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Chapter 5: I. Introduction A.

Tissues similar cells performing same function; organization of communities of similar cells, often embedded in a non-living intracellular material called the matrix B. Histology study of microscopic anatomy, study of tissues C. 4 main types of tissues 1. Muscle gives locomotion; elastic tissues 2. Nervous conduction of impulses, coordination of body functions 3. Epithelial lines tubes, covers body, lines organs, covers organs 4. Connective binds ligaments, tendons, bones, body fluids D. Tissue Development 1. All four types are present in an 8 week embryo 2. Blastcyst forming cell II. Epithelial A. Location 1. Membranes covers all free body surfaces and cavity linings epithelial tissues always have a free surface 2. Glands a. Exocrine secrete through a duct b. Endocrine secrete hormones into blood B. Function 1. Protection a. Covering b. Provide protection from external environment 1) Simple transport 2) Stratified protection c. Presence or lack of keratin protective protein (water resistant) 1) Epidermis keratinized 2) Esophagus, vagina non-keratinized 2. Sensory special organs in skin, nose, ears, eyes 3. Secretion produces hormones, mucus, digestive juices, sweat 4. Absorption absorbs nutrients; gas exchange 5. Excretion waste products into urine C. General Characteristics 1. Very little intercellular matrix 2. Sheets of this material cover skin and membrane 3. Attaches to underlying connective tissues by adhesive material called basement membrane made of glycoprotein called basal lamina and reticular lamina 4. Contains no blood vessels avascular; nutrients and oxygen diffuse through capillaries in basement membrane 5. Some epithelial cells are modified to hold cells together intercellular junctions or junctional complexes a. Desmosomes (connecting protein) and tight junctions (spot welds) b. Tight junctions fused adjacent cells

c. Gap junctions tubular connections; allows passage/transfer 6. Can reproduce themselves by mitosis important because of the amount of activity and interaction with different environments. Exfoliation is the loss of dead cells; can be used for testing purposes. 7. Classified by layers and shape D. Membranes thin layer of material that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides space or organs. An epithelial membrane is epithelium tissue and connective tissue forming a union called a membrane. The cutaneous membrane is the skin and the bodies largest organ. Serous membranes line body cavities and cover visceral structures (peritoneal). These membranes secrete a fluid that lubricates the tissues and prevents friction. Mucous membranes line and protect organs that open to external environment. Tympanic membranes are an unusual type of epithelial membrane. 1. Simple membranes a. Simple squamous (flattened) a) Designed for transport of substances b) Gas exchange in lungs, lines blood and lymph vessels, thorax, and abdomen b. Simple columnar (elongated) a) Contains goblet calls produce mucus b) Lines uterus and digestive tract for protection, secretion, and absorption c. Simple cuboidal (square shaped) a) For secretion and absorption b) In kidneys and glands 2. Stratified more than one layer a. Stratified squamous (keratinized multiple layers of cells flattened at the outer surface. Contains keratin (water-proof) which adds to its protective ability. Covers skin (dermis). b. Stratified squamous (non-keratinized) outer surface is moist and is protective but does not contain keratin; lines vagina, mouth, esophagus, and canal c. Stratified cuboidal two or more rows arranged randomly over basement membrane; located in sweat glands, pharynx, epiglottis d. Stratified columnar rare cell; located in male urethra and mucus layer of anus e. Pseudo-stratified columnar irregular shaped columnar cells; some with cilia found in respiratory system; some with villi (micro-folds) found in stomach f. Stratified transitional may have ten or more layers but changes to squamous near surface for protection. Other layers designed for stretching and tension found in bladder walls and tubes that have pressure distensible (can stretch and return to normal shape) E. Glandular Epithelium 1. Exocrine Glands specialized for secretion


