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The method of symmetrical components first discussed by C. L. Fortescue in 1918 at a meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. The method of symmetrical components is a powerful tools or techniques for analyzing or dealing with unbalanced poly-phase (such as three-phase) systems.

Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Components [Ref. 1, p. 275]

Phasors

from

Their

Symmetrical

Fortescue’s work proves that “An unbalanced system of n related phasors can be resolved into n systems of balanced phasors called the symmetrical components”. The n phasors of each set of components are equal in length (or magnitude), and the angle between adjacent phasors of the set are equal. Simply Fortescue defined a linear transformation from phase components to a new set of components called symmetrical components. According to Fortescue’s theorem, three unbalanced phasors of a three-phase system can be resolved into three balanced system of phasors. The balance sets of components are: 1. Positive-sequence components (as shown in Fig. 4.1 a) consisting of three phasors equal in magnitude, displaced from each other by 120o in phase, and having the same phase sequence as the original phasors. In positive sequence phase b lagging phase a by 120°, and phase c lagging phase b by 120°. 2. Negative-sequence components (as shown in Fig. 4.1 b)consisting of three phasors equal in magnitude, displaced from each other by 120o in phase, and having the same phase sequence opposite to that of the original phasors. In negative sequence phase b leading phase a by 120°, and phase c leading phase b by 120°. 3. Zero-sequence components (as shown in Fig. 4.1 c) consisting of three phasors equal in magnitude and with zero phase displacement from each other. Zero sequence sets have neutral current.

(a) Positive sequence components

(b) Negative sequence components

(c) Zero sequence components

(d) Phase a (e) Phase b (f) Phase c Fig. 4.1 [Ref. 3. p. 399] Resolving phase voltages into three sets of sequence components. Similar diagram can be obtained for three-phase unbalanced current. DMAM Page 1 of 19 Symmetrical Components

The three sets of symmetrical-components are designated by the additional subscript 1 for the positive-sequence components. Important Observations DMAM Page 2 of 19 Symmetrical Components .1 shows three such sets of symmetrical components. If the original phasors are voltages. The positive-sequence components of Va. are separated into three uncoupled networks. to designate the three-phases of the system as a. Decoupling a detailed three-phase three-phase network into three simpler sequence network results can be superposed to obtain three-phase network results.2.Fig. and Vc2. The values of current and voltage at various points in the system under unsymmetrical fault can be easily found since this method consists in finding the symmetrical components of the current at the unsymmetrical fault. Vb2.1 is shown in Fig. and Vc. 11. 4. and the zero-sequence components are Va0. Vb0.1 to obtain three unbalanced phasors. 4. 277] Graphical addition of the components shown in Fig. Vb1. and 0 for the zero-sequence components. 2 for the negative-sequence components. Since each of the original unbalanced phasors is the sum of its components. and c in such a manner that the phase sequence of the voltages and currents in the system is abc. Similar diagram can be obtained for three-phase unbalanced current. called sequence networks. For unbalanced three-phase systems. Fig. p. they may be designated by Va. the three sequence networks are connected only at points of unbalance. and Vc are Va1. 4. Thus the phase-sequence of the positive-sequence components of the unbalanced phasors is abc.3) The symmetrical component method is basically a modeling technique that permits systematic analysis and design of three-phase systems. Vb. the original phasors expressed in terms of their components are: Va = Va1 + Va 2 + Va 0 (4.When solving a problem by symmetrical components.2) Vc = Vc1 + Vc 2 + Vc 0 (4. Similarly. the negative-sequence components are Va2. The synthesis of a set of three unbalanced phasors from the three sets of symmetrical components of Fig. Vb. the phase-sequence of the negative-sequence components of the unbalanced phasors is acb. Phasors representing current will be designated by I with subscripts as for voltages. and Vc1. b. and Vc0. Advantage of this transformation For balance three-phase networks the equivalent circuits obtained for the symmetrical components. 4.1) Vb = Vb1 + Vb 2 + Vb 0 (4. 1.2 [Ref. Sequence networks for many cases of unbalances three-phase systems are relatively easy to analyze and leads to accurate prediction of system behavior.

