This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Traditional food within the tourism destination marketing
P58905 CONTEMPORARY ISSUES Dr Alexandros Paraskevas
13. 02. 2012
Title: Traditional food within the tourism destination marketing Purpose: To examine if the traditional food can be successfully used for the purposes of destination marketing and what are the limitations of its applicability. Design/methodology/approach: A broad variety of scholar publications are critically discussed, most of them recently published (2000 – 2012), but also including some of the fundamental concepts, dating back in the 70s and 80s. Predominantly used are scientific journal articles from the electronic databases EBSCOhost electronic journals service, Academic search complete and Emerald fulltext and to lesser extent books. The sources are organised into sections: destination marketing, food within the tourism experience, typologies of tourists, current issues in the tourist consumer behaviour and development of destinations in connection with traditional food Findings: The traditional food can be successfully implemented in the destination marketing. However, in order to determine the correct scope of the implementation, it is important to consider the target tourists’ attitudes towards unfamiliarity as well as the trends in tourist consumer behaviour and the destination’s current state and future development in connection with traditional cuisine. Limitations: Very few are the works, which comment the variety of tourists’ attitudes towards traditional food within the tourism experience. No primary research was conducted in order to support the findings of the article. Practical implications: In order successfully to use the traditional food in the destination marketing, the potential customers’ attitudes towards novelty should be researched and taken into consideration. Important is also the actual connection between traditional food and the destination. Both people’s attitudes and links between local cuisine and destination can be influenced by marketers. Originality/Value: It is the first article that makes recommendations about the scope of the implementation of traditional food within the destination marketing regarding typologies of tourists, contemporary tendencies in the tourist consumer behaviour and destinations development in terms of gastronomy
Introduction Marketing plays a significant role for the success of a destination (Prideaux and Cooper, 2002). Destination marketing in the traditional sense is the promotion of the destination to its target segment, or identifying and addressing the consumers who would be attracted by the destination’s products (Collier, 1999, Kotler and Gertner, 2002). Lately destination marketing is also seen as a strategic development mechanism for reaching balance between all stakeholders’ interests and sustainability of the local resources (Kotler et al. 1993, Buhalis, 2000). Destination marketing is an important concept nowadays, when people could choose from steadily increasing number of destinations (Pike, 2005, Morgan et al., 2002). Destinations are vigorously competing for tourists and in order to distinguish themselves they have to emphasise on their unique products (Buhalis, 2000,
Okumus et al. 2007, Dioko and So, 2012). Moreover, contemporary tourists are very often well experienced in travelling, educated and can get easily informed (King, 2002, Mohsin, 2004, Hassan, 2008), so in order to attract potential visitors it is important that destinations address them in the most effective way. Owing to its major importance for the destination’s success, the topic destination marketing has been widely researched by the scholars. The main challenge for marketers is that the destination has a very comprehensive essence, consisting of all the products and services offered at the place (Buhalis, 2000, Pike, 2005, Murphy et al., 2000). The entity of the destination suggests that there are many stakeholders and as a result destinations are very difficult to be managed and promoted (Pike, 2005 Buhalis, 2000, Prideaux and Cooper, 2002, Gretzel et al., 2006). This requires the existence of destination marketing organisations, whose main role and purpose is to provide a unified strategy and facilitate a coherent development of the destination (Prideaux and Cooper, 2002, Blumberg, 2005). There are many works, which study the roles, responsibilities and best strategies for destination marketing organisations (Gretzel et al., 2006, Pike, 2005, Blumberg, 2005, King, 2005). Many researches have been conducted about the means, used by the destinations for the purpose of marketing. It is agreed that the destination image has a significant power to attract tourists (Pike, 2005 Buhalis, 2000, Prideaux and Cooper, 2002, Gretzel et al., 2006, Morgan et al, 2002). However, commonly used in the marketing are many other destination’s dimensions – the natural resources (Waitt et al., 2003, Middleton and Hawkins,1998), the culture (Boyd, 2002, Richards, 2007), the facilities
