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Representations and Characters of Groups Now in its second edition, this text provides a modern introduction to the representation theory of ®nite groups. The authors have revised the popular ®rst edition and added a considerable amount of new material. The theory is developed in terms of modules, since this is appropriate for more advanced work, but considerable emphasis is placed upon constructing characters. The character tables of many groups are given, including all groups of order less than 32, and all simple groups of order less than 1000. Among the applications covered are Burnside's pa q b theorem, the use of character theory in studying subgroup structure and permutation groups, and a description of how to use representation theory to investigate molecular vibration. Each chapter is accompanied by a variety of exercises, and full solutions to all the exercises are provided at the end of the book. This will be ideal as a text for a course in representation theory, and in view of the applications of the subject, will be of interest to mathematicians, chemists and physicists alike.

**R E P R E S E N TAT ION S AN D C H AR ACT E R S OF G ROU P S
**

G O R D O N JA M E S a n d M A RT I N L I E B E C K

Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London

Second Edition

PUBLISHED BY CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS (VIRTUAL PUBLISHING) FOR AND ON BEHALF OF THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 IRP 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia http://www.cambridge.org © Cambridge University Press 1993, 2001 This edition © Cambridge University Press (Virtual Publishing) 2003 First published in printed format 1993 Second edition 2001 A catalogue record for the original printed book is available from the British Library and from the Library of Congress Original ISBN 0 521 81205 4 hardback Original ISBN 0 521 00392 X paperback

ISBN 0 511 01700 6 virtual (netLibrary Edition)

Contents

Preface 1 Groups and homomorphisms 2 Vector spaces and linear transformations 3 Group representations 4 FG-modules 5 FG-submodules and reducibility 6 Group algebras 7 FG-homomorphisms 8 Maschke's Theorem 9 Schur's Lemma 10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra 11 More on the group algebra 12 Conjugacy classes 13 Characters 14 Inner products of characters 15 The number of irreducible characters 16 Character tables and orthogonality relations 17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters 18 Some elementary character tables 19 Tensor products 20 Restriction to a subgroup 21 Induced modules and characters 22 Algebraic integers 23 Real representations 24 Summary of properties of character tables 25 Characters of groups of order pq 26 Characters of some p-groups 27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 v

page vii 1 14 30 38 49 53 61 70 78 89 95 104 117 133 152 159 168 179 188 210 224 244 263 283 288 298 311

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Representations and characters of groups

28 Character table of GL(2, q) 322 29 Permutations and characters 337 30 Applications to group theory 348 31 Burnside's Theorem 361 32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 367 Solutions to exercises 397 Bibliography 454 Index 455

Preface

We have attempted in this book to provide a leisurely introduction to the representation theory of groups. But why should this subject interest you? Representation theory is concerned with the ways of writing a group as a group of matrices. Not only is the theory beautiful in its own right, but it also provides one of the keys to a proper understanding of ®nite groups. For example, it is often vital to have a concrete description of a particular group; this is achieved by ®nding a representation of the group as a group of matrices. Moreover, by studying the different representations of the group, it is possible to prove results which lie outside the framework of representation theory. One simple example: all groups of order p2 (where p is a prime number) are abelian; this can be shown quickly using only group theory, but it is also a consequence of basic results about representations. More generally, all groups of order pa q b ( p and q primes) are soluble; this again is a statement purely about groups, but the best proof, due to Burnside, is an outstanding example of the use of representation theory. In fact, the range of applications of the theory extends far beyond the boundaries of pure mathematics, and includes theoretical physics and chemistry ± we describe one such application in the last chapter. The book is suitable for students who have taken ®rst undergraduate courses involving group theory and linear algebra. We have included two preliminary chapters which cover the necessary background material. The basic theory of representations is developed in Chapters 3±23, and our methods concentrate upon the use of modules; although this accords with the more modern style of algebra, in several instances our proofs differ from those found in other textbooks. The main results are elegant and surprising, but at ®rst sight they sometimes have an air of mystery vii

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Representations and characters of groups

about them; we have chosen the approach which we believe to be the most transparent. We also emphasize the practical aspects of the subject, and the text is illustrated with a wealth of examples. A feature of the book is the wide variety of groups which we investigate in detail. By the end of Chapter 28, we have presented the character tables of all groups of order less than 32, of all p-groups of order at most p4 , and of all the simple groups of order less than 1000. Every chapter is accompanied by a set of Exercises, and the solutions to all of these are provided at the end of the book. We would like to thank Dr Hans Liebeck for his careful reading of our manuscript and the many helpful suggestions which he made.

In this second edition, we have included two new chapters; one (Chapter 28) deals with the character tables of an in®nite series of groups, and the other (Chapter 29) covers aspects of the representation theory of permutation groups. We have also added a considerable amount of new material to Chapters 20, 23 and 30, and made minor amendments elsewhere.

Preface to Second Edition

written gh. 1 .1 Groups and homomorphisms This book is devoted to the study of an aspect of group theory. h. this rule must satisfy the following axioms: (1) for all g. such as dihedral groups and symmetric groups. there exists an element gÀ1 in G such that gg À1 g À1 g eX We refer to the rule for combining elements of G as the product operation on G. together with a rule for combining any two elements g. and any book on basic group theory will supply you with further details. eg ge g. ( gh)k g(hk). In addition. most of which you should Â Â know already. h of G to form another element of G. we introduce several examples. so we begin with a resume of facts about groups. One or two results which we shall use only infrequently are demoted to the exercises at the end of the chapter ± you can refer to the solutions if necessary. (2) there exists an element e in G such that for all g in G. which we shall use extensively to illustrate the later theory. Groups A group consists of a set G. (3) for all g in G. k in G. An elementary course on abstract algebra would normally cover all the material in the chapter.

. . and so on. is a group of order n.1 Examples (1) Let n be a positive integer. with the usual multiplication of complex numbers. similarly 3 g g 2 g. a2 . gÀ2 ( gÀ1 )2 . and an 1. a. X X X . . r nÀ1 where r k is the (clockwise) rotation about the centre O through an angle 2ðkan. (2) The set Z of all integers. then Cn f1. gg. and gÀ1 is an inverse of g in axiom (3). Also. under addition. for the identity element of G. Let A be a corner of the polygon. r1 . the product fg means `®rst do f. It is elementary to see that G has just one identity element. . There are also n re¯ection symmetries: these are re¯ections in the n lines passing through O and a corner or the mid-point of a side of the polygon. then do g'). and is written |G|. If a e2ðia n . (3) Let n be an integer with n > 3. the number of elements in G is called the order of G. and is written D2 n. rather than e.2 Representations and characters of groups Axiom (1) states that the product operation is associative. g0 1. and that every g in G has just one inverse. 1. There are n rotation symmetries: these are r0 . is written g 2 . a nÀ1 g. for two symmetries f and g. and consider the rotation and re¯ection symmetries of a regular n-sided polygon. The product of an element g with itself. is a group. then we call G a ®nite group. These 2n rotations and re¯ections form a group under the product operation of composition (that is. The set of nth roots of unity in C. the element e in axiom (2) is an identity element of G. and denote by C the set of all complex numbers. Usually we write 1. If the number of elements in G is ®nite. This group is called the dihedral group of order 2n. Write b for the re¯ection in the . It is written as Cn and is called the cyclic group of order n.

Check that an 1. is a group. X X X . ab. X X X . the set of all permutations of {1. under matrix multiplication. a. It is an in®nite group. The set of all invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. For example. We use the notation H < G to indicate that H is a subgroup of G. and is written Sn . and the n re¯ections are b. which we denote by In or just I. forms a group.Groups and homomorphisms 3 line through O and A. F) is of course the identity matrix. a nÀ1 (where 1 denotes the identity. It is called the symmetric group of degree n. F). . Then the n rotations are 1. (5) Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). Subgroups Let G be a group. and write a for the rotation r1 . A subset H of G is said to be a subgroup if H is itself a group under the product operation inherited from G. D2 n is generated by a and b. we have ba j aÀ j b (using the relation ba aÀ1 b). . This group is called the general linear group of degree n over F. under the product operation of composition. The order of Sn is n!. A group G is said to be abelian if gh hg for all g and h in G. While Cn and Z are abelian. b: an 1. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX (4) For n a positive integer. b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X These relations determine the product of any two elements of the group. a nÀ1 bX Thus all elements of D2 n are products of powers of a and b ± that is. n}. a2 b. and is denoted by GL(n. 2. . b2 1. which leaves the polygon ®xed). The identity of GL(n. most of the other examples given above are non-abelian groups. and hence (a i b)(a j b) a i ba j b a i aÀ j bb a iÀ j X We summarize all this in the presentation D2 n ha. . a2 .

the subgroup of G generated by S.2 Examples (1) For every group G. both {1} and G are subgroups of G. If G k gl for some g P G then we call G a cyclic group. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in C. (3) Let G be a group and let a. 1. In this case. g rÀ1 gX We call r the order of the element g. and let i 0 0 1 A . If gn 1 for some n > 1. b P G. De®ne H to be the subset of G consisting of all elements which are products of powers of a and b ± that is. We illustrate the construction in the next example. and write H ha. k P H then hkÀ1 P H.5 below. let r be the least positive integer such that g r 1. (2) Let G be a group and g P G. we can similarly de®ne hSi. where ik . such as general linear or symmetric groups. g. g 2 . h gi f1. (4) Let G GL(2. This construction gives a powerful method of ®nding new groups as subgroups of given groups.4 Representations and characters of groups It is easy to see that a subset H of a group G is a subgroup if and only if the following two conditions hold: (1) 1 P H. B X 0 Ài À1 0 .1 are cyclic. biX Given any ®nite set S of elements of G. we call H the subgroup generated by a and b. then k gl is ®nite. then r is equal to the number of elements in k gl ± indeed. C). jk P Z for 1 < k < n. called the cyclic subgroup generated by g. and again in Example 1. X X X . Then H is a subgroup of G. all elements of the form a i1 b j1 a i2 b j2 X X Xa i n b j n for some n. and (2) if h. The subset h gi f g n : n P Zg is a subgroup of G. The groups Cn and Z in Examples 1.

and is written Q8. so we have the presentation Q8 hA.Groups and homomorphisms Put H kA. With this product operation. and using the ®rst two relations. The subset An f g P Sn : g is an even permutationg is a subgroup of Sn . . 0 < j < 1) are all distinct. . Direct products We describe a construction which produces a new group from given ones. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 iX (5) A transposition in the symmetric group Sn is a permutation which interchanges two of the numbers 1. we can take 0 < i < 3 and 0 < j < 1. . hh9) for all g. A2 B2 . 2. Let G and H be groups. B: A4 I. or they all have an odd number of transpositions. A2 B2 . The group H is called the quaternion group of order 8. . Bl. the subgroup of G generated by A and B. n and ®xes the other n À 2 numbers. It can be shown that either all such expressions for g have an even number of transpositions. called the direct product of G and H. . we see that every element of H has the form A i B j for some integers i. called the alternating group of degree n. h9 P H. G 3 H is a group. we call g an even or an odd permutation. The above three relations determine the product of any two elements of Q8 . Hence H has at most eight elements. h): g P G and h P HgX De®ne a product operation on G 3 H by ( g. g9 P G and all h. in fact j Hj 8. accordingly. Since the matrices Ai B j (0 < i < 3. h)( g9. Check that A4 I. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X 5 Using the third relation. j. Every permutation g in Sn can be expressed as a product of transpositions. and consider G 3 H f( g. h9) ( gg9.

for every h P H there exists g P G such that gW h). X X X . If G and H are groups. g r )( g9 . A function W from G to H is invertible if and only if it is both injective (that is. 3 Gr is also ®nite. the image of g under a function W is written as gW. X X X . ( gW)ö g and (hö)W hX Then ö is called the inverse of W. we generally apply functions on the right ± that is. . X X X . . 3 C2 (r factors) has order 2 r and all its nonidentity elements have order 2. of order |G1 | . h P H. . not as W g. then G1 3 . We often indicate that W is a function from G to H by the notation W: G 3 H. .6 Representations and characters of groups More generally. then the direct product G1 3 X X X 3 Gr is f( g 1 . . . g 2 P GX .3 Example The group C2 3 . Gr are groups. Functions A function from one set G to another set H is a rule which assigns a unique element of H to each element of G. and is written as WÀ1 . . g2 P G implies that g1 g2 ) and surjective (that is. if G1 . . . we mean that h gW. g1 W g2 W for g1 . g r ): g i P Gi for 1 < i < rg. Homomorphisms Given groups G and H. . |Gr |. with product operation de®ned by ( g1 . An invertible function is also called a bijection. g r g9 )X 1 r 1 r If all the groups Gi are ®nite. X X X . In this book. where g P G and h P H. 1. those functions from G to H which `preserve the group structure' ± the so-called homomorphisms ± are of particular importance. A function W: G 3 H is invertible if there is a function ö: H 3 G such that for all g P G. By an expression W: g 3 h. then a homomorphism from G to H is a function W: G 3 H which satis®es ( g1 g 2 )W ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g 1 . g9 ) ( g 1 g9 .

0 < u < 1. i and j are determined by repeatedly using the relations an b2 1. 1. b: an b2 1. 0 < j < 1. and so W is a homomorphism. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X Since we have x n y 2 1. y be the following permutations in G: x (1 2 3 4 5).4 in action. Suppose that 0 < r < n À 1. y (2 5)(3 4)X . 1. also. We now demonstrate the technique of Example 1. y À1 xy x À1 X We shall prove that the function W: G 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < n À 1. Let H be any group. and suppose that H contains elements x and y which satisfy x n y 2 1. If there is an isomorphism W from G to H. y À1 xy x À1 . and we write G H. (at bu )W.4 Example Let G D2 n ka. 0 < s < 1. so H G. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. j with 0 < i < n À 1. WÀ1 is an isomorphism from H to G.5 Example Let G S5 and let x. 0 < j < 1. then G and H are said to be isomorphic. Moreover. Then ar bs at bu a i b j for some i.Groups and homomorphisms 7 An invertible homomorphism is called an isomorphism. we can also deduce that xr ys xt yu x i y j X Therefore. and write the 2n elements of G in the form ai b j with 0 < i < n À 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 0 < t < n À 1. The following example displays a technique which can often be used to prove that certain functions are homomorphisms. (ar bs at bu )W (a i b j )W x i y j x r y s x t y u (ar bs )W .

The distinct right cosets of H in G form a partition of G (that is. 0 < j < 1g. Now recall that D10 ha. . every element of G is in precisely one of the cosets). the subset Hx fhx: h P Hg of G is called a right coset of H in G. Suppose now that G is ®nite. For x in G. Using the above relations.) Check that x 5 y 2 1. we deduce that jGj rj HjX In particular. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX By Example 1. b: a5 b2 1. (1 2 3 4 5) denotes the permutation 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 1. yl of G. Since G Hx1 X X X Hxr . Hxr be all the distinct right cosets of H in G. it is an isomorphism.4. y À1 xy x À1 X Let H be the subgroup kx. . we see that H fx i y j : 0 < i < 4. and so on. . the function h 3 hxi (h P H) is a bijection from H to Hxi . a group of order 10. and so j Hxi j j Hj. and let Hx1 . H kx. For all i. Thus. . we have .8 Representations and characters of groups (Here we adopt the usual cycle notation ± thus. yl D10. the function W: D10 3 H de®ned by W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 4. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. Since W is invertible. Cosets Let G be a group and let H be a subgroup of G. and Hxi Hxj is empty if i T j.

Then N v G and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let N GaN fN . h P G. called the factor group of G by N. The importance of the condition gÀ1 Ng N (for all g P G) is that it can be used to show that for all g. the sub-groups {1} and G are normal subgroups of G. ka2 l {1. then j Hj divides |G|. 9 The number r of distinct right cosets of H in G is called the index of H in G. but the subgroup H kbl is not normal in G. since b P H while aÀ1 ba a2 b P H. and An (1 2) f g P Sn : g oddgX Thus |Sn :An | 2. b: a4 b2 1. (3) Let G D8 ka. Thus jG: Hj jGjaj Hj when G is ®nite. h P GX This makes GaN into a group. NabgX Since (Na)2 (Nb)2 (Nab)2 N. If n > 2 then there are just two right cosets of An in Sn . Na. The subgroup kal is also normal in G. and so Sn aAn C2 . namely An f g P Sn : g eveng. a . Nb.Groups and homomorphisms 1. a2 }. we write N v G to indicate that N is a normal subgroup of G. and is written as jG: Hj. we see that GaN C2 3 C2 .7 Examples (1) For every group G. (2) For n > 1. we have An v Sn . Normal subgroups A subgroup N of a group G is said to be a normal subgroup of G if gÀ1 Ng N for all g P G (where gÀ1 Ng f gÀ1 ng: n P Ng). we have fxy: x P Ng and y P Nhg NghX Hence we can de®ne a product operation on GaN by (Ng)(Nh) Ngh for all g. Suppose that N v G and let GaN be the set of right cosets of N in G. 1.6 Lagrange's Theorem If G is a ®nite group and H is a subgroup of G.

Let G and H be groups and suppose that W: G 3 H is a homomorphism. then G has a normal subgroup N such that both N and G/N have smaller order than G. Kernels and images To conclude the chapter. The following result describes the way in which the kernel and image of W are related. and in a sense. simple groups are fundamental to the study of ®nite groups. Continuing this process with the smaller groups. 1.10 Theorem Suppose that G and H are groups and let W: G 3 H be a homomorphism. the cyclic group Cp . We shall give examples of non-abelian simple groups in later chapters ± the smallest one is A5 . Also. If G is a ®nite group which is not simple. we eventually see that G is `built' out of a collection of simple groups.) Thus. and Im W is a subgroup of H. ( g P G) . G is `built' out of these two smaller groups. We de®ne the kernel of W by (1X8) Ker W f g P G: gW 1gX Then Ker W is a normal subgroup of G.10 Representations and characters of groups Simple groups A group G is said to be simple if G T {1} and the only normal subgroups of G are {1} and G. with p a prime number. For example. Then GaKer W Im WX An isomorphism is given by the function Kg 3 gW where K Ker W. (This is analogous to the fact that every positive integer is built out of its prime factors. the image of W is (1X9) Im W f gW: g P Gg. is simple. we relate normal subgroups and factor groups to homomorphisms.

the direct product of the groups G1 . with multiplication (Ng)(Nh) NghX 3. A normal subgroup N of G is a subgroup such that gÀ1 Ng N for all g in G. if g is an odd permutation. . . Show that either W is an isomorphism or H {1}. and that W: G 3 H is a surjective homomorphism. The factor group GaN consists of the right cosets Ng ( g P G). then G is cyclic of prime order. The factor group GaKer W is isomorphic to Im W. is a normal subgroup of G.10.7(2) that Sn /An C2 . . 11 is a homomorphism. GL(n. An the alternating group of degree n. The kernel. with G simple. Sn the symmetric group of degree n. 2. b: an b2 1. We know from Example 1. a2 b2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Im W C2 . We have Ker W An . 2. is a subgroup of H. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. C) the group of invertible n 3 n matrices over C. and for n > 2. . Summary of Chapter 1 1. if g is an even permutation. Q8 ka. Exercises for Chapter 1 1. Im W. 3 Gr . A homomorphism W: G 3 H is a function such that ( g1 g 2 )W ( g 1 W)( g 2 W) for all g1 . Suppose that G and H are groups. Show that if G is an abelian group which is simple. G1 3 . . b: a4 1. Gr . . g2 in G.11 Example The function W: Sn 3 C2 given by & 1. illustrating Theorem 1. . Examples of groups are Cn ka: an 1l. and the image. Ker W.Groups and homomorphisms 1. W: g 3 À1. D2 n ka.

C). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. 0 < s < 1). Prove that f g P G: g n 1g is a cylic subgroup of G of order n. and H Q8 hc. Y be the 2 3 2 matrices which are given by 0 i 0 À1 X . (c) If G is a ®nite cyclic group and x. are homomorphisms. 0 < s < 1). y (3 4). .Y . and let K be the subgroup kx. d À1 cd cÀ1 iX (a) Let x. b: a4 b2 1. ì: cr d s 3 X r Y s (0 < r < 3. and let n be a positive integer which divides |G|. Prove that D4 m D2 m 3 C2 if m is odd. Prove that this homomorphism is an isomorphism. 5. (a) Show that every subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic. y be the permutations in S4 which are given by x (1 2). Let G D8 ha. Show that just one of the functions ë: G 3 L and ì: H 3 L. (b) Let G be a ®nite cyclic group. Find Ker ö and Ker ø. Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . Y i of GL(2. c2 d 2 . d: c4 1. de®ned by ö: ar bs 3 x r y s . show that x is a power of y.12 Representations and characters of groups 3. is a homomorphism. Show that both the functions ö: G 3 K and ø: H 3 K. yl of S4 . 6. (b) Let X. ø: cr d s 3 x r y s (0 < r < 3. de®ned by ë: ar bs 3 X r Y s . i 0 1 0 and let L be the subgroup hX . and that G is not contained in An . Prove that G An is a normal subgroup of G. and Ga (G An ) C2 X 4. y are elements of G with the same order.

8. is a group. Prove that every ®nite subgroup of this group is cyclic. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G with |G: H| 2. C) such that A has order 8. .2(4). (Hint: compare Q8 in Example 1. Find elements A and B of GL(2.) 10.Groups and homomorphisms 13 7. Bl has order 16. B has order 4. 9. Show that the set of non-zero complex numbers. under the usual multiplication. Show that every group of even order contains an element of order 2. Prove that H v G. and B2 A4 and BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X Show that the group kA.

(4) 1v v. v in V and all ë. 14 . here. and those of F are called scalars. where we deal with projections. linear transformations and matrices which we shall use later. v of V to form an element u v of V. Vector spaces Let F be either R (the set of real numbers) or C (the set of complex numbers). namely group theory and linear algebra. ì in F. Most of the material will be familiar to you if you have taken a ®rst course on linear algebra. and a rule for multiplying any element v of V by any element ë of F to form an element ëv of V. We write 0 for the identity element of the abelian group V under addition. The elements of V are called vectors. we explain in detail how the results work. in case you have not come across projections before. An exception occurs in the last section. (The latter rule is called scalar multiplication.1) (a) V is an abelian group under addition. we gather the results from linear algebra concerning vector spaces. (b) for all u. together with a rule for adding any two elements u.2 Vector spaces and linear transformations An attractive feature of representation theory is that it combines two strands of mainstream mathematics. these rules must satisfy: (2. (1) ë(u v) ëu ëv. so we omit the proofs. (2) (ë ì)v ëv ìv. (3) (ëì)v ë(ìv).) Moreover. For reference purposes. A vector space over F is a set V.

. . . v n are said to span V if every vector in V is a linear combination of v1 . v n be vectors in a vector space V over F. . X X X . . v n form a basis of V if they span V and are linearly independent. for each positive integer n. xn x9 ). not all of which are zero. as above. .2 Examples (1) Let R2 denote the set of all ordered pairs (x. X X X . 1 n 1 n ë(x1 . We denote the set of all such row vectors by F n. . . ë(x. ë n in F. . xn ) (x9 . x9 ) (x1 x9 . The vector space V is n-dimensional if dim V n. . . . . x2 . y) (x9. . Bases of vector spaces Let v1 . ëxn )X Then F n is a vector space over F. X X X . The vectors v1 . y y9). . . X X X . The number of vectors in a basis of V is called the dimension of V and is written as dim V. . v1 . Throughout this book. . . ë n in F. The vectors v1 . . . . xn belong to F. . We say that v1 . y9) (x x9. . If V {0} then dim V 0. (2) More generally. . xn ) where x1 . De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on R2 by (x. X X X . A vector v in V is a linear combination of v1 . X X X . . xn ) (ëx1 . v n are linearly dependent if ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n 0 for some ë1 . . we consider row vectors (x1 . we shall consider only vector spaces V which are ®nite-dimensional ± this means that V has a basis consisting of ®nitely many vectors. . ë y)X Then R2 is a vector space over R. . . . . y) where x and y are real numbers. v n .Vector spaces and linear transformations 15 2. It turns out that any two bases of V have the same number of vectors. . x2 . . v n if v ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n for some ë1 . otherwise. . . . . . y) (ëx. and de®ne addition and scalar multiplication on F n by (x1 . . v n are linearly independent. .

. 0). . ur . so dim V n. ur ) fë1 u1 X X X ë r ur : ë1 . it is necessary and suf®cient that all the following conditions hold: (2. (3) if ë P F and u P U then ëu P U. and it is called the subspace spanned by u1 . . the next result says that any linearly independent vectors can be extended to a basis. (2. with ë1 . . . . Indeed. 1. . 0. . (0. Another basis is (1. X X X . X X X . 0.6 Examples (1) {0} and V are subspaces of V. that is. . X X X .5) (1) 0 P U. X X X . v n form a basis of V.5). . . . 0. . . ë n . Then (1. . . X X X . (0. . X X X . . v P U then u v P U. 1)X Given a basis v1 . . . . 0. We de®ne sp (u1 . . . v k are linearly independent vectors in V. sp (u1 . The vector v therefore determines the scalars ë1 . 0. 1. . 0. 0. ur be vectors in V. . 0). v n of a vector space V. (1. . (1. .3 Example Let V F n. . . . . X X X . each vector v in V can be written in a unique way as v ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n . ë n in F. Subspaces A subspace of a vector space V over F is a subset of V which is itself a vector space under the addition and scalar multiplication inherited from V. . ur ) is a subspace of V. . then there exist v k1 . 0). (2) Let u1 . . . 0. (2) if u. 1. . . .4) If v1 . . . X X X .16 Representations and characters of groups 2. v n in V such that v1 . 1. there are many bases of V. ur . Except in the case where V {0}. ë r P FgX By (2. ur ) to be the set of all linear combinations of u1 . . . . 2. X X X . . 0). For a subset U of V to be a subspace. 1) is a basis of V. sp (u1 . . X X X .

. . . v k be a basis of U. . v n is a basis of V. ws is a basis of V. .4 if you have dif®culty with the proof. Extend v1. ws is a basis of W. . and for 1 < i < n.9) Suppose that V U W. Ur is de®ned by U1 X X X Ur fu1 X X X ur : ui P Ui for 1 < i < rgX By (2. Ur are subspaces of a vector space V. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) V U È W. . . .4)). . . and let W sp (v k1 . only if U V. . We say that the sum U1 . . . v k to a basis v1 . You should consult the solutions to Exercises 2. . Ur is a subspace of V.8 Examples (1) Suppose that v1 . . (2.Vector spaces and linear transformations Notice that the following fact is a consequence of (2. . . that u1 . . . . ur is a basis of U and that w1.7) Suppose that U is a subspace of the vector space V . . (3) U W {0}. let Ui be the subspace spanned by v i. . . . If the sum is direct. . then we write it as U1 È X X X È Ur X 2. ur . . .3 and 2. . Direct sums of subspaces 17 If U1. then the sum U1 . . . Then V U1 È X X X È Un X (2) Let U be a subspace of V and let v1 . . . dim U dim V if and . Ur is a direct sum if every element of the sum can be written in a unique way as u1 . U1 . unless U is {0} or V. . . . . (2) u1 . Then dim U < dim V Also. (2. . The next result is frequently useful when dealing with the direct sum of two subspaces. ur with ui P Ui for 1 < i < r. . . Then V U È WX From this construction it follows that there are in®nitely many subspaces W with V U È W. . . . . . v n ).4). . .5). w1. . v n of V (see (2. .

ëur )X With these de®nitions. . X X X . (2. can be deduced immediately from the de®nition of a direct sum. .18 Representations and characters of groups Our next result. X X X . W1. ur ) (ëu1 . W. Wb are subspaces of a vector space V. ui . . u9 ) (u1 u9 . X X X . U1. then it is immediate that V U1 È X X X È U 9X 9 r We call V the external direct sum of U1. Ua. V is a vector space over F. Ur be vector spaces over F. . ur u9 ). . .10) Suppose that U. for 1 < i < r. X X X . we write V U1 È X X X È Ur X Linear transformations Let V and W be vector spaces over F. and W W1 È X X X È Wb . . . abusing notation slightly. 1 r 1 r ë(u1 . and. and for all ë P F and v P V X . involving the direct sum of several subspaces. Ur. v P V . . . X X X . . . Let U1. let (u1 . ur ): ui P U i for 1 < i < rgX De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on V as follows: for all ui . A linear transformation from V to W is a function W: V 3 W which satis®es (u v)W uW vW (ëv)W ë(vW) for all u. X X X . . . X X X . ur ) (u9 . . u9 i in Ui (1 < i < r) and all ë in F. If. X X X . we put U 9 f(0. . and let V f(u1 . then V U1 È X X X È Ua È W 1 È X X X È W b X We now introduce a construction for vector spaces which is analogous to the construction of direct products for groups. 0): ui P U i g i (where the ui is in the ith position). If V U È W and also U U1 È X X X È Ua .

. W is determined by its action on a basis. Im W f0gX (2) If W: V 3 V is de®ned by vW 3v for all v P V. Furthermore. ë n in F we have (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n )W ë1 (v1 W) X X X ë n (v n W)X Thus. Kernels and images Suppose that W: V 3 W is a linear transformation. Im W V X . and Ker W f0g. it is easy to check that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W.Vector spaces and linear transformations 19 Just as a group homomorphism preserves the group multiplication. Im W fvW: v P V gX Using (2. then W is a linear transformation. which is known as the Rank±Nullity Theorem: (2X12) dim V dim (Ker W) dim (Im W)X 2. so a linear transformation preserves addition and scalar multiplication. The kernel of W (written Ker W) and the image of W (written Im W) are de®ned as follows: (2X11) Ker W fv P V : vW 0g. Notice that if W: V 3 W is a linear transformation and v1. . . . . there is a unique linear transformation ö: V 3 W such that v i ö wi for all i. v n is a basis of V. and Ker W V . by specifying the values of ö on a basis of V.5). . given any basis v1 . . wn in W. . . and then saying `extend the action of ö to be linear'. . . . . . . then for ë1 . Their dimensions are connected by the following equation. v n of V and any n vectors w1. the linear transformation ö is given by (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n )ö ë1 w1 X X X ë n wn X We sometimes construct a linear transformation ö: V 3 W in this way. . then W is a linear transformation.13 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW 0 for all v P V.

It turns out that the inverse of an invertible linear transformation is also a linear transformation (see Exercise 2.1). let V and W be vector spaces over F. À3. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. A linear transformation W from V to W is injective if and only if Ker W {0}. for all v P V. If there exists an invertible linear transformation from V to W. We write W2 for WW. Suppose that W and ö are endomorphisms of V and ë P F. By also taking (2. (2. y. z P R. À1)).12). We de®ne the functions W ö. then W is a linear transformation. (3) Im W V. we obtain the next result (see Exercise 2. Wö and ëW from V to V by (2X15) v(W ö) vW vö.7) into account.20 Representations and characters of groups (3) If W: R3 3 R2 is given by (x. Then W ö.14) Let W be a linear transformation from V to itself. By applying (2. so dim (Ker W) 1 and dim (Im W) 2. (2) Ker W {0}. and hence W is invertible precisely when W is surjective and Ker W {0}. . y. Wö and ëW are endomorphisms of V. we see that isomorphic vector spaces have the same dimension. Im W R2 . À y 3z) for all x. Endomorphisms A linear transformation from a vector space V to itself is called an endomorphism of V.2). Invertible linear transformations Again. z)W (x 2 y z. we have Ker W sp ((7. v(ëW) ë(vW). v(Wö) (vW)ö. then V and W are said to be isomorphic vector spaces.

x À 2 y) of V. y)W2 (2x À y. y)(Wö) (Àx 5 y.18 Examples (1) If W 1 V (so that vW v for all v P V). y) 3 (x y. 1 < j < n) such that for all i. (x. then so is W À ë1 V . and let W be an endomorphism of V. Wö. and is denoted by [W]B . where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. y)(W ö) (2x À y. . Note that Ker (W À ë1 V ) fv P V : vW ëvgX (2) Let V R2. (2) Let V R2 and let W be the endomorphism (x. . . y)W (x y. If B is the basis (1. 1) of V and B 9 is the basis . v i W a i1 v1 X X X ain v n X 2. If W is an endomorphism of V. 3x À 6 y). for all ë P F.17 De®nition The n 3 n matrix (aij ) is called the matrix of W relative to the basis B . (x. and W ö. x À 2 y). y)(3W) (3x 3 y.16 Examples (1) The identity function 1 V de®ned by 1 V : v 3 v for all v P V 21 is an endomorphism of V. ö be the functions from V to V de®ned by (x. (x. 0). . 2x À 10 y).Vector spaces and linear transformations 2. (0. Àx 2 y). and let W. 2. (x. v n is a basis of V and call it B . Then there are scalars aij in F (1 < i < n. 3W and W2 are given by (x. then [W]B In for all bases B of V. Suppose that v1 . y)ö (x À 2 y. Àx 5 y)X Matrices Let V be a vector space over F. À2x 4 y)X Then W and ö are endomorphisms of V.

22 Representations and characters of groups 1 . As you know. B 1 2 2 3 À4 X À1 2 . 2 À1 5 À2 À4 3 0 3 3 . Given an m 3 n matrix A (aij ) and an n 3 p matrix B (bij ). then we describe A as a matrix over F. 1) of V. 3A X À3 9 6 3 4 2 2 À13 À12 À5 The matrix of the sum or product of two endomorphisms (relative to some basis) is related to the matrices of the individual endomorphisms in the way you would expect: (2. then [W]B 1 1 0 3 If we wish to indicate that the entries in a matrix A come from F. AB 3 . and for ë P F. their sum A B is the m 3 n matrix over F whose ij-entry is aij bij for all i. and that W and ö are endomorphisms of V. À2 [W]B 9 1 X À1 (1.20) Suppose that B is a basis of the vector space V. Given two m 3 n matrices A (aij ) and B (bij ) over F. Then [W ö]B [W]B [ö]B . the product of two matrices is de®ned in a less transparent way.19 Example Let A Then A B 2 BA À1 3 2 0 . j. 0). the matrix ëA is the m 3 n matrix over F obtained from A by multiplying all the entries by ë. and [Wö]B [W]B [ö]B X . their product AB is the m 3 p matrix whose ij-entry is n k1 aik bkj X 2. (1.

and this same matrix is used to describe the way in which the matrix of an . v 3 vA (v P F n ) is an endomorphism of F n. An invertible matrix converts one basis into another. and let V F n. and follows from (2. Then for all v in V. Write det A for the determinant of A. an endomorphism W of V is invertible if and only if the matrix [W]B is invertible. xn ) with each xi in F. y)W (x.22 Example Let A 1 3 À1 X 2 Then A gives us an endomorphism W of F 2. Such a matrix B. y) (x 3 y. the matrix product vA also lies in V. [ëW]B ë[W]B X 23 We showed you in (2. Suppose that A is an n 3 n matrix over F. The connection between invertible endomorphisms and invertible matrices is straightforward. . (2. . Then a necessary and suf®cient condition for A to be invertible is that det A T 0. Àx 2 y)X 3 2 Invertible matrices An n 3 n matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists an n 3 n matrix B with AB BA In . . The following remark is easily justi®ed. where 1 À1 (x. the vector space of row vectors (x1 . Invertible matrices turn up when we relate two bases of a vector space. It is easy enough to reverse this process and use a matrix to de®ne an endomorphism. for all scalars ë.Vector spaces and linear transformations Also. if it exists.21) If A is an n 3 n matrix over F then the function . . it is called the inverse of A and is written as AÀ1 .17) how to get a matrix from an endomorphism of a vector space V.20): given a basis B of V. We concentrate on a particular way of doing this. 2. is unique. given a basis of V.

then [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 T .23) and the result (2. The scalar ë is said to be an eigenvalue of W if vW ëv for some non-zero vector v in V.24 Representations and characters of groups endomorphism depends upon the basis. . and let v9 . . The n 3 n matrix T (tij ) is invertible.23 De®nition Let v1 . . Then for 1 < i < n. y) 3 (x y. The inverse of T is the change of basis matrix from B 9 to B . v9 t i1 v1 X X X tin v n i for certain scalars tij . then 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 T X À1 1 3 À1 1 1 1 À2 Eigenvalues Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F. 1) and B 9 the basis (1. 1) of V.24) If B and B 9 are bases of V and W is an endomorphism of V.25 Example Suppose that V R2. (2. . . v n be a basis B of the vector space V. (0. . x À 2 y) of V. 2. Then 1 0 1 0 À1 T . 0).24) below. The precise meaning of these remarks is revealed in the de®nition (2.T X 1 1 À1 1 If W is the endomorphism W: (x. . Such a vector v is called an eigenvector of W. v9 1 n be a basis B 9 of V.18(2). 2. as in Example 2. . . 0). (1. and suppose that W is an endomorphism of V. and is called the change of basis matrix from B to B 9. where T is the change of basis matrix from B to B 9. Let B be the basis (1.

26). 0). (2. Therefore. so i and Ài are the eigenvalues of W. then i 0 [W]B 9 X 0 Ài (2) Let V R2 and let W again be the endomorphism which is given by (x. 1) of V. then the eigenvalues of W are those scalars ë in F which satisfy the equation det ([W]B À ëI n ) 0X Solving this equation involves ®nding the roots of a polynomial of degree n. and W has no eigenvalues in R. which occurs if and only if W À ë1 V is not invertible. then 0 1 [W]B X À1 0 We have det ([W]B À ëI2 ) ë2 1. if B is a basis of V. Then W has an eigenvalue. and let W be an endomorphism of V.Vector spaces and linear transformations 25 Now ë is an eigenvalue of W if and only if Ker (W À ë1 V ) T {0}. Corresponding eigenvectors are (1. 2. Since every non-constant polynomial with coef®cients in C has a root in C. x)X If B is the basis (1. V is a vector space over R. y)W (À y. (1. y)W (À y.27 Examples (1) Let V C2 and let W be the endomorphism of V which is given by (x. we deduce the following result. Ài). Thus we depend upon F being C in result (2. the element ë of F is said to be an eigenvalue of A if vA ëv for some non-zero row vector v in F n. (0. Ài) and (1. Note that if B 9 is the basis (1. i) of V.26) Let V be a non-zero vector space over C. i). The eigenvalues of A are those elements ë of F which satisfy det (A À ëI n ) 0X . x)X This time. For an n 3 n matrix A over F.

. For this diagonal matrix A. . . Clearly Im ð # U. w P W X Then ð is an endomorphism of V. (ëv)ð (ëu ëw)ð ëu ë(vð)X Therefore. it follows that ð is a function on V. . We have (v v9)ð (u u9 w w9)ð u u9 (u w)ð (u9 w9)ð vð v9ðX Also. that aii ë i for 1 < i < n.28 Example We say that an n 3 n matrix A (aij ) is diagonal if aij 0 for all i and j with i T j. in addition. then we can construct a special endomorphism of V which depends upon the expression V U È W: 2. Ker ð W and ð2 ðX Proof Since every vector in V has a unique expression in the form u w with u P U. and since uð u for all u in U.29 Proposition Suppose that V U È W. for ë in F. Im ð U . Then v u w and v9 u9 w9 for some u. ð is an endomorphism of V. ë n . Let v and v9 belong to V. the eigenvalues are ë1 . We often display such a matrix in the form H I ë1 0 f g FF Ad e F ën 0 which indicates. u9 in U and w. w P W. we have Im U. Further. w9 in W. De®ne ð: V 3 V by (u w)ð u for all u P U . Also. . Projections If a vector space V is a direct sum of two subspaces U and W.26 Representations and characters of groups 2.

and the second term v À vð lies in Ker ð.9) now shows that V Im ð È Ker ð.Vector spaces and linear transformations (u w)ð 0 D u 0 D u w P W . and (2.30 De®nition An endomorphism ð of a vector space V which satis®es ð2 ð is called a projection of V. Àx À y) of R2 is a projection. it follows that v vð 0. Finally. Therefore vð uð2 uð vX Since v P Ker ð. (u w)ð2 uð u (u w)ð. We now show that every projection can be constructed using a direct sum.29. 2. j . Then V Im ð È Ker ðX Proof If v P V then v vð (v À vð). Now suppose that v lies in Im ð Ker ð. as in Proposition 2.32 Proposition Suppose that ð is a projection of a vector space V. Thus Im ð Ker ð f0g. since (v À vð)ð vð À vð2 vð À vð 0X This establishes that V Im ð Ker ð. Clearly the ®rst term vð belongs to Im ð. As v P Im ð. we have v uð for some u P V. 27 j 2. and so ð2 ð. 2.31 Example The endomorphism (x. and so Ker ð W. y) 3 (2x 2 y.

All our vector spaces are ®nite-dimensional over F. V U1 È . V U È W if and only if V U W and U W {0}. F n is the set of row vectors (x1 . . . and dim V dim (Ker W) dim (Im W)X 4. there exists an invertible matrix T such that [W]B T À1 [W]B 9 TX 6. Àx À y) is the projection of R2 which appears in Example 2. Eigenvalues ë of an endomorphism W satisfy vW ëv for some nonzero v in V. Show that if V and W are vector spaces and W: V 3 W is an invertible linear transformation then WÀ1 is a linear transformation. Exercises for Chapter 2 1.28 Representations and characters of groups 2. Àx): x P Rg. Given two bases B and B 9 of V. Àx): x P RgX Summary of Chapter 2 1. x n ) with each xi in F. where F C or R. A linear transformation W: V 3 W satis®es (u v)W uW vW and (ëv)W ë(vW) for all u. Also. . v in V and all ë in F. For example. Given a basis B of the n-dimensional vector space V.31. and every element v of V has a unique expression of the form v u1 . 7. 2. Ker ð f(x. . and an endomorphism W of V. Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W. A linear transformation W: V 3 W is invertible if and only if Ker W {0} and Im W W. A projection is an endomorphism ð of V which satis®es ð2 ð. and dimF n n. F F F .33 Example If ð: (x. 3. È Ur if each Ui is a subspace of V. . then Im ð f(2x. there is a correspondence between the endomorphisms W of V and the n 3 n matrices [W]B over F. 5. y) 3 (2x 2 y. ur (ui P Ui ).

. and that V U1 È . (a) Let U1. Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. but V T Im ö È Ker ö. Prove that dim V dim U1 X X X dim U r X 7. but V T U1 È U2 È U3. Let V be a vector space and let W be an endomorphism of V. . Give an example of a vector space V with endomorphisms W and ö such that V Im W È Ker W. 3. . Prove that V U È W if and only if V U W and U W = {0}. . . U2 and U3 be subspaces of a vector space V. (2) Ker W {0}. . . Show that V U È W if and only if u1 . 6. Suppose that U1. Ur are subspaces of the vector space V. ws is a basis of V. 8. Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V and W2 1 V . . (3) Im W V. . with V U1 U2 U3. Show that the following are equivalent: (1) W is invertible. . w1. 9. Suppose that W is an endomorphism of the vector space V. where U fv P V : vW vg. 4. Show that W is a projection if and only if there is a basis B of V such that [W]B is diagonal. . Show that V U È W. with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or À1. . W fv P V : vW ÀvgX Deduce that V has a basis B such that [W]B is diagonal. . ur is a basis of U and w1. . . Suppose that u1 . . U2 and U3 such that V U1 U2 U3 and U1 U 2 U1 U3 U2 U 3 f0g. . È Ur.Vector spaces and linear transformations 29 2. . Show that V U1 È U2 È U3 D U 1 (U 2 U3 ) U 2 (U 1 U3 ) U 3 (U 1 U2 ) f0gX (b) Give an example of a vector space V with three subspaces U1. . Let U and W be subspaces of the vector space V. . . ur . with all diagonal entries equal to 1 or 0. ws is a basis of W. . . 5.

F) denotes the group of invertible n 3 n matrices with entries in F. Representations Let G be a group and let F be R or C. We set out this idea in more detail. F). We also introduce the concept of equivalence of representations. it follows that for every representation r: G 3 GL (n. To be precise. and g À1 r ( gr)À1 for all g P G. F). for some n. we have 1r I n . then r is a representation if and only if ( gh)r ( gr)(hr) for all g. F).1 De®nition A representation of G over F is a homomorphism r from G to GL (n. 3. 30 . Recall from the ®rst chapter that GL (n. Thus if r is a function from G to GL (n. h P GX Since a representation is a homomorphism. a representation is a homomorphism from G into a group of invertible matrices. and give some examples of representations. where In denotes the n 3 n identity matrix. and consider the kernel of a representation.3 Group representations A representation of a group G gives us a way of visualizing G as a group of matrices. The degree of r is the integer n.

This shows that every group has representations of arbitrarily large degree. as usual. b: a4 b2 1. 0 < j < 1) is a representation of D8 over F.2 Examples (1) Let G be the dihedral group D8 ka. De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 1 1 0 A . h P G.4) that the function r: G 3 GL (2. F) which is given by r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. where In is the n 3 n identity matrix. Equivalent representations We now look at a way of converting a given representation into another one. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X It follows (see Example 1. B À1 0 0 À1 and check that A4 B2 I. De®ne r: G 3 GL (n. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.Group representations 31 3. The degree of r is 2. Then ( gh)r I n I n I n ( gr)(hr) for all g. F) by gr I n for all g P G. The matrices gr for g in D8 are given in the following table: g gr 1 1 0 0 1 a 0 1 À1 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 a3 0 À1 1 0 g gr b 1 0 0 À1 ab 0 À1 À1 0 2 a b À1 0 0 1 3 a b 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G be any group. so r is a representation of G. .

ó and ô of G over F. and so ó is. then r is equivalent to ô. 3. F) be a representation. 3. we have (see Exercise 3. h P G. gó T À1 ( gr)TX Note that for all representations r. F) be representations of G over F. indeed. and let T be an invertible n 3 n matrix over F.32 Representations and characters of groups Let r: G 3 GL (n.3 De®nition Let r: G 3 GL (m. In other words. F) and ó : G 3 GL (n. (3) if r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô. equivalence of representations is an equivalence relation. Note that for all n 3 n matrices A and B. a representation. we simply de®ne gó T À1 ( gr)T Then for all g. We say that r is equivalent to ó if n m and there exists an invertible n 3 n matrix T such that for all g P G. (2) if r is equivalent to ó then ó is equivalent to r. and consider the representation r of G which appears in Example 3. Thus ar A for all g P GX .4 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka.4): (1) r is equivalent to r. ( gh)ó T À1 (( gh)r)T T À1 (( gr)(hr))T T À1 ( gr)T . T À1 (hr)T ( gó )(hó ). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. b: a4 b2 1. we have (T À1 AT )(T À1 BT ) T À1 (AB)TX We can use this observation to produce a new representation ó from r.2(1).

bó aó 1 0 0 Ài The representations r and ó are equivalent. aó 1ó 0 À1 0 1 and ó is equivalent to r. T BT . T has been constructed so that T À1 AT is diagonal. and de®ne 1 T p 2 Then 1 i 1 T À1 p 2 In fact.Group representations and br B. we have i 0 0 1 À1 À1 T AT . . B 0 0 1 X Ài 1 Ài X 1 i 0 X À1 33 0 À1 Assume that F C. 0 Ài 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of D8 for which 0 1 i 0 X . If 2 À3 . À1 1 0 and so we obtain a representation ó of G for which 1 0 1 0 . (2) Let G C2 ka: a2 1l and let À5 A À2 12 X 5 Check that A2 I. where A 1 1 . . Hence r: 1 3 I. T 1 À1 then T À1 AT 0 . a 3 A is a representation of G.

Of particular interest are those representations whose kernel is just the identity subgroup. . as is shown by the following de®nition.7 Proposition A representation r of a ®nite group G is faithful if and only if Im r is isomorphic to G. these are when the degree of r is 1. To put the de®nition another way. F) is said to be faithful if Ker r {1}. F). there are usually lots of representations which are equivalent to r. the trivial representation of G is the representation where every group element is sent to the 1 3 1 identity matrix. In agreement with De®nition 1. F) which is de®ned by gr (1) for all g P G. this consists of the group elements g in G for which gr is the identity matrix.5 De®nition The representation r: G 3 GL (1. It can happen that the kernel of a representation is the whole of G.6 De®nition A representation r: G 3 GL (n.34 Representations and characters of groups There are two easily recognized situations where the only representation which is equivalent to r is r itself. if the identity element of G is the only element g for which gr In . Thus Ker r f g P G: gr I n gX Note that Ker r is a normal subgroup of G. 3. and when gr In for all g in G.8. However. 3. that is. 3. is called the trivial representation of G. Kernels of representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the kernel of a representation r: G 3 GL (n.

A representation of a group G is a homomorphism from G into GL(n. the factor group G/ Ker r is isomorphic to Im r. In Chapter 6 we shall show that every ®nite group has a faithful representation. Therefore. since the identity is the only element g which satis®es gr I. r is faithful. it follows that all representations which are equivalent to a faithful representation are faithful.10. 2. j 3.Group representations 35 Proof We know that Ker r v G and by Theorem 1. gó T À1 ( gr)T X 3. that is. then these two groups have the same (®nite) order. Summary of Chapter 3 1. (2) Since T À1 AT In if and only if A In .8 Examples (1) The representation r of D8 given by j i 1 0 0 1 i j (a b )r 0 À1 À1 0 as in Example 3. if G Im r. The basic problem of representation theory is to discover and understand representations of ®nite groups. if Ker r {1} then G Im r. (3) The trivial representation of a group G if faithful if and only if G {1}. A representation is faithful if it is injective. Conversely. and so |Ker r| 1.2(1) is faithful. F). for some n. The group generated by the matrices 0 1 1 0 and À1 0 0 À1 is therefore isomorphic to D8. Representations r and ó of G are equivalent if and only if there exists an invertible matrix T such that for all g P G. .

D X À 3a2 1a2 0 À1 Prove that each of the functions r k : G 3 GL (2. B. C). then ó is equivalent to r. de®ned by r1 : ar 3 Ar . r2 : ar 3 Br . and ó is equivalent to ô. is a representation of G over C. 5. C. Suppose that r. Let A (0 < r < m À 1)X Show that r is a representation of G over C if and only if Am I. r3 : a r 3 C r (0 < r < 2). (2) if r is equivalent to ó. Which of these representations are faithful? 3.C 0 À1 1 À1 e2ðia3 and let G ka: a3 1l C3 . b: a6 b2 1. 1 0 0 eÀiða3 p 1a2 3a2 1 0 p C . ó and ô are representations of G over F. C) (1 < j < 3). (3) if r is equivalent to ó. Show that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (1. 3. b: an b2 1. Let G be the cyclic group of order m. 4. C) (k 1. and de®ne r: G 3 GL (n. D over C by 0 1 eiða3 0 A . 2. Prove: (1) r is equivalent to r. 4). F) such that ar (1) and br (À1). B . given by . Let G D12 ka. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Suppose that G D2 n ka. 1 0 1 0 . Suppose that A P GL (n.36 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 3 1. and F R or C. De®ne the matrices A. then r is equivalent to ô. say G ka: am 1l. B 0 1 0 . C) by r: ar 3 Ar 2. Show that each of the functions r j : G 3 GL (2.

r 4 : ar bs 3 C r D s (0 < r < 5. 37 is a representation of G. Suppose that r is a representation of G of degree 1. Which of these representations are faithful? Which are equivalent? 6. Suppose that g and h are elements of G such that ( gr)(hr) (hr)( gr). Let r be a representation of the group G. r2 : ar bs 3 A3 r (ÀB) s . 8. 7. Give an example of a faithful representation of D8 of degree 3. 0 < s < 1).Group representations r1 : ar bs 3 Ar Bs . Prove that Ga Ker r is abelian. Does it follow that gh hg? . r3 : ar bs 3 (ÀA) r Bs .

as there are several advantages to this approach to representation theory. We now list some basic properties of the multiplication v( gr). h P G. we have v(1r) v for all v P V. the fact that r is a homomorphism shows that v(( gh)r) v( gr)(hr) for all v P V and all g. F) is a representation of G. Finally. ë n ) with ë i P F. FG-modules Let G be a group and let F be R or C.4 FG-modules We now introduce the concept of an FG-module. 38 . the vector space of all row vectors (ë1 . is a row vector in V (since the product of a 1 3 n matrix with an n 3 n matrix is again a 1 3 n matrix). First. Much of the material in the remainder of the book will be presented in terms of FG-modules. . For all v P V and g P G. since 1r is the identity matrix. Write V F n . . the matrix product v( gr). of the row vector v with the n 3 n matrix gr. . Next. and show that there is a close connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F. . Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. the properties of matrix multiplication give (ëv)( gr) ë(v( gr)).

b: a4 b2 1. br ar 0 À1 À1 0 If v (ë1 . Àë2 ). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. v1 v. Then V is an FG-module if a multiplication v g (v P V. v(br) (ë1 . 4. Àë1 )X Motivated by the above observations on the product v( gr). (ëv) g ë(v g). 39 4. satisfying the following conditions for all u. Note that conditions (1).1 Example Let G D8 ka. (v P V ) . Thus 1 0 0 1 X .2 De®nition Let V be a vector space over F and let G be a group. ë1 ). v(a3 r) (ë2 .FG-modules (u v)( gr) u( gr) v( gr) for all u. (u v) g ug v g. h P G: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) v g P V. v P V. v( gh) (v g)h. We use the letters F and G in the name `FG-module' to indicate that V is a vector space over F and that G is the group from which we are taking the elements g to form the products v g (v P V). ë P F and g P G. (4) and (5) in the de®nition ensure that for all g P G. the function v 3 vg is an endomorphism of V. ë2 ) P F 2 then. v(ar) (Àë2 . F) be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. v P V. g P G) is de®ned. for example. and let r: G 3 GL (2.2(1). ë P F and g. we now de®ne an FG-module.

Then the function g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F. 1) of F n. g P G)X for all g P GX Moreover. X X X . then gr [ g]B for all g P G.4 Theorem (1) If r: G 3 GL(n. 0. and let B be a basis of V. we have v( gr) P F n . relative to the basis B . g P GX Moreover. X X X . (u v)( gr) u( gr) v( gr)X Therefore. (0.40 Representations and characters of groups 4. 0. v(( gh)r) (v( gr))(hr). For each g P G. ( g P G) . there is a basis B of V such that (2) Assume that V is an FG-module and let B be a basis of V. then V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne the multiplication v g by v g v( gr) gr [ g]B (v P V . (0. F n becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g v( gr) for all v P F n . v P F n. X X X . if we let B be the basis (1. Proof (1) We have already observed that for all u. F) is a representation of G over F. X X X .3 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. ë P F and g. (ëv)( gr) ë(v( gr)). 0. 0). The connection between FG-modules and representations of G over F is revealed in the following basic result. v(1r) v. 0). 4. 0. let [ g]B denote the matrix of the endomorphism v 3 v g of V. and V F n. 0. h P G. 1.

Since v( gh) (v g)h for all g.2(1). v2 is the basis (1. br X À1 0 0 À1 Write V F 2. 1)X 0 (1. g 3 [ g]B v1 b v1 . 4. (0. j Our next example illustrates part (1) of Theorem 4. 0) À1 1 0 If v1 . a2 b2 . g P G)X For instance. so [1]B is the identity matrix.5 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. then we have v1 a v2 . [1]B [ g]B [ g À1 ]B for all g P G. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let r be the representation of G over F given in Example 3. We have proved that the function g 3 [ g]B is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. F) (where n dim V ). so 0 1 1 0 ar . it follows that [ gh]B [ g]B [h]B X In particular. (2) Let G Q8 ka.FG-modules 41 (2) Let V be an FG-module with basis B . b: a4 b2 1. 0)a (1. v2 b Àv2 X ( g P G) If B denotes the basis v1 . 0). v2 . h P G and all v in the basis B of V.4(1). (0. b: a4 1. In Example . V becomes an FG-module if we de®ne v g v( gr) (v P V .4. Therefore each matrix [ g]B is invertible (with inverse [ gÀ1 ]B ). v2 a Àv1 .4(1) again). Now v1 v for all v P V. and hence is a representation of G over F. By Theorem 4. then the representation is just the representation r (see Theorem 4. 1) of V.

To do this. 4. v n of V and then extending the action to be linear on the whole of V. Shortly. . v n is a basis of V and g1 . We then obtain a CG-module with basis v1 . gr generate G. v2 a Àiv2 . that is. we shall show you various ways of constructing FG-modules directly. For instance. then the vectors v i g j (1 < i < n. that we have a multiplication v g for all v in V and g in G which (ë i P F) . v n is a basis of a vector space V over F Suppose . 1 < j < r) determine v g for all v P V and g P G. . . C) generated by 0 1 i 0 . in Example 4. v2 such that v1 a iv1 . (v1 2v2 )ab v1 ab 2v2 ab v2 b À 2v1 b Àv2 À 2v1 X A similar remark holds for all FG-modules V: if v1 . .4(1) we must this time take F C. without using a representation.2(4) we de®ned Q8 to be the subgroup of GL (2.42 Representations and characters of groups 1. . v1 b v2 . v2 a. . The next result will often be used to show that our chosen multiplication turns V into an FG-module. .6 Proposition Assume that v1 . and then de®ne (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n ) g to be ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g)X As you might expect. . . F F F . the vectors v1 a. . and B A À1 0 0 Ài so we already have a representation of G over C. .5(1). we turn a vector space V over F into an FG-module by specifying the action of group elements on a basis v1 . there are restrictions on how we may de®ne the vectors v i g. . To illustrate Theorem 4. we ®rst de®ne v i g for each i and each g in G. v2 b Àv1 X Notice that in the above examples. v1 b and v2 b determine v g for all v P V and g P G.

FG-modules

43

satis®es the following conditions for all i with 1 < i < n, for all g, h P G, and for all ë1 , F F F , ë n P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) v i g P V; v i ( gh) (v i g)h; vi 1 vi ; (ë1 v1 . . . ë n v n ) g ë1 (v1 g) . . . ë n (v n g).

Then V is an FG-module. Proof It is clear from (3) and (4) that v1 v for all v P V. Conditions (1) and (4) ensure that for all g in G, the function v 3 v g (v P V) is an endomorphism of V. That is, vg P V, (ëv) g ë(v g), (u v) g ug v g, for all u, v P V, ë P F and g P G. Hence (4X7) (ë1 u1 X X X ë n u n )h ë1 (u1 h) X X X ë n (un h) for all ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, all u1 , . . . , un P V and all h P G. Now let v P V and g, h P G. Then v ë1 v1 . . . ë n v n for some ë1 , . . . , ë n P F, and v( gh) ë1 (v1 ( gh)) X X X ë n (v n ( gh)) (ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g))h (v g)h by condition (4)X by condition (4) ë1 ((v1 g)h) X X X ë n ((v n g)h) by condition (2) by (4X7)

We have now checked all the axioms which are required for V to be an FG-module. j Our next de®nitions translate the concepts of the trivial representation and a faithful representation into module terms. 4.8 De®nitions (1) The trivial FG-module is the 1-dimensional vector space V over F with vg v for all v P V , g P GX

44

Representations and characters of groups

(2) An FG-module V is faithful if the identity element of G is the only element g for which v g v for all v P V X For instance, the FD8 -module which appears in Example 4.5(1) is faithful. Our next aim is to use Proposition 4.6 to construct faithful FGmodules for all subgroups of symmetric groups. Permutation modules Let G be a subgroup of Sn , so that G is a group of permutations of {1, . . . , n}. Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , . . . , v n . For each i with 1 < i < n and each permutation g in G, de®ne v i g v ig X Then v i g P V and v i 1 v i . Also, for g, h in G, v i ( gh) v i( gh) v(ig) h (v i g)hX We now extend the action of each g linearly to the whole of V; that is, for all ë1 , . . . , ë n in F and g in G, we de®ne (ë1 v1 X X X ë n v n ) g ë1 (v1 g) X X X ë n (v n g)X Then V is an FG-module, by Proposition 4.6. 4.9 Example Let G S4 and let B denote the basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 of V. If g (1 2), then v1 g v2 , v2 g v1 , v3 g v3 , v4 g v4 X And if h (1 3 4), then v1 h v3 , v2 h v2 , v3 h v4 , v4 h v1 X We have [ g]B 0 f1 f d0 0 H 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 H I 0 0 f0 0g g, [h]B f d0 0e 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 I 0 0g gX 1e 0

FG-modules

45

4.10 De®nition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . The FG-module V with basis v1 , . . . , v n such that v i g v ig for all i, and all g P G, is called the permutation module for G over F. We call v1 , . . . , v n the natural basis of V. Note that if we write B for the basis v1 , . . . , v n of the permutation module, then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has precisely one nonzero entry in each row and column, and this entry is 1. Such a matrix is called a permutation matrix. Since the only element of G which ®xes every v i is the identity, we see that the permutation module is a faithful FG-module. If you are aware of the fact that every group G of order n is isomorphic to a subgroup of Sn , then you should be able to see that G has a faithful FG-module of dimension n. We shall go into this in more detail in Chapter 6. 4.11 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. Then G is isomorphic to the cyclic subgroup of S3 which is generated by the permutation (1 2 3). This alerts us to the fact that if V is a 3-dimensional vector space over F, with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , then we may make V into an FG-module in which v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v3 1 v3 , v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 , v1 a2 v3 , v2 a2 v1 , v3 a2 v2 X Of course, we de®ne v g, for v an arbitrary vector in V and g 1, a or a2 , by (ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ë3 v3 ) g ë1 (v1 g) ë2 (v2 g) ë3 (v3 g) for all ë1 , ë2 , ë3 P F. Proposition 4.6 can be used to verify that V is an FG-module, but we have been motivated by the de®nition of permutation modules in our construction. FG-modules and equivalent representations We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the relationship between FG-modules and equivalent representations of G over F. An FG-

46

Representations and characters of groups

module gives us many representations, all of the form g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) for some basis B of V. The next result shows that all these representations are equivalent to each other (see De®nition 3.3); and moreover, any two equivalent representations of G arise from some FG-module in this way. 4.12 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B , and let r be the representation of G over F de®ned by r: g 3 [ g]B ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 ( g P G)X ( g P G) (1) If B 9 is a basis of V, then the representation of G is equivalent to r. (2) If ó is a representation of G which is equivalent to r, then there is a basis B 0 of V such that ó : g 3 [ g]B 0 ( g P G)X

Proof (1) Let T be the change of basis matrix from B to B 9 (see De®nition 2.23). Then by (2.24), for all g P G, we have [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 9 TX Therefore ö is equivalent to r. (2) Suppose that r and ó are equivalent representations of G. Then for some invertible matrix T, we have gr T À1 ( gó )T for all g P GX Let B 0 be the basis of V such that the change of basis matrix from B to B 0 is T. Then for all g P G, [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 0 T , and so gó [ g]B 0 .

j

4.13 Example Again let G C3 ka: a3 1l. There is a representation r of G which is given by

1r

1 0

FG-modules 0 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a r , ar X À1 À1 1 1 0

47

(To see this, simply note that (ar)2 a2 r and (ar)3 I; see Exercise 3.2.) If V is a 2-dimensional vector space over C, with basis v1 , v2 (which we call B ), then we can turn V into a CG-module as in Theorem 4.4(1) by de®ning v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v1 a v2 , v1 a2 Àv1 À v2 , v2 a2 v1 X À1 X 0

v2 a Àv1 À v2 ,

We then have 1 0 0 [1]B , [a]B 0 1 À1

1 À1 2 , [a ]B À1 1

Now let u1 v1 and u2 v1 v2 . Then u1 , u2 is another basis of V, which we call B 9. Since u1 1 u 1 , u2 1 u 2 , u1 a Àu1 u2 , u2 a Àu1 , u1 a2 Àu2 , u2 a2 u1 À u2 ,

we obtain the representation ö: g 3 [ g]B 9 where 1 0 À1 1 0 À1 2 [1]B 9 , [a]B 9 , [a ]B 9 X 0 1 À1 0 1 À1 Note that if T then for all g in G, we have [ g]B T À1 [ g]B 9 T , and so r and ö are equivalent, in agreement with Theorem 4.12(1).

1 0 1 1

Summary of Chapter 4 1. An FG-module is a vector space over F, together with a multiplication by elements of G on the right. The multiplication satis®es properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4.2.

48

Representations and characters of groups

2. There is a correspondence between representations of G over F and FG-modules, as follows. (a) Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n, F) is a representation of G. Then F n is an FG-module, if we de®ne v g v( gr) (v P F n , g P G)X (b) If V is an FG-module, with basis B , then r: g 3 [ g]B is a representation of G over F.

3. If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the permutation FG-module has basis v1 , F F F , v n , and v i g v ig for all i with 1 < i < n, and all g in G. Exercises for Chapter 4 1. Suppose that G S3 , and that V sp (v1 , v2 , v3 ) is the permutation module for G over C, as in De®nition 4.10. Let B 1 be the basis v1 , v2 , v3 of V and let B 2 be the basis v1 v2 v3 , v1 À v2 , v1 À v3 . Calculate the 3 3 3 matrices [ g]B 1 and [ g]B 2 for all g in S3 . What do you notice about the matices [ g]B 2 ? 2. Let G Sn and let V becomes an FG-module & v, vg Àv, be a vector space over F. Show that V if we de®ne, for all v in V, if g is an even permutation, if g is an odd permutation.

3. Let Q8 ka, b: a4 1, b2 a2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l, the quaternion group of order 8. Show that there is an RQ8 -module V of dimension 4 with basis v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 such that v1 a v 2 , v1 b v 3 , v2 a Àv1 , v2 b v4 , v3 a Àv4 , v4 a v3 , and v3 b Àv1 , v4 b Àv2 X

4. Let A be an n 3 n matrix and let B be a matrix obtained from A by permuting the rows. Show that there is an n 3 n permutation matrix P such that B PA. Find a similar result for a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns.

5 FG-submodules and reducibility

We begin the study of FG-modules by introducing the basic building blocks of the theory ± the irreducible FG-modules. First we require the notion of an FG-submodule of an FG-module. Throughout, G is a group and F is R or C. FG-submodules 5.1 De®nition Let V be an FG-module. A subset W of V is said to be an FGsubmodule of V if W is a subspace and wg P W for all w P W and all g P G. Thus an FG-submodule of V is a subspace which is also an FGmodule. 5.2 Examples (1) For every FG-module V, the zero subspace {0}, and V itself, are FG-submodules of V. (2) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l, and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule de®ned in Example 4.11. Thus, V has basis v1 , v2 , v3 , and v1 1 v1 , v2 1 v2 , v3 1 v3 , v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 , v1 a2 v3 , v2 a2 v1 , v3 a2 v2 X Put w v1 v2 v3, and let W sp (w), the 1-dimensional subspace spanned by w. Since 49

50

Representations and characters of groups w1 wa wa2 w,

W is an FG-submodule of V. However, sp (v1 v2 ) is not an FGsubmodule, since (v1 v2 )a v2 v3 P sp (v1 v2 )X a Irreducible FG-modules 5.3 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be irreducible if it is non-zero and it has no FG-submodules apart from {0} and V. If V has an FG-submodule W with W not equal to {0} or V, then V is reducible. Similarly, a representation r: G 3 GL (n, F) is irreducible if the corresponding FG-module F n given by v g v( gr) (v P F n , g P G) (see Theorem 4.4(1)) is irreducible; and r is reducible if F n is reducible. Suppose that V is a reducible FG-module, so that there is an FGsubmodule W with 0 , dim W , dim V. Take a basis B 1 of W and extend it to a basis B of V. Then for all g in G, the matrix [ g]B has the form H I Xg 0 d e (5X4) Yg Z g for some matrices Xg , Yg and Zg , where Xg is k 3 k (k dim W). A representation of degree n is reducible if and only if it is equivalent to a representation of the form (5.4), where X g is k 3 k and 0 , k , n. Notice that in (5.4), the functions g 3 Xg and g 3 Z g are representations of G: to see this, let g, h P G and multiply the matrices [ g]B and [h]B given by (5.4). Notice also that if V is reducible then dim V > 2. 5.5 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l and let V be the 3-dimensional FGmodule with basis v1 , v2 , v3 such that

FG-submodules and reducibility v1 a v2 , v2 a v3 , v3 a v1 ,

51

as in Example 4.11. We saw in Example 5.2(2) that V is a reducible FG-module, and has an FG-submodule W sp (v1 v2 v3 ). Let B be the basis v1 v2 v3 , v1 , v2 of V. Then H H I I 1 0 0 1 0 0 f f g g [1]B f 0 1 0 g, [a]B f 0 0 1 g, d d e e 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 H I 1 0 0 f g [a2 ]B f 1 À1 À1 gX d e 0 1 0 This reducible representation gives us two other representations: at the `top left' we have the trivial representation and at the `bottom right' we have the representation which is given by 0 1 1 0 À1 À1 2 ,a 3 ,a3 X 13 À1 À1 0 1 1 0 (2) Let G D8 and let V F 2 be the 2-dimensional FG-module described in Example 4.5(1). Thus G ka, bl, and for all (ë, ì) P V we have (ë, ì)a (Àì, ë), (ë, ì)b (ë, Àì)X

We claim that V is an irreducible FG-module. To see this, suppose that there is an FG-submodule U which is not equal to V. Then dim U < 1, so U sp ((á, â)) for some á, â P F. As U is an FGmodule, (á, â)b is a scalar multiple of (á, â), and hence either á 0 or â 0. Since (á, â)a is also a scalar multiple of (á, â), this forces á â 0, so U {0}. Consequently V is irreducible, as claimed.

Summary of Chapter 5 1. If V is an FG-module, and W is a subspace of V which is itself an FG-module, then W is an FG-submodule of V. 2. The FG-module V is irreducible if it is non-zero and the only FGsubmodules are {0} and V.

and let G ka. For (á. Which of the four representations of D12 de®ned in Exercise 3. c P S6 by a (1 2 3). c (2 3)(4 5). cr 0 å À1 0 çÀ1 1 0 (c) For which values of å. Verify that V is an FG-module and ®nd all the FG-submodules of V. br . ç is r irreducible? 5. â) P V. á). ç is r faithful? (d) For which values of å. â)1 (á. b. cÀ1 ac aÀ1 and cÀ1 bc bÀ1 X Deduce that G has order 18.5 are irreducible? 4.52 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 5 1. 3. ab ba. cl. â)a (â. De®ne the permutations a. Let r and ó be equivalent representations of the group G over F. 2. Prove that if r is reducible then ó is reducible. 2 . (b) Suppose that å and ç are complex cube roots of unity. (a) Check that a3 b3 c2 1. b. b (4 5 6). Find a CG-module which is neither reducible nor irreducible. de®ne (á. and let V F 2. Prove that there is a representation r of G over C such that å 0 ç 0 0 1 ar X . Let G C13 . â) and (á. Let G C2 ka: a 1l.

and let F be R or C. . and we call this vector space FG. . The group algebra of G Let G be a ®nite group whose elements are g1 . After de®ning the group algebra of G. . . then 53 . and ë P F. we shall use it to construct an important faithful representation. In a sense. In particular. . g n . group algebras are the source of all you need to know about representation theory. g n as a basis. which will be explored in greater detail later on. . Group algebras are therefore of great interest. . . We de®ne a vector space over F with g1 . if u n i1 ë i g i and v n i1 ìi g i are elements of FG. the ultimate goal of representation theory ± that of understanding all the representations of ®nite groups ± would be achieved if group algebras could be fully analysed. known as the regular representation of G.6 Group algebras The group algebra of a ®nite group G is a vector space of dimension |G| which also carries extra structure involving the product operation on G. Take as the elements of FG all expressions of the form ë1 g 1 X X X ë n g n (all ë i P F)X The rules for addition and scalar multiplication in FG are the natural ones: namely.

FG is a vector space over F of dimension n. g n .1 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 el. (To avoid confusion with the element 1 of F. g n is called the natural basis of FG. The basis g1 . .54 Representations and characters of groups uv n n (ë i ì i ) g i and ëu (ëë i ) g i X i1 i1 With these rules.1. 1 u 1 e À 1 a 2 a2 X 2 3 3 3 3 Sometimes we write elements of FG in the form ë g g (ë g P F)X gPG Now. . FG carries more structure than that of a vector space ± we can use the product operation on G to de®ne multiplication in FG as follows: 3 2 32 ëg g ìh h ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. . . 6. then uv (e À a 2a2 )(1 e 5a) 2 1 2e 5a À 1 a À 5a2 a2 10a3 2 9 a À 4a2 X 2 21 2e . .) The vector space CG contains u e À a 2a2 and v 1 e 5aX 2 We have u v 3 e 4a 2a2 . in this example. ì h P F. with basis g1 .2 Example If G C3 and u. (ë h ì hÀ1 g ) g gPG hPG 6. we write e for the identity element of G. . .hPG where all ë g . . v are the elements of CG which appear in Example 6.

kPG ë g ì h í k ( gh)k ë g ì h í k g(hk) g. s.3 De®nition The vector space FG. 6.h. í g P F). Proof (1) It follows immediately from the de®nition of rs that rs P FG. Then (rs)t g. r(s t) rs rt. r(st) (rs)t. ì g . (2) Let r ë g g.4 Proposition Multiplication in FG satis®es the following properties. is called the group algebra of G over F. t P FG and ë P F: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) rs P FG. namely the element 1e (where 1 is the identity of F and e is the identity of G). gPG gPG gPG (ë g . ì h P F). The group algebra FG contains an identity for multiplication. j .kPG r(st)X We leave the proofs of the other equations as easy exercises. (r s)t rt st.Group algebras 6. t í g g. for all r.h.hPG 55 (ë g . (ër)s ë(rs) r(ës). r0 0r 0. r1 1r r. with multiplication de®ned by 3 2 32 ëg g ìh h ë g ì h ( gh) gPG hPG g. s ì g g. We write this element simply as 1.

respectively. but it is worth pointing out that the axioms for an algebra mean that it is both a vector space and a ring. is called the regular FG-module. g P G). (4) and (5) of Proposition 6. The elements of FG have the form . 6. any vector space equipped with a multiplication satisfying properties (1)±(7) of Proposition 6. and the result follows. Proof Suppose that g P G and v g v for all v P FG. v P V.7 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 el. Therefore V is an FG-module. We shall be concerned only with group algebras. The regular FG-module We now use the group algebra to de®ne an important FG-module. where n |G|. Note that the regular FG-module has dimension equal to |G|. so that V is a vector space of dimension n over F. 6. with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. by parts (1). The representation g 3 [ g]B obtained by taking B to be the natural basis of FG is called the regular representation of G over F.6 Proposition The regular FG-module is faithful. so g 1.4. (3).5 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group and F be R or C. j 6. (2). v( gh) (v g)h. Then 1 g 1. v1 v. h P G. (ëv) g ë(v g). The vector space FG. Let V FG. ë P F and g. For all u. (u v) g ug v g.4 is called an algebra.56 Representations and characters of groups In fact. we have vg P V.

a 3 d 0 0 1 e. (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )a ë3 e ë1 a ë2 a2 . say r gPG ì g g (ì g P F).9. 6.9 Examples (1) Let V be the permutation module for S4 .Group algebras ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 We have (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )e ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 . as described in Example 4. (ë1 e ë2 a ë3 a2 )a2 ë2 e ë3 a ë1 a2 X (ë i P F)X 57 By taking matrices relative to the basis e.8 De®nition Suppose that V is an FG-module. (2v1 v2 )r ëv1 (2ë ì)v2 2ìv3 X (ë. together with a multiplication v g for v P V and g P G (and the multiplication satis®es various axioms). Now. a. it is sometimes helpful to extend the de®nition of the multiplication so that we have an element vr of V for all elements r in the group algebra FG. and that v P V and r P FG. ì P F) . a2 3 d 1 0 0 eX 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 FG acts on an FG-module You will remember that an FG-module is a vector space over F. De®ne vr by vr ì g (v g)X gPG 6. we obtain the regular representation of G: H I H I H I 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 e 3 d 0 1 0 e. v2 r ëv1 ìv2 . This is done in the following natural way. If r ë(1 2) ì(1 3 4) then v1 r ëv1 (1 2) ìv1 (1 3 4) ëv2 ìv3 . a2 of FG.

s P FG: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) vr P V. then for all v P V and r P FG. all ë P F and all r. v(r s) vr vs. (5). the element vr is simply the product of v and r as elements of the group algebra.4. (u v)r ur vr. given by De®nition 6. Proof All parts except (2) are straightforward.h 2 g 3 32 ë g (v g) ìh h h by (4). and we leave them to you.h g. 6. and let r.10 Proposition Suppose that V is an FG-module. assuming the other parts. (6) j (vr)sX . s P FG with r ë g g. (ëv)r ë(vr) v(ër). v P V.58 Representations and characters of groups (2) If V is the regular FG-module. v0 0r 0. Compare the next result with Proposition 6. Then the following properties hold for all u. s ì h hX gPG hPG Then 2 3 v(rs) v ë g ì h ( gh) g. v1 v.h ë g ì h (v( gh)) ë g ì h ((v g)h) by (4) and (6) g. Let v P V. v(rs) (vr)s.3. We shall give a proof of part (2).

Assume that G is a ®nite group. and has a natural multiplication de®ned on it. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. and v0 0 for all v P V . . g P G) is the regular FG-module. g n }. (b) Deduce that c2 |G|c. Show that zg gz for all g in G. 2. Exercises for Chapter 6 1. gn of CG? 5. but neither v nor r is 0. 3. Show that for every ®nite group G. (c) Let W: CG 3 CG be the linear transformation sending v to vc for all v in CG.Group algebras Summary of Chapter 6 59 1. . The regular FG-module is faithful. where B is the basis g1 . prove from the de®nition that 0r 0 for all r P FG. What is the matrix [W]B . Deduce that zr rz for all r in CG. . The vector space FG. . 1. r P FG such that vr 0. with |G| . Let G C2 . (a) Prove that ch hc c for all h in G. y b ab À a2 X Calculate xy. For r and s in CG. . 3. . . and write c n for the element i1 g i of CG. does rs 0 imply that r 0 or s 0? 4. The group algebra FG of G over F consists of all linear combinations of elements of G. . . where the symbol 0 is used for the zero elements of V and FG. with the natural multiplication v g (v P FG. (a) Let x and y be the following elements of CG: x a 2a2 . b: a4 b2 1. (b) Let z b a2 b. Suppose that G D8 ka. If V is an FG-module. yx and x 2 . 2. Work out matrices for the regular representation of C2 3 C2 over F. there exists an FG-module V and elements v P V. say G { g1 .

60 Representations and characters of groups 6. and let ù e2ðia3 . is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CG-module. de®ned by W sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . b: a3 b2 1. b ù2 ab ùa2 b). . Suppose that G D6 ka. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Prove that the 2-dimensional subspace W of CG.

and we introduce these in this chapter. submodule of W. The analogous functions for FG-modules are called FG-homomorphisms. the `structure-preserving' functions are. g P GX In other words. then for all v P V and r gPG ë g g P FG. Then Ker W is an FG-submodule of V and Im W is an FG.2 Proposition Let V and W be FG-modules and let W: V 3 W be an FG-homomorphism. we have (vr)W (vW)r since (vr)W gPG ë g (v g)W gPG ë g (vW) g (vW)rX The next result shows that FG-homomorphisms give rise to FGsubmodules in a natural way. 7. 61 . if W sends v to w then it sends v g to wg. FG-homomorphisms 7.1 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules.7 FG-homomorphisms For groups and vector spaces. group homomorphisms and linear transformations. respectively. Note that if G is a ®nite group and W: V 3 W is an FG-homomorph ism. A function W: V 3 W is said to be an FG-homomorphism if W is a linear transformation and (v g)W (vW) g for all v P V .

i1 i1 Im W W X . and so Im W is an FG-submodule of W. . since W is a linear transformation. so that w vW for some v P V. and Ker W V. (3) Suppose that G is a subgroup of S n . Then W is a linear transformation. (2) Let ë P F. we have Ker W {0}. Then (v g)W (vW) g 0 g 0. Therefore Ker W is an FG-submodule of V. Here. . Now let w P Im W. and for all v ë i v i P V and all g P G.10). so vg P Ker W. For all g P G. then W is an FGhomomorphism. . De®ne 2 n 3 n W: ëivi 3 ë i w (ë i P F)X i1 i1 Thus v i W w for all i. We construct an FG-homomorphism W from V to W. and de®ne W: V 3 V by vW ëv for all v P V.3 Examples (1) If W: V 3 W is de®ned by vW 0 for all v P V. v n ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4. Then W is an FG-homomorphism.8). j 7. Im W {0}. we have 2 3 2 3 (v g)W ë i v ig W ë i w. wg (vW) g (v g)W P Im W. Im W V. . and let W sp (w) be the trivial FG-module (see De®nition 4. and 2 3 2 3 (vW) g ë i wg ë i wX Therefore W is an FG-homomorphism. Let v P Ker W and g P G. @ n A n Ker W ëi vi : ëi 0 . Let V sp (v1 . Provided ë T 0.62 Representations and characters of groups Proof First note that Ker W is a subspace of V and Im W is a subspace of W.

