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list the resources required to install a NIC. distinguish between the processes used to convert between decimal, binary, and hexadecimal numbering systems. identify the main purposes and functions of networking. identify the purpose of major computer components, and calculate conversions between binary, decimal, and hexadecimal numerical systems. distinguish between the OSI reference model and the TCP/IP stack. distinguish between basic computer and networking terms, and between the principles of the OSI reference model and the TCP/IP protocol stack. Ref: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/computer.html Computer:
A programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a computer are: o It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner. o It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program). Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery -- wires, transistors, and circuits -- is called hardware; the instructions and data are called software. All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components: o o o o o Memory : Enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data and programs. Mass storage device : Allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data. Common mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives. Input device : Usually a keyboard and mouse, the input device is the conduit through which data and instructions enter a computer. Output device : A display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the computer has accomplished. Central processing unit (CPU): The heart of the computer, this is the component that actually executes instructions.
In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic components to work together efficiently. For example, every computer requires a bus that transmits data from one part of the computer to another. Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows, though there is considerable overlap: o o o o o Personal computer : A small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data. Workstation : A powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor. Minicomputer : A multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds of users simultaneously. Mainframe : A powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously. Supercomputer : An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second.
Memory: Internal storage areas in the computer. The term memory identifies data storage that comes in the form of chips, and the word storage is used for memory that exists on tapes or disks. Moreover, the term memory is usually used as a shorthand for physical memory, which
3 refers to the actual chips capable of holding data. Some computers also use virtual memory, which expands physical memory onto a hard disk. Every computer comes with a certain amount of physical memory, usually referred to as main memory or RAM. You can think of main memory as an array of boxes, each of which can hold a single byte of information. A computer that has 1 megabyte of memory, therefore, can hold about 1 million bytes (or characters) of information. There are several different types of memory: o RAM (random-access memory): This is the same as main memory. When used by itself, the term RAM refers to read and write memory; that is, you can both write data into RAM and read data from RAM. This is in contrast to ROM, which permits you only to read data. Most RAM is volatile, which means that it requires a steady flow of electricity to maintain its contents. As soon as the power is turned off, whatever data was in RAM is lost. ROM (read-only memory): Computers almost always contain a small amount of read-only memory that holds instructions for starting up the computer. Unlike RAM, ROM cannot be written to. PROM (programmable read-only memory): A PROM is a memory chip on which you can store a program. But once the PROM has been used, you cannot wipe it clean and use it to store something else. Like ROMs, PROMs are nonvolatile. EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory): An EPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory): An EEPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge.
Mass Storage: Refers to various techniques and devices for storing large amounts of data. The earliest storage devices were punched paper cards, which were used as early as 1804 to control silk-weaving looms. Modern mass storage devices include all types of disk drives and tape drives. Mass storage is distinct from memory, which refers to temporary storage areas within the computer. Unlike main memory, mass storage devices retain data even when the computer is turned off. The main types of mass storage are: o o Floppy disks : Relatively slow and have a small capacity, but they are portable, inexpensive, and universal. Hard disks : Very fast and with more capacity than floppy disks, but also more expensive. Some hard disk systems are portable (removable cartridges), but most are not.
4 o Optical disks : Unlike floppy and hard disks, which use electromagnetism to encode data, optical disk systems use a laser to read and write data. Optical disks have very large storage capacity, but they are not as fast as hard disks. In addition, the inexpensive optical disk drives are read-only. Read/write varieties are expensive. Tapes: Relatively inexpensive and can have very large storage capacities, but they do not permit random access of data.
Mass storage is measured in kilobytes (1,024 bytes), megabytes (1,024 kilobytes), gigabytes (1,024 megabytes) and terabytes (1,024 gigabytes). Mass storage is sometimes called auxiliary storage. Input Device: Any machine that feeds data into a computer. For example, a keyboard is an input device, whereas a display monitor is an output device. Input devices other than the keyboard are sometimes called alternate input devices. Mice, trackballs, and light pens are all alternate input devices. Output Device: Any machine capable of representing information from a computer. This includes display screens, printers, plotters, and synthesizers. Central Processing Unit: Abbreviation of central processing unit, and pronounced as separate letters. The CPU is the brains of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the processor or central processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system. On large machines, CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards. On personal computers and small workstations, the CPU is housed in a single chip called a microprocessor. Two typical components of a CPU are:
The arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations. The control unit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary.
U-NET Reference: Major Hardware Elements of a computer system: Major hardware elements of computers that allow network connectivity include the CPU, the bus, drives, memory components, ports and cards.
the bus. The system . o Video card: A board that plugs into a PC to give its display capabilities. The expansion card is a printed circuit board that provides the added capabilities to the computer. used for connecting external devices. It is the term that encompasses the chassis. o Serial port: An interface that can be used for serial communication in which only one bit is transmitted at a time. such as printers. and the ports. that allows two devices to be connected together. The important components on the motherboard are o The power supply is the component that supplies power to the computer. the main memory. o The system unit is the main part of a PC. Drives: There are different types of drives – the CD-ROM drive. Expansion Slots: These are the openings in computer into which you can insert a circuit board to add new capabilities to the computer. the microprocessor. BUS: A bus is a collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another. CPU: The CPU is the “brain” of the computer where most of the calculations take place. Motherboard: The Motherboard is the main circuit board of a computer. o Sound card: An expansion board that handles sound functions. o Parallel Port: An interface capable of transferring more than one bit simultaneously. o Network card: An expansion board inserted into a computer to enable connection to a network. and the hard disk drive.5 Backplane components: o Power cord: cord connecting an electric device to an electrical outlet to provide power to the device o Mouse Port: Port that is designed for connecting a mouse to a PC. o CD-ROM drive: A compact disc read only memory drive that can read information from a CD-ROM. the floppy disk drive. The microprocessor is a silicon chip contained within a CPU. such as modern connector. o Floppy disk drive: Disk drive that can read and write to floppy disks. o Interface: A piece of hardware. o Hard disk drive: Device that reads and writes data on a hard drive. The bus connects all the internal computer components to the CPU. The Industry-Standard Architecture (ISA) and the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) are two types of buses.
o In a laptop. o RAM – Random Access Memory has new data written into it as well as stored data read from it. An IRQ is sent over a bus line to the microprocessor. There are few differences between the two. o Also called a LAN adapter. but laptops have the advantage of being portable. These smaller components can be difficult to remove. all data stored in RAM is lost unless the data previously saved to disk. which makes it more convenient to work from home and while traveling between offices. and the CPU must move the character from the keyboard to RAM. or any other external devices connected to the computer. the expansion slots become Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) card slots. it requires an interrupt request line (IRQ). o The main difference between PCs and laptops is that laptop components are smaller than those found in a PC. or PC slots. o PCB – Printed Circuit Board is a thin plate on which chips (integrated circuits) and other electronic components are placed. o An IRQ is a signal that informs a CPU that an event needing its attention has occurred. and with the computer through a parallel connection. Laptop Vs PC: Laptop computers and notebook computers have become very popular. . The NIC constitutes the computer with the local areas network (LAN). o ROM – Read Only Memory is the computer memory on which data has been prerecorded. If the computer is turned off or loses power. an input/output (I/O) address. and other useful devices (usually the size of a thick credit card) are connected. and drivers in order to perform its function. o An example of an interrupt request being issued is when a key is pressed on a keyboard. It is also known as read-write memory. modems. a memory space for the operating system (such as DOS or Windows). the NIC plugs into a motherboard and provides port for connecting to the network. o The NIC communicates with the network through a serial connection.6 unit does not contain the keyboard. Application sharing through networks: Network Interface card: o A network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. o PCs are more powerful than laptops. o When a NIC is installed in a computer. they are designed to fit together into a smaller physical space. through which NIC. hard drives. A drawback of RAM is that it requires electrical power to maintain data storage. the monitor. o An I/O address is a location in memory used by an auxiliary device to enter or retrieve data from a computer. and they use less power when operated.