McKercher. 2003). The aim of this article is to examine if the traditional cuisine can be effectively used for the purposes of destination marketing and what is the scope of its applicability. Cohen and Avieli. Long. 2003.. 2007. Okumus et al.. destination marketing and food within the tourism experience. but they do not make practical recommendations about the extent to which destination marketing can employ the traditional food. After analysing the two bodies of literature. The challenges and opportunities in their marketing implementation are widely researched. 3 . B. 2003. Cohen and Avieli. Boniface. Jansen-Verbeke.. 2004). Hall et al. Law and Au. 2003. 2006. 2001) and many more. 2004. 2007. or food as a major motivation to visit a particular destinations (Mak et al. 2008). The academic works are mostly descriptive and do not see the cuisine from the perspective of marketing instrument. while some marketing means are extremely popular in both academia and industry. 2004. 2003. the attractions (Morse. 2011). 2011. Okumus. Frochot. 2001. Nevertheless. 2003. but the extent to which the traditional food can be successfully implemented in the destination marketing depends on the attitudes of the target tourists towards unfamiliarity and the destination development in terms of gastronomy. Rand et al 2003. Boniface. Frochot. Mak et al.. Chalip et al. Also the level of significance of food within the tourism experience is researched – when offering the home comfort it is supportive experience. 1991. it is concluded that they interrelate. not specifically food tourism) and destination marketing (Rand and Heath. when presenting novelty and memorable moments it is a peak experience (Quan and Wang. 2002. Hassan. Recently there is a growing interest in the literature about food tourism. some of the works discuss the role of food tourism within the destination marketing (Boniface. F. B. Long. Richards. Turner and Reisinger. 2000. 2004. One example is the traditional food of the destination. Few authors have researched the food in terms of its marketing and promotional abilities for a destination and the amount of studies does not match the practical potential of the relationship traditional food-destination marketing. others remain insufficiently researched and their practical implications are underestimated.and infrastructure (King. Hall and Sharples. 2003. Richards. They discuss the nature of the food experience: as biological necessity (Ritchards 2002. 2003). Only few are the publications. 2007. 2004) as culture and authenticity carrier (Okumus. 2004). as pure delight (Long. 2005). where the authors explicitly connect the traditional food experience (in its general sense.
Tourists ‘consume destinations’ without realising that they consist of many different products and services. the tourism destination define the total tourism experience (Murphy et al. the authors propose that a destination is considered mainly as a geographical region. 2000). 2005). The older one takes into consideration just its physical characteristics as a place. 572) is that a tourism destination is ‘a public geographical region. The concept of destination competitiveness was primary researched from the perspective of destination image and attractiveness (Enright and Newton. Because the destination competitiveness is a very important part of the industry. 2005). island. As a destination they also identify big cities and major attractions (Disney World. Definition given by Bornhorst et al.Literature review Destination marketing There are two main concepts about the essence of the tourist destination (Blumberg. Ritchie and Crouch (2003) have a similar perception about the destination as a place. 2005). 2000). political jurisdiction. The newer scholar perception of a destination is that it is a mixture of specifically touristic products and services (accommodation. Pike. which seeks to provide visitors with a range of satisfying to memorable visitation experiences’.1989. And because geographical and political boundaries very often overlap. 2000). Therefore it should be regarded as a marketing unit (Blumberg. means of transport. In order to succeed destinations have to possess competitiveness. Because it embodies everything that can be consumed or experienced while on holiday. 2005) and as a central figure in the tourism competition (Ritchie & Crouch. cited in Blumberg. food and beverages. which have different producers and managers (Buhalis. or as a fixed geographical region – country. The destination is the experience itself or it could be considered as a macroproduct (Travis. is the experiences and products it offers and not its specific physical characteristics. 1997. So the leading conception when determine a place as a destination.. offering tourism experiences. 2004). 2000. Versailles Palace) which offer a variety of visitation experiences and could compete in attractiveness with many larger geographical entities. Vukonic. entertainment) as well as public goods (nature. where the journey occurs (Blumberg. architecture. In earlier studies image and attractiveness are considered to be determined by the 4 . atmosphere) (Buhalis. 2005). p. it is of growing interest for policy makers and people in the business (Ritchie & Crouch. or major attraction. 2000). city. (2010.