involved in environmental processes Secrets through a duct 1) Lacrimal tear 2) Sweat thermal protection 3) Sebaceous glands oil for hair - Some ducts are inside but a part of the external environment 1) External environment is outside of organ tissues 2) Example lumen of intestines 2. Endocrine glands - Secrete into tissues, fluid, or blood; thyroid, adrenal, pituitary - Involved with regulatory processes Muscle Tissue specialized for contraction A. Three types 1. Skeletal striated varying patterns of contractile proteins 2. Cardiac designed for rhythmic stimulation/contraction 3. Smooth/visceral B. Terms 1. Voluntary able to be controlled by conscious effort (skeletal) 2. Striated having to do with contractive mechanisms (skeletal/cardiac) 3. Myo muscle 4. Myoblast premature muscle cells 5. Myofibers muscle fibers C. Skeletal 1. Attach to bones with tendons (moves skeleton) 2. Fourth week myoblasts fuse to form skeletal myofibers 3. Syncytium multinucleate mass of separate cells - Cells > fibers > bundles > muscles 4. Parallel arrangements allows for fine motor control - Also control each fiber individually D. Cardiac - Only in heart - Does not require conscious effort to alter 1. Cardi heart 2. Involuntary 3. Myocardial cell (design benefit more specific action/more coverage) a. Short b. Branched c. Connected 4. Intercalated disk rhythmic stimulation E. Smooth 1. Location digestive tract, blood vessels, bronchioles, urinary and reproductive ducts 2. Circular arrangement constriction of lumen 3. Involuntary 4. Some also have longitudinal arranged layers for peristalsis (wave-like contraction in walls of tubular organs)


F. Nerve tissue - Brain, spinal cord, nerves 1. Neurons nerve cells, functional unit specialized for generation and conduction of electrical impulses 2. neuroglia support cells; binds neurons together 3. function regulation and integration of body functions 4. structure a. cell body a) nucleus b) metabolic systems b. dendrites a) receives impulses b) communication c. axons long distance communications Connective most abundant tissue in the body; has the most varied forms very delicate networks, webbing, strong tough cords, rigid bones, fluid. A. Functions connects, supports, protects, framework, fills space, stores fat, produces blood cells B. Types 1. Proper loose, dense, adipose (sometimes considered as separate types) 2. Cartilage 3. Bone 4. Blood 5. Reticular tissue C. Key characteristics 1. Fibers a. Collagen structural proteins form tough, strong fibers; white; bundles allow tensile strength; most abundant protein compound in the body; changes in collagen consistent with ageing b. Reticular delicate, network; supports small structures, capillaries, nerves c. Elastic ability to stretch 2. Matrix gel-like fluid 3. Matrix and fibers determine type of connective tissue 4. Large extra-cellular material in spaces D. Cell types 1. Fibroblast produces collagenous and elastic fibers 2. Microphages phagocytic cells 3. Mast cells contain heparin and histamine a. Heparin anti-coagulant b. Histamine substance released from stressed cell E. Proper 1. Loose collagen ordinary, dermis a. Connective fibers b. Connects organs together 2. Dense collagen tendons and ligaments (also in eyes and skin) a. Bundles of collagenous fibers arranged on paralled rows in a fluid matrix





b. Tendons muscle to bone c. Ligaments bone to bone 3. Adipose loose connective a. Adipocyte fat globule b. Stores fat, protection, insulation, cushion Cartilage 1. Provides support and framework 2. Basic cell type chondrocyte which produces fibrous cartilage (also found in lacunae) 3. Found in bones, ears, nose, larynx, knees, inverted disks, pelvis 4. Intercellular materials mainly fibers and gel matrix 5. Avascular lacks blood supply; slow healing; receives nutrients by diffusion through perichondrium membrane surrounding cartilage 6. Three types a. Hyaline appears shiny and translucent; respiratory tract and covers ends of bones for articulation b. Elastic very flexible; voice box (larynx) and outer ear c. Fibrocartilage strongest, most durable, inverted disk and knees Bone 1. Osteocytes bone cells embedded in a matrix containing collagen and mineral salts. Mineral salts make up about 65% of matrix material and gives bone hardness 2. Functions to provide framework; support structures and organs, protect organs; provides mineral reservoir; production of red blood cells 3. Haversian system a. Lacunae small spaces that contain osteocytes b. Lamellae concentric layers of lacunae and calcified material c. Also has canal system for blood supply 4. Osteoblast bone forming cells 5. Osteoclast bone destroying cells 6. Intercellular space has mineral salts and collagen 7. Active tissue heals quickly (bone marrow helps); vascular Blood 1. Considered connective tissues because number of cells, transport mechanisms, scope of use in body 2. Cell suspended in fluid-plasma (55% of blood) 3. Formed elements red and white cells, platelets 4. Functions a. Transport O2, CO2, nutrients, waste b. Maintain body temperature c. Regulates pH of body fluids d. Protection white cells, platelets Reticular tissue 1. Branches in cytoplasm reticular fibers 2. Makes framework of spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow 3. Defensive function filters microbes



Organs and systems A. Organ composed of at least 2 tissues, usually all types, to perform a specific function B. System groups of organs working together to perform a function Compartments environments are aqueous (water-based) A. Intracellular inside of cells (matrix) B. Extracellular outside of cells 1. Blood plasma 2. Interstitial fluid