Some speculation about the mechanism of magnetic charges appearance in experiments with ferromagnetic aerosols.
V. F. Mikhailov 050032 Almaty, 32, Sadovaya, 8 E-mail: email@example.com
PACS – 14.80 – Magnetic Monopoles.
In article possible process of formation of the magnetic charge on particles in experiences with ferromagnetic aerosols is discussed.
A series of the experiments performed by us earlier, devoted to research of effect of the magnetic charge on ferromagnetic aerosols (Mikhailov 1983, 1985, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1998)*, has not given, unfortunately, the clear answer to a question about the mechanism of occurrence of a magnetic charge on a particle. However some regularities established in these experiments allow suggesting a hypothesis which can be useful for understanding the nature of the effect. * The essence of the effect is as follows. Under intensive illumination the separate gas-suspended
ferromagnetic particles move in the magnetic field along its lines of force: reversal of the field vector H also causes a reversal of the particle motion, and reducing the field to zero causes them to stop. An increase in field strength or light intensity causes a rise in particle velocity, while decreasing these
quantities results in a reduced particle velocity. The number of particles moving in the direction of H is, within statistical variations, equal to the number of particles moving in the opposite direction.
From the moment of monopole problem beginnings various hypotheses about formation by magnetic monopole of atomic structures were repeatedly considered in scientific publications. It was supposed that if magnetic monopoles exist in nature, these monopoles can form neutral atoms, i.e. « the magnetic world » (magnetic matter, the ‘g’ world), which consist only of the magnetic atoms (from the atoms consisting of particles, carrying only magnetic charges), having structure similar to structure of Bohr’ atom. If magnetic atoms represent full similarity of Bohr ‘ atoms the frequencies of the quanta which are let out by such atom at transitions of a magnetic charge g from one stable orbit on another one will be determined by the formula: νg = mgc2 z2 2hg α 2( g 1 1 − ) 2 n1 n2 2 (1 )
Where n1 and n2 - the main quantum numbers (n2 = n1-ni, ni = 1, 2, 3…). At z=1 it is hydrogen magnetic atom (HМА). Hereinafter, the index g concerns to magnetic atom, an index е - to electric one; mg and me - mass of a monopole and electron, accordingly. Potential of ionization of such HМА is: Wg = mgc 2 2 αg
Potential of ionization of usual atom of hydrogen is We = Here
αe = e2 , ec αg = g2 . gc (4)
mec2 2 αe 2
From (2) and (3) we find:
mgα 2 g meα 2 e
Wg α 2 e mg = me W α 2 .. e g
Let's determine a constant of fine structure of «magnetic world». For this purpose we shall not resort to additional postulates, as, for example, it is made in work (Zrelov 1979) (it is postulated: α g = α e , 2005) (it is postulated: : α e ≠ α g,
) and in (Daviau
= . ).
Let's remind, that Bohr's magneton μe = e e 2mec (7)
can be expressed as product RBg, where RB - radius of the first Bohr’s orbit, and g - a magnetic charge, that is μe =
From (7) and (8) we find a magnetic charge:
αe e. 2
The value of this charge coincides with the value obtained before by us experimentally (Ehrenhaft’s monopole). We shall write similar ratio for HМА, exchanged by places the magnetic and electric charges (Dirac considers monopoles as fermions with spin 1/2; in this case, they should have the electric dipole moment directed for positive monopole opposite the spin and for negative – according to spin (Dirac 1948), (Amaldi 1970)):
From here e= αg 2 g (11 )
It is obvious, that μg in « the magnetic world » will represent the certain electric dipole, and correspond to Bohr's magneton in « the electric world ».
From formulas (7), (8) and (10) we shall find the relation μe/μg and, after obvious transformations, obtain:
e4 . g4
Substituting ħg from here in (4) and taking into account value of a magnetic charge (9) we obtain a ratio: αg = 4 αe (13)
Now we shall return to the formula (6) and we shall substitute in it the obtained value αg ; then Wg α e mg = me W 2 . e
In experiments with ferromagnetic aerosols we observed effect of a magnetic charge in light He-Ne laser, which wave-length λ =6328 Ǻ (photon energy is equal 1.96 eV). I.e., Wg ≤ 1.96 eV, ionization potential of hydrogen atom We = 13.6 eV. Then the monopole mass is estimated by value
mg ≤ 2.55.10−11me ,
mgc2 ≤ 1.3.10−5 eV.
However, the ratio (8) is not a unique opportunity to express Bohr's magneton through a magnetic charge. . It appears, Bohr's magneton can be expressed as product rog , where ro is classical electron radius. Then: e e e2 μe = = g. 2mec mec2 Whence:
1 e 2α e
It is Dirac’s monopole. By analogy
g2 e, mgc 2
Whence: e= 1 g. 2α g (19)
g2 = rg mgc2
- the classical radius of a monopole.
