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NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION LIMITED

MANUAL ON PERFORMANCE BUDGET OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE BUDGET


November 2002

A. F. FERGUSON & Co. NEW DELHI

CONTENTS Section 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 Description Introduction Overall Frame Work of Budgeting System Definitions Budgeting Process Budget period and time schedule Budget Monitoring System Page No 1 2 4 9 15 16

Appendices Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III Appendix IV Appendix V Description of Budgets Budgeting process Criteria for declaring commercial operation Budget Formats Budget Monitoring and Review formats 17 24 34 38 66

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

INTRODUCTION This manual describes the budgeting system for the stations that are in the operation phase. The manual describes the budget preparation process, budget formats and the reporting requirements to monitor the budgets. Objectives Budget essentially lays down the physical and financial operating plan/targets for the budget period and lays down the standards/yardsticks for inputs and the outputs associated with the various activities. It is an important tool for managerial appraisal and control. It also provides an estimate of internal generation of funds from operations, which would be available for financing the capital expenditure, meeting the loan repayment obligations, etc. The main objectives of the budgeting system are to ensure that: Specific budgets in physical and financial terms are laid down for all activities and the respective budget / responsibility / cost centres are held accountable for them Co-ordination in planning so that all the inputs necessary to achieve the physical targets are available in time There is a basis of control over operational expenses and working capital and to inculcate greater cost consciousness in the organisation A basis for forecasting profitability and planning for cash/ funds is provided Standards and yard sticks are laid down for measuring performance in physical and financial terms, ascertain variances, identify responsibilities for under-performance, to analyse contributory reasons thereof and determining corrective actions

Coverage The operations budget are prepared by all the stations that are in the operation phase. The budget is also prepared by the projects for the year in which they plan to commercialise the first generating unit. However, the anticipated revenue and expenditure during the trial run (i.e. from the date of synchronisation to the date of commercial generation) is treated as a part of precommissioning expenses (net) and forms a part of the capital budget. The expenses in respect of developmental expenditure for improvements, additions, replacements, renewals, balancing facilities which are capital in nature are budgeted for in the construction budget.

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

1. 00 OVERALL FRAME WORK OF BUDGETING SYSTEM 1.01 This chapter provides an overall framework of the performance based budgeting system for O&M activity.

Performance budgeting 1.02 Keeping in view the objectives outlined in the previous chapter, the budget estimates should reflect both the financial and physical targets. The financial targets should be worked out based on the budgeted physical outputs/ inputs and activities for the budget period.

Key factors 1.03 1.04 The factors determining the performance of the station include mainly the generation (volume and revenue), O&M expenses and working capital management. The key factor for the budget estimates shall be the generation level. The generation level should be fixed keeping in view the following : Generating capacity Availability of units Machine condition and overhauling of units Fuel availability Thresh-hold level of generation/ availability to recover the full fixed cost Maximisation of incentives or and minimisation of disincentives

The following aspects should also be kept in mind while finalising the generation targets : Under the ABT regime, demonstration of power supply in line with the declared availability assumes importance to avoid any penalties/ Unscheduled interchange charges (UI) Sales realisation level. The norms as per the Tariff Order, Norms as per design, past/ actual performance and perspective plan should form the basis for fixing the budget targets.

Budget Centres 1.05 Each station is a budget centre and hence each station should prepare the budget estimates. The station level budgets are to be consolidated at the region level (RHQ) and then at the Corporate Centre (CC) level to arrive at the company budget. The RHQ and CC would also be budget centers for the activities controlled by them and the expenditure incurred at the RHQ and CC level. 2

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

Budget concept 1.06 Within a budget centre, the bottom up approach should be followed in formulating the budget. The budget estimates should be prepared by the department/ cost centre responsible for the incurrence of expenditure/ controlling the budgeted activities. The budget estimates should be based on Zero Based Budgeting concept i.e. each and every item of the budget is to be assessed without any reference to the expenditure incurred on this account in the past. The review of the budget should also be based on the concept of zero-based budgeting.

Budget heads 1.07 The stations should compile the budgets for the cost centres/ cost heads as per the Costing system. The budget estimates for the administrative costs should be prepared under the account heads as per the Chart of Accounts. The budgets should be presented primarily under the budget heads and the cost centre wise information for the major cost items shall act as the basis to review and monitor the budgets.

1.08

Budget period 1.09 The budget is to be prepared on an annual basis for a financial year. The process of preparation of the budget shall start in the month of January and the final approved budget for the next financial year should be in place by the 31st of March. The budget estimates are to be prepared in respect of the following: 1.10 Revised estimates for the next financial year Budget estimates for the year thereafter

The annual budgets should also be broken into monthly targets. In addition, the budget centres should project the balance period performance on a quarterly basis. This process shall enable review of the actual performance during the year and to take corrective/ remedial measures to achieve the budgets. This exercise is in terms of control only. All comparisons and variance analysis should be with respect to the original budgeted figures only (i.e. not with respect to the performance projected for the balance period).

1.11

Budget approval 1.12 1.13 1.14 The budget estimates are to be reviewed and recommended by the budget committee at the Station and at RHQ and are to be approved at CC level. The stations should prepare and submit the initial proposals to RHQ. At RHQ, the budget estimates should be consolidated for the region and then submitted to CC. The approved initial proposals should form the basis for the final budget estimates. The budget centres should submit a copy of the final budget to RHQ and CC. The monthly phasing of the final budget should be compiled on the basis of the approved initial proposal.

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2.00 DEFINITIONS 2.01 This section provides the definition of the terminology used in this manual. The terminology used is broadly categorised as follows: Technical Financial TECHNICAL DEFINITIONS 2.02 2.03 2.04 Installed capacity is the design capacity of generating units in mega watts (MW) available for generating power. Commissioning means the first synchronisation of the boiler with the turbine. Commercial generation is the date from which a unit is considered as stabilised and capable of generating energy on commercial basis. The start of revenue operations is reckoned from this date. The considerations for declaring a unit in commercial operation are provided in Appendix IV. Outage hours is the period for which the unit is not available for generation either due to planned shut down for maintenance /overhauling or due to forced shut down on account of tripping etc. Availability Factor (AF) is a measure of the actual period the unit has been in operation during the (reference) period. It is represented as a percentage and is computed as under: AF = Operating hours over the reference period * 100 Total hours in the reference period (including outage hours) 2.07 Loading factor or Plant load factor (PLF) is the term used to indicate the average generation of a unit/station in relation to maximum capability during the reference period. The reference period can be a day or a month or a year. It is represented as a percentage and worked out as under: PLF = Gross generation over the reference period *100 Max. generating capacity* total hrs during The reference period (including outage hours) 2.08 Gross generation or gross output is the total electrical energy generated at the generator in one unit of time. It is measured in kilowatt-hours (Kwh) and one kwh is called one unit of energy. Normally generation is measured in million units (MUs). Auxiliary power consumption is the consumption of power in unit and station auxiliaries and is represented as a percentage of gross generation. It includes transformer losses also but does not include consumption of power by utilities i.e. township, construction, power, etc. Consumption by utilities means consumption of power by utilities like township, construction power, etc.

2.05

2.06

2.09

2.10

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2.11 2.12

Energy Sent Out (ESO) or energy export or net export is the electrical energy sent out at the bus bar for transmitting to the customers. Availability (as defined under the ABT Order) is the percentage ratio of the average Sent Out capability (SOC) for all the time blocks during that period and rated SOC of the generating station as per the following formula : n Availability = {( SOCI / (1-AUX/100) + CL}100/h *I.C. Where, I.C. = Installed Capacity of the station in MW SOCi = SOC of the ith block of the period n = Number of time blocks during the period AUX = Normative Auxiliary Energy Consumption as a percentage of gross generation h = number of hours during the period = n/4 CL = Gross MWh of capacity of unit(s) kept closed on account of Generation scheduling Order Block in relation to Combined cycle generating station includes combustion turbine generators(s), associated waste heat recovery boiler(s), connected Steam Turbine generator and auxiliaries. Unit means the Steam Generator, Turbine Generator and their auxiliaries. In relation to combined cycle generating station means the Combustion Turbine Generator and Auxiliaries. Declared capacity (DC) in relation to any period or time block means the capability of the generating station to deliver ex-bus Mwh declared by the generating company. In case of gas turbine/combined cycle stations, the generator shall give DC for units/modules on gas fuel and DC for units/modules on liquid fuel separately, and the two shall be scheduled separately. Total DC and total SG for the station shall be the sum of the two. Sent Out Capability (SOC) refers to the capability to deliver ex-bus Mwh based on which the availability shall be worked out. The SOC for thermal stations shall be the DC with all before-the-fact revisions/updating.
i=1

2.13 2.14

Scheduled Energy / Scheduled Generation (SG) : SG under ABT means the scheduled energy to be sent out Ex-Bus from the generating station. Actual Energy / Actual Generation (AG): AG under ABT mean the actual energy actually sent out Ex-Bus from the generating station.

