You are on page 1of 3

Foods I Final Terms Oxidation of fruit browning of fruit due to presence of 02 and phenolic compounds Refining of grain removal

al of bran and germ Gelatinization (thickening) process that breaks down IM bonds of starch molecules in presence of water and heat, causes swelling and increases volume, viscosity and translucency. Retrogradation (syneresis, weeping) thickening/gelling into crystalline structure Glucose blood sugar (half as sweet as sucrose) Dextrinization breakdown of starch molecules into smaller, sweeter tasting dextrin in presence of heat (used as adhesives and thickening agents) Amylose- unbranched starch, takes up less space (20-30%), causes gelation Amylopectin- branched starch, not as easily digested (70-80%), causes retrogradation Gelation Amylose molecules create 3-d network that traps h20 and increases rigidity Emulsion mixture in which 2 or more liquids that dont normally blend are mixed Rancidity breakdown of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fats that results in bad odor Hydrogenation Hydrogen atoms added for extra saturation Crystallization formation of solid crystals in sugar syrup Fructose natural sugar found in fruits and honey. Sweetest of all granulated sugars, rarely used in food prep due to extreme stickiness Solubility property of solutes dissolving in solvents Carmelization dry sugar is evaporated and heated until it melts into clear viscous liquid, turns brown as heating continues Hygroscopicity ability of a substance to attract and hold water molecules Maillard reaction - form of non-enzymatic browning similar to carmelization. Results from chemical reaction between amino acid and sugar + heat Whey 18% of milk, liquid portion (protein) Casein primary protein found in milk (80%), can be precipitated with acid/enzymes Probiotic live microbial food ingredients that have beneficial effect on health Curing (cheese) - The method, conditions and treatment from manufacturing to market, such as temperature, humidity and sanitation, that assist in giving the final cheese product the distinction of its variety. Sometimes used synonymously with aging and ripening. Aging (meat) - allows natural enzymes to breakdown the hard connective tissue in meats and for water to evaporate away concentrating the flavor Pectin - In the food industry, pectin is used in jams, jellies, frozen foods, edible films, paper substitute, foams and plasticizers Cross contamination - when bacteria from one food item are transferred to another food item Whole grain bread bread made from entire grain seed, usually called the kernel, consists of bran, germ, and endosperm Saturated fat - Fats made up of saturated fatty acids are solid at room temperature.

Unsaturated fat - Fats that have a lot of oleic acid in them are liquid at room temperature, and are therefore known to us as oils. CDC Center for Disease Control FDA - Federal Department of Agriculture USDA United States Dairy Association Organic 95% of finished ingredients must meet organic criteria Functional food foods/beverages that impart physiological benefit, helps prevent treat disease, or improve physical/mental performance Whole grain - made from entire grain seed, usually called the kernel, consists of bran, germ, and endosperm Al dente to the tooth, firm but not hard Semolina - is the coarse, purified wheat middling of durum wheat used in making pasta, and also used for breakfast cereals and puddings. Slurry cold liquid mixed with cornstarch until smooth and glossy. Usually used to thicken sauces, stews and desserts Roux hot, made with fat and starch (flour) Enriched foods that have had certain nutrients, which were lost in processing, added back Fortification foods that have had nutrients added that were not originally present Cultured live and active bacterial substance White sauce mixture of flour, milk, fat Marbling fat deposited in muscle that can be seen as white steaks/drops Collagen pearly white tough fibrous protein. Provides support to muscles and prevents overstretching Adipose fat that serves as insulation under the skin and inside abdominal cavity Fish steak cut from dressed fish fin by slicing at 90-degree angle, cut from (top to bottom) Fish fillet made by slicing fish lengthwise to avoid points (front to back) Variety meats liver, thymus, brain, kidneys, heart, tongue, tripe (parts not typically wanted by consumer) Homogenization- mechanical process that breaks up fat (emulsion) Leavening agents (chemical) baking powder and baking soda Leavening agents (physical) air and steam Leavening agents (biological) yeast and bacteria Curing (meat) addition of synthetic nitrates, salt, and other preservatives Supersaturated sugar solutions unstable solution created when more than maximum solute is dissolved in solution Microwaves waves bounce off of metal walls creating friction, outward to inward, moisture Sugar function in food- Sweetness, solubility, crystallization, browning Wholesale vs. retail cuts of meat wholesale are large cuts of animal carcass which later get divided into retail cuts (which are bought at stores such as walmart) Simmer to cook in liquid at temperature just below boiling Stew to simmer in small amount of liquid Poach to cook in hot liquid using precautions to retain shape (eggs, fish) Sear to brown surface of meat by short application of intense heat

Saut to cook in small amount of hot fat, similar to frying Braise to brown meat or vegetables in small amount of fat, then simmer slowly in small amount of liquid Bake to cook in oven either covered or uncovered, when referring to meats it is called roasting Roast see above Dough flour mixture that is dry enough to be handled and kneaded Batter flour mixture that contains more water than dough and consistency ranges from pourable to sticky Sourdough bread bread with bacteria starters that produce lactic acid resulting in a sour taste Nonnutritive sweetener foods additives that require FDA approval that provide sweetness but no calories Sugar alcohol synthesized by hydrogenating certain sugars Pasteurization food preservation process that heats liquid to 161 F for 15 seconds or 143 for 30 minutes in order to kill bacteria, yeast, and mold Knead to work dough into elastic mass by pushing, stretching, or folding it Surimi - Japanese for minced meat, a fabricated fish product usually made from Alaskan Pollack, shaped into pieces that resemble crab, shrimp, scallops Gluten protein portion of wheat flour with elastic characteristics necessary for structure of most baked products Proof to increase volume of shaped dough through continued fermentation Coagulate to clot or become semisolid. In milk, denatured proteins often separate the liquid by coagulation Resistant starch dietary fiber that is gluten free and resists digestion in the small intestine, thus aiding in regularity Celiac disease - an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in people unable to digest gluten Fermentation conversion of carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast and bacteria Calories in nutrients carbs 4 cal/g, protein 4 cal/g, fat 9 cal/g Food safety precautions clean, separate, cook, chill Fat replacers any food used to replace fat (substitutes, mimetics, analogs, extenders) Fat function in foods flavor, texture, appearance