p. 1. 277] In order to express the sequence components algebraically.4) in (4. 278] According to Fig. p. 400] a 4 = a = 1∠120° 1+ a + a2 = 0 1 − a = 3∠30° 1 − a 2 = 3∠ − 30° a 2 − a = 3∠270° ja = 1∠210° 1 + a = −a 2 = 1∠60° 1 + a 2 = − a = 1∠ − 60° a 2 + a = −1 = 1∠180° Fig.5 − j 0. The Symmetrical Components of Unsymmetrical Phasors [Ref.3 [Ref. A balance system has no negative and zero sequence components therefore actual balance system equals to positive sequence system. there are no zero sequence components because there is no neutral connection.866 2 2 1 3 j (4π / 3) a 2 = 1∠240° = 1e = cos(4π / 3) + j sin(4π / 3) = − − j = −0.6) b a1 b a0 (4. 1.The sequence components do not exist as physical quantities in the network.2) and (4.1 [Ref. p. p. Such an operator is a complex number of unit magnitude with an angle of 120o and is defined by: 1 3 j (2π / 3) a = 1∠120° = 1e = cos(2π / 3) + j sin(2π / 3) = − + j = −0.8) DMAM Page 3 of 19 Symmetrical Components .1. Operators [Ref. The generated emf is balanced. 1.4) Vc = aV a1 + a 2Va 2 + Va 0 In matrix form ⎡Va ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡Va 0 ⎤ ⎢V ⎥ = ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎢V ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ a1 ⎥ ⎢ b⎥ ⎢ ⎢Vc ⎥ ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢Va 2 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ( 4 . we obtain: V = aV V = a 2V c1 a1 b1 a1 V = a 2V V = aV c2 a2 b2 a2 V =V V =V c0 a0 b0 a0 Repeating Eq. 3.5) Va = Va1 + Va 2 + Va 0 V = a 2V + aV + V (4.5 + j 0.866 2 2 j (6π / 3) a 3 = 1∠360° = 1∠0° = 1e = cos(0) + j sin(0) = 1 + j 0 = 1 Table 4. In a three-phase three-wire system.1) and substituting Eqs. (4. the letter a is commonly used to designate the operator that causes a rotation of 120o in the clockwise direction. 4.3) yeld (4. and therefore positive phase sequence only. 278] Phasor diagram of the various powers of the operator a.7 ) (4. 4. (4.

zero-sequence components are never present in the line voltages. Since the sum of the line-to-line voltage phasors in a three phase system is always zero. Vb1.1) ⎡Va 0 ⎤ = V s = ⎢Va1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢Va 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ V abc = V p = AV a 012 = AV s Vabc = V p is the column vector of phase voltages.12) shows that no zero-sequence components exist if the sum of the unbalanced phasors is zero. Vabc ⎡Va ⎤ = V p = ⎢Vb ⎥ . 1 (4. Vc1. can be found by Eqs. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢Vc ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ A = ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ . and voltages to neutral may contain zero-sequence components.12) Va 0 = (Va + Vb + Vc ) 3 1 (4. I abc = I p = ⎢ b ⎥ I a 012 = I s = ⎢ I a1 ⎥ ⎢ b⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ a1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ I c ⎥ ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢ I a 2 ⎥ ⎢Ic ⎥ ⎢I a2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ I abc = I p = AI a 012 = AI s ⎡ I a0 ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡ I a ⎤ ⎢ I ⎥ = 1 ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢ I ⎥ ⎢ a1 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥⎢ b ⎥ ⎢I a2 ⎥ ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎢ I c ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ I a = I a1 + I a 2 + I a 0 I = a 2 I + aI + I b a1 b where. Va 012 = V s is the column vector of sequence voltages. ( ) ( ) Sequence Components of Current Because some of the preceding equations are so fundamental. the components Vb0.14) 3 If required.8. ⎡Va 0 ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡Va ⎤ ⎢V ⎥ = 1 ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢V ⎥ ⎢ a1 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥⎢ b ⎥ ⎢Va 2 ⎥ ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎢Vc ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ V a 012 = V s = A −1V abc = A −1V p −1 (4. and A is 3×3 transformation matrix. and Vc2.4) Equation (4. ⎢I ⎥ .13) Va1 = Va + aVb + a 2Vc 3 1 Va 2 = Va + a 2Vb + aVc (4.11) ( 4.Let. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Va 012 ( 4. they are summarized for currents: ⎡ I a ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡ I a 0 ⎤ ⎡I a ⎤ ⎡I a0 ⎤ ⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎢ I ⎥ .1) ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ 1⎢ A = ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎥ 3 ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Where. Vc0.15) a0 (4. Vb2.11 .16) ( 4. (4. I a 012 = I s = A −1 I abc = A −1 I p (4. regardless of the amount of unbalance. where. The sum of the three line-to-neutral voltage phasors is not necessarily zero.17 ) I c = aI a1 + a 2 I a 2 + I a 0 DMAM Page 4 of 19 Symmetrical Components .

1 1 Va 0 = (Va + Vb + Vc ) = (277 ∠0° + 277 ∠120° + 277 ∠ − 120° ) = 0 3 3 1 1 Va1 = (Va + aVb + a 2Vc )= (277 ∠0° + 1∠ + 120° × 277 ∠120° + 1∠ + 240° × 277 ∠ − 120° ) 3 3 1 = (277 ∠0° + 277 ∠240° + 277 ∠120°) = 0 3 DMAM Page 5 of 19 Symmetrical Components . Vc 0 = 0 . thus the line currents contain no zero-sequence components where neutral connection is absent. A ∆-connected load provides no path to neutral. Vb = 277∠−120o. and the line currents flowing to a ∆-connected load can contain no zero-sequence components.19) (4.1 (I a + I b + I c ) 3 1 I a1 = I a + aI b + a 2 I c 3 1 I a 2 = I a + a 2 I b + aI c 3 I a + Ib + Ic = In I n = 3I a 0 I = aI I = a2I c1 a1 b1 a1 I = a2I I = aI c2 a2 b2 a2 I =I I =I c0 a0 b0 a0 I a0 = (4. Example 1: Calculate the sequence components of the following balanced line-to-neutral voltages with abc sequence. and Vc = 277∠−120o. Vc1 = Vb . In is zero. Vb1 = Vb .20) (4.21) (4. Vb 0 = 0 . and Vc = 277∠120o. 1 1 Va 0 = (Va + Vb + Vc ) = (277∠0° + 277 ∠ − 120° + 277 ∠120°) = 0 3 3 1 1 Va1 = (Va + aVb + a 2Vc )= (277∠0° + 1∠ + 120° × 277∠ − 120° + 1∠ + 240° × 277∠120°) 3 3 1 = (277∠0° + 277∠0° + 277∠0°) = 277∠0° = Va 3 1 1 Va 2 = (Va + a 2Vb + aVc )= (277 ∠0° + 1∠240° × 277 ∠ − 120° + 1∠ + 120° × 277 ∠120° ) 3 3 1 = (277 ∠0° + 277 ∠120° + 277 ∠240°) = 0 3 Similarly.18) (4.22) ( ) ( ) In the absence of a path through the neutral of a three-phase system. Vb 2 = 0 . Va = 277∠0o. Vb = 277∠120o. Va = 277∠0o. Vc 2 = 0 Thus a balance three-phase system with abc sequence (or positive sequence) have no zero-sequence or negative-sequence components. Example 2: Calculate the sequence components of the following balanced line-to-neutral voltages with acb sequence.