o You must know how to resolve hardware resource conflicts. I/O base address.7 When selecting a NIC card for a network. or the amount of data being sent over a network. One byte represents a single addressable storage location. . Understanding Binary Basics: At the most basic level. To install a NIC. or symbol. letter. and direct memory access (DMA). Byte (B): A byte is a unit of measure used to describe the size of a data file. the latter are being phased out. “plug-andplay” software. These 0s and 1s represent the two possible states of an electrical impulse and referred to as binary digits (bits). computers depend on these electronic switches to make decisions. including jumpers. one should consider that because PCI slots are faster than ISA slots. and erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM). BIT (b): A bit is the smallest unit of data in a computer. A bit equals 1 or 0 in the binary format in which data is processed by computers. one should know about these issues: o One must know how the network card is configured. A series of eight bits is referred to as a byte. o One must know the network card diagnostics. one should consider the following: o Type of network: You must choose a NIC to suit the type of network you have. represented by 0s and 1s. which is used to transfer data from RAM to a device without going through the CPU. computers perform their computations by using 1s and 0s instead of the decimal system. Computers react only to electrical impulses. the amount of space on a disk or other storage medium. Bits per second (bps) is a standard unit of measurement for data transmission. Ethernet NICs are designed for Ethernet LANs. At the lowest levels of computation. understood by the computer as either “on” or “off” states (1s or 0s). o Type of media: The type of port or connector used by the NIC for network connection is specific to the type of media. including IRQ. including the vendor supplied diagnostics and loopback tests (see the documentation that comes with the card). Computers are made up of electronic switches. Most computer coding schemes use eight bits to represent a number. bytes and measurement terms: Computers can understand and process only data that in a binary format. o Type of Expansion Slot: With regard to the type of expansion slot to use. such as twisted-pair. Bits.
o GHz: A gigahertz (GHz) represents one billion cycles per second.048. Today they are measured in GHz. Kilobits per second (Kbps) is a standard unit of measurement of the data transmission rate over a network connection. . Speed Measurement terms commonly used for microprocessors: o Hz: A hertz (hz) is a unit of frequency. This is a common unit of measurement of the speed of a processing chip. The microprocessors used on PCs in the 1980z typically ran 10MHz (the original IBM PC was 4. PC processors are getting faster all the time. o MHz: A megahertz (MHz) represents one million cycles per second. meaning that with a 45-Kbps.77 MHz).576 bytes exactly) = 8 million bits = 1 Megabyte (MBps) Gigabit (Gb): 1 billion bits = 1 Gigabit (Gbps) Gigabyte (GB): 1 billion bytes = 8 billion bits = 1Gigabyte (GBps) Footnote: it is a common error to confuse KB with Kb and MB with Mb. It represents one cycle per second and is used to describe the speed of a computer microprocessor. modern software usually shows the connection speed in kilobits per second (for example 45Kbps). You should remember to do the proper calculations when comparing transmission speeds that are measured in KBps and those measured with Kbps. Bytes per second (BPS) is a standard unit of measurement of the data transmission rate over a network connection. For example. such as a computer microprocessor. 1byte = 8 bits. 1Kilobit = 1000 bits Kilobyte (KB): 1000 bytes = 8000 bits =1Kilobyte [KBps] Megabit (Mb): 1 million bits = 1 Megabit (Mbps) Megabyte (MB): 1million bytes (1. popular browsers display file-download speeds in kilobytes per second. such as a computer microprocessor. Understanding Binary Basics: Converting a decimal number to a binary number is one of the most common procedures performed in computer operations. or other cyclical waveform. alternating current. This is a common unit of measurement of the speed of a processing chip. However. It is the rate of change in the state or cycle in a sound wave.8 One byte equals eight bits of data. Kilobit (Kb): A kilobit is approximately 1000 bits (1024 bits exactly).
call this digit the currentDigit. 7. numbering system. The binary numbering system uses only two symbols (0 and 1) instead of the ten symbols used in the decimal numbering system. Make a variable. 6. 5. Set the current Digit to the previous digit of the hex number. 1*(2^0) . Multiply the current digit with (2^power). Increment power by 1. 2. which is 1. Repeat step 3 until all digits have been multiplied. 3. let's call it power. Sum the result of step 3 to get the answer number. Set the value to 0. Get the last digit of the hex number. Example: Convert 100 to binary 2 100 2 2 2 2 2 50 25 12 6 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 The binary number for 100 is 1100100 Reference from Google: Converting Binary to Decimal Steps: 1. Example Convert BINARY 11101 to DECIMAL NOTES MULTIPLICATION RESULT 1 start from the last digit. 4. store the result.9 Conversion between decimal and binary: Computers recognize and process data using the binary or base 2.
If you don't remember what a particular power-of-2 value. note that the power of 0 of any number is always 1 11101 (current digit is in bold) process the previous digit. and you might count wrongly.10 multiply that digit with 2^0. then just double the value of 2*2 (which you already have . which is 1. note that 2^4 means 2*2*2*2 11101 (current digit is in bold) here. multiply that digit with the increasing power of 2 11101 (current digit is in bold) process the previous digit. . note that 2^3 means 2*2*2 11101 (current digit is in bold) process the previous digit. we stop because there's no more digit to process this number comes from the sum of the RESULTS ANSWER 29 1*(2^4) 16 1*(2^3) 8 1*(2^2) 4 0*(2^1) 0 Basically. which is 0. For instance.if you had started backward). which is 1. which is 1. this is the same as saying: 1*(2^4) + 1*(2^3) + 1*(2^2) + 0*(2^1) + 1*(2^0) or 1*(16) + 1*(8) + 1*(4) + 0*(2) + 1*(1) The reason it's easier to start backward is because: • • Counting the number of digits takes extra time. it's easy to calculate it from the previous value. if you don't remember what the value of 2*2*2 is. note that 2^2 means 2*2 11101 (current digit is in bold) process the previous digit.
