors in U and W. This shows that V U È W. Since V U È W. Therefore u1 . . w2 P W. similarly ì i 0 for all i. so by Exercise 3. so W is surjective. since u1 . this gives ë i ì j 0 for all i. w P W and ë P F. And if g P H then H. ur . . . ur are linearly independent. Hence H v G. F F F . . (a) Assume ®rst that V U1 È U2 È U3. Now suppose that V U W and U W {0}. . since u is a linear combination of u1 . V U È W. Therefore Hg gH. Since W is a linear transformation. . 2. . Since such expressions are unique. v P V and uW vW then (u À v)W 0. . ì j in F. . As W is surjective and injective. ur . . w1. . F F F . . . . ur . . If g P H then gÀ1 Hg H. . Chapter 2 1. . w1 . u2 P U and w1. . we have u1 . . ws are linearly independent. . w1. . ur . ws span V. then u1 À u2 w2 À w1 P U W {0}. ì j P F. W is invertible. . so Ker W {0}. w s . v 0. Then V U W. u r . Suppose that ë1 u1 X X X ë r ur ì1 w1 X X X ì s ws 0 with all ë i . Assume ®rst that V U È W. 5. It is easy to see that V U W. ë r ur ì1 w1 . gH are a the two left cosets. Suppose jG: Hj 2 and let g P G. 4. . ur and w is a linear combination of w1 . Since u1 0 0 0 u2 u3 and the sum U1 U2 U3 is direct. w1. . we have (uWÀ1 wWÀ1 )W (uWÀ1 )W (wWÀ1 )W u w. so u À v P Ker W {0}. Thus W is injective. . . . . .7)). suppose that u1 . If u1 w1 u2 w2 with u1 . . . Conversely. If u. 3. Hg are the two right cosets of H in G.12)).Chapter 2 399 10. (3) A (1): Assume that Im W V. . If v P V then v u w for some u P U and w P W. . . w s . (2) A (3): If Ker W {0} then dim (Im W) dim V (by (2. . (ë(wWÀ1 ))W ë(wWÀ1 )W ëwX Hence (u w)WÀ1 uWÀ1 wWÀ1 and (ëw)WÀ1 ë(wWÀ1 ). F F F . Ker W {0}. it follows that v is a linear combination of u1 . Therefore u1 . If v P U W then v ë1 u1 . . hence u1 u2 and w1 w2. Let u P U1 (U2 U3 ). Then u u1 u2 u3 for some ui P Ui (1 < i < 3). .12). ws is a basis of V. ws are linearly independent. so Im W V (by (2. Let v P U W. ì s ws for some ë i . (1) A (2): If W is invertible then W is injective. Let u.

. Let v P V. but r1 is not. 0)). . . 0). 8. Conversely. È Ur ) dim U2 . 2 3 (b) Let V R2. Therefore U1 (U2 U3 ) {0}. dim (U2 È . 1)). 6. assume that Am I. by induction on r. . .10)). 0) and ö: (x. U2 (U1 U3 ) U 3 (U1 U2 ) f0g. . 7. 9. by Exercise 3. Then v 1(v vW) 1(v À vW)X 2 2 Observe that 1(v vW)W 1(vW v). by Exercise 4. . . ur . say B. Then V Im W È Ker W by Proposition 2. the matrix [W]B is diagonal. y) 3 ( y. w1. . so u1 u9 . È Ur ) (see (2. . so dim V dim U1 . j. 1)). . 2 2 2 À vW) P W.400 Representations and characters of groups u2 u3 0. . U3 sp ((1. Suppose ®rst that W is a projection. . Then I 1r (am )r (ar) m Am X Conversely. Ker W sp ((0. . each r j is a representation. so v 0.32. ws for Ker W. . the diagonal entries being r 1's followed by s 0's. U2 sp ((0. More generally. Therefore for all integers i. and Im ö Ker ö sp ((1. ö: V 3 V by W: (x. 1)). suppose that r is a representation of G. . so V Im W È Ker W. If v P U W then v vW Àv. dim Ur. The representations r2 and r3 are faithful. u2 u9 and u3 u9 . . m À 1 and i . Then 1 2 3 u1 À u9 (u9 À u2 ) (u9 À u3 ) P U1 (U2 U3 ) {0}. . Then (ai )r Ai for all integers i (including i . . . . if V U1 È . Therefore V U È W. 1 2(v Chapter 3 1. Thus V U W. First. and U1 sp ((1. so W is a projection. ur for Im W and a basis w1. Hence by Exercise 1. . then clearly W2 W. u9 P Ui (1 < i < 3) and i u1 u2 u3 u9 u9 u9 . Similarly. 1 2 3 1 Similarly. . De®ne W. of V. È Ur then V U1 È (U2 È . if [W]B has the given form. . (a i a j )r (a i j )r A i j A i A j (a i r)(a j r). y) 3 (x. 0)). . By Exercise 4. Assume that ui . Therefore V U1 È U2 È U3. Let V R2. . so 1(v vW) P U. Now suppose that U1 (U2 U3 ) U2 (U1 U3 ) U3 (U1 U2 ) {0}. Take a basis u1 . if V U È W then dim V dim U dim W. The construction of the basis B is similar to that in Solution 8. so V T Im ö È Ker ö. . 0)X Then Im W sp ((1. Similarly. ws is a basis. Since ui W ui for all i and wj W 0 for all j. Then u1 . 0)). and so r is a representation. Check that A3 B3 C 3 I. 2. dim Ur.

(2) S A3 . 0 1 1 B d0 0 H I 0 0 À1 0 eX 0 1 Then the function r: a r b s 3 A r Bs (0 < r < 3. T D. IÀ1 (gr)I gr. F) and GL (1. hence r is equivalent to r. F) is abelian. Compare Example 3. then gr (T À1 )À1 (gó)T À1. 6. then a3 r j T I.2(1). De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 A d À1 0 H I 1 0 0 0 e. By Theorem 1. 0 < s < 1) is a faithful representation of D8 ka. But r2 and r3 are not faithful. since a2 r2 I and a3 r3 I. (1) For all g P G. But Im r < GL (1. And if j T 3. so r1 is faithful. 0 < j < 1)X 401 It is easy to check that r is a representation of G.Chapter 3 3. b: a4 b2 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. The matrices A r Bs (0 < r < 5. let T 1 1 X Ài i Then T À1 (gr4 )T gr1 for all g P G. T B. ®rst work out the eigenvectors of C. Therefore GaKer r is abelian. (3) S ÀA. hence r2 is not equivalent to any of the others. Similarly r4 is faithful. then a2 r j T I. 5. 7. hence r3 is not equivalent to any of the others. we have S 6 T 2 I. then gô (ST)À1 (gr)(ST). Check that in each of the cases (1) S A. then there are invertible matrices S and T such that gó SÀ1 ( gr)S and gô T À1 (gó)T for all g P G. so r is equivalent to ô. The representations r1 and r4 are equivalent: to see this.4). . GaKer r Im r. No: let G be any non-abelian group and let r be the trivial representation. T ÀB. (4) S C. 4.) If j T 2. De®ne r by (a i b j )r (À1) j (0 < i < n À 1. 0 < s < 1) are all different.10. (2) If r is equivalent to ó then there is an invertible matrix T such that gó T À1 ( gr)T for all g P G. T B. (To ®nd T. 8. (3) If r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô. T À1 ST S À1 X It follows that each r k is a representation (see Example 1. so ó is equivalent to r.

BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X Hence r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. We have now checked all the conditions in De®nition 4. Next. g P Q8. assume that gh P An . and (vg)h v. g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 H (1 2) 1 0 0 0e 0 1 I 0 0 À1 0 e À1 1 I 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 H (1 3) I 0 1 1 0e 0 0 I 0 0 1 À1 e 0 À1 [ g]B 2 g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 (2 3) 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I H (1 2 3) 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1e 0 0 I 0 0 À1 1 e À1 0 I H (1 3 2) 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 I 0 0 0 À1 e 1 À1 [ g]B 2 All the matrices [g]B 2 have the form H I 1 0 0 d 0 j j eX 0 j j 2. 3.2. h P An ). For all u. V becomes an RQ8 -module if we de®ne vg v( gr) for all v P V. If we put . h is in An and the other is not. v1 v. since either vg v vh (if g. since one of g.402 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 4 1. Let v P V and g. so V is an FG-module. Let A f d 0 0 0 À1 e and B d À1 0 0 0e 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 0 Check that A4 I. v in V and ë in F.4(1). (ëv) g ë(v g). B2 A2 . Let V R4. H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f À1 0 0 f 0 0g 0 0 1g g f g. and (vg)h Àv. h P An ) or vg Àv vh (if g. h P Sn .2. By Theorem 4. a a Then v(gh) Àv. Let g P Sn . we have v g P V . 0 < j < 1) is a representation of Q8 over R. Assume ®rst that gh P An . Then v(gh) v. (u v) g ug v gX It remains to check (2) of De®nition 4.

0g g g g g e 1 I 0 then MA is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two rows. v4 (0. . Then (á. 0). â)a (á À â. . v2 (0. â) À (á. 2. 4. . You may ®nd it helpful ®rst to check that if H 0 1 f1 0 f f 1 M f FF f d F 403 v1 (1. Since at least one of á â and á À â is non-zero. â) P U with (á. 0. 1). À1) belongs to U. To solve the exercise. 3. sp ((1. Suppose that r has degree n and r is reducible. k . row i of B row ig of AX Let P be the n 3 n matrix ( pij ) de®ned by V if j ig. 0. and the ij-entry of PA is n pik akj a ig. and (á. if j T igX Then P is a permutation matrix. where vg v(gr1 ) for . ` 1. . v3 (0. n. À1)) and V. â) T (0. 1. Let G D12 and let r1 . then C AQ for some permutation matrix Q. 1. Chapter 5 1. 1) or (1. Then ó is equivalent to ô. â)a (á â. First consider the FG-module V F 2. pij X 0. 0. since ó is equivalent to r. 0. the proof is similar to that for the rows. we deduce that (1. r4 be the representations of G de®ned in Exercise 3. and AM is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two columns. 0). â À á) P U. Therefore ó is reducible. 0. 1)). It is easy to verify that V is an FG-module. and let (á.5.Chapter 5 then for all i. v i a and v i b are as required in the question. sp ((1. 0. let g be the permutation in Sn which has the property that for all i. 0). á â) P U. â) (á. 0). Then r is equivalent to a representation ô of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G) ô: g 3 d Yg Zg where X g is a k 3 k matrix and 0 . Hence the FG-submodules of V are {0}. Let U be a non-zero FGsubmodule of V. If C is a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns. j X k1 Hence PA B.

b}. À1)a are linearly independent. Now u and ua are linearly independent unless å 1. it is clear Hence. by the solution to Exercise 1. and u and ub are linearly independent unless ç 1. yx À2X1 À a3 b 2a2 b 3a3 b. 1) or (1. 1)) is a CG-submodule of V. On the other hand. x 2 4X1 a2 4a3 X . (c) For every element g of ka. 1)b.C çÀ1 1 1 X 0 Thus jGj < 18. g P G. (b) Let å 0 ç A . it follows that dim U > 2. 1) or (1. Hence either (1. Now let V F 2 with vg v(gr2 ) for v P V. 1)a are linearly independent.) Therefore r1 is irreducible. 1)) is an FG-submodule of V and r2 is reducible. By the solution to Exercise 1. g P G. is a multiple of 9 and jGj .5(2) for an alternative argument. bl T G. since r1 and r4 are equivalent. Then U is an FH-module. Let V {0} and let 0 g 0 for all g P G. jGj Therefore jGj 18. 1) or (1. c}. If U is a non-zero CG-submodule of V. À1) (so that u P U). Therefore r is never faithful. (a) It is easy to check the given relations. À1) lies in U. 0 < k < 1)X that |ka. r3 is irreducible. either (1. if either å T 1 or ç T 1 then dim U 2 and so r is irreducible. accordingly. also r4 is irreducible. Finally. 1)a À(1. Hence r is a representation (compare Example 1. (See Example 5. bl| 9 and ka. 9.4). let u be (1. g2 P ka. Consequently U V and so V is irreducible. Using the relations. Then V is neither reducible nor irreducible. 0 0 . Chapter 6 1X (a) xy À2X1 À a3 ab 3a2 b 2a3 b. Then (1. (d) Let V C2 be the CG-module obtained by de®ning vg v(gr) for all v P C2 . bl. AB BA. 4. 0 < j < 2. À1) and (1. so r is reducible. Hence. B 0 å À1 0 Check that A3 B3 C 2 I. if å ç 1 then sp ((1. g P G. 5. there exists a cube root î of unity such that î 0 gr À1 X 0 î But there are only three distinct cube roots of unity. so there exist distinct g1 . where H is the subgroup {1.404 Representations and characters of groups v P V. However. 1) (1. C À1 AC AÀ1 and C À1 BC BÀ1 . Suppose that U is a non-zero FG-submodule of V. and also (1. 1) and (1. where H is the subgroup {1. by Lagrange's Theorem. by an argument similar to that for r1. À1) lies in U. then U is a CHsubmodule. Hence sp ((1. Since (1. bl with g1 r g2 r. we may write every element of G in the form ai b j c k (0 < i < 2.

so rz 2. No: let G ka: a2 1l. 4. Note ®rst that if u is an element of a vector space. j and so gz zg for all g P G. v5 be the natural basis for the permutation module for G over F. Let v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 and v2 b ù2 ab ùa2 b. (c) All the entries in [W]B are 1 (compare the solution to Exercise 2). Chapter 7 1. ab bal. and bz 1 a2 zb. v2 a ù2 v2 . we have (u1 u2 )Wö (u1 W u2 W)ö u1 (Wö) u2 (Wö). Hence W is a CG-submodule of CG. Relative to the basis 1. g. 5. the regular representation r is given by H I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 f1 0 0 0g f0 1 0 0g f g f g 1r f g. (ab)r f d0 1 0 0e d1 0 0 0e 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3. Now 0r (0 0)r 0r 0r. ë P F and g P G. Let a (1 2 3 4 5) and let v1 . . ar f d0 0 0 1e d0 0 1 0e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 H I H I 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 f0 0 1 0g f0 0 0 1g f g f g br f gX g. then vr 0 and neither v nor r is 0. hence 0r v0 0. b. a. so do gh and hg. . ab of F(C2 3 C2 ). then u 0. (ëu1 )Wö (ë(u1 W))ö ë(u1 (Wö)). For all u1 . j. Check that v1 a ùv1 . and u u u. Then .) 3. . Then W: ë1 v1 X X X ë5 v5 3 ë1 1 ë2 a ë3 a2 ë4 a3 ë5 a4 is the required FG-isomorphism. If r P CG then r ë g gz ë g zg zr. 6. g ë g g with ë g P C.Chapter 7 405 (b) az ab a3 b a2 ba ba za. Hence a i b j z za i b j for all i. Use the argument of either Example 5. Let x P G.3 to prove that W is irreducible. If r 1 À g. It is easy to show that V0 is an FG-submodule of V. there exists a unique h in G such that gi h gj . and take r 1 a. u2 P U. (u1 g)Wö ((u1 W) g)ö ((u1 W)ö) g (u1 (Wö)) gX 2. so (v i a)W v i1 W a i1 (v i W)a. Let V be the trivial FG-module and let 0 T v P V and 1 T g P G. Hence ch hc c. The reason is that for all i. v1 b v2 and v2 b v1. (a) As g runs through G. hence W is an FG-homomorphism. s 1 À a. . (Note that v i W ai .5(2) or the solution to Exercise 5. (b) c2 c hPG h hPG ch jGjc. b: a2 b2 1. Let C2 3 C2 ka. and v0 v(0 0) v0 v0.