6)] 3 3 3 = −0.0 + 8. find the symmetrical components of the line currents. 1 1 1 Va 0 = (Va + Vb + Vc ) = (4. and the sum of the components in line b is 10∠180o A. Vc 0 = 0 .6) = 1.78∠ − 30° 3 3 1 1 I a 2 = (I a + a 2 I b + aI c ) = [10∠0° + 10∠(180° + 240°) + 0] = 5 + j 2.0∠0° + 3. Vb = 3. Of course. p. therefore. Va 2 = ( ) Example 4.0 − j 3. and Vc = 8.78∠150 ° = 5.1° DMAM Page 6 of 19 Symmetrical Components . 4. Vb 0 = 0 .0∠0o.78∠ − 150 ° c1 b1 = 5.1o.0∠−90o. Vb1 = 0 . The current flowing to the ∆-connected load through line a is 10 A. Components Ic1 and Ic2 have definite values although line c is open and can carry no net current.0∠143. Vb 2 = Vb .1.0(−0. 280] One conductor of a three-phase line is open.1 [Example 11. The line currents are I a = 10∠0° A I b = 10∠180° A Ic = 0 A 1 1 I a 0 = (I a + I b + I c ) = (10∠0° + 10∠180° + 0 ) = 0 3 3 1 1 I a1 = (I a + aI b + a 2 I c ) = [10∠0° + 10∠(180° + 120°) + 0] = 5 − j 2.0∠ − 90° + 8.78∠30° 3 3 I = 5. As is expected. Vc1 = 0 . and draw the phasors. Example 3: In an unbalanced three-phase system: Va = 4.1°) = [4.0∠143.0∠143. 4.4 is a diagram of te circuit.8 + j 0.1. Ref.4 Circuit for Example 11.8 + j 0.89 = 5. 1.89 = 5. negative and zero-sequence components.78∠90 ° I = 5.78∠ − 90 ° I I c2 b2 =0 I =0 I c0 b0 Fig. Solution: Fig. the sum the components in line a is 10∠0o A. With the current in line a as reference and assumeing that line c is open. the sum of the components in line c is zero.1 1 Va + a 2Vb + aVc = (277 ∠0° + 1∠240° × 277 ∠120° + 1∠ + 120° × 277 ∠ − 120° ) 3 3 1 = (277 ∠0° + 277 ∠0° + 277 ∠0°) = 277 ∠0° = Va 3 Similarly. Find all the voltage components of the corresponding positive. Vc 2 = Vb Thus a balance three-phase system with acc sequence (or negative sequence) have no zero-sequence or positive-sequence components.

let.80° b2 a2 V = 1.55 = 4.15) + (−0. p. 288] The total complex power into a three-phase circuit through three lines a.65 + j1.9∠ − 101.9∠(120° + 18.4°) = 4.15∠33.1°) 3 3 1 = (4 + 3∠ − 210° + 8∠263.9∠138.0∠143 .Va1 = Va 2 1 1 Va + aVb + a 2Vc = (4.55) + (0.15 = 2.99 + j 0 = 4.4° c1 a1 V = a 2V = 2.6° b1 a1 V = aV = 2.0∠143.2° 3 ( ) ( ) V = V = 1.1° a0 V = aV = 4.2° c2 a2 c0 =V Va = Va 0 + Va1 + Va 2 = (4.2° + 240°) = 2.8 + j 0.15∠( −86.1°) = 4.9∠18.15∠ − 86.15∠( −86.4°) = 4. we obtain T * DMAM Page 7 of 19 Symmetrical Components . V = ⎢V ⎥.1° ) = 0. 1.2° + 120°) = 2. b.6) = 3.4° 3 1 1 = Va + a 2Vb + aVc = (4∠0° + 1∠240° × 3∠ − 90° + 1∠ + 120° × 8∠143.0∠0° + 1∠ + 120° × 3.153 − j 2. and c is * * S = P + jQ = V a I a + Vb I b + Vc I c* ⎡I a0 ⎤ ⎡I a ⎤ ⎡Va 0 ⎤ ⎢ I ⎥ .143 − j 2.15∠ − 206.65 + j1.0∠ − 90° + 1∠ + 240° × 8.1°) 3 3 1 = (4 + 3∠30° + 8∠23.0∠143.0∠0° Power in Terms of Symmetrical Components [Ref.1° b0 a0 V = a 2V = 4. I = ⎢ I ⎥ S = P + jQ = [Va Vb Vc ]⎢ b ⎥ ⎢ a1 ⎥ ⎢ a1 ⎥ ⎢I a2 ⎥ ⎢Ic ⎥ ⎢Va 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ T * T T * * T T * * S = P + jQ = [AV ] [ AI ] = A V A I = V A A I * * ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ = 3⎢0 1 0⎥ A A =⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Noting that AT = A and that a and a2 are conjugate.9∠( 240° + 18.