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2.15 2.16

Unscheduled Interchange ( UI ) : UI under ABT mean the variation in AG ( Actual generation) and SG (Scheduled generation). Calories input (Kcal) is the total input of heat energy from coal or oil or both for heating water/steam in the boiler in a given period in the case of thermal stations. In case of gas stations, the calories input is the total input of the heat energy from gas and liquid fuels. It is worked out by multiplying calorific value of inputs by quantity consumed in a period. Gross calorific value (GCV) is the heat content per unit of inputs like coal, oil, gas, etc and is represented as Kcal/Kg, ML or CM. Heat rate is the heat in Kcal required to generate one Kwh of electrical energy. It includes the following in case of coal stations: (i) Coal consumed in kg/kwh is converted into kcal by multiplying with GCV of coal (ii) Heat due to oil consumption in Kcal.

2.17 2.18

2.19

In the case of gas stations, the heat rate is obtained by converting the gas consumed in cm/kwh into kcal by multiplying with the calorific value of gas and the liquid fuel in Kl into Kcal by multiplying with the calorific value of liquid fuel.

FINANCIAL DEFINITIONS 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 Capacity variance is the impact on profit/loss of a profit centre due to utilisation of a capacity level different from budgeted capacity. Cost centre is the specific constituent responsibility centre of a profit centre. Cost of gross generation means the total (variable and fixed) cost starting from the first stage of generating process till the point the power is ready for transmission. Cost of sales is the total cost of energy sent out. In other words, it is the total cost adjusted for the cost of auxiliary consumption. Expense variance is the difference between budgeted and actual expenses. Fixed cost refers to any cost, which does not change with the change in the level of activities upto a specified capacity. Marginal contribution is the difference between fuel recovery as per tariff and actual fuel expenditure. Price variance is the difference in the budgeted and actual price attributable to change in the price of inputs. Sales Revenue the sales revenue will be the sum total of the following:

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

(i) revenue from sale of energy as per tariff (ii) revenue in the form of electricity duty which will be obtained by multiplying energy sent out and per unit rate of electricity duty. (iii) Revenue from own consumption which will be obtained by multiplying own consumption and per unit cost of net generation 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 Tariff variance is the difference in budgeted and actual profit due to increase/decrease in the tariff rate. Usage variance is the difference in the budgeted and actual material cost due to consumption of materials. Variable cost is the cost that changes in direct proportion to the change in the level of activity. The Repair and Maintenance expenses are classified based on nature of activity as defined below: Non discretionary activity 1. Overhaul The maintenance activities carried out during the periodic overhaul program. 2. Breakdown maintenance The maintenance activities which are carried out after a system or equipment has failed 3. Preventive maintenance The maintenance activities which are carried out based on the condition of the equipment and failure of the same may lead to process / equipment / safety failure, such as : bearing replacement based on condition monitoring data pump reconditioning due to deterioration in performance lube oil change based on condition plant surveys / inspection initiated by performance problem or safety recommendation

4. Routine Maintenance The maintenance activities which are based on a regular time frame (say calendar / time based) and are not condition based, such as: - safety system checks - lube oil level checks - plant inspection at defined intervals - house keeping Discretionary

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

These are the activities that are planned for the financial year but may or may not be carried out, depending upon changes in the business priority during the period. 5. Reliability One time planned maintenance / operational improvements, controlled by the budget holders, leading to direct improvement of system or operational performance. It must be borne in mind that only those expenses shall be booked under this head which are incurred for increasing the reliability of the system and are discretionary. For example, expense on replacing a motor / switch / bearing with a new technology motor / switch / bearing, which is a technological advancement over the previous one and which requires less servicing / maintenance. 6. Exceptional One time budget spends in the financial year, which are planned for a range of activities that are not directly related to the short term performance of the process plant, such as: New security system Road repairs Railway siding

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

3.00 BUDGETING PROCESS 3.01 This chapter provides the process for budget formulation at the Station and review at RHQ and finalisation at CC.

BUDGETING AT THE STATION LEVEL 3.02 The stations are responsible for providing the following information : 3.03 Operating parameters Fuel expenditure O&M expenditure i.e. employees, repairs & maintenance and overheads Depreciation Working capital (other than debtors) Miscellaneous income Other Finance charges (excluding rebates)

The following aspects are not controlled at the station level and therefore are not required to be budgeted by the station. However, the station is to incorporate the following information provided by RHQ/CC: Interest budget The details of loans contracted, repayment schedule of outstanding loans, applicable rates of interest, etc are controlled at Corporate Centre and hence Corporate Centre should workout the interest cost for the year and allocate the same to the stations. These details should be communicated to the site along with the budget circular. Debtors budget The budget in respect of debtors and rebates based on the billing and collection pattern should be prepared by RHQ. The details should be communicated to the stations for inclusion in the initial budget proposal. For this purpose, the station should first communicate the generation targets to RHQ.

3.04

In overall terms the budget at the station level would consist of the following : Balance Sheet Profit and loss Account before taxes Cash Flow Statement

3.05

The description of various budgets and the basis of preparing the budgets are provided in Appendix I.

Budget heads 3.06 3.07 The budget estimates are to be prepared in respect of each account head as per the Chart of Accounts. However, the account heads should be consolidated into the specified budget heads for reporting purposes.

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

Budgeted cost statements 3.08 The budgeted cost statements should be prepared based on the methodology and formats as provided in the manual on the costing system.

Budget formats 3.09 3.10 The formats in which the budget estimates are to be prepared and the responsibility for preparation of the same, has been provided in Appendix V. The budget formats for the detailed budget are broadly classified under the following heads: Summary forms of budgeted Balance Sheet, Profit & Loss Account, Cash Budget, Operating Parameters and Schedules (A series) Month wise phasing of the budget estimates (Current year RE) B series

Responsibility for budget preparation 3.11 The primary entity for the budget preparation at the station will be the individual departments/ cost centres. Each department should prepare the budget for the activities that they are responsible and accountable for including related areas of work. For example: 3.12 Mechanical maintenance department should prepare the budget for repairs and maintenance for the various cost centres/ sub-cost centres (such as Boiler, Ash Handling Plant, Coal Handling Plant, etc.) HR department should prepare the employee related expenditure budgets (relating to salaries, LTC, medical, travel, training, etc), general administration expenditure (hire charges, security expenses, stationary, electricity, postage, guest house expenses, etc) Town Administration department to prepare budgets for the relevant sub cost centres like horticulture, maintenance of residential quarters, roads, etc

The responsibility for co-ordinating the entire budget exercise at the stations is as follows: Maintenance Planning Section (MTP) and Operation and Efficiency Section (O&E) These sections are responsible for the co-ordination of the budget process of all O&M sections. They are to prepare the Operating parameters budget (physical budget) and also to examine / review the budget proposals made by the O&M sections. F&A Department The F&A department is responsible for co-ordinating the entire budget preparation exercise (including the budget preparation exercise by the non-O&M departments). Its responsibilities include: Distribution of the budget circular to initiate the budgeting process Co-ordination with the O&E and MTP sections with respect to preparation of the budgets for the O&M departments Interacting with the non-O&M departments for setting up the targets

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Compilation of the budgets prepared by the various departments and presentation to the various committees for deliberation and approval Co-ordinate , compile and submit final budget along with monthly phasing Communication of the final budget to the various departments

Budget preparation process 3.13 3.14 The overall budget preparation process is provided in Appendices II and III. The budget proposal is to be formulated in two stages i.e. 3.15 Initial Budget proposal Final Budget (as per the approved initial proposal)

The initial budget proposal should contain the following along with necessary justifications and explanations: Main documents Summary of budget parameters Budgeted Balance Sheet Budgeted profit and loss account Budgeted cash flow statement cash from operations Purchase Budget Physical targets for the year O&M expenses Budget R&R/ Energy conservation and Ash Utilisation Budget

Supporting documents 3.16 Calendar of planned outages Cost centre wise details of O&M expenses (as applicable)

The initial budget proposal should be prepared for the yearly targets the monthly phasing of the targets are to be provided in the final budget. The budgets should be revised by the stations based on the approved initial budget proposal. A copy of the finalised budget is to be submitted to the respective RHQ and to CC.

Budget Review Process 3.17 The budget for the station should be reviewed and finalised by the station (O&M) budget committee consisting of : General Manager (Station) O&M In-charge All Head of departments

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3.18

The station budget committee has the following functions: To review the overall physical targets for budget preparation To review the budget proposals of the individual departments To decide priority of allocation of resources for the individual cost centres

3.19

The budget proposal as finalised by the Budget Committee should be forwarded through RHQ to CC for approvals.

BUDGETING AT THE RHQ LEVEL 3.20 The RHQs are responsible for budgeting for the expenses of RHQ and the other offices under their control. The budget estimates should be prepared in respect of the following : 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 Employees cost Administration and general expenditure of RHQ Debtors and Rebates

The debtors and rebate budget estimates should be communicated to the respective stations for inclusion in the initial budget proposal. The RHQ should review the station-wise initial budget proposals and consolidate the budget estimates for the region as a whole i.e. the Regional Budget. The Regional budget should be reviewed by the Executive Director (ED), RHQ and recommend the same for approval to CC. The initial budget proposal (station wise) is to be reviewed with respect to the following key aspects: Budgeted physical parameters Budgeted O&M cost as compared to norms Budgeted return on capital employed as compared to norms

3.25 3.26

The budgeting activities at RHQ are to be co-ordinated by the F&A department, RHQ. The RHQ should forward the following to CC: Initial Budget proposal Station wise Consolidated Regional budget

3.27

On approval of the budget by CC, the RHQ should communicate the approved initial budget proposal to the respective stations to prepare the final budget estimates.