Isomorphic FG-modules 7. In the next result. then we say that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules and write V W. Then we may use W and WÀ1 to translate back and forth between the isomorphic FGmodules V and W. we check that if V W then W V. (3) V contains a trivial FG-submodule if and only if W contains a trivial FG-submodule (since X is a trivial FG-submodule of V if and only if XW is a trivial FG-submodule of W). . . . 7. For w P W and g P G. . (2) V is irreducible if and only if W is irreducible (since X is an FGsubmodule of V if and only if XW is an FG-submodule of W). Proof Certainly WÀ1 is an invertible linear transformation. We list some examples below: (1) dim V dim W (since v1 .FG-homomorphisms 63 By Proposition 7. . j as W is an FG-homomorphism Suppose that W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism.5 Proposition If W: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. . v n W is a basis of W). so we need only show that WÀ1 is an FG-homomorphism. and prove that V and W share the same structural properties.4 De®nition Let V and W be FG-modules. v n is a basis of V if and only if v1 W. We call a function W: V 3 W an FGisomorphism if W is an FG-homomorphism and W is invertible. Ker W is an FG-submodule of the permutation module V. as required. If there is such an FG-isomorphism. . . ((wWÀ1 ) g)W ((wWÀ1 )W) g wg ((wg)WÀ1 )WX Hence (wWÀ1 ) g (wg)WÀ1 .2. then the inverse WÀ1 : W 3 V is also an FG-isomorphism. .

though. . and let v1 . . .7) The FG-modules V and W are isomorphic if and only if there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P GX To see this. By (7. Since [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 . For the moment. This completes the proof of (7. v n W is a basis B 2 of W. . . . Conversely.12(1).7). it follows that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 . Conversely.6 Theorem Suppose that V is an FG-module with basis B . suppose that r and ó are equivalent. . . Proof We ®rst establish the following fact: (7. . and W is an FGmodule with basis B 9. . there is a basis B 0 of V such that gó [ g]B 0 for all g P G. we frequently disdain to distinguish between isomorphic FG-modules. ö is equivalent to both r and ó. Since (v i g)W (v i W) g for each i. . we continue simply to emphasize the similarity between isomorphic FG-modules. Hence r and ó are equivalent. then v1 W. there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P G.7). Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if the representations r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 are equivalent. v n is a basis B 1 of V and w1.12(2). 7. Then by Theorem 4. Let g P G. . we deduce that (v i g)W (v i W) g for all i. Let g P G. suppose that v1 . . . . . and hence W is an FG-isomorphism. w n is a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P G. Let W be the invertible linear transformation from V to W for which v i W w i for all i. v n be a basis B 1 of V. De®ne a representation ö of G by ö: g 3 [ g]B 1 . Then by Theorem 4. Now assume that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. .64 Representations and characters of groups Just as we often regard isomorphic groups as being identical. we show that isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. In the next result. suppose ®rst that W is an FG-isomorphism from V to W.

the function W: ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ë3 v3 3 ë1 1 ë2 a ë3 a2 is an FG-isomorphism from V to W. v2 . with basis v1 .7). v2 . d d e e 0 0 1 1 0 0 H 0 0 0 1 1 0 I f [a2 ]B 9 f 1 d 0 g 0 gX e Compare the FG-module V de®ned in Example 4. Therefore V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. [a]B 9 f 0 0 1 g. and let W denote the regular FG-module. we have [ g]B [ g]B 9 for all g P GX According to (7. call it B 9. the FG-modules V and W are therefore isomorphic.9 Example Let G D8 ka.11. Indeed. We have H H I I 1 0 0 0 1 0 f f g g [1]B 9 f 0 1 0 g. b: a4 b2 1. In Example 3. a. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. j 7. v3 a v1 X Writing B for the basis v1 . [ g]B 9 [ g]B 0 for all g P G. a cyclic group of order 3. by (7. v2 a v3 . a2 is a basis of W.FG-homomorphisms 65 that is. 7.7).4(1) we encountered two equivalent representations r and ó of G.8 Example Let G ka: a3 1l. bó Ài 1 1 X 0 (ë i P F) . Then 1. br À1 0 0 À1 and aó i 0 0 0 . v3 such that v1 a v2 . v3 of V. where 0 1 1 0 ar .

where U and W are FG-submodules of V. u m . . .9). then for all g P G we have r: g 3 [ g]B and ó : g 3 [ g]B 9 X According to Theorem 7. . B r to . w n be a basis B 2 of W. . . . . Let u1 . a direct sum of FG-submodules Ui. v2 3 iw1 À iw2 X Then (v j a)W (v j W)a and (v j b)W (v j W)b for j 1. u1 . (Compare Example 3. . in a similar way. w n is a basis B of V. . Then by (2. 2. È Ur. the CG-modules V and W are isomorphic.66 Representations and characters of groups Let V be the CG-module with basis v1 .) Direct sums We conclude the chapter with a discussion of direct sums of FGmodules. . w2 of W. v2 a Àv1 . let W be the CG-module with basis w1. . . To verify this directly. and suppose that V U È W. Let V be an FG-module.5(1)). . w2 a Àiw2 . . since r and ó are equivalent. w2 b w1 Thus. H I 0 [ g]B 1 eX [ g]B d 0 [ g]B 2 More generally. if V U1 È . v2 for which v1 a v2 . and. and we show that these give rise to FG-homomorphisms. and w1. . w1. u m be a basis B 1 of U. . . . v2 b Àv2 (see Example 4. v1 b v1 . w2 for which w1 a iw1 . and for g P G. . let W: V 3 W be the invertible linear transformation such that W: v1 3 w1 w2 . .4(1). . and hence W is a CG-isomorphism from V to W. .6. v2 of V and B 9 for the basis w1. w1 b w2 . then we can amalgamate B 1 . if we write B for the basis v1 . and B i is a basis of Ui.

Thus ð i is a projection (see De®nition 2.11 Proposition Let V be an FG-module.30). and is also a projection of V . u r (u j P U j for all j). we have (v g)ð i (u1 g X X X ur g)ð i ui g (vð i ) gX Also. . and we de®ne ð i : V 3 V (1 < i < r) by setting vð i ui X Then each ð i is an FG-homomorphism. . j . since for v P V with v u1 . and g P G. v u1 . sum of some of the FG-submodules Ui.12 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. and suppose that V U1 È X X X È U r where each Ui is an FG-submodule of V. Proof Clearly ð i is a linear transformation.FG-homomorphisms obtain a basis B of V. vð 2 ui ð i ui vð i . . i We now present a technical result concerning sums of irreducible FG-modules which will be used at a later stage. . and ð i is an FG-homomorphism. and for g P G. For v P V we have . 7. H [ g]B 1 f FF [ g]B d (7X10) F 67 I g eX 0 [ g]B r 0 The next result shows that direct sums give rise naturally to FGhomomorphisms. ur for unique vectors ui P Ui. and suppose that V U1 X X X Ur . 7. i so ð2 ð i . where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V Then V is a direct .

as required. . if Ui P Y X a Let W W1 X X X WsX We claim that Ui # W for all i. 2. and so Ui # W. If Ui P Y this is clear. Summary of Chapter 7 1. 3. and let W: U 3 V and ö: V 3 W be FG-homomorphisms. . . as claimed. Isomorphic FG-modules correspond to equivalent representations. choose a subset Y {W1. we remark that if V1 . X X X . . v r ) g (v1 g. but W 1 X X X W s U i is not direct. . Kernels and images of FG-homomorphisms are FG-modules. . Since U i W for all i with 1 < i < r. therefore W Ui Ui. then we can make the external direct sum V1 È F F F ÈVr (see Chapter 2) into an FGmodule by de®ning (v1 . . Exercises for Chapter 7 1. we have V W W 1 È F F F ÈW s . . v r g) for all v i P Vi (1 < i < r) and all g P G. V r are FG-modules. g P G. . Ur so that the sum of our chosen FG-submodules is direct. V and W be FG-modules. . If V and W are FG-modules and W: V 3 W is a linear transformation which satis®es (v g)W (vW) g for all v P V. j Finally. . Ws } of {U1. Prove that Wö: U 3 W is an FG-homomorphism. then W is an FG-homomorphism. . F F F . . To this end. Let U. and Ui is irreducible. X X X .68 Representations and characters of groups Proof The idea is to choose as many as we can of the FG-submodules U1. Then W Ui is not a direct sum. But W Ui a is an FG-submodule of Ui. so W Ui T {0}. Ur } which has the properties that W 1 X X X W s is direct (iXeX equal to W 1 È X X X È W s ). so assume that Ui P Y.

FG-homomorphisms 69 2. Let G be the subgroup of S5 which is generated by (1 2 3 4 5). Show that the function W: v 3 v g (v P V ) gPG is an FG-homomorphism from V to V0 . Is it necessarily surjective? 4. Suppose that V and W are isomorphic FG-modules. Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by (1 2) and (3 4). Let G C2 kx: x 2 1l. Prove that the permutation module for G over F is isomorphic to the regular FG-module. â P F) is an FG-homomorphism from the regular FG-module to itself. Prove that the subset V0 fv P V : v g v for all g P Gg is an FG-submodule of V. De®ne the FGsubmodules V0 and W0 of V and W as in Exercise 3. 5. Prove that V0 and W0 are isomorphic FG-modules. (a) Show that the function W: á1 âx 3 (á À â)(1 À x) (á. (c) Find a basis B of FG such that 2 0 [W]B X 0 0 . Is the permutation module for G over F isomorphic to the regular FG-module? 6. Assume that V is an FG-module. 3. (b) Prove that W2 2W.

But there is.2(2) below.1 Maschke's Theorem Let G be a ®nite group. since ug u for all g P G.2 Examples (1) Let G S3 and let V sp (v1 . v2 À 2v3 ). we illustrate it with some examples. in fact. A consequence of this theorem is that every FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. v2 . 8. then there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È WX Before proving Maschke's Theorem. and let V be an FG-module. We shall ®nd this W in an 70 . Maschke's Theorem 8. let F be R or C. v3 ) and sp (v1 .8 Maschke's Theorem We now come to our ®rst major result in representation theory. only one FGsubmodule W of V with V U È W. (The assumption on F is important ± see Example 8. If U is an FG-submodule of V. There are many subspaces W of V such that V U È W. Put u v1 v2 v3 and U sp (u)X Then U is an FG-submodule of V. where as usual F R or C.) This essentially reduces representation theory to the study of irreducible FG-modules. namely Maschke's Theorem. for instance sp (v2 .10). v3 ) be the permutation module for G over F (see De®nition 4.

. . and take F to be the ®eld of integers modulo p. v n of V. p À 1) j 1 is a representation from G to GL (2. U sp (v1 ) is an FG-submodule of V. F). v2 a j jv1 v2 X Clearly. extend it to a basis v1 . Check that the function 1 0 j a 3 ( j 0. . . let G C p ka: a p 1l. de®ne W: V 3 V by (8X3) vW 1 v gö g À1 jGj gPG (v P V )X It is clear that W is an endomorphism of V and Im W # U.) For v P V. (vx)W 1 (vx) gö g À1 X jGj gPG . where. an FG-submodule of the FG-module V. .1 We are given U. X X X . ö is a projection of V with kernel W0 and image U. and let W0 sp (v m1 . We aim to modify the projection ö to create an FG-homomorphism from V to V with image U.Maschke's Theorem 71 example after proving Maschke's Theorem (but you may like to look for it yourself now). The corresponding FG-module is V sp (v1 . 1. By Proposition 2. We show ®rst that W is an FG-homomorphism. and we de®ne ö: V 3 V by setting vö u. v1 a j v1 . v n ). . . we have v u w for unique vectors u P U and w P W 0. . For example. But there is no FGsubmodule W such that V U È W. let p be a prime number. Proof of Maschke's Theorem 8. . v2 ). since U is the only 1-dimensional FG-submodule of V. for 0 < j < p À 1. .29. . For v P V and x P G. as can easily be seen. (2) The conclusion of Maschke's Theorem can fail if F is not R or C. . To this end. Choose any subspace W0 of V such that V U È W0X (There are many choices for W0 ± simply take a basis v1 . v m of U.

we prove that W2 W. The projection ö onto U is given by ö: v1 3 0. v2 À v3 )X È É (In fact. First.4) shows that Im W U. Then vW P U. v2 3 0. (8.5 Example Let G S3 and let V sp (v1 . the FG-submodule constructed in Example 7. W ë i v i : ë i 0 . v2 ). so W sp (v1 À v2 . Using this. Next. with submodule U sp (v1 v2 v3 ). 2. and so (ug)ö ug. we have ug P U.) . so does h xg.2(1). Consequently W2 W. v3 3 v1 v2 v3 X Check now that the FG-homomorphism W given by (8. as claimed. We have now established that W: V 3 V is a projection and an FGhomomorphism. as in Example 8. First note that for u P U. 1 1 1 uW (8X4) ugö g À1 (ug) g À1 u uX jGj gPG jGj gPG jGj gPG Now let v P V. v2 .72 Representations and characters of groups As g runs over the elements of G. v3 ) be the permutation module. g P G.3(3). so by (8.3) is W: v i 3 1(v1 v2 v3 ) (i 1.32. Then V U È W0 (but of course W0 is not an FG-submodule). We use the proof of Maschke's Theorem to ®nd an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È W. 3)X 3 The required FG-submodule W is then Ker W. let W0 sp (v1 .2. This completes the proof of Maschke's Theorem. j 8. Moreover. Hence 1 (vx)W vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG 2 3 1 vhöhÀ1 x jGj hPG (vW)xX Thus W is an FG-homomorphism. Let W Ker W. Then W is an FG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. and V U È W by Proposition 2.4) we have (vW)W vW.

then for all g P G. suppose that r is a reducible representation of a ®nite group G over F of degree n. n. If instead we use v1 v2 v3 . v2 À v3 as a basis B 9.4)).Maschke's Theorem 73 Note that if B is the basis v1 v2 v3 . Z g . Yg. v2 À v3 ) is also an FG-submodule of V. Then we know that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G). then we can ®nd a basis B 9 such that [ g]B 9 has the form H I Ã 0 d e 0 Ã for all g P G. This example illustrates the matrix version of Maschke's Theorem: for an arbitrary ®nite group G. then we get H I j 0 0 [ g]B 9 d 0 j j e. k .4)). g 3d Yg Zg for some matrices X g . v1 À v2 . where X g is k 3 k with 0 . To put this another way. the matrix [ g]B has the form H I j 0 0 [ g]B d j j j eX j j j The zeros re¯ect the fact that U is an FG-submodule of V (see (5. 0 j j because sp (v1 À v2 . v1 . . if we can choose a basis B of an FGmodule V such that [ g]B has the form H I Ã 0 d e Ã Ã for all g P G (see (5. v2 of V.

Since dim U . Consequences of Maschke's Theorem We now use Maschke's Theorem to show that every non-zero FGmodule is a direct sum of irreducible FG-submodules. Proof Let V be a non-zero FG-module. dim V. Then V has an FG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. we have. W W 1 È X X X È W s . The result is true if dim V 1. then every non-zero FG-module is completely reducible. by induction. g 3d 0 Bg where A g is also a k 3 k matrix. where each Ui and W j is an irreducible FG-module. dim V and dim W . there is an FG-submodule W such that V U È W. since V is irreducible in this case. we simply mean an FG-submodule which is an irreducible FG-module.6 De®nition An FG-module V is said to be completely reducible if V U1 È F F F ÈU r . By Maschke's Theorem. a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules.) 8. U U1 È X X X È Ur . (By an irreducible FG-submodule. j Another useful consequence of Maschke's Theorem is the next proposition.7 Theorem If G is a ®nite group and F R or C. Then by (2.10). 8. The proof goes by induction on dim V. If V is irreducible then the result holds. . V U1 È X X X È Ur È W 1 È X X X È W s . where each Ui is an irreducible FG-submodule of V.74 Representations and characters of groups Maschke's Theorem asserts further that r is equivalent to a representation of the form H I Ag 0 e. so suppose that V is reducible.

Suppose that U is an FG-submodule of V. Let G kx: x 3 1l C3 . Theorem 8. Proof By Maschke's Theorem. Then there exists a surjective FG-homomorphism from V onto U.) Express V as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. Then the function ð: V 3 U which is de®ned by ð: u w 3 u (u P U . by Proposition 7.2.11.Maschke's Theorem 75 8. Thus. We begin our study of these in the next chapter. 1. where F R or C and G is a ®nite group. Every non-zero FG-module V is a direct sum of irreducible FGmodules: V U1 È X X X È Ur X Exercises for Chapter 8 1. express the group algebra RG as a direct sum of 1-dimensional RG-submodules. where v1 x v2 . v2 . Summary of Chapter 8 Assume that G is a ®nite group and F R or C. Maschke's Theorem says that for every FG-submodule U of an FGmodule V. and let V be the 2-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 . in order to understand FG-modules. we may concentrate upon the irreducible FG-modules. there is an FG-submodule W of V such that V U È W. If G C2 3 C2 .7 tells us that every non-zero FG-module is a direct sum of irreducible FG-modules.8 Proposition Let V be an FG-module. w P W ) j is an FG-homomorphism onto U. there is an FG-submodule W with V U È WX 2. . v2 x Àv1 À v2 X (This is a CG-module. 2. by Exercise 3.

and de®ne U c fv P V : [u. 5. the vector vg is just the product of the row vector v with the matrix g).3. ì jv j ëi ìiX i1 j1 i1 De®ne another complex inner product [ . (This shows that Maschke's Theorem fails for in®nite groups ± compare Example 8. v] (ux. Suppose that there are elements g.4. Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 . C) be a representation of G.5(2) and Exercises 5.2) for the de®nition of a complex inner product): for ë i .1. v] 0 for all u P U gX Show that U c is a CG-submodule of V. 6. which satis®es [ug.) 5. . 5. . Prove that r is irreducible. a CG-module V and a CG-homomorphism W: V 3 V such that V T Ker W È Im W. v P V and g P GX (2) Suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. v] for all u. v P V )X xPG (1) Verify that [ . v n and suppose that U is a CG-submodule of V. Suppose that G is the in®nite group & ' 1 0 : nPZ n 1 and let V be the CG-module C2 . Find a group G. De®ne a complex inner product ( . . ì j P C. vg] [u. with the natural multiplication by elements of G (so that for v P V.76 Representations and characters of groups 3. h in G such that the matrices gr and hr do not commute. Show that V is not completely reducible. ] is a complex inner product. 2 n 3 n n ëi vi . vx) (u. . g P G. . Let G be a ®nite group and let r: G 3 GL (2. ] on V by [u. (You may care to revisit Example 5.2(2). An alternative proof of Maschke's Theorem for CG-modules.) 6.6 in the light of this result. ) on V as follows (see (14. 4.

) 7. there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module. Prove that for every ®nite simple group G. (Hint: it is a standard property of complex inner products that V U È U c for all subspaces U of V.Maschke's Theorem 77 (3) Deduce Maschke's Theorem. .

2. and so Ker (W À ë1 V ) T {0}. Thus Ker (W À ë1 V ) is a non-zero CG-submodule 78 . G denotes a ®nite group. (2) If W: V 3 V is a CG-isomorphism. then either W is a CGisomorphism. and hence is a CG-isomorphism. Ker W is a CG-submodule of V. we shall deal with CG-modules for the remainder of the book (except in Chapter 23).1 Schur's Lemma Let V and W be irreducible CG-modules. (2) By (2.26). Then Im W T {0}. Proof (1) Suppose that vW T 0 for some v P V. or vW 0 for all v P V.2. and W is irreducible. and since much of the ensuing theory depends on it. Schur's Lemma 9. as Ker W T V and V is irreducible. Throughout. Schur's Lemma concerns CG-modules rather than RG-modules. Schur's Lemma is fundamental to representation theory. (1) If W: V 3 W is a CG-homomorphism. Also by Proposition 7. we have Im W W.9 Schur's Lemma Schur's Lemma is a basic result concerning irreducible modules. As Im W is a CG-submodule of W by Proposition 7. Ker W {0}. the endomorphism W has an eigenvalue ë P C. then W is a scalar multiple of the identity endomorphism 1 V . Thus W is invertible. and we give an immediate application by determining all the irreducible representations of ®nite abelian groups. Though simple in both statement and proof.

Then V is irreducible. Then r is irreducible if and only if every n 3 n matrix A which satis®es ( gr)A A( gr) has the form A ëI n with ë P C. w P W is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. g P G. and suppose that every CG-homomorphism from V to V is a scalar multiple of 1 V . Ker (W À ë1 V ) V.2 Proposition Let V be a non-zero CG-module. Hence V is irreducible. which is a contradiction. Proof As in Theorem 4. Therefore v(W À ë1 V ) 0 That is. Let A be an n 3 n matrix over C. regard C n as a CG-module by de®ning v g v( gr) for all v P C n . Part (2) of Schur's Lemma has the following converse. j We next interpret Schur's Lemma and its converse in terms of representations. By Maschke's Theorem. as required.3 Corollary Let r: G 3 GL (n. for all g P G .4(1). 9. C) be a representation of G. g P G.Schur's Lemma of V. Since V is irreducible. there is a CGsubmodule W of V such that V U È WX Then the projection ð: V 3 V de®ned by (u w)ð u for all u P U. W ë1 V . and is not a scalar multiple of 1 V . The endomorphism v 3 vA of C n is a CG-homomorphism if and only if (v g)A (vA) g for all v P C n . Proof Suppose that V is reducible. so that V has a CG-submodule U not equal to {0} or V. for all v P V X 79 j 9.11).

Since the matrix 0 À1 1 À1 commutes with all gr ( g P G). (2) Let G D10 ka. Corollary 9. C) be the representation for which ar 0 À1 1 À1 (see Exercise 3.4 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l.1 and Proposition 9. ùÀ1 br 0 1 1 X 0 commutes with both ar and br. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.2).3 implies that r is reducible. if and only if ( gr)A A( gr) for all g P GX The result now follows from Schur's Lemma 9. . C) for which ar Assume that the matrix A á ã â ä ù 0 0 . and let ù e2ðia5 . Check that there is a representation r: G 3 GL (2.2. The fact that (ar)A A(ar) forces â ã 0. b: a5 b2 1. j 9. by Corollary 9.3. and let r: G 3 GL (2. Hence A á 0 0 á áIX Consequently r is irreducible.80 Representations and characters of groups that is. and then (br)A A(br) gives á ä.

6. We shall not prove it here. By Theorem 9. We shall determine the irreducible representations of all direct products C n1 3 C n2 3 X X X 3 C n r where n1 . . and for 1 < i < r. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. we deduce that dim V 1. ci . . n r are positive integers. As V is irreducible. X X X . g r i. 3 C n r . this endomorphism is a scalar multiple of the identity 1 V . B. let c i be a generator for C n i . Since G is abelian. 9. X X X . say ë x 1 V . . . Thus we have proved 9. Write g i (1.5 Proposition If G is a ®nite abelian group. Let G C n1 3 . . By Schur's Lemma 9. v gx vxg for all g P G.6 Theorem Every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. and hence the endomorphism v 3 vx of V is a CG-homomorphism. . this covers the irreducible representations of all ®nite abelian groups. The next result is a major structure theorem for ®nite abelian groups. Pick x P G. 1) Then G h g1 . jX Now let r: G 3 GL (n. Thus vx ë x v for all v P V X This implies that every subspace of V is a CG-submodule.1(2).Schur's Lemma Representation theory of ®nite abelian groups 81 Let G be a ®nite abelian group. and let V be an irreducible CGmodule. but refer you to Chapter 9 of the book of J. X X X . with g in i 1 and g i g j g j g i for all i. then every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. C) be an irreducible representation of G (ci in ith position)X .

and no two of them are equivalent. . . Also. v3 g 1 Àv3 .82 Representations and characters of groups over C. v4 g 2 Àv4 X .8 Theorem Let G be the abelian group C n1 3 . . the values ë1 . 9. v2 g 2 Àv2 . v4 g 1 Àv4 . .XXX.ë r of G constructed above are irreducible and have degree 1. given any n i th roots of unity ë i (1 < i < r). Then n 1 by Proposition 9. that is. and then (9X7) i i gr ( g 11 X X X g irr )r (ë11 X X Xë irr )X For a representation r of G satisfying (9. . The n irreducible representations of G over C are rù j (0 < j < n À 1). since for g P G. There are |G| of these representations. v2 g 1 v2 . where Vi is a 1-dimensional space with basis v i (i 1. . n r such representations. and put ù e2ðia n . .9 Examples (1) Let G C n ka: a n 1l. . g irr for some integers i1 . 3 C n r . the function i i g 11 X X X g irr 3 (ë11 X X Xë irr ) is a representation of G. . . i r . 9. 3. write r rë1 . we have g g11 . The representations rë1 . There are n1 n2 . 4) and v1 g 1 v1 .7) for all i1 . v3 g 2 v3 . .ë r X Conversely. . i r . We have proved the following theorem. V4 .XXX. so for 1 < i < r. g2 l are V1 . . where ak rù j (ù jk ) (0 < k < n À 1)X (2) The four irreducible CG-modules for G C2 3 C2 k g1 . . ë r i determine r. 2.5. and every irreducible representation of G over C is equivalent to precisely one of them. V2 . ë i is an n i th root of unity. there exists ë i P C such that g i r (ë i ) (where of course (ë i ) is a 1 3 1 matrix). . we have ë in i 1. V3 . . v1 g 2 v2 . As g i has order n i . . .

j Some further applications of Schur's Lemma Our next application concerns an important subspace of the group algebra CG. 9. then the entries on the diagonal of [ g]B are nth roots of unity. V U1 È X X X È Ur . Put ù e2ðia n . For abelian groups G. If g P G. the centre Z(CG) is the whole group algebra. let u i be a vector spanning Ui. 9.5). then there is a basis B of V such that the matrix [ g]B is diagonal. By Theorem 8. . and let V be a non-zero C H-module. written Z(CG). it is easy to check that Z(CG) is a subspace of CG.11 Proposition Let G be a ®nite group and V a CG-module.10). . As V is also a C H-module. .5. the result follows from (9.12 De®nition Let G be a ®nite group. .7. there exists an integer m i such that ui g ù m i u i X Thus if B is the basis u1 .Schur's Lemma Diagonalization 83 Let H k gl be a cyclic group of order n. If g has order n. by Proposition 9. Proof Let H k gl. then H m1 I ù 0 f g FF (9X10) [ g]B d eX F 0 ù mr The following useful result is an immediate consequence of this. u r of V. Each Ui has dimension 1. The centre of the group algebra CG. Then for each i. we shall see that Z(CG) plays a crucial role in . is de®ned by Z(CG) fz P CG: zr rz for all r P CGgX Using (2. a direct sum of irreducible C H-submodules Ui of V. For arbitrary groups G.

For example. b: a3 b2 1. we have vrz vzr. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Then there exists ë P C such that vz ëv for all v P V X Proof For all r P CG and v P V. so the elements 1.1(2). and hence the function v 3 vz is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. kal and G are normal subgroups of G. Then for all g P G. j Some elements of the centre of CG are provided by the centre of G. . Indeed. We use Schur's Lemma to prove the following important property of the elements of Z(CG). and let z P Z(CG). if H is any normal subgroup of G. its dimension is equal to the number of irreducible representations of G ± see Chapter 15). then {1}. then h P Z(CG)X To see this.14 Proposition Let V be an irreducible CG-module. Consequently zr rz for all r P CG. hP H hP H hP H hP H and so zg gz. if G D6 ka. which we now de®ne. We shall see later that these elements in fact form a basis of Z(CG). 9. write z h. this CG-homomorphism is equal to ë1 V for some ë P C. and the result follows.84 Representations and characters of groups the study of representations of G (for example. By Schur's Lemma 9. 9.13 Example The elements 1 and gPG g lie in Z(CG). 1 a a2 and 1 a a2 b ab a2 b lie in Z(CG). g À1 zg g À1 hg h z.

C2 3 C2 has no faithful irreducible representation (compare Example 9.7). Proof Let V be a faithful irreducible CG-module. since in Exercise 25. and so by Proposition 9. In particular. Therefore Z(G) {ë z : z P Z(G)}. being a ®nite subgroup of CÃ . and is a subset of Z(CG). If z P Z(G) then z lies in Z(CG). they . The irreducible representations of non-abelian groups are more dif®cult to construct than those of abelian groups. we give an example of a group G such that Z(G) is cyclic but there exists no faithful irreducible CG-module. the function z 3 ëz (z P Z(G)) is an injective homomorphism from Z(G) into the multiplicative group CÃ of non-zero complex numbers.9(2)). 9. and hence by Proposition 9. is de®ned by Z(G) fz P G: zg gz for all g P GgX 85 Clearly Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G.16 Proposition If there exists a faithful irreducible CG-module.17 Example If G is an abelian group. the following result shows that the existence of a faithful irreducible CG-module imposes a strong restriction on the structure of G. Indeed. there is no faithful irreducible CG-module unless G is cyclic. is cyclic (see Exercise 1. 9.14.16. it is not necessarily the case that there is a faithful irreducible CG-module. there exists ë z P C such that vz ë z v for all v P V X Since V is faithful.6. then Z(G) is cyclic. written Z(G).15 De®nition The centre of G. then G Z(G). For example.16 is false. j We remark that the converse of Proposition 9. Although we have seen in Proposition 6.6 that for every ®nite group G there is a faithful CG-module. which.Schur's Lemma 9.

Proof By Theorem 8. v n is a basis of CG. For all x. .6). For 1 < i < n. . C3 and C2 3 C2 . The elements of Z(CG) act as scalar multiples of the identity on all irreducible CGmodules. Then G is abelian. where each Vi is an irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule CG. and hence they commute. The centre Z(CG) of the group algebra CG consists of those elements which commute with all elements of CG. 2. Then v1 .86 Representations and characters of groups do not all have degree 1. the only CG-homomorphisms from an irreducible CG-module to itself are scalar multiples of the identity. 9. Hence G is abelian. Also. y P G. Exercises for Chapter 9 1. Then dim Vi 1 for all i. 3. we deduce that x and y commute.7. . Since the representation g 3 [ g]B ( g P G) of G is faithful (see Proposition 6. Write down the irreducible representations over C of the groups C2 . . the matrices [x]B and [ y]B are diagonal. call it B . we can write CG V1 È X X X È Vn . as required. .18 Proposition Suppose that G is a ®nite group such that every irreducible CG-module has dimension 1. as is shown by the following converse to Proposition 9. Schur's Lemma states that every CG-homomorphism between irreducible CG-modules is either zero or a CG-isomorphism. since we are assuming that all irreducible CG-modules have dimension 1.5. and there are precisely |G| of them. j Summary of Chapter 9 1. let v i be a vector spanning V i . All irreducible CG-modules for a ®nite abelian group G have dimension 1.

bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. 3 C n r . bó 4 À5 M( gr) ( gr)M for all g P G. br X À5 7 À4 5 Find all 2 3 2 matrices M such that Hence determine whether or not r is Do the same for the representation 5 À6 aó . . ó of G.Schur's Lemma 87 2. Let G D6 ka. Let G C4 3 C4 .) . (b) Prove that there is no irreducible representation ó of G such that gó (À1) for all elements g of order 2 in G. (Compare Proposition 9. Prove that G has a faithful representation of degree r. irreducible. 3. b ù2 ab ùa2 b) (see Exercise 6. (a) Find a non-trivial irreducible representation r of G such that g2 r (1) for all g P G. Let G be the ®nite abelian group C n1 3 .14. Show that if V is an irreducible CG-module. then there exists ë P C such that 2 3 v g ëv for all v P V X gPG 6. (b) Find ë P C such that w(a aÀ1 ) ëw for all w P W. Suppose that G D8 ka.6). Write ù e2ðia3 . b: a3 b2 1. where À5 6 X À4 5 5. and let W be the irreducible CG-submodule of the regular CGmodule de®ned by W sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . Can G have a faithful representation of degree less than r? 4. (a) Show that a aÀ1 P Z(CG). . b: a4 b2 1. Check that there is a representation r of G over C such that À7 10 À5 6 ar .

(c) C2 3 D8 . (d) C3 3 D8.88 Representations and characters of groups 7. . Which of the following groups have a faithful irreducible representation? (a) C n (n a positive integer). (b) D8 .

unless G is a small group. there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (a result which has already been established for abelian groups in Theorem 9. Irreducible submodules of CG We begin with another consequence of Maschke's Theorem. Ur. 10. to ®nd all irreducible CG-modules. De®ne a function W: U 3 Im W by uW uW (u P U )X 89 . By Theorem 8. . Consider CG as the regular CG-module.2. Also. We shall show in this chapter that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules U1. As a consequence. it is suf®cient to decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. in theory.10 Irreducible modules and the group algebra Let G be a ®nite group and CG be the group algebra of G over C. . we can write CG U1 È X X X È Ur where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module.1 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules and let W: V 3 W be a CG-homomorphism. Then there is a CG-submodule U of V such that V Ker W È U and U Im W. However. .8).7. this is not really a practical way of ®nding the irreducible CG-modules. there is by Maschke's Theorem a CG-submodule U of V such that V Ker W È U . Proof Since Ker W is a CG-submodule of V by Proposition 7. .

If u P Ker W then u P Ker W U {0}. Write v k u with k P Ker W. Choosing i such that ui T 0 for some u P U. then U Ui for some i.90 Representations and characters of groups We show that W is a CG-isomorphism from U to Im W. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. Now ð i is a CG-homomorphism (see Proposition 7. Proof For u P U. Then V U1 È U2 . We have now established that W: U 3 Im W is an invertible CG-homomorphism. Then w vW kW uW uW uWX Therefore Im W Im W. us for unique vectors ui P Ui (1 < i < s). . and ð i T 0. . . hence Ker W {0}. Therefore U Ui. È Us (each Ui irreducible) without U being equal to any Ui. we have u u1 . as required. Clearly W is a CG-homomorphism.11). . since W is a CG-homomorphism. as the following example shows.2 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. so w vW for some v P V. However. we have ð i T 0. j Of course it can happen that U is an irreducible CG-submodule of U1 È . Thus U Im W. 10. As U and Ui are irreducible. v2 . where U1 sp (v1 ) and U2 sp (v2 ) are irreducible CG-submodules. U sp (v1 v2 ) is an irreducible CG-submodule which is not equal to U1 or U2. such that v g v for all v P V and g P G. Schur's Lemma 9. then we say that U is a composition factor of V if V has a CG-submodule which is isomorphic to U. Now let w P Im W.3 Example Let G be any group and let V be a 2-dimensional CG-module. u P U. 10. De®ne ð i : U 3 Ui by setting uð i ui . with basis v1 . If U is any irreducible CG-submodule of V.4 De®nitions (1) If V is a CG-module and U is an irreducible CG-module. and write V U1 È X X X È Us . .1(1) implies that ð i is a CG-isomorphism. 10.

. and Im W W by (10. We record this fact in the following corollary. so is U. 10. and the result is proved. j Theorem 10.7 Corollary If G is a ®nite group. since for r. We now come to the main result of the chapter. and choose a non-zero vector w P W. Moreover. 10.Irreducible modules and the group algebra 91 (2) Two CG-modules V and W are said to have a common composition factor if there is an irreducible CG-module which is a composition factor of both V and W. s P CG.6).5 shows that there is a ®nite set of irreducible CGmodules such that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of them. W is a CG-homomorphism. then there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.5 Theorem Regard CG as the regular CG-module. since W is irreducible. Proof Let W be an irreducible CG-module. By Proposition 10.1. it follows that (10X6) W fwr: r P CGgX Now de®ne W: CG 3 W by rW wr (r P CG)X Clearly W is a linear transformation. then W Ui. which shows that every irreducible CG-module is a composition factor of the regular CG-module. (rs)W w(rs) (wr)s (rW)sX By Proposition 10. there is a CG-submodule U of CG such that CG U È Ker W and U Im W W X As W is irreducible. Observe that {wr: r P CG} is a CG-submodule of W. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.2 we have U Ui for some i. Then every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CG-modules Ui. and write CG U 1 È X X X È U r .

v2 b w1 .92 Representations and characters of groups According to Theorem 10. every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to U0. 1. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui. w2 b v1 X . and hence CG U0 È U 1 È U2 . b: a3 b2 1. v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 . By Theorem 10. to ®nd all the irreducible CG-modules we need only decompose the regular CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. w1 b v2 . (2) Let G D6 ka.8 Examples (1) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. v2 1 ùa ù2 a2 . 1.5. Next. 2. note that v0 b w 0 . v2 1 ùa ù2 a2 . and similarly vi a ùi vi for i 0. v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 . De®ne v0 . however. Let ù e2ðia3 and de®ne v0 1 a a2 . v1 b w2 . Then v1 a a ù2 a2 ù1 ùv1 .9(1). v1 .5. w2 bv2 X ( b ba ba2 ). As in (1) above. this is not a practical method for studying CG-modules in general. We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. 1. We now do this for a couple of examples. The irreducible representation of G corresponding to Ui is the representation rù i of Example 9. 2. It is easy to check that v0 . and write ù e2ðia3 . w0 b v0 . and so sp (v i ) and sp (wi ) are Ckal-modules. U1 or U2. and let Ui sp (v i ) for i 0. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. w0 bv0 w1 bv1 . v2 is a basis of CG. 10. 2X Hence Ui is a CG-submodule of CG for i 0. 2. v i a ù i v i for i 0. 1. v1 . v2 P CG by v0 1 a a2 .

) . w1 ) are Ckbl-modules. Note that U1 is the trivial CG-module. w1. b 3 (1). 0 1 ù 0 r3 : a 3 . Every irreducible CG-module occurs as a composition factor of the regular CG-module.Irreducible modules and the group algebra 93 Therefore. Let G be a ®nite group. By the argument in Example 5. and U1 is not isomorphic to U2. sp (v0 . r2 : a 3 (1). w0 ) is reducible. w0 ). the CG-submodules U3 sp (v1 . We conclude from Theorem 10.8(1). namely U1. Now v0. sp (v1 . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. (Hint: copy the method of Example 10. Let G C4 . 2. Find a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module. Is there only one such CGsubmodule? 2. However. w2 3 v2 ).b3 X 1 0 0 ùÀ1 Summary of Chapter 10 1. There are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. v2 . and hence are CG-submodules of CG. U2 and U3.5(2). the other 1-dimensional Ui. w2 ) and U4 sp (v2 . But U3 U4 (there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1 . v1 . and hence CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 .5 that there are exactly three nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules. b 3 (À1). w0. Exercises for Chapter 10 1. Correspondingly. w2 ) and sp (v2 . w2 is a basis of CG. every irreducible representation of D6 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r1 : a 3 (1). w1 ) are irreducible. sp(v0 . as U 1 sp(v0 w0 ) and U2 sp(v0 À w0 ) are CG-submodules. Express CG as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules.

b2 a2 . sp (u2 ) and sp (u3 ). but is them. u2 b u2 . and ®nd a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. sp (u1 ) say. b: a4 1. b: a4 b2 1. . isomorphic CG-modules. Find a 1-dimensional CG-submodule.94 Representations and characters of groups 3. u3 a Àu3 . Thus V has basis v1 . and u3 b Àu3 X 4. v1 b v2 . v2 b Àv1 X Show that V is irreducible. Show that there is a V which is not equal to U1 or U2.5(2). Let G D8 ka. Suppose that V is a where U1 and U2 are CG-submodule U of isomorphic to both of non-zero CG-module such that V U1 È U2. such that u2 a Àu2 . v2 and v1 a iv1 . and let V be the CG-module given in Example 4.8(2) to ®nd all the irreducible representations of D8 over C. 5. of CG such that u1 a u1 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Use the method of Example 10. 6. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. Let G Q8 ka. u1 b Àu1 X Find also 1-dimensional CG-submodules. v2 a Àiv2 .

we write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . W ) as follows: for W. ëW P HomCG (V . With these de®nitions. We write HomCG (V . W ).11 More on the group algebra We now go further into the structure of the group algebra CG of a ®nite group G. W ) and ë P C. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui. Our proof of Theorem 11. As in Chapter 10. 95 .9). The question arises: how many of the Ui are isomorphic to U ? There is an elegant and signi®cant answer to this question: the number is precisely dim U (see Theorem 11. The space of CG-homomorphisms 11. W) with an easy consequence of Schur's Lemma. v(ëW) ë(vW) for all v P V . De®ne addition and scalar multiplication on HomCG (V .5 we proved that every irreducible CG-module U is isomorphic to one of the Ui. ö P HomCG (V . W ) is a vector space over C. In Theorem 10. de®ne W ö and ëW by v(W ö) vW vö. Then W ö.1 De®nition Let V and W be CG-modules. it is easily checked that HomCG (V.9 is based on a study of the vector space of CG-homomorphisms from one CG-module to another. W ) for the set of all CG-homomorphisms from V to W. We begin our study of the vector space HomCG (V.

4 Proposition Let V . Proof Let W be a non-zero element of HomCG (V . if V T W X Proof If V T W then this is immediate from Schur's Lemma 9. j The next few results show how to calculate the dimension of HomCG (V . W ) T f0g. Since XW T {0}. Schur's Lemma 9. W ) fëW: ë P Cg. if V W . W)) dim (HomCG (V2 . and let W: V 3 W be a CG-isomorphism. W2 )). Then V and W have a common composition factor. W ). Now suppose that V W. and suppose that HomCG (V . a 1-dimensional space. then öWÀ1 is a CG-isomorphism from V to V. Let X be an irreducible CG-submodule of U. W )). Then & 1. V2 and W .96 Representations and characters of groups 11. W 1 .1(1) implies that XW X. Then (1) dim (HomCG (V. The key step is the following proposition. . Therefore X is a common composition factor of V and W. 11. W ) in general. there exists ë P C such that öWÀ1 ë1 V X Then ö ëW. and so HomCG (V . W 2 be CG-modules. recall the de®nition of a composition factor of a CG-module from 10.2 Proposition Suppose that V and W are irreducible CG-modules. V1 . 11.3 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules. by Maschke's Theorem. W1 È W2 )) dim (HomCG (V. If ö P HomCG (V . j For the next result. W ). W )) 0.4. (2) dim (HomCG (V1 È V2 .1(1). dim (HomCG (V . so by Schur's Lemma 9.1(2). W )) dim (HomCG (V1 . W1 )) dim (HomCG (V. Then V Ker W È U for some non-zero CG-module U.

and (1) follows. Now let h be the function from HomCG (V1 È V2 . (2) For W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . W ) for i 1. W1 È W2 ) to the (external) direct sum of HomCG (V. ð1 and ð2 are CG-homomorphisms. W ) È HomCG (V2 . W ) (i 1. ö2 ) under h. then Wð1 P HomCG (V . 2). j .1). Given Clearly h is an injective linear HomCG (Vi . If W P HomCG (V . W Vi is the function v i W Vi v i W (v i P Vi )X to Then W Vi P HomCG (V i . W2 ) (see Exercise 7. Wð2 ) (W P HomCG (V . so vW vW(ð1 ð2 ) 0. 2) to be the restriction of W to V i . W 1 È W 2 ))X Clearly f is a linear transformation. 2) lies in HomCG (V1 È V2 . 2). 2. W ) HomCG (V1 . W2 ). then vWð1 0 and vWð2 0 for all v P V. that is. We now de®ne a function f from HomCG (V. W1 ) È HomCG (V. the function ö: v1 v2 3 v1 ö1 v2 ö2 öi P (v i P Vi for i 1. W ). By Proposition 7. Given ö i P HomCG (V. W 1 ) and Wð2 P HomCG (V. We have shown that h is an invertible linear transformation. and (2) follows. If W P Ker f. Hence h is surjective. the function ö: v 3 vö1 vö2 (v P V ) lies in HomCG (V. de®ne W Vi : Vi 3 W (i 1. W2 ) by f : W 3 (Wð1 . W1 È W2 ). Hence f is surjective. W V2 ) (W P HomCG (V1 È V2 . W1 ) and HomCG (V. w2 P W 2 . W ))X transformation. W ) which is given by h: W 3 (W V1 . and the image of ö under f is (ö1 . for all w1 P W 1 . We show that f is invertible. so Ker f {0} and f is injective. Consequently these two vector spaces have equal dimensions. W1 È W2 ) to HomCG (V. Therefore W 0.More on the group algebra Proof (1) De®ne W 1 È W 2 3 W 2 by the functions ð1 : W1 È W2 3 W1 (w1 w2 )ð2 w2 and 97 ð2 : (w1 w2 )ð1 w1 . We have established that f is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (V. ö2 ). W ) and has image (ö1 . Wi ) (i 1. W 1 È W 2 ).11.

we can ®nd dim (HomCG (V. (2) dim(HomCG (V1 È F F F ÈV r . W. . W )) r i1 dim (HomCG (Vi. È Ws )) r s i1 j1 dim (HomCG (Vi. Then the dimensions of HomCG (V .2. Proof By (11. W ) and HomCG (W . È Ws )) s j1 dim (HomCG (V. dim (HomCG (V .4. In the following corollary we single out the case where one of the CGmodules is irreducible. . Wj (1 < i < r. Let W be any irreducible CG-module. W )) dim (HomCG (W . .5) (1) dim (HomCG (V. we have (11. U i ))X .5). W )). Vi. and dim (HomCG (W . 1 < j < s). W1 È . where each Ui is an irreducible CG-module. By an obvious induction using Proposition 11. V ) are both equal to the number of CG-modules Ui such that Ui W. Wj )). W1 È . . . W)). Wj )). By applying (3) when all Vi and Wj are irreducible. È Vr . 11.98 Representations and characters of groups Now suppose that we have CG-modules V. and using Proposition 11. .6 Corollary Let V be a CG-module with V U1 È X X X È Us . V )) s i1 s i1 dim (HomCG (Ui . W )) in general. These in turn imply (3) dim (HomCG (V1 È .

U ). s P CG. Thus by Corollary 11. The next proposition investigates the space of CG-homomorphisms from the regular CG-module to any other CG-module. with U3 U4 but U3 not isomorphic to U1 or U2. Ui )) The result follows. Suppose that ö P HomCG (CG. . if U i T W X j a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.6.2. . we saw in Example 10. 11. dim (HomCG (Ui . ud of U. 0. For 1 < i < d. . When combined with Corollary 11. it will give the main result of this chapter.5 to ®nd bases for these two vector spaces of CG-homomorphisms. Then 1ö ë1 u1 X X X ë d u d for some ë i P C. Choose a basis u1 .7 Example For G D6.8 Proposition If U is a CG-module. de®ne ö i : CG 3 U by rö i ui r (r P CG)X Then ö i P HomCG (CG. U )) dim U X Proof Let d dim U. . . U) since for all r.More on the group algebra And by Proposition 11. we have dim (HomCG (CG. if U i W .8(2) that CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4 . U3 )) dim (HomCG (U3 . Since ö is a CG-homomorphism. & 99 1. 11. . (rs)ö i ui (rs) (ui r)s (rö i )sX We shall prove that ö1 . then dim (HomCG (CG. . U ). . CG)) 2X You are asked in Exercise 11. ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. W )) dim (HomCG (W .6. for all r P CG we have .

8. then the number of CG-modules Ui with Ui U is equal to dim U. this is equal to the number of Ui with Ui U. U2 are non-isomorphic 1-dimensional CG-modules. j We now come to the main theorem of the chapter. which therefore has dimension d. ö d span ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d 0 (ë i P C)X Evaluating both sides at the identity 1. U )). we have 0 1(ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d ) ë1 u1 X X X ë d u d . 11. . ö d is a basis of HomCG (CG. where U1.10 Example Recall again from Example 10.6. If U is any irreducible CG-module. Proof By Proposition 11. Hence ö1 . Now assume that Therefore ö1 . a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.100 Representations and characters of groups rö (1r)ö (1ö)r ë1 u1 r X X X ë d u d r r(ë1 ö1 X X X ë d ö d )X Hence ö ë1 ö1 . U ). and . which forces ë i 0 for all i. . . dim U dim (HomCG (CG. .8(2) that if G D6 then CG U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . j 11. HomCG (CG. .9 Theorem Suppose that CG U1 È X X X È Ur . ë d ö d . . and by Corollary 11. which tells us how often each irreducible CG-module occurs in the regular CGmodule. . U ). . . .

U2 occurs once. Therefore dim CG dim U 1 X X X dim Ur k i1 k i1 d i (dim Vi ) d2X i j As dim CG |G|. . By Theorem 11.12.9 concerning the dimensions of all irreducible CG-modules. By Theorem 11. and no two of V1 . . For 1 < i < k. .11 De®nition We say that the irreducible CG-modules V1 . È Ur. dim U2 1.7. X X X . dk be the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. This illustrates Theorem 11. V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules if every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to some V i . the number of CG-modules Uj with Uj Vi is equal to di . k i1 d 2 8X i . 11. U3 occurs twice. V k form a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. and let d1. for each i.13 Example Let G be a group of order 8. Then k (dim Vi )2 jGjX i1 Proof Let CG U1 È .) 11. U4 are isomorphic irreducible 2-dimensional CG-modules.More on the group algebra 101 U3. write d i dim V i . (By Corollary 10. 11. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. dim U3 2X We conclude the chapter with a signi®cant consequence of Theorem 11. X X X . for any ®nite group G there exists a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules.12 Theorem Let V1 .9. dim U1 1.9: U1 occurs once. . X X X . . V k are isomorphic. . the result follows.

3. 1. 1. Find a basis for HomCG (CG. .12. . We shall see later that dim Vi divides |G| for all i. If G is a non-abelian group of order 6. and so di 1 for some i. CG). and this fact. and let U be any irreducible CG-module. Summary of Chapter 11 1. dk are 1.4). dim (HomCG (CG. 4. 1. what are the possible degrees of all the irreducible representations of G? Find the degrees of the irreducible representations of D12. If V1 . V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CGmodules. 1. . . Hence the possibilities for d1. If G is a group of order 12. . Then the number of Ui with Ui U is equal to dim U. dim (HomCG (V1 È X X X È V r . 1. . then k (dim Vi )2 jGjX i1 Exercises for Chapter 11 1. Let CG U1 È . is quite a powerful tool in ®nding the dimensions of irreducible CG-modules. W 1 È X X X È W s )) r s i1 j1 and dim (HomCG (Vi . U )) dim U .) 3. and the second when G D8 (see Exercise 10.102 Representations and characters of groups Observe that the trivial CG-module is irreducible of dimension 1. 1. (Hint: use Exercise 5. W j ))X 2. 1. 1 1. ®nd the dimensions of all the irreducible CG-modules. . combined with Theorem 11.5). 2X Both these possibilities do occur: the ®rst holds when G is an abelian group (see Proposition 9. 1. Let G be a ®nite group. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. 1. X X X .3. 2. È Ur.

U) has dimension 1. Find a basis for HomCG (CG. Vi )) and ei dim (HomCG (W . If U is the trivial CGmodule. V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. Let G D6 and let CG U1 È U2 È U3 È U4. as in Example 10. Let V1 . CG). 5. Assume that for 1 < i < k. . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules. show that HomCG (V.More on the group algebra 103 4. X X X . Vi ))X k Show that dim (HomCG (V . d i dim (HomCG (V .10. W )) i1 d i ei . U3 ) and a basis for HomCG (U3. Suppose that G Sn and V is the n-dimensional permutation module for G over C. as de®ned in 4. and let V.8(2). 6. W be arbitrary CG-modules.

symmetric and alternating groups. Then there exist g. Proof Suppose that x G y G is not empty. and pick z P x G y G. After de®ning conjugacy classes. and is called the conjugacy class of x in G.2 Proposition If x. h P G such that z gÀ1 xg hÀ1 yhX 104 . y P G. Throughout the chapter. Our ®rst result shows that two distinct conjugacy classes have no elements in common. we develop enough theory to determine the conjugacy classes of dihedral. then either x G y G or x G y G is empty. 12. We say that x is conjugate to y in G if y g À1 xg for some g P GX The set of all elements conjugate to x in G is x G f g À1 xg: g P Gg. G is a ®nite group.12 Conjugacy classes We take a break from representation theory to discuss some topics in group theory which will be relevant in our further study of representations.1 De®nition Let x. y P G. At the end of the chapter we prove a result linking the conjugacy classes of a group to the structure of its group algebra. Conjugacy classes 12.

. b: a3 b2 1. a. fa. a2 bgX Thus the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. Another way of seeing this Corollary 12. 1 G {1} is a conjugacy class of G. Similarly y G # x G (using y kxkÀ1 ). . we have aG fa. G is the union of its conjugacy classes and so we deduce immediately 12.Conjugacy classes Hence x ghÀ1 yhgÀ1 kÀ1 yk. . .3 is to observe that conjugacy is an equivalence relation. xl representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. So a P x G A a bÀ1 xb A a cÀ1 yc AaP y X G 105 for some b P G where c kb A a bÀ1 k À1 ykb Therefore x G # y G. ab. x G . and bÀ1 ab a2 . where the conjugacy classes x1 . where k hgÀ1 . j Since every element x of G lies in the conjugacy class x G (as x 1À1 x1 with 1 P G). b. . 12. a2 gX Also. . . x G are l l distinct. then we call x1 . 12. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. and so xG yG . so bG fb. and that the conjugacy classes are the equivalence classes. . . Since gÀ1 ag is a or a2 for every g P G. a2 b.5 Examples (1) For every group G. The elements of G are 1. a2 . and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint.3 Corollary Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. aÀi ba i aÀ2i b for all integers i. ab. (2) Let G D6 ka. a2 g. fb. a2 bgX .4 De®nition G G If G x1 . . ab.

and so x G {x}. Then y m gÀ1 x m g 1. |x G | divides |G|. g P G.106 Representations and characters of groups (3) If G is abelian then gÀ1 xg x for all x. so that y gÀ1 xg for some g P G. is the set of elements of G which commute with x. Observe that x P CG (x) and indeed.7 De®nition Let x P G. Let x have order m. and for 0 . we have gÀ1 abg ( g À1 ag)( g À1 bg)X Hence gÀ1 x n g ( gÀ1 xg) n . and x and y have the same order.1).) It is easy to check that CG (x) is a subgroup of G (Exercise 12. j Conjugacy class sizes The next theorem determines the sizes of the conjugacy classes in G in terms of certain subgroups which we now de®ne. y P G. 12. Hence every conjugacy class of G consists of just one element. If x is conjugate to y in G. CG (x) f g P G: xg gxgX (So also CG (x) { g P G: gÀ1 xg x}. 12. m. The centralizer of x in G. . 12. Then the size of the conjugacy class x G is given by jx G j jG: CG (x)j jGjajCG (x)jX In particular. then x n is conjugate to y n in G for every integer n. so y also has order m. b P G. r . The next proposition is often useful when calculating conjugacy classes. Proof Observe that for a. Suppose that x is conjugate to y in G. y r gÀ1 x r g T 1. Then y n gÀ1 x n g and therefore x n is conjugate to y n in G.6 Proposition Let x. written CG (x). kxl # CG (x) for all x P G.8 Theorem Let x P G. that is.

bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX In ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. (1) n odd First consider ai (1 < i < n À 1). j Before summarizing our results on conjugacy classes. jG: CG (ai )j < jG: haij 2X .8 by ®nding the conjugacy classes of all dihedral groups. it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. Let G D2 n. Since CG (ai ) contains kal. and both | Z(G)| and |x G | divide |G|.Conjugacy classes Proof Observe ®rst that for g. where Z(G) is the centre of G. We have now proved all parts of the following result. proving that |x G | |G:CG (x)|.15. . we make the observation that (12X9) jx G j 1 D g À1 xg x D x P Z(G). we have g À1 xg hÀ1 xh D hg À1 x xhg À1 D hg À1 P CG (x) D CG (x) g CG (x)hX 107 By dint of this. jGj j Z(G)j i xiP Z(G) a for all g P G where |x G | i |G:CG (xi )|. Then jx G j. h P G. . xl be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. Hence f is a bijection. b: an b2 1. the dihedral group of order 2n. i Conjugacy classes of dihedral groups We illustrate the use of Theorem 12. as de®ned in 9. . .10 The Class Equation Let x1 . we may de®ne an injective function f from x G to the set of right cosets of CG (x) in G by f : g À1 xg 3 CG (x) g ( g P G)X Clearly f is surjective. Thus G ha. 12.

a nÀ1 bgX We have shown (12. aÀi gX Next.108 Representations and characters of groups Also bÀ1 ai b aÀi . b}. {a. {a mÀ1 . we have 2 > jG: CG (ai )j j(ai ) G j > 2X Hence equality holds here. (ai ) G fai . . {a2 j1 b: 0 < j < m À 1}. . a j (ab)aÀ j a2 j1 bX It follows that bG fa2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1g. As in case (1). X X X . {b. {a( nÀ1)a2 .12) The dihedral group D2 n (n even. (ai ) G {ai . . . . CG (b) contains {1. |bG | n. a nÀ1 b}. the centralizer of am in G contains both a and b. {a. . ai T aÀi . . bgX Therefore by Theorem 12. aÀ1 }. For every integer j. . Thus CG (b) f1. That is. and CG (ai ) hai. ab. As n is odd. bG fb.8. Since all the elements ai have been accounted for. ab. {a m }. . aÀ m1 }. and as bÀ1 ai b aÀi .11) The dihedral group D2 n (n odd) has precisely 1(n 3) con2 jugacy classes: {1}. so {ai . aÀi } # (ai ) G . {a2 j b: 0 < j < m À 1}. and so |(ai ) G | > 2. Therefore the conjugacy class of am in G is just fam g. (2) n even Write n 2m. aÀ1 }.8. bG must consist of the remaining n elements of G. no element ai or ai b (with 1 < i < n À 1) commutes with b. . n 2m) has precisely m 3 conjugacy classes: {1}. Using Theorem 12. a j baÀ j a2 j b. (ab) G fa2 j1 b: 0 < j < m À 1gX Hence (12. aÀ( nÀ1)a2 }. aÀi } for 1 < i < m À 1. . As bÀ1 am b aÀ m am . . . and hence CG (am ) G.

.13. and let g P Sn . . . say x (a1 X X X a k 1 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). ck s 3 c9 s .14) g À1 xg g À1 (a1 X X X a k 1 ) gg À1 (b1 X X X b k 2 ) g X X X g À1 (c1 X X X ck s ) g (a1 g X X X a k 1 g)(b1 g X X X b k 2 g) X X X (c1 g X X X c k s g)X We call (k1 . exists g P Sn sending j . . . with k1 > k2 > . By Proposition 12. . y (a9 X X X a9 1 ) X X X (c9 X X X c9 s ). . given any two permutations x. ik g). 1 k 1 k (products of disjoint cycles). . ik ) in Sn . . . for 1 < i < n and i P A. a ig( gÀ1 xg) ixg igX Hence gÀ1 (i1 i2 . ik }. ir g( g À1 xg) i r xg i r1 g (or i1 g if r k)X Also. y of the same cycle-shape. Now consider an arbitrary permutation x P Sn .Conjugacy classes Conjugacy classes of S n 109 We shall later need to know the conjugacy classes of the symmetric group Sn . For ir P A. there a1 3 a9 . and so by (12. . Then gÀ1 xg is the k-cycle (i1 g i2 g . 12. . . and note that x and gÀ1 xg have the same cycle-shape. . Write x (a1 X X X ak 1 )(b1 X X X bk 2 ) X X X (c1 X X X ck s ). . . . . a product of disjoint cycles. 1 k g À1 xg yX We have proved the following result. On the other hand. .14). . as required. ik g).13 Proposition Let x be a k-cycle (i1 i2 . . Our ®rst observation is simple but crucial. Proof Write A {i1 . ks ) the cycle-shape of x. ik ) g (i1 g i2 g . > ks . . for g P Sn we have (12.

12. (1 3). 2) and there are six 4-cycles. (1 3 2)} Cycle-shape (1) (2) (3) (2) The conjugacy class of (1 2)(3 4) in S4 consists of all the elements of cycle-shape (2. (1 2 3 4)X To calculate the sizes of the conjugacy classes. 3. (1 2). 2) and is f(1 2)(3 4). with representatives (see De®nition 12.110 Representations and characters of groups 12.16 Examples (1) The conjugacy classes of S3 are Class {1} {(1 2).15 Theorem For x P Sn . 4}. (1 2)(3 4). Thus for G S4 . Similarly. we simply count the number of 2-cycles. (1 2 3). The number of 2-cycles is equal to the number of pairs that can be chosen from {1. (1 3)(2 4). (2 3)} {(1 2 3). and so on. the conjugacy class x Sn of x in Sn consists of all permutations in Sn which have the same cycle-shape as x.8) are as follows: Representative Class size g | gG | |CG ( g)| 1 1 24 (1 2) 6 4 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 3 8 (1 2 3 4) 6 4 We check our arithmetic by noting that jS4 j 1 6 8 3 6X .4): 1. 2. 3-cycles.) The number of 3-cycles is 4 3 2 (4 for the choice of ®xed point and 2 because there are two 3-cycles ®xing a given point). the conjugacy class representatives g. (1 4)(2 3)gX (3) There are precisely ®ve conjugacy classes of S4 . ÀÁ which is 4 6. (The notation n means the binomial coef®cient 2 r n3a(r3(n À r)3). there are three elements of cycle-shape (2. the conjugacy class sizes | gG | and the centralizer orders |CG ( g)| (obtained using Theorem 12.

so that y hÀ1 xh for some h P Sn . and if h is odd then gh P An and y hÀ1 xh hÀ1 g À1 xgh ( gh)À1 x( gh). so again y P x An . Then CSn (x) CAn (x)X . (1) If x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . The conjugacy class x A n of x in A n . Let y P x S n . For an easy example where equality does not hold. the corresponding table for G S5 is Rep.Conjugacy classes (4) Similarly. Thus x Sn # x An . 1. Proof (1) Assume that x commutes with an odd permutation g. (2) Assume that x does not commute with any odd permutation. however. consider x (1 2 3) P A3 . x À1 }. (2) If x does not commute with any odd permutation in Sn then x Sn splits into two conjugacy classes in An of equal size. The next result determines precisely when x An and x Sn are equal.17 Proposition Let x P An with n . g 1 (1 2) | gG | 1 10 |CG ( g)| 120 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) 20 15 6 8 (1 2 3 4) 30 4 111 (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 24 6 5 Conjugacy classes of A n Given an even permutation x P A n . given by x A n f g À1 xg: g P An g. with representatives x and (1 2)À1 x(1 2). x A n might not be equal to x S n . we have seen in Theorem 12. If h is even then y P x An . here x A3 fxg.15 that the conjugacy class x S n consists of all permutations in S n which have the same cycle-shape as x. 12. while x S3 {x. is of course contained in x S n . and what happens when equality fails. then x Sn x An . and so x Sn x An .

(Check this by using the argument in (1) above. the 3-cycle (1 2 3) commutes with no odd permutation: for if gÀ1 (1 2 3) g (1 2 3) then (1 2 3) (1 g 2 g 3 g) by Proposition 12. The elements of A4 are the identity. (1 4)(2 3)gX However. but (1 2 3 4 5) commutes with no odd permutation.8.13. j 12. together with the permutations of cycle-shapes (2. (1 3)(2 4). with representatives (1 2 3) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3)(1 2) (1 3 2). (1 2 3) S4 splits into two conjugacy classes in A4 of size 4. The elements (1 2 3) and (2 3)(4 5) commute with the odd permutation (4 5). 2) and (5). Since (1 2)(3 4) commutes with the odd permutation (1 2). Thus the conjugacy classes of A4 are Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 12 (1 2)(3 4) 3 4 (1 2 3) 4 3 (1 3 2) 4 3 (as jAn j 1jSn j) 2 (2) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A5 . (1 2 3) or (1 3 2). Hence by Proposition 12.17 implies that (1 2)(3 4) A4 (1 2)(3 4) S4 f(1 2)(3 4).17. an even permutation.) Hence by Proposition 12. jx An j jAn : CAn (x)j 1jSn : CAn (x)j 2 1jSn : CSn (x)j 1jx Sn jX 2 2 Next. so g is 1. we observe that fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An since every odd permutation has the form (1 2)a for some a P An . Now x Sn fhÀ1 xh: h is eveng fhÀ1 xh: h is oddg x An ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An X Since |x An | 1|x Sn |. the .112 Representations and characters of groups Hence by Theorem 12.18 Examples (1) We ®nd the conjugacy classes of A4 . Proposition 12. The non-identity even permutations in S5 are those of cycle-shapes (3). as we wished to show. (2.17. the conjugacy classes x An and ((1 2)À1 x(1 2)) An must 2 be disjoint and of equal size. 2) and (3).

there are just four possibilities: j Hj 1. 1 3. Conversely. we have gÀ1 hg P H. 6. j 12. Since j Hj divides 24 by Lagrange's Theorem.20 Example We ®nd all the normal subgroups of S4 . hP H and so H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. Proof If H is a union of conjugacy classes. if H v G then for all h P H. Using Proposition 12. we see that the class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows: Representative Class size Centralizer order 1 1 60 (1 2 3) 20 3 (1 2)(3 4) 15 4 (1 2 3 4 5) 12 5 (1 3 4 5 2) 12 5 Normal subgroups Normal subgroups are related to conjugacy classes by the following elementary result.Conjugacy classes 113 conjugacy classes of A5 are represented by 1. 12. Let H v S4 . g P G A g À1 hg P H. 6. (1 2)(3 4). (1 2 3).19. Therefore H hG . g P G.17(2). Then H v G if and only if H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. 1 8 3 or 1 6 8 3 6X . and 1 P H. As we saw in Example 12.16(3). then h P H. and so hG # H. 3. H is a union of conjugacy classes of S4 . 8. these conjugacy classes have sizes 1. (1 2 3 4 5) and (1 2)À1 (1 2 3 4 5)(1 2) (1 3 4 5 2).19 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. Then by Proposition 12. Thus H v G. so gÀ1 Hg # H.

We have now shown that S4 has exactly four normal subgroups: f1g. . . C l of CG are called class sums. In the case where j Hj 1 3. . (1 4)(2 3)gX This is easily checked to be a subgroup of S4 . . and in the third case H A4 . hÀ1 C i h r j1 r j1 yÀ1 gyj X j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj hX j . Let Ci consist of the r distinct conjugates yÀ1 gy1.12 that the centre of CG is Z(CG) fz P CG: zr rz for all r P CGgX We know that Z(CG) is a subspace of the vector space CG. (1 4)(2 3)gX The centre of a group algebra In this ®nal section we link the conjugacy classes of the group G to the centre of the group algebra CG. Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G.114 Representations and characters of groups In the ®rst case H {1}. S4 . (1 2)(3 4). For 1 < i < l. meaning `four-group'). we have H 1 S4 (1 2)(3 4) S4 f1. . . . we write it as V4 (V stands for `Viergruppe'. . C l form a basis of Z(CG). (1 3)(2 4). in the last case H S4 . . (1 2)(3 4). yÀ1 gyr of an element g. A4 and V4 f1. (1 3)(2 4). . . 12. . Proof First we show that each C i belongs to Z(CG). . so 1 r Ci For all h P G. .21 De®nition Let C1 . 12. .22 Proposition The class sums C1 . There is a convenient basis for this subspace which can be described in terms of the conjugacy classes of G. Recall from De®nition 9. . de®ne Ci g P CGX gPCi The elements C1 .

. . Every group is a union of conjugacy classes. . the coef®cient ë g of g is equal to the coef®cient ë hÀ1 gh of hÀ1 gh. a basis for Z(CD8 ) is 1. (1 2 3) (1 3 2)X (2) From (12. hence with all hPG ë h h P CG. . and so C i P Z(CG). . a basis for Z(CS3 ) is 1. . That is to say. For an element x of a group G. C i h hC i X Therefore each C i commutes with all h P G.16(1).3. C l are linearly independent: for if l i1 ë i C i 0 (ë i P C). That is. b a2 b. 2. a2 .23 Examples (1) From Example 12. the function g 3 ë g is constant on l conjugacy classes of G. j and so h C i h C i . That is. ab a3 bX Summary of Chapter 12 1. observe that C1 . This completes the proof. . a a3 . Next. (1 2) (1 3) (2 3). since j hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h hÀ1 yÀ1 gyk h D yÀ1 gyj yÀ1 gyk X j k j k Hence r j1 À1 hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h C i . the centralizer CG (x) is the set of . . . we have rh hr. the elements hÀ1 yÀ1 gyj h run through Ci . It follows that r i1 ë i C i where ë i is the j coef®cient ë gi for some gi P Ci . ë g hÀ1 gh ë g gX gPG gPG So for every h P G. For h P G. . It remains to show that C1 . C l span Z(CG). Cl are pairwise disjoint by Corollary 12. .Conjugacy classes 115 As j runs from 1 to r. and distinct conjugacy classes are disjoint. Let r À1 gPG ë g g P Z(CG). . 12.12). then all ë i 0 as the classes C1 . so h rh r.

Find the conjugacy classes of the quaternion group Q8. Let p be a prime number. Verify that your solution satis®es Theorem 12. Show that j(1 2 3)(4 5 6) G j 40 and j(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G j 15. . Prove that the conjugacy classes gG and ( gz) G have the same size. show that CG (x) is a subgroup of G which contains Z(G). (There are 11 conjugacy classes in all.10 to show that Z(G) T {1}. (a) Use the Class Equation 12. It is a subgroup of G.8.) 6.) 4. 2. and let n be a positive integer. If x P An then x Sn x An if and only if x commutes with some odd permutation in Sn . What are the cycle-shapes of those permutations x P A6 for which x A6 T x S6 ? 5. If G is a group and x P G. 7. (b) Suppose that n > 3 and that | Z(G)| p. 3. Show that A5 is a simple group. Let G be a ®nite group and suppose that g P G and z P Z(G).116 Representations and characters of groups elements of G which commute with x. Give a basis of the centre of the group algebra CQ8. The conjugacy classes of Sn correspond to the cycle-shapes of permutations in Sn . Suppose that G is a group of order pn . Prove that G has a conjugacy class of size p. n (a) Prove that j(1 2) G j 2 and ®nd CG ((1 2)). (Hint: use the method of Example 12. Exercises for Chapter 12 1. 5.20. Let G Sn . n n (b) Show that j(1 2 3) G j 2 3 and j(1 2)(3 4) G j 3 4 . 4. (c) Now let n 6. The class sums in CG form a basis for the centre of CG. and the number of elements in the conjugacy class x G is equal to |G:CG (x)|. 3. and ®nd the sizes of the other conjugacy classes of S6 .

13 Characters Suppose that r: G 3 GL(n. and call this number ÷( g). it appears that we must keep track of all the n2 entries in each matrix gr. can be resolved by doing some easy arithmetic with the character of the representation. Characters of representations have many remarkable properties. whereas the character records just one number for each matrix. For example. With each n 3 n matrix gr ( g P G) we associate the complex number given by adding all the diagonal entries of the matrix. we shall show later that two representations have the same character if and only if they are equivalent. such as deciding whether or not a given representation is irreducible. The theory of characters will occupy a considerable portion of the rest of the book. C) is a representation of the ®nite group G. C). In this chapter we present some basic properties and examples. 117 . the trace of A is the sum of the diagonal entries of A. and they are the fundamental tools for performing calculations in representation theory. written tr A. basic problems.1 De®nition If A (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix. then the trace of A. is given by tr A n i1 aii X That is. The function ÷: G 3 C is called the character of the representation r. The trace of a matrix 13. since from the de®nition of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. Moreover. These facts are surprising.

tr (T À1 AT ) tr ((T À1 A)T ) tr (T (T À1 A)) tr AX (by the second part ) j n n i1 j1 n i1 (aii bii ) n i1 aii n i1 bii tr A tr B. then [ g]B 9 T À1 [ g]B T . Characters 13. tr (AB) need not equal (tr A)(tr B). unlike the determinant function. Then the character of V is the function ÷: G 3 C de®ned by ÷( g) tr [ g]B ( g P G)X The character of V does not depend on the basis B . and the ii-entry of AB is n j1 aij bji.2 Proposition Let A (aij ) and B (bij ) be n 3 n matrices. Then tr (A B) tr A tr B. that is.3 De®nition Suppose that V is a CG-module with a basis B . aij bji n n j1 i1 bji aij tr (BA)X Notice that. then tr (T À1 AT ) tr AX Proof The ii-entry of A B is aii bii .118 Representations and characters of groups 13. the trace function is not multiplicative. since if B and B 9 are bases of V. if T is an invertible n 3 n matrix. and tr (AB) tr (BA)X Moreover. Therefore tr (A B) and tr (AB) For the last part.

and so by Proposition 13.24)). ÷ is an irreducible character of G if ÷ is the character of an irreducible CG-module.5(1) for representations is that equivalent representations have the same character.5 Proposition (1) Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. there are a basis B 1 of V and a basis B 2 of W such that [ g]B 1 [ g]B 2 for all g P GX Consequently tr [ g]B 1 tr [ g]B 2 for all g P G. Therefore ÷(x) ÷( y). and so V and W have the same character.2.Characters 119 for some invertible matrix T (see (2. . then ÷(x) ÷( y) for all characters ÷ of G. (2) Assume that x and y are conjugate elements of G. and let B be a basis of V. Then by (7. tr [ g]B 9 tr [ g]B for all g P GX Naturally enough. 13. so that x gÀ1 yg for some g P G. j The result corresponding to Proposition 13. Further. namely ÷( g) tr ( gr) ( g P G)X 13. You will have noticed that we are writing characters as functions on the left. we have tr [x]B tr [ y]B . we de®ne the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. we write ÷( g) and not g÷.2. (2) If x and y are conjugate elements of the group G. C) to be the character ÷ of the corresponding CGmodule C n .4 De®nition We say that ÷ is a character of G if ÷ is the character of some CGmodule. Proof (1) Suppose that V and W are isomorphic CG-modules. and ÷ is reducible if it is the character of a reducible CG-module. That is. where ÷ is the character of V. Then [x]B [ g À1 yg]B [ g]À1 [ y]B [ g]B X B Hence by Proposition 13. Let V be a CG-module.7).

Let B be the natural basis of V. and let r: G 3 GL(2. The following table records g. v3 . 13. we shall prove an astonishing converse of Proposition 13. Let ÷ be the character of this representation. b: a4 b2 1.120 Representations and characters of groups Later.) g gr ÷( g) 1 1 0 0 1 2 a 0 1 À1 0 0 a2 À1 0 0 À1 À2 a3 0 À1 1 0 0 g gr ÷( g) b 1 0 0 À1 0 ab 0 À1 0 À1 0 a2 b À1 0 0 1 0 a3 b 0 1 0 1 0 (2) Let G S3 .10). br ar 0 À1 À1 0 (see Example 3. then they are isomorphic. where v i g v ig for 1 < i < 3 and all g P G. together with the character ÷ of V. (We obtain ÷( g) by adding the two entries on the diagonal of gr.6 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. and take V to be the 3-dimensional permutation module for G over C (see De®nition 4. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.1. We record these matrices. gr and ÷( g) as g runs through G. C) be the representation for which 1 0 0 1 .5(1): if two CG-modules have the same character. thus B is the basis v1 . g [ g]B ÷( g) 1 (1 2) (1 3) H 1 d0 0 0 0 1 0e 0 1 3 I H 0 d1 0 1 0 0 0e 0 1 1 I H 0 0 d0 1 1 0 1 I 1 0e 0 . v2 .2(1)). The matrices [ g]B ( g P G) are given by Exercise 4.

(4) Let G D6 ka.8(2). In Example 10. U3. then the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . b: a3 b2 1. Nevertheless. ÷2 . U2. every character is constant on conjugacy classes of G. and they are as follows: g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Notice that in all the above examples. r2 . G has just three irreducible characters ÷1 . . Thus if ÷ i is the character of Ui for 1 < i < 3. we found a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules U1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l (so G S3 ). This re¯ects the fact that by Proposition 13. By Theorem 9. ÷3 . it is much quicker to write down the single complex number ÷( g) for the group element g than to record the matrix which corresponds to g. the characters given take few distinct values. with values g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 .Characters g [ g]B ÷( g) H (2 3) I H (1 2 3) I H (1 3 2) I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 0 121 1 0 0 d0 0 1e 0 1 0 1 0 1 d0 0 1 0 0 0 1e 0 0 d1 0 (3) Let G C3 ha: a3 1 i. The values of these characters on the elements of G can be calculated from the corresponding representations r1 .8.8(2). the character encapsulates a great deal of information about the representation. ÷2 and ÷3 . r3 given in Example 10.5(2). Moreover. This will become clear as the theory of characters develops.

we therefore know at least one of the irreducible characters of G. of course.122 Representations and characters of groups 13. they are. these are the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms (see Exercise 13.6(1) we gave a character of D8 of degree 2. where ÷ is a character of G and g P G. Characters of degree 1 are called linear characters. 13.6(4) we saw that the irreducible characters of D6 have degrees 1. irreducible characters. The values of a character The next result gives information about the complex numbers ÷( g). in 13. called the trivial character of G.4).8 Examples (1) In Example 13. (3) The character of the trivial CG-module (see De®nition 4.7 De®nition If ÷ is the character of the CG-module V. in particular. then for each g P G there is a complex number ë g such that v g ë gv The character ÷ of V is given by ÷( g) ë g ( g P G) and ÷ has degree 1. 1 and 2. they are all linear characters. Then for all v P V X .6(2) we gave a character of S3 of degree 3. In fact.8(1)) is a linear character. then the dimension of V is called the degree of ÷. (2) If V is any 1-dimensional CG-module. 13. Observe that Theorem 9.8 gives all the irreducible characters of ®nite abelian groups. Suppose that g P G and g has order m. Thus 1 G : g 3 1 for all g P GX Given any group G. Every linear character of G is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers. and in 13. Finding all the irreducible characters is usually dif®cult.9 Proposition Let ÷ be the character of a CG-module V. We denote it by 1 G . namely the trivial character.

since for all real W. (eiW )À1 eÀiW . ÷( g) is j real. and so ÷(1) dim V. When the element g of G has order 2. we can be much more speci®c about the possibilities for ÷( g): . .11 there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. (2) By Proposition 9. ùÀ1 . Consequently ÷(1) tr [1]B tr I n n. ÷( g) is a sum of mth roots of unity. and so ÷( g) ÷( g). ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g). Also ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g) by (3). 123 Proof (1) Let n dim V. . (3) We have H f [ gÀ1 ]B d ùÀ1 1 0 FF 0 F ùÀ1 n I g e and so ÷( gÀ1 ) ùÀ1 . the n 3 n identity matrix.5(2). Therefore ÷( g À1 ) ù1 X X X ù n ÷( g)X (4) If g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) ÷( gÀ1 ) by Proposition 13. a sum of mth roots of unity.Characters (1) (2) (3) (4) ÷(1) dim V. which is the complex conjugate of eiW . and let B be a basis of V. Then the matrix [1]B of the identity element 1 relative to B is equal to In . that is. ÷( g) is a real number if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . Therefore ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù n . Every complex mth root of unity ù 1 n satis®es ùÀ1 ù.

suppose that |÷( g)| ÷(1). If gr ëIn with ë P C.11. then ë is an mth root of unity. Then (13X12) j÷( g)j jù1 X X X ù n j ÷(1) nX for some ë P CX . so |÷( g)| n ÷(1). and ÷(1) r sX Certainly then. j÷( g)j ÷(1) D gr ëI n (2) Ker r { g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)}.124 Representations and characters of groups 13. (1) For g P G. and ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 2X Proof By Proposition 13. showing that we can determine the kernel of a representation just from knowledge of its character. and let g be an element of order 2 in G. 13.11 Theorem Let r: G 3 GL(n. Conversely. ÷( g) P Z. Then ÷( g) is an integer. and since r À s r s À 2s r s mod 2. Proof (1) Let g P G. and s are À1. we have ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù n . so that ÷( g) r À s. there is a basis B of C n such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùn 0 where each ù i is an mth root of unity. Suppose r of them are 1. where n ÷(1) and each ù i is a square root of unity. and suppose that g has order m. By Proposition 9. Then each ù i is 1 or À1.10 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G. C) be a representation of G. we have ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 2.9. j Our next result gives the ®rst inkling of the importance of characters. and ÷( g) në. and let ÷ be the character of r.

and so ÷( g) n ÷(1). is de®ned by Ker ÷ f g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)gX By Theorem 13. we de®ne the kernel of a character as follows. written Ker ÷. Ker ÷ v G. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l are ÷1 . we have gr ëIn for some ë P C. This implies that ÷( g) ë÷(1). and so gr ù1 In . b: a3 b2 1. and so g P Ker r. .14 Examples (1) According to Example 13.12) that ù i ù j for all i.13 De®nition If ÷ is a character of G. . then the kernel of ÷. (2) If g P Ker r then gr In . zn .11(2). . we deduce from (13. 125 with equality if and only if the arguments of z1 . zn are all equal. we have jz1 X X X zn j < jz1 j X X X jzn j. (To see this. . . Then by (1).11(2). . with the following values: . 13. 13.6(4). ÷3 . This completes the proof of (1). ÷2 . consider the picture in the Argand diagram. the irreducible characters of the group G D6 ka. In particular. Therefore gr In .) Since |ù i | 1 for all i. suppose that ÷( g) ÷(1). j. Part (2) follows. j Motivated by Theorem 13. if r is a representation of G with character ÷. whence ë 1. . We call ÷ a faithful character if Ker ÷ {1}. Thus H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e ù1 I n X F ù1 0 Hence for all bases B 9 of C n we have [ g]B 9 ù1 In . Conversely. then Ker r Ker ÷.Characters Note now that for any complex numbers z1 .