00000011.11 Another Example Convert BINARY 1010 to DECIMAL MULTIPLICATION 0*(2^0) 1*(2^1) 0*(2^2) 1*(2^3) ANSWER RESULT 0 2 0 8 10 Is constructing a table like above required? No. the numbers are represented in bits and bytes. 16. Some people are visual. just remember that the value of the multiplier is always the double of the previous one. and the table might help.. This is numbering system using base 2. . it just depends on your preference. 256. 2. 128. People commonly use a decimal or Base 10 numbering system. 8. What this means is that in Base 10. POWER OF 2s 2^0 2^1 = 2 2^2 = 2*2 2^3 = 2*2*2 2^4 = 2*2*2*2 RESULT 1 2 4 8 16 Example Convert BINARY 1010001 to DECIMAL. 1. it's also easy. For example. 32. count from 0 to 9 before adding another digit. Again. the number three is represented by a byte with bits 0 & 1 set.. Inside the computer. If you want to be a speed counter. . 4. 64. I'm starting backward here: (1*1) + (0*2) + (0*4) + (0*8) + (1*16) + (0*32) + (1*64) = 1 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 16 + 0 + 64 = 81 BINARY Computers work on the principle of number manipulation. Without a table. 512. The number 22 in Base 10 means we have 2 sets of 10's and 2 sets of 1's.
respectively. numbers representing 1 are counted. 16 + 4 + 2 = 22 because 1 represents ON Decimal Values and Binary Equivalents chart: DECIMAL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 16 32 64 100 256 512 1000 1024 HEXADECIMAL The other major numbering system used by computers is hexadecimal. In this system. You cannot have a number represented as 22 in binary notation. or Base 16. 32. either a 0 = OFF or a 1 = ON. 128. The below chart indicates the values of the hexadecimal position compared to 16 raised to a BINARY 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 1010 10000 100000 1000000 1100100 100000000 1000000000 1111110100 10000000000 7 6 5 4 32 10 1 1 1 1 11 11 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 . the numbers are counted from 0 to 9. The letter A through F represents decimal numbers 10 through 15. 1 because 0 represents OFF However. then letters A to F before adding another digit. The decimal number 22 is represented in binary as 00010110 which by following the below chart breaks down to: Bit Position Decimal 22 or 00010110: All numbers representing 0 are not counted. 8.12 Base 2 is also known as binary since there can only be two values for a specific digit. 64.
13 power and decimal values. To convert a value from hexadecimal to binary. Using the Binary chart and the below chart for Hex: 0011 1111 0111 1010 DECIMAL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 HEXADECIMAL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F BINARY 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 From U learning Hexadecimal: The base 16. It is much easier to work with large numbers using hexadecimal values than decimal. For example. The computer performs computations in binary. numbering system is used frequently when working with computers because it can be used to represent binary numbers in a more readable form. the hexadecimal number: 0x3F7A Translates into. but there are instances when the binary output of a computer is expressed in hexadecimal format to make it easier to read. you merely translate each hexadecimal digit into its 4-bit binary equivalent. Conversion between binary and hexadecimal: . or hexadecimal (hex). Hexadecimal numbers have either and 0x prefix or an h suffix.
the third position represents 16^2 (or 256). Combinations of these symbols can represent all possible numbers. The “A” represents the decimal 10. 1. Because there are only 10 symbols that represent digits (0. you know that the number that follows is a hexadecimal number. E. 9) and base 16 requires six more symbols. 8. and so on. the extra symbols are the letters A. The most commonly way for computers and software to express hexadecimal output is using “0x” in front of the hexadecimal number. “D” represents the decimal 13. 0x1234 means 1234 in base 16. C. 4. For example. 6. is a common task when dealing with the 16-bit configuration register in Cisco routers. “E” represents the decimal 14. Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 32 64 128 255 Binary 00000000 00000001 00000010 00000011 00000100 00000101 00000110 00000111 00001000 00001001 00001010 00001011 00001100 00001101 00001110 00001111 00010000 00100000 01000000 10000000 11111111 Hex 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 10 20 40 80 FF The position of each symbol (digit) in a hex number represents the base number 16 raised to a power (exponent) based on its position. That 16-bit binary number can be represented as a four digit hexadecimal number. “C” represents the decimal 12. For example. 7. whenever you see “0x”. the second position represents 16^1 (or 16). B.14 Converting a hexadecimal number to binary and vice versa. 0010000100000010 in binary is equal to 2102 in hex. 3. . “B” represents the decimal 11. It is referred to base 16 because it uses 16 symbols. Thus. Moving from right to left. 2. and “F” represents the decimal 15. the first position represents 16^0 (or 1). 5. F. D.
First you start from the right of the binary number and break the number into groups of four. they become 5 and B. For example. you convert every hex digit into four binary digits (bits). and then convert hex C. which is 1100 binary. NOTE: Make sure you include four binary digits for each hexadecimal character. you can break it into two groups of four bits: 0101 and 1011. When converting these two groups to hex. these addresses are 48 bits. so the hexadecimal equivalent of the binary 01011011 is 5B.15 Network layer 2 MAC addresses are typically written in hex. Because these addresses consist of six distinct octets. therefore the number becomes – 0001 0010 0100 0101 1111 0111 1101 1100 1001 And the Hex number is 1245F7DC9 You can also convert hexadecimal numbers to binary format. No matter how large the binary number. The figure compares the binary and hexadecimal numbering systems. If there is a binary number that looks like 01011011. to convert hex AC (0xAC) to binary. For Ethernet and Token ring topologies. you can write them as 12 hex numbers. Basic Networking Terminology . 100100100010111110111110111001001 can be split as follows: 1 0010 0100 0101 1111 0111 1101 1100 1001 As per the rule add three zero to the left. 10101010 Octet 11110000 Bit 11000001 11100010 01110111 01010001 Converting binary to hex is easy because base 16 (hexadecimal) is a power of base 2 (binary). Every four digits (bits) are equal to one hexadecimal digit. you first convert hex A. you always apply the same conversion. So the conversion of hex AC is 10101100 binary. If the far left group does not contain four digits. To convert from hexadecimal to binary. It identifies the main purposes and functions of networking. which is 1010 binary. Using a PC on a Network This article discusses basic networking technologies and common network applications. adding zeros to the left of the number when necessary. add zero to the left and until there are four digits (bits) in every group. or six octets (one octet is eight bits).
It delivers intelligent network services for enabling the rapid deployment of Internet applications. Windows Server 2003. has its own jargon. The term "protocol suite" describes a set of several protocols that perform different functions related to different aspects of the communication process. or just the network interface. a floor. The functionality of Cisco IOS software is the result of a technological evolution. First-generation networking devices could only store and forward data packets. The following are three categories of networks: o A local-area network (LAN) is a network that is confined to a limited geographic area. This area can be a room. which includes technical terms. Common network media include twisted-pair. or even an entire campus. Cisco IOS software runs on most Cisco routers and Cisco switches. is the industryleading and most widely deployed network system software. Windows 2000 Server. support voice and video applications. or PCMCIA (PC card) slot in a computer and connects to the network medium. This card typically goes into an ISA. or divide a large network into smaller ones. and routers. hubs. switches. classify. it will be difficult to understand the concepts and processes involved in networking. phrases. like most industries. These network devices carry most of the Internet traffic today. In the case of a network protocol. all of which are used to connect cable segments. Without a good grasp of the terminology. o Connectivity devices refer to several different device types. and even the earth's atmosphere through which wireless transmission occurs. coaxial. pronounced "nick. connect two or smaller networks (or subnets) into a larger network. optimize routing. bridges. Cisco IOS software can recognize. The following list of terms and their definitions is intended to be a quick reference that defines some of the most important words. The term encompasses repeaters. Novell NetWare. and Linux. o Media refers to the various physical environments through which transmission signals pass. it is a set of rules by which computers communicate. from basic connectivity. and acronyms. o A protocol is a set of rules. o Network operating system (NOS) usually refers to server software such as Windows NT. and prioritize network traffic. and fiber-optic cable. o Cisco IOS software which runs on Cisco equipment and devices. Cisco IOS software provides a wide range of functionality. PCI." is also called the LAN adapter. and much more. abbreviations. a building. It then connects to other computers through the network media.16 Computer networking. . and acronyms related to computer networking: o A network interface card (NIC). and network management to technically advanced services. The term sometimes refers to the networking components of a client operating system such as Windows 95 or the Macintosh OS. Today. security. UNIX.