. Buhalis (2000) also refers to destination marketing as a well-considered 5 . As a result marketing is an important issue when trying to manage a successful destination (Prideaux and Cooper. Okumus et al. Dioko and So. to research their characteristics and to position the products using appropriate campaigns (Mohsin. The statement is supported by Kotler and Gertner (2002). 2004). (1993.destination’s attributes such as climate and scenery (Chon. climate. 2000). 2000. instead of trying to invent new products which satisfy a particular target market. management. Effective marketing leads to destination’s growth (Prideaux and Cooper. Mohsin. considering it as targeted promotion of the destination. 1991. 2002). Werthner and Klein. Hu and Ritchie. In order to address the correct target markets. On the one hand destinations worldwide are becoming more rival and therefore need to distinguish themselves from the others by emphasising on their unique products (Buhalis. Dwyer and Kim (2003) make a distinction between destinations’ competitive advantages (infrastructure. 2005). Collier (1999) refers to the definition narrowly. 16. 2002. destination marketing is ‘market-orientated strategic planning’. However. which is determined by the destination’s core product. 1993). in order to communicate with the actual and potential customers in the most effective way. Mohsin. 1998. 2004. cited in Blumberg. et al. 2012). 2002). the marketers in the industry have to take into consideration the motives and requirements of the actively demanding as well as of potential visitors (Buhalis. 2007. According to Kotler et al. p. Buhalis (2000) adds the importance of the uniqueness of the products and services offered as well as the meaning of the suppliers.. become better educated about the destinations and search information by themselves (King. 2008). Hassan. culture). which is successful only when all stakeholders in the process (citizens. 1999. staff) and comparative advantages (nature. Destination marketing is examined from two perspectives. The core aim of tourism destination marketing is to attract visitors by introducing relevant information (Buhalis. who argue that different places attract different people and destinations should be very specific when deciding what they want to promote and to whom. He also claims that the destination should find and attract the market segment. 2004). On the other hand tourists nowadays are more experienced and independent. there is another way of understanding about the essence of destination marketing. which have to interrelate so that the destination is competitive. businesses and tourists) are satisfied.
called tourism marketing organisations (DMO) (Prideaux and Cooper. Prideaux and Cooper. Ritchie and Crouch (2000) claim that destination marketing’s main objective is long term effect on regional sustainable development. but severely compete against each other.strategy which aims not only to attract more visitors. although scholars give different definitions of tourism destination marketing. so there is a wide range of target groups (Prideaux and Cooper. but also to improve the destinations’ sustainable development. Then some authors add. decrease seasonality and avoid stagnation. it is clearly described as a strategic concept and its initial aim is to attract visitors. It must lead to the optimisation of tourism impacts by balance between strategic objectives of all stakeholders as well the sustainability of local resources. Prideaux and Cooper (2002) add another element to the role of destination marketing. environment. which makes the destination strategic planning more complicated. The businesses or the suppliers in the tourism industry are very often small firms. The second possibility is that destination marketing organisation and individual tourism operators work together for achieving shared goals. They pay attention to the importance of attracting more sellers. Destinations are very difficult to manage and market because they are ‘multidimensional’ (Pike. They could vary in 6 . 2002. 2002. The one is to concentrate on the promotion and mainly on advertisement. they have complex character and the wide range of stakeholders – government. namely marketing to the supply side. As a result destination marketing is a mechanism for coordination between the region development goals and tourism policies. which consists of both domestic and international components. this competition take place in a heterogeneous market. businesses. that achieving sustainable development in the destination should be the long term effect of its marketing. 2006). 2002). Pike. which do not cooperate and coordinate. Lately the governments realise the importance of destination marketing for the tourism development and start funding tourism marketing structures. Moreover. To summarise. 2005) . Middleton (1994) makes a distinction between two possible strategies in destination marketing. Gretzel et al. so that an awareness and interest among the target market is created. 2000. authorities. public (Buhalis. 2005 ).. for example the infrastructure. which could be achieved by improvement of the destination’s public goods and services.