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BUDGETING AT THE CC LEVEL 3.28 The budgeting exercise at CC is to be co-ordinated by the F&A department Commercial Section.

Budgeting process at CC 3.29 CC is responsible for preparing the budget estimates in respect of the following : 3.30 3.31 Employees cost of CC Administration and general expenditure of CC Interest on working capital Other income, such as income on investments, etc Consultancy budget

The above budgets should be prepared simultaneously with the preparation of initial proposals by the stations. However, the budget for interest on long- term debts and the allocation of the same should be carried out in the beginning of the financial year and communicated to the stations along with the budget circular. The budget estimate for working capital should be based on the working capital as per the approved initial budget proposal and the same should be communicated to the stations for the necessary adjustment in the final proposal.

3.32

Review of the initial budget proposals 3.33 On receipt of the initial budget proposals of the stations as recommended by the Regional ED, the F&A department at CC should compile the following for the company as a whole: 3.34 Balance Sheet Profit and loss statement Cash Flow Statement

The initial budget proposal of the stations along with the Balance Sheet, Profit and loss and cash flow statement for the company should be circulated to the following departments for their review and comments thereon: Corporate Planning Corporate Materials Management Corporate Operation Services (OS) Corporate Commercial Corporate Engineering Corporate HR

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3.35 3.36

The comments of each of the above departments should be consolidated by the F&A Deptt Commercial Section and presented to the Budget Committee, CC for their consideration. The initial budget proposal as approved by the Corporate Budget Committee should be communicated to the RHQ.

Budget Committee 3.37 The budget committee at CC to have the following members: Chairman and Managing Director All functional directors/ executive directors

Final Budget 3.38 The final budget (prepared on the basis of the approved initial budget proposal) giving the detailed budget estimates are to be received from the respective stations through the RHQ. This final budget to form the basis for monitoring the performance of the station.

INTERFACE WITH OTHER SYSTEMS 3.39 The O&M budget should be integrated with the financial accounting and costing system in the following manner: Financial Accounting system Account codes Reporting of actuals Data base for the past performance

Costing system Cost centre codes Reporting of actuals Database for past performance

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4.00 BUDGET PERIOD AND TIME SCHEDULE 4.01 The budget should be prepared for the financial year. The process of preparation of the budget to start in the month of January and the final approved budget for the next financial year should be in place by the 31st of March. The budget estimates should be prepared in respect of the following: 4.03 Revised estimates for the next financial year Budget estimates for the year thereafter

4.02

The time frame to be followed for the budgeting process is as under: Activity Station Issue of Budget Circular Commencement of the budget exercise Formulation of initial budget proposal Review of initial budget proposal by the Station Budget Committee and submission to RHQ Compilation of Regional Budget Review of regional budget by ED, RHQ and submission to CC Compilation of budgeted Balance sheet, Profit and Loss Account and Cash Flow Statement Circulation of initial budget proposal and budgeted Balance sheet, Profit and Loss Account and Cash Flow Statement to the various departments Consolidation of comments of various departments Review of the initial budget proposal and discussions with the stations Presentation of budget to Corporate Budget Committee and approval thereon Intimation of approved budget to RHQ Preparation of Final Budget and forwarding to RHQ and CC By 30th April 1st week of January By 1st week of February By 10th of February By 15th of February By 25th of February By last day of February By 1st week of March By 3rd week of March By the 25th of March By 31st March Time frame RHQ

CC 1 week of January
st

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5.00 BUDGET MONITORING SYSTEM 5.01 The expenditure against budgets should be monitored in the following manner: Monitoring prior to incurring an expenditure (pre-control) Monitoring after the expenditure has been incurred, based on the actual performance (post-control)

Pre-control 5.02 Pre-control should be carried out in the following manner: Post-control 5.03 The post control exercise would consist of review of the periodic reports on the actual performance against budgets. The monthly/quarterly performance should be reviewed at the following levels: 5.04 Monthly Operations Review meetings at stations to review the physical targets against the budget estimates Monthly Budget Review meetings to review the actual expenditure and working capital as against the budget estimates for the period Review by the ED, Region review of the physical and financial performance Review at CC - review of the physical and financial performance The periodic reports should provide the following: Monthly reports Actual vs. budget estimates and the standards for the month Actual vs. budget till date and standards Review of proposals by the departmental officials (as per the delegation of powers) prior to sanctioning any expenditure w.r.t. availability of budget Review of proposals by the Finance Concurrence Department

Quarterly reports 5.05 Expected performance for the balance period (at quarter-end)

The respective departments should indicate the reasons for any variances in the physical and financial performance. The actions required to achieve the budgets or to control the variances should be discussed and agreed in the respective review meetings. The minutes of the review meetings should be documented and enclosed with the MIS reports to be submitted to CC.

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Appendix I DESCRIPTION OF BUDGETS 1.01 This section provides a description of the various budgets and the basis for preparing the budgets.

BUDGET ESTIMATES STATIONS GENERATION BUDGET 1.02 The key factor to the budgeting exercise is the generation budget. The generating stations are expected to operate at the rated capacity after the stabilisation period subject to technical constraints and limitations. Considering the tariff structure of Availability Based Tariff (ABT), the generation targets should be fixed in such a manner that the disincentives are avoided or minimised. The generation should be budgeted unit-wise in terms of availability, gross generation, auxiliary and utility consumption and net generation (as described below).

1.03

Gross generation 1.04 1.05 The gross generation would depend upon the generating capacity, plant availability factor (PAF) and the loading factor. The PAF i.e. the total number of hours that the unit is available for generation during the budget period should be budgeted keeping in view the following: 1.06 1.07 Planned outage hours based on the annual maintenance schedule Forced outage hours for breakdown maintenance Closure due to non-availability of fuel

Further, the partial loading of units due to technical constraints is to be considered for target setting. In case a unit is to be commissioned during the year, the expected date of commercial generation should be considered for estimating the generation. The guidelines for declaration of commercial operation are provided in Appendix IV.

Net generation 1.08 1.09 The net generation should be determined after deducting the auxiliary consumption from the gross generation. The Energy Sent Out (ESO) should be determined after deducting the consumption by utilities (like township) from the net generation.

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Auxiliary consumption and Consumption by Utilities 1.10 The consumption by each of the individual unit auxiliaries, station auxiliaries as well as the transformer losses should be estimated based on the design specifications. Consumption by the utilities (township, etc) should be estimated by the respective departments. The common consumption by the station auxiliaries and utilities should be pro-rated in the ratio of the generation of the units to ascertain the unit wise net generation and ESO.

COST BUDGETS Fuel Budget 1.11 Fuel should be budgeted for considering the following: 1.12 Heat Rate Specific oil consumption GCV of oil Quantity of oil Heat input from coal (i.e. Heat rate heat input from oil) GCV of coal Quantity of coal Transit and handling losses of coal

The above estimates should be prepared after considering the following: Machine condition Budgeted operating plan

Fuel consumption Quantity 1.13 In order to budget for the fuel consumption for the station in quantity terms, the first step should be to fix the budgeted heat rate for the units and then consolidated for the station.

Fuel consumption cost 1.14 The fuel cost should be worked out for the budgeted quantity based on the current or contractual prices.

Other consumables budget Water 1.15 The consumption of various types of water should be estimated by the O&E department based on the design norms and the budgeted generation. The consumption should be valued at the current prices including pollution cess (as applicable). The estimate for water should not include the cost of treatment, if any (these are to budgeted under the budget head of Chemicals consumption)

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Chemicals consumption 1.16 The chemicals are required for treatment of water. The consumption would thus be based on the budget estimates of water consumption (as determined above). The Chemistry Department shall provide the chemical consumption budget. The valuation of the chemicals should be based on the current or contractual prices.

Employee cost budget 1.17 The employee budget should be prepared department wise. The budget should indicate the total manpower for each category (viz. Executives, supervisor and workmen) and the manpower cost.

Manpower nos 1.18 The manpower numbers should be considered based on the existing manpower and also the likely changes (additions/deletions) during the period.

Manpower cost 1.19 The manpower cost should be budgeted under the following heads: Salaries and wages (including all allowances) Overtime Contribution to PF Welfare expenses Medical LTC Canteen Grants to welfare organisations Other expenses

1.20

Salaries and wages should be considered at the existing levels after adjusting for likely grade-wise additions/deletions and a provision for promotions and increments.