For instance. This is a network that covers approximately the area of a large city or metropolitan area." in which each computer connects to a central hub. It spans wide geographic areas by using WAN links such as telephone lines or satellite technology to connect computers in different cities. The logical topology may or may not correspond to the physical topology. and includes the topologies in this table." o The physical topology refers to the layout or physical shape of the network. a network can be a physical "star. . o A wide-area network (WAN) is made up of interconnected LANs. forming a circle Star If the systems "meet in the middle" by connecting to a central hub Mesh When multiple redundant connections make pathways to some or all of the endpoints Network Applications Network applications are software programs that run between different computers connected together on a network.17 o A metropolitan-area network (MAN) is a network that is larger in size than a LAN and smaller in size than a WAN. or even different continents. Network structure is described in the following two ways: o The logical topology is the path that the signals take from one computer to another. Table1: Topologies Bus Computers arranged so that cabling goes from one to another in a linear fashion Ring When there are no clear beginning points or endpoints within a topology. but inside the hub the data can travel in a circle. countries. making it a logical "ring.
18 Network applications Network applications are software programs that run between different computers connected together on a network. Network applications are selected based on the type of work that needs to be done. o Telnet is a remote access application and protocol for connecting to remote computer consoles. which also provides for basic user authentication. which also provides for basic user authentication. It provides a message storage container that holds incoming e-mail until users log on and download their messages. . Some examples include: o HTTP is the World-Wide-Web communications protocol used to connect to web servers. Each application program type is associated with its own application protocol. o Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is used by network management programs for monitoring the network device status and activities. POP3 is a standard e-mail server commonly used on the Internet. A complete set of application-layer programs is available to interface with the Internet. Its primary function is to establish a connection with a web server and transmit HTML pages to the client browser. Telnet is not a graphical user interface but is command-line driven or character mode only. or using an e-mail program to send emails over the Internet. o Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) is an application-layer protocol supported by e-mail programs for the retrieval of electronic mail. o File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a simple file utility program for transferring files between remote computers. Some of the more common uses of network applications include using a web browser program to find content from the World Wide Web.
(such as Eudora.19 It is important to emphasize that the application layer is just another protocol layer in the OSI model or TCP/IP protocol stack. place. The appearance of these two web browser programs is very different. and delivering the e-mail from that post office to the user's e-mail client computer. and Netscape Mail) all work with the POP3 protocol. Electronic mail enables you to send messages between connected computers. Microsoft Mail. but they both work with the application layer HTTP protocol. which is the recipient. or type of computer system. Pegasus. The programs interface with application layer protocols. which is a computer running the POP3 server software. The procedure for sending an e-mail document involves two separate processes – sending the email to the user's post office. so that people have easy access to information regardless of differences in time. Computer Networks One of the primary purposes of a network is to increase productivity by linking computers and computer networks. . The same principle is true with web browsers. Sending e-mail E-mail client applications. The two most popular web browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Communicator.
Their network access needs are based on where they are located. . A main office can have hundreds or even thousands of people who depend on network access to do their jobs. it is common to see a high-speed backbone in a LAN as well as a data center with high-performance computers or servers and networked applications.20 Components of a network Because companies have adopted networks as part of their business strategy. Because everyone needs access to central resources and information. o A home office is where individuals are set up to work from their own home. Although some corporate information may be stored at a branch office. To connect to the main office. or on the road. o Individuals who are mobile users connect to the main office LAN when they are at the main office. the network is defined based on the grouping of employees (users) into a main office and various remote access locations. A variety of remote access locations connect to the main office or each other using WAN services as follows: o In branch offices. but have to access information directly from the main office. It may have several LANs. at the branch office. these users must use WAN services such as Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). A main office is a site where everyone is connected via a LAN and where the bulk of corporate information is located. or it may be a campus that contains several buildings. Home office workers most likely require on-demand connections to the main office or a branch office to access information or use network resources such as file servers. smaller groups of people work and connect to each other via a LAN. such as printers. In the figure. it is more likely that branch offices have local network resources. they typically subdivide and map corporate networks to the corporate business structure.
the business needs may require LAN connectivity within the campus to interconnect the servers and end-user PCs. and SNMP is used by applications that monitor the operation of the network. Telnet is used by applications that remotely access other machines. Summary When working with computer applications. The physical topology of a network is the physical structure of a network. and a WAN. . The WAN connection to the remote branch office requires a permanent connection. it is important that you are familiar with networking terminology. The figure shows how to map an organization's business or user requirements to a network. FTP is used by applications that transfer files. Computer networks In this example.21 In order to understand what types of equipment and services to deploy in a network and when to deploy them. HTTP is used by applications that access the Internet. it is important to understand the business and user needs. There are three categories of networks – a LAN. Network applications are software programs that run between different computers connected on a network. such as ISDN. The logical topology of a network is the path that signals follow through the network. Each application type has associated protocols depending on the function of the application. a MAN. and the home office connection requires a dial-up connection. and WAN connectivity to connect the campus to the remote branch office and telecommuters. POP3 is used by applications that access email services. such as a leased line.
Functions of networking: OSI model layers and functions Origins of the OSI reference model: The early development of LANs. As a result of this research.22 Applications interface with protocols in the application layer of the OSI model or TCP/IP stack. Although other models exist. Because networks are incorporated into the business strategy of a company. As companies realized that they could save money and gain productivity by using networking technology. and operate with other networks. the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) researched different network schemes. they added networks and expanded existing network as rapidly as new network technologies and products were introduced. those systems which are privately developed. and controlled. the ISO created a model that would help vendors create network that would be compatible with. a network will be subdivided to facilitate the branch. In the computer industry. To address the problem of networks being incompatible and unable to communicate with each other. most network vendors today relate their products to the OSI reference mode. . It is considered the best tool available for teaching people about sending and receiving data on a network. a company's network will usually replicate its business structure. home. proprietary is the opposite of open. The early 1980s saw tremendous increases in the number and size of networks. and main office of the company as well as its mobile users. By creating a computer network. released in 1984. It became more difficult for networks using different specifications and implementations to communicate with each other. It provided vendors with a set of standards that ensured greater compatibility and interoperability between the various types od network technologies produced by companies around the world. or type of computer system. MANs. you enable access between computers regardless of time. o Open means that free usage of the technology is available to the public. The companies realized that they needed to move away from proprietary networking systems. Typically. was the descriptive scheme that the ISO had created. By the middle of the 1980s. place. owned. and WANs was chaotic in many ways. The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model. A standard or technology may be – o Proprietary means that one company or a small group of companies control(s) all usage of the technology. especially when they want to educate customers on the use of their products. companies began to experience difficulties from all the expansions they had made.
even if the sender and receiver are connected using different network media. In addition. 2. to an application program located in another computer. This separation of networking functions is called layering. 7. 1. 2. 5. the OSI reference model describes how data travels from application programs (for example. Each of the seven techniques is represented by its own layer in the model.) through a network medium. o Ensures interoperable technology: Layering prevents changes in one layer from affecting the other layers. . 6. 4. More importantly.23 The OSI reference model has seven numbered layers. 3. 6. The seven layers are as follows: 1. allowing for quicker development. each illustrating a particular network function. 5. the OSI reference model facilitates an understanding of how information travels throughout a network. 3. and ensuring interoperable technology. spreadsheets. Physical Layer Data0link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer The OSI reference model defines the network functions that occur at each layer. Physical Layer Data0link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer Dividing the network into seven layers provides the following advantages: o Accelerates evolution: Layering accelerates evolution by providing for effective updates and improvements to individual components without affecting other components or having to rewrite the entire protocol. OSI layers and functions: The practice of moving information between computers is divided into seven techniques in the OSI reference model. 7. 4.