2.2.22) 3 1 Z 1 = Z 2 = [Z a + Z b + Z c − Z ab − Z bc − Z ac ] (8. and Zc.12 Portion of a three-phase system showing three unequal series impedance ⎡ Z0 ⎢Z ⎢ 10 ⎢ Z 20 ⎣ Z 01 Z1 Z 21 Z 02 ⎤ ⎡ Za ⎥ = A −1 ⎢ Z Z 12 ⎥ ⎢ ab ⎢ Z ca Z2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ Z ab Zb Z bc Z ca ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡ Z a ⎥ A = 1 ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢ Z Z bc ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ab 3⎢ 2 ⎢1 a a ⎥ ⎢ Z ca Zc ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ Z ab Zb Z bc Z ca ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ Z bc ⎥ ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ Z c ⎥ ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ Diagonal Sequence impedances 1 Z 0 = [Z a + Z b + Z c + 2 Z ab + 2 Z bc + 2 Z ca ] (8.23) 3 Off-diagonal sequence impedances 1 Z 01 = Z 20 = Z a + a 2 Z b + aZ c − aZ ab − Z bc − a 2 Z ca (8.⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ I a 0 ⎤ * * * S = [Va 0 Va1 Va 2 ]3⎢0 1 0⎥ ⎢ I a1 ⎥ = 3 Va 0 I a 0 + Va1 I a1 + Va 2 I a 2 ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢ I a 2 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ So complex power is * * * * S = P + jQ = Va I a + Vb I b + Vc I c* = 3 V0 I 0 + V1 I 1* + V2 I 2 * [ ] [ ] Unsymmetrical Series Impedances [Ref. 11. p.12 shows the unsymmetrical part of a system with three unequal series impedances Za.2.25) 3 [ ] [ ] DMAM Page 8 of 19 Symmetrical Components . 1. Zb. 11.2. 289] Fig. The voltage drops across the part of the system shown are given by the matrix equation ⎡Vaa ' ⎤ ⎡ Z a Z ab Z ca ⎤ ⎡ I a ⎤ ⎢V ⎥ = ⎢ Z ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ bb ' ⎥ ⎢ ab Z b Z bc ⎥ ⎢ I b ⎥ ⎢Vcc ' ⎥ ⎢ Z ca Z bc Z c ⎥ ⎢ I c ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ And in terms of symmetrical components of voltage and current ⎡Vaa '0 ⎤ ⎡ Z a Z ab Z ca ⎤ ⎡ I a 0 ⎤ A⎢Vaa '1 ⎥ = ⎢ Z ab Z b Z bc ⎥ A⎢ I a1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢Vaa '2 ⎥ ⎢ Z ca Z bc Z c ⎥ ⎢ I a 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡Vaa '0 ⎤ ⎡ Z a Z ab Z ca ⎤ ⎡ I a 0 ⎤ ⎢V ⎥ = A −1 ⎢ Z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ aa '1 ⎥ ⎢ ab Z b Z bc ⎥ A⎢ I a1 ⎥ ⎢Vaa '2 ⎥ ⎢ Z ca Z bc Z c ⎥ ⎢ I a 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡Vaa '0 ⎤ ⎡ Z 0 Z 01 Z 02 ⎤ ⎡ I a 0 ⎤ ⎢V ⎥ = ⎢ Z ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ aa '1 ⎥ ⎢ 10 Z 1 Z 12 ⎥ ⎢ I a1 ⎥ ⎢Vaa '2 ⎥ ⎢ Z 20 Z 21 Z 2 ⎥ ⎢ I a 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ Vaa '0 = Z 0 I a 0 + Z 01 I a1 + Z 02 I a 2 Vaa '1 = Z 10 I a 0 + Z 1 I a1 + Z 12 I a 2 Vaa ' 2 = Z 20 I a 0 + Z 21 I a1 + Z 2 I a 2 Fig.24) 3 1 Z 02 = Z 10 = Z a + aZ b + a 2 Z c − a 2 Z ab − Z bc − aZ ca (8.