images of the countries help people evaluate their products and services (Kotler and Gertner. In addition they are non-profit entities with the objective to enhance the unique image of the destination (Gretzel et al. 2002). While the brand is a conception that gives consumers a general perception of a destination. 2005 ). and therefore one of the most effective elements of destination marketing is branding (Prideaux and Cooper. DMOs determine and follow strategic objectives which are common and beneficial for all stakeholders within the destination (Blumberg. or according to Buhalis (2000) the most influential factor on the choice of destination is its image. unique heritage. 2002). One of the main. 2002). In order to operate effectively DMOs have to be supported in terms of strategic planning by local and national authorities as well as the private sector (Prideaux and Cooper. 2006). professional staff and friendly local people (Morgan et al. In addition. which marketers have to research. sociocultural resources etc. As the local residents support the destination by providing it with products and services. Even if not intentionally created. in order most successfully to position the destination among the proper target market and to promote it.. 2002). It is the brand name that actually makes the difference and incite the customer to prefer one destination to another. 2005). There is a huge variety of tools used for destination marketing. Therefore today. but have the same character of institutions that govern a marketing strategy of the destination as a unit (Prideaux and Cooper. nature. as never before.. Pike. 2002). 2002. it is important that destinations create and keep easy recognisable image and successful brand. 2002. it allows added value to its products (Martinovic. are branded together and associated with the destination (Buhallis. Nowadays consumers are ‘spoilt’ by the significant number of destinations available (Pike. Gilmore (2002) claims that the thoughtfully created brand image is a destination’s competitive advantage. the interests and demand of the local communities should always be taken into consideration in order to achieve not only temporary growth but also a sustainable development of the destination (Prideaux and Cooper. such as luxury resorts. 2005) and each destination claims to offer all the same resources. 2002). 2002). The visitors’ choice of the destination depends on many criteria. 2000). the DMOs have to ensure a high return on the community (King. When branding a destination all its elements – facilities and services. When the brand is linked to the genuine values of the destination. Morgan et al.terms of public or private equity. each of its elements could be promoted more 7 .
In order to preserve them. 2001) and is regarded as one of the major attractions in many destination (Law & Au. 2002). the facilities and infrastructure. some destination products remain underestimated and barely unexploited in terms of their marketing potential. many destinations rely on their luxury facilities in order to attract visitors – hotels. food consumption.specifically. has a significant economic impact on the local retail (Turner & Reisinger. Green. Hall and Sharples (2003) give another argument why food is neglected in the marketing tourism studies and as a result in the marketing practice. Richards. Many different resources that the destination possess can be used for the purpose of attracting visitors – for instance the natural resources. as the cultural tourism becomes increasingly popular (Boyd. However. which is not associated with the gaze. resorts. Frequently used conception in the destination marketing is the cultural heritage of the destination. 2002. The natural beauties and landscapes are maybe the resources firstly used for promoting a destination (Waitt et al. Major tourism attractions are also important for drawing guests. is not explicitly researched in terms of the marketing opportunities that it could possess. typically used for its promotion. Popularising a destination via mega sport events held in it (such as Olympic games) contributes not only to its current tourist attendance. They vary in large range – from shopping to international events. 2003). Cohen and Avieli (2004) claim that in the academia. Consequently. thus it is often not 8 . transportation (King. 2003. One of them is the traditional food or cuisine. and many destinations use these concepts for promotion in order to distinct themselves from the others (Middleton and Howkins. the attractions. 2007). 2000). the culture. This is only a small part of the destination’s resources. According to Buhalis (2000) of significant importance for the destination marketing is to determine its core as well as supportive products and to promote them to its target markets. as well as in the industry. The Shopping is an activity that for long time has been recognised and used as a marketing tool for destinations (Jansen-Verbeke. infrastructure. 1998). nowadays growing attention is directed to the sustainability and nature preservation. but also generate future interest in it (Chalip. As the holiday is relaxation and escape from the everyday life. It is a major expense while on holiday. Morse. 2001). the tourists are traditionally viewed as sightseers and therefore as tourist products and experiences are considered predominantly the objects of the visual senses. & Hill. 1991). The authors state that it is such a fundamental part of the everyday life.