Repairs and maintenance 1.21 1.22 The Repairs and Maintenance (R&M) budget should deal with the total outlay for the budget period covering material cost, payment to contractors and other costs. The respective O&M departments should prepare the R&M budget for each cost centre and sub cost centre for the following activities:

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Non discretionary 1. 2. 3. 4. Overhaul Breakdown Preventive Routine

Discretionary 5. Reliability 6. Exceptional

1.23

The R&M cost should be budgeted under the following heads: I. Materials Spares Consumables Lubricants Tools and plants II. Jobs

1.24

The R&M budget should be accumulated separately for the following category of fixed assets: Plant and machinery Buildings and other Assets Township

1.25

The budget estimates for the R&M expenditure should be based on the planned maintenance schedules. The proposal should also indicate the one-time / non-recurring expenses during the last year.

Station and general overheads budget 1.26 The F&A department should prepare the administrative expense budget in consultation with the P&A department, Autobase, Materials management department, etc. The budget estimates should be made based on the requirements, the work orders issued/ continuing and the estimates provided by the various cost centres. The share in CC expenses should be provisionally considered based on the previous year in the initial budget proposal. For the final budget an adjustment should be made for the final expenses as communicated by CC.

1.27

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Depreciation 1.28 Depreciation should be calculated based on the capitalised values of the assets and the prescribed rates of depreciation. Depreciation should be calculated for the major groups of fixed assets as per the fixed asset schedule (Schedule IV of the Balance Sheet).

Interest on loans 1.29 Interest on loans should be included in the budget as communicated by CC.

Working capital interest 1.30 The budget estimates for interest on working capital should be included in the initial budget proposal based on the previous years figures. On receipt of the final figures from CC the necessary adjustments should be made in the final budget.

REVENUE BUDGETS 1.31 1.32 1.33 The sales revenue should be based on the ESO and the applicable tariff. In case of a station commissioned during the year the tariff rate to be adopted should be obtained from the Commercial Department - CC. No budget estimates are required to be made in respect of charges for Unscheduled Interchanges (UI).

Electricity duty (ED) 1.34 Electricity duty on auxiliary consumption, township and other consumption is to be estimated at the prevailing rates and on items as applicable under the relevant State Acts. However, for billing to SEBs the ED on auxiliary consumption is only to be considered. ED on township and others is to be absorbed by the company.

Other income 1.35 1.36 Miscellaneous income like arising from scrap sales, tender fees, sale of ash bricks, etc. should be assessed and included in the budget estimates. Interest income from loans given to employees should be based on the actual loans outstanding at the beginning of the year, likely repayments during the year, estimates of further disbursements and the applicable rates of interest.

WORKING CAPITAL BUDGET Purchase Budget 1.37 The Purchase budget for the year should be prepared based on the total requirement for materials as budgeted in the Maintenance Budget. The responsibility for preparing this budget would lie with the MTP and the Purchase departments.

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1.38

The following factors should be considered while framing the purchase budget:

The requirement for materials as per the maintenance budget The stock in hand, minimum safety stock The lead time for purchases Current market or contractual rates

CASH BUDGET 1.39 Based on the above budgets, the F&A department should prepare a cash budget for the station as a whole specifying the source wise cash inflows and outflows. The Cash budget should also indicate the capital items, loans and advances that are to be financed from O&M budget.

BUDGETED PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT AND BALANCE SHEET 1.40 The F&A department should prepare the budgeted Balance sheet considering the following: 1.41 Profit and Loss account Working capital budget Capital addition Changes in CWIP and construction stores MBOA budget Employee Loans and advances

The additions to CWIP should be as per the Construction budget.

II. BUDGET ESTIMATES RHQ RHQs EXPENDITURE BUDGET Employees budget 1.42 The employees budget should be prepared for all the categories of manpower covered under the RHQ offices and other offices covered by it (the basis as outlined for the station budget estimates should be adopted as applicable)

Administration and general expenditure budget 1.43 The F&A department should prepare the budget estimates for the general administration expenses based on the budgeted level of activities for the year. (the procedure outlined for the budget estimates preparation by the station should be adopted).

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22

SUNDRY DEBTORS AND REBATES 1.44 Based on the revenue budget - for energy sent out, the sundry debtors budget should be prepared. The budget estimates should take into account the sales level, arrangement for receivables, the expected collection level, etc.

CONSOLIDATION OF BUDGETS 1.45 The RHQ should consolidate the budget of the stations of the region.

BUDGET ESTIMATES CC CCs EXPENDITURE BUDGET 1.46 The budget estimates for employees cost and administration and general overheads should be prepared on the basis as outlined for the stations (as applicable)

INTEREST COST 1.47 The interest cost to be allocated to the station should be worked out by the Budget Section, CC based on the loan agreements (existing/ scheduled to be entered into during the year) and the loans allocated to the station. The interest should be allocated to the stations.

ALLOCATION OF CC EXPENSES 1.48 The budget estimates for the general and administration expenses of CC should be consolidated by the Book Section, CC and an allocation statement of the same should also be prepared and intimated to the stations by CC Commercial Finance Section. Based on the above budget estimates, the same should be included in the Budgeted Profit and Loss account of the Station in the final budget.

1.49

OTHER INCOME BUDGET 1.50 Budget estimates should be prepared for other income i.e. income from investments, interest income, income from consultancy wing, income from JVs, etc. The budget estimates should be prepared by the respective departments at CC (income from investments/ interest income by the Treasury/ Investment group, income from JVs by the JV cell, consultancy income by the Consultancy wing, income from management contracts by Finance Commercial, etc) and should be consolidated by the Book Section, CC. The income budget should be retained in the CC budget i.e. it should not be allocated to the stations.

1.51

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23

Appendix-II BUDGETING PROCESS The budgeting process to be followed has been provided in a flowchart II is described as under: Process 1 : Process 2 : Process 3 : Preparation, submission and approval of Initial budget Proposal Final Budget Monthly/ Quarterly reporting

Procedure: Preparation and submission of Initial Budget Proposal S. No 1 Person Frequency Responsible Issue a circular to all the stations for F&A By the 1st week compilation of the budget estimates Commercial, of January containing the following instruction/ CC information: 2 Target dates for submission of initial/final budget proposal Responsibility for preparation of estimates Approving authority Main issues to be addressed A list of formats/ documents to be submitted to RHQ and CC Any amendments effected to the formats/ basis of compilation, etc. from the previous year Circulars, if any, to be adhered to Interest on loans allocated to the stations Specific requirements, if any F&A Station By 1st week of January (within 3 days of CC-Fin Comms communication ) Activity Remarks

Receive the budget circular from CC Issue a circular to all the concerned departments/ sections for preparation of the estimates specifying the target dates for formulation of the budget estimates along with the formats for providing the estimates

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24

S. Activity No Preparation of budget estimates 3 Gross Generation budget Provide the following information to the O&E Group of stations:

Person Responsible

Frequency

Remarks

Estimated date for commercial Commissioni generation (applicable to new ng Group units) based on the criteria provided in Appendix IV Schedules for major overhaul and Maintenance Deptt preventive maintenance based on the following: The details of major and minor overhauls proposed during the year (unit-wise) Scheduled maintenance of any major equipment (other than unit overhauls) Grid demand and problems in evacuation, if any, based on the past experience and the prevailing Commercial Deptt scenario Availability of inputs coal, water, chemicals, etc. Fuel / Materials Management Deptt O&E Group/ MTP

By the 12th of January

Prepare the gross generation budget based on the information received from the various departments (as provided above). Also ascertain the incentives/ disincentives applicable for the above budgeted level of generation as per the prevailing Tariff Order. Finalise the budget for operating parameters after discussions with the concerned HODs and forward the same to the GM Station.

By the 2nd week of January

The Head of Operations and Maintenance

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

25

S. No 6

Person Frequency Responsible Review the budget proposal and after GM Station discussions with the respective officials, approve the generation targets. Circulate the approved budget for O&E/ Immediately generation and maintenance to all the MTP after departments / section heads for finalisation preparation of the budget proposals by the individual departments Prepare budget estimates in respect of O&M cost By the 3rd O&M, R&M in physical terms and centre heads week of after approvals of the HOD forward January to the O&E and MTP group. The estimates should be made for each cost center Review the budget estimates in light of the approved generation, operation parameters and the maintenance schedule and hold discussions with the concerned officials and finalise the same

Activity

Remarks

O&E/ MTP

10

Forward the above budgets to the F&A Deptt after approvals of the HOD O&M Sundry Debtors and Rebates Budget Forward the duly approved sales F&A Deptt, budget to RHQ Station Receive the sales budget from the station and prepare the budget for sundry debtors and rebates. Forward the duly approved debtors and rebates budget to the station F&A Deptt, RHQ

By the week January

3rd of

11

By the end of January

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S. No 12

Activity Non-O&M Budget estimates Generate the details of the actual expenditure incurred in respect of the following items and forward to the departments concerned: Employee cost (salaries, welfare expenses, overtime) Station overheads Provide the manpower budget based on the approved manpower budget from CC and the induction programme proposed for the year Prepare the budget estimates in the specified formats keeping in view the activities planned for the budget period and the relevant physical and financial parameters for the respective budget estimates.