Observe that if A (aij ) and B (bij ) are n 3 n matrices over C. de®ne ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ÷( g) ( g P G)X Thus the values of ÷ are the complex conjugates of the values of ÷. In particular. Thus ÷( g) tr ( gr) ( g P G)X If A (aij ) is an n 3 n matrix over C. Then ÷ is a character of G. C). Ker ÷2 kal and Ker ÷3 {1}. 13. C) is a representation with character ÷. so ÷ is a faithful character. We next prove a result which is sometimes useful for constructing a new character from a given one. Proof Suppose that ÷ is the character of a representation r: G 3 GL(n. Theorem 13.6(1): g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 Then Ker ÷ {1}. and let ÷ be the character of G given in Example 13. . (2) Let G D8 ka.126 g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 Representations and characters of groups a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 Then Ker ÷1 G. And since |÷(a2 )| |À2| ÷(1).15 Proposition Let ÷ be a character of G. then so is ÷. then we de®ne A to be the n 3 n matrix (a ij ). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. then (13X16) (AB) A B. b: a4 b2 1. For a character ÷ of G. If ÷ is irreducible. then a2 r ÀI. ÷3 is a faithful irreducible character of D6.11(1) implies that if r: G 3 GL(2.

. k let ÷ i be the character of Vi and di ÷ i (1). .17 De®nition The regular character of G is the character of the regular CG-module. the ij-entry of AB. the character of the representation r is ÷. V k be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11. we shall express the regular character in terms of the irreducible characters of G. a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules Ui.19. Ur.11). .Characters since the ij-entry of A B is n k1 127 a ik b kj . j ( g P G) 13.16) that the function r: G 3 GL(n. 13. Since tr ( gr) tr ( gr) tr ( gr) ÷( g) ( g P G). . . Then ÷reg d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k X . It follows from (13.18 Proposition Let V be a CG-module. It is clear that if r is reducible then r is reducible. We write the regular character as ÷reg . . First we need a preliminary result. and suppose that V U1 È X X X È Ur . X X X . . Proof This is immediate from (7. C) de®ned by gr ( gr) is a representation of G. and for i 1. . In Theorem 13. j The regular character 13.10).19 Theorem Let V1 . n which is equal to the complex conjugate of k1 aik bkj . Then the character of V is equal to the sum of the characters of the CG-modules U1. Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible.

9. . then ÷reg (1) jGj.128 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Theorem 11. . gn be the elements of G.9(1).20 Proposition If ÷reg is the regular character of G. Therefore the ith row of the matrix [ g]B has zeros in every place except column j. gn of CG.19 and Proposition 13. . ÷ 3 : g ÷1 ( g) ÷2 ( g) ÷3 ( g) 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 a2 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 0 a2 b 1 À1 0 We calculate ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 : (÷1 ÷2 2÷3 )( g) 6 0 0 0 0 0 . the irreducible characters of G are ÷1 . It follows that ÷reg ( g) tr [ g]B 0X j 13. By Proposition 13. Then for 1 < i < n. and ÷reg ( g) 0 if g T 1X Proof Let g1 .18. Now let g P G with g T 1.21 Example We illustrate Theorem 13. the ii-entry is zero for all i. ÷reg (1) dim CG |G|. and let B be the basis g1 .6(4). and are given in the next result. . By Example 13. . where for each i there are di factors V i . . . 13. j The values of ÷reg on the elements of G are easily described. in particular. CG (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). Now the result follows from Proposition 13. .20 for the group G D6 . ÷2 . we have gi g gj for some j with j T i.

illustrating Proposition 13. 13. Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . so that G is a group of permutations of {1. . . . . (1 2). . there is an easy construction using the permutation module which produces a character of degree n.20. n}. . G has ®ve conjugacy classes. by Theorem 13. with representatives 1. . v i g v ig (1 < i < n) (see De®nition 4.23 Example Let G S4 . v n . and is 1 if ig i. and it takes the value |G| on 1. Then the iientry in the matrix [ g]B is 0 if ig T i. (1 2 3). and we now describe this. (1 2)(3 4). and the value 0 on all non-identity elements of G.19.Characters 129 This is the regular character of G. let fix ( g) fi: 1 < i < n and ig igX Then (13X22) ð( g) jfix( g)j ( g P G)X We call ð the permutation character of G. . Therefore the character ð of the permutation module V is given by ð( g) (the number of i such that ig i)X For g P G.10). v n . . . Then by Example 12. where for all g P G. Let B denote the basis v1 . . (1 2 3 4)X The permutation character ð takes the values gi ð( gi ) 1 4 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 1 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . Permutation characters In the case where G is a subgroup of the symmetric group Sn . . The permutation module V for G over C has basis v1 .16(3).

(1 2)(3 4). . Then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. Then ð 1 G í. so |®x( g)| 1 í( g) for all g P G. .24 Proposition Let G be a subgroup of Sn . By Example 12.8(3)). . so the character of U is the trivial character 1 G (see Example 13.1. so U is a CG-submodule of V. (1 2 3). By Maschke's Theorem 8. a subgroup of S4 . . and U sp (u)X Observe that ug u for all g P G.130 Representations and characters of groups 13. A character is obtained from a representation by taking the trace of each matrix.25 Example Let G A4 . 2. and therefore í( g) jfix( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X j ( g P G) 13. Characters are constant on conjugacy classes. Indeed. there is a CG-submodule W of V such that V U È WX Let í be the character of W. v n be the basis of the permutation module V as above. U is isomorphic to the trivial CG-module. Proof Let v1 . . and let u v1 X X X v n . (1 3 2)X The values of the character í of G are gi í( gi ) 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 3 2) 0 Summary of Chapter 13 1. the conjugacy classes of G are represented by 1.18(1).

br1 (where ù e2ðia3 ) 0 ùÀ1 1 0 and ar2 À1 0 0 1 . Assume that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Isomorphic CG-modules have the same character. Prove that if ÷ is a faithful irreducible character of the group G. Write the regular character of C4 as a linear combination of these.Characters 3. 5. 5. then the function í which is given by í( g) jfix( g)j À 1 is a character of G. 2. The character of a representation determines the kernel of the representation. The regular character ÷reg of G takes the value |G| on the identity and the value 0 on all other elements of G. check that your answers are consistent with Theorem 13. then Z(G) { g P G: |÷( g)| ÷(1)}. r2 be the representations of G for which ù 0 0 1 ar1 . 3. Suppose that z P Z(G) and that z has order m. and all g P G. Prove that the only non-zero characters of G which are homomorphisms are the linear characters. Find ÷(x) for x (1 2) and for x (1 6)(2 3 5). 131 4. Let ÷ be the character of the 7-dimensional permutation module for S7 . Find also Ker r1 and Ker r2 . and ÷( gÀ1 ) ÷( g). 7. Find all the irreducible characters of C4 . br2 1 0 0 X À1 ( g P G) Find the characters of r1 and r2 . For all characters ÷ of G. b: a6 b2 1. 4.11. . and let r1 . Exercises for Chapter 13 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. the complex number ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity. Let G D12 ka. 6. If G is a subgroup of Sn . ÷(zg) ë÷( g)X 6. Prove that there exists an mth root of unity ë P C such that for all g P G.

Prove that if x is a non-identity element of the group G. (b) Prove that G/Ker ä is abelian. . (a) Show that ä: g 3 det ( gr) ( g P G) is a linear character of G. (c) Assume that ä( g) À1 for some g P G. 8. (Compare Corollary 13. Show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2.) 10. 9. Let ÷ be a character of a group G. Show that either (1) ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 4. where k is an odd integer. Let r be a representation of the group G over C. then ÷(x) T ÷(1) for some irreducible character ÷ of G. Hint: use Exercise 7. or (2) G has a normal subgroup of index 2.10. By considering the regular representation of G. show that G has a normal subgroup of index 2.132 Representations and characters of groups 7. and let g be an element of order 2 in G. Let g be a group of order 2k.

we describe a method for decomposing a given CG-module as a direct sum of CG-submodules. The set of all functions from G to C forms a vector space over C. That is.21) that if two CG-modules have the same character then they are isomorphic. and ë P C.) 14. and in particular we prove the striking result (Theorem 14. ö are functions from G to C. Inner products The characters of a ®nite group G are certain functions from G to C. The proofs rely on an inner product involving the characters of a group. if W. and we describe this ®rst. Also.14 Inner products of characters We establish some signi®cant properties of characters in this chapter. using characters. and suppose that W: G 3 C and ö: G 3 C are given by 133 .1 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. then we de®ne W ö: G 3 C by (W ö)( g) W( g) ö( g) and we de®ne ëW: G 3 C by ëW( g) ë(W( g)) ( g P G)X ( g P G) (We write these functions on the left to agree with our notation for characters. if we adopt the natural rules for adding functions and multiplying functions by complex numbers.

ë1 è1 ë2 W2 i ë1 hö. W1 i ë2 hö. ë2 P C and all vectors W1 . öl for all ë1 . ö in the vector space. The de®nition of an inner product on a vector space over C runs as follows. Then W ö and 3W are given by 1 W ö 3W 3 6 a 1i 3i a2 0 À3 We shall often think of functions from G to C as row vectors. ö. The vector space of all functions from G to C can be equipped with an inner product in a way which we shall describe shortly. W(a2 ) À1 and ö(1) ö(a) ö(a2 ) 1. With every ordered pair of vectors W.3 De®nition Suppose that W and ö are functions from G to C. W2 i for all ë1 . W(a) i. 0 if W T 0. We now introduce an inner product on the vector space of all functions from G to C. there is associated a complex number kW. W2 . öi W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG . ë2 P C and all vectors W1 .134 Representations and characters of groups 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 This means that W(1) 2. öl ë1 kW1 . W2 . (c) kW. and that conditions (a) and (b) give hö. 14. öl hö. De®ne 1 hW. This will be of basic importance in our study of characters. öl ë2 kW2 .2) (a) kW. Notice that condition (a) implies that kW. ö. (b) kë1 W1 ë2 W2 . ö. öl which satis®es the following conditions: (14. Wi for all W. as in this example. Wl . Wl is always real.

5 Proposition Assume that G has exactly l conjugacy classes.9(3). 1 (1) h÷. . (À1)) 2. 14.2) hold. by Proposition 13. 1 À 1 . suppose that G C3 ka: a3 1l and that W and ö are given by 1 W ö 2 1 a i 1 a2 À1 1 Then hè. øi ÷( g)ø( g À1 )X jGj gPG . èi 1(2 . Let ÷ and ø be characters of G. Therefore 1 h÷.1. öi 1(2 . . 1) 1(1 i). 3 hö. gl . 1 1 . with representatives g1 . øi l ÷( g i )ø( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j X Proof (1) We have ø( g) ø( gÀ1 ) for all g P G. l is an inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C. 14.Inner products of characters 135 It is transparent that the conditions of (14. i (À1) . and this is a real numberX jGj gPG (2) h÷. 1 1 . 3 3 hè. öi 1(1 . 1) 1X 3 Inner products of characters We can exploit the fact that characters are constant on conjugacy classes to simplify slightly the calculation of the inner product of two characters. øi hø. . 2 i .4 Example As in Example 14. so k . 1 i . . ÷i ÷( g)ø( g À1 ).

÷iX jGj gPG Since kø.6 Example The alternating group A4 has four conjugacy classes.18(1)). øi is real. ÷( g)ø( g) j g G j÷( g i )ø( g i )X i gP g G i Now G l i1 g G and j g G j jGjajCG ( g i )j.) (2) Recall that g G denotes the conjugacy class of G which contains i gi . ÷l h÷. Since characters are constant on conjugacy classes. an integer. We shall see in Chapter 18 that there are characters ÷ and ø of A4 which take the following values on the representatives gi : gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø g1 12 1 4 g2 4 1 0 g3 3 ù ù2 g4 3 ù2 ù .136 Representations and characters of groups Since { gÀ1 : g P G} G. øi. Hence h÷. øi is. g 4 (1 3 2) (see Example 12.8. øi ÷( g À1 )ø( g) hø.3 and Theorem 12. (We shall prove later that h÷. it follows that h÷. g 2 (1 2)(3 4). øi l 1 1 ÷( g)ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) jGj gPG jGj i1 G gP g i l j gGj i1 l i1 jGj i ÷( g i )ø( g i ) j 1 ÷( g i )ø( g i )X jCG ( g i )j 14. we also have 1 h÷. in fact. with representatives g 1 1. g 3 (1 2 3). i i by Corollary 12.

0 ù 2 .5. . therefore. that is. ù 0. we have h÷. and to ®nd the inner products of ÷ and ø with the trivial character (which takes the value 1 on all elements of A4 ). and that every irreducible CG-module is isomorphic to one of the CGmodules U1. and then let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-modules U i . ÷i 1 and h÷. we may take W1 to be the sum of those irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to a given irreducible CG-module. ù2 ù . There are several ways of choosing CG-submodules W1 and W2 of CG such that CG W1 È W2 and W1 and W2 have no common composition factor (see De®nition 10. Recall from Chapter 10 that the regular CG-module is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. ù2 ù2 . 0 ù . øi 2X 12 4 3 3 h÷. Ur. 4 1 . we temporarily adopt the following Hypothesis: 14. for distinct irreducible characters ÷ and ø of G. where W1 and W2 are CG-submodules which have no common composition factor. . we have 1 . For example. Write 1 e1 e2 where e1 P W1 and e2 P W2. We are now going to pave the way to proving the key fact (Theorem 14.Inner products of characters (where ù e2ðia3 ). We shall investigate some consequences of writing CG like this.7 Hypothesis Let CG W 1 È W 2 . ÷l 1. Among other results. øi 0.4). . øi 137 We advise you to check also that k÷.12) that the irreducible characters of G form an orthonormal set of vectors in the vector space of functions from G to C. 4 0 . Using part (2) of Proposition 14. . We ®rst look at the effect of applying the elements e1 and e2 of CG to W1 and W 2 . . ù hø. we shall derive a formula for e1 in terms of the character of W 1 . say CG U 1 È X X X È U r . 12 4 3 3 4 .

Then 1 e1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Proof Let x P G. w2 e 2 w2 X Proof If w1 P W1 then the function w2 3 w1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to W 1 . e2 e2 and e1 e2 e2 e1 0X 1 2 Proof In Proposition 14. w1 e2 0.8 Proposition For all w1 P W1 and w2 P W2.7. take w1 e1 and w2 e2 .9 Corollary For the elements e1 and e2 of CG which appear in Hypothesis 14. j 14.3. We shall calculate the trace of W in two ways. Proposition Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14. Similarly w2 w1 0.10.8. we evaluate e1 . w2 e1 0. But W2 and W1 have no common composition factor. Next. Now w1 w1 1 w1 (e1 e2 ) w1 e1 . by Proposition 11. The function W: w 3 we1 x À1 (w P CG) is an endomorphism of CG.7. In particular. and w2 w2 1 w2 (e1 e2 ) w2 e2 . 14. w2 P W 2 . and this completes the proof.138 Representations and characters of groups 14. so every CG-homomorphism from W2 to W1 is zero. we have e2 e1 . Therefore w1 w2 0 for all w1 P W 1 . j . w1 e2 w2 e1 0. we have w1 e1 w1 .

Hence.8.20. we see that for all x P G. so e1 gPG ëg g for some ë g P C. for w1 P W1 and w2 P W2 we have.3 of the multiplication in CG. ÷i ÷(1)X Proof Using the de®nition 6. Therefore tr W ÷(x À1 )X Secondly. we deduce from Proposition 14. Then h÷.Inner products of characters 139 First.7. we have tr W ë x jGjX Comparing our two expressions for tr W. the endomorphism w 3 wgx À1 (w P CG) of CG has trace 0 if g T x and has trace |G| if g x. w2 W w2 e1 x À1 0X Thus W acts on W1 by w1 3 w1 x À1 and on W2 by w2 3 0. By Proposition 13. By the de®nition of the character ÷ of W 1 . the endomorphism w1 3 w1 x À1 of W1 has trace equal to ÷(x À1 ). and of course the endomorphism w2 3 0 of W2 has trace 0. ë x ÷(x À1 )ajGjX Therefore e1 1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG j 14. w1 W w1 e1 x À1 w1 x À1 .11 Corollary Let ÷ be the character of the CG-module W1 which appears in Hypothesis 14. as W: w 3 w gPG ë g gx À1 .10 that the coef®cient of 1 in e2 is 1 1 1 h÷. e1 P CG. in view of Proposition 14. ÷iX ÷( g À1 )÷( g) jGj2 gPG jGj .

and the 1 coef®cient of 1 in e1 is ÷(1)/|G|. and h÷. Then h÷. where the number of CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U is dim U. Hence k÷. and let Z be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. W and X have no common composition factor. øi 0X Proof Recall from Theorem 11. and no composition factor of X is isomorphic to U. We now apply Corollary 14. .12 Theorem Let U and V be non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. let X be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. with characters ÷ and ø. Then CG Y È Z. and obtain hm÷.140 Representations and characters of groups On the other hand. j We can now prove the main theorem concerning the inner product k .11 to the character of W. respectively. and de®ne W to be the sum of the m irreducible CG-submodules Ui which are isomorphic to U. Let m dim U. Then CG W È X X Moreover. say CG U1 È X X X È Ur . as required. In particular. ÷i 1. m÷i m÷(1)X As ÷(1) dim U m. each of which has character ÷. The character of W is m÷. 14. Next. let Y be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui of CG which are isomorphic to either U or V. ÷i 1. l. since W is the direct sum of m CG-submodules. ÷l ÷(1). this yields h÷. every composition factor of W is isomorphic to U. we know from Corollary 14.9 that CG is a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.9 that e2 e1 .

øl kø. øl 0. . By Theorem 8. so there are non-negative integers d1. m÷(1) nø(1) hm÷ nø. ÷i)X Now h÷. Therefore h÷. . ÷ i i h÷ i . øi d i for 1 < i < k. ÷ k are all distinct. j.11. In particular. If ÷ i is the character of Vi (1 < i < k). by the part of the theorem which we have already proved. we obtain from this (14X16) hø. where for each i. øi d 2 X X X d 2 X 1 k Summarizing. . ÷i n2 hø. The character of Y is m÷ nø. V is equal to a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules.12. there are d i factors Vi X Therefore the character ø of V is given by (14X15) ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k X Using (14.11). where ä ij is the Kronecker delta function (that is. and hø. and hence k÷. and ÷(1) m. this implies that the irreducible characters ÷1 . øi hø. By Corollary 14. . . k÷. we have (14X13) h÷ i . V k be a complete set of nonisomorphic irreducible CG-modules (see De®nition 11. dk such that (14X14) V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ). j Applications of Theorem 14. Each of these is isomorphic to some V i . Now let V be a CG-module. øi mn(h÷. . X X X . ÷l. . where n dim V. then by Theorem 14.12 Let G be a ®nite group.13). ä ij is 1 if i j and is 0 if i T j). m÷ nøi m2 h÷.Inner products of characters 141 and Y and Z have no common composition factor. ÷ j i ä ij for all i.5(1). øi hø. ø(1) n. . øi 1. we have . ÷i 0X By Proposition 14. and let V1 .7. ÷i hø.

7. ÷2 . and d2X i 14.17. Thus by Theorem 14. (1 2 3): Now let ø be the character of the 3-dimensional permutation module gi |CS3 ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 for S3 . ÷2 l 0 and kø. ø(1 2 3) 0X Therefore. we know that ø(1) 3. . By Example 13. hø. d i hø. . ÷3 .5(2). dk .6(2). øi k i1 for 1 < i < k. . . . then ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers d1. ø(1 2) 1. ø ÷1 ÷3 X (This can of course be checked immediately by comparing the values of ø and ÷1 ÷3 on each conjugacy class representative.) A more substantial calculation along these lines is given in Example 15.17 Theorem Let ÷1 .142 Representations and characters of groups 14. . Moreover. .1 0 1X 6 2 Similarly. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G.18 Example Recall from Example 13. kø. . If ø is any character of G.1 1. . by Proposition 14.6(4) that the irreducible characters of S3 D6 are ÷1 . taking the following values on the conjugacy class representatives 1. ÷3 l 1. ÷1 i 3. (1 2). ÷ i i hø.

Inner products of characters 143 We shall see many more applications of the important Theorem 14. j We are now in a position to prove the remarkable result that `a CGmodule is determined by its character'. Thus. It is the converse which is the substantial part of this theorem. It gives us a quick and effective method of determining whether or not a given CG-module is irreducible.16). . øl 1. Proof If V is irreducible then kø. øl 1 by Theorem 14. dk ÷ k is non-zero. The next result is another signi®cant consequence of Theorem 14. Then V and W are isomorphic if and only if ÷ ø.17. We say that ÷ is a constituent of ø if kø. Then V is irreducible if and only if kø. for it means that many questions about CG-modules can be answered using character theory.19 De®nition Suppose that ø is a character of G. assume that kø.20 Theorem Let V be a CG-module with character ø. the constituents of ø are the irreducible characters ÷ i of G for which the integer di in the expression ø d1 ÷1 . We have ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k for some non-negative integers di. øi d 2 X X X d 2 X 1 k It follows that one of the integers di is 1 and the rest are zero.14).21 Theorem Suppose that V and W are CG-modules. with characters ÷ and ø. Conversely. Then by (14. 14. .12. . Proof In Proposition 13.5 we proved the elementary fact that if V W then ÷ ø.12. øl 1. respectively. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. 1 hø. ÷l T 0. It is this fact which motivates our study of characters in much of the rest of the book. 14. and by (14. and so V is irreducible. 14. V Vi for some i.

16). and hence V W. We know by (14. j 14. . the representations r2 and r3 are equivalent. The next theorem is another consequence of Theorem 14. di (1 < i < k) such that V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. r3 and r4 . ar1 . .21. 3. ÷ i i. ÷ k . .14) that there are non-negative integers ci . The characters ø i of the representations r i (i 1. d i hø. and let r1 . r2 . r2 . Vk be a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules with characters ÷1 .144 Representations and characters of groups Thus. and W (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i.12.22 Example Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. . ÷ i i (1 < i < k)X Since ÷ ø. suppose that ÷ ø. Again let V1 . ar2 0 ù 0 ùÀ1 2 3 2 3 0 1 1 ùÀ1 ar3 . 2. but there are no other equivalences among r1 . By (14. X X X . it follows that ci di for all i. r4 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 ù 0 ù 0 . . ci h÷. 4) are 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 2 2 2 2 a 2ù À1 À1 1ù a2 2ù2 À1 À1 1 ù2 Hence by Theorem 14. ar4 À1 À1 0 ù (ù e2ðia3 ). r3 .

Vj )) ä ij X Hence. 14.14) that there are non-negative integers ci . ÷ k are linearly independent.2. Proof Assume that ë1 ÷1 X X X ë k ÷ k 0 (ë i P C)X Then for all i. . and W (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with di factors Vi for each i. j we have dim (HomCG (Vi . . using (14. . Then ÷1 .13) we have 0 hë1 ÷1 X X X ë k ÷ k .23 Theorem Let ÷1 . ÷ i i ë i X Therefore ÷1 . . W )) k i1 ci d i X . using (11. . di (1 < i < k) such that V (V1 È X X X È V1 ) È (V2 È X X X È V2 ) È X X X È (Vk È X X X È Vk ) with ci factors Vi for each i. By Proposition 11. . . respectively. W )) h÷. .Inner products of characters 145 14. . . .24 Theorem Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø. øiX Proof We know from (14. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. j We now relate inner products of characters to the spaces of CGhomomorphisms which we constructed in Chapter 11. . ÷ k are linearly independent vectors in the vector space of all functions from G to C. for any i.5)(3) we see that dim (HomCG (V . Then dim (HomCG (V .

then 2 3 À1 V ÷( g ) g gPG . Once more we adopt Hypothesis 14. for all v1 P V1 and v2 P V2 we have v1 e1 v1 .7: CG W 1 È W 2 . øi The result follows. v 2 e2 v 2 X k i1 j ci d i X Proof If v1 P V1 then the function w2 3 v1 w2 (w2 P W2 ) is clearly a CG-homomorphism from W2 to V1.8. Since W2 and V1 have no common composition factor. We can write V V1 È V2 . and we now describe a process for doing this.26 Proposition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. and V is any CG-module. v2 e1 0. j 14. ÷ ci ÷ i and ø di÷i and so (14. Decomposing CG-modules It is sometimes of practical importance to be able to decompose a given CG-module into a direct sum of CG-submodules. Let V be any CG-module. e2 P W 2 . 14.146 Representations and characters of groups k i1 k i1 On the other hand. and 1 e1 e2 with e1 P W 1 .25 Proposition With the above notation. where the CG-modules W1 and W2 have no common composition factor. where every composition factor of V1 is a composition factor of W1 and every composition factor of V2 is a composition factor of W2. we deduce the stated results just as in the proof of Proposition 14.13) implies that h÷. v1 e2 0.

25 shows that Ve1 V1. we see that .27) (1) Choose a basis v1 . . Then the character of W1 is m÷ where m ÷(1).26. Then Proposition 14. so 2 3 À1 V1 V ÷( g ) g X gPG j Once the irreducible characters of our group G are known. Also W1 and W2 satisfy Hypothesis 14. Some more complicated uses of the method can be found in Chapter 32. Proposition 14. calculate the vectors v i ( gPG ÷( gÀ1 ) g) for 1 < i < n. . and by Proposition 14.9. Taking ÷ to be the trivial character of G in Proposition 14. . We illustrate this method with a couple of simple examples. and let W2 be the sum of the remaining CG-submodules Ui. Proof Write CG U 1 È X X X È U r . Clearly we may omit the constant multiplier m/|G|. Let W1 be the sum of those CG-submodules Ui which have character ÷.10. (2) For each irreducible character ÷ of G. 14. v n of V. and let V÷ be the subspace of V spanned by these vectors. The character of V÷ is a multiple of ÷. a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules Ui.Inner products of characters 147 is equal to the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷ (where for r P CG.26 provides a useful practical tool for ®nding CG-submodules of a given CG-module V. (3) Then V is the direct sum of the CG-modules V÷ as ÷ runs over the irreducible characters of G.7.28 Examples (1) Let G be any ®nite group and let V be any non-zero CG-module. we de®ne Vr fvr: v P V g). . the element e1 of W1 is given by m e1 ÷( g À1 ) gX jGj gPG Let V1 be the sum of those CG-submodules of V which have character ÷. The procedure is as follows: (14. by Theorem 11.

v2 . with basis v1 . Here is a list of the irreducible characters ÷1 .148 Representations and characters of groups 2 3 V g gPG is the sum of all the trivial CG-submodules of V. For 1 < i < 5. v2 À v4 )X . Then 2 Ve1 sp (v1 v2 v3 v4 ). let G Sn and let V be the permutation module. For example. . . Ve2 0. Ve4 sp (v1 À v2 v3 À v4 ). with basis v1 . Ve3 0. .5). Then 2 3 V g sp (v1 X X X v n )X gPG Hence V has a unique trivial CG-submodule. . ÷5 of D8 (see Example 16. . . Ve5 sp (v1 À v3 .3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 Let V be the permutation module for G. e5 1(1 À a2 ). . v n such that v i g v ig for all i and all g P G. (2) Let G be the subgroup of S4 which is generated by a (1 2 3 4) and b (1 2)(3 4)X Then G D8 (compare Example 1. v3 . v4 such that v i g v ig for all i and all g P G. . let ÷ i (1) ei ÷ i ( g À1 ) gX 8 gPG For example.

27) does not in general enable us to write a given CG-module as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules (since V÷ is not in general irreducible). and ø is any character. ø is irreducible if and only if kø. øl 1. öi W( g)ö( g)X jGj gPG 2. You might like to check that e1 X X X e5 1. . Also. i ei ej 0 for i T jX Compare these results with Corollary 14. . 149 and so we have expressed V as a direct sum of irreducible CGsubmodules whose characters are ÷1 . then ø d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷ k where d i hø. h÷ i . ÷ k of G form an orthonormal set. Summary of Chapter 14 1. ÷4 and ÷5 . 4. The inner product of two functions W. j. Note that the procedure described in (14.9. ÷ i iX Each di is a non-negative integer. that is. . ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. ÷ j i ä ij for all i. ö from G to C is given by 1 hW. The irreducible characters ÷1 . . .Inner products of characters We have V Ve1 È Ve4 È Ve5 . If ÷1 . respectively. Every CG-module is determined by its character. 3. . . e2 ei for 1 < i < 5. . .

and that ÷( g) is a non-negative real number for all g in G. br2 .150 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 14 1. Suppose that ÷ is a non-zero. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. r3 be the representations of G over C for which 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 ar1 . i 0 1 0 2 3 2 3 À1 0 1 0 ar3 . Let G S4 . Suppose that r and ó are representations of G. b: a4 1. show that h÷reg . br1 . br3 X 0 1 0 À1 Show that r1 and r2 are equivalent. øi and hø. Which of ÷ and ø is irreducible? 2. If ÷ is a character of G. and let r1 . ÷i. but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. non-trivial character of G. gó T À1 ( gr)TX 4. We shall see in Chapter 18 that G has characters ÷ and ø which take the following values on the conjugacy classes: Class representative |CG ( gi )| ÷ ø 1 24 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 3 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 Calculate h÷. and that for each g in G there is an invertible matrix Tg such that gó T À1 ( gr)Tg X g Prove that there is an invertible matrix T such that for all g in G. øi. 0 Ài À1 0 2 3 2 3 0 i 0 À1 ar2 . 3. b2 a2 . ÷i ÷(1)X . 5. r2 . Prove that ÷ is reducible. h÷. Let G Q8 ka.

prove that hð. . Does it follow that ÷ 2ö for some character ö? . øl 1. .) 151 7. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of the group G. Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and that for every g P G. 2. Let ÷1 .Inner products of characters 6. . 1 S n i 1X (Hint: you may ®nd Exercise 11. If ð is the permutation character of Sn . ÷( g) is an even integer. 3 or 4? 8. . and suppose that ø d 1 ÷1 X X Xd k ÷ k is a character of G. What can you say about the integers di in the cases kø.4 relevant.

and to some consequences of this theorem. By Proposition 13. Class functions 15.5(2). The set C of all class functions on G is a subspace of the vector space of all functions from G to C. Thus. if l is the number of conjugacy classes of G. then (15X2) dim C lX 15.15 The number of irreducible characters We devote this chapter to the theorem which states that the number of irreducible characters of a ®nite group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. Throughout. Together with the material from Chapter 14. ø is constant on conjugacy classes). 152 . the theorem provides machinery for investigating characters which is used in the remainder of the book. A basis of C is given by those functions which take the value 1 on precisely one conjugacy class and zero on all other classes.3 Theorem The number of irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G.1 De®nition A class function on G is a function ø: G 3 C such that ø(x) ø( y) whenever x and y are conjugate elements of G (that is. the characters of G are class functions on G. G is as usual a ®nite group.

If V1 .14. which is equal to k by k i1 ëi÷i . then ø where ë i kø. . . V k is a complete set of non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. ÷ k are linearly independent. if ø is a class function. ÷1 . ÷ k are linearly independent elements of C.2) implies that k < l. and in particular. so (15. ÷ i l for 1 < i < k.2). we can write 1 f1 X X X fk with f i P W i for 1 < i < k. By Proposition 9. the centre of CG. . . f iz ëi f i It follows that z 1z ( f 1 X X X f k )z f 1 z X X X f k z ë1 f 1 X X X ë k f k X This shows that Z(CG) is contained in the subspace of CG spanned by f 1 . . Indeed. In order to prove the reverse inequality l < k. ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. . . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G.7 that CG W 1 È X X X È W k . Proof Since ÷1 . X X X . we know from Theorem 8. . Since Z(CG) has dimension l by Proposition 12. X X X . they span a subspace of C of dimension k. By (15. X X X . . we consider the regular CG-module. . where for each i. . Now let z P Z(CG).4 Corollary The irreducible characters ÷1 . dim C l. vz ë i vX Hence wz ë i w for all w P W i . W i is isomorphic to a direct sum of copies of V i .23.22. f k . j (1 < i < k)X 15. By Theorem 14. This completes the proof that k l. we deduce that l < k.The number of irreducible characters 153 Proof Let ÷1 . . for each i there exists ë i P C such that for all v P Vi. and let l be the number of conjugacy classes of G. Since CG contains the identity element 1.

using (14. 15. .7 Example We shall see in Section 18. ø( g) ø(h) for all class functions ø on G. Proof Since ÷( g) is real if and only if ÷( g) ÷( gÀ1 ) (see Proposition j 13. . j Corollary 15. . ÷ k span C.9(3)).154 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 15. . we regard a character ÷ of G as a row vector. Hence ÷1 . by Proposition 13. suppose that ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷. Then by Corollary 15.4 has the following useful consequence. ÷6 given as follows: . g6 (where g1 1). As in previous examples. and so they form a basis of C. Then g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G.3. . We conclude the chapter with an example illustrating some practical methods of expressing characters and class functions of a group as combinations of irreducible characters. j 15. . . . h P G. 15. Proof If g is conjugate to h then ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. whose k entries are the values of ÷ on the k conjugacy classes of G.5.5(2). . . In particular.6 Corollary Suppose that g P G. the result follows immediately from Proposition 15.4. Then ø( g) ø(h) 1. this is true for the class function ø which takes the value 1 on the conjugacy class of g and takes the value 0 elsewhere.13). Then g is conjugate to h if and only if ÷( g) ÷(h) for all characters ÷ of G. . and so g is conjugate to h. . The last part follows.5 Proposition Suppose that g.4 that there is a certain group G of order 12 which has exactly six conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . Conversely. and six irreducible characters ÷1 .

. the second entry in the row vector for ÷ is equal to minus the ®rst entry. given any character ö of G whose degree is not large compared with the degrees of the ÷ i . . ì of G as combinations of ÷1 . We suggest that you use the `guesswork method' to express the following characters ë. In fact. . The reason for this is that the required coef®cients are known to be non-negative integers. and the entries in the column corresponding to g1 1 are positive integers (indeed. . they are the degrees of the ÷ i ). ÷4 and ÷6 . Inspecting the values of the irreducible characters ÷ i . The correct answer now comes quickly to mind. ø ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 X For example. it is not hard to use tactical guesswork to express ö as a combination of the irreducible characters.The number of irreducible characters gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 g3 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g4 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 155 g6 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 Suppose we are given characters ÷ and ø of G as follows: g1 ÷ ø 3 4 g2 À3 0 g3 0 0 g4 0 4 g5 i 0 g6 Ài 0 Then it is easy to spot that ÷ ÷2 ÷6 . ÷6 : g1 ë ì 2 4 g2 À2 4 g3 À2 1 g4 2 1 g5 0 0 g6 0 0 . we see that ÷ must be a combination of ÷2 .

We know from Corollary 15. ÷5 l 2 and kö. 4 11 .156 Representations and characters of groups How do we cope with a class function or with a more dif®cult character.5(2). ÷2 i 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . 1 5 . The number of irreducible characters of a group is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group. 4 hö. 1 À3 . 1 À3 . 1 (À1 2i) . 1 3 . . 1 5 . 1 1. (Ài) hö. 1 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . ÷6 l 0. (À1) (À3) . ÷1 i and similarly kö. ÷4 l 1. ÷3 i 12 12 6 6 4 (À1 À 2i) . l. i 3. (À1) 2. 1 3 . ÷ i i (1 < i < 6)X Using Proposition 14. 4 11 . like the following one? g1 ö 11 g2 3 g3 À3 g4 5 g5 À1 2i g6 À1 À 2i The answer is to use the inner product k .4 that the coef®cients ë i in the expression ö ë1 ÷1 X X X ë6 ÷6 are given by ë i hö. (À1) hö. 1 (À1 2i) . 1 3 . Therefore ö ÷1 3÷2 2÷3 ÷4 2÷5 X Summary of Chapter 15 1. 1 (À1 2i) . (À1) 5 . we calculate these inner products: 11 . kö.

÷2 . . If ø is a class function. Let ø1 . The irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷3 : 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 Let ÷ be the class function on S3 with the following values: 1 ÷ 19 (1 2) À1 (1 2 3) À2 Express ÷ as a linear combination of ÷1 . . . ÷2 and ÷3 . ø2 and ø3 be the class functions on S3 taking the following values: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 0 0 (1 2) 0 1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 1 Express ø1 .The number of irreducible characters 157 2. ÷ i iX Exercises for Chapter 15 1. ÷2 and ÷3 of S3 . ÷ k of G form a basis of the vector space of all class functions on G. . then ø k i1 ë i ÷ i where ë i hø. The three irreducible characters of S3 are ÷1 . . ø2 and ø3 as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ÷1 . Is ÷ a character of S3 ? 2.

. Let ø be the class function on G taking the following values: g1 ø 6 g2 0 g3 3 g4 À3 g5 À1 À i g6 À1 i Express ø as a linear combination of ÷1 . . . . (Hint: show that Z(G) cannot have order 6. ÷6 . . . 6 or 12 conjugacy classes.) (b) Using the solution to Exercise 11. . Let G be a group of order 12. . Is ø a character of G? 4. Find groups G in which each of these possibilities is realized. Suppose that G is the group of order 12 in Example 15. . . ÷6 as in that example.2. (a) Show that G cannot have exactly 9 conjugacy classes. . g6 and irreducible characters ÷1 . prove that G has 4.158 Representations and characters of groups 3. . . with conjugacy class representatives g1 .7.

the rows are indexed by the irreducible characters of G and the columns are indexed by the conjugacy classes (or. Much of the later material in the book will be devoted to understanding character tables. The entries in a character table are related to each other in subtle ways. It is therefore convenient to record all the values of all the irreducible characters of G in a square matrix. Thus. Note that in the character table. Beyond this. The k 3 k matrix whose ij-entry is ÷ i ( g j ) (for all i. Character tables 16. g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. in practice. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let g 1 . the identity element of G. The motivation for this is Theorem 14. which tells us that every CG-module is determined by its character. X X X . 159 .4). many of which are encapsulated in the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16.1 De®nition Let ÷1 . X X X . the numbering is arbitrary. the trivial character. by conjugacy class representatives). This matrix is called the character table of G. and the number of them is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. many problems in representation theory can be solved by considering characters.16 Character tables and orthogonality relations The irreducible characters of a ®nite group G are class functions. j with 1 < i < k. 1 < j < k) is called the character table of G. and g1 1. It is usual to number the irreducible characters and conjugacy classes of G so that ÷1 1 G .21.

2 Proposition The character table of G is an invertible matrix. b: a4 b2 1. and then the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 (2) We can write down the character table of any ®nite abelian group using Theorem 9. b as representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. b: a3 b2 1.23).3 Examples (1) Let G D6 ka.4. are linearly independent (Theorem 14. j 16. the character table of C2 ha: a2 1i is 1 ÷1 ÷2 1 1 a 1 À1 and the character table of C3 ka: a3 1l is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 1 a 1 ù ù2 a2 1 ù2 ù (ù e2ðia3 ) (3) Let G D8 ka. The irreducible characters of G are given in Example 13.8. For example. and hence also the rows of the character table.160 Representations and characters of groups 16. Proof This follows immediately from the fact that the irreducible characters of G.6(4). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. We take 1. You found all the irreducible representations of G in Exercise 10. The conjugacy classes . a.

. Then the following relations hold for any r.Character tables and orthogonality relations 161 of G are given by (12. . ab. s P {1. k}.5(2)). (1) The row orthogonality relations: k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs X (2) The column orthogonality relations: k i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs jCG ( g r )jX . a. h÷ r . by writing them as k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) ä rs jCG ( g i )j i1 (see Proposition 14. . . . and representatives are 1. . . . and these are given by part (2) of our next result.13). and let g 1 . The orthogonality relations We have already seen many uses for the relations (14. b. g k be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. .12). X X X . among the irreducible characters ÷1 . . 16. a2 . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. . Hence the character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 1 À1 À1 1 0 The character tables of all dihedral groups will be found in Chapter 18. Similar relations exist between the columns of the character table.4 Theorem Let ÷1 . These relations can be expressed in terms of the rows of the character table. . ÷ s i ä rs . ÷ k of G.

by Theorem 12.4. 16. ÷ i i 1 ø s ( g)÷ i ( g)X jGj gPG Now ø s ( g) 1 if g is conjugate to g s . also there are jGjajC G ( g s )j elements of G which are conjugate to g s . so ë i hø s . and this time we record the order of the centralizer C G ( g i ) next to each conjugacy class representative gi : gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 a 3 1 1 À1 b 2 1 À1 0 . and ø s ( g) 0 otherwise. . j and the column orthogonality relations follow. say øs ëi ÷i (ë i P C)X We know that h÷ i . . Hence ëi Therefore ä rs ø s ( g r ) k i1 1 ÷ i ( gs ) ø s ( g)÷ i ( g) X jGj gP g G jCG ( g s )j s ëi ÷i ( gr ) k ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) i1 jCG ( g s )j .8. They are recorded here merely for comparison with the column relations. let ø s be the class function which satis®es ø s ( g r ) ä rs k i1 (1 < r < k)X By Corollary 15. .162 Representations and characters of groups Proof The row orthogonality relations have already been proved. For 1 < s < k. ÷ j i ä ij . ÷ k .5 Examples We illustrate the column orthogonality relations. (1) Let G D6. . ø s is a linear combination of ÷1 .3(1). We copy the character table of G from Example 16.

By considering the orthogonality relations between the ®rst column and columns 3 and 4.Character tables and orthogonality relations Consider the sums 3 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) for various cases: i1 r 1. 0 0X 163 In each case. Hence the last entry in the ®rst column is 3. Let x denote the number at the foot of the second column. 1 . 1 . we obtain the complete character table as . r 2. 1 1 . By the column orthogonality relations with r s 1. 1 1 . s 2: s 2: s 3: 1 . The entries in the ®rst column of the character table are the degrees of the irreducible characters.12). r 1. We shall use the column orthogonality relations to determine the last row of the character table. so they are positive integers. 1 2 . (À1) 0. the order of the centralizer of g r ) if r s. taking the products of the numbers which appear. (À1) 3. (2) Suppose we are given the following part of the character table of a group G of order 12 which has exactly four conjugacy classes: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 12 1 1 1 g2 4 1 1 1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 g4 3 1 ù2 ù (where ù e2ðia3 ). 1 1 . The column orthogonality relation 4 i1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives 1 . 1 (À1) . 1 3x 0X Therefore x À1. we read down columns r and s of the character table. The sum of the products is 0 if r T s. 1 1 . (À1) 2 . the sum of the squares of these numbers is 12 (this also follows from Theorem 11. and is the number at the top of the column (that is. 1 1 .

20 give V k ` jGj. if g 1. 1 ù .19 and Proposition 13. (À1) 4. where d i ÷ i (1). 0 3. k ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) X i1 0. since Theorem 13. 1 ù . 1 (À1) . if g T 1. ù ù2 . For example. 1 1 . ù2 ù2 . By taking the complex conjugate of each side of this equation. d i ÷ i ( g) X i1 0. if g T 1. ù2 0 . 1 1 . ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 3 ) 1 . 0 0X We shall see later that the character table which we have constructed here is that of A4 . ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 1 . 4 i1 4 i1 4 i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 1 . if g 1. we get V ` jGj. . Those column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column of the character table were proved in Chapter 13.164 follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 Representations and characters of groups g1 12 1 1 1 3 g2 4 1 1 1 À1 g3 3 1 ù ù2 0 g4 3 1 ù2 ù 0 Notice that the orthogonality relations hold between all pairs of columns. ù 0 . although our calculation has used only those relations which involve the ®rst column.

the equation M M t I is just another way of expressing the row orthogonality relations. Now the rs-entry in M M t is k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs . by the row orthogonality relations. An alternative approach would have been to use the row orthogonality relations h÷ i . On the other hand. the row and column orthogonality relations encapsulate the same information. Since the properties M t M I and M M t I of a square matrix M are equivalent to each other. and we adjust the entries ÷ i ( g j ) in this matrix to obtain another k 3 k matrix M. so M t M I.5(2). jCG ( g r )j1a2 jCG ( g s )j1a2 i1 by the column orthogonality relations. We could have used the above argument to deduce the column orthogonality relations from the row ones. so M M t I. it is a fact that the column orthogonality relations contain precisely the same information as the row orthogonality relations. by letting the ij-entry of M be ÷ i ( gj ) X jCG ( g j )j1a2 Let M t denote the transpose of the complex conjugate of M. . as we shall now show. More importantly. we calculated the values of the last character one at a time using the column orthogonality relations. where we were given three of the four irreducible characters of G. Although the calculation with the column orthogonality relations was easier to perform. ÷4 i ä i4 to obtain four equations in the four unknown values ÷4 ( g j ) (1 < j < 4). the rs-entry in M t M is k 1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs .Character tables and orthogonality relations 165 and these are just the column orthogonality relations which involve the ®rst column. Rows versus columns Notice that in Example 16. Indeed. The character table of G is a k 3 k matrix. we see that the row and column orthogonality relations are equivalent.

gk . k ÷ r ( g i )÷ s ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j ä rs X 3. g4 . . . 3. The column orthogonality relations state that for all r. k i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g s ) ä rs jCG ( g r )jX Exercises for Chapter 16 1. s. A certain group G of order 8 is known to have a total of ®ve conjugacy classes. we can deduce exactly the same results using either set of relations. g5 . ÷ k and conjugacy class representatives g1 . . . 2. ÷2 as follows: . . with representatives g1 . Summary of Chapter 16 Let G be a ®nite group with irreducible characters ÷1 . . . There exists a group G of order 10 which has precisely four conjugacy classes. . The row orthogonality relations state that for all r.166 Representations and characters of groups so when we are working with character tables. . The character table of G is the k 3 k matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( g j ). s. 1. . . . and four linear characters ÷1 . Write down the character table of C2 3 C2 . and has irreducible characters ÷1 . . . . . . with representatives g1 . . 2. . . ÷4 taking the following values: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 8 1 1 1 1 g2 8 1 1 1 1 g3 4 1 1 À1 À1 g4 4 1 À1 1 À1 g5 4 1 À1 À1 1 Find the complete character table of G.

g k and character table C. . A certain group G has two columns of its character table as follows: gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 g1 21 1 1 1 3 3 g2 7 1 1 1 æ æ where g1 1 and æ P C. k i1 jCG ( g i )jX . . X X X . . and that jdet Cj2 Find Æ(det C) when G C3 . then on g4 ± use Corollary 13. Show that det C is either real or purely imaginary.10. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. .Character tables and orthogonality relations gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 g1 10 1 2 g2 5 1 á g3 5 1 â g4 2 1 0 167 p p where á (À1 5)a2 and â (À1 À 5)a2.) 4. Let G be a ®nite group with conjugacy class representatives g1 . 5. (b) Find another column of the character table. Let ÷1 . Find the complete character table of G. (Hint: ®rst ®nd the values of the remaining irreducible characters on g1 . Show that @ A k Z(G) g P G: ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) jGj X i1 6. (a) Find æ.

by a process which is known as lifting. The characters of GaN should therefore be easier to ®nd than the characters of G. The linear characters of G (i. Lifted characters We begin by constructing a character of G from a character of GaN . the characters of degree 1) are obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaN in the case where N is the derived subgroup of G. ÷ ~ Proof Let r: GaN 3 GL (n.7.e. and N T {1}. Thus. in particular. in a way which we shall describe.) The linear characters. (The derived subgroup is de®ned below in De®nition 17. it is easy to tell from the character table whether or not G is simple. in turn. C) be a representation of GaN with 168 . In fact. then the factor group GaN is smaller than G. normal subgroups help us to ®nd characters of G. In the opposite direction. and let ~ be a character of GaN . and ÷ and ~ have the same degree. we can use the characters of GaN to get some of the characters of G.1 Proposition Assume that N v G. 17.17 Normal subgroups and lifted characters If N is a normal subgroup of the ®nite group G. it is also true that the character table of G enables us to ®nd the normal subgroups of G. can be used to get new irreducible characters from a given irreducible character. De®ne ÷ ÷: G 3 C by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ( g P G)X ÷ Then ÷ is a character of G.

By associating each character of GaN with its lift to G. If g 1 . We may therefore de®ne a function r: GaN 3 GL (n. The function r: G 3 GL (n. so ÷ and ~ have the same ÷ ÷ degree. Moreover. ÷ ÷ so N < Ker ÷.3 Theorem Assume that N v G. and hence 2 2 ~ g1 r g2 r. Thus r is a representation of G. C) by (Ng)~ gr r Then for all g. C) is a representation of G with character ÷. C) which is given by the ÷ composition g 3 Ng 3 (Ng)~ r ( g P G) is a homomorphism from G to GL (n. ÷ 17. ~ Proof If ÷ is a character of GaN . g2 P G and Ng1 Ng2 then g1 gÀ1 P N. Now let ÷ be a character of G with N < Ker ÷. then the character ÷ of G ÷ which is given by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ÷ is called the lift of ~ to G. ÷(1) ~(N). The character ÷ of r satis®es ÷( g) tr ( gr) tr ((Ng)~) ~(Ng) r ÷ for all g P G. and ÷ is the lift of ~ to G. C). Irreducible characters of GaN correspond to irreducible characters of G which have N in their kernel. then ÷ ~(N) ÷(1). Suppose that r: G 3 GL (n. if k P N then ÷ ÷(k) ~(Nk) ~(N ) ÷(1). h P G we have ((Ng)(Nh))~ (Ngh)~ ( gh)r ( gr)(hr) r r ((Ng)~)((Nh)~). j 17. we obtain a bijective correspondence between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters ÷ of G which satisfy N < Ker ÷.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 169 character ~. so ( g1 gÀ1 )r I. Also. r r ( g P G)X ( g P G) .2 De®nition If N v G and ~ is a character of GaN .

We have now established that the function which sends each character of GaN to its lift to G is a bijection between the set of characters of GaN and the set of characters of G which have N in their kernel.3(1) that the character table of GaN is N ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 2 N (1 2) 1 À1 0 N(1 2 3) 1 1 À1 .4 Example Let G S4 and N V4 f1. so GaN D6 . then Theorem 17. We know from Example 16. let U be a subspace of C n . If ~ is the character of r then ÷ ~(Ng) ÷( g) ( g P G)X ÷ ~ Thus ÷ is the lift of ÷. To see this. and note that u( gr) P U for all u P U D u(Ng)~ P U for all u P U X r Thus. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 .170 Representations and characters of groups ~ ~ so r is a representation of GaN .3 enables us to write down as many irreducible characters of G as there are irreducible characters of GaN . (1 3)(2 4). ÷ j If we know the character table of GaN for some normal subgroup N of G. (1 4)(2 3)g. so that N v G (see Example 12. U is a CG-submodule of C n if and only if U is a C(GaN )submodule of C n . bi and a3 b2 N . 17.20). It remains to show that irreducible characters correspond to irreducible characters. The representation r is therefore irreducible if and ~ only if the representation r is irreducible. (1 2)(3 4). Hence ÷ is irreducible if and only if ~ is irreducible. If we put a N(1 2 3) and b N(1 2) then GaN ha.

so g 1 by Proposition 15. Hence the intersection of the kernels of all the irreducible characters of G is {1}. ~3 are ÷ ÷ ÷ irreducible characters of GaN . Recall that we can easily locate the kernel of an irreducible character ÷ from the character table. The following proposition shows that every normal subgroup arises in this way.13). Finding normal subgroups The character table contains accessible information about the structure of a group. as our next two propositions will demonstrate. Of course.5. First we shall show how to ®nd all the normal subgroups of G. ÷3 are irreducible characters of G. ÷ s of G such that N s i1 Ker ÷ i X Proof If g belongs to the kernel of each irreducible character of G. ÷3 . which are given by ÷ ÷ ÷ 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 171 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 Then ÷1 . X X X . any subgroup which is the intersection of the kernels of irreducible characters is a normal subgroup too. then ÷( g) ÷(1) for all characters ÷. Also Ker ÷ v G. ~2 . since Ker ÷ f g P G: ÷( g) ÷(1)g (see De®nition 13. . ÷2 . ÷ ÷((1 2 3 4)) ~(N (1 3)) since N (1 2 3 4) N (1 3)X ÷ Hence the lifts of ~1 . ~2 . ÷2 . we note that ÷ ÷((1 2)(3 4)) ~(N ) since (1 2)(3 4) P N . since ~1 . once the character table of G is known. ~3 are ÷1 .5 Proposition If N v G then there exist irreducible characters ÷1 . 17.Normal subgroups and lifted characters To calculate the lift ÷ of a character ~ of GaN .

hence Ker ÷ T G. Thus Ker ÷ is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to {1} of G.6 Proposition The group G is not simple if and only if ÷( g) ÷(1) for some non-trivial irreducible character ÷ of G. ÷ is non-trivial. there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that Ker ÷ is not {1} or G. Therefore if g P Ker ÷ i then Ng P Ker ~ i ÷ ÷ {N}. . and taking 1 T g P Ker ÷. ÷ ÷ and so Ng P Ker ~ i. Since ÷ is non-trivial and irreducible. and so g P N. Ker r T G. As Ker ÷ T G. suppose that G is not simple. If g P Ker ÷ i then ÷ ~ i (N ) ÷ i (1) ÷ i ( g) ~ i (Ng). we have ÷( g) ÷(1). let ÷ i be the lift to G of ~ i . Then g P Ker ÷. Conversely. We shall show how to ®nd all linear characters of any group G. s i1 Ker ~ i fN gX ÷ For 1 < i < s. and some nonidentity element g of G. ~ s be the irreducible characters of GaN . since the . By the ÷ ÷ above observation. so that there is a normal subgroup N of G with N T {1} and N T G. so Ker ÷ T {1}.5. then Ker ÷ Ker r by Theorem 13. Hence N s i1 Ker ÷ i X j It is particularly easy to tell from the character table of G whether or not G is simple: 17. . Then by Proposition 17. . j Linear characters Recall that a linear character of a group is a character of degree 1. Proof Suppose there is a non-trivial irreducible character ÷ such that ÷( g) ÷(1) for some non-identity element g.172 Representations and characters of groups Now let ~1 . and so G is not simple. .11(2). If r is a representation of G with character ÷.

for all g. Proof Let ÷ be a linear character of G. .8 Examples (1) If G is abelian then [ g. h] is always an even permutation. Clearly [ g. j Next. We abbreviate gÀ1 hÀ1 gh as [ g. h P GiX 17. We are going to show that G9 v G and that the linear characters of G are the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. it is necessary to determine the derived subgroup of G.Normal subgroups and lifted characters 173 ®rst move in constructing the character table of G is often to write down the linear characters. h] (1 2 3).7 De®nition For a group G. ÷( g À1 hÀ1 gh) ÷( g)À1 ÷(h)À1 ÷( g)÷(h) 1X Hence G9 < Ker ÷. 17. (2) Let G S3 . h]. As a preliminary step. which is de®ned in the following way. Therefore. so G9 < A3 . h P G. we explore some group-theoretic properties of the derived subgroup. h] 1 for all g. h P G. h P G)X Then G9 is called the derived subgroup of G. If g (1 2) and h (2 3) then [ g. Hence G9 h(1 2 3)i A3 . h]: g. then G9 < Ker ÷. let G9 be the subgroup of G which is generated by all elements of the form g À1 hÀ1 gh ( g.9 Proposition If ÷ is a linear character of G. so G9 {1}. Then ÷ is a homomorphism from G to the multiplicative group of non-zero complex numbers. Thus G9 h[ g. One step is provided by the following proposition. 17.

~ m .3 they are precisely the irreducible characters ÷ of G . . h]x x À1 g À1 hÀ1 ghx (x À1 gx)À1 (x À1 hx)À1 (x À1 gx)(x À1 hx) [x À1 gx. Theorem 9. Since GaG9 is abelian. we have x À1 (ab)x (x À1 ax)(x À1 bx). b. Proof Let m jGaG9j.8 shows that GaG9 has exactly m irreducible characters ~1 . to prove that G9 v G it is suf®cient by the ®rst sentence to prove that x À1 [ g. 17. . . In particular. Therefore. In particular. .10 that G9 is the smallest normal subgroup of G with abelian factor group. h]x P G9 for all g. j It follows from Proposition 17. x P G. we deduce that GaG9 is abelian. ÷ ÷ The lifts ÷1 .174 Representations and characters of groups 17. and by Theorem 17. ÷ m of these characters to G also have degree 1. Given the derived subgroup G9. Proof (1) Note that for all a. . We have ghgÀ1 hÀ1 P N D Ngh Nhg D (Ng)(Nh) (Nh)(Ng)X Hence G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. and so divides |G|. x À1 hx]X Therefore G9 v G. we can obtain the linear characters of G by applying the next theorem. all of degree 1. h. (2) Let g. the number of distinct linear characters of G is equal to jGaG9j. Since we have proved that G9 v G.10 Proposition Assume that N v G.11 Theorem The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. h] and their inverses. . But x À1 [ g. . h P G. GaG9 is abelian. (2) G9 < N if and only if GaN is abelian. . x P G. (1) G9 v G. and x À1 aÀ1 x (x À1 ax)À1 X Now G9 consists of products of elements of the form [ g.

÷ ~2 (An (1 2)) À1X ÷ Therefore by Theorem 17. we know that S9 An . From the last example. so G9 {1} A n . . G9 contains all 3-cycles and all elements of cycle-shape (2. An (1 2)g C2 . but they can also be used to construct new irreducible characters from old. @ ÷2 ( g) 1. a 3-cycle or an element of cycle-shape (2.11. if g P An X a À1. where ÷ ÷ n ~1 (An (1 2)) 1. ÷ m are therefore all the linear characters of G. the characters ÷1 . k] (1 4)(2 3)X Since G9 v G. We shall show that G9 An . 2). S n has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . then [ g. . ÷2 . as the next result shows.12 Example Let G S n . the group n n S n aS9 has two linear characters ~1 and ~2. so we assume that n > 4. we have G9 < A n by Proposition 17. We have now proved that G9 A n . if g P An . h (2 3) and k (1 2)(3 4). h] (1 2 3).8(2). j 17. all the elements in (1 2 3) G and (1 4)(2 3) G belong to G9. Since Sn aS9 fAn .10(2). [h. Therefore A n < G9. Not only are the linear characters of G important in being irreducible characters. . But every product of two transpositions is equal to the identity. and A n consists of permutations. If n 1 or 2 then S n is abelian. . 2). 17. In view of Proposition 17. As S n aA n C2 . We proved that S9 A3 in Example 3 17. Therefore. .9. If g (1 2). each of which is the product of an even number of transpositions.15. which are given by ÷1 1 Sn .Normal subgroups and lifted characters 175 such that G9 < Ker ÷. by Theorem 12.13 Example We ®nd the linear characters of S n (n > 2).

which is ë( g)÷( g). de®ned by ÷ë( g) ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G) is a character of G. Summary of Chapter 17 1.14 Proposition Suppose that ÷ is a character of G and ë is a linear character of G. C) by g(rë) ë( g)( gr) ( g P G)X Thus g(rë) is the matrix gr multiplied by the complex number ë( g). Hence rë is a representation of G with character ÷ë. ÷ ÷ 2. and is given by ÷( g) ~(Ng) ( g P G).20. . The linear characters of G are precisely the lifts to G of the irreducible characters of GaG9. if ÷ is irreducible. Now for all g P G. the complex number ë( g) is a root of unity. j The general case of a product of two characters will be discussed in Chapter 19. ÷iX jGj gPG By Theorem 14. C) be a representation with character ÷. Therefore 1 h÷ë. Moreover. Then the product ÷ë. Proof Let r: G 3 GL (n. The matrix g(rë) has trace ë( g) tr ( gr). Since r and ë are homomorphisms it follows easily that rë is a homomorphism. so ë( g)ë( g) 1. The character of G which corresponds to the character ~ ÷ of GaN is the lift of ~. Characters of GaN correspond to characters ÷ of G for which N < Ker ÷. The normal subgroups of G can be found from the character table of G. ÷ëi ÷( g)ë( g)÷( g)ë( g) jGj gPG 1 ÷( g)÷( g) h÷. De®ne rë: G 3 GL (n. it follows that ÷ë is irreducible if and only if ÷ is irreducible.176 Representations and characters of groups 17. 3. then so is ÷ë.

(c) Complete the character table of G. What are the sizes of the conjugacy classes of G? 5. a3 1 1 À1 À1 0 b.14 to complete the character table of G. 3. a2 b 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab. 4. (b) Find the conjugacy classes of G. A certain group G of order 12 has precisely six conjugacy classes. Let G Q8 ka. The character table of D8 is as shown (see Example 16. Check that a7 b3 1. Compare your table with the character table of D8 (Example 16. ö with values as follows: g1 ÷ ö 1 2 g2 Ài 0 g3 i 0 g4 1 À1 g5 À1 À1 g6 À1 2 Use Proposition 17. with representatives g1 . and construct all the linear characters of G. Let a and b be the following permutations in S7 : a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. and hence cannot be simple.Normal subgroups and lifted characters Exercises for Chapter 17 177 1.3(3)). Show that every group of order 12 has 3.3(3)): 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 1 1 2 a2 1 1 1 1 À2 a. (a) Find the ®ve conjugacy classes of G. . bÀ1 ab a2 X (a) Show that G has order 21. g6 (where g1 1). b: a4 1. a3 b 1 À1 À1 1 0 . b (2 3 5)(4 7 6)X Let G ka. (c) Find the character table of G. b2 a2 . . . 4 or 12 linear characters. 2. and has irreducible characters ÷. bl. (b) Find G9. .

. the group U6 n ha. as in Proposition 17. The group V8 n ha. You are given that the group T4 n ha. then there is a representation of V8 n over C which sends å 0 0 1 X a3 . aÀ1 ba bÀ1 i has order 6n. b: a2 n b3 1. b: a2 n b4 1. 8. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i has order 4n.5.b3 X 0 å À1 ån 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of T4 n.178 Representations and characters of groups Express each normal subgroup of D8 as an intersection of kernels of irreducible characters. (a) Show that if å is any nth root of unity in C. 6.) (a) Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. (It is known as a dicyclic group. (a) Let ù e2ðia3 . Let n be an odd positive integer.b3 å 0 0 ù2 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of U6 n. For n > 1. an b2 . b: a2 n 1.b3 0 Àå À1 À1 0 (b) Find all the irreducible representations of V8 n . Show that if å is any (2n)th root of unity in C. then there is a representation of U6n over C which sends 0 å ù 0 X a3 . bÀ1 a aÀ1 bi has order 8n. 7. ba aÀ1 bÀ1 . then there is a representation of T4 n over C which sends å 0 0 1 a3 .

Let ÷4 be the character ÷4 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P S4 ) which is given in Proposition 13. 24 4 8 4 179 . ÷3 of S4 by lifting characters of the factor group S4 aV4 . 18.18 Some elementary character tables We now illustrate the techniques we have presented so far by constructing the character tables of several groups. ÷4 i 9 1 1 1 1. and all dihedral groups.14. the product ÷4 ÷2 is also a character of S4 . By Proposition 17. ÷4 and ÷4 ÷2 are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷2 ÷4 ÷4 ÷2 1 24 1 3 3 (1 2) 4 À1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 À1 1 Note that h÷4 . The values of ÷2 .14.24. we produced three irreducible characters ÷1 . ÷2 . to complete the character table of S4 . including the groups S4 and A4 .4. We shall now use Proposition 17. which deals with the product of a character with a linear character.1 The group S4 In Example 17.

14. the alternating group of degree 4. and the sum of the squares of their degrees is 12. Since G has four irreducible characters. It is not dif®cult to con®rm this by showing that . there must be exactly three linear characters of G. The values of í are as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| í 1 12 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 (1 3 2) 3 0 Note that hí. either by using the same calculation or by quoting the result of Proposition 17. Since S4 has ®ve conjugacy classes. and G has four conjugacy classes. Character table of S4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 18. (1 2)(3 4). Thus jGaG9j 3 by Theorem 17. and we have produced ®ve irreducible characters. Let í be the character of A4 given by Proposition 13. Let ÷5 ÷4 ÷2 .11. (1 3 2) (see Example 12.2 The group A4 Let G A4 . 12 4 so í is an irreducible character of G of degree 3. Then |G| 12. íi 9 1 1. as shown. The character ÷4 ÷2 is also irreducible.24.18(1)).180 Representations and characters of groups so ÷4 is irreducible. (1 2 3). so that í( g) |®x ( g)| À 1 for all g P A4 . we have now found the complete character table of S4 . with representatives 1.

Some elementary character tables G9 V4 f1. For each integer j with 1 < j . b: an b2 1. na2. give the complete character table of A4 : Character table of A4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 18. Write å e2ðia n . . G9(1 3 2)g C3. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX We shall derive the character table of G. (1 4)(2 3)gX 181 Now GaG9 fG9. BÀ1 Aj Bj AÀ1 X j j j j It follows that by de®ning r j : G 3 GL(2.3 The dihedral groups Let G be the dihedral group D2 n of order 2n. s P Z). Bj X 1 0 0 åÀ j Check that A n B2 I. and the character table of GaG9 is G9 ~1 ÷ ~2 ÷ ~3 ÷ 1 1 1 G9(1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 G9(1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù ~ ÷ ÷ (where ù e2ðia3 ). C) by (ar bs )r j (Aj ) r (Bj ) s (r. (1 2)(3 4). (1 3)(2 4). de®ne j 0 1 å 0 Aj . together with the character ÷4 í. The lifts of ÷1 . so that G ha. ~2 . ~3 to G. we obtain a representation r j of G for each j with 1 < j . with n > 3. na2. G9(1 2 3).

na2 and 1 < j . X X X .) The character table of D2 n (n odd) is therefore as follows (where å e2ðia n ): gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 øj (1 < j < (n À 1)/2) 1 2n 1 1 2 ar (1 < r < (n À 1)/2) n 1 1 å À jr b 2 1 À1 0 å jr . then å i T å j and å i T å À j . Therefore there is no matrix T with ar i T À1 (ar j )T. We have now constructed distinct irreducible characters ø j of G. ÷2 of G by lifting the irreducible characters of Gahai to G. fas b: 0 < s < n À 1gX Thus there are (n 3)a2 conjugacy classes. The (n À 1)a2 irreducible characters ø1 . and so r i and r j are not equivalent.11. so ar i and ar j have different eigenvalues. If i and j are distinct integers with 1 < i . ÷2 ( g) À1 if g ar b for some rX We have now found all the irreducible characters of D2 n (n odd). ø2 .4. (Incidentally. At this point it is convenient to consider separately the cases where n is odd and where n is even. Case 1: n odd By (12.182 Representations and characters of groups Each r j is an irreducible representation. one for each j which satis®es 1 < j . Since kal v G and Gahai C2. Let ø j be the character of r j . These characters ÷1 and ÷2 are given by ÷1 1 G and & 1 if g ar for some r. we obtain two linear characters ÷1 . na2. in view of 2 Theorem 17. ø( nÀ1)a2 each have degree 2. there are two more to be found. we have proved that D9 n kal for n odd. far . aÀ r g(1 < r < (n À 1)a2). either by the proof of Example 5.5(2) or by applying the result of Exercise 8.11) the conjugacy classes of D2 n (n odd) are f1g. na2. As G has (n 3)/2 irreducible characters in all.

fam g. and we shall construct the character table of G. say n 2m. ha2 iabg C2 3 C2 X Therefore G has four linear characters ÷1 .4 Another group of order 12 We shall now describe a non-abelian group G of order 12 which is not isomorphic to either A4 or D12. we ®rst note that ha2 i fa j : j eveng is a normal subgroup of G and Gaha2 i fha2 i. ø2 . ÷3 .Some elementary character tables 183 Case 2: n even If n is even. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (1 < j < m À 1) 1 2n 1 1 1 1 2 am 2n 1 1 (À1) m (À1) m 2(À1) j a r (1 < r < m À 1) n 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r jr å å À jr b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 18. then the conjugacy classes of D2 n.12). they are easy to calculate. ÷2 . å e2ðia n ). Since these linear characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of G/ka2 l. It is in fact known that every non-abelian group of order . of which m À 1 are given by ø1 . as supplied by (12. fas b: s oddgX Hence G has m 3 irreducible characters. are f1g. aÀ r g(1 < r < m À 1). X X X . fas b: s eveng. and their values appear in the following complete character table of D2 n (n even. n 2m. far . ø mÀ1 X To ®nd the remaining four irreducible characters. ha2 ib. ÷4 (and G9 ka2 l). ha2 ia.

ha2 ib. a subgroup of S12 . CG (a3 ) G. we have Gaha2 i C4 . a the group G has at least 12 elements. CG (b) f1. a2 . a3 bgX These. ar b (0 < r < 5)X Check that a and b satisfy a6 1. b (1 7 4 10)(2 12 5 9)(3 11 6 8). but we shall not prove this result here. and Gaha2 i fha2 i. we obtain the linear characters ÷1 . a2 b. Let a and b be the following permutations in S12 : a (1 2 3 4 5 6)(7 8 9 10 11 12). and let G ka. aÀ2 } {b. ÷4 of G given below: . ha2 ia. ÷3 . ha2 iabgX Since ka2 la ka2 lb2 .184 Representations and characters of groups 12 is isomorphic to A4 . bl. ÷2 . and so |G| 12. a3 . b. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 X It follows from these relations that every element of G has the form ar bs with 0 < r < 5. a3 b2 . help us to ®nd the conjugacy classes of G. Since a has order 6 and b P kal. The relations further imply that CG (a) hai. and similar facts. which are tabulated below: Conjugacy class {1} {a3 } {a. By lifting the irreducible characters of C4 to G. a4 b} {ab. namely ar . a3 b. a5 b} Representative gi 1 a3 a a2 b ab |CG ( gi )| 12 12 6 6 4 4 Therefore G has six irreducible characters. a4 } v G. aÀ1 } {a2 . 0 < s < 1 as given above. D12 or G. Observe that ka2 l {1.

respectively. By the column orthogonality relations applied to columns 1 and 2. 2á5 À 2â5 0. 4 2á3 À 2â3 0. â r taken by the last two irreducible characters ÷5 . so we can solve them for á r and â r . 2á5 2â5 0. 1 1 4 á2 â2 12. â1 are positive integers. For this. also a3 is an element of order 2. 2á6 2â6 0. 4 2á4 2â4 0. the column orthogonality relations 6 i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 1 ) 0 and 6 i1 ÷ i ( g r )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 now give us two equations involving 2á r 2â r and 2á r À 2â r . we have 4 á2 â2 12. we may take á2 2 and â2 À2.4(2). â1 are the degrees of ÷5 .10. ÷6 . Explicitly: r 3: r 4: r 5: r 6: 2á3 2â3 0. The other two equations then imply that á2 Àâ2 Æ2. Since we have not yet distinguished between ÷5 and ÷6 . For r . so á2 and â2 are integers by Corollary 13. so they are positive integers. 2 2 á1 á2 â1 â2 0X Since á1 . 2á4 À 2â4 0. 2á6 À 2â6 0X . Observe that á1 . the ®rst equation gives á1 â1 2. we shall use the column orthogonality relations. Theorem 16. ÷6 . 2.Some elementary character tables gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 á1 â1 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 á2 â2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 á3 â3 a2 6 1 1 1 1 á4 â4 b 4 1 i À1 Ài á5 â5 185 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i á6 â6 It remains to ®nd the values á r .

1. â5 0. á4 À1. Section 18. â3 1. Section 18.186 Hence Representations and characters of groups á3 À1. as follows. â4 À1. 2.6. â6 0X The complete character table of G is therefore as follows: gi CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 a 6 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 ab 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 We can deduce that G is not isomorphic to A4 or D12 from the fact that the character table of G is different from those of A4 and D12.1: the group S4 . (In fact.2: the group A4 . it is not hard to construct the representations of the above group G with characters ÷5 and ÷6 ± see Exercise 17. without constructing the corresponding CG-modules.3: the dihedral groups. á5 0. and illustrates the fact that it is usually much easier to construct an irreducible character of a group than to obtain an irreducible representation. 3.) Summary of Chapter 18 In this chapter we gave the character tables of various groups. This is typical of more advanced calculations. Section 18. It is instructive to note that we produced the last two irreducible characters of G by simply using the orthogonality relations. . á6 0.

) 4. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i.6. (Hint: use the result of Exercise 17. Let G U6 n ka. and show that all its entries are integers. an b2 . Use the character table to ®nd seven distinct normal subgroups of D12. b: a2n b3 1. Find the character table of G. with n odd. b: a2n b4 1.5. Regard D8 as a subgroup of S4 permuting the four corners of a square. as in Exercise 17. Let G V8 n ha. 5. aÀ1 ba bÀ1 l. as in Exercise 17. and express ð as a sum of irreducible characters.6. bÀ1 a aÀ1 bi. b: a2 n 1. (Hint: use Proposition 17. .8. Let ð be the corresponding permutation character of D8. Write down explicitly the character table of D12. Find the character table of G.7.1(3). Find the values of ð on the elements of D8. 2. as in Exercise 17.) 3.Some elementary character tables Exercises for Chapter 18 187 1. ba aÀ1 bÀ1 . as in Example 1. Find the character table of G. Let G T 4n ha. It is a good idea to do the cases n odd and n even separately.

and more generally ÷ 3 . . and it can be extended to include the product of any pair of characters ÷ and ø. so we consider the character ÷ 2 . then the degrees of ÷. we have a chance of getting a large proportion of the character table of G from just one non-linear character ÷ of G. At the end of the chapter. . respectively. called the tensor product of V and W. ÷ 4 . We shall illustrate this by constructing the character tables of S5 and S6 . products of characters provide a very good source of new characters from given ones. we introduce a symbol v i wj. For each i. . but a little ingenuity is required in order to justify the conclusion that the product ÷ø is a character of G. . Potentially. . wn . then. ÷ 2 . which has character ÷ø.19 Tensor products The idea of multiplying a character of a group G by a linear character of G was introduced at the end of Chapter 17. . j with 1 < i < m. we apply tensor products in a different way. and by taking successive powers of ÷ we obtain arbitrarily many new characters. The value of the product ÷ø on an element g of G is simply ÷( g)ø( g). given those of G and H. increase. The tensor product space V W is de®ned to be the mn-dimensional vector space over C with a basis given by 188 . If ÷ is not linear. and to put them together to form a new CG-module. v m and w1 . to ®nd all the irreducible characters of a direct product G 3 H. . Tensor product spaces Let V and W be vector spaces over C with bases v1 . It is therefore straightforward to calculate the product. and indeed. X X X . An important special case of the product ÷ø occurs when ÷ ø. The plan is to take CG-modules V and W with characters ÷ and ø respectively. and so on. 1 < j < n.

19. w P W and ë P C. ë(v w) ë i. xa P V and y1. then v (ëw) (ëv) w ë(v w)X (2) If x1 . it is impossible to express v1 w1 v2 w2 in the form v w. j (ëv) w 2 i 3 ëë i v i 2 j 3 ì jw j i. . For instance. j i. . because this is not the case. j 189 w n j1 ì j wj For example. . then 2 a 3 H b I xi d yj e xi yj X i1 j1 i.1 Proposition (1) If v P V. . . . j i. j ë i ì j (v i wj ) ëë i ì j (v i wj )X . j ëë i ì j (v i wj ). we de®ne v w P V W by vw ë i ì j (v i wj )X i.Tensor products fv i wj : 1 < i < m. ì j P C). (2v1 À v2 ) (w1 w2 ) 2v1 w1 2v1 w2 À v2 w1 À v2 w2 X Do not be misled by the notation into believing that every element of V W has the form v w. Then j1 2 3 2 3 v (ëw) ëi vi ëì j w j ëë i ì j (v i wj ). j m Proof (1) Let v i1 ë i v i and w n ì j w j. . i j i. 1 < j < ngX Thus V W consists of all expressions of the form ë ij (v i wj ) (ë ij P C)X m For v P V and w P W with v i1 ë i v i and (ë i . yb P W. .

Proof Write vi m k1 ë ik ek . fn is a basis of W. we have v i wj ë ik ì jl (ek f l )X k. X X X . and we leave it as an exercise. w n. . . . . so we are now in a position to de®ne the tensor product of two CG-modules. 1 < l < n) V W has dimension mn.1. and hence span V W. . We know that the elements v i wj (1 < i < m. Since elements ek fl are v i wj (1 < i < m.190 Representations and characters of groups Therefore v (ëw) (ëv) w ë(v w). 1 < j < n) are a basis of the mn elements ek fl (1 < k < m. Tensor product modules We have introduced the tensor product of two vector spaces. . . l Now the elements V W . . 1 < j < ng give a basis of V W. The proof of part (2) is equally straightforward. 1 < j < n) give a basis of V W. . 19. . respectively. The multiplication of v i wj by an element of . v m and w1 . .2 Proposition If e1 . j Our construction of V W depended upon choosing a basis of V and a basis of W at the beginning. then the elements in fei f j : 1 < i < m. it follows that the also a basis of V W. the next proposition shows that other bases of V and W work equally well. Let G be a ®nite group and let V and W be CG-modules with bases v1 . em is a basis of V and f1 . ì jl P C)X Then by Proposition 19. wj n l1 ì jl f l (ë ik . .

j for arbitrary complex numbers ë ij .3 De®nition Let g P G. de®ne (v i wj ) g v i g w j g and. makes the vector space V W into a CGmodule. j. j ë i ì j (v i g wj g) 3 ëivi g 2 j j i 3 ì j wj g by Proposition 19X1 v g wgX You should be warned that (v w)r T vr wr for most elements r in CG. more generally. we have (v w) g v g wgX Proof Let v ë i v i and w n ì j wj. For example. which is then extended linearly to a multiplication on the whole of V W. 19. given in De®nition 19. 19.5 Proposition The rule for multiplying an element of V W by an element of G.Tensor products 191 G is de®ned in the following simple way. let 2 3 ë ij (v i wj ) g ë ij (v i g wj g) i.4 Proposition For all v P V. j i. j m 2 i. . Then j1 2 3 (v w) g ë i ì j (v i wj ) g by Proposition 19X1 i1 i. For all i.3. 19. w P W and all g P G. consider what happens when r is a scalar multiple of g.

. if ö is the character of V W then . and by Proposition 19. Then ÷( g) ë i . Then the character of the CG-module V W is the product character ÷ø. and V W is a CG-module. these vectors ei fj form a basis of V W. em of V and a basis f1 . . fn of W such that ei g ë i e i (1 < i < m) and f j g ì j f j m i1 n j1 (1 < j < n) for some complex numbers ë i . .11 we can choose a basis e1 . (ei f j ) g ei g f j g ë i ì j (ei f j ). Hence. j We now calculate the character of V W. and g. 19. respectively. and 2 i. . h P G. j by Proposition 19X4 3 ë ij (v i wj ) g ë ij ((v i wj ) g)X i.6 Proposition Let V and W be CG-modules with characters ÷ and ø.192 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let 1 < i < m. (v i wj )( gh) v i ( gh) wj ( gh) (v i g)h (wj g)h (v i g wj g)h ((v i wj ) g)h. j Therefore all the conditions of Proposition 4.2. By Proposition 9. . where ÷ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) for all g P GX Proof Let g P G.6 are ful®lled. . . ø( g) ì jX Now for 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. Then (v i wj ) g v i g wj g P V W . 1 < j < n. . ì j . (v i wj )1 v i wj .

We reproduce it here. we de®ne ÷ n by ÷ n ( g) (÷( g)) n 0 for all g P GX Thus ÷ 1 G . j i j 193 as required. Ker {1}). the powers of ÷ carry a lot of information about the whole character table of G. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷4 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 6 9 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 We see that ÷3 ÷4 ÷4 ÷5 .1. An inductive proof using Corollary 19. 19.Tensor products 2 32 3 ö( g) ëi ì j ëi ì j ÷( g)ø( g). . as can be seen from Theorem 19. More generally.7 Corollary The product of two characters of G is again a character of G.8 Example The character table of S4 was given in Section 18. the product of ÷ with itself. and calculate ÷3 ÷4 and ÷4 ÷4 . where ÷ 2 ÷÷. j 19. for every nonnegative integer n.7 shows that if ÷ is a character of G then so is ÷ 2 . and ÷4 ÷4 ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 X Powers of characters Corollary 19.7 shows that ÷ n is a character of G. When ÷ is a faithful character (that is.10 below. i.

x rÀ1 in Ä is Æ1. . xr are indeterminates. we must take x1 from the rÀ2 ®rst row of the matrix. x2 from the second row. . then the matrix rÀ1 I á2 X X X á1 1 rÀ1 á2 X X X á2 g g 2 g X XXX X e á2 r XXX á rÀ1 r ár 3 (x2 À x3 ) X X X (x2 À xr ) F F F 3 (x rÀ1 À xr )X rÀ1 rÀ2 Now the coef®cient of x1 x2 X X Xx rÀ1 in this product is 1: for in the rÀ1 way we have displayed the product. (19. so Ä 0.10. It follows that Ä is divisible by (xi À x j ) (x1 À x2 )(x1 À x3 ) X X X (x1 À xr ) i.9) If á1 . On the other hand. and so on. We ®rst sketch a proof of this result.194 Representations and characters of groups In the course of the proof of Theorem 19. . and so on. Hence rÀ1 rÀ2 the coef®cient of x1 x2 . to obtain x1 x2 X X X x rÀ1 rÀ1 in the expansion of the determinant Ä. . we shall need the following result concerning the so-called `Vandermonde matrix'. x2 must come from all the factors in the rÀ1 rÀ2 second row. . . . j . j complex numbers. the term x1 must come from all rÀ2 the factors in the ®rst row. á r are distinct H 1 á1 f1 á 2 f Af dX X 1 is invertible. and consider H rÀ1 I 1 x1 x2 X X X x1 1 f 1 x x2 X X X x rÀ1 g 2 f g 2 2 Ä detf gX dX X X XXX X e 1 xr x2 r XXX x rÀ1 r If i T j and xi xj then two rows of the given matrix are equal. It follows that ÄÆ (xi À xj )X i. . . Suppose that x1 . .