406 Representations and characters of groups gPG vxg gPG vg gPG v gxX Hence (vx)W vW (vW)x. In the notation of Exercise 3. ì g P C)X 0 ìg Then (gó)(hó) (hó)(gó) for all g. (b) (á À â)(1 À x)W ((á À â) À (â À á))(1 À x) 2(á À â)(1 À x). . ì P C) then W is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. 6. where ù e2ðia3 . Then by Maschke's Theorem. ab} C2 3 C2 (so a2 b2 1. Let g P G. v3 v4 ) and (FG)0 sp g X gPG Since V0 and (FG)0 have different dimensions.) 2. Chapter 8 1. g P G. v4 be the natural basis of the permutation module V for G over F. this makes V into a CGmodule. ab ba). is an FG-isomorphism from V0 to W 0 . 5. 4. noting that V W V0 . b. De®ne vg v for all v P V. so W 0 öÀ1 V0 . For all w P W 0 . If we let W: ëv1 ìv2 3 ëv2 (ë. V sp (Àùv1 v2 ) È sp (Àù2 v1 v2 ). (a) W is easily seen to be a linear transformation. 2 3 V0 sp (v1 v2 . (wöÀ1 )g (wg)öÀ1 wöÀ1 . . and let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 . Hence the function ö. (vö)g (vg)ö vö. If v P V0 then (vajGj)W v. since all diagonal matrices . a. r is equivalent to a representation ó of the form ëg 0 gó (ë g . For all v P V0 . Suppose that ö: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. Let G {1. and so V0 ö W 0 . (c) Let B be the basis 1 À x. Then RG sp (1 a b ab) È sp (1 a À b À ab) È sp (1 À a b À ab) È sp (1 À a À b ab)X 3. restricted to V0 . . we see that W is an FGhomomorphism from V to V0 . Also (á1 âx)xW (â1 áx)W (â À á)(1 À x) (á À â)(1 À x)x (á1 âx)WxX Hence W is an FG-homomorphism. Let G be any group. hence W is surjective. Hence W2 2W. (Find eigenvectors for x. h P G. 1 x. . v2 . and Ker W Im W sp (v2 ). it follows from Exercise 4 that V and FG are not isomorphic FG-modules. 4. No: let v1 . Suppose r is reducible.

. r4 : 3 . [u. (3) Let W U c. . U sp ((1. if u T 0 then (ux. hence also (gr)(hr) (hr)(gr) for all g. Chapter 9 1. and W is a CG-submodule of V by part (2). 1). y). Irreducible representations r1 . v g] (ugx. 5. 1r2 (1). v gx) (ux. r2 . r2 : 1r1 ar1 (1). ar2 (À1)X Let C3 kb: b 1l and let ù e2ðia3 . . This means that Ui is a faithful irreducible CG-module. where x 2 y 2 1. 6. . We know that the regular CG-module CG is faithful (Proposition 6. This is a contradiction. (x. Irreducible representations r1 . . also K T G since g P K. De®ne K fx P G: vx v for all v P Ui gX Check that K is a normal subgroup of G. Therefore r is irreducible. vx) [u. 0. r} and g P G such that ug T u for some u P Ui (otherwise vg v for all v P CG).6). . È Ur. 0 for all x P G. v gg À1 ] by part (1) [ug À1 . For example. ux) . v g] [ug À1 . so [u. . ] the axioms of a complex inner product. . we must therefore have K {1}. v]X xPG xPG (2) It is easy to prove that U c is a subspace of V. h P G. so there is no CG-submodule W of V with V U È W.Chapter 9 407 commute with each other. . Also [ug. r3 . Let CG U1 È . . and so U c is a CG-submodule of V. r2 . u] . bi r2 (ù i ). Ur are irreducible CG-submodules of CG. Then there exist i P {1. (1. y)}. 1). r3 : 1r1 br1 b2 r1 (1). Then for all u P U. v] 0 since ug À1 P U X Therefore vg P U c. Let C2 ka: a2 1l. (1) It is straightforward to verify for [ . where U1. (x. bi r3 (ù2i )X Let C2 3 C2 {(1. 7. 0)) is the only 1-dimensional CG-submodule of V. Irreducible representations r1 . Since G a is simple. Let v P U c and g P G. Then V U È W.

y j ) 3 (À1) i . (b) Check that w(a aÀ1 ) Àw for all w P W. (a) Let Cn kx: x n 1l. X X X . 5. 3 C n r of degree r. Since (g1 g2 )ó (g1 ó)(g2 ó) for all representations ó. so is not cyclic. (a) r: (x i . n1 2. let gj generate Cn j .16 shows that C2 3 D8 has no faithful irreducible representation. Check that 0 ù ù 0 r: (x.408 Representations and characters of groups gr1 (1) for all g P C2 3 C2 . b3 (b) r: a 3 À1 0 0 À1 gives a faithful irreducible representation of D8 (see Example 5. so b commutes with a aÀ1 . (x i . g irr ) 3 f d e F ir år 0 0 is a faithful representation of C n1 3 . y j )r3 (À1) i . similarly for ó. (b) If g1 (x 2 . If M(gr) (gr)M for g a and for g b. Let z gPG g. (x i . Check that A4 B2 I. 6. y j )r2 (À1) j . 4. (a) Clearly a commutes with a aÀ1 . y 2 ) then g1 . Yes: if r 2. a) 3 .14. (x i . then i i i i ó : ( g 11 . y): x 4 y 4 1l. g 22 ) 3 (å11 å22 ) is a faithful representation of degree 1 . Also bÀ1 (a aÀ1 )b aÀ1 a. and let å j e2ðia n j . 7. Then H i I å11 f g i FF g r: ( g 11 .5(2)). we cannot have (g1 g2 )ó g1 ó g2 ó (À1). and the result follows from Proposition 9. (1. (c) The centre of C2 3 D8 is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . Then r: x j 3 (e2ði ja n ) is a faithful irreducible representation of Cn . hence ó is reducible (Corollary 9. Then xz z zx for all x P G. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 when A ar and B br.3). Therefore Proposition 9. . g2 and g1 g2 all have order 2.3). . 0 1 1 0 . Hence r gives a representation. Let C4 3 C4 k(x. 3. Notice that the matrix 5 À6 4 À5 commutes with gó for all g P G. 1) and g2 (1. (d) Let C3 kx: x 3 1l and let ù e2ðia3 . Hence r is irreducible (Corollary 9. Hence z P Z(CG). n2 3. then M ëI for some ë P C. b) 3 Àù 0 0 Àù . y j )r4 (À1) i j X 2. For 1 < j < r. 1). (x. r.

Let U4 sp (v1 . Then V is a trivial CG-submodule of CG. v2 1 À a a2 À a3 . We have sp (v0 . so U sp (u) of for some u. so |G|u u( gPG g) ( gPG g)u P V. v1 1 ia À a2 À ia3 . b 3 (1) r1 : a 3 (1).5(2) (or see Exercise 8. 2. sp (v2 . sp (v1 . u2 . w1 ). where Ui sp (ui ) (0 < 3) and u1 . v3 1 À ia À a2 ia3 Chapter 10 (compare the solution to Exercise 2). namely V. Now suppose that U is an arbitrary trivial CG-submodule CG. It is irreducible (see for example Exercise 8. and so CG has exactly one trivial CGsubmodule. w0 ) U0 È U1 . U4 and U5 are irreducible CG-modules. w2 ) and sp (v3 . as in Example 10. since there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1. Theorem 10. Let u1 1 a a2 a3 À b À ab À a2 b À a3 b. the subspaces sp (v0 .4). b 3 (1) r3 : a 3 (À1). u3 1 À a a2 À a3 À b ab À a2 b a3 bX 4.4) and faithful.8(2). u3 are as in the solution to i< Exercise 3. Therefore every irreducible representation of D8 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r0 : a 3 (1). We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. U2 . U1 . As in Example 5. sp (v2 . w0 ). w3 3 v3. namely U0 . w3 ). Let G kx: x 4 1l. 409 1. Then CG sp (1 x x 2 x 3 ) È sp (1 ix À x 2 À ix 3 ) È sp (1 À x x 2 À x 3 ) È sp (1 À ix À x 2 ix 3 )X 3. b 3 (À1) r2 : a 3 (À1). b 3 (À1) 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 r4 : a 3 . let wj bv j. u2 1 À a a2 À a3 b À ab a2 b À a3 b. Thus U V. Then ug u for all g P G. Moreover U4 U5.b3 X 0 Ài 1 0 . w1 ) are CG-submodules of CG. Let V sp ( gPG g). w2 ) U2 È U3 . while u0 gPG g. Then.Chapter 10 gives a representation of C3 3 D8.5 now shows that there are exactly ®ve non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. U3 and U4 . Let v0 1 a a2 a3 . w3 ). U5 sp (v3 . For 0 < j < 3.

since the sum U1 U2 is direct. Then W1 . b): X a Yb Vi gjX Now the number of integers a with X a V i is dim (HomCG (V . u P Ker öë D u ëuW 0 D u 0. where each Xa and each Yb is an irreducible CG-module.6. Then sp (v1 .5)(3) and Proposition 11. . Then {ö g : g P G} gives a basis of HomCG (CG. dim (HomCG (V. . . This. De®ne W1 and W2 by rW1 v1 r. Also. È Xr and W Y1 È . . U3 ). Therefore. .2. Hence. not all the dimensions are 1 (see Proposition 9. by Theorem 11. . moreover. Hence the answer for D12 is 14 22 . 18 2. and similarly the number of integers b with Y b V i is k e i . . Chapter 11 1. ö2 by uö1 u. Therefore we have constructed in®nitely many CG-submodules Im öë of the required form. de®ne ö g : CG 3 CG by rö g gr (r P CG). Since G is non-abelian. CG) (compare the proof of Proposition 11. and so on). uö2 bu (u P U3 ).13 to see that the possible answers are 112 . de®ne the function öë : U1 3 V by öë : u 3 u ëuW (u P U 1 )X Then öë is easily seen to be a CG-homomorphism. u2 b À iab À a2 b ia3 b. Let V X1 È . 1. 6.4. W)) i1 d i e i . u2 ) is a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. ö2 is a basis of HomCG (U3. W2 is a basis of HomCG (CG.3. Let u1 1 À ia À a2 ia3 . . Let v1 . Compare Example 11. CG). w2 be the basis of U3 described in Example 10. v2 3 u2 .4.8). 17. Then by (11. For each g P G. 2. 6. V i )) d i .18). È Ys. U)) 1. b) such that X a Y b . Hence by Corollary 11. . Then ö1 . Let W: U1 3 U2 be a CG-isomorphism. the dimensions are 1. It is easy to check that if ë T ì then Im öë T Im ö ì . v n ) is the unique trivial CG-submodule of V (compare Exercise 10. de®ne ö1 . Then sp (u1 .8(2). v n be the natural basis of V.12.3) that 18 2 cannot occur. 18 2 means eight 1s and one 2. Thus U1 Im öë . 5. .6. For ë P C. dim (HomCG (V. either by the method of Example 5.1). by the proof of Proposition 11. W)) is equal to the number of ordered pairs (a.410 Representations and characters of groups 5. V is irreducible. 2. 14 22 and 13 3 (where 112 means twelve 1s. By Exercise 5. It will be shown later (Exercises 15. rW2 w2 r (r P CG). D12 has at least two inequivalent irreducible representations of degree 2. Let v1 . 4. . A CG-isomorphism is given by v1 3 u1 . in turn.8. 3.5(2) or by Exercise 8. by Corollary 11. dim (HomCG (V. equals k i1 jf(a.

8 (since (2 ) n3a(2X(n À 2)3)).18(2). The class equation gives . 2) from the remaining numbers. therefore A5 is simple. then we can make two different 3-cycles (k l m) and (k m l ) from the remaining numbers. Note that x P CG (g) D x P CG ( gz). so hÀ1 x xhÀ1 and ghÀ1 x gxhÀ1 xghÀ1 .8). Now the required result follows from Theorem 12. k (unordered). Hence |(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G | 5 . An element x of cycle-shape (5) has CS6 (x) kxl (note that |x S6 | 144 and use Theorem 12. Therefore CG (x) is a subgroup of G. Thus |CG ((1 2))| 2´(n À 2)!. For elements g of other cycle-shapes. 5. 2 40 elements in all. There are ®ve choices for i. Hence j Hj 1 or 60. a3 bg. (a) (1 2) G {(i j): 1 < i . Each choice gives exactly two 3-cycles. then we can make three permutations ( j k)(l m). j < n} and this set has size (2 ). j. and a basis of Z(CQ8 ) is 1. Assume that g. n G (b) (1 2 3) consists of all 3-cycles (i j k). 20. so zx xz and z P CG (x). n 3. l (unordered). and three permutations for each choice. (c) Every element of (1 2 3)(4 5 6) G has the form (1 i j)(k l m). b2 a2 . 3 15. k.8. m distinct. where x is a permutation ®xing 1 and 2. There are ®ve choices for i. and 1 P H. If z P Z(G) then zg gz for all g P G. 2) (6) 40 90 120 4. fa. The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. n k. (i k)( j l ) and (i l )( j k). We have Q8 ka. 2.Chapter 12 Chapter 12 411 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. l. a3 g. l distinct. j. fa2 g. a2 bg. in agreement with Theorem n 12. The sizes of the conjugacy classes of S6 are given in the following table: Cycle-shape (1) Class size 1 (2) 15 (3) 40 (22 ) 45 (4) (3. b a2 b. g A6 g S6 . 12. There are (4 ) choices for the numbers i. (1 2)(3 4) G consists of all permutations of the form (i j)(k l ) with i. There are (3 ) choices for the numbers i. then four choices for j. k. so 1 P CG (x). thus ghÀ1 P CG (x). 2) (5) 90 120 144 (23 ) 15 (32 ) (4. fab. with i. 12. If H is a normal subgroup of A5 then j Hj divides 60. 4 .17. namely (i j)(k l ). ( j l )(k m) and ( j m)(k l ) of cycle shape (2. 6. a2 . By Example 12. Then gx xg and hx xh. j. b: a4 1. a a3 . fb. The centralizer CG ((1 2)) consists of all elements x and (1 2)x. the conjugacy classes of A5 have sizes 1. 15. ab a3 bX 7. j. The elements of (1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G have the form (1 i)( j k)(l m). h P CG (x). namely (i j k) and (i k j). Also 1x x1. Hence by Proposition 12. This gives 5 . and H is a union of conjugacy classes of A5 . x A6 T x S6 .