thereby facilitating modular engineering. one using extended binary coded decimal interchange code (EBCDIC) and the other using ASCII to represent the same characters. but rather. a PC program communicates with another computer. Session Layer: The session layer establishes. For example. The application layer establishes the availability of intended communication partners and synchronizes and establishes agreement on procedures for error recovery and control of data integrity. o Simplifies teaching and learning: Layering breaks network communication into smaller components to make learning easier. This layer provides network services to the user’s applications. It differs from the other layers in that it does not provide services to any other OSI layer. The functions are as follows – Application Layer: The application layer is the OSI layer that is closest to the user. Presentation Layer: The presentation layer ensures that the information that the application layer of one system sends out is readable by an application layer of another system. the presentation layer translates between multiple data formats by using a common format. . If necessary. It is important to keep track of which user communicates on which path.24 o Facilitates modular engineering: Layering allows different types of network hardware and software to communicate with each other. manages and terminates sessions between two communicating hosts. so there are many communication processes open at a given time. thereby simplifying teaching. simpler parts and reduces complexity. The session layer also synchronizes dialogue between the presentation layers of the two hosts and manages their data exchange. o Standardizes interfaces: Layering standardizes network component interfaces to allow multiple-vendor development and support. It provides its services to the presentation layer. Each OSI layer contains a set of functions performed by programs to enable data packets to travel from a source to a destination on a network. web servers have many users. For example. o Reduces complexity: Layering breaks network communication into smaller. only to applications outside the OSI model.
business users in large corporations often transfer large files from field locations to a corporate site. Network Layer: The network layer provides connectivity and path selection between two host systems that may be located on geographically separated network. physical data rates. For example. In summary these are the functions of the layers in the OSI model: . maintaining. and other similar attributes are defined by physical layer specifications. maintains. presentation. and session layers are concerned with application issues. and it is the network layer that manages this connectivity. and properly terminates virtual circuits. and functional specifications for activating. and application layer problems. Transport error detection and recovery and information flow control are used to provide reliable service. class of service. timing of voltage changes. Physical Layer: The Physical layer defines the electrical. issues such as reliability of transport between two hosts are the concern of the transport layer. the session layer offers provisions for efficient data transfer. procedural. and deactivating the physical link between end systems. maximum transmission distances. the lower four layers are concerned with data transport issues. Data-Link Layer: The data-link layer defines how data is formatted for transmission and how access to the network is controlled. In providing communication service. presentation layer.25 In addition to session regulation. The transport layer attempts to provide a data-transport service that shields the upper layers from transport implementation details. so the transport layer will break down large files into smaller segments that are less likely to incur transmission problems. Reliable delivery of the files is important. The growth of the internet has increased the number of users accessing information from sites around the world. The boundary between transport layer and the session layer can be thought of as the boundary between application protocols and data-flow protocols. and exception reporting of session layer. physical connectors. Whereas the application. mechanical. Transport Layer: The transport layer segments data from the sending host’s system and reassembles the data into a data stream on the receiving host’s system. the transport layer establishes. Specifically. Characteristics such as voltage levels.
It provides connectivity and path selection between two host systems. and formats and structures data. o Data Delivery: The network layer ensures data delivery. It defines the electrical. procedural. manages. o Interhost communication: The session layer provides Interhost communication. It also establishes. and deactivating the physical link. routes data packets and selects the path to deliver data. In doing this it establishes. o Binary transmission: The physical layer handles binary transmission. It is responsible for transmitting the data onto the physical media. It defines how data is formatted and how access to the network is controlled. and provides reliability through fault detection and recovery information flow control. o End-to-end connections: The transport layer facilitates end to end communications. Reference from GOOGLE: . It also negotiates data transfer syntax for the application layer. mechanical. maintaining. maintains and terminates virtual circuits. and functional specifications for activating. and terminates sessions between applications. o Media access: The data-link layer provides access to the network media. It ensures data is readable. o Data representation: The presentation layer handles data representation. It handles transportation issues between hosts and ensures data transport reliability.26 o Application network services: The application layer provides network services to any applications requiring access to the network.
28 The protocols defined by ISO based on the OSI 7 layer mode are as follows: Application ACSE: Association Control Service Element CMIP: Common Management Information Protocol CMIS: Common Management Information Service CMOT: CMIP over TCP/IP FTAM: File Transfer Access and Management ROSE: Remote Operation Service Element RTSE: Reliable Transfer Service Element Protocol VTP: ISO Virtual Terminal Protocol X.400: Message Handling Service (ISO email transmission service) Protocols X.500: Directory Access Service Protocol (DAP) .
. TP1.25 http://www. ISO-IP: CLNP: Connectionless Network Protocol CONP: Connection-Oriented Network Protocol ES-IS: End System to Intermediate System Routing Exchange protocol IDRP: Inter-Domain Routing Protocol IS-IS: Intermediate System to Intermediate System Transport Layer TP4 Network Layer Data Link HDLC: High Level Data Link Control protocol LAPB: Link Access Procedure Balanced for X. the physical layer at the remote device passes the bits to the data-link layer for manipulation. The headers and trailers contain control information for the network devices and receiver to ensure proper delivery of the data and to ensure that the receiver can correctly interpret the data. each OSI layer adds a header (and a trailer if applicable) to the data before passing it down to the lower layer. The encapsulation process can be thought of as putting a letter inside an envelope.1: Abstract Syntax Notation One ISO-SP: OSI Session Layer Protocol ISO-TP: OSI Transport Protocols: TP0. TP2. When the remote device receives a sequence of bits.javvin.29 Presentation Layer Session Layer ISO-PP: OSI Presentation Layer Protocol ASN.html DATA Communication: All communications on a network originate at a source and are sent to a destination. The information sent on a network is referred to as data or data packets.com/osimodel. Therefore. Of one computer (Host A) wants to send data to another computer (HOST B). TP3. the data must first be packaged by a process called encapsulation. as the data moves down through the layers of the OSI model. and then properly writing the recipient’s mail address on the envelope so it can be properly delivered by the postal system. Encapsulation wraps data with the necessary protocol information before network transit.
