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PMBOK PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES

LIFE CYCLE PHASE INITIATING PLANNING EXECUTING CONTROLLING CLOSING

KNOWLEDGE AREA

INTEGRATION SCOPE
Initiation

Project Plan Development Scope Planning Scope Definition Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Resource Planning Cost Estimating Cost Budgeting

Project Plan Execution

Overall Change Control

Scope Verification

Scope Change Control

TIME

Schedule Control

COST

Cost Control

QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCES

Quality Planning Organizational Planning Staff Acquisition

Quality Assurance Team Development

Quality Control

COMMUNICATIONS

Communications Planning

Information Distribution

Performance Reporting

Admin. Close-out

RISK

Risk Identification Risk Quantification Risk Response Development

Risk Response Control

PROCUREMENT

Procurement Planning Solicitation Planning

Solicitation Source Selection Contract Administration

Contract Close-out

KNOWLEDGE AREA: INTEGRATION


Project Integration Management includes the processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated. It involves making trade-offs among the competing objectives and alternatives in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations. There are 3 major processes: Project Plan Development Project Plan Execution Overall Change Control PHASE (Core / DEFINITION INPUT TOOLS AND OUTPUT PROCESS Facilitating) TECHNIQUES Project Plan Development Planning (Core) Taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent document that can be used to guide both the project execution and project control. Carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included therein.

(7)

Other planning outputs Historical information Organizational policies Constraints Assumptions

Project Plan Execution (12)

Executing (Core)

Project plan Supporting detail Organizational policies Corrective action

Overall Change Control (9)

Controlling (Core)

Coordinating changes across the entire projects. It is concerned with: Influencing the factors which create scope change to ensure changes are beneficial. Determining that a scope change has occurred. Managing the actual changes when and if they occur

Project plan Performance reports Change requests

Project planning methodology Stakeholder skills & knowledge Project management information system (PMIS) General management skills Product skills and knowledge Work authorization system Status review meetings Project management information system (PMIS) Organizational procedures Change control system Configuration management Performance measurement Additional planning Project management information system (PMIS)

Project Plan Supporting detail

Work results Change requests

Project plan updates Corrective action Lessons learned

KNOWLEDGE AREA: SCOPE


Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required to complete the project successfully. It is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is or is not included in the project. There are 5 processes: Initiation Scope Planning Scope Definition Scope Verification Scope Change Control PHASE (Core / DEFINITION INPUT TOOLS AND OUTPUT PROCESS Facilitating) TECHNIQUES Initiation (8) Initiating (Core) The process of formally recognizing that a new project exists or that an existing project should continue into its next phase. Developing a written scope statement as the basis for future project decisions including, in particular, the criteria used to determine if the project or phase has been completed successfully Subdividing the major project deliverables (as identified in the scope statement) into smaller, more manageable components in order to: Improve the accuracy of cost, time, and resource estimates Define a baseline for performance measurements and control Facilitate clear responsibility assignment

Product description Strategic plan Project selection criteria Historical information Product description Project charter Constraints Assumptions

Project Selection methods Expert judgment

Scope Planning (2)

Planning (Core)

Product analysis Benefit/cost analysis Alternative


identification Expert judgment

Project charter Project manager identification /assignment Constraints Assumptions Scope statement Supporting detail Scope management plan

Scope Definition (1)

Planning (Core)

Scope statement Constraints Assumptions Other planning outputs Historical information

Work breakdown structure templates Decomposition

Work breakdown structure

KNOWLEDGE AREA: SCOPE( Continued)


PHASE (Core / Facilitating) Executing (facilitating) DEFINITION Formalizing acceptance of the project scope by the stakeholders (sponsor, client, customer, etc). It requires reviewing work products and results to ensure that all were completed correctly and satisfactorily. If the project is terminated early, the scope verification process should establish and document the level and extent of completion. Controlling changes to project scope. It is concerned with: Influencing the factors which create scope change to ensure changes are beneficial Determining that a scope change has occurred Managing the actual changes when and if they occur INPUT TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OUTPUT

PROCESS

Scope Verification (5)