2.1) 3 1 Z 01 = Z 20 = Z a + a 2 Z b + aZ c (8. the following conditions for a symmetrical load are determined.2.1) 3 1 Z 02 = Z 10 = Z a + aZ b + a 2 Z c (8.27) [ ] Unsymmetrical Series Impedances without Mutual Inductances If we assume no mutual inductances (no coupling) (i.2. 3.1) 3 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Symmetrical Series Impedances [Ref. Zab = Zbc = Zca = 0) between the three impedances.2.27. the following conditions for a symmetrical load are determined.22.26) (8.1) 3 1 Z 12 = Z a + a 2 Z b + aZ c (8.2.Z 12 = Z 21 1 Z a + a 2 Z b + aZ c + 2aZ ab + 2 Z bc + 2a 2 Z ca 3 1 = Z a + aZ b + a 2 Z c + 2a 2 Z ab + 2 Z bc + 2aZ ca 3 [ ] (8. all mutual impedances are zero.2. Equation these mutual impedances to zero and solving. 8. then the above equation becomes 1 Z 0 = Z 1 = Z 2 = [Z a + Z b + Z c ] (8. p.26. p.1) 3 1 Z 21 = Z a + aZ b + a 2 Z c (8. that is. all mutual impedances are zero. 404] DMAM Page 9 of 19 Symmetrical Components .24.25. 289] A symmetrical load is defined as a load whose sequence impedance matrix is diagonal. When both Za = Zb = Zc ⎫ ⎬ Conditions for a symmetrical load Z ab = Z bc = Z ca ⎭ Diagonal Sequence impedances Z 0 = Z a + 2 Z ab Z 1 = Z 2 = Z a − Z ab Off-diagonal sequence impedances Z 01 = Z 20 = Z 02 = Z10 = Z 12 = Z 21 = 0 Symmetrical Series Impedances without Mutual Inductances A symmetrical load is defined as a load whose sequence impedance matrix is diagonal.2.e. that is. When both Za = Zb = Zc ⎫ ⎬ Conditions for a symmetrical load Z ab = Z bc = Z ca ⎭ Diagonal Sequence impedances Z0 = Za = Z2 = Za Off-diagonal sequence impedances Z 01 = Z 20 = Z 02 = Z10 = Z 12 = Z 21 = 0 Sequence Network of Impedance Loads [Ref. Equation these mutual impedances to zero and solving. ch. 1.

13) V1 = Z Y I 1 = Z1 I 1 V2 = Z Y I 2 = Z 2 I 2 (8. (8.15) DMAM Page 10 of 19 Symmetrical Components . and a neutral impedance Zn is connected between the load neutral and ground. 4. n ⎥ ⎢ Zn Zn ZY + Z n ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎡I a ⎤ I p = I abc = ⎢ I b ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢Ic ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ A Vs = Z p AI s Fig. 4.2.5 shows a balanced Y impedance load.3) V = Z I + Z I + (Z + Z ) I cg n a n b Y n c ⎡Vag ⎤ ⎡ Z Y + Z n Zn Z n ⎤ ⎡I a ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ZY + Z n Z n ⎥⎢Ib ⎥ ⎢Vbg ⎥ = ⎢ Z n ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢Vcg ⎥ ⎢ Z n Zn ZY + Z n ⎥⎢I c ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ (8.2.2.5 Balanced Y-impedance load Where. Zp is called phase impedance matrix. Zn Z n ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡ Z Y + 3Z n 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡ Z Y + Z n 1⎢ 2 ⎥⎢ ZY + Z n Z n ⎥ ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ = ⎢ ZY 0 ⎥ . The impedance of each phase is designated ZY. ⎢Vcg ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Zn Zn ⎤ ⎡Z Y + Z n ⎢ Z Zp = ⎢ ZY + Z n Zn ⎥ .Fig. Vs = A -1 Z p A I s ( ) Vs = Z s I s Weher.25) V p = V abcg = Z p I p = Z p I abc V p = Vabcg ⎡Vag ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢Vbg ⎥ .14) (8.1) V = (Z + Z ) I + Z I + Z I ag Y n a n b n c Similarly.2.2) V = Z I + (Z + Z )I + Z I bg n a Y n b n c (8. Z s = A -1 Z p A is called sequence impedance matrix.2. Z s = ⎢1 a a ⎥ ⎢ Z n 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ 3 ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎢ Z n 0 0 ZY ⎥ Zn Z Y + Z n ⎥ ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎣ ⎡V0 ⎤ ⎡ Z Y + 3Z n 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ I 0 ⎤ ⎢V ⎥ = ⎢ Z Y 0 ⎥ ⎢ I1 ⎥ 0 ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢V2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 ZY ⎥ ⎢I 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ V0 = ( Z Y + 3Z n ) I 0 = Z 0 I 0 (8. The line-to-ground voltage for phase a can be written as V =Z I +Z I ag Y a n n V = Z I + Z (I + I + I ) ag Y a n a b c (8.2.

