This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
Luis San Andrés
MastChilds Tribology Professor
Turbomachinery Laboratory
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 778433123
USA
Lsanandres@mengr.tamu.edu
ABSTRACT
The lecture introduces annular seals and hydrostatic bearings in liquid pumps. The analysis details the
physical principle for generation of a direct stiffness in these mechanical components. Annular seals as
neck ring seals and interstage seals restrict leakage but also generate force coefficients, stiffness
dampinginertia, greatly affecting the rotordynamics of liquid turbopumps, in particular those handling
large density fluids. Highlights on the bulkflow analysis of annular seals are given with details on the
performance of two water seals – long and short, featuring the advantages of an antiswirl brake to
enhance the seal rotordynamic stability. Hydrostatic bearings rely on external fluid pressurization to
generate load support and large centering stiffnesses, even in the absence of journal rotation. The load
capacity and direct stiffnesses of hydrostatic bearings do not depend on fluid viscosity, thus making them
ideal rotor support elements in process fluid pumps. Current applications intend to replace oil lubricated
bearing with hybrid bearings to improve efficiency with shorten rotor spans and less mechanical
complexity. Current cryogenic liquid turbopumps implement hydrostatic bearings enabling an all fluid
film bearing technology with very low number of parts and no DN limit operation. Details on the bulk
flow analysis of turbulent flow hydrostatic bearings are given along with the discussion of performance
characteristics, static and dynamic, for hydrostatic bearings supporting a water pump. Angled liquid
injection produces a hydrostatic bearing with unsurpassed dynamic force and stability characteristics.
1.0 ANNULAR PRESSURE SEALS IN PUMP APPLICATIONS
Seal rotordynamic characteristic have a primary influence on the stability response of highperformance
turbomachinery [1]. Noncontacting fluid seals, as shown in Figure 1, are leakage control devices
minimizing secondary flows in turbomachines and typically use process liquids of light viscosity or
process gasses as the working fluid. Annular seals, although geometrically similar to plain journal
bearings, show a different flow structure dominated by flow turbulence and fluid inertia effects. Operating
characteristics unique to seals are the large axial pressure gradients and large clearance to radius ratios,
while the axial development of the circumferential velocity is of importance in the generation of cross
coupled (hydrodynamic) forces. Textured stator surfaces (macro roughness) to reduce the impact of
undesirable crosscoupled dynamic forces and improve seal stability are by now common practice in
damper seal technology [2]. Furthermore, annular seals as Lomakin bearings have potential application as
support elements (damping bearings) in high speed cryogenic turbo pumps as well in process gas
applications (compressors) [3].
San Andrés, L. (2006) Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings. In Design and Analysis of High Speed Pumps (pp. 111 – 1136).
Educational Notes RTOENAVT143, Paper 11. NeuillysurSeine, France: RTO. Available from: http://www.rto.nato.int/abstracts.asp.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  2 RTOENAVT143
Interstage Seal Impeller Eye Seal Balance Piston Seal
Figure 1: Seals in a Multistage Centrifugal Pump or Compressor.
The importance of seal flow phenomenon and its influence on the dynamic response of actual
turbomachinery have prompted a large number of theoretical and experimental investigations. Seals, due
to their relative position within the rotorbearing system, can modify sensibly the system dynamic
behavior since these elements typically "see" large amplitude rotor motions. This assertion is of particular
importance on backtoback compressor arrangements (see Figure 2). Furthermore, the force coefficients –
stiffness, damping and inertia of annular seals in large density liquid pumps can be as large as those
arising in the oillubricated bearings; thus the seal elements effectively become load paths and modify the
pump rotordynamic behaviour. “Wet” and “dry” critical speeds, i.e. those accounting for seals’ forces and
not, can be markedly different as noted in [1, 4].
Figure 2: StraightThrough and BacktoBack Compressor Configurations and 1
st
Mode Shapes.
Black [5] first explained the influence of seal forces on the rotordynamic behaviour of pumps. Since 1980,
Childs and coworkers at TAMU have conducted a comprehensive program for the analysis and testing of
the dynamic force response of liquid and gas annular seals. Experimental programs with damper seals
featuring various stator surface machined textures (macro roughness), see Figure 3, have confirmed the
benefit of higher net damping forces and less leakage than in smooth surface seals. Reference [2] details
major developments in gas seal applications, for example.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  3
Figure 3: Honeycomb Seal for Turbopump.
This lecture presents:
a) The physical mechanism by which a direct stiffness arises in annular pressure seals even without
journal (shaft) rotation. The model analyzes the flow balance and pressure drops at the entrance of a
channel and on the ensuing thin film land. A maximum (optimum) stiffness is then predicted for a
certain flow resistance balance between the entrance and land pressure drops.
b) Brief description of the bulkflow equations for prediction of the flow and force coefficients in annular
pressure seals.
c) Discussion of predictions for two water seals, long and short, for application as neck ring and interstage
seals. The influences of seal length and inlet swirl on the rotordynamic force coefficients are
thoroughly discussed.
Refer to Childs [1] and San Andrés [6] for a critical review of the archival literature related to the
chronological developments in annular pressure seal analyses as well as experimental results validating the
model predictions.
This lecture content material does not include a discussion on labyrinth seals or deep groove seals for
liquid pump applications. Labyrinth seals are more common in centrifugal compressors.
Noncontacting face seal technology has reached great maturity for specialized pumps handling
chemically harmful fluids. This type of sealing system is not presented here, see [7] for details.
1.1 Generation of Stiffness in a Sudden Film Contraction [8]
Figure 4 shows the typical geometry of an annular pressure seal. Fluid at a high pressure (P
s
) flows
through an annular gap of radial clearance (c) and discharges at the exit pressure (P
a
). L and D represent
the seal length and diameter, respectively.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  4 RTOENAVT143
L
shaft
D
c
Ps
P
a
Process
Axial velocity,
V
z
fluid
at high
Exit pressure
Figure 4: Geometry of an Annular Pressure Seal.
The principle by which a direct stiffness originates in an annular seal is due to the inertial pressure drop at
the seal inlet plane and its close interaction with the pressure drop (and flow resistance) within the seal
film land. The entrance effect is solely due to fluid inertia accelerating the fluid from an upstream stagnant
condition to a flow with high axial speed and reduced static pressure at the seal inlet. The effect is known
as Lomakin, in honor of the named Russian engineer who discovered the phenomenon in the late 1950's.
In the following, the sealing fluid is regarded as incompressible and isoviscous and the turbulent flow
through the film land fully developed. A similar analysis, though more laborious, can be conducted for
compressible fluids (gases). Incidentally, laminar flow conditions may be easily accounted for in the
following development [6].
Consider the flow through a channel of height c and length L, as shown in Figure 5. The channel is
infinitely long in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the page. The fluid flows from a large plenum
at pressure P
s
, and as it enters the seal, there is a sudden pressure drop (and flow acceleration) at the
sudden contraction. This Bernoullilike effect is solely due to fluid inertia and expressed by,
V
) + (1
2
1
 P P
2
z s e
ξ ρ =
(1)
where Ρ
e
is the fluid entrance pressure at the seal inlet, V
z
is the bulkflow axial velocity, and ξ is a non
isentropic (empirical) entrance loss coefficient (typical value ranging from 0.0 to 0.25). In equation (1),
fluid stagnant conditions are considered well upstream of the seal inlet plane. Within the seal of land
length L and small film clearance (c), a linear pressure drop evolves due to viscous (turbulent flow)
effects, i.e.
L V
c
k
+ = P P
z
2
z
a e
µ
−
(2)
where κ
z
= 12 for laminar flow or
a z z
R f = κ for turbulent flow. Note that the axial velocity is constant
along the thin film due to flow continuity, i.e. V
z
· c = Q
z
. In turbulent flows, the shear parameter κ
z
is a
function of the axial flow Reynolds number (R
a
). Using Hirs’ formulation [9],
R
n =
R
)
R
(n =
R
f =
k
1 + m
a a
m
a a z z
;
µ
ρ c
V
=
R
z
a
(3)
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  5
with n = 0.0066, m = 0.25 for smooth surface conditions. Thus, for turbulent flows, equation (2) becomes
f
c
L
V
P P
z
2
z
a e
ρ = − (4)
L
c
P
a
Axial velocity, V
z
P
s
P
s
P
e
P
a
z
Figure 5: Inertial Pressure Drop due to a Sudden Contraction.
Combining equations (1) and (4) renders the axial velocity V
z
, i.e.
f
c
L
+ ) + (1
2
P P
=
V
z
a s 2
z
ρ ζ
ρ
−
(5)
The procedure is iterative since the friction factor (f
z
) is a function of the axial velocity (V
z
). Note that
f
c
L
and ) + (1
2
z
ρ ζ
ρ
can be thought as fluidic resistances [8]. The flow rate per unit depth (or seal
circumference) is Q
z
= V
z
· c. Thus, an increase in entrance loss factor as well as large friction in the land
and seal length produce a reduction in leakage. The entrance pressure is also determined from equations
(4) and (5) as
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
−
−
L
c
f 2
) + (1
+ 1
P P
= P P
z
a s
a e
ζ
(6)
Note that the larger the ratio, [
L
c
f 2
) + (1
z
ζ
], the larger the entrance pressure drop (P
s
 P
e
).
Consider a small variation in film thickness so that c = c
o
– ∆c, with ∆c<<c. A positive value of ∆c means
a reduction in the local film thickness. The axial velocity and entrance pressure also undergo small
changes, i.e.
P P P ; V V V
eo e z zo z
∆ ∆ + = + = (7)
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  6 RTOENAVT143
A perturbation analysis of all variables, including the friction factors, leads to.
)
zo
z
V (1
P 
= V
ζ ρ +
∆
∆
;
( )
( )
( )
o
eo s
a eo
a eo
c
c
P P 2
P P ) + (m
+ 1
m)  (1 P P
= P
∆
−
−
−
∆
2
(8)
If ∆P is positive, then ∆V
z
is negative, i.e. when the film thickness decreases (∆c<0) and ∆P raises, this
produces a reduction in axial velocity V
z
.
Integration of the pressure field over the channel length (L) and depth (B) produces a fluid film reaction
force (F)
( ) ( ) c K F
2
L
B P P dz P P B F
o a e
L
0
a
∆ + = − =
∫
− =
(9)
The static stiffness (K) equals
( )
( )
( )
( )
a s
o
eo
eo
eo
P P
c 2
L B
p 1 2
p ) 2 + (m
+ 1
m)  (1 p
= K −
−
(10)
where
a s
a eo
eo
P P
P P
p
−
−
=
is an entrance pressure ratio. A dimensionless stiffness follows as:
( )
( )
( )
( )
p 1 2
p ) 2 + (m
+ 1
m)  (1 p
=
P P
c 2
L B
K
K
eo
eo
eo
a s
o
−
−
=
(11)
For smooth surfaces (m=0.25), at p
eo
=0.515 the stiffness is a maximum,
max
K =0.3336. That is, an
optimum stiffness arises when the inertial entrance pressure drop is slightly larger than 50% of the
available pressure drop (P
s
P
a
) across the channel length (L). Figure 6 displays the stiffness as a function
of the entrance pressure ratio (p
eo
). Small values of p
eo
(→0) indicate too large entrance pressure losses
due to fluid inertia, while too large values of p
eo
(→1) show too much fluid resistance through the channel
length (film land with tight clearance or overly long). None of these two conditions are favorable to induce
a pronounced stiffening effect in an annular pressure seal.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  7
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
pe: pressure ratio (entrance/supply)
d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
l
e
s
s
s
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s
(
K
)
*
Figure 6: Dimensionless Stiffness versus Entrance Pressure
Ratio in a Thin Channel with a Sudden Inlet Contraction.
1.2 Bulk Flow Analysis of Turbulent Flow Annular Pressure Seals
Most annular pressure seal analyses predict the dynamic force coefficients due to rotor axis translations
about an equilibrium point, i.e. for cylindrical whirl motions. Dynamic force and moment coefficients due
to rotor axis angular displacements are of importance in long annular seals, in particular balance pistons
and in submerged pump motors [10].
Figure 7 shows the four degrees of freedom in a long annular seal. For small amplitude shaft translational
motions ∆e
X
(t), ∆e
Y
(t) along two perpendicular axes (X,Y), and rotations δ
X
(t), δ
Y
(t) around these axes, the
seal reaction forces (F
X
,F
Y
) and yawing and pitching moments (M
X
, M
Y
) can be characterized by the
following equation:
X
Y
Z
δX
δY
Figure 7: Seal with Dynamic Translations (X,Y) and Angulations (δX, δY).
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  8 RTOENAVT143
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
∆
∆
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
∆
∆
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
∆
∆
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ δ δ δ δ δ
δ δ δ δ δ δ
δ δ
δ δ
δ δ δ δ δ δ
δ δ δ δ δ δ
δ δ
δ δ
δ δ δ δ δ δ
δ δ δ δ δ δ
δ δ
δ δ
Y
X
Y
X
X X Y X XX XY
Y X X X XY XX
X X Y X XX YX
Y X X X XY XX
Y
X
Y
X
X X Y X XX XY
Y X X X XY XX
X X Y X XX YX
Y X X X XY XX
Y
X
Y
X
X X Y X XX XY
Y X X X XY XX
X X Y X XX YX
Y X X X XY XX
Y
X
Y
X
e
e
M M M M
M M M M
M M M M
M M M M

e
e
C C C C
C C C C
C C C C
C C C C

e
e
K K K K

K K K K
K K K K
K K K K
 =
M
M
F
F
(12)
Equation (12) shows the complexity of seal dynamic forced performance. There are 16 stiffness
coefficients, 16 damping coefficients, and 16 added mass or fluid inertia coefficients. Most rotordynamic
software analyses consider only the 4 stiffness, 4 damping and 4 inertia force coefficients due to shaft
lateral motions (X, Y)
1
.
In an annular seal, the flow regime is characterized by high levels of flow turbulence due to the large axial
pressure drop (P
s
 P
a
) and high surface speed (ΩR) of the rotating shaft. A sudden pressure loss and fluid
acceleration occur at the seal inlet plane due to the local contraction from the upstream plenum into the
film clearance. The smallness of the seal clearance (c) as compared to its length or diameter (L, πD) allows
crossfilm integration of the three dimensional momentum and continuity equations, thus rendering a
simpler set of transport equations for the bulkflow velocities (V
x
, V
z
) and pressure (P) field [1, 6, 10].
The accepted bulkflow equations for fully developed turbulent flows at high Reynolds numbers are given
by [6]:
( ) ( ) 0 =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
t
h
hV
z
hV
x
z x
(13)
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+ 
.