3. if gr ëI for some ë P C.412 Representations and characters of groups jGj j Z(G)j xiP Z(G) a jx G jX i (a) For xi P Z(G). 2. Hence p divides |Z(G)|. a2 b. Let C4 kx: x 4 1l. by Proposition 9. I 1r z m r (zr) m ë m I. 4. and Im ä is a subgroup of the . (a) For all g.8 and (12. Let r be a representation with character ÷.10. (b) GaKer ä Im ä by Theorem 1. Since ÷(g) |®x (g)|. Thus.14. and so ä is a linear character of G. If. Hence g 3 (det (gr)) is a representation of G over C of degree 1. for all g in G.14. then ( gr)(hr) (hr)(gr) for all h P G. a4 }. Then zr ëI for some ë P C. a i i Therefore p divides |x G |. then ÷(1) ÷(12 ) (÷(1))2 . det ((gh)r) det ((gr)(hr)) det (gr) det (hr). . a5 À1 0 a2 . The required result now follows from Theorem 13. then p2 divides |x G | for all i xi P Z(G). i (b) If no conjugacy class of G has size p. The characters ÷ i of r i (i 1. 5. a3 b. The irreducible characters ÷1 . by Proposition 9. Moreover. 7. and hence g P Z(G) since r is faithful. 2) are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 2 2 a3 2 0 a. then by the class equation. so Z(G) T f1g. a5 b 0 0 0 À2 Also Ker r1 {1. a2 . If ÷ is a non-zero character which is a homomorphism. Conversely. so ë m 1. so ÷(1) 1. ÷4 of C4 are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 x 1 i À1 Ài x2 1 À1 1 À1 x3 1 Ài À1 i We have ÷reg ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 . |G| > p3 . h PG. . we have ÷((1 2)) 5 and ÷((1 6)(2 3 5)) 2. . . |x G | divides pn and |x G | T 1 by Theorem 12. a3 } and Ker r2 {1. in addition. a4 À1 2 b.9). a4 b ab. 6. and hence ÷(zg) ë÷(g). (zg)r (zr)(gr) ë(gr). We have now proved that gr ëI for some ë P C if and only if g P Z(G). If g P Z(G) then gr ëI for some ë P C. p2 divides a |Z(G)|. Chapter 13 1. This is a contradiction.11(1). Let r be a representation with character ÷.

g2 k of CG so as to obtain a basis B in which g and gx are adjacent for all g P G. Say there are r entries 1 and s entries À1. 24 4 8 4 3. 8.20). 10 Chapter 14 1. and de®ne the character ä as in Exercise 7.7.5(2). Then I H 0 1 g f1 0 g f g f 0 1 [x]B f gX g f 1 0 e d FF F 0 0 There are k blocks and since k is odd. As x T 1. hence is cyclic.Chapter 14 413 multiplicative group CÃ of non-zero complex numbers. Therefore GaKer ä is abelian. and G has a normal subgroup of index 2 by Exercise 7. (c) Im ä is a ®nite subgroup of CÃ . we obtain 3 . The required result now follows from Exercise 7. so Im ä has even order. a3 b 0 0 À2 .8. a3 0 0 0 b. 3). Let ÷ i be the character of r i (i 1. De®ne ä as in Exercise 7. The values of these characters are as follows: Conjugacy class ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 2 2 2 a2 À2 À2 2 a. øi 0 0. . a2 b 0 0 0 ab. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷.20 (but ÷ is not).3 1. And if s is even then Às s mod 4. Let r be the regular representation of G. we have ÷reg (x) T ÷reg (1) (see Proposition 13. Using Proposition 14. 9. G has an element x of order 2. so ÷ i (x) T ÷ i (1) for some irreducible character ÷ i of G. We may choose a basis B of V so that [g]B is diagonal with all diagonal entries Æ1 (see (9. (0 1 ). 3 (À1)(À1) 3 . by Theorem 13. 2. . ÷i 0 2. 1 3 . By Exercise 1.1 (À1)(À1) (À1)(À1) hø. (À1) (À1)(À1) h÷. det ([x]B ) (À1) k À1. by Exercise 1. which is abelian. Thus ä(x) À1. 24 4 8 4 3 . . øi 0 1X 24 4 8 4 Hence ø is irreducible by Theorem 14. Also À1 P Im ä. 3 (À1)(À1) h÷. It is easy to check that {g P G: ä(g) P H} is a normal subgroup of G of index 2. 3 (À1) . . 2. 10. Order the natural basis g1 . If s is odd then ä( g) À1.19. Hence Im ä contains a subgroup H of index 2. so ÷( g) r À s r s ÷(1) mod 4.10)).

÷1 i 1(19 . (À2)(À1)) 7X 6 h÷. by Proposition 13. Hence k÷reg . øl a where a 1. ÷1 l T 0. 5. 1) 3. øl 4.17 shows that ÷ is reducible. if x P G then the subgroup generated by x and the elements of Z(G) is abelian (since the elements of Z(G) commute with powers of x). Let ÷1 be the trivial character of G. As ÷ T ÷1 . 1 2 . 6 6 3 ø 2 1 ÷1 À 1 ÷2 .414 Representations and characters of groups By Theorem 14. Chapter 15 1X h÷. Since the coef®cient of ÷2 is a negative integer. We ®nd that ø À÷2 ÷3 ÷5 2÷6 . 2 or 3. we have k÷. We have h÷reg .4 and Theorem 14. ø is not a character of G. 6. Recall that hø. or exactly one of the di is 2. This follows at once from Exercise 11. hence r and ó are equivalent. 4. the rest are 0. The representations r and ó have the same character. (À1) . 3. (a) For all groups G. Hence if kø. By the method used in the solution to Exercise 1. 2 2 ø 3 1 ÷1 1 ÷2 À 1 ÷3 X 3 3 3 3. we obtain ø 1 1 ÷1 1 ÷2 1 ÷3 . 0 and by hypothesis ÷(g) > 0 for all g P G. 6 Hence ÷ 2÷1 3÷2 7÷3 . if G Z(G) Z(G)x then G Z(G). 4. ÷1 i ÷( g)X jGj gPG Since ÷(1) . ÷i 1 ÷reg ( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG But ÷reg (g) is |G| if g 1 and is 0 if g T 1.21. by Theorem 14. Hence. k 7. 6 h÷. If |G| 12 .24. If kø. and this gives the required matrix T. Since all the coef®cients here are non-negative integers.21. 2. r1 and r2 are equivalent. 8. Every abelian group of order 12 has 12 conjugacy classes. (À1)(À1) 2 . 1) 2. (À2) . but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. then either exactly four of the di are 1. 1 3 . øi i1 d 2 . the regular character of C2 . then i exactly a of the integers di are 1 and the rest are 0. (À2) . it follows that ÷ is a character of S3 . ÷2 i 1(19 . 2 0 2 . Therefore the centre of a group G never has index 2 in G. ÷l ÷(1). Theorem 14. Then 1 h÷. 1 3 . ÷3 i 1(19 .2. No: let G C2 and ÷ ÷reg .

4 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives i1 p p ÷4 ( g 2 ) (À1 À 5)a2. similarly ÷4 ( g3 ) (À1 5)a2. Finally. Exercise 9. Corollary 13. y) 1 À1 1 À1 (x. The complete character table of G is gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 10 1 2 1 2 g2 5 1p (À1 5)a2 1p (À1 À 5)a2 g3 5 1p (À1 À 5)a2 1p (À1 5)a2 g4 2 1 0 À1 0 The two unknown degrees ÷3 (1). gives the values on g4 .10. 1) 1 1 À1 À1 (1. (x. (x. (1. (b) Since the number of irreducible representations is equal to the number of conjugacy classes. Chapter 16 1.g. similarly ÷3 (g3 ) 1. the remaining conjugacy classes have size at least 2.12)). y): x 2 y 2 1}. if G D12 then G has 6 conjugacy classes (see (12. Therefore. ÷4 (1) are 1. y). The character table of C2 3 C2 is (cf. it follows from the solution to Exercise 11. y) 1 À1 À1 1 2.9)).Chapter 16 415 and G is non-abelian. together with the relation 4 4 i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 4 ) 0.18(1)). G C4 3 C3 ) then G has 12 conjugacy classes. 2 since 4 ( ÷ i (1))2 10. Then i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 0 gives ÷3 ( g2 ) 1. so there cannot be as many as 9 conjugacy classes in total. 1) ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 (x. Let C2 3 C2 {(1.2 and part (a) that G has 4. and if G A4 then G has 4 conjugacy classes (see Example 12. then |Z(G)| divides 12 and |Z(G)| T 6 or 12. The last row of the character table is (cf. 1). at most 4 conjugacy classes of G have size 1 (see (12. i1 Because g4 has order 2. Example 16. 1). 6 or 12 conjugacy classes.1) (1. . so |Z(G)| < 4. If G is abelian (e.5(2)) g1 ÷5 2 g2 À2 g3 0 g4 0 g5 0 3.

every element of G has the form am bn with . Let g P G. a3 bg. Use Proposition 12.9(3)).416 4. G9a.9(3)).) Chapter 17 1. which occurs if and only if g P Z(G).13 to see quickly that bÀ1 ab a2 . we have i1 ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) jC G ( g)j. and 5 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g2 ) 7 i1 gives 3 2ææ 7. (b) The column which corresponds to the conjugacy class containing gÀ1 2 has values which are the complex conjugates of those in the column of g2 (see Proposition 13. fa. this is a different column of the character table of G. 6. This number is equal to |G| if and only if CG (g) G. p Hence æ (À1 Æ i 7)a2. Therefore det C Ædet C. a2 bg and fab. 5. By the column orthogonality relations. a3 g. (b) G9 f1. the last irreducible character of G is 1 ÷5 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 The character table of Q8 is the same as that of D8. fa2 g. G9abg C2 3 C2 .1. It is easy to see that a7 b3 1. and if det C Àdet C then det C is purely imaginary. a2 g and GaG9 fG9. C t C is the k 3 k diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are |CG ( gi )| (1 < i < k). (The sign depends upon the ordering of rows and columns. 2. Hence jdet Cj2 jC G ( g i )j. p If G C3 then det C Æi3 3. (a) The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. (a) 5 Representations and characters of groups i1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives 3 3æ 3æ 0. fb. The matrix C is obtained from C by rearranging the columns (see Proposition 13. if det C det C then det C is real. By the column orthogonality relations applied to the column k corresponding to g. G9b. (a) Using the relations. The character table of C2 3 C2 is given in the solution to Exercise 16. since æ is non-real. Hence the linear characters of G are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 8 1 1 1 1 a2 8 1 1 1 1 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 (c) Using the column orthogonality relations.

i gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 4 3 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 g3 4 3 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 g4 6 2 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 6 2 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g6 12 1 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 . Applying the column orthogonality relations. therefore for some irreducible character ÷. then G is abelian (see Proposition 9.6). 4 or 12 linear characters. ÷2 ÷. ÷6 ö÷. all of these are irreducible characters by Proposition 17. so G is certainly not simple.14. G9 kal. hence jGj < 21. and the class sizes j g G j come from the equations i jGj jC G ( g i )jj g G j (Theorem 12. we obtain 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a á á a3 á á b 0 0 b2 0 0 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. we note that a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . so we get three linear characters of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . But a has order 7 and b has order 3. a4 g. If there are 12. we have ÷(a) T ÷(a) (see Corollary 15. fa m b: 0 < m < 6g and fa m b2 : 0 < m < 6g. The centralizer orders are obtained by using the orthogonality relations. The number of linear characters of G divides jGj by Theorem 17.11. To ®nd the two remaining irreducible characters ÷4 and ÷5 . we have ÷1 1 G .2 to see that there are 3. 3. a5 . In the character table below. (b) The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. a6 g. ÷3 ÷ 2 . If G has 3 or 4 linear characters then jGaG9j 3 or 4 and again G is not simple as G9 v G. 4.8). (c) First. a2 . Therefore jGj 21. ÷5 ö. Now consult the solution to Exercise 11. so 21 divides jGj by Lagrange's Theorem.Chapter 17 417 0 < m < 6. fa3 . Hence ÷4 and ÷5 must be complex conjugates of each other. 0 < n < 2. fa.18). ÷4 ÷2 ÷3 .

no two of which are equivalent. . ha2 . these representations are irreducible and inequivalent.3. abi Ker ÷4 . they are not equivalent to any representation found earlier.418 Representations and characters of groups D8 Ker ÷1 . 22 2n . by Theorem 11. 0 çÀ1 1 0 where ç is any (2n)th root of unity in C. . so we have obtained all the irreducible representations.11). 12 4nX Hence we have found all the irreducible representations. ha2 . bi Ker ÷3 . (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations: 2 32 n 2 3n 2 3 2 32 å 0 1 0 å 0 0 1 . so jGaG9j 2n and there are 2n representations of degree 1. . . f1g Ker ÷5 X 5. since b2 is in the kernel of each of these representations. by Exercise 8. The normal subgroups of D8 are 6. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations. (b) The given representations. 12 6n.4).4. for å e2ði ja n with 0 < j < n À 1. Moreover. so jGaG9j 4 and there are four representations of degree 1 (see Theorem 17. (b) The given representations. Now the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found so far is (n À 1) .12. 22 4 . The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found is n . For ç e2ði ja2 n with 1 < j < n À 1. For å e2ði ra2 n . and inequivalent (consider the character values on a2 ).4). for å e2ði ka2 n with 0 < k < n À 1. 0 å À1 0 1 0 å À1 ån 0 32 3À1 2 3À1 2 3 2 0 1 å 0 0 1 å 0 X ån 0 0 å À1 ån 0 0 å À1 Hence we have representations of T4 n (cf. with r 1. (b) The representations in part (a) are irreducible unless å Æ1. n À 1. we get n À 1 irreducible representations. see the solution to Exercise 18. since they have distinct characters. Moreover G9 ka2 l. are irreducible (by Exercise 8.4) and inequivalent (their characters are distinct). . ha2 i Ker ÷2 Ker ÷3 . Note that b2 does not belong to the kernel of any of these representations. note that the structure of GaG9 depends upon whether n is even or odd. Example 1. 8. Also G9 kbl. 2. are irreducible (by Exercise 8. . hai Ker ÷2 . We get further representations by ç 0 0 1 a3 . (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations.) 7.b3 . (For further details on the representations of degree 1.

The character table of D8 is as shown.3.28(2). b2 l and GaG9 C2 3 C2. 22 (n À 1) . Character table of D8 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 a2 8 1 1 1 1 À2 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (See Example 16. Hence. We have now found all the irreducible representations.) Regarding D8 as the symmetry group of a square.) 2. 22 4 . using Section 18.Chapter 18 419 Finally. Then ù ùÀ1 1. where we took b to be a different re¯ection. (Compare Example 14. take b to be a re¯ection in a diagonal of the square. since the sum of the squares of the irreducible representations given above is n . Let ù e2ðia6 .3(3) or Section 18. Character table of D12 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 À2 2 a 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 . the character table of D12 is as shown. G9 ka2 .3. ù2 ùÀ2 ù4 ùÀ4 À1. 12 8nX Chapter 18 1. so we get four representations of degree 1. Then ð takes the following values: 1 ð 4 a2 0 a 0 b 2 ab 0 Hence ð ÷1 ÷3 ÷5 .

6 as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| øj 1 4n 2 an 4n 2(À1) j ar (1 < r < n À 1) 2n ù rj ùÀ rj b 4 0 ab 4 0 where ù e2ðia2 n . fa2 r b. The n 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. fan g. ka3 l Ker ÷6 and {1} Ker ÷5 . bl Ker ÷3 . ka2 l Ker ÷3 Ker ÷4 . Exercise 17. If n is odd. as shown. fa2 r1 . 3. far . The remaining four irreducible characters of G are linear. fa2 j b: 0 < j < n À 1g. Hence we get 2n linear characters ÷ j (0 < j < 2n À 1). 4. . ka2 .420 Representations and characters of groups Seven normal subgroups of D12 are G Ker ÷1 . The 3n conjugacy classes of G are. then GaG9 C2 3 C2 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 1 1 1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r b 1 À1 1 À1 ab 1 À1 À1 1 Note that T4 C4 . fa2 j1 b: 0 < j < n À 1gX We get n À 1 irreducible characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) of G from Exercise 17. abl Ker ÷4 . then GaG9 hG9bi C4 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 À1 1 À1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 (À1) r 1 (À1) r b 1 i À1 Ài ab 1 Ài À1 i If n is even. T8 Q8 and T12 is the Example in Section 18. a2 r b2 g. aÀ r g(1 < r < n À 1). a2 r1 b2 gX We have G9 hbi and GaG9 hG9ai C2 n . kal Ker ÷2 . fa2 r g.7 gives us n irreducible characters ø k (0 < k < n À 1). for 0 < r < n À 1.4. ka2 . a2 r1 b.