Proof Let the r values taken by ÷ be á1 . As ÷ is faithful. h÷ j . (2) Let G S4 . and b T 0 since â1 T 0. Then for all j > 0. Let ÷ ÷4 . øi r 1 1 (÷( g)) j ø( g) (á i ) j â i X jGj gPG jGj i1 Let A be the r 3 r matrix with ij-entry (á i ) jÀ1 .11 Examples (1) If G T {1} and ÷ is the regular character of G. . For 1 < i < r. and refer to Example 19. ÷ rÀ1 . then ÷( g) takes just two different values (see Proposition 13.Tensor products 195 To obtain (19. . . and thus h÷ j . Now let ø be an irreducible character of G. by Theorem 10. Then every irreducible character of G is a constituent of one of the powers ÷ 0 . But the ( j 1)th entry in the row vector bA is equal to jGjh÷ j . Then ÷( g) takes four different values. hence bA T 0.10 Theorem Let ÷ be a faithful character of G.9).8. and for 1 < i < r. and let b be the row vector which is given by b (â1 . øi. ÷ 1 . we know this already. . de®ne Gi f g P G: ÷( g) á i gX Take á1 ÷(1).9). øi T 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. j 19.20). let âi ø( g). as we wished to prove. . we substitute á i for xi (1 < i < r). We must show that h÷ j . gPG i and note that â1 ø(1) T 0. . so that G1 Ker ÷. á r .10 says that every irreducible character of G is a constituent of 1 G or ÷. â r )X Now A is invertible by (19. We have seen that ÷ 2 ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 . G1 {1}. and suppose that ÷( g) takes precisely r different values as g varies over all the elements of G. . X X X . . and deduce that the matrix A is invertible since its determinant is non-zero.5. 19. øi T 0 for some j with 0 < j < r À 1. so Theorem 19.

. just ÷ 2 . ÷ 3 (indeed. w P V. ÷ 2 . By Proposition 19. j and extending linearly ± that is. 2 3 ë ij (v i v j ) T ë ij (v j v i )X i. Since T is linear. The subspace S(V V) is called the symmetric part of V V.6. ÷2 i 1X and we ®nd that Thus ÷ 0 . This special case is particularly useful in ®nding irreducible characters. . . it is easy to see that S(V V) and A(V V) are subspaces of V V (indeed. illustrating Theorem 19. ÷ 3 ) have between them as constituents all the irreducible characters ÷1 . in this case. we have (v w)T w vX Hence T is independent of the choice of basis. V V S(V V ) È A(V V )X . A(V V ) fx P V V : xT Àxg. it is of some importance to be able to decompose powers of a character ÷ into sums of irreducible characters. and de®ne a linear transformation T: V V 3 V V by (v i v j )T v j v i for all i. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. they are eigenspaces of T). the square of ÷. ÷5 of G. . . Also. as we shall see. Now de®ne subsets of V V as follows: S(V V ) fx P V V : xT xg. Let v1 . . .10. v n be a basis of V.12 Proposition The subspaces S(V V) and A(V V) are CG-submodules of V V. j Check that for all v. . Decomposing ÷ 2 In view of Theorem 19.10. j i. We are going to provide a method for decomposing ÷ 2 . ÷ 1 . and the subspace A(V V ) is known as the antisymmetric part of V V. the module V V has character ÷ 2 .196 Representations and characters of groups h÷ 3 . 19.

(1) The vectors v i v j v j v i (1 < i < j < n) form a basis of S(V V ). while the antisymmetric part of V V contains all vectors of the form v w À w v. .13 Proposition Let v1 . w P V. . v n be a basis of V. j ë ij (v i g v j g)T 3 ë ij (v i v j ) gT X 2 i. so x 0. . so xg P S(V V) and yg P A(V V). j i. We now present bases of the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of V V which consist of elements like these. j < n) form a basis of A(V V). j 197 i. The dimension of S(V V ) is n(n 1)a2. 1 2(x xT ) P S(V V ) and 1 2(x À xT ) P j V V S(V V ) È A(V V )X Note that the symmetric part of V V contains all vectors which have the form v w w v with v. we have (xg)T (xT ) g xg. Thus S(V V) and A(V V) are CG-submodules of V V. j Therefore T is a CG-homomorphism from V V to itself. 19.Tensor products Proof For all ë ij P C and g P G. . for x P S(V V). 2 3 ë ij (v i v j ) Tg ë ij (v j g v i g) i. y P A(V V) and g P G. Hence. Further. and ( yg)T ( yT ) g À yg. Therefore. If x P S(V V) A(V V) then x xT Àx. A(V V ). . The dimension of A(V V ) is n(n À 1)a2. (2) The vectors v i v j À v j v i (1 < i . for all x P V we have x 1(x xT ) 1(x À xT )X 2 2 Since T 2 is the identity.

j i i. which implies that ÷ S ( g) ÷ 2 ( g) À ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 ))X 2 j . and the vectors v i v j À v j v i (1 < i . dim S(V V ) dim A(V V ) dim V V n2 X Hence the above inequalities are equalities. Hence dim S(V V ) > n(n 1)a2. and 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Proof By Proposition 9. Then (ei ej À ej ei ) g ë i ë j (ei ej À ej ei ). we have ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )).12. By Proposition 19. en of V such that e i g ë i e i (1 < i < n) for some complex numbers ë i . . ÷2 ÷S ÷ AX The next result gives the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A . and ÷ A to be the character of the CG-module A(V V ).13(2). and the result follows. . ÷ 2 ÷ S ÷ A .11 we can choose a basis e1 . j dim A(V V ) > n(n À 1)a2X De®ne ÷ S to be the character of the CG-module S(V V ). By Proposition 19. ÷ A ( g) ëi ë j X Now e i g so ÷( g) i ë i and ÷( g2 ) i ë2 . and hence from Proposition 19. j < n) are linearly independent elements of A(V V ).198 Representations and characters of groups Proof Clearly the vectors v i v j v j v i (1 < i < j < n) are linearly independent elements of S(V V ).12. i i. 19. j Hence ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 Also. . Therefore i 2 ÷ 2 ( g) (÷( g))2 ëi 2 ë i ë j ÷( g 2 ) 2÷ A ( g)X 2 ë2 ei. .14 Proposition For g P G.

19.15 Example Let G S4 . The values of ÷. We illustrate this strategy with two examples. obtained by lifting the irreducible characters of GaG9.8. the symmetric group of degree 5. (2) If ø is a new character found in (1). then form ø S and ø A and repeat. G has conjugacy class representatives gi .13. and the values of ÷ S and ÷ A .16(4). The character table of G is given in Example 19. G9 A5 and G has exactly two linear characters ÷1 . The strategy is simple: (1) Given a character ÷. conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders |CG ( gi )| as follows: gi Class size |CG ( gi )| 1 1 120 (1 2) 10 12 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 20 15 30 20 24 6 8 4 6 5 Thus G has exactly seven irreducible characters. By Example 12. The techniques which we have developed so far give a useful method for ®nding new irreducible characters of a group.16 Example The character table of S5 Let G S5 . ÷2 . appear below. and use inner products to analyse ÷ S and ÷ A for new irreducible characters. form ÷ S and ÷ A . given one or two irreducible characters to start with. We have .Tensor products 199 19. gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷S ÷A 1 24 3 6 3 (1 2) 4 1 2 À1 (1 2 3) 3 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 8 À1 2 À1 (1 2 3 4) 4 À1 0 1 We ®nd that ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ÷4 and ÷ A ÷5 . Let ÷ ÷4 . (a) Linear characters By Example 17. given by Proposition 19.14.

200 Representations and characters of groups & ÷2 ( g) ÷1 1 G . By Proposition 19.20. Next. Proposition 17. if g is an odd permutationX Proposition 13. À1.14 shows that ÷4 ÷3 ÷2 is also an irreducible character.24 gives us a character ÷3 (b) Permutation character of G with values Observe that h÷3 . . At this point we have the following portion of the character table of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 120 1 1 4 4 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 À1 (c) Tensor products We now use tensor products to construct the last three irreducible characters of G.14 the values of the characters ÷ S and ÷ A are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷S ÷A 1 120 10 6 (1 2) 12 4 0 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 0 2 À2 0 0 1 0 0 1 Thus. Write ÷ ÷3 . and 1. ÷3 i ÷3 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 ( g P G)X 42 22 12 (À1)2 (À1)2 1X 120 12 6 6 5 Hence ÷3 is irreducible. if g is an even permutation. by Theorem 14.

it is convenient to label each conjugacy class by the cycle-shape of its elements. 120 12 6 8 6 h÷ S . ÷3 i À 1.Tensor products h÷ A . 10 4 1 2 1 1. We have now found all seven irreducible characters of S5 . which we call ÷5 . Character table of S5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 120 1 1 4 4 6 5 5 (1 2) 12 1 À1 2 À2 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4) (1 2 3)(4 5) (1 2 3 4 5) 6 8 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 À2 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 19. ÷ A i 36 4 1 1. Next. 120 12 6 8 6 40 8 1 1 h÷ S . The character table of S5 is as shown. For ease of printing. 120 8 5 201 and so ÷ A is a new irreducible character. we use techniques similar to those of the previous example to ®nd 8 of the 11 irreducible characters of the symmetric group S6 . where ø is an irreducible character of degree 5. ÷7 ÷6 ÷2 is a different irreducible character of degree 5. Let ÷6 ø. so that ÷6 ÷ S À ÷1 À ÷3 . we then ®nd the last three irreducible characters by using the orthogonality relations. Finally. ÷ S i 3. and 120 12 6 6 100 16 1 4 1 h÷ S .17 Example The character table of S6 In this example. of order 720. ÷1 i Therefore. Let G S6 . Using . ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ø.

. ÷3 i 1.2) 6 0 1 À1 (5) 5 0 0 0 (2. h÷ S . Let ÷ ÷3 .2. À1. ÷1 i 1.2) 16 1 3 À2 (4) 8 1 1 0 (3. if g is odd ( g P G) is a character of G. the derived subgroup is An .13).3) (4.3) (4.2) (5) (2. ÷3 i 1.24. where & ÷2 ( g) (see Example 17. the conjugacy class sizes and centralizer orders are as follows (see Exercise 12.2) 45 16 (4) 90 8 (3. and we get exactly two linear characters ÷1 and ÷2 . (b) Permutation character and tensor products is given by ÷3 ( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 The function ÷3 which ÷1 1 G . ÷ S i 3X h÷ A . ÷ S and ÷ A are as follows: Class |CG ( gi )| ÷ ÷3 ÷S ÷A (1) (2) 720 48 5 15 10 3 7 2 (3) 18 2 3 1 (2.2) (3. (a) Linear characters As with all symmetric groups Sn (n > 2). ÷ A i 1.2) (6) 120 144 15 40 90 120 6 5 48 18 8 6 Since G has 11 conjugacy classes. h÷ S . The values of ÷.2) (6) 48 18 8 6 À1 3 À2 À1 0 1 À1 1 0 À1 0 1 We calculate that h÷3 . 1. h÷ S .2.3): Cycle-shape Class size |CG ( gi )| (1) (2) 1 15 720 48 (3) 40 18 (2.2) (3. by Proposition 13. it has 11 irreducible characters. if g is even.202 Representations and characters of groups this notation.

. as is ÷6 ÷5 ÷2 . but for the moment we know for certain only that ÷( g) is an integer if g2 1 (see Corollary 13.Tensor products 203 Therefore ÷3 is irreducible.3) (4. It will be shown later (Corollary 22. Further. Finally. ÷8 are recorded in the following portion of the character table of G.10). where ÷7 is another irreducible character. of degree 9. so is ÷4 ÷3 ÷2 . Ingeniously. Also.10 we know that ÷(s) and ÷(t) are integers for all characters ÷ of G. ÷ S ÷1 ÷3 ÷7 .2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 (2. respectively. The irreducible characters ÷1 . From Corollary 13.2) (3. . Thus the conjugacy classes of s and t correspond to the second and fourth columns of the character table. ÷5 ÷ A is irreducible. . ÷10 and ÷11 . so that we can guarantee that the solutions to the equations which we deal with are integers.2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 (3. . Let s denote the permutation (1 2) and t denote the permutation (1 2)(3 4). in the ordering which we have adopted. Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 (2.2. we call the three irreducible characters of G which have yet to be found ÷9 . It is therefore convenient ®rst to concentrate on elements of order 2.2) (6) 48 18 8 6 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 (c) Orthogonality relations We now use the column orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. The column orthogonality relations give 11 i1 ÷ i (s)2 48X . ÷8 ÷7 ÷2 is also irreducible.16) that all the entries in the character tables of all symmetric groups are integers.

d 2 e 2 f 2 2.2) d e f The column orthogonality relations give 11 i1 11 i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i (s) 0. d. that ÷9 (s)2 ÷10 (s)2 1. ÷9 ÷2 ÷10 X Once more. 11 i1 11 i1 ÷ i (s)÷ i (t) 0. we lose no generality in assuming that ÷9 (s) 1. ÷11 (s)2 0X Now ÷9 ÷2 is an irreducible character. . e. since ÷9 ÷2 (s) À÷9 (s). ÷8 . we see that ÷9 ÷2 is not ÷9 or ÷11 . ÷ i (1)÷ i (t) 0. 10. Moreover. we aim to evaluate the integers a. a b 5X . whence a À b 0. f in the following portion of the character table: Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) a b c s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2. 0 and b . f 0. without loss of generality. ÷ i (t)÷ i (t) 16. . 11. ad be cf 10X The only solution to these equations in integers with a . and is not equal to any of ÷1 . ÷10 (s) À1X The plan is now to ®nd ÷ i (1) and ÷ i (t) for i 9. . Therefore. 0 is d e 1. .204 Hence Representations and characters of groups ÷9 (s)2 ÷10 (s)2 ÷11 (s)2 2X We can assume. d À e 0. c. That is. b.

with basis v1 . and let W be a . we ®nd that the complete character table of S6 is as shown. since the column orthogonality relations will give three independent equations in these unknowns (as the above 3 3 3 matrix is invertible).2) 48 1 À1 À1 1 À2 2 3 À3 À3 3 0 (3.2. Having done these calculations. given the character tables of G and H.2) (6) 18 8 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 2 2 À2 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 0 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 Direct products We conclude the chapter by showing that tensor products can be used to determine the character table of a direct product G 3 H. . .2) 16 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 1 1 1 1 0 (4) 8 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 0 (3.2) 1 1 0 We can now determine the three unknown entries in each further column.3) (4.2) 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 0 0 1 À1 0 (5) 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 (2. v m . we ®nd that c 16 by using the relation 11 i1 205 ÷ i (1)2 720X The above portion of the character table is therefore Element Class ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 (1) 5 5 16 s (2) 1 À1 0 t (2. Let V be a CG-module. . . Character table of S6 Class |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 (1) (2) 720 48 1 1 5 5 10 10 9 9 5 5 16 1 À1 3 À3 2 À2 3 À3 1 À1 0 (3) 18 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 À1 À1 À2 (2.Tensor products Finally.

de®ne (v i wj )( g. h P H. ÷ k 3 ÷ l i G3 H 1 ÷ i ( g)ø j (h)÷ k ( g)ø l (h) jG 3 Hj gPG 2 3 32 1 1 ÷ i ( g)÷ k ( g) ø j (h)ø l (h) jGj gPG j Hj hP H hP H h÷ i . that is. G and H.5 shows that V W is a C(G 3 H)-module. Let ÷ be the character of V and ø be the character of W. k. h) ë ij (v i g wj h)X i. we have (x. . y) (x À1 gx.6. h P H)X 19. 2 3 ë ij (v i wj ) ( g. y)À1 ( g. y P H. we ®nd that (v w)( g. j i.18 Theorem Let ÷1 . with basis w1. ø b be the distinct irreducible characters of H. . . . where (÷ 3 ø)( g. . . By the proof of Proposition 19. j. h) v g wh. h÷ i 3 ø j .206 Representations and characters of groups C H-module. for ë ij P C. For all i. . . . and all g P G.) Thus the ab characters ÷ i 3 ø j are distinct and irreducible. G and H indicate inner products of characters of G 3 H. ÷ k i G hø j . w P W. 1 < j < b)X Proof For all i. Next. note that for all g. . ø l i H ä ik ä jl X (Here the subscripts G 3 H. Then G 3 H has precisely ab distinct irreducible characters. Then a proof similar to that of Proposition 19. . l. wn.4. y À1 hy)X . h) v i g wj h and extend this de®nition linearly to the whole of V W. ÷ a be the distinct irreducible characters of G and let ø1 . j with 1 < i < m and 1 < j < n. respectively. for all v P V. h)(x. and these are ÷ i 3 ø j (1 < i < a. the character of V W is ÷ 3 ø. . x P G and h. j As in Proposition 19. h) ÷( g)ø(h) ( g P G.

1) (1. À1) ((1 2). We reproduce it here. hj ) |CG3 H ( g i . ((1 2). then the elements ( g i .3(1). À1) 12 4 6 12 4 6 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 . Character table of S3 3 C2 ( gi . and by Theorem 19. Character table of S3 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 6 1 1 2 (1 2) 2 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 Character table of C2 hi |CH (hi )| ø1 ø2 1 2 1 1 À1 2 1 À1 The conjugacy classes of S3 3 C2 are represented by (1. ((1 2 3). . 1 < j < b) are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G 3 H. ((1 2 3). 1) ((1 2). 1). À1). .18. G 3 H has exactly ab irreducible characters. G 3 H has precisely ab conjugacy classes.Tensor products 207 Hence elements ( g. 1) ((1 2 3). In particular. the character table of S3 3 C2 is as shown.19 Example The character table of S3 3 C2 The character table of S3 ( D6 ) is given in Example 16. À1). . . 1).3. 1). hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ø1 ø1 ø1 ø2 ø2 ø2 (1. j 19. À1) ((1 2 3). À1). (1. hb are representatives of the conjugacy classes of H. . By Theorem 15. . so the irreducible characters ÷ i 3 ø j which we have found must be all the irreducible characters of G 3 H. alongside the character table of C2 . h9) of G 3 H are conjugate if and only if the elements g and g9 are conjugate in G and the elements h and h9 are conjugate in H. . ga are representatives of the conjugacy classes of G and h1 . h) and ( g9. Consequently. if g1 . hj ) (1 < i < a. . ((1 2).

ø and ö be characters of the group G. If ÷ is a character of G. 1 G i 0. øl 0 for all integers n with n > 0. öi h÷. The values of ÷ 3 ø are given by (÷ 3 ø)( g. Show that h÷ø. 3. Prove that & 1.13 of the next chapter we shall show that there exist irreducible characters ÷ and ö of A5 which take the following values: . h÷ø.10. ÷öiX 2.208 Representations and characters of groups Compare the solution to Exercise 18. then so are ÷ S and ÷ A . Let ÷. Summary of Chapter 19 1. if ÷ ø. øöi hø.5 shows that D12 S3 3 C2 ). 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 )) 2 for all g P G. h P H. (This shows that the hypothesis that ÷ is faithful cannot be dropped from Theorem 19. Exercises for Chapter 19 1. where ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). Let ÷ be a character of G which is not faithful. if ÷ T øX 3. where we give the character table of D12 (Exercise 1. The irreducible characters of G 3 H are those characters ÷ 3 ø. Suppose that ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of G. h) ÷( g)ø(h) for all g P G. Show that there is some irreducible character ø of G such that k÷ n .2. 2. In Example 20. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ø is an irreducible character of H. The product of any two characters of G is a character of G.) 4.

5. . ÷ A . . g2 . G has a character ÷ with values as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷ g1 24 2 g2 24 À2 g3 4 0 g4 6 Àù2 g5 6 Àù g6 6 ù g7 6 ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . g4 . . Moreover. . g2 are con1 2 3 4 5 6 7 jugate to g1 . Write down the character table of D6 3 D6. g2 . ®nd the character table of G. ø5 of A5 which are given in Example 20. ö S and ö A . g2 . g2 . g2 . further.Tensor products 1 ÷ ö 5 3 (1 2 3) À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) (1 0 p 5)a2 (1 3 4 5 2) (1 À 0 p 5)a2 209 Calculate the values of ÷ S . g2 . g2 . By forming products of the irreducible characters found so far. . . g1 . respectively. 6. Find ÷ S and ÷ A . and show that both are irreducible. g5 . Express these characters as linear combinations of the irreducible characters ø1 . g7 . g4 . A certain group G or order 24 has precisely seven conjugacy classes with representatives g1 .13. . g5 . . .

and illustrate its use. This simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module is known as restricting from G to H. and call it the restriction of V to H. since properties (1)±(5) of De®nition 4. then f 5 H denotes the restriction of f to H (so that ( f 5 H)(h) f (h) for all h P H). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. h P H if they hold for all g.1 Example Let G D8 ka.20 Restriction to a subgroup In this chapter and the next. v2 b Àv2 X 210 . Here. We apply this result in the situation where H is of index 2 in G. As in Example 4. Restriction Let H be a subgroup of the ®nite group G.8 gives important information in this case.5(1). If V is a CG-module then we write the corresponding C H-module as V 5 H.2 certainly hold for all g. Then C H is a subset of CG. we are going to look at ways of relating the representations of a group to the representations of its subgroups. let V be the CG-module with basis v1 . 20. and Clifford's Theorem 20. h P G. More generally. The character of V 5 H is obtained from the character ÷ of V by evaluating ÷ on the elements of H only. v2 a Àv1 . then V is also a C H-module. b: a4 b2 1. for example. which occurs. The case where H is a normal subgroup of G is of particular interest. when G S n and H A n . v2 for which v1 a v2 . v1 b v1 . if f: G 3 C is any function. we introduce the elementary idea of restricting a CG-module to a subgroup H of G. and refer to it as the restriction of ÷ to H. We write this character of H as ÷ 5 H. If V is a CG-module.

if V 5 H is an irreducible C H-module then V is an irreducible CG-module.2 Example Let G S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G consisting of all even permutations of {1. it might be the case that V is an irreducible CG-module while V 5 H is not an irreducible C H-module. Example 20. On the other hand. then U 5 H is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. By 18. v2 for which v1 a2 Àv1 . for if U is a CG-submodule of V. v2 b Àv2 X and the character ÷ 5 H of V 5 H is given by h ÷(h) 1 2 a2 À2 b 0 a2 b 0 If V is a CG-module and H is a subgroup of G. The character ÷ of V is given by g ÷( g) 1 2 a 0 a2 À2 a3 0 b 0 ab 0 a2 b 0 a3 b 0 v1 b v1 . a2 . 20. v2 a2 Àv2 . However.2. the character table of H is gi jC H ( g i )j ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 1 12 1 1 1 3 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 1 1 À1 (1 2 3) 3 1 ù ù2 0 (1 3 2) 3 1 ù2 ù 0 . 2. b. 4} ®xing 5.Restriction to a subgroup 211 If H is the subgroup {1. then V 5 H is the C Hmodule with basis v1 . then dim V dim (V 5 H). a2 b} of G. 3.1 illustrates this fact.

16 we see that ÷1 5 H ÷2 5 H. with irreducible characters labelled ÷1 . ÷ 3 5 H ø1 ø 4 . ÷ 6 5 H ø2 ø 3 ø 4 X Constituents of a restricted character To help us discuss the way in which a restricted character ÷ 5 H can be expressed in terms of the irreducible characters of H. we calculate the character ÷ i 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters ø j . These have values 1 ÷1 5 ÷3 5 ÷5 5 ÷6 5 H H H H 1 4 6 5 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 À2 1 (1 2 3) (1 3 2) 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 À1 It is easy to spot that ÷ 1 5 H ø1 . Thus. and k . The character table of G is given in Example 19. . ÷3 5 H ÷4 5 H and ÷6 5 H ÷7 5 HX Therefore we need only consider ÷1 5 H. we introduce the following notation. de®ned similarly. jGj gPG . W2 i G W1 ( g)W2 ( g).212 Representations and characters of groups (where ù e2ðia3 ). then 1 hW1 . . . . if W1 and W2 are functions from G to C. ÷5 5 H 2ø4 . ÷5 5 H and ÷6 5 H. l H is the inner product on the vector space of functions from H to C.3 De®nitions The inner product k . For each i with 1 < i < 7. l G is the inner product on the vector space of functions from G to C which we have de®ned earlier. 20. ÷3 5 H. From Example 19.16. ÷7 .

. d r which are given by d i h÷ 5 H. we could hope to ®nd the character table of the subgroup H by restricting the irreducible characters ÷ of G to H. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. . Suppose that we know the character table of G. . .19 and Proposition 13. ø i i H X We say that ø i is a constituent of ÷ 5 H if the coef®cient d i in the above expression is non-zero. i1 Now 0 T k jGj ø(1) h÷reg 5 H. it may be very dif®cult in practice to write down the restrictions ÷ 5 H in terms of irreducible characters of H. ø r are the irreducible characters of the subgroup H of G. øi H X j Hj i1 j Therefore h÷ i 5 H. øi H ÷ i (1)h÷ i 5 H. 20. In the light of Proposition 20. ö2 i H ö1 (h)ö2 (h)X j Hj hP H 213 If ÷ is a character of G and ø1 .4. øi H T 0 for some i. then by Theorem 14. Unfortunately. .4 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G and let ø be a non-zero character of H.20 that the regular character ÷reg of G satis®es & k jGj if g 1. X X X . then 1 hö1 .17. . ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r for some non-negative integers d 1 .Restriction to a subgroup and if ö1 and ö2 are functions from H to C. ÷reg ( g) and ÷reg ÷ i (1)÷ i X 0 if g T 1. . . Recall from Theorem 13. Then there exists an irreducible character ÷ of G such that h÷ 5 H. The best . øi H T 0X Proof Let ÷1 . The next proposition shows that every irreducible character of H is a constituent of the restriction of some irreducible character of G.

we have equality in (20. The conclusions of the proposition a follow at once. The way to exploit the fact that H v G us revealed in the following proposition. since ÷ is irreducible. as the following result shows.17. ø r be the irreducible characters of H.214 Representations and characters of groups chance of doing this occurs when the index jG: Hj( jGjaj Hj) is small. ÷i G 1 ÷( g)÷( g) jGj gPG 1 ÷(h)÷(h) K jGj hP H r j Hj 2 d K. let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. F F F . 20. ÷ 5 Hi H i 1 ÷(h)÷(h)X j Hj hP H Also. we will see that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. d r satisfy (20X6) r i1 d 2 < jG: HjX i Moreover. For example. 1 h÷. jGj i1 i where K (1ajGj) ga H ÷( g)÷( g)X Now K > 0. Then ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r . . and let ø1 .6) if and only if ÷( g) 0 for all elements g of G which lie outside H. we have r i1 d 2 h÷ 5 H. X X X . where the non-negative integers d 1 . and K 0 if and only P if ÷( g) 0 for all g with g P H. Proof By Theorem 14.5 Proposition Let H be a subgroup of G. since the restrictions ÷ 5 H then do not have many constituents. j We can say more about the constituents of ÷ 5 H in the case where H is a normal subgroup of G.

Therefore. as claimed. Then (1) The set Ug is an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H and dim Ug dim U . u 3 ug (u P U) is an invertible linear transformation from U to Ug. if W is a C Hsubmodule of Ug.12. Proof (1) Clearly. since V is irreducible. V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug. Then gh h9 g for some h9 P H. WgÀ1 {0} or U. so (ug)h u( ghg À1 ) g P Ug (u P U). Let V be an irreducible CG-module and U be an irreducible C H-submodule of V 5 H. Ug is a subspace of V. (3) If g1 . g P G and Ug1 and Ug2 are isomorphic C H-modules. De®ne è : Ug1 g 3 Ug2 g by è : wg 3 (wö) g (w P Ug 1 )X Then è is clearly an isomorphism of vector spaces. we have V UgX gPG Then by Proposition 7. (3) Now let ö be a C H-isomorphism from Ug1 to Ug2 . è is a C H-isomorphism. (2) The sum of all the subspaces Ug with g P G is a CG-submodule of V. Moreover. g2 .Restriction to a subgroup 215 20. j . proving that Ug is a C H-submodule of V 5 H. Further. Ug is an irreducible C H-module. so dim U dim Ug. Therefore. and since H v G we have ghgÀ1 P H for all h P H. Suppose that h P H. whence W {0} or Ug. For every g P G let Ug fug: u P U g. since U is irreducible. then WgÀ1 is a C H-submodule of U. (2) As a C H-module. and the proof of the proposition is complete. and (wgh)è (wh9 g)è (wh9ö) g (wö)h9 g (wö) gh (wgè)hX Therefore. then Ug1 g and Ug2 g are isomorphic C H-modules.7 Proposition Suppose that H v G. V is a direct sum of some of the C Hmodules Ug.

say X 1 U1 È X X X È U e X By Proposition 20. but you might like to look at Corollary 22. that all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. Then it follows from Proposition 20. . . Let e h÷ 5 H.7(2).8 Clifford's Theorem Suppose that H v G and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G. parts (1) and (2). Examples where this happens are G Sn . and which is therefore a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules. by Proposition 20. ÷ 5 H e(ø1 X X X ø m )X j Our main applications of Clifford's Theorem will concern the case where jG: Hj 2. ø m are the constituents of ÷ 5 H. Therefore. and Xi T X j if i T j. Then V contains a C H-module X1 whose character is eø1 . jG: Hj 2).14 in Chapter 22 to see an advanced use of the theorem. . Hence V has the form V X1 È X X X È X m where each Xi is a direct sum of e isomorphic C H-modules.216 Representations and characters of groups We now come the fundamental theorem on the restriction of a character to a normal subgroup. .7(3). if g P G then X1 g is a direct sum of isomorphic C H-modules. V is a sum of C Hmodules of the form X1 g. Normal subgroups of index 2 We are shortly going to give more precise information about the constituents of ÷ 5 H when H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2 (that is. . 20. then ÷ 5 H e(ø1 X X X ø m ) for some positive integer e.7. each having character ø1 . Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. ø1 i. Then (1) all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree. and (2) if ø1 . On the other hand.

since ë(h) 1 for all h P H. In fact. X X X . Also. We describe this relationship in (20. . b: a n b2 1. 20. . and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. For practical purposes.13) below.16).8 j r ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r . we may lift the non-trivial linear character of GaH to obtain a linear character ë of G which satis®es @ 1 if g P H. and we shall supply these next. ë( g) À1 if g P HX a Note that for all irreducible characters ÷ of G.9. j with i T j.9 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. then H must be normal in G (see Exercise 1. by Clifford's Theorem 20. or ÷ 5 H ø i ø j for some i. and that ÷ is .5. Since d 1 . . In the latter case. we deduce that either ÷ 5 H ø i for some i. if H is a subgroup of index 2 in G. it is often desirable to have more details about the two cases in Proposition 20. Since GaH C2 . Proof If ø1 . ø i and ø j have the same degree. . or G D2 n ha. ø r are the irreducible characters of H.Restriction to a subgroup 217 H A n . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. then by Proposition 20. Then either (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. or (2) ÷ 5 H is the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. When H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. and we then illustrate the results by ®nding the character table of A5 from that of S5 (which we have already obtained in Example 19. ÷ and ÷ë are irreducible characters of the same degree (see Proposition 17. the character tables of G and H are closely related.10).14). H hai. ÷ 5 H ÷ë 5 H. 2 where i1 d i < 2. d r are non-negative integers.10 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. 20.

if g P HX a . observe that @ ÷( g) if g P H. a so ÷( g) T 0 for some g with g P H if and only if ÷ë T ÷. If ö is an irreducible character of G which satis®es ö 5 H ÷ 5 H.11 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. ÷ 5 H is irreducible if and only if the inequality in (20. then either ö ÷ or ö ÷ë. then ÷ 5 H is the sum of one or two irreducible characters of H. since jG: Hj 2. and this happens if and only if ÷( g) T 0 for some g P G with g P H. and that ÷ is an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible. To see that (2) is equivalent to (3).5. Proof We have (÷ ÷ë)( g) Hence @ 2÷( g) 0 if g P H. (2) ÷( g) T 0 for some g P G with g P H. a j According to Proposition 20.9. 20. Thus (1) is equivalent to a (2). if H is a normal subgroup of G of index 2.218 Representations and characters of groups an irreducible character of G. In the next proposition we consider the ®rst possibility.6) is strict. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ 5 H is irreducible. ÷ë( g) À÷( g) if g P H. a (3) the characters ÷ and ÷ë of G are not equal. and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Proof We use Proposition 20.

20. (1) Each irreducible character ÷ of G which is nonzero somewhere outside H restricts to be an irreducible character of H. Such characters of G occur in pairs (÷ and ÷ë) which have the same restriction to H (Propositions 20. a Therefore. ÷ 5 Hi H T 0. by explaining how to list the irreducible characters of H on the assumption that we know the character table of G. öi G 1 2÷( g)ö( g) jGj gP H 1 ÷( g)ö( g) j Hj gP H 219 h÷ 5 H.Restriction to a subgroup h÷ ÷ë. ÷( g) 0 for all g with g P H. Proof In view of Proposition 20.11). j We summarize our results on subgroups of index 2. If ble character of G such that ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 then ö ÷. (20. 1 1 hö.10. Finally. Therefore k÷ ÷ë. G. so kö. ö 5 Hi H X Now k÷ 5 H. and that ÷ is the sum of two ö is an irreducias a constituent. since ÷ 5 H is irreducible and ö 5 H ÷ 5 H. ÷l G T 0. and hence ö ÷. öl G 1.12 Proposition Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in an irreducible character of G for which ÷ 5 H is irreducible characters of H. say ÷ 5 H ø1 ø2. and so either ö ÷ or j ö ÷ë.10. 20.13) Let H be a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group G. ö 5 Hl H 1. ÷i G ö( g)÷( g) ö( g)÷( g) jGj gPG jGj gP H 1hö 5 H. ÷ 5 Hi H X 2 If ö 5 H has ø1 or ø2 as a constituent. we look at the case where ÷ 5 H is reducible. . then hö 5 H.

14 Example The character table of A5 Write H A5 . ÷4 5 H ÷3 5 H and ÷7 5 H ÷6 5 H.10.13)(3). They can also be veri®ed by calculating inner products. The two characters of H which we get from ÷ in this way come from no other irreducible character of G (Propositions 20. respectively. Call them ø1 .4). ø2 and ø3 . ø5 are the distinct irreducible characters of H by (20. in practice case (1) occurs more frequently than case (2). Also. We have established that the character table of H is gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 á2 â2 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 á3 â3 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á4 â4 (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 á5 â5 . .220 Representations and characters of groups (2) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G which is zero everywhere outside H. ÷5 ( g) 0 for all g P H. . . then ÷ restricts to be the sum of two distinct irreducible characters of H of the same degree. ÷3 5 H and ÷6 5 H are irreducible characters of H.18(2). ÷5 5 H ø4 ø5 where ø4 and ø5 are distinct irreducible characters of H of degree 3.16. 20. Fortunately. . and note that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in the group S5 . The results we have obtained so far have been deduced from our summary (20. a so by (20. ÷7 of S5 can be found in Example 19.9. and the irreducible characters ÷1 . (3) Every irreducible character of H appears among those obtained by restricting irreducible characters of G. 20.13) of facts about characters of subgroups of index 2.12). Observe that ÷1 . .13)(2). 20. ÷3 and ÷6 are non-zero somewhere outside H. In case (2) of (20.13). ÷1 5 H. . Note that ÷2 5 H ÷1 5 H. extra work is needed to calculate the values taken by the two constituents of ÷ 5 H. as in parts (1) and (2) (Proposition 20. so by (20. and hence ø1 . The conjugacy classes of H and their sizes are given in Example 12.13)(1). . .

Hence by Proposition 13. By the orthogonality relation for column i with itself (2 < i < 5). â5 1(1 5)X 2 2 Thus the character table of A5 is as shown. 3 3 5 2 á2 â2 2 á2 â2 X 4 4 5 5 Hence á2 â2 0. and we ®nd that á4 and â4 are the solutions of the quadratic x 2 À x À 1 0. all the numbers in the character table are real. á3 â3 À2. we see that each element of A5 is conjugate to its inverse. Since ø4 T ø5 . â 1(1 À 2 p 5).Restriction to a subgroup 221 We use the column orthogonality relations to calculate the unknowns á i and â i . we have 2 p p á5 1(1 À 5). we obtain 3 3 á2 â2 . . á4 â4 á5 â5 1X Using Proposition 12.9(4). The values of á i â i for 2 < i < 5 are given by noting that ø4 ø5 ÷5 5 H (or by using the column orthogonality relations for column 1 and column i). á5 and â5 are 1(1 Æ 5). We get á2 â2 0. 2 2 4 2 á2 â2 . Since we have not yet distinguished between ø4 and ø5 . we may take p p á4 1(1 5). á3 â3 À1. Character table of A5 gi |CG ( g i )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 60 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 5 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 5 1 À1 0 â á where á 1(1 2 p 5). â4 1(1 À 5)X 2 2 p Similarly.13.

17. ÷ and ÷ 5 H have the same degree. If ÷ is a character of G. Prove that ÷(1) < n for every irreducible character ÷ of G. (The seven conjugacy classes of A6 can be found by consulting the solutions to Exercises 12. Indeed.4. Let G S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3 4).1). ø r are the irreducible characters of H. then r i1 d 2 < jG : HjX i 3. If H v G and ÷ is an irreducible character of G. if ø1 .) 3. Let G be a group with an abelian subgroup H of index n. given in Example 19. to ®nd the character table of A6 . Suppose that G is a group with a subgroup H of index 3. The number of irreducible constituents of ÷ 5 H is bounded above by jG : Hj. 1.222 Representations and characters of groups Proposition 17. X X X . . Summary of Chapter 20 Assume throughout that H is a subgroup of G. (b) For each irreducible character ÷ of G (given in Section 18. express ÷ 5 H as a sum of irreducible characters of H. Exercises for Chapter 20 1. and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. (1 3)l of G. ÷ 5 Hi H 1. and ÷ 5 H d 1 ø1 X X X d r ø r. 4. 2 or 3X Give examples to show that each possibility can occur. Prove that h÷ 5 H. Use the restrictions of the irreducible characters of S6 . In particular. 2. The values of ÷ 5 H are given by (÷ 5 H)(h) ÷(h) for all h P H. (a) Show that H D8. 2. then ÷ 5 H is a character of H.3 and 12. then all the constituents of ÷ 5 H have the same degree.6 allows us to deduce from the character table that A5 is a simple group.

A7 has nine conjugacy classes. It is known that the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of S7 is 1. . 14. 20.Restriction to a subgroup 223 5. 15. 6. 21. 21. 1. 14. 15. 35X Also. 35. 14. 6. Find the complete list of degrees of the irreducible characters of A7 . 14.

which constructs a CG-module from a given C H-module. since for all s P C H. If r P CG. C H-homomorphisms and CG-homomorphisms Let U be a C H-submodule of the regular C H-module C H. As H is smaller than G. then there exists r P CG such that uW ru for all u P U X 224 . We shall see many applications of this method in later chapters. 21. then W: u 3 ru (u P U ) de®nes a C H-homomorphism from U to CG. (us)W rus (uW)s.1 Proposition Assume that H < G. we require some results which connect C H-homomorphisms with CG-homomorphisms. so induction can often give us an important handle on the representations of a group if we know some representations of its subgroups. it is usually the case that C H-modules are easier to understand and construct than CG-modules. We now prove the striking fact that every C Hhomomorphism from U to CG has this simple form. We saw in the last chapter that restriction gives a simple way of converting a CG-module into a C H-module. Much more subtle than this is the process of induction. Before describing the process of induction. and induction is the main concern of this chapter. and let U be a C H-submodule of C H. If W is a C H-homomorphism from U to CG.21 Induced modules and characters Throughout this chapter we assume that H is a subgroup of the ®nite group G.

3 Corollary Let U and V be CG-submodules of CG. Let r 1ö. De®ne ö: C H 3 CG by ö: u w 3 uW (u P U. Consequently U V {0}.1. r(u v) uX Then ru u if u P U. w P W )X Then ö is easily seen to be a C H-homomorphism. moreover. and so W is of the required form. (2) there exists r P CG such that for all u P U. ru u and rv 0X Proof Assume that U V {0}. and so x 0. Then every CG-homomorphism from U to CG has the form u 3 ru (u P U ) for some r P CG. Conversely. assume that for some r P CG we have ru u and rv 0 for all u P U. the ®rst of which is just the case H G of the proposition. j . v P V. Then the following two statements are equivalent: (1) U V {0}.2. v P V ) is a function. uW uö (1u)ö (1ö)u ru. there exists r P CG such that for all u P U.11). v P V. j We give two corollaries of Proposition 21. For u P U.Induced modules and characters 225 Proof By Maschke's Theorem 8. Then the sum U V is a direct sum. Therefore by Corollary 21. so uv3 u (u P U . it is a CG-homomorphism from U È V to CG (see Proposition 7. and rv 0 if v P V. 21. 21. there is a C H-submodule W of C H such that C H U È W. If x P U V then rx x and rx 0.1.2 Corollary Let U be a CG-submodule of CG. v P V.

W 2 4 G sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 . Clearly. W 1 4 G U3 . Then U 4 G is called the CG-module induced from U. so C H is a subset of CG. Remember that H is a subgroup of G. g P GgX Clearly.8(1)). and de®ne W 0 sp (1 a a2 ). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. That is. b ù2 ab ùa2 b). X (CG) sp fxg: x P X . U3 sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . U4 sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 . g P G. 21. 21. b ùab ù2 a2 b)X Thus W 0 4 G U1 È U2 . X(CG) is then a CG-submodule of CG.8(2) that CG U1 È U 2 È U3 È U 4 . W 1 4 G sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 . a direct sum of irreducible CG-modules U i . W 1 sp (1 ù2 a ùa2 ). b ab a2 b). b ùab ù2 a2 b)X Recall from Example 10. a cyclic subgroup of G of order 3.226 Representations and characters of groups Induction from H to G For any subset X of CG.5 Example Let G D6 ka.4 De®nition Assume that H is a subgroup of G. b ù2 ab ùa2 b). where U1 sp (1 a a2 b ab a2 b). W 2 4 G U4 X . and let U 4 G denote the CG-module U(CG). b: a3 b2 1. W 2 sp (1 ùa ù2 a2 )X These are C H-submodules of C H (see Example 10. U2 sp (1 a a2 À b À ab À a2 b). W 0 4 G sp (1 a a2 . we write X(CG) for the subspace of CG which is spanned by all the elements xg with x P X. and let H kal. Let ù e2ðia3 . Let U be a C H-submodule of C H.

21. We now show that isomorphic C H-modules give isomorphic induced CG-modules. Therefore ö is a CG-isomorphism.7 Proposition Assume that U and V are C H-submodules of C H with U V {0}. By Proposition 21. for all a P U 4 G. Proof Let W: U 3 V be a C H-isomorphism. v P V X If a P U 4 G then a is a linear combination of elements ug (u P U. Moreover. 21. Therefore ö: a 3 ra (a P U 4 G) is a function from U 4 G to V 4 G. Since sru u and rsv v for all u P U. v P V. and hence ra P V 4 G. Then (U 4 G) (V 4 G) f0g. Suppose that U and V are C H-submodules of C H and that U is C H-isomorphic to V. and also there exists s P CG such that vWÀ1 sv for all v P V.1. rsb b Hence the function b 3 sb (b P V 4 G) is the inverse of ö. g P G).6 Proposition Assume that H < G. while W 1 4 G and W 2 4 G are irreducible. as (aö) g rag (ag)ö (a P U 4 G. Consequently sru u and rsv v for all u P U . ö is a CG-homomorphism. j The next proposition and its corollary enable us to de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C H-module U. b P V 4 GX . Then U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G. g P G). so ra is a linear combination of elements rug. we have sra a.Induced modules and characters 227 In particular. there exists r P CG such that uW ru for all u P U. W 0 4 G is reducible. proving that U 4 G is CG-isomorphic to V 4 G.

rug ug and rvg 0X Since U 4 G is spanned by elements of the form ug (u P U. The de®nition of U 4 G implies that U 4 G (U1 4 G) (V 4 G)X Therefore by Proposition 21. this implies that ru9 u9 and similarly. rv9 0 for all v9 P V 4 GX j for all u9 P U 4 G. U 4 G (U1 4 G) È (V 4 G)X By induction. a direct sum of C H-submodules U i .3. where V U2 È X X X È U m . U U1 È X X X È Um . Then (by Theorems 8. 21. and suppose that U U1 È X X X È Um . V 4 G (U 2 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G).7.5). we obtain U 4 G (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G). It is trivial for m 1.7 and 10.228 Representations and characters of groups Proof By Corollary 21. v P V. there exists r P CG such that ru u and rv 0 for all u P U. using (2.9 De®nition Let U be a C H-module.3. Therefore (U 4 G) (V 4 G) f0g by Corollary 21. j We can now de®ne the induced module U 4 G for an arbitrary C Hmodule U (where U is not necessarily a C H-submodule of C H). Then U 4 G (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Proof We prove this by induction on m. Now U U1 È V.8 Corollary Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. Then for all u P U. as required.10). 21. and hence. v P V and all g P G. g P G).

11 Theorem Suppose that H and K are subgroups of G such that H < K < G. it follows that (U(CK))(CG) U(CG).8 ensure that this de®nition is consistent with De®nition 21. Then U(CK) is spanned by elements of the form uk ukg (21X12) (u P U . g P G)X (U 4 K) 4 G U 4 GX U U1 È X X X È Um for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. then (U 4 K) 4 G U 4 GX Proof Assume ®rst that U is a C H-submodule of C H. and then applying the fact (which is immediate from De®nition 21.4. That is.Induced modules and characters 229 for certain irreducible C H-submodules U i of C H. U 4 K (U1 4 K) È X X X È (Um 4 K)X Since K < G. 21. If U is a C H-module. k P K. By (21. k P K)X Therefore.9) that (21X10) (U1 È X X X È Um ) 4 G (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G)X Our ®rst major result on general induced modules is known as `the transitivity of induction'. (U(CK))(CG) is spanned by elements of the form (u P U . Then . Now let U be an arbitrary C H-module. We emphasize that the de®nition of the induced module U 4 G in the case where U is a C H-submodule of C H is a natural one: U 4 G U (CG)X We shall always prove results for general induced modules U 4 G by ®rst dealing with the special case where U is a C H-submodule of C H.10). De®ne U 4 G to be the following (external) direct sum: U 4 G (U 1 4 G) È X X X È (Um 4 G)X Proposition 21.6 and Corollary 21.

the coef®cients which appear here are the values of h÷ i 5 H.9. . We showed in that example that if ÷1 . ÷ 3 5 H ø1 ø4 . . ÷ 7 5 H ø 2 ø 3 ø4 X By Theorem 14. . . We record these coef®cients in a . 21. j. and is called the character induced from ø.2) then ÷ 1 5 H ø1 . . as in Example 20. ÷5 5 H 2ø4 . .13 De®nition If ø is the character of a C H-module U. and ø1 . ÷ 2 5 H ø1 . ÷7 are the irreducible characters of G (given in Example 19. .230 Therefore Representations and characters of groups (U 4 K) 4 G (U1 4 K) 4 G È X X X È (Um 4 K) 4 G by (21X10) (U1 4 G) È X X X È (U m 4 G) U4G by Definition 21. ÷ 6 5 H ø 2 ø 3 ø4 .17.16). ÷ 4 5 H ø1 ø4 .14 Example Let G S5 and let H be the subgroup A4 of G. . by (21X12) j Induced characters 21. ø j i H for appropriate i. ø4 are the irreducible characters of H (given in 18. The next example illustrates an important relationship between induced characters and restrictions of characters. then the character of the induced CG-module U 4 G is denoted by ø 4 G.2.

and let V be a CG-submodule of CG. it turns out that the columns of the matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of H induce to G. ÷2 1 . ø2 4 G ø3 4 G ÷6 ÷7 .Induced modules and characters matrix whose ij-entry is h÷ i 5 H. ø j i H : ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 H ø1 1 f 1 f f 1 f f 1 f f 0 f d 0 0 ø2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ø4 I 0 0 g g 1 g g 1 g g 2 g g 1 e 1 231 The rows of this matrix tell us how the irreducible characters of G restrict to H. ø2 0 . ø j 4 Gi G . ø3 1 . ÷6 0 . 21. øi H for all characters ÷ of G and ø of H. ø1 0 . which we already know to be equal to h÷ i 5 H. ø 4 Gi G h÷ 5 H. . Let U be a C H-submodule of C H. To be precise. For example. Then the vector spaces HomCG (U 4 G. ÷3 1 . In fact. it is true that h÷. is also equal to h÷ i . ÷1 1 . the seven integers in column 1 give ø1 4 G 1 .15 Proposition Assume that H < G. ø j i H . which is known as the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. ø4 X Remarkably. ÷7 X Similarly. we need the following preliminary result. The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Before proving the theorem. and we devote the next section to a proof of this result. row 3 gives ÷3 5 H 1 . ÷5 0 . ÷4 0 . V 5 H) have equal dimensions. V ) and HomC H (U . and ø4 4 G ÷3 ÷4 2÷5 ÷6 ÷7 X Thus the ij-entry in our matrix.

V )). Finally. ö W. g P G. Therefore the function W 3 W is surjective.16 The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem Assume that H < G. V 5 H). Moreover. note that if r1. ÷i G dim (HomCG (U 4 G. Then hø 4 G.2. V 5 H). and hø.232 Representations and characters of groups Proof Suppose that W P HomCG (U 4 G. V 5 H). that is. V ) to HomC H (U .24. Then by Proposition 21. We shall show that this linear transformation is invertible. ÷ 5 Hi H X Proof First assume that the characters ÷ and ø are irreducible. V ) to HomC H (U . V 5 H))X . as required. Then there is a C H-submodule U of C H which has character ø. r2 P CG and r1 u r2 u for all u P U. Thus the function W3W is a linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. V 5 H). These two vector spaces therefore have the same dimension. Then by Corollary 21. ÷ 5 Hi H dim (HomC H (U . ÷i G hø. By Theorem 14. we have hø 4 G. V ). there exists r P CG such that uö ru for all u P U. V ). and there is a CG-submodule V of CG which has character ÷. then r1 s r2 s for all s P U 4 G. there is an element r P CG such that sW rs for all s P U 4 GX De®ne W: U 3 CG to be the restriction of W to U. Let ÷ be a character of G and let ø be a character of H. and so it is an invertible linear transformation from HomCG (U 4 G. Let ö P HomC H (U . De®ne W from U 4 G to CG by sW rs (s P U 4 G)X Then W P HomCG (U 4 G. Hence the function W 3 W is injective. since s is a linear combination of elements ug with u P U.1. uW ru for all u P U X Then W P HomC H (U . j 21.

and for convenience of notation. and ø is a character of H. ej we have ÷ Therefore hø 4 G. Then for some integers di . ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G and let ø1 . since by Corollary 15. namely when ÷ and ø are irreducible.Induced modules and characters From Proposition 21.4. . ÷ i i G ej d i hø j . Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G. ÷ 5 Hi H 233 in the special case we are considering. ø m be the irreducible characters of H. 21. ÷ i 5 Hi H k i1 by (21X17) B j1 i1 m j1 C di÷i 5 H H ej ø j . . we therefore deduce that (21X17) hø 4 G. . f 5 Hi H X Proof This follows at once from the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. the characters of G span the vector space of class functions on G. . .18 Corollary If f is a class function on G. ÷i G hø. . j The values of induced characters We now show how to evaluate induced characters. f i G hø. k i1 d i ÷i G m k j1 i1 m k ej d i hø j 4 G. ÷ 5 Hi H X This completes the proof of the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. .15. then hø 4 G. ÷i G k i1 d i ÷ i and ø m j1 ej ø j X C B m j1 ej ø j 4 G. For the general case. de®ne the j . hø. let ÷1 . .

4.234 Representations and characters of groups @ function ø: G 3 C by ø( g) ø( g) 0 if g P H. Proof Let f: G 3 C be the function given by 1 f ( g) ø( y À1 gy) ( g P G)X j Hj yPG We aim to prove that f ø 4 G. Then 1 h f . Then h f . and so by Corollary 15. Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. ÷i G 1 1 ø(x)÷( yxy À1 )X jGj j Hj xPG yPG 1 ø(x)÷(x) j Hj xP H 1 1 ø( y À1 gy)÷( g)X jGj j Hj gPG yPG . ÷i G hø 4 G. If w P G then 1 f (w À1 gw) ø( y À1 w À1 gwy) f ( g) j Hj yPG since wy runs through G as y runs through G. it is suf®cient to show that h f . ÷i G for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. if g P HX a 21. Therefore f is a class function. ÷i G f ( g)÷( g) jGj gPG Put x y À1 gy.19 Proposition The values of the induced character ø 4 G are given by 1 (ø 4 G)( g) ø( y À1 gy) j Hj yPG for all g P G.

j For practical purposes. the stated degree of ø 4 G can be found using just the de®nition of induced modules (see Exercise 21. f G i G x ÷(x) X jCG (x)j . j 21. 21.Induced modules and characters 235 since ø(x) 0 if x P H. a formula for the values of induced characters different from that given in Proposition 21.20 Corollary If ø is a character of the subgroup H of G. Alternatively. de®ne the class function f G on G by x & 1 if y P x G f G ( y) ( y P G)X x 0 if y P x G a Thus f is the characteristic function of the conjugacy class x G . so the proof is complete. ÷i G hø.23 below). ÷i G hø 4 G. ÷ 5 Hi H and so by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem.19 is more useful.21 Proposition If ÷ is a character of G and x P G. and ÷( yxy À1 ) ÷(x) for all y P G. ÷i G X This was the equation required to show that f ø 4 G.3). Therefore a h f . then h÷. For x P G.19. then the degree of ø 4 G is given by (ø 4 G)(1) jGj ø(1)X j Hj Proof This follows immediately by evaluating (ø 4 G)(1) using Proposition 21. and we shall derive this next (it is given in Proposition 21. h f .

then f G 5 H 0.4.22) Suppose that x P G. with representatives x1 . . . If H < G and h P H then h H h G . 21. then there are elements x1 . . xm P H and f G 5 H f x1 F F F f x m (as in (21. . we have (ø 4 G)(x) hø 4 G.22)). but if g P G then g G may contain 0.18. . then (ø 4 G)(x) 0. . (1) If no element of x G lies in H. f G i G hø. jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where x1 . 2 or more conjugacy classes of H. we have: (21. xm P H such that H H f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m X x Statement (2) just says that H x G breaks up into m conjugacy classes of H.21 and Corollary 21.23 Proposition Let ø be a character of the subgroup H of G.21 was used in the proof of Theorem 16. To put this another way. 1. f G 5 Hi H X x x jCG (x)j . .236 Proof We have Representations and characters of groups 1 ÷( g) f G ( g) x jGj gPG 1 jx G j ÷(x) ÷( g) jGj gPx G jGj ÷(x) jCG (x)j by Theorem 12X8X j h÷. (1) If no element of x G lies in H. (2) If some element of x G lies in H. x Proof By Proposition 21. x m . X X X . then ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)(x) jCG (x)j X X X . and suppose that x P G. . f G i G x Note that a result similar to Proposition 21. x (2) If some element of x G lies in H.

where a (1 2 3 4). G H f (1 3) 5 H f (1 3) . fa2 (1 3)(2 4)g. fa (1 2 3 4).12). the statement G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H f (1 3)(2 4) f (1 2)(3 4) records the fact that the G-conjugacy class (1 2)(3 4) G contains exactly two H-conjugacy classes. . G f (1 2 3) 5 H 0. b (1 3)X Then H D8. f x m i H ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) X X X jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j by Proposition 21X21X j The result follows. f x1 X X X f x m i H jCG (x)j H H hø. with representatives (1 3)(2 4) and (1 2)(3 4). then f G 5 H 0. And if some element of x G lies in H. a2 b (2 4)g.Induced modules and characters 237 If no element of x G lies in H.22)(2). and G H f (1 2 3 4) 5 H f (1 2 3 4) X For example. then x (ø 4 G)(x) H H hø. bl. f x1 i H X X X hø. and H H f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m as in (21. since a4 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . a3 (1 4 3 2)g. and hence x (ø 4 G)(x) 0. G H H f (1 2)(3 4) 5 H f (1 3)(2 4) f (1 2)(3 4) . We have G H f1 5 H f1 .24 Example Let G S4 and let H ka. By (12. the conjugacy classes of H are f1g. fb (1 3). 21.

. we use induced characters to ®nd the character table of a group of order 21.238 Representations and characters of groups The orders of the centralizers of the elements of H are as follows: h |CG (h)| |C H (h)| 1 24 8 (1 3)(2 4) 8 8 (1 2 3 4) 4 4 (1 3) 4 4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 4 Suppose that ø is a character of H.2) De®ne permutations a. 8 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3 4)) 4 ø((1 2 3 4)) X 4 (ø 4 G)((1 2 3)) 0. 21.3(3) for the irreducible characters ÷1 . 4 ø((1 3)(2 4)) ø((1 2)(3 4)) (ø 4 G)((1 2)(3 4)) 8 . . we therefore have 1 ÷1 4 G ÷2 4 G ÷3 4 G ÷4 4 G ÷5 4 G 3 3 3 3 6 (1 2) 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 0 0 0 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À1 À1 3 À2 (1 2 3 4) 1 1 À1 À1 0 In the next example. .23. we have (ø 4 G)(1) 24 ø(1) . b (2 3 5)(4 7 6) . Exercise 17. Referring to Example 16. 8 ø((1 3)) (ø 4 G)((1 3)) 4 .25 Example (cf. b in S7 by a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7). ÷5 of H D8. . Then according to Proposition 21.

Induced modules and characters and let G be the subgroup ka. bÀ1 ab a2 X 239 It follows from these relations that the elements of G are all of the form ai bj with 0 < i < 6. a2 . Since hai < C G (a). fai b2 : 0 < i < 6gX We take 1. fa3 . Hence jC G (a)j 7. 0 < j < 2. We aim to ®nd the character table of G. note that H H H f G 5 H f a f a2 f a4 a . and since b P C G (a). Let H kal. G has order 21. we see that the conjugacy classes of G are f1g. ÷2 .23 for calculating ø k 4 G. a5 . a jC G (a)j . a3 . 7 divides jC G (a)j. Their values are shown below: g |CG ( g)| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . Check that a7 b3 1. fa. ÷3 of G as the lifts of the linear characters of Gahai. Using this. a. We shall obtain the last two irreducible characters of G by inducing linear characters of H. and similarly jC G (b)j 3. Notice that G has exactly ®ve irreducible characters. For 1 < k < 6. a4 g. b and b2 to be representatives of the conjugacy classes. a6 g. Let ç e2ðia7 . Also. bl of S7 . Since kal v G and Gahai C3. we obtain three linear characters ÷1 . 21. First we ®nd the conjugacy classes. fai b: 0 < i < 6g. there is a character ø k of H given by ø k (a j ) ç jk (0 < j < 6)X To use the formula in Proposition 21.

bÀ1 ab a2 i g |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 21 1 1 1 3 3 a 7 1 1 1 ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 a3 7 1 1 1 ç3 ç5 ç6 ç ç2 ç4 b 3 1 ù ù2 0 0 b2 3 1 ù2 ù 0 0 . a4 are conjugate in H. We now calculate that h÷4 . . . (ø1 4 G)(1) 3X And since no G-conjugate of b or b2 lies in H. and the character table of G is as shown. (ø1 4 G)(b) (ø1 4 G)(b2 ) 0X Similarly (ø3 4 G)(1) 3. (ø3 4 G)(a) ç3 ç5 ç6 . a2 . and (ø3 4 G)(b) (ø3 4 G)(b2 ) 0X Thus if we write ÷4 ø1 4 G and ÷5 ø3 4 G.23. since ø1 . Therefore ÷4 T ÷5 . Thus ÷4 and ÷5 are our last two irreducible characters. ÷5 i G 1. b: a7 b3 1. Hence by Proposition 21. then the values of ÷4 and ÷5 are 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 a3 ç3 ç5 ç6 ç ç2 ç4 b 0 0 b2 0 0 Now ÷4 5 H ø1 ø2 ø4 and ÷5 5 H ø3 ø5 ø6 . 21 7 7 3 3 and similarly h÷5 . .240 Representations and characters of groups since no two of the elements a. . (ø3 4 G)(a3 ) ç ç2 ç4 . Character table of ha. ø6 are linearly independent. ÷4 i G 9 2 2 0 0 1. (ø1 4 G)(a) ç ç2 ç4 and similarly (ø1 4 G)(a3 ) ç3 ç5 ç6 .

b: a4 b2 1. Let G S4 and let H be the subgroup k(1 2 3)l C3 . ÷i G hø. 241 1. For each C H-module U. as given in . ÷5 are the irreducible characters of G. Is U 4 G irreducible? 2. an induced CG-module U 4 G can be de®ned. If ø is a character of H then the induced character ø 4 G is given by 1 (ø 4 G)( g) ø( y À1 gy)X j Hj yPG In particular. the degree of ø:G is |G: H|ø(1). . (b) Find a basis of the induced CG-module U 4 G. then (ø 4 G)( g) 0X If some element of g G lies in H. ÷ 5 Hi H . Let G D8 ka. If U is a C H-module of C H. then U 4 G is simply U(CG). De®ne U to be the 1-dimensional subspace of C H spanned by 1 À a2 b À a2 bX (a) Check that U is a C H-submodule of C H. where ø is a character of H and ÷ is a character of G. If no element of g G lies in H. (c) Write down the character of the C H-module U and the character of the CG-module U 4 G. g 4. The Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem states that hø 4 G. Exercises for Chapter 21 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l and let H be the subgroup ka2 . . bl. . (a) If ÷1 .Induced modules and characters Summary of Chapter 21 Assume that H is a subgroup of G. 2. . 3. then ø(x1 ) ø(xm ) (ø 4 G)( g) jCG ( g)j X X X jCH (x1 )j jCH (xm )j H H where f G 5 H f x1 X X X f x m .

. ÷ k be the irreducible characters of G. Calculate the values of the induced characters ö 4 G and ø 4 G. 3.242 Representations and characters of groups Section 18. .) 5. ø2 . and let ÷ be a character of G. satisfy k i1 d 2 < jG : HjX i (Compare Proposition 20. Let G S7 and let H ka. bl. 6. ø3 of C3 . and let ÷1 . Show that the integers d 1 . . where a (1 2 3 4 5 6 7).1. and use the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. Show direct from the de®nition that if H < G and ø is a character of H. Let ø be an irreducible character of H. X X X . as in Example 21. Let ö and ø be the irreducible characters of H which are given by gi |C H ( g i )| ö ø 1 21 1 3 a 7 a3 7 b 3 1 0 b2 3 1 0 1 1 ç ç2 ç4 ç3 ç5 ç6 where ç e2ðia7 (see Example 21. Prove that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G (ø 4 G)÷X (Hint: consider the inner product of each side with an arbitrary irreducible character of G. Suppose that H is a subgroup of G. d k . which are given by ø 4 G d 1 ÷1 X X X d k ÷k . let ø be a character of H. b (2 3 5)(4 7 6).5.) . You are given that jC G (a)j 7 and jC G (b)j 18. then jGj (ø 4 G)(1) ø(1)X j Hj 4.25). (b) Calculate the induced characters ø j 4 G (1 < j < 3) as sums of the irreducible characters ÷ i of G. work out the restrictions ÷ i 5 H (1 < i < 5) as sums of the irreducible characters ø1 . Let H be a subgroup of G. .25.

and let ø be an irreducible character of H.Induced modules and characters 243 7. Discover and prove results for ø 4 G which are similar to those presented in Chapter 20 for the restriction of irreducible characters of G to H. Suppose that H is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. .

Most of the results concern arithmetic properties of character values. And we prove some useful congruence properties. for the same matrix A. we require that det (A À ëI) 0 for some square matrix A with integer entries. perhaps the most opaque is that which states that the degree of an irreducible character of a ®nite group G must divide the order of G.22 Algebraic integers Among the properties of characters which may be regarded as fundamental. if p is a prime number and g P G is an element of order pr for some r. We discuss properties of a group element g P G which ensure that ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod p for any character ÷ of G for which ÷( g) is an integer. Thus. for ë to be an algebraic integer. we have uA ëu for some non-zero row vector u.1 De®nition A complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is an eigenvalue of some matrix. using algebraic integers. We remark that ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form 244 . Algebraic integers 22. This is one of several results which we shall prove in this chapter. all of whose entries are integers. for example. Equivalently.

ù nÀ1 ).2 Examples (1) Every integer n is an algebraic integer. . Then uA (ù. then u(ÀA) (Àë)u and uA ëu. 22. such that uA ëu. To see this. algebraic integers are usually de®ned in this way. since n is an eigenvalue of the 1 3 1 matrix (n). ù2 . ù nÀ1 . all of whose entries are integers. X X X . (4) Let A be the n 3 n matrix H 0 0 f1 0 f f0 1 Af f f d0 0 0 0 given by 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX XXX 0 XXX 0 XXX 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 1 0 0g g 0 0g gX g g 0 0e 1 0 Suppose that ù is an nth root of unity. and let u be the row vector (1. where u is the row vector obtained from u by replacing each entry by its complex conjugate. then so are Àë and the complex conjugate ë of ë. .7). then ëì and ë ì are also algebraic integers. since it is an eigenvalue of the 0 1 matrix X 2 0 (3) If ë is an algebraic integer. note that if A is an integer matrix and u is a row vector with uA ëu. 22. and non-zero row vectors u and v. . 1) ùuX This shows that every nth root of unity is an algebraic integer.3 Theorem If ë and ì are algebraic integers. vB ìvX Suppose that A is an m 3 m matrix and B is an n 3 n matrix. . Proof There exist square matrices A and B. a nÀ1 are integers (see Exercise 22. . ù2 . ù. p (2) 2 is an algebraic integer.Algebraic integers x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 245 where a0 . In fact. X X X .

Then (u v)(A I n I m B) uA vI n uI m vB ëu v u ìv (ë ì)(u v). Proof By Proposition 13. . Then the vectors ei fj (1 < i < m. X X X . j 22. It is easy to check as in the proof of Proposition 19. Since the matrix of A B relative to the basis ei fj (1 < i < m. 1 < j < n) form a basis of the tensor product space V C m C n. Let Im and In denote the identity m 3 m and n 3 n matrices. De®ne an endomorphism A B of V by (ei f j )(A B) ei A f j B (1 < i < m. em be a basis of C m and f 1 . y P C n. Each root of unity is an algebraic integer. extending linearly (that is. we have (x y)(A B) xA yBX Hence (u v)(A B) uA vB ëu ìv ëì(u v)X Therefore ëì is an eigenvalue of A B. 1 < j < n). then ÷( g) is an algebraic integer. ( ë ij (ei f j ))(A B) ë ij (ei A f j B)). ÷( g) is a sum of roots of unity. . 22. 1 < j < n) has integer entries.3 shows that the set of all algebraic integers forms a subring of C. j Theorem 22. Hence ÷( g) is an algebraic integer.3. .246 Representations and characters of groups Let e1 . . and we deduce as above that ë ì is an algebraic integer.5 Proposition If ë is both a rational number and an algebraic integer. respectively. .4 Corollary If ÷ is a character of G and g P G.4 that for all vectors x P C m .2(4). by Example 22. so any sum of roots of unity is an algebraic integer by Theorem 22. it follows that ëì is an algebraic integer.9. The next result provides a link between algebraic integers and characters. f n be a basis of C n . then ë is an integer.

22. Let U be an irreducible CG-module. Recall from De®nition 12. If ÷( g) is a rational number.5. (Example 22.4 and Proposition 22. note that we have. p the well known result that 2 is irrational. where r and s are coprime integers and s T Æ1. As p does not divide r (since r and s are coprime). In passing. Then . as a special case of Proposition 22. Thus n 1 det (A À ëI) det (sA À rI) T 0.2(2) shows p that 2 is an algebraic integer. then ÷( g) is an integer. with character ÷. For every n 3 n matrix A of integers. Write ë ras. we deduce that det (sA À rI) T 0. Therefore det (sA À rI) (Àr) n mp for some integer m.6 Corollary Let ÷ be a character of G and let g P G.5. which is enough to establish the proposition. then C x P CGX xPC 22. Let p be a prime number which divides s. the entries of sA À rI which are not on the diagonal are divisible by s. We shall show that ë is not an algebraic integer. and hence also by p.Algebraic integers 247 Proof Suppose that ë is a rational number which is not an integer.) The degree of every irreducible character divides |G| To prepare for the proof that |G| is divisible by the degree of each irreducible character of G. s and hence ë is not an algebraic integer. we establish two preliminary lemmas. j The next result is an immediate consequence of Corollary 22.21 that if C is a conjugacy class of G.7 Lemma Suppose that g P G and that C is the conjugacy class of G which contains g.

gn be the elements of G. Proof Let g1 . where each á g is an integer. we obtain ÷(x) ë÷(1). where ë jGj ÷( g) X jCG ( g)j ÷(1) Proof Since C lies in the centre of CG (see Proposition 12. Suppose that u is a non-zero element of CG such that ur ëu.248 Representations and characters of groups uC ëu for all u P U . . where ë P C. Then ë is an algebraic integer. then [x]B ëIX xPC Taking the traces of both sides of this equation. Then for 1 < i < n.8. that is. we have gi r n j1 aij g j . As |C| |G:CG ( g)| by Theorem 12. this yields jCj÷( g) ë÷(1)X Thus ë jCj÷( g)a÷(1). we know by Proposition 9. u x ëu for all u P U X xPC Consequently if B is a basis of U. j 22. xPC and since ÷ is constant on the conjugacy class C.14 that there exists ë P C such that uC ëu for all u P U. the result follows. . . .8 Lemma Let r gPG á g g P CG.22).

and let C be the sum of the elements in the conjugacy class of G which contains g.7. gk be representatives of the conjugacy classes of G. by Lemma 22. Then ux ùu and so Lemma 22. by Lemma 22. Notice that this example is just a reworking of Example 22. k i1 jGj ÷( g i )÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) . both jGj ÷( g i ) jCG ( g i )j ÷(1) and ÷( g i ) jGj ÷( g) jCG ( g)j ÷(1) are algebraic integers.10 Corollary If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and g P G. then ë is an algebraic integer. Proof Let U be an irreducible CG-submodule of CG with character ÷. then ÷(1) divides |G|. where ù is an nth root of unity. .2(4). Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. Proof Let g1 . (In fact.8 con®rms that ù is an algebraic integer.8. . . 22. and de®ne u 1 ùx À1 ù2 x À2 X X X ù nÀ1 x P CG. by Corollaries 22.9 Example Let G Cn kx: x n 1l.11 Theorem If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. Therefore ë is an algebraic integer. Hence by Theorem 22. aij á g where g gÀ1 gj . Then uC ëu for all u P U. Then for all i.10 and 22.) The i statement that ur ëu (with u T 0) says that ë is an eigenvalue of the integer matrix A (aij ).Algebraic integers 249 for certain integers aij .4.3. j 22. j 22. .

Hence. Hence G9 T 1.5.7(a)). G has no non-trivial linear characters. observe that G is non-abelian. and so r is injective. using Proposition 9. By Theorem 22. First. 2. X X X . In particular.12 Examples (1) If p is a prime number and G is a group of order pn for some n. where p is prime. But g 3 det ( gr) is a linear character of G (see Exercise 13. 1.11.) Hence.5 now implies that jGja÷(1) is an integer. Theorem 16. by the row orthogonality relations. we have Ker r f1g. by Proposition 9. Proof Suppose that G is a simple group which has an irreducible character ÷ of degree 2. Since Ker r v G and G is simple. Therefore by Theorem 17. the number of linear characters of G divides |G|. or they are 1. That is. j 22.11. as the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is equal to |G|.11. either the degrees of the irreducible characters of G are all 1. the degree of each irreducible character of G is 1 or 2 (it cannot be p for the reason noted in (1) above). we recover the well known result that groups of order p2 are abelian. and so G9 G as G is simple. (Note that ÷(1) .18.4(1). then ÷(1) is a power of p for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. and hence satis®es p < n. (Recall that a group G is simple if it has no normal subgroups apart from {1} and G. p.13 Corollary No simple group has an irreducible character of degree 2. Let r: G 3 GL(2. By Theorem 17. As jGja÷(1) is a rational number. (2) Let G be a group of order 2 p. C) be a representation of G with character ÷. 2 (with ( p À 1)a2 degrees 2)X (3) If G Sn then every prime p which divides the degree of an irreducible character of G also divides n!. Theorem 22. This algebraic integer is equal to jGja÷(1). if jGj p2 then ÷(1) 1 for all irreducible characters ÷.11 also has the following interesting consequences concerning irreducible characters of simple groups. and this implies that det ( gr) 1 for all g P GX .) 22. Proposition 22. ÷(1) divides |G|.250 Representations and characters of groups is an algebraic integer.

11. Proof The result is correct if G is abelian (see Theorem 9. Consider the 2 3 2 matrix xr. and hence hxi v GX This is a contradiction. by our hypothesis. Then G has an abelian normal p-complement.6). Therefore G contains an element x of order 2 (see Exercise 1. there is a 2 3 2 matrix T such that T À1 (xr)T is a diagonal matrix with diagonal entries Æ1. we assume that every irreducible character of G has degree a power of a prime p. This time. Since G is non-abelian. so we assume that G is non-abelian.14 Corollary Suppose that p is a prime and the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p. and we deduce that G has an abelian normal pcomplement N. while jG: N j is a power of p. Theorems 11. Then ÷(1) is divisible by p. the sum being over the irreducible characters ÷ of G for which ÷(1) . that is. N is an abelian normal subgroup of G. G is not simple unless G has prime order. we conclude that À1 0 À1 T (xr)T X 0 À1 Thus xr T(ÀI)T À1 ÀIX Consequently (xr)( gr) ( gr)(xr) for all g P G. and by Proposition 9. 22.11.Algebraic integers 251 Now G has even order. as G is simple. In particular. and jN j is coprime to p. 1 for some irreducible character ÷ of G. ÷(1) . 1. Since det (xr) 1. As r is injective.8). xr has order 2.12 and 17. this means that xg gx for all g P G. As r is injective. by Theorem 22. j Our next result again shows that information about character degrees can sometimes be used to learn about the structure of a group.11 give us the equation jGj jGaG9j ÷(1)2 . so p divides |G| by .

so ø(1) is a power of p. If a and b are positive integers. Therefore. for example. We may now apply induction on |G| to deduce that H has an abelian normal p-complement N. since otherwise p divides the order of gH which in turn divides the order of g. then we denote their highest common factor by (a. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is coprime to p.252 Representations and characters of groups Theorem 22. so either N {1} or N G.15 Lemma If ù is an nth root of unity.16. If N f1g then G is a p-group so Z(G) T {1} (see Exercise 12. But an abelian simple group has prime order. because G is simple. by Proposition 20. We have that |N| is coprime to p and jG : N j is a power of p.4. Hence N consists of those elements of G whose order is coprime to p. This result implies. Also. øi T 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. On the other hand. Finally. if N G then G is again abelian. by Exercise 1.7). so G is abelian. Since every ®nite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups. Then h÷ 5 H. Before proving Theorem 22.16 is evidently a useful result. b).16 below we give a group-theoretic condition on an element g of G which implies that ÷( g) is an integer for every character ÷ of G. that for all n. Clifford's Theorem 20. we have Z(G) G. we require a preliminary lemma concerning roots of unity. assume that G is simple. j A condition which ensures that ÷( g) is an integer In Theorem 22. for integers d and n. Next. Then g P H.17). Bearing in mind the dif®culties we encountered in constructing the character tables of Sn for small values of n (we reached n 6 in Example 19.11. we write d|n to denote the fact that d divides n. and from this fact it follows easily that N v G. 22. every entry in the character table of Sn is an integer (see Corollary 22. so it remains to prove that N v G. and we deduce from the equation above that p divides the order of the abelian group GaG9.8 shows that ø(1) divides ÷(1). a similar argument shows that g P N.1. Let ø be an irreducible character of H. then . it follows that GaG9 has a subgroup of index p.17). Hence G has a normal subgroup H of index p. Theorem 22. G has prime order.

then by our induction hypothesis.Algebraic integers ùi 1<i< n. n) 1. ù dj P ZX 1< j< nad. 1 ( j.n)1 253 is an integer. Suppose that g is conjugate to gi for all i with 1 < i < n and (i.11. 22. (i. ( j. It is trivial for n 1.n)d ùi ù dj X dj n 1< j< nad. By Proposition 9. there is a basis B of V such that H I ù1 0 f g FF [ g]B d e F ùm 0 . Also.16 Theorem Let g be an element of order n in G. 1< j< nad. and if in addition d . Proof We prove the result by induction on n. Then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. 1. n i Now we partition the sum i1 ù according to the highest common factor d of i and n: 0 n i1 ùi dj n 1<i< n (i. Then ù is a root of the polynomial n (x n À 1)a(x À 1) x nÀ1 X X X x 1X Therefore i1 ù i 0.nad)1 j as required.n)1 ùi n i1 ùi À ù dj P Z. d . if ù 1 then the result is immediate. Proof Let V be a CG-module with character ÷ of degree m. dj n. ( j. (i.nad)1 It follows that 1<i< n.nad)1 If djn then ù d is an (nad)th root of unity. So suppose that ù is an nth root of unity and ù T 1.

then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod p. . Proof If g P Sn and i is coprime to the order of g. j We remark that using Galois theory it is possible to prove the converse of Theorem 22. For 1 < i < n. . one particularly useful consequence of our results is that if p is a prime number. and ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z.6. . g is an element of G of order pr for some r. namely that if ÷( g i ) P Z for all characters ÷ of G. and so i ÷( g i ) ù1 X X X ù im X Therefore by Lemma 22. 22.15. (i.16.17 Corollary All the character values of symmetric groups are integers. then the permutations g and g i have the same cycle-shape. we have ÷( g i ) ÷( g) for such i. n) 1. For example. n) 1. The result now follows from Theorem 22. . . Consequently ÷( g) is a rational number. ÷( g i ) P ZX 1<i< n. and hence s÷( g) P Z. then g is conjugate to g i whenever i is coprime to n. ù m are nth roots of unity.n)1 As g is conjugate to gi if 1 < i < n and (i. The de®nition will emerge from the following lemma.15. . we need to de®ne the p9-part of a group element. Before going into the character theory. j The p9-part of a group element The rest of the chapter is devoted to some important congruence properties of character values. .16. the matrix i [ g i ]B has diagonal entries ù1 . . and hence are conjugate by Theorem 12. and so ÷( g) is an integer by Corollary 22.254 Representations and characters of groups where ù1 . where s is the number of integers i with 1 < i < n and (i. . ù im .

y u g bup 1X Hence the order of x is a power of p and the order of y divides u. j v v v v v . We have x9 g x9 y9x9 gx9. g x9 y9 y9x9. xy g x9 y9. y9 P G also satisfy (1)±(3). so is coprime to p. where u. Proof Let the order of g be upv . Then xy yx g aubp g. Then there exist integers a. then we have shown that the order of z is both a power of p and coprime to p. Therefore z 1. as required. y P G such that (1) g xy yx. x p g aup 1. y9 commutes with y and y( y9)À1 has order coprime to p. Since both x and x9 have order a power of p. so x À1 x9 y( y9)À1 X If z x À1 x9 y( y9)À1 . and (3) the order of y is coprime to p. Similarly. the elements x and y of G which satisfy conditions (1)±(3) are unique. b such that au bpv 1X Put x gau and y gbp .Algebraic integers 255 22. Therefore x and y satisfy conditions (1)±(3). (2) the order of x is a power of p. p) 1. and so x x9 and y y9. Now suppose that x9. We must show that x x9 and y y9. Moreover. the order of x9 is a power of p and the order of y9 is coprime to p. v P Z and (u. Finally. Then there exist x. it follows that x À1 x9 has order a power of p.18 Lemma Let p be a prime number and let g P G. hence also with gau x. so x9 commutes with g. that is.

Let n be a positive integer and let æ e2ðia n . then the p9-part of g is g . . a principal ideal of Z[æ]. Z[æ] f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x]gX Clearly.18.256 Representations and characters of groups 22. By de®nition. we conclude that Z[æ]a pZ[æ] is ®nite. this has as its elements all the cosets pZ[æ] r with r P Z[æ].19 De®nition We call the element y which appears in Lemma 22. Proof Consider the factor ring Z[æ]a pZ[æ]. We extract the following statement from the proof of Lemma 22. where u. and choose integers a. æ2 . .18 the p9-part of g. p) 1.21 Proposition There are only ®nitely many ideals I of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ]. we need a few basic facts about a certain subring of C in which all our character values will lie. with ai P Z. . 0 < ai < p À 1 for all iX As there are only ®nitely many such elements.part of g is gbp . æ. v Then the p9. À2 A little ring theory To prepare for our main result on congruence properties of character values. if p 2 and g has order 6. v P Z and (u.20) Let the order of g be upv . For example. The ideals of Z[æ] which contain pZ[æ] are in . so in fact Z[æ] f f (æ): f (x) P Z[x] of degree < n À 1gX Now let p be a prime number and let pZ[æ] f pr: r P Z[æ]g. y gÀ2 .18 has x g3 . De®ne Z[æ] to be the subring of C generated by Z and æ. every element of Z[æ] is an integer combination of the powers 1. b with au bpv 1. that is. Every such coset contains an element of the form a0 a1 æ X X X a nÀ1 æ nÀ1 . (22. . the expression g xy in Lemma 22. æ nÀ1 . 22.

j 22.21 that there is a maximal ideal of P of Z[æ] which contains pZ[æ]. b with j am bp 1. we therefore have rZ[æ] P Z[æ]X Consequently. 22. s P Z[æ] and rs P P. Proof Assume that rs P P and r P P. we conclude that r P P. j We deduce from Proposition 22. We must show that s P P. Therefore there are only ®nitely many such ideals. In particular. which establishes that P Z pZ. it follows that s P P. then either r P P or s P P. For the last statement of the proposition. b P P such that 1 ra bX Then s rsa sbX As rs P P and b P P. which is false. that is. but this implies that 1 P P. Proof Let m P P Z. Thus pjm.Algebraic integers 257 bijective correspondence with the ideals of Z[æ]a pZ[æ] (the correspondence being I 3 Ia pZ[æ]). this implies that either r P P or r nÀ1 P P.23 Proposition We have P Z pZ. assume that r n P P. j . the ideal rZ[æ] P of Z[æ] strictly contains P. and the proof is complete. there exist a P Z[æ]. If p B m then there are integers a. P is a proper ideal which is contained in no larger proper ideal of Z[æ]. then r P P. as required. we also have pZ P Z. a Since r P P. (A proper ideal of Z[æ] is an ideal which is not equal to Z[æ]. Repeating this argument. As P is a maximal. Since p P P. Since n r rr nÀ1 . if r n P P for some positive integer n.) We now prove two easy results about the maximal ideal P.22 Proposition If r. since P T Z[æ].