Person Responsible F&A Deptt, Station

Frequency By the week January 2nd of

Remarks

HR Department Head of various Departments By the week January 3rd of

13

14

Generate the budget estimates and after approvals of the competent authority forward the same for review and consolidation. Review the budget proposals of the O&E/ MTP/ various departments in light of the F&A/ P&A following: The explanatory notes, if any provided by the department Overhaul plans Schedule of maintenance of individual equipment Reasonableness in quantity and rate used to compute the cost of materials Trend of expenditure in previous years Physical activities planned for the budget period.

By the 25th of January

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S. No 15

Person Responsible Discuss and finalise the budget O&E / MTP/ estimates with the individual F&A/ P&A departments / sections

Activity

Frequency By the 30th of January

Remarks

Consolidation of Budget Estimates 16 Consolidate the budget estimates and forward to the Station Budget Committee for review. Review of Budget Estimates 17 Review the budget estimates and hold discussions with the concerned officials. After review forward the budget to RHQ Budget Estimates of RHQ 18 Prepare the budget estimates for RHQ and the other offices under the control of the RHQ Forward the estimates to the ED, RHQ for his review and comments thereon. Compile the Regional budget and present to the ED (Region) for review Review the budget, hold discussions with the station officials and approve the budget

F&A Deptt

By the 1st week of February

Station Budget Committee

By the 10th of February

F&A - RHQ

By the 15th of February

19

F&A Region ED Region

20

Forward the budget to CC for review and approvals Estimates of CC Interest Budget 21 Prepare the interest budget estimates and a statement for allocation to the stations Forward the same to the stations along with the budget circular

Departmental heads

By the week January

1st of

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S. No 22

Activity Prepare the budget estimates for CC including that of the RHQs and T&CC offices (in respect of employee cost and overheads) and the interest budget for the company

Person Responsible Departmental heads

Frequency By end February of

Remarks

Get the estimates approved by the competent authority and forward to the F&A department for consolidation 23 Prepare the allocation statement of the common expenses and get it approved by the competent authority Approval of Budget CC 24 Receive the Regional and station budget Compile the following budgets (after considering the CC budget estimates) Balance Sheet Profit and Loss Account Cash Flow

F&A Book Section F&A Finance Commercial Group By end February of

25

Forward the compiled budget, regional budget and the station wise budgets to the following departments for their review and comments thereon: Corporate Planning Corporate Materials Management Corporate Operation Services Corporate Commercial Corporate Engineering Corporate HR Receive the budget estimates from Concerned By the 1st week the F&A Departmental of March heads Review the budget estimates and provide comments on the same to the F&A Commercial group

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S. No 26

Activity Consolidate the comments received from the various departments and present the budget estimates to the Corporate Budget Committee after incorporating the necessary changes as recommended by the various departments. Review and approve the Initial Budget Proposals Forward the approved Initial Budget Proposals and the Regional budget to the ED (Region) and stations

Person Responsible F&A Finance Commercial Group

Frequency

Remarks

27 28

Corporate Budget Committee F&A Finance Commercial Group

By 25th March By 31st March

of of

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30

Procedure : Final Budget S. No 1 2 Activity Receive the approved budget estimates from CC Discuss the budget as approved by the Corporate Centre with the respective departments Carry out the necessary amendments to the budget estimates and finalise the budget Forward the final budget estimates to the station budget Committee for his review Review, hold discussions with the officials of the departments. Person Responsible F&A Station O&E/ MTP/ F&A Frequency By 31st of March By 1st week of April Remarks

3 4 5

Budget CommitteeStation Forward the final budget to RHQ and F&A CC Station Receive the approved final budget F&A By from stations Finance April Commercial Group, CC RHQ- F&A Deptt

30th

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Process: Monthly/ Quarterly reporting

Process brief This process describes the procedure for generation of periodic reports for reporting the actual performance against the budget estimates. Procedure: Monthly Reports S. No 1 Activity Physical parameters and generation At the end of every month, capture the details of operating parameters, from the Online Plant Performance Monitoring System. Review the performance and compare with the budget estimates Forward the report for review at the Monthly Operations Review Meetings Actual expenditure vs. budgeted Generate a report of the actual F&A 7th of the expenditure incurred against budgets Department following after ensuring that the books for the month month have been closed Forward the report to the concerned departments for comments on the significant variations with the budget estimates Receive the comments from the various departments, compile the same and forward the reports along with the comments on the variances and present the same for review at the Monthly Budget Review Meetings Receive the report, review the same along with the comments of the officials, hold discussions with the respective officials (if required) and recommend the future course of action Forward the minutes of the meeting to the ED, RHQ and CC for review and monitoring Person Responsible O&E Department Frequency 1st of the following month Remarks

Budget Review Meetings

Monthly

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32

S. No 4

Person Frequency Responsible Report on the expected performance for the balance period Generate a report on the budgeted F&A Quarterly performance for the balance period Department (department wise) Forward the report to the various departments for review and comment in respect of significant variations Review the reports and provide the comments on the variations with the expected performance for the balance period and after approvals from the competent authority forward the same to the F&A Department for consolidation Receive the reports from the various departments. Consolidate the comments and present the same at the Budget Review Meeting for the month Review the reports, hold discussions with the concerned officials and recommend the future course of action Forward the report to RHQ and CC for their review

Activity

Remarks

Departmental Heads

F&A Department

Budget Review Meeting F&A Deptt, Station

Document - Records Document Title Report on Actual expenditure Vs. Budget estimates Cost centre-wise Report on Actual expenditure Vs. Budget estimates consolidated Report on the expected performance for the balance period Document Type MIR Frequency Monthly Distribution Department Heads F&A Deptt GM, Station Budget Review Meeting ED (Region) CC Budget Review Meeting ED (Region) CC

MIR

Monthly

MIR

Quarterly

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

33

Appendix III Criteria for declaring commercial operation Coal based units (a) All main equipment and auxiliary systems including fuel oil plant, coal handling plant, water treatment plant and ash disposal system, MGR have been commissioned to give adequate capacity to operate the unit. (b) All safety measures including segregating units in operation from units in construction and fire protection system have been put into service. (c) All permanent electrical supply systems including emergency supplies and instrumentation, control and protection systems for operating the unit have been put into service (d) Trial operation of the unit has been performed with the contractor and the trial operation report has been jointly prepared with the contractor and signed without absolving the contractor of his obligations under the contract. Trial operation of the unit shall be considered successful if a unit has operated continuously for 14 days out of which at least 72 hours should be a full load. (e) The unit has been in operation for a period at least 1000 hrs giving generation not less than 2500 kWh/KW/ year and shall cover the whole range of operation including full load for a minimum period of 72 hours. (f) In case some major shortcomings have been noticed because of which it had not been possible to carry out the trial operation of the unit as given above or to run the unit on stable load in view of force major conditions such as non availability of coal, non completion of MGR or other sub-systems, lack of system demand and reduction in generation imposed by REBs, etc. the period of six months from the date of synchronising or four months from the date of synchronising after bearing inspection whichever is earlier could be extended. Gas based units (a) Initial operation wherein the complete equipment has operated together with sub-systems and supporting equipments as a complete plant has been carried out. (b) All permanent electric supply including emergency supplies and instrumentation control and protection systems for operating the unit have been put into service. (c) All safety measures including segregating units in operation from units under construction and fire protection have been put into service.

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(d) Trial operation of the units has been performed with the contractor and trial operation report has been jointly prepared with the contractor and signed without absolving the contractor of his obligations under the contract. Trial operation of the unit shall be considered successful if a unit has operated for 14 days continuously out of which 72 hours shall be continuous operation in full load. (e) After successful completion of trial operation, a time period not more than 30 days for gas turbine shall be granted to complete the minor left over jobs and to permit adequate debugging of teething problems and unit shall be declared commercial immediately after the problems are attended to. (f) Even if it had not been possible to fulfil the conditions as mentioned above, the unit will be deemed to have been placed under commercial operation after a period not exceeding 2 months from the date of synchronisation. (g) In case of some major shortcomings have been noticed because of which it has not been possible to carry out the trial operation of the unit as given above to run the unit on sustained basis in view of forced major conditions such as non-availability of gas, lack of system demand and reduction in generation as imposed by REBs, etc. the period mentioned in para (f) above could be extended. Extension will be granted by CMD on initiation of proposal by GM project before two months after unit synchronisation. (h) For steam turbines of combined cycle the procedures for declaring commercial operation shall be same as mentioned above for coal stations to the extent applicable.