. For example. .Chapter 18 Character table of U6 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷j (0 < j < 2n À 1) øk (0 < k < n À 1) Note: ù e2ðia2 n . we get four linear characters ÷1 . 422. . fa2s . and a further n À 1 characters ö j (1 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. 5. as shown below. fa2s b2 . The 2n 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. ÷4 . Character table of V8 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (0 < j < n À 1) öj (1 < j < n À 1) 1 8n 1 1 1 1 2 2 a2 r1 (0 < r < n À 1) 8n 4n 1 1 1 1 À2 2 1 1 À1 À1 b2 a2s a2s b2 (1 < s < (n À 1)a2) 4n 4n 1 1 1 1 ù4 js ùÀ4 js ù2 js ùÀ2 js 1 1 1 1 Àù4 js ÀùÀ4 js ù2 js ùÀ2 js b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 ù2 j(2 r1) ÀùÀ2 j(2 r1) ù j(2 r1) ùÀ j(2 r1) Note: ù e2ðia2 n . the character table of V24 is given at the top of p. aÀ2s g. k 1 or 3g. . U12 T12 and U18 D6 3 C3 . n characters ø j (0 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. aÀ2 rÀ1 b2 g(0 < r < n À 1). aÀ2s b2 g(1 < s < (n À 1)a2). faj bk : j even.8. and faj bk : j odd. fb2 g. Observe that U6 D6. k 1 or 3gX a2 r 6n ù2 jr 2ù2 kr a2 r b 3n ù2 jr Àù2 kr a2 r1 2n ù j(2 r1) 0 421 Using Exercise 17. fa2 r1 .

by Exercise 1. ÷öl. 1 G l k÷. øl 0. ÷ A ø2 ø4 ø5 . Hence ö( g) ö(1) for all irreducible characters ö for which k÷ n .14 we obtain 1 ÷S ÷A öS öA 15 10 6 3 (1 2 3) 0 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À2 2 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 0 0 1 p (1 3 4 5 2) 0 0 1 p (1 5)a2 (1 À 5)a2 Then ÷ S ø1 ø2 2ø3 . öl kø. Since ÷ is not faithful. ö S ø1 ø3 . k÷ø.422 Representations and characters of groups Character table of V24 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ø0 ø1 ø2 ö1 ö2 1 24 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 b2 24 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 À2 2 2 a 12 1 1 À1 À1 p0 ip 3 Ài 3 1 À1 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 À2 2 a5 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 p Ài 3 p i 3 1 À1 a2 12 1 1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 À1 a2 b2 12 1 1 1 1 À2 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Chapter 19 1X h÷ø. .13). Using Proposition 19. öl T 0. there exists 1 T g P G with vg v for all v P V. øöiX jGj gPG jGj gPG Similarly. 2. .5 there is an irreducible character ø of G such that ø(g) T ø(1). Let n be an integer with n > 0. 3. öi 1 1 ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) h÷. ö A ø4 X . k÷ø.15 and (14. øl. The result now follows from Proposition 13. Note that (1 2 3 4 5)2 is conjugate to (1 3 4 5 2) in A5 . Then wg w for all w P V . Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. V (n factors). 4. By Proposition 15. Therefore k÷ n .

Since k÷ i .14. b) 36 18 12 18 9 6 12 6 4 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 2 2 À2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 2 À2 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 0 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 0 0 0 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 Àù2 Àù À1 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 Àù Àù2 À1 g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 ù ù2 1 g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 ù2 ù 1 Chapter 20 1. a) (a. these characters are irreducible. these are irreducible by Propositions 13.15 and 17. b) (a. Character table of G (cf. the character table is complete. 4. the character table of D6 3 D6 is as shown. 1) (a. Character table of D6 3 D6 ( gi . 1) (1. ÷6 ÷5 and ÷7 ÷2 ÷5 .2) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù e2ðia3 6.Chapter 20 423 5. Taking D6 ka. ÷3 ÷2 . The table also records the trivial character ÷1 . b: a3 b2 1. a) (b. 5. a) (1. Exercise 27. hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 (1.1(3). ÷ i l 1 for i 2. as in Example 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Take b to be the re¯ection in the axis shown: . We have recorded ÷ as ÷5 . b) (b. 1) (b. Since G has seven conjugacy classes. below. (a) Regard D8 as the subgroup of S4 which permutes the four corners of a square. hj ) |CG ( gi . ÷ S as ÷4 and ÷ A as ÷2 .

ø5 in our character table below. â (1 À 1 0 0 À1 0 á â p 5)a2 1 0 0 À1 0 â á 1 À1 1 0 2 À1 À1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 0 Note: á (1 3.3(3) or Section 18. ÷5 5 H ø2 ø5 X 2. b 3 (1 3) gives the required isomorphism.6) gives ÷(1) d 1 X X X d r < d 2 X X X d 2 < nX 1 r 4. Since each ø i has degree 1. . . . 7. Let ø1 . Let ÷1 . .3). 3. ÷11 be the irreducible characters of S6 . dr ø r for some non-negative integers di . ÷ 5 Hl H .5. ÷11 5 A6 l 2. Write d k÷ 5 H. . and take the character table of H to be gi |CH ( gi )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 (1 3)(2 4) 8 1 1 1 1 À2 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 (1 3) 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (see Example 16. . For an example with d 3. ø r be the irreducible characters of H. Either by direct calculation. We obtain ÷1 5 H ø1 . ÷ 5 Hl H < 3 follows at once from Proposition 20. we obtain from ÷11 5 A6 the two irreducible characters which we have called ø6 and ø7 .2). or using (20. The inequality k÷ 5 H. .424 Representations and characters of groups Then a 3 (1 2 3 4). 9) are distinct irreducible characters of A6 . as in Example 19. we ®nd that the characters ÷ i 5 A6 (i 1. k÷11 5 A6 . . ÷3 5 H ø1 ø4 .13). Character table of A6 gi 1 (1 2 3) |C A6 ( g i )| 360 9 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 ø6 ø7 1 5 10 9 5 8 8 1 2 1 0 À1 À1 À1 p (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4 5) (1 3 4 5 2) (1 2 3)(4 5 6) (1 2 3 4)(5 6) 8 5 5 9 4 1 1 À2 1 1 0 0 5)a2. For examples with d 1 or 2.14. (b) Take the irreducible characters ÷1 . take G S3 and H a subgroup of order 2. take G A4 . . . . these give the characters ø1 . Then ÷ 5 H d1 ø1 . . the inequality (20. . Arguing as in Example 20. Also. . . . ÷5 of S4 as in Section 18. H V4 and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree 3 (see Section 18.17. 5. and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree d. . ÷2 5 H ø4 . ÷4 5 H ø3 ø5 . .1. .

ø 4 Gi 1.13). the restriction of the irreducible character of degree 20 to A7 must be the sum of two different irreducible characters of degree 10. Let Hgj (1 < j < m) be the distinct right . (a) ÷1 5 H ÷2 5 H ø1 . ø2 4 G ø3 4 G ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 X 3. (a) Let u 1 À a2 b À a2 b. 10. we obtain ø1 4 G ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 ÷5 . From the remaining fourteen irreducible characters of S7 . Hence sp (u) is a C H-submodule of CH. (b) Using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. See (20. (c) The character ø of U and the character ø 4 G of U 4 G are given by 1 ø 1 a2 À1 b 1 a2 b À1 1 ø4G 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 Since hø 4 G. 6. the induced module U 4 G is irreducible. It is suf®cient to prove that if U is a CH-submodule of CH then dim (U 4 G) jG : Hjdim U . Since 20 occurs only once in the list of degrees for S7 . Hence the irreducible characters of A7 have degrees 1. 15.Chapter 21 425 5. ÷4 5 H ÷5 5 H ø1 ø2 ø3 . Then ua2 Àu and ub u. 35X Chapter 21 1. 14. (b) Since every element of G belongs to H or to Ha. the elements u and ua form a basis of U 4 G. Label the characters of H as follows: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 1 1 (1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 (1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . We are told that A7 has exactly nine conjugacy classes. ÷3 5 H ø2 ø3 . 10. and we get precisely seven if and only if the restriction of each of the fourteen characters is irreducible. 14. 2. 21. upon restriction to A7 we get at least seven irreducible characters of A7 .

The sum Ug1 . On elements of cycle-shapes (1). where Ugj {ugj : u P U}. 3). by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. ÷ 5 Hi H T 0 D ø9 ø or öX Thus If ø 4 G is irreducible. öi G hø(÷ 5 H). together with the result of Exercise 19. we deduce. öi G X Since this holds for all irreducible characters ö of G.11. Hence dim(U 4 G) dim(U (CG)) m dim U .9. Also. Thus ÷ i (1) > di ø(1). 3) 12 0 6. . as in the proof of Proposition 20. where d i hø 4 G. and on all other elements the values are zero. . By using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem twice.17 that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G (ø 4 G)÷. Cycle-shape ö4G ø4G (1) 240 720 (7) 2 À1 (3. dk ÷ k (1). (7) and (3. and therefore jG: Hjø(1) > (d 2 X X X d 2 )ø(1)X 1 k The required result follows. . (÷ö) 5 Hi H hø 4 G. hence ÷ 5 H is reducible.23. . then for precisely one other irreducible character ö of H we have ø 4 G ö 4 G. 5. ÷ i 5 H di ø â where either â is a character of H or â 0. ÷öi G h(ø 4 G)÷. say ø 4 G ÷. 4. Ug m is direct (since the elements in Ugj are linear combinations of elements in the right coset Hgj ).1 (also twice). Suppose ®rst that ø 4 G is irreducible. Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H. Let ö be an irreducible character of G. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. we deduce from Theorem 14. Then ÷(1) 2ø(1) and k÷ 5 H. (Compare Proposition 20. ÷ i 5 Hi H . the values are as follows.) . or (2) ø 4 G is the sum of two different irreducible characters of the same degree. since ø is irreducible. ÷ i i G hø. The values of ö 4 G and ø 4 G are given by Proposition 21. We have hø9 4 G. Hence. 7. we obtain h(ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G. øl H 1.426 Representations and characters of groups cosets of H in G. ÷i G T 0 D hø9. that either (1) ø 4 G is irreducible. dim (Ugj ) dim U (since u 3 ugj (u P U) is a vector space isomorphism). We have |G: H|ø(1) d1 ÷1 (1) . By applying the result of Exercise 6. say ÷ 5 H ø ö. Then U(CG) Ug1 . . ö 5 Hi H hø. . Ugm .

Use Theorems 11. (a) Since G is non-abelian. ÷l 0. 3. and r s 7 or 10 or 16. öi 1 (a bjGj (jGj À 1)a) a b. and ø9 is an irreducible character of H such that ø9 4 G has ÷1 or ÷2 as a constituent. (c) The number of conjugacy classes of G is r s. then ø9 ø. ÷1 5 Hi H T 0 D ø9 øX Thus If ø 4 G ÷1 ÷2 where ÷1 and ÷2 are irreducible characters of G. then kö. and jGj 1 jGj(a bjGj) a bjGjX jGj Since ö is a character.11 again. 2. and if there are r characters of degree 1 and s of degree 2.Chapter 22 427 Suppose next that ø 4 G is reducible. Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H.) Chapter 22 1.) 4.12. Theorems 11.12. (b) We have h1 G .11.11 and 22. . since both sides of this equation take the same values on all elements of G. both k1 G . each degree divides 15 (Theorem 22. 12 s . and r . (For more information on groups of order pq. 17. This time. not every irreducible character has degree 1 (Proposition 9. b P C such that ö(g) a for all g T 1 and ö(1) a bjGj.11 show that there are r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree q. The degree of each irreducible character is 1 or 2. The number of linear characters divides 15 (Theorem 17. Then ÷1 (1) ø(1) and k÷1 5 H. where r divides pq. öl and k÷reg . We have hø9 4 G.18). (c) If ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G. (b) jG9j p by Theorem 17. ÷l kb÷reg . But kö À a1 G .11). there exist a. ÷l P Z. (a) By hypothesis. Then ö a1 G b÷reg . ÷l P Z and k1 G .18. hence ÷1 5 H ø. Hence every irreducible character has degree 1. and so G is abelian by Proposition 9. moreover. say ø 4 G ÷1 ÷2. then r divides 16. (Compare Proposition 20. øl H 1. 22 16X Hence r 4 or 8 or 16.11 and 22. see Chapter 25.11). ÷l bjGj÷(1)ajGj b÷(1). and the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is 15 (Theorem 11. öi h÷reg . Hence kö À a1 G .12). 1 < s and r sq 2 pqX Hence r q and s ( p À 1)/q. 17.12. ÷1 i G T 0 D hø9. öl are integers.

(a) By Theorem 22. This contradicts Proposition 22.) 6. we deduce that ÷2 (1) ÷3 (1) 5. ÷(g) is an integer for all characters ÷. (b) For all g P G. (a) If g P G then g has odd order. 1 G i ÷( g)X jGj gPG (c) If ÷ T 1 G in part (b). Thus ÷ 1 G . we have ÷( g) ÷( g À1 ) ÷( g) ÷( g) 2÷( g). if g2 1 then g 1. The only possibility which is consistent with equation (IV) is that the values of ÷ i (1) for 4 < i < 7 are 1. by part (a). Each such subset has size 2. say i 2. Hence ÷( g) ÷(1) 2á gPG for some algebraic integer á. 5. Also (III) 2 2 7 i1 (÷ i (1))2 120X Since 5 10 . By the column orthogonality relations.27.5. ÷2 (1) ÷3 (1) 0 mod 5. and hence also b. and hence á À÷(1)a2. since 1 h÷.428 Representations and characters of groups (d) Since ÷(1) divides jGj. by Lagrange's Theorem. is an integer. a. (4. and ÷(g) is an algebraic integer. Æ1 for all i. Partition Gnf1g into subsets by putting each element with its inverse. 1 G l 0. . by part (b). (c) By Corollary 22. ÷ i ( g)) with 4 < i < 7 are (1. ÷ i (1) ÷ i ( g) mod 5 for all i. hence is odd). with ÷1 1 G . But À÷(1)a2 is a rational number which is not an integer (since ÷(1) divides jGj. and (II) 1 7 i2 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) 0X From equation (I) we deduce that either ÷ i ( g) 0. Let ÷1 . 4. or ÷ i (g) Æ2 for exactly one i and ÷ i (g) 0 for all other i . 1. 6 in some order. By Corollary 22. À1). The stated result follows. and from equation (III) we have (IV) 7 (÷ i (1))2 69X i4 Hence the possibilities for the pairs of integers (÷ i (1).1 and Corollary 23. 1). 4. 120. (b) We deduce from part (a) that ÷ i (g) 0 for two values of i. (d) We now have the following part of the character table of G: . 1). 3. . and ÷ i (g) Æ1 for 4 < i < 7.2. (6. we have (I) 1 7 i2 (÷ i ( g))2 5. then k÷. (Further information about the number of characters ÷ such that ÷ ÷ appears in Theorem 23. the second possibility is ruled out by equation (II). ÷7 be the irreducible characters of G.16. Therefore. Therefore. .27. . part (c) implies that b|G| is an integer.