30 The data-link layer performs the following tasks: o It checks the data-link trailer (the FCS) to see if the data is in error. switches. o If the data is not in error. This process is referred to as de-encapsulation. The header contains information required to complete the transfer. such as source and destination logical addresses. the protocols at each layer. and the transport layer presents data to the internetwork subsystem. and the frame trailer contains the FCS. exchange information.link layer provides a service to the network by encapsulating the network layer packet in a frame (the Layer 2PDU). and then removing the letter from the envelope if the letter is addressed to you. encoding the data-link frame into a pattern of 1sand 0s (bits) for transmission on the medium (usually a wire) at Layer 1. called Protocol Data Units (PDUs) between peer layers. The physical layer provides a service to the data-link layer. The network layer moves the data through the internetwork by encapsulating the data and attaching a header to create a packet (the Layer 3PDU). switches are at Layer 2 – the data-link layer. the lower layer uses encapsulation to put the PDU from the upper layer into its data field. each layer of the OSI model at the source must communicate with its peer layer at the destination. The frame header contains the physical addresses required to complete the data-link functions. To provide this service. Think of de-encapsulation as the process of reading the address on a letter to see if it is for you or not. Each layer depends on the service function of the OSI layer below it. Hubs are at Layer 1 – the physical layer. the additional headers are added. o If the data is in error. The data. it may be discarded. Reference from Google: . o It strips the data-link header and trailer. Each subsequent layer performs a similar de-encapsulation process. The network layer provides a service to the transport layer. and then passes the remaining data up to the network layer based on the control information in the data-link header. and routers work at the lower three layers. Data packets on a network originate at a source and then travel to a destination. So that data packets can travel from the source to the destination. Network devices such as hubs. the data-link layer reads and interprets the control information in the data-link header. and the data-link layer may ask for the data to be retransmitted. During this process. It then adds whatever headers the layer needs to perform its function. and router are at Layer 3 – the network layer. This form of communication is referred to as peer to peer communication. The grouping of data at the Layer 4 (transport) PDU is called segment. As the data moves down through Layers 7 through 5 of the OSI model.
which is passed to layer 5. The encapsulation process continues all the way down to layer 2. The layer 6 protocol prepends to it a layer 6 header (L6H) to create a layer 6PDU. This data becomes the Service Data Unit (SDU) of the next layer below it. This diagram shows a 7 layer PDU consisting of a layer 7 header (L7H) and application data. When this is passed to layer 6. it becomes a layer 6SDU.31 Each protocol creates a Protocol Data Unit (PDU) for transmission that includes headers required by that protocol and data to be transmitted. The TCP/IP protocol stack . which creates a layer 2 PDU – in this case shown with both a header and footer – that is converted to bits and sent at layer 1.
It is important to note that although some of the layers in the TCP/IP protocol stack have the same names as layers in the OSI model. and the network access layer. the internet layer.32 Although the OSI reference model is universally recognized. Network access Layer: The network access layer is also called the host-to-network layer. Application Layer: The application layer handles high-level protocols. flow control. In contrast. not circuit-switched. Similarities and differences b/w TCP/IP protocol stack and the OSI reference model: Main Similarities: o Application layers – Both have the application layers. even though the OSI model is used as a guide. The TCP/IP protocol stack has four layers – the application layer. the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). and dialog control. Main Differences: o Data-link and physical layers – TCP/IP combines the OSI data-link and physical layers into the network access layer. so the TCP/IP protocol stack gains credibility just because of the wide spread implementation of its protocols. though they include different services. It includes LAN and WAN protocols. (Analog telephone calls are an example of circuit switched. One of its protocols. including issues of representation. provides for reliable network communications.) o Transport and network layers – Both have comparable transport and network layers. regardless of the path they look to get there. Transport Layer: The transport layer deals with quality-of-service issues of reliability. the layers have different functions in each model. encoding. o Implementation of standards – TCP/IP protocols are the standards around which the internet developed. . Internet Layer: The purpose of the internet layer is to send source packets from any network on the internetwork and have them arrive at the destination.Both assume packet-switched technology. the historical and technical open standard of the internet is the TCP/IP protocol stack. The TCP/IP model combines all application – related issues into one layer and ensures that this data is properly packaged for the next layer. and all the details in the OSI physical and data-link layers. o Packet-switched technology . the transport layer. and error correction. networks are not typically built on the OSI model.
33 o Presentation and session layers – TCP/IP combines the OSI presentation and session layers into its application layer. directly represents the services that directly support user applications handles network access. expanding graphics commands. NCP. character conversion. FINGER. SNMP. NFS. Gateway BOOTP. AFP. Reference from Google: Layer Application User Interface Function • Protocols Network Components • • • used for applications specifically written to run over the network allows access to network services that support applications. MIME. TFTP. flow control and error recovery Example apps are file transfer. SMTP. FTP. APPC. data compression sets standards for different systems to provide seamless communication from multiple protocol stacks not always implemented in DNS. SMB • Presentation Translation • Gateway Redirector • • • • .RLOGIN. TELNET.data encryption / decryption.e-mail. NetBIOSbased applications Translates from application to network format and vice-versa all different formats from all sources are made into a common uniform format that the rest of the OSI model can understand responsible for protocol conversion.
ARP. below the session layer manages the flow control SPX of data between parties across the network NWLink divides streams of data into chunks or packets. RARP. the NetBIOS / transport layer of the NetBEUI receiving computer reassembles the message ATP from packets "train" is a good analogy => the data is divided into identical units provides error-checking to guarantee error-free data delivery. with on losses or Gateway • Transport packets. maintains and NetBIOS ends sessions across the network Names Pipes responsible for name recognition (identification) Mail Slots so only the designated parties can participate in RPC the session provides synchronization services by planning check points in the data stream => if session fails. only data after the most recent checkpoint need be transmitted manages who can transmit data at a certain time and for how long Examples are interactive login and file transfer connections.34 Session "syncs and sessions" • • • • a network protocol establishes. flow control & error-handling • • Gateway Advanced Cable Tester Brouter • • • . the session would connect and reconnect if there was an interruption. recognize names in sessions and register names in history additional connection TCP.
g. OSFP. requests retransmission if some packets don’t arrive errorfree provides flow control and error-handling translates logical network IP. Switch • error handles data frames correction and ISDN Router between the Network and flow control Physical layers • manages link the receiving end packages control and Intelligent Hub raw data from the Physical defines SAPs layer into data frames for . RIP. RARP. routing • Brouter Router Frame Relay Device ATM Switch Advanced Cable Tester • • • Data Link data frames to bits • • • think of this layer stamping the addresses on each train car turns packets into raw bits Logical Link Bridge 100101 and at the receivingControl end turns bits into packets. address and names to their ICMP. address) responsible for IPX o addressing o determining routes NWLink for sending o managing network NetBEUI problems such as packet switching. At the receiving end. physical address (e.35 duplications provides acknowledgment of successful transmissions. the network layer reassembles the data • • Network addressing. ARP. OSI data congestion and routing DDP if router can’t send data frame as large as the sourceDECnet computer sends. the network layer compensates by breaking the data into smaller units. computername ==> MAC IGMP.
36 delivery to the Network layer responsible for error-free transfer of frames to other computer via the Physical Layer this layer defines the methods used to transmit and receive data on the network. Control is passed from one layer to the next. cards. the devices use to connect the NIC to the wiring. how cable is ISDN attached to NIC defines techniques to transfer bit stream to cable Repeater Multiplexer Hubs • • Passive Active • TDR Oscilloscope Amplifier The 7 Layers of the OSI Model The OSI.4 Token Bus (ARCnet) 802. model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. or Open System Interconnection.3 CSMA/CD (Ethernet) 802.5 Token Ring 802. and IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control NIC Advanced Cable Tester • Media Access Control • • communicates with the adapter card controls the type of media being used: • 802.12 Demand Priority IEEE 802 Physical hardware.1 OSI Model 802. It consists of the wiring. . raw bit stream • • • transmits raw bit stream over physical cable defines cables. the signaling involved to transmit / receive data and the ability to detect signaling errors on the network media 802.2 physical aspects defines NIC attachments to ISO 2110 hardware.