accounting for one fourth to one third of the total expenditures (Robinson and Clifford. 2004). recently there is a growing interest in topic food within the tourism experience in general and more specifically its implications to the destination marketing (Hall and Sharples. which is a set of ingredients. Additional reason is that food is a consistent part of each trip and tourists do not consider it is as a separate tourism activity. cited in Bradatan. However. The gastronomy is part of the identity of any society. 2003). but food is also one of the main products or experiences. 2003). This work addresses the traditional food in its broader sense – under food here is assumed foodstuffs as well as cuisine or gastronomy (used as synonyms). 2011 ). Food consumption within the tourism experience Food consumption is a significant part of the tourism experience. 2007). Not only is it a major expense while on holiday. Long. that a destination offers (Hall and Sharples. Mak et al. Consequently traditional food consumption is an educational act giving knowledge about the local culture (Mak et 9 . so some scholars and practitioners regard that there is no need to develop a special concept of food in terms of its tourism marketing abilities (Frochot. region. religion. 2003). 2). ‘we are what we eat’ (Richards. 2011. manner of cooking and etiquette of eating (Goody. as it cannot be determined by national borders – it can vary within the country and spread over more than one region (Mintz. Long (2004) refers to traditional food consumption within the tourism experience as tasting the ‘otherness’. as long as it is characterised by a common and authentic gastronomy. time and socioeconomic class. 1996. When being on holiday at most places people can choose from eating international/standardised or traditional food. 2002. p. Quan and Wang. 2003. 2003. et al. cited in Bradatan. The traditional food is connected with the concept of destination. Frochot..perceived as a tourism experience. 2004). which all have influence on the character of the cuisine (Long. 2003. 1982. 2011. 2003). Robinson and Clifford. which could be any kind of territorial entity. The otherness results from dissimilar culture. referring to the food heritage of a destination. Bonface. In this article the terms traditional food or local cuisine are used. The traditional cuisine is a fragment of the destination’s authentic culture and intangible heritage (Okumus. 2004.
it can be seen as an ‘obligatory activity’ (Ritchards 2002). 2004). 2011. Food within the tourism experience could be perceived from two perspectives. On the other hand the meaning of food within the tourism experience vary (Mak et al. 2004) and ‘crucial precondition for other touristic activities’ (Cohen and Avieli. Urry. So food is a multidimensional medium to discover and feel the destination (Boniface. Thus it is a significant carrier of the culture authenticity. Long (2004) even calls the food a destination. Food consumption is also associated with celebration and rituals (Boniface. Quan and Wang (2004) propose a theoretical framework. 2003).. 2003) which does not change even among emigrant groups (Okumus. but if the supportive one is frustrating the total impression of the holiday will be also unpleasant (Quan and Wang. A satisfactory supportive experience cannot compensate for disappointing peak experience. Another dimension of the food consumption is that it brings pure physical pleasure and feeling of relaxation (Long. When tourists are seeking the routine and the comfort of the home environment. which is called food/gastronomy/culinary tourism (with minor differences between the terms). Frochot (2003) refers to food as one of the most pleasurable activities that holidaymakers will undertake during their vacation. 2007). 2011. food consumption could be the peak experience . Moreover. the meaning of the food can be so significant as to represent the whole aim of the holiday or the major motivation to visit the destination (Mak et al. 2011). 2003). the traditional cuisine is a very stable social institution. the food consumption is a supportive experience – its role is just to answer the biological needs or to offer the home comfort. 2004). When there is a search for novelty and contrast to the daily life. Long (2004). On the one hand food provides body with the needed nutrients and energy . even if it is not perceived as a considerable part of it . Quan and Wang. 2003). classifying the tourist food experience. It is a unique act. Quan and Wang. 2004). ‘basic necessity’ (Frochot 2003..memorable and intensifying the quality of the whole holiday. Robinson and Clifford. Cohen and Avieli. 2004). 2006. 2004. it is an experience that inspires the individual actively to engage in the destination’s essence and to draw personal conclusions about it. In addition. Boniface. 2002). 2011. 10 . Boniface (2003). 2004). which involves all the senses (Kivela and Crottes. So after all food has a significant influence on the total holiday. In addition. et al. Hall and Sharples (2003) note that people are travelling with the purpose of trying new cuisines. (Bradatan. (Long.al.
