Selling to the Chinese Middle Class
Consumer based branding in China
Mikael Livas & Olov Norlander 2012-05-16

Department of Business Studies – Uppsala University



Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 2 Purpose .................................................................................................................................. 3 Question formulation ........................................................................................................... 3 Theory ....................................................................................................................................... 4 Disposition .............................................................................................................................. 4 Customer Based Brand Equity (CBBE)................................................................................... 4 Consumption Behaviour ......................................................................................................... 6 Perceived Quality ................................................................................................................ 6 Perceived Value .................................................................................................................. 7 Perceived Prestige .............................................................................................................. 7 Country of Origin .................................................................................................................... 8 Theory Summary .................................................................................................................... 9 Method ......................................................................................................................................11 Disposition .............................................................................................................................11 Product Category ...............................................................................................................11 Sampling ............................................................................................................................12 Operationalisation .................................................................................................................13 Sampling method ...............................................................................................................13 Consumption behaviour and country of origin effects .........................................................14 Data collection .......................................................................................................................16 Phase I ..............................................................................................................................17 Phase II .............................................................................................................................17 Phase III ............................................................................................................................18 Method for Data Analysis.......................................................................................................19 Results ......................................................................................................................................20 Disposition .............................................................................................................................20 Demographics .......................................................................................................................20 Consumption behaviour .........................................................................................................22 Country of origin effects .........................................................................................................26 Analysis ....................................................................................................................................28 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................32 References ...............................................................................................................................34 Interviews ..............................................................................................................................37 Appendix ...................................................................................................................................38 Respondent overview ............................................................................................................38 Response overview ...............................................................................................................39 English questionnaire ............................................................................................................41 Chinese questionnaire ...........................................................................................................44




A brand is defined by the American Marketing Association (2012) as “name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that defines one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other seller’s”. The importance of a strong brand and good branding strategies has increased during the last decades. Although a brand is an intangible asset of a firm, brand equity makes up a great deal of a firm’s actual value on the market. The intangible assets make up a large part of a firm’s market value. The intangible assets accounted for 80 % of major companies market value in 2005, an increase from less than 20 % in 1975 (Clifton, 2009). To build and manage a brand is one of the great challenges for marketers today. To create an identity and awareness of a brand firms need to develop positive associations to the brand and in order to establish and maintain brand loyalty, they need to differentiate themselves from others (Kotler, 2001:188). In this paper we focus on branding in emerging markets, defined as countries with rapid economic growth and industrialisation. Studies have been conducted on the subject of marketing in emerging market. Keller and Moorthi (2003) conclude that marketing strategies that work perfectly fine in home countries need to be adapted to local culture and preferences. Dawar and Chattopadhyay (2002) claim that foreign firms rush to emerging markets with hope of gaining market shares and profit, but rarely adapt their marketing strategies to local conditions. In another research by Batra et al. (2000), findings show that consumers in emerging markets perceive foreign brands to be of better quality than local alternatives. One of the most prominent emerging markets is China, with an annual GDP growth rate of 10 per cent the last three decades it has already surpassed Japan, becoming the world’s second largest economy (World Bank, 2012). The socioeconomic transition China has gone through the last three decades has led to rapid increase of income, which has led to an increasing demand for consumer’s goods (Cui & Liu). As one of the world’s fastest and biggest economies, the Chinese market possesses a great attraction for foreign firms to enter. But with government policies favouring domestic firms, it can be a challenge for foreign actors to enter the market (Economist, 2009). Branding in China is not a rarely studied area of research. Schlevogt (2000) claim there’s been a branding revolution in China with both consumers and companies becoming more aware of the importance of brands. A case study Melewar et al. shows that French food giant Danone Group failed to establish a good brand at their initial entrance, but after adjustments to Chinese preferences they are now successful (2008). Even a paper on how foreign multinational companies should translate their name into 2



Chinese (Alon et al. 2009) has been carried out. However, most of the research focus on big multinational companies branding and marketing activities in China and what strategies to implement. There are nonetheless little research on smaller foreign firms and completely new foreign brands that want to establish in the Chinese market.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how a consumer-centric branding strategy can be formulated based on consumption behaviour and attitudes towards country of origin using the example of Swedish blueberry products in China. Hopefully the findings generated by this paper can be generalised and might be applicable to branding of Swedish premium products in other categories on the Chinese market.

Question formulation 1. How can a Chinese consumer-oriented branding strategy for Swedish blueberry products be formulated based on: 2a, Chinese middle class consumers’ attitudes toward consumption of jam and juice? 2b, Chinese middle class consumers’ perceptions of Sweden and products made in Sweden?


how expensive or inexpensive it is and whether it is frequently discounted or not (Keller. see figure 1. shows that a brand is created by different building blocks and that the foundation of a brand is deep broad brand awareness. such as names. Performance and judgment are the more tangible bricks of the CBBE pyramid. symbols and characters. measures the level of recognisability and to what level the customer can recall the brand (Keller. Customer Based Brand Equity (CBBE) The CBBE model is used because it positions the customer in the centre when creating brand equity and the model incorporates practical features in understanding consumer behaviour. The primary influence of the perception of the brand is the actual products and the function it has to the consumer. It’s also about reliability and durability of the brand. As no theory or model was found for creating a brand from scratch. To understand the customers’ needs and wants is the “heart of successful marketing”. the CBBE model is used since it is a general tool for brand building. CBBE is formally defined as “the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand” (Keller. The judgment regarding quality is particularly important and 4 . 2008:64). measuring and managing. 2008:48). 2008:54). The model suggest that brand salience. Theories on consumption behaviour and COO-effect and concepts stemming from these theories will then be linked and incorporated with a modified CBBE model in the summary. Brand awareness is generally created through exposure of elements connected to the brand. the special features of the brand. The judgement brick is based on the personal opinion about the brand. in other words how the consumer perceives the performance of the brand in the long term. logos.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Theory Disposition At first we explain the Customer Based Brand Equity (CBBE) model. presented in an illustrative pyramid. Performance is about the functional values that meet the functional needs of the consumer. jingles. To understand the attitudes and preferences of the consumer we present theories on consumption behaviour and country of origin (COO) effect. The model. Pricing is also a factor when the consumer evaluates the performance of the brand. which provide general theoretical framework regarding branding.

The feelings evoked by a brand are the consumers’ emotional response to the experience of the brand. 2008:72). 2008:65). With high resonance the consumer feels that they have a deep psychological bond to the brand and keep buying its products as well as actively engage in the brand. Brand imagery is about how the brand meets the psychological and social needs of the consumer. energy and money outside of the activity of buying and consuming one of the brand’s products (Keller. but ultimately what really matters is to what extent a brand can generate positive feelings for a brand (Keller. spending time. The top building block is brand resonance. These feelings can be negative or positive. Figure 1: The CBBE Pyramid of brand building with its six building blocks 5 . Culture and heritage are social frameworks that also effect this perception (Keller. The more intangible buildings bricks are composed of feelings and imagery generated by the brand. which is about the relationship with the consumer and the level of identification and loyalty the consumer has towards the brand. The imagery derives from the personal experience but can be linked to information about the brand communicated through advertisement or word of mouth. The credibility as well as superiority over other brands is taken in consideration in the judgement brick (Keller. The consumption behaviour as well as the personality of the consumer effects the perception of the brand’s image. 2008:68-71).LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY steams from the actual attributes of the brand and its products. 2008:6768).