If ÷ is any character of G. Hence (ù À ù bp ) p ù p (À1) p ù bp pá. As in the previous section. r . if p T 2. Application of Proposition 22. ù bp ù bp X Consider the number (ù À ù bp ) p . Moreover. p) 1. Choose integers a.11). where u.24 Theorem Let g P G and let y be the p9. so it follows that (ù À ù bp ) p P pZ[æ]X Thus (ù À ù bp ) p lies in the maximal ideal P. and so v v 2v 2v ù p ù aup . Then v ù ù aubp .part of g.258 Representations and characters of groups Congruences At last we are ready to prove our results on congruences of character values.20)). then ÷( g) À ÷( y) P PX Proof Suppose that g has order m upv . let p be a prime number and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing pZ[æ]. 22. v P Z and v (u. The ring Z[æ] is of interest because all the character values of G lie in Z[æ] (see Proposition 9. The orders of g and of y divide n |G|. we have @ 0. so ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both sums of nth roots of unity. pv pv bp2v ù (À1) ù pv 2ù . b with au bpv 1. Let G be a group of order n and let æ e2ðia n . Then y g bp (see (22. pv . By the Binomial Theorem. and hence lie in Z[æ]. since ù p ù bp . Now let ù be an mth root of unity (so ù P Z[æ] as mjn). if p 2. the binomial coef®cient ( rp ) is divisible by p. v vÀ r v p bpv pv pv v pvÀ1 bpv (ù À ù ) ù À p ù ù X X X Æ ù p ù rbp r X X X (À1) p ù bp X For 0 . where á P Z[æ].22 now forces v v v v v 2v v v v v 2v v v 2v v v .

.25). then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod pX Proof As the order of g is a power of p. We shall use the congruence results 22. .11. j 22. j Notice that Corollary 13.Algebraic integers (22X25) (ù À ù bp ) P PX v 259 By Proposition 9. by (22.27 Corollary Let p be a prime number. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers. Theorem 22. . If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) P Z. Suppose that g P G and the order of g is a power of p.part of g. .27 extensively in our character calculations in Chapters 25±7.26 Corollary Let p be a prime number. Suppose that g P G and that y is the p9. d v v which.10 is the special case of Corollary 22. so the result is immediate from Corollary 22. then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod pX Proof As ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers.24±22.23 give ÷( g) À ÷( y) P P Z pZX Therefore ÷( g) ÷( y) mod p. there are mth roots of unity ù1 . the p9-part of g is 1. For the moment. ù d such that bp ÷( g) ù1 X X X ù d and ÷( y) ù1 X X X ù bp X d v v Then bp ÷( g) À ÷( y) (ù1 À ù1 ) X X X (ù d À ù bp ).24 and Proposition 22. j 22. we just illustrate the results with reference to some character tables which we already know. lies in P. .26.27 in which g has order 2.

p p where á (1 5)a2.28 Example Recall from Example 20. The degree of every irreducible character of G divides |G|.11). 3X However. as can be seen by inspecting the table. and p ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) á À 3 1(1 5 À 6) 2 p p p 5 . Since â P Z[æ] (see p Proposition 9. and let P be a maximal ideal of Z[æ] containing 5Z[æ]. If we take p 5 and g (1 2 3 4 5). 2.24 for this a value. Character values are algebraic integers. p p Then ( 5)2 P P.260 Representations and characters of groups 22. â (1 À 5)a2. Thus the corresponding entries in columns 1 and 2 Character table of A5 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 0 1 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 1 À1 0 á â (1 3 4 5 2) 1 À1 0 â á of the character table are congruent modulo 3. 1(1 À 5) â 5X 2 Put æ e2ðia60 .24. If g (1 2 3) then Corollary 22. Similarly the entries in columns 1 and 3 are congruent modulo 2. we have â 5 P P. Summary of Chapter 22 1.26 implies that ÷( g) ÷(1) mod 3 whenever ÷( g) P Z.22. 2. ÷4 ((1 2 3 4 5)) á P Z. We illustrate Theorem 22. . That is. then the p9-part of g is 1. ÷4 ( g) À ÷4 (1) P PX This illustrates Theorem 22. so 5 P P by Proposition 22.14 that the character table of A5 is as shown. Also ÷ i ((1 2 3 4 5)) ÷ i (1) mod 5 for i 1.

Prove that the number of conjugacy classes in a group of order 16 is 7. If g is conjugate to g i for all integers i which are coprime to the order of g. This exercise shows that the only irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷ ÷ is the trivial character. (a) Find the degrees of all the irreducible characters of G. 10 or 16. then g 1. (a) Prove that if g P G and g gÀ1 . 1 G i 1 (÷(1) 2á). and let G be a nonabelian group of order pq. (c) Show that if ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G. 4. 2. (b) Show that |G9| p.12. 4. Let p be a prime number. (c) Deduce that ÷ 1 G . (c) Show that q divides p À 1 and that G has q (( p À 1)aq) conjugacy classes. Let G be a group and let ö be a character of G such that ö( g) ö(h) for all non-identity elements g and h of G. then ÷( g) is an integer. . Let G be a group of order 15. 3. then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod p for all characters ÷ of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are integers. q. jGj where á is an algebraic integer. If g P G and y is the p9-part of g. b P C. for all characters ÷. then b÷(1) is an integer. (b) Now let ÷ be an irreducible character of G with ÷ ÷.11 and 22. Exercises for Chapter 22 1.Algebraic integers 261 3. (a) Show that ö a1 G b÷reg for some a. Deduce that G is abelian. Use Theorems 11. Let p and q be prime numbers with p . Prove that h÷. (d) Deduce that both a and b are integers. (b) Show that a b and a b|G| are integers.11 to show that every irreducible character of G has degree 1. Suppose that G is a group of odd order. 5. 17.

g7 with orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 120 g2 2 12 g3 2 8 g4 3 6 g5 4 4 g6 6 6 g7 5 5 Using Corollary 22. (d) You are given that all entries in the character table of G are integers.26 and the column orthogonality relations. g3 and g4 are conjugate in G. Prove that a complex number ë is an algebraic integer if and only if ë is a root of a polynomial of the form x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 .27 to deduce that G has two irreducible characters of degree 5. (c) Find ÷(1) and ÷( g) for all irreducible characters ÷ of G.262 Representations and characters of groups 6. g. It is often possible to calculate the character table from limited arithmetic information about the group G. A certain group G of order 120 has exactly seven conjugacy classes. ®nd the character table of G. and that the conjugacy classes of G have representatives g1 . . ÷( g) is 0. (a) Show that for every irreducible character ÷ of G. g2 . (b) Use Corollary 22. 1 or À1. and contains an element g of order 5 such that jCG ( g)j 5. . where each ar (0 < r < n À 1) is an integer. Moreover. 7. . . This exercise illustrates this point with the group G S5 . .

then the conjugacy class g G is also said to be 263 . However. and if g is real. If all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. some results in representation theory work equally well for the ®eld R of real numbers. Often. then of course the character of r is real-valued. the converse is not true: it can happen that the character of r is realvalued. Various criteria for whether or not a character corresponds to a representation over R lead us to the remarkable Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. However. Real characters An element g of the ®nite group G is said to be real if g is conjugate to gÀ1 . Nevertheless. while there is no representation ó equivalent to r with all the matrices gó having real entries. This is used in the last section to prove a famous result of Brauer and Fowler concerning centralizers of involutions in ®nite simple groups. but also gives delicate information about characters which often comes into play in more dif®cult calculations. we have always taken our representations to be over the ®eld C of complex numbers. the subject of real representations not only is elegant and interesting.23 Real representations Since Chapter 9. and the ®rst main result of the chapter describes the number of real-valued irreducible characters of G. The material in this chapter is perhaps at a slightly more advanced level than that in the rest of the book. There is a subtle interplay between representations over C and representations over R. Let r be a representation of G. which consist largely of the calculation of character tables and applications of character theory. and is not used in the ensuing chapters. which we shall explore in this chapter. characters of CG-modules are real-valued.

2. so X can be obtained from X by permuting the rows. then it contains the inverse of each of its elements. Therefore X can be obtained from X be permuting the columns. 23.5.2. For every irreducible character ÷ of G.15). and so there is a permutation matrix Q such that XQ X By Proposition 16. and the trivial character of G is real.1 Theorem The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. by Proposition 13. Thus for example. a character ÷ of G is real if ÷( g) is real for all g P G. we have the number of real irreducible characters of G is tr (P). since ( g À1 ) G fx À1 : x P g G g.264 Representations and characters of groups real. Part of the following corollary was obtained by a different method in Exercise 22. On the other hand. Notice that if a conjugacy class is real. For every conjugacy class g G of G. and let X denote the complex conjugate of the matrix X. and the number of real conjugacy classes of G is tr (Q)X j As these numbers are equal. the conjugacy class {1} of G is real. . Therefore Q X À1 X X À1 PX X Consequently P and Q have the same trace.4). X is invertible. Proof Let X denote the character table of G. Hence there is a permutation matrix P such that PX X (see Exercise 4. the entries in the column of X which corresponds to g G are the complex conjugates of the entries in the column of X which corresponds to ( g À1 ) G . the result is proved. the complex conjugate ÷ is also an irreducible character (see Proposition 13. Since the trace of a permutation matrix is equal to the number of points ®xed by the corresponding permutation.

We say that ÷ can be realized over R if there is a representation r: G 3 GL (n. If G has even order. 23. Proof If G has odd order. Therefore by Theorem 23. then no non-identity element of G is real (see the solution to Exercise 23.2 Corollary The group G has a non-trivial real irreducible character if and only if the order of G is even.1. b: a4 1. j Characters which can be realized over R Let ÷ be a character of the group G. . such that for all g P G and 1 < i < n.Real representations 265 23. the only real character of G is the trivial character. The values of ÷ are as follows: 1 ÷ 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Exercise 17. {1} and g G. Hence G has at least two real conjugacy classes. This is the same as saying that there is some CG-module V with character ÷.1).1). br ar 0 1 À1 0 provides a representation r of G with character ÷ such that all the matrices gr ( g P G) have real entries. .8. such that all the entries in each matrix gr ( g P G) are real. . and let ÷ be the irreducible character of G of degree 2 (see Example 16. C) with character ÷. v n of V. . b2 a2 . . and there is a basis v1 .1. b: a4 b2 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. (2) Let G Q8 ka.3 Examples (1) Let G D8 ka. since À1 0 0 1 . and so G has at least two real irreducible characters by Theorem 23. Then ÷ can be realized over R. v i g is a linear combination of v1 .3(3)). then by Exercise 1. G has an element g of order 2. . . . v n with real coef®cients.

(2) V becomes an RC3 -module. v2 a Àv1 . (We shall eventually establish this in Example 23. v1 b Àv1 . Thus an RG-module is a vector space over R. if we de®ne v1 x v2 . where C3 kx: x 3 1l. with basis v1 . but it is at the moment unclear how to prove this. Example 23. v2 b v2 (compare Example 23. C).266 Representations and characters of groups Thus ÷ is real. v n of the RG-module.4 Examples Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over R. . . .2. the matrix gr has its entries in R.) Although every character which can be realized over R is perforce a real character. This new vector space is clearly a CG-module (with v i g de®ned as before). 23. and hence also in C. . . . The construction is even easier to understand in terms of representations: if r: G 3 GL (n. In this section we shall study the relationship between RG-modules and CGmodules. R) is a representation then for each g P G. In fact. RG-modules Recall that in Chapter 4 we de®ned an FG-module. v2 x Àv1 À v2 X 0 1 (This gives the representation x 3 of Exercise 3. . (1) V becomes an RD8 -module if we de®ne v1 a v2 .3(1)). v n . Simply take a basis v1 .18(3) below. . Notice that a character ÷ of G can be .3(2) tells us that the converse is false.) À1 À1 Every RG-module can easily be converted into a CG-module. and consider the vector space over C with basis v1 . Therefore we obtain a representation r: G 3 GL (n.2. with a multiplication by elements of G satisfying the conditions of De®nition 4. ÷ cannot be realized over R. v2 . where F is R or C.

If ÷ is the character of V. . v n . Let V be a CG-module with basis v1 .Real representations 267 realized over R if and only if there exists an RG-module with character ÷.6. v n .5) makes VR into an RGmodule. Regarding v j as an element of the CG-module V. . and extending linearly to de®ne v g for all v P VR . y jk P R. we see that (23. 1 < j < nX It follows easily that. iv1 . we have (v j g)h v j ( gh) for all g. There exist complex numbers z jk such that vj g n k1 zjk v k (1 < j < n)X Now let VR be the vector space over R with basis v1 . . In this way we de®ne v g for all v P VR and all g P G. We summarize the basic properties of VR in the next proposition. is 2 n k1 xkk ÷( g) ÷( g)X Hence the character of VR is ÷ ÷. we have (v j g)h v j ( gh) and ((iv j ) g)h (iv j )( gh)X Hence using Proposition 4. Rather more subtle than this is the construction of an RG-module from a given CG-module. iv n X Write z jk x jk iyjk with x jk . and (À yjk v k xjk (iv k )) (1 < j < n). . We de®ne a multiplication of VR by g by putting (23X5) vj g (iv j ) g n k1 n k1 (xjk v k yjk (iv k )). X X X . h P G. X X X . then ÷( g) n k1 zkk X The character of VR . regarding v j and iv j as elements of VR . evaluated at g. and let g P G. .

With respect to this basis. and let V be the 1-dimensional CGmodule with basis v1 such that p v1 x 1(À1 i 3)v1 2 p (note that 1(À1 i 3) e2ðia3 ). we obtain the representation r.6 Proposition Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. v4 iv2 . v2 . (1) The RG-module VR has character ÷ ÷. br f 1 0 0 0 gX ar f d À1 0 0 e d0 0 0 1e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 The subspace of VR which is spanned by v1 v4 and v2 v3 is an RG-submodule. and let V be the 2dimensional CG-module with basis v1 . j 23. Proof We have already proved part (1). where v3 iv1 . Then by part (1). Thus there is an RG-module.268 Representations and characters of groups 23. v4 . v2 b v1 X Then VR has basis v1 . suppose that V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RG-module. Then VR has basis v1 . VR U È W where U is an RG-module with character ÷ and W is an RG-module with character ÷. and so ÷ can be realized over R. v2 such that v1 a iv1 . in particular. with character ÷. dim VR 2 dim V. For part (2). v2 a Àiv2 . then ÷ can be realized over R. . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. b: a4 b2 1. Therefore the character of V can be realized over R. (2) If V is an irreducible CG-module and VR is a reducible RGmodule. x is represented by the matrix p À1a2 3a2 p X À 3a2 À1a2 (2) Let G D8 ka. where H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f 0 0 0 À1 g f g g. v1 b v2 .7 Examples (1) Let G C3 kx: x 3 1l. and with 2 respect to this basis. namely U. iv1 . v3 .

v) Àâ(v.) The bilinear form â is symmetric if â(u. the functions x 3 â(x. for all u.3(1). v P V X And the bilinear form â is skew-symmetric if â(u. In fact. Let V be a vector space over F. y) are both linear ± hence the term bilinear. then a bilinear form â on V is said to be Ginvariant if â(ug. v). v) for all u. 23.6(2). then there exists a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V such that â(v. v) of vectors in V an element â(u.8 Theorem If V is an RG-module. ë1 v1 ë2 v2 ) ë1 â(u. A similar result for CG-modules was given in Exercise 8. vg) â(u. v1 . v. 0 for all non-zero v P V X . where F is R or C. v) â(v.6. v2 ). v) ë2 â(u2 . v1 ) ë2 â(u. u) for all u. v) of F.Real representations 269 by Proposition 23. (Thus for ®xed u. â(u. v) and y 3 â(u. v P V X If V is an FG-module. v2 P V and ë1 . v) . u2 . and which has the following properties: â(ë1 u1 ë2 u2 . ë2 P F. v. u1 . Bilinear forms The question of whether or not a given character can be realized over R turns out to be related to the existence of a certain bilinear form on the corresponding CG-module. u) for all u. we already know this from Example 23. v) ë1 â(u1 . A bilinear form â on V is a function which associates with each ordered pair (u. v P V and g P GX Our next result shows that every RG-module has a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form with a strong positivity property.

Now let w P W and g P G. . v) . and that there exist u. 0. v n be a basis of V. v) .9 Proposition Let V be an RG-module and let â be a G-invariant bilinear form on V. we have ugÀ1 P U. . ì j P R. ã(v. . j 23. For u n j1 ì j v j P V with ë j . vx) (u. W fw P V : â(u. Proof Let v1 . v P V with â(u. wgg À1 ) â(ug À1 . vg) ã(ugx. 0 for all non-zero v P V. so â(u. 0X j xPG ã(ux. j 23.10 Proposition Suppose that â is a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the RGmodule V. . If g P G. v gx) â(u. w) 0 for all u P U gX Proof It is easy to see that W is a subspace of V. If U is an RG-submodule of V then so is . For all u P U. v) Now let â(u. â is a symmetric bilinear form on V. v P V )X Again. wg) â(ug À1 .270 Representations and characters of groups n j1 ë j v j . . v)X xPG Therefore â is G-invariant and the theorem is proved. for non-zero v P V. and â(v. so W is an RG-submodule of V. Moreover. Then V is a reducible RG-module. 0 and â(v. v) n j1 v ë j ì jX Then ã is a symmetric bilinear form on V. de®ne ã(u. u) . w) 0X Thus wg P W. v) n j1 ì2 . and hence â(ug. then gx runs through G as x runs through G.

so is ã. v j ) 0 and â1 (v i . . j if i T j. and is an RG-submodule of V by Proposition 23. . v1 ) . x so W T V. 0. 1 ã(v2 . and de®ne ã by 1 ã(u.9.7).Real representations 271 Proof Theorem 23. â(v2 . 0 for all non-zero w P V X By a general result on bilinear forms (see Exercise 23.11 Theorem Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. 0X Let â(v1 . v2 ) . v j ) â(v i . v) À â(u. Therefore V is a reducible RG-module. 0. Moreover. v1 ) ë1 ã(v1 . there is a basis v1 . w) .8 supplies us with a G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â1 on V such that â1 (w. The following two conditions are equivalent: (1) ÷ can be realized over R. v1 ) 0X Therefore. v) â1 (u. for all i. (2) there exists a CG-module V with character ÷. . w) 0 for all v P V g. v P V )X x Since â and â1 are G-invariant symmetric bilinear forms on V. v i ) 1 â(v1 . if we de®ne W fw P V : ã(v. we have ã(v. n But for all v i1 ë i v i P V (ë i P R). v) (u. 23. and a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on V . . v n of V such that â1 (v i . . We can now relate bilinear forms to the question of whether or not a given character of G can be realized over R. v2 ) . then W is non-zero. v2 ) 1 À â(v2 . v1 ) x.

v P V with â(u. . (ëv)W ë(vW). .12). w2 . This establishes that (2) implies (1) in the theorem. By Theorem 23. As explained earlier.272 Representations and characters of groups Proof We ®rst show that (2) implies (1). X X X .10. v1 ) 1X Extend v1 to a basis v1 . v) the real part of â(uW. . iv1 . by Proposition 23. iv n is a basis of the RG-module VR . Since â(u v. . There exist u. . u) â(v. and for all w1 . Notice that ~ ~ â(v1 .8. u n . v1 ) 1 and â(iv1 . there exists w P V with â(w. suppose that ÷ can be realized over R. Conversely. there is a non-zero Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form ã on U. De®ne ã on V by 2 n 3 n n n ã ë j u j. . u v) â(u. v P VR . v n . and let V be the vector space over C with basis u1 . . (v g)W (vW) gX ~ Now de®ne a function â on ordered pairs of elements of VR by ~ â(u. Then v1 . Then â(v1 . De®ne a function W from VR to V by n n n W: ë jv j ì j (iv j ) 3 (ë j iì j )v j (ë j . v n of V. Let u1 . v). Let â(w. It now follows from Proposition 23. that â is a Ginvariant symmetric bilinear form on VR . u n be a basis of U. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. X X X . iv1 ) À1X Therefore VR is a reducible RG-module. ìk uk ë j ì k ã(u j . V is a CG-module (with u i g de®ned as for U). v) 2â(u. we have (23X12) (w1 w2 )W w1 W w2 W. and let U be an RG-module with character ÷. u) T 0. . w) T 0. vW) (u. . . using the properties (23. w) z and v1 z À1a2 w. . all ë P R and all g P G. ì j P R)X j1 j1 j1 Then W is a bijection.6(2) that ÷ can be realized over R. . u k ) j1 k1 j1 k1 . v P VR )X ~ You can readily check. and suppose that â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. v) â(v.

b ` é÷ 1. which is always 0. then precisely one of ÷ S and ÷ A has 1 G as a constituent. where ÷ S is the character of the symmetric part of V V. 1 G i 1. We shall see later that this number tells us whether or not ÷ can be realized over R. and V has character ÷. Recall from Chapter 19 that ÷ 2 is the character of the CG-module V V. for irreducible characters ÷. relating it to the internal structure of the group G. we have @ 0. Thus (1) implies (2). . 1 or À1. b b X À1. j The indicator function We now associate with each irreducible character ÷ of G a certain number. 1 G i 1. Then ã is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on the CG-module V.13 De®nition If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. ÷iX jGj gPG Therefore. and the proof of the theorem is complete. if ÷ is realX Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. 23. The next result gives a signi®cant property of the indicator function. Observe that 1 h÷ 2 . called the indicator of ÷. Note that é÷ T 0 if and only if ÷ is real. 2 h÷ . then we de®ne the indicator é÷ of ÷ by V if ÷ is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A . ì k P C). 1 G i ÷( g)÷( g) h÷. if ÷ is not real. b 0. and ÷2 ÷S ÷ A .Real representations 273 (where ë j . if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . Hence if h÷ 2 . if 1G is a constituent of ÷ A X We call é the indicator function on the set of irreducible characters of G. and ÷ A is the character of the antisymmetric part of V V.

4. ÷iX Therefore. ÷ where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. The character table of G is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 (1 2) 1 À1 0 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 j .274 23. W is a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G. Proof De®ne a function W: G 3 C by W(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj (x P G)X Note that W is a class function on G. 23. Representations and characters of groups (é÷)÷(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj.15 Example Let G S3 . W (é÷)÷. and the result follows.14 Theorem For all x P G. The de®nition of é÷ gives é÷ h÷ S À ÷A . since for g P G we have y 2 x D ( g À1 yg)2 g À1 xgX Therefore by Corollary 15. 1 G i 1 ÷( g 2 ) by Proposition 19X14 jGj gPG 1 ÷( g 2 ) jGj xPG gPG: g2 x 1 W(x)÷(x) jGj xPG hW.

14. 23. namely 1.8. (1) Suppose that é÷ T 0. Back to reality We now relate the indicator function to the previous material on bilinear forms. and one element. (1) There exists a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ T 0.Real representations 275 Using Proposition 19. in accordance with Theorem 23. By Proposition 8. no elements square to be (1 2). and hence the CG-module V V has a trivial CG-submodule. and de®ne a multiplication of C by elements of G by ëg ë (ë P C. (1 3 2). (3) There exists a non-zero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ À1. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ 2 . . Using this.16 Theorem Let V be an irreducible CG-module with character ÷. g P G)X In this way. (1 3) and (2 3). which takes the following values: 1 ÷ 1 ÷2 ÷3 4 (1 2) 0 (1 2 3) 1 Sure enough. Proof In this proof we regard C as a 1-dimensional vector space over C. so (é÷)÷ ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 . squares to be (1 2 3). C becomes a trivial CG-module. four elements of G square to be 1. there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V V onto this trivial CG-submodule.14 we calculate that é÷ 1 for each irreducible character ÷ of G. and deduce the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. we show that the indicator of an irreducible character determines whether or not it can be realized over R. (1 2). and hence there is a non-zero CG-homomorphism W from V V onto the trivial CG-module C. (2) There exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V if and only if é÷ 1.

Thus. suppose that there exists a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form â on V. we have ((v i v j ) g)W (v i g v j g)W â(v i g. v j g) â(v i . v j ) (1 < i. v P V )X Then â is a non-zero G-invariant symmetric bilinear form on V. and therefore é÷ T 0. and de®ne W: S(V V) 3 C by putting (v i v j v j v i )W â(v i . so that v i v j (1 < i < n. 1 < j < n) form a basis of V V. 1 < j < n) and extending linearly to the whole of V V. V V has a trivial CGsubmodule. v P V and g P G.276 Representations and characters of groups Now de®ne â by â(u. v P V )X Then â is a non-zero bilinear form on V. and for u. X X X . As in (1). . v j ) (1 < i < n. it follows by Proposition 8. which is the character of the CG-module S(V V).1. j < n) and extending linearly. vg) (ug v g)W ((u v) g)W ((u v)W) g (u v)W â(u.8 that there is a non-zero CGhomomorphism W from S(V V) onto the trivial CG-module C. v n be a basis of V. suppose that there is a non-zero G-invariant bilinear form â on V. Conversely. Let v1 . v)X Thus â is G-invariant. . For g P G. . and W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from S(V V) onto the trivial CG- . v n be a basis of V. v j ) as â is G-invariant (v i v j )WX Hence W is a non-zero CG-homomorphism from V V onto the trivial CG-module C. If follows that ÷ 2 has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent. De®ne W: V V 3 C by putting (v i v j )W â(v i . Conversely. by Proposition 10. De®ne â(u. the symmetric part of V V. Then 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S . . Let v1 . (2) Suppose that é÷ 1. Since â is symmetric. W is well-de®ned. v) (u v v u)W (u. v) (u v)W (u. we have â(ug.

Real representations

277

module C. Hence ÷ S has the trivial character 1 G as a constituent, and so é÷ 1. (3) The proof of (3) is very similar to that of (2), and is omitted. j We can now relate real representations of G to involutions in G, where by an involution we mean an element of order 2. 23.17 Corollary (The Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions) For each irreducible character ÷ of G, we have V if ÷ is not real, b 0, b ` é÷ 1, if ÷ can be realized over R, b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but ÷ cannot be realized over RX Moreover, for all x P G, (é÷)÷(x) jf y P G: y 2 xgj,

÷

**where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. In particular, (é÷)÷(1) 1 t,
**

÷

where t is equal to the number of involutions in G. Proof When we de®ned the indicator function, we showed that é÷ T 0 if and only if ÷ is real. And Theorems 23.11 and 23.16(2) show that ÷ can be realized over R if and only if é÷ 1. This proves that é÷ is determined as in the statement of the corollary. The expression for ÷ (é÷)÷(x) was obtained in Theorem 23.14. Putting x 1, we see that ÷ (é÷)÷(1) is equal to the number of elements y of G satisfying y 2 1. These elements are just the involutions in G, together with the identity, so the number of them is precisely 1 t. j We conclude with some examples illustrating the use of Corollary 23.17. 23.18 Examples (1) Let ÷ be a linear character. Then é÷ 1 if ÷ is real, and é÷ 0 if ÷ is non-real.

278

Representations and characters of groups

For an abelian group, the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions shows that the number of real irreducible (linear) characters is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes, since in this case g is conjugate to gÀ1 if and only if g2 1. This special case of Theorem 23.1 can be proved directly without much dif®culty (see Exercise 23.2). (2) We know that all the irreducible characters of D8 ka, b: a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l can be realized over R (see Example 23.3(1), and note that all four linear characters are real). Thus é÷ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of D8, and so (é÷)÷(1) 1 1 1 1 2 6X

÷

The ®ve involutions in D8 which are predicted by the Frobenius± Schur Count of Involutions are a2 , b, ab, a2 b and a3 b. (3) In the group Q8 ka, b: a4 1, a2 b2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l, there is just one involution, namely a2 . Now é÷ 1 for each of the four linear characters, and (é÷)÷(1) 2

÷

by the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. Therefore, if ø is the irreducible character of degree 2, then éø À1. In particular ø cannot be realized over R. (4) The symmetric group S4 has ten elements whose square is 1, namely the identity, the six elements which are conjugate to (1 2), and the three elements which are conjugate to (1 2)(3 4). Since the degrees 1, 1, 2, 3, 3 of the irreducible characters of S4 sum to be 10 (see Section 18.1), we see that all the characters of S4 can be realized over R. The Brauer±Fowler Theorem We now apply Corollary 23.17 to give a proof of a famous theorem of Brauer and Fowler. 23.19 Brauer±Fowler Theorem Let n be a positive integer. Then there exist only ®nitely many nonisomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with centralizer of order n.

Real representations

279

Despite its fairly elementary proof, this result is of great historical importance in ®nite group theory. It led Brauer to propose the programme of determining, for each ®nite group C, all the simple groups G possessing an involution u with CG (u) C. This programme was the start of the modern attempt to classify all ®nite simple groups, which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s. For further information about this, see the book by D. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography. In Exercise 10 at the end of the chapter you are asked to carry out Brauer's programme in the case where C C2 . This should not trouble you too much. In Chapter 30, Theorem 30.8, you will ®nd a much more sophisticated case, in which C D8. For proof of Theorem 23.19 we require two preliminary lemmas. 23.20 Lemma If a1 , . . . , a n are real numbers, then a2 >
a i 2 an. i Proof This follows from the Cauchy±Schwarz inequality kvk kwk > jvXwj, taking v (a1 , . . . , a n ) and w (1, . . . , 1). j 23.21 Lemma Let G be a group of even order m, and let t be the number of involutions in G (so t . 0 by Exercise 8 of Chapter 1). Write a (m À 1)at. Then G contains a non-identity element x such that jG : C G (x)j < a2 . Proof By Corollary 23.17, we have t< ÷(1)

÷

where the sum is over all non-trivial irreducible characters ÷ of G. Writing k for the number of irreducible characters of G, we deduce using Lemma 23.20 and Theorem 11.12 that t2 < ( ÷(1))2 < (k À 1) ÷(1)2 (k À 1)(m À 1),

÷

and hence m À 1 < (k À 1)(m À 1)2 at 2 (k À 1)a2 . Now k À 1 is the number of non-identity conjugacy classes of G. If every nonidentity conjugacy class has size more then a2 , then (k À 1)a2 .

280

Representations and characters of groups

jGj À 1 m À 1, a contradiction. Therefore some non-identity class x G has size at most a2 . Then jG : C G (x)j < a2 , giving the result. j Proof of Theorem 23.19 Suppose G is simple and contains an involution u such that jC G (u)j n. Let jGj m, and let t be the number of involutions in G. By Proposition 12.6, every element of the conjugacy class u G is an involution, and hence t > ju G j jG : C G (u)j manX Therefore (m À 1)at , n, and so by Lemma 23.21, there is a nonidentity element x P G such that jG : C G (x)j , n2 . Let H C G (x). If H G then x lies in Z(G), the centre of G, which is a normal subgroup of G. Since G is simple it follows that G Z(G), so G is abelian and therefore G C2 . Now suppose that H T G. Write r jG : Hj, so r , n2 . By Exercise 9 at the end of the chapter, there is a non-trivial homomorphism è from G to the symmetric group S r . As G is simple, the normal subgroup Ker è f1g. Thus G is isomorphic to a subgroup of S r , hence of S n2 . In particular, given n, there are only ®nitely many possibilities for G. j

Summary of Chapter 23 1. The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. Let é be the indicator function, and let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. V if ÷ is non-real, b 0, b b b 1, ` if there exists an RG-module U with character ÷, 2X é÷ with character ÷ b b b b X À1, if ÷ is real, but there does not exist an RG-moduleX V if 1 G is not a constituent of ÷ S or ÷ A , b 0, ` 3X é÷ 1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ S , b X À1, if 1 G is a constituent of ÷ A X 2 4. ÷ (é÷)÷(1) |{ g P G: g 1}|.

Real representations Exercises for Chapter 23

281

1. Prove that if G is a group of odd order then no non-identity element of G is real. 2. Let G be a ®nite abelian group. Use the description of the irreducible characters of G, given in Theorem 9.8, to prove directly that the number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of elements g in G for which g2 1. 3. Let G D2 n and consult Section 18.3 for the character table of G. How many elements g of G satisfy g2 1? Deduce that é÷ 1 for all irreducible characters ÷ of G. 4. Let r be an irreducible representation of degree 2 of a group G, and let ÷ be the character of r. Prove that ÷ A ( g) det ( gr) for all g P G. Deduce that é÷ À1 if and only if det ( gr) 1 for all g P G. 5. Let G T 4 n ha, b: a2 n 1, a n b2 , bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i, as in Exercise 17.6. Let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 , v2 and let å be a (2n)th root of unity in C with å T Æ1. Exercise 17.6 shows that V becomes an irreducible CG-module if we de®ne v1 a åv1 , v2 a å À1 v2 , v1 b v2 , v2 b å n v1 X

Let ÷ be the character of this CG-module V. (a) Note that å n Æ1. Use Exercise 4 to show that é÷ 1 if å n 1 and é÷ À1 if å n À1. (b) Let â be the bilinear form on V for which â(v1 , v1 ) â(v2 , v2 ) 0, â(v1 , v2 ) 1, â(v2 , v1 ) å n X Prove that the bilinear form â is G-invariant, and use Theorem 23.16 to provide a second proof that é÷ 1 if å n 1 and é÷ À1 if å n À1. (c) Prove that a n is the only element of order 2 in T4 n. (d) Use the character table of G, which appears in the solution to Exercise 18.3, to ®nd é÷ for each irreducible character ÷ of G. Check that

282

**Representations and characters of groups (é÷)÷(1) 2,
**

÷

in agreement with the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 6. Prove that if ÷ is an irreducible character of a group G, and é÷ À1, then ÷(1) is even. (Hint: the solution uses a well known result about skew-symmetric bilinear forms.) 7. Suppose that V is a vector space over R and that â1 and â are symmetric bilinear forms on V. Assume that â1 (w, w) . 0 for all non-zero w in V. Prove that there is a basis e1 , X X X , e n of V such that â1 (ei , ei ) 1 for all i, and â1 (ei , ej ) â(ei , ej ) 0 for all i T jX 8. Schur's Lemma is crucial for the development of the theory of CG-modules. This exercise indicates the extent to which results like Schur's Lemma hold for RG-modules. Let V and W be irreducible RG-modules. (a) Prove that if W: V 3 W is an RG-homomorphism then either W is an RG-isomorphism or vW 0 for all v P V. (b) Prove that if W: V 3 V is an RG-isomorphism and V remains irreducible as a CG-module, then W ë1 V for some real number ë. . (c) Give an example of a group G, an irreducible RG-module V and an RG-homomorphism W: V 3 V which is not a multiple of 1 V . 9. Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. Let Ù be the set of n right cosets Hx of H in G. For g P G, de®ne a function r g : Ù 3 Ù by ( Hx)r g Hxg for all x P G. Prove that r g is a permutation of Ù, and that the function r : g 3 r g is a homomorphism from G to the symmetric group on Ù. Show that the kernel of r is xPG x À1 Hx. Deduce that if a group G has a subgroup H of index n, then there is a homomorphism G 3 S n with kernel contained in H. 10. Suppose that G is a ®nite group containing and involution t with CG (t) C2 . Prove that |G : G9| 2. Deduce that if G is simple, then G C2 .

24 Summary of properties of character tables

In this short chapter we present no new results, but instead we gather together from previous chapters various properties which are helpful when we try to ®nd the character table of a particular group. In the next four chapters we shall calculate several character tables in detail. Usually we begin by working out the conjugacy classes and centralizer orders of our given ®nite group G. The size of the character table is determined by the number k of conjugacy classes of G; the character table is then a k 3 k matrix, with columns indexed by the conjugacy classes of G (the ®rst column corresponding to the conjugacy class {1}), and with rows indexed by the irreducible characters of G. When doing calculations, we commonly come across a new character ÷, which may or may not be irreducible. We can then calculate h÷, ÷i, which is given by h÷, ÷i 1 ÷( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG

The character ÷ is irreducible if and only if h÷, ÷i 1 (see Theorem 14.20). If ÷ is reducible then we calculate h÷, ÷ i i for each of the irreducible characters ÷ i which we already know, and then ÷À h÷, ÷ i i÷ i

i

will also be a character. We can thus determine whether ÷ is a linear combination of the irreducible characters we already know; and if it is not, then we can obtain from ÷ a linear combination of irreducible characters, all of which are new. We have developed a number of methods for producing characters ÷ 283

284

Representations and characters of groups

on which to perform such calculations. For example, every subgroup of Sn has a permutation character (see (13.22)); the product of two characters is again a character (Proposition 19.6); given a character ø we can form the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of its square, ø S and ø A (see Proposition 19.14); and if H is a subgroup of G then we can restrict characters of G to H, and induce characters of H to G. These and other properties of characters are summarized in the following list.

Properties of characters Assume that ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k are the irreducible characters of G. (1) (Example 13.8(3)) There is a (trivial) character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) 1 for all g P GX (2) (Theorem 17.11) The group G has precisely jGaG9j linear characters. These are the characters ÷ given by ÷( g) ø( gG9) ( g P G) as ø varies over the irreducible (linear) characters of GaG9. (3) (Theorem 17.3) As a generalization of (2), if N v G and ø is an irreducible character of GaN , then we get an irreducible character ÷ of G which is given by ÷( g) ø( gN ) ( g P G) (÷ is the lift of ø). This method gives precisely those irreducible characters of G which have N contained in their kernel. (4) (Theorem 19.18) If G G1 3 G2 then all the irreducible characters ÷ of G are given by ÷( g1 , g 2 ) ö1 ( g 1 )ö2 ( g 2 ) ( g 1 P G1 , g 2 P G2 ), as ö i varies over the irreducible characters of Gi (i 1, 2). (5) (Proposition 13.24) If G is a subgroup of Sn , then the function í: G 3 C de®ned by í( g) jfix ( g)j À 1 is a character of G. ( g P G)

Summary of properties of character tables

285

(6) (Theorems 11.12 and 22.11) The entries ÷ i (1) (1 < i < k) in the ®rst column of the character table of G are positive integers, and satisfy

k i1

÷ i (1)2 jGjX

Moreover, each integer ÷ i (1) divides |G|. (7) (Row orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(1)) For all i, j, we have h÷ i , ÷ j i ä ij . (8) (Column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2)) For all g, h P G, we have @ k jCG ( g)j, if g and h are conjugate, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (h) 0, otherwiseX i1 (9) (Exercise 13.5) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and z P Z(G), then there exists a root of unity å such that for all g P G, ÷(zg) å÷( g)X (10) (Proposition 13.9(2)) If g is an element of order n in G, and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g) is a sum of nth roots of unity. Moreover, |÷( g)| < ÷(1). (11) (Proposition 13.9(3, 4)) If g P G and ÷ is a character of G, then ÷( g À1 ) ÷( g)X In particular, if g is conjugate to gÀ1 then ÷( g) is real for all characters ÷ of G. (12) (Corollary 15.6) If g P G and g is not conjugate to gÀ1 , then ÷( g) is non-real for some character ÷ of G. (13) (Theorem 22.16) Let g P G. If g is conjugate to gi for all positive integers i which are coprime to the order of g, then ÷( g) is an integer for all characters ÷ of G. (14) (Corollary 22.26) Suppose that p is a prime number and that y is the p9-part of the element g of G. If ÷ is a character of G such that ÷( g) and ÷( y) are both integers, then ÷( g) ÷( y) mod pX

where ÷ë( g) ÷( g)ë( g) ( g P G)X (18) (Proposition 19. then so is ÷.286 Representations and characters of groups In particular. then ÷( g) ÷(1) mod pX (15) (Proposition 13. 2 ÷ A ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) À ÷( g 2 ))X 2 (20) (De®nition 21.14) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G and ë is a linear character of G.13. then so is the product ÷ø. where ÷ø( g) ÷( g)ø( g) ( g P G)X (19) (Proposition 19. (17) (Proposition 17.14) If ÷ is a character of G.6) If ÷ and ø are characters of G. indeed. ÷ S ( g) 1(÷ 2 ( g) ÷( g 2 )). the ®rst column determines |G| and jGaG9j (by (6) and (2)).5). then so are ÷ S and ÷ A . with values given by Proposition 21.23) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of H. where (ø 5 H)(h) ø(h) (h P H)X We have seen that the character table of a group G gives grouptheoretic information about G. where ÷( g) ÷( g) ( g P G)X (16) (Theorem 23. then ø 4 G is a character of G.15) If ÷ is an irreducible character of G. if the order of g is a power of p. Proposition 21. We can see from the character table whether or not G is simple (Proposition 17. these can be determined in the following ways.1) The number of real irreducible characters of G is equal to the number of real conjugacy classes of G. (21) (Chapter 20) If H is a subgroup of G and ø is a character of G. Two important normal subgroups are G9 and Z(G). we can ®nd all the normal subgroups of G (Proposition 17. where for all g P G.23.6). then ÷ë is an irreducible character of G. For example. then ø 5 H is a character of H. The derived subgroup G9 consists of those elements g in G which satisfy ÷( g) 1 for all linear characters ÷ of G. The centre Z(G) can be found by noting which elements g of G satisfy .

which can be deduced from the character table. the converse is false: in Exercise 17.Summary of properties of character tables 287 ÷( g)÷( g) |G|. however. with the same character table. In Chapter 30 we shall see some more impressive results about subgroups of G. . it is of course true that isomorphic groups have the same character table. D8 and Q8 . As a ®nal remark. the sum being over all irreducible characters ÷ of G.1 we gave examples of non-isomorphic groups.

It is also true. p will denote a prime number. p À 1X An integer n of order p À 1 in ZÃ is called a primitive root modulo p p. that is. we shall have determined the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. there exists an integer n p such that n pÀ1 1 mod p. and in this chapter we shall describe a class of Frobenius groups and ®nd the character tables of the groups in this class.1 Theorem The multiplicative group ZÃ is cyclic. is a ®eld. In particular. Throughout the chapter. 1. A number of these groups are so-called Frobenius groups. but for a good 288 .25 Characters of groups of order pq By the end of the next chapter. and ZÃ Z p À f0g is an abelian group p under multiplication. Primitive roots modulo p Recall that the set Z p f0. X X X . r . Clearly Z p is a cyclic group under addition. and n r T 1 mod p for 0 . that ZÃ is cyclic: p 25.1. Z p is an abelian group under addition. with addition and multiplication modulo p. but not at all obvious. this will give the character tables of all groups whose order is the product of two prime numbers. We shall not provide a proof of Theorem 25. generated by 1. p À 1g. that is.

we see that every element of F is of the form A i B j with 0 < i < p À 1. De®ne p 1 1 1 0 A . qX Frobenius groups of order pq. Bi. Now let q| p À 1. 0 < j < q À 1. such that u q 1 mod p.3 of the book by J. G is a group of order p( p À 1) (see Exercise 25. 11 and 13.Characters of groups of order pq 289 account.3 Proposition If q| p À 1 then there is an integer u such that u has order q modulo p ± that is. 5. y P Z X : xPZp p x Under matrix multiplication. but not modulo 7. BÀ1 AB Au X Using these relations. As an immediate consequence of Theorem 25. These pq elements are dis- . Then 1 u À1 B AB Au . where q| p 2 1 25. B.1). and let u be an element of order q in the multiplicative group ZÃ . and u r T 1 mod p for 0 . r . 0 1 and so we have the relations (25X5) Ap Bq I. we refer you to Theorem 45. the subgroup of G generated by A and B. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. and 3 is a primitive root modulo 7.1 we have 25.2 Example The number 2 is a primitive root modulo 3.4 Example De®ne G & 1 0 ' y Ã. B . 0 1 0 u and let F hA. 25.

290 Representations and characters of groups tinct. Passman listed in the Bibliography.3 that q divides p À 1 and G has a normal subgroup H of order p. the interested reader can ®nd more information in the book by D. p It is not hard to show that. Then either G is abelian. It follows from Exercise 22. up to isomorphism. F p. B. these facts follow readily from Sylow's Theorems (see Chapter 18 of the book by J.3). a bÀq abq a u q and so u q 1 mod p.q does not depend on which integer u of order q we choose (see Exercise 25.5) determine all products in F.q . then we write F p. B: Ap Bq I.) Both H and Ga H are cyclic. Further. Moreover the relations (25. bÀ1 ab au i.q . or q divides p À 1 and G F p. b: a p b q 1. it follows that b has order q. We shall not give the general de®nition of these here. BÀ1 AB Au iX 25. since they have prime order. so jFj pq. p . as we shall only be dealing with F p. where u is an element of order q in ZÃ .q belong to a wider class of groups known as Frobenius groups. 25.q ha. S.q for the group of order pq with presentation F p. Now H v G. Suppose that H kal and Ga H h Hbi.7 Proposition Suppose that G is a group of order pq. Proof Assume that G is non-abelian. where p and q are prime numbers with p . The next result classi®es all groups whose order is the product of two distinct prime numbers. Thus the order of u in the group ZÃ divides q. (Alternatively. The groups F p.6 De®nition If p is a prime and q| p À 1. Since bq P H but b does not have order pq (as G is non-abelian). so bÀ1 ab au for some integer u. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography). then G is generated by a and b. so we have the presentation F hA. q.

Therefore the conjugacy class of av i has size at least q. Thus p jSj q. in fact. and in Example 21. and u has order q modulo p. The character table of F p.8 Example By Proposition 25.q are f1g. already found the character tables of certain of the groups F p. Thus let G Fp. every group of order 15 is abelian (indeed. and the groups of order 21 are C3 3 C7 and F7. Hence (av i ) G has size q. order of u in ZÃ is qX p Hence G F p. . b: ap bq 1. (av i ) G fav i s : s P Sg (1 < i < r).q .q in general. Write r ( p À 1)aq. q| p À 1 (q not necessarily prime). Therefore the order of u is q. We have now established that a p b q 1. and choose coset representatives v1 . X X X . also the size of this conjugacy class is equal to |G: CG (av i )|.3. bÀ1 ab au i where p is prime. j 25.Characters of groups of order pq 291 If the order of u were 1 then we would have bÀ1 ab a.3 . Let S be the subgroup of ZÃ consisting of the powers of u.q : the dihedral group of order 2 p is the case where q 2. and G would be abelian.25 we dealt with F7. bÀ1 ab au .q We have. We now construct the character table of F p. isomorphic to C3 3 C5 ). and has the form stated in the proposition. v r for S in ZÃ .9 Proposition The conjugacy classes of G F p. this size is at most q. and since kal < CG (av i ).q ha. p 25. (bn ) G fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g (1 < n < q À 1)X Proof The equation bÀ j av b j avu j shows that av is conjugate to avs for all s P S.7.

using Proposition 21. observe that the derived subgroup G9 kal. øv j s ihai hö j . for all s P S. These are given by ÷ n (0 < n < q À 1). G has q r conjugacy classes.292 Representations and characters of groups Since CG (bn ) contains kbl. where ÷ n (a x b y ) e2ði nyaq (0 < x < p À 1. it follows that for n T 0 mod q. and kbl has index p in G. First. let p ö j øv j 4 GX We now prove that each ö j is irreducible. j By Proposition 25. hö j 5 hai. G has precisely q linear characters. Hence (bn ) G fam bn : 0 < m < p À 1g and the proof is complete. and øv 4 G øvs 4 G if s P SX For each coset representative v j (1 < j < r) of S in ZÃ . On the other hand.9. We obtain (øv 4 G)(ax by ) 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. For v P ZÃ . øv j s 4 Gi G hö j .16. ö j i G X Hence ö j 5 hai hö j . we have |CG (bn )| q. as Gahai is abelian. and (øv 4 G)(ax ) å vsx (0 < x < p À 1)X sPS Note that øv 4 G has degree q. By the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. denote by øv the character of kal which p is given by øv (ax ) å vx (0 < x < p À 1)X We calculate the values of the induced character øv 4 G. and so the conjugacy class of bn has size p. 0 < y < q À 1)X We shall show that G has r irreducible characters of degree q. ö j i G sPS øv j s ÷. .11.23. so we seek q r irreducible characters. Let å e2ðia p . every conjugate of bn has the form am bn for some m. so GaG9 has order q and therefore by Theorem 17.

Consequently the irreducible characters ö1 . 25. so we have the complete character table of G.10 Theorem Let p be a prime number. Taking degrees. Of these. Then the group F p. ö j i G X Since ö j (1) q jSj. where v1 S. we deduce that kö j . ö j i G øv j s X sPS By Theorem 14.q ha. bÀ1 ab au i . ö j l G 1. . 1 < j < r). v r S are the cosets in ZÃ of the p subgroup S generated by u. sPS for 1 < j < r. We conclude by illustrating Theorem 25. We summarize in the following theorem.23. and hence ö1 5 kal. it follows that ö j (1) > jSjhö j . bÀ1 ab au i fax by : 0 < x < p À 1. pÀ1 ha. 25.Characters of groups of order pq 293 where ÷ is either 0 or a character of kal. . b: a p bq 1.10 in some examples. ö r 5 kal are distinct. b: a p b pÀ1 1. q| p À 1 and r ( p À 1)aq. ö j of G (0 < n < q À 1. q have degree 1 and are given by ÷ n (ax by ) e2ði nyaq (0 < n < q À 1) and r have degree q and are given by ö j (ax by ) 0 if 1 < y < q À 1. . We have now found q r distinct irreducible characters ÷ n . This proves that ö j is irreducible. . the characters øv (v P ZÃ ) are linearly indepenp dent. . .11 Example Let G F p. . and also that ö j 5 hai hö j . 0 < y < q À 1g has q r irreducible characters. . ö r are distinct. ö j (ax ) e2ðiv j sxa p . X X X .

ã å4 å6 å7 å9 X By Theorem 25.4 ha. bl. b (2 3 5 4)X Check that a5 b4 1.4 . Here F13. b P S5 be the permutations a (1 2 3 4 5). bÀ1 ab a2 X Hence if G ka.4 is as shown opposite.3. then G F5.294 Representations and characters of groups where u is a primitive root modulo p. bÀ1 ab a5 iX Write å e2ðia13 . if 1 < x < p À 1X 25. b: a13 b4 1. q 4.13 Example We consider the case p 13.10. In Example 21. You may like . and one irreducible character ö of degree p À 1. â å 2 å 3 å 10 å 11 .12 Example Let a. Then G has p À 1 linear characters. with values given by ö(ax by ) 0 ö(a ) À1 25.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö 1 20 1 1 1 1 4 a 5 1 1 1 1 À1 b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 x if 1 < y < p À 2.25 we found the character table of F7. and so by the previous example the character table of G is as shown. the character table of F13. and let á å å 5 å 8 å 12 . Character table of F5.

Exercises for Chapter 25 1. 2. Prove that & ' 1 y : x P ZÃ . Suppose that p is prime and q divides p À 1. Write down the character table of the non-abelian group F11. bÀ1 ab au iX The irreducible characters of Fp. Let p and q be prime numbers with p .10. Then p Fp. y P Z p . Let u and v be two integers which are of order q modulo p. 2. and de®ne .q are described in Theorem 25. with p prime and q| p À 1. q. Character table of F13.10. Let u be an element of order q in ZÃ .q ha. is a group of order p( p À 1). If G has order pq. 3. Let p and q be positive integers. then either G is abelian or G F p.4 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷0 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ö1 ö2 ö3 1 52 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 a 13 1 1 1 1 á â ã a2 13 1 1 1 1 â ã á a4 13 1 1 1 1 ã á â b 4 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 0 b2 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 b3 4 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 0 Summary of Chapter 25 1.5 of order 55. p 0 x under matrix multiplication. Let p be a prime number.Characters of groups of order pq 295 to check that this agrees with the description of the character table provided by Theorem 25.q. b: ap bq 1.

cÀ1 ac aÀ1 . G2 ha. b: ap bq 1. 6. bÀ1 ab au i. 5. X X X . with p T 2. show that the two irreducible characters ö1 . b: ap bq 1. (d) Deduce that if å e2ðia p then p å s (À1 Æ (ä p)). b. Suppose that p is a prime number. (( p À 1)a2)2 g). as in Exercise 5. obtain the character table of E. bÀ1 ab av iX Prove that G1 G2 . ab ba.4. (This justi®es the comment which follows the de®nition of Fp. sPQ where Q is the set of quadratic residues modulo p (that is. (b) Deduce that a is conjugate to aÀ1 if and only if p 1 mod 4. but E has no faithful irreducible representation.296 Representations and characters of groups G1 ha. (c) Using the orthogonality relations.q ha.16. cÀ1 bc bÀ1 i. Note that ka. ö2 of G of degree q have values p 1 (ä p)) 2(À1 Æ on the element a. (a) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are . where ä 1 if p 1 mod 4. Let q ( p À 1)a2 and let G Fp. and ä À1 if p À1 mod 4. c: a3 b3 c2 1. E provides a counterexample to the converse of Proposition 9. where u is an element of order q modulo p. Q f12 . Let E be the group of order 18 which is given by E ha.6.) 4.) 7. (a) Show that there exists an integer m such that u m À1 mod p if and only if p 1 mod 4. bÀ1 ab au i. 22 . b: ap bq 1. (Thus. Show that the group E of Exercise 5 has the properties that Z(E) is cyclic.q in 25. By inducing linear characters of this subgroup. bl is a normal subgroup of E which is isomorphic to C3 3 C3 .

3X (b) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1. 3. 297 . 3. 1. 3. 2. 1.Characters of groups of order pq 1. 1. 3. 6X 8. 1. 1. 2. 1. 3. 6. 3. 1. 3. 3. b: a9 b6 1. 3. 2. 3. 3. 6. 3. 3. 1. bÀ1 ab a2 iX Find the character table of G. 1. 3. 3. 3. 6. 1. 1. Let G be the group of order 54 which is given by G ha. 3. 3. 1. 3X (c) Find a group whose irreducible character degrees are 1.

In the ®rst lemma we collect several well known properties of pgroups. that we have found the character tables of all groups of order less than 32. we show that all groups of order pn with 1 < n < 4 do. Recall that Z(G) denotes the centre of G (see De®nition 9. We later give explicitly the irreducible characters of all groups of order p3 and of all groups of order 16. Elementary properties of p-groups A p-group is a group whose order is a power of the prime number p. At the end of the chapter we point out. (3) If n < 2 then G is abelian.15). then G is abelian. Therefore 298 . (1) If {1} T H v G then H Z(G) T {1}. p will be a prime number. 26. and H Z(G) consists of those conjugacy classes in H which have size 1. H is a union of conjugacy classes of G. The method consists of examining the characters of those p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. Proof (1) Since H v G. all of which have size a power of p. Z(G) T {1}. have an abelian subgroup of index p. and before explaining the method.1 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with n > 1. In particular. indeed. We shall show how to obtain the character tables of all groups of order pn for n < 4. (2) If K < Z(G) and GaK is cyclic.26 Characters of some p-groups Throughout this chapter. with references.

3 Lemma Let G be a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p. Then by Exercise 12. it follows that x1 x2 x2 x1 .8.1(1).1(2). Since k1 . the only possibility is that |G| p4 and | Z(G)| p. Proof The result is immediate if n 1. Assume that Z(G) contains a subgroup K of order p nÀ2 . k2 P Z(G). Hence again Z( H) H by Lemma 26. by Lemma 26.Characters of some p-groups j Hj j H Z(G)j (a multiple of p)X 299 As | H| is a multiple of p and | H Z(G)| T 0. x2 g j k 2 for some integers i. we deduce that H Z(G) T {1}. Let x1 . Then x1 g i k 1 .2 Lemma Let G be a group of order pn with 1 < n < 4. x2 P G. Therefore H is an abelian subgroup of index p in G. j Hj jGjajx G j p3 . so suppose that 2 < n < 4. (3) By (1). As K < Z( H) and. Since Z(G) T f1g by Lemma 26.7. recall that the derived subgroup of G is denoted by G9 (see De®nition 17. generated by gK. j For our ®nal result on the structure of p-groups. Now assume that Z(G) has no subgroup of order p nÀ2 . k2 P K. Hence if n < 2 then Ga Z(G) is j cyclic and so G is abelian by (2). Therefore G is abelian.7). 26. Z(G) and kxl are distinct nonidentity subgroups of Z( H). jGa Z(G)j < p nÀ1 . Then G contains an abelian subgroup of index p. and H is an abelian subgroup of index p. Moreover. (2) Suppose that GaK is cyclic. we deduce that Z( H) H. and so Z( H) > p2 . Let H CG (x). Then we can ®nd a subgroup H of G such that K < H and j Hj p nÀ1 .1(2). Then there exists a normal subgroup K of G such that K < H G9 Z(G) and jKj pX . 26. Then by Theorem 12. G has an element x whose conjugacy class x G is of size p. j and some k1 . Ha Z( H) is not of order p.

we have KH H. Since G is non-abelian and |G: H| p. Now K < Z(G) implies that K v G and that KH is an abelian subgroup of G (where KH {kh: k P K. Let K be a normal subgroup of G as in Lemma 26. j Characters of p-groups with an abelian subgroup of index p In view of Lemma 26. for some linear character ø of H which satis®es K T< Ker ø. and hence G9 Z(G) T {1} by Lemma 26. h P H}).8 that all the p nÀ1 irreducible characters of the abelian group H are linear. Since p nÀ1 ( p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 ) p2 pn jGj. This establishes (26X5) if ÷(1) p and K T< Ker ÷. then either ÷ is irreducible or ÷ is a sum of linear characters (since by Theorem 22. and therefore K < H. We shall construct p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 further irreducible characters of G. the degree of every irreducible character of G is a power of p).2. 26. the next theorem provides us with all the irreducible characters of non-abelian groups of order p3 or p4 . again by Theorem 11.12. In the latter case.300 Representations and characters of groups Proof Since G is non-abelian.4 Theorem Assume that G is a non-abelian p-group which contains an abelian subgroup H of index p.12. as G9 is in the kernel of every linear character. First note that if ÷ is a character of G of degree p. By Theorem 17. (Ã ) we shall then have obtained all the irreducible characters of G. the irreducible characters of GaK lift to give precisely those irreducible characters of G which have K in their kernel. The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters obtained in this way is jGaKj p nÀ1 .1(1).3. Proof Let |G| pn .3. Then every irreducible character of G is given by either (1) the lift of an irreducible character of GaK. and hence K < G9 < Ker ÷. then ÷ is irreducibleX We know by Theorem 9. by Theorem 11. or (2) ø 4 G. Let Ö denote the set of linear . Let K be a subgroup of order p in G9 Z(G).11. each of degree p. we have {1} T G9 v G. we have G9 < Ker ÷.

It follows that fø 4 G: ø P Ög gives at least jÖja p ( p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 )a p distinct irreducible characters of G of degree p which do not have K in their kernel. and the proof is complete. By Proposition 21.8. j We now use Theorem 26. We shall then illustrate Theorem 26. Then by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem 21. Since the linear characters of H which do have K in their kernel are precisely the lifts of linear characters of HaK. the abelian groups of order p3 are C p3 .1. Groups of order p3 By Theorem 9. Hence Ga Z Cp 3 Cp and Z kzl Cp .6. (ø 4 G)(k) pø(k) for all k P KX Thus ø 4 G has degree p and does not have K in its kernel. Then .16. G has at most p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 such characters. Now let G be a non-abelian group of order p3 . Write Z Z(G). Z T {1} and Ga Z is non-cyclic. Therefore by (26. C p2 3 Cp and Cp 3 Cp 3 Cp X The character tables of these groups are given by Theorem 9.5).Characters of some p-groups 301 characters of H which do not have K in their kernel. ø1 4 Gi G h(ø 4 G) 5 H. this implies that there are at most p elements ø1 of Ö such that ø1 4 G ø 4 G. Choose aZ. ø 4 G is an irreducible character of G.23.4 further by constructing the character tables of all the non-abelian groups of order 16. 1 hø 4 G. bZ such that Ga Z haZ. As we saw in (Ã ). By Lemma 26. we have jÖj p nÀ1 À p nÀ2 X Let ø P Ö. ø1 i H X Since (ø 4 G) 5 H has degree p. bZi. since K < Z(G).4 to give an explicit construction of the irreducible characters of the non-abelian groups of order p3 . Therefore fø 4 G: ø P Ög consists precisely of the p nÀ2 À p nÀ3 irreducible characters we seek. Suppose now that ø1 is a linear character of H such that ø 4 G ø1 4 G.

then ar Z is conjugate to gZ in the abelian group Ga Z. Let H ka. t. Let r be an integer with 1 < r < p À 1. and therefore g ar z t for some t. and hence (ar ) G far z t : 0 < t < p À 1gX . so that H is an abelian subgroup of order p2 . på . and (1 < u < p À 1). Since ar P Z.8. v < p À 1). ö u (ar bs z t ) 0. as above. Proof By Theorem 9. zl. t with 0 < r. Write å e2ðia p .v which appears in the statement of the theorem.v (0 < u.v öu where for all r. 0 < s < p À 1g and in particular. a the conjugacy class (ar ) G does not have size 1. Then the irreducible characters of G are ÷ u.v (ar bs z t ) å rusv . 0 < v < p À 1).302 Representations and characters of groups Ga Z far bs Z: 0 < r < p À 1. the irreducible characters of Ga Z are ø u. s. For 1 < u < p À 1. If ar is conjugate to an element g of G.v is the linear character ÷ u. otherwiseX (0 < u < p À 1. @ ut if r s 0. every element of G is of the form ar bs z t for some r. t < p À 1. s. so ar Z gZ. 26.v (ar bs Z) å rusv X The lift to G of ø u. where ø u. ÷ u. t < p À 1} be a non-abelian group of order p3 . choose a character ø u of H which satis®es ø u (z t ) å ut (0 < t < p À 1)X We shall calculate ø u 4 G. s.6 Theorem Let G {ar bs z t : 0 < r. s.

and the sum of the squares of their degrees is p2 . (ø u 4 G)(ar z t ) ø u (ar ) ø u (ar z) X X X ø u (ar z pÀ1 ) ø u (ar ) ø u (ar ) 0X Also. up to isomorphism.Characters of some p-groups Then by Proposition 21.4 (with K Z(G)). 12 ( p À 1) . p2 jGjX Hence we have found all the irreducible characters of G. ö u i G 3 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p gPG 1 ö u ( g)ö u ( g) p3 gP Z 1 2 p p3 gP Z 1X Therefore ö u is irreducible. they are D8 and Q8. In fact. (ø u 4 G)(z t ) pø u (z t ) på ut . Clearly the irreducible characters ÷ u.23. then ö u takes the values stated in the theorem.6 is a special case of the proof of Theorem 26. If p 2. and (ø u 4 G)( g) 0 if g P HX a pÀ1 s0 pÀ1 s0 303 ø u (z s ) å us We have now established that if ö u ø u 4 G.v (0 < u. v < p À 1) and ö u (1 < u < p À 1) are all distinct. they are . And if p is odd. We ®nd that 1 hö u . there are precisely two non-abelian groups of order p3 . j Notice that the calculation in the proof of Theorem 26.

that all the nine groups G1 . up to isomorphism.8. By Theorem 9. It is not C8 by Lemma 26. bÀ1 ab a3 iX . G9 given below do indeed have order 16. G3 ha. (A) There are three non-abelian groups GaK D8 . C8 3 C2 . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. These are G of order 16 with G1 ha. . b: a8 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i D16 . .5. b chosen in the statement of Theorem 26. . so the subgroup K described in Lemma 26.6. it is possible to see. according to these three possibilities for GaK. 134 of the book by Coxeter and Moser listed in the Bibliography). The elements a. 26. C4 3 C2 3 C2 and C2 3 C2 3 C2 3 C2 . the abelian groups of order 16 are C16 . b2 a4 . G2 ha. bÀ1 ab aziX 2 We have Z( H1 ) ka p l. b: a8 b2 1.8 The groups of order 16 It is known that. and their character tables are given by Theorem 9.1(2). For each of the nine non-abelian groups G of order 16 it is the case that |G9 Z(G)| 2 (see Exercise 26. and it is not Q8 by Exercise 26. . and H 2 ha. bz zb.3 is given by K G9 Z(G)X Now GaK is a group of order 8. We shall describe all these groups and their character tables. b in H1 and H2 will serve for the elements a. Hence GaK D8 . C4 3 C2 or C2 3 C2 3 C2 X We shall divide our descriptions into three parts. az za. using Exercise 26. b.6. b: a p b p 1.8.304 (26X7) Representations and characters of groups H 1 ha. Z( H2 ) kzl. Our descriptions will be in terms of presentations. there are precisely fourteen groups of order 16 (see p. C4 3 C4 . z: a p b p z p 1. bÀ1 ab a p1 i.7). b: a8 b2 1.

4. as before. we obtain the character tables of G1 . . C7 . These are G4 ha. bÀ1 ab azi. alternatively. G2 G3 1 1 C2 a4 a4 C3 a2 .4(2) as induced characters ø 4 G. z 2 1. p á i 2 Àâ for G3 X p The ®rst ®ve characters are the lifts of the irreducible characters of GaK D8 . z: a4 z. a7 C6 ai b (i even) ai b (i even) C7 ai b (i odd) ai b (i odd) Using Theorem 26. . of order 2). a6 a2 . az za. but not for G3 (see Corollary 15. they can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. and these are given in the following table. a6 C4 a. b.Characters of some p-groups 305 In each case K ka4 l. K G9 Z(G). z: a4 1. G2 . b2 z 2 1. b2 z. C1 G1 . Note that a is conjugate to aÀ1 in G1 and G2 . z: a4 1. Each of the groups has seven conjugacy classes C1 . a3 C5 a3 . a5 a5 . bz zbiX . a7 a. b2 z 2 1. G2 and G3 : Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 2 À2 À2 C3 8 1 1 1 1 À2 0 0 C4 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 á â C5 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 â á C6 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 C7 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 where á 2 Àâ for G1 . b. bÀ1 ab azi. hence the values in the columns C4 and C5 are all real for G1 and G2 . G6 ha. where ø is a linear character of the abelian subgroup kal of index 2. .6). (B) There are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK C4 3 C2 (where. b. . but not in G3 . The last two characters can be obtained as in Theorem 26. G5 ha. bÀ1 ab az.

z: a2 b2 z 4 1. G5 . . bz In each case. bÀ1 ab az 2 . az za. G6 X (C) Finally. but they are in a form which allows us to describe the conjugacy classes C1 . G8 ha. bz zbiX . az za. G6 simultaneously: C1 1 C2 z C3 a2 C4 a2 z C5 C6 C7 C8 a2 b. bz zbi Q8 3 C2 . These are G7 ha. abz C10 a3 b. b. of order 2). z: a4 z 2 1.4: Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 á â C4 16 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 â á C5 8 1 i À1 Ài 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 C6 8 1 Ài À1 i 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 C7 8 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 i À1 Ài À1 Ài 1 i 0 0 C10 8 1 Ài À1 i À1 i 1 Ài 0 0 where á 2i Àâ á 2 Àâ for G4 . a2 b2 . K kzl. a3 z b. a2 bz C9 ab. bz zbi D8 3 C2 . for G5 . z is redundant). The character tables of G4 . . bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . az a3 . C10 of all three groups G4 . there are three non-abelian groups G of order 16 with GaK C2 3 C2 3 C2 (where K G9 Z(G). b. z: a4 b2 z 2 1. az za. G5 and G6 can again be found using Theorem 26. . since a4 z in G4 .306 Representations and characters of groups The given presentations are somewhat cumbersome (for example. . G9 ha. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . b. a3 bz a.

a3 z z z 3 a. a3 az.3. az 2 az. G8 . az 3 b.9 The groups of order less than 32 At this point. abz3 We have K @ ha2 i hz 2 i for G7 .Characters of some p-groups Each of these groups has ten conjugacy classes. a2 bz ab. are as follows. G8 and G9 . abz 2 abz. a3 b abz. a2 b bz. a3 bz b. are as follows: . bz 2 bz. with references for their character tables.4. for G9 X 26. and the character tables of G7 . for G9 .8 and Section 18. the groups. whose character tables are given by Theorem 9. we have in fact found the character tables of all groups of order 31 or less. G8 G9 1 a2 1 z2 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 307 z a2 z a. Class Centralizer order C1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 C2 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 C3 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 á â C4 16 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 À1 â á C5 8 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 0 0 C6 8 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 0 0 C7 8 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 0 0 C8 8 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 1 0 0 C9 8 1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 C10 8 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 1 À1 0 0 where á 2 Àâ á 2i Àâ for G7 . given by Theorem 26. bz 3 ab. G8 . which are given by C1 C2 C3 C4 G7 . Apart from abelian groups and dihedral groups.

Theorem 26.4: p-groups which contain an abelian subgroup of index p. D10 3 C3 Reference for character table Exercise 17.4 F7.10 Theorem 25.6 Exercise 18. G has pm linear characters and p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 irreducible characters of degree p.3 Theorem 25. Exercises for Chapter 26 1.6: groups of order p3 .2 Exercise 18. Suppose that G is a group of order pn ( p prime. we gave the irreducible characters of various nonabelian p-groups G.3 Section 26. T12 3 C2 D8 3 C3 . as follows.18 27 28 30 Summary of Chapter 26 In this chapter.1 Section 18. . D6 3 C4 S4 SL (2.10 Theorem 19. .3 Theorem 19. Section 26.1 Exercise 27. 3.5 Theorem 26. G9 D6 3 C3 E T20 F5.5 Exercise 18. with an abelian subgroup H of index p.3 D12 3 C2 . H2 T28 D6 3 C5 . .18 Section 18.308 |G| 8 12 16 18 20 21 24 Representations and characters of groups G Q8 A4 T12 G1 .3 Exercise 18.18 Theorem 19. Q8 3 C3 . A4 3 C2 . 2. 1. . Show that for some integer m > 2. . n > 2).18 Exercise 25. Theorem 26. 3) T24 U24 V24 H1 .8 Theorem 19.2 Exercise 18.4 Exercise 18.8: groups of order 16.

b: a16 1. b2 a8 . Let H be the group of order 27 which is given by H ha. . G4 and G9 . D H À1 f f 0 f Af f 0 d 0 f fi f Cf f0 d 0 H i 0 0 0 be the following 4 3 4 matrices: I H 0 0 0 0 0 i g f f0 1 0 0g 0 0 g f Bf g. Ài g e 0 g 0g g g. 4.4. Let G1 .3. and use Theorem 26. 0g e 0 and let G kA. B. 3. (a) Find faithful irreducible representations of degree 2 for G1 . . (b) Show that for all g in G.6 to write down the character table of H. Dl.Characters of some p-groups 2. bÀ1 ab azi 309 (see (26. G2 . az za. and deduce that G is a 2group of order at most 32. G6 . . . G3 . b. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 iX Using Theorem 26. B. ®nd the character table of G. G7 and G8 have no faithful irreducible representations? . and deduce that G9 h Zi. (Hint: use Corollary 9. (b) Why do the remaining groups G5 .) (d) Show that |G| 32.7)). 0g e 0 I g 0g g g. z: a3 b3 z 3 1. Write Z ÀI. C. and ®nd all the irreducible representations of G. fi 0 1 0g 0 0 e d 0 0 0 0 Ài À1 0 I 0 f f0 f Df f0 d 1 H 0 Ài 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 I 0 0 g Ài g g g. Let A. (a) Prove that all pairs of generators commute modulo h Zi. C. or otherwise. bz zb. g 2 P h Zi. (c) Prove that the given representation of G of degree 4 is irreducible. Let G be the group of order 32 which is given by G ha. G9 be the non-abelian groups of order 16 with presentations as given in the text. Find the conjugacy classes of H. 5.

8. Let G be a non-abelian group of order p4 . . . . G9 are isomorphic. G9 given in the text do indeed give groups of order 16. b 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 mod Zi. a2 b2 mod Z. (c) Deduce that |G9 Z(G)| p. (a) Prove that if G is any group. bZ: a4 P Z. then Ga(G9 Z(G)) T Q8 . and that if | Z(G)| p2 then G has p3 p2 À p conjugacy classes. 7. 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 e. 0 0 i 0 0 1 H I À1 0 0 z 3 d 0 À1 0 eX 0 0 1 (d) Find faithful representations of degree 3 for G7 D8 3 C2 and G8 Q8 3 C2 . Prove that no two of the groups G1 . (Note: This exercise can be used to con®rm that the presentations of G1 . . . then Ga Z(G) T Q8 .) 6.310 (c) Representations and characters of groups Check that the following give faithful representations of G5 and G6 : H I H I 0 1 0 i 0 0 G5 : a 3 d 1 0 0 e. . and hence that a2 P Z. Prove that a2 commutes with b. and that if |G9| p2 then G has 2 p2 À 1 conjugacy classes. 0 0 1 H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 G6 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. . . (Hint: assume that Ga Z haZ. (a) Prove that | Z(G)| p or p2 .) (b) Deduce from the result of Exercise 7 that if G is a group of order 16. (b) Prove that |G9| p or p2 . b 3 d 1 0 0 e. .

c. then there are p( p À 1) choices for a. p) the set of all 2 3 2 matrices M with entries in Z p such that det M 1. and d is determined by a). except that a T 0. we count the matrices a b (a. Special linear groups Let p be a prime number. b are arbitrary. and recall that Z p is the ®eld which consists of the numbers 0. of order 60. d P Z p . To calculate the order of the group SL (2. The group belongs to a whole family of simple groups.27 Character table of the simple group of order 168 Recall that a simple group is a non-trivial group G such that the only normal subgroups of G are f1g and G itself. b. A5 and A6 . . p À 1. . We discussed brie¯y in Chapter 1 the signi®cance of simple groups in the theory of ®nite groups. b. and in this chapter we shall describe this group and ®nd its character table. . p). Denote by SL (2. d 311 . with addition and multiplication modulo p. p) is a group under matrix multiplication. and we begin with a description of this family. d which make ad À bc 1 (since a. c. ad À bc 1)X c d If c 0. and is called the 2-dimensional special linear group over Z p. And there are p2 ( p À 1) choices for a. . The next smallest is a certain group of order 168. In fact the group A5 . Then SL (2. Examples of simple groups which we have met so far are cyclic groups of prime order. is the smallest non-abelian simple group. b.

1 Lemma The group PSL (2. J. p) is simple (see Theorem 8. such that ad À bc 1 (since a. 7) has exactly six conjugacy classes. p) is Z fI. we shall ®nd the character table using only numerical calculations. 3) A4 . p) has order 6. we indicate other ways of obtaining characters of G. ÀIg (where I is the 2 3 2 identity matrix). and that for p > 5. Therefore jSL (2. The conjugacy classes of PSL (2.312 Representations and characters of groups with c T 0. p). the group PSL (2. and then b is determined).1. together with the order of gi . PSL (2. The simple group G PSL (2. The factor group SL (2. After ®nding the conjugacy classes of G. In the exercises.19 of the book by J. By Exercise 27. p)a Z is called the 2-dimensional projective special linear group. c is any non-zero element of Z p . . p)| p( p2 À 1). p)j p( p2 À 1)a2X It is known that PSL (2. Rotman listed in the Bibliography). d may be chosen arbitrarily. p) SL (2.4) and congruence properties (Corollary 22. and we shall construct the character table of this group. The following table records representatives gi (1 < i < 6) for the conjugacy classes. notably the orthogonality relations (Theorem 16. we have jPSL(2. p)afÆIgX Since |SL (2.26). and it is easy to see that this group is isomorphic to S3 . 7) has order 168. Thus PSL (2. 5) A5 . p)j p( p À 1) p2 ( p À 1) p( p2 À 1)X If p 2 then SL (2. 7) 27. and the size of the conjugacy class containing gi . the order of CG ( gi ). the centre of SL (2. and is written as PSL (2. so assume that p is an odd prime. using information about subgroups. The power of these techniques is therefore well illustrated.

Character table of the simple group of order 168 Order of gi g1 g2 g3 g4 g5 g6 1 0 0 1 Z Z 2 4 3 7 7 8 4 3 7 7 21 42 56 24 24 1 168 |CG ( gi )| | gG | i 1 313 0 1 À1 0 2 2 2 0 1 0 1 0 À2 Z 2 0 Z 4 1 Z 1 À1 Z 1 Proof For each i. Among g1 . . we verify that gi has the stated order. Consider. 5. d ' Z X 4 0 0 2 3 À2 3 2 0 À1 1 0 . . g6 . the only elements with the same order are g5 . . MZ: M À2 4 2 4 1 0 0 1 ' 2 3 2 4 2 2 2 À2 . a c b . . for example. and then use direct calculation to ®nd all the elements of G which commute with g i . g4 . . X 3 À2 4 À2 À2 2 2 2 Also. Then a b 2 0 2 Æ c d 0 4 0 and hence b c 0. . . CG ( gi ) k gi l for i 3. . 6. . Suppose that a b Z c d commutes with g4 . Consequently & 1 0 2 Z. CG ( g 4 ) 0 1 0 Similarly CG ( g2 ) & 0 4 0 4 Z.

÷6 be the irreducible characters of G. 7) Since G has six conjugacy classes. Thus g5 is not conjugate to g6 . for 1 < i < 4.1. which is impossible for a P Z7 . . j The character table of G PSL (2. and we have established that no two of the elements g1 . it is easy to check that G is indeed simple.2 Corollary (1) If 1 < i < 4 and ÷ is a character of G. . except possibly g5 and g6 . these exhaust the conjugacy i classes of G.8). ÷( g5 ) is non-real. . . d aÀ1 and a ab a b À aÀ1 X 0 aÀ1 0 aÀ1 Therefore a2 À1.314 Representations and characters of groups and g6 . Proof (1) By Lemma 27.16. 27. j Notice that using Lemma 27. so g5 is not conjugate to its inverse. Hence the conclusion follows from Theorem 22.1. . so no two of these six elements are conjugate.19). where ÷1 is the . then ÷( gi ) is an integer. . Since the sum of the sizes of the six conjugacy classes g G (1 < i < 6) is 168. . (2) Notice that g6 gÀ1 . The size of the conjugacy class g G is obtained by dividing 168 by i |CG ( gi )| (Theorem 12. since any normal subgroup is a union of conjugacy classes (see Proposition 12. Let ÷1 .6. 5 Therefore (2) follows from Corollary 15. . Suppose that gÀ1 g6 g g5 with a b g Z P GX c d Then gg5 g6 g. gi is conjugate to ( gi ) k whenever gi and ( gi ) k have the same order. it also has six irreducible characters. g6 are conjugate. (2) For some character ÷ of G. and so a ab aÀc Æ c cd c bÀd d with ad À bc 1X It follows that c 0. a T 0.

.Character table of the simple group of order 168 315 trivial character (so that ÷1 ( g) 1 for all g P G). ÷( g 2 ) ÷(1) mod 2. The entries in the column of g4 are integers. We shall repeatedly exploit the column orthogonality relations. Æ1.2. we see that.) Similarly the entries in the column of g3 are 1. we have by Corollary 22. Now for all characters ÷ of G. Theorem 16. and the entries in column g2 are 1. so di is the entry on row i of column 1.e. and ÷( g 3 ) ÷(1) mod 2. For the moment we concentrate on the entries in the ®rst column of the character table (i.27 for the elements g2 . Æ2. and the congruence properties given by Corollaries 22. . with a suitable ordering of ÷2 . Recall that the character table is the 6 3 6 matrix with ij-entry ÷ i ( gj ). Let di ÷ i (1). . 0. the degrees ÷ i (1)). part of the character table of G is as follows: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 We shall determine the signs later. Æ1. Æ1.26 and 22. Æ1. 0. By . by Corollary 27. Æ1. 0 in some order. Æ1. 0 in some order. g4 .27. 0. g3 . Æ1. The entries must therefore be 1. (We know that the entry in the ®rst row is ÷1 ( g4 ) 1. for which the character values are known to be integers. 0 in some order. and the sum of the squares of these integers is equal to |CG ( g4 )| 3.4(2). Æ1. . and so ÷( g 2 ) ÷( g 3 ) mod 2X Since we also know that 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 0. ÷6 .