\

− =
∂
∂
−
z
V V
x
V
t
V
h
U
V
h x
P
h
z x x x
J x x
2
2
ρ κ κ
µ
(14)
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+ =
∂
∂
−
z
V
x
V V
t
V
h V
h z
P
h
z z x z
z z
2
ρ κ
µ
(15)
where h is the film thickness, (V
x
, V
z
) are the bukflow (film averaged) circumferential and axial flow
velocities, P is the pressure, and (κ
x
κ
z
) denote wall shear stress difference turbulence flow coefficients.
These equations are strictly valid for flows without local recirculation zones, i.e. the bulk flow equations
are of limited applicability in labyrinth seals or deep groove seals, for example.
1
XLTRC
2
rotordynamics software suite at Texas A&M University does consider the full set of seal force and moment
coefficients.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  9
Chapters 4 and 5 of Childs textbook [1] provide full descriptions of the analysis and dynamic force
response for liquid and gas seals, respectively. San Andrés et al. [11, 12, and 13] extend the model above
by including thermal effects and twophase flow characterization, of importance in cryogenic liquid
applications.
There is commercial software available for prediction of seal leakage and dynamic force coefficients.
Most seal practitioners use programs predicting the performance of centered seals, i.e. operating at a null
or zero eccentricity. The rationale assumes the seals are NOT load bearing elements. However, this
assumption may be quite unrealistic in liquid turbopumps, for example. That is, liquid seals are “load”
paths that can affect the load distribution on the support oil lubricated bearings.
The representation of seal forces for lateral motions (X, Y) is given as
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(
¸
−
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(
¸
−
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(
¸
− =
(
¸
(
¸
Y
X
M M
M M
Y
X
C C
C C
Y
X
K K
K K
F
F
YY YX
XY XX
YY YX
XY XX
YY YX
XY XX
Y
X
(16)
where {[K], [C], [M]} represent the matrices of stiffness, damping and inertia force coefficients. Unlike
in oillubricated bearings, added mass or fluid inertia coefficients are of great importance in liquid seals
due to the fluid density and the large flow Reynolds numbers typical of seal flow operation. Seal analysis
at a centered position shows that the direct force coefficients are identical while the crosscoupled
coefficients are anti symmetric, i.e. K
YY
= K
XX
, K
XY
= K
YX
, etc. Note that the seal force coefficients are
frequency independent, i.e. remain constant for changes in excitation or whirl frequency. This assertion is
correct only for (nearly) incompressible fluids such as water and liquid oxygen, for example. Other fluids,
most notably gases and liquefied natural gas, are quite compressible. Seals in these applications will
produce force coefficients which vary greatly with excitation frequency [3].
San Andrés [8] presents an analysis for fully developed flow through a centered short length annular
pressure seal. For small amplitude perturbations in rotor center displacements, a closed form firstorder
flow field is determined from the linearized fluid flow equations. Close form expressions for the force
coefficients due to shaft (rotor) displacements are then derived and compared with predictions from other
analyses. The analytical formulation is simple and easy to implement during preliminary pump design
stages and multivariable parametric studies. A free software, MATHCAD® computational program, is
available at the author’s URL site (http://phn.tamu.edu/TRIBGroup).
The prediction of annular seal static and dynamic force performance relies on the specification of
• seal geometry (length, diameter and clearance);
• operating conditions, speed and pressure supply and discharge;
• fluid properties (density and viscosity); and,
• empirical coefficients for the inlet pressure loss (ξ) and the inlet swirl ratio (α).
These last parameters are of extreme importance since the direct and crosscoupled stiffnesses depend
directly on the seal entrance conditions. At the inlet to the seal section, the typical boundary conditions are
R V
V
+ (1
2
1
 P P
x
2
z s e
Ω = = α ξ ρ , )
(17)
where Ρ
e
is the fluid entrance pressure at the seal inlet, V
z
is the bulkflow axial velocity, and ξ is a non
isentropic (empirical) entrance loss coefficient. The inlet circumferential speed is a fraction of the rotor
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  10 RTOENAVT143
speed (ΩR). α=0.50 denotes a 50% inlet swirl typical of an entrance condition into an interstage seal or
balance piston, for example. α=~0.60 is more appropriate at the inlet of a neckring seal. As will be seen
shortly, the inlet circumferential condition plays a significant role in the generation of crosscoupled
stiffness coefficients, the culprit elements leading to rotordynamic instability. In short, an inlet swirl factor
α=0.50 leads to a whirl frequency ratio of 50%, i.e. an annular seal is “as bad” as a plain journal bearing in
terms of generating follower forces that drive forward whirl in rotating machinery.
Antiswirl brakes, as shown in Figure 8, are used to reduce the prerotation of fluid into the seal, α→0. In
this way, rotordynamic stability is ensured at the cost of mechanical complexity. Other fixes, in particular
in long seals representing balance pistons, include implementing “shunt injection,” i.e. forcing liquid
somewhere along the seal length in a direction opposite to shaft rotation in order to reduce the
development of the circumferential flow speed.
rotor
Radial baffles
retarding fluid swirl Fluid path
Rotor speed
Seal
Figure 8: Anti Swirl Brake at Inlet or Pressure Seal.
The performance of annular seals is also affected by the condition of the rotor and stator surfaces. Since
seals are regarded as rub elements, i.e. subjected to temporary conditions of rubbing at start up and shut
down; in practice, predictions are obtained for two clearances, one representing the nominal design or
manufactured clearance, and the other clearance at twice the nominal value to denote a worn seal
condition in actual operation. These predictions are obtained to determine the effect of clearance on seal
leakage rate, power loss and, most importantly, force coefficients affecting the rotor dynamics of the pump
(or compressor). In liquid pumps, changes in clearance can affect greatly the direct stiffness thus moving
the rotorbearing system critical speeds (natural frequencies) and producing significant changes in
damping ratio.
1.3 Performance of Short and Long Annular Seals for a Water Pump
Predictions of leakage and force coefficients for two water seal configurations representing a neck ring
seal (short length, L/D=0.2) and an interstage seal (~long seal L/D=0.5) follow. Table 1 shows the
geometry of the smooth surfaces seals.
Table 1: Geometry and Operating Conditions of Water Seals in a Liquid Pump
D = 152. 4 mm, L/D=0.20 and 0.50
c=0.190 mm, nominal clearance
smooth rotor and stator surfaces
Nominal speed = 3600 rpm and pressure drop 34.4 bar
Inlet loss coefficient ξ=0.1, Inlet swirl α=0.5 and 0.0
Fluid: water at 30°C ( 0.792 cPoise, 995 kg/m
3
)
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  11
The analysis shows results for the nominal clearance and twice its value representing a worn condition. In
addition, an inlet swirl of 50% represents a fluid with an entrance circumferential velocity equal to 50% of
rotor surface speed. The swirl factor α=0 denotes the seal with an antiswirl brake located at the seal inlet.
The pressure drop across the seal varies in a quadratic form with rotor speed, ∆P ~ Ω
2
, with the nominal
condition noted in the table. The speed range for the predictions is 1,000 to 5,000 rpm.
In the following figures, the left graphs show predictions for the long seal (L/D=0.50) while on the right,
L/D=0.20. In addition, the predictions are shown are for the condition of inlet swirl at 50% rotor speed,
unless otherwise stated. That is, the change in inlet swirl does not affect significantly several of the seal
flow performance parameters. When important, the graphs and discussion will focus on this aspect.
Inlet Pressure: Figure 9 depicts the supply pressure into the seal increasing with rotor speed. The
entrance pressures are lower for the worn seal (2c) due to an increase in flow rate that magnifies the fluid
inertia inlet effect. The short seal shows a larger entrance pressure drop since the flow rate across the seal
is larger (larger axial flow velocity). Inlet swirl has a minimal effect on the entrance pressure into the seal.
Pressures vs shaft speed
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
S
u
p
p
l
y
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Supply pressure
Nominal clearance (C)
Twice clearance (worn)
No effect of inlet swirl on entrance pressure
bar
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.50, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
L/D=0.50
Pressures vs shaft speed
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
S
u
p
p
l
y
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Supply pressure
Nominal clearance (C)
Twice clearance (worn)
No effect of inlet swirl on entrance pressure
bar
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.20, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
L/D=0.20
Figure 9: Supply and Entrance Pressures for Two Water Seals, L/D=0.50
and 0.20, and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed.
Flow Rate: Figure 10 shows the worn seals (enlarged clearances) leak more than at the nominal clearance
condition. The short length seals have a larger flow rate in spite of the reduced entrance pressure. The
penalty in leakage increase as the seal wears will affect the overall efficiency of the liquid pump. Inlet
swirl has no discernible effect on seal leakage. The seal leakage appears as proportional to shaft speed.
However, its variation is proportional to ∆P
1/2
. Recall that the pressure drop varies with rotor speed, Ω
2
.
Drag Power: Figure 11 shows that the long seals (L/D=0.5) have a larger drag power (torque x rotational
speed) than the short length seals due to the larger area of fluid flow shearing. Inlet swirl is not significant
in spite that the mean flow circumferential speed may be much less than 50% of rotor surface speed.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  12 RTOENAVT143
Leakage vs shaft speed
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
F
l
o
w
r
a
t
e
Nominal clearance (C)
Twice clearance (worn)
No effect of inlet swirl
kg/s
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.50, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
L/D=0.50
Leakage vs shaft speed
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
F
l
o
w
r
a
t
e
Nominal clearance (C)
Twice clearance (worn)
No effect of inlet swirl
kg/s
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.20, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
L/D=0.20
Figure 10: Leakage (Flow Rate) for Two Water Seals, L/D=0.50 and 0.20,
and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed.
Power vs shaft speed
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
D
r
a
g
P
o
w
e
r
Nominal clearance (C)
Twice clearance (worn)
"" no swirl
minor effect of inlet swirl
kW
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.50, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
L/D=0.50
Power vs shaft speed
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
D
r
a
g
P
o
w
e
r
Nominal clearance (C)
Twice clearance (worn)
"" no swirl
minor effect of inlet swirl
kW
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.20, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
L/D=0.20
Figure 11: Drag Power for Two Water Seals, L/D=0.50 and 0.20,
and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed.
Direct Stiffnesses: Figure 12 depicts the direct stiffness coefficients, K
XX
=K
YY
, increasing rapidly with
rotor speed, i.e. with supply (or entrance) pressure. The direct stiffness for the long seal is about twice as
large as for the short seal, and comparable in magnitude to the stiffnesses of any oil lubricated bearing, for
example. The worn seals show a dramatic reduction in direct stiffness. For example, at the nominal
operating condition of 3,600 rpm, the direct stiffnesses are ~50% of the values for the nominal clearances.
This stiffness reduction will affect considerably the rotordynamic behaviour of a liquid pump. Recall that
“wet” critical speeds depend on the seal direct stiffnesses which clearly drop as the seal wears out.
Direct Stiffness vs shaft speed
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
0.0 1000.0 2000.0 3000.0 4000.0 5000.0 6000.0
Rotor Speed (RPM)
S
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s
Nominal clearance (C)
Twice clearance (worn)
""no swirl
negligible effect of inlet swirl
Kxx=Kyy
[MN/m]
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.50, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
L/D=0.50
Direct Stiffness vs shaft speed
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
0.0 1000.0 2000.0 3000.0 4000.0 5000.0 6000.0
Rotor Speed (RPM)
S
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s
Nominal clearance (C)
Twice clearance (worn)
""no swirl
negligible effect of inlet swirl
Kxx=Kyy
[MN/m]
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.20, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
L/D=0.20
Figure 12: Direct Stiffness Coefficients for Two Water Seals, L/D=0.50
and 0.20, and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  13
CrossCoupled Stiffnesses: Figure 13 displays the crosscoupled stiffness coefficients, K
XY
=K
YX
, also
increasing rapidly with rotor speed. The operating clearance has a direct impact on the generation of cross
coupled forces, in general K
XY
~ 1/c for turbulent flow seals. Note that the vertical scale in both graphs is
different. The long seal shows about five times larger crosscoupled stiffness than in the short seal. The
impact of inlet swirl is profound in the generation of crosscoupled forces. Note that in the long seal, a null
pre swirl, α=0.0, aids to reduce considerably the generation of K
XY
since the circumferential flow is greatly
retarded. This effect is more pronounced for the worn seal since the increase in leakage pushes faster the
fluid through the seal without it having enough time to evolve towards the 50% surface speed condition.
Cross Stiffness vs shaft speed
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
0.0 1000.0 2000.0 3000.0 4000.0 5000.0 6000.0
Rotor Speed (RPM)
S
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s
Nominal clearance (with swirl)
"" no swirl
Twice clearance (worn)
"" no swirl
large effect of inlet swirl
Kxy=Kyx
[MN/m]
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.50, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
no inlet swirl
1xC
2xC
50% inlet swirl
L/D=0.50
Cross Stiffness vs shaft speed
2.0
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
0.0 1000.0 2000.0 3000.0 4000.0 5000.0 6000.0
Rotor Speed (RPM)
S
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s
Nominal clearance (with swirl)
"" no swirl
Twice clearance (worn)
"" no swirl
large effect of inlet swirl
Kxy=Kyx
[MN/m]
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.20, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
no inlet swirl
1xC
2xC
50% inlet swirl
L/D=0.20
Figure 13: CrossCoupled Stiffness Coefficients for Two Water Seals, L/D=0.50 and 0.20,
and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed (note difference in vertical scales).
In the short length seal, on the other hand, the effect of null pre swirl is remarkable. The crosscoupled
coefficients are effectively null (zero magnitude). Note that K
XY
< 0 denotes a most favourable condition to
avoid synchronous forward whirl, i.e. the crosscoupled stiffness force acts effectively as a damping force.
At the nominal operating condition, for the long seal and with a pre swirl ratio of 50%, K
XY
is as large as
the direct stiffness coefficient, K
XX
, see Figure 12. In the short length seal, K
XY
‘s are not as large as the
direct stiffnesses. The larger the crosscoupled coefficients, the smaller the effective damping acting on
the rotorbearing system, C
ef
=C
XX
(1/ω)K
XY
.
Damping Coefficients: Figure 14 shows the direct (C
XX
=C
YY
) and crosscoupled damping (C
XY
=C
YX
)
coefficients for the two seals. In general, C
XY
< C
XX
, except for seals handling compressible fluids (gases).
Incidentally, inlet pre swirl, α=0.00.50, has a negligible effect on the generation of damping coefficients.
Damping arises from squeeze film effects and is not directly a function of rotor speed. The damping
coefficients are a function of the effective turbulent flow viscosity, a function of the flow Reynolds
number which increases with the pressure drop across the seal. In addition, for turbulent flows, the direct
damping is inversely proportional to the operating clearance
2
. Note that the vertical scales in both graphs
are different. Thus, the long seal shows about five times larger direct damping than the short length seal.
Seal wear enlarging its operating clearance leads to a dramatic drop in direct damping.
2
In laminar flow journal bearings, the damping and crossstiffness coefficients are proportional to (1/c)
3
. See Lecture 2
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  14 RTOENAVT143
Damping vs shaft speed
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0.0 1000.0 2000.0 3000.0 4000.0 5000.0 6000.0
Rotor Speed (RPM)
D
a
m
p
i
n
g
Cxx Nominal clearance (with swirl)
Cxy
Cxx Twice clearance (worn)
Cxy
little effect of inlet swirl
Cxx=Cyy
Cxy=Cyx
[kNs/m]
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.50, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
1xC
2xC
50% inlet swirl
Cxx
Cxy
L/D=0.50
Damping vs shaft speed
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
0.0 1000.0 2000.0 3000.0 4000.0 5000.0 6000.0
Rotor Speed (RPM)
D
a
m
p
i
n
g
Cxx Nominal clearance (with swirl)
Cxy
Cxx Twice clearance (worn)
Cxy
little effect of inlet swirl
Cxx=Cyy
Cxy=Cyx
[kNs/m]
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.20, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
1xC
2xC
50% inlet swirl
Cxx
Cxy
L/D=0.20
Figure 14: Direct and CrossDamping Coefficients for Two Water Seals, L/D=0.50 and 0.20,
and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed (note difference in vertical scales).
Inertia Force Coefficients: Figure 15 shows the direct (M
XX
=M
YY
) added mass coefficient for the two
seals. In general, M
XY
 < M
XX
, and thus not shown here. Inlet swirl has no discernible effect on the direct
inertia force coefficient. Note that the added mass is practically invariant with shaft speed, in particular for
the long seal case. Incidentally, note the different scales in both graphs. The long seal renders a much
larger inertia coefficient. Its magnitude is significant and will be added as an apparent mass into the pump
rotor dynamic structural model. This is again, one more reason for the differences between “wet” and
“dry” critical speeds in liquid pumps.
Direct Inertia vs shaft speed
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
0.0 1000.0 2000.0 3000.0 4000.0 5000.0 6000.0
Rotor Speed (RPM)
A
d
d
e
d
m
a
s
s
Nominal clearance (C)
Twice clearance (worn)
""no swirl
negligible effect of inlet swirl
Mxx=Myy
[kg]
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.50, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
L/D=0.50
Direct Inertia vs shaft speed
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
0.0 1000.0 2000.0 3000.0 4000.0 5000.0 6000.0
Rotor Speed (RPM)
A
d
d
e
d
m
a
s
s
Nominal clearance (C)
Twice clearance (worn)
""no swirl
negligible effect of inlet swirl
Mxx=Myy
[kg]
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.20, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
L/D=0.20
Figure 15: Direct and CrossDamping Coefficients for Two Water Seals, L/D=0.50 and 0.20,
and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed (note differences in vertical scale).
The equation below presents a close form expression for estimation of the added mass coefficient (M
XX
) in
a seal or squeeze film damper [14]. The simple formula will serve to realize the importance of fluid inertia
on seal dynamic force performance. M
fluid
denotes the mass of liquid within the seal film land while M
steel
represents the mass of a solid piece of steel with density set to 7,800 kg/m
3
.
(18)
M
fluid
ρ π ⋅ D ⋅ L ⋅ c ⋅ := M
steel
ρ
steel
π ⋅
D
2
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎟
⎠
2
⋅ L ⋅ :=
M
XX
ρ π ⋅
D
2
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎟
⎠
3
⋅
L
c
⋅ 1
tanh
L
D
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎟
⎠
L
D
−
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
⋅ :=
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  15
The calculated values for the short and long seals and nominal clearance are
M
XX
2.91kg = L
D
0.2 =
M
fluid
2.76 10
3 −
× kg =
M
XX
M
steel
0.67 =
M
steel
4.34kg =
M
XX
42.03kg = L
D
0.5 =
M
fluid
6.9 10
3 −
× kg =
M
XX
M
steel
3.88 =
M
steel
10.84kg =
Although the mass of water contained within the seal land is just a few grams, the seal added mass
coefficient is orders of magnitude larger. The added mass or inertia coefficient (M
XX
) is of the same order
of magnitude, and for L/D=0.5 even larger, than the mass of a solid piece of rotor of identical length. The
approximate formula is very good for quick estimations of added mass coefficients, as a direct comparison
to the numerical results shown in Figure 15 attests.
Whirl Frequency Ratio: Figure 16 depicts the stability indicator (WFR) for the two seals. With an inlet
preswirl equal to 50% of rotor speed, the WFR is always 0.50. In this case, K
XY
/(Ω C
XX
) =0.50, indicates
that the pump can not operate at a sped above twice the critical speed of the rotorbearingseal system.
Furthermore, consider that this critical speed is the “wet” one, i.e. lower than the “dry” critical speed,
since fluid inertia effects will aid to reduce the “dry” natural frequency.
Whirl ratio vs shaft speed
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.0 1000.0 2000.0 3000.0 4000.0 5000.0 6000.0
Rotor Speed (RPM)
W
h
i
r
l
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
r
a
t
i
o
Nominal clearance (with swirl)
"" no swirl
Twice clearance (worn)
"" no swirl
large effect of inlet swirl
WFR
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.50, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
no inlet swirl
1xC
2xC
50% inlet swirl
L/D=0.50
Whirl ratio vs shaft speed
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.0 1000.0 2000.0 3000.0 4000.0 5000.0 6000.0
Rotor Speed (RPM)
W
h
i
r
l
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
r
a
t
i
o
Nominal clearance (with swirl)
"" no swirl
Twice clearance (worn)
"" no swirl
large effect of inlet swirl
WFR
operating speed
3600 rpm
water seal, L/D=0.20, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm
no inlet swirl
1xC
2xC
50% inlet swirl
negative values
L/D=0.20
Figure 16: Whirl Frequency Ratio for Two Water Seals, L/D=0.50 and 0.20, and Two
Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed (note difference in vertical scales).
The effect of an antiswirl break on the performance of the seal is dramatic. For a condition of no pre
swirl, the short length seal actually presents a negative whirl frequency ratio, meaning that the seal is
impervious to (unstable) forward rotor whirl motions. The effect of the null preswirl is less notorious in
the long seal, since the fluid flowing through the seal does have enough “residence” time to develop a
circumferential mean flow velocity approaching the 50% rotor speed. Clearly, swirl brakes are inefficient
devices for very long seals, L/D > 1, as it would be the case of a balance piston, for example.
Extensive testing has shown that seals with macroscopic roughness; i.e. textured stator surfaces, offer
major improvements in reducing leakage as well as crosscoupled stiffness coefficients [2]. Figure 17
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  16 RTOENAVT143
depicts two textured seals and a conventional labyrinth seal (teeth on stator). A textured surface like a
roundhole pattern or a honeycomb increases the friction thus reducing leakage, and aids to retard the
development of the circumferential flow velocity the physical condition generating the crosscoupled
stiffness coefficients. However, surface texturing on the rotor works the other way around while still
reducing leakage, i.e. the circumferential flow develops faster causing even more severe rotordynamic
instabilities. In the past 10 years, compressor and pump manufacturers (as well as users) are implementing
efficiently textured seals with great commercial success [15].
Unwrap
Unwrap
Honeycomb Seal
HolePattern Seal
Labyrinth Seal
Figure 17: HolePattern, Honeycomb and Labyrinth Seal Configurations.
2.0 HYDROSTATIC BEARINGS FOR PUMP APPLICATIONS
Hydrostatic bearings derive their load capacity not from shear flow driven effects (hydrodynamic wedge
and surface sliding) but rather from the combination of pressure versus flow resistance effects through a
feed restrictor and within the bearing film lands. Hydrostatic bearings can support large loads without
journal rotation and provide large (accurate and controllable) direct stiffness as well as damping
coefficients. The hydrostatic stiffness is of unique importance for the centering of highprecision milling
machines, gyroscopes, large arena movable seating areas, telescope bearings, and even cryogenic fluid
turbo pumps for rocket engines.
Note that hydrostatic bearings require an external pressurized supply system and some type of flow
restrictor. Also, under dynamic motions, hydrostatic bearings may display a pneumatic hammer effect due
to fluid compressibility. However, and most importantly, the load and static stiffness of a hydrostatic
bearing are independent of fluid viscosity; thus making this bearing type very attractive for cryogenic
liquid turbopumps or low viscosity process fluid pump applications.
2.1 Estimation of the Static Stiffness in a Simple Hydrostatic Bearing [16]
Consider the fundamental operation of a simple one dimensional hydrostatic bearing. The flow is laminar
and fluid inertia effects are not accounted for; i.e. a classical lubrication example. Figure 18 depicts a 1D
bearing of very large width (B). A hydrostatic bearing combines two flow restrictions in series, one at the
feed or supply port, and the other through the film lands. In the feed restrictor (orifice, capillary, etc.) the
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  17
fluid drops its pressure from the supply value (P
s
) to a magnitude (P
R
) within a recess or pocket of
typically large volume (see Figure 19). Since the recess is deep, the pocket pressure is regarded as uniform
over the entire recess area A
R
=bB. The fluid then flows from the recess into the film lands of small
thickness h, and discharges to ambient pressure through the bearing sides, say P
a
=0 for simplicity.
L
h
Fluid flow, Ql
Q
r
b
h
p
L
P
s
P
a
P
a
P
R
, recess
pressure
Feed restrictor
Film land
Figure 18: Geometry of a Simplified 1D Hydrostatic Bearing.
L
Supply
pressure
b L
P
s
P
a
P
a
P
R
, recess
pressure
Film land
Figure 19: Typical Pressure Drop in a Hydrostatic Bearing
(Laminar Flow without Fluid Inertia Effects, Incompressible Fluid).
The flow rate (Q
r
) across the restrictor is a function of the pressure drop, Q
t
=f(P
s
P
R
). For an orifice and
capillary feeding,
( )
R s d o o r
P P C A Q Q − = =
ρ
2
;
( )
R s c r
P P Q Q
c
d
− = =
A µ
π
128
4
(19)
A
o
and C
d
are the orifice area and empirical discharge coefficient, respectively. (d, ℓ
c
) are the diameter and
length of the capillary tube, typically ℓ
c
» 20 d. The orifice coefficient (C
d
) ranges from 0.6 to 1.0,
depending on the flow condition (Reynolds number), the orifice geometry and even the film thickness.
Under turbulent flow conditions, tests and CFD analysis evidence C
d
~0.80. [17]
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  18 RTOENAVT143
Across the bearing film lands the fluid drops in pressure from (P
R
) to ambient pressure, P
a
. In the laminar
flow of an incompressible fluid, the flow rate is a function of the pressure drop and equals
( )
L
P P h B
x
P h B
a R
Q
µ µ 12 12
3 3
−
∂
∂
+ = − =
A
(20)
where B is the bearing width and L is the film length with thickness h. Presently, no surface motion along
the xaxis is accounted for, i.e. the bearing is stationary. Under steady state conditions, the flow through
the restrictor equals the flow through the film lands, i.e.
( )
l a R l R s r
Q P P C P P f Q 2 ) ( 2 = − = − = (21)
with C
l
= B h
3
/(12 µ L) as a flowconductance along the film land. The flow conductance is the inverse of
a flow resistance. Equation (21) allows the determination of the recess pressure (P
R
) given the film
conductance (C
l
) and feed restrictor parameters. For bearing design, a value of pocket pressure (P
R
) is
desired, and equation (21) serves to size the diameter of the supply restrictor.
For the simple bearing considered, the pressure field on the bearing surface takes the shape shown in
Figure 19. Note that the recess pressure is assumed uniform or constant within the pocket extent (b). The
assertion is not valid for flows with large Reynolds numbers (highly turbulent), shallow pockets and with
large journal rotational speeds, as will be seen later [18]. The film pressure generates a reaction force,
R R R R
P b L B P b P P B dx x P B F
L L
) ( ) (
2 2
+ = + + = ∫ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(22)
where P
a
=0 for simplicity. The force (F) is proportional to the recess pressure (P
R
) and the area B (L + b).
Note that, in the absence of surface relative motion, a hydrostatic bearing has a limit load capacity,
[B(L+b)]P
s
.
A static change in film thickness (h
0
+∆h) with ∆h « h
0
, causes the recess pressure to change to P
Ro
+∆P
R
,
since the flow conductance varies. ∆P
R
<0 as ∆h>0. Integration of the change in pressure gives rise to a
the hydrostatic stiffness: [16]
) 1 (
) ( 3
+
+
=
∆
∆
− =
Z
P
h
b L B
h
F
K
Ro
o
(23)
with
( )
( )
( )
Ro s
a Ro
Ro
P P a
P P
P Z Z
−
−
= =
, a = 2 for orifice or a = 1 for capillary feed. The hydrostatic stiffness is
proportional to the bearing area [B(L+b]), the recess pressure (P
Ro
), and inversely proportional to the film
thickness (h
o
). Most importantly, the stiffness is not an explicit function of fluid viscosity. Figure 20
depicts the dimensionless stiffness,
1 ) ( 3 +
=
+
⋅
=
Z
p
P b L B
h K
K
ro
s
o
(24)
versus the recess pressure ratio, p
ro
=P
Ro
/P
s
. for bearings with orifice and capillary feeds, respectively.
Hydrostatic bearings with orifice compensation have larger stiffness than capillary fed bearings. Orifices
are usually preferred since their diameters are larger than those of capillaries. This is important since
restrictor clogging may cause catastrophic bearing failure, unless a micron size filtering device is used as
part of the fluid feed (supply) system into the bearing.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  19
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.2
0.4
orifice
capillary
Dimensionless stiffness for simple HB
pocket pressur ratio (Pr/Ps)
s
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s
(
d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
l
e
s
s
)
Figure 20: Static Stiffness for Simple Hydrostatic Bearing
(Laminar Flow w/o Fluid Inertia Effects, Incompressible Fluid).
A maximum hydrostatic stiffness occurs for a given recess pressure ratio. For a capillary (p
ro
=0.50) while
for an orifice (p
ro
=0.5857). In a capillary fed hydrostatic bearing, the pressure drops across the restrictor
should match the pressure drop across the film lands. The optimum stiffness arises from an impedance
matching between the feed restrictor and the flow resistance through the film lands. In the figure, a low
value of recess pressure indicates a large flow resistance (small conductance) through the restrictor, while
a large recess pressure denotes a large flow resistance through the film lands.
In sum, hydrostatic bearings with orifice restrictors offer larger stiffness than with capillary restrictors.
The bearing direct stiffness depends on the pocket pressure (< supply pressure) and does not dependent
explicitly on lubricant viscosity. Without an external pressure supply and restrictor, there is no stiffness or
load support.
2.1 Effects of Excitation Frequency, Pocket Volume and Fluid Compressibility on the
Force Coefficients of a Hybrid Bearing
The prior analysis explained the physics for the generation of support stiffness in a hydrostatic bearing.
The stiffness derived is static, strictly valid for low frequency motions. Motions at other frequencies
produce notable changes in both the stiffness and damping force coefficients. Below, hydrodynamic
effects (surface velocity) and fluid compressibility within the recess volume are accounted for [19]. A
hybrid bearing combines the hydrodynamic and hydrostatic effects due to surface motion and external
pressurization, respectively. Figure 21 depicts the simple 1Dbearing configuration analyzed next.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  20 RTOENAVT143
L
h
Fluid flow, Ql
Q
r
b
h
p
L
P
s
P
a
P
a
P
R
, recess
pressure
Feed restrictor
Film land
Figure 21: Simple Hybrid (Hydrostatic/Hydrodynamic) Bearing with Surface Speed (U).
The conservation of mass within the recess of a hydrostatic bearing balances the flow through the
restrictor (Q
r
), the flow into the film lands (2Q
l
) and the time rate of change of fluid mass accumulated
within the pocket,
( )
t
V 1
Q 2 Q
rec
l R
∂
∂
= −
ρ
ρ
(25)
where V
rec
=B d(h+h
R
) is the recess volume, h(t) is the film thickness, and h
R
is the machined pocket depth.
In the thin film lands, the continuity and momentum transport equations for the laminar flow of an
inertialess, isoviscous and (nearly) incompressible fluid are:

.