Another reason for using these three motivational factors are that we can connect them to our CBBE model in a logic way.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Consumption Behaviour Consumption behaviour is not just the study on how a purchase decision is developed but also the actual consumers’ response to the purchase and usage of the product. intrinsic and extrinsic. 2011:8-13). Chisnall suggest these non-rational factors are feelings. whereas the extrinsic cue is the characteristics of the products that can be manipulated and experimented with. These responses can be emotional. To get a theoretical framework for the consumption behaviour in our research we take previous research on the subject in consideration. trendsetters in the area. but also look at research with similar purpose as our own. They suggest that the perception of quality consists of two cues. and that the needs and wants of the consumers are too complex to be explained by rational factors only (1995). Complex models on how consumers make their decision have been constructed since the 1950’s. culture values. Perceived Quality The perceived quality in a product is according to Olson and Jacoby (1972). A study by Zhou and Wong used three motivational factors behind a purchase in a comparable study of Chinese consumers. Relevant theories for these factors connected to food or Chinese consumers are used to get a proper theoretical frame suitable for our purpose. there are more subconcepts within every factor that consent with previous research. mental or behavioural. emotional and epistemic (1991). an important motivator for purchase decision. Contemporary research tends to expand that and include other factors (Bray. The intrinsic cue is the attributes and characteristics of the product that cannot be changed. where the consumer is assumed to base his decisions on rational factors that optimize the outcome of the purchase. social. anthropology and economics that try to explain the underlying motives behind consumption (Kardes et al. When broken down. 2008). The study of consumption behaviour is a mix of sociology. conditional. presents a multiple value model to explain the choices that the consumer makes. perceived quality and perceived prestige (2008). group affiliations etc. Rao and Monroe (1989) further elaborate on the idea of different cues and give examples that extrinsic cues can be 6 . these values are functional. perceived value. Seth et al. psychology. when consumption behaviour started to get a more prominent role in the field of marketing. Early approaches considered the utility theory the best explanation to consumption behaviour..

brand and store name. Quality/performance represents the functional value the product provides to the consumer. and for intrinsic cue it could be nutrition. the need to interact with other people and social need to survive and thrive. both short and long term. So the character of the consumer highly affects how the intrinsic and extrinsic cues are perceived and assessed as good or bad quality (1995). The last value. Sweeney and Soutar (2001) developed a general theory on perceived consumer value. Perceived Value The perception of value is by Schwartz and Bilsky (1987) considered to be personal and originates from three “universal requirements” of basic human biological needs. These human values have according to Kamakura and Novak (1992) increasingly been used to segment the market and find the right target group based on what values the consumer seeks. as they present in a multi-item scale for measuring perceived consumer value. The four value dimensions are quality/performance. Price/value for money is also a functional value based on the utility that derives from the product with the reduction of its perceived costs. but a mixture of values is requisite since human beings hold more than just one single value. The different values create different type and different level of utility for the consumer. price/value for money. The values we perceive in products are somewhat the same based on how they satisfy peoples’ requirements. They conclude that segmentation cannot only be based on one value. or the utility that derives from the expected performance and perceived quality. the social value is the utility derived from the products’ capacity to enhance the consumers’ self-concept or lifestyle. Their research found four value dimensions that can significantly explain purchasing behaviour and attitudes. emotional value and social value. The emotional value is the utility that derives from feelings and emotional state the product gives to the consumer. According to Oude Ophius and Van Trijp it is necessary to look at a multiple set of attributes within each cue as the consumers develop an abstract belief of the products quality depending on the cues that are connected to a specific product. Perceived Prestige The desire to gain social status and prestige is a big motivational factor for consumption 7 .LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY price.

Another factor is the historical relationship between the origin country and the country in which the consumer lives. consumers’ attitudes toward a product from a certain nation are great significance (Nagashima. 1970). we only look closer at conspicuous value and unique value. but can only partly explain the perceived value of prestige since many conspicuous goods are still consumed in private. 1999). The concept of prestige and the interpretation of the word vary from people to people depending on their socioeconomic background. The level. When determining an international marketing strategy for a firm. Prestigeseeking behaviour is a result of motivational factors.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY behaviour. The consumption of conspicuous status products is for the consumer an ego-boost for the consumer as well as an “aid” for people struggling for social approval and self-respect. The need for uniqueness is put forward as a big motivating factor for perceived prestige. of which the consumers seek status symbols differ from people to people. They have identified five prestige-seeking values: conspicuous. but there is a big difference among the consumers on how much prestige they gain. Some findings show that there is a positive relationship between the evaluation of the product and the level of development in the origin country. such as sociability and self-expression. unique. Country of Origin The concept of marketing based on the consumers’ attitudes toward a certain product or a certain category of products have for long been well known as an important aspect when marketing strategies are composed. A conceptual framework for prestige-seeking consumer behaviour (PSCB) has been developed by Vigneron and Johnson (1999). Earlier research show that this country of origin (COO) effect.. social. They also emphasise that high pricing is important for brands that want to have a unique touch (1999). but depends highly on the consumers’ social class and social environment (Eastman et al. the consumer can transfer the image of 8 . emotional and quality. The conspicuous consumption is according to Vigneron and Johnson used as a signal of wealth. Vigneron and Johnson define prestige of a brand as an interaction between people and their environment. For more unknown foreign brands. Rarity and limited supply of products are associated with high value that commands prestige and respect. influence the consumers’ evaluation of a product. power and status. Since the perceived value theory overlap some of the prestige seeking values.

but that the COO also contributes to the subjective assessment of the wine. but as we investigate a non-existing brand with focus on the consumers’ attitudes and not on how to create brand awareness. as there is no brand or company to have resonance with. But as knowledge increases consumer might return to local brands and use a mix of both local and nonlocal brands. Regarding consumption behaviour and the different values that we have presented within the theories of perceived quality. In figure 2 it is shown how the different concepts from consumption behaviour and COO effects connects with the CBBE model. Batra et al. The CBBE model is originally a tool to create. and thereby the COO indirectly affects the evaluation of the product. as they are connected with consumption behaviour and attitudes. Although the COO doesn’t provide any actual quality enhancing attributes. The same goes with the top building block of resonance. In a research by Veale and Quester (2009) using the example of wine to determine to what extent the extrinsic cues of price and COO can affect the perceived quality. trustworthy foreign brands. value and prestige. (2000) researched the COO-effect specifically on developing economies and findings show that a brand’s country of origin can serves as a “quality halo” and possesses a non-localness that contributes to the status. or prestige of the consumer. Some preferences for foreign brands can be explained that consumers in developing countries buy well-known. Instead we focus on the four building blocks in the centre of the model.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY the origin country on to their evaluation of the product (Bilkey & Nes. Han’s (1989) also concludes that the image of a country can serve as a halo where knowledge about the product or brand is low. 1982). This summary construct is the collected beliefs the consumer has about the features of the product and can thereby affect their opinion about the brand. we find that quality and functional values are more tangible than intangible so we unite them on the left side of the model with performance (functional) and judgment (quality). He also suggests that as consumers knowledge about products from a certain country increases the country image can directly influence the as is becomes a “summary construct”. it clearly have an effect on how the consumer experience the quality in the product. For the more intangible values we incorporate these on the 9 . manage and measure brand equity already existing brands. we leave salience out of the equation. Their findings show that price is a greater attribute when assessing quality. Theory Summary The CBBE model is the theoretical framework on how a brand can be built and managed.

LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY right side of the model. which are subtler than the other two. as the image of a brand is important in a social and prestige-seeking context. conspicuous and unique values are connected to imagery. because the feelings generated by a brand create emotional value for the consumer. Social. The theory of COO effect is also integrated with feelings and imagery since the opinion of another country is intangible. which consists of the building blocks imagery and feelings. Figure 2: Modified CBBE pyramid with sub concepts 10 . The two concepts of trust and knowledge used within the COO will be explained in detail in the operationalisation part of the paper. The emotional value belongs in the building block of feelings.

2009) A pre-survey questionnaire conducted in March 2012 during Phase I showed that there is a substantial interest for organic products in China. Secondly we give a detailed explanation on how the actual operationalisation process of the research was carried out. The market for 100% juices. the method used for data analysis is presented. As we have made some initial interviews with Swedish blueberry producing companies. The wild blueberry is a resource that grows in abundance in the Swedish forests. however the Euromonitor survey (2012:23) shows that Chinese consumers distrust the authenticity of claims of being organic. do not seem to value or prioritise that market. Product Category To be able to investigate the consumption behaviour and COO effect among Chinese consumers we used blueberry products from Sweden as a specific example. one of the characteristics of the 11 . juice is the one beverage that has seen the most growth from 2006-2011(85. we found out that almost none of them have sales activities in China and those who do. 3%). beating bottled water.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Method Disposition Firstly. wine and beer (Euromonitor. So we narrow down the limitation further to only include blueberry jam and juice. The pre-survey also showed that Chinese consumers chose blueberry jam and juice when asked what type of blueberry product they usually consume. seem to have great potential as carbonated soft drinks have reached a plateau in first and second tier cities and Chinese consumers in these cities are purchasing healthier drinks and the market for juices are expected to grow and eventually compensate for falling sales of soft drinks. this indicates that there is a potential in selling organic products if the claim is trustworthy or guaranteed in some way. as we operationalise the theories into a research we present some limitations regarding product category and target group to be investigated. 2012:26). for example. According to researchers at Jilin Agricultural University. an underutilised resource that will be difficult to imitate since it is of a subspecies that only grows in a few countries other than Sweden and the fact that it is wild and not grown are factors that make it very unique and are considered to be the healthiest in the world (Löfgren. Thirdly we describe how the data was collected in three stages. Except for ready to drink-teas. At last.