The 11 . explorer – novelty dominates. 2002) offers 3 types of dining behaviour: experiential – never try new things second time. Cohen (1974) claims that tourists seek new experiences. Their classification segments the tourists into four types.Whether food is a peak or supportive experience in one’s journey and whether a tourist would prefer local cuisine or well-known international food. indigenous foodies. familiar foods. 200. depends on many criteria such as the purpose of the trip. Mitchell and Hall 2003). which the tourist search while on holiday. He distinguishes between: drifter – novelty is at its maximum . Cohen (1972) has a classification based on the proportion between novelty and familiarity. but at the same time need to feel the comfort of home or the ‘environmental bubble’ in order truly to enjoy the destination. based on people’s attitudes towards unfamiliar food. considering the attitude to new and strange tastes. Everybody requires different amount of home environment while on holiday and this determines the person’s involvement in new experiences. 2000). Consumer behaviour towards gastronomy products while on vacation is unknown and barely researched (Boyne et al. Cohen and Avieli (2004) point out that of significant importance is the cultural background and the social class of the individuals for forming a special approach towards different food – for example Westerners are more experimental in comparison with Asians. following his older classification of ‘psychocentrics’ and ‘allocentrics’. Plog (2002) classifies ‘dependables’ and ‘venturers’. existential – devoted to try out different things. Finkelstein (1989) (cited in Au and Law. experimental – try out in order to choose the favourite. As trying traditional food in most of the cases means ‘tasting the otherness’ (Long. He speaks about neophobic and neophylic preferences in food. There are also classifications. 2004) very determining factor for the tourist’s choice to do it is one’s personal attitudes towards the new. the traveller’s characteristics and the external environment (Buhalis. namely gastronomes. The approach to the novelty is a basis of some classifications of tourists. tourist foodies. or tourists who prefer the comfort of the familiarity respectively those who are happy to explore the unknown. Fischer (1988) makes specific sorting. Mitchel and Hall (2003) make a typology of tourist behaviour related to the interest and involvement in food while on holiday. or people afraid of the new respectively people who search for an unique food experience. individual mass tourist – familiarity dominates and organised mass tourist – familiarity is at its maximum. the attributes of the destination.
gastronomes would try every kind of food. but their interest could grow as a consequence of an enjoyable food experience. Tourist foodies visit mainstream restaurants at the destination. economy can bring success in terms of competition. The destinations have to promote their unique products in order to be easily recognisable and appealing (Buhalis. 2012). The first type are people who consider the cuisine as a significant part of their tourism experience and try to inform themselves about the local food heritage prior to their vacation. visit food markets of local producers and could even undertake cooking schools while on holiday. Okumus et al. The traditional food is a distinctive product. contributor to the destination 12 . which is overloaded by supply. 2000. Most of the classifications take into consideration that there are not just the extreme cases of people who assign importance on food and people not interested in food at all. It can be argued. but they would not actively search for information about it. The same is valid for the classifications of person’s attitudes towards novelty. but suppose that there are persons. Gastronomy is important also for the second kind of tourists. The third ones are people who do not assign significance to the cuisine. Discussion The literature review of this article makes an outline of the destination marketing and its importance for the success of a destination in the modern tourism market. that the traditional food can successfully be included in the destination marketing. Dioko and So. The fourth type of tourists do not have any interest in traditional food the destination offers and their attitude cannot be influenced. p. Indigenous foodies would usually eat in local ethnic restaurants. Porter (1990. All these features have a reflection on the local cuisine. owing to its essence as an unique and competitive product. 19) states that the competitive advantage is created in ‘localised process’. history. 2007. In order to fill this gap they make a special adapted classification of consumers according to the importance of gastronomy in the decision making process. Boyne et al (2003) highlight an omission in the literature that there are no empirical researches about the role of food in tourists’ decision making process and choice of destination. proposing that differences in culture. whose interest in food could be influenced. Familiar foodies normally do not eat out and when on holiday will only visit well known fast food chains. values.