\

− =
∂
∂
− =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
2
h U
q 12
x
P
h ; 0
t
h
x
q
x
3 x
µ
(26)
where
B
Q
h V q
x
x x
= =
is the flow rate per unit width, and U is the bearing surface speed. Let the film
thickness be given as the superposition of a steadystate value (h
0
) and a harmonic motion of small
amplitude ∆h and frequency (ω), i.e.
t i
0 0
e h h ) t cos( h h h
ω
∆ ω ∆ + = + = ; and
t i
e h i h
ω
∆ ω =
(27)
Note that only the real part of the complex expression above is of importance. For small amplitude
motions (∆h<<h
0
), the film pressure (P) and flow rate (q
x
) are also given by the superposition of an
equilibrium (zerothorder) field and a dynamic (firstorder) field, i.e.
t i
x x x
t i
1 0
e h q q q ; e h P P P
1 0
ω ω
∆ ∆ + = + = (28)
The recess pressure (P
R
) and the flow (Q
l
) leaving the pocket into the film lands are also expressed as the
sum of static and dynamic components. The density and pressure in a compressible liquid are related
through the material bulkmodulus (κ), i.e.
dP d
κ
ρ
ρ =
. Thus
U
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  21
( )
t i
rec
R
rec
rec
e h i A
P
V
t
V 1
1
0
ω
∆ ω
κ
ρ
ρ


.

\

+ =
∂
∂
(29)
with ) (
0
0
R rec rec
h h A V + = . Equation (29) shows that the fluid mass in the pocket volume will vary
dynamically with changes in film thickness and pocket pressure, thus introducing a pressurelag effect
which can induce undesirable dynamic force effects, namely pneumatic hammer with generation of a
“negative” damping coefficient. San Andrés [19] introduces a break frequency (ω
B
) as
( )
( )
L
B h
V
Z
V
Z
P
Q
rec rec R
r
B
µ
κ κ
ω
6
1
1
3
0
0 0 0
0
+ =
+
= (30)
Note that ω
B
→∞ for an incompressible fluid (κ→∞). A lengthy algebraic analysis leads to the following
expressions for frequency dependent force coefficients [19],
( )
( )
( )
2 0 ) ( 2
2
0 ) (
f 1
1
C C ;
f 1
f
1
K K
+
−
=
+


.

\

+
=
α α
ω ω
(31)
where
B
f
ω
ω
=
is a frequency ratio,
o B
o
C
K
ω
α =
is a damping loss ratio; and (K
0
, C
0
)
are the stiffness and
damping coefficients obtained for an incompressible fluid, i.e. in the absence of liquid compressibility
( ∞ → κ ), and equal to
( ) ( )
) 1 Z (
1
h
b L L B 6
C ;
) 1 Z (
P
h
b L B 3
K
3
0
2
0
R
0
0
0
+
+
=
+
+
=
µ
(32)
with
( )
( )
( )
0
0
R s
a R
Ro
P P a
P P
P Z Z
−
−
= =
Note that the static stiffness coefficient (K
0
) is directly proportional to the recess pressure (P
R
). On the
other hand, the "static" damping coefficient (C
0
) depends solely on the fluid viscosity and the bearing area,
and it grows rapidly as the film thickness (h) decreases. Incidentally, the surface speed (U) does not aid to
the generation of force coefficients in laminar flow hydrostatic bearings.
Figure 22 shows the hydrostatic bearing stiffness (K) and damping (C) coefficients for increasing
frequency ratios (ω/ω
B
). The results correspond to a bearing with deep a deep pocket depth (h
R
/h=10) and
damping loss factor (α=0.42). In general, the hydrostatic stiffness increases as the excitation frequency
grows while the damping coefficient drops dramatically. See [19] for a more detailed analysis with
examples related to cryogenic fluid hydrostatic bearings.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  22 RTOENAVT143
0 1 2 3 4
0.1
1
10
K/Ko
C/Co
Coefficients for hydrostatic bearing
excitation frequency/break frequency
D
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
l
e
s
s
s
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s
a
n
d
d
a
m
p
i
n
g
Figure 22: Frequency Dependent (Dimensionless) Force
Coefficients for Simple Hydrostatic Bearing.
For excitations at low frequencies, ω→0 (ω
<<ω
B
), the stiffness and damping coefficients approach
( ) α
ω ω
− = =
= =
1 C C ; K K
0 ) 0 ( 0 ) 0 (
(33)
Thus, at low frequencies there is a loss of damping due to fluid compressibility effects (α>0). This
reduction may cause the bearing to become unstable even under static conditions if the loss ratio (α) is
larger than one. This phenomenon is known as pneumatic hammer and characteristic of gas hydrostatic
bearings.
For excitations at large frequencies, (ω→∞, ω
>>ω
B
),
0 ;
) (
0
) (
= = =
∞ → ∞ ∞ → ω ω
α
C
K
K K (34)
there is a complete loss of damping accompanied by an increase in dynamic stiffness. For excitations at a
frequency coinciding with the break frequency (ω
B
), the stiffness and damping coefficients are
( ) α
α
α
− = =
+
=
= = =
1
2
1
2
1
;
2
1
) 0 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( o f f o f
C C C K K (35)
Thus, the damping coefficient is just 50% of the value obtained at low frequencies.
The force coefficients are frequency independent in a nearly incompressible fluid (κ→0, ω
B
→∞).
However, note that even in commonly assumed incompressible liquids, the fluid bulk modulus decreases
rapidly with minute concentrations of dissolved gases.
To avoid fluid compressibility – pocket volume effects it is desirable to design the hydrostatic bearing
with a break frequency (ω
B
) as large as possible and/or operate the bearing under dynamic conditions with
excitation frequencies well below the break frequency, i.e. f<<1.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  23
From equation (30), to increase the break frequency ratio, large values for the following ratio are needed,





.

\

(
¸
(
¸
+
=


.

\

0
2
0
3
0
1
1
6 6
1
0
h
h
L d
h
L V
B h
R
rec
.
That is, deep pockets (h
R
/h
0
>>1) tend to aggravate the loss of damping at low excitation frequencies.
It is notable to mention that the whirl frequency ratio for a centered hybrid bearing [19] is
( ) ( ) α α
φ
−
≈
− Ω
=
Ω
= =
= ==
1
1
5 . 0
1
0 0
XX
XY
XX
XY
C
K
C
K
WFR
f
(36)
Hence, hybrid bearings have the same limited whirl frequency ratio as plain cylindrical bearings. This
ratio could even be worse, WFR > 0.5 if α > 0, i.e. if fluid compressibility –recess volume effects are
important.
2.2 Hybrid (Hydrostatic/Hydrodynamic) Bearings for High Performance Turbopumps
The importance of hybrid (combination hydrostatic and hydrodynamic) journal and thrust bearings and
damping seal bearings as radial support elements in cryogenic turbomachinery has steadily grown over the
past few years [20, 21]. Compact  low count part turbo pumps operate sub critically at exceedingly high
shaft speeds (180 krpm) with pressure differentials as large as 550 bars. Advanced primary power require
of externally pressurized fluid film bearings to support the expected large thrust and lateral radial loads.
Hybrid journal bearings (HJB)s enable smaller and lighter turbopumps through no bearing DN life
limitation and sub critical rotor operation, i.e. at speeds below the first elastic mode of the rotorbearing
system. HJBs offer durability, low friction and wear, accuracy of positioning, and large direct stiffness and
damping force coefficients. These features enable the design (and operation) of unshrouded impellers
with a significant increase in the turbopump mechanical efficiency. The growth of an "allfluidfilm
bearing" technology for advanced and less costly (per launch cost) turbopumps demands the development
of analytical models and design tools, the testing of components, and the implementation of the
technology.
Figure 23 depicts an Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Turbopump developed by Pratt & Whitney in the late
1990’s. The compact turbopump integrates two LH
2
lubricated hydrostatic radial bearings and a
hydrostatic thrust bearing. Fluid pressure to the pump and turbine end bearings is supplied from the pump
discharge volute. [22].
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  24 RTOENAVT143
Figure 23: Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Turbopump [22].
Figure 24 shows a picture of the LH2 hydrostatic bearing used as the primary means of rotor radial
support. The design provides high stiffness and damping and, by means of reverse angled orifice injection,
negative crosscoupled stiffness. The bearing surface is textured (macroscopic roughness) to enhance the
damping and reduce flow requirements.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  25
Figure 24: Hydrostatic Radial and Thrust Bearings for Cryogenic Turbopump.
Note that for the cryogenic fluid application as well as others handling low viscosity liquids, the large
surface speeds and the large pressure differential determine flow conditions with high levels of flow
turbulence and fluid inertia effects. Flow turbulence increases the lubricant “effective” viscosity, thus
enhancing the load capacity due to hydrodynamic effects and increasing the bearing energy dissipation
characteristics, i.e. more damping 20, 21]. Computational programs based on the Reynolds equation of
classical lubrication, i.e. no fluid inertia, are illprepared to render adequate predictions of hybrid bearing
performance, static and dynamic force coefficients.
The author has developed the most comprehensive computational analyses for prediction of process fluid
hybrid bearings, radial and thrust. The analyses address to the most important theoretical and practical
issues related to the operation and dynamic performance of cryogenic fluid film bearings, i.e. geometric
configuration, operating conditions, flow turbulence, fluid inertia, realistic fluid properties, thermal
effects, and twophase flow phenomena. References [1821, 2328] detail the computational analyses
performed along with experimental measurements aiming to validate and calibrate the predictive codes.
2.3 Bulk Flow Analysis of Turbulent Flow Hydrostatic Bearings
Figure 25 shows the geometry of a hybrid (combination hydrostatic/hydrodynamic) journal bearing. A
liquid at high pressure (P
s
) is supplied through orifice restrictors and impinges into the bearing recesses
with a mean pressure (P
R
). The fluid injection is typically radial; though in some instances it could be at
an angle opposing shaft rotation
3
. The pressure field within the recesses is determined from flow
continuity with the film lands, momentum exchange at the orifice plane and a viscous rise due to journal
rotation. At the recess edges, an inertial pressure drop also occurs due to the sudden transition from the
recess of depth (h
R
) into the film lands of thickness (h). Past the recesses, the liquid then flows through
the film lands and the pressure drops to the discharge value (P
a
).
3
Angled injection aids to reduce the development of circumferential flow speed and reduce, even eliminate, the magnitude of
crosscoupled stiffness coefficients [28].
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  26 RTOENAVT143
x=Rθ
X
Y
recess
orifice
journal
Ω
g
Figure 25: Schematic View of a Radial Hydrostatic/Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing.
The computational model considers the fully developed turbulent bulkflow of a fluid whose material
properties depend on its local thermo physical state of pressure and temperature. The general transport
equations including these features are [20]:
( ) ( ) ( )
S
z
V h
x
V h
t
h
z x
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂ ψ ρ ψ ρ ψ ρ
(37)
where Variable Source term, S .
conservation of mass
equation
ψ = 1 0
transport of
circumferential (x)
momentum velocity
ψ = V
x

.

\
 Ω
− −
∂
∂
−
2
R
V
h x
P
h
J x x
κ κ
µ
(38)
transport of axial
momentum (z) velocity
ψ = V
z
( )
z z
V
h z
P
h κ
µ
−
∂
∂
−
Above (V
x
, V
z
) are the bukflow (film averaged) circumferential and axial flow velocities, P is the
pressure, and (κ
x
κ
z
) denote wall shear stress turbulent flow coefficients. The wall shear stress parameters
κ
y
=κ
x
=½(κ
J
+κ
B
) with κ
J
=f
J
Re
J
, κB=f
B
Re
B
, and the friction factors (f
J
,
B
) depend on the bearing and
journal surface conditions and the flow Reynolds numbers relative to the rotating (Re
J
) and stationary
(Re
B
) surfaces [9].
Figure 26 depicts a bearing recess with axial length (l) and circumferential extent (b). The recess area (A
R
)
equals (lxb) and the feed orifice has diameter d
o
with a feed volume equal to V
supply
. The simplified analysis
of hydrostatic bearings does not model the flow field within the recess since these are (typically) deep and
enclose a nearly stagnant fluid volume. The bulkflow model accounts for mass flow continuity with the
film lands and obtains the recess pressures (P
R
) from an orifice flow equation which requires of an
empirical discharge coefficient (C
d
). CFD results and measurements show the generation of hydrodynamic
pressures within the pocket, followed by sharp inertial pressure drops at the recess edges [23].
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  27
Supply
pressure
Ps
−
+
R
R
P
P
Pa
PR
Film land Fluid flow, M
Γ
b
H
MR
HR
P
s
PR, recess
pressure
Feed orifice and
Supply volume
Film land
ΩR
b
Supply
pressure
Ps
−
+
R
R
P
P
Pa
PR
Film land Fluid flow, M
Γ
b
H
MR
HR
P
s
PR, recess
pressure
Feed orifice and
Supply volume
Film land
ΩR
b
Figure 26: Turbulent Flow Pressure Distribution in a Pocket of a Hybrid Bearing.
The continuity equation at a hydrostatic recess establishes a balance among the mass flow through the feed
orifice (M
R
), the flow through the boundaries of the recess into the film lands (M
Γ
), and the accumulation
of fluid mass within the recess volume, V
R
=[A
R
(h+h
R
)+V
supply
]. That is,
  ( )
R R s o d R
V
t
M P P A C M ρ
ρ
∂
∂
+ =

.

\

− =
Γ
2 / 1
2
(39)
where A
o
= C
d
(πd
o
2
/4) is the effective orifice area, and ( )
∫
Γ
Γ
Γ ⋅ = d V h M η ρ
G
G
is the outflow from the
pocket into the bearing film lands. The circumferential pressure downstream of the feed orifice,
+
R
P , is
given, as in a Rayleigh step bearing, by [24]
( )
R
x
R
x R R
V
R
h h
b
P P
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
−
Ω
+
+ =
+
2
2
2
κ µ (40)
Fluid inertia causes a sudden pressure drop at the interface between a recess and the film lands. The fluid
pressures,
−
R
P , entering into the film lands bounding a recess are
2
,
2
1
2
) 1 (
z x
R e
e
R R
V
h h
h
P P
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

+


.