Bernd Schmitt provides a summary of the three most common ones. The Chinese market is both “geographically immense” and “fragmented”. In 1995 almost no Chinese were considered to be middle class. et al. we chose to target a certain segment of the Chinese population. In a report concerning foodservice in China from the same organisation. To define the middle class is however not totally uncomplicated. And it is especially the young. Comm. more affluent and better educated Chinese are more likely to try new products. 2009). He shows conclusions from previous studies that younger. To target the right group of people is therefore of utterly importance.. When middle class is used in a Chinese context it usually means a class well above the middle. Geographic segmentation. The Chinese middle class is by many foreign firms considered to be the most interesting segment of the Chinese market. has increased rapidly during the last decades. it is stated that the post 80’s generation are increasingly interested in Western life-style. urban. Demographic segmentation and Psychographic segmentation. Sampling To further limit the paper. 1997). Chinese thirst for blueberry products makes it a perfect example for our study about branding in China.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Chinese blueberry market is that demand far exceeds supply (Li. one that can be translated into upper middle class or even upper class in terms of positioning it on the socioeconomic scale in Western terms (Li Chunling. Numerous studies have been made on the topic of segmentation of the Chinese market. The number of people considered to be of the Chinese middle class. 23 April). In a survey from 2007 by Euromonitor International. a foreign brand that is popular in the big cities on the east coast. 2010). however the most common reason stated for not expanding into China were a lack of understanding of the procedures involved and of Chinese culture (Chen.. 2011:77). but also to buy products admired by others (Schmitt. may not be recognised on the countryside. Sweden and Swedish companies are well reputed in China and there are great opportunities for Swedish products to take greater shares of the Chinese market. Consuming western food is seen as something affluent and inspirational (Euromonitor. 2012 pers. but in 2005 that figure was 87 million (Song & Cui. as this particular segment is growing both in size and purchase power. Limin. it is claimed that young Chinese in the age of 20-29 have already by then become the highest earning group in China (Euromonitor. highly educated middle class with knowledge. 2007). 2011). influence and cash that is most interesting for foreign marketers to target. Li Chunling 12 .

Li Chunling uses Li Peilins (2008) strict level of income as an indicator of belonging to the middle class. According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China (NBSC) that figure for 2011 is 23.000 RMB is required. So to be defined as middle class based on the income.979 RMB (NBSC. To be a part of our target group. In our survey we aim to target people in the age span of 20-45 as this is the age span that characterises the capitalist. It is however occupation that is the divider when Li Chunling presents her subgroups within the middle class. For urban areas to be people with an annual income 2. we had to have strict requirements for each classifier that respondents needed to live up to in order to be qualified to take part in the survey. 2012).. comm. 24 April). Capitalist. the annual salary need to be higher than 59. 5 times bigger than the average urban income are considered to qualify. as it is a well-recognized and comprehensive classification that can fairly easy be operationalised. new. 24 April) use a mixture of income. New Middle Class and Old Middle Class. level of education. For the income level. New Middle Class (Managers. Old Middle Class (Private business owners. Education is an important factor for determining socioeconomic class in China and people with less than a high school graduate are less likely to be representative of the middle class (Li Chunling. pers. employers with few employees. which is equivalent to a high school graduate in China. comm.. The person needs to be “highly educated. 2012. We chose to follow Li Chunlings definition of Chinese middle class. self-employed) and Marginal Middle Class (Low wage white collars and other workers). respondents need to have at least 12 years in school. occupation and consumption behaviour to define the people within the middle class. The occupation requirement is set to be an occupation within the top three middle class subgroups. 5*23.948 RMB (2.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY (2012. The four subgroups are group is the Capitalists (Business owner with more than 20 employees).979. These three groups constitute our group of interest and consist of people in positions considered 13 . Professionals. So an income level above 60. Government Officials). pers. Operationalisation Sampling method As a comprehensive definition of the middle class is used.and old middle classes and people in this age span have spent their entire adult lives in the post-Mao era. have a white-collar job and an income above average”.

one of the most interesting for us is Verdú Jover et al. The intrinsic cues that we have identified are Taste. We use blueberry products from Sweden as an example and try to find out what values the Chinese middle class consumer emphasize when consuming jam or juice. brand. 24 April) say that the middle class is partly defined by their different forms of “conspicuous consumption”. Vigneron and Johnson (1999) suggest that the conspicuous values and unique values are important.. Earlier research on conspicuous values by Zhu (2011) show that the self-referential values. Brand. The perceived values derive from the utility that the consumer recognises when purchasing a product. However Li Chunling (2012.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY important on social. comm. Examples of intrinsic dimensions in their research are age. For the extrinsic dimensions they use price. et cetera (Verdú Jover. reputation. Consumption behaviour and country of origin effects The theory of perceived quality with the intrinsic and extrinsic cues. So there is a problem we have in mind when formulating the questions on conspicuous consumption in order to get honest and valid answers. both of them include different types of values that need to be rendered into questions. For the perceived prestige. aroma. Origin. So we break down the value into different utilities that we have identified as being connected to the specific product. harvest. They have identified a numerous of dimensions within each cue that are measured and analysed. has been operationalised by many. Health effects and Wild. as opposed to conspicuous values. are more important for Chinese consumers. In our survey we need to find out the Chinese consumers knowledge and trust for Sweden and foreign countries in general and their attitudes toward (we use the word Western in the questionnaire to exclude other Asian countries with similar culture to China) food and beverage products. The COO effect is as shown an important factor explaining the motives behind purchase decisions as well as the perceived quality in the product. Some of the dimensions used for wine can be analogically transferred to blueberries. pers. colour. research about perception of quality of wines. et al.. political and economic levels (Li. Safety. 2004). There is a positive correlation between perceived high quality and high economic development of the COO. as attributes that affects the consumers’ perceived quality. Percentage of berries in the product and Organic. As for perceived values and prestige. but we also have to use additional dimensions. 2010:144-147). while the extrinsic cues are put into operation as Price. distribution channels. taste et cetera. By doing this we can see 14 . Chunling.

whereas others are behaviour variables. Perceived Quality: Intrinsic and extrinsic cues: What attributes defines the quality in juice and jams the most? 15 . after numerous food scandals. a series of questions arose that needed to get answers in order to understand the Chinese consumer. by definition of Saunders et al.. pers. comm. 2006). much of the distrust for domestic brands stems from the recent food scandals in China (Euromonitor. The Chinese consumer might have preferred foreign grocery brands before but claimed to shop domestic brands. In research conducted by Kwok et al. Some are. For each sub concept from the theories. be one reason that preferences are not reflected in their actual purchasing behaviour (Kwok. 2012:23). In recent years. typical Chinese products and typical Western products. now however they openly claim to prefer foreign brands due to the scandals surrounding Chinese ones. 25 April) the knowledge of Sweden is limited and that might constitute a barrier when using Sweden’s brand and COOeffect in branding a Swedish product. They often choose foreign brands. The questionnaire used in the Kwok study is useful for us when designing our own study because of similarities in research and purpose. However their actual purchasing behaviour did not reflect their preferences of domestic brands.. country of origin seems to play a large role in China when it comes to food as Chinese consumers are more careful buying domestic brands and usually only trust the top-tier Chinese brands. They studied purchasing behaviour of typical Chinese products such as packaged noodles and soy sauce as well as typical western products like red wine and butter.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY what attributes and characteristics of Swedish blueberry products that can be used when branding them on the Chinese market. (2006) the COO effect on urban Chinese consumers was examined. To measure each sub concept of behaviour and country of origin effects we used 2-6 variables for each sub concept. et al. So from an “origin of Sweden”-point of view. opinion variables as they measure what people feel about something. including China. The result showed that Chinese consumers say they prefer to buy domestic grocery brands and that they believe it is important to buy local products in both categories. these concepts will be our variables for the COO-effect. as they are perceived to hold to a higher standard and quality. as they measure what people have done before (2009:368). According to Liu (2012. We find that trust and knowledge are two central concepts explaining the COO-effect in developing countries. Lack of knowledge could according to Kwok et al. So the questionnaire was designed on the basis of the following questions.

what characteristic of Swedish blueberry juice and jam is most attractive? Social Value: How consumption behaviour affects their self-concept and social status and the relationship between consumption of exclusive/Western food and beverages and social status? Perceived Prestige: Conspicuous Value: In which setting they prefer to consume Western food and beverages? Do they want to show off or not and what are their design preferences? Unique Value: The level of which Chinese consumers pursue uniqueness and prestige. The effect of this is that there is no structural bias for a positive or negative answer (Carifio & Perla. It they want to be trendsetters or not? COO-effect: Knowledge: Awareness about Sweden and products from Sweden. A study on the Chinese consumers’ changing value system by Ge Xiao also used a Likert 7-grade scale to measure behaviour and attitudes among Chinese consumers (Ge.. Do they see Sweden as exotic or not? Trust: The level of trust towards Western food and beverage products compared to domestic ones.LIVAS & NORLANDER Perceived Value: UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Quality/Performance: What are the main functional needs for buying juice and jam? Price/Value for money: The perception of the relationship between price and quality and if a discounted price detracts from the perceived value/quality? Emotional Value: What attribute generates most positive feelings. (2006) also used a Likert scale when conducting their research on brand preferences among young Chinese consumers. Kwok et al. 2007:131). 2005). The main advantage using this scale is that it is symmetrical meaning that there are as many options on either side of the middle option. What is Sweden’s level of credibility and reliability in the eye of the Chinese consumers? Data collection To investigate consumption behaviour and COO-effect in the questionnaire. As we are to conduct a 16 . the Likert 7grade psychometric scale is used for all questions where the respondents are asked to specify their level of agreement or disagreement on a statement. They used a 5-grade scale to measure their attitudes towards foreign and domestic brands (Kwok et al. 2006).