Z 2 = Z Y is called negative-sequence impedance. Z 0 = Z Y + 3Z n is called zero-sequence impedance.7. the neutral impedance Zn is zero but I0 is not zero and the term 3Zn in the zero-sequence network becomes shortcircuit. 4.2. 408] Sequence network for an equivalent Y representation of a balanced ∆connected load. 8. 1. F. by induction from an outside source or by zero-sequence Fig. 3.17.5. Under this condition of an open neutral. F. If there has no neutral path.4.2.13) – (8. These networks are called the zero-sequence. As shown. A ∆ circuit and its zero-sequence network. p. 4. Eqs. then the neutral impedance Zn is infinite and the term 3Zn is the zerosequence network becomes an open circuit. p. and negative-sequence networks. 4.Where. however. zero-sequence network are shown in Fig.8 [Ref. Fig.6 [Ref. positive-sequence. (8. 3. no zero-sequence current exists (I0 = 0). F. Fig.6. This separation underlies the advantages of symmetrical components.1. DMAM Page 11 of 19 Symmetrical Components . uncoupled from the other two. 8. each network is separate. Zero-sequence current may circulate inside the ∆-circuit since the ∆ is a closed series circuit fir circulating single-phase currents. 4. 407] Sequence network of a balanced Y-connected load.15) can be represented by the three networks shown in Fig. Such current would have to be produced in the ∆. 298] ∆-connected load and its generated voltages. 4.7 [Ref. p. The zero-sequence network is open at the ∆-connected circuit. Z 1 = Z Y is called positive-sequence impedance. When the neutral of the Y-connected load is solidly grounded with a zero-ohm conductor.

is shown in Fig. Ib.13 [Ref. − Z I + E − Z I −V =0 n n a g a ag V = −Z I − Z I + E ag g a n n a. The capacitor bank has a reactance Xc = 30 Ω per phase. The Y load has an impedance ZY = (3+j4) Ω per phase. 3.8. 292] Circuit diagram of an unloaded generator. Let V ag I n =I a +I +I b c = −Z I − Z (I + I + I ) + E g a n a b c a = −( Z + Z ) I − Z I − Z I + E g n a n b n c a V = −Z I − Z (I + I + I ) + E bg g b n a b c b = − Z I − (Z + Z ) I − Z I + E n a g n b n c b V = −Z I − Z (I + I + I ) + E cg g c n a b c c = −Z I − Z I − (Z + Z ) I + E n a n b g n c c Fig. and its neutral is grounded through an inductiove reactnce Xn = 2 Ω. When a fault (not indicated in the figure) occurs at the terminals of the generator. for the rise in voltage in each phase of the generator is matched by the voltage drop in the zero-sequence impedance of each phase.4 [Ref. p. 4. and Ic flow in the lines. Draw sequence network for this load and calculate the load sequence impedances.57o Ω Z2= Z1= 7. 11. p. DMAM Page 12 of 19 Symmetrical Components .Even when zero-sequence voltages are generated in the phases of the ∆. the current flowing into the neutral of the generator is designated In and the line currents can be resolved into their symmetrical components regardless of how unbalanced they may be. no zero-sequence voltages exists between the ∆ terminals. The sequence network of the equivalent Y load corresponding to a balanced-∆ load are shown in Fig. 408] A balanced Y load is in parallel with a balanced ∆-connected capacitor bank. current Ia.13.454∠26. 1. 1.454∠26. Solution: Z0= ZY + 3Zn = 3 + j4 + 3(j2) = 3+j10 Ω Z1=ZY//(Z∆/3)=(3+j4)(-j30/3)/[3+j4– (j30/3)]= 7.57o Ω Sequence Network of Unloaded Generators [Ref. If the fault involves ground. grounded through a reactor. 291] A synchronous generator. Example 8. 11.