\

−
+
+ =
+
−
+ −
ρ
ρ
ρ
ξ
(41)
where (ξ) represents empirical entrance loss coefficients at the recess edges, axial and circumferential. The
sudden pressure drop is accounted for only if the fluid flow effectively enters into the thin film lands.
Recall that severe sub synchronous vibrations at rotational speeds above a certain threshold denote a
hydrodynamic instability on rotorfluid film bearing systems and due to the effect of journal rotational
speed on the shear flow field. This condition is typical of fixed geometry bearings. The threshold speed
corresponds to the rotor speed at which a bearing is deprived from its effective damping and any small
perturbation from an equilibrium position will determine unbounded rotor motions. The whirl frequency
ratio (WFR) denotes the ratio between the onset whirl frequency (typically the system first critical speed)
and the threshold speed of instability. Plain journal bearings show a WFR equal to 0.50 for small to
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  28 RTOENAVT143
moderate operating eccentricities (light loads), and thus instability onsets at rotational speeds equal to
twice the system first critical speed. Measurements in hybrid bearings verify closely the prediction of
WFR =0.50 [27]. In some circumstances the WFR even increases above 0.50, in particular for low
rotational speeds and large supply pressures.
San Andrés [28] extends the bulkflow model to account for fluid injection at an angle and opposing shaft
rotation. This design feature retards the full development of the circumferential flow velocity, thus
reducing the crosscoupled stiffness coefficients which prevent the operation of hybrid bearings at large
rotational speeds.
2.4 Hydrostatic Bearings for Load Support in a Water Pump
This section presents process fluid hydrostatic bearings designed to replace mineral oil lubricated bearings
in a multiple stage water pump. The hydrostatic bearing size, length and diameter, must be similar to the
original bearings to reduce costs in redesigning or remachining the pump casing. Eliminating the
lubrication system offers distinct advantages, including better performance, lower operational cost and
extended periods for maintenance.
The pump nominal operating speed is 3,600 rpm with a pressure discharge of 34.4 bars. The pressurized
water feeding the hydrostatic bearings is routed from the pump discharge pipe. In the application, the
static load acting on each bearing equals 5 kN (1,125 lb). Table 2 presents the hydrostatic bearing
dimensions. The pressurized fluid for the hydrostatic bearings is routed from the pump discharge volute.
Thus, the liquid pressure supply into the bearings varies in a quadratic form with rotor speed, ∆P ~ Ω
2
.
The speed range for predictions is 1,000 to 5,000 rpm.
Table 2: Geometry and Operating Conditions of Hydrostatic Bearings for a Liquid Pump
D=L = 152. 4 mm
c=0.102 mm, nominal clearance
5 pockets: l=51 mm, arc 41° , depth=0.381 mm
Orifice diameter: 3.2 mm (C
d
=0.80)
Smooth bearing and rotor surfaces
Fluid: water at 30°C ( 0.792 cPoise, 995 kg/m
3
)
Nominal speed = 3600 rpm, Supply pressure= 34.4 bar
Static load = 5000 N
Note that for the bearing studied, L/D=1, D/c=1,465. The clearance selected is 1.33 times larger than that
of the original oillubricated bearing. The ratio of pocket area to bearing area, L x D, equals 0.19, and the
pocket depth to clearance ratio is 3.75. The pocket area is relatively small to avoid excessive flow rate
requirements. The pockets are shallow to reduce the likelihood of pneumatic hammer effects and enhance
hydrodynamic effects at the pocket end in the circumferential direction. Hydrostatic bearings with
reduced pocket areas (< 25% of bearing area) and shallow pockets are modern considerations relying on
the desired adequate dynamic forced performance of the bearing [20, 25].
At the nominal speed of operation, the size of the orifice is selected to provide the maximum direct
(support) stiffness while keeping in mind the need of low flow rates to avoid an excessive penalty on
pump operation. The design analysis is conducted with the bearings operating without applied load at their
centered position, i.e. null eccentricity. Figure 27 depicts the stiffness coefficients, direct (K
XX
) and cross
coupled (K
XY
), versus the orifice diameter on the left graph, and versus the calculated pocket pressure ratio
on the right graph. The direct stiffness peaks at a pocket pressure ratio ~ 0.60 which requires an orifice of
diameter equal to 3.20 mm. The magnitude of direct stiffness equals 350 MN/m, i.e. 350N/micron, which
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  29
is large enough to support the static load of 5,000 N with a relatively small rotor eccentricity. Note that the
cross coupled stiffness is about 50% lower than the direct stiffness, denoting hydrodynamic effects due to
journal rotation will affect greatly the bearing dynamic forced performance.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5
Orifice diameter (mm)
S
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s
c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
s
Kxx (MN/m)
Kxy (MN/m)
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg)
At nominal operating condition
PsPa=34.4 bar, 3600 rpm
HJB design:
Kxx = Kyy
Kxy = Kyx
3.20 mm
Selected orifice diameter
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Pocket pressure ratio
S
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s
c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
s
Kxx (MN/m)
Kxy (MN/m)
KxxMxx w^2
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg)
At nominal operating condition
PsPa=34.4 bar, 3600 rpm
HJB design:
Kxx = Kyy
Kxy = Kyx
3.20 mm
Selected orifice diameter
Kxx  Mxx ω2
Figure 27: Direct and CrossCoupled Stiffnesses versus Orifice Diameter and Pocket Pressure
Ration for Water Hydrostatic Bearing. Nominal Operating Condition, Centered Bearing (no load).
Figure 28 shows on the left graph the bearing flow rate and drag power increasing as the orifice diameter
is enlarged since the pocket pressure increases. The bearing flow rate is 1.67 kg/s (~100 litre/min), which
is large when compared to the requirements of an oillubricated bearing, yet not large enough to cause a
severe reduction in pump available flow rate (~ 4% pump flow routed to bearings).
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5
Orifice diameter (mm)
P
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s
Pocket pressure ratio
HJB flow rate (kg/s)
Power (kw)
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg)
At nominal operating condition
PsPa=34.4 bar, 3600 rpm
HJB design:
Flow rate (kg/s)
Drag power (kW)
Pocket pressure ratio
selected orifice diameter
Supply pressure
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5
Orifice diameter (mm)
P
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s
Mxx (kg)
Mxy (kg)
Cxx (kNs/m)
Cxy (kNs/m)
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg)
At nominal operating condition
PsPa=34.4 bar, 3600 rpm
HJB design:
Cxx = Cyy
Mxx = Myy
Cxy = Cyx
Mxy = Myx
selected design
Figure 28: Performance Parameters for Water Hydrostatic Bearing versus Orifice Diameter.
Left: Pocket Pressure, Flow Rate and Drag Power; Right: Damping and Inertia Force
Coefficients. Nominal Operating Condition, Centered Bearing (no load).
The graph on the right of Figure 28 depicts the damping (C
XX
, C
YX
) and inertia (M
XX
, M
YX
) force
coefficients decreasing with the size of the feed orifice. The added mass coefficient is ~ 166 kg at the
selected orifice diameter. In spite of the large mass predicted, its effect on reducing the direct dynamic
stiffness is relatively small, as seen on Figure 27 for the (K
XX
 M
XX
ω
2
) curve.
The direct damping coefficients are large due to flow turbulence conditions; however, the crosscoupled
stiffness coefficients are also large. Thus, the whirl frequency ratio, WFR= K
XY
/(C
XX
ω), is ~0.60. This
too restrictive stability indicator could easily prevent the implementation of the water bearing into the
pump application. To resolve this issue, predictions are obtained for feed conditions purely radial, as is
customary, and with a 90° angled fluid injection directed against shaft rotation.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  30 RTOENAVT143
In the following, the performance, static and dynamic, of the water hydrostatic bearing is shown for the
cases of radial injection and tangential injection. The predictions were obtained for the full static load
condition, 5 kN, as the rotor speed increases from 1 krpm to 5 krpm. The orifice diameter selected is 3.2
mm.
Journal Eccentricity and Attitude Angle: Figure 29 displays the journal eccentricity (e/c) and attitude
angle for the water HJB with radial and angled injection. At the nominal operating condition (3,600 rpm),
the rotor eccentricity is just 11% of the bearing clearance. Angled injection has a pronounced effect on the
attitude angle. Small values of attitude angle indicate a rotor displacement parallel to the applied load.
This is a desired condition that will reduce the magnitude of the crosscoupled stiffness coefficients. Note
that for low speeds, less than 2000 rpm, when the pump has not yet generated enough head (pressure), the
journal eccentricity exceeds 50% of the bearing clearance. At low shaft speeds, hydrodynamic effects are
of greatest importance to support the applied external load. Since water has a low viscosity, it is quite
likely that the bearing surfaces need to be coated with a solid lubricant able to withstand short periods of
rotor to bearing contact while the pump rotor accelerates to its design operating point.
Operating journal eccentricity
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
tangential injection
radial injection
[fraction of
clearance]
operating condition, PsPa=34.4 bar
STATIC LOAD = 5 kN
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg), orifice do=3.2 mm
Attitude angle
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
tangential injection
radial injection
[deg]
operating condition, PsPa=34.4 bar
STATIC LOAD = 5 kN
x
y
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg), orifice do=3.2 mm
load direction
Figure 29: Journal Eccentricity and Attitude Angle versus Rotor Speed.
Water Hydrostatic Bearing with Radial and Tangential Injections. Load (X)=5 kN.
Film Pressures and Flow Rate: Figure 30 presents the film pocket pressure and flow rate as rotor speed
increases. The left graph includes the supply pressure into the bearings. The pocket pressures follow the
growth in feed pressure; tangential injection generating slightly larger magnitudes. Radial and angled
injections produce very similar flow rates. Note that the flow rate varies linearly with shaft speed since the
feed pressure and pocket pressures are proportional to the second power of speed; i.e. flow rate ~ ∆P
1/2
~ Ω.
Max film pressures
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
tangential injection
radial injection
Supply pressure
[bar]
operating condition, PsPa=34.4 bar supply pressure function
of pump speed
STATIC LOAD = 5 kN
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg), orifice do=3.2 mm
Mass flow rate
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
tangential injection
radial injection
[kg/s]
operating condition, PsPa=34.4 bar
STATIC LOAD = 5 kN
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg), orifice do=3.2 mm
Figure 30: Maximum Film Pressures and Flow Rate versus Rotor Speed.
Water Hydrostatic Bearing with Radial and Tangential Injections. Load (X)=5 kN.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  31
Torque and Drag Power: Figure 31 shows the drive torque and drag power for the water hybrid bearings.
Angled injection causes a net reduction in torque and power since the average circumferential flow speed
is reduced. The drag power is not large; its magnitude is certainly a fraction of that required in an oil
lubricated bearing.
Drag Torque
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
tangential injection
radial injection
[Nm]
operating condition, PsPa=34.4 bar
STATIC LOAD = 5 kN
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg), orifice do=3.2 mm
Drag Power
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
tangential injection
radial injection
[kW]
operating condition, PsPa=34.4 bar
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg), orifice do=3.2 mm
STATIC LOAD = 5 kN
Figure 31: Torque and Drag Power versus Rotor Speed. Water Hydrostatic
Bearing with Radial and Tangential Injections. Load (X)=5 kN.
Stiffnesses Coefficients: Figure 32 depicts the direct stiffnesses, K
XX
and K
YY
, increasing rapidly with
rotor speed, i.e. with supply pressure. Angled liquid injection does not affect the generation of direct
stiffnesses. The crosscoupled stiffnesses, K
XY
and K
YX
, also increase with rotor speed due to enhanced
hydrodynamic effects. However, tangential fluid injection aids to reduce dramatically the crosscoupled
coefficients; thus contributing to the rotor dynamic stability of the water hydrostatic bearing.
The large stiffness coefficients at the lowest shaft speed are to be taken with caution. At this speed the
bearing is not supplied with enough pressurized water to warrant support of the applied load with a full
film condition. The coefficients shown demonstrate the paramount effect of shear driven flow, i.e.
hydrodynamic effects generated by shaft rotation and minute film thicknesses (large operating
eccentricity).
Direct stiffnesses
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
Kxx: tangential injection
radial injection
Kyy tangential injection
radial injection
[MN/m]
operating condition, PsPa=34.4 bar
STATIC LOAD = 5 kN
x
y
Kxx, Kyy
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg), orifice do=3.2 mm
Cross stiffnesses
200
100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
Kxy: tangential injection
radial injection
Kyx tangential injection
radial injection
[MN/m] operating condition, PsPa=34.4 bar
STATIC LOAD = 5 kN
x
y
tangential
injection
Kxy, Kyx
radial
injection
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg), orifice do=3.2 mm
Figure 32: Stiffness Coefficients versus Rotor Speed. Water Hydrostatic
Bearing with Radial and Tangential Injections. Load (X)=5 kN.
At the nominal operating condition (3,600 rpm) the direct stiffnesses are large in magnitude, ~ 350
N/micron; therefore the small operating journal eccentricity for the applied load of 5 kN. Bearing direct
stiffnesses have a pronounced effect on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a rotorbearing system.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  32 RTOENAVT143
In rotating machinery with long shaft spans and incorporating hydrostatic bearings with large feed
pressures, the first natural mode of vibration will be a low frequency  bending mode with nodes close to
the bearing supports, i.e. a pinpin mode elastic mode shape.
Damping Coefficients: Figure 33 shows the direct (C
XX
, C
YY
) and crosscoupled (C
XY
, C
YX
) damping
coefficients versus shaft speed. Note the scale difference in the graphs for direct and crosscoefficients.
C
XY
, C
YX
< C
XX
, C
YY
. Angled fluid injection affects the crossdamping coefficients only. At low speeds,
the large values of damping denote a purely hydrodynamic operation lacking enough external
pressurization.
Direct damping
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
Cxx: tangential injection
radial injection
Cyy tangential injection
radial injection
[kNs/m]
operating condition, PsPa=34.4 bar
STATIC LOAD = 5 kN
x
y
Cxx, Cyy
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg), orifice do=3.2 mm
Cross damping
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
Cxy: tangential injection
radial injection
Cyx tangential injection
radial injection
[kNs/m]
operating condition, PsPa=34.4 bar
STATIC LOAD = 5 kN
x
y
tangential
injection
Cxy, Cyx
radial
injection
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg), orifice do=3.2 mm
Figure 33: Damping Coefficients versus Rotor Speed. Water Hydrostatic
Bearing with Radial and Tangential Injections. Load (X)=5 kN.
Inertia Coefficients: Figure 34 depicts the direct (M
XX
, M
YY
) and crosscoupled (M
XY
, M
YX
) inertia
coefficients as shaft speed increases. Note that the vertical scale in both graphs is not the same. M
XY
, M
YX
< M
XX
, M
YY
. Angled fluid injection has an effect on the crossinertia coefficients. Most importantly, note
that the direct added mass coefficients are practically invariant with shaft speed.
Direct inertia
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
Mxx: tangential injection
radial injection
Myy tangential injection
radial injection
[kg]
operating condition, PsPa=34.4 bar
STATIC LOAD = 5 kN
x
y
Mxx, Myy
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg), orifice do=3.2 mm
Crossinertia
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
Mxy: tangential injection
radial injection
+Myx tangential injection
Mxy radial injection
[kg] operating condition, PsPa=34.4 bar
STATIC LOAD = 5 kN
x
y
Mxy, Myx
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg), orifice do=3.2 mm
Figure 34: Inertia Coefficients versus Rotor Speed. Water Hydrostatic
Bearing with Radial and Tangential Injections. Load (X)=5 kN.
The mass of water contained within the bearing is just a few grams; yet the predicted direct added mass
coefficients are orders of magnitude larger than the physical mass of fluid, M
XX
~ M
YY
~ 160 kg. For the
bearing studied, a piece of solid steel shaft, length and diameter equalling 0.152 m, has a mass of just 21.7
kg. Thus, bearing fluid inertia coefficients must be included in a proper rotordynamic analysis of the rotor
bearing system.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  33
Stability Indicators: The left graph on Figure 35 depicts the whirl frequency ratio (WFR) versus shaft
speed. The HJB with radial injection shows a whirl ratio ~ 0.60 for most operating speeds. This condition
will limit the pump to a maximum operating speed just 67 % above its first critical speed. This restrictive
condition is even worse than that in a plain journal bearing.
Whirl frequency ratio
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
tangential injection
radial injection
[]
operating condition, PsPa=34.4 bar
tangential injection against
shaft rotation
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg), orifice do=3.2 mm
Fully stable WFR =<0
Critical mass
1000
10000
100000
1000000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Rotor Speed (RPM)
tangential injection
radial injection
[kg]
operating condition, PsPa=34.4 bar
STATIC LOAD = 5 kN
L=D=0.152 m, c=102 um,
5 pocket (l=L/3, arc =42 deg), orifice do=3.2 mm
Figure 35: Whirl Frequency Ratio and Critical Mass versus Rotor Speed.
Water Hydrostatic Bearing with Radial and Tangential Injection. Load (X)=5 kN.
Note on the other hand, the paramount effect of tangent fluid injection on reducing the whirl frequency
ratio. At the operating condition, WFR~0.15, which would enable the rotor to operate to speeds greater
than six times its first critical speed. Obviously this assertion assumes the rotor to be rigid. For practical
purposes, the bearing with angled injection is fully stable.
The other graph on Figure 35 depicts the critical mass
4
, i.e. the maximum rotating mass the bearing can
support without inducing a sub synchronous instability. Note that the angle injection bearing leads to
critical masses at least one order of magnitude larger than for the radial bearing.
3.0 CLOSURE
Modern high performance turbomachinery operating at high speeds and large pressures incorporate
process fluid hybrid (hydrostatic/hydrodynamic) journal and thrust bearings to reduce the numbers of parts
and size, and to eliminate expensive mineral lubricant storage and pumping, thus further satisfying
stringent environmental constraints.
Despite the many advantages offered by HJBs, rotordynamic instabilities due to hydrodynamic (shear
flow) and fluid compressibility effects are issues of primary concern for high speed operation with large
pressure differentials. Pneumatic hammer effects are avoided by appropriate selection of the flow
restrictor, by designing bearing recesses with small volumes, and by restricting bearing operation to flow
conditions where the pressure differential is a small fraction of the liquid bulk modulus.
Fixed geometry HJBs have limited stability characteristics with a whirl frequency ratio (WFR) ~0.50, as
with plain hydrodynamic journal bearings. The 50% frequency whirl condition limits severely the
application of HJBs to high speed, light weight and flexible rotating machinery. Concerted efforts have
been directed towards conceiving hybrid bearings with improved stability characteristics, and without loss
in centering stiffness and damping ability. Some of the technological advances evolved from analysis and
engineering design, while others followed empiricism and well known past experiences. The
recommended fixes to improve the hydrodynamic stability of hybrid bearings by reducing or eliminating
the whirl frequency ratio (WFR) are:
4
See second lecture for a proper definition of the critical mass parameter. The analysis assumes the rotor to be rigid.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  34 RTOENAVT143
a) Use textured bearing surfaces to decrease the crosscoupled stiffness coefficients. Test results with a
knurledpattern HJB show a WFR as low as 0.30 but with a reduced load capacity and direct stiffness
when compared to a smooth surface HJB [27].
c) Use angled liquid injection opposing journal rotation to reduce the development of the circumferential
flow velocity leading to a virtual elimination of crosscoupled stiffness coefficients [28]. The example
studied evidences the advantages of angled injection in a process fluid hybrid bearing for a water pump.
Measurements conducted on a fivepocket water HJB verify the analysis, demonstrating that angled
injection aids in reducing the whirl frequency ratio without decreasing the bearing centering stiffness and
load capacity. However, the effectiveness of angled injection is reduced as shaft speed increases towards
high values where shear flow driven effects overcome the hydrostatic effect.
d) Introduce geometrical changes in the bearing to induce a stiffness orthotropy; for example
circumferentially asymmetric grooved bearings can produce large anisotropy on the rotordynamic force
coefficients [29]. This design enhances stability by rendering a lower direct stiffness in the plane of the
axial grooves as compared to the orthogonal stiffness. Measurements have demonstrated the enhancement
in performance.
b) Use flexure pivottilting pad HJBs [25], as depicted in Figure 35. These bearings are mechanically
complex though nearly free of instabilities, i.e. the pads support flexibility eliminates the generation of
crosscoupled stiffness coefficients. This type of bearing with air as the lubricant has shown tremendous
potential for ready implementation in highspeed microturbomachinery [30].