Phase I To make sure that we get the desired result of our survey we first made a pilot study with high variety of both questions and types of questions in order to be as prepared as possible for the real survey. administered electronically and by hand. For the final version of the questionnaire we use a self-administered questionnaire. The types of questions in the questionnaire were also varied on purpose to see what type of question gave the best and valid answers. The pilot study was broad and provided a wide spectrum of questions touching upon segmentation. This was an important observation as we aimed to get as honest answers as possible. Phase II After finding relevant theories for our paper. To get as many respondents as possible in a short period of time we conducted an online questionnaire that was spread to Chinese friends through email and social media. little knowledge on how to operationalise the theories into specific questions were given from the theories. However.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY similar research. The collection of data can be divided into three phases. blueberry jam and juice. Some of the questions regarding prestige in the pilot study were perceived as too straightforward and somewhat rude. Our data collection method is adapted to the need of a large sample. convenience sampling according to Saunders (2009:241). It was conducted to give us information for further development of our study and the opportunity for us to narrow it down on the most interesting aspects of the issue. Altogether we got 46 responses within the one-week (23-30 March 2012) the online questionnaire was open. we started to operationalise them into surveyquestions with the help of the results from the pre-survey questionnaire described above. the theories provided 17 . which demands a large sample. Since we focus on specific products. Despite limiting the survey to selected parts of the middle class there is still a large group of Chinese population that meet our qualifications. reliability and comparability. as well as the limits of time and resources. we find it best to use a similar questionnaire design to increase validity. By conducting this pilot survey we have been able to pinpoint the topics and type of questions most relevant for the purpose of this paper. Phase I was necessary in order to better formulate the questions and themes for the final survey in Phase II. behaviour and the perception of Sweden.

correction of one mistranslated sentence and larger headlines in the questionnaire. We approached people that appeared to be middle class. The questionnaire took about five minutes for the average respondent to fill out and most people took it were very serious. we used support from methodology literature. Altogether 524 answers were collected. and were in the right age-span. We used a combination of convenience sampling and snowball sampling. This minimised the number of answers from people outside of the intended group. To operationalise this into a questionnaire. This was done manually by asking people to participate in the survey and fill out the questionnaire on the. The time when the data was collected was intentionally varied in order to allow people with different working hours to participate. We used our experience from the pilot-study to correct errors and used previous research (Ge. During phase two we translated the questionnaire into Chinese to be able to make a design suitable for the Chinese language.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY us with well-needed terminology in defining the market segment and consumption behaviour. As we used online-based questionnaire administration software Surveymonkey we could use snowballing sampling by sending it to friends in the right target group and ask them to pass it forward. When formulating the questions. This collection method generated 94 answers. there were a number of facts and circumstances we had to take into consideration mainly the problems encountered with some of the questions being perceived as rude or too forward in the pilot study. out of which 425 were complete and corresponded to the requirements for being in the survey. After final version was completed we started to collect answers. The changes that we made were. To maximize the sampling we handed out questionnaires to more people at the same time. Another 431 answers were collected in high-end shopping malls and on the streets of wealthier areas in Beijing during four days (23-26) in April 2012. by definitions presented earlier. no changes were made to the actual content of the questionnaire. Phase III The survey was first tested on 20 Chinese consumers and some minor changes were made in design and formulation of some questions. As more than 4/5 of the data was collected by hand we had a fairly good control of the actual data gathering we could answer any questions from the respondents that arose during the completion of the survey. 2005) when designing our questionnaire. 18 .

Finally we use our reveised CBBE model to interpret the findings in the survey from a brand-building perspective. For the consumption behaviour and country of origin analysis we use exploratory analysis. complete with all the answers as well as bar charts to provide a clear picture of each sub-concept. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is according to EDA pioneer Tukey (1977:3) the only way to lay a foundation to further analysis. Saunders et al. By looking at the specific value (Average and Most frequent response. EDA is also according to Saunders et al. The tendencies in the answers will be guideline for us when creating the building blocks of a Swedish blueberry brand. also emphasise the usage of diagrams to “explore and analyse” the data. The tendencies in the answers will also provide us with information when analysing the consumption behaviour of the Chinese middle class consumer.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Method for Data Analysis We use descriptive analysis for the demographic distribution of our respondents to provide an overview of the data sample. MFR) of each parameter within the each sub concept. To be able to analyse the material we will present it in a table. 19 . a flexible tool that gives the user opportunity to introduce alternative explanations and analyse to new findings (2009:428). Each sub-concept will then be analysed based on the average and MFR-values. we then see the tendencies of the respondents’ consumption behaviour and preferences.

the same tendency for male overrepresentation is also present in the third largest group. Demographics Most of the respondents (136) were in the age group of 25-29 and there are slightly more females than males in this age group. totalling 103 respondents. with substantially more male than female respondents. these answers together with a chart of all the answers and data can be found in the appendix. displayed by an average score and most frequent response. the 35-39 year olds. making it the second largest group. The second smallest group of 58 answers. 20-24 year olds have significantly more female than male respondents. 111 respondents are to be found in the age span of 30-34. The general tendencies will be shown here. Age and Sex 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-45 0 11 6 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 18 63 71 68 35 40 40 73 Men Women Figure 3: Respondents divided between sex and age (n=425) 20 . The smallest group spanning the ages of 40-45 of only 17 respondents has almost twice as many male to female respondents. there are exceptions to the tendencies were some respondents have given very different answers compared to the other respondents.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Results Disposition Here the results of the data collection will be presented in the form of diagrams accompanied by explanatory text describing the findings.

000 with 154 responses. 21 .000-300.000-500. 20 Manager Professional Government Official 50 Business owner <20 emp.100. Business owners with fewer than 20 employees (32) are followed by the Self-employed and Business owners with more than 20 employees. Level of Education 12-16 (Bachelor) 353 Education 16+ (Higher than Bachelor) 72 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Figure 4: Respondents level of Education (n=425) The most common category of occupation is Professional with 125 respondents belonging to this group. leaving 353 respondents with 12-16 years of education and 72 with more than 16 years of education. totalling 20 respondents.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY The respondents with less than 12 years of education were sorted out.000 .000 RMB/year at 255 respondents followed by 100. the second most common is Office Worker with 98 responses belonging to this group. Current Occupation Bussiness owner >20 emp.000 a year with 16 respondents belonging to this income group. The smallest group is 300. the largest earning group option available on the questionnaire received 0 responses. Following this is the Manager category with 77 responses and Government Official with 50 people belonging to this group. 32 Self-employed 22 Office Worker Other 1 0 20 77 125 Occupation 98 40 60 80 100 120 140 Figure 5: Respondents current occupation (n=425) The most common income bracket is 60.

000 .99 6 5.5 6 5.52/ MFR 6) follows this along with Brand (avg.300.000 300.000 100.000 .32 7 6 5.66 and MFR of 6. Price (avg.66 6 7 5 Figure 7: Respondents average and MFR regarding attributes defining quality (n=425) 22 .6/MFR 6). 5.32 and the MFR being 7. The most important aspect of a high quality berry product is Safety with an average score of 6. 5.526 4.000 16 154 Income 255 >500. Origin (avg.25 5.5/MFR 6) and the least important factor.500. 5.000 .99 and an MFR of 6. Organic receives an average score of 5.25 and 6.6 6 7 7 MFR Average 6.05 6. The fact that the berry is wild (avg.05 respectively.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Annual Income 60.000 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Figure 6: Respondents annual income (n=425) Consumption behaviour The results from the questions regarding the respondents’ perception of quality generated the following results.100. this is followed by % of Berry/Fruit with an average of 5.47/MFR 4) Defining Quality Taste Health Effects That the berry is wild Price Origin Brand Safety Organic % of Berry/Fruit 0 1 2 3 4 4 6. This is followed by Health Effects and Taste both with MFR’s of 7 and average scores of 6. 4.47 5.