27. we have d2 7 and d3 8. we have d6 T 12. 8 in some order. d 2 < 168X 4 The only positive integer d4 which satis®es these conditions is d4 3. The only solutions to this equation with d2. 2 3 so d 2 d 2 113. In the same way.Representations and characters of groups 6 2 Corollary 22. d 4 divides jGj 168. d 2 < 168X 6 Therefore d6 is 6 or 12. d5 3.11 and the fact that i1 d i 168. we have d 4 0 mod 3. Since d 2 1 mod 2. d3 equal to 7. and have the following portion: Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 Æ2 g3 4 1 Æ1 0 Æ1 Æ1 0 g4 3 1 Æ1 Æ1 0 0 0 . 2 Now 1 d 2 d 2 32 32 62 168. d 6 0 mod 2. d 6 0 mod 3. d3 2 3 positive integers have d2. and hence d6 6. d 6 divides 168. d 4 1 mod 2. so as d 2 < 168. We have now found the ®rst column of the character table. Next. But 0 6 i1 316 and and ÷ i ( g 2 )d i 1 Æ d 2 Æ 3 Æ 3 Æ 2d 6 . Theorem 22.

÷2 i 6 ÷2 ( g i )÷2 ( g i ) i1 jCG ( g i )j 7X7 1 1 1 ÷2 ( g 5 )÷2 ( g 5 ) ÷2 ( g 6 )÷2 ( g 6 ) 168 8 4 3 7 7 gives ÷2 ( g5 ) ÷2 ( g6 ) 0.Character table of the simple group of order 168 The equations 6 i1 317 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g j ) 0 for j 2. the equation 1 h÷2 . g4 .) Also. We obtain Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 Next. there is an irreducible character ÷ of G such that ÷( g5 ) is non-real. 6. By Corollary 27. Thus the column for g5 is . the complex conjugate ÷ will be a different character of the same degree. Hence ÷4 and ÷5 (being the only two irreducible characters with the same degree) must be complex conjugates of each other.2. but we could not use this fact as we were not sure that ÷2 ( g5 ) was an integer. g3 . 0 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 4 )÷ i ( g j ) 1 À ÷3 ( g j ) and so ÷3 ( g5 ) ÷3 ( g6 ) 1. 4 now enable us to determine the signs in the columns for g2 . For this character ÷. (Note that ÷2 ( g5 ) ÷2 (1) mod 7. 3. for j 5. and let ÷6 ( g5 ) t. Let ÷4 ( g5 ) ÷5 ( g 5 ) z.

we have ÷( g6 ) ÷( g 5 ) for all characters ÷ of G. z (À1 Æ i 7)a2X Since g6 gÀ1 . We give you the character tables of all of these. ÷ i ( g 5 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 2 2zz ttX Solving these equations. we obtain p t À1. 7). ÷ i ( g 3 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 1 z z. Character table of PSL (2. g1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 1 0 1 á á À1 It is known that there are precisely ®ve non-abelian simple groups of order less than 1000. . 7) Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. as shown. 5 We have now completely determined the character table of G PSL (2.318 Representations and characters of groups Class representative Centralizer order ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g5 7 1 0 1 z z t Now 0 0 7 6 i1 6 i1 6 i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 5 ) 1 À z À z 2t.

We constructed the character table of PSL (2. Exercises for Chapter 27 1. 8) PSL (2. PSL (2.3 Exercise 27. 3).2 Exercise 28. . 3. Deduce directly from the character table of PSL (2. 7). as follows: & ' a b T Z : a P ZÃ . (a) De®ne the subgroup T of G. p)j p( p2 À 1). p)j p( p2 À 1)a2 ( p odd). p) SL (2. SL (2. Prove that Z(SL (2. where ÷ is an irreducible character of G.13 This chapter Exercise 20. 7) that this group is simple. 4. ad À bc 1 . the simple group of order 168. 2.1. b. c. 3. Find the character table of SL (2. p)afÆIg.6 & 1. 7). In this exercise we present an alternative construction of the character table of G PSL (2. p)) fÆIg. d jSL (2. jPSL (2. and show that (1 T ) 4 G 1 G ÷. p) a c Summary of Chapter 27 ' b : a. d P Z p . of order 21. 11) Order of G 60 168 360 504 660 319 Reference for character table Example 20. Calculate the values of the induced character (1 T ) 4 G.Character table of the simple group of order 168 as follows: G A5 PSL (2. given the conjugacy classes of G. 7) A6 PSL (2. as in Lemma 27. 2. b P Z7 7 0 aÀ1 (where Z {ÆI}).

(a) Show that G has 11 conjugacy classes with representatives gi as follows: gi g1 g2 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 8 8 3 6 7 14 7 14 336 336 8 8 8 6 6 14 14 14 14 1 1 42 42 42 56 56 24 24 24 24 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i À1 0 0 À1 0 1 g3 À1 0 2 À2 g4 2 2 À2 2 g5 À2 À2 2 0 g6 0 4 À2 0 g7 0 À4 1 1 g8 0 1 À1 À1 g9 0 À1 1 À1 g 10 0 1 À1 1 g 11 0 À1 . Use orthogonality relations to complete the character table of G. the group of all 2 3 2 matrices of determinant 1.320 Representations and characters of groups (b) Let ë be a non-trivial linear character of T. (c). we now have irreducible characters of G of degrees 1. (c) By considering ÷ S (see Proposition 19. (b).14). 7). obtain an irreducible character of G of degree 6. The character table of SL (2. 7. Calculate the values of ë 4 G and prove that this is an irreducible character of G. Let G SL (2. 5. 7). 8 and 6. (d) From (a). with entries in the ®eld Z7 .

÷10 . 8. Show that for any j with 7 < j < 11 and any g P G. g8 having orders and centralizer orders as follows: gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| g1 1 660 g2 2 12 g3 3 6 g4 6 6 g5 5 5 g6 5 5 g7 11 11 g8 11 11 Also. This group has eight conjugacy classes with representatives g1 . respec5 6 7 8 tively. gÀ1 . we have ÷ j ( g) À÷ j (À g). g6 . . . . (c) Let ÷7 . 11). Let G PSL (2. ÷9 . show that the degrees of ÷7 . (f) Let ø be one of the irreducible characters of degree 4. ÷11 are 4. Find the character table of G. gÀ1 . Deduce the values of the irreducible characters of degree 4 on all gi . g7 . 4. 11). 6. . .14). .7) to write down the six irreducible characters of G with kernel containing Z {ÆI}. g3 and g6 (see Proposition 19. (g) Complete the character table of G. . and ®nd ÷ j ( g6 ) for 7 < j < 11. g2 . (d) Prove that ÷ j ( g3 ) 0 for 7 < j < 11.Character table of the simple group of order 168 321 (b) Use the character table of PSL (2. 6. prove that ø A is equal to the irreducible character of G of degree 6 whose kernel contains Z. gÀ1 . ÷8 . The character table of PSL (2. By considering the values of ø A on g1 . and congruences modulo 3. ÷11 be the remaining irreducible characters of G. . and deduce that ÷ j (1) is even. gÀ1 are conjugate to g5 . g8 . 6. . (e) By considering the column of g6 in the character table.

28 Character table of GL(2. The basic properties of ®nite ®elds which we will use without proof are these: 322 . (F. if we write F Ã Fnf0g. with identity element 0. At ®rst sight. and we shall tell you which properties of these ®elds we will use. b. the distributive law holds. as do the irreducible characters. if you are unfamiliar with ®nite ®elds then you might like to consult the book by J. we shall see that the conjugacy classes of our groups fall into four families. we found the character tables of certain groups of 2 3 2 matrices with entries in Z7 and Z11 . 3) is an abelian group. However. Recall that a ®eld (F. Finally. For example. we can display the character values in a 4 3 4 matrix. In the last chapter and its exercises. ) is an abelian group. c P F. with identity element 1. and one of the exercises will show you how to use the results of this chapter to determine the character tables of in®nitely many simple groups. C and Z p ( p prime) are ®elds. since the number of irreducible characters increases with the size of the ®eld. that is (a b)c ac bc for all a. then (F Ã . Consequently. First. 3) is a set F with two binary operations and 3 such that the following properties hold. q) We are now going to calculate the character tables of an important in®nite series of groups. R. . Secondly. B. Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography. We shall determine the character tables of some matrix groups with entries from an arbitrary ®nite ®eld. The ®elds F q and F q 2 We consider ®nite ®elds. with the usual de®nitions of and 3. this is a daunting task.

and hence S F q . 3) is cyclic. t P F q . Moreq over. in short. q) (28. Then there exists a ®eld F q of order q and every ®eld of order q is isomorphic to F q . Then r 3 r is an irreducible character of FÃ2 . 2 (2) Since FÃ2 is a group of order q 2 À 1. For every s P F q the sum of s with itself p times is zero. The group (FÃ .2 with the ®eld F q . (1) The set S is a sub®eld of F of order q. (28. ps 0. Proof (1) Suppose that s. Then (s t) q s q t q s t. we shall identify the sub®eld S of F q 2 in Proposition 28. It is now easy to check that (S. 3) are abelian groups. Suppose that r P FÃ2 . (2) If r P F then r r q . You are now in a position to appreciate the statement of the main result of this chapter. r 1q P S. so r r q . every irreducible character of FÃ2 has the form q r 3 r j for some integer j. We introduce the following useful notation. and write q pn . ) and (Snf0g. Hereafter.Character table of GL(2. and k k k hence (s t) p s p t p for all positive integers k. namely Theorem 28. so S is a ®eld.3) Let å be a generator of the cyclic group FÃ2 and let q 2 ù e(2ðia(q À1)) . We may write q r å m for some m and we let r ù m . We use this remark in the proof of the next proposition. This implies that (r r ) r r r r and (r 1q ) q j r 1q . we see that r q r for all q q q q q2 q r P F. so s t P S.1) Let p be a prime and n be a positive integer. it follows that (s t) p s p t p for all s. r 1q P S. t P S. .5. 28. q 323 Notice that the binomial coef®cients ( ip ) with 1 < i < p À 1 are all divisible by p.2 Proposition Let F F q 2 and S fs P F : s q sg.

The matrices s 0 sI (s P FÃ ) q 0 s belong to the centre of G. They size 1. b) can be any non-zero row vector. Therefore.324 Representations and characters of groups The conjugacy classes of GL(2. Next. Keep this in mind during the following discussion. q). q) The general linear group GL(2. cg fa9. a b 0 c can be conjugate to a9 0 b9 c9 only if fa. c9g. q). consider the matrices s us 0 Let give us q À 1 conjugacy classes of 1 s (s P FÃ )X q . (c. since conjugate matrices have the same eigenvalues. of which three are easy to describe. d) can be any row vector which is not a multiple of (a. Let G GL(2. and once (a. First. giving us q 2 À q choices. we are going to calculate the character table of GL(2. and remember that the matrix a b c d belongs to G if and only if its rows are linearly independent. q) is de®ned to be the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices with entries in F q . and we talked about some special linear groups in the last chapter. b) has been chosen. Here. The number of such matrices is found by noting that (a. jGj (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q(q À 1)2 (q 1)X There are four families of conjugacy classes of G. b). The subgroup consisting of all matrices of determinant 1 is the special linear group SL(2. giving us q 2 À 1 choices. q).

Thus. let s 0 d s. then we have that gd s. s T t) give us q (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes.s X On the other hand. consider 0 1 vr (r P F q 2 nF q )X Àr 1q r r q By Proposition 28. t g if and only if b c 0. q) a b P GX g c d Then gus and us g 325 as cs a bs c ds as cs d bs ds so g belongs to the centralizer of us if and only if c 0 and a d. v r P G. Since r P F q we see that v r lies in a none of the conjugacy classes we have constructed so far. Now. t d s. The characteristic polynomial of v r is det(xI À v r ) x(x À (r r q )) r 1q (x À r)(x À r q ). by Theorem 12. so.8. the matrices d s.Character table of GL(2. so v r has eigenvalues r and r q. t (s. the centralizer order is (q À 1)2 . t P G (s. the q centralizer order is (q À 1)q. 2 3 Àbr 1q a b(r r q ) gv r and Àdr 1q c d(r r q ) 2 3 c d vr g X Àar 1q c(r r q ) Àbr 1q d(r r q ) . the matrices us (s P FÃ ) give us q À 1 conjugacy classes. if s T t. Thus. each conjugacy class contains q 2 À 1 elements. t P FÃ . t P FÃ ) q 0 t and note that 0 1 1 0 À1 d s.2. t 0 1 1 0 d t. so each conjugacy class contains q(q 1) elements. Now. Finally.

of classes qÀ1 us (q À 1)q qÀ1 d s.4 Proposition There are q 2 À 1 conjugacy classes in GL(2. we see that a br and a br q a are non-zero. q q Proof The conjugacy classes we have found account for (q À 1) (q À 1)(q 2 À 1) (q À 1)(q À 2)q(q 1)a2 (q 2 À q)(q 2 À q)a2 elements altogether. 0) and r. b) T (0. r q g of elements of FÃ2 nFÃ . Class rep. g P CG (v r ) if and only if a b g X Àbr 1q a b(r r q ) Thus. q The family of conjugacy class representatives d s. Therefore. We therefore partition F q 2 nF q into subsets fr. so we have found all the conjugacy classes. described as follows. and the conjugacy class containing v r has size q 2 À q. tg of distinct elements of FÃ .326 Representations and characters of groups Hence gv r v r g only if c Àbr 1q and d a b(r r q ). We have now found all the conjugacy classes of G. But this sum is equal to the order of GL(2. 28. j . jCG (v r )j q 2 À 1. t (q À 1)2 (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 vr q2 À 1 (q 2 À q)a2 The families of conjugacy class representatives sI and us are indexed by elements s of FÃ . then ad À bc a2 ab(r r q ) b2 r 1q (a br)(a br q )X Since (a. g sI |CG ( g)| (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) No. The matrix v t has eigenvalues t and t q. so it is not conjugate to v r unless t r or t r q. each subset gives us a conjugacy class representative v r and different subsets give us representatives of different conjugacy classes. r q g. t is indexed by unordered pairs fs. r q P F q. q). If these conditions hold. q The family of conjugacy class representatives v r is indexed by unordered pairs fr. q).

ø i. j we have 0 < i .5 Theorem Label the conjugacy classes of GL(2.6 Proposition Let K hvå i. each of degree q À 1. Hence. we present a proposition which will be useful later. ÷ i as follows. Thus. t (st) i (st) i si t j s j t i 0 vr r i(1q) Àr i(1q) 0 À(r i r iq ) Here. 1 X vå å åq Àå 1q 28. Then the q irreducible characters of GL(2. there are (q 2 À q)a2 characters ÷ i . The group K contains the q À 1 scalar matrices sI in G. q) as in Proposition 28. (a) For ë i we have 0 < i < q À 2. (b) For ø i we have 0 < i < q À 2. (d) For ÷ i. each of degree q 1. each of degree q. j . we ®rst consider the set of integers j with 0 < j < q 2 À 1 and (q 1) T j j. and let r 3 r be the function from FÃ2 to C described in (28. j .4. each of degree 1. Thus. j ÷i s 2i qs 2i (q 1)s i j (q À 1)s i us s 2i 0 s i j Às i d s. Recall that å is our chosen generator for FÃ2 and q 0. Before we embark upon the task of calculating the irreducible characters of G. 327 28. there are q À 1 characters ø i . sI ëi øi ø i.q) We are now in a position to describe the character table of G.3). ø i . q) The characters of GL(2. (c) For ø i. j < q À 2.Character table of GL(2. Then jKj q 2 À 1. q) are given by ë i . there are q À 1 characters ë i . we have the following restrictions on the subscripts. . Thus. if j1 and j2 belong to this set and j1 j2 q mod (q 2 À 1) then we choose precisely one of j1 and j2 to belong to the indexing set for the characters ÷ i . there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 characters ø i. and of the remaining q 2 À q elements of K.

j We shall construct.8 Proposition For all integers i. as described in Proposition 28. ø i. j and ÷ i which appear in Theorem 28. sI ø i. the irreducible characters ë i . j (q 1)s i j us s i j d s. j there is a character ø i.4. the functions ë i : g 3 (det g) i ( g P G) give q À 1 distinct linear characters of G. so vå has order q 2 À 1. j We will see later that the linear characters ë i (0 < i < q À 2) which appear in Proposition 28. i iq The eigenvalues of vå and of vå are å i and å iq .7 are all the linear characters of G.5. ø i .5.5. and this case accounts for the q À 1 scalar matrices. t si t j s j t i vr 0 .7 Proposition There are q À 1 linear characters ë i of G. in turn. q As i varies between 0 and q À 2 inclusive. j of G whose values on the conjugacy class representatives. Hence two elements a of K belong to the conjugacy class of vå i . q q Proof The eigenvalues of vå are å and å q.328 Representations and characters of groups precisely two belong to each of the conjugacy classes represented by v r with r P FÃ2 nFÃ . i i i If å i å iq then vå å i I. are as follows. 28. since vå has eigenvalues in F q and vå is diagonalizable. whose values appear in Theorem 28. If å i T å iq then i i iq å P F q and vå and vå must be conjugate to vå i . and they are given in Theorem 28. Proof The map det : g 3 det g is a homomorphism from G onto FÃ . 28.

j : B 3 C by s r ë i. j ( g) jC B ( g)j jC G ( g)j ë i. j ( g) 0X j Hence. De®ne ë i. as follows. j ëi. j ( g) jC B ( g)j ë i. we calculate hø i. there is an irreducible character ø i of G whose values are given in Theorem 28. The characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. j ( g) jC G ( g)j .s jC B ( g)j jC B ( g9)j ø i. 28.Character table of GL(2. ø i. Proof We shall demonstrate that the character ø i. g sI : g us : g d s.i i (q 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 2X Here. We let ø i.23 to calculate ø i. where g9 d t. the values of ø i. j 4 G. j ( g) jC G ( g)j ë i. We use Proposition 21. j ( g) ø i. ë i i. Remember that the complex conjugate of s i is s Ài . the ®rst term corresponds to the conjugacy classes of elements 4 (q À 1)(q À 2) (q À 1)2 2 . We have hø i.5.8 gives us ø i. ø i. j is a character of B.9 Proposition For each integer i. j ( g9) ø i.i ë i ø i . q) Proof Let B & ' PG X 329 a 0 b c Then B is a subgroup of G with jBj (q À 1)2 q.i which appears in Proposition 28. j are as stated in the proposition.i .i . j ( g) for each conjugacy class representative g. j : 3 s i t jX 0 t Then ë i.i i and hø i.i . j ( g) ë i. t : g vr : ø i. To this end.

t : s. t P FÃ g is an abelian group of q order (q À 1)2. ø i. ø i. t 3 s i t j s j t i then ó is a sum of two . j < q À 2. Then ø i : d s.i . note that fd s. j i 1. and the calculation of this ®rst term involves the following three observations.i (sI) (q 1)2 . Let s be an element of FÃ of order q À 1. hø i. (2) jC G (sI)j (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q)X (3) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the forms sI.5. The remaining terms in hø i. ø i. j 28. Using the values of ø i. Then the character ø i. j which are given in Proposition 28. ë i i (q 1) 1 (q À 1) (q À 1) (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q 1X The facts that hø i. we obtain hø i. j . Next.10 Proposition Suppose that 0 < i .i i 2 imply that ø i.8 is irreducible.i . Proof We shall show that hø i.i .1 3 s i . tg of distinct elements of FÃ . and if ó : d s. Subtract ë i from ø i. B 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) (q À 1)q (q 1 1 i j C (s t s j t i )(s Ài t À j s À j t Ài )X (q À 1)2 2 sT t A and 2 (q À 1)(q À 2) 2 (q À 1) 2 The coef®cent 1 appears in C because we have just one conjugacy 2 class for each unordered pair fs.i . j i A B C.8.i to get the values of ø i as given in Theorem 28.330 Representations and characters of groups sI.i (sI)ø i.i ë i ø i for some irreducible character ø i. ë i i 1 and hø i. where (q 1)2 1 (q À 1) (q À 1). (1) ø i. j . q Hence the characters ø i for 0 < i < q À 2 are all different. q To evaluate C. j which appears in Proposition 28.i i are calculated in a similar fashion. ø i.

Thus. j9 on a conjugacy class j of G. j characters of G. and (i.i9 . there exists a character ö i of G which takes the following values. 28. j9 ë j9. we see that ø i.i : 3 s i t j s j t iX 0 t Since ë i. t 0 vr r i r iq . j9 < q À 2. for 0 < i . We must prove that ø i. Therefore. j < q À 2 are distinct irreducible Proof Suppose that 0 < i .8.Character table of GL(2. j T ø i9.12 Proposition For each integer i. j ë j. hø i. j is irreducible. j T ø i9. ø i. j ë j. there exists complex (q À 1)th roots of unity s and t such that either s T t and s i t j s j t i T s i9 t j9 s j9 t i9 or s t and s i j T s i9 j9 . ø i. j9). sI öi q(q À 1)s i us 0 d s. j9 . ó i 2X That is. In either case. q) 331 inequivalent irreducible characters of this group. C qÀ3 X qÀ1 And now we ®nd that A B C 1. j differs from ø i9.i T ë i9. j 28. j i 1. Therefore. and ø i. hó .11 Corollary The characters ø i. j) T (i9. 2 3 1 i j j i Ài À j À j Ài 4(q À 1) (s t s t )(s t s t ) 2X (q À 1)2 sT t Hence. j which were used in the proof of Proposition 28. j . Consider the group B and its linear characters ë i. We have s b ë i. j < q À 2 and 0 < i9 . j9 .

j To be able to work out certain inner products involving our characters ö i . as in Proposition 28. v r is conjugate to an element of g of K. In order to calculate ö i . Then. by Proposition 28. ö i is zero on the elements of the form u s and d s.6. Then g has eigenvalues r and r q . Now. Then (r i r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2(q À 1)2 X rPF q 2 nF q Proof Note that & r G1 0 0 rq : r P FÃ2 q ' and G2 & r 0 0 rq : r P FÃ q ' are abelian groups of orders q 2 À 1 and q À 1. t (s T t). we shall the use the following lemma. Suppose that g P K and g is conjugate in G to v r . Thus. .6.13 Lemma Assume that i is an integer and (q 1) T j i. ®rst recall that á i 4 G is zero on all elements which are not conjugate to an element of K. and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i . á i ( g) ái( g q) ö i ( g) jC G ( g)j jC K ( g)j jC K ( g)j á i ( g) á i ( g q ) r i r iq X Thus.6. 28. by Proposition 28. If g sI with s P FÃ then g P K and q ö i ( g) jC G ( g)j á i ( g) q(q À 1)s i X jC K ( g)j Suppose that r P F q 2 nF q .332 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let K hvå i. Also. Hence á i ( g) r i or r iq and á i ( g) á i ( g q ) r i r iq X Let ö i á i 4 G. respectively. ö i has the values stated in the proposition.

j .Character table of GL(2.8. t 0 vr À(r i r iq ) If (q 1) T j i then ÷ i is an irreducible character of G. 28. the character ÷ is twice an irreducible character. Recall the characters ø i. we get 1 i (r r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 4X qÀ1 Ã rPF q Hence rPF q 2 nF q (r i r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2(q 2 À 1) À 4(q À 1) 2(q À 1)2 X j 28. and for G2. the character ÷ is a sum of two inequivalent irreducible characters. since (q 1) T j i implies that å i T å iq . since r q r for r P FÃ. Now.12.Ài ø i À ø0. q) r 0 3 r i r iq 0 rq 333 gives a character ÷ of degree 2 for each group. ÷ i is the class function on G which is given by ÷ i ø0. For G1. sI ÷i (q À 1)s i us Às i d s. let ÷ i be the class function on G with the following values.9 and 28. Taking the inner product of the q character ÷ of G1 with itself. ø i and ö i given in Propositions 28. we get 1 i (r r iq )(r Ài r Àiq ) 2 2À1 q rPFÃ 2 q and doing the same for the character ÷ of G2 .14 Proposition For each integer i.i À ö i X . Proof We can justify the manoeuvre which we now perform only by saying that it gives the correct answer.

It is possible to use the character table of GL(2. which is the same as the number of conjugacy classes of G. it follows that ÷ i is an irreducible character of G. and consider the linear character á i of K which sends the generator vå of K to å i . If g sI where s P FÃ then (á i á iq )( g) 2s i . Then the characters ÷ i and ÷ j of G are different. since we have shown that the class functions given in the theorem are inequivalent irreducible characters. ÷ i i using Lemma 28. assume that (q 1) T j i.334 Representations and characters of groups The table below allows us to verify this. and h÷ i . We work out h÷ i . Therefore. q If g is conjugate to v r where r P F q 2 nF q then (á i á iq )( g) r i r iq . iq mod(q 2 À 1). 0. iq mod(q 2 À 1).13. j We have now completed the proof of Theorem 28. q) to ®nd the . h÷ i .i öi ÷i (q 1)s Ài qs 2i q(q 1)s i (q 1)s i q(q À 1)s i (q À 1)s i us s Ài 0 0 si 0 Às Ài d s. ÷ i i (q À 1)2 1 (q À 1)2 (q À 1) 2 (q À 1) 2 1X q Àq (q 2 À 1)(q 2 À q) q À1 Since ÷ i is a linear combination of irreducible characters of G.Ài øi ø0. Since j T i. with integer coef®cients. the characters á i á iq and á j á jq of K are different. t s Ài t Ài (st) i i s ti si t i 0 0 vr 0 Àr i(1q) 0 0 r i r iq À(r i r iq ) Next.6. Proof Let K hvå i. so either s i T s j for some s P FÃ or q r i r iq T r j r jq for some r P F q 2 nF q . and the number of them is q 2 À 1. as in Proposition 28.5. ÷ i T ÷ j . sI ø0. ÷ i i 1 and ÷ i (1) . j 28.Ài ø i ø0.15 Proposition Suppose that i and j are integers with (q 1) T j i and (q 1) T j j and j T i. Suppose that g P K. as we wished to show.

Then. q) was ®rst given in 1907. (c) There are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives s 0 of the form d s. Green determined the character table of GL(n. q). and they depend upon whether q is a power of 2 or q 1 mod 4 or q 3 mod 4. q). q). in 1955. Although the character table of GL(2. it was not until the 1950's that the character table of GL(3. Summary of Chapter 28 The character table of GL(2. A challenging exercise is to determine the character table of PSL(2.2. A. (b) There are q À 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form s 1 us . namely that where q is a power of 2. q) PSL(2. q) ± compare Chapter 27 ± and so the character table of PSL(2. those with kernel containing the centre of SL(2. (a) Thereare q 1 conjugacy classes with representatives of the form À s 0 sI . and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of degree 0 s q. and there are (q À 1)(q À 2)a2 0 t irreducible characters of degree q 1. t (s T t). since most of the irreducible characters remain irreducible when restricted. (d) There are (q 2 À q)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives of the . q) 335 character table of SL(2. q) when q 1 mod 4 or q 3 mod 4 from the character table of GL(2. Among the characters of SL(2.Character table of GL(2. q). We do not go fully into this. though. q) has the following properties. q) was found. q) for all positive integers n. Since SL(2. q) provide the characters of the groups PSL(2. since the answers are quite complicated. and there are q À 1 irreducible characters of 0 s degree 1. q) is rather easier to ®nd than that of SL(2. J. q) when q is a power of 2. this gives the character tables of an in®nite series of simple groups PSL(2. you are asked to consider the easiest case. In Exercise 28. q).

q) from that of GL(2. 3.336 Representations and characters of groups 0 1 . 3). 8). and there are (q 2 À q)a2 irreducible form v r Àr 1q r r q characters of degree q À 1. q) Z 3 SL(2. Exercises for Chapter 28 1. q). . Let Z fsI : s P FÃ g. Prove that if q T 2 then SL(2. q)X Deduce the character table of SL(2. Use your solution to Exercise 28.2 to write down explicitly the character table of PSL(2. 2. Suppose that q is a power of 2. Use Theorem 28.5 to write down explicitly the character table of GL(2. q) is simple. Prove that q GL(2.

ng then Sym(Ù) Sn . Group actions We begin with a more general notion than that of a permutation group. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting fi.e. ng. 29.12 below). De®nition Let G be a group and Ù a set.1 Examples (1) If G < Sn then the identity map is an action of G on f1. and develop some useful results. if Ù f1. jgg for all g P Sn and 1 < i . We also say that G acts on Ù (via ö). ng. a fact which proved useful in many of our subsequent character table calculations. F F F . 3g. denote by Sym(Ù) the group of all permutations of Ù. j < n.29 Permutations and characters We have already seen in Chapter 13 that if G is a permutation group. If Ù is a set. (1 2)ö sends f1. particularly about irreducible characters of symmetric groups (see Theorem 29. F F F . (So for example. (2) Let G Sn and let Ù be the set consisting of all pairs fi. In particular. it is called the action of Sn on pairs. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism ö: G 3 Sym(Ù). 337 . then G has a permutation character ð de®ned by ð( g) jfix( g)j for g P G.) Check that ö is an action of Sn . 2. a subgroup of Sn for some n. i. F F F . 3g 3 f2. jg( gö) fig. jg of elements of f1. In this chapter we take the theory of permutation groups and characters somewhat further.

b P F q . as de®ned in Chapter 28. Ù) 1. Thus Ù is the disjoint union of the orbits of G. h P G. To simplify notation. â P Ù. there exists g P G such that á g â. and let Ù be the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces hvi of V. if ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) is an action. for ù P Ù and g P G we usually just write ù g instead of ù( gö). Write orb(G.2 Examples (1) Let G C4 . De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by ( Hx)( gö) Hxg for all x. Let V be the 2-dimensional vector space over F q consisting of all row vectors (a. It is easy to see that $ is an equivalence relation on Ù. Ù) for the number of orbits of G on Ù. the group of invertible 2 3 2 matrices over the ®nite ®eld F q. For example. De®ne ö: G 3 Sym(Ù) by setting hvi( gö) hv gi for all hvi P Ù and g P G. With this notation. (4) Let G be a group with a subgroup H of index n. The group G is said to be transitive on Ù if orb(G. 29.338 Representations and characters of groups (3) Let G GL(2. we have á $ â if and only if there exists g P G such that á g â. in other words. if 1 1 g 0 1 then gö sends h(a. b) with a. the fact that ö is a homomorphism simply says that ù( gh) (ù g)h for all ù P Ù and g. Adopting this notation. given any á. a b)iX Then ö is an action of G on Ù. b)i 3 h(a. â P Ù. and let ö: G 3 S8 be the action . and Ker ö xPG x À1 Hx < H. de®ne a relation $ on Ù as follows: for á. and let Ù be the set of all right cosets Hx of H in G (so jÙj n). g P G. The equivalence classes are called the orbits of G on Ù. ö is an action of G. G is transitive if. say. generated by x. Then by Exercise 9 of Chapter 23. q).

Also gÀ1 P Gù . 8g. and Gù contains the identity. that is.3 Proposition The stabilizer Gù is a subgroup of G. the element g x À1 y P G has the property that ( Hx) g Hy. hence gh P Gù . and in Example (4). Clearly ã is also surjective. Then G has three orbits on Ù f1. to verify it for Example (3) you need to convince yourself that for any two non-zero row vectors v. so ù G fù g : g P Gg.1(2. Hy P Ù. 6g and f7. jù G j jG : Gù jX Proof If g. given two right cosets Hx. (2) The group G is transitive on the set Ù in each of Examples 29. y P G. j Permutation characters Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. CÙ consists of all expressions of the form . In other words. 3. q) such that vA w. f5. the size of the orbit ù G is equal to the index of Gù in G. Observe that for x. For ù P Ù. namely f1. Denote by CÙ the vector space over C for which Ù is a basis. 4g. 8g. and hence jÄj jù G j. as required. simply observe that. Moreover. and de®ne Gù f g P G : ù g ùgX We call Gù the stabilizer of ù in G. 2. write ù G for the orbit of G which contains ù. This is clear in Example (2). F F F . 4). 3.Permutations and characters 339 de®ned by xö (1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8) (and of course x k ö ((1 2 3 4)(5 6)(7 8)) k for any k). so Gù is a subgroup. Gù x Gù y D xy À1 P Gù D ùxy À1 ù D ùx ù yX Hence we can de®ne an injective function ã : Ä 3 ù G by ã(Gù x) ùx for all x P G. Let G be a group acting on a set Ù. h P Gù then ù( gh) (ù g)h ùh ù. 29. Now let Ä be the set of right cosets Gù x of Gù in G. w P V there is an invertible 2 3 2 matrix A P GL(2.

It is often referred to as ``Burnside's Lemma''.340 Representations and characters of groups ëù ù (ëù P C) ùPÙ with the obvious addition and scalar multiplication. called the permutation module. F F F . 29. Now de®ne Ö f(ù. pick ù i P Ä i . As in Chapter 13. for 1 < i < t we have jÄ i j jù G j jG : Gù i jX i Hence jÄ i j jGù i j jGj. We call ð the permutation character of G on Ù. By Proposition 29. 1 G i 1 1 ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)jX jGj gPG jGj gPG Let Ä1 . 1 G i jfixÙ ( g)j orb(G. Ä t be the orbits of G on Ù.3. hence . then for g P G. is rather famous. The next result. though elementary. we can make CÙ into a CG-module. ù g ùg. and provides a basic link between the permutation character and the action of G.4 Proposition Let G be a group acting on a ®nite set Ù. by de®ning 2 3 ëù ù g ëù (ù g) for all g P G. for each g. Then 1 hð. 129) that if ð is the character of this permutation module. and for each i. ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)j. and let ð be the permutation character. First. Ù)X jGj gPG Proof First note that hð. We calculate jÖj in two different ways. but is in fact due to Cauchy and Frobenius. We see just as in Chapter 13 (p. g P G. g) : ù P Ù. the number of ù P Ù such that ù g ù is equal to jfixÙ ( g)j. where fixÙ ( g) fù P Ù : ù g ùg.

29. hence jÖj Therefore gPG ùPÙ jGù j t i1 jÄ i j jGù i j t 1 jGj tjGjX j jfixÙ ( g)j tjGj. ù2 ) g (ù1 g.6 in a number of situations.6 Proposition Let G act on Ù1 and Ù2 . Then hð1 . 29. In the rest of the chapter we apply Proposition 29. jGj gPG jGj gPG j which is equal to orb(G.5 Corollary G is transitive on Ù if and only if hð. with permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively. Ù1 3 Ù2 )X Proof We have hð1 . ð2 i 1 1 jfixÙ1 ( g)kfixÙ2 ( g)j jfixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g)j. for each ù. ù2 g) for all ù i P Ù i . Ù1 3 Ù2 ) by Proposition 29. and the conclusion follows. the number of g P G such that ù g ù is equal to jGù j.4. then ð( g) ð1 ( g)ð2 ( g) for all g P G. with corresponding permutation characters ð1 and ð2 respectively. and suppose that G acts on two sets Ù1 and Ù2 . the ®rst being the case where Ù1 Ù2 . . 1 G i 1. It is clear that fixÙ1 3Ù2 ( g) fixÙ1 ( g) 3 fixÙ2 ( g) for any g P G. Now let G be a group. Hence if ð is the permutation character of G on Ù1 3 Ù2 . Then we can de®ne an action of G on the Cartesian product Ù1 3 Ù2 by setting (ù1 . ð2 i orb(G. g P G.Permutations and characters jÖj jfixÙ ( g)jX gPG 341 Secondly.

where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. ù2 g) for all ù1 . with permutation character ð. â2 ) in Ù 3 Ù. Then r(G. Thus r(G.8 Proposition Let G act on Ù. Proof We have hð. namely (ù1 . with á1 T á2 . then ð 1 G ÷. for any ordered pairs (á1 . Ù) hð. ù) : ù P Ùg is an orbit of G on Ù 3 Ù. Ù).6. Ù) > 2. with permutation character ð. In other words. 29. Ù) 2.342 Representations and characters of groups Suppose G acts on Ù. Then G is said to be 2-transitive on Ù if r(G. g P G. using Theorem 14. Then Ä f(ù. 1. Then G also acts on Ù 3 Ù in the way de®ned above. 29. there exists g P G such that á1 g â1 and á2 g â2 . and hence certainly r(G. á2 ) and (â1 . The result follows. G is 2-transitive if. j . The case where equality holds is of particular interest.8. and hð.17. 29. ù2 P Ù. ù2 ) g (ù1 g. written r(G. ðiX Now suppose G is transitive on Ù and jÙj . Ù) orb(G. Ù 3 Ù)X The next result is immediate from Proposition 29.5.9 De®nition Let G be transitive on Ù. â1 T â2 . ði 2 by Proposition 29.7 De®nition The number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù is called the rank of G on Ù. 1 G i 1 by Corollary 29.10 Corollary If G is 2-transitive on Ù. 29.

Here Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of the 2-dimensional vector space V. jg fk. giving an element of GL(2. F F F . w2 are both bases of V. hw2 i) be two pairs of distinct 1-spaces in Ù. fk. q) given in Example 29. with n > 4.15 we know that the conjugacy classes of Sn are in bijective correspondence with the set of all possible cycle-shapes of permutations. ði r(G. where Ä is as above. fk.1(3).17). ë s ) of positive integers ë i such that ë1 > ë2 > F F F > ë s and ë1 F F F ë s n. and Ä1 f(fi. 2g. lg) : jfi. Then v1 . as claimed. for each partition ë. lg) : jfi. hv2 i 3 hw2 i. A key aim is therefore to construct. (3) Consider the action of Sn on pairs de®ned in Example 29. lgj 1g. and so ð 1 G ÷ ø. Since jÙj q 1 (see Exercise 1 at the end of the chapter). f3. v2 and w1. since.16. where ÷ and ø are irreducible characters of Sn . lgj 0gX Thus hð. Some irreducible characters of S n By Theorem 12. for example. an irreducible character ÷ ë . (2) Consider the action of G GL(2. Hence G is 2-transitive on Ù. v2 3 w2 is therefore invertible.1(2). 3g). 19. there is no element of Sn which sends (f1. Ä1 and Ä2 . provided n > 4. The linear transformation from V to V which sends v1 3 w1 . jg fk. hv2 i) and (hw1 i. We claim that G is 2-transitive on Ù.11 Examples (1) The symmetric group Sn is 2-transitive on f1. 19. Ä2 f(fi. let (hv1 i. the irreducible characters of Sn are also in bijective correspondence with the partitions ë of n. ng. Ù) 3. This action is not 2-transitive. By Theorem 15.10 is the character ø0 of degree q in Theorem 28. jg. jg. q) which sends hv1 i 3 hw1 i. the irreducible character ÷ of G given by Corollary 29. Also An is 2-transitive.Permutations and characters 343 29. 2g. Hence these groups have an irreducible character ÷ given by ÷( g) jfix( g)j À 1X We have seen this irreducible character in a number of previous examples (see 18. Each cycle-shape (including 1-cycles) is a sequence ë (ë1 . f2. and we call such a sequence a partition of n. 4g) to (f1.3. To see this.1. F F F .5. In fact it is easy to see that the orbits of G Sn on Ù 3 Ù are Ä.

2. J 1 .1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. k) X In particular. hð k . ÷ ( nÀ2. we refer you to the book by G. de®ne I k to be the set consisting of all subsets of I of size k. ÷ ( nÀ k. m) such that for all k < m. and much more.1) . Then . ð l i l 1. where for 0 < s < l.2) . The orbits of G Sn on I k 3 I l are easily seen to be J 0 . then hð k . F F F .344 Representations and characters of groups of Sn . a 2-part partition (see Theorem 29. on the character theory of Sn . James listed in the Bibliography. ð l i orb(G. J s f(A. Proof We prove the existence of irreducible characters ÷ ( n) .13 Theorem Let m na2 if n is even.6. I k 3 I l ) l 1. but we do not do this. ÷ ( nÀ1. k) ð k À ð kÀ1 . B) P I k 3 I l : jA Bj sgX Hence orb(G. by induction on k.13 below). This holds for k 1 by Corollary 29. in a natural way. Then Sn has distinct irreducible characters ÷ ( n) 1 G . Observe that n ð k (1) jI k j X k 29. ÷ ( nÀ k. ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. j 29. F F F J l . k) . if you want to see this. k). Proof By Proposition 29. Let G Sn and I f1. F F F . giving the conclusion.1) . F F F .10. Now assume the statement holds for all values less than k. ÷ ( nÀ m. We shall apply the material of this chapter to carry out this aim in the case where ë (n À k.1(2) we can de®ne an action of G on I k as follows: for any subset A fi1 .1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k. and m (n À 1)a2 if n is odd. I k 3 I l ). ng. k) such that ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. F F F . The ideas can be developed to carry out the aim in general. Just as in Example 29. ik ggX Let ð k be the permutation character of G in its action on I k . ik g P I k and any g P G. let Ag fi1 g. F F F . ÷ ( nÀ1. For an integer k < na2.12 Proposition If l < k < na2.

and the corresponding character of G is ð.2) on a 3-cycle: ÷ (5. j 29. ÷ ( nÀ k1. 4. The irreducible characters ÷ ( nÀ k. The size of the orbit ù G containing ù is jù G j jG : Gù j.17. 2. k) . ÷7 . ÷ ( nÀ1.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀ k.1) F F F ÷ ( nÀi. 1 G i 1. Ù) 2 and ð 1 G ÷ with ÷ irreducible. Ù) hð. ÷ (3. k. Writing ÷ ÷ ( nÀ k. F F F . The number of orbits is equal to hð. If G acts on Ù then CÙ is the permutation module. For example. If G is 2-transitive then r(G. .12.2) . Summary of Chapter 29 1. The rank r(G.1) .i) for all i . k) . 3. kÀ1) such that ð i ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. F F F . where ð( g) jfixÙ ( g)j. ð1 i 2. k) ð k À ð kÀ1 makes it easy to calculate the values of the characters ÷ ( nÀ k. 1 G i. hð k . ÷9 are equal to ÷ (6) .14 Examples (1) The formula ÷ ( nÀ k. as required.1) . and r(G. suppose n 7 and let us calculate the value of the irreducible character ÷ (5. An action of G on Ù is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù). hð k . the irreducible characters ÷1 . the degree is n n ( nÀ k. ði. The orbits are the equivalence classes in Ù of the relation de®ned by á $ â D á g â for some g P G. ÷3 . The irreducible characters of Sn are in bijective correspondence with partitions of n. Ù) is the number of orbits of G on Ù 3 Ù.2) (123) ð2 (123) À ð1 (123) jfix I 2 (123)j À jfix I 1 (123)j 6 À 4 2X (2) In the character table of S6 given in Example 19.3) . ÷ (4. k) ÷ (1) ð k (1) À ð kÀ1 (1) À X k kÀ1 As another example. hð k . ð kÀ1 i k. we have ð k ÷ ( n) ÷ ( nÀ1. ð k i k 1X It follows that ð k ð kÀ1 ÷ for some irreducible character ÷. k) . ÷ (5.13. Now by Proposition 29. respectively.Permutations and characters 345 there exist irreducible characters ÷ ( n) . k) corresponding to 2-part partitions have values given by Theorem 29. hð k .

then H 1 H 2 X Give an example to show that this need not be the case in general. Let ð be the permutation character of G in this action. and ®nd the kernel of ö. Let G be a ®nite group acting transitively on a set Ù of size greater than 1. Prove that if G is abelian. so that G acts on Ù i as in Example 29. Show that if Ù is the set of all 1-dimensional subspaces of a 2dimensional vector space over F q (as in Example 29. let ð i be the permutation character of G in the action on Ù i . and take inner products with the irreducible characters of G given in 28. and ÷ 3 ÷ is the irreducible character of G 3 G given by Theorem 19.) . 5. and the permutation character ð is ð ÷ ÷ 3 ÷. and de®ne an action ö : G 3 Sym(V Ã ) by v( gö) v g for v P V Ã. Let G be a ®nite group.18. q) (the latter are given by Theorem 28. 2. (Such an element is called a ®xed-point-free element of G. where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. Prove that G contains an element g such that jfixÙ ( g)j 0.) 4. h P G.5.1(4).346 Representations and characters of groups Exercises for Chapter 29 1. Suppose that ð1 ð2 . and de®ne a function ö : G 3 G 3 Sym(G) by x(( g. 3. then jÙj q 1. g P G. (c) Show that the rank of this action r(G 3 G.5). which is transitive. 2 de®ne Ù i to be the set of right cosets of H i in G. q) and let V F2 as in Example 29. For i 1.1(3)). Let q V Ã V À f0g. (b) Find the stabilizer (G 3 G)1 of the identity 1 P G. and let H 1 . h)ö) g À1 xh for all x. H 2 be subgroups of G. Decompose ð as a sum of irreducible characters of GL(2. (a) Show that ö is an action of G 3 G on G. g. Let G GL(2. G) is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. Let G be a ®nite group.1(2). ( Hint: one way to do this is to write down the values of ð on the conjugacy classes of G.

1.1) .1) ÷ ( nÀ2.13. By considering inner products as in the proof of Theorem 29.Permutations and characters 347 6. (i.1) ? . j) with i.17. which irreducible character is equal to ÷ (4. ng and i T j. jg) for g P Sn ). Writing ÷ ÷ ( nÀ2.1) 1 2÷ ( nÀ1. calculate the degree of ÷ ( nÀ2.1. prove that ð( nÀ2.1. Let Sn act on Ù in the obvious way (namely. and calculate its value on the elements (12) and (123) of Sn . Let n be a positive integer.2) ÷. and let the permutation character of Sn in this action be ð( nÀ2. F F F . j) g (ig.1) . and let Ù be the set of all ordered pairs (i. In the character table of S6 given in Example 19.1) .1. j P f1. where ÷ is an irreducible character.1.

and so on ± require little calculation. . known as the class algebra constants. In this chapter we present some rather deeper applications. . C l form a basis for the centre of the group algebra CG (where C i gPC i g). . Class algebra constants Let G be a ®nite group and let C1 . These constants carry information about the multiplication in G. The examples which we have come across so far ± ®nding the centre of the group. the dihedral group of order 8. seeing whether or not the group is simple. Cl be the distinct conjugacy classes of G.1 Proposition There exist non-negative integers aijk such that for 1 < i < l and 1 < j < l. . 30. The second application takes this much further: the Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23. .30 Applications to group theory There are several ways of using the character theory of a group to determine information about the structure of the group. Recall from Proposition 12. . . 348 . .22 that the class sums C1 . and they can be used to investigate the subgroup structure of G. The ®rst involves doing arithmetic with character values to determine certain numbers.19 motivates the study of simple groups containing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to a given group C. Using a little group theory and a lot of character theory we shall carry out such a study in the case where C D8 . as we shall demonstrate.

C l . . the constants aijk determine the product of any two elements in the centre Z(CG) of the group algebra. you might suspect that the class algebra constants are determined by the character table of G. k. As the centre of the group algebra plays an important role in representation theory. From their very de®nition. b P Cj and ab g. . .Applications to group theory Ci C j l k1 349 aijk C k X Proof For g P Ck the coef®cient of g in the product C i C j is equal to the number of pairs (a. and is independent of the chosen element g of Ck . j we have aijk the number of pairs (a. so it must be a linear combination of C1 . . Our next theorem shows that this is indeed the case. 30.2 De®nition The integers aijk in the formula Ci C j l k1 aijk C k are the class algebra constants of G. b P Cj and ab gX Also. 30. C l is a basis of Z(CG). .4 Theorem Let gi P Ci for 1 < i < l. j Another way of looking at Proposition 30. j. . .1 is to note that C i C j belongs to Z(CG). b) with a P Ci . we have aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all the irreducible characters ÷ of G. b) with a P Ci . the numbers aijk carry information about the multiplication in G: (30X3) For all g P Ck and all i. Then for all i. The result follows. This number is a non-negative integer. . . since C1 .

Multiply both sides of equation (30. and let U be a CGmodule with character ÷.350 Representations and characters of groups Proof Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G.6 Example In this example we shall use the class algebra constants to prove some facts about the elements and subgroups of the symmetric group S4 . we deduce that l m1 aijm ÷( g i )÷( g j ) ÷( g m ) jGj X jCG ( g m )j jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷(1) Pick k with 1 < k < l.1. Then by Lemma 22. but they serve as a useful illustration of the method. By Section 18.4(2). the character table of G is as shown: . these results can readily be proved directly. Theorem 16.7. Let G S4 .5) by ÷( g k ) and sum over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. this yields aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) j Examples 30. to obtain l m1 aijm ÷( g m )÷( g k ) ÷ jCG ( g m )j ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) By the column orthogonality relations. for all u P U we have uC i Therefore uC i C j and l m1 jGj÷( g i ) uX jCG ( g i )j÷(1) ÷( g i )÷( g j ) jGj2 u jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j (÷(1))2 aijm uC m l m1 aijm jGj÷( g m ) uX jCG ( g m )j÷(1) Since C i C j (30X5) m aijm C m .

(3) Finally. bl D8. (2) By Theorem 30. and all products of elements of S4 are determined by the given relations. so ka. We deduce from this that S4 does not have a subgroup which is isomorphic to the quaternion group Q8 : for Q8 does have two elements of order 4 with product of order 4.4 to calculate the class algebra constant a555 : 24 1 À1 0 À1 1 0X a555 X 44 1 1 2 3 3 Hence. b: a2 b3 (ab)4 1iX In other words. 24 a235 X (1 1) 4. b of order 4 such that the product ab also has order 4. we have x 4 1. In fact. We supply a . 43 so S4 has elements a of order 2 and b of order 3 with ab of order 4. Writing x ab. by (30. We deduce the fact (which we already know from Exercise 18. S4 is generated by a and b. aÀ1 xa ba (ab)À1 x À1 .1) that S4 has a subgroup which is isomorphic to D8. S4 does not possess elements a.4.Applications to group theory Character table of S4 Class Ci gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 C1 1 24 1 1 2 3 3 C2 (1 2) 4 1 À1 0 1 À1 C3 (1 2 3) 3 1 1 À1 0 0 C4 (1 2)(3 4) 8 1 1 2 À1 À1 351 C5 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 À1 0 À1 1 (1) We use Theorem 30.3). b of order 2 such that ab has order 4. 24 1 1 a245 X 11 2X 48 3 3 Hence S4 has elements a. it can be shown that S4 has a presentation as follows: S4 ha.

Character table of PSL (2. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. We found in Chapter 27 that the character table of G PSL (2. 7) with H isomorphic to S4 . That such a subgroup exists is not obvious. 7) is as follows. 7) Class rep. and it is quite tricky to construct directly.4 to ®nd a subgroup H of the simple group PSL (2.352 Representations and characters of groups proof in the solution to Exercise 30.7 Example We use Theorem 30. you may wish to puzzle out the relevance of the ®gure above. g1 1 168 1 7 8 3 3 6 g2 2 8 1 À1 0 À1 À1 2 g3 4 4 1 À1 0 1 1 0 g4 3 3 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g5 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 g6 7 7 1 0 1 á á À1 . 30.6 ± in the meantime.

7) has a subgroup which is isomorphic to S4 . we conclude that H S4 X Thus we have shown that PSL (2. It determines the possible orders of simple groups G having an involution t such that C G (t) D8 . Then G has order 168 or 360. The next result carries out part of Brauer's programme in the case where C D8 . we know that S4 ha. By Theorem 1. G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2. Let H be the subgroup kx. S3 . V4 . S4 aKer ö H.3). .6.4.Applications to group theory We calculate the class algebra constant a243 . Now Ker ö. By Theorem 30. yl of G. Gorenstein listed in the Bibliography). 168 1 a243 X 1 0 0 0 0 8X 83 7 353 Hence. From Example 30.10. a dihedral group of order 8. so H is isomorphic to S4 .20).19 states that there are only ®nitely many non-isomorphic ®nite simple groups containing an involution with a given centralizer. The Brauer programme The Brauer±Fowler Theorem 23.8 Theorem Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group which has an involution t such that C G (t) D8 . C2 or {1}. A4 or S4 (see Example 12. We have chosen to present this result because it provides a wonderful illustration of the use of character theory in the service of group theory. an effort which was ®nally completed in the early 1980s (see the book by D. b: a2 b3 (ab)4 1iX Hence there is a homomorphism ö from S4 onto H (ö sends a to x and b to y). Since H has an element of order 4. all ®nite simple groups G possessing an involution t such that C G (t) C. 30. by (30. This fact led Brauer to initiate a programme to ®nd. namely xy. is {1}. being a normal subgroup of S4 . y has order 3 and xy has order 4. This programme formed an important part of the effort of many mathematicians to classify all the ®nite simple groups. given a ®nite group C.

À1 subgroups. Proof Suppose u is not conjugate to an element of Q. Now consider fixÙ (u) fù P Ù : ùu ùg If Qx P fixÙ (u).4 of the book by J.8. This means that in its action on Ù. then u is conjugate to an element of Q. where a.9 Sylow's Theorem Let p be a prime number. If u is an involution in G. Using some rather more sophisticated group theory than that covered in this book. 30. a basic result in ®nite group theory. Let Ù be the set of right cosets Qx of Q in G. Suppose Q is a subgroup of P with jP : Qj 2.3 and 18. and let P be a Sylow 2subgroup of G. one can show that PSL(2. and A6 is a simple group of order 360 with this property (see Exercise 7 at the end of the chapter). Observe that jÙj 2jG : Pj 2m. and de®ne an action of G on Ù by (Qx) g Qxg for x. hence is an odd permutation. if P Q are Sylow p. Hence fixÙ (u) Æ. b are positive integers and p T j b. 30. such a subgroup is call a Sylow p-subgroup of G. we require a couple of preliminary results. and let G be a ®nite group of order p a b.2(4)). Fraleigh listed in the Bibliography.354 Representations and characters of groups Observe that PSL(2. (3) if R is a subgroup of G with jRj p c for some c.e. The ®rst is Sylow's Theorem. (2) all Sylow p-subgroups are conjugate in G (i. where m is odd since P is a Sylow 2-subgroup. then there is a Sylow p-subgroup of G containing R. but refer you to Theorems 18. then there exists g P G such that Q g Pg).1). Then (1) G contains a subgroup of order p a. 7) is a simple group of order 168 having an involution with centralizer D8 (see Lemma 27. Hence the subgroup f g P G : g acts as an even permutation on Ùg . Before embarking upon the proof of Theorem 30. the involution u is a product of m disjoint 2-cycles. g P G (see Example 29. then Qxu Qx and hence xux À1 P Q. 7) and A6 are the only simple groups of order 168 or 360. We shall not prove this.10 Lemma Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group. contrary to assumption.

20 hold for generalized characters ø. the degree ø(1) can be 0 or negative for a generalized character ø. ÷i n÷ . Certainly t commutes with itself. By Lemma 26. j We also need to introduce the idea of a generalized character of a group H. Proof of Theorem 30. Notice also that the orthogonality relations give the usual inner products hø. The generalized character ø can be expressed as a difference á À â. so Z(P) < Z(D) hti. and hence Z(D) hti. so t P D. By Theorem 30. where á and â are characters of H: take á n÷ ÷. and hence Z(P) hti. If n÷ > 0 for all ÷ then of course ø is a character. øi n2 ÷ for a generalized character ø as above. This contradiction completes the proof.9(3). we have t P Z(D).1(1) we have Z(P) T 1. Then Z(P) < C G (t) D. The centre of D8 is a cyclic group of order 2 (see (12. the centre of D.Applications to group theory 355 is a normal subgroup of index 2 in G. if H is a subgroup of a group G.12)). and each n÷ P Z.19 and Corollary 21. It is clear from this de®nition that the formulae for the values of ø 4 G given in Proposition 21. Therefore P < . â À n÷ ÷X n÷ >0 n÷ . hø. we de®ne the induced generalized character ø 4 G by ø 4 G (á 4 G) À ( â 4 G) where ø á À â as above.0 Finally. In particular. This is simply a class function of the form ø n÷ ÷ x where the sum is over all the irreducible characters of H. This is impossible since G is non-abelian and simple.8 Let G be a ®nite non-abelian simple group with an involution t such that C G (t) D D8 . there is a Sylow 2-subgroup P of G such that D < P. but this need not be the case for a generalized character. and as t commutes with all elements of D.

We next establish (30X12) hè 4 G. èi hè. aÀ1 . We summarise what we have proved so far: (30.) Hence hè.12) that . Proposition 21. Also (è 4 G)(1) 0 (see Corollary 21. we must have g À1 tg t. Now hè 4 G.10. 1 C i 1. Write D ha.11). bi where a4 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1 . It follows that (è 4 G)(c) è(c). and de®ne è (1 C 4 D) À (ë 4 D).356 Representations and characters of groups C G (t) D. Let ë be the linear character of C such that ë(a) i. for any g P G we have C gÀ1 Cg f1g or C. As t a2 is the only such involution. And if y À1 cy P D À C then è( y À1 cy) 0. t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. the value 4 on t. let g P G and suppose that g À1 cg P C for some non-identity element c P C. This is all the group theory we will need for the proof. Then t a2 . hence g P C G (t) D and so g À1 Cg C. The rest is character theory. Since è vanishes on D À C. Next. we conclude that t G is the unique conjugacy class of involutions in G. hè 4 G.19 gives 1 À1 (è 4 G)(c) è( y cy)X 8 yPG By (30.11) D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. è 4 Gi h(è 4 G) 5 D. we therefore have h(è 4 G) 5 D. 1 G i h1 C À ë. if y À1 cy P C then y P D. we have è ÷1 ÷2 À ÷5 . and so P D. observe ®rst that by Frobenius reciprocity. and if C g À1 Cg C then g P D. (In particular. By Lemma 30. every involution of G is conjugate to an involution in C. and 0 elsewhere. Referring to the character table of D8 in Example 16.20). èi Now for 1 T c P C. èi 3. èi 3.3(3). In other words. è(1) 0. Let C hai be the cyclic subgroup of index 2 in D. è 4 Gi 3X To see this.12). D is a Sylow 2-subgroup of G. giving (30. Since t c or c2. and so it follows from (30. Then è takes the value 2 on a. whence y À1 cy cÆ1 and è( y À1 cy) è(c). a generalized character of D.

de®ne ã( g) to be number of ordered pairs (x.3). Therefore h1 C À ë. we have now proved the following. ãi 1 (30X15) À X 64 á(1) â(1) On the other hand.10.13) We have è 4 G 1 G á À â.4 yields the following.15) we deduce 2 3 á(t)2 â(t)2 jGj 1 (30X16) À 28 X á(1) â(1) This equation gives us enough number-theoretic information about jGj to ®nish the proof fairly quickly. By (30. where á. y) P t G 3 t G such that g xy. by Frobenius Reciprocity.13) and (30. We shall calculate the inner product of ã and è 4 G in two ways. hè 4 G. Since we have shown that (è 4 G)(t) è(t) 4. (30. 1 á(1) À â(1) 0 and 1 á(t) À â(t) 4. then x À1 cx yx cÀ1 . Now calculation in D8 shows that ã(c) 4. Consider ã(c) for 1 T c P C. Write d á(1) and e á(t) P Z.11). For g P G. (30. then ã( g) a iik in the notation of (30.14) we have 2 3 jGj á(t)2 â(t)2 hè 4 G. Note that by Corollary 13. First. ãi h1 C À ë. If c xy with x. y P t G . jDj2 ÷ ÷(1) where the sum is over all irreducible characters ÷ of G. â are irreducible. 357 where á. Hence Theorem 30. ã 5 Ci. from (30. We now introduce another class function of G into the picture. If we write t G C i and g lies in the conjugacy class C k of G.13) we have . similarly y P D.Applications to group theory è 4 G 1 G á À â.14) We have ã jGj ÷(t)2 ÷. â are irreducible characters of G. ã 5 Ci 1 X4X((1 À i) 2 (1 i)) 4X jCj Hence from (30. á(t) and â(t) are integers. and hence x P D by (30.

we have 8 jC G (t)j > 1 á(t)2 â(t)2 1 e 2 (e À 3)2 . giving jGj 360. we deduce that d 2 23 . one of the possibilities in the conclusion of Theorem 30. Then (30. d) 1. suppose that e 2. Hence (d À 1)2 must divide 210 . d 1) is 1 or 2. .8. The class algebra constants aijk are given by Ci C j aijk C k X k They can be calculated from the character table. giving d 6 and jGj 168. and so d À 1 2 r with r < 5. This completes the proof of Theorem 30. Then (30.16) yields jGj 28 d(d 1) X (d 2)2 Reasoning as above. Suppose now that e 1.8. â(t) e À 3X From the column orthogonality relations 16.16) gives 1 4 jGj 1 À 28 . by using the formula aijk ÷( g i )÷( g j )÷( g k ) jGj X jCG ( g i )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1) 2. Moreover. d d1 whence jGj 28 d(d 1) X (d À 1)2 Now the highest common factor hcf (d À 1. Finally. a Sylow 2-subgroup of G has order 8. and hcf (d À 1.4(2). It follows that r 3 and d 9. the class algebra constants of G can sometimes be used to determine whether or not G has a subgroup which isomorphic to H. from which it follows that e 1 or 2. Given groups G and H.358 Representations and characters of groups â(1) d 1. j Summary of Chapter 30 1.

Use the character table of PSL (2. 2.13). Using Sylow's Theorem. b: a2 b2 1. given at the end of Chapter 27. and that G has the character table shown. 11) is given in the solution to Exercise 27. 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2. g4 1 2 À1 À1 À1 0 1 g5 1 À1 2 À1 À1 0 1 g6 1 0 0 á â À1 0 g7 1 0 0 â á À1 0 where á (1 5)a2.) For the next three exercises. 11) contain a subgroup which is isomorphic to A5 ? 4. 7) contain a subgroup isomorphic to D14 ? (Hint: D14 ka. b: a2 b3 (ab)5 1iX 3. (b) Use the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions to obtain an . and that A5 has the following presentation: A5 ha. (a) Show that G is a simple group of order 360.Applications to group theory 359 3. it can be shown that any simple group possessing an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 must have order 168 or 360. â (1 À 5. to prove that PSL (2. 7). together with lots of ingenious character theory. Suppose that G is a group.6. Does PSL (2. g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 5 5 8 8 9 10 p g2 1 1 1 0 0 1 À2 g3 1 À1 À1 0 0 1 0 p 5)a2. b has order 3 and ab has order 7. Prove that A5 is characterized by its character table ± that is. Exercises for Chapter 30 1. you may assume that A5 is a simple group. (ab)7 1l. The character table of PSL (2. if G is a group with the same character table as A5 (see Example 20. Does PSL (2. then G A5 .

(c) Prove that G has a subgroup H which is isomorphic to A5 . Use the ®gure which appears in Example 30. (Hint: look for a suitable simple group PSL(2.) t such that . and deduce that g2 has order 2 and g3 has order 4. both of which contain an involution with centralizer isomorphic to D8 . Find a simple group G having an involution C G (t) D16 . (d) Using Exercise 23. 7. 7) and A6 are simple groups of order 168. 360 respectively. p). 8.9. 6. show that G A6 .360 Representations and characters of groups upper bound for the number of involutions in G.6(3) to show that every group G which is generated by two elements a and b which satisfy a2 b3 (ab)4 1 has order at most 24. Prove that PSL(2.

We omit proofs of these ± for a good account.2) which is concerned with character values. In order to establish this lemma we require some basic facts about algebraic integers and algebraic numbers. which states that if p and q are prime numbers and a and b are positive integers. Bender found one in 1972. Let á be an algebraic number. and let p(x) be a monic polynomial over Q of smallest possible degree having á as a root. Indeed. Then p(x) is unique and irreducible. but it was only after studying Frobenius's new theory of group representations that he was able to prove the theorem in general. For example. b. In the ®rst edition of his book Theory of groups of ®nite order (1897). then no group of order pa q b is simple. We call a polynomial in x monic if the coef®cient of the highest power of x in it is 1. many later attempts to ®nd a proof which does not use representation theory were unsuccessful. A preliminary lemma We prepare for the proof of Burnside's Theorem with a lemma (31. Burnside presented group-theoretic arguments which proved the theorem for many special choices of the integers a. An algebraic number is a complex number which is a root of some non-zero polynomial over Q. see for instance the book by Pollard and Diamond listed in the Bibliography. until H. if ù is an nth root of unity then the minimal poly361 .31 Burnside's Theorem One of the most famous applications of representation theory is Burnside's Theorem. The roots of p(x) are called the conjugates of á. which we now describe. it is called the minimal polynomial of á.

. see Pollard and Diamond. Then j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1. where á9 is a conjugate of á and â9 is a conjugate of â.9 we have ÷( g) ù1 . . |ù d | d. Write ã ÷( g)a÷(1). 1 then ÷( g)a÷(1) is not an algebraic integer. so that p(x) x n a nÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 where ai P Z for all i. 31. We prove that ÷( g) 0. ù9 are roots of unity. ù d | < |ù1 | .362 Representations and characters of groups nomial of ù divides x n À 1.1). For an elementary proof of this. . Alternatively.1) Let á and â be algebraic numbers. 1. then á is a root of a monic polynomial with integer coef®cients (see Chapter 22).1) can be proved easily using some Galois theory. .2 Lemma Let ÷ be a character of a ®nite group G. . where each ù i is a root of unity. each conjugate of ã is of the form (ù9 X X X ù9 )ad 1 d where ù9 . . Proof Let ÷(1) d. and it turns out that the minimal polynomial of á also has integer coef®cients. and if 0 . . and so every conjugate of ù is also an nth root of unity. it follows that j÷( g)a÷(1)j < 1. Then every conjugate of á â is of the form á9 â9. Section 3. if r P Q then every conjugate of rá is of the form rá9. where á9 is a conjugate of á. If á is an algebraic integer. . ù d . and let p(x) be the minimal polynomial of ã. (31. . Moreover. so ÷( g)a÷(1) (ù1 X X X ù d )adX Since |÷( g)| |ù1 . We shall require the following fact about conjugates: (31. . Now suppose that ÷( g)a÷(1) is an algebraic integer and j÷( g)a÷(1)j . j÷( g)a÷(1)j . Hence each conjugate of ã has 1 d . Chapter V. By Proposition 13. and let g P G. By (31.

Burnside's Theorem

363

modulus at most 1. It follows that if ë is the product of all the conjugates of ã (including ã), then jëj , 1X But the conjugates of ã are, by de®nition, the roots of the polynomial p(x), and the product of all these roots is equal to Æa0 . Thus ë Æa0 X Since a0 P Z and |ë| , 1, it follows that a0 0. As p(x) is irreducible, this implies that p(x) x, which in turn forces ã 0. Thus ÷( g) 0, and the proof is complete.

j

Burnside's p a q b Theorem We deduce the main result, Theorem 31.4, from another interesting theorem of Burnside. 31.3 Theorem Let p be a prime number and let r be an integer with r > 1. Suppose that G is a ®nite group with a conjugacy class of size pr . Then G is not simple. Proof Let g P G with | gG | pr . Since pr . 1, G is not abelian and g T 1. As usual, denote the irreducible characters of G by ÷1 , . . . , ÷ k , and take ÷1 to be the trivial character. The column orthogonality relations, Theorem 16.4(2), applied to the columns corresponding to 1 and g in the character table of G, give 1 Therefore

k i2 k i2

÷ i ( g)÷ i (1) 0X

÷ i ( g) .

÷ i (1) 1 À X p p

Now À1a p is not an algebraic integer, by Proposition 22.5. Therefore, for some i > 2, ÷ i ( g)÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer (see Theorem 22.3). Since ÷ i ( g) is an algebraic integer (Corollary 22.4), it follows

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that ÷ i (1)a p is not an algebraic integer; in other words, p does not divide ÷ i (1). Thus ÷ i ( g) T 0 and p T j ÷ i (1)X As | gG | pr , this means that ÷ i (1) and | gG | are coprime integers, and so there are integers a and b such that ajG:CG ( g)j b÷ i (1) 1X Hence a jGj÷ i ( g) ÷ i ( g) b÷ i ( g) X jCG ( g)j÷ i (1) ÷ i (1)

By Corollaries 22.10 and 22.4, the left-hand side of this equation is an algebraic integer; and since ÷ i ( g) T 0, it is non-zero. Now Lemma 31.2 implies that j÷ i ( g)a÷ i (1)j 1X Let r be a representation of G with character ÷ i . By Theorem 13.11(1), there exists ë P C such that gr ëIX Let K Ker r, so that K is a normal subgroup of G. Since ÷ i is not the trivial character, K T G. If K T {1} then G is not simple, as required; so assume that K {1}, that is, r is a faithful representation. Since gr is a scalar multiple of the identity, gr commutes with hr for all h P G. As r is faithful, it follows that g commutes with all h P G; in other words, g P Z(G)X Therefore Z(G) T {1}. As Z(G) is a normal subgroup of G and Z(G) T G, we conclude that G is not simple. j We now come to the main result of the chapter, Burnside's Theorem. 31.4 Burnside's paqb Theorem Let p and q be prime numbers, and let a and b be non-negative integers with a b > 2. If G is a group of order pa q b , then G is not simple. Proof First suppose that either a 0 or b 0. Then the order of G is a power of a prime, so by Lemma 26.1(1) we have Z(G) T {1}.

Burnside's Theorem

365

Choose g P Z(G) of prime order. Then k gl v G and k gl is not equal to {1} or G. Hence G is not simple. Now assume that a . 0 and b . 0. By Sylow's Theorem 30.9, G has a subgroup Q of order q b . We have Z(Q) T {1} by Lemma 26.1(1). Let g P Z(Q) with g T 1. Then Q < CG ( g), so j g G j jG:CG ( g)j pr for some r. If pr 1 then g P Z(G), so Z(G) T {1} and G is not simple as before. And if pr . 1 then G is not simple, by Theorem 31.3. j In fact Burnside's pa q b Theorem leads to a somewhat more informative result about groups of order pa q b : (31.5) Every group of order p a q b is soluble. Here, by a soluble group we mean a group G which has subgroups G0 , G1 , . . . , Gr with 1 G 0 , G1 , X X X , G r G such that for 1 < i < r, GiÀ1 v Gi and the factor group Gi aG iÀ1 is cyclic of prime order. We sketch a proof of (31.5), using induction on a b. The result is clear if a b < 1, so assume that a b > 2 and let G be a group of order pa q b . By Burnside's Theorem 31.4, G has a normal subgroup H such that H is not {1} or G. Both H and the factor group Ga H have order equal to a product of powers of p and q, and these orders are less than pa q b . Hence by induction, H and Ga H are both soluble. Therefore there are subgroups 1 G0 v G1 v X X X v Gs H, 1 Gs a H v G s1 a H v X X X v Gr a H Ga H with all factor groups Gi aG iÀ1 of prime order. Then the series 1 G0 v G 1 v X X X v G r G shows that G is soluble. Summary of Chapter 31 1. If G has a conjugacy class of size pr ( p prime, r > 1), then G is not simple.

366

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2. If |G| pa q b ( p, q primes, a b > 2), then G is not simple. Exercises for Chapter 31 1. Show that a non-abelian simple group cannot have an abelian subgroup of prime power index. 2. Prove that if G is a non-abelian simple group of order less than 80, then |G| 60. (Hint: use Exercise 13.8.)

32 An application of representation theory to molecular vibration

Representation theory is used extensively in many of the physical sciences. Such applications come about because every physical system has a symmetry group G, and certain vector spaces associated with the system turn out to be RG-modules. For example, the vibration of a molecule is governed by various differential equations, and the symmetry group of the molecule acts on the space of solutions of these equations. It is on this application ± the theory of molecular vibrations ± that we concentrate in this ®nal chapter. In order to keep our treatment elementary, we stay within the framework of classical mechanics throughout. (Quantum mechanical effects can be incorporated subsequently, but we shall not go into this ± for an account, consult the book by D. S. Schonland listed in the Bibliography.)

Symmetry groups Let V be R2 or R3, and for v, w P V, let d(v, w) denote the distance between v and w ± in other words, if v (x1 , x2 , . . .) and w ( y1, y2, . . .), then 3 r2 2 d(v, w) (xi À yi ) X An isometry of V is an invertible endomorphism W of V such that d(vW, wW) d(v, w) for all v, w P V X The set of all isometries of V forms a group under composition, called the orthogonal group of V, and denoted by O(V). Any rotation of R3 about an axis through the origin is an example 367

368

Representations and characters of groups

of an isometry; so is any re¯ection in a plane through the origin. The endomorphism À1R3 which sends every vector v to Àv is another example of an element in the orthogonal group O(R3 ). It turns out that the composition of two rotations is again a rotation, and that for every isometry g in O(R3 ), either g or À g is a rotation (see Exercise 32.1). The orthogonal group O(R3 ) therefore contains a subgroup of index 2 which consists of the rotations. The same is true of the group O(R2 ). If Ä is a subset of V , where V R2 or R3, then we de®ne G(Ä) to be the set of isometries which leave Ä invariant ± that is, G(Ä) f g P O(V ): Ä g Äg (where Ä g {v g: v P Ä}). Then G(Ä) is a subgroup of called the symmetry group of Ä. The subgroup of G(Ä) the rotations in G(Ä) is called the rotation group of Ä. the rotation group of Ä in the symmetry group G(Ä) is 1 O(V ), and is consisting of The index of or 2.

32.1 Example Let V R2, and let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon, with n > 3, centred at the origin. The symmetry group of Ä is easily seen to be the dihedral group D2n , which was de®ned as a group of n rotations and n re¯ections preserving Ä (see Example 1.1(3)). Now let V R3, and again let Ä be a regular n-sided polygon (n > 3) centred at the origin. This time, G(Ä) D2 n 3 C2 ; the extra elements arise because there is an isometry which ®xes all points of Ä, namely the re¯ection in the plane of Ä. 32.2 Example Let Ä be a regular tetrahedron in R3 centred at the origin:

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 369 Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1, 2, 3, 4. We claim that each permutation of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry of Ä. For example, the 2-cycle (1 2) corresponds to a re¯ection in the plane which contains the origin and the edge 34; similarly each 2-cycle corresponds to a re¯ection. Since S4 is generated by the 2-cycles, each of the 24 permutations of 1, 2, 3, 4 corresponds to an isometry, as claimed. No non-identity endomorphism of R3 ®xes all the corners of Ä, since Ä contains three linearly independent vectors. Therefore we have found all the isometries, and G(Ä) S4 . Notice that the rotation group of Ä is isomorphic to A4 ; for example, (1 2)(3 4) corresponds to a rotation through ð about the axis through the mid-points of the edges 12 and 34, and (1 2 3) corresponds to a rotation through 2ða3 about the axis through the origin and the corner 4. Finally, observe that the group G(Ä) is unchanged if we take Ä to consist of just the four corners of the tetrahedron. 32.3 Example In this example we describe the symmetry groups of the molecules H2 O (water), CH3 Cl (methyl chloride) and CH4 (methane). The symmetry group of a molecule is de®ned to be the group of isometries which not only preserve the position of the molecule in space, but also send each atom to an atom of the same kind. The shapes of the three molecules are as follows.

370

Representations and characters of groups

We always assume that the centroid of our molecule lies at the origin in R3 . The CH4 molecule has four hydrogen atoms at the corners of a regular tetrahedron, and a carbon atom at the centre of the tetrahedron. So the symmetry group of the molecule CH4 is equal to the symmetry group of the tetrahedron, as given in Example 32.2. This group is isomorphic to S4 , permuting the four hydrogen atoms among themselves and ®xing the carbon atom. As for the CH3 Cl molecule, this possesses a rotation symmetry a of order 3 about the vertical axis, and three re¯ection symmetries in the planes containing the C, Cl and one of the H atoms. If b is one of these re¯ections, then the symmetry group is f1, a, a2 , b, ab, a2 bg and is isomorphic to S3 , permuting the three H atoms and ®xing the C and Cl atoms. Finally, the H2 O molecule possesses two re¯ection symmetries, one in the plane of the molecule, and one in a plane perpendicular to this one passing through the O atom; and it has a rotation symmetry of order 2. Hence the symmetry group is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . Vibration of a physical system We prepare for a description of the general problem with an example. 32.4 Example Suppose we have a spring stretched between two points P and Q on a smooth horizontal table, with equal masses m attached at the points of trisection of the spring:

The masses are displaced slightly, and released. What can we say about the subsequent motion of the system? To investigate this problem, we let x1 and x2 be the displacements of the two masses at time t. We measure x1 from left to right, and x2 from right to left, as indicated in the ®gure above. Let k be the

An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 371 stiffness of the spring ± in other words, if the extension in the spring is x, then the restoring force is kx. The spring pulls the left-hand mass towards P with force kx1 and towards Q with force Àk(x1 x2 ). By dealing with the right-hand mass similarly, we obtain the following equations of motion of the system: m1 Àkx1 À k(x1 x2 ) À2kx1 À kx2 , x m2 Àkx2 À k(x1 x2 ) Àkx1 À 2kx2 , x where xi denotes the second derivative of xi with respect to t. These are second order linear differential equations in two unknowns x1 and x2 , so the general solution involves four arbitrary constants. We shall ®nd the general solution, using a method which can be applied in a much wider context. Write x (x1 , x2 ), x (1 , x2 ) and q kam. Then the equations of x motion are equivalent to the matrix equation À2q Àq x xA, where A (32X5) X Àq À2q Notice that A is symmetric. Hence the eigenvalues of A are real, and A has two linearly independent eigenvectors. It is this property which we wish to emphasize and exploit in the present example. Before we explicitly ®nd the eigenvectors of A, let us explain why they allow us to solve the equation of motion (32.5). Suppose that u is an eigenvector of A, with eigenvalue Àù2 . For an arbitrary constant â, let x sin (ùt â) uX Then x Àù2 sin (ùt â) u sin (ùt â) uA xAX Thus x is a solution of the equation of motion. If u1 and u2 are linearly independent eigenvectors of A, with eigenvalues Àù2 and 1 Àù2 , respectively, then 2 á1 sin (ù1 t â1 ) u1 á2 sin (ù2 t â2 ) u2 (since uA Àù2 u)

x1 Àx2 sin ( q . 1) Mode 1: p Here. 1) á2 sin ( q . we assign three coordinate axes. so it is the general solution. for the moment.5) is p p á1 sin ( (3q) t â1 ) (1.5). x1 x2 sin ( (3q) t â1 ) and the vibration is p Here. t â2 ) (1. â2 . the eigenvalues are À3q and Àq. we obtain equations which may be expressed in the form (32X6) (Compare (32. À1) The general molecular vibration problem Suppose we have a molecule consisting of n atoms which vibrate under internal forces. À1). á2 . For the matrix given in (32. p sin ( (3q) t â1 ) (1. that x xAX row vector in R3 n which measures the and A is a 3n 3 3n matrix with real the internal forces. which we use to measure the displacement of the atom. They are as follows.5).372 Representations and characters of groups is a solution of the equation of motion which involves four arbitrary constants á1 . t â2 ) (1. Therefore the general solution of the equation of motion (32. t â2 ) and the vibration is Mode 2: p sin ( q . the state of the molecule at a given time is described by a vector in the 3n-dimensional vector space R3 n . At the equilibrium position of each atom. entries which are determined by Assume. Thus. 1) and (1. We assume that the internal forces are linear functions of the displacements. with corresponding eigenvectors (1.) Here x is the displacements of all the atoms. À1)X The solutions which involve just one eigenvector of A are called the normal modes of vibration. â1 . It follows that when we apply Newton's Second Law of Motion. at each atom the three coordinate axes . We now adopt this line of attack in the problem to hand.

A has real eigenvalues.6).8 De®nition A normal mode of vibration for our molecule is a vector in R3 n of one of the following forms: (1) sin (ùt â) u ( â constant) where Àù2 is a non-zero eigenvalue of A and u is a corresponding eigenvector. from physical considerations.7 Proposition All the eigenvalues of A are real. 32. The general solution of the equation of motion is a linear combination of the normal modes of vibration. To solve the equation of motion (32.6). It can be shown. and for this solution all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency. In particular. 32. (2) (t â) u ( â constant) where u is an eigenvector of A corresponding to the eigenvalue 0. Therefore we have the following proposition. then x Àù2 sin (ùt â) u sin (ùt â) uA xAX If uA 0 and x (t â)u. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. for the general case.9 Proposition Each normal mode of vibration is a solution of the equation of motion (32. the effect of changing coordinate axes is merely to replace A by a matrix which is conjugate to A. where our chosen coordinate axes are not necessarily at right angles to each other. Now. which we de®ne next. and A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. then x 0 (t â)uA xAX This proves that the normal modes of vibration are solutions of the . Proof If uA Àù2 A and x sin (ùt â) u. that in this special case the matrix A is symmetric. 32. we look for normal modes of the system.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 373 which we have chosen are at right angles to each other.