The windings are so distributed around the circumference of the armature that A Vs = − Z p AI s + AE p DMAM Page 13 of 19 Symmetrical Components . on this basis the positive. The mmf produced by negative-sequence armature current rotates in the direction opposite to that of the rotor which has the dc field winding. in a cylindrical-rotor machine subtransient and negativesequence reactances are equal. The flux paths are the same as those encountered in evaluating subtransient reactance. So.and negative-sequence circuits are often taken to be equal to the subtransient or transient reactance. ⎢Vcg ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡Z g + Z n Zn ⎤ Zn ⎡ Ea ⎤ ⎥ ⎢E ⎥ . Z g1 = Z g 2 = Z g ⎡Va 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ Z 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ I a 0 ⎤ ⎢V ⎥ = ⎢ E ⎥ − ⎢ 0 Z 0 ⎥ ⎢ I ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎢ a1 ⎥ ⎢ a1 ⎥ ⎢ a ⎥ ⎢ ⎢Va 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 Z 2 ⎥ ⎢ I a 2 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ Va 0 = − Z 0 I a 0 . This condition is similar to the rapidly changing flux immediately upon the occurrence of a short circuit at the terminals of a machine. Z = ⎢ Z Ep = ⎢ b⎥ Zn ⎥ . Va 2 = − Z 2 I a 2 The equations developed to this point are based on a simple machine model which assumes the existence of only fundamental components of currents. When only zero-sequence current flows in the armature winding of a three-phase machine. Unlike the flux produced by positive-sequence current. however.⎡Vag ⎤ ⎡Z g + Z n Z n ⎤ ⎡I a ⎤ ⎡Ea ⎤ Zn ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Z n ⎥ ⎢ I b ⎥ + ⎢ Eb ⎥ Zg + Zn ⎢Vbg ⎥ = − ⎢ Z n ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢Vcg ⎥ ⎢ Zn Z g + Z n ⎥ ⎢ I c ⎥ ⎢ Ec ⎥ Zn ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ V p = V abcg = − Z p I p + E p = − Z p I abc + E p V p = Vabcg ⎡Vag ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢Vbg ⎥ .and negative sequence impedance are found to equal to one another but quite difference from the zero-sequence impedance. the flux produced by the negative-sequence current is sweeping rapidly over the face of the rotor. Z g + Zn p n ⎢ ⎢ Zn ⎢ Ec ⎥ Zg + Zn ⎥ Zn ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ I p = I abc ⎡I a ⎤ = ⎢Ib ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢Ic ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Vs = −(A -1 Z p A)I s + A -1 E p Z n ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡ I a 0 ⎤ Zn ⎡Va 0 ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡ Z g + Z n ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡ E a ⎤ ⎥⎢ ⎢V ⎥ = − 1 ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢ Z ⎥ ⎢ I ⎥ + 1 ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢a 2 E ⎥ 2 Z n ⎥ ⎢1 a a ⎥ ⎢ a1 ⎥ Zg + Zn n a⎥ ⎢ a1 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥⎢ 3⎢ 3⎢ 2 2 ⎢ Zn ⎥ ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ ⎢ I a 2 ⎥ ⎢Va 2 ⎥ ⎢1 a a ⎥ ⎣ ⎢1 a a ⎥ ⎢ aE a ⎥ Z g + Z n ⎦⎣ Zn ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎡ Z g + 3Z n 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ I a 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡Va 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢V ⎥ = − ⎢ 0 Z g 0 ⎥ ⎢ I a1 ⎥ + ⎢ E a ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ a1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢Va 2 ⎥ 0 0 Z g ⎥⎢I a2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Let. the impedances of rotating machines to currents of the three sequences will generally be different fro each sequence. Z g 0 = Z g + 3Z n . the current and mmf of one phase are a maximum at the same time as the current and mmf of each of the other phases. In fact. The current induced in the field and damper windings counteract the rotating mmf of the armature and thereby reduce the flux penetrating of the rotor. The reactances in both the positive. depending on whether subtransient or transient conditions are being studied. Va1 = E a − Z 1 I a1 . which is stationary with respect to the rotor.

again with magnetizing current neglected. (a) Zero-sequence current paths (b) Zero-sequence network (c) Positive-sequence current paths (d) Positive-sequence network (e) Negative-sequence current paths (f) Negative-sequence network Fig. sum of the mmfs is very small. The positive.the point of maximum mmf produced by on e phase is displaced 120 electrical degrees in space from the point of maximum mmf of each of the other phases.14 Paths for current of each sequence in a generator and the corresponding sequence networks. Sequence Model of Three-phase Transformer [Ref. if we neglect the relatively small magnetizing current. In an actual machine the winding is not distributed to produce perfectly sinusoidal mmf. a plot of mmf around the armature would result in three sinusoidal curves whose sum would be zero at every point. 3. which makes the zero-sequence reactance the smallest of the machine's reactances -just somewhat higher than zero of the ideal case where there is no air-gap flux due to zero-sequence current. No flux would be produced across the air gap. p. and the only reactance of any phase winding would be that due to leakage and end turns. If the mmf produced by the current of each phase had a perfectly sinusoidal distribution in space. The flux resulting from the.and negative-sequence of three-phase transformer impedances of each type of connection are identical. The primary current is determined by the secondary current and the turns ratio of the windings. 11. These principles guide us in the analysis of individual cases. 422] No current flows in the primary of a transformer unless current flows in the secondary. DMAM Page 14 of 19 Symmetrical Components .

Zero-sequence current in the Y winding if there is a neutral connection.18 Zero-sequence equivalent circuits of three-phase transformer banks.and negative-sequence networks. However. no zero-sequence current enter or leaves the ∆ winding. the positive-sequence voltage and currents on the high-voltage side of Y-∆ transformers lead the corresponding quantities on the low voltage side by 30o. For negative sequence. together with diagrams of connections and the symbols for one-line diagram.A phase shift is included in positive. Symbols Connection Diagrams Zero-sequence Circuits Fig. DMAM Page 15 of 19 Symmetrical Components . 11. the high-voltage quantities lag by 30o. and corresponding zerosequence currents flow within the ∆ winding. For the American Standard.