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

35

SUMMARY OF FORMS DESCRIPTION Main Forms Summary of Budget parameters Calendar of planned outages Budgeted Balance Sheet Budgeted Profit and Loss account Budgeted Return on Capital Employed Cash Budget Cash from operations Purchase Budget Working Capital Requirement Operation and Maintenance Targets Schedules Sales revenue Other revenues Consumption- Fuel Coal Gas Oil Naptha Consumption- Water O&M Expenses Employee Cost Repairs & Maintenance Maintenance Material Cost/ Jobs Consumption Chemicals and other consumables Administrative Cost Depreciation and Interest and other finance charges FORM NO Initial Budget Proposal Final Budget Monthly Phasing

A/00 A/01 A/02 A/03 A/04 A/05 A/06 A/07 A/08 A/S/01 A/S/02 A/S/03 A/S/04 A/S/05 A/S/06 A/S/07 A/S/08 A/S/08.1 A/S/08.2 A/S/08.3 A/S/08.4 A/S/08.5 A/S/09

(Quarterly phasing )

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36

REVIEW REPORTS Financial performance report Operating Results Financial performance report Return on Capital Employed Variance Analysis Report Report on expected performance for the balance period Note:

FPR/01 FPR/02 FPR/03 FPR/04

In all the forms where the actual expenditure of the previous year is to be provisionally reported it should be on the basis of the actual expenditure incurred till December end and as anticipated for the next three months At the time of submission of the Final Budget, the actual expenditure for the previous year is to be provided

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Appendix IV
A/00 SUMMARY OF BUDGET PARAMETERS Overhauling Expenditure Unit I RE BE Boiler Capital Boiler Capital Rs/ Lakhs Rs/ Lakhs Rs/ Lakhs Rs/ Lakhs Unit Cross Ref. For the year ending Actual upto ------Ant. For -------Total RE BE Remarks Unit II Unit III -------Total

Description

PHYSICAL Generation Availability PLF Auxiliary Power Consumption (APC) ESO Normative APC Availability as per ABT [(ESO/100APC)/IC] Heat Rate Specific Oil

MU % % % MU % %

Kcal/Kwh ml/ Kwh

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38

Description

Unit

Cross Ref.

For the year ending Actual upto ------Ant. For -------Total

RE

BE

Remarks

Consumption Specific Cons of coal GCV of coal FINANCIAL

Kg/Kwh Kcal/kg Actual upto.. For the Balance period Total

Rs/ Lakhs R&M Overhauling Expenses- Capital - Boiler Other than Overhauling Rs/ Lakhs Employee Cost Rs/ Lakhs Station Overheads Rs/ Lakhs Total O&M Expenses Share in CC exp Rs/ Lakh Rs/ Lakh Total O&M including CC Rs/ Lakhs Net Profit % ROCE

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

39

A/01 CALENDAR OF PLANNED OUTAGES Station -------------------Responsibility : O&M Month Unit ---Reason From Hrs To Hrs Reason Unit ---From Hrs To Hrs Unit ----Reason From Hrs To Hrs Total Hours

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

40

Budgeted Balance Sheet Station: Responsibility : F&A Sl. No . A 1 2 Description Cross Ref. Actual (previous year) Budget Estimate (Current year) Form No. : A/02 Rs. / lakh Revised Estimate (Current year) Budget Estimate (next year)

3 4 B 1

2 3 4 5

SOURCES OF FUNDS Shareholders Funds - Capital - Reserves & Surplus Loan Funds - Loans from GOI - Foreign Loans - Cash credit from Banks Inter unit balance Inter unit cash credit TOTAL A APPLICATION OF FUNDS Fixed Assets Gross Block Less: Depreciation Net Block Capital Work in Progress Construction Stores and Advances Investments Current assets, loans and advances - Operation - Construction Sub Total Current liabilities and Provisions - Operation - Construction Sub Total Net Current Assets (5-6) - Operation - Construction Miscellaneous expenditure (to the extent not written off) TOTAL- B
Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

41

Budgeted Profit and Loss account Station: Responsibility : F&A Sl. No . A 1 2 B 1 Description Cross Ref. Actual (previous year) Budget Estimate (Current year) Form No. : A/03 Rs. / lakh Revised Estimate (Current year) Budget Estimate (next year)

INCOME Sales Revenue Other Revenues Total A EXPENDITURE Fuel cost a. Coal b. Oil c. Gas d. Naptha e. HSD Sub-total Water Charges O&M cost( excl CC) Finance charges a. Depreciation b. Interest on fixed capital c. Interest on working capital d. Rebate/ LC charges e. Provisions f. Prior period adjustments g. Others Sub Total TOTALEXPENDITURE (B) Station Profit / Loss Share of CC and Regional expense Net profit and Loss

A/S/01 A/S/02

A/S/03 A/S/04 A/S/05 A/S/06 A/S/07 A/S/08 A/S/09

2 3 4

5 C D E

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Budgeted Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) Station: Responsibility : F&A Sl. Description No. A BASIC PARAMETERS Capacity I As per Tariff (i) Capital cost (ii) Equity Capital (iii) Working capital - Debtors - Inventories - Others Capital employed II Budgeted Working capital - Debtors - Inventories - Loans and advances - Other current assets Less : Current liabilities Capital employed [A (iii) +B] Variance B REVENUE (i) Fuel recovery (ii) O&M Recovery (iii) Return on Equity (iv) Intt on Working capital (v) Incentive/ Disincentive (vi) Other Income Total C EXPENDITURE (i) Fuel Cost (ii) O&M Expenses (excl. CC (iii) share) Interest on working capital (including rebate and LC charges) Total D (i) Net Return (B-C) Return Before Interest [D(i) (ii) + C(iii)]
Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

Actual (previous year/ provisional)

Budget Estimate (Current year)

Revised Estimate (Current year)

Form No. : A/04 Rs. / lakh Budget Estimate (next year)

43

E F G H I

` J Note: The debtors and inventories as considered in tariff (A above) should be as per the tariff norms at current prices

Return as a % of capital employed (actual) (D/AII) Normative Return (% of normative capital employed) (D(ii)/AI) Variance in Return (E-F) Reasons for variance (details to be provided under the broad heads) Ratio of Actual W.Cap to Normative W. Cap (E/F) O&M cost per MW

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

44

Cash Budget Cash from operations Station: Responsibility : F&A Sl. Description No . A Form No. : A /05 Rs. / lakh Revised Budget Estimate Estimate (next year) (Current year)

C D

Budget Estimate (Current year) CASH FLOW FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES Net profit (as per Form A/03) Adjustment for non-cash items: - Depreciation - Amortized expenditure - Provisions - Others Operating profit before working capital changes Adjustment for working capital changes: - Sundry debtors - Inventories - Other current assets - Sundry creditors - Other creditors/ liabilities Cash generated from operations Operation funds utilised for capital/ other items:

Actual (previous year)

MBOA Employee Loans and advances E Net Cash Flows from operations (C-D) Note: The budget estimates for sales realisation to be provided by RHQ

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45

A/06 PURCHASE BUDGET RE/BE Station-------------Responsibility ------------------Sl. No Material Description Unit Opening Stock Purch ases during the year Material consumed during the year Closing Stock Closing stock in No of days consumption

1 2

Coal/ Gas/Naptha Oil Total

000 KT Rs /Lakhs KL Rs/Lakhs

3 4 5 6 7

Chemicals Consumables Spares Lubricants Others Total Grand Total

Rs/Lakhs Rs/Lakhs Rs/Lakhs Rs/Lakhs Rs/Lakhs Rs/Lakhs Rs/Lakhs

Note : The Material consumption during the year should tally with the Repairs and Maintenance Materials (as per A/S/07.3) and for chemicals as included in the O&M Expenses (as per format A/S/07.4)

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A/07 WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENT Station Responsibility : F&A S. Description No A Current Assets 1 Receivables 2 Inventory - Coal - Oil - Chemicals - Lubricants and consumables - Tools and plants - Spares - Others 3 Cash & Bank Balances 4 Loans & Advances 5 Others Total A B Current Liabilities 1 Liability - Materials - Expenses 2 Provisions 3 Others (specify) Total B Working Capital (A-B) C Interest on Working Capital @ cash credit interest rate of ..% D Actual interest on working capital debited by Corporate Center Actual Previous year BE Current year RE Current year BE Next year

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47

A/08 OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS PHYSICAL Station------------------------------Responsibility : O&M Particulars Unit Actual Actual For the Upto balanc e period RE Total BE

Capacity (A) Non-Availability - Overhaul - Breakdowns - Fuel Shortage - Grid restriction

MW %

Sub-total (B) Availability (A-B) % Generation (C) MU PLF % Auxiliary Consumption (D) % Net Generation E= (C-D) MU Consumption by Utilities- Construction power - Township - Others (specify) Sub-total (F) ESO (E-F) MU Normative Auxiliary Power % Consumption (As per Tariff) Availability under ABT % [(ESO/100-APC%)/ Ic] Heat rate Kcal/kw h Note : This statement is to be consolidated from the Unit wise statements as per A/08.1

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A/08.1 OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS PHYSICAL Station------------------------------Unit ---------------------------Responsibility : O&M Particulars Unit Actual Actual For the Upto balance period RE Total BE

Capacity (A) Non-Availability - Overhaul - Breakdowns - Fuel Shortage - Grid restriction Sub-total (B) Availability (A-B) Generation (C) PLF Auxiliary Consumption (D) Net Generation E= (C-D) Consumption by Utilities- Construction power - Township - Others (specify) Sub-total (F) ESO (E-F) Normative Auxiliary Power Consumption (As per Tariff) Availability under ABT [(ESO/100-APC%)/ Ic] Heat rate Note :

MW %

% MU % % MU

MU % % Kcal/kwh

This statement is to be consolidated from the Unit wise statements as per A/08.1

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49

A/S/01 SALES REVENUE Station Responsibility : Commercial/ F&A Station/ RHQ S. Description Unit Actual N Previous o year 1 Revenue from Sales - Fixed charges - Variable charges - Fuel Price Adjustment - UI charges - Incentive/ Disincentive - ED - Others Sub-total 2 Revenue from Own Consumption- Township - Others (to specify) Sub-total 3 Grand total OTHER REVENUE Station Responsibility : F&A S Description . N o 1 Operating income - Interest - Hire charges - Misc. receipts Total 2 Non- operating income - sale of fixed assets - profit on sale of surplus material - extra-ordinary income - others Total Grand Total Unit Actual Previous year BE Current year RE Current year BE Next year BE Current year RE Current year BE Next year

A/S/02

Rs.