For this case as earlier, again we shall find the relation μe/μg, whence we obtain
Remembering, that, in this case, a charge of a monopole is Dirac's (17), we shall determine a constant of fine structure. It is easy to see that in this case αg = 1 . 4α e (22)
Let's estimate mass of Dirac's monopole. For this purpose we shall take use again of the formula (6) and the formula (22):
Wg 4 mg = me W ( 2α e ) . e
obtain the following values: mg ≤ 6.5.10−9 me , mgc2 ≤ 3,3.10−3 eV.
Using the same conditions, as at calculation Ehrenhaft’s monopole mass (15), we (24)
The divergence (24) with (15) is caused by numerical factors which are present at calculation initially. Thus,
−11 1. Ehrenhaft’s monopole: mg ≤ 2.55.10 me ,
−9 2. Dirac’s monopole: mg ≤ 6.5.10 me ,
mgc2 ≤ 1.3.10−5 eV.
mgc2 ≤ 3,3.10−3 eV.
In both cases we deal with rather easy monopole. This result, to a certain extent, will be coordinated to the result obtained by Lochak theoretically (Lochak 1983, 1985, 1995, 2002).
All stated above concerns to a variant when appearance of free magnetic charges is consequence of ionization of neutral HМА. But it can be considered another variant, namely, a creation of monopoleantimonopole pairs from vacuum. Then mg≤1.96 eV, that is also, in many orders, lighter of electron. However in this case we shall not consider this variant.
From said above, it is possible to draw a conclusion: if « the magnetic World » exists, it should consist of considerably more light atoms, than atoms of « the World electric ». Some physicists consider that such world can be constructed from atoms, similarly to Mendeleyev’s periodic system (Zrelov 1979), (Daviau 2005). There is no basis to believe, that magnetic atoms, with monopoles instead of electrons and protons, are arranged somehow differently though quantitative characteristics can be others. But in this case the field connecting the monopoles in magnetic atoms will be, naturally, magnetic one. From here the conclusion follows: if magnetic and electric atoms are rested one concerning another they can practically be simultaneously in same "point" of space and "not see" each other. The static electric field does not act on a motionless magnetic charge, and the static magnetic field does not act on a motionless electric charge. Hence, the magnetic World, the World "g", formed of set of magnetic atoms, and , the World "e", formed of set of electric atoms, under conditions described above, may be both simultaneously in the same space, not interacting one with other. Thus in our universe there can be a parallel universe (monopoles' ether). The influence of the parallel universe upon our universe will be only in dynamics, when these Worlds start to move one through another. In this case, additional electromagnetic fields will arise around electric and magnetic charges, and the Worlds will start to interact.
Thus, in order to give acceleration to a material body in the World "e" it will be necessary to overcome resistance of the World "g" with which this body will start to interact. There is a big temptation to identify it with force of inertia! Not far motionless stars, but the ubiquitous World "g" - the reason of inertia force arising (short-range interaction). Probably, at such picture of the World a problem of latent mass and of dark energy in astrophysics can be also obtained a different sounding.
However we shall return to our problem. Ferromagnetic aerosols are the microparticles having the size about 10-6cm. Such particles are one-domain structures and, hence, have a magnetic moment (dipole). Intensity of a magnetic field near a pole of such dipole reaches several tens kilogauss. Process of magnetic charge formation on such particle can occur as follows. a. The field of a particle causes polarization of magnetic atoms (ether) surrounding it. b. The field of a particle is non-uniform: as a first approximation, its intensity with distance from the particle decreases as r-3. Therefore, the polarized magnetic atoms will move in the direction of poles of the particle and to form on its surface the enriched layer (it is possible, the process terminates by adsorption of atoms on the surface of the particle). с. An illumination of a particle by a beam of the laser causes an ionization of adsorbed atoms. The neutral atom breaks up upon two fragments, with opposite sign of the magnetic charges. The fragment (monopole or ion) with the charge of the same sign as the pole one of the particle throws away into space by magnetic field of the particle. The second fragment contacts and connects with the particle. Thus the particle gets a magnetic charge. Namely this charge drags a ferromagnetic particle along or against direction of external magnetic field (depending on the charge sign).
If the process described here takes place actually then with increase of a beam intensity of the laser the charge on a particle should increase too. Moreover, it should increase discretely as its value, finally, is determined by the sum of elementary charges of the ionized magnetic atoms because its number, in this case, also increases. Our researches have shown that these requirements following from a suggested hypothesis are satisfied. It is experimentally established (Mikhailov 1983, 1987, 1990, 1993, 1995) that the magnetic charge of a particle G, other conditions being equal, is proportional to intensity of a light beam and multiple to an elementary charge (9):
Here n=1, 2, 3… is integer.
αe e. 2
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