Work results Product documentation

Inspection

Formal acceptance

Scope Change Control (9)

Controlling (facilitating)

Work breakdown structure Performance reports Change requests Scope management plan

Scope change control system Performance measurements Additional planning

Scope changes Corrective action Lessons learned

KNOWLEDGE AREA: TIME


Project Time Management includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project. There are 5 processes: Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control PHASE (Core / DEFINITION INPUT TOOLS AND PROCESS Facilitating) TECHNIQUES Activity Definition (3) Planning (Core) Identifying and documenting the specifics activities that must be performed to produce the various project deliverables and sub deliverables identified in the work breakdown structure. Identifying and documenting interactivity dependencies. Activities must be sequenced accurately to support later development of a realistic and achievable schedule

OUTPUT

Work breakdown structure Scope statement Historical information Constraints Assumptions Activity list Product description Mandatory dependencies Discretionary dependencies External dependencies Constraints Assumptions Activity list Constraints Assumptions Resource requirements Resource capabilities Historical information

Decomposition Templates

Activity list Supporting detail Work breakdown structure updates

Activity Sequencing (3)

Planning (Core)

Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) Conditional diagramming method Network templates Expert judgment Analogous estimating Simulation

Product network diagram Activity list updates

Activity Duration Estimating (5)

Planning (Core)

Estimating the number of work periods which will be needed to complete each individual activities

Activity duration estimates Basis of estimates Activity list updates

KNOWLEDGE AREA: TIME ( Continued)


PHASE (Core / Facilitating) Planning (Core) DEFINITION Analyzing activity sequences, activity duration and resources requirements to create the project schedule. That is, determining the start and finish dates for the project activities. INPUT TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OUTPUT

PROCESS Schedule Development (11)

Project network diagram Activity duration estimates Resources requirements Resources pool description Calendar Constraints Assumptions Leads and Lags

Schedule Control (9)

Controlling (facilitating)

Concerned with: Influencing the factors which create schedule change to ensure changes are beneficial Determining that a schedule change has occurred Managing the actual changes when and if they occur

Project schedule Performance reports Change requests Schedule management plan

Mathematical Project schedule analysis Supporting detail Critical Path Method Schedule management plan (CPM) Resource requirement Graphical Evaluation update. and Review Techniques (GERT) Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Duration compression Crashing Fast tracking Simulations Resource leveling heuristics Project management software Schedule updates Schedule change control system Corrective action Performance Lessons learned. measurement Additional planning Project Management software

KNOWLEDGE AREA: COST


Project Cost Management includes the processes required to ensure the project is completed within the approved budget. There are 4 processes: Resource Planning Cost Estimating Cost Budgeting Cost Control PHASE (Core / DEFINITION INPUT TOOLS AND OUTPUT PROCESS Facilitating) TECHNIQUES Resource Planning (9) Planning (Core) Determining what physical resources (people, equipment, materials) and what quantities of each should be used to perform project activities. It must be closely coordinated with cost estimating. Developing an approximation (estimate) of the costs of the resources needed to complete project activities

Work breakdown structure Historical information Scope statement Resources pool description Organizational policies

Expert judgment Alternatives Identification

Resource requirements

Cost Estimating (6)

Planning (Core)

Cost Budgeting (0)

Planning (Core)

Cost Control (8)

Controlling (facilitating)

Allocating the overall cost estimates to individual work items in order to establish a cost baseline for measuring project performance. Concerned with: Influencing the factors which create cost change to ensure changes are beneficial Determining that a cost change has occurred Managing the actual changes when and if they occur

Work breakdown structure Resource requirements Resource rates Activity duration estimates Historical information Chart of accounts Cost estimates Work breakdown structure Project schedule

Analogous estimating Parametric modeling Bottom-up estimating Computerized tools Cost estimating tools and techniques

Cost estimates Supporting detail Cost management plan

Cost baseline (FMB)

Cost baseline Performance reports Change requests Cost management plan

Cost change control system Performance measurements Additional planning Computerized tools

Revised cost estimates Budget updates Corrective action Estimate at completion Lessons learned

KNOWLEDGE AREA: QUALITY


Project Quality Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. It includes all activities of the overall management function that determines the quality policy, objectives and responsibilities and implements them by means such as quality planning, quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement, within the quality system. There are 3 major processes Quality Planning Quality Assurance Quality Control PHASE (Core / DEFINITION INPUT TOOLS AND OUTPUT PROCESS Facilitating) TECHNIQUES Quality Planning (5) Planning (facilitating) Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. Quality is planned in, NOT inspected in.