7. By construction. negates v2 and v3. the general linear combination of normal modes involves 6n arbitrary constants. j Proposition 32. Therefore there exist 3n linearly independent normal modes. ù or 0) in a normal mode. each element of G acts as an endomorphism of the space R3 n of displacement vectors.6).374 Representations and characters of groups equation of motion (32. and for 1 < i < 9.6) (as (32.10 Example Let g be the rotation of order 2 of the H2 O molecule: Assign coordinate axes at the initial positions of each atom as shown. which is nonsense. and we shall describe a method for doing this. Thus. let v i denote a unit vector along coordinate axis i. so it is the general solution to the equation of motion (32. Note that A can have no strictly positive eigenvalue. and . then x e ë t u would be a solution to the equation of motion. 32. Since G permutes the atoms among themselves. However.9 reduces the problem of solving the equations of motion to that of ®nding all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the 3n 3 3n matrix A. interchanges v4 and v7. R3 n is an RG-module. this can be a huge and unwieldy task if it is attempted directly ± even writing down the matrix A for a given molecule can be a painful operation! The symmetry group of the molecule and its representation theory can often be used to simplify greatly the calculation of the eigenvectors of A. for if ë were p such an eigenvalue. Since each normal mode involves an arbitrary constant. with eigenvector u. Let G be the symmetry group of the molecule in question. Then g ®xes v1 . Use of the symmetry group We continue the discussion of the previous section. all the atoms vibrate with the same frequency (namely. by Proposition 32.6) consists of second order differential equations in 3n unknowns).

and we are trying to ®nd the eigenvectors of A. v g is an eigenvector of A. A similar argument applies to the eigenspace for the eigenvalue 0. 32.11 Proposition For all g P G and x P R3 n . For all vectors v in the basis. Choose a basis of R3 n which consists of eigenvectors of A (see Proposition 32. Then v speci®es the directions and relative magnitudes of the displacements of the atoms from the equilibrium position when the molecule is vibrating in a normal mode of frequency ù. Àx8 . and the eigenspaces of A are RG-submodules of R3 n . Àx9 . fx P R3 n : xA ëxgX We can now present the crucial proposition which allows us to exploit the symmetry group G of our molecule. Àx2 . x7 . by de®nition. (xg)A (xA) g. x7 . Àx6 )X We return to the general set-up. Àx3 . and (v g)A ë(v g) (ëv) g (vA) gX Hence (xg)A (xA) g for all x P R3 n . j The idea now is to use representation theory to express the RGmodule R3n as a direct sum of irreducible RG-submodules. The equations of motion are x xA. x2 . v g must also specify the directions and relative magnitudes of displacements in a normal mode of frequency ù. x9 ) g (x1 . The eigenspace for the eigenvalue ë of A is. vA ëv for some ë P R. Therefore. with eigenvalue Àù2 . This shows that the eigenspace for Àù2 is an RG-submodule of R3 n . x5 . For all g in G. and hence . x4 . since the relative con®guration of the atoms is unaltered by applying g.7). it tells us that the function x 3 xA (x P R3 n ) is an RG-homomorphism from R3 n to itself. Therefore g acts on R9 as follows: (x1 . x8 . x4 . x3 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 375 interchanges v5 and v6 with the negatives of v8 and v9 . In effect. and let g P G. Àx5 . x6 . and let v be a corresponding eigenvector. Proof Let Àù2 be a non-zero eigenvalue of A.

xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ X Proof By Maschke's Theorem we may write R3n V÷ È W for some RG-module W.) 32.12 De®nition Suppose that ÷ is the character of an irreducible RG-module. by Proposition 32.376 Representations and characters of groups to determine the eigenspaces of A. since the character of the RG-module R3 n might contain an irreducible character which cannot be realized over R ± but in practice. and the normal modes of the molecule. The problem of ®nding the eigenspaces of A is considerably simpli®ed as a consequence of our next proposition. this function is zero. Let V÷ denote the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷. problems like this are uncommon.13 Proposition Each homogeneous component V÷ of R3 n is A-invariant ± that is. and if ÷ is the character of an irreducible RGmodule which occurs.27)). By Proposition 11.8. We can use character theory to see which irreducible RG-modules are contained in R3 n . 32. w P W ) (x P V÷ ) is an RG-homomorphism.3 is stated in terms of CG-modules. and no RG-submodule of W has character ÷. so xA P V÷ for all x P V÷ . (Although Proposition 11.) j . We call V÷ a homogeneous component of R3 n .3. then the element ÷( g À1 ) g gPG sends R3 n onto the sum of those irreducible RG-submodules of R3 n which have character ÷ (see (14. Therefore. The function å: v w 3 w (v P V÷ .11. its proof works equally well for RG-modules ± compare Exercise 23. (This procedure sometimes needs to be modi®ed. the function x 3 (xA)å is an RG-homomorphism from V÷ into W.

Then R3 n is an RG-module. as we shall illustrate in the examples which make up the rest of this chapter. This involves no extra work if V÷ i is irreducible (see Corollary 32. This can À1 3n be done by applying the element for each gPG ÷ i ( g ) g to R irreducible character ÷ i of G which appears in ÷. to obtain R3n . then sin (ùt â) v (or (t â)v if ù 0) is a normal mode. to make further progress. or Exercise 32. It is usually necessary to know the equations of motion in order to determine the frequency ù. (6) If v is an eigenvector of A. then all the non-zero vectors in V÷ are eigenvectors of A. (5) Consider. each homogeneous component V÷ i of R3 n . (3) Calculate the character ÷ of the RG-module R3 n and express ÷ as a linear combination of the irreducible characters of G.14 Corollary If V÷ is an irreducible RG-module. (4) Express R3 n as a direct sum of homogeneous components. say. so it must equal V÷ .14). with eigenvalue ë. 32. then see Remark 32. This programme can often be successfully completed.) Since V÷ is A-invariant. with eigenvalue Àù2 . and ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i (see Proposition 32. j We now summarize the steps in the procedure for ®nding the normal modes of vibration of a given molecule.19 below. we may choose v P V÷ such that v is an eigenvector of A. Proof (Compare the proof of Schur's Lemma. where â is an arbitrary constant. in turn. Then the intersection of V÷ with the eigenspace for ë is a non-zero RG-submodule of V÷ .15 Summary (1) Assign three coordinate axes at each of the n atoms of the molecule.7. or by some other method.13). If V÷ i is reducible. .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 377 32. (2) Calculate the symmetry group G of the molecule.

with the spring and two vibrating masses: The symmetry group of this system is G h g: g 2 1i.4. . as shown. the RG-submodules of R2 are sp (u1 ) and sp (u2 ). 32. we consider only vibrations of the molecule in the plane. ù2 are the frequencies. where g is the re¯ection in the mid-point of PQ. Notice that we have determined the normal modes of vibration (but not their frequencies) using the symmetry group alone. 1).378 Representations and characters of groups 32. as this eases the calculations: Thus the position of the molecule is given by a vector (x1 . x2 ) form an RG-module R2 .17 Example Consider a hypothetical triatomic molecule. . Since (x1 . . x6 ) in R6 . sin (ù2 t â2 )(1. The displacement vectors (x1 . â2 are constants and ù1 . so we assign two displacement coordinates to each atom. where xi is the displacement along axis i (1 < i < 6). where u1 (1. x1 ).4. u2 (1. 1). For simplicity. À1)X It follows that the normal modes of the system are given by sin (ù1 t â1 )(1. À1). generated by a rotation a of order 3 and a re¯ection . . where â1 . x2 ) g (x2 . The symmetry group (in two dimensions) of the molecule is the dihedral group D6. where the three identical atoms are at the corners of an equilateral triangle.16 Example We ®rst return to Example 32. We choose to take our axes along the edges of the triangle. This agrees with the conclusion of Example 32.

And from the action of b given above. then we represent the displacement vector (v1 . As a matter of notation. we see that ÷(b) 0. x3 )X We want to express the RD6 -module R6 as a direct sum of irreducible RD6 -modules. x1 . For example.3. x6 . v3 are 2-dimensional displacement vectors for the three atoms. v2 . ÷2 . x6 )b (x2 . corresponding to the eigenspace of A for eigenvalue 0. the character table of D6 is 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 1 2 a 1 1 À1 b 1 À1 0 Hence ÷ ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 . x2 . Thus. ÷(a) 0. x4 . if v1 . To do this. Thus the values of ÷ are 1 ÷ 6 a 0 b 0 By Section 18. we ®rst calculate the character ÷ of the module.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 379 b (see Example 32. v3 ) P R6 pictorially by the diagram We ®rst calculate the normal modes of the form (t â)v. then (x1 . x5 . ÷3 and ÷3 . v2 . It is easy to work out the action of each element of D6 on R6 . . x3 . if b is the re¯ection which ®xes the top atom. we seek to express R6 as a direct sum of RD6 -submodules with characters ÷1 . x4 . x5 . which occur for every molecule. These include the rotation and translation modes. Since the rotation a does not ®x any of the atoms.1).

1. The mode is given by (t â)v. 0. 0. it does not contain the rotation submodule. and is called the translation submodule. the subspace sp (v1 . 1.27)). where v is a vector in the span of v1 . and so ÷ R ÷2 . where v (1. À1. À1. À1). It is clearly an RD6 -submodule of R6 . pictorially. then ÷ R (1) 1. sp (v) R6 å2 . the molecule rotates with constant angular velocity about the centre. v3 ) has dimension 2. ÷ R (b) À1. We call sp (v) the rotation submodule of R6 . v2 . ÷ R (a) 1. 0). Translation modes These are modes in which all atoms move in the same constant direction with the same constant speed. 1. these vectors being given pictorially by (thus v1 (À1.380 Representations and characters of groups Rotation mode In this mode. 1)). À1. À1. v2 (1. where å2 ÷2 ( g À1 ) g 1 a a2 À b À ab À a2 b gP D6 (compare (14. v2 and v3. Since v1 v2 v3 0. v3 (0. 0. . 1. À1. À1). 1. Indeed. The modes are of the form (t â)v. Thus the character of the translation submodule is part of ÷ À ÷2 ÷1 2÷3 . 0. À1. 1. If ÷ R is the character of sp (v). so the character must be ÷3 .

moreover. u1 À u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 . where vib ÷vib ÷ À (÷2 ÷3 ) ÷1 ÷3 X In particular. The vibratory mode given by u1 u2 u3 is sometimes called the expansion±contraction mode (you will see the reason for this name in the picture in (32. since D6 permutes the vectors u1 . every vector in R6 which satis®es these equations lies in R6 . u2 . u3 among themselves. These constraints imply three independent linear equations in the coordinates of the vectors in R6 . Since no mode in R6 can have vib vib any translation component. and are called vibratory modes. The sum of these eigenspaces forms an RD6 -submodule R6 of R6 (by Proposition 32. where vib vib Clearly sp (u1 u2 u3 ) is an RD6 -submodule of R6 with characvib ter ÷1 . Therefore a basis of R6 is u1 .18(3)) below). R6 has dimension 3. u3 .11). and since R6 has vib vib dimension 3. it is easy to see that sp (u1 À u2 . Our calculation of the normal modes is now complete. if w P R6 then the total component of w vib in each direction is zero. and we summarize our ®ndings below. u2 . Its character is ÷3 and it gives us the last eigenspace for the vib matrix A. R6 does not contain the rotation vib submodule. .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 381 Vibratory modes The remaining normal modes correspond to eigenspaces of the matrix A with non-zero eigenvalues. Finally. so that total moment of each vector in R6 about the vib centre is zero. with character ÷vib .

) We emphasize that we have found the normal modes of vibration without explicit knowledge of the equations of motion.382 (32. u1 À u3 pictorially.18) Representations and characters of groups (1) Rotation mode: (2) Translation modes: linear combinations of (3) Vibratory mode: expansion±contraction mode (4) Vibratory modes: linear combinations of (We have chosen 2u2 À u1 À u3 . 2u1 À u2 À u3 as the basis for the vibratory modes in (4) merely because these modes look simpler than u1 À u2 . In order to .

we now calculate the equations of motion. so that we may ignore second order terms.) Similarly. X X X . x2 . x3 . and assume that the magnitude of the force between two atoms is k times the decrease in distance between them. R9. PR À P9R9 (x1 x6 ) 1(x2 x5 ). denote the new positions of the atoms by P9. x6 are small compared with the distance between the atoms. From the diagram. Let m be the mass of each atom. 2 PQ À P9Q9 (x2 x3 ) 1(x1 x4 )X 2 Hence the force on the molecule at P in the direction of the ®rst coordinate axis is Àk(PR À P9R9) Àk(x1 x6 ) À 1 k(x2 x5 )X 2 Therefore. x5 . 2 k In the same way. Q9. x6 ). the difference in length between QR and Q9R9 is (x4 x5 ) 1(x3 x6 )X 2 (We always assume that x1 . . x4 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 383 check our results. m x1 À(x1 x6 ) À 1(x2 x5 )X 2 k m x2 À(x2 x3 ) À 1(x1 x4 ). For a general displacement (x1 .

the situation is more complicated. The matrix A for which x xA is therefore given by H I 1 1a2 1a2 0 0 1 f 1a2 1 1 0 0 1a2 g f g Àk f 0 1 1 1a2 1a2 0 g f gX A 1a2 1a2 1 1 0 g m f 0 f g d 1a2 0 0 1 1 1a2 e 1 0 0 1a2 1a2 1 You should check that the vectors which we gave in (32.17. . x6 . where we found that G is isomorphic to S4 . 32. In our next example. The homogeneous component V÷3 for ÷3 was reducible.18)(2) and (4)) because V÷3 R6 vib was an A-invariant RG-submodule of V÷3 different from {0} and V÷3 . .14). since these homogenous components were irreducible (see Corollary 32.384 Representations and characters of groups and we obtain similar equations for x3. We determined the symmetry group G of this molecule in Example 32. Label the corners of .19 Remark In Example 32.2.18) are indeed eigenvectors of A. . This illustrates a method which sometimes helps to deal with reducible homogeneous components. 32. the character ÷ of the RG-module R6 was given by ÷ ÷1 ÷2 2÷3 X All the non-zero vectors in the homogeneous components for ÷1 and ÷2 gave normal modes.20 Example We analyse the normal modes for the methane molecule CH4 . . but we were able to write it as a sum of two subspaces of eigenvectors (those appearing in (32.

14. at each hydrogen atom we choose displacement axes along the edges of the tetrahedron. v23 . Let V be the vector space over R with basis v12 . v32 . giving twelve vectors v ij . Let v12 . w3. for example.jg for all i. thus. v14 be unit vectors at corner 1 in the directions of the edges 12. 2. v14 . v24 . and let W be the vector space over R spanned by w1. The action of G on V is easy to describe. v43 . and identify G with S4 . respectively. Since w1 w2 w3 w4 0. W R3 and V and W are RG-modules. and so on. similarly. (2 3 4). 23. w2. for g in G. w3 and w4 at the carbon atom. with w i pointing towards corner i (1 < i < 4). 3. Our main task is to ®nd RG-submodules of R15 V È W. G permutes our twelve basis vectors of V. 4. v41 . 24. v31 . v13 . jX Thus. let v21 . 13. v23 . v13 . in all. v24 be unit vectors at corner 2 in the directions of the edges 21. by taking four unit vectors w1. as shown below. Then V R12. v42 . We now introduce a new idea. v34 . the rotations about the vertical axis through 1 are written as 1. w4. these four vectors span a 3-dimensional space. v21 .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 385 the tetrahedron 1. and we can quickly calculate the character ÷ of V: 1 ÷ 12 (1 2) 2 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) 0 (1 2 3 4) 0 . (2 4 3)X In order fully to exploit the symmetry of the methane molecule. we have v ij g v ig. w2.

5.27)). (1 2) ®xes the basis vectors v34 and v43 only. all the basis vectors are moved by (1 2 3). the character table of S4 is as shown at the top of p. 4) to R15 . it is easy to calculate the character ö of W ± it is 1 ö 3 (1 2) 1 (1 2 3) 0 (1 2)(3 4) À1 (1 2 3 4) À1 By Section 18. ÷3 . p2 (v31 À v13 ) (v14 À v41 ) (v43 À v34 ). w4 0. . j and this gives the expansion±contraction normal mode: We next describe the RG-submodule W5 with character ÷5 .386 Representations and characters of groups For example. Let p1 (v23 À v32 ) (v34 À v43 ) (v42 À v24 ). .1. 3. for g in G. . The RG-submodule W1 with character ÷1 is spanned by v ij i. ÷5 and 3÷4 (see (14. ö ÷4 X By applying the elements ÷ i ( g À1 ) g gPG (i 1. We ®nd that ÷ ÷1 ÷3 2÷4 ÷5 . we can ®nd RG-submodules with characters ÷1 . and so on. The group G acts on W as follows. we have wi g wig (1 < i < 4)X After recalling that w1 . 387.

p4 (v21 À v12 ) (v13 À v31 ) (v32 À v23 )X The vector pi gives a rotation about the axis through the corner i and the centroid of the tetrahedron.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 387 Character table of S4 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 1 2 3 3 (1 2) 1 À1 0 1 À1 (1 2 3) 1 1 À1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 1 1 2 À1 À1 (1 2 3 4) 1 À1 0 À1 1 p3 (v12 À v21 ) (v41 À v14 ) (v24 À v42 ). It should be clear from the pictures that for all i with 1 < i < 4 and .

17. q2 . q3 (v14 v41 ) (v23 v32 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v34 v43 )X (Each q i is associated with an `opposite pair of edges'. p3 . Check that the character of W5 is ÷5 . The RG-module W5 is the rotation submodule. (Compare. its character is ÷3 . Now p1 p2 p3 p4 0. p4 ). so dim W5 3.388 Representations and characters of groups all g in G. Since q1 q2 q3 0. Therefore. Let q1 (v12 v21 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v24 v42 ). we have pi g Æ p j for some j.) For all i with 1 < i < 4 and g in G. the picture for p4 with the picture for the rotation vector v in Example 32. if we let W 5 sp ( p1 . Then W3 is an RG-submodule of V.) Now we construct the RG-submodule W3 of V with character ÷3 . Let W3 sp (q1 . we have q i g Æq j for some j. q2 (v13 v31 ) (v24 v42 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 ). p2 . then W5 is an RG-submodule of V. the dimension of W3 is 2. . for example. q3 ).

We now come to the homogeneous component (V È W)÷4 of R15 . W 5 and W3 which we have found so far. r2. r2 (v12 v21 ) (v23 v32 ) (v24 v42 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v34 v43 ). De®ne the vectors r1. r4 (v14 v41 ) (v24 v42 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v13 v31 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v23 v32 )X (The vector ri is associated with corner i.) .An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 389 In the RG-submodules W 1 . r4 by r1 (v12 v21 ) (v13 v31 ) (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 ) À (v24 v42 ) À (v34 v43 ). r3 (v13 v31 ) (v23 v32 ) (v34 v43 ) À (v12 v21 ) À (v14 v41 ) À (v24 v42 ). all the non-zero vectors are eigenvectors of A. by Corollary 32.14. r3.

24). r3. s3 (v31 v32 v34 ) À (v13 v23 v43 ). r4 among themselves. r3. s3 . s4 by s1 (v12 v13 v14 ) À (v21 v31 v41 ). we have ri g rig. s2 . The character of W4 is ÷4 (see Proposition 13. de®ne the vectors s1 . r2. r4 span a 3-dimensional RGsubmodule W4 of V. s2 (v21 v23 v24 ) À (v12 v32 v42 ). Next. 1 < i < 4). Note that r1 r2 r3 r4 0. s1 s2 s3 s4 0.390 Representations and characters of groups For each g in G and i with 1 < i < 4. r2. so r1. . Thus G permutes the vectors r1. s4 (v41 v42 v43 ) À (v14 v24 v34 )X We have si g sig ( g P G.

we have wi g wig ( g P G. Now recall that w1 . We shall therefore press on and explain how to reduce the dif®culty to that of calculating the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. and so they give the ®nal 3-dimenvib sional space of eigenvectors (see Remark 32. 9 (32. so we cannot complete the work using only representation theory. Let H be the subgroup of S4 consisting of those permutations which ®x the number 1. so 9 (V È W )÷4 W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 We now break off temporarily from studying the methane molecule. w1 w2 w3 w4 0. The task in front of us is to ®nd the eigenvectors of A which lie in (V È W )÷4 W 4 È W 4 È W X 9 The solution of this problem depends. and let U1 fv P (V È W )÷4 : vh v for all h P HgX Since (vh)A (vA)h for all v P V÷4 and all h P H. . upon the constants which appear in the equations of motion. look at the picture of the vector r1 ! We return now to the methane molecule. The normal mode (sin ùt)r1 is sometimes called an `umbrella mode'. it follows that U1 is A-invariant. s2 . w3 . r2 À 2s2 . in fact. (2) The vectors r1.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 391 and s1 . W 4 and W is direct. Since dim (V È W )÷4 9. and we can decompose V÷4 W 4 È W 4 in the following way. r4 À 2s4 span the 3-dimensional space of translation modes. it is very dif®cult to calculate the eigenvectors of A in (V È W )÷4 directly. w4 span W. In this case.19). in order to deal with the easier case of a molecule with identical atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron.21) (1) The vectors r1 À 2s1 . and the character of W is ÷4 . r3 À 2s3 . 1 < i < 4). the space W does not enter our calculations. To see why. r2. The sum of W 4 . and no central atom. s4 span a 3-dimensional RG-submodule W9 of V with 4 character ÷4 . r3. r4 span the subspace V÷4 R12 of V÷4 . w2 . s3 .

it is possible to calculate the 3 3 3 matrix B of the action of A on r1. and hence the matrix A. and so dim U1 3. w2 ) is A-invariant. w1 )X Once the equations of motion. and the matrix of A acting on r2. have been calculated. w1 (see Exercise 32. 1 H i H 3. s1 . and since A commutes with the action of G. s3 . Therefore U 1 sp (r1 . s1 h s1 and w1 h w1 . Thus we obtain the translation submodule sp (r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 . Better still. s1 . It is hard to imagine a more spectacular application of representation theory with which to conclude our text. the process of calculating the eigenvectors of the 3 3 3 matrix B gives nine eigenvectors of A which form a basis of (V È W )÷4 . the space U 2 . we have therefore reduced the initial problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of a 15 3 15 matrix A to that of calculating two of the eigenvectors of a 3 3 3 matrix. The eigenvectors of B then give three eigenvectors of A. But for all h P H.5).392 We ®nd that Representations and characters of groups h3÷4 5 H. . w1 is easy to ®nd. r1 (1 2) r2 . w1 (1 2) w2 . s1 . de®ned by U2 sp (r2 . namely the translation vector r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 . s2 . r1 h r1. s2 . s1 (1 2) s2 . w3 )X Therefore. where U 3 sp (r3 . r2 À 2s2 3 cos Ww2 . By means of representation theory. r3 À 2s3 3 cos Ww3 ). w2 is again B. One eigenvector of A acting on r1. where W is the angle between an edge of the tetrahedron and the line joining a corner on the edge to the centroid. A similar remark applies to U3.

The space R3n of displacement vectors is an RG-module. e2 (0. 2. 0. If V÷ i is irreducible. 2. The action of any g P G on R3 n commutes with A. then all non-zero vectors in V÷ i are eigenvectors of A. (iii) 1 is an eigenvalue of C. Suppose that G is the symmetry group of some molecule in R3 . To determine the eigenvectors of A (and hence all solutions of the equations of motion). and is called a normal mode. Suppose that b P O(R3 ). Exercises for Chapter 32 1. (a) Show that the matrix B of b with respect to the basis e1 . (ii) C has a positive eigenvalue. 4. 3. 5. where x P R3 n and the 3n 3 3n matrix A has 3n linearly independent eigenvectors. 0). The symmetry group G of a molecule with n atoms consists of those distance-preserving endomorphisms of R3 which send each atom to an atom of the same kind. then x sin (ùt â)u (or x (t â)u if ù 0) is a solution of the equations of motion. 0. e3 (0. If u is an eigenvector of A. and let e1 (1. with eigenvalue Àù2 . then tr B 1 2 cos ö. 1. All solutions are linear combinations of normal modes. e3 of R3 satis®es BBt I (where Bt denotes the transpose of B). e2 . and Àb is a rotation otherwise. (d) Show that if b is a rotation through an angle ö about some axis. (c) Deduce from (a) and (b) that b is a rotation if det B 1.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 393 Summary of Chapter 32 1. (b) Let C (det B)B. The equations of motion of the molecule have the form x xA. 0). . it is suf®cient to ®nd the eigenvectors of A restricted to each homogeneous component V÷ i of the RG-module R3 n . Deduce that det B Æ1. Prove successively that (i) C has a real eigenvalue. 1).

Find a basis for this space which is simpler than the one which we have used. Label the corners of the tetrahedron 1. r4 prompted us to use these vectors? 5. r2. .) 4.17. Consider the triatomic molecule studied in Example 32. 4 and let 0 denote the centroid of the tetrahedron. The purpose of this exercise is to derive the equations of motion of the methane molecule. v13 . and verify that A is symmetric. Take the axes for the displacement coordinates as shown below: Calculate the equations of motion x xA with respect to these axes. 2.7. b b X 0. r2. v43 . (See the paragraph before Proposition 32. w3 as described in Example 32.20. r3. X X X . and let the position vector of the molecule be iT j xij v ij p 3 i1 yi wi X (a) Prove that cos (/ 012) (2a3) and cos (/ 102) À1a3.20. w1 .20. w2 . 3. r4 given in Example 32. r3. if g is a rotation b ` through angle ö (÷ T ÷ R )( g) about some axis. if g is not a rotationX 3.394 Representations and characters of groups Show that the sum of the character ÷ T of the translation submodule and the character ÷ R of the rotation submodule has value at g P G given by V b 2(1 2 cos ö). and so ®nd explicitly the 3 3 3 matrix B which appears at the end of Example 32. What property of r1. Work with 15 unit displacement vectors v12 . Consider the space spanned by the vectors r1.

3 with similar expressions for y2 and y3 . show that the length of the edge 04 has decreased by p (2a3)(x41 x42 x43 ) À 1( y1 y2 y3 )X 3 (c) Let m1 denote the mass of a hydrogen atom. Finally. Also. Prove that m1 x12 À k 1 [x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x12 x13 x14 (3a2)( y1 À 1 y2 À 1 y3 )]. 24.An application of representation theory to molecular vibration 395 (b) Show that the decrease in the length of the edge 12 from its original length is x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 ). Also. show that the length of the edge 01 has decreased by p (2a3)(x12 x13 x14 ) y1 À 1( y2 y3 ). q1 . x23 . and m2 the mass of a carbon atom. 14. Assume that the magnitude of the force between hydrogen atoms is k1 times the decrease in distance between them. x21 . 3 with similar expressions for the edges 02. 2 with similar expressions for the edges 13. x31 . 3 3 with similar expressions for x13. x32 . x14 . q2 . show p m2 y1 Àk 2 [ (2a3)(x12 x13 x14 À x41 À x42 À x43 ) 4 y1 ]. 03. 34. 23. (d) The equations in part (c) determine the 15 3 15 matrix A in the equations of motion x xA. p3 . p1 . Finally. 3 with similar expressions for x42 and x43 . x34 . show m1 x41 À k 1 [x14 x41 1(x42 x43 x12 x13 )] 2 p 1 À 3 k 2 [x41 x42 x43 À 1 (3a2)( y1 y2 y3 )]. x24 . j . Verify that the vectors v ij . i. and the magnitude of the force between a hydrogen atom and a carbon atom is k2 times the decrease in distance between them. p2 .

(See 32. and check that the vectors you found in part (a) are. 7. . Consider a hypothetical molecule in which there are four identical atoms at the corners of a square. Suppose that V÷ i U1 È . then Au Av . indeed. . (b) Calculate the equations of motion. 6) is an eigenvector of B. uW m ) is an A-invariant vector space of dimension m. uW m . .15(5). . w1 are as in Example 32. we derive a method for simplifying the problem of ®nding the eigenvectors of A when the homogeneous component V÷ i is reducible. s1 A b21 r1 b22 s1 b23 w1 . Prove that if u and v are non-zero elements of U1. . . È Um. X X X . x xA. are eigenvectors of A. s1 . . . eigenvectors of A. (a) Find the normal modes of the molecule. . À2.396 Representations and characters of groups which appear in Example 32. where the vectors r1. (a) Prove that for all non-zero u in U1. (c) Assume that the eigenvectors of the m 3 m matrix A u are known.20. Show how to ®nd the eigenvectors of A in V÷ i . w1 A b31 r1 b32 s1 b33 w1 .20. (f) Verify that p (1. (Hint: compose the function w 3 wA with a projection. let W i be an RG-isomorphism from U1 to Ui . . and use Exercise 23.) We assume that ÷ i is the character of an irreducible RG-module which remains irreducible as a CGmodule. For 1 < i < m. (e) Find the entries b ij in the 3 3 3 matrix B which are given by r1 A b11 r1 b12 s1 b13 w1 .) (b) Let A u denote the matrix of the endomorphism w 3 wA of sp (uW1 . sp (uW1 . .8. We reduce our problem to that of ®nding the eigenvectors of an m 3 m matrix. a sum of m isomorphic irreducible RG-modules. uW m ) with respect to the basis uW1 . Assume that the only internal forces are along the sides of the square. In this exercise. 6.

Check using the method of Example 1. the function W: D4 m 3 D2 m 3 C2 de®ned by 397 . and G T {1} since G is simple. so G An v G. it is routine to verify that ö and ø are homomorphisms. 3. it follows that ë is not a homomorphism. Therefore g p 1. 0 < j < 1.Solutions to exercises Chapter 1 1.4. we may choose h P G with h P An . Then kgl is a normal subgroup of G. À1) and y (d. Therefore G An and (G An )h are the only right cosets of G An in G. Note that all subgroups of G are normal. For all odd g in G. d: cm d 2 1. Let D4 m ha. c2 }. hence G is ®nite. 5. Let x (c( m1)a2 . (À1) k ) for 0 < i < m À 1. d À1 cd cÀ1 i. 0 < k < 1. and Ga(G A n ) C2 . (a) Using the method of Example 1. If Ker W f1g then W is an isomorphism. (b) Since b2 ë I but (bë)2 Y 2 ÀI. we have g a (ghÀ1 )h P (G An )h. a2 } and Ker ø {1. so kgl G. The elements of D2 m 3 C2 are (c i d j . either Ker W f1g or Ker W G. y À1 xy x À1 X By Example 1. 2. Since G is simple and Ker W v G. First. so ì is an isomorphism. then h g 2 i would be a normal subgroup different from G and {1}. 4. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i. and so G is cyclic of prime order. Let p be a prime number which divides |G|. since G is abelian. Also Ker ì {1} and Im ì L.4 again that ì is a homomorphism. where m is odd. and if Ker W G then H f1g. Check that x 2 m y 2 1. If G were in®nite.4. Since G An T G. 1). Then h g p i is a normal subgroup of G which is not equal to G. and D2 m hc. Let g be a non-identity element of G. Ker ö {1. G An f g P G: g is even}. b: a2 m b2 1.

Bl has the form A j B k with 0 < j < 7. 0 < j < 1) is a homomorphism. Hence a r a j aÀqk a j (a k )Àq P H. As |D4 m | |D2 m 3 C2 |. 9. Choose k as small as possible such that k . Finally. r with 0 < r . If g. g À1 g has size 1. k. it follows that H ke2ðia n l. then x. Bl has order 16. y P H. and gÀ1 g ggÀ1 1. B as follows: eiða4 0 A . 0 and a k P H. 8. 6. Let G be the set of non-zero complex numbers. De®ne matrices A. Each such subset has size 1 or 2. kA. we conclude that W is an isomorphism. Therefore H < f g P G: g n 1g he2ðia n iX Since j Hj n jhe2ðia n ij. Since r . hence g P kad l. If H is a subgroup of G of order n. Partition G into subsets f g. If 1 T a j P H then j qk r for some integers q. so dj j. À1) and hence Im W D2 m 3 C2 . with 0 < j < 7. by part (b). thus H is cyclic. h P G then gh T 0. and so x is a power of y. and the identity element is in a subset of size 1. It follows that f g P G: g n 1g had i. k P G then (gh)k g(hk). h. (b) Assume that G hai and jGj dn. Moreover. g À1 g ( g P G). If g P G and g n 1. If g. it contains x 2 (c. Since Im W kx. by Lagrange's Theorem). so gh P G. We deduce that hxi H h yiX Thus x P h yi. 0 such that ai P H. which is a cyclic group of order n.398 Representations and characters of groups W: a i b j 3 x i y j (0 < i < 2m À 1. (c) If x and y are elements of order n in the ®nite cyclic group G. . then g a j for some integer j and dnj jn. Therefore a j a kq and so H kak l. 1) and x m (1. Now kxl and k yl have order n. where H { g P G: gn 1}. k. 0 < k < 1. These relations show that every element of the group kA. also H has order n. are all distinct. so g gÀ1 and g has order 2. ei jða4 0 0 ei jða4 j j . 7. if jGj is even then there exists g P G such that g T 1 and the subset f g. we have r 0. yl. (a) Let G kal and suppose that 1 T H < G. A B A X 0 eÀi jða4 ÀeÀi jða4 0 Since these matrices. then h n 1 for all h P H (since the order of h divides n. if g P G then g À1 1a g P G. 0 eÀiða4 B 1 X 0 0 À1 Check that A8 I. Hence. Thus G is a group under multiplication. First observe that there exists i . B2 A4 and BÀ1 AB AÀ1 . also 1 P G and 1g g1 g for all g P G.

Since such expressions are unique. Thus U W {0}. . Suppose jG: Hj 2 and let g P G. Then V U W. and so ë1 u1 X X X ë r ur ì1 w1 X X X ì s ws 0X As u1 . . . . . Hence H v G. Therefore u1 . . w1 . Therefore u1 . . F F F . ë r ur ì1 w1 . Then v v 0 0 v and this gives us two expressions for v as the sum of an element in U and an element in W. Conversely. since u1 . If u. w s . . we have u1 . gH are a the two left cosets. this gives ë i ì j 0 for all i. . ur are linearly independent. Since V U È W. As W is surjective and injective. . so Im W V (by (2. . . ur and w is a linear combination of w1 . ì s ws for some ë i . w1. ws are linearly independent. so WÀ1 is a linear transformation. (ë(wWÀ1 ))W ë(wWÀ1 )W ëwX Hence (u w)WÀ1 uWÀ1 wWÀ1 and (ëw)WÀ1 ë(wWÀ1 ). Let u. 2. (1) A (2): If W is invertible then W is injective. . ur . Let v P U W. 3. Hg are the two right cosets of H in G. . ì j in F. and so u v. . . F F F . so u À v P Ker W {0}. . Suppose that ë1 u1 X X X ë r ur ì1 w1 X X X ì s ws 0 with all ë i . By (2. (2) A (3): If Ker W {0} then dim (Im W) dim V (by (2. ur . Now suppose that V U W and U W {0}. Let u P U1 (U2 U3 ). suppose that u1 . .12). .7)). It is easy to see that V U W. . this forces ë i 0 for all i. 5. ì j P F. . . Therefore Hg gH. w1. . . . First suppose that V U È W. ws are linearly independent. F F F . . ur . . v 0. . . Chapter 2 1. ur . Thus v 0 and so U W {0}. u2 P U and w1. . . ws is a basis of V. . v P V and uW vW then (u À v)W 0. hence they form a basis of V. If g P H then gÀ1 Hg H. similarly ì i 0 for all i. .12)). u r . . so by Exercise 3. w1. Then u u1 u2 u3 for some ui P Ui (1 < i < 3). w2 P W. Ker W {0}. . 4. . .Chapter 2 399 10. If v P U W then v ë1 u1 . Assume ®rst that V U È W. . w P W and ë P F. and so gÀ1 Hg H again. . Thus W is injective. . hence u1 u2 and w1 w2. . And if g P H then H. w s . we have (uWÀ1 wWÀ1 )W (uWÀ1 )W (wWÀ1 )W u w. If u1 w1 u2 w2 with u1 . so W is surjective. If v P V then v u w for some u P U and w P W. then u1 À u2 w2 À w1 P U W {0}. the expression 0 0 0 is the unique expression for 0 as the sum of vectors in U and W. since u is a linear combination of u1 . W is invertible. j. w1. V U È W. ws span V. it follows that v is a linear combination of u1 . (a) Assume ®rst that V U1 È U2 È U3. This shows that V U È W. Since u1 0 0 0 u2 u3 and the sum U1 U2 U3 is direct. (3) A (1): Assume that Im W V. . so Ker W {0}. . while H. Since W is a linear transformation. .

Then 1 2 3 u1 À u9 (u9 À u2 ) (u9 À u3 ) P U1 (U2 U3 ) {0}. . Let v P V. ur for Im W and a basis w1. so v 0. so V Im W È Ker W. . . ws for Ker W. Then V Im W È Ker W by Proposition 2. 2 2 2 À vW) P W. Thus V U W. . 9. 0)). 1)). so V T Im ö È Ker ö. The construction of the basis B is similar to that in Solution 8. suppose that r is a representation of G. the diagonal entries being r 1's followed by s 0's. 0). Ker W sp ((0. È Ur then V U1 È (U2 È . and U1 sp ((1. ws is a basis. . w1. assume that Am I.32. 0)X Then Im W sp ((1. Assume that ui . say B. ur . By Exercise 4. Then v 1(v vW) 1(v À vW)X 2 2 Observe that 1(v vW)W 1(vW v). First. 1 2(v Chapter 3 1. Suppose ®rst that W is a projection. . 1)). dim Ur. . . Therefore U1 (U2 U3 ) {0}. Check that A3 B3 C 3 I. and so r is a representation. so u1 u9 . so 1(v vW) P U. De®ne W. . 7. . . 1 2 3 1 Similarly. 2 3 (b) Let V R2. if V U1 È . . 1)). Then (ai )r Ai for all integers i (including i . U2 (U1 U3 ) U 3 (U1 U2 ) f0g. Therefore for all integers i. dim (U2 È . Conversely. . . so dim V dim U1 . Therefore V U1 È U2 È U3. 8. È Ur ) dim U2 . but r1 is not. u2 u9 and u3 u9 . the matrix [W]B is diagonal. by induction on r. . 0) and ö: (x. Then I 1r (am )r (ar) m Am X Conversely. Let V R2. Similarly. each r j is a representation. Since ui W ui for all i and wj W 0 for all j. . . y) 3 ( y. and Im ö Ker ö sp ((1. then clearly W2 W. dim Ur. . Similarly. if [W]B has the given form. 0)). More generally. È Ur ) (see (2. 6. . . (a i a j )r (a i j )r A i j A i A j (a i r)(a j r). of V. Take a basis u1 . u9 P Ui (1 < i < 3) and i u1 u2 u3 u9 u9 u9 .400 Representations and characters of groups u2 u3 0. by Exercise 3. j. . m À 1 and i . . 2. Now suppose that U1 (U2 U3 ) U2 (U1 U3 ) U3 (U1 U2 ) {0}. ö: V 3 V by W: (x. . The representations r2 and r3 are faithful. Then u1 . If v P U W then v vW Àv.10)). . if V U È W then dim V dim U dim W. Therefore V U È W. U2 sp ((0. . y) 3 (x. so W is a projection. . by Exercise 4. U3 sp ((1. Hence by Exercise 1. 0)). .

hence r3 is not equivalent to any of the others. 7. 6. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. since a2 r2 I and a3 r3 I. 0 < s < 1) is a faithful representation of D8 ka. hence r is equivalent to r. we have S 6 T 2 I.2(1). 0 < j < 1)X 401 It is easy to check that r is a representation of G. b: a4 b2 1. 8. F) and GL (1. No: let G be any non-abelian group and let r be the trivial representation. Therefore GaKer r is abelian. 0 1 1 B d0 0 H I 0 0 À1 0 eX 0 1 Then the function r: a r b s 3 A r Bs (0 < r < 3. then a3 r j T I. 4. (2) S A3 . T D.4). By Theorem 1. (3) S ÀA. (To ®nd T. hence r2 is not equivalent to any of the others. . IÀ1 (gr)I gr. But r2 and r3 are not faithful. let T 1 1 X Ài i Then T À1 (gr4 )T gr1 for all g P G. ®rst work out the eigenvectors of C. (3) If r is equivalent to ó and ó is equivalent to ô. GaKer r Im r. then a2 r j T I. The matrices A r Bs (0 < r < 5. Similarly r4 is faithful. so r1 is faithful. De®ne r by (a i b j )r (À1) j (0 < i < n À 1.) If j T 2. so ó is equivalent to r. The representations r1 and r4 are equivalent: to see this. Check that in each of the cases (1) S A. then there are invertible matrices S and T such that gó SÀ1 ( gr)S and gô T À1 (gó)T for all g P G. so r is equivalent to ô. (2) If r is equivalent to ó then there is an invertible matrix T such that gó T À1 ( gr)T for all g P G. then gô (ST)À1 (gr)(ST). (4) S C. T B. T ÀB. Compare Example 3. F) is abelian.10. then gr (T À1 )À1 (gó)T À1.Chapter 3 3. T À1 ST S À1 X It follows that each r k is a representation (see Example 1. And if j T 3. De®ne the matrices A and B by 0 A d À1 0 H I 1 0 0 0 e. T B. 5. But Im r < GL (1. (1) For all g P G. 0 < s < 1) are all different.

(ëv) g ë(v g). h P An ). assume that gh P An . H I H I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 f À1 0 0 f 0 0g 0 0 1g g f g. v in V and ë in F. h is in An and the other is not. h P Sn . we have v g P V .2.402 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 4 1. If we put . h P An ) or vg Àv vh (if g. By Theorem 4. Assume ®rst that gh P An . B2 A2 . Next. Let A f d 0 0 0 À1 e and B d À1 0 0 0e 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 0 Check that A4 I. Let V R4. Let v P V and g.2. so V is an FG-module. 3. BÀ1 AB AÀ1 X Hence r: a i b j 3 A i B j (0 < i < 3. a a Then v(gh) Àv. v1 v. We have now checked all the conditions in De®nition 4. since one of g.4(1). and (vg)h Àv. For all u. (u v) g ug v gX It remains to check (2) of De®nition 4. since either vg v vh (if g. and (vg)h v. g P Q8. Then v(gh) v. V becomes an RQ8 -module if we de®ne vg v( gr) for all v P V. g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 0 1 0e 0 1 I 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 H (1 2) 1 0 0 0e 0 1 I 0 0 À1 0 e À1 1 I 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 H (1 3) I 0 1 1 0e 0 0 I 0 0 1 À1 e 0 À1 [ g]B 2 g H [ g]B 1 1 d0 0 H 1 d0 0 (2 3) 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I 0 0 0 1e 1 0 I H (1 2 3) 0 d0 1 H 1 d0 0 1 0 0 1e 0 0 I 0 0 À1 1 e À1 0 I H (1 3 2) 0 d1 0 H 1 d0 0 I 0 1 0 0e 1 0 I 0 0 0 À1 e 1 À1 [ g]B 2 All the matrices [g]B 2 have the form H I 1 0 0 d 0 j j eX 0 j j 2. 0 < j < 1) is a representation of Q8 over R. Let g P Sn .

k . Then ó is equivalent to ô. n. 1) or (1. 0). Let U be a non-zero FGsubmodule of V. á â) P U. 0. and let (á. It is easy to verify that V is an FG-module. 0g g g g g e 1 I 0 then MA is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two rows. v4 (0. 0. ` 1. 1. 0. Let G D12 and let r1 . Hence the FG-submodules of V are {0}. If C is a matrix obtained from A by permuting the columns.5. sp ((1. 1. â) P U with (á. . . 0). 0. where vg v(gr1 ) for . 1)). then C AQ for some permutation matrix Q.Chapter 5 then for all i. To solve the exercise. â) T (0. we deduce that (1. À1) belongs to U. sp ((1. First consider the FG-module V F 2. 0). â) (á. if j T igX Then P is a permutation matrix. v2 (0. 4. . â) À (á. pij X 0. Chapter 5 1. . â)a (á À â. Then r is equivalent to a representation ô of the form H I Xg 0 e ( g P G) ô: g 3 d Yg Zg where X g is a k 3 k matrix and 0 . 0). v i a and v i b are as required in the question. You may ®nd it helpful ®rst to check that if H 0 1 f1 0 f f 1 M f FF f d F 403 v1 (1. j X k1 Hence PA B. 1). r4 be the representations of G de®ned in Exercise 3. Therefore ó is reducible. â À á) P U. and (á. 0. and the ij-entry of PA is n pik akj a ig. Suppose that r has degree n and r is reducible. Then (á. 2. row i of B row ig of AX Let P be the n 3 n matrix ( pij ) de®ned by V if j ig. since ó is equivalent to r. Since at least one of á â and á À â is non-zero. v3 (0. â)a (á â. let g be the permutation in Sn which has the property that for all i. 0. À1)) and V. 3. and AM is obtained from A by swapping the ®rst two columns. the proof is similar to that for the rows.

Finally. r3 is irreducible. yx À2X1 À a3 b 2a2 b 3a3 b. 9. bl T G. À1) lies in U. so r is reducible. g P G. let u be (1. Hence sp ((1. where H is the subgroup {1. 5. bl.404 Representations and characters of groups v P V. By the solution to Exercise 1. accordingly. x 2 4X1 a2 4a3 X . if either å T 1 or ç T 1 then dim U 2 and so r is irreducible. Hence. À1) (so that u P U). Chapter 6 1X (a) xy À2X1 À a3 ab 3a2 b 2a3 b. 0 0 . Now let V F 2 with vg v(gr2 ) for v P V. by the solution to Exercise 1. also r4 is irreducible. On the other hand. (a) It is easy to check the given relations. 1)a À(1.5(2) for an alternative argument. Hence either (1. Then (1. it follows that dim U > 2. if å ç 1 then sp ((1. (d) Let V C2 be the CG-module obtained by de®ning vg v(gr) for all v P C2 . g P G. Since (1. AB BA. À1)a are linearly independent. C À1 AC AÀ1 and C À1 BC BÀ1 . 1) or (1. Then U is an FH-module. 1) (1. À1) lies in U. 1) or (1.C çÀ1 1 1 X 0 Thus jGj < 18. then U is a CHsubmodule. and u and ub are linearly independent unless ç 1. by Lagrange's Theorem. by an argument similar to that for r1. Let V {0} and let 0 g 0 for all g P G. Suppose that U is a non-zero FG-submodule of V. Then V is neither reducible nor irreducible. there exists a cube root î of unity such that î 0 gr À1 X 0 î But there are only three distinct cube roots of unity. (See Example 5. Using the relations. Therefore r is never faithful. (b) Let å 0 ç A . g P G. 1)) is an FG-submodule of V and r2 is reducible. g2 P ka. b}. Hence r is a representation (compare Example 1.4). since r1 and r4 are equivalent. 4. jGj Therefore jGj 18. Consequently U V and so V is irreducible. 1) or (1. where H is the subgroup {1. B 0 å À1 0 Check that A3 B3 C 2 I. 1)) is a CG-submodule of V. 0 < j < 2. If U is a non-zero CG-submodule of V. and also (1. However. bl with g1 r g2 r. Now u and ua are linearly independent unless å 1. either (1. bl| 9 and ka. c}. (c) For every element g of ka. 1)b. is a multiple of 9 and jGj . 1)a are linearly independent. 0 < k < 1)X that |ka. 1) and (1. À1) and (1. it is clear Hence. we may write every element of G in the form ai b j c k (0 < i < 2. so there exist distinct g1 .) Therefore r1 is irreducible.

No: let G ka: a2 1l. Hence a i b j z za i b j for all i. b. ar f d0 0 0 1e d0 0 1 0e 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 H I H I 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 f0 0 1 0g f0 0 0 1g f g f g br f gX g. v2 a ù2 v2 . For all u1 .Chapter 7 405 (b) az ab a3 b a2 ba ba za. ab bal. u2 P U. and u u u. The reason is that for all i. 4. Let a (1 2 3 4 5) and let v1 . Let x P G. (ab)r f d0 1 0 0e d1 0 0 0e 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3. (Note that v i W ai . (c) All the entries in [W]B are 1 (compare the solution to Exercise 2). the regular representation r is given by H I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 f1 0 0 0g f0 1 0 0g f g f g 1r f g. then vr 0 and neither v nor r is 0. 5. If r 1 À g. (u1 g)Wö ((u1 W) g)ö ((u1 W)ö) g (u1 (Wö)) gX 2. j and so gz zg for all g P G. Then . Chapter 7 1. ab of F(C2 3 C2 ). (b) c2 c hPG h hPG ch jGjc. g. so do gh and hg. hence 0r v0 0. Relative to the basis 1. b: a2 b2 1. ë P F and g P G. then u 0. there exists a unique h in G such that gi h gj . so rz 2. and v0 v(0 0) v0 v0.3 to prove that W is irreducible. It is easy to show that V0 is an FG-submodule of V. 6. hence W is an FG-homomorphism. Now 0r (0 0)r 0r 0r. Note ®rst that if u is an element of a vector space. j. g ë g g with ë g P C. Let C2 3 C2 ka. Check that v1 a ùv1 . . and bz 1 a2 zb. s 1 À a. so (v i a)W v i1 W a i1 (v i W)a. Use the argument of either Example 5. and take r 1 a. (a) As g runs through G. If r P CG then r ë g gz ë g zg zr. (ëu1 )Wö (ë(u1 W))ö ë(u1 (Wö)). Hence ch hc c.) 3. a.5(2) or the solution to Exercise 5. we have (u1 u2 )Wö (u1 W u2 W)ö u1 (Wö) u2 (Wö). . v5 be the natural basis for the permutation module for G over F. Hence W is a CG-submodule of CG. Then W: ë1 v1 X X X ë5 v5 3 ë1 1 ë2 a ë3 a2 ë4 a3 ë5 a4 is the required FG-isomorphism. . v1 b v2 and v2 b v1. . Let V be the trivial FG-module and let 0 T v P V and 1 T g P G. Let v1 1 ù2 a ùa2 and v2 b ù2 ab ùa2 b.

g P G. (wöÀ1 )g (wg)öÀ1 wöÀ1 . Also (á1 âx)xW (â1 áx)W (â À á)(1 À x) (á À â)(1 À x)x (á1 âx)WxX Hence W is an FG-homomorphism. Chapter 8 1. Suppose that ö: V 3 W is an FG-isomorphism. (c) Let B be the basis 1 À x. where ù e2ðia3 . Hence W2 2W. For all w P W 0 . (a) W is easily seen to be a linear transformation. and Ker W Im W sp (v2 ). Let G be any group. it follows from Exercise 4 that V and FG are not isomorphic FG-modules. ì g P C)X 0 ìg Then (gó)(hó) (hó)(gó) for all g. Then RG sp (1 a b ab) È sp (1 a À b À ab) È sp (1 À a b À ab) È sp (1 À a À b ab)X 3. 4. and let V be a 2-dimensional vector space over C with basis v1 . (vö)g (vg)ö vö.406 Representations and characters of groups gPG vxg gPG vg gPG v gxX Hence (vx)W vW (vW)x. and so V0 ö W 0 . we see that W is an FGhomomorphism from V to V0 . . 5. Let G {1.) 2. since all diagonal matrices . In the notation of Exercise 3. 1 x. Let g P G. (Find eigenvectors for x. Hence the function ö. this makes V into a CGmodule. r is equivalent to a representation ó of the form ëg 0 gó (ë g . hence W is surjective. 6. a. (b) (á À â)(1 À x)W ((á À â) À (â À á))(1 À x) 2(á À â)(1 À x). . restricted to V0 . . ab ba). noting that V W V0 . ab} C2 3 C2 (so a2 b2 1. is an FG-isomorphism from V0 to W 0 . If v P V0 then (vajGj)W v. 2 3 V0 sp (v1 v2 . v4 be the natural basis of the permutation module V for G over F. De®ne vg v for all v P V. For all v P V0 . Suppose r is reducible. ì P C) then W is a CG-homomorphism from V to V. Then by Maschke's Theorem. . so W 0 öÀ1 V0 . b. v2 . v3 v4 ) and (FG)0 sp g X gPG Since V0 and (FG)0 have different dimensions. V sp (Àùv1 v2 ) È sp (Àù2 v1 v2 ). No: let v1 . 4. If we let W: ëv1 ìv2 3 ëv2 (ë. h P G.

(3) Let W U c. . hence also (gr)(hr) (hr)(gr) for all g. bi r3 (ù2i )X Let C2 3 C2 {(1. U sp ((1. This means that Ui is a faithful irreducible CG-module. 5. Also [ug. Chapter 9 1. Ur are irreducible CG-submodules of CG. . 0 for all x P G.Chapter 9 407 commute with each other. u] . so there is no CG-submodule W of V with V U È W. v gg À1 ] by part (1) [ug À1 . r2 . . Then for all u P U. so [u. .6). 1r2 (1). Irreducible representations r1 . . v g] [ug À1 . For example. and so U c is a CG-submodule of V. . ] the axioms of a complex inner product. Then V U È W. Since G a is simple. v] 0 since ug À1 P U X Therefore vg P U c. r2 : 1r1 ar1 (1). 1). We know that the regular CG-module CG is faithful (Proposition 6. Let CG U1 È . Then there exist i P {1. vx) [u. (1. and W is a CG-submodule of V by part (2). where x 2 y 2 1. This is a contradiction. where U1. y)}. 6. 0)) is the only 1-dimensional CG-submodule of V. r} and g P G such that ug T u for some u P Ui (otherwise vg v for all v P CG). if u T 0 then (ux. v gx) (ux. (x. we must therefore have K {1}. v]X xPG xPG (2) It is easy to prove that U c is a subspace of V. r4 : 3 . ar2 (À1)X Let C3 kb: b 1l and let ù e2ðia3 . Irreducible representations r1 . 7. . v g] (ugx. Let C2 ka: a2 1l. 0. y). (1) It is straightforward to verify for [ . also K T G since g P K. ux) . Let v P U c and g P G. 1). . Therefore r is irreducible. bi r2 (ù i ). È Ur. r3 . De®ne K fx P G: vx v for all v P Ui gX Check that K is a normal subgroup of G. (x. h P G. . Irreducible representations r1 . r3 : 1r1 br1 b2 r1 (1). . r2 . [u.

y j )r4 (À1) i j X 2. (c) The centre of C2 3 D8 is isomorphic to C2 3 C2 . Then H i I å11 f g i FF g r: ( g 11 . (x. 4.16 shows that C2 3 D8 has no faithful irreducible representation. Also bÀ1 (a aÀ1 )b aÀ1 a. Therefore Proposition 9. 6. (b) Check that w(a aÀ1 ) Àw for all w P W. (1. For 1 < j < r. and the result follows from Proposition 9. then M ëI for some ë P C. a) 3 .408 Representations and characters of groups gr1 (1) for all g P C2 3 C2 . 1). g 22 ) 3 (å11 å22 ) is a faithful representation of degree 1 . Hence z P Z(CG). (x i . X X X . Notice that the matrix 5 À6 4 À5 commutes with gó for all g P G. g irr ) 3 f d e F ir år 0 0 is a faithful representation of C n1 3 . y j ) 3 (À1) i . (b) If g1 (x 2 . g2 and g1 g2 all have order 2. 1) and g2 (1. b3 (b) r: a 3 À1 0 0 À1 gives a faithful irreducible representation of D8 (see Example 5.3). similarly for ó. n2 3. we cannot have (g1 g2 )ó g1 ó g2 ó (À1). . y): x 4 y 4 1l. If M(gr) (gr)M for g a and for g b.3). r. so is not cyclic. (a) r: (x i . (x i . Let z gPG g. hence ó is reducible (Corollary 9. 3 C n r of degree r.14. Since (g1 g2 )ó (g1 ó)(g2 ó) for all representations ó.5(2)). Check that A4 B2 I. Hence r gives a representation. let gj generate Cn j . and let å j e2ðia n j . y j )r3 (À1) i . Then r: x j 3 (e2ði ja n ) is a faithful irreducible representation of Cn . n1 2. so b commutes with a aÀ1 . y j )r2 (À1) j . y 2 ) then g1 . Then xz z zx for all x P G. 7. Hence r is irreducible (Corollary 9. Check that 0 ù ù 0 r: (x. Yes: if r 2. Let C4 3 C4 k(x. (x i . BÀ1 AB AÀ1 when A ar and B br. . (a) Let Cn kx: x n 1l. 0 1 1 0 . 5. (d) Let C3 kx: x 3 1l and let ù e2ðia3 . 3. (a) Clearly a commutes with a aÀ1 . b) 3 Àù 0 0 Àù . then i i i i ó : ( g 11 .

We have sp (v0 . w1 ). For 0 < j < 3.4). Let U4 sp (v1 . sp (v1 . U4 and U5 are irreducible CG-modules. w1 ) are CG-submodules of CG. Then. It is irreducible (see for example Exercise 8. Let G kx: x 4 1l. u3 are as in the solution to i< Exercise 3. w3 ).b3 X 0 Ài 1 0 . v1 1 ia À a2 À ia3 . since there is a CG-isomorphism sending v1 3 w1. sp (v2 .8(2). sp (v2 . w3 3 v3. let wj bv j. As in Example 5. w2 ) U2 È U3 . while u0 gPG g. v2 1 À a a2 À a3 . Then ug u for all g P G. Then CG sp (1 x x 2 x 3 ) È sp (1 ix À x 2 À ix 3 ) È sp (1 À x x 2 À x 3 ) È sp (1 À ix À x 2 ix 3 )X 3. as in Example 10.Chapter 10 gives a representation of C3 3 D8. the subspaces sp (v0 .5(2) (or see Exercise 8. and so CG has exactly one trivial CGsubmodule. w0 ). Then V is a trivial CG-submodule of CG. b 3 (À1) r2 : a 3 (À1). w2 ) and sp (v3 . Let v0 1 a a2 a3 . U1 . u2 1 À a a2 À a3 b À ab a2 b À a3 b. b 3 (1) r1 : a 3 (1). w0 ) U0 È U1 . b 3 (À1) 2 3 2 3 i 0 0 1 r4 : a 3 . namely U0 . u2 . Let V sp ( gPG g). We decompose CG as a direct sum of irreducible CG-submodules. U3 and U4 .4) and faithful. b 3 (1) r3 : a 3 (À1). so |G|u u( gPG g) ( gPG g)u P V. v3 1 À ia À a2 ia3 Chapter 10 (compare the solution to Exercise 2).5 now shows that there are exactly ®ve non-isomorphic irreducible CG-modules. Thus U V. w3 ). Let u1 1 a a2 a3 À b À ab À a2 b À a3 b. u3 1 À a a2 À a3 À b ab À a2 b a3 bX 4. Now suppose that U is an arbitrary trivial CG-submodule CG. Theorem 10. 2. so U sp (u) of for some u. U2 . where Ui sp (ui ) (0 < 3) and u1 . 409 1. Moreover U4 U5. U5 sp (v3 . namely V. Therefore every irreducible representation of D8 over C is equivalent to precisely one of the following: r0 : a 3 (1).

in turn. since the sum U1 U2 is direct. CG) (compare the proof of Proposition 11. A CG-isomorphism is given by v1 3 u1 . 2. 18 2. Let u1 1 À ia À a2 ia3 . either by the method of Example 5. Also. . . de®ne ö1 .4.13 to see that the possible answers are 112 . W)) is equal to the number of ordered pairs (a.5)(3) and Proposition 11. Then sp (u1 . uö2 bu (u P U3 ). the dimensions are 1.2.3) that 18 2 cannot occur.12. not all the dimensions are 1 (see Proposition 9. de®ne ö g : CG 3 CG by rö g gr (r P CG). Since G is non-abelian. . Then W1 . . U)) 1. Then {ö g : g P G} gives a basis of HomCG (CG. 18 2 means eight 1s and one 2.8(2). moreover. È Ys.6. W2 is a basis of HomCG (CG. Hence the answer for D12 is 14 22 . ö2 is a basis of HomCG (U3. 6. 17.5(2) or by Exercise 8. Then by (11. 3.18). Chapter 11 1. de®ne the function öë : U1 3 V by öë : u 3 u ëuW (u P U 1 )X Then öë is easily seen to be a CG-homomorphism. u2 ) is a CG-submodule of CG which is isomorphic to V. u2 b À iab À a2 b ia3 b. Then ö1 . CG). It is easy to check that if ë T ì then Im öë T Im ö ì . D12 has at least two inequivalent irreducible representations of degree 2. De®ne W1 and W2 by rW1 v1 r. Let V X1 È . . Hence by Corollary 11. . and similarly the number of integers b with Y b V i is k e i . dim (HomCG (V.1). b) such that X a Y b . Let W: U1 3 U2 be a CG-isomorphism. and so on). 5. U3 ). This. v2 3 u2 . . 1. by Corollary 11. Hence. by Theorem 11. 2. w2 be the basis of U3 described in Example 10. Then sp (v1 . 4. Let v1 . Compare Example 11. È Xr and W Y1 È .4.410 Representations and characters of groups 5. W)) i1 d i e i .8).8. By Exercise 5. dim (HomCG (V. V i )) d i . u P Ker öë D u ëuW 0 D u 0. Therefore. 6. ö2 by uö1 u. Let v1 . 14 22 and 13 3 (where 112 means twelve 1s. b): X a Yb Vi gjX Now the number of integers a with X a V i is dim (HomCG (V . For each g P G. . It will be shown later (Exercises 15. .3. For ë P C. dim (HomCG (V. v n ) is the unique trivial CG-submodule of V (compare Exercise 10. . Thus U1 Im öë . where each Xa and each Yb is an irreducible CG-module. equals k i1 jf(a. v n be the natural basis of V. . V is irreducible. by the proof of Proposition 11.6. rW2 w2 r (r P CG). Therefore we have constructed in®nitely many CG-submodules Im öë of the required form.

Now the required result follows from Theorem 12. fab. 2. l (unordered). b2 a2 . in agreement with Theorem n 12.8. the conjugacy classes of A5 have sizes 1.17. Also 1x x1. b a2 b. a3 g. therefore A5 is simple. Hence by Proposition 12. 15. There are (4 ) choices for the numbers i. 2) (5) 90 120 144 (23 ) 15 (32 ) (4. For elements g of other cycle-shapes. n 3. j. and three permutations for each choice. m distinct. with i. (1 2)(3 4) G consists of all permutations of the form (i j)(k l ) with i. a2 bg. There are ®ve choices for i. b: a4 1. The class equation gives . and a basis of Z(CQ8 ) is 1. n G (b) (1 2 3) consists of all 3-cycles (i j k). An element x of cycle-shape (5) has CS6 (x) kxl (note that |x S6 | 144 and use Theorem 12. The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g.18(2). k. This gives 5 . h P CG (x). k. Thus |CG ((1 2))| 2´(n À 2)!. Note that x P CG (g) D x P CG ( gz). There are ®ve choices for i. 12. fb. a3 bg. The sizes of the conjugacy classes of S6 are given in the following table: Cycle-shape (1) Class size 1 (2) 15 (3) 40 (22 ) 45 (4) (3. The centralizer CG ((1 2)) consists of all elements x and (1 2)x. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l.8 (since (2 ) n3a(2X(n À 2)3)). (a) (1 2) G {(i j): 1 < i . 5. fa2 g. j < n} and this set has size (2 ). thus ghÀ1 P CG (x). then we can make two different 3-cycles (k l m) and (k m l ) from the remaining numbers. Hence |(1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G | 5 . x A6 T x S6 . where x is a permutation ®xing 1 and 2. 4 . Therefore CG (x) is a subgroup of G. 12. and 1 P H. then we can make three permutations ( j k)(l m). namely (i j)(k l ). The elements of (1 2)(3 4)(5 6) G have the form (1 i)( j k)(l m). Then gx xg and hx xh. j. j. so zx xz and z P CG (x). namely (i j k) and (i k j).8). By Example 12. (c) Every element of (1 2 3)(4 5 6) G has the form (1 i j)(k l m). We have Q8 ka. Assume that g. (i k)( j l ) and (i l )( j k). k (unordered). If H is a normal subgroup of A5 then j Hj divides 60. so 1 P CG (x). 2) (6) 40 90 120 4. 20. a2 . so hÀ1 x xhÀ1 and ghÀ1 x gxhÀ1 xghÀ1 .Chapter 12 Chapter 12 411 1. 2) from the remaining numbers. l distinct. fa. then four choices for j. Hence j Hj 1 or 60. There are (3 ) choices for the numbers i. If z P Z(G) then zg gz for all g P G. 2 40 elements in all. ab a3 bX 7. 6. 3 15. ( j l )(k m) and ( j m)(k l ) of cycle shape (2. l. a a3 . j. g A6 g S6 . Each choice gives exactly two 3-cycles. n k. and H is a union of conjugacy classes of A5 .

so ë m 1. (zg)r (zr)(gr) ë(gr).14. then ÷(1) ÷(12 ) (÷(1))2 . then by the class equation. then ( gr)(hr) (hr)(gr) for all h P G. p2 divides a |Z(G)|. Since ÷(g) |®x (g)|. Conversely. (a) For all g. 2) are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 2 2 a3 2 0 a. . for all g in G.14. a3 } and Ker r2 {1. det ((gh)r) det ((gr)(hr)) det (gr) det (hr). . Chapter 13 1. i (b) If no conjugacy class of G has size p. Then zr ëI for some ë P C. The characters ÷ i of r i (i 1. in addition. . If.10. 6. so Z(G) T f1g. 3. Let r be a representation with character ÷. and hence ÷(zg) ë÷(g). If g P Z(G) then gr ëI for some ë P C. a2 b. ÷4 of C4 are as follows: 1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 x 1 i À1 Ài x2 1 À1 1 À1 x3 1 Ài À1 i We have ÷reg ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 . . a5 À1 0 a2 . I 1r z m r (zr) m ë m I. Thus.8 and (12. a2 . a4 À1 2 b. by Proposition 9. Hence g 3 (det (gr)) is a representation of G over C of degree 1.412 Representations and characters of groups jGj j Z(G)j xiP Z(G) a jx G jX i (a) For xi P Z(G). and so ä is a linear character of G. Let C4 kx: x 4 1l. h PG. (b) GaKer ä Im ä by Theorem 1. 5. The required result now follows from Theorem 13. |x G | divides pn and |x G | T 1 by Theorem 12. We have now proved that gr ëI for some ë P C if and only if g P Z(G). 7. a3 b. a5 b 0 0 0 À2 Also Ker r1 {1.9). a i i Therefore p divides |x G |. then p2 divides |x G | for all i xi P Z(G).11(1). |G| > p3 . If ÷ is a non-zero character which is a homomorphism. Moreover. by Proposition 9. if gr ëI for some ë P C. Let r be a representation with character ÷. and hence g P Z(G) since r is faithful. 2. Hence p divides |Z(G)|. a4 b ab. we have ÷((1 2)) 5 and ÷((1 6)(2 3 5)) 2. 4. a4 }. and Im ä is a subgroup of the . This is a contradiction. The irreducible characters ÷1 . so ÷(1) 1.

(0 1 ).20). As x T 1. Say there are r entries 1 and s entries À1. Then I H 0 1 g f1 0 g f g f 0 1 [x]B f gX g f 1 0 e d FF F 0 0 There are k blocks and since k is odd. and G has a normal subgroup of index 2 by Exercise 7. and de®ne the character ä as in Exercise 7. Let ÷ i be the character of r i (i 1.7. It is easy to check that {g P G: ä(g) P H} is a normal subgroup of G of index 2. 3 (À1)(À1) h÷. 3). g2 k of CG so as to obtain a basis B in which g and gx are adjacent for all g P G. And if s is even then Às s mod 4.8. .10)). Therefore GaKer ä is abelian. by Theorem 13. 2. hence is cyclic. so Im ä has even order. De®ne ä as in Exercise 7. 10. The values of these characters are as follows: Conjugacy class ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 2 2 2 a2 À2 À2 2 a. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. G has an element x of order 2. 9. (À1) (À1)(À1) h÷. øi 0 1X 24 4 8 4 Hence ø is irreducible by Theorem 14. which is abelian.3 1. By Exercise 1. Thus ä(x) À1. Using Proposition 14. 8. øi 0 0. 10 Chapter 14 1. The required result now follows from Exercise 7. 2. a3 0 0 0 b. by Exercise 1. If s is odd then ä( g) À1. we obtain 3 .Chapter 14 413 multiplicative group CÃ of non-zero complex numbers. 3 (À1)(À1) 3 .19.1 (À1)(À1) (À1)(À1) hø. . (c) Im ä is a ®nite subgroup of CÃ . Let r be the regular representation of G. 3 (À1) . so ÷( g) r À s r s ÷(1) mod 4. a2 b 0 0 0 ab.5(2). we have ÷reg (x) T ÷reg (1) (see Proposition 13. a3 b 0 0 À2 . 1 3 . . 24 4 8 4 3. Also À1 P Im ä. We may choose a basis B of V so that [g]B is diagonal with all diagonal entries Æ1 (see (9. 24 4 8 4 3 . det ([x]B ) (À1) k À1.20 (but ÷ is not). Order the natural basis g1 . . so ÷ i (x) T ÷ i (1) for some irreducible character ÷ i of G. Hence Im ä contains a subgroup H of index 2. ÷i 0 2.

If kø. (À1) . by Proposition 13. We have h÷reg . it follows that ÷ is a character of S3 . Since all the coef®cients here are non-negative integers. ÷i 1 ÷reg ( g)÷( g)X jGj gPG But ÷reg (g) is |G| if g 1 and is 0 if g T 1. 6 Hence ÷ 2÷1 3÷2 7÷3 .24. øi i1 d 2 . we have k÷. (a) For all groups G. By the method used in the solution to Exercise 1. 2 or 3. 4. 6 6 3 ø 2 1 ÷1 À 1 ÷2 . k 7. ÷3 i 1(19 . 4. 5. 0 and by hypothesis ÷(g) > 0 for all g P G. The representations r and ó have the same character. if G Z(G) Z(G)x then G Z(G). the regular character of C2 . Therefore the centre of a group G never has index 2 in G. ÷1 l T 0. 1 2 .414 Representations and characters of groups By Theorem 14. Chapter 15 1X h÷. ÷2 i 1(19 . Then 1 h÷. We ®nd that ø À÷2 ÷3 ÷5 2÷6 . (À2) . Let ÷1 be the trivial character of G.21. 6 h÷. then either exactly four of the di are 1. ÷1 i ÷( g)X jGj gPG Since ÷(1) . 2 2 ø 3 1 ÷1 1 ÷2 À 1 ÷3 X 3 3 3 3. Theorem 14.4 and Theorem 14.2. hence r and ó are equivalent. Hence k÷reg .17 shows that ÷ is reducible.21. 6. No: let G C2 and ÷ ÷reg . by Theorem 14. the rest are 0. but r3 is not equivalent to r1 or r2. if x P G then the subgroup generated by x and the elements of Z(G) is abelian (since the elements of Z(G) commute with powers of x). then i exactly a of the integers di are 1 and the rest are 0. (À1)(À1) 2 . 1 3 . øl 4. Every abelian group of order 12 has 12 conjugacy classes. (À2) . This follows at once from Exercise 11. Since the coef®cient of ÷2 is a negative integer. Hence if kø. (À2)(À1)) 7X 6 h÷. 8. If |G| 12 . 2 0 2 . and this gives the required matrix T. Recall that hø. 1) 2. or exactly one of the di is 2. ÷l ÷(1). øl a where a 1. 1 3 . ÷1 i 1(19 . 1) 3. 3. Hence. As ÷ T ÷1 . 2. ø is not a character of G. we obtain ø 1 1 ÷1 1 ÷2 1 ÷3 . r1 and r2 are equivalent.

The last row of the character table is (cf. 1). y): x 2 y 2 1}. then |Z(G)| divides 12 and |Z(G)| T 6 or 12. G C4 3 C3 ) then G has 12 conjugacy classes.10. it follows from the solution to Exercise 11. the remaining conjugacy classes have size at least 2. together with the relation 4 4 i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 4 ) 0. The character table of C2 3 C2 is (cf. (b) Since the number of irreducible representations is equal to the number of conjugacy classes.Chapter 16 415 and G is non-abelian. (x. Exercise 9. 1) 1 1 À1 À1 (1. similarly ÷4 ( g3 ) (À1 5)a2.9)). ÷4 (1) are 1. Therefore. y) 1 À1 À1 1 2. (x. y). i1 Because g4 has order 2. 1) ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 (x. y) 1 À1 1 À1 (x. so there cannot be as many as 9 conjugacy classes in total. Let C2 3 C2 {(1. similarly ÷3 (g3 ) 1. (1.12)). Chapter 16 1.18(1)). at most 4 conjugacy classes of G have size 1 (see (12. and if G A4 then G has 4 conjugacy classes (see Example 12.1) (1. 1). so |Z(G)| < 4. The complete character table of G is gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 g1 10 1 2 1 2 g2 5 1p (À1 5)a2 1p (À1 À 5)a2 g3 5 1p (À1 À 5)a2 1p (À1 5)a2 g4 2 1 0 À1 0 The two unknown degrees ÷3 (1). Example 16. gives the values on g4 . Then i1 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g 4 ) 0 gives ÷3 ( g2 ) 1.g. Finally. 2 since 4 ( ÷ i (1))2 10. if G D12 then G has 6 conjugacy classes (see (12. 4 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives i1 p p ÷4 ( g 2 ) (À1 À 5)a2. If G is abelian (e. 6 or 12 conjugacy classes. .5(2)) g1 ÷5 2 g2 À2 g3 0 g4 0 g5 0 3. Corollary 13.2 and part (a) that G has 4.

a3 bg. a2 bg and fab. fb. 5. By the column orthogonality relations. p If G C3 then det C Æi3 3. C t C is the k 3 k diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are |CG ( gi )| (1 < i < k). the last irreducible character of G is 1 ÷5 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 The character table of Q8 is the same as that of D8. (b) G9 f1. G9b. a3 g. The character table of C2 3 C2 is given in the solution to Exercise 16. G9a. By the column orthogonality relations applied to the column k corresponding to g. we have i1 ÷ i ( g)÷ i ( g) jC G ( g)j. a2 g and GaG9 fG9. which occurs if and only if g P Z(G). The matrix C is obtained from C by rearranging the columns (see Proposition 13. Hence the linear characters of G are gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 8 1 1 1 1 a2 8 1 1 1 1 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 (c) Using the column orthogonality relations. Therefore det C Ædet C. 2.) Chapter 17 1. Use Proposition 12.13 to see quickly that bÀ1 ab a2 . (The sign depends upon the ordering of rows and columns.416 4. since æ is non-real.9(3)). and 5 ÷ i ( g 2 )÷ i ( g2 ) 7 i1 gives 3 2ææ 7. (a) Using the relations. and if det C Àdet C then det C is purely imaginary. (a) The conjugacy classes of Q8 are f1g. This number is equal to |G| if and only if CG (g) G. It is easy to see that a7 b3 1. p Hence æ (À1 Æ i 7)a2. 6. fa. (a) 5 Representations and characters of groups i1 ÷ i ( g 1 )÷ i ( g 2 ) 0 gives 3 3æ 3æ 0.1.9(3)). G9abg C2 3 C2 . Hence jdet Cj2 jC G ( g i )j. fa2 g. every element of G has the form am bn with . Let g P G. (b) The column which corresponds to the conjugacy class containing gÀ1 2 has values which are the complex conjugates of those in the column of g2 (see Proposition 13. this is a different column of the character table of G. if det C det C then det C is real.

so we get three linear characters of G: gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 1 21 1 1 1 a 7 1 1 1 a3 7 1 1 1 b 3 1 ù ù2 b2 3 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . a2 . Now consult the solution to Exercise 11. we have ÷1 1 G . Applying the column orthogonality relations. and the class sizes j g G j come from the equations i jGj jC G ( g i )jj g G j (Theorem 12. we note that a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . If there are 12. In the character table below. ÷6 ö÷. G9 kal. Hence ÷4 and ÷5 must be complex conjugates of each other.14. fa3 . i gi |CG ( gi )| | gG | i ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 g1 12 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 g2 4 3 1 Ài À1 i 0 0 g3 4 3 1 i À1 Ài 0 0 g4 6 2 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 g5 6 2 1 À1 1 À1 À1 1 g6 12 1 1 À1 1 À1 2 À2 . (b) The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. we have ÷(a) T ÷(a) (see Corollary 15.18). a5 . so 21 divides jGj by Lagrange's Theorem. fa m b: 0 < m < 6g and fa m b2 : 0 < m < 6g. But a has order 7 and b has order 3. Therefore jGj 21.11. The number of linear characters of G divides jGj by Theorem 17. a6 g. a4 g. ÷3 ÷ 2 . ÷5 ö. (c) First.Chapter 17 417 0 < m < 6. 4. The centralizer orders are obtained by using the orthogonality relations.2 to see that there are 3.8). all of these are irreducible characters by Proposition 17. 3.6). we obtain 1 ÷4 ÷5 3 3 a á á a3 á á b 0 0 b2 0 0 p where á (À1 i 7)a2. 0 < n < 2. hence jGj < 21. ÷4 ÷2 ÷3 . fa. then G is abelian (see Proposition 9. If G has 3 or 4 linear characters then jGaG9j 3 or 4 and again G is not simple as G9 v G. so G is certainly not simple. To ®nd the two remaining irreducible characters ÷4 and ÷5 . ÷2 ÷. 4 or 12 linear characters. therefore for some irreducible character ÷.

hai Ker ÷2 . . f1g Ker ÷5 X 5. for å e2ði ja n with 0 < j < n À 1. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations. 12 6n. no two of which are equivalent. ha2 . . 0 å À1 0 1 0 å À1 ån 0 32 3À1 2 3À1 2 3 2 0 1 å 0 0 1 å 0 X ån 0 0 å À1 ån 0 0 å À1 Hence we have representations of T4 n (cf. The sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found is n . we get n À 1 irreducible representations. with r 1. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations: 2 32 n 2 3n 2 3 2 32 å 0 1 0 å 0 0 1 . n À 1. . Also G9 kbl. are irreducible (by Exercise 8. these representations are irreducible and inequivalent. Now the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible representations we have found so far is (n À 1) . ha2 i Ker ÷2 Ker ÷3 . . 22 4 . . (For further details on the representations of degree 1.4. and inequivalent (consider the character values on a2 ). since they have distinct characters. so we have obtained all the irreducible representations. .418 Representations and characters of groups D8 Ker ÷1 . We get further representations by ç 0 0 1 a3 .12.11). are irreducible (by Exercise 8.b3 . (b) The given representations. 0 çÀ1 1 0 where ç is any (2n)th root of unity in C. The normal subgroups of D8 are 6. 8. (a) Check that the given matrices satisfy the relevant relations. so jGaG9j 2n and there are 2n representations of degree 1.4) and inequivalent (their characters are distinct). (b) The representations in part (a) are irreducible unless å Æ1. 22 2n . 2. Note that b2 does not belong to the kernel of any of these representations. (b) The given representations. note that the structure of GaG9 depends upon whether n is even or odd. Moreover. ha2 . so jGaG9j 4 and there are four representations of degree 1 (see Theorem 17.3. by Theorem 11. For ç e2ði ja2 n with 1 < j < n À 1. since b2 is in the kernel of each of these representations. bi Ker ÷3 . see the solution to Exercise 18. abi Ker ÷4 . 12 4nX Hence we have found all the irreducible representations. for å e2ði ka2 n with 0 < k < n À 1. Moreover G9 ka2 l. by Exercise 8. they are not equivalent to any representation found earlier.4). Example 1.) 7.4). For å e2ði ra2 n .

The character table of D8 is as shown. G9 ka2 . Character table of D8 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 a2 8 1 1 1 1 À2 a 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (See Example 16. using Section 18. 22 4 . Then ð takes the following values: 1 ð 4 a2 0 a 0 b 2 ab 0 Hence ð ÷1 ÷3 ÷5 .3(3) or Section 18. b2 l and GaG9 C2 3 C2. take b to be a re¯ection in a diagonal of the square. Then ù ùÀ1 1. ù2 ùÀ2 ù4 ùÀ4 À1. Hence.3. We have now found all the irreducible representations. so we get four representations of degree 1.28(2). the character table of D12 is as shown.) Regarding D8 as the symmetry group of a square. Let ù e2ðia6 . where we took b to be a different re¯ection. since the sum of the squares of the irreducible representations given above is n . (Compare Example 14. 22 (n À 1) .) 2. 12 8nX Chapter 18 1.Chapter 18 419 Finally. Character table of D12 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 À2 2 a 6 1 1 À1 À1 1 À1 a2 6 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 .3.

fa2 r1 .4. .6 as follows: gi |CG ( gi )| øj 1 4n 2 an 4n 2(À1) j ar (1 < r < n À 1) 2n ù rj ùÀ rj b 4 0 ab 4 0 where ù e2ðia2 n . bl Ker ÷3 . Hence we get 2n linear characters ÷ j (0 < j < 2n À 1). fa2 r b. a2 r1 b. then GaG9 C2 3 C2 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 1 1 1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 1 (À1) r (À1) r b 1 À1 1 À1 ab 1 À1 À1 1 Note that T4 C4 . for 0 < r < n À 1. The remaining four irreducible characters of G are linear. fa2 j b: 0 < j < n À 1g. far . then GaG9 hG9bi C4 and the linear characters are gi ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 1 1 1 1 1 an 1 À1 1 À1 ar (1 < r < n À 1) 1 (À1) r 1 (À1) r b 1 i À1 Ài ab 1 Ài À1 i If n is even. fan g. fa2 r g. fa2 j1 b: 0 < j < n À 1gX We get n À 1 irreducible characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) of G from Exercise 17. ka3 l Ker ÷6 and {1} Ker ÷5 . 3. 4. ka2 . as shown. a2 r1 b2 gX We have G9 hbi and GaG9 hG9ai C2 n . T8 Q8 and T12 is the Example in Section 18. Exercise 17. The n 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. If n is odd. a2 r b2 g. abl Ker ÷4 . aÀ r g(1 < r < n À 1). ka2 .7 gives us n irreducible characters ø k (0 < k < n À 1). ka2 l Ker ÷3 Ker ÷4 . The 3n conjugacy classes of G are. kal Ker ÷2 .420 Representations and characters of groups Seven normal subgroups of D12 are G Ker ÷1 .

aÀ2 rÀ1 b2 g(0 < r < n À 1). faj bk : j even. k 1 or 3gX a2 r 6n ù2 jr 2ù2 kr a2 r b 3n ù2 jr Àù2 kr a2 r1 2n ù j(2 r1) 0 421 Using Exercise 17. Observe that U6 D6.Chapter 18 Character table of U6 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷j (0 < j < 2n À 1) øk (0 < k < n À 1) Note: ù e2ðia2 n . 422. ÷4 . fa2s b2 . the character table of V24 is given at the top of p. and faj bk : j odd. aÀ2s g. fb2 g. The 2n 3 conjugacy classes of G are f1g. For example.8. n characters ø j (0 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. and a further n À 1 characters ö j (1 < j < n À 1) of degree 2. fa2s . 5. as shown below. . . k 1 or 3g. fa2 r1 . . we get four linear characters ÷1 . aÀ2s b2 g(1 < s < (n À 1)a2). Character table of V8 n gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 øj (0 < j < n À 1) öj (1 < j < n À 1) 1 8n 1 1 1 1 2 2 a2 r1 (0 < r < n À 1) 8n 4n 1 1 1 1 À2 2 1 1 À1 À1 b2 a2s a2s b2 (1 < s < (n À 1)a2) 4n 4n 1 1 1 1 ù4 js ùÀ4 js ù2 js ùÀ2 js 1 1 1 1 Àù4 js ÀùÀ4 js ù2 js ùÀ2 js b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 ù2 j(2 r1) ÀùÀ2 j(2 r1) ù j(2 r1) ùÀ j(2 r1) Note: ù e2ðia2 n . . U12 T12 and U18 D6 3 C3 .