Hence ÷ i (g5 ) Æ1 i1 for 1 < i < 4 and ÷ i (g5 ) 0 for 5 < i < 7. 1. À1. ÷ i (g5 ) ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g5 ))2 4. 1. Since 7 ÷ i (1)÷ i (g5 ) 0. The character table of G is as shown. respectively. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 À1 1 À1 À2 2 0 g3 2 8 1 1 1 1 0 0 À2 g4 3 6 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 0 g5 4 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 g6 6 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 . By applying the column orthogonality relations involving column 6 and columns 3. These can be obtained from the column orthogonality relations. We are told that ÷ i (gj ) is integer for all i. 0.Chapter 22 gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 g3 2 8 1 g4 3 6 1 g5 4 4 1 g6 6 6 1 429 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 We successively calculate the ®ve remaining columns of the character table. Æ2 in some order. ÷ i ( g4 ) ÷ i (1) mod 3 and 7 (÷ i ( g4 ))2 6. 0. 1. an (1) First. (4) We have ÷ i (g6 ) ÷ i (g4 ) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g6 ))2 6. we deduce that i1 ÷ i (g3 ) Æ1 for 1 < i < 4 and the values of ÷ i ( g3 ) for 5 < i < 7 are that 7 0. (2) Next. 0. (5) Only the entries in column 2 remain to be calculated. 5 and 7 we obtain ÷2 (g6 ) À÷3 (g6 ) ÷4 (g6 ) À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷5 (g6 ) À÷6 (g6 ) 1. 1. Hence the values of i1 ÷ i (g4 ) for 1 < i < 7 are 1. Also i1 ÷ i (g3 )÷ i ( gr ) 0 for r 4. 1. 4. 0. i1 we deduce that ÷4 ( g5 ) À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷2 (g5 ) À÷3 (g5 ) 1. 1. (3) Since ÷ i (g3 ) ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g3 ))2 8. À1. À2 in order from the top. from which 7 we see that ÷ i (g3 ) 1 for 1 < i < 4. 7. Therefore i1 ÷ i (g6 ) Æ1 for 1 < i < 6 and ÷7 (g6 ) 0. j. From the relation i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 3 ) 0 we now deduce that the entries in column 3 are 1.

all of whose entries are integers. and hence ë is a root of the polynomial det (xIn À A). . g irr where for each j. . . Therefore x À1 gÀ1 xg x. so g2 P CG (x). Then gÀ1 xg x À1 for some g P G.8. Since é÷ < 1 for all ÷. Adopt the notation of Theorem 9. Let m be the order of g. Since ÷(1) 2 we have ÷ A (1) 1. Now the ni th root of unity ë i can be À1 if and only if ni is even. the elements g of G which satisfy g2 1 are i precisely those elements g11 . The result follows. which is of the form x n anÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 (ar P Z)X Conversely. Since x 2 1 and x has odd order. 4. . and n 2 elements if n is even. The number of such elements is also 2 m .13 of é÷ that é÷ À1 if and only if ÷ A 1 G .430 Representations and characters of groups 7. Let ë1 and ë2 be the eigenvalues of gr. As p(ë) 0. The elements g of D2 n for which g2 1 are 1. . Chapter 23 1. 3 C n r which is given by i i ÷( g 11 X X X g irr ) ë11 X X X ë irr is real if and only if ë i Æ1 for all i with 1 < i < r. Then det (A À ëIn ) 0. . Hence gÀ2 xg2 x. where m is the number of the integers n1 . it follows from the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions that we must have é÷ 1 for all ÷. Assume that x P G and x is real. Since A has integer entries. it follows that x 1. However. by Lagrange's Theorem. a nÀ1 x nÀ1 x n (a r P Z). assume that ë is a root of the polynomial p(x) a0 a1 x . Suppose ®rst that ë is an eigenvalue of an n 3 n matrix A. . nr which are even. it follows that ë is an eigenvalue of A. Hence the number of real irreducible characters is 2 m . . Then ÷ A (g) 1 2 2 2 2((ë1 ë2 ) À (ë1 ë2 )) ë1 ë2 det (gr) (see Proposition 19. a i b (0 < i < n À 1) (and also a na2 if n is even)X This gives n 1 elements if n is odd. It now follows from the De®nition 23.14). 2. The character ÷ of G C n1 3 . . either i j 0 or n j is even and i j n j a2. 3. m 2n 1 for some integer n. summing over all the irreducible characters ÷. ë is therefore an algebraic integer. . Let I H 0 1 0 XXX 0 f 0 0 1 0 g g f f 0 0 0 0 g f F Af F F gX F g F g f F d 0 0 0 1 e Àa0 Àa1 Àa2 XXX Àa nÀ1 Check that det (xIn À A) p(x). . Then g g2( n1) P CG (x). Since jGj is odd. These numbers coincide with ÷(1).

Write Q (q ij ). (c) The elements of T4 n are ai and ai b (0 < i < 2n À 1).Chapter 23 431 5. Since é÷ À1. Also A is invertible by (Ã ).3 for the characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) and ÷ j (1 < j < 4) of T4 n. j P {1. and é÷2 é÷4 0 or 1. 7. respectively. As â is G-invariant. . Therefore det (At ) (À1) n det A. . The de®nition of â shows that â is symmetric if å n 1 and â is skew-symmetric if å n À1. according to whether n is odd or even. fn of V and de®ne the symmetric n 3 n matrices A (aij ) and B (bij ) by aij â1 ( f i . f 9) ä ij for all i. . j. v1 ) å n â(v1 . . we may construct a basis f 1 . so é÷ Æ1. the subspace {u P V: â(u. according to whether j is odd or even. By a well known property of symmetric matrices. Let r be the representation obtained by using the basis v1 . respectively. v2 of V. Hence ÷ (é÷)÷(1) 2. By part (a) (or part (b)) and the construction of the characters ø j in Exercise 17. (d) Refer the Exercise 18.e. f j )X By applying the Gram±Schmidt orthogonalization process. v j ) â(v i . a has order 2n and ai b has order 4. Let 9 n i j P ( pij ) be the n 3 n matrix which is given by f9 pij f j X i j Then PAP I n and PBP is symmetric. Hence an is the only element of order 2. we have At ÀA. there is an orthogonal matrix Q (i. so det A (À1) n det A. . The result now follows from Exercise 4. . Choose a basis f1 . â(v1 b. (a) First. v j ). 6. v) 0 for all v P V g f0gX (Ã ) Pick a basis v1 . . å n v2 ) â(v1 . there exists a nonzero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form â on V. Clearly é÷1 é÷3 1. f j ). Hence â is G-invariant. it is easy to check that ÷( g) is real for all g P G. . (b) It is easy to check that if g a or b and i. v j g À1 )X For example. v1 ) â(v2 . The result now follows from Theorem 23. as n ÷(1) the result is proved. v) 0 for all v P V} is a CGsubmodule of V. nÀ1 Therefore j1 (éø j )ø j (1) 0 or À2. so det A T 0. It follows that n is even. hence det (gr) 1 for all g P G if and only if å n À1. respectively. .16. . since V is irreducible it follows that fu P V : â(u. according to whether n is odd or even. en of V by ei qij f 9 X j j t t . Since â is skew-symmetric. and de®ne the basis e1 . . v n of V and let A be the n 3 n matrix with ij-entry â(v i . X X X . b ij â( f i . v1 bÀ1 ). . Then det (ar) 1 and det (br) Àå n . f 9 of V such that â1 ( f 9. QQt I) such that Q(PBPt )QÀ1 is diagonal. 2} then â(v i g.6. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. we get éø j À1 or 1.

. Further. It is clear that the given set of matrices has size p( p À 1). Vx P G D g P xPG xÀ1 HxX Finally. c2 be the columns of the character table of G corresponding to the classes {1} and t G . and write á å å 3 å 4 å 5 å 9 . v n . 9. ej ) 0 if i T j. so ë P R. Hx. note that 1 y 1 y9 1 y9 yx . Chapter 25 1. . v n be a basis of the RG-module V. ej ) ä ij . and since QPBPt Qt is diagonalX â(ei . For closure. Let ç e2ðia5 and å e2ðia11 . Then V is an irreducible RG-module. as Hxg Hyg A Hx Hy. 0 1 0 x 0 x À1 Therefore G is a group. with ÷1 1 G ). which we are assuming to be an irreducible CG-module. if G is simple then since G9 v G. since QPAPt Qt I n . Hence |G : G9| 2 by Theorem 17. (a) The proof is similar to that of part (1) of Schur's Lemma 9. and r is a homomorphism as (Hx)(r gh ) Hxgh (Hx)(r g )(r h ). For the last part. r is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù) S n with kernel which is contained in H. i. Call it G. xgx À1 Vx P G D xPG x À1 P H. we have G9 1.432 Then Representations and characters of groups â1 (ei . By Schur's Lemma there exists ë P C such that vW ëv for all v P V9. ÷2 (t) Æ1 and ÷ i (t) 0 for i > 3. . identity is 1 0 1 y 1 À yx À1 . (c) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l.11. G is abelian. 2. 8. De®ne W: V 3 V by vW av (v P V). and consider the vector space V9 over C with basis v1 . Then V9 is a CG-module. inverse of is . 10.e. r g is a permutation. Hence G C2 . and let V be the RG-submodule of the regular RG-module which is spanned by 1 À a and 1 À a2 . . 0 x 0 x9 0 xx9 associativity is a property of matrix multiplication. We have g P ker r D Hxg Hx.1. . . . since a linear character must take the value Æ1 on t. But v1 W ëv1 P V. (b) Let v1 . Now the orthogonality of c1 and c2 gives ÷1 (1) ÷2 (1) 1 and ÷2 (t) À1. . so we may take ÷1 (t) 1. ÷1 and ÷2 are the only linear characters. Let c1 . â å 2 å 6 å 7 å 8 å 10 X . By the orthogonality relation for c2 we have ÷ i (t)2 |CG (t)| 2 (the sum over all irreducible characters ÷ i .

Chapter 25 Character table of F11. b9À1 ab9 av iX Hence G1 G2 . are (À1 Æ p)a2.6(c). Let b9 bm.9.6 that ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are not both real. Hence ö2 (a) ö1 (a). then a is conjugate to aÀ1 and so ÷(a) is real for all characters p so (ö1 (a))2 (ö2 (a))2 ( p 1)a2. (a) Note that À1 is the only element of order 2 in ZÃ. Also. Therefore aÀ1 P aG D u m À1 mod p for some m D p 1 mod 4X (c) ÷ i (a) 1 for all the q linear characters ÷ i of G. aG {au : m P Z}. there exists an integer m p such that u m v mod p. since both m and v have u order q modulo p. so p ÷(a)÷(a) q ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ö2 (a)ö2 (a)X ÷ Hence ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ö2 (a)ö2 (a) ( p 1)a2. so by Exercise 1. Hence p u m À1 mod p for some m D the element u of ZÃ has even order p D q is even D p 1 mod 4X (b) By Proposition 25. bÀ m abm au av . This time. If p 1 mod 4. 4. Also. Hence 0 ÷(1)÷(a) q qö1 (a) qö2 (a)X ÷ irred m Therefore ö1 (a) ö2 (a) À1. then a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . 2ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ( p 1)a2. 5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 55 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 a 11 1 1 1 1 1 á â a2 11 1 1 1 1 1 â á b 5 1 ç ç2 ç3 ç4 0 0 b2 5 1 ç2 ç4 ç ç3 0 0 b3 5 1 ç3 ç ç4 ç2 0 0 433 b4 5 1 ç4 ç3 ç2 ç 0 0 3. |CG (a)| p. and it follows from Corollary 15. b9: ap b9q 1. Also. Then G1 ha. and we ®nd that p ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are (À1 Æ i p)a2. If p À1 mod 4. . m is coprime to q. Hence bm has order q. Recall that ZÃ is cyclic. Hence ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) ÷.

. . u ( pÀ1)a2 } is precisely the set of quadratic residues modulo p. Let H ka. The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. Character table of E gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 18 1 1 2 2 2 2 a 9 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 b 9 1 1 À1 2 À1 À1 ab 9 1 1 À1 À1 2 À1 a2 b 9 1 1 À1 À1 À1 2 c 2 1 À1 0 0 0 0 6. bl.3 (see Theorem 19. Hence we get six linear characters ÷1 . Then H1 v G and Ga H 1 C6 . fa r b3 : 0 < r < 8g. . . so E has exactly two linear characters. fa r b2 : 3 B rg. H 2 bi D6 . there exist gi P E such that gi T 1 but ÷ i (gi ) ÷ i (1) (so gi P Ker ÷ i ). fa r b2 : r 0. Let H2 ka3 . b2 l.3 (see Theorem 19. 5. 6g. All the elements outside H form a single conjugacy class of E. 3.10). 3. . fa r b: 0 < r < 8g. Then H2 v G and Ga H 2 h H 2 a. The characters ÷4 . fa r b5 : 0 < r < 8gX Let H1 kal. say ÷1 and ÷2 . 6g. as shown. (c) D6 3 F13. Since ZÃ is cyclic of order p p À 1 and u has order ( p À 1)a2.18). Also. The result now follows from part (c). Then ÷8 ÷7 ÷2 and ÷9 ÷7 ÷3 are also irreducible. fa r : 3 B rg.3 (see Theorem 25. fa r b4 : r 0. 7. . fa3 . u 2 . .18). it follows that {u. A typical non-trivial linear character of H is 1 ÷ 1 a 1 a2 1 b ù b2 ù2 ab ù ab2 ù2 a2 b ù a2 b2 ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . Z(E) {1}. ö1 (a) m1 å u . fa r b4 : 3 B rg. Then for all h P H.434 Representations and characters of groups ( pÀ1)a2 m (d) By Theorem 25. E9 H. the conjugacy class hE consists of h and hÀ1 . 8. . ÷5 and ÷6 are obtained similarly. (b) C2 3 F13. Then ÷ 4 E is the irreducible character ÷3 given in the table which follows. Lift the irreducible character of D6 of degree 2 to obtain ÷7 in the table below. The ®nal irreducible character ÷10 can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. ÷6 of G. and for all i with 1 < i < 6. (a) F13.10. a6 g. .

For all other elements h of H. Character table of H (a non-abelian group of order 27) gi |C H ( g i )| ÷00 ÷01 ÷02 ÷10 ÷11 ÷12 ÷20 ÷21 ÷22 ö1 ö2 1 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 z 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù 3ù2 z2 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù2 3ù a 9 1 1 1 ù ù ù ù2 ù2 ù2 0 0 a2 9 1 1 1 ù2 ù2 ù2 ù ù ù 0 0 b 9 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 0 0 ab 9 1 ù ù2 ù ù2 1 ù2 1 ù 0 0 a2 b 9 1 ù ù2 ù2 1 ù ù ù2 1 0 0 b2 9 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 0 0 ab2 9 1 ù2 ù ù 1 ù2 ù2 ù 1 0 0 a2 b2 9 1 ù2 ù ù2 ù 1 ù 1 ù2 0 0 Note: ù e2ðia3 . Then r pm for some m. m is at least 2. by Theorem 17X11. and (ø 4 G)(1) p. 2. hz 2 }. since H is abelian. by Corollary 21. {z} and {z 2 } are conjugacy classes of H.20. Hence ÷(1) < p. and so ÷(1) 1 or p by Theorem 22. ø 4 Gi G T 0 by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. Assume that G has r linear characters and s irreducible characters of degree p. Then k÷ 5 H. Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. by Theorem 11X12X Since s p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 and s is an integer. Therefore h÷. the conjugacy class hH {h. b: a9 b6 1. and r sp2 pn . hz. øl H T 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. But ø(1) 1.11. bÀ1 ab a2 l gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 Note: ù e2ðia3 1 54 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 6 a3 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 À3 a 9 ab2 9 ab4 9 b 6 b2 18 b3 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 b4 18 435 b5 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 ù2 ù Àù ù2 1 ù ù2 ù2 ù 1 1 1 À1 1 1 ù2 ù ù ù2 1 ù ù2 Àù2 ù À1 À1 À1 0 2 À1 Àù2 Àù 0 2ù2 À1 Àù Àù2 0 2ù 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ù Àù2 ù2 ù 1 À1 ù ù2 ù2 Àù 2 0 2ù 0 2ù2 0 0 0 Chapter 26 1.Chapter 26 Character table of G ka. {1}.