Quality policy Scope statement Product description Standards and regulations Other process outputs

Benefit/cost analysis Bench marking Flowcharting Design of experiments

Quality management plan Operational definitions Checklists Inputs to other processes

Quality Assurance (5)

Executing (facilitating)

Quality Control (9)

Controlling (facilitating)

Evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards. It should be performed throughout the project, Monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with the relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance. It should be performed throughout the project,

Quality management plan Results of quality control measurements Operational definitions

Quality planning tools and techniques Quality audits

Quality improvement

Work results - should include both process results and product results Quality management plan Operational definitions Checklists

Inspections Control charts Pareto diagrams Statistical sampling Flowcharting Trend analysis

Quality improvement Acceptance decisions Rework Completed checklists Process adjustments

KNOWLEDGE AREA: HUMAN RESOURCES


Project Human Resource Management includes the processes required to make the most effective us of the people involved with the project. It includes all the project stakeholders -- project manager, sponsors, customers, individual contributors (performing organization). There are 3 processes: Organizational Planning Staff Acquisition Team Development PHASE (Core / DEFINITION INPUT TOOLS AND OUTPUT PROCESS Facilitating) TECHNIQUES Organization Planning (3) Planning (facilitating) Identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships.

Project interfaces (organizational, technical, & interpersonal) Staffing requirements Constraints

Templates Human resource practices Organizational theory Stakeholder analysis

Roles & responsibility assignments Staffing management plan Organization chart Supporting detail

Staff Acquisition (0)

Planning (facilitating)

Getting the human resources (individuals or groups) needed assigned to and working on the project.

Team Development (11)

Executing (facilitating)

Developing individual and group skills to enhance project performance.

Staffing management plan Staffing pool description (consider previous experience, personal interests, personal characteristics, & availability) Recruitment practices Project staff Project Plan Staffing management plan Performance reports External feedback

Negotiations Pre-assignment Procurement

Project staff assigned Project team directory

Team-building activities General management skills Reward and recognition systems Collocation Training

Performance improvements Input to performance appraisals

KNOWLEDGE AREA: COMMUNICATIONS


Project Communications Management includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, storage, and ultimate disposition of project information. There are 4 processes: Communications Planning Information Distribution Performance Reporting Administrative Closure PHASE (Core / DEFINITION INPUT TOOLS AND OUTPUT PROCESS Facilitating) TECHNIQUES Communicatio ns Planning (3) Planning (facilitating) Determining the information and communication needs of the stakeholders: who needs what information, when will they need it, and how will it be given to them.

Communication requirements Communications technology Constraints Assumptions

Stakeholder analysis

Communications management plan

Information Distribution (5)

Executing (facilitating)

Making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner.

Work results Communication management plan Project plan

Performance Reporting (5)

Controlling (Core)

Administrative Closure (10)

Closing (Core)

Collecting and disseminating performance information. This includes status reporting, progress measurements and forecasting. Should provide information on scope, schedule, cost and quality; risk and procurement may also be required. Generating, gathering, and disseminating information to formalize phase or project completion. This is done whether the project phase was successfully completed or cancelled.