need less of the ‘environmental bubble’. As earlier noted. they will not be attracted by the traditional food products. 2002). If the destination’s target market consists of individuals. Logically. 2003). 2004. Buhalis (2000) states that people make their choice of products in relation to their personal characteristics and attitudes. However. according to the traditional theories of destination marketing it is important that destinations address people who are potentially interested in their products (Collier. Indian etc. Hall and Williams. as well as symbol of active and exciting lifestyle (Frochot. Many authors consider food as pool factor for a destination (Hjalager and Richards. it does not completely exclude the necessity that local cuisine is promoted to them. 1999). Moreover. It is not of practical importance which academic classification will be used to determine the tourist types. 2003) and therefore it is an influential image for the modern person. It can position the destination against its competitors (Frochot. Moreover meaning of food is nowadays changing – it is a status and identity symbol (Hall and Sharples. Boyne. according to their attitudes towards unfamiliar food. Cohen and Avieli.authenticity (Okumus. the food contributes to the destination image (Boniface. 2003. 2003). it is recognised as a destination’s unique product and competitive advantage. Hall and Sharples. 2002). et al. 2003). 1988) and psychocentric tourist behaviour (Plog. gastronomes or foodies. Chinese.) which is an evidence that it possible to establish a positive connotation between the cuisine and the destination (Okumus et al. or. 2011). However. more essential is to get acquainted with their preferences. It is necessary to research the market and to estimate the character of the tourists. 2003. Boniface. French. 2002. 2003). if it is easier towards novelty in general.. then the image of traditional cuisine would be appealing for them and could be used within the destination marketing. Frochot. So it should be examined. 2004. Long. who are currently or could be potentially interested in the destination. In this line of thought. Cuisines are often connected with nationality (Italian. which can be argued by the following discussion: 13 . market segmentation is an important part of the destination marketing process. 2007). if the potential visitors of the particular destination will be appealed by its cuisine. if the actual and potential visitors are with neophobic taste (Fischer. as there are no universal means for attracting every single person (Kotler and Gertner. Because all the characteristics of the traditional food. who are neophilic towards taste. with allocentric behavior. as they are most often something unfamiliar to the visitors. 2003..