8/MFR 4).23/MFR 7). 6. 4. The same tendencies can be seen regarding the statement on Large packages making products feel less valuable/exclusive (avg.62/MFR 6) and lastly the products ability to Quench or satiate thirst or hunger (avg.9/MFR 6). 5.62 MFR Average 4. Made in Sweden (avg. 5. This is in turn followed by Wild Berries (avg.8 4.75/MFR 4). Functional Value Health Effects 4 4.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Regarding Functional value the findings indicate that the respondents value the Health Effects the most (avg. 6. 6.9 6 7 Figure 9: Respondents average and MFR regarding their view on pricing and value for money (n=425) Concerning the respondents positive feelings toward features of imported Swedish berry products we find that the feature associated most with positive feelings is Natural (avg.62/MFR 5) and are neutral/leaning slightly towards agreeing with the statement that a discounted product is less valuable (avg.02/MFR 6) followed by Good taste (avg.38/MFR 6) and Imported jam/juice (avg. 5.06/MFR 7). 5.9/MFR 4). Price/Value for Money High price equates high quality A discounted product is less valuable Large packages make a product feel less valuable/exclusive 0 1 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 5.62 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 6. 23 .02 MFR Average Good Taste Quench/Satiate Thirst/Hunger Figure 8: Respondents average and MFR regarding what functional value juice and jam provide them (n=425) The respondents agree with the statement that High price equates high quality (avg. 4. closely tailed by Organic (avg. 4.75 6 5.

respondents are neutral/slightly agreeing with the statement that they prefer to consume Western food in public settings (avg.38 6 6 7 5. Emotional Value .49/MFR 6) and that they are neutral to somewhat affected by their friends preferences in food and beverage (avg. 4. 24 .25/MFR 6). However they are neutral/slightly disagree with the statements that consuming exclusive food and beverage gives them social status (avg.49 MFR Average Consuming western food and beverages give me social status Figure 11: Respondents average and MFR regarding social value that jam/juice consumption give them (n=425) Questions associated with conspicuous consumption behaviour came back with answers generally confirming some sort of conspicuous behaviour.25 6 6 5. 3. that the respondents agree with the statement that What I eat and drink defines my lifestyle (avg.75 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. 3. 5. All of the listed features received high scores and are generally associated with positive feelings.Positive feelings Imported Jam/juice Wild Berries Organic Natural Made In Sweden 0 1 2 3 4 5 5.9 6.75/MFR 4 ) Social Value What I eat and drink defines my lifestyle My friends preferences in food and beverages effects what I eat and drink Consuming exclusive food and beverages give me social status 4 4 3.8 4 3.8/MFR 4) and that consuming Western food and beverage gives them social status(avg.23 7 7 MFR Average Figure 10: Respondents average and MFR regarding how positive they feel about certain features of imported Swedish juice and jam (n=425) The results from questions concerning the social value derived from consumption of foods and beverages showed the following tendencies.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY 5.77/MFR 4).77 6 5.06 6.

43 5 4.98 MFR Average 5 5. 4. the respondents concur with the statement that they are in fact looking to buy unique products when shopping for premium food and beverages (avg. 5.17/MFR 4) and slightly agree that they like to consume these types of goods in the company of friends rather than alone (avg.52/MFR 6). 5. 5. 25 .22/MFR 5) and that they like to buy imported food and drink original Western name on packaging (avg.22 6 5.72/MFR 6).72/MFR 6) and they agree with the statement that they buy Western food and beverage because of their prestigious nature (avg.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY 4. rather than in private I prefer to consume western food and beverages with friends rather than alone Design of the package is important when purchasing premium food and beverage I prefer to buy imported food and beverage with western design on packaging I prefer to buy imported food and beverage with original western brand name on packaging 0 1 2 3 4 5 4 4.43/MFR 4). 5. 5. The respondents also agree with the statement that they like to try new food and beverage before their friends (avg. They seem to agree with the notion that they prefer to buy imported food and drink with Western packaging design (avg.52/MFR 6).52 6 7 Figure 12: Respondents average and MFR regarding their conspicuous consumption behaviour (n=425) Regarding the uniqueness of a product and the value derived from that. Conspicuous Value I prefer to consume western food and beverages in public places.17 4 4.

Knowledge Sweden is an advanced country Sweden is a clean country Sweden is a welfare country Sweden is an exotic country Sweden is a country with beautiful nature 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.34 6. 6.2 6.9 6 5.2/MFR 6/7).08/MFR 7) with beautiful nature (avg. 6.9/MFR 6).2/MFR 7) and clean country (avg. 6. 5.72 6 7 MFR Average Figure 13: Respondents average and MFR regarding their pursue of uniqueness when consuming food and beverages (n=425) Country of origin effects The knowledge and perception of Sweden is very positive with high scores on all questions.08 6 5.9 7 7 7 MFR Average 7 Figure 14: Respondents average and MFR regarding their knowledge about Sweden (n=425) 26 . 6. the highest being that Sweden is a welfare country (avg.5 6. They also think that Sweden is an exotic country (avg. COO .2 6.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Unique Value I look for unique products when purchasing premium food and beverages I like to try new food and beverages before my friends I purchase western-brand food and beverage products because they are prestigious 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 5.34/MFR 7) followed by the statement that Sweden is an advanced (avg.52 5 4.

Trust I believe Western food and beverage brands a trust worthier than domestic ones I believe Swedish food and beverage brands a trust worthier than other western ones Products made in Sweden stands for quality Products made in Sweden stands for reliability Products made in Sweden stands for credibility 1 2 3 4 5 6 5.57 6 5.7 MFR Average 6 5. Their perceive products made in Sweden to stand for quality (avg. Western and Swedish products we found that they think that Western food and beverage products are trust worthier than Chinese ones (avg. 5. 5.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Regarding the respondents’ trust of domestic. COO .42/MFR 6).74 6 5. 5.74 6 7 Figure 15: Respondents average and MFR regarding their trust of products from abroad and from Sweden (n=525) 27 . 5. 5.74/MFR 6).74/MFR 6). reliability (avg.57/MFR 6) and that Swedish products in particular are trust worthier than Western food products in general (avg.42 6 5. and credibility (avg.7/MFR 6).

LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Analysis Using the results generated from the questionnaire we will here analyse the perceptions and preferences of the Chinese middle class. We interpret the inclination towards health and taste as values the consumer seek outside of the functional need of satiating hunger and thirst. taste and organic. As the result clearly show regarding the quality in products. getting only a neutral score. There is also a small indication that larger packages and a discounted price detracts from the perceived quality. according to the survey. Price on the other hand is not seen as a clear indicator of quality and by far scores the lowest. When defining quality in juice and jam products the most important factor is. resulting in a product that is seen as less exclusive. but consumers might not want acknowledge that price is an indicator of good quality in an open survey. heavily polluted and far from clean nature. but when confronted with a statement that high price equates high price they tend to agree to a greater extent. the background of the food scandals has to be understood. In order to understand why this is so important. As for the functional values that we used in our survey. Demick (2011) report that the air quality in Beijing is on a steady decline since the 2008 Olympics when air quality was at its best. One explanation to this discrepancy could be that the respondents consider price not to be important when it is mixed with other more product-related attributes. This is most likely because the bulk of the respondents live in inner city Beijing. the Chinese middle class seek safe and healthy food and beverages. such as the participation in a survey. this to avoid unsafe food products that may result in sickness. As described earlier China has been subjected to numerous of serious food scandals and as a result of this the consumers are now very wary of how products are made and what they contain. safety followed by health effects. the actual attitude toward large packages and discounted price might not be reflected accurately. We suspect that in a theoretical situation. the indication was that the respondents consumed juice and jam for their health effect and good taste rather than just as a way to quench thirst or satiate hunger. Veale and Quester (2009) clearly show that price has a substantial effect on the perceived quality in product evaluation. injury or even death. This is somewhat contradictory as respondents show a tendency to later on agree with the statement that a high price equates high quality. As for feelings evoked by characteristic features of blueberry products from Sweden. organic and natural are valued high in relation to the other attributes in the survey. In the survey the effect of large packages and discounts might be downplayed and can possibly have a larger effect in reality. Since then number 28 .

