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# Reciprocal Identities

Pythagorean Identities

Co-function Identities

sin (a + b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b cos (a + b) = cos a cos b – sin a sin b

Subtraction Formulas
sin (a - b) = sin a cos b - cos a sin b cos (a - b) = cos a cos b + sin a sin b

Double Angle Formulas
sin 2a = 2 sin a cos a cos 2a = cos 2a – sin 2a = 2 cos 2a – 1 = 1 – 2 sin 2a

Even-odd Identities

Sum-to-product Formulas

Multiply by 1 to get .b. Take the cosine of to get Take the cotangent of to get 1. Take the cosecant of to get 2.Product-to-sum Formulas 12.

multiply the last two terms in each group. Remove the parentheses around the expression 1. Finally.e. and is a method of multiplying two binomials. Squaring an expression is the same as multiplying the expression by itself 2 times. First.c. Simplify the FOIL expression by multiplying and combining all like terms. 12. Next. x=1 12.Multiply x=(1) by 2 to get 1. Squaring an expression is the same as multiplying the expression by itself 2 times. multiply the outer terms in each group. . followed by the inner terms. Multiply each term in the first group by each term in the second group using the FOIL method. FOIL stands for First Outer Inner Last. multiply the first two terms in each binomial group.

multiply the first two terms in each binomial group. Finally. and is a method of multiplying two binomials. add to to get Since 4cos(x)sin(x) and -4cos(x)sin(x) are like terms. add -4cos(x)sin(x) to 4cos(x)sin(x) to get 0.Multiply each term in the first group by each term in the second group using the FOIL method. Since and are like terms. Remove the parentheses that are not needed from the expression. followed by the inner terms. multiply the last two terms in each group. Next. add to to get . Since and are like terms. FOIL stands for First Outer Inner Last. multiply the outer terms in each group. Simplify the FOIL expression by multiplying and combining all like terms. First.

Take the cosine of 50 to get 0. 0. Invert the trigonometric factor in the denominator.41. switch the sides so it is on the lefthand side of the equation. In .64.64 squared is 0.f. Squaring a number is the same as multiplying the number by itself this case. Invert the trigonometric factor in the denominator.Replace 5=y with 5 using the identity Since y is on the right-hand side of the equation. y=5 12. Expand the exponent (2) to the expression.

41.77 squared is 0. Squaring a number is the same as multiplying the number by itself this case.59=y Add 0.77. y=1 . 0. 1=y Since y is on the right-hand side of the equation. Take the cosine of 40 to get 0.41+(0. 0. 0.59 to 0.41 to get 1. switch the sides so it is on the lefthand side of the equation.59.41+0.59)=y In Remove the parentheses around the expression 0.Remove the parentheses around the expression 0. Expand the exponent (2) to the expression.59.

94 to get 1. Take the cosine of 160 to get -0. Take the sine of 70 to get 0.34 to get 0.94.94 to 0. Take the cosine of 20 to get 0. Expand the exponent (2) to the expression.g. Add 0.94.94 inside the parentheses.94 to -0.94. . Add 0.88.34.12.6. Multiply -1 by the -0. Take the cosine of 110 to get -0.

89.6 squared is 0.36. y=3.88 squared is 3. Squaring a number is the same as multiplying the number by itself this case.89 12.36+3. 3. (0. switch the sides so it is on the lefthand side of the equation. 0.53.h. 1. In this Expand the exponent (2) to the expression. .53 to 0.89=y Since y is on the right-hand side of the equation.Squaring a number is the same as multiplying the number by itself case. 0.53)=y In Remove the parentheses that are not needed from the expression.53=y Add 3.36)+(3.36 to get 3.

Combine the numerators of all expressions that have common denominators. Expand the exponent (2) to the expression.Invert the trigonometric factor in the denominator. The denominators can be made equal by finding the least common denominator (LCD).259. . Complete the multiplication to produce a denominator of in each expression. multiply each fraction by a factor of 1 that will create the LCD in each of the fractions. Take the cosine of 75 to get 0. the LCD is Next. the denominators must be equal. In this case. To add fractions.

Remove the parentheses around the expression 13.933. .Squaring a number is the same as multiplying the number by itself In this case. Expand the exponent (2) to the expression.732 squared is 13.067. Squaring a number is the same as multiplying the number by itself In this case. Remove the parentheses around the expression 0.067 by 13. Multiply 0.928 to get 0.928.067. Take the tangent of 75 to get 3.732.928. 0.259 squared is 0. 3.

067 to get 1.933 inside the parentheses.Multiply -1 by the 0.067 by 0. Expand the exponent (2) to the expression. Divide 0. 1=x . Subtract 0. 0. Take the cosine of 75 to get 0.933 from 1 to get 0.067. Squaring a number is the same as multiplying the number by itself In this case.067.259 squared is 0.259.

c. x=1 13.a. Replace identities.Since x is on the right-hand side of the equation. Remove the parentheses around the expression . with an equivalent expression using the fundamental Rewrite the expression using the identity. Multiply by each term inside the parentheses. switch the sides so it is on the lefthand side of the equation. 13.

in each . Replace identities. Combine all similar variables in the expression.Replace with an equivalent expression using the fundamental identities. the LCD is Next. The denominators can be made equal by finding the least common denominator (LCD). multiply each fraction by a factor of 1 that will create the LCD in each of the fractions. In this case. To add fractions. with an equivalent expression using the fundamental Remove the common factors that were cancelled out. the denominators must be equal. Complete the multiplication to produce a denominator of expression.

Combine the numerators of all expressions that have common denominators. Since x is on the right-hand side of the equation. Simplify the right-hand side of the equation. switch the sides so it is on the left-hand side of the equation. 13. move it to the right-hand side of the equation by subtracting 1 from both sides. Replace with 1 using the identity Replace with an equivalent expression in the numerator. Since 1 does not contain the variable to solve for. .e.

Factor out the GCF of from Reduce the expression by canceling out the common factor of from . Multiply -x by -1 to get x. Simplify the right-hand side of the equation by simplifying each term. Replace with using the identity Factor out the GCF of from each term in the polynomial.Multiply each term in the equation by -1.

the numerator and denominator. Reduce the expression by canceling out the common factor of the numerator and denominator.f. from 13. . Replace with using the identity Replace with using the identity Remove the extra parentheses around the factors. Multiply by each term inside the parentheses.

Multiply each term by a factor of 1 that will equate all the denominators. switch the sides so it is on the left-hand side of the equation.Rewrite the factor of using the identity which in this case leads to Reduce the expression by canceling out the common factors. 1=x Since x is on the right-hand side of the equation. switch the sides so it is on the lefthand side of the equation. In this case. Since x is on the right-hand side of the equation. all terms need a denominator of expression needs to be multiplied by The to make the denominator The to make the denominator expression needs to be multiplied by . x=1 13.g.

denominator of and have the same so the numerators can be combined. . In this case. Simplify the numerator of the expression.Multiply the expression by a factor of 1 to create the least common denominator (LCD) of Remove the parentheses around the expression Multiply the expression by a factor of 1 to create the least common denominator (LCD) of Remove the parentheses around the expression The numerators of expressions that have equal denominators can be combined.

switch the sides so it is on the left-hand side of the equation.h. .Since and are like terms. Remove the parentheses around the expression Since x is on the right-hand side of the equation. Multiply by each term inside the parentheses. subtract from to get 0. 13. Convert the to its equivalent.

14.a .