Extensive analytical and experimental research has brought forward the technology of hybrid journal
bearings (HJBs) for advanced turbo pump applications. Computational analyses including flow turbulence,
fluid inertia and compressibility and thermal effects are available to bearing designers and rotordynamics
engineers. The analyses have been validated by careful experimentation with measurements of load,
leakage and torque, and identification of rotordynamic force coefficients.
REFERENCES
[1] Turbomachinery Rotordynamics, (chapter 4), D. Childs, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993.
[2] Damping Seals for Turbomachinery, G. von Pragenau, NASA Technical Paper No. 1987, 1982.
[3] Annular Gas Seals and Rotordynamics of Compressors and Turbines, D. Childs & J. Vance, Proc. Of
the 26
th
Turbomachinery Symposium, TAMU, pp. 201220, 1997.
[4] Pump Rotordynamics made Simple, M. Carbo & S. Malanoski, Proc. Of the 15
th
International Pump
Users Symposium, TAMU, pp. 167203, 1998.
[5] Effects of Hydraulic Forces on Annular Pressure Seals on the Vibrations of Centrifugal Pump
Rotors, H. Black, Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 11(2), pp. 206213.
[6] Analysis of Variable Fluid Properties, Turbulent Annular Seals, L. San Andrés, ASME Journal of
Tribology, 113, pp. 694702, 1991.
[7] Advances in Mechanical Sealing – An Introduction to API 682 Second Edition, M. Huebner, J.
Thorp, C. Buck & C. Fernandez, Proc. Of the 19
th
International Pump Users Symposium, TAMU,
2004.
[8] Introduction to Annular Pressure (Damper) Seals, L. San Andrés, Lecture Notes (#11) in Modern
Lubrication, http://phn.tamu.edu/TRIBGroup, 2002.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
RTOENAVT143 11  35
[9] A BulkFlow Theory for Turbulence in Lubricant Films, G.G. Hirs, ASME Journal of Lubrication
Technology, 94, pp. 137146. 1973.
[10] Effect of Shaft Misalignment on the Dynamic Force Response of Annular Pressure Seals, L. San
Andrés, STLE Tribology Transactions, 36, 2, pp. 173182, 1993.
[11] Thermal Effects in Cryogenic Liquid Annular Seals, I: Theory and Approximate Solutions, L. San
Andrés, Z. Yang & D. Childs, ASME Journal of Tribology, 115, 2, pp. 267276, 1993.
[12] Thermal Effects in Cryogenic Liquid Annular Seals, II: Numerical Solution and Results, Z. Yang, L.
San Andrés & D. Childs, ASME Journal of Tribology, 115, 2, pp.277284, 1993.
[13] Analysis of Two Phase Flow in Cryogenic Damper Seals, I: Theoretical Model, II: Model Validation
and Predictions, G. Arauz & L. San Andrés, “ASME Journal of Tribology, 120, pp. 221233, 1998.
[14] Squeeze Film Dampers: Operation, Models and Technical Issues, L. San Andrés, Lecture Notes
(#13) in Modern Lubrication, http://phn.tamu.edu/TRIBGroup, 2002.
[15] Gas Damper Seal Test Results, Theoretical Correlation, and Applications in Design of HighPressure
Compressors, P. De Choudhury, F. Kushner & J. Li, Proc. Of the 29
th
Turbomachinery Symposium,
TAMU, 2001.
[16] Introduction to Hydrostatic Bearings, L. San Andrés, Lecture Notes (#12) in Modern Lubrication,
http://phn.tamu.edu/TRIBGroup, 2002.
[17] Determination of the Discharge Coefficient of a ThinWalled Orifice Used in Hydrostatic Bearings,
S. Charles, O. Bonneau & J. Frene,” ASME Journal of Tribology, 127, pp. 679684.
[18] Turbulent Hybrid Bearings with Fluid Inertia Effects, L. San Andrés, ASME Journal of Tribology,
112, pp. 699707, 1990.
[19] Fluid Compressibility Effects on the Dynamic Response of Hydrostatic Journal Bearings, L. San
Andrés, WEAR, 146, pp. 269283, 1991.
[20] Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of Fluid Film Bearings for Cryogenic Applications, L. San Andrés,
AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power, 11, 5, pp. 964972, 1995.
[21] Bulk Flow Analysis of Hybrid Thrust Bearings for Process Fluid Applications, L. San Andrés,
ASME Journal of Tribology, 122, 1, pp. 170180, 2000.
[22] Design and Development of an Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Turbopump, A. Minck & S. Peery,
AIAA 983681, 34
th
ASAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint propulsion Conference & Exhibit, 1998.
[23] Analysis of Turbulent Hydrostatic Bearings with a Barotropic Fluid, L. San Andrés, ASME Journal
of Tribology, 114, 4,pp. 755765,1992.
[24] Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of Process Liquid Hydrostatic Bearings in Turbulent Regime, I: The
Model and Perturbation Analysis, II: Numerical Solution and Results, Z. Yang, L. San Andrés & D.
Childs, ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 62, 3, pp. 674679, pp. 680684, 1995.
[25] Turbulent Flow, FlexurePivot Hybrid Bearings for Cryogenic Applications," ASME Journal of
Tribology, 118, 1, pp. 190200, 1996.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
11  36 RTOENAVT143
[26] Experimental versus Theoretical Characteristics of a High Speed Hybrid (combination Hydrostatic
and Hydrodynamic) Bearing, K. Kurtin, D. Childs, D., L. San Andrés, & K. Hale, ASME Journal of
Tribology, 115, 1, pp. 160169, 1993.
[27] Theoretical and Experimental Comparisons for Rotordynamic Coefficients of a HighSpeed, High
Pressure, OrificeCompensated Hybrid Bearings," N. Franchek, D. Childs & L. San Andrés, ASME
Journal of Tribology, 117, 2, pp. 285290, 1995.
[28] Angled Injection  Hydrostatic Bearings, Analysis and Comparison to Test Results, L. San Andrés &
D. Childs, ASME Journal of Tribology, 119, 1, pp. 179187, 1997.
[29] A Hybrid Bearing with Improved Rotordynamic Stability,” L. San Andrés, L., 1
st
International
Conference in Rotordynamics of Machinery, ISCORMA1, Paper 2006, 2001.
[30] Rotordynamic Performance of Flexure Pivot Hydrostatic Gas Bearings for OilFree
Turbomachinery, S. Zhu & L., San Andrés, ASME Paper GT 200453621, 2004.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
Interstage Seal
Impeller Eye Seal
Balance Piston Seal
Figure 1: Seals in a Multistage Centrifugal Pump or Compressor.
The importance of seal flow phenomenon and its influence on the dynamic response of actual turbomachinery have prompted a large number of theoretical and experimental investigations. Seals, due to their relative position within the rotorbearing system, can modify sensibly the system dynamic behavior since these elements typically "see" large amplitude rotor motions. This assertion is of particular importance on backtoback compressor arrangements (see Figure 2). Furthermore, the force coefficients – stiffness, damping and inertia of annular seals in large density liquid pumps can be as large as those arising in the oillubricated bearings; thus the seal elements effectively become load paths and modify the pump rotordynamic behaviour. “Wet” and “dry” critical speeds, i.e. those accounting for seals’ forces and not, can be markedly different as noted in [1, 4].
Figure 2: StraightThrough and BacktoBack Compressor Configurations and 1st Mode Shapes.
Black [5] first explained the influence of seal forces on the rotordynamic behaviour of pumps. Since 1980, Childs and coworkers at TAMU have conducted a comprehensive program for the analysis and testing of the dynamic force response of liquid and gas annular seals. Experimental programs with damper seals featuring various stator surface machined textures (macro roughness), see Figure 3, have confirmed the benefit of higher net damping forces and less leakage than in smooth surface seals. Reference [2] details major developments in gas seal applications, for example.
11  2
RTOENAVT143
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
Figure 3: Honeycomb Seal for Turbopump.
This lecture presents:
a) The physical mechanism by which a direct stiffness arises in annular pressure seals even without journal (shaft) rotation. The model analyzes the flow balance and pressure drops at the entrance of a channel and on the ensuing thin film land. A maximum (optimum) stiffness is then predicted for a certain flow resistance balance between the entrance and land pressure drops. b) Brief description of the bulkflow equations for prediction of the flow and force coefficients in annular pressure seals. c) Discussion of predictions for two water seals, long and short, for application as neck ring and interstage seals. The influences of seal length and inlet swirl on the rotordynamic force coefficients are thoroughly discussed. Refer to Childs [1] and San Andrés [6] for a critical review of the archival literature related to the chronological developments in annular pressure seal analyses as well as experimental results validating the model predictions. This lecture content material does not include a discussion on labyrinth seals or deep groove seals for liquid pump applications. Labyrinth seals are more common in centrifugal compressors. Noncontacting face seal technology has reached great maturity for specialized pumps handling chemically harmful fluids. This type of sealing system is not presented here, see [7] for details.
1.1
Generation of Stiffness in a Sudden Film Contraction [8]
Figure 4 shows the typical geometry of an annular pressure seal. Fluid at a high pressure (Ps) flows through an annular gap of radial clearance (c) and discharges at the exit pressure (Pa). L and D represent the seal length and diameter, respectively.
RTOENAVT143
11  3
In equation (1). Pe = Ps  1 ρ (1 + ξ ) V 2 z 2 (1) where Ρe is the fluid entrance pressure at the seal inlet. as shown in Figure 5. Using Hirs’ formulation [9].e. the sealing fluid is regarded as incompressible and isoviscous and the turbulent flow through the film land fully developed. The channel is infinitely long in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the page. Ra = k z = f z R a = (n R a ) R a = n R a ρVzc µ (3) 11 . The fluid flows from a large plenum at pressure Ps. Vz c shaft D Pa Exit pressure Process fluid at high Ps L Figure 4: Geometry of an Annular Pressure Seal. In the following. A similar analysis. and ξ is a nonisentropic (empirical) entrance loss coefficient (typical value ranging from 0. Consider the flow through a channel of height c and length L. though more laborious. and as it enters the seal. Vz is the bulkflow axial velocity. i. a linear pressure drop evolves due to viscous (turbulent flow) effects. i. This Bernoullilike effect is solely due to fluid inertia and expressed by. m m+1 . Within the seal of land length L and small film clearance (c).e.0 to 0. laminar flow conditions may be easily accounted for in the following development [6]. In turbulent flows. The entrance effect is solely due to fluid inertia accelerating the fluid from an upstream stagnant condition to a flow with high axial speed and reduced static pressure at the seal inlet. can be conducted for compressible fluids (gases). in honor of the named Russian engineer who discovered the phenomenon in the late 1950's. The effect is known as Lomakin.4 RTOENAVT143 . Incidentally. Vz · c = Qz. fluid stagnant conditions are considered well upstream of the seal inlet plane. Pe − Pa = + µ kz Vz L 2 c (2) where κz = 12 for laminar flow or κ z = f z Ra for turbulent flow. there is a sudden pressure drop (and flow acceleration) at the sudden contraction. The principle by which a direct stiffness originates in an annular seal is due to the inertial pressure drop at the seal inlet plane and its close interaction with the pressure drop (and flow resistance) within the seal film land.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings Axial velocity. Note that the axial velocity is constant along the thin film due to flow continuity. the shear parameter κz is a function of the axial flow Reynolds number (Ra).25).
i. with ∆c<<c. equation (2) becomes Pe − Pa = ρ V z c L 2 L fz (4) Ps c Axial velocity.5 . Pa Vz Ps Pe Pa Figure 5: Inertial Pressure Drop due to a Sudden Contraction. The axial velocity and entrance pressure also undergo small changes. the larger the entrance pressure drop (Ps . The flow rate per unit depth (or seal 2 c circumference) is Qz = Vz · c. Thus.0066. Pe = Peo + ∆P (7) RTOENAVT143 11 . Thus.25 for smooth surface conditions. an increase in entrance loss factor as well as large friction in the land and seal length produce a reduction in leakage. m = 0. for turbulent flows. i. Note that L ρ (1 + ζ ) and ρ f z can be thought as fluidic resistances [8]. The entrance pressure is also determined from equations (4) and (5) as Pe − Pa = Ps − Pa (1 + ζ ) c 1 + 2 f z L (6) Note that the larger the ratio. 2 Vz = ρ 2 Ps − Pa (1 + ζ ) + ρ L f c z (5) The procedure is iterative since the friction factor (fz) is a function of the axial velocity (Vz). 2 fz L Consider a small variation in film thickness so that c = co – ∆c. z Combining equations (1) and (4) renders the axial velocity Vz .Pe).Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings with n = 0. [ (1 + ζ ) c ]. A positive value of ∆c means a reduction in the local film thickness.e. Vz =Vzo + ∆Vz .e.
Small values of peo (→0) indicate too large entrance pressure losses due to fluid inertia. ∆P = (Peo − Pa ) (1 . then ∆Vz is negative. None of these two conditions are favorable to induce a pronounced stiffening effect in an annular pressure seal. ∆ Vz = ∆P ρ (1 + ζ V zo ) . Integration of the pressure field over the channel length (L) and depth (B) produces a fluid film reaction force (F) L L F = B ∫ (P − Pa ) dz = (Pe − Pa ) B = Fo + K ∆c 2 0 (9) The static stiffness (K) equals K = ( peo ) (1 . 11 .m) (m + 2 )( peo ) 1+ 2(1 − peo ) BL (Ps − Pa ) 2co (10) where peo = Peo − Pa is an entrance pressure ratio.6 RTOENAVT143 .3336. including the friction factors.e. That is. leads to. at peo=0.515 the stiffness is a maximum. K max =0. an optimum stiffness arises when the inertial entrance pressure drop is slightly larger than 50% of the available pressure drop (PsPa) across the channel length (L).25). Figure 6 displays the stiffness as a function of the entrance pressure ratio (peo). when the film thickness decreases (∆c<0) and ∆P raises.m) BL (Ps − Pa ) 1 + (m + 2 )( peo ) 2co 2(1 − peo ) K = (11) For smooth surfaces (m=0. A dimensionless stiffness follows as: Ps − Pa K= ( peo ) (1 .m) (m + 2 )(Peo − Pa ) 1+ 2(Ps − Peo ) ∆c co (8) If ∆P is positive. i. while too large values of peo (→1) show too much fluid resistance through the channel length (film land with tight clearance or overly long). this produces a reduction in axial velocity Vz.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings A perturbation analysis of all variables.
For small amplitude shaft translational motions ∆eX(t). MY) can be characterized by the following equation: δY Y Z δX X Figure 7: Seal with Dynamic Translations (X.Y).FY) and yawing and pitching moments (MX.2 0. δY).6 0. δY(t) around these axes.2 0.1 0 0 0.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings 0. RTOENAVT143 11 .3 0. and rotations δX(t). 1. the seal reaction forces (FX . in particular balance pistons and in submerged pump motors [10]. Dynamic force and moment coefficients due to rotor axis angular displacements are of importance in long annular seals.7 .2 Bulk Flow Analysis of Turbulent Flow Annular Pressure Seals Most annular pressure seal analyses predict the dynamic force coefficients due to rotor axis translations about an equilibrium point.4 * dimensionless stiffness (K) 0.4 0.Y) and Angulations (δX. ∆eY(t) along two perpendicular axes (X. Figure 7 shows the four degrees of freedom in a long annular seal.8 1 pe: pressure ratio (entrance/supply) Figure 6: Dimensionless Stiffness versus Entrance Pressure Ratio in a Thin Channel with a Sudden Inlet Contraction.e. for cylindrical whirl motions. i.
Vz) and pressure (P) field [1. and 16 added mass or fluid inertia coefficients. 4 damping and 4 inertia force coefficients due to shaft lateral motions (X. πD) allows crossfilm integration of the three dimensional momentum and continuity equations. i. The accepted bulkflow equations for fully developed turbulent flows at high Reynolds numbers are given by [6]: ∂ (hVx ) + ∂ (hVz ) + ∂h = 0 ∂x ∂z ∂t −h ∂V ∂V 2 ∂V V ∂P µ U = κ xV x − κ J + ρ h x + x + x z ∂x h ∂x ∂z 2 ∂t ∂V ∂V V ∂V 2 ∂P µ = κ zV z + ρ h z + x z + z ∂z h ∂x ∂z ∂t (13) (14) −h (15) where h is the film thickness.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings K XX K YX =.Pa) and high surface speed (ΩR) of the rotating shaft. 10]. In an annular seal. 1 XLTRC2 rotordynamics software suite at Texas A&M University does consider the full set of seal force and moment coefficients. and (κx κz) denote wall shear stress difference turbulence flow coefficients. Most rotordynamic software analyses consider only the 4 stiffness.8 . (Vx. The smallness of the seal clearance (c) as compared to its length or diameter (L. K δXX . thus rendering a simpler set of transport equations for the bulkflow velocities (Vx. 6.K δXY C XX C XY CYX C XX  CδXX CδXY CδXY CδXX M XX M YX  M δXX M δXY M XY M XX M δXY M δXX K XY K XX K δXY K δXX C XδX C XδY CδXδX CδXδY M XδX M XδY M δXδX M δXδY K XδX K XδY K δXδX K δXδY K XδY ∆ eX K XδX ∆ eY K δXδY δ X δY K δXδX FX FY MX MY C XδY ∆ eX C XδX ∆ eY CδXδY δ X δY CδXδX M XδY ∆ eX M XδX ∆ eY M δXδY δ X δY M δXδX (12) Equation (12) shows the complexity of seal dynamic forced performance. These equations are strictly valid for flows without local recirculation zones. RTOENAVT143 11 . A sudden pressure loss and fluid acceleration occur at the seal inlet plane due to the local contraction from the upstream plenum into the film clearance. P is the pressure. the flow regime is characterized by high levels of flow turbulence due to the large axial pressure drop (Ps .e. Vz) are the bukflow (film averaged) circumferential and axial flow velocities. 16 damping coefficients. There are 16 stiffness coefficients. Y)1. the bulk flow equations are of limited applicability in labyrinth seals or deep groove seals. for example.
i. San Andrés [8] presents an analysis for fully developed flow through a centered short length annular pressure seal. respectively. These last parameters are of extreme importance since the direct and crosscoupled stiffnesses depend directly on the seal entrance conditions. for example. The representation of seal forces for lateral motions (X. diameter and clearance). [M]} represent the matrices of stiffness. The rationale assumes the seals are NOT load bearing elements.tamu. Unlike in oillubricated bearings. For small amplitude perturbations in rotor center displacements. A free software. liquid seals are “load” paths that can affect the load distribution on the support oil lubricated bearings. i. operating conditions. fluid properties (density and viscosity). K XY = K YX. However. of importance in cryogenic liquid applications. V x = α Ω R z 2 (17) where Ρe is the fluid entrance pressure at the seal inlet. Most seal practitioners use programs predicting the performance of centered seals. the typical boundary conditions are Pe = Ps 1 ρ (1 + ξ ) V 2 . That is. damping and inertia force coefficients. Note that the seal force coefficients are frequency independent. San Andrés et al. most notably gases and liquefied natural gas. this assumption may be quite unrealistic in liquid turbopumps.9 . KYY = K XX . Seal analysis at a centered position shows that the direct force coefficients are identical while the crosscoupled coefficients are anti symmetric. Close form expressions for the force coefficients due to shaft (rotor) displacements are then derived and compared with predictions from other analyses. added mass or fluid inertia coefficients are of great importance in liquid seals due to the fluid density and the large flow Reynolds numbers typical of seal flow operation. is available at the author’s URL site (http://phn. a closed form firstorder flow field is determined from the linearized fluid flow equations. operating at a null or zero eccentricity. Vz is the bulkflow axial velocity. i. Seals in these applications will produce force coefficients which vary greatly with excitation frequency [3]. [C].edu/TRIBGroup).e. etc. and 13] extend the model above by including thermal effects and twophase flow characterization. This assertion is correct only for (nearly) incompressible fluids such as water and liquid oxygen. for example. are quite compressible. and ξ is a nonisentropic (empirical) entrance loss coefficient.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings Chapters 4 and 5 of Childs textbook [1] provide full descriptions of the analysis and dynamic force response for liquid and gas seals. [11. empirical coefficients for the inlet pressure loss (ξ) and the inlet swirl ratio (α). The prediction of annular seal static and dynamic force performance relies on the specification of • • • • seal geometry (length.e. At the inlet to the seal section. There is commercial software available for prediction of seal leakage and dynamic force coefficients. speed and pressure supply and discharge. 12. Y) is given as FX K XX F =−K Y YX K XY X C XX − K YY Y CYX C XY X M XX − CYY Y M YX M XY X M YY Y (16) where {[K]. MATHCAD® computational program. remain constant for changes in excitation or whirl frequency. The inlet circumferential speed is a fraction of the rotor RTOENAVT143 11 . and. Other fluids. The analytical formulation is simple and easy to implement during preliminary pump design stages and multivariable parametric studies.e.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings speed (ΩR). Radial baffles retarding fluid swirl Fluid path Seal Rotor speed rotor Figure 8: Anti Swirl Brake at Inlet or Pressure Seal. L/D=0.50 denotes a 50% inlet swirl typical of an entrance condition into an interstage seal or balance piston.5) follow.0 Fluid: water at 30°C ( 0. Antiswirl brakes. force coefficients affecting the rotor dynamics of the pump (or compressor). 4 mm.1. and the other clearance at twice the nominal value to denote a worn seal condition in actual operation. α→0. in practice. are used to reduce the prerotation of fluid into the seal. In liquid pumps. an annular seal is “as bad” as a plain journal bearing in terms of generating follower forces that drive forward whirl in rotating machinery.e. Table 1 shows the geometry of the smooth surfaces seals. In short. the inlet circumferential condition plays a significant role in the generation of crosscoupled stiffness coefficients. α=0. i.50 c=0. rotordynamic stability is ensured at the cost of mechanical complexity.2) and an interstage seal (~long seal L/D=0. In this way.792 cPoise.e. predictions are obtained for two clearances.e. As will be seen shortly.60 is more appropriate at the inlet of a neckring seal. The performance of annular seals is also affected by the condition of the rotor and stator surfaces. 995 kg/m3) 11 .” i. α=~0. i.10 RTOENAVT143 . Inlet swirl α=0. for example.50 leads to a whirl frequency ratio of 50%. nominal clearance smooth rotor and stator surfaces Nominal speed = 3600 rpm and pressure drop 34. changes in clearance can affect greatly the direct stiffness thus moving the rotorbearing system critical speeds (natural frequencies) and producing significant changes in damping ratio. These predictions are obtained to determine the effect of clearance on seal leakage rate. most importantly. the culprit elements leading to rotordynamic instability. subjected to temporary conditions of rubbing at start up and shut down. 1.3 Performance of Short and Long Annular Seals for a Water Pump Predictions of leakage and force coefficients for two water seal configurations representing a neck ring seal (short length. forcing liquid somewhere along the seal length in a direction opposite to shaft rotation in order to reduce the development of the circumferential flow speed. in particular in long seals representing balance pistons. power loss and. Table 1: Geometry and Operating Conditions of Water Seals in a Liquid Pump D = 152. include implementing “shunt injection.20 and 0. Since seals are regarded as rub elements. L/D=0.190 mm. as shown in Figure 8.5 and 0. an inlet swirl factor α=0. one representing the nominal design or manufactured clearance.4 bar Inlet loss coefficient ξ=0. Other fixes.