the tendency is that the respondents have a positive image of Sweden as a welfare state with clean and beautiful nature. As for Sweden. The reason why natural and organic have very positive connotations in the minds of the Chinese urban consumers could be explained by the poor environmental situation in Beijing and other major cities in China. As shown by the results from our questionnaire Sweden is seen as a clean country with quality products that are reliable and credible. However the survey shows that respondents are reluctant to show that consumption of imported juice or jam would have any effect on their social status or that their social spheres affect their preferences in food and beverage. some answers might indicate conspicuous behaviour such as the ones regarding packaging design and the prevalence of Chinese middle class conspicuous consumption has been documented (Debnam & Svinos. The scores on questions regarding conspicuous consumption are generally low but this can be due to respondents wanting to appear humble when answering the questions. this might mean that Swedish organic products can benefit from Sweden’s reputation and be seen as reliable. Although the questions were a bit leading with only positive statements a high average score was generated on the knowledge about positive features of Sweden. the perception of Sweden and Western countries is positive and Western products in general and Swedish ones in particular are seen as more trustworthy than Chinese products. Lack of knowledge about Sweden was put forward as an obstacle for Swedish firms to overcome by Liu (2012).LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY of cars have increased from 3. it is still real in the mind of a marketer. This might help Swedish firms to take a large part of the growing market for organic produce as it is trending but the labeling and certification is generally not trusted. this is supported by their views of food and beverage consumption as lifestyle defining. Our questionnaire shows that in general Chinese middle class consumers concur with the notion that Western food and beverage products are partly consumed because they are prestigious. (2006). Regarding the unique value. 2007). This however does not exclude conspicuous behaviour as a factor. 29 . Nevertheless. This might seem contradictory but it is possible that they like to consume prestigious products not to show off to others but in a self-referential way. but support for a high level of positive knowledge about Sweden is found in our research. Zhu (2011) also arrives at the conclusion that parts of the Chinese middle class consumption are self-referential in nature rather than conspicuous. there might be discrepancies between expressed opinions and actual behaviour as found by Kwok et al. although it might just be a perception of an exotic country in the West and not actual knowledge.5 million to 5 million in just four years. trustworthy and credible.

there is a tendency that they seek unique food and beverage products but that they don’t want to be seen as show-offs. Respondents might have answered that foreign food and beverages don’t provide them with much prestigious value due to national pride or humbleness. some concepts were operationalised in such a way that they could be asked without being perceived as too rude. Since we were guaranteed not to get accurate and honest answers if we asked some of the more sensitive questions straight on. The major social value consumption of food and beverages was that it 30 . extrinsic values of safety and being organic are to be highlighted in the branding process. It is possible that the intention of some of the sensitive questions was poorly concealed and that we were obviously looking for information that the respondents were unwilling to give. For the tangible building blocks of the model (performance and judgement) it could be argued that Swedish blueberry jam and juice should be promoted as health products as this is the primary functional need Chinese consumer wish to satisfy. It also has to be backed up by a credible production process in order to avoid food scandals that can be the end of a food and beverage brand in China. the intrinsic health effects of Swedish blueberries should have a central role in the branding process as it is considered to be an important factor when determining the quality in juice and jams.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY another value for prestige. Clean and natural production processes are images that should be emphasised in the communication with the consumer in the brand building process. This would explain why there are differences in answers to questions concerning similar concepts. The CBBE theory has been the theoretical framework used to connect the theories of consumption behaviour and COO effect to an actual brand building. as the findings regarding price show that Chinese middle class consumers might think that a lower price detracts from the perceived value of a premium product. For the perceived quality. and some questions were successfully formulated as non-sensitive ones. straightforward or compromising. As the respondents do not give a univocal answer. A high premium price ought to be set as long as it is justified by good performance and high quality. it could mean that they are price sensitive if the premium price does not live up to a premium performance. Price therefore has to be carefully calibrated to not be too high in relation to its qualities. To further appeal to the Chinese middle class consumers. Concerning the intangible building blocks (imagery and feelings) there is strong support that Sweden and products from Sweden evoke positive images and feelings. so the tendency for agreeing on the statement of being the first to try new products isn’t as strong. neither too low and risk being perceived as non-premium.

emotional values created by natural and organic production should be promoted and used in the building of the brand as this appeals to the Chinese middle class. 31 . The most significant findings in each sub concept have been integrated into the modified CBBE model.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY defines one’s lifestyle. where the results from the questions in the survey are divided according to the sub concepts from which the questions were formulated. To generate positive feelings related to the brand. The Chinese middle class consumer also look for unique products. as this seems to be a characteristic that they wish to possess. it could therefore be argued that a healthy and natural lifestyle should be promoted with the brand. Figure 16: Modified CBBE pyramid with most important findings incorporated in each building block. it is advisable to employ a branding strategy that is not too conspicuous in character and try to appeal to the humbleness of the Chinese. exclusive design and select sales channels can be used to enhance the image of something unique. see figure 16. As the respondents were reluctant to be perceived as show-offs. limited production quantities.

first the most important findings on consumption behaviour and the target group’s attitudes toward jam and juice products.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Conclusion One should keep in mind that our conclusion is based on data collected through convenience sampling and a modest approach interpreting the result ought to be adopted. Other values that is attractive to the Chinese consumers are prestige and uniqueness. scandals. two values that need to be put forward in a way that not conflict with the Chinese consumers’ endeavor to appear humble. They also give the impression of be willing to pay a premium price as long as the product quality and performance is premium. gives further support to the importance of the COO effect in China. and Swedish products. However tendencies in our research show that Swedish blueberry products have a great branding potential on the Chinese market as many characteristics of blueberries from Sweden appeal to the Chinese consumers. Chinese middle class consumers’ attitudes toward consumption of jam and juice? The Chinese middle class consumption behaviour regarding jam and juice is characterised by a search for natural. as reliable and credible. lastly consumption behaviour and attitudes will be combined with country of origin effects. The conclusions will be in three parts. 1. This fact in combination with a generally good perception of Safe and healthy products that have been organically produced. as their food and beverage consumption is claimed to define their lifestyle to a certain extent. being perceived as clean and exotic. 2b. an effect that Swedish brands can free ride on when entering the market as a foreign actor. 32 . Chinese middle class consumers’ perceptions of Sweden and products made in Sweden? Foreign food and beverage products have an advantage over domestic. probably because domestic brands are often distrusted and a target for suspiciousness in the wake of recent food scandals. Sweden. This will be followed by an account of the most significant results from a country of origin perspective. How can a Chinese consumer-oriented branding strategy for Swedish blueberry products be formulated based on: 2a.

A premium pricing strategy can be motivated due to the exclusiveness and the proved health effects Swedish blueberries possess. the factors in 2a ought to be emphasised. clean and credible country can serve as a “quality halo” and guarantee that claims about the products are substantiated and true. as they are the values that Chinese consumers look for in actual products.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY For a consumer based branding strategy. 33 . Our hopes are that our conclusions can serve as a guideline for Swedish or foreign brands when formulating their branding strategies for the Chinese market. Sweden’s reputation as a reliable.

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http://databank. L. Measuring Perceptions of Quality in Food Products: The Case of red wine. University of Manchester. L. School of Economics and Management. 453-469.jsp?RowAxis=WDI_Ctry~&ColAxis=WDI_Time~&PageAxis=WDI_ Series~&PageAxisCaption=Series~&RowAxisCaption=Country~&ColAxisCaption=Time~& NEW_REPORT_SCALE=1&NEW_REPORT_PRECISION=0&newReport=yes&IS_REPO RT_IN_REFRESH_MODE=true&IS_CODE_REQUIRED=0&COMMA_SEP=true (201205-09) Zhou. Tsinghua University. General Manager. Javier. Manchester. & Quester. Monter. W. & Johnson.org/ddp/htmljsp/QuickViewReport. A.. (2008). Academy of Marketing and Science Review. The Chinese Dream: The Rise of the World’s Largest Middle Class and What it means to You. Professor of Sociology. Interview conducted in Beijing on April 23rd 2012. H.134-144 Vigneron. Exploring the Influence of Product Conspicuousness and Social Compliance on Purchasing Motives of Young Chinese Consumers for Foreign Brands. Chunling. International Business Review. Interview conducted in Beijing on April 24th 2012. R. Institute of Sociology. Exploratory Data Analysis. 2008:7 pp. Chinese Academy of Social Science.worldbank. Journal of Consumer Behavior. Interviews Chen. 470-483 Zhu D. (2009). PhD Thesis.W (1977). 1999:1 Wang. Liu. 2009:18 pp. Li. (2004). A Review and Conceptual Framework of PrestigeSeeking Consumer Behaviour. Yvonne. (2010). P. (2011). del Mar Fuentes Fuentes. Veale. (2012). M. Bestseller Press World Bank.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Tukey. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Verdú Jover A. Xia. Consumption Patterns of the Chinese Middle Class: In the Case of Beijing. J. 37 . F. (1999). Do Consumer Expectation Match experience? Predicting the Influence of Price and Country of Origin on Perception of Quality. Assistant Professor of Marketing. H. Swedish Chamber of Commerce – Beijing office. Interview conducted in Beijing on April 25th 2012. Food Quality and Preference 2004:15 pp. & Wong.