Hence by Corollary 9. so jGj < 32. s. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 øj ( j 1. by Theorem 11. l. t. 7) come from inducing to G those linear characters ÷ of kal for which ÷(a8 ) À1. (b) A2 ÀB2 ÀC2 D2 I. . since g4 1 for all g P G. u) with r. Therefore G9 h Zi (see Proposition 17. Since Gah Zi is abelian. .8 (D16 G1 ) and in Section 18. Combined with part (b). these are all the irreducible representations of G.3. {ar b: r even}. 5. AC ÀCA. Hence Z P G. (a) Let å e2ðia8 . a8 }. this shows that jGj 32. j. . CD ÀDC. u P {0. AD DA. 3. These are as follows: for each (r. Since G9 h Zi.12. ÷7 of G as shown in the table at the top of this page. (d) Since G has irreducible representations of degrees 1 and 4. (a) Check that AB ÀBA. BC CB. we obtain the characters ÷1 . Hence every element of G has the form A i B j C k D l Z m for some i. aÀ r } (1 < r < 7). The character table of D16 is given in Section 26. {a8 }. {ar b: r odd}. it follows that g 2 P h Zi for all g P G.10). and GaK D16 . B. We obtain representations as follows: . jGj > 12 42 17. BD ÀDB. 7) Note: cm e2ði ma16 eÀ2ði ma16 2 cos (mð/8) 3. t. b: a16 1. {ar .436 Representations and characters of groups Character table of G ka. and Gah Zi is abelian while G is non-abelian. k. also G is a 2-group. 1}. m P f0. s. C and D has the form ëI for some ë P C.3. we get a representation A i B j C k D l Z m 3 (À1) ir js kt lu X Together with the irreducible representation of degree 4. 1g. . G has precisely 16 representations of degree 1. 5. Then the four characters ø j ( j 1. Here. 3. G has 11 conjugacy classes: {1}. the given representation is irreducible. By lifting the irreducible characters of D16. 1 32 a8 32 a 16 a2 16 a3 16 a4 16 a5 16 a6 16 a7 16 b 4 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 2 2 p0 À2 0 2 0 0 p p À2 p0 2 2 2 0 Àp2 À2 Àp2 0 2 0 p p 2 2 À 2 0 2 À2 2 0 À 2 0 2 À2 cj c2 j c3 j c4 j c5 j c6 j c7 j 0 5. (c) A routine calculation shows that every matrix which commutes with each of A. the group K which appears in Theorem 26.4 is {1. b2 a8 . 4.

except possibly G5 and G8 . G9 are isomorphic. Since Z(Gj ) is not cyclic. Therefore j Z(G)j p or p2 . À1 0 2 3 0 1 . .16. 2. 7. Also jGa Z(G)j T p by Lemma 26.b3 . The following table records the numbers of elements of orders 1. . (a) By Lemma 26. 3 437 0 å 0 0 å À1 2 3 å 0 2 0 å 0 1 0 . while G8 aG8 9 C2 3 C2 3 C2 . 6. z 3 d 0 1 0 e. (d) The following give faithful representations: H I H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 f g f g f g G7 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e.b3 . .2 G1 : a 3 2 G2 : a 3 G3 : a 3 G4 : a 3 2 G5 : a 3 å å 0 À1 3 . But G5 aG5 9 C2 3 C4 .1(1) we have {1} T Z(G) T G. . . Hence a .b3 3 . and g P CG ( g). z. (c) Check that the matrices satisfy the required relations. Gj has no faithful irreducible representation. so G5 T G8 . z 3 d 0 1 0 eX I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 1 0 0 1 6.z3 X À1 1 0 0 i (b) If j 5. 4 and 8 in G1 .b3 2 2 Chapter 26 0 1 1 0 0 1 3 . If g P Z(G) then Z(G) < CG (g) T G. 1 0 å3 3 2 3 0 0 1 . 7 or 8 then Z(Gj ) {1. by Proposition 9. i f G8 : a 3 d 0 0 H 0 0 0 À1 H I 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 g f g f g Ài 0 e. b 3 d 1 0 0 e. G9 : G1 Order Order Order Order 1 2 4 8 1 9 2 4 G2 1 1 10 4 G3 1 5 6 4 G4 1 3 4 8 G5 1 3 12 0 G6 1 7 8 0 G7 1 11 4 0 G8 1 3 12 0 G9 1 5 10 0 Therefore no two of G1 .1(2). a2 . It is easy to see that the matrices generate groups with more than eight elements. . å5 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 0 0 1 i 0 .b3 . b 3 d À1 0 0 e. Assume that j Z(G)j p2 . a2 z} C2 3 C2 . . . so the representations are faithful. so give representations.

if |Z(G)| p2 then |G9| p. Chapter 27 1. By parts (a) and (b). p). G has p2 ( p4 À p2 )a p conjugacy classes. and if |G9| p2 then |Z(G)| p. in which case Ga(G9 Z(G)) T Q8 by part (a). (b) Assume that G has r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree p. so a Æ1. Therefore. we have a2 1. we have a2 P Z. and since z P SL (2. Hence |G9 Z(G)| p. as r s is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. 3) of order 3 which are not conjugate to each other. Part (b) follows. Check that and 1 0 1 1 1 À1 0 1 are elements of G SL (2. (b) If G is a non-abelian group of order 16. Assume that z Then a c b d P Z(SL (2. in which case Ga(G9 Z(G)) is abelian. The element À1 0 0 À1 lies in Z(G). b and all elements in Z. a dX 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 z À1 0 À1 z Therefore z aI. or G9 Z(G) Z(G). bZi. and assume that Ga Z haZ. Since ÷(1)2 p4 (Theorem 11. there are no irreducible characters of degree greater than p. and 1 1 z A c Àb. (a) Let Z Z(G). 2. (c) Note that G9 Z(G) T {1} by Lemma 26. Therefore jGaG9j r p2 or p3 . bÀ1 abZ aÀ1 ZX Then a2 b2 z for some z P Z. and hence ba2 b3 z b2 zb a2 b.12). with a4 P Z. p))X 1 z A c 0. Therefore Ga Z T Q8 . then by Exercise 7. and . 8. a2 Z b2 Z. either G9 Z(G) G9. Since a2 commutes with a. and if r p2 then r s 2 p2 À 1. so r sp2 p4 .1(1).438 Representations and characters of groups jC G ( g)j p3 and j gG j p.

namely the spans of the vectors (0. Finally. a subgroup of S4 of order 12. Then ÷5 ( g4 ) á.5 implies that ÷ j ( g7 ) À÷ j ( g4 ). (2. that ÷5 is real. say ÷5 ÷2 ÷6 and ÷5 ÷3 ÷7 . without loss of generality. Since ÷5 ÷2 and ÷5 ÷3 are irreducible characters of G of degree 2. whose values on g4 are áù and áù2 . ÷3 . 7. Assume. g3 can be deduced from the column orthogonality relations. ÷6 and ÷7 must be real.2). so by Theorem 23. by Corollary 22. The equation j ÷ j (g4 )÷ j ( g 4 ) 6 gives áá 1. therefore GafÆIg A4 . Exercise 13. one of ÷5 .27. ÷4 of G are obtained by lifting to G the irreducible characters of A4 (which are given in Section 18. 6. ÷2 . Hence GafÆIg Im ö. where á is real. The group G permutes these subspaces among themselves. á Æ1. they must be ÷6 and ÷7 in some order. so we obtain a homomorphism ö: G 3 S4 .1. 1) and (1. 0). g2 . The characters ÷1 . ÷7 on the elements g1 . ÷(g5 ) ÷( g4 ) and ÷(g6 ) ÷( g7 ) for all ÷. The values of ÷5 . ÷6 . Hence the following are conjugacy class representatives: g1 1 0 1 24 0 1 g2 À1 0 0 À1 2 24 g3 0 À1 4 4 1 0 g4 1 1 0 1 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| 3 6 g5 1 0 À1 1 3 6 g6 À1 1 0 À1 6 6 g7 À1 À1 0 À1 6 6 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| We now describe how to construct the character table of G.Chapter 27 0 À1 1 0 439 has order 4. 1). Note that G has three real conjugacy classes. (1. Check that Ker ö {ÆI}. First observe that the vector space (Z3 )2 has exactly four 1-dimensional subspaces. which is given below. 1). Then á À1 since ÷5 ( g4 ) ÷5 (1) mod 3. Also á T 0. Since á is real. . Now note that for j 5.

. . . so ë : G is irreducible.440 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. Also. h2 Z. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. .25.6. 1 G l 1.2 and Example 21. Apply Proposition 17. . 0 1 0 4 0 2 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 À1 h4 Z. (a) For the character table of T. ë : Gl 1. h5 ZX 0 1 0 1 Two of the linear characters of T are hi |CT (h i )| 1T ë h1 21 1 1 h2 3 1 ù h3 3 1 ù2 h4 7 1 1 h5 7 1 1 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 À1 Àù Àù2 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 À1 Àù2 Àù g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 1 ù2 ù g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 1 ù ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . 4. 1 T : Gl 2 and k1 T : G.23): gi |CG ( g i )| 1T 4 G ë4G g1 168 8 8 g2 8 0 0 g3 4 0 0 g4 3 2 À1 g5 7 1 1 g6 7 1 1 We ®nd that k1 T : G. write ö ë : G. 3) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù e2ðia3 3. notice that T is isomorphic to the group of order 21 whose character table is found in Exercise 17. h3 Z. The values of 1 T : G and ë : G are as follows (see Proposition 21. Representatives of the conjugacy classes of T are h1 . kë : G. where 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 0 2 0 4 0 h1 Z. Hence 1 T : G 1 G ÷. h5 .

÷8 (1). . 2 2 j1 (÷ j (1)) 168. (c) Use Exercise 13.27 again. 0. so either æ 2ø for some irreducible character ø. öl k÷ S .16. . Since there are only six irreducible characters in all. æl 4. By Corollary 22. We calculate that kæ. ÷2 and ÷6 . the values of ÷ j (g6 ) for 7 < j < 11 must be Æ1. and ÷11 (1) 8. Further. and none is a constituent of æ. Since By 11 2 j1 (÷ j (g6 )) 6. ÷ j (1) is even. . j1 (Alternatively. . . The congruences ÷(1) ÷(g6 ) mod 3 now give the remaining values on g6 . have degrees 2divisible by 6. The values of ø are as shown above. 168. Æ1. two of ÷7 . Æ1. (b) By lifting. ø A has the following values on g1 .1. 1 G l k÷ S . . g2 .14): gi |CG ( g i )| ÷ ÷S æ ø g1 168 7 28 12 6 g2 8 À1 4 4 2 g3 4 À1 0 0 0 g4 3 1 1 0 0 g5 7 0 0 À2 À1 g6 7 0 0 À2 À1 441 We ®nd that k÷ S . we deduce that ÷ j (g3 ) 0 for 7 < j < 11. ÷(g6 ) P Z for all characters ÷.5 (noting that ÷ j (ÀI) T ÷ j (I) for 7 < j < 11. æ cannot therefore be the sum of four irreducible characters. Exercise 14.) Also.7). Hence there is a character æ of G such that ÷ S 1 G ö ÷ æX The values of æ are as shown above. 5. in some order. 11 say ÷9 and ÷10 . in the character table of G given at the end of Chapter 27. (a) Compare the proof of Lemma 27. 0. ÷11 (1). we obtain the characters ÷1 . ÷l 1. are equal to 4. ÷6 in the character table shown below. so ÷9 (1) ÷10 (1) 6. Now 1 G . gi and gi g2 have the same centralizer for all i. say ÷7 (1) and ÷8 (1). ÷5 can readily be calculated using the column orthogonality relations (noting that gi is real if and only if 1 < i < 4). ÷11 . Next. Note that because g2 lies in Z(G).Chapter 27 (c) The values of ÷ and ÷ S are as shown below (see Proposition 19. apply part (c). Use part (c) to ®ll in the values on g2 and g7 . by Corollary 22. ÷7 (1)2 ÷8 (1)2 ÷11 (1)2 96. . g3 and g6 : g1 øA 6 g2 6 g3 2 g6 0 . ÷3 . (f ) By Proposition 19. ö and ÷ are three of the six irreducible characters of G. ÷ and ø are the characters ÷1 . . (e) Theorem 22. and so æ 2ø with ø irreducible. and 12 6 .14.27. respectively. The only possibility is that two of ÷7 (1). (d) The characters 1 G . ö. since ÀI is not in kernel of these characters). the (d) Since 11 ÷ j (g3 )÷ j ( g3 ) 8. or æ is the sum of four distinct irreducible characters (cf. The remaining irreducible characters ÷4 .

we ®ll in the values of ÷7 and ÷8 . 6. Let Z {ÆI} and de®ne the subgroup T of G. using this fact and part (c). Let x ø(g8 ). Since g4 is conjugate to gÀ1 . Then the value of ø A on g6 shows that ÷1 is not a constituent of ø A .bPZ T Z: a P Z 11 11 X 0 aÀ1 Then T is generated by 1 1 2 0 x Z and y Z. 0 1 0 6 and T has ®ve linear characters æ j (0 < j < 4). ÷5 and ÷6 . The column orthogonality relations now let us ®nd the remaining values of ÷9 and ÷10 . of order 55. Say A ÷7 ( g 8 ) (1 À i 7)a2. Say ÷9 (g4 ) 2. Hence 4 (ø( g4 )2 À ø( g 3 ))a2 ø A ( g4 ) ÷6 ( g 4 ) 0. Then 4 11 and 11 ÷ j ( g 4 )2 8 imply that j1 ÷ j ( g 1 )÷ j ( g 4 ) 0 p j1 p ÷9 (g4 ) À÷10 (g4 ) Æ 2. and therefore.442 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. we have 11 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g 6 ) 0. For all ÷. Since g2 is conjugate to g8 . Similarly. the value on g3 forces ø A ÷6 . by & ' a b Ã. ø(g4 ) 0. (g) For i T 6. ®nally. thereby completing the character table of G. ÷4 . This allows us to ®ll in the j1 values of ÷11 . Then ÷8 ÷7 . we get 8 p (x 2 À x)a2 øp( g8 ) À1. Now g2 is conjugate to g3 . Therefore x (1 Æ i 7)a2. ÷( g 10 ) ÷(g8 ). ø(g5 ) 0. where æ j : x u y v 3 e2ði jva5 X . 7) gi g1 Order of g i 1 |CG ( g i )| 336 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 7 8 3 3 6 4 4 6 6 8 g2 2 336 1 7 8 3 3 6 À4 À4 À6 À6 À8 g3 4 8 g4 8 8 g5 8 8 g6 3 6 g7 6 6 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 g8 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g9 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 g10 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g11 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 p p 0 0 p 2 Àp 2 0 À 2 2 0 0 0 0 À1 p Note: á (À1 i 7)a2 The values of ø A on g1 and g2 show that ø A is a linear combination of ÷1 . ÷(g4 ) is real for all ÷.