The penalty in leakage increase as the seal wears will affect the overall efficiency of the liquid pump. In addition.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings The analysis shows results for the nominal clearance and twice its value representing a worn condition.190 mm. The seal leakage appears as proportional to shaft speed. D=152 mm No effect of inlet swirl on entrance pressure bar 60 50 operating speed 3600 rpm 60 bar 50 operating speed 3600 rpm Supply pressure Supply pressure 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 Supply pressure Nominal clearance (C) Twice clearance (worn) 10 Supply pressure Nominal clearance (C) Twice clearance (worn) 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0.20. Inlet swirl has no discernible effect on seal leakage. The short seal shows a larger entrance pressure drop since the flow rate across the seal is larger (larger axial flow velocity). That is. the graphs and discussion will focus on this aspect. with the nominal condition noted in the table. In addition. Ω2. The pressure drop across the seal varies in a quadratic form with rotor speed. Drag Power: Figure 11 shows that the long seals (L/D=0. L/D=0. Inlet swirl has a minimal effect on the entrance pressure into the seal. Inlet swirl is not significant in spite that the mean flow circumferential speed may be much less than 50% of rotor surface speed. In the following figures. c=0. The short length seals have a larger flow rate in spite of the reduced entrance pressure. Recall that the pressure drop varies with rotor speed. and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed. RTOENAVT143 11 .50. an inlet swirl of 50% represents a fluid with an entrance circumferential velocity equal to 50% of rotor surface speed.20.000 rpm. the left graphs show predictions for the long seal (L/D=0. its variation is proportional to ∆P1/2.190 mm.20.50 and 0. L/D=0. The speed range for the predictions is 1. When important.50 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0. the change in inlet swirl does not affect significantly several of the seal flow performance parameters.11 . Flow Rate: Figure 10 shows the worn seals (enlarged clearances) leak more than at the nominal clearance condition. However. Inlet Pressure: Figure 9 depicts the supply pressure into the seal increasing with rotor speed. D=152 mm No effect of inlet swirl on entrance pressure 70 Pressures vs shaft speed water seal.000 to 5. unless otherwise stated. L/D=0. ∆P ~ Ω2. The swirl factor α=0 denotes the seal with an antiswirl brake located at the seal inlet. the predictions are shown are for the condition of inlet swirl at 50% rotor speed.5) have a larger drag power (torque x rotational speed) than the short length seals due to the larger area of fluid flow shearing. L/D=0. Pressures vs shaft speed 70 water seal.50) while on the right.20 Figure 9: Supply and Entrance Pressures for Two Water Seals. c=0. The entrance pressures are lower for the worn seal (2c) due to an increase in flow rate that magnifies the fluid inertia inlet effect.
D=152 mm minor effect of inlet swirl kW 5 operating speed 3600 rpm 5 kW operating speed 3600 rpm 4 4 Drag Power 3 Drag Power Nominal clearance (C) Twice clearance (worn) "" no swirl 3 2 2 1 1 Nominal clearance (C) Twice clearance (worn) "" no swirl 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0.20.0 4000. For example.0 Nominal clearance (C) Twice clearance (worn) ""no swirl 0. c=0.0 5000. increasing rapidly with rotor speed.50 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0.50.0 5000.190 mm.0 Stiffness 30.0 6000. and comparable in magnitude to the stiffnesses of any oil lubricated bearing. L/D=0. Recall that “wet” critical speeds depend on the seal direct stiffnesses which clearly drop as the seal wears out.0 2000. D=152 mm negligible effect of inlet swirl Kxx=Kyy 50.600 rpm. D=152 mm minor effect of inlet swirl 6 Power vs shaft speed water seal.0 20.0 3000.50 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0.50 and 0. c=0. Power vs shaft speed 6 water seal.0 10.0 water seal.190 mm.12 RTOENAVT143 .20.50 and 0. This stiffness reduction will affect considerably the rotordynamic behaviour of a liquid pump. Direct Stiffness vs shaft speed 60.0 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0. at the nominal operating condition of 3.0 20. The worn seals show a dramatic reduction in direct stiffness.0 0. L/D=0.50 and 0.20.20 Figure 10: Leakage (Flow Rate) for Two Water Seals.0 Stiffness Nominal clearance (C) Twice clearance (worn) ""no swirl 30.0 0. and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed. and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed.e. c=0. L/D=0.0 2000. L/D=0. and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed. c=0. D=152 mm No effect of inlet swirl 18 Leakage vs shaft speed water seal.50 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0.0 4000.0 40. 11 .190 mm. for example. L/D=0.0 6000. The direct stiffness for the long seal is about twice as large as for the short seal.0 1000.0 water seal.0 Kxx=Kyy [MN/m] operating speed 3600 rpm [MN/m] 40. L/D=0.190 mm.0 0.0 3000. L/D=0. D=152 mm No effect of inlet swirl 16 kg/s operating speed 3600 rpm 16 kg/s operating speed 3600 rpm 14 14 12 12 Flow rate 10 Flow rate Nominal clearance (C) Twice clearance (worn) 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 Nominal clearance (C) Twice clearance (worn) 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0.50. with supply (or entrance) pressure.0 1000.20 Figure 11: Drag Power for Two Water Seals.190 mm.0 operating speed 3600 rpm 50.50. c=0. L/D=0.20.0 10.20. D=152 mm negligible effect of inlet swirl Direct Stiffness vs shaft speed 60.190 mm.20 Figure 12: Direct Stiffness Coefficients for Two Water Seals.20. i. Direct Stiffnesses: Figure 12 depicts the direct stiffness coefficients. the direct stiffnesses are ~50% of the values for the nominal clearances. KXX=KYY.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings Leakage vs shaft speed 18 water seal. L/D=0. c=0.
0 2. Damping arises from squeeze film effects and is not directly a function of rotor speed.0 6000. has a negligible effect on the generation of damping coefficients.00.e. inlet pre swirl. D=152 mm large effect of inlet swirl Cross Stiffness vs shaft speed 10. In addition. Note that the vertical scale in both graphs is different. for turbulent flows. The operating clearance has a direct impact on the generation of crosscoupled forces.190 mm. L/D=0. In the short length seal. the long seal shows about five times larger direct damping than the short length seal. aids to reduce considerably the generation of KXY since the circumferential flow is greatly retarded. Thus. Seal wear enlarging its operating clearance leads to a dramatic drop in direct damping.0 50% inlet swirl Stiffness 2xC Stiffness 4. the effect of null pre swirl is remarkable. Note that KXY < 0 denotes a most favourable condition to avoid synchronous forward whirl. D=152 mm large effect of inlet swirl Kxy=Kyx [MN/m] Nominal clearance (with swirl) "" no swirl Twice clearance (worn) "" no swirl operating speed 3600 rpm 1xC 8. Cross Stiffness vs shaft speed 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0. Damping Coefficients: Figure 14 shows the direct (CXX=CYY) and crosscoupled damping (CXY=CYX ) coefficients for the two seals. KXY ‘s are not as large as the direct stiffnesses. This effect is more pronounced for the worn seal since the increase in leakage pushes faster the fluid through the seal without it having enough time to evolve towards the 50% surface speed condition.0 water seal.0 3000.20.0 no inlet swirl no inlet swirl 0.0.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings CrossCoupled Stiffnesses: Figure 13 displays the crosscoupled stiffness coefficients.0 4000.0 5000. and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed (note difference in vertical scales).0 0. a function of the flow Reynolds number which increases with the pressure drop across the seal. c=0. Note that in the long seal.50. Cef=CXX (1/ω)KXY.20 Figure 13: CrossCoupled Stiffness Coefficients for Two Water Seals. the crosscoupled stiffness force acts effectively as a damping force. in general KXY ~ 1/c for turbulent flow seals. α=0.50.0 2000.0 2xC 2. on the other hand.50 and 0.190 mm. The damping coefficients are a function of the effective turbulent flow viscosity. L/D=0.0 water seal. i. 2 In laminar flow journal bearings. CXY < CXX.0 Kxy=Kyx [MN/m] Nominal clearance (with swirl) "" no swirl Twice clearance (worn) "" no swirl operating speed 3600 rpm 1xC 50% inlet swirl 6. The long seal shows about five times larger crosscoupled stiffness than in the short seal. L/D=0. The impact of inlet swirl is profound in the generation of crosscoupled forces.0 6000. See Lecture 2 11 .50 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0. c=0. In general. KXX.13 RTOENAVT143 . Note that the vertical scales in both graphs are different. see Figure 12.0 1000.0 4000. Incidentally. for the long seal and with a pre swirl ratio of 50%. In the short length seal. KXY =KYX. The larger the crosscoupled coefficients. the smaller the effective damping acting on the rotorbearing system. the damping and crossstiffness coefficients are proportional to (1/c)3. KXY is as large as the direct stiffness coefficient.0 2000. the direct damping is inversely proportional to the operating clearance2.20. also increasing rapidly with rotor speed. The crosscoupled coefficients are effectively null (zero magnitude). a null pre swirl. α=0.0 5000.0 3000. except for seals handling compressible fluids (gases). At the nominal operating condition.0 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0.0 1000.
0 4000.0 5000.0 2000. MXY < MXX.0 4000.0 3000.20 Figure 14: Direct and CrossDamping Coefficients for Two Water Seals.50. c=0.20. and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed (note differences in vertical scale).0 2000.0 Added mass 3. c=0. c=0.0 4000. This is again. Mfluid denotes the mass of liquid within the seal film land while Msteel represents the mass of a solid piece of steel with density set to 7. in particular for the long seal case.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings Damping vs shaft speed 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0.0 5000.20 Figure 15: Direct and CrossDamping Coefficients for Two Water Seals. Inlet swirl has no discernible effect on the direct inertia force coefficient. Direct Inertia vs shaft speed 50 45 40 35 water seal. and thus not shown here. L/D=0.0 Cxx Damping Cxx=Cyy Cxy=Cyx [kNs/m] Cxx Nominal clearance (with swirl) Cxy Cxx Twice clearance (worn) Cxy operating speed 3600 rpm 1xC Cxx Damping 2xC 2xC Cxy Cxy 1000. D=152 mm little effect of inlet swirl 50% inlet swirl 50 Damping vs shaft speed water seal.0 0.50 and 0.0 1000. c=0.0 3000. Inertia Force Coefficients: Figure 15 shows the direct (MXX=MYY) added mass coefficient for the two seals. Note that the added mass is practically invariant with shaft speed. and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed (note difference in vertical scales).20.14 . L/D=0.800 kg/m3.5 Mxx=Myy [kg] Rotor Speed (RPM) Nominal clearance (C) Twice clearance (worn) ""no swirl 1.50.0 3000.0 6000.20.190 mm.0 1.0 5000. L/D=0. one more reason for the differences between “wet” and “dry” critical speeds in liquid pumps.190 mm.0 2000.5 0.0 4.0 3000. D=152 mm little effect of inlet swirl 50% inlet swirl Cxx=Cyy Cxy=Cyx [kNs/m] operating speed 3600 rpm 1xC 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0. D=152 mm negligible effect of inlet swirl operating speed 3600 rpm 5. L/D=0.50 and 0.0 6000.190 mm. The simple formula will serve to realize the importance of fluid inertia on seal dynamic force performance. In general. note the different scales in both graphs.5 4.50 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0.0 6000.0 2. L/D=0.0 Cxx Nominal clearance (with swirl) Cxy Cxx Twice clearance (worn) Cxy water seal.0 0.0 1000.50 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0.0 3. Its magnitude is significant and will be added as an apparent mass into the pump rotor dynamic structural model. The long seal renders a much larger inertia coefficient. D=152 mm negligible effect of inlet swirl Mxx=Myy [kg] operating speed 3600 rpm Nominal clearance (C) Twice clearance (worn) ""no swirl Added mass 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0. D⎞ M steel := ρ steel ⋅ π⋅ ⎛ ⎟ ⋅ L ⎜2 ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 M fluid := ρ ⋅ π⋅ D⋅ L⋅ c L⎞ ⎛ tanh ⎛ ⎟ ⎞ ⎜D ⎟ ⎜ D⎞ L ⎝ ⎠ M XX := ρ ⋅ π⋅ ⎛ ⎟ ⋅ ⋅ ⎜ 1 − ⎜2 c ⎟ L ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ D ⎝ ⎠ (18) RTOENAVT143 11 .0 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0.190 mm.0 4000.20. The equation below presents a close form expression for estimation of the added mass coefficient (MXX) in a seal or squeeze film damper [14].0 2000.0 6000. L/D=0.0 L/D=0.5 Direct Inertia vs shaft speed water seal.0 1000. Incidentally.0 5000.5 2.
34kg −3 kg M XX M steel = 0. than the mass of a solid piece of rotor of identical length.0 2000. i.0 3000. Whirl Frequency Ratio: Figure 16 depicts the stability indicator (WFR) for the two seals. since fluid inertia effects will aid to reduce the “dry” natural frequency.190 mm.0 0.15 .9 × 10 −3 kg M XX M steel = 3.0 1000. In this case. and Two Clearances (c and 2c) versus Rotor Speed (note difference in vertical scales).4 0. c=0.0 6000.2 no inlet swirl 0. textured stator surfaces.0 4000. swirl brakes are inefficient devices for very long seals. Extensive testing has shown that seals with macroscopic roughness.3 1xC 0.0 1000.190 mm. KXY /(Ω CXX) =0.20 Figure 16: Whirl Frequency Ratio for Two Water Seals. the short length seal actually presents a negative whirl frequency ratio.0 6000.50 and 0.0 0.5 Nominal clearance (with swirl) "" no swirl Twice clearance (worn) "" no swirl operating speed 3600 rpm WFR 0. indicates that the pump can not operate at a sped above twice the critical speed of the rotorbearingseal system. The effect of an antiswirl break on the performance of the seal is dramatic.2 no inlet swirl 0. meaning that the seal is impervious to (unstable) forward rotor whirl motions.5 Nominal clearance (with swirl) "" no swirl Twice clearance (worn) "" no swirl operating speed 3600 rpm Whirl frequency ratio Whirl frequency ratio 50% inlet swirl 50% inlet swirl 0.0 0. L/D=0.4 0.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings The calculated values for the short and long seals and nominal clearance are L D = 0.5 even larger.0 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0. Furthermore. the WFR is always 0.76 × 10 M steel = 4.50.91kg M fluid = 2.0 5000. Whirl ratio vs shaft speed 0.0 3000. for example. i.e. L/D=0. c=0.50 Rotor Speed (RPM) L/D=0. as it would be the case of a balance piston.1 0. L/D=0. For a condition of no preswirl. and for L/D=0. consider that this critical speed is the “wet” one.0 2000. as a direct comparison to the numerical results shown in Figure 15 attests.5 M XX = 42.0 4000. The effect of the null preswirl is less notorious in the long seal.50. since the fluid flowing through the seal does have enough “residence” time to develop a circumferential mean flow velocity approaching the 50% rotor speed. With an inlet preswirl equal to 50% of rotor speed. D=152 mm large effect of inlet swirl WFR 0. The added mass or inertia coefficient (MXX) is of the same order of magnitude. lower than the “dry” critical speed. Clearly. the seal added mass coefficient is orders of magnitude larger.6 water seal.20.03kg M fluid = 6. Figure 17 RTOENAVT143 11 .6 water seal.e.84kg Although the mass of water contained within the seal land is just a few grams. L/D > 1. The approximate formula is very good for quick estimations of added mass coefficients.0 5000.2 M XX = 2.20.88 M steel = 10.1 negative values 2xC 1xC 2xC 0. D=152 mm large effect of inlet swirl Whirl ratio vs shaft speed 0.3 0. offer major improvements in reducing leakage as well as crosscoupled stiffness coefficients [2].67 L D = 0.50.
thus making this bearing type very attractive for cryogenic liquid turbopumps or low viscosity process fluid pump applications. The hydrostatic stiffness is of unique importance for the centering of highprecision milling machines.0 HYDROSTATIC BEARINGS FOR PUMP APPLICATIONS Hydrostatic bearings derive their load capacity not from shear flow driven effects (hydrodynamic wedge and surface sliding) but rather from the combination of pressure versus flow resistance effects through a feed restrictor and within the bearing film lands.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings depicts two textured seals and a conventional labyrinth seal (teeth on stator). Also. etc. i. A textured surface like a roundhole pattern or a honeycomb increases the friction thus reducing leakage. Honeycomb and Labyrinth Seal Configurations. In the feed restrictor (orifice. hydrostatic bearings may display a pneumatic hammer effect due to fluid compressibility. A hydrostatic bearing combines two flow restrictions in series. surface texturing on the rotor works the other way around while still reducing leakage. Note that hydrostatic bearings require an external pressurized supply system and some type of flow restrictor. HolePattern Seal Unwrap Honeycomb Seal Unwrap Labyrinth Seal Figure 17: HolePattern. a classical lubrication example. capillary. 2. the load and static stiffness of a hydrostatic bearing are independent of fluid viscosity. large arena movable seating areas. under dynamic motions. telescope bearings.e.16 RTOENAVT143 . However. In the past 10 years. i. Hydrostatic bearings can support large loads without journal rotation and provide large (accurate and controllable) direct stiffness as well as damping coefficients.e. 2. gyroscopes. and the other through the film lands.) the 11 . Figure 18 depicts a 1D bearing of very large width (B). and most importantly. The flow is laminar and fluid inertia effects are not accounted for.1 Estimation of the Static Stiffness in a Simple Hydrostatic Bearing [16] Consider the fundamental operation of a simple one dimensional hydrostatic bearing. and aids to retard the development of the circumferential flow velocity the physical condition generating the crosscoupled stiffness coefficients. However. one at the feed or supply port. compressor and pump manufacturers (as well as users) are implementing efficiently textured seals with great commercial success [15]. the circumferential flow develops faster causing even more severe rotordynamic instabilities. and even cryogenic fluid turbo pumps for rocket engines.
say Pa=0 for simplicity. and discharges to ambient pressure through the bearing sides. ℓc) are the diameter and length of the capillary tube.17 . Incompressible Fluid). the pocket pressure is regarded as uniform over the entire recess area AR=bB. Ps Supply pressure PR. Ql Pa h b Figure 18: Geometry of a Simplified 1D Hydrostatic Bearing.0. The orifice coefficient (Cd) ranges from 0. The fluid then flows from the recess into the film lands of small thickness h. Qr = Qc = π d4 (Ps − PR ) 128 µ c (19) Ao and Cd are the orifice area and empirical discharge coefficient. The flow rate (Qr) across the restrictor is a function of the pressure drop. Under turbulent flow conditions. recess pressure L hp Pa Film land Fluid flow. typically ℓc » 20 d.6 to 1.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings fluid drops its pressure from the supply value (Ps) to a magnitude (PR) within a recess or pocket of typically large volume (see Figure 19). Since the recess is deep. tests and CFD analysis evidence Cd ~0. respectively. the orifice geometry and even the film thickness. recess pressure Film land Pa Pa L b L Figure 19: Typical Pressure Drop in a Hydrostatic Bearing (Laminar Flow without Fluid Inertia Effects. For an orifice and capillary feeding. Ps Qr Feed restrictor L PR. Qt=f(PsPR). [17] RTOENAVT143 11 . Qr = Qo = Ao C d 2 ρ (Ps − PR ) . (d.80. depending on the flow condition (Reynolds number).
K= K ⋅ ho p = ro 3B( L + b) Ps Z + 1 (24) versus the recess pressure ratio. For bearing design. as will be seen later [18]. the bearing is stationary. Under steady state conditions. Orifices are usually preferred since their diameters are larger than those of capillaries. the recess pressure (PRo). Integration of the change in pressure gives rise to a the hydrostatic stiffness: [16] K =− ∆F 3B ( L + b) PRo = ∆h ho (Z + 1) (23) with Z = Z (P ) = Ro (PRo − Pa ) . Qr = f (Ps − PR ) = 2 C l ( PR − Pa ) = 2 Ql (21) with Cl = B h3/(12 µ L) as a flowconductance along the film land. a value of pocket pressure (PR) is desired. This is important since restrictor clogging may cause catastrophic bearing failure. The force (F) is proportional to the recess pressure (PR) and the area B (L + b). Most importantly. The film pressure generates a reaction force. in the absence of surface relative motion. Note that the recess pressure is assumed uniform or constant within the pocket extent (b). ∆PR <0 as ∆h>0. Equation (21) allows the determination of the recess pressure (PR) given the film conductance (Cl) and feed restrictor parameters.18 RTOENAVT143 . respectively. i. and equation (21) serves to size the diameter of the supply restrictor. Presently. The hydrostatic stiffness is a (Ps − PRo ) proportional to the bearing area [B(L+b]). A static change in film thickness (h0+∆h) with ∆h « h0. the flow rate is a function of the pressure drop and equals Q =− B h 3 ( PR − Pa ) B h 3 ∂P =+ 12 µ ∂x 12 µ L (20) where B is the bearing width and L is the film length with thickness h. no surface motion along the xaxis is accounted for. a = 2 for orifice or a = 1 for capillary feed. pro=PRo/Ps. a hydrostatic bearing has a limit load capacity.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings Across the bearing film lands the fluid drops in pressure from (PR) to ambient pressure. The assertion is not valid for flows with large Reynolds numbers (highly turbulent). [B(L+b)]Ps.e.e. the pressure field on the bearing surface takes the shape shown in Figure 19. the flow through the restrictor equals the flow through the film lands. 11 . and inversely proportional to the film thickness (ho). The flow conductance is the inverse of a flow resistance. unless a micron size filtering device is used as part of the fluid feed (supply) system into the bearing. shallow pockets and with large journal rotational speeds. Note that. Hydrostatic bearings with orifice compensation have larger stiffness than capillary fed bearings. for bearings with orifice and capillary feeds. F = B ∫ P( x)dx = B PR L L + PR b + PR = B ( L + b) PR 2 2 (22) where Pa=0 for simplicity. Pa. In the laminar flow of an incompressible fluid. i. causes the recess pressure to change to PRo +∆PR. the stiffness is not an explicit function of fluid viscosity. since the flow conductance varies. For the simple bearing considered. Figure 20 depicts the dimensionless stiffness.