in Fig. The equivalent circuit must be provided for a path from the line on the Y side through the equivalent impedance to the reference bus. no zerosequence current can flow into a ∆-∆ bank.19 One-line diagram of a small power system and the corresponding zero-sequence network. The zero sequence current can flow in both windings of transformer. zero-sequence current cannot flow in either winding.20. The arrows on the connection diagrams of the figures to follow show the possible paths for the flow of zero-sequence current. 11.18. zero-sequence currents have a path to ground through the Y because corresponding induced current can circulate in the ∆. 11. although it can circulate within the ∆ windings. The zero-sequence equivalent circuits are approximate as shown since resistance and the magnetizingcurrent path are omitted from each circuit. Case 5: ∆-∆ bank Since a ∆ circuit provides no return path for zero-sequence current. An open circuit exists for zero-sequence current between the two parts of the system connected by the transformer. along with their zero-sequence circuits.Five possible connections of two-winding transformers will be discussed. These connections are summarized. The letters P and Q identify corresponding points on the connection diagram and equivalent circuit. One Neutral Grounded If either one of the neutral of Y-Y bank is ungrounded. 11. An open circuit must exist between the line and the reference bus on the ∆ side. Fig. DMAM Page 16 of 19 Symmetrical Components . Case 2: Y-Y bank. Both Neutral Grounded In this connection a path through the transformer exists for zero-sequence current in both-windings. The absence of path through one winding prevents current in the other. Ungrounded Y An ungrounded Y zero-sequence current cannot flow in the transformer winding. Case 1: Y-Y bank. Zero-sequence equivalent circuits determined for various parts of the system separately are readily combined to form the complete zero-sequence network as shown in Figs. Case 3: Y-∆ bank. Absence of an arrow indicates that the transformer connection is such that zero-sequence current cannot flow.19 and 11. The reasoning to justify the equivalent circuit for each connection follows. Case 4: Y-∆ bank. Grounded Y If the neutral of a Y-∆ is grounded.

mi). X′′ = 10% M1: 200 MVA. and (iii) zero-sequence network for the system shown in the figure: G1: 300 MVA.20 Oneline diagram of a small power system and the corresponding zero-sequence network.4 Ω M2: 100 MVA.5 Ω/km.5 Ω/km. (ii) negative-sequence network . X0= 5% Select the generator rating as base in the generator circuit. 20 kV. current limiting reactors Zn= 0. zero-sequence reactance. T1: 350 MVA.4 [1. 11. 220/13. series reactance of the transmission line is 0.2 kV.4 Ω Transmission line: 64 km (4. X0=5%. X′′ = 20%. X′′ = 20%.2 kV. 13.301] Draw (i) the positive-sequence network. X0= 5%. zero-sequence reactance. 13. X′′ = 10% T2: 300 MVA. zero-sequence reactance. DMAM Page 17 of 19 Symmetrical Components . 230/20 kV. zero-sequence reactance = 1.2 kV. current limiting reactors Zn= 0.Fig. Example 11. p. X′′ = 20%.

Z base base MVA 300 X 0.89 pu n 0.2 ⎞ ⎛ 300 ⎞ X = 0. X = 0.3 2 ⎛ 13.635 DMAM Page 18 of 19 Symmetrical Components .2⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.8 ⎠ ⎝ 300 ⎠ (base kV (base kV 2 )2 LL = (13. Sbase.5 × 64 Ω 2 )2 LL = (230) = 176. Reactance of transmission line.2745 pu ⎝ 13.635 Ω 300 base MVA Motor M1: Z base = 2 ⎛ 13.05 pu 2 ⎛ 230 ⎞ ⎛ 300 ⎞ T1: X ' ' = 0.Solution: Base MVA.2 ⎞ ⎛ 300 ⎞ X ' ' = 0.9 pu n 1. X = = = 0.8) = 0. VbaseLL = 20 kV G1: Z base = (base kV 2 )2 LL = (20) = 1.0915 pu ⎝ 13.4 3Z = 3 = 1.1⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 0. X0 = 0.5 Ω/km.333 X′′ = 0.0857 pu ⎝ 230 ⎠ ⎝ 350 ⎠ Transmission Line: Given.1815 pu Z 176.333 Ω 300 base MVA 0.1 pu.2 ⎞ ⎛ 300 ⎞ T2: X ' ' = 0.3 base 1.3 Ω = Base impedance of transmission line. 3φ = 300 MVA Base kV. series reactance of the transmission line is 0.5 × 64 Per-unit reactance of transmission line.8 ⎠ ⎝ 200 ⎠ 0.5 × 64 X = = 0.4 3Z = 3 = 0.05⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.0686 pu 0 ⎝ 13.8 ⎠ ⎝ 200 ⎠ 2 ⎛ 13.5445 pu 0 176.1⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.

Rohit Mehta. S. Power System Analysis and Design. Fouth Edition (India Edition). Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Liited [6] V.2 ⎛ 13..8 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ Fig. McGraw-Hill Inc.1372 pu 0 ⎝ 13. Principles of Power System. Second Edition. Thomas J. Mulukutla S.8 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ 2 ⎛ 13. Overbye. Civil Engineering Series. McGraw-Hill Series in Electrical and Conputer Engineering. Sharma. Power System Analysis. Fouth Edition. Modern Power System Analysis.5490 ⎝ 13.21 Sequence networks of Example 11. Multicolor Illustrative Edition. 11.2 ⎞ ⎛ 300 ⎞ Motor M2: X ' ' = 0.05⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 0. D P Lothari. K. Stevenson.4 References [1] Willaim D. [3] J.2⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 0. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited [5] I J Nagrath. Course Technology Cengage Learning [4] Hadi Saadat. Mehta. William D. Steevnson. [2] John J. Power System Analysis. Chand and Company Limited DMAM Page 19 of 19 Symmetrical Components . McGraw-Hill International Editions. Duncan Glover. McGraw-Hill Inc.2 ⎞ ⎛ 300 ⎞ X = 0. Jr. Grainger. Elements of Power System Analysis.

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