Rs. Rs.

Rs. Rs. 50

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

A/S/ 03 FUEL CONSUMPTION COAL Station Responsibility : O&M S. No Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Grade of coal Average Calorific value Heat input Specific coal consumption (3/2) Generation Consumption (4*5) Handling loss Gross consumption (incl. Loss) Price Value (8* 9) Cost per Kcal [9/2] Cost per Kwh (11*3) Unit Actual Previous year BE Current year RE Current year BE Next year

Kcal/Kg Kcal/Kwh Kg/kwh MUs 000s MT % 000s MT Rs/MT Rs./lacs Ps PS / kwh

Note : - This information is to prepared unit-wise and then consolidated for the station - Handling losses to be indicated only in the consolidated station statement

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A/S/ 04 FUEL CONSUMPTION GAS Station Responsibility : O&M S. Description No Unit Actual Previous year BE Current year RE Current year BE Next year

1 Average Calorific value Kcal/Cum 2 Heat input Kcal/Kwh 3 Specific consumption (2/1) Cum/kwh 4 Generation Mus 5 Consumption (3*4) 000s Scm 6 Price Rs/Scm 7 Value (5*6) Rs./lacs 8 Cost per Kcal (6/1) Ps 9 Cost per Kwh (8*2) PS / kwh Note: The information is to be obtained unit-wise and then consolidated

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A/S/05 FUEL CONSUMPTION OIL Station Responsibility : O&M/ Commercial/ F&A S. Description Unit Actual BE RE BE No Previous year Current year Current year Next year 1 Average Gross Calorific Kcal/ lt value 2 Specific oil consumption Ml / kwh 3 Heat input (1*2) Kcal/ Kwh 4 Generation Mus 5 Consumption (4*2) KL 6 Price Rs/KL 7 Value (5* 6) Rs/ lacs 8 Cost per Kcal [6/1] Ps 9 Cost per Kwh (8*3) Ps/ kwh Note: This form needs to be filled up separately for the various categories of oil i.e. HSD/ HFO/ LDO/ LSHS The information is to be prepared unit-wise and then consolidated

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A/S/06 FUEL CONSUMPTION NAPTHA Station Responsibility : O&M/ Commercial/ F&A Sl. Description Unit No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Average Gross Calorific value Specific oil consumption Heat input (1*2) Generation Consumption (4*2) Price Value (5* 6) Cost per Kcal [6/1] Cost per Kwh (8*3) Kcal/ lt Ml / kwh Kcal/k wh Mus KL Rs/KL Rs/ lacs Ps Ps / kwh Actual Previous year BE Current year RE Current year BE Next year

Note: The information is to be prepared unit-wise and then consolidated

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

54

A/S/07 WATER COST Station Responsibility : O&M S. Description Unit Actual BE RE BE No Previous year Current year Current year Next year 1 Nature of input water 2 Total input quantity 000 mts 3 Rate Rs./MCM 4 Value (2*3) Rs./lakhs 5 Pollution Cess Rs./lakhs 6 Grand Total (4+5) Rs./lakhs Note : The information is to be obtained cost centre-wise and then consolidated The format is only indicative. Stations should provide the details as per the relevant agreements

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

55

A/S/08 O&M Expenses Station -------------------Rs/Lakhs Sl Description 1 Employee Cost Salaries & wages Overtime Contribution to PF and other Funds Medical exp Other Welfare Exp Total Repairs & Maintenance Plant & Machinery Overhauls - Material cost - Contractor & others Routine - Material cost - Contractor & others Breakdown - Material cost - Contractor & others Preventive - Material cost - Contractor & others Reliability - Material cost - Contractor & others Exception - Material cost - Contractor & others Ref format Past Performance 1 2 3 Current year BE RE Next year BE

A/S/8.1

2 (i)

A/S/8.2

A/S/8.2

A/S/8.2

A/S/8.2

A/S/8.2

A/S/8.2

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

56

A/S/08 O&M Expenses Station -------------------Rs/Lakhs Sl Description (ii) Buildings - Material cost - Contractor & others Township assets - Material cost - Contractor & others Other Assets - Material cost - Contractor & others Total Station/ Administrative Overheads Chemicals Other consumables Administrative Expenses R&R expenses Energy Conservation Ash Utilisation expenses Total (without CC exp) Share in CC expenses Grand Total(with CC) expenses Ref format Past Performance 1 2 3 Current year BE RE Next year BE

(iii)

(iv)

A/S/8.4 A/S/8.4 A/S/8.5

Note: The employee cost is to be included as per the manpower budget provided by HR Repairs and maintenance cost is to be provided cost-centre / department wise and then consolidated as per Form A/S/8.2 The consumption of chemicals ,is to be prepared cost centre wise and then consolidated The detailed list of one-time expenses is to be enclosed
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57

AS/8.1 EMPLOYEE COST Station Responsibility : HR/ F&A S. Description No A Manpower Executives Supervisors Non-supervisors Unit Nos. Actual Previous year BE Current year RE Current year BE Next year

Total B Employee Cost Salaries, Wages & allowances Executives Supervisors Non-supervisors Rs./lakhs

Overtime Contribution to PF & Other funds Welfare expenses - Medical - LTC - Canteen - Grants to welfare organisations - Others Total Note: The employee cost should be prepared department-wise and then consolidated

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

58

A/S/8.2 OPERATING PARAMETERS MATRIX REPAIRS & MAINTENANCE Station -------------------Cost Centre ---------------Rs. Lakhs Sl Description

Unit

Past Performance Year Year Year 3 1 2

Current year BE RE

Next year BE

Repairs & Maintenance Non- Discretionary Activities Overhaul - Material - Contractor cost & others Preventive - Material - Contractor cost & others Routine - Material - Contractor cost & others Break-down - Material - Contractor cost & others Discretionary activities Reliability - Material - Contractor cost & others Exceptional - Material - Contractor cost & others Total
Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

59

A/S/8.2 OPERATING PARAMETERS MATRIX REPAIRS & MAINTENANCE Station -------------------Cost Centre ---------------Rs. Lakhs Past Performance Current year Next year Note: This form is to consolidated from the details given in Form A/S/7.3 The details of one-time costs included in R&M costs above to be separately indicated

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

60

A/S/8.3 MAINTENANCE MATERIAL COST/ JOBS Station Responsibility : O&M S. Description No A Materials Spares - Annual Overhaul - Preventive Maintenance - Routine Maintenance - Breakdown - Reliability - Exception Sub- total Lubricants - Annual Overhaul - Preventive Maintenance - Routine Maintenance - Breakdown - Reliability - Exception Total Tools & Plants - Annual Overhaul - Preventive Maintenance - Routine Maintenance - Breakdown - Reliability - Exception Consumables - Annual Overhaul - Preventive Maintenance - Routine Maintenance - Breakdown - Reliability - Exception Others - Annual Overhaul
Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

Unit Rs./lakh s

Actual Previous year

BE Current year

RE Current year

BE Next year

Rs./lakh s

Rs./lakh s

61

- Preventive Maintenance - Routine Maintenance - Breakdown - Reliability - Exception Total Maintenance Jobs - Annual Overhaul - Preventive Maintenance - Routine Maintenance - Breakdown - Reliability - Exception Total Annual Overhaul Preventive Maintenance Routine Maintenance Breakdown Reliability Exception

Rs./lakh s

Rs./lakh s

Grand Total Note: The information is to be collected unit-wise department wise/ cost centre-wise and their consolidation The information shall also be used for the Purchase Budget under the column Consumption

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

62

A/S/8.4 CHEMICAL COST Station Responsibility : O&M S. Description No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Hydro chloric acid Sodium hydroxide Non-Ferric Aluminum Hydrazine -hydrate Chlorine Liquid Ammonia Others Unit Rs/ Lakhs Qty - do - do - do - do - do - do Actual Previous year BE Current year RE Current year BE Next year

Total

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

63

A/S/ 8.5 ADMINISTRATIVE COST Station Responsibility : F&A/ P&A Rs. Lakhs S. Description No Travelling Expenses Entertainment expenses