The stiffness derived is static. In sum.4 stiffness (dimensionless) 0. A hybrid bearing combines the hydrodynamic and hydrostatic effects due to surface motion and external pressurization. there is no stiffness or load support.2 0 0 0. A maximum hydrostatic stiffness occurs for a given recess pressure ratio. Below.5857). For a capillary (pro=0. Motions at other frequencies produce notable changes in both the stiffness and damping force coefficients.6 0. 2. Figure 21 depicts the simple 1Dbearing configuration analyzed next. a low value of recess pressure indicates a large flow resistance (small conductance) through the restrictor.8 1 pocket pressur ratio (Pr/Ps) orifice capillary Figure 20: Static Stiffness for Simple Hydrostatic Bearing (Laminar Flow w/o Fluid Inertia Effects. while a large recess pressure denotes a large flow resistance through the film lands.4 0. The optimum stiffness arises from an impedance matching between the feed restrictor and the flow resistance through the film lands. RTOENAVT143 11 . In a capillary fed hydrostatic bearing.50) while for an orifice (pro=0. hydrodynamic effects (surface velocity) and fluid compressibility within the recess volume are accounted for [19].Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings Dimensionless stiffness for simple HB 0. hydrostatic bearings with orifice restrictors offer larger stiffness than with capillary restrictors.1 Effects of Excitation Frequency. In the figure. Without an external pressure supply and restrictor. Incompressible Fluid). respectively.19 . strictly valid for low frequency motions. the pressure drops across the restrictor should match the pressure drop across the film lands.2 0. The bearing direct stiffness depends on the pocket pressure (< supply pressure) and does not dependent explicitly on lubricant viscosity. Pocket Volume and Fluid Compressibility on the Force Coefficients of a Hybrid Bearing The prior analysis explained the physics for the generation of support stiffness in a hydrostatic bearing.
dρ = ρ dP . Ql Pa h b U Figure 21: Simple Hybrid (Hydrostatic/Hydrodynamic) Bearing with Surface Speed (U). q x = q x0 + q x1 ∆h e i ω t (28) The recess pressure (PR) and the flow (Ql) leaving the pocket into the film lands are also expressed as the sum of static and dynamic components. i. the continuity and momentum transport equations for the laminar flow of an inertialess. ∂ x ∂t where q x =Vx h = − h3 U h ∂P = 12 µ q x − 2 ∂x (26) thickness be given as the superposition of a steadystate value (h0) and a harmonic motion of small amplitude ∆h and frequency (ω).e. and U is the bearing surface speed. i. the flow into the film lands (2Ql) and the time rate of change of fluid mass accumulated within the pocket. h(t) is the film thickness. P = P 0 + P1 ∆h e i ω t . Qx is the flow rate per unit width. the film pressure (P) and flow rate (qx) are also given by the superposition of an equilibrium (zerothorder) field and a dynamic (firstorder) field.e. isoviscous and (nearly) incompressible fluid are: ∂ qx ∂ h + = 0. i. Thus κ 11 . In the thin film lands. For small amplitude motions (∆h<<h0). The conservation of mass within the recess of a hydrostatic bearing balances the flow through the restrictor (Qr).20 RTOENAVT143 . recess pressure L hp Pa Film land Fluid flow. Let the film B h = h0 + ∆h cos( ω t ) = h0 + ∆h e i ω t . and hR is the machined pocket depth. QR − 2 Ql = 1 ∂ ( ρ Vrec ) ρ ∂t (25) where Vrec=B d(h+hR) is the recess volume. and h = i ω ∆h e i ω t (27) Note that only the real part of the complex expression above is of importance.e.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings Ps Qr Feed restrictor L PR. The density and pressure in a compressible liquid are related through the material bulkmodulus (κ).
42). thus introducing a pressurelag effect which can induce undesirable dynamic force effects. the "static" damping coefficient (C0) depends solely on the fluid viscosity and the bearing area. Equation (29) shows that the fluid mass in the pocket volume will vary dynamically with changes in film thickness and pocket pressure. and (K0. the surface speed (U) does not aid to the generation of force coefficients in laminar flow hydrostatic bearings. See [19] for a more detailed analysis with examples related to cryogenic fluid hydrostatic bearings. In general. i.e. the hydrostatic stiffness increases as the excitation frequency grows while the damping coefficient drops dramatically. On the other hand. San Andrés [19] introduces a break frequency (ωB) as ωB = Qr0 (Z +1)κ κ h03 B = (Z +1) PR0 Vrec0 Vrec0 6 µ L (30) Note that ωB→∞ for an incompressible fluid (κ→∞). C = C (1 −α ) K( ω ) = K0 2 (1 + f ) ( ω ) 0 (1 + f 2 ) where f = ω is a frequency ratio. Incidentally. A lengthy algebraic analysis leads to the following expressions for frequency dependent force coefficients [19]. and it grows rapidly as the film thickness (h) decreases.21 . C0 = 3 h0 ( Z + 1) h0 ( Z + 1) (32) with Z = Z (P ) = Ro (P − P ) a (P − P ) R0 a s R0 Note that the static stiffness coefficient (K0) is directly proportional to the recess pressure (PR).Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings PR 1 ∂ ( ρ Vrec ) = Vrec0 1 + Arec i ω ∆h e i ω t ρ ∂t κ (29) with Vrec0 = Arec (h0 + hR ) . and equal to 2 3 B (L + b ) PR0 6 µ B L (L + b ) 1 K0 = . The results correspond to a bearing with deep a deep pocket depth (hR/h=10) and damping loss factor (α=0. Figure 22 shows the hydrostatic bearing stiffness (K) and damping (C) coefficients for increasing frequency ratios (ω/ωB). namely pneumatic hammer with generation of a “negative” damping coefficient. α = K o (31) ωB ω B Co is a damping loss ratio. RTOENAVT143 11 . in the absence of liquid compressibility ( κ → ∞ ). f2 1+ α . C0) are the stiffness and damping coefficients obtained for an incompressible fluid.
at low frequencies there is a loss of damping due to fluid compressibility effects (α>0). C( ω =0 ) = C0 (1 − α ) (33) Thus.1 0 1 2 excitation frequency/break frequency 3 4 K/Ko C/Co Figure 22: Frequency Dependent (Dimensionless) Force Coefficients for Simple Hydrostatic Bearing. To avoid fluid compressibility – pocket volume effects it is desirable to design the hydrostatic bearing with a break frequency (ωB) as large as possible and/or operate the bearing under dynamic conditions with excitation frequencies well below the break frequency. For excitations at low frequencies. the damping coefficient is just 50% of the value obtained at low frequencies. For excitations at a frequency coinciding with the break frequency (ωB). 11 .22 RTOENAVT143 .Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings Coefficients for hydrostatic bearing 10 Dimensionless stiffness and damping 1 0. K (ω → ∞ ) = K ∞ = K0 α . C (ω → ∞ ) = 0 (34) there is a complete loss of damping accompanied by an increase in dynamic stiffness. ωB→∞). ω >>ωB). The force coefficients are frequency independent in a nearly incompressible fluid (κ→0. the stiffness and damping coefficients are K ( f =1) = 1+α Ko . i. the stiffness and damping coefficients approach K ( ω =0 ) = K 0 . This phenomenon is known as pneumatic hammer and characteristic of gas hydrostatic bearings.e. ω→0 (ω <<ωB). 2α 1 1 C ( f =1) = C ( f =0) = C o (1 − α ) 2 2 (35) Thus. f<<1. However. note that even in commonly assumed incompressible liquids. the fluid bulk modulus decreases rapidly with minute concentrations of dissolved gases. (ω→∞. This reduction may cause the bearing to become unstable even under static conditions if the loss ratio (α) is larger than one. For excitations at large frequencies.
hR 1 + h0 That is.e. Hybrid journal bearings (HJB)s enable smaller and lighter turbopumps through no bearing DN life limitation and sub critical rotor operation.low count part turbo pumps operate sub critically at exceedingly high shaft speeds (180 krpm) with pressure differentials as large as 550 bars. Figure 23 depicts an Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Turbopump developed by Pratt & Whitney in the late 1990’s. HJBs offer durability. Fluid pressure to the pump and turbine end bearings is supplied from the pump discharge volute.e.5 if α > 0. It is notable to mention that the whirl frequency ratio for a centered hybrid bearing [19] is φ = WFR = K XY K XY 1 = ≈ 0.23 . if fluid compressibility –recess volume effects are important. WFR > 0. hybrid bearings have the same limited whirl frequency ratio as plain cylindrical bearings. The compact turbopump integrates two LH2 lubricated hydrostatic radial bearings and a hydrostatic thrust bearing. to increase the break frequency ratio. and large direct stiffness and damping force coefficients. RTOENAVT143 11 . This ratio could even be worse. 21]. i. low friction and wear. Compact . [22]. accuracy of positioning. the testing of components. and the implementation of the technology.2 Hybrid (Hydrostatic/Hydrodynamic) Bearings for High Performance Turbopumps The importance of hybrid (combination hydrostatic and hydrodynamic) journal and thrust bearings and damping seal bearings as radial support elements in cryogenic turbomachinery has steadily grown over the past few years [20.5 (1 − α ) Ω C XX f ==0 Ω C XX = 0 (1 − α ) (36) Hence.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings From equation (30). 3 h0 B 1 h02 = Vrec 6 L 6 d L 0 1 . These features enable the design (and operation) of unshrouded impellers with a significant increase in the turbopump mechanical efficiency. The growth of an "allfluidfilmbearing" technology for advanced and less costly (per launch cost) turbopumps demands the development of analytical models and design tools. deep pockets (hR/h0>>1) tend to aggravate the loss of damping at low excitation frequencies. large values for the following ratio are needed. Advanced primary power require of externally pressurized fluid film bearings to support the expected large thrust and lateral radial loads. i. 2. at speeds below the first elastic mode of the rotorbearing system.
11 . negative crosscoupled stiffness. The bearing surface is textured (macroscopic roughness) to enhance the damping and reduce flow requirements. by means of reverse angled orifice injection.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings Figure 23: Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Turbopump [22]. The design provides high stiffness and damping and.24 RTOENAVT143 . Figure 24 shows a picture of the LH2 hydrostatic bearing used as the primary means of rotor radial support.
fluid inertia. The author has developed the most comprehensive computational analyses for prediction of process fluid hybrid bearings. Computational programs based on the Reynolds equation of classical lubrication. References [1821. flow turbulence. 2. 21]. an inertial pressure drop also occurs due to the sudden transition from the recess of depth (hR) into the film lands of thickness (h). The pressure field within the recesses is determined from flow continuity with the film lands. The fluid injection is typically radial. At the recess edges. the magnitude of crosscoupled stiffness coefficients [28]. thermal effects.25 RTOENAVT143 . Past the recesses. thus enhancing the load capacity due to hydrodynamic effects and increasing the bearing energy dissipation characteristics. geometric configuration. Note that for the cryogenic fluid application as well as others handling low viscosity liquids. i. 11 . the large surface speeds and the large pressure differential determine flow conditions with high levels of flow turbulence and fluid inertia effects.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings Figure 24: Hydrostatic Radial and Thrust Bearings for Cryogenic Turbopump. A liquid at high pressure (Ps) is supplied through orifice restrictors and impinges into the bearing recesses with a mean pressure (PR). even eliminate. though in some instances it could be at an angle opposing shaft rotation3. and twophase flow phenomena.3 Bulk Flow Analysis of Turbulent Flow Hydrostatic Bearings Figure 25 shows the geometry of a hybrid (combination hydrostatic/hydrodynamic) journal bearing. more damping 20. 2328] detail the computational analyses performed along with experimental measurements aiming to validate and calibrate the predictive codes. no fluid inertia. Flow turbulence increases the lubricant “effective” viscosity. the liquid then flows through the film lands and the pressure drops to the discharge value (Pa). realistic fluid properties.e. i. 3 Angled injection aids to reduce the development of circumferential flow speed and reduce.e. static and dynamic force coefficients. operating conditions. i. are illprepared to render adequate predictions of hybrid bearing performance. radial and thrust. momentum exchange at the orifice plane and a viscous rise due to journal rotation.e. The analyses address to the most important theoretical and practical issues related to the operation and dynamic performance of cryogenic fluid film bearings.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings x=Rθ recess Ω Y g journal orifice X Figure 25: Schematic View of a Radial Hydrostatic/Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing.26 RTOENAVT143 . and (κx κz) denote wall shear stress turbulent flow coefficients. 11 . Vz) are the bukflow (film averaged) circumferential and axial flow velocities. P is the pressure. The general transport equations including these features are [20]: ∂ (ρ hψ ) ∂ (ρ h V x ψ ) ∂ (ρ h V z ψ ) =S + + ∂z ∂x ∂t where conservation of mass equation transport of circumferential (x) momentum velocity transport of axial momentum (z) velocity (37) . and the friction factors (fJ. The recess area (AR) equals (lxb) and the feed orifice has diameter do with a feed volume equal to Vsupply. followed by sharp inertial pressure drops at the recess edges [23]. CFD results and measurements show the generation of hydrodynamic pressures within the pocket.B) depend on the bearing and journal surface conditions and the flow Reynolds numbers relative to the rotating (ReJ) and stationary (ReB) surfaces [9]. S ψ=1 ψ = Vx 0 ∂P µ ΩR − κ x Vx − κ J ∂x h 2 (38) −h ψ = Vz −h ∂P µ − (κ z V z ∂z h ) Above (Vx. Figure 26 depicts a bearing recess with axial length (l) and circumferential extent (b). The simplified analysis of hydrostatic bearings does not model the flow field within the recess since these are (typically) deep and enclose a nearly stagnant fluid volume. κB=fB ReB. The computational model considers the fully developed turbulent bulkflow of a fluid whose material properties depend on its local thermo physical state of pressure and temperature. The wall shear stress parameters κy=κx=½(κJ+κB) with κJ=fJ ReJ. The bulkflow model accounts for mass flow continuity with the film lands and obtains the recess pressures (PR) from an orifice flow equation which requires of an empirical discharge coefficient (Cd). Variable Source term.
z (41) where (ξ) represents empirical entrance loss coefficients at the recess edges. MΓ HR Film land Film land Pa ΩR H b b Figure 26: Turbulent Flow Pressure Distribution in a Pocket of a Hybrid Bearing. and the accumulation of fluid mass within the recess volume. This condition is typical of fixed geometry bearings. as in a Rayleigh step bearing. The fluid pressures. Plain journal bearings show a WFR equal to 0.50 for small to RTOENAVT143 11 .27 . and M Γ = ∫ (ρ h V ⋅η )dΓ is the outflow from the Γ pocket into the bearing film lands. is given. axial and circumferential. PR− . That is. ρ M R = C d Ao [Ps − PR ] 2 1/ 2 =MΓ + ∂ (ρ VR ) ∂t (39) where Ao = Cd (πdo2/4) is the effective orifice area. by [24] PR+ = PR + µ κ x 2 (h + hR ) b 2 Ω R −Vx 2 R (40) Fluid inertia causes a sudden pressure drop at the interface between a recess and the film lands. The whirl frequency ratio (WFR) denotes the ratio between the onset whirl frequency (typically the system first critical speed) and the threshold speed of instability. The sudden pressure drop is accounted for only if the fluid flow effectively enters into the thin film lands. the flow through the boundaries of the recess into the film lands (MΓ). The threshold speed corresponds to the rotor speed at which a bearing is deprived from its effective damping and any small perturbation from an equilibrium position will determine unbounded rotor motions. VR=[AR (h+hR)+Vsupply]. PR+ . recess Fluid flow. The circumferential pressure downstream of the feed orifice. The continuity equation at a hydrostatic recess establishes a balance among the mass flow through the feed orifice (MR). Recall that severe sub synchronous vibrations at rotational speeds above a certain threshold denote a hydrodynamic instability on rotorfluid film bearing systems and due to the effect of journal rotational speed on the shear flow field.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings MR P s Ps Feed orifice and Supply volume Supply pressure PR PR+ PR− pressure PR. entering into the film lands bounding a recess are (1 + ξ ) ρ e− ρ 1 − + P =P + 2 ρe − R + R h h + h R 2 V x2.
Figure 27 depicts the stiffness coefficients.792 cPoise. This design feature retards the full development of the circumferential flow velocity. The design analysis is conducted with the bearings operating without applied load at their centered position. The pressurized water feeding the hydrostatic bearings is routed from the pump discharge pipe. San Andrés [28] extends the bulkflow model to account for fluid injection at an angle and opposing shaft rotation. 995 kg/m3) Nominal speed = 3600 rpm. Table 2: Geometry and Operating Conditions of Hydrostatic Bearings for a Liquid Pump D=L = 152.28 RTOENAVT143 . At the nominal speed of operation. Thus. L/D=1. i.4 bars. the static load acting on each bearing equals 5 kN (1. the size of the orifice is selected to provide the maximum direct (support) stiffness while keeping in mind the need of low flow rates to avoid an excessive penalty on pump operation. Supply pressure= 34. The direct stiffness peaks at a pocket pressure ratio ~ 0.60 which requires an orifice of diameter equal to 3.000 rpm. 25].19. equals 0.33 times larger than that of the original oillubricated bearing. 2. The pump nominal operating speed is 3.e. and the pocket depth to clearance ratio is 3. and thus instability onsets at rotational speeds equal to twice the system first critical speed.465. Measurements in hybrid bearings verify closely the prediction of WFR =0. null eccentricity. The ratio of pocket area to bearing area. The speed range for predictions is 1. 350N/micron. and versus the calculated pocket pressure ratio on the right graph. D/c=1. nominal clearance 5 pockets: l=51 mm. The pressurized fluid for the hydrostatic bearings is routed from the pump discharge volute. L x D. 4 mm c=0.102 mm.20 mm. thus reducing the crosscoupled stiffness coefficients which prevent the operation of hybrid bearings at large rotational speeds.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings moderate operating eccentricities (light loads). i. The magnitude of direct stiffness equals 350 MN/m. The pockets are shallow to reduce the likelihood of pneumatic hammer effects and enhance hydrodynamic effects at the pocket end in the circumferential direction.e. must be similar to the original bearings to reduce costs in redesigning or remachining the pump casing. versus the orifice diameter on the left graph.125 lb). lower operational cost and extended periods for maintenance. direct (KXX) and crosscoupled (KXY).000 to 5. The pocket area is relatively small to avoid excessive flow rate requirements. in particular for low rotational speeds and large supply pressures.381 mm Orifice diameter: 3. In some circumstances the WFR even increases above 0.50. arc 41° . Table 2 presents the hydrostatic bearing dimensions. Eliminating the lubrication system offers distinct advantages.80) Smooth bearing and rotor surfaces Fluid: water at 30°C ( 0. which 11 . The clearance selected is 1. The hydrostatic bearing size. Hydrostatic bearings with reduced pocket areas (< 25% of bearing area) and shallow pockets are modern considerations relying on the desired adequate dynamic forced performance of the bearing [20.600 rpm with a pressure discharge of 34. length and diameter. depth=0. the liquid pressure supply into the bearings varies in a quadratic form with rotor speed.50 [27]. ∆P ~ Ω2.75.4 bar Static load = 5000 N Note that for the bearing studied. including better performance.4 Hydrostatic Bearings for Load Support in a Water Pump This section presents process fluid hydrostatic bearings designed to replace mineral oil lubricated bearings in a multiple stage water pump. In the application.2 mm (Cd=0.
5 selected orifice diameter Pocket pressure ratio 0.7 0. yet not large enough to cause a severe reduction in pump available flow rate (~ 4% pump flow routed to bearings).000 N with a relatively small rotor eccentricity. Thus.152 m.5 0.6 0. This too restrictive stability indicator could easily prevent the implementation of the water bearing into the pump application. 5 pocket (l=L/3.152 m. To resolve this issue. 3600 rpm L=D=0. 5 pocket (l=L/3. 5 pocket (l=L/3.4 bar. The graph on the right of Figure 28 depicts the damping (CXX. its effect on reducing the direct dynamic stiffness is relatively small.4 bar. HJB design: 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2 2.0 Pocket pressure ratio HJB flow rate (kg/s) Power (kw) Parameters Cxx = Cyy 600 500 400 300 200 100 1.0 Mxx = Myy Mxy = Myx Cxy = Cyx 0.5 3 3. The direct damping coefficients are large due to flow turbulence conditions.5 At nominal operating condition PsPa=34. c=102 um.20 mm Selected orifice diameter 3. 5 pocket (l=L/3. 3600 rpm L=D=0. arc =42 deg) Kxx = Kyy Kxx .5 Supply pressure 1.5 4 4.152 m. arc =42 deg) HJB design: 1000 At nominal operating condition PsPa=34.5 3 3. the whirl frequency ratio. c=102 um.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings is large enough to support the static load of 5. The added mass coefficient is ~ 166 kg at the selected orifice diameter. c=102 um. Centered Bearing (no load).29 . Nominal Operating Condition. which is large when compared to the requirements of an oillubricated bearing. Nominal Operating Condition. HJB design: 3.5 Orifice diameter (mm) 0 2 2.5 Orifice diameter (mm) Figure 28: Performance Parameters for Water Hydrostatic Bearing versus Orifice Diameter. Centered Bearing (no load). arc =42 deg) 3.0 Drag power (kW) Flow rate (kg/s) 900 800 Mxx (kg) Mxy (kg) Cxx (kNs/m) Cxy (kNs/m) 2.152 m.4 0. 3600 rpm selected design L=D=0. is ~0.5 3 3.5 Orifice diameter (mm) Kxx (MN/m) Kxy (MN/m) At nominal operating condition PsPa=34.Mxx ω2 Kxx (MN/m) Kxy (MN/m) KxxMxx w^2 Stiffness coefficients Stiffness coefficients Kxx = Kyy 250 200 150 100 50 0 0.5 5 5.8 0. Note that the cross coupled stiffness is about 50% lower than the direct stiffness.5 5 5. WFR= KXY /(CXX ω).67 kg/s (~100 litre/min). Left: Pocket Pressure. MYX) force coefficients decreasing with the size of the feed orifice.4 bar. In spite of the large mass predicted. as seen on Figure 27 for the (KXX . arc =42 deg) HJB design: 400 350 300 At nominal operating condition PsPa=34. 3600 rpm L=D=0. Flow Rate and Drag Power. Right: Damping and Inertia Force Coefficients. as is customary.4 bar.60. predictions are obtained for feed conditions purely radial.5 4 4.0 2 2. however.5 5 5. the crosscoupled stiffness coefficients are also large.20 mm Selected orifice diameter Figure 27: Direct and CrossCoupled Stiffnesses versus Orifice Diameter and Pocket Pressure Ration for Water Hydrostatic Bearing.2 0.3 0.9 1 Pocket pressure ratio Kxy = Kyx Kxy = Kyx 3. Figure 28 shows on the left graph the bearing flow rate and drag power increasing as the orifice diameter is enlarged since the pocket pressure increases. c=102 um. and with a 90° angled fluid injection directed against shaft rotation. RTOENAVT143 11 . The bearing flow rate is 1. denoting hydrodynamic effects due to journal rotation will affect greatly the bearing dynamic forced performance.MXX ω2) curve.5 4 4.5 700 Parameters 2. CYX) and inertia (MXX.