2.13). 1 G l k÷.422 Representations and characters of groups Character table of V24 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ø0 ø1 ø2 ö1 ö2 1 24 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 b2 24 1 1 1 1 À2 À2 À2 2 2 a 12 1 1 À1 À1 p0 ip 3 Ài 3 1 À1 a3 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 À2 2 a5 12 1 1 À1 À1 0 p Ài 3 p i 3 1 À1 a2 12 1 1 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 À1 a2 b2 12 1 1 1 1 À2 1 1 À1 À1 b 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 0 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Chapter 19 1X h÷ø. 3. By Proposition 15. Then wg w for all w P V . . 4. ÷öl. ö A ø4 X . Note that (1 2 3 4 5)2 is conjugate to (1 3 4 5 2) in A5 . k÷ø.14 we obtain 1 ÷S ÷A öS öA 15 10 6 3 (1 2 3) 0 1 0 0 (1 2)(3 4) 3 À2 2 À1 (1 2 3 4 5) 0 0 1 p (1 3 4 5 2) 0 0 1 p (1 5)a2 (1 À 5)a2 Then ÷ S ø1 ø2 2ø3 . there exists 1 T g P G with vg v for all v P V. ö S ø1 ø3 . Hence ö( g) ö(1) for all irreducible characters ö for which k÷ n . by Exercise 1. øl 0. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. V (n factors). Let n be an integer with n > 0. . Therefore k÷ n . Since ÷ is not faithful. øöiX jGj gPG jGj gPG Similarly. øl. öi 1 1 ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) ÷( g)ø( g)ö( g) h÷.5 there is an irreducible character ø of G such that ø(g) T ø(1). k÷ø. ÷ A ø2 ø4 ø5 . The result now follows from Proposition 13.15 and (14. öl T 0. öl kø. Using Proposition 19.

Since k÷ i .1(3). bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l. as in Example 1. ÷3 ÷2 . Character table of D6 3 D6 ( gi . 4. Take b to be the re¯ection in the axis shown: . b) (b. 1) (1. a) (1. hj ) |CG ( gi . below. a) (b. ÷6 ÷5 and ÷7 ÷2 ÷5 . these are irreducible by Propositions 13. b) 36 18 12 18 9 6 12 6 4 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 2 2 À2 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 2 À2 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 1 1 2 À1 À1 À2 0 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 1 À1 0 À1 1 0 0 0 0 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 Àù2 Àù À1 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 Àù Àù2 À1 g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 ù ù2 1 g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 ù2 ù 1 Chapter 20 1. these characters are irreducible. 1) (b. Since G has seven conjugacy classes. Character table of G (cf. The table also records the trivial character ÷1 . 5. the character table is complete. We have recorded ÷ as ÷5 . (a) Regard D8 as the subgroup of S4 which permutes the four corners of a square. b) (a.2) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù e2ðia3 6. ÷ i l 1 for i 2.14. a) (a.Chapter 20 423 5. b: a3 b2 1. 1) (a. Exercise 27. ÷ S as ÷4 and ÷ A as ÷2 . Taking D6 ka. hj )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷1 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷2 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 3 ÷3 (1.15 and 17. the character table of D6 3 D6 is as shown.

÷5 5 H ø2 ø5 X 2. ÷3 5 H ø1 ø4 . we ®nd that the characters ÷ i 5 A6 (i 1. 5. .6) gives ÷(1) d 1 X X X d r < d 2 X X X d 2 < nX 1 r 4. We obtain ÷1 5 H ø1 .3(3) or Section 18. ø r be the irreducible characters of H. Let ÷1 . . . . ÷11 be the irreducible characters of S6 . â (1 À 1 0 0 À1 0 á â p 5)a2 1 0 0 À1 0 â á 1 À1 1 0 2 À1 À1 1 À1 0 1 À1 0 0 Note: á (1 3. . For an example with d 3. . as in Example 19. .1. . ÷5 of S4 as in Section 18. . ÷4 5 H ø3 ø5 . . ÷2 5 H ø4 . For examples with d 1 or 2. and take the character table of H to be gi |CH ( gi )| ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 1 8 1 1 1 1 2 (1 3)(2 4) 8 1 1 1 1 À2 (1 2 3 4) 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 (1 3) 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 (1 2)(3 4) 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 (see Example 16. Let ø1 . . Write d k÷ 5 H. Also. H V4 and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree 3 (see Section 18. 3. . take G S3 and H a subgroup of order 2. . Character table of A6 gi 1 (1 2 3) |C A6 ( g i )| 360 9 ø1 ø2 ø3 ø4 ø5 ø6 ø7 1 5 10 9 5 8 8 1 2 1 0 À1 À1 À1 p (1 2)(3 4) (1 2 3 4 5) (1 3 4 5 2) (1 2 3)(4 5 6) (1 2 3 4)(5 6) 8 5 5 9 4 1 1 À2 1 1 0 0 5)a2.17. and ÷ an irreducible character of G of degree d. we obtain from ÷11 5 A6 the two irreducible characters which we have called ø6 and ø7 . ÷ 5 Hl H . ÷11 5 A6 l 2. .424 Representations and characters of groups Then a 3 (1 2 3 4). dr ø r for some non-negative integers di . Arguing as in Example 20. Either by direct calculation.13). 9) are distinct irreducible characters of A6 . b 3 (1 3) gives the required isomorphism. . ø5 in our character table below. .5. Then ÷ 5 H d1 ø1 . The inequality k÷ 5 H. ÷ 5 Hl H < 3 follows at once from Proposition 20. 7. Since each ø i has degree 1. . k÷11 5 A6 . these give the characters ø1 . . the inequality (20. take G A4 .2). .3). or using (20.14. (b) Take the irreducible characters ÷1 .

(a) Let u 1 À a2 b À a2 b. (a) ÷1 5 H ÷2 5 H ø1 . 21. Then ua2 Àu and ub u. Let Hgj (1 < j < m) be the distinct right . (b) Using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. Label the characters of H as follows: 1 ø1 ø2 ø3 1 1 1 (1 2 3) 1 ù ù2 (1 3 2) 1 ù2 ù where ù e2ðia3 . Since 20 occurs only once in the list of degrees for S7 . It is suf®cient to prove that if U is a CH-submodule of CH then dim (U 4 G) jG : Hjdim U . ø 4 Gi 1.13). See (20. 35X Chapter 21 1. From the remaining fourteen irreducible characters of S7 . 15. 14. and we get precisely seven if and only if the restriction of each of the fourteen characters is irreducible. the induced module U 4 G is irreducible. Hence sp (u) is a C H-submodule of CH. the elements u and ua form a basis of U 4 G. we obtain ø1 4 G ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 ÷5 . Hence the irreducible characters of A7 have degrees 1. 10. 2. 14. the restriction of the irreducible character of degree 20 to A7 must be the sum of two different irreducible characters of degree 10. ø2 4 G ø3 4 G ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 X 3. ÷3 5 H ø2 ø3 . 6. (c) The character ø of U and the character ø 4 G of U 4 G are given by 1 ø 1 a2 À1 b 1 a2 b À1 1 ø4G 2 a2 À2 a 0 b 0 ab 0 Since hø 4 G. (b) Since every element of G belongs to H or to Ha. upon restriction to A7 we get at least seven irreducible characters of A7 . ÷4 5 H ÷5 5 H ø1 ø2 ø3 . We are told that A7 has exactly nine conjugacy classes.Chapter 21 425 5. 10.

By applying the result of Exercise 6. that either (1) ø 4 G is irreducible.17 that (ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G (ø 4 G)÷. Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H. (7) and (3. . and on all other elements the values are zero. ö 5 Hi H hø. . 3). öi G X Since this holds for all irreducible characters ö of G. by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. (Compare Proposition 20. The sum Ug1 . 3) 12 0 6. dk ÷ k (1). we obtain h(ø(÷ 5 H)) 4 G. We have |G: H|ø(1) d1 ÷1 (1) . ÷ i 5 Hi H . ÷öi G h(ø 4 G)÷. ÷ 5 Hi H T 0 D ø9 ø or öX Thus If ø 4 G is irreducible.9. ÷ i 5 H di ø â where either â is a character of H or â 0. then for precisely one other irreducible character ö of H we have ø 4 G ö 4 G. Let ö be an irreducible character of G. say ÷ 5 H ø ö. Ugm . where d i hø 4 G. . Then U(CG) Ug1 . where Ugj {ugj : u P U}. Hence. or (2) ø 4 G is the sum of two different irreducible characters of the same degree. Suppose ®rst that ø 4 G is irreducible. together with the result of Exercise 19. By using the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem twice. Ug m is direct (since the elements in Ugj are linear combinations of elements in the right coset Hgj ). Cycle-shape ö4G ø4G (1) 240 720 (7) 2 À1 (3. 4. 5. We have hø9 4 G. dim (Ugj ) dim U (since u 3 ugj (u P U) is a vector space isomorphism). 7. as in the proof of Proposition 20. Thus ÷ i (1) > di ø(1). hence ÷ 5 H is reducible. ÷ i i G hø.11. we deduce.) .426 Representations and characters of groups cosets of H in G. ÷i G T 0 D hø9. and therefore jG: Hjø(1) > (d 2 X X X d 2 )ø(1)X 1 k The required result follows. The values of ö 4 G and ø 4 G are given by Proposition 21. öi G hø(÷ 5 H). by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. øl H 1.23.1 (also twice). . On elements of cycle-shapes (1). . since ø is irreducible. say ø 4 G ÷. the values are as follows. we deduce from Theorem 14. (÷ö) 5 Hi H hø 4 G. Hence dim(U 4 G) dim(U (CG)) m dim U . Then ÷(1) 2ø(1) and k÷ 5 H. Also. .

there exist a. We have hø9 4 G.11 again. 2. The degree of each irreducible character is 1 or 2. then kö. then ø9 ø. and ø9 is an irreducible character of H such that ø9 4 G has ÷1 or ÷2 as a constituent. öi h÷reg .12. öl are integers. This time. then r divides 16. The number of linear characters divides 15 (Theorem 17. (b) We have h1 G . hence ÷1 5 H ø. 12 s . both k1 G . not every irreducible character has degree 1 (Proposition 9.11. (For more information on groups of order pq. ÷l kb÷reg . ÷l bjGj÷(1)ajGj b÷(1).Chapter 22 427 Suppose next that ø 4 G is reducible. moreover.11 show that there are r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree q. 17. ÷l P Z and k1 G . (b) jG9j p by Theorem 17. and the sum of the squares of the degrees of the irreducible characters is 15 (Theorem 11. But kö À a1 G . (a) Since G is non-abelian.11). 22 16X Hence r 4 or 8 or 16. Now suppose that ø9 is an irreducible character of H. (a) By hypothesis. ÷1 i G T 0 D hø9. since both sides of this equation take the same values on all elements of G. ÷1 5 Hi H T 0 D ø9 øX Thus If ø 4 G ÷1 ÷2 where ÷1 and ÷2 are irreducible characters of G. Hence every irreducible character has degree 1.18. 1 < s and r sq 2 pqX Hence r q and s ( p À 1)/q. öi 1 (a bjGj (jGj À 1)a) a b. where r divides pq.11 and 22.11). 17. and so G is abelian by Proposition 9.12). (c) If ÷ is a non-trivial irreducible character of G.12.11 and 22. b P C such that ö(g) a for all g T 1 and ö(1) a bjGj. Then ö a1 G b÷reg . see Chapter 25. and jGj 1 jGj(a bjGj) a bjGjX jGj Since ö is a character. Use Theorems 11. . ÷l 0. (Compare Proposition 20. 3. each degree divides 15 (Theorem 22. ÷l P Z. (c) The number of conjugacy classes of G is r s. öl and k÷reg . and if there are r characters of degree 1 and s of degree 2. øl H 1.18).) 4. Theorems 11.) Chapter 22 1.12. Then ÷1 (1) ø(1) and k÷1 5 H. and r . Hence kö À a1 G . say ø 4 G ÷1 ÷2. and r s 7 or 10 or 16.

This contradicts Proposition 22. But À÷(1)a2 is a rational number which is not an integer (since ÷(1) divides jGj. 1 G l 0. by part (b). and (II) 1 7 i2 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g) 0X From equation (I) we deduce that either ÷ i ( g) 0. Therefore. by Lagrange's Theorem. then k÷. . and from equation (III) we have (IV) 7 (÷ i (1))2 69X i4 Hence the possibilities for the pairs of integers (÷ i (1). ÷(g) is an integer for all characters ÷.428 Representations and characters of groups (d) Since ÷(1) divides jGj. 5. or ÷ i (g) Æ2 for exactly one i and ÷ i (g) 0 for all other i . we have ÷( g) ÷( g À1 ) ÷( g) ÷( g) 2÷( g). and hence á À÷(1)a2. the second possibility is ruled out by equation (II). we deduce that ÷2 (1) ÷3 (1) 5. ÷2 (1) ÷3 (1) 0 mod 5. part (c) implies that b|G| is an integer. (d) We now have the following part of the character table of G: . Let ÷1 . . . (4.5. (a) By Theorem 22. By Corollary 22. (6. Each such subset has size 2.2. (c) By Corollary 22. Therefore. ÷ i ( g)) with 4 < i < 7 are (1. The stated result follows. since 1 h÷. (Further information about the number of characters ÷ such that ÷ ÷ appears in Theorem 23. 120. ÷7 be the irreducible characters of G. and hence also b.1 and Corollary 23.) 6. 6 in some order. 1).16. À1). and ÷(g) is an algebraic integer. a. . 1. 1).27. Partition Gnf1g into subsets by putting each element with its inverse. (a) If g P G then g has odd order. Also (III) 2 2 7 i1 (÷ i (1))2 120X Since 5 10 . if g2 1 then g 1. 4. and ÷ i (g) Æ1 for 4 < i < 7. Thus ÷ 1 G . 1 G i ÷( g)X jGj gPG (c) If ÷ T 1 G in part (b). (b) We deduce from part (a) that ÷ i (g) 0 for two values of i. By the column orthogonality relations. with ÷1 1 G . we have (I) 1 7 i2 (÷ i ( g))2 5. The only possibility which is consistent with equation (IV) is that the values of ÷ i (1) for 4 < i < 7 are 1. Hence ÷( g) ÷(1) 2á gPG for some algebraic integer á. 3. by part (a). 4. is an integer. ÷ i (1) ÷ i ( g) mod 5 for all i. Æ1 for all i. say i 2. (b) For all g P G. hence is odd).27.

Since 7 ÷ i (1)÷ i (g5 ) 0. an (1) First. By applying the column orthogonality relations involving column 6 and columns 3. À1. 1. 0. These can be obtained from the column orthogonality relations. 1. The character table of G is as shown. 1. Hence the values of i1 ÷ i (g4 ) for 1 < i < 7 are 1. respectively. i1 we deduce that ÷4 ( g5 ) À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷2 (g5 ) À÷3 (g5 ) 1. À2 in order from the top. (3) Since ÷ i (g3 ) ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g3 ))2 8. from which 7 we see that ÷ i (g3 ) 1 for 1 < i < 4.Chapter 22 gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 g3 2 8 1 g4 3 6 1 g5 4 4 1 g6 6 6 1 429 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 We successively calculate the ®ve remaining columns of the character table. Æ2 in some order. ÷ i (g5 ) ÷ i (1) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g5 ))2 4. Therefore i1 ÷ i (g6 ) Æ1 for 1 < i < 6 and ÷7 (g6 ) 0. 0. 4. 1. 0. 0. 1. 7. gi Order of gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 g1 1 120 1 5 5 1 4 4 6 g2 2 12 1 À1 1 À1 À2 2 0 g3 2 8 1 1 1 1 0 0 À2 g4 3 6 1 À1 À1 1 1 1 0 g5 4 4 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 0 g6 6 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 g7 5 5 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 1 . 5 and 7 we obtain ÷2 (g6 ) À÷3 (g6 ) ÷4 (g6 ) À1 and (without loss of generality) ÷5 (g6 ) À÷6 (g6 ) 1. We are told that ÷ i (gj ) is integer for all i. Hence ÷ i (g5 ) Æ1 i1 for 1 < i < 4 and ÷ i (g5 ) 0 for 5 < i < 7. 1. we deduce that i1 ÷ i (g3 ) Æ1 for 1 < i < 4 and the values of ÷ i ( g3 ) for 5 < i < 7 are that 7 0. From the relation i1 ÷ i (1)÷ i ( g 3 ) 0 we now deduce that the entries in column 3 are 1. (4) We have ÷ i (g6 ) ÷ i (g4 ) mod 2 and 7 (÷ i (g6 ))2 6. (2) Next. ÷ i ( g4 ) ÷ i (1) mod 3 and 7 (÷ i ( g4 ))2 6. (5) Only the entries in column 2 remain to be calculated. j. Also i1 ÷ i (g3 )÷ i ( gr ) 0 for r 4. À1.

4.430 Representations and characters of groups 7. However. . Let ë1 and ë2 be the eigenvalues of gr. Let I H 0 1 0 XXX 0 f 0 0 1 0 g g f f 0 0 0 0 g f F Af F F gX F g F g f F d 0 0 0 1 e Àa0 Àa1 Àa2 XXX Àa nÀ1 Check that det (xIn À A) p(x).13 of é÷ that é÷ À1 if and only if ÷ A 1 G . Then gÀ1 xg x À1 for some g P G. Since jGj is odd. . 2. Chapter 23 1. These numbers coincide with ÷(1). As p(ë) 0. Adopt the notation of Theorem 9. a i b (0 < i < n À 1) (and also a na2 if n is even)X This gives n 1 elements if n is odd. Therefore x À1 gÀ1 xg x. . a nÀ1 x nÀ1 x n (a r P Z). nr which are even. either i j 0 or n j is even and i j n j a2. which is of the form x n anÀ1 x nÀ1 X X X a1 x a0 (ar P Z)X Conversely. Suppose ®rst that ë is an eigenvalue of an n 3 n matrix A. where m is the number of the integers n1 . The number of such elements is also 2 m . assume that ë is a root of the polynomial p(x) a0 a1 x . . it follows from the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions that we must have é÷ 1 for all ÷. the elements g of G which satisfy g2 1 are i precisely those elements g11 . by Lagrange's Theorem. Assume that x P G and x is real. it follows that x 1. and hence ë is a root of the polynomial det (xIn À A). Since A has integer entries. Then ÷ A (g) 1 2 2 2 2((ë1 ë2 ) À (ë1 ë2 )) ë1 ë2 det (gr) (see Proposition 19. . m 2n 1 for some integer n. The result follows. 3. Since ÷(1) 2 we have ÷ A (1) 1. it follows that ë is an eigenvalue of A. .8. ë is therefore an algebraic integer. Now the ni th root of unity ë i can be À1 if and only if ni is even. The elements g of D2 n for which g2 1 are 1. Then g g2( n1) P CG (x). Then det (A À ëIn ) 0. It now follows from the De®nition 23. . Hence gÀ2 xg2 x. The character ÷ of G C n1 3 . . so g2 P CG (x). summing over all the irreducible characters ÷. Hence the number of real irreducible characters is 2 m . 3 C n r which is given by i i ÷( g 11 X X X g irr ) ë11 X X X ë irr is real if and only if ë i Æ1 for all i with 1 < i < r.14). g irr where for each j. . Since é÷ < 1 for all ÷. Let m be the order of g. . . and n 2 elements if n is even. all of whose entries are integers. Since x 2 1 and x has odd order.

X X X . . . Hence an is the only element of order 2. v j ). (c) The elements of T4 n are ai and ai b (0 < i < 2n À 1). Choose a basis f1 . . By part (a) (or part (b)) and the construction of the characters ø j in Exercise 17. there exists a nonzero G-invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form â on V. f j ). v) 0 for all v P V} is a CGsubmodule of V. (a) First. there is an orthogonal matrix Q (i. we get éø j À1 or 1. respectively. Let 9 n i j P ( pij ) be the n 3 n matrix which is given by f9 pij f j X i j Then PAP I n and PBP is symmetric. fn of V and de®ne the symmetric n 3 n matrices A (aij ) and B (bij ) by aij â1 ( f i .Chapter 23 431 5. respectively. Since é÷ À1. we may construct a basis f 1 . . j. and é÷2 é÷4 0 or 1. Since â is skew-symmetric. â(v1 b. v1 bÀ1 ). so det A (À1) n det A. the subspace {u P V: â(u. (b) It is easy to check that if g a or b and i. v) 0 for all v P V g f0gX (Ã ) Pick a basis v1 . f 9 of V such that â1 ( f 9. v1 ) â(v2 .16. Write Q (q ij ). The result now follows from Theorem 23. Let V be a CG-module with character ÷. v1 ) å n â(v1 . . Hence ÷ (é÷)÷(1) 2. By a well known property of symmetric matrices. å n v2 ) â(v1 . nÀ1 Therefore j1 (éø j )ø j (1) 0 or À2. Also A is invertible by (Ã ). and de®ne the basis e1 .6. v j g À1 )X For example. according to whether j is odd or even. . hence det (gr) 1 for all g P G if and only if å n À1. respectively. we have At ÀA. b ij â( f i . Clearly é÷1 é÷3 1. . so det A T 0. en of V by ei qij f 9 X j j t t . v2 of V. Then det (ar) 1 and det (br) Àå n . . 7. The result now follows from Exercise 4. The de®nition of â shows that â is symmetric if å n 1 and â is skew-symmetric if å n À1. (d) Refer the Exercise 18. . f j )X By applying the Gram±Schmidt orthogonalization process. as n ÷(1) the result is proved. according to whether n is odd or even. Therefore det (At ) (À1) n det A. since V is irreducible it follows that fu P V : â(u. 6. . It follows that n is even. according to whether n is odd or even. j P {1. As â is G-invariant. v j ) â(v i .3 for the characters ø j (1 < j < n À 1) and ÷ j (1 < j < 4) of T4 n. a has order 2n and ai b has order 4. 2} then â(v i g. f 9) ä ij for all i. QQt I) such that Q(PBPt )QÀ1 is diagonal. . v n of V and let A be the n 3 n matrix with ij-entry â(v i . Let r be the representation obtained by using the basis v1 . so é÷ Æ1. Hence â is G-invariant. it is easy to check that ÷( g) is real for all g P G. .e.

By the orthogonality relation for c2 we have ÷ i (t)2 |CG (t)| 2 (the sum over all irreducible characters ÷ i . v n be a basis of the RG-module V.11. 9. . we have G9 1. . We have g P ker r D Hxg Hx. It is clear that the given set of matrices has size p( p À 1). Hence |G : G9| 2 by Theorem 17. note that 1 y 1 y9 1 y9 yx . c2 be the columns of the character table of G corresponding to the classes {1} and t G . . r g is a permutation. For closure. . since QPAPt Qt I n .432 Then Representations and characters of groups â1 (ei . as Hxg Hyg A Hx Hy. (a) The proof is similar to that of part (1) of Schur's Lemma 9. so we may take ÷1 (t) 1. and write á å å 3 å 4 å 5 å 9 . Let ç e2ðia5 and å e2ðia11 . v n . r is a homomorphism G 3 Sym(Ù) S n with kernel which is contained in H. But v1 W ëv1 P V. Hence G C2 . By Schur's Lemma there exists ë P C such that vW ëv for all v P V9.e. and consider the vector space V9 over C with basis v1 . . Then V is an irreducible RG-module. identity is 1 0 1 y 1 À yx À1 . 0 x 0 x9 0 xx9 associativity is a property of matrix multiplication. ÷1 and ÷2 are the only linear characters. De®ne W: V 3 V by vW av (v P V). so ë P R. Chapter 25 1.1. Then V9 is a CG-module. (b) Let v1 . 10. . ej ) 0 if i T j. with ÷1 1 G ). and let V be the RG-submodule of the regular RG-module which is spanned by 1 À a and 1 À a2 . Vx P G D g P xPG xÀ1 HxX Finally. Now the orthogonality of c1 and c2 gives ÷1 (1) ÷2 (1) 1 and ÷2 (t) À1. ej ) ä ij . . inverse of is . and r is a homomorphism as (Hx)(r gh ) Hxgh (Hx)(r g )(r h ). which we are assuming to be an irreducible CG-module. i. Further. For the last part. G is abelian. 8. since a linear character must take the value Æ1 on t. 2. (c) Let G C3 ka: a3 1l. â å 2 å 6 å 7 å 8 å 10 X . ÷2 (t) Æ1 and ÷ i (t) 0 for i > 3. . Let c1 . xgx À1 Vx P G D xPG x À1 P H. Call it G. and since QPBPt Qt is diagonalX â(ei . Hx. 0 1 0 x 0 x À1 Therefore G is a group. if G is simple then since G9 v G.

there exists an integer m p such that u m v mod p. b9: ap b9q 1. This time. and we ®nd that p ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are (À1 Æ i p)a2. Hence bm has order q. since both m and v have u order q modulo p. so by Exercise 1.Chapter 25 Character table of F11. . then a is conjugate to aÀ1 and so ÷(a) is real for all characters p so (ö1 (a))2 (ö2 (a))2 ( p 1)a2. Also. If p À1 mod 4. Then G1 ha. and it follows from Corollary 15.6(c). so p ÷(a)÷(a) q ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ö2 (a)ö2 (a)X ÷ Hence ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ö2 (a)ö2 (a) ( p 1)a2. (a) Note that À1 is the only element of order 2 in ZÃ. 2ö1 (a)ö1 (a) ( p 1)a2. bÀ m abm au av . Hence p u m À1 mod p for some m D the element u of ZÃ has even order p D q is even D p 1 mod 4X (b) By Proposition 25. b9À1 ab9 av iX Hence G1 G2 . Also.9. |CG (a)| p. are (À1 Æ p)a2. Hence 0 ÷(1)÷(a) q qö1 (a) qö2 (a)X ÷ irred m Therefore ö1 (a) ö2 (a) À1. If p 1 mod 4. Recall that ZÃ is cyclic. 5 gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 1 55 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 a 11 1 1 1 1 1 á â a2 11 1 1 1 1 1 â á b 5 1 ç ç2 ç3 ç4 0 0 b2 5 1 ç2 ç4 ç ç3 0 0 b3 5 1 ç3 ç ç4 ç2 0 0 433 b4 5 1 ç4 ç3 ç2 ç 0 0 3. Let b9 bm. Hence ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) ÷. Also.6 that ö1 (a) and ö2 (a) are not both real. then a is not conjugate to aÀ1 . 4. Hence ö2 (a) ö1 (a). aG {au : m P Z}. Therefore aÀ1 P aG D u m À1 mod p for some m D p 1 mod 4X (c) ÷ i (a) 1 for all the q linear characters ÷ i of G. m is coprime to q.

ö1 (a) m1 å u . fa r b5 : 0 < r < 8gX Let H1 kal. u 2 . 3. it follows that {u. Since ZÃ is cyclic of order p p À 1 and u has order ( p À 1)a2. and for all i with 1 < i < 6.3 (see Theorem 25. u ( pÀ1)a2 } is precisely the set of quadratic residues modulo p. A typical non-trivial linear character of H is 1 ÷ 1 a 1 a2 1 b ù b2 ù2 ab ù ab2 ù2 a2 b ù a2 b2 ù2 where ù e2ðia3 . H 2 bi D6 . fa r b4 : 3 B rg. fa r b3 : 0 < r < 8g. . The ®nal irreducible character ÷10 can be found by using the column orthogonality relations. E9 H.434 Representations and characters of groups ( pÀ1)a2 m (d) By Theorem 25.3 (see Theorem 19. Hence we get six linear characters ÷1 . 5. 3.10). Then H1 v G and Ga H 1 C6 . The result now follows from part (c). . Then H2 v G and Ga H 2 h H 2 a. b2 l. The characters ÷4 . . Then for all h P H. 8. The conjugacy classes of G are f1g. Let H ka. as shown. ÷6 of G. fa r b: 0 < r < 8g. so E has exactly two linear characters. there exist gi P E such that gi T 1 but ÷ i (gi ) ÷ i (1) (so gi P Ker ÷ i ).18). fa3 . . say ÷1 and ÷2 . Z(E) {1}. . (a) F13. 6g. Let H2 ka3 .3 (see Theorem 19. . . Then ÷8 ÷7 ÷2 and ÷9 ÷7 ÷3 are also irreducible.10. . (b) C2 3 F13. Lift the irreducible character of D6 of degree 2 to obtain ÷7 in the table below. Also. Character table of E gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 1 18 1 1 2 2 2 2 a 9 1 1 2 À1 À1 À1 b 9 1 1 À1 2 À1 À1 ab 9 1 1 À1 À1 2 À1 a2 b 9 1 1 À1 À1 À1 2 c 2 1 À1 0 0 0 0 6. fa r b4 : r 0. fa r b2 : 3 B rg. the conjugacy class hE consists of h and hÀ1 . fa r b2 : r 0. . Then ÷ 4 E is the irreducible character ÷3 given in the table which follows. 6g. 7. (c) D6 3 F13. ÷5 and ÷6 are obtained similarly. All the elements outside H form a single conjugacy class of E. bl.18). fa r : 3 B rg. a6 g.

Assume that G has r linear characters and s irreducible characters of degree p. Then k÷ 5 H. 2. and r sp2 pn .20. Hence ÷(1) < p. ø 4 Gi G T 0 by the Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. øl H T 0 for some irreducible character ø of H. hz. Therefore h÷. and (ø 4 G)(1) p. Character table of H (a non-abelian group of order 27) gi |C H ( g i )| ÷00 ÷01 ÷02 ÷10 ÷11 ÷12 ÷20 ÷21 ÷22 ö1 ö2 1 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 z 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù 3ù2 z2 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3ù2 3ù a 9 1 1 1 ù ù ù ù2 ù2 ù2 0 0 a2 9 1 1 1 ù2 ù2 ù2 ù ù ù 0 0 b 9 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 1 ù ù2 0 0 ab 9 1 ù ù2 ù ù2 1 ù2 1 ù 0 0 a2 b 9 1 ù ù2 ù2 1 ù ù ù2 1 0 0 b2 9 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 1 ù2 ù 0 0 ab2 9 1 ù2 ù ù 1 ù2 ù2 ù 1 0 0 a2 b2 9 1 ù2 ù ù2 ù 1 ù 1 ù2 0 0 Note: ù e2ðia3 . {1}.Chapter 26 Character table of G ka. the conjugacy class hH {h. and so ÷(1) 1 or p by Theorem 22. by Theorem 17X11. bÀ1 ab a2 l gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 Note: ù e2ðia3 1 54 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 6 a3 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 À3 a 9 ab2 9 ab4 9 b 6 b2 18 b3 6 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 b4 18 435 b5 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 ù2 ù Àù ù2 1 ù ù2 ù2 ù 1 1 1 À1 1 1 ù2 ù ù ù2 1 ù ù2 Àù2 ù À1 À1 À1 0 2 À1 Àù2 Àù 0 2ù2 À1 Àù Àù2 0 2ù 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 ù Àù2 ù2 ù 1 À1 ù ù2 ù2 Àù 2 0 2ù 0 2ù2 0 0 0 Chapter 26 1. Let ÷ be an irreducible character of G. {z} and {z 2 } are conjugacy classes of H. hz 2 }. Then r pm for some m.11. b: a9 b6 1. by Theorem 11X12X Since s p nÀ2 À p mÀ2 and s is an integer. since H is abelian. For all other elements h of H. m is at least 2. by Corollary 21. But ø(1) 1.

BC CB. Combined with part (b).4 is {1. these are all the irreducible representations of G. Here. b: a16 1. CD ÀDC. by Theorem 11. the given representation is irreducible. we get a representation A i B j C k D l Z m 3 (À1) ir js kt lu X Together with the irreducible representation of degree 4. These are as follows: for each (r. Hence Z P G. (a) Check that AB ÀBA. By lifting the irreducible characters of D16. G has 11 conjugacy classes: {1}.10). 1}. Since G9 h Zi. 7) come from inducing to G those linear characters ÷ of kal for which ÷(a8 ) À1.436 Representations and characters of groups Character table of G ka. . AD DA. so jGj < 32. since g4 1 for all g P G. (d) Since G has irreducible representations of degrees 1 and 4. We obtain representations as follows: . 5. j. 7) Note: cm e2ði ma16 eÀ2ði ma16 2 cos (mð/8) 3.8 (D16 G1 ) and in Section 18. Hence every element of G has the form A i B j C k D l Z m for some i. 4. C and D has the form ëI for some ë P C. 5. jGj > 12 42 17. ÷7 of G as shown in the table at the top of this page. u) with r.12. and GaK D16 .3. . {ar . s. b2 a8 . l.3. Then the four characters ø j ( j 1. bÀ1 ab aÀ1 l gi |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 øj ( j 1. and Gah Zi is abelian while G is non-abelian. (b) A2 ÀB2 ÀC2 D2 I. . this shows that jGj 32. {ar b: r even}. (a) Let å e2ðia8 . 3. s. (c) A routine calculation shows that every matrix which commutes with each of A. u P {0. . k. 1g. a8 }. The character table of D16 is given in Section 26. 3. B. 1 32 a8 32 a 16 a2 16 a3 16 a4 16 a5 16 a6 16 a7 16 b 4 ab 4 1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 À1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 1 À1 À1 2 2 p0 À2 0 2 0 0 p p À2 p0 2 2 2 0 Àp2 À2 Àp2 0 2 0 p p 2 2 À 2 0 2 À2 2 0 À 2 0 2 À2 cj c2 j c3 j c4 j c5 j c6 j c7 j 0 5. G has precisely 16 representations of degree 1. Therefore G9 h Zi (see Proposition 17. {a8 }. aÀ r } (1 < r < 7). t. AC ÀCA. Hence by Corollary 9. m P f0. the group K which appears in Theorem 26. also G is a 2-group. t. Since Gah Zi is abelian. it follows that g 2 P h Zi for all g P G. we obtain the characters ÷1 . BD ÀDB. {ar b: r odd}.

(a) By Lemma 26.b3 3 . . z 3 d 0 1 0 eX I H I 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 À1 0 1 0 0 1 6. G9 are isomorphic.1(2). 2. while G8 aG8 9 C2 3 C2 3 C2 . À1 0 2 3 0 1 . Since Z(Gj ) is not cyclic. a2 z} C2 3 C2 . Therefore j Z(G)j p or p2 . . å5 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 0 0 1 i 0 . 3 437 0 å 0 0 å À1 2 3 å 0 2 0 å 0 1 0 . . so give representations.b3 . Also jGa Z(G)j T p by Lemma 26. so G5 T G8 . 4 and 8 in G1 . 6. by Proposition 9. . Gj has no faithful irreducible representation. b 3 d À1 0 0 e. But G5 aG5 9 C2 3 C4 . so the representations are faithful. i f G8 : a 3 d 0 0 H 0 0 0 À1 H I 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 g f g f g Ài 0 e. b 3 d 1 0 0 e.b3 . z 3 d 0 1 0 e. 1 0 å3 3 2 3 0 0 1 . G9 : G1 Order Order Order Order 1 2 4 8 1 9 2 4 G2 1 1 10 4 G3 1 5 6 4 G4 1 3 4 8 G5 1 3 12 0 G6 1 7 8 0 G7 1 11 4 0 G8 1 3 12 0 G9 1 5 10 0 Therefore no two of G1 . If g P Z(G) then Z(G) < CG (g) T G. except possibly G5 and G8 .b3 2 2 Chapter 26 0 1 1 0 0 1 3 . Assume that j Z(G)j p2 . . (c) Check that the matrices satisfy the required relations.b3 .2 G1 : a 3 2 G2 : a 3 G3 : a 3 G4 : a 3 2 G5 : a 3 å å 0 À1 3 . 7. . Hence a . The following table records the numbers of elements of orders 1.16. . and g P CG ( g). z. It is easy to see that the matrices generate groups with more than eight elements.1(1) we have {1} T Z(G) T G. a2 . . (d) The following give faithful representations: H I H I H I i 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 f g f g f g G7 : a 3 d 0 Ài 0 e. 7 or 8 then Z(Gj ) {1.z3 X À1 1 0 0 i (b) If j 5.

bÀ1 abZ aÀ1 ZX Then a2 b2 z for some z P Z. so a Æ1. bZi. G has p2 ( p4 À p2 )a p conjugacy classes. The element À1 0 0 À1 lies in Z(G). 8. then by Exercise 7. Therefore. Therefore Ga Z T Q8 . Therefore jGaG9j r p2 or p3 . and 1 1 z A c Àb. and . Assume that z Then a c b d P Z(SL (2. (b) Assume that G has r irreducible characters of degree 1 and s irreducible characters of degree p.1(1). Since a2 commutes with a. so r sp2 p4 . there are no irreducible characters of degree greater than p.438 Representations and characters of groups jC G ( g)j p3 and j gG j p. and hence ba2 b3 z b2 zb a2 b. Since ÷(1)2 p4 (Theorem 11. and if r p2 then r s 2 p2 À 1. b and all elements in Z. p))X 1 z A c 0. with a4 P Z. Part (b) follows. a dX 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 z À1 0 À1 z Therefore z aI. (c) Note that G9 Z(G) T {1} by Lemma 26. Check that and 1 0 1 1 1 À1 0 1 are elements of G SL (2. we have a2 1.12). and since z P SL (2. Hence |G9 Z(G)| p. if |Z(G)| p2 then |G9| p. in which case Ga(G9 Z(G)) is abelian. p). either G9 Z(G) G9. 2. a2 Z b2 Z. and if |G9| p2 then |Z(G)| p. as r s is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of G. and assume that Ga Z haZ. 3) of order 3 which are not conjugate to each other. Chapter 27 1. (a) Let Z Z(G). (b) If G is a non-abelian group of order 16. or G9 Z(G) Z(G). in which case Ga(G9 Z(G)) T Q8 by part (a). By parts (a) and (b). we have a2 P Z.

÷2 . á Æ1. (2. ÷6 . g3 can be deduced from the column orthogonality relations. Hence GafÆIg Im ö. (1. The characters ÷1 . The group G permutes these subspaces among themselves. g2 . so by Theorem 23. that ÷5 is real. where á is real. ÷4 of G are obtained by lifting to G the irreducible characters of A4 (which are given in Section 18. a subgroup of S4 of order 12. Since ÷5 ÷2 and ÷5 ÷3 are irreducible characters of G of degree 2. say ÷5 ÷2 ÷6 and ÷5 ÷3 ÷7 . Assume. Then á À1 since ÷5 ( g4 ) ÷5 (1) mod 3.27. Since á is real. namely the spans of the vectors (0. Hence the following are conjugacy class representatives: g1 1 0 1 24 0 1 g2 À1 0 0 À1 2 24 g3 0 À1 4 4 1 0 g4 1 1 0 1 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| 3 6 g5 1 0 À1 1 3 6 g6 À1 1 0 À1 6 6 g7 À1 À1 0 À1 6 6 Order of gi |CG ( gi )| We now describe how to construct the character table of G. they must be ÷6 and ÷7 in some order. Then ÷5 ( g4 ) á. ÷7 on the elements g1 . . one of ÷5 . Now note that for j 5. Also á T 0. therefore GafÆIg A4 . Exercise 13.1. ÷3 . which is given below. 1). 6. without loss of generality. The values of ÷5 .5 implies that ÷ j ( g7 ) À÷ j ( g4 ). so we obtain a homomorphism ö: G 3 S4 . ÷6 and ÷7 must be real. 1). ÷(g5 ) ÷( g4 ) and ÷(g6 ) ÷( g7 ) for all ÷.Chapter 27 0 À1 1 0 439 has order 4. 0). Note that G has three real conjugacy classes. 1) and (1. Check that Ker ö {ÆI}. 7. Finally. First observe that the vector space (Z3 )2 has exactly four 1-dimensional subspaces. whose values on g4 are áù and áù2 .2). The equation j ÷ j (g4 )÷ j ( g 4 ) 6 gives áá 1. by Corollary 22.

0 1 0 4 0 2 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 À1 h4 Z. h2 Z. . so ë : G is irreducible.25. notice that T is isomorphic to the group of order 21 whose character table is found in Exercise 17. 1 T : Gl 2 and k1 T : G. . h3 Z. ë : Gl 1.2 and Example 21.6. h5 . . Representatives of the conjugacy classes of T are h1 . where ÷ is an irreducible character of G. The values of 1 T : G and ë : G are as follows (see Proposition 21. 1 G l 1. Apply Proposition 17. kë : G. .23): gi |CG ( g i )| 1T 4 G ë4G g1 168 8 8 g2 8 0 0 g3 4 0 0 g4 3 2 À1 g5 7 1 1 g6 7 1 1 We ®nd that k1 T : G. 3) gi |CG ( gi )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 Note: ù e2ðia3 3. Hence 1 T : G 1 G ÷. (a) For the character table of T. h5 ZX 0 1 0 1 Two of the linear characters of T are hi |CT (h i )| 1T ë h1 21 1 1 h2 3 1 ù h3 3 1 ù2 h4 7 1 1 h5 7 1 1 g1 24 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 g2 24 1 1 1 3 À2 À2 À2 g3 4 1 1 1 À1 0 0 0 g4 6 1 ù ù2 0 À1 Àù Àù2 g5 6 1 ù2 ù 0 À1 Àù2 Àù g6 6 1 ù2 ù 0 1 ù2 ù g7 6 1 ù ù2 0 1 ù ù2 where ù e2ðia3 .440 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. 4. write ö ë : G. where 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 0 2 0 4 0 h1 Z. Also. .

g2 . . . and 12 6 . æ cannot therefore be the sum of four irreducible characters. . ÷ and ø are the characters ÷1 . Since By 11 2 j1 (÷ j (g6 )) 6. 0. (d) The characters 1 G . . we deduce that ÷ j (g3 ) 0 for 7 < j < 11. ÷3 . and ÷11 (1) 8. apply part (c). say ÷7 (1) and ÷8 (1).) Also.14): gi |CG ( g i )| ÷ ÷S æ ø g1 168 7 28 12 6 g2 8 À1 4 4 2 g3 4 À1 0 0 0 g4 3 1 1 0 0 g5 7 0 0 À2 À1 g6 7 0 0 À2 À1 441 We ®nd that k÷ S . the (d) Since 11 ÷ j (g3 )÷ j ( g3 ) 8.14. (b) By lifting. respectively. 11 say ÷9 and ÷10 . . ö. ÷(g6 ) P Z for all characters ÷. ö and ÷ are three of the six irreducible characters of G. Æ1.5 (noting that ÷ j (ÀI) T ÷ j (I) for 7 < j < 11. (c) Use Exercise 13. ÷ j (1) is even. and so æ 2ø with ø irreducible. or æ is the sum of four distinct irreducible characters (cf. Æ1. . and none is a constituent of æ. g3 and g6 : g1 øA 6 g2 6 g3 2 g6 0 . Now 1 G . are equal to 4. Next. two of ÷7 . Note that because g2 lies in Z(G). ÷11 . öl k÷ S . The only possibility is that two of ÷7 (1). since ÀI is not in kernel of these characters). in the character table of G given at the end of Chapter 27. gi and gi g2 have the same centralizer for all i. Hence there is a character æ of G such that ÷ S 1 G ö ÷ æX The values of æ are as shown above. 2 2 j1 (÷ j (1)) 168. 0. the values of ÷ j (g6 ) for 7 < j < 11 must be Æ1. by Corollary 22. ÷8 (1). ÷2 and ÷6 .1. Since there are only six irreducible characters in all. we obtain the characters ÷1 .27 again. have degrees 2divisible by 6. j1 (Alternatively. æl 4. (f ) By Proposition 19.16. (e) Theorem 22.Chapter 27 (c) The values of ÷ and ÷ S are as shown below (see Proposition 19. Exercise 14.7).27. By Corollary 22. ø A has the following values on g1 . The values of ø are as shown above. Use part (c) to ®ll in the values on g2 and g7 . (a) Compare the proof of Lemma 27. ÷l 1. 5. so either æ 2ø for some irreducible character ø. ÷11 (1). ÷7 (1)2 ÷8 (1)2 ÷11 (1)2 96. so ÷9 (1) ÷10 (1) 6. 1 G l k÷ S . ÷6 in the character table shown below. The congruences ÷(1) ÷(g6 ) mod 3 now give the remaining values on g6 . . in some order. The remaining irreducible characters ÷4 . We calculate that kæ. Further. ÷5 can readily be calculated using the column orthogonality relations (noting that gi is real if and only if 1 < i < 4). . 168.

6. ø(g4 ) 0. Then ÷8 ÷7 . ÷4 . we get 8 p (x 2 À x)a2 øp( g8 ) À1. the value on g3 forces ø A ÷6 . and therefore.bPZ T Z: a P Z 11 11 X 0 aÀ1 Then T is generated by 1 1 2 0 x Z and y Z. Then 4 11 and 11 ÷ j ( g 4 )2 8 imply that j1 ÷ j ( g 1 )÷ j ( g 4 ) 0 p j1 p ÷9 (g4 ) À÷10 (g4 ) Æ 2. where æ j : x u y v 3 e2ði jva5 X . Let x ø(g8 ). For all ÷. by & ' a b Ã. Then the value of ø A on g6 shows that ÷1 is not a constituent of ø A . Let Z {ÆI} and de®ne the subgroup T of G.442 Representations and characters of groups Character table of SL (2. Therefore x (1 Æ i 7)a2. we have 11 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g 6 ) 0. Say A ÷7 ( g 8 ) (1 À i 7)a2. ÷(g4 ) is real for all ÷. 7) gi g1 Order of g i 1 |CG ( g i )| 336 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 ÷9 ÷10 ÷11 1 7 8 3 3 6 4 4 6 6 8 g2 2 336 1 7 8 3 3 6 À4 À4 À6 À6 À8 g3 4 8 g4 8 8 g5 8 8 g6 3 6 g7 6 6 1 1 À1 0 0 0 À1 À1 0 0 1 g8 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g9 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 g10 7 14 1 0 1 á á À1 Àá Àá À1 À1 1 g11 14 14 1 0 1 á á À1 á á 1 1 À1 1 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 1 0 0 0 À1 À1 1 1 0 À1 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 p p 0 0 p 2 Àp 2 0 À 2 2 0 0 0 0 À1 p Note: á (À1 i 7)a2 The values of ø A on g1 and g2 show that ø A is a linear combination of ÷1 . of order 55. Since g2 is conjugate to g8 . using this fact and part (c). ÷5 and ÷6 . we ®ll in the values of ÷7 and ÷8 . Now g2 is conjugate to g3 . Similarly. ø(g5 ) 0. 0 1 0 6 and T has ®ve linear characters æ j (0 < j < 4). This allows us to ®ll in the j1 values of ÷11 . ÷( g 10 ) ÷(g8 ). Say ÷9 (g4 ) 2. Hence 4 (ø( g4 )2 À ø( g 3 ))a2 ø A ( g4 ) ÷6 ( g 4 ) 0. ®nally. Since g4 is conjugate to gÀ1 . thereby completing the character table of G. The column orthogonality relations now let us ®nd the remaining values of ÷9 and ÷10 . (g) For i T 6.

and ÷5 (g2 ). so ÷ j (g4 ) Æ1 for 5 < j < 8. ÷5 (1). ÷1 i 1 and hæ0 4 G. 5. by Theorem 22. 8 2 Now ÷(g4 ) ÷(g3 ) mod 2 for all ÷. and 8 ÷ j ( g2 )2 12. j1 hence |÷( g2 )| . 2. Note that ÷(gj ) is an integer for 1 < j < 4 and all characters ÷. respectively. we j1 can complete column 4. 8. ÷8 (1) are 10. Hence æ0 4 G ÷1 ÷2 for an irreducible character ÷2 of G. ÷5 (g2 ) 2 À÷6 ( g2 ). Since ÷(1) ÷(g3 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. without loss of generality. We have hæ0 4 G. ÷8 take the value 0 on g5 . j1 ÷ j (g2 ) 12.16. ÷2 . and j1 ÷ j (g4 ) 6. 3 and 5 of the character table. ÷(g2 ) ÷(g4 ) mod 3 for all ÷. we j1 see that ÷7 (g2 ) ÷8 (g2 ) 1. By considering 8 ÷ j (1)÷ j (g2 ) 0. ÷6 (1). ÷6 (g2 ) have opposite signs. Next. But 8 (÷ j (1))2 250. they are ÷3 and ÷4 in the p table. 3 for all irreducible ÷. note that e2ðia5 eÀ2ðia5 (À1 5)a2X) Let ÷1 1 G . â (À1 À p 5)a2 and ã (À1 i 11)a2 Since 8 ÷ j (g5 )÷ j ( g 5 ) 5. and 8 ÷ j (g3 )2 6. By Corollary 22. we deduce that the remaining irreducible j1 characters ÷5 . and 8 ÷ j (g4 )2 6. ÷4 . ÷7 (1). ÷ j (1) 0 mod 5 for 5 < j < 8.27. ÷7 . æ0 4 Gi 2.Chapter 27 443 The characters æ1 4 G and æ2 4 G are irreducible. ÷6 . We have now found four of the eight irreducible characters of G. Since ÷(g4 ) ÷(g2 ) mod 3 for all characters ÷. 6 and ÷ j (g2 ) Æ1 for j 7. ÷3 . 10. We have now completed columns 1. hence. Character table of PSL (2. We may now conclude from the facts 8 2 that ÷(g2 ) ÷(g1 ) mod 2 and that ÷ j (g2 ) Æ2 for j 5. The column orthogonality relations now enable us to ®nish the character table. namely ÷1 . 5. . the j1 values of ÷ j (g3 ) (5 < j < 8) are as shown. (In calculating ÷3 (g5 ). without loss j5 of generality. 11) gi Order of g i |CG ( g i )| ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 ÷6 ÷7 ÷8 Note: á (À1 p g1 1 660 1 11 12 12 10 10 5 5 g2 2 12 1 À1 0 0 2 À2 1 1 g3 3 6 1 À1 0 0 1 1 À1 À1 p g4 6 6 1 À1 0 0 À1 1 1 1 g5 5 5 1 1 á â 0 0 0 0 g6 5 5 1 1 â á 0 0 0 0 g7 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã g8 11 11 1 0 1 1 À1 À1 ã ã 5)a2.

444 Representations and characters of groups Chapter 28 1. Each such element has centralizer of order q À 1. Then s in F q a b s 0 aas bas X 0 s cas das c d The ®rst matrix in the product is sI and the second belongs to SL(2. Every element r of F q can be expressed as a square. q You should have no dif®culty in proving that the conjugacy classes of SL(2. 0 1 (c) There are (q À 2)a2 conjugacy classes with representatives s 0 d s. gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ë1 ø0 ø1 ø0. 3) is then as follows. . We take g 1 . since r r q and q is even. (a) The identity I has centralizer of order q 3 À q. q). q) where Z fsI : s P FÃ g. q) Z 3 SL(2. 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 g2 g3 g4 1 0 2 0 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 g6 g7 g8 2 2 0 1 2 1 where 3 1 2 1 1 3 X The character table of GL(2. We may write ad À bc as s 2 for some c d Ã . s À1 g of elements 0 s À1 from F q nF2 . q) have representatives as follows. q). g8 as representatives of the conjugacy classes.s À1 . indexed by unordered pairs fs. It now follows easily that GL(2.1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 48 1 1 3 3 4 2 2 2 g2 48 1 1 3 3 À4 À2 2 À2 g3 6 1 1 0 0 1 À1 À1 À1 g4 6 1 1 0 0 À1 1 À1 1 g5 4 1 À1 1 À1 0 0 0 0 g6 8 1 1 À1 À1 0 0 2 0 g7 8 1 À1 À1 1 p0 i 2 0 p Ài 2 g8 8 1 À1 À1 1 0 p Ài 2 p0 i 2 2. 1 1 (b) The matrix u1 has centralizer of order q. a b Suppose that P GL(2. X 2 1 g1 0 2 1 g5 0 X X .

The irreducible monic quadratics over F8 with constant term 1 are x 2 x 1. 8). 2 3 2 3 1 0 1 1 g1 g2 0 1 0 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 ç 0 1ç 0 0 ç2 g3 g4 g5 0 1 ç2 0 ç ç2 0 1 ç ç2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 g6 g9 X g7 g8 1 1 1 ç 1 ç2 1 ç ç2 We may choose a generator å of FÃ so that å 7 å À7 ç. The subscripts for ø0. 8) SL(2. g4 . r À1 g of elements 1 r r À1 from F q 2 nF q such that r 1q 1. g 5 below.i satisfy 1 < i < (q À 2)a2. The polynomial x 3 x 1 is irreducible over F2. x 2 ç2 x 1. X X X . we have used the function r 3 r de®ned in (28. as follows. g8 . Then 64 . q) is simple. 1 ç2 g. 3. q) you will quickly be able to prove that the character table of SL(2. By restricting characters from GL(2. q) to SL(2. Each such element has centralizer of order q 1. g 7 .Chapter 28 445 (d) There are qa2 conjugacy classes with representatives 0 1 vr . g9 below We can now list representatives g 1 . 1 ç ç2 g. x 2 (ç ç2 )x 1X The companion matrices for these quadratics give use the conjugacy class representatives g 6 . and the subscripts for ÷ i satisfy 1 < i < qa2. f1 ç. b. c P F2 and ç3 1 çgX The pairs fs.s À1 1 1 s i s Ài 0 vr 1 À1 0 À(r i r Ài ) Here. and therefore SL(2. Hence we may write F8 fa bç cç2 : a. 8).3). g 9 of the conjugacy classes of SL(2. I ë0 ø0 ø0. q) is as follows. indexed by unordered pairs fr.i ÷i 1 q q1 qÀ1 u1 1 0 1 À1 d s. ç ç2 gX These give us the conjugacy class representatives g3 . Note ®rst that PSL(2. s À1 g of elements from F8 nF2 are fç. fç2 . If q T 2 then the kernel of every non-trivial character is the identity subgroup. x 2 çx 1.

446

Representations and characters of groups

**å 14 å À14 ç2 , å 21 å À21 1 and å 28 å À28 ç4 ç ç2 . The character table of SL(2, 8) is then as follows.
**

gi |CG ( g i )| ë0 ø0 ø0,1 ø0,2 ø0,3 ÷3 ÷1 ÷2 ÷4 g1 504 1 8 9 9 9 7 7 7 7 g2 8 1 0 1 1 1 À1 À1 À1 À1 g3 7 1 1 g4 7 1 1 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 g5 7 1 1 g6 9 1 À1 0 0 0 À2 1 1 1 g7 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 g8 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1 B g9 9 1 À1 0 0 0 1

Here, the 3 3 3 submatrices A and B are given by H I 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) f g A d 2 cos(4ða7) 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) e 2 cos(6ða7) 2 cos(2ða7) 2 cos(4ða7) H À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) I

f g B d À2 cos(4ða9) À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) eX À2 cos(8ða9) À2 cos(2ða9) À2 cos(4ða9)

Chapter 29

1. (a) It is straightforward to check that ö is a homomorphism. For x, y P G, the element (x, y) P G 3 G sends x to y, so that action is transitive. (b) (G 3 G)1 f( g, g) : g P Gg, and ker ö f(z, z) : z P Z(G)g. (c) Every orbit of G 3 G on G 3 G contains an ordered pair of the form (1, x), and if ( g, h) sends (1, x) to (1, y) then g h and y g À1 xg. Hence if C1 , X X X , C k are the conjugacy classes of G, and xi P C i, then (1, xi ) (1 < i < k) are orbit representatives for the action of G 3 G on G 3 G, and so the rank is equal to k. Since x(( g, h)ö) x if and only if xhx À1 g, we see that ð( g, h) jfix G ( g, h)j is equal to 0 if g is not conjugate to h, and is equal to jC G (x)j if g is conjugate to h (since in the latter case, if xhx À1 g then an arbitrary element y P G such that yhy À1 g is of the form y xc with c P (x)). Hence using the column orthogonality relations we see CG that ð ÷ 3 ÷. 2. There are q 2 À 1 non-zero vectors in V, and each 1-dimensional subspace

Chapter 29

447

contains q À 1 of them; also two 1-dimensional subspaces have no non-zero vectors in common. Hence jÙj (q 2 À 1)a(q À 1) q 1. 3. Use the notation for the conjugacy classes and irreducible characters of GL(2, q) given in Proposition 28.4 and Theorem 28.5. It is easy to check that ð takes the values q 2 À 1, q À 1, q À 1 on the classes with representatives I, u1 , d 1, t respectively, and takes the value 0 on all other classes. Taking inner products we ®nd hð, 1 G i hð, ø0 i hð, ø0, j i 1 (1 < j < q À 2)X qÀ2 As 1 G ø0 1 ø0, j has degree q 2 À 1 ð(1), we conclude that qÀ2 ð 1 G ø0 1 ø0, j . 4. Observe that the coset H 1 x is ®xed by g if and only if xgx À1 P H 1 . If G is abelian this amounts to g P H 1 , and hence we see that ð1 ( g) 0 if g P H 1 a and ð1 ( g) jG : H 1 j if g P H 1 . Thus H 1 f g P G : ð1 ( g) T 0g. Likewise for H 2 ; since ð1 ð2 we deduce that H 1 H 2 . As a counterexample for G non-abelian, take G D8 ha, b : a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 i with H 1 hbi, H 2 ha2 bi. Then ð1 ð2 but H 1 T H 2 . 1 5. By Proposition 29.4 we have 1 jGj gPG jfixÙ ( g)j, hence jfixÙ ( g)j jGj. Since jfixÙ ( g)j is a non-negative integer for each g, and jfixÙ (1)j jÙj . 1, we must have jfixÙ ( g)j 0 for some g. 6. Write ð ð( nÀ2,1,1) . Calculating inner products using Proposition 29.6, as in the proof of Theorem 29.13, we ®nd hð, ði 7, hð, 1i 1, hð, ð( nÀ1,1) i 3, hð, ð( nÀ2,2) i 4X Using Theorem 29.13 it follows that ð( nÀ2,1,1) 1 2÷ ( nÀ1,1) ÷ ( nÀ2,2) ÷ with ÷ irreducible. Hence ÷ 1 ð À ð( nÀ1,1) À ð( nÀ2,2) , from which it is easy to calculate that ÷(1) 1(n À 1)(n À 2), 2 ÷(12) 1(n À 2)(n À 5), ÷(123) 1(n À 4)(n À 5). For n 6, ÷ (4,1,1) is the 2 2 character ÷5 in Example 19.17.

Chapter 30

1. By Theorem 30.4, a245 168/(8´3) 7. Hence, by (30.3), PSL (2, 7) contains elements a and b such that a has order 2, b has order 3 and ab has order 7. p p 2. No: a225 (1 (À1 i 7)a6 (À1 À i 7)a6 À 4a6)168a(8X8) 0, and similarly a226 0. Hence PSL (2,7) does not contain two involutions whose product has order 7. 3. Yes. Number the conjugacy classes of PSL (2, 11) as in the solution to Exercise 27.6. Then 660 1 a235 X 1 10X 12 6 11 Therefore PSL (2, 11) contains elements x and y such that x, y and xy have orders 2, 3 and 5, respectively. Let H be the subgroup kx, yl of PSL (2, 11).

448

Representations and characters of groups

There is a homomorphism W from A5 onto H (W sends a 3 x, b 3 y). Since Ker W 3 A5 and A5 is simple, we deduce that H A5 . 4. Suppose that G is a group whose p character table is p where á (1 5)a2, â (1 À 5)a2.

g1 ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 ÷5 1 4 5 3 3 g2 1 1 À1 0 0 g3 1 0 1 À1 À1 g4 1 À1 0 á â g5 1 À1 0 â á

For 1 < i < 5 we have jC G ( g i )j 5 ÷ j ( g i )÷ j ( g i ). Therefore the j1 centralizers of g1 , g2 , g3 , g4 , g5 have orders 60, 3, 4, 5, 5, respectively. Hence the orders of g2 , g4 and g5 are 3, 5 and 5; also the order of g3 must be 2, since for no other i (except i 1) is |CG (g i )| even. Now a324 60a(4 . 3). Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, G has a subgroup H with H A5 . Since jGj 60, we have G A5 . 5. (a) Using the fact that 7 ÷ j (g i )÷ j ( g i ) |CG (g i )|, we ®nd that the j1 centralizer orders and class sizes are as follows:

g1 |CG ( g i )| | gG | i 360 1 g2 8 45 g3 4 90 g4 9 40 g5 9 40 g6 5 72 g7 5 72

Hence jGj 360. Also G is simple, by Proposition 17.6. (b) By the Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions (Corollary 23.17), the number of involutions t in G is bounded by 1 t <

7 j1

÷ j (1) 46X

By considering jC G ( g i )j, we see that g i has even order only for i 2 and 3. Since t < 45, only g2 can be an involution. Hence g3 has order 4. (This information about the orders of g2 and g3 can also be deduced using Sylow's Theorem.) (c) Clearly g6 and g7 have order 5, and at least one of g4 and g5 has order 3. If j 4 or 5 and k 6 or 7 then

Chapter 30

a2 jk ÷( g2 )÷( g j )÷ ( g k ) jGj jCG ( g 2 )j jCG ( g j )j ÷ ÷(1)

449

360 5X 8.9 Therefore G contains elements x and y such that x has order 2, y has order 3 and xy has order 5. As in the solution to Exercise 3, the subgroup H kx, yl of G is isomorphic to A5 . (d) If g, h P G then ( gh)r: Hx 3 Hxgh, and ( gr)(hr): Hx 3 Hxg 3 HxghX Hence r is a homomorphism. (e) Since G is simple, Ker r {1}. Hence G is isomorphic to a subgroup K of S6 . Since jS6 : Kj 63a360 2, K must be A6 . 6. Consider the ®gure in Example 30.6(3). We shall explain how to label the vertices by elements of G. Choose a vertex and label it 1. Label the vertices according to the following inductive rule. Assume that v is a vertex and an adjacent vertex u is labelled by g. Then label v by ga gb gb

À1

if the edge uv has no arrow, if the edge uv has an arrow from u to v, if the edge uv has an arrow from v to uX

For example, if you decided to label the bottom left-hand vertex by 1, then part of the labelling would be

The relation a2 1 ensures that the labelling is consistent along unmarked edges; since b3 1, the labelling is consistent around triangles; and the relation abababab 1 deals with the octagons. Every element in G has the form given by the label of one of the 24 vertices, so jGj < 24. 7. The conjugacy classes of PSL(2, 7) are given in Lemma 27.1 The element g 2 is an involution with centralizer of order 8 given in the proof of 2 2 2 4 Lemma 27.1. Letting a , b , we see that the À2 2 4 À2 centralizer is generated by a and b, and a4 b2 1, bÀ1 ab aÀ1 À, hence the centralizer is isomorphic to D8 . As in Exercises 12.3 and 12.4, we see that C A6 ((12)(34)) has order 8 and is generated by (1324) and (13)(24), hence as above is isomorphic to D8 .

450

Representations and characters of groups

8. Let G be the simple group PSL(2, 17). In the ®eld Z17 the element 4 is a 4 0 fourth root of unity, so t Z is an involution. Calculate that 0 À4 C G (t) is generated by the group of diagonal matrices together with 0 1 3 0 b Z, hence is generated by b and a Z. As À1 0 0 6 a 8 b2 1 and bÀ1 ab aÀ1, we have C G (t) D16 .

Chapter 31

1. Assume that G has an abelian subgroup H of index p r ( p prime), and that |G| . p. If H {1} then |G| p r and so G is not simple (see Lemma 26.1(1)). So assume that H T {1}; pick 1 T h P H. Then H < CG (h) as H is abelian, so |G:CG (h)| is a power of p. If |G:CG (h)| 1 then khl v G and G is not simple. And if |G:CG (h)| . 1, then G is not simple by Theorem 31.3. 2. By Burnside's Theorem, jGj is divisible by at least three distinct primes. Since 3 . 5 . 7 . 80, jGj is even. Then by Exercise 13.8, |G| is divisible by 4. Since 4 . 3 . 7 . 80, the only possibility is that jGj 4 . 3 . 5 60.

Chapter 32

1. (a) The fact that BB I follows from the observation that for all i, j, d(ei b, ej b) d(ei , ej ) ä ij X Since 1 det I (det B)(det Bt ) (det B)2 , we have det B Æ1. (b) (i) The eigenvalues of C are the roots of det (C À xI), which is a cubic polynomial over R. Therefore, C has one or three real eigenvalues. (ii) Moreover, the product of the eigenvalues of C is det C 1. If C has three real eigenvalues, then they cannot all be negative; and if C has one real eigenvalue ë and a pair of conjugate non-real eigenvalues ì, ì, then ë ìì 1, and hence ë . 0. Therefore C has a real positive eigenvalue, say ë. (iii) Let v be an eigenvector for ë. Then d(v, v) d(vC, vC) d(ëv, ëv) ë2 d(v, v), and so ë 1. (c) Let c be the isometry v 3 vC. By (b), c ®xes a vector v; it is now easy to convince yourself that c must be a rotation about the axis through v. The required result for b follows from the de®nition of c. (d) Take three orthogonal axes, one of which is the axis of the rotation b. With respect to these axes, the matrix of b is H I 1 0 0 d 0 cos ö sin ö eX 0 Àsin ö cos ö Hence tr B 1 2 cos ö.

t

Chapter 32

451

2. We regard G as a subgroup of O(R3 ). It is easy to see that the translation submodule T (which consists of all the translation modes) is isomorphic to the RG-module given by the natural action of G on R3 . Hence by part (d) of Exercise 1, V if g is a rotation through ö, about some b 1 2 cos ö, b b b b axis, b ` ÷ T ( g) b À(1 2 cos ö), if the element À g of O(R3 ) is a rotation b b b b b X through öX Now consider the rotation submodule R, which consists of all the rotation modes. A rotation mode is speci®ed by a 3-dimensional vector öv, where v is a unit vector along the axis of the rotation and ö denotes the angle of rotation, taken positive in the right-hand screw sense. Let g P G, and consider g acting on öv. It sends v to vg, and if g is a rotation, it preserves the sense of the rotation; however, if g is a re¯ection then it transforms a right-hand screw to a left-hand screw, and hence sends öv to (Àö)(vg). Therefore @ if g is a rotation, ÷ T ( g), ÷ R ( g) À÷T ( g), if g is not a rotation, and so ÷ T ÷ R has the required form. 3. The matrix A is I H p p À3a2 0 3a4 À 3a4 p3a4 3a4 p f 0 À1a2 À 3a4 p1a4 3a4 1a4 g g f p k f 3a4 À 3a4 À3a4 3a4 0 0 g gX f p p 3a4 À5a4 0 1 g m f À 3a4 p1a4 g f p d 3a4 3a4 0 0 À3a4 À 3a4 e p p 3a4 1a4 0 1 À 3a4 À5a4 4. A simpler basis is given by

1 2(r1 1 2(r1 1 2(r1

r2 ) (v12 v21 ) À (v34 v43 ), r3 ) (v13 v31 ) À (v24 v42 ), r4 ) (v14 v41 ) À (v23 v32 )X

We chose r1, r2, r3, r4 to be the images of w1, w2, w3, w4 under an RGisomorphism. (Compare the construction of the matrix B, towards the end of Example 32.20.) 5. (a) This is a routine geometrical exercise. (b) Let the displaced positions of the atoms be 09, 19, 29, 39, 49. The distance of 19 from the plane through 1 perpendicular to 12 is x12 1(x13 x14 ). Similarly, the distance of 29 from the plane through 2 2 perpendicular to 12 is x21 1(x23 x24 ). Therefore 12 has decreased by 2 x12 x21 1(x13 x14 x23 x24 ). The other calculations can be done in 2 the same way. (c) We express the force at each atom as a vector, and then write this vector

452

**Representations and characters of groups
**

as a linear combination of our three chosen unit vectors at the initial position of the atom. Let d ij denote the decrease in the length ij, as calculated in part (b). Then, for example, at vertex 1, the contributions to the component of the force vector in the direction 12 are as follows: Àk1 d12 from the force between atoms 1 and 2; zero from the force between atoms 1 and 3 and from the force between atoms 1 and 4; and Àk2 d10 sec (/012) from the force between atoms 1 and 0. Hence p m1 12 Àk 1 d 12 À 1 (3a2)k 2 d 10 X x 3

Upon substituting for d12 and d10 from part (b), we obtain the given expression for 12. x The other accelerations are calculated in the same way. (d) The entries in the 15 3 15 matrix A are the coef®cients which appear in the equations of motion xA. If you write down the matrix A, then x you will easily verify that the given vectors are eigenvectors of A (with eigenvalues À(4k 1 k 2 )am1 , 0, 0, 0, Àk 1 am1 , Àk 1 am1 , p p I À2k 2 a3m1 À4k 2 p 2a(m2 p3) À2k 2 a3m1 p À4k 2 2a(m2 3) eX p À2k 2 3a(9m1 2) À4k 2 a3m2 p (f ) You will ®nd that (1, À2, 6) is an eigenvector of B, with eigenvalue 0. This agrees with the statement in Example 32.20 that the translation vector r1 À 2s1 3 cos Ww1 is an eigenvector of A. 6. (a) Assign coordinate axes along the edges of the square, as shown below. respectively). (e) The matrix B is H À(6k 1 k 2 )a3m1 d À(3k 1 k 2 )a3m1 p p Àk 2 3a(9m1 2)

The symmetry group is G D8. Let a denote the rotation sending P 3 Q 3 R 3 S 3 P, and let b denote the re¯ection in the axis PR. The character ÷ of the RG-module R8 is

1 ÷ 8

a2 0

a 0

b 0

ab 0

Chapter 32

453

We refer to the character table of D8 which is given in Example 16.3(3), and see that ÷ ÷1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷4 2÷5 X The rotation mode is (t â)v, where v (1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1, 1, À1) P V÷2 X The translation modes are (t â)v, where v is in the span of v1 , v2 and v1 (1, 0, 0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1), v2 (0, 1, À1, 0, 0, À1, 1, 0)X The homogeneous components V÷1, V÷3 and V÷4 are spanned by the vectors (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), (1, 1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1) and (1, À1, À1, 1, 1, À1, À1, 1), respectively. The ®nal set of eigen-vectors is given by V÷5 R8 which is spanned by vib (1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0, 0, 1) and (0, 1, 1, 0, 0, À1, À1, 0)X (b) The matrix A is 1 f0 f f0 f k f0 À f mf0 f f0 f d0 1 H 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 I 1 0g g 0g g 0g gX 0g g 0g g 0e 1

7. (a, b) Let å i (1 < i < m) be the projection which is given by å i : u1 X X X um 3 ui (where u k P Uk for all k). Then w 3 wAå j WÀ1 W i j (w P Ui ) gives an RG-homomorphism from Ui to Ui. By Exercise 23.8, there exist ë ij P R such that for all w P Ui, Since m wAå j ë ij wWÀ1 W j X i is the identity endomorphism of U1 È . . . È Um, we have m ë ij wWÀ1 W j for all w P Ui X wA i

j1 j1 å j

Now take in turn w uW i and w vW i to obtain the results of parts (a) and (b) of the question. (c) Take a basis u1 , . . . , u n of U1. Assume that the eigenvectors of A u are known. For all k with 1 < k < n, the eigenvectors of A in sp (u k W1 , . . . , u k W m ) are given by the eigenvectors of A u (see part (b)). Hence we know all the eigenvectors of A in U1 È . . . È Um.

Bibliography

**Books mentioned in the text
**

H. S. M. Coxeter and W. J. O. Moser, Generators and Relations for Discrete Groups (Fourth Edition), Springer-Verlag, 1980. J. B. Fraleigh, A First Course in Abstract Algebra (Third Edition), AddisonWesley, 1982. D. Gorenstein, Finite Simple Groups: An Introduction to their Classi®cation, Plenum Press, New York, 1982. G. D. James, The Representation Theory of the Symmetric Groups, Lecture Notes in Mathematics No. 682, Spring-Verlag, 1978. D. S. Passman, Permutation Groups, Benjamin, 1968. H. Pollard and H. G. Diamond, The Theory of Algebraic Numbers (Second Edition), Carus Mathematical Monographs No. 9, Mathematical Association of America, 1975. J. J. Rotman, An Introduction to the Theory of Groups (Third Edition), Allyn and Bacon, 1984. D. S. Schonland, Molecular Symmetry ± an Introduction to Group Theory and its uses in Chemistry, Van Nostrand, 1965.

**Suggestions for further reading
**

M. J. Collins, Representations and Characters of Finite Groups, Cambridge University Press, 1990. C. W. Curtis and I. Reiner, Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I, Wiley-Interscience, 1981. W. Feit, Characters of Finite Groups, Benjamin, 1967. I. M. Isaacs, Character Theory of Finite Groups, Academic Press, 1976. W. Ledermann, Introduction to Group Characters (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press, 1987. J. P. Serre, Linear Representations of Finite Groups, Springer-Verlag, 1977.

454

160 D8. 118 degree. 360 A7 . 183 D6 3 D6. 223 An . 337 algebra. 119 regular. 207. 45. 111 antisymmetric part.7). 83. 160 C3 . 106 centre of group. 136. 298 of group algebra. 9. 278 Burnside's Lemma. 114. 222. 423 E. 416 S4 . 182 D2n ( n even). 186 T4 n. 434 F7. 221. 112. 234. 364 C. 54 bijection. 343 abelian group. 445 T12. 269 symmetric.q). 122. 172. 3. 125 linear.11). 442 SL(2. 359. 2. 55. 10. 318 PSL(2. 440 SL(2. 205 SL(2. 181. 161 D10. 11.Index A4 . 2 Cn . 116. 128. 15 natural. 196. 159 A4 .q). 308 A5 . 11. 415 D12 S3 3 C2 . 269 Brauer±Fowler Theroem. 5. 273 associative. 433 Fp. 174 permutation. 417 F11. 424 C2 . 119 kernel of. 240. 327 PSL(2. 181 A5 . 230. 2 basis. 112. 180 S5 . 247 faithful. 355 induced. 253 irreducible. 116. 129 product. 412 C2 3 C2 . 130. 82 action. 269 skew-symmetric.3. 354. 122. 122 character table. 340 Burnside's Theorem. 361 alternating group. 244. 312. 125. 85. 262 S6 . 236 integer-valued. 363. 415 Cn . 9. 362 algebraic number. 195 generalized. 359 A6 . 82. 150 trivial. 263 realized over R.q . 56 algebraic integer. 359 A6 . 176.3). 445 PSL(2. 291 GL(2. 116. of order 18. 127. 420 455 . 6 bilinear form. 153 change of basis.5 . 107. 443 Q8 .8). 5. 192 real. 24 character.7). 111. 201. 11. 82 D6. 88 centralizer. 419 D2n ( n odd). 160 C4 . 265 reducible. 220. 81.

12. 421 direct product. 50. 226. 143. 91 irreducible representation. 10. 365 special linear. 109 cyclic group. 61 ideal. 234. 17. 304 orthogonal. 376 homomorphism. see module . 6 GL(n. 318. 116. 206 order 16. 15 direct product. 421 V24 . 95. 236 induced module. 18 eigenvalue.456 Representations and characters of groups FG-submodule. 4. 2. 5. 101 completely reducible.q . 367 projective special linear. 96 . 206 direct sum. 152 class sum. 173 diagonalization. 9 ®nite. 12. 107. 82 alternating. 361 constituent. 3 group. 228 inner product. 2. 2. 195 faithful module. 79. 8 cycle-shape. 368 simple. 109. 301 order pq. 32. 96 congruences.F). 24 eigenvector. 63 U6n. 134 involution. 290 FG. 213 coset. 257 proper. 122. 5 expansion±contraction mode. 119 irreducible module. 9 faithful character. 114 Clifford's Theorem. 49 FG-homomorphism. 12. 6 invertible. 74. 6 injective. 82. 364 soluble. 50. 250. 257 index of subgroup. 90 common. 11. 63 Frobenius group. 3 H v G. 178. 181 dimension. 181 factor. 9 HomCG (V W). 74 composition. 305. 10. 312 quaternion. 9 indicator function. 88 dicyclic. 20 equivalent. 175. 91. 353 irreducible character. 66 external. 300 class algebra constants. 2 general linear. 306. 107. 349 class equation. 368 group algebra. 343 general linear group. 46 even permutation. 277 function. 2. 61 FG-isomorphism. 420 dihedral group. 3 order. 44. 32. 178 dihedral. 104 conjugate. 81. 291 p-group. 24 endomorphism. 6 bijective. 290 Frobenius Reciprocity Theorem. 311. 6 surjective. 353. 216 complete set. 20. 11. 2 order p3 . 273 induced character. 277. 107. 307 order 27. 3. 85 faithful representation. 381 external direct sum. 187. 254 symmetry. 30. 111 cyclic. 278. 125. 3 F n.q). 55 H < G. 2 composition factor. 249 derived subgroup. 8 cycle notation. 3 GL(2. 302. 82. 232 Frobenius±Schur Count of Involutions. 79 isomorphism. 34 FG-module. 12. 363. 83 dicyclic group T4 n. 308 order p3 . 6. 230. 256 maximal. 88 D2n. 259 conjugacy class. 2. 12. 56. 53 factor group. 7. 324. 181 degree. 311 symmetric. 1 abelian. 18 F R or C. 435 order . homogeneous component. 9. 5 rotation. 107 class function. 4. 422 V8 n . 3. 15 Fp. 281. 104. 5.

125 Lagrange's Theorem. 340 permutation character. 416 quaternion group. projection. 56 trivial. 5. 298 p9-part. 79 kernel of. 4 normal. 56 trivial. 85 permutation. 116. 278. 275 S5 . 373 p-complement. p). 223 Sn . 30 degree. 74 faithful. 319. 39 completely reducible. 105 restriction. 250. 2 order of g. 311 stabilizer. 44. 3 primitive root. 269 special linear group. 23 permutation. 177. 174 linear transformation. 32. 3. 171. 34 representatives. 44. 56. 205 S7 . 127. 256. 5 permutation module. 339 subgroup. 124. 85 irreducible. 62 reducible. 15 linearly independent. 15 Maschke's Theorem. 30. 50 regular. 343.7). 62. 312 457 Q8 . 56 regular representation. 113. 442 SL(2. 173 generated. 24 diagonal. 78 simple group. 50. 21 invertible. 4 orthogonal group. 354. 116. 67 projective special linear group. 318. 116. 161 PSL(2. 359 PSL(2. 18 linearly dependent. 342 Rank±Nullity Theorem. 5.7). 217 submodule. 150 regular module. 129. 215. 263 real conjugacy class. 416 R. 318. 175. 45. 50 reducible representation. 46 faithful. 320. 128. 49 irreducible. 122. 9. 258 permutation. 440 SL(2. 215. 379 rotation submodule. 10. 193 presentation. 177. 10. 216. 363. 262 S6 . 344 SL(2. 394 S4 . 27. 180. 254. 50 regular character. 3. 3. 34. 384 minimal polynomial. 321.11). 113. 4 derived. 4 cyclic. 365 symmetric bilinear form. 263 reducible character. 171. 176. 109. 278. 110. 45 powers of characters. 76 matrix. 173. 5 odd. 269 odd permutation. 5 even. 216. 54 modes of vibration.Index kernel. 45. 336. 9 lift. 380.3). 312. 34 irreducible. 368 rotation mode. 340 permutation matrix. 201. 372. 9. 169 linear character. 70. 354. 45 methane. 26 identity. 364 skew-symmetric bilinear form. 43 natural normal normal normal 217 basis. 50. 338 order of G. 445 Schur's Lemma. 360 PSL(2. 74 Sylow's Theorem. 311. 312 p-group. 311 SL(2. 124 reducible. 113. 19. 34. 367 orthogonality relations. 319. 251 subgroup. 79. 192 . 361 module. 19 real character. 249 equivalent. 3 rank. 116. 210 rotation group. 278. 111. 56 representation. 21 change of basis. 119 reducible module. 263 real element. 284 product of characters. 5 orbit. 3. 45. 359. p). 50 regular.q).

190 tensor product space. 5 . 187. 421 Vandermonde matrix. 338. 34 U6n. 117 transitive. 379 translation submodule. 381 water. 229 translation mode. 368 T4 n. 369. 341 transitivity of induction. 43 representation. 194 vibratory modes. 3. 374 Z. 116. 394 transposition. 187. 254 symmetric part. 178. 273 symmetry group. 188 trace. 122 module. 175.458 Representations and characters of groups trivial character. 421 V8n. 109. 2 symmetric group. 178. 187. 380. 281. 196. 420 tensor product module. 178.

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