Fast Ethernet. It is sometimes called the syntax layer. providing freedom from compatibility problems. and terminates conversations. and ATM are protocols with physical layer components. as well as addressing. creating logical paths. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer. over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy. The MAC sublayer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. Data Link (Layer 2) Physical (Layer 1) . It ensures complete data transfer. coordinates. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. flow control and error checking. and other network software services. manages and terminates connections between applications. known as virtual circuits. or hosts. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier. light or radio signal -. The data link layer is divided into two sublayers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. and Presentation vice versa.g. Application (Layer 7) This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e. This layer provides application services for file transfers. quality of service is identified.37 starting at the application layer in one station. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer. Communication partners are identified. This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization. At this layer. encryption) by translating from application to network format. proceeding to the bottom layer. This layer formats and encrypts data (Layer 6) to be sent across a network. flow control and frame synchronization. Everything at this layer is application-specific. for transmitting data from node to node. congestion control and packet sequencing. RS232. and dialogues between the applications at each end. error handling. data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. cards and physical aspects. It deals with session and connection coordination. including defining cables. user authentication and privacy are considered. Session (Layer 5) Transport (Layer 4) Network (Layer 3) This layer establishes. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer. The session layer sets up. e-mail. This layer supports application and end-user processes. This layer provides switching and routing technologies. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. and any constraints on data syntax are identified. and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. internetworking.through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. exchanges. This layer conveys the bit stream .electrical impulse..
The OSI program grew out of a need for international networking standards and is designed to facilitate communication between hardware and software systems despite differences in underlying architectures.38 Reference from Google CISCO: Open System Interconnection Protocols Background The Open System Interconnection (OSI) protocol suite is comprised of numerous standard protocols that are based on the OSI reference model. The OSI specifications were conceived and implemented by two international standards organizations: the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunications Standards Sector (ITU-T). OSI Networking Protocols . This chapter provides a summary of the OSI protocol suite and illustrates its mapping to the general OSI reference model. These protocols are part of an international program to develop data-networking protocols and other standards that facilitate multivendor equipment interoperability.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). Each component of this protocol suite is discussed briefly in this chapter.2 LLC. and X.25. "Open System Interconnection (OSI) Routing Protocols. IEEE 802. Supported media-access protocols include IEEE 802.3. The wide variety of media-access protocols supported in the OSI protocol suite allows other protocol suites to exist easily alongside OSI on the same network media." Figure 30-1 The OSI Protocol Suite Maps to All Layers of the OSI Reference Model OSI Physical and Data Link layers The OSI protocol suite supports numerous standard media-access protocols at the physical and data link layers. Token Ring/IEEE 802. OSI Network Layer The OSI protocol suite specifies two routing protocols at the network layer: End Systemto-Intermediate System (ES-IS) and Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS). . The OSI routing protocols are addressed in more detail in Chapter 45.5.39 Figure 30-1 illustrates the entire OSI protocol suite and its relation to the layers of the OSI reference model.
concepts. which divides the network layer into three distinct sublayers to support different subnetwork types. CLNS does not perform connection setup or termination because paths are determined independently for each packet that is transmitted through a network. In addition. CLNP is an OSI network layer protocol that carries upper-layer data and error indications over connectionless links. CONP is an OSI network layer protocol that carries upper-layer data and error indications over connection-oriented links. CLNS provides best-effort delivery. the OSI suite implements two types of network services: connectionless service and connection-oriented service. OSI Connection-Oriented Network Service OSI connection-oriented network service is implemented by using the Connection-Oriented Network Protocol (CONP) and Connection-Mode Network Service (CMNS). This contrasts with Connection-Mode Network Service (CMNS). the following documents describe other OSI network layer specifications: • ISO 8648—This standard defines the internal organization of the network layer (IONL). • ISO TR 9575—This standard describes the framework. "X. CLNS provides network layer services to the transport layer via CLNP. and terminology used in relation to OSI routing protocols.40 In addition. corrupted.25 Packet-Layer Protocol for DTE." . OSI Layer Standards In addition to the standards specifying the OSI network layer protocols and services. misordered.25 Packet-Layer Protocol (PLP) and is described in the ISO 8208 standard. CLNP provides the interface between the Connectionless Network Service (CLNS) and upper layers. which means that no guarantee exists that data will not be lost. or duplicated. • ISO 8348—This standard defines network layer addressing and describes the connection-oriented and connectionless services provided by the OSI network layer. CLNS relies on transport layer protocols to perform error detection and correction. CLNP and CLNS are described in the ISO 8473 standard. OSI Connectionless Network Service OSI connectionless network service is implemented by using the Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP) and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS). CONP is based on the X.
Each transport layer entity is assigned a single NSAP. Figure 30-2 illustrates the format of the OSI NSAP address. The IDP field is divided into two parts: the authority format identifier (AFI) and the initial domain identifier (IDI). Network Layer Addressing OSI network layer addressing is implemented by using two types of hierarchical addresses: network service access point addresses and network entity titles. such as whether the IDI is of variable length and whether the DSP uses decimal or binary notation. A network service access point (NSAP) is a conceptual point on the boundary between the network and the transport layers. and termination. which identifies individual NSAPs. The NSAP is the location at which OSI network services are provided to the transport layer. Figure 30-2 The OSI NSAP Address Is Assigned to Each Transport Layer Entity NSAP Address Fields Two NSAP Address fields exist: the initial domain part (IDP) and the domain-specific part (DSP). CMNS performs functions related to the explicit establishment of paths between communicating transport layer entities. which is individually addressed in an OSI internetwork using NSAP addresses. maintenance. and it is described in the ISO 8878 standard.41 CONP provides the interface between CMNS and upper layers. CMNS also provides a mechanism for requesting a specific quality of service (QoS). The IDI specifies the entity that can assign values to the DSP portion of the NSAP address. The Address Administration fields allow for the further administration of addressing . It is a network layer service that acts as the interface between the transport layer and CONP. The DSP is subdivided into four parts by the authority responsible for its administration. The AFI provides information about the structure and content of the IDI and DSP fields. These functions include connection setup. This contrasts with CLNS.
Figure 30-3 The NSAP Provides a Link Between a Transport Entity and a Network Service A network entity title (NET) is used to identify the network layer of a system without associating that system with a specific transport layer entity (as an NSAP address does). If this is the case. is used for routing purposes. . The reserved n-selector 00 identifies the address as a network entity title (NET). the NSAP. much like the other fields. the NSAP address for each transport entity usually differs only in the last byte (called the n-selector). Connectionless transport service is supported only by Transport Protocol Class 4. NETs are useful for addressing intermediate systems (ISs). such as routers. An IS can have a single NET or multiple NETs. End-System NSAPs An OSI end system (ES) often has multiple NSAP addresses. that do not interface with the transport layer.42 by adding a second authority identifier and by delegating address administration to subauthorities. The Selector field provides the specific n-selector within a station and. one for each transport entity that it contains. and the network service. Figure 30-3 illustrates the relationship between a transport entity. if it participates in multiple areas or domains. OSI Protocols Transport Layer The OSI protocol suite implements two types of services at the transport layer: connectionoriented transport service and connectionless transport service. The Area field identifies the specific area within a domain and is used for routing purposes. Five connection-oriented transport layer protocols exist in the OSI suite. The Station field identifies a specific station within an area and also is used for routing purposes. ranging from Transport Protocol Class 0 through Transport Protocol Class 4.