10 0.4 bar 25 20 15 tangential injection 10 radial injection tangential injection y x load direction radial injection [fraction of clearance] Rotor Speed (RPM) 5 0 0 1000 STATIC LOAD = 5 kN 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor Speed (RPM) Figure 29: Journal Eccentricity and Attitude Angle versus Rotor Speed. Journal Eccentricity and Attitude Angle: Figure 29 displays the journal eccentricity (e/c) and attitude angle for the water HJB with radial and angled injection. 11 .60 0. 5 kN. The predictions were obtained for the full static load condition. orifice do=3. as the rotor speed increases from 1 krpm to 5 krpm. orifice do=3. c=102 um.152 m. At the nominal operating condition (3.2 mm [bar] operating condition.0 10. c=102 um. Water Hydrostatic Bearing with Radial and Tangential Injections. 5 pocket (l=L/3.90 0. PsPa=34.0 40.00 operating condition. 5 pocket (l=L/3. Note that the flow rate varies linearly with shaft speed since the feed pressure and pocket pressures are proportional to the second power of speed.152 m.4 bar L=D=0. This is a desired condition that will reduce the magnitude of the crosscoupled stiffness coefficients.00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 STATIC LOAD = 5 kN [deg] operating condition. c=102 um.0 70.0 50. Load (X)=5 kN.152 m. the rotor eccentricity is just 11% of the bearing clearance. orifice do=3.e. arc =42 deg). c=102 um. PsPa=34. PsPa=34. 5 pocket (l=L/3. arc =42 deg).50 operating condition.30 0.40 0. The pocket pressures follow the growth in feed pressure.00 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0.50 0. PsPa=34. flow rate ~ ∆P1/2 ~ Ω.00 L=D=0.50 1.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings In the following. At low shaft speeds. Angled injection has a pronounced effect on the attitude angle. when the pump has not yet generated enough head (pressure).2 mm Mass flow rate 3.0 60. orifice do=3.70 0. Operating journal eccentricity 1. The orifice diameter selected is 3.0 30. the journal eccentricity exceeds 50% of the bearing clearance.0 0.30 RTOENAVT143 . static and dynamic.00 tangential injection radial injection Supply pressure 0.152 m. Note that for low speeds. Max film pressures 80.20 0.80 0. Water Hydrostatic Bearing with Radial and Tangential Injections. it is quite likely that the bearing surfaces need to be coated with a solid lubricant able to withstand short periods of rotor to bearing contact while the pump rotor accelerates to its design operating point. Small values of attitude angle indicate a rotor displacement parallel to the applied load.0 0 STATIC LOAD = 5 kN L=D=0.00 1. Load (X)=5 kN. arc =42 deg). Film Pressures and Flow Rate: Figure 30 presents the film pocket pressure and flow rate as rotor speed increases. i.2 mm.4 bar supply pressure function of pump speed [kg/s] 2. hydrodynamic effects are of greatest importance to support the applied external load. the performance. tangential injection generating slightly larger magnitudes. arc =42 deg). Since water has a low viscosity.600 rpm).2 mm Attitude angle 40 35 30 L=D=0. of the water hydrostatic bearing is shown for the cases of radial injection and tangential injection. 5 pocket (l=L/3.50 tangential injection radial injection Rotor Speed (RPM) STATIC LOAD = 5 kN Rotor Speed (RPM) Figure 30: Maximum Film Pressures and Flow Rate versus Rotor Speed.0 20. Radial and angled injections produce very similar flow rates. less than 2000 rpm. The left graph includes the supply pressure into the bearings.2 mm 0.4 bar 2.
c=102 um. orifice do=3. Bearing direct stiffnesses have a pronounced effect on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a rotorbearing system. with supply pressure. Angled injection causes a net reduction in torque and power since the average circumferential flow speed is reduced. c=102 um.152 m. also increase with rotor speed due to enhanced hydrodynamic effects.e.152 m. thus contributing to the rotor dynamic stability of the water hydrostatic bearing.2 mm Drag Power 8. orifice do=3. PsPa=34.31 .4 bar 700 600 Kxy: tangential injection radial injection Kyx tangential injection radial injection radial injection x 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 100 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 200 1000 tangential injection radial injection Kyy tangential injection radial injection 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor Speed (RPM) STATIC LOAD = 5 kN Rotor Speed (RPM) Figure 32: Stiffness Coefficients versus Rotor Speed. hydrodynamic effects generated by shaft rotation and minute film thicknesses (large operating eccentricity). orifice do=3.00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 STATIC LOAD = 5 kN L=D=0. At the nominal operating condition (3.00 4.00 L=D=0.00 14.2 mm Cross stiffnesses 800 Kxy. However. PsPa=34. KXY and KYX.4 bar tangential injection 1. Load (X)=5 kN.00 10. At this speed the bearing is not supplied with enough pressurized water to warrant support of the applied load with a full film condition.4 bar [MN/m] operating condition. Kyx y x L=D=0. KXX and KYY. arc =42 deg).00 0. 5 pocket (l=L/3. arc =42 deg). i.00 tangential injection 2.152 m. tangential fluid injection aids to reduce dramatically the crosscoupled coefficients. its magnitude is certainly a fraction of that required in an oil lubricated bearing.00 3. PsPa=34. RTOENAVT143 11 .00 5.00 4. Water Hydrostatic Bearing with Radial and Tangential Injections.00 0 1000 STATIC LOAD = 5 kN radial injection radial injection 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor Speed (RPM) Rotor Speed (RPM) Figure 31: Torque and Drag Power versus Rotor Speed. Water Hydrostatic Bearing with Radial and Tangential Injections. c=102 um. 5 pocket (l=L/3.e.600 rpm) the direct stiffnesses are large in magnitude.4 bar 7.152 m.00 0. ~ 350 N/micron. Direct stiffnesses 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 Kxx: tangential injection 200 100 0 0 1000 STATIC LOAD = 5 kN Kxx. Drag Torque 16.00 8.2 mm [Nm] operating condition. 5 pocket (l=L/3.2 mm [MN/m] operating condition.00 12. Stiffnesses Coefficients: Figure 32 depicts the direct stiffnesses. The coefficients shown demonstrate the paramount effect of shear driven flow. Kyy y L=D=0.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings Torque and Drag Power: Figure 31 shows the drive torque and drag power for the water hybrid bearings. c=102 um.00 6.00 6.00 2. The drag power is not large. therefore the small operating journal eccentricity for the applied load of 5 kN. i. PsPa=34. arc =42 deg). 5 pocket (l=L/3. The large stiffness coefficients at the lowest shaft speed are to be taken with caution. increasing rapidly with rotor speed. arc =42 deg). orifice do=3. Angled liquid injection does not affect the generation of direct stiffnesses. The crosscoupled stiffnesses.00 [kW] operating condition. Load (X)=5 kN.
length and diameter equalling 0. MYY.2 mm Cross damping 300 Cxy.4 bar [kNs/m] 250 operating condition. c=102 um. arc =42 deg). Load (X)=5 kN. arc =42 deg). PsPa=34. For the bearing studied. At low speeds. c=102 um. Angled fluid injection affects the crossdamping coefficients only. bearing fluid inertia coefficients must be included in a proper rotordynamic analysis of the rotorbearing system. Cyy y L=D=0. Direct damping 3000 Cxx.152 m. a piece of solid steel shaft. Note the scale difference in the graphs for direct and crosscoefficients.e. orifice do=3. The mass of water contained within the bearing is just a few grams. the large values of damping denote a purely hydrodynamic operation lacking enough external pressurization. Direct inertia 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1000 STATIC LOAD = 5 kN Mxx. Cyx L=D=0.2 mm [kg] [kg] Mxy: tangential injection radial injection +Myx tangential injection Mxy radial injection operating condition. Water Hydrostatic Bearing with Radial and Tangential Injections.32 RTOENAVT143 .152 m. MYY) and crosscoupled (MXY.bending mode with nodes close to the bearing supports. 5 pocket (l=L/3.152 m.2 mm Crossinertia 25 Mxy. 11 .152 m. orifice do=3. 5 pocket (l=L/3. 5 pocket (l=L/3. c=102 um. a pinpin mode elastic mode shape. arc =42 deg). arc =42 deg). PsPa=34.4 bar Cxy: tangential injection radial injection Cyx tangential injection radial injection x 2000 Cxx: tangential injection radial injection Cyy tangential injection radial injection 200 radial injection 1500 150 1000 100 y 500 50 tangential injection x 0 0 1000 STATIC LOAD = 5 kN 0 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0 1000 STATIC LOAD = 5 kN 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor Speed (RPM) Rotor Speed (RPM) Figure 33: Damping Coefficients versus Rotor Speed.2 mm [kNs/m] 2500 operating condition. yet the predicted direct added mass coefficients are orders of magnitude larger than the physical mass of fluid. Myy L=D=0.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings In rotating machinery with long shaft spans and incorporating hydrostatic bearings with large feed pressures.152 m. Damping Coefficients: Figure 33 shows the direct (CXX. CYX) damping coefficients versus shaft speed. 5 pocket (l=L/3. Note that the vertical scale in both graphs is not the same. the first natural mode of vibration will be a low frequency . Angled fluid injection has an effect on the crossinertia coefficients. c=102 um. PsPa=34.4 bar 20 Mxx: tangential injection radial injection Myy tangential injection radial injection operating condition.4 bar 15 10 y x 5 y x 0 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0 1000 STATIC LOAD = 5 kN 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor Speed (RPM) Rotor Speed (RPM) Figure 34: Inertia Coefficients versus Rotor Speed. CYY. CYY) and crosscoupled (CXY. Thus. i. has a mass of just 21. CYX < CXX . MXX~ MYY ~ 160 kg.7 kg. Load (X)=5 kN. MYX) inertia coefficients as shaft speed increases. MXY. MYX < MXX . CXY . orifice do=3. PsPa=34. Water Hydrostatic Bearing with Radial and Tangential Injections. Myx L=D=0. note that the direct added mass coefficients are practically invariant with shaft speed. orifice do=3. Most importantly. Inertia Coefficients: Figure 34 depicts the direct (MXX.
PsPa=34.2 mm Critical mass 1000000 L=D=0.20 0.4 bar 0.70 L=D=0. arc =42 deg). 11 . Note on the other hand. the maximum rotating mass the bearing can support without inducing a sub synchronous instability.33 RTOENAVT143 .30 0. The HJB with radial injection shows a whirl ratio ~ 0.15.e. orifice do=3. 5 pocket (l=L/3. which would enable the rotor to operate to speeds greater than six times its first critical speed. i. c=102 um.2 mm [] 0. as with plain hydrodynamic journal bearings. PsPa=34. Despite the many advantages offered by HJBs. Concerted efforts have been directed towards conceiving hybrid bearings with improved stability characteristics.4 bar [kg] operating condition. while others followed empiricism and well known past experiences.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings Stability Indicators: The left graph on Figure 35 depicts the whirl frequency ratio (WFR) versus shaft speed. light weight and flexible rotating machinery. the bearing with angled injection is fully stable. Pneumatic hammer effects are avoided by appropriate selection of the flow restrictor.50 tangential injection radial injection 100000 0.60 for most operating speeds. At the operating condition. 5 pocket (l=L/3.152 m. orifice do=3. The analysis assumes the rotor to be rigid. the paramount effect of tangent fluid injection on reducing the whirl frequency ratio. Note that the angle injection bearing leads to critical masses at least one order of magnitude larger than for the radial bearing. For practical purposes.152 m. Obviously this assertion assumes the rotor to be rigid. 3. and without loss in centering stiffness and damping ability. The recommended fixes to improve the hydrodynamic stability of hybrid bearings by reducing or eliminating the whirl frequency ratio (WFR) are: 4 See second lecture for a proper definition of the critical mass parameter. The 50% frequency whirl condition limits severely the application of HJBs to high speed. by designing bearing recesses with small volumes. WFR~0. Whirl frequency ratio 0.0 CLOSURE Modern high performance turbomachinery operating at high speeds and large pressures incorporate process fluid hybrid (hydrostatic/hydrodynamic) journal and thrust bearings to reduce the numbers of parts and size. This restrictive condition is even worse than that in a plain journal bearing. The other graph on Figure 35 depicts the critical mass4. thus further satisfying stringent environmental constraints. Fixed geometry HJBs have limited stability characteristics with a whirl frequency ratio (WFR) ~0. Water Hydrostatic Bearing with Radial and Tangential Injection.00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 1000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor Speed (RPM) STATIC LOAD = 5 kN Rotor Speed (RPM) Figure 35: Whirl Frequency Ratio and Critical Mass versus Rotor Speed. Load (X)=5 kN. and to eliminate expensive mineral lubricant storage and pumping.60 operating condition. c=102 um. rotordynamic instabilities due to hydrodynamic (shear flow) and fluid compressibility effects are issues of primary concern for high speed operation with large pressure differentials.50. Some of the technological advances evolved from analysis and engineering design. This condition will limit the pump to a maximum operating speed just 67 % above its first critical speed.10 Fully stable WFR =<0 0. and by restricting bearing operation to flow conditions where the pressure differential is a small fraction of the liquid bulk modulus.40 tangential injection radial injection tangential injection against shaft rotation 10000 0. arc =42 deg).
L. Vance. Computational analyses including flow turbulence. 201220. the pads support flexibility eliminates the generation of crosscoupled stiffness coefficients. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Turbomachinery Rotordynamics. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. i. Of the 26th Turbomachinery Symposium. pp. 1991. These bearings are mechanically complex though nearly free of instabilities. TAMU. (chapter 4). H. Effects of Hydraulic Forces on Annular Pressure Seals on the Vibrations of Centrifugal Pump Rotors. D. Test results with a knurledpattern HJB show a WFR as low as 0. L. TAMU. Analysis of Variable Fluid Properties. and identification of rotordynamic force coefficients. Advances in Mechanical Sealing – An Introduction to API 682 Second Edition. demonstrating that angled injection aids in reducing the whirl frequency ratio without decreasing the bearing centering stiffness and load capacity. Of the 19th International Pump Users Symposium. J. pp.e. 694702. b) Use flexure pivottilting pad HJBs [25]. the effectiveness of angled injection is reduced as shaft speed increases towards high values where shear flow driven effects overcome the hydrostatic effect. leakage and torque. Measurements have demonstrated the enhancement in performance. G. Lecture Notes (#11) in Modern Lubrication. This type of bearing with air as the lubricant has shown tremendous potential for ready implementation in highspeed microturbomachinery [30].edu/TRIBGroup. 167203. d) Introduce geometrical changes in the bearing to induce a stiffness orthotropy. Introduction to Annular Pressure (Damper) Seals. Childs.tamu. 2002. C. This design enhances stability by rendering a lower direct stiffness in the plane of the axial grooves as compared to the orthogonal stiffness. 1998. Buck & C. Proc. for example circumferentially asymmetric grooved bearings can produce large anisotropy on the rotordynamic force coefficients [29]. as depicted in Figure 35. Black. 1997. M.30 but with a reduced load capacity and direct stiffness when compared to a smooth surface HJB [27]. The analyses have been validated by careful experimentation with measurements of load. fluid inertia and compressibility and thermal effects are available to bearing designers and rotordynamics engineers. Of the 15th International Pump Users Symposium. Proc. Huebner. TAMU. The example studied evidences the advantages of angled injection in a process fluid hybrid bearing for a water pump. NASA Technical Paper No. Childs & J. However. D. 11(2). Carbo & S. pp. 2004. 1993. San Andrés. Annular Gas Seals and Rotordynamics of Compressors and Turbines. Turbulent Annular Seals. Malanoski. Fernandez. Proc. ASME Journal of Tribology.34 . Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science. San Andrés. c) Use angled liquid injection opposing journal rotation to reduce the development of the circumferential flow velocity leading to a virtual elimination of crosscoupled stiffness coefficients [28]. Damping Seals for Turbomachinery. 1987. Measurements conducted on a fivepocket water HJB verify the analysis. 113. RTOENAVT143 [8] 11 . 1982. M. 206213. Thorp. http://phn.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings a) Use textured bearing surfaces to decrease the crosscoupled stiffness coefficients. von Pragenau.. Extensive analytical and experimental research has brought forward the technology of hybrid journal bearings (HJBs) for advanced turbo pump applications. Pump Rotordynamics made Simple. pp.
674679. L. San Andrés. F. Yang & D. 2.tamu. 1993. [15] Gas Damper Seal Test Results. 755765. [14] Squeeze Film Dampers: Operation. 964972. [13] Analysis of Two Phase Flow in Cryogenic Damper Seals.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings [9] A BulkFlow Theory for Turbulence in Lubricant Films. 1993. 146. 190200. 221233. TAMU. [21] Bulk Flow Analysis of Hybrid Thrust Bearings for Process Fluid Applications. 4. I: Theory and Approximate Solutions. FlexurePivot Hybrid Bearings for Cryogenic Applications. 2000. [19] Fluid Compressibility Effects on the Dynamic Response of Hydrostatic Journal Bearings. ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics. 1993.G. 1. pp. Of the 29th Turbomachinery Symposium. pp. ASME Journal of Tribology. San Andrés. G. L. Theoretical Correlation. L. G. L. 137146.35 . pp. 170180. Lecture Notes (#12) in Modern Lubrication.edu/TRIBGroup. Childs. AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power. 62. pp. I: The Model and Perturbation Analysis. San Andrés. Charles. 3. 94. 1996. pp. Kushner & J. Z. [17] Determination of the Discharge Coefficient of a ThinWalled Orifice Used in Hydrostatic Bearings. 1998. De Choudhury. 115. 34th ASAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint propulsion Conference & Exhibit. San Andrés & D. A. 1995. San Andrés. San Andrés. AIAA 983681. http://phn. 115. 267276. Proc. San Andrés.pp. pp. II: Numerical Solution and Results. Frene.277284. pp. L. 1995. II: Numerical Solution and Results. Yang. and Applications in Design of HighPressure Compressors. 120. Yang. STLE Tribology Transactions. L. 118. Peery. [24] Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of Process Liquid Hydrostatic Bearings in Turbulent Regime. 679684. 269283. L. Hirs. 2002. P. WEAR. [23] Analysis of Turbulent Hydrostatic Bearings with a Barotropic Fluid. L. 699707. Lecture Notes (#13) in Modern Lubrication. San Andrés. [22] Design and Development of an Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Turbopump. 5. L. [16] Introduction to Hydrostatic Bearings. Li. 2. [11] Thermal Effects in Cryogenic Liquid Annular Seals. 2. http://phn. [10] Effect of Shaft Misalignment on the Dynamic Force Response of Annular Pressure Seals. 680684. 2001. RTOENAVT143 11 . 112. pp. pp. San Andrés. 1991. [25] Turbulent Flow. 2002. II: Model Validation and Predictions. 114. ASME Journal of Lubrication Technology. pp. 127.” ASME Journal of Tribology." ASME Journal of Tribology. 122. Minck & S. Childs. 36. Models and Technical Issues. San Andrés & D. 11. L. L. I: Theoretical Model.1992. O. San Andrés. 1998. pp. San Andrés.edu/TRIBGroup. Childs. ASME Journal of Tribology. 1990.tamu. pp. 1973. 173182. Bonneau & J. ASME Journal of Tribology. ASME Journal of Tribology. pp. [18] Turbulent Hybrid Bearings with Fluid Inertia Effects. 1. S. “ASME Journal of Tribology. [12] Thermal Effects in Cryogenic Liquid Annular Seals. Arauz & L. [20] Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of Fluid Film Bearings for Cryogenic Applications. Z. ASME Journal of Tribology. Z.
San Andrés.. Childs & L. 160169. 1995. L. ASME Journal of Tribology. [27] Theoretical and Experimental Comparisons for Rotordynamic Coefficients of a HighSpeed. 1997. pp. Zhu & L.Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings [26] Experimental versus Theoretical Characteristics of a High Speed Hybrid (combination Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic) Bearing. 2. L. D. 2004. L. Analysis and Comparison to Test Results. [29] A Hybrid Bearing with Improved Rotordynamic Stability. [28] Angled Injection . 1. Paper 2006.36 RTOENAVT143 . ISCORMA1. ASME Paper GT 200453621. pp. 115." N. D.Hydrostatic Bearings. 119.. 179187. D. [30] Rotordynamic Performance of Flexure Pivot Hydrostatic Gas Bearings Turbomachinery. ASME Journal of Tribology. for OilFree 11 . 1. pp. 1st International Conference in Rotordynamics of Machinery. San Andrés. & K. San Andrés.” L. San Andrés & D. 1993. ASME Journal of Tribology. 2001. K. Childs. Kurtin. OrificeCompensated Hybrid Bearings. HighPressure.. Childs. Franchek. Hale. 285290. 117. S. San Andrés.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.