000 RMB 300.0 % 26.7 % 18.8 % 7.6 % 13.6 % 32.) Government official Small business owner with <20 employees Self-employed Office worker Others Annual Income 60. Doctor.500.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Appendix Respondent overview Demographic Characteristics Gender Male Female Age 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-45 Level of Education 12-16 years (Bachelor) 16+ years (Higher than Bachelor) Current Occupation Business owner with >20 employees Manager Professional (Lawyer.8 % 0% Quantity (n=425) 231 194 58 136 111 103 17 353 72 20 77 125 50 32 22 98 1 255 154 16 0 38 .2 % 4.300.1 % 24.1 % 0.9 % 4.4 % 45. etc.000 .0 % 83.000 Valid Percentage 54.100.2 % 60.000 .000 .2 % 3.1 % 16.000 RMB 100.0 % 36.000 RMB >500.4 % 11. Teacher.2 % 23.5 % 5.1 % 29.

4 % (6) 4.6 % (41) 11.9 % (42) 19.7 % (3) 0. the following attributes are important 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Taste Health effects That the berry or fruit is wild grown Price Origin Brand Safety Organic Percentage of berry/fruit in the product Do you agree to the following statements regarding juice/jam consumption? 16 17 18 19 20 21 I consume juice/jam mainly for the health effects I consume juice/jam mainly to quench/satiate thirst/hunger I consume juice/jam mainly for the good taste High price equates high quality A discounted product is less valuable Large packages make a product feel less valuable/exclusive Do you agree that the following words give you a positive feeling? Imported Jam/juice Wild Berries Organic Natural Made in Sweden Strongly Disagree 1 0.9 % (4) 1.6 % (7) 2.9 % (4) 0.6 % (160) 9.1 % (60) 24.6 % (109) 19.3 % (167) 20. % (42) 33.2 % (1) 1.90 22 23 24 25 26 2 0.9 % (4) 1.5 % (2) 0.4 % (125) 34.4 % (27) 4.9 % (4) 0.9 % (242) 30.1 % (60) 7.3 % (31) 5 14.4 % (112) 6 29.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Response overview When defining quality of jam and juice.38 39 .9 % (195) 49.3 % (48) 3.7 % (3) 2.62 5.9 % (157) 36.2 % (103) 25.6 % (28) Strongly Agree 7 9.6 % (181) 37.6 % (11) 0.7 % (71) Strongly Agree 7 37.3 % (82) 27.2 % (5) 1.3 % (14) 7.5 % 3 2.7 % (3) 4 6.1 % (9) 1.8 % (131) 6 39.5 % (172) 54.1 % (115) 6.6 % (113) 34.4 % (210) 25.4 % (142) 40.06 6.8 % (33) Neutral 4 6.7 % (3) 0.6 % (11) 1.47 5.9 % (21) 6.5 % (2) 0.8 % 5 14.3 % (116) Avg 6.5 % (2) 0.6 % (28) 15.8 % (33) 2.50 5.9 % (4) 0.6 % (28) 33.9 % (38) 45.32 5.4 % (6) 7.7 % (88) 13.2 % (86) 9.1 % (13) 3.1 % (9) 0.9 % (8) 10.6 % (96) 12.7 % (156) 38.6 % (7) 0.2 % (5) 0.1 % (9) Strongly Disagree 1 1.8 % (33) 24.9 % (8) 2.0 % (34) 23.2 % (158) 8.6 % (11) 3.3 % (14) 5.7 % (3) 0.3 % 6 36.2 % (86) 6.8 % (148) 37.9.02 4.8 % (16) 2.6 % (126) 22.90 6.4 % (44) 11.9 % (25) 7.60 6.2 % (141) 30.5 % (2) 0.6 % (45) 1.9 % (4) 3 1.2 % (5) 0.5 % (202) 47.2 % (1) 0.6 % (232) 14.2 % (86) 42.9 % (72) 26.80 4.5 % (2) 0.8 % 5 28.8 % Avg 6.5 % (2) 0.9 % (21) 0.66 2 0.4 % (108) 27.3 % (48) 14.4 % (61) 56.7 % (3) 3 2.25 5.6 % (41) 31.6 % (7) 2.62 4.6 % (109) 47.25 5.4 % (129) 16.7 % (3) 1.9 % (106) 25.1 % (9) 1.1 % (200) Strongly Agree 7 46.9 % (106) Neutral 4 20.1 % (26) 6.2 % (56) 9.5 % (36) 8.75 5.52 4.7 % Neutral 2 0.7 % (3) Strongly Disagree 1 0.9 % (4) 0.1 % (162) 26.6 % (11) 3.4 % (57) 38.9 % (55) 16.5 % (219) 20.6 % (11) 3.7 % (3) 0.6 % (11) 1.05 6.99 5.1 % (196) 51.4 % (163) 10.7 % (3) 0.1 % (98) 24.5 % (83) 33.2 % (1) 0.9 % (123) 20.2 % (141) 8.9 % (161) 25.2 % (1) 2.7 % (3) 0.7 % (3) 0.1 % Avg 5.1% (26) 2.2 % (5) 0.2 % (5) 2.9 % (110) 29.23 5.

0 % (102) 24.4 % (95) 25.2 % (1) 0.1 % (162) 42.7 % (88) 6 40.2 % (1) 0.6 % (109) 32.2 % (103) 30.8 % (16) 5.4 % (6) 0.2 % (107) 23.6 % (147) 40.72 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 2 0.7 % (3) 0.6 % (164) Avg 6.7 % (3) 0.9 % (123) 36.1 % (166) 19.2 % (154) 32.8 % (135) 28.8 % (84) 53.0 % 0.52 4.5 % (2) Strongly Disagree 1 0.2 % (103) 19.2 % (137) 18.7 % (3) 0.4 % (10) 1.5 % (36) 10.2 % (137) 34.5 % (15) 2.5 % (2) 0.5 % (2) 0.8 % (84) 26. rather than in private I prefer to consume western food and beverages with friends rather than alone Design of the package is important when purchasing premium food and beverage I prefer to buy imported food and beverage with western design on packaging I prefer to buy imported food and beverage with original western brand name on packaging I look for unique products when purchasing premium food and beverages I like to try new food and beverages before my friends I purchase western-brand food and beverage products because they are prestigious Do you agree to the following statements regarding Sweden? Sweden is an advanced country Sweden is a clean country Sweden is a welfare country Sweden is an exotic country Sweden is a country with beautiful nature I believe Western food and beverage brands a trust worthier than domestic ones I believe Swedish food and beverage brands a trust worthier than other western ones Products made in Sweden stands for quality Products made in Sweden stands for reliability Products made in Sweden stands for credibility 2 0.5 % (36) 12.4 % (44) 20.0 % (0) 0.7 % (3) 0.08 5.43 4.8 % (182) 35.2 % (1) 3 3.49 4.52 5.9 % (89) 22.4 % (125) 8.74 40 .1 % (47) 10.9 % (4) 0.5 % (151) 37.4 % (23) 6.9 % (140) 25.9 % (106) 25.8 % (16) 10.5 % (66) 23.7 % (54) 24.77 3.2 % (158) 35.2 % (22) 4.3 % (150) 34.0 % (51) 17.6 % (75) 15.LIVAS & NORLANDER (3) Strongly Disagree 1 0.4 % (27) 4.98 5.2 % (103) 18.74 5.2 % (1) 0.5 % (2) 1.20 6.8 % (29) 0.5 % (32) 8.1 % (98) 31.6 % (24) 5.6 % (58) 11.2 % (226) Avg 5.4 % (40) 7.1 % (43) 14.2 % (107 Do you agree to the following statements regarding food consumption? 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 What I eat and drink defines my lifestyle My friends preferences in food and beverages effects what I eat and drink Consuming exclusive food and beverages give me social status Consuming western food and beverages give me social status I prefer to consume western food and beverages in public places.7 % (20) 0.5 % (2) 0.8 % (63) 11.2 % (22) 10.7 % (20) 3.8 % (29) 8.90 5.2 % (1) 0.5 % (168) 39.1 % (64) 9.1 % (47) 29.2 % (22) 4.5 % (2) 0.9 % (4) 0.6 % (45) 10.5 % (2) 0.9 % (8) 7.75 4.6 % (130) 39.2 % (22) 5.34 6.5 % (138) 24.2 % (5) 0.2 % (1) 0.5 % (2) 0.5 % (36) Neutral 4 6.1 % (111) 32.9 % (140) 24.2 % (192) 42.8 % (148) 32.17 4.5 % (32) 4.2 % (1) 0.9 % (4) 0.1 % (43) 12.4 % (95) 12.2 % (52) 8.9 % (4) 5 24.2 % (171) 38.5 % (36) 5.3 % (14) 10.5 % (2) 5 9.9 % (4) 1.8 % (135) 32.7 % (37) 6.8 % (152) 35.2 % (1) 0.0 % 0.0 % (17) 0.2 % (1) 0.70 5.4 % (27) 5.80 3.4 % (44) 5.8 % (46) 11.1 % (94) 5.90 5.7 % (173) 22.42 5.2 % (5) 1.2 % (1) 0.7 % (3) 0.0 % (68) Strongly Agree 7 45.5 % (2) 1.8 % (118) 31.8 % (118) 22.6 % (28) 3.1 % (60) 27.22 5.5 % (70) 10.20 6.6 % (45) 6.9 % (4) 0.7 % (3) 0.4 % (61) 27.5 % (2) 3.6 % (79) 14.1 % (47) UPPSALA UNIVERSITY (133) (145) (63) Strongly Agree 7 16.5 % (2) 0.5 % (2) (2) (12) (67) Neutral 4 14.0 % 0.2 % (226) 40.8 % (80) 19.6 % (7) 6.5 % (2) 3 0.8 % (182) 53.9 % (140) 20.5 % (151) 35.8 % (101) 6 38.1 % (81) 13.2 % (137) 32.2 % (22) 8.7 % (173) 32.9 % (4) 0.57 5.9 % (21) 15.7 % (3) 0.4 % (40) 16.