We have now found four of the eight irreducible characters of G. By considering 8 ÷ j (1)÷ j (g2 ) 0. by Theorem 22. æ0 4 Gi 2. 3 for all irreducible ÷. We have hæ0 4 G. j1 hence |÷( g2 )| . (In calculating ÷3 (g5 ). and ÷5 (g2 ). respectively. hence. ÷ j (1) 0 mod 5 for 5 < j < 8. so ÷ j (g4 ) Æ1 for 5 < j < 8. and 8 ÷ j ( g2 )2 12. Hence æ0 4 G ÷1 ÷2 for an irreducible character ÷2 of G. . 5. without loss of generality. ÷(g2 ) ÷(g4 ) mod 3 for all ÷. We have now completed columns 1. we deduce that the remaining irreducible j1 characters ÷5 . 5.27.16. But 8 (÷ j (1))2 250. namely ÷1 . they are ÷3 and ÷4 in the p table. the j1 values of ÷ j (g3 ) (5 < j < 8) are as shown. Character table of PSL (2. Next. 11) gi Order of g i |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 Note: á (À1 p g1 1 660 1 11 12 12 10 10 5 5 g2 2 12 1 À1 0 0 2 À2 1 1 g3 3 6 1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 p g4 6 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 1 1 g5 5 5 1 1 á â 0 0 0 0 g6 5 5 1 1 â á 0 0 0 0 g7 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã g8 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã 5)a2. 10. we j1 see that ÷7 (g2 ) ÷8 (g2 ) 1. ÷6 (g2 ) have opposite signs. ÷4 . and j1 ÷ j (g4 ) 6. ÷5 (1). ÷3 . ÷2 . ÷8 take the value 0 on g5 . and 8 ÷ j (g4 )2 6. 8. ÷7 (1). ÷5 (g2 ) 2 À÷6 ( g2 ). We may now conclude from the facts 8 2 that ÷(g2 ) ÷(g1 ) mod 2 and that ÷ j (g2 ) Æ2 for j 5. ÷6 (1). ÷7 . and 8 ÷ j (g3 )2 6. 8 2 Now ÷(g4 ) ÷(g3 ) mod 2 for all ÷. By Corollary 22.Chapter 27 443 The characters æ1 4 G and æ2 4 G are irreducible. Since ÷(1) ÷(g3 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. ÷8 (1) are 10. Note that ÷(gj ) is an integer for 1 < j < 4 and all characters ÷. ÷6 . j1 ÷ j (g2 ) 12. 2. ÷1 i 1 and hæ0 4 G. Since ÷(g4 ) ÷(g2 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. note that e2ðia5 eÀ2ðia5 (À1 5)a2X) Let ÷1 1 G . â (À1 À p 5)a2 and ã (À1 i 11)a2 Since 8 ÷ j (g5 )÷ j ( g 5 ) 5. we j1 can complete column 4. The column orthogonality relations now enable us to ®nish the character table. without loss j5 of generality. 6 and ÷ j (g2 ) Æ1 for j 7. 3 and 5 of the character table.

g8 as representatives of the conjugacy classes. q). 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 g2 g3 g4 1 0 2 0 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 g6 g7 g8 2 2 0 1 2 1 where 3 1 2 1 1 3 X The character table of GL(2. (a) The identity I has centralizer of order q 3 À q. 0 1 (c) There are (q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives s 0 d s.1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 48 1 1 3 3 4 2 2 2 g2 48 1 1 3 3 À4 À2 2 À2 g3 6 1 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 À1 g4 6 1 1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 g5 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 g6 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 2 0 g7 8 1 À1 À1 1 p0 i 2 0 p Ài 2 g8 8 1 À1 À1 1 0 p Ài 2 p0 i 2 2. q) where Z fsI : s P FÃ g. It now follows easily that GL(2. We take g 1 . a b Suppose that P GL(2. X 2 1 g1 0 2 1 g5 0 X X . gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ë1 ø0 ø1 ø0. since r r q and q is even. s À1 g of elements 0 s À1 from F q nF2 . Every element r of F q can be expressed as a square. q).444 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 28 1. q) have representatives as follows. 3) is then as follows. We may write ad À bc as s 2 for some c d Ã . q You should have no dif®culty in proving that the conjugacy classes of SL(2. q) Z 3 SL(2. Each such element has centralizer of order q À 1. . indexed by unordered pairs fs.s À1 . 1 1 (b) The matrix u1 has centralizer of order q. Then s in F q a b s 0 aas bas X 0 s cas das c d The ®rst matrix in the product is sI and the second belongs to SL(2.

g9 below We can now list representatives g 1 . Each such element has centralizer of order q 1. X X X .i ÷i 1 q q1 qÀ1 u1 1 0 1 À1 d s. f1 ç. 8) SL(2.s À1 1 1 s i s Ài 0 vr 1 À1 0 À(r i r Ài ) Here. r À1 g of elements 1 r r À1 from F q 2 nF q such that r 1q 1. q) is simple. ç ç2 gX These give us the conjugacy class representatives g3 . By restricting characters from GL(2. g 5 below. I ë0 ø0 ø0. 8). The irreducible monic quadratics over F8 with constant term 1 are x 2 x 1. The polynomial x 3 x 1 is irreducible over F2. q) to SL(2. fç2 . g4 . we have used the function r 3 r de®ned in (28. and therefore SL(2. Hence we may write F8 fa bç cç2 : a. g 7 . 3.Chapter 28 445 (d) There are qa2 conjugacy classes with representatives 0 1 vr . c P F2 and ç3 1 çgX The pairs fs. q) is as follows. x 2 çx 1. g 9 of the conjugacy classes of SL(2. If q T 2 then the kernel of every non-trivial character is the identity subgroup. Then 64 . q) you will quickly be able to prove that the character table of SL(2. 8). x 2 ç2 x 1. 1 ç ç2 g.3). 2 3 2 3 1 0 1 1 g1 g2 0 1 0 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 ç 0 1ç 0 0 ç2 g3 g4 g5 0 1 ç2 0 ç ç2 0 1 ç ç2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 g6 g9 X g7 g8 1 1 1 ç 1 ç2 1 ç ç2 We may choose a generator å of FÃ so that å 7 å À7 ç. The subscripts for ø0. as follows. b. g8 . Note ®rst that PSL(2. s À1 g of elements from F8 nF2 are fç. 1 ç2 g.i satisfy 1 < i < (q À 2)a2. and the subscripts for ÷ i satisfy 1 < i < qa2. indexed by unordered pairs fr. x 2 (ç ç2 )x 1X The companion matrices for these quadratics give use the conjugacy class representatives g 6 .

446

Representations and characters of groups

**å 14 å À14 ç2 , å 21 å À21 1 and å 28 å À28 ç4 ç ç2 . The character table of SL(2, 8) is then as follows.
**

gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ø0 ø0,1 ø0,2 ø0,3 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 504 1 8 9 9 9 7 7 7 7 g2 8 1 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 g3 7 1 1 g4 7 1 1 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 g5 7 1 1 g6 9 1 À1 0 0 0 À2 1 1 1 g7 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 g8 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 B g9 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1

Here, the 3 3 3 submatrices A and B are given by H I 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) f g A d 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) e 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) H À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) I

f g B d À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) eX À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9)

Chapter 29

1. (a) It is straightforward to check that ö is a homomorphism. For x, y P G, the element (x, y) P G 3 G sends x to y, so that action is transitive. (b) (G 3 G)1 f( g, g) : g P Gg, and ker ö f(z, z) : z P Z(G)g. (c) Every orbit of G 3 G on G 3 G contains an ordered pair of the form (1, x), and if ( g, h) sends (1, x) to (1, y) then g h and y g À1 xg. Hence if C1 , X X X , C k are the conjugacy classes of G, and xi P C i, then (1, xi ) (1 < i < k) are orbit representatives for the action of G 3 G on G 3 G, and so the rank is equal to k. Since x(( g, h)ö) x if and only if xhx À1 g, we see that ð( g, h) jfix G ( g, h)j is equal to 0 if g is not conjugate to h, and is equal to jC G (x)j if g is conjugate to h (since in the latter case, if xhx À1 g then an arbitrary element y P G such that yhy À1 g is of the form y xc with c P (x)). Hence using the column orthogonality relations we see CG that ð ÷ 3 ÷. 2. There are q 2 À 1 non-zero vectors in V, and each 1-dimensional subspace

Chapter 29

447

contains q À 1 of them; also two 1-dimensional subspaces have no non-zero vectors in common. Hence jÙj (q 2 À 1)a(q À 1) q 1. 3. Use the notation for the conjugacy classes and irreducible characters of GL(2, q) given in Proposition 28.4 and Theorem 28.5. It is easy to check that ð takes the values q 2 À 1, q À 1, q À 1 on the classes with representatives I, u1 , d 1, t respectively, and takes the value 0 on all other classes. Taking inner products we ®nd hð, 1 G i hð, ø0 i hð, ø0, j i 1 (1 < j < q À 2)X qÀ2 As 1 G ø0 1 ø0, j has degree q 2 À 1 ð(1), we conclude that qÀ2 ð 1 G ø0 1 ø0, j . 4. Observe that the coset H 1 x is ®xed by g if and only if xgx À1 P H 1 . If G is abelian this amounts to g P H 1 , and hence we see that ð1 ( g) 0 if g P H 1 a and ð1 ( g) jG : H 1 j if g P H 1 . Thus H 1 f g P G : ð1 ( g) T 0g. Likewise for H 2 ; since ð1 ð2 we deduce that H 1 H 2 . As a counterexample for G non-abelian, take G D8 ha, b : a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i with H 1 hbi, H 2 ha2 bi. Then ð1 ð2 but H 1 T H 2 . 1 5. By Proposition 29.4 we have 1 jGj gPG jfixÙ ( g)j, hence jfixÙ ( g)j jGj. Since jfixÙ ( g)j is a non-negative integer for each g, and jfixÙ (1)j jÙj . 1, we must have jfixÙ ( g)j 0 for some g. 6. Write ð ð( nÀ2,1,1) . Calculating inner products using Proposition 29.6, as in the proof of Theorem 29.13, we ®nd hð, ði 7, hð, 1i 1, hð, ð( nÀ1,1) i 3, hð, ð( nÀ2,2) i 4X Using Theorem 29.13 it follows that ð( nÀ2,1,1) 1 2÷ ( nÀ1,1) ÷ ( nÀ2,2) ÷ with ÷ irreducible. Hence ÷ 1 ð À ð( nÀ1,1) À ð( nÀ2,2) , from which it is easy to calculate that ÷(1) 1(n À 1)(n À 2), 2 ÷(12) 1(n À 2)(n À 5), ÷(123) 1(n À 4)(n À 5). For n 6, ÷ (4,1,1) is the 2 2 character ÷5 in Example 19.17.

Chapter 30

1. By Theorem 30.4, a245 168/(8´3) 7. Hence, by (30.3), PSL (2, 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2, b has order 3 and ab has order 7. p p 2. No: a225 (1 (À1 i 7)a6 (À1 À i 7)a6 À 4a6)168a(8X8) 0, and similarly a226 0. Hence PSL (2,7) does not contain two involutions whose product has order 7. 3. Yes. Number the conjugacy classes of PSL (2, 11) as in the solution to Exercise 27.6. Then 660 1 a235 X 1 10X 12 6 11 Therefore PSL (2, 11) contains elements x and y such that x, y and xy have orders 2, 3 and 5, respectively. Let H be the subgroup kx, yl of PSL (2, 11).

448

Representations and characters of groups

There is a homomorphism W from A5 onto H (W sends a 3 x, b 3 y). Since Ker W 3 A5 and A5 is simple, we deduce that H A5 . 4. Suppose that G is a group whose p character table is p where á (1 5)a2, â (1 À 5)a2.

g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 g2 1 1 À1 0 0 g3 1 0 1 À1 À1 g4 1 À1 0 á â g5 1 À1 0 â á

For 1 < i < 5 we have jC G ( g i )j 5 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g i ). Therefore the j1 centralizers of g1 , g2 , g3 , g4 , g5 have orders 60, 3, 4, 5, 5, respectively. Hence the orders of g2 , g4 and g5 are 3, 5 and 5; also the order of g3 must be 2, since for no other i (except i 1) is |CG (g i )| even. Now a324 60a(4 . 3). Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, G has a subgroup H with H A5 . Since jGj 60, we have G A5 . 5. (a) Using the fact that 7 ÷ j (g i )÷ j ( g i ) |CG (g i )|, we ®nd that the j1 centralizer orders and class sizes are as follows:

g1 |CG ( g i )| | gG | i 360 1 g2 8 45 g3 4 90 g4 9 40 g5 9 40 g6 5 72 g7 5 72

Hence jGj 360. Also G is simple, by Proposition 17.6. (b) By the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions (Corollary 23.17), the number of involutions t in G is bounded by 1 t <

7 j1

÷ j (1) 46X

By considering jC G ( g i )j, we see that g i has even order only for i 2 and 3. Since t < 45, only g2 can be an involution. Hence g3 has order 4. (This information about the orders of g2 and g3 can also be deduced using Sylow's Theorem.) (c) Clearly g6 and g7 have order 5, and at least one of g4 and g5 has order 3. If j 4 or 5 and k 6 or 7 then

Chapter 30

a2 jk ÷( g2 )÷( g j )÷ ( g k ) jGj jCG ( g 2 )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1)

449

360 5X 8.9 Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, the subgroup H kx, yl of G is isomorphic to A5 . (d) If g, h P G then ( gh)r: Hx 3 Hxgh, and ( gr)(hr): Hx 3 Hxg 3 HxghX Hence r is a homomorphism. (e) Since G is simple, Ker r {1}. Hence G is isomorphic to a subgroup K of S6 . Since jS6 : Kj 63a360 2, K must be A6 . 6. Consider the ®gure in Example 30.6(3). We shall explain how to label the vertices by elements of G. Choose a vertex and label it 1. Label the vertices according to the following inductive rule. Assume that v is a vertex and an adjacent vertex u is labelled by g. Then label v by ga gb gb

À1

if the edge uv has no arrow, if the edge uv has an arrow from u to v, if the edge uv has an arrow from v to uX

For example, if you decided to label the bottom left-hand vertex by 1, then part of the labelling would be

The relation a2 1 ensures that the labelling is consistent along unmarked edges; since b3 1, the labelling is consistent around triangles; and the relation abababab 1 deals with the octagons. Every element in G has the form given by the label of one of the 24 vertices, so jGj < 24. 7. The conjugacy classes of PSL(2, 7) are given in Lemma 27.1 The element g 2 is an involution with centralizer of order 8 given in the proof of 2 2 2 4 Lemma 27.1. Letting a , b , we see that the À2 2 4 À2 centralizer is generated by a and b, and a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 À, hence the centralizer is isomorphic to D8 . As in Exercises 12.3 and 12.4, we see that C A6 ((12)(34)) has order 8 and is generated by (1324) and (13)(24), hence as above is isomorphic to D8 .

450

Representations and characters of groups

8. Let G be the simple group PSL(2, 17). In the ®eld Z17 the element 4 is a 4 0 fourth root of unity, so t Z is an involution. Calculate that 0 À4 C G (t) is generated by the group of diagonal matrices together with 0 1 3 0 b Z, hence is generated by b and a Z. As À1 0 0 6 a 8 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1, we have C G (t) D16 .

Chapter 31

1. Assume that G has an abelian subgroup H of index p r ( p prime), and that |G| . p. If H {1} then |G| p r and so G is not simple (see Lemma 26.1(1)). So assume that H T {1}; pick 1 T h P H. Then H < CG (h) as H is abelian, so |G:CG (h)| is a power of p. If |G:CG (h)| 1 then khl v G and G is not simple. And if |G:CG (h)| . 1, then G is not simple by Theorem 31.3. 2. By Burnside's Theorem, jGj is divisible by at least three distinct primes. Since 3 . 5 . 7 . 80, jGj is even. Then by Exercise 13.8, |G| is divisible by 4. Since 4 . 3 . 7 . 80, the only possibility is that jGj 4 . 3 . 5 60.