Actual Previous year

BE Current year

RE Current year

BE Next year

Note: The expenses should be budgeted as per the Chart of Accounts The expenses should be obtained from the various departments One time/ non-recurring expenses incurred/ proposed to be incurred for the previous year/ budget year should be separately detailed and enclosed

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

64

A/S/9 DEPRECIATION Station Responsibility : F&A Rs. Lakhs S. Description No Fixed Assets

Gross Block

Rate of Depreciatio n

Actual Previous year

BE Current year

RE Current year

BE Next year

Total Note: The fixed assets should be as per the chart of accounts/ Schedule IV

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

65

Appendix V
FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE REPORT OPERATING RESULTS For the month ended ---------------Form No: FPR/ 01 Station: Responsibility: F&A/ O&M S. NO Particulars Unit RE For the month Budget Actual variati on Upto the Month Budget Actual Variation

A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

PHYSICAL Generation Declared Availability PLF Auxiliary Consumption Net Generation Other Consumption Energy Sent Out (ESO) Scheduled ESO (SG) UI ( ESO-SG) Normative Auxiliary Power Consumption Availability (per ABT) PLF (per ABT) [scheduled ESO/ 1-APC%] Specific Consumption (Coal/ Gas/Naptha) Specific Consumption Oil/HSD Station Heat

MU % % MU % MU MU MU MU MU % % % Kg/ Kwh /Cu m/k wh Kl/ Kwh Kcal 66

14 15

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

S. NO

Particulars

Unit

RE

For the month Budget Actual variati on

Upto the Month Budget Actual Variation

Rate 16 17 18 19

GCV of Coal/ Gas/Naptha GCV of Kcal Oil/HSD Coal/ Rs/ Gas/Naptha price KG Oil/HSD price Rs/K L

/Kw h Kcal

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

67

S.NO 1 I II III IV V VI VII 2 I II 3 (I) II III 4 I II III IV V VI VII VIII

7 8 4

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE REPORT OPERATING RESULTS FOR THE MONTH ENDED Rs / Lakh Particulars RE For the month Up to the Month FINANCIAL Budget Actual Variation Budget Actual Variation INCOME Sales Revenue Variable FPA UI Charges Sub-total ( I+II+III) Fixed Charges Incentive / Incentive Other charges Total Sales IV+V+VI+VII Other Income Own consumption Other misc. income TOTAL INCOME (1+2) FUEL COST Coal / gas / Naphtha Oil Total of 3 Fixed cost O&M expenses (details as provided in Schedule A) Dep on Assets Interest Rebates/ LC charges Station finance charges Share in CC expenses Provisions Prior period adjustments ( specify) Total of 4 Total Cost (3+4) Net Profit/ (Loss) Marginal Contribution ( 1 (IV) 3 ( III ) 68

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE REPORT- Operating Results For the month ended ---------------Form No : FPR/ 01 / Schedule A Station--------------------Responsibility : F&A/ O&M S. No Rs / Lakhs Particulars RE For the month Budget 1 FINANCIAL DATA Employee Cost Salaries & wages Overtime Contribution to PF and other Funds Medical exp Other Welfare Exp Total Repairs & Maintenance Plant & Machinery Overhauls - Material cost - Contractor & others Routine - Material cost - Contractor & others Breakdown - Material cost - Contractor & others Preventive - Material cost - Contractor & others Reliability - Material cost - Contractor & others
Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

Up to the current month Budget Actual

Variance Month YTD

Reasons for variation

Actual

2 (i)

69

S. No

Particulars

RE

For the month Budget Actual

Up to the current month Budget Actual

Variance Month YTD

Reasons for variation

Exception - Material cost - Contractor & others Buildings Material cost - Contractor & others Township assets - Material cost - Contractor & others Other Assets - Material cost - Contractor & others Total Station/ Administrative Overheads Chemicals Other consumables Administrative Expenses R&R expenses Energy Conservation Ash Utilisation expenses Total (without CC exp) Share in CC expenses Grand Total (with CC) expenses

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

70

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE REPORT RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED For the quarter ended ---------------Form No : FPR/ 02 Station--------------------Responsibility : F&A/ O&M S. No A I (i) (ii) (iii) Particulars Basic Parameters As per Tariff Capital cost Equity Capital Working capital - Debtors - Inventories - Others Capital employed Budgeted Working capital - Debtors - Inventories - Loans and advances - Other current assets Less : Current liabilities Capital employed [A (iii) +B] Variance REVENUE Fuel recovery O&M Recovery Return on Equity Intt on Working capital Incentive/ Disincentive Other Income Total EXPENDITURE Fuel Cost O&M Expenses (excl. CC share) Interest on
Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

For the Quarter RE Actual

RE

YTD Actual

Variance Quarte YTD r

Reason s

II

B (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

C (i) (ii) (iii)

71

S. No

Particulars working capital (including rebate and LC charges) Total Net Return (B-C) Return Before Interest [D(i) + C(iii)] Return as a % of capital employed (actual) (D/AII) Normative Return (% of normative capital employed) (D(ii)/AI) Variance in Return (E-F) Reasons for variance (details to be provided under the broad heads) Ratio of Actual W.Cap to Normative W. Cap (E/F) O&M cost per MW

For the Quarter RE Actual

YTD RE Actual

Variance Quarte YTD r

Reason s

D (i) (ii) E F

G H

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

72

VARIANCE ANALYSIS REPORT Form No : FPR/ 03 Station--------------------Responsibility : F&A/ O&M S. No 1 2 3 4 5 Nature of Variance Budgeted Profit/Loss Capacity Variance Standard Profit/loss Efficiency Variance Actual Profit/Loss Key Amount of Variance Upto this month Upto previous month

ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY VARIANCE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Coal/Gas/Naptha Usage HFO Usage LDO Usage Coal price HFO price LDO price Gas/Naptha price Expenses Aux. Consumption (sales) Tariff SP (SQ-AQ) SP (SQ-AQ) SP (SQ-AQ) AQ (SP-AP) AQ (SP-AP) AQ (SP-AP) AQ (SP-AP) SE-AE ST (SESO-AESO) AESO (ST-AT)

TOTAL AUX. CONSUMPTION VARIANCE 1 2 Cost Variance Profit Variance

Note: The adverse variances should be shown in brackets

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

73

DEFINITIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 SP AP SQ AQ SE AE ST AT SESO AESO SCU ACU SPT Standard Price Actual Price Standard Quantity Actual Quantity Standard Fixed Expenses Actual Fixed Expenses Standard Tariff Actual Tariff Standard Energy Sent Out Actual Energy Sent Out Standard Cost per Unit Actual Cost per Unit Standard Profit per unit

Performance Budget Operation & Maintenance Budget

74

REPORT ON EXPECTED PERFORMANCE FOR THE BALANCE PERIOD Form No : FPR/ 04 Station : Responsibility : F&A/ O&M S. Particulars Unit No

RE

Upto the current quarter Budget Actual (2) (3)

Balance period Budget (4)

(1) A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PHYSICAL DATA Generation Declared PLF PLF Auxiliary Consumption Net Generation Other Consumption Energy Sent Out (ESO) Scheduled ESO Normative Auxiliary Power Consumption Availability (per ABT) PLF (per ABT) [scheduled ESO/ 1APC%] Specific Consumption (Coal/ Gas/ Naptha) Specific Consumption Mu % Mu % Mu Mu Mu Mu % % % Kg/K wh Cum/ kwh Kl/

Total expected for the year Expected perform ance (5) (6)= (3) +(5)

Variance

Reasons for variance (8)

(7) = (1)-(6)

14

75

S. No

Particulars

Unit

RE

Upto the current quarter Budget Actual (2) (3)

Balance period Budget (4)

(1) 15 16 17 18 19 B 1 I Ii iii IV V VI VII 2 3 Oil Station Heat Rate GCV of Coal/ Gas/ Naptha GCV of Oil Coal/ Gas/ Naptha price Oil price FINANCIAL DATA INCOME Sales Revenue Variable FPA UI charges Sub-total variable charges(I+II+III) Incentive/Disincentive Fixed charges Other charges Total sales (IV+V+VI+VII) Own Consumption Other Income Total Income(1+2+3) Kwh Kcal/ Kwh Kcal Kcal Rs/ KG Rs/K L Rs/la khs

Total expected for the year Expected perform ance (5) (6)= (3) +(5)

Variance

Reasons for variance (8)

(7) = (1)-(6)

76

S. No

Particulars

Unit

RE

Upto the current quarter Budget Actual (2) (3)

Balance period Budget (4)

(1) 4 I II 5 I II III Iv V 6 I II 7 8 9 FUEL COST Coal/Gas/Naptha Oil Total (I+II) Fixed cost O&M expenses Including cc exp Dep on Assets Interest on loan Rebates & LC charges Other station finance charges Provision & PP adjustments Prior period adjustments Provisions Total Total Cost(4+5+6) Net Profit/ (Loss) Marginal Contribution

Total expected for the year Expected perform ance (5) (6)= (3) +(5)

Variance

Reasons for variance (8)

(7) = (1)-(6)

Note: the details of O&M expenses shall be as per Form No : FPR/ 01 / Schedule A

77