Project Plan Work results Other project records

Communications skills Information retrieval system Information distribution system Performance reviews Variance analysis Trend analysis Earned value analysis Information distribution tools & techniques Performance reporting tools and techniques

Project records

Performance reports Change requests

Performance measurement documentation Documentation of the product of the project Other project records

Project archives Formal acceptance Lessons learned

KNOWLEDGE AREA: RISK


Project Risk Management includes the processes concerned with identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risk. It includes maximizing the results of positive events and minimizing the consequences of adverse events. There are 4 processes: Risk Identification Risk Qualification Risk Response Development Risk Response Control PHASE (Core / DEFINITION INPUT TOOLS AND OUTPUT PROCESS Facilitating) TECHNIQUES Risk Identification (0) Planning (facilitating) Determining which risks are likely to affect the project and documenting the characteristics of each. Should be performed throughout the project on a regular basis. Evaluating risks and risk interaction to assess the range of possible project outcomes. Its primarily concerned with determining which risk events warrant response. Defining enhancement steps for opportunity and responses to threats. These responses can be avoidance, mitigation or acceptance. Responding to changes in risk over the course of the project. When change occurs, the cycle of identify, quantify, and respond is repeated.

Product description Other planning output Historical information

Checklists Flowcharting Interviewing

Sources of risk Potential risk events Risk symptoms Inputs to other processes

Risk Quantification (0)

Planning (facilitating)

Stakeholder risk tolerance Sources of risk Potential risk events Cost estimates Activity duration estimates Opportunities to pursue, threats to respond to Opportunities to ignore, threats to accept Risk management plan Actual risk events Additional risk identification

Expected monetary value Statistical sums Simulation Decision trees Expert judgment Procurement Contingency planning Alternative strategies Insurance Workarounds Additional risk response development

Opportunities to pursue, threats to respond to Opportunities to ignore, threats to accept

Risk Response Planning Development (facilitating) (7)

Risk Response Controlling Control (facilitating) (6)

Risk management plan Inputs to other processes Contingency plans Reserves Contractual agreements Corrective action Updates to risk management plan

KNOWLEDGE AREA: PROCUREMENT


Procurement Management includes the processes required to acquire good services from outside the performing organization. The processes from solicitation planning through contract close-out are performed once for each product or service to be acquired. There are 6 processes: Procurement Planning Solicitation Planning Solicitation Source Selection Contract Administration Contract Close-out. PHASE (Core / DEFINITION INPUT TOOLS AND OUTPUT PROCESS Facilitating) TECHNIQUES Procurement Planning (6) Planning (facilitating) Determining what to procure and when. It involves whether, how, what, how much, and when to procure.

Scope statement Product description Procurement resources Market conditions Other planning outputs Constraints Assumptions

Make-or-buy analysis Expert judgment Contract type selection (fixed price or lump sum; cost reimbursable; unit price Standard Forms Expert Judgment

Procurement management plan Statement(s) of Work

Solicitation Planning (0)

Planning (facilitating)

Documenting product requirements and identifying potential sources. This is done once for each product or service to be acquired.

Procurement management plan Statement(s) of Work Other planning outputs

Solicitation (0)

Executing (facilitating)

Obtaining quotations, bids, offers, or proposals as appropriate

Procurement documents (see output for solicitation planning ) Qualified seller lists

Bidder conferences Advertising

Procurement documents (Invitation to Bid, Request for Proposal, Request for Quotation, Invitation for Negotiation, Contractor Initial Response) Evaluation criteria (understanding of need, overall or life-cycle costs, technical capabilities, management approach, financial capacity) Statement of work updates Proposals

KNOWLEDGE AREA: PROCUREMENT ( Continued)


PHASE (Core / Facilitating) Executing (facilitating) DEFINITION Choosing from among potential sellers. It involves the receipt of the bids or proposals and the application of the evaluation criteria to select a provider. Managing the relationship with the seller; the process of ensuring that the sellers performance meets contractual requirements Completion and settlement of the contract, including resolution of any open items. It involves product verification and administrative close-out. INPUT TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OUTPUT

PROCESS Sources Selection (1)

Proposals Evaluation criteria (see output for solicitation planning) Organizational policies Contract Work results Change requests Seller invoices Contract documentation

Contract negotiation Weighting system Screening system Independent estimates Contract change control system Performance reporting Payment system Procurement audits

Contract

Contract Administration (11)

Executing (facilitating)

Correspondence Contract changes Payment requests

Contract Close-out (6)

Closing (Core)

Contract file Formal Acceptance and closure