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Conducted by: MR. G.V.D. KUMARA Name Indexno Field Group Date of sub : Bandara A.G.N : 090041G : EE :G2 :02/04/2012

Calculations by observing graph
Field Current (A) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 O/C Voltage (V) 100.35 179.87 219.90 242.03 257.38 278.29 S/C Current(A) 5.35 11.09 16.22 21.34 26.47 31.60 Synchronous Reactance () 18.76 16.22 13.56 11.34 9.14 8.81

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Sample Calculation
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Calculations for Voltage

Load Current (A) 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 Synchronous Reactance 20.78 20.32 19.4 18.48 17.57 16.63 15.67 Terminal Voltage (V) cos=0 cos=1 cos=0.9 260.78 239.09 248.32 280.64 236.53 254.91 317.60 227.10 263.43 350.88 212.85 266.60 380.56 194.53 265.22 406.30 173.04 260.10 428.04 149.13 252.13

1. Importance of the Short Circuit Ratio (SCR) with respect to the generator performance The Short Circuit Ratio (SCR) is the reciprocal of per unit synchronous reactance (xs). The synchronous reactance depends on the saturated conditions of the synchronous machine. The SCR of a high speed turbo alternator usually lies between 0.5 and 0.75 while that of low speed salient pole generators lies between 1.0 to 1.5. With higher value of SCR, stability limit increased, voltage regulation improved and machines with a low value of SCR have difficulty during parallel operation because of small value of synchronizing power. Low SCR means that the steady state stability of the machine is lower. Such machines are dependent on an excitation system that is able to provide large changes of field current reliably and quickly. Machines with low SCR have relatively low physical dimensions and properties thus the cost is lower. An appropriate excitation system can also increase steady state stability.

2. Variation of synchronous reactance with field current. Synchronous reactance decreases nonlinear manner with the increment of the field current. Synchronous reactance is the ratio of the O/C voltage and the S/C current for the same field current. Therefore this variation can be explained using the O/C voltage and S/C current profiles .In the O/C characteristic the open circuit voltage increases with a higher positive gradient and later the gradient is decreasing. In S/C characteristic for all possible field current, the short circuit current has a constant positive gradient. The rate that the short circuit current increasing is much higher for larger field currents so xs decreases faster at higher field current. 3. Synchronous generator has characteristics of a current transformer. Briefly account for this.

The rotor of the Synchronous generator represents the primary winding and stator represents the secondary winding. Then the field current is the primary current and the armature current is the secondary current. In general conditions the armature current is higher than the field current, this is same as the characteristics of a step up current transformer. As far as a current transformer is concerned short circuit current is proportional to the primary current when the secondary is short circuited. From the graph of short circuit characteristics it can be observed that short circuited armature current is proportional to the field current. It is confirmed that the synchronous generator is acting as a current transformer in short circuit conditions. When a load is connected to the secondary of a current transformer, its primary current depends on the load. This is also true for the synchronous generator the field current of a synchronous generator is depends on the load while it is connected to the armature. 4. Variation of terminal voltage with load current for various power factor loads.

When the practical situation is taken into account the terminal voltage falls with the increment of load current. When the load is pure inductive that means the power factor is zero the terminal voltage increases with the load current. When the pure resistive load (Power factor =1) is concerned it slightly increases with lower load currents and again decreases after a certain value. Each curve is nearly a straight line at the beginning but gradually the gradient decrease because, with the increase in load current, the angle of lag between current and e.m.f., will cause original field increases. There is a common point at y axis (zero load current) for each graph except practical curve. When the power factor is lagging the effect of armature flux is to oppose the main flux, hence to generate less e.m.f. therefore at lagging power factor terminal voltage decreases .