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Accurate: careful or meticulous. Collide: crash into each other. Enhance: to raise to a higher degree Gaudy: excessively showy Indie films: privately owned film, not Hollywood. Jumble: put or throw together without order: Lustrous: glowing. Memento: an object or item that serves to remind one of a person, past event, etc. Mosque: a Muslim temple. Slang: the jargon of a language. Sparse: small in amount. Spoil: to damage (something), with reference to its value, usefulness, etc. Tailgate: to follow or drive hazardously close to the rear of another vehicle. Untarnished: unchanged in color. Upheaval: strong or violent change or disturbance, as in a society.

Internet Research
Structure of a Paragraph LESSON PART of PARAGRAPH:
I) Topic Sentence

I) Topic Sentence A) First Main Point 1) Support Detail a) Sub-Detail b) Sub-Detail 2) Support Detail a) Sub-Detail b) Sub-Detail

Motivator - get your reader interested Thesis Sentence - introduce your topic Introduce main point A First support detail to explain point A Give information or an example about detail 1 Give more information about detail 1 Second support detail to explain point A Give information or an example about detail 2 Give more information about detail 2 Introduce main point B First support detail to explain point B Give information or an example about detail 1 Give more information about detail 1 Second support detail to explain point B Give information or an example about detail 2 Give more information about detail 2

A) First Main Point

(Your main points should include your support details and any sub-details.)

B) Second Main Point

B) Second Main Point 1) Support Detail a) Sub-Detail b) Sub-Detail 2) Support Detail a) Sub-Detail b) Sub-Detail

C) Third Main Point

Introduce main point C First support detail to explain point C C) Third Main Point Give information or an example about 1) Support Detail detail 1 a) Sub-Detail Give more information about detail 1 b) Sub-Detail Second support detail to explain point C 2) Support Detail Give information or an example about a) Sub-Detail detail 2 b) Sub-Detail Give more information about detail 2

II) Conclusion II) Conclusion

Use your topic sentence, but reword it - tell your reader what you talked about. Use a "clincher" to leave your reader with a good feeling, or leave your reader with something to think about.


Quotation Marks
Rule 1: Periods and commas always go inside quotation marks, even inside single quotes. Examples: She said, "Hurry up." She said, "He said, 'Hurry up.'" Rule 2: The placement of question marks with quotes follows logic. If a question is in quotation marks, the question mark should be placed inside the quotation marks. Examples: She asked, "Will you still be my friend?" Do you agree with the saying, "All's fair in love and war"? Rule 3: When you have a question outside quoted material AND inside quoted material, use only one question mark and place it inside the quotation mark. Example: Did she say, "May I go?" Rule 4: Use single quotation marks for quotes within quotes. Note that the period goes inside all quote marks. Example: He said, "Danea said, 'Do not treat me that way.'" Rule 5: Use quotation marks to set off a direct quotation only. Examples: "When will you be here?" he asked. He asked when you will be there. Rule 6: Do not use quotation marks with quoted material that is more than three lines in length. See Colons, Rule 5, for style guidance with longer quotes. Rule 7: When you are quoting something that has a spelling or grammar mistake or presents material in a confusing way, insert the term sic in italics and enclose it in brackets. Sic means, "This is the way the original material was." Example: She wrote, "I would rather die then [sic] be seen wearing the same outfit as my sister." Should be than, not then.

Sentence Cohesion
To achieve cohesion, the link of one sentence to the next, consider the following techniques: 1. Repetition. In sentence B (the second of any two sentences), repeat a word from sentence A. 2. Synonymy. If direct repetition is too obvious, use a synonym of the word you wish to repeat. This strategy is call 'elegant variation.' 3. Antonymy. Using the 'opposite' word, an antonym, can also create sentence cohesion, since in language antonyms actually share more elements of meaning than you might imagine. 4. Pro-forms. Use a pronoun, pro-verb, or another pro-form to make explicit reference back to a form mentioned earlier. 5. Collocation. Use a commonly paired or expected or highly probable word to connect one sentence to another. 6. Enumeration. Use overt markers of sequence to highlight the connection between ideas. This system has many advantages: (a) it can link ideas that are otherwise completely unconnected, (b) it looks formal and distinctive, and (c) it promotes a second method of sentence cohesion, discussed in (7) below. 7. Parallelism. Repeat a sentence structure. This technique is the oldest, most overlooked, but probably the most elegant method of creating cohesion. 8. Transitions. Use a conjunction or conjunctive adverb to link sentences with particular logical relationships. a. Identity. Indicates sameness: that is, that is to say, in other words. b. Opposition. Indicates a contrast: but, yet, however, nevertheless, still, though, although, whereas, in contrast, rather. c. Addition. Indicates continuation: and, too, also, furthermore, moreover, in addition, besides, in the same way, again, another, similarly, a similar, the same. d. Cause and effect: therefore, so, consequently, as a consequence, thus, as a result, hence, it follows that, because, since, for. e. Indefinites. Indicates a logical connection of an unspecified type: in fact, indeed, now.

f. Concession. Indicates a willingness to consider the other side: admittedly, I admit, true, I grant, of course, naturally, some believe, some people believe, it has been claimed that, once it was believed, there are those who would say. g. Exemplification. Indicates a shift from a more general or abstract idea to a more specific or concrete idea: for example, for instance, after all, an illustration of, even, indeed, in fact, it is true, of course, specifically, to be specific, that is, to illustrate, truly, ...


Topic sentence
States the main idea and the controlling idea of the paragraph, limit the topic to a specific area that can be discussed, its a guide for both the writer and the reader. It has three characteristics. 1. Its a complete sentence, contains at least one subject and one verb. 2. It has the topic and the controlling idea: Driving on freeways requires skill and alertness Topic Controlling idea 3. Its the most general sentence in the paragraph, but does not give specific details.

Supporting sentences
The supporting sentences, explain the topic sentence, develop it. Give more information about the topic. There are several kinds of supporting details: examples, statistics and quotations.
Examples: are a number of things to show what the topic is about. Statistics: analysis and interpretation of numerical data Quotations: to repeat words from a source.

Concluding sentence
Signals de end of the paragraph, leaves the reader the most important ideas to remember or restates the topic sentence in different words. It is no needed for every paragraph in a multiparagraph essay. You never introduce a new idea in the concluding sentence.

The paragraph discusses one and only one main idea from the beginning to end; sometimes it is possible to discuss more than one aspect of the same idea. Every supporting sentence must directly explain the main idea


April 13th The teacher wrote the objective of the day, it was to understand the use of indirect quotation, statistics. We read about Drug in Olympic games, then we know more about quotations in that example, also there are words to begin a quote. April 14th The objective was to see how quotations are inserted in a paragraph. Thre was in-text citations, the quotations marks, and also we talk about statistics, that are mostly numbers that show a trend. April 18th The objective was to see how an essay was structure, the type of introductions: dramatic, surprising and historical. The thesis statement, that is the most important sentence in an introduction. Also I was very talkative in the class. April 23th We discuss about punctuation rules, using the appendix B of the book, the uses of commas, such as the coordinator, the inserter and tag commas. The semicolons, those are located between sentences, before connectors and between Items in a Series.

English ALP Advance 7

Denis Pezo Rios