it inserts synchronization points in transmitted data that allow the session to be recovered in the event of errors or interruptions. TP3 requires connection-oriented network service. it performs various negotiations for the use of session layer tokens. OSI Protocols Session Layer The session layer implementation of the OSI protocol suite consists of a session protocol and a session service. the session protocol. TP3 also sequences PDUs and retransmits them or reinitiates the connection if an excessive number are unacknowledged. TP4 sequences PDUs and retransmits them or reinitiates the connection if an excessive number are unacknowledged. Finally. Such requests are made at session-service access points (SSAPs). Transport Protocol Class 1 (TP1) performs segmentation and reassembly. performs segmentation and reassembly functions. performs segmentation and reassembly. Transport Protocol Class 2 (TP2) performs segmentation and reassembly. It is based on the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in the Internet Protocols suite and is the only OSI protocol class that supports connectionless network service. Second. Session service provides four basic services to SS-users. The session protocol allows session-service users (SS-users) to communicate with the session service.43 Transport Protocol Class 0 (TP0). and supplies multiplexing and demultiplexing of data streams over a single virtual circuit. Figure 30-4 shows the relationship between the SS-user. as well as multiplexing and demultiplexing of data streams over a single virtual circuit. the simplest OSI transport protocol. Transport Protocol Class 3 (TP3) offers basic error recovery and performs segmentation and reassembly. in addition to multiplexing and demultiplexing of data streams over a single virtual circuit. TP1 requires connection-oriented network service. TP0 requires connection-oriented network service. An SS-user is an entity that requests the services of the session layer. and offers basic error recovery. TP2 requires connection-oriented network service. First. and SSusers are uniquely identified by using an SSAP address. TP4 provides reliable transport service and functions with either connection-oriented or connectionless network service. Transport Protocol Class 4 (TP4) offers basic error recovery. which the SS-user must possess to begin communicating. Third. and the session service. Figure 30-4 Session Layer Functions Provide Service to Presentation Layer Functions via an SSAP . it enables SS-users to interrupt a session and resume it later at a specific point. it establishes and terminates connections between SS-users and synchronizes the data exchange between them. TP1 sequences protocol data units (PDUs) and will retransmit PDUs or reinitiate the connection if an excessive number of PDUs are unacknowledged. the SSAP.
44 Session service is defined in the ISO 8306 standard and in the ITU-T X. presentation-service entities must translate the data from the PS-user to the correct transfer syntax. A PS-user is an entity that requests the services of the presentation layer. OSI Protocols Presentation Layer The presentation layer implementation of the OSI protocol suite consists of a presentation protocol and a presentation service. When a transfer syntax is agreed upon. A connectionless version of the session protocol is specified in the ISO 9548 standard.226 recommendation.215 recommendation. the user element.225 recommendation. which represent data using different syntaxes. The user element is the part of an application entity that uses ASEs to satisfy the communication needs of the application process. The session protocol is defined in the ISO 8307 standard and in the ITUT X. Figure 30-5 An Application Process Relies on the PSAP and Presentation Service . Such requests are made at presentation-service access points (PSAPs). An application entity is composed of the user element and the application service element (ASE). The OSI presentation layer service is defined in the ISO 8822 standard and in the ITU-T X. Presentation service negotiates transfer syntax and translates data to and from the transfer syntax for PS-users. Figure 30-5 portrays the composition of a single application process (composed of the application entity.216 recommendation. to application processes. The presentation service is used by two PS-users to agree upon the transfer syntax that will be used. A connectionless version of the presentation protocol is specified in the ISO 9576 standard. therefore. and the ASEs) and its relation to the PSAP and presentation service. An application entity is the part of an application process that is relevant to the operation of the OSI protocol suite. PS-users are uniquely identified by using PSAP addresses. The OSI presentation protocol is defined in the ISO 8823 standard and in the ITU-T X. OSI Protocols Application Layer The application layer implementation of the OSI protocol suite consists of various application entities. The ASE is the part of an application entity that provides services to user elements and. The presentation protocol enables presentation-service users (PS-users) to communicate with the presentation service. ASEs also provide interfaces to the lower OSI layers.
In many cases.45 ASEs fall into one of the two following classifications: common-application service elements (CASEs) and specific-application service elements (SASEs). Common-Application Service Elements Common-application service elements (CASEs) are ASEs that provide services used by a wide variety of application processes. The following four CASEs are defined in the OSI specification: – Association control service element (ACSE)—Creates associations between two application entities in preparation for application-to-application communication – Remote operations service element (ROSE)—Implements a request-reply mechanism that permits various remote operations across an application association established by the ACSE – Reliable transfer service element (RTSE)—Allows ASEs to reliably transfer messages while preserving the transparency of complex lower-layer facilities – Commitment. concurrence. multiple CASEs are used by a single application entity. and recovery service elements (CCRSE)—Coordinates dialogues among multiple application entities. . Both of these might be present in a single application entity.
46 Specific-Application Service Elements Specific-application service elements (SASEs) are ASEs that provide services used only by a specific application process. Q—Describe the OSI connectionless network protocol. A—OSI connectionless network service is implemented by using the Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP) and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS). – Message handling system (MHS)—Provides a transport mechanism for electronic messaging applications and other applications by using store-and-forward services. allowing the exchange of management information between ESs and management stations. – Virtual terminal protocol (VTP)—Provides terminal emulation that allows a computer system to appear to a remote ES as if it were a directly attached terminal. . DS is specified in the ITU-T X. and order entry. such as file transfer. CMIP is specified in the ITU-T X. OSI Protocols Application Processes An application process is the element of an application that provides the interface between the application itself and the OSI application layer. database access. – File transfer.700 recommendation and is functionally similar to the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and NetView. – Directory services (DS)—Serves as a distributed directory that is used for node identification and addressing in OSI internetworks. access. and management (FTAM)—Provides file-transfer service and distributed file-access facilities.500 recommendation. Q—Describe the OSI connection-oriented network protocol. CLNP and CLNS are described in the ISO 8473 standard. Review Questions Q—What are the two routing protocols specified in the OSI suite? A—End System-to-Intermediate System (ES-IS) and Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS). among others. Some of the standard OSI application processes include the following: – Common management-information protocol (CMIP)—Performs networkmanagement functions.
A—IEEE 802. Token Ring/IEEE 802. Q—What are the two types of ASEs? A—ASEs fall into one of the two following classifications: common-application service elements (CASEs) and specific-application service elements (SASEs). and X. A—The presentation layer implementation of the OSI protocol suite consists of a presentation protocol and a presentation service. Q—Name some of the media types that the OSI protocol suite supports. A—Common-application service elements (CASEs) are ASEs that provide services used by a wide variety of application processes.3. In many cases. Q—Describe common-application service elements (CASEs).47 A—OSI connection-oriented network service is implemented by using the ConnectionOriented Network Protocol (CONP) and Connection-Mode Network Service (CMNS). Q—Why was the OSI protocol suite created? A—The OSI specifications were conceived and implemented by two international standards organizations: the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunications Standards Sector (ITU-T). Both of these might be present in a single application entity. and SS-users are uniquely identified by using an SSAP address. Q—Describe the presentation layer protocols of the OSI protocol suite. Q—How are requests to services at the session layer made within OSI protocols? A—Requests are made at session-service access points (SSAPs). The presentation protocol enables presentation-service users (PS-users) to communicate with the presentation service.25. . Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). and SS-users are uniquely identified by using an SSAP address. multiple CASEs are used by a single application entity.2 LLC. A—The session layer implementation of the OSI protocol suite consists of a session protocol and a session service. The session protocol enables session-service users (SSusers) to communicate with the session service. Such requests are made at session-service access points (SSAPs). An SS-user is an entity that requests the services of the session layer. IEEE 802. Q—Describe the session layer protocols within the OSI protocol suite.5.
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