000 RMB 100.) Government official Small business owner with less than 20 employees Self-employed Office worker Worker Retired Student Unemployed Other: <40. The survey is anonymous. 4. 1.000 – 300. What is your current occupation? 6.000 – 100.000 RMB 5. What is your annual income? 41 .000 RMB 60.000 – 60. 3. We are conducting a survey investigating the branding possibilities of Swedish blueberries on the Chinese market. Teacher. Blueberry is a small blue colored berry that grows wild in Sweden. How old are you? <20 35-39 Male 20-24 40-45 Female Rural Area 25-29 >45 30-34 2. We currently are writing our final thesis about branding in China. Gender? Where do you currently live? What is your level of education? Urban Area 0-6 year (Elementary School) 6-9 year (Junior High School) 9-12 year (Senior High School) 12-16 year (Bachelor Degree) 16+ year (Higher than bachelor degree) Business owner with more than 20 employees Manager Professional (Lawyer.000 – 500. Please mark the most suitable answer.000 RMB >500. etc.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY English questionnaire Final Thesis Survey We are two students studying business administration at Uppsala University in Sweden. Doctor.000 RMB 40.000 RMB 300.

7= Strongly Agree) When defining quality of jam and juice. the following attributes are important 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Taste Health effects That the berry or fruit is wild grown Price Origin Brand Safety Organic Percentage of berry/fruit in the product Do you agree to the following statements regarding juice/jam consumption? 16 17 18 19 20 21 I consume juice/jam mainly for the health effects I consume juice/jam mainly to quench/satiate thirst/hunger I consume juice/jam mainly for the good taste High price equates high quality A discounted product is less valuable Large packages make a product feel less valuable/exclusive Do you agree that the following words give you a positive feeling? 22 23 24 25 26 Imported Jam/juice Wild Berries Organic Natural Made in Sweden Do you agree to the following statements regarding food consumption? 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 What I eat and drink defines my lifestyle My friends preferences in food and beverages effects what I eat and drink Consuming exclusive food and beverages give me social status Consuming western food and beverages give me social status I prefer to consume western food and beverages in public places.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY For the further questions please circle the answer that indicates your level of agreement with the statement (1= Strongly Disagree. 4=Neutral. rather than in private I prefer to consume western food and beverages with friends rather than alone Design of the package is important when purchasing premium food and beverage Strongly Disagree Neutral Strongly Agree 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Neutral 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 Neutral 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 Neutral 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 42 .

LIVAS & NORLANDER 34 35 36 37 38 I prefer to buy imported food and beverage with western design on packaging I prefer to buy imported food and beverage with original western brand name on packaging I look for unique products when purchasing premium food and beverages I like to try new food and beverages before my friends I purchase western-brand food and beverage products because they are prestigious Do you agree to the following statements regarding Sweden? 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Sweden is an advanced country Sweden is a clean country Sweden is a welfare country Sweden is an exotic country Sweden is a country with beautiful nature I believe Western food and beverage brands a trust worthier than domestic ones I believe Swedish food and beverage brands a trust worthier than other western ones Products made in Sweden stands for quality Products made in Sweden stands for reliability Products made in Sweden stands for credibility UPPSALA UNIVERSITY 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 Neutral 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Thank you for your participation! 43 .

7= 非常认同) 当您判断果酱和果汁的质量时,以下的条件是重要的 7 味道 非常不 认同 一般 非常 认同 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 44 .000 – 60.000 – 500.000 – 300. 4. 4=一般.000 人民币 为了进一步调查,请圈出那个能表达你对此陈述同意程度的答案 (1= 非常不认同.000 人民币 40. <20 男 城市 20-24 女 农村 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-45 >45 0-6 年(小学) 6-9 年 (初中) 9-12 年 (高中) 12-16 年 (本科/大专) 16+ 年 (本科以上) 经营企业并有超过20名员工 专业人士,如:律师,医生,教师等 小型企业少于20名员工 办公室/白领 退休人员 无业人员 经理 公务员 个体经营 工人 学生 其他: 100. 您的年收入是? <40. 3. 您现在的职位? 6.000 人民币 60.000 – 100.LIVAS & NORLANDER UPPSALA UNIVERSITY Chinese questionnaire 毕业论文调查 我们是瑞典乌普萨拉大学经营管理学部的两名学生。我们正在准备关于中国市场品牌经营的毕业 论文。这是我们做的一份问卷用于调查瑞典蓝莓在中国市场实现品牌经营的可能性。这里的蓝莓 指的是瑞典纯野生的体积较小的蓝色浆果。 这是份匿名问卷调查,请选择最合适的选项: 您的年龄是? 性别? 您现在在哪里生活? 您所接受的教育水平? 1.000 人民币 300. 2.000 人民币 >500.000 人民币 5.

LIVAS & NORLANDER 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 健康影响 那些浆果或水果是否天然野生的 价格 产地 品牌/牌子 安全性 有机的 产品中浆果/水果含量 你是否同意以下这些关于果汁/果酱消费的陈述? 16 17 18 19 20 21 我购买果汁/果酱是出于其健康效应 我购买果汁/果酱主要是因为满足饥渴/饿 我购买果汁/果酱主要因为其很好的味道 高价位等于好品质 打折的产品说明其价值较低 大型包装会让产品显得廉价/不高级 你是否同意以下这些字眼给你一种积极的感觉? 22 23 24 25 26 进口果酱/果汁 野生浆果 有机的 纯天然的 瑞典制造 你是否同意以下关于食品消费的陈述? 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 饮食能够体现我的生活方式 朋友的喜好影响我对食物和饮料的选择 购买高级的食物和饮料能够体现社会地位 购买西方的食物和饮料能够体现社会地位 跟私下消费相比,我更希望在公共场合消费西方引进食物和饮料 跟个人消费相比,我更希望跟朋友一起消费西方引进食物和饮料 在购买高级食物和饮料时,包装的设计非常重要 在购买进口食物和饮料时,我喜欢包装是西方设计感 在购买进口食物和饮料时,我喜欢包装上有商品原始的西方产品名 在购买高级食物喝饮料时,我看重产品的独特性 我喜欢先于朋友去尝试新的食物和饮品 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 UPPSALA UNIVERSITY 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 一般 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 非常 认同 非常不 认同 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 一般 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 非常 认同 非常不 认同 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 一般 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 非常 认同 非常不 认同 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 45 .

LIVAS & NORLANDER 38 我购买西方品牌食物和饮料是因为它们有好的声誉 你是否同意下列对于瑞典的描述 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 瑞典是一个发达国家 瑞典是一个干净的国家 瑞典是一个高福利的国家 瑞典是一个异国风情的国家 瑞典是一个有着很美的自然风光的国家 我认为西方食物和饮料品牌比国内的更值得信任 我认为瑞典食物和饮料品牌比其他西方国家更值得信任 瑞典制造代表着质量 瑞典制造代表着可靠性 瑞典制造代表着信赖 1 2 UPPSALA UNIVERSITY 3 4 一般 5 6 7 非常 认同 非常不 认同 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 谢谢您的参与! 46 .

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