Chapter 32

1. (a) The fact that BB I follows from the observation that for all i, j, d(ei b, ej b) d(ei , ej ) ä ij X Since 1 det I (det B)(det Bt ) (det B)2 , we have det B Æ1. (b) (i) The eigenvalues of C are the roots of det (C À xI), which is a cubic polynomial over R. Therefore, C has one or three real eigenvalues. (ii) Moreover, the product of the eigenvalues of C is det C 1. If C has three real eigenvalues, then they cannot all be negative; and if C has one real eigenvalue ë and a pair of conjugate non-real eigenvalues ì, ì, then ë ìì 1, and hence ë . 0. Therefore C has a real positive eigenvalue, say ë. (iii) Let v be an eigenvector for ë. Then d(v, v) d(vC, vC) d(ëv, ëv) ë2 d(v, v), and so ë 1. (c) Let c be the isometry v 3 vC. By (b), c ®xes a vector v; it is now easy to convince yourself that c must be a rotation about the axis through v. The required result for b follows from the de®nition of c. (d) Take three orthogonal axes, one of which is the axis of the rotation b. With respect to these axes, the matrix of b is H I 1 0 0 d 0 cos ö sin ö eX 0 Àsin ö cos ö Hence tr B 1 2 cos ö.

t

Chapter 32

451

2. We regard G as a subgroup of O(R3 ). It is easy to see that the translation submodule T (which consists of all the translation modes) is isomorphic to the RG-module given by the natural action of G on R3 . Hence by part (d) of Exercise 1, V if g is a rotation through ö, about some b 1 2 cos ö, b b b b axis, b ` ÷ T ( g) b À(1 2 cos ö), if the element À g of O(R3 ) is a rotation b b b b b X through öX Now consider the rotation submodule R, which consists of all the rotation modes. A rotation mode is speci®ed by a 3-dimensional vector öv, where v is a unit vector along the axis of the rotation and ö denotes the angle of rotation, taken positive in the right-hand screw sense. Let g P G, and consider g acting on öv. It sends v to vg, and if g is a rotation, it preserves the sense of the rotation; however, if g is a re¯ection then it transforms a right-hand screw to a left-hand screw, and hence sends öv to (Àö)(vg). Therefore @ if g is a rotation, ÷ T ( g), ÷ R ( g) À÷T ( g), if g is not a rotation, and so ÷ T ÷ R has the required form. 3. The matrix A is I H p p À3a2 0 3a4 À 3a4 p3a4 3a4 p f 0 À1a2 À 3a4 p1a4 3a4 1a4 g g f p k f 3a4 À 3a4 À3a4 3a4 0 0 g gX f p p 3a4 À5a4 0 1 g m f À 3a4 p1a4 g f p d 3a4 3a4 0 0 À3a4 À 3a4 e p p 3a4 1a4 0 1 À 3a4 À5a4 4. A simpler basis is given by

1 2(r1 1 2(r1 1 2(r1

r2 ) (v12 v21 ) À (v34 v43 ), r3 ) (v13 v31 ) À (v24 v42 ), r4 ) (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 )X

We chose r1, r2, r3, r4 to be the images of w1, w2, w3, w4 under an RGisomorphism. (Compare the construction of the matrix B, towards the end of Example 32.20.) 5. (a) This is a routine geometrical exercise. (b) Let the displaced positions of the atoms be 09, 19, 29, 39, 49. The distance of 19 from the plane through 1 perpendicular to 12 is x12 1(x13 x14 ). Similarly, the distance of 29 from the plane through 2 2 perpendicular to 12 is x21 1(x23 x24 ). Therefore 12 has decreased by 2 x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 ). The other calculations can be done in 2 the same way. (c) We express the force at each atom as a vector, and then write this vector

452

**Representations and characters of groups
**

as a linear combination of our three chosen unit vectors at the initial position of the atom. Let d ij denote the decrease in the length ij, as calculated in part (b). Then, for example, at vertex 1, the contributions to the component of the force vector in the direction 12 are as follows: Àk1 d12 from the force between atoms 1 and 2; zero from the force between atoms 1 and 3 and from the force between atoms 1 and 4; and Àk2 d10 sec (/012) from the force between atoms 1 and 0. Hence p m1 12 Àk 1 d 12 À 1 (3a2)k 2 d 10 X x 3

Upon substituting for d12 and d10 from part (b), we obtain the given expression for 12. x The other accelerations are calculated in the same way. (d) The entries in the 15 3 15 matrix A are the coef®cients which appear in the equations of motion xA. If you write down the matrix A, then x you will easily verify that the given vectors are eigenvectors of A (with eigenvalues À(4k 1 k 2 )am1 , 0, 0, 0, Àk 1 am1 , Àk 1 am1 , p p I À2k 2 a3m1 À4k 2 p 2a(m2 p3) À2k 2 a3m1 p À4k 2 2a(m2 3) eX p À2k 2 3a(9m1 2) À4k 2 a3m2 p (f ) You will ®nd that (1, À2, 6) is an eigenvector of B, with eigenvalue 0. This agrees with the statement in Example 32.20 that the translation vector r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 is an eigenvector of A. 6. (a) Assign coordinate axes along the edges of the square, as shown below. respectively). (e) The matrix B is H À(6k 1 k 2 )a3m1 d À(3k 1 k 2 )a3m1 p p Àk 2 3a(9m1 2)

The symmetry group is G D8. Let a denote the rotation sending P 3 Q 3 R 3 S 3 P, and let b denote the re¯ection in the axis PR. The character ÷ of the RG-module R8 is

1 ÷ 8

a2 0

a 0

b 0

ab 0

Chapter 32

453

We refer to the character table of D8 which is given in Example 16.3(3), and see that ÷ ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 2÷5 X The rotation mode is (t â)v, where v (1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1) P V÷2 X The translation modes are (t â)v, where v is in the span of v1 , v2 and v1 (1, 0, 0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1), v2 (0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1, 1, 0)X The homogeneous components V÷1, V÷3 and V÷4 are spanned by the vectors (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), (1, 1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1) and (1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1, 1), respectively. The ®nal set of eigen-vectors is given by V÷5 R8 which is spanned by vib (1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0, 0, 1) and (0, 1, 1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0)X (b) The matrix A is 1 f0 f f0 f k f0 À f mf0 f f0 f d0 1 H 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 I 1 0g g 0g g 0g gX 0g g 0g g 0e 1

7. (a, b) Let å i (1 < i < m) be the projection which is given by å i : u1 X X X um 3 ui (where u k P Uk for all k). Then w 3 wAå j WÀ1 W i j (w P Ui ) gives an RG-homomorphism from Ui to Ui. By Exercise 23.8, there exist ë ij P R such that for all w P Ui, Since m wAå j ë ij wWÀ1 W j X i is the identity endomorphism of U1 È . . . È Um, we have m ë ij wWÀ1 W j for all w P Ui X wA i

j1 j1 å j

Now take in turn w uW i and w vW i to obtain the results of parts (a) and (b) of the question. (c) Take a basis u1 , . . . , u n of U1. Assume that the eigenvectors of A u are known. For all k with 1 < k < n, the eigenvectors of A in sp (u k W1 , . . . , u k W m ) are given by the eigenvectors of A u (see part (b)). Hence we know all the eigenvectors of A in U1 È . . . È Um.

Bibliography

**Books mentioned in the text
**

H. S. M. Coxeter and W. J. O. Moser, Generators and Relations for Discrete Groups (Fourth Edition), Springer-Verlag, 1980. J. B. Fraleigh, A First Course in Abstract Algebra (Third Edition), AddisonWesley, 1982. D. Gorenstein, Finite Simple Groups: An Introduction to their Classi®cation, Plenum Press, New York, 1982. G. D. James, The Representation Theory of the Symmetric Groups, Lecture Notes in Mathematics No. 682, Spring-Verlag, 1978. D. S. Passman, Permutation Groups, Benjamin, 1968. H. Pollard and H. G. Diamond, The Theory of Algebraic Numbers (Second Edition), Carus Mathematical Monographs No. 9, Mathematical Association of America, 1975. J. J. Rotman, An Introduction to the Theory of Groups (Third Edition), Allyn and Bacon, 1984. D. S. Schonland, Molecular Symmetry ± an Introduction to Group Theory and its uses in Chemistry, Van Nostrand, 1965.

**Suggestions for further reading
**

M. J. Collins, Representations and Characters of Finite Groups, Cambridge University Press, 1990. C. W. Curtis and I. Reiner, Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I, Wiley-Interscience, 1981. W. Feit, Characters of Finite Groups, Benjamin, 1967. I. M. Isaacs, Character Theory of Finite Groups, Academic Press, 1976. W. Ledermann, Introduction to Group Characters (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press, 1987. J. P. Serre, Linear Representations of Finite Groups, Springer-Verlag, 1977.

454

180 S5 . 161 D10. 262 S6 . 82. 337 algebra. 291 GL(2. 420 455 . 122. 150 trivial. 2 basis. 122. 440 SL(2. 3.q). 269 symmetric. 359 A6 . 308 A5 . 160 C4 . 24 character. 85. 240. 122 character table.Index A4 . 412 C2 3 C2 . 201. 159 A4 . 298 of group algebra. 107. 118 degree. 236 integer-valued. 127. 318 PSL(2. 111. 343 abelian group. 182 D2n ( n even).3). 129 product. 443 Q8 .7). 119 kernel of. 183 D6 3 D6. 56 algebraic integer. 130. 445 T12. 265 reducible. 112. 54 bijection. 273 associative. 415 D12 S3 3 C2 . 327 PSL(2. 88 centralizer. 153 change of basis. 360 A7 . 220.8). 106 centre of group. 172. 192 real. 195 generalized. 196. 359 A6 . 176. 114. 312.5 . 81. 442 SL(2. 116. 125 linear. 116. 433 Fp. 417 F11. 269 Brauer±Fowler Theroem. 2 Cn . 247 faithful. 181 A5 . 269 skew-symmetric. 112. 340 Burnside's Theorem. 278 Burnside's Lemma. 160 D8. 415 Cn . 244. 355 induced. 11. 6 bilinear form. 363. 253 irreducible. 136. 174 permutation. 223 An . 205 SL(2. 116.q). 434 F7. 2.11). 181. 230. 82 D6. 419 D2n ( n odd). 186 T4 n. of order 18. 423 E.7). 160 C3 .3. 234. 359. 221. 119 regular. 128. 125. 362 algebraic number. 11. 83. 15 natural. 11. 9. 5. 364 C. 222. 9. 207. 82 action. 263 realized over R. 424 C2 . 361 alternating group. 55. 45. 10. 5. 354. 445 PSL(2.q . 111 antisymmetric part. 416 S4 .

230. see module .456 Representations and characters of groups FG-submodule. 236 induced module. 63 U6n. 109 cyclic group. 3. 91 irreducible representation. 376 homomorphism. 9 ®nite. 46 even permutation. 301 order pq. 343 general linear group. 256 maximal. 3 order. 304 orthogonal. 187. 90 common. 435 order .F). 107. 50. 178 dihedral. 34 FG-module. 178. 12. 6. 12. 3 group. 55 H < G. 232 Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 181 factor. 2 general linear. 53 factor group. 125. 1 abelian. 3 GL(2. 311. 173 diagonalization. 2. 18 F R or C. 104. 353. 24 eigenvector. 104 conjugate. 368 simple. homogeneous component. 5 rotation. 195 faithful module. 2. 107. 422 V8 n . 4. 278. 9 HomCG (V W). 421 direct product. 364 soluble. 257 index of subgroup. 2. 50. 81. 152 class sum. 18 eigenvalue. 257 proper. 421 V24 . 181 dimension. 122. 175. 9. 5 expansion±contraction mode. 302. 228 inner product. 88 D2n. 365 special linear. 116. 44. 206 order 16. 277 function. 82. 63 Frobenius group. 6 surjective. 254 symmetry. 368 group algebra. 226. 311 symmetric. 74 composition. 259 conjugacy class. 11. 305. 361 constituent. 83 dicyclic group T4 n. 5. 32. 119 irreducible module. 381 external direct sum. 82 alternating. 30. 79. 2 composition factor. 12. 363. 15 direct product. 61 FG-isomorphism. 3. 420 dihedral group. 10. 6 injective. 9 indicator function. 2 order p3 . 349 class equation. 82.q . 234. 216 complete set. 249 derived subgroup. 11. 10. 74. 206 direct sum. 32. 213 coset. 300 class algebra constants. 61 ideal. 109. 111 cyclic. 143. 91. 15 Fp. 134 involution. 17. 56. 6 GL(n. 291 p-group. 96 . 290 Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 250. 2. 277. 85 faithful representation. 3 F n. 290 FG. 24 endomorphism. 96 congruences. 20. 20 equivalent. 12. 66 external. 7. 107. 114 Clifford's Theorem. 88 dicyclic. 281.q). 6 invertible. 101 completely reducible. 308 order p3 . 5. 107 class function. 4. 2. 324. 3 H v G. 318. 12. 6 bijective. 95. 9 faithful character. 306. 307 order 27. 312 quaternion. 8 cycle-shape. 79 isomorphism. 8 cycle notation. 49 FG-homomorphism. 181 degree. 273 induced character. 353 irreducible character. 367 projective special linear.

4 normal. 250. 5 orbit. 174 linear transformation. 364 skew-symmetric bilinear form. 50. 128. 15 Maschke's Theorem. 34 irreducible. 368 rotation mode. 176. 46 faithful. 177. 416 R. 380. 150 regular module. 109. p). 318. 21 invertible. 210 rotation group. 127. 32. 45. 79 kernel of. 129. 284 product of characters. 171. 78 simple group. 5 even. 354. 62 reducible.3). 19 real character. 125 Lagrange's Theorem. 26 identity. 3 primitive root. 56 trivial. 79. 161 PSL(2. 116. 275 S5 . 2 order of g. 56. 319. 30 degree. 45 methane. 111. 3. 320. 39 completely reducible. 365 symmetric bilinear form. 354. 217 submodule. 10. 119 reducible module. 171. 9. 359 PSL(2. 3. 278. 3 rank. 116. 43 natural normal normal normal 217 basis. 175. 379 rotation submodule. 110. 34 representatives. 177. 311. 113. 343. 9. 319. 269 odd permutation. 339 subgroup. 113. 318. 216. 311 stabilizer. 76 matrix. 18 linearly dependent. 360 PSL(2. 56 regular representation. 24 diagonal. 223 Sn . 215. 336. 4 orthogonal group. 440 SL(2. 50. 180. 116. 5. 74 Sylow's Theorem. 361 module. 367 orthogonality relations. 192 . 262 S6 . 312 p-group. 85 permutation. projection. 70. 193 presentation. 5. 124. 19. 74 faithful. 173 generated.11). 15 linearly independent. 30. 340 permutation matrix. 44. 62. 384 minimal polynomial. 34. 173. 442 SL(2. 263 real element. 105 restriction. 50 reducible representation. 416 quaternion group. 85 irreducible. 321. 394 S4 . p). 311 SL(2. 10. 344 SL(2. 49 irreducible. 3. 338 order of G. 54 modes of vibration. 50 regular character. 124 reducible.q). 372. 50 regular. 359. 298 p9-part. 27. 216. 249 equivalent. 34. 373 p-complement. 205 S7 . 45. 340 permutation character. 263 real conjugacy class. 44. 116. 254. 263 reducible character. 45 powers of characters. 312. 342 Rank±Nullity Theorem. 3. 23 permutation. 5 odd. 215.7). 363. 56 trivial. 56 representation. 67 projective special linear group. 122.7). 4 derived. 169 linear character. 256. 201. 50 regular. 9 lift. 445 Schur's Lemma. 278. 5 permutation module. 269 special linear group. 278.Index kernel. 113. 21 change of basis. 312 457 Q8 . 4 cyclic. 251 subgroup. 258 permutation. 45.

188 trace. 369. 379 translation submodule. 187. 3. 109. 421 V8n. 178. 421 Vandermonde matrix. 368 T4 n. 229 translation mode. 273 symmetry group. 190 tensor product space. 43 representation. 178. 394 transposition. 122 module.458 Representations and characters of groups trivial character. 381 water. 178. 254 symmetric part. 338. 117 transitive. 187. 34 U6n. 380. 341 transitivity of induction. 5 . 374 Z. 187. 194 vibratory modes. 420 tensor product module. 2 symmetric group. 116. 196. 281. 175.

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