If the target visitors are more conservative. 2004). it can change in the future. Long (2004) relates to otherness as consisting of three elements – exotic (what is different from one’s individually constructed universe). Consequently. which in turn can pique their interest and liking of traditional cuisine. Cohen and Avieli (2004) claim that even if eager for new experiences tourists are often anxious about the destinations attributes important for their adaptation. such as climate. as it is connected not only with unfamiliarity but sometimes with physical risk (Cohen and Avieli. The authors point out that one of the biggest concerns of the tourists about local meals are the hygiene standards they are produced in and the health risk the tourists could be exposed to. traditional food can be an alluring attraction for the tourists. the visitors can be just afraid to try the local 14 . safety and availability of food when visiting unfamiliar destinations. In the context of food. but they would try something traditional at the place. accommodation. and so it should be used in the destination marketing. it can be stated that even if a person is not eager for new experiences. then the role of food promotion should be to inform and provoke interest. if somebody has a conservative attitude towards food now.Strangeness of the local gastronomy can vary in different margins. Sometimes. 2003. therefore they are flexible and easily changeable categories (Long. but in this case with the main aim to inform people about the food safety and availability. Mak et al. this characteristic can be influenced and changed in the future. it could still be considered as edible or even appetizing. 2011). It is another evidence that promoting the food products of the destination is important. In addition. edible (what can be eaten) and palatable (what is savoury and tasty). traditional food could be even a discouraging factor to visit a destination. As a result. Important is to mention that in many cases people are not repulsed by the unfamiliar taste of the food at the tourism destination. 2004. This theory also suggests that even if food is found rather untypical. Considering this type of people main aim of the marketers in the context of food should be to initiate first tasting. As a conclusion. Moreover Boyne et al (2003) believe that for some people a pleasant experience with food could arouse interest in local cuisine. 2003) suggest that some tourists do not usually consider food as an important part of their holiday. but may be reluctant to try because of considerations about the risk. It is stated that these domains are determined by person’s personality. it is essential to find the destination’s market segment and its attitude towards novelty. past experience and own perceptions. the classifications earlier presented (Boyne et al. If it is positive. To summarise. Mitchell and Hall.
Even if people prefer food they are used to. The eating habits are considered as an unchangeable personality characteristic (Bradatan. Long (2004) pays 15 . because of health concerns. Buhalis. 2011).cuisine. There is a boom of ethnic restaurants. Collins-Kreiner 2010). The traditional food completely responds to the trend for adventure seeking – it is connected with the destination’s authenticity and its consumption is per se an extraordinary occasion. Nowadays people have more time and financial funds for holidays and could reach each destination comparatively easily. 2011. Globalisation among the food has the result that individuals get used to wide variety of cuisines. which results in their desire to explore the unknown (Renko et al. 2011). 2010.al. where people can try cuisines from all over the world without leaving their home towns (Cohen and Aveli. 2003). or in other words to like the food they are used to. The ‘average world citizen’ has an access to great amount of ethnic dishes (Torres. 2004). therefore they appreciate the authenticity and search for unique experiences (Buhalis. This statement is supported by several other authors. Even though there are many scholar works. 2002). The new consumers are well-educated and sophisticated. 2000). 2011.. In addition. On the one hand Cohen and Avieli (2004) argue that humans tend to be habitually attached to the cuisine. which try to classify tourists in groups with attributed characteristics. Another factor that stimulates the tourists’ exploratory attitudes towards food is the globalisation (Mak et al. 2011). by segmentation of the market a significant difficulty can arise.. However. On the other hand. First of all it is due to the economic progress and the general development in the world. Larsen et. Buhalis (2000) state that subdivision of tourists is more complicated nowadays. who challenge the applicability of tourists’ classifications (Maoz and Bekerman . So it is appropriate to discuss current trends in tourist behaviour related to traditional food or novelty in general. that tourists have become more adventurous (Renko et al. These notions question the applicability of traditional food to the destination marketing. 2004). there is a statement. because the contemporary travellers very often seek different types of experiences during the same vacation. 2000). which favours them to try new dishes while on holiday (Mak et al. as well as exotic foodstuffs and information sources as cookbooks (Cohen and Aveli. the globalisation familiarises them with cuisines from all over the world. Then the promotion of food should be to notify them about its safety.
Moreover. 2002). Because of all these features. So even if the discover of their search does not bring delight. These findings support the statement that in the modern tourism world traditional food can be a successfully implemented in the destination marketing. but at the same time could be adaptive to people’s tastes (Richards. 2011. because for example more flesh is shown on the beach (Ritchards. As people seek pleasure when on holiday. which contributes to its attractiveness. However. And this is an advantage. Frochot.. while on vacation they could be subject of stronger pressure for losing weight. some authors claim that there is a significant distinction between people’s behaviour in the everyday life and within the tourism experience and main characteristic of the holiday attitudes is hedonism. Boniface. Contemporary tourists like learning about the culture by actively involving in it (Richards. which purvey enjoyment to both body and soul (Long. 2000). such as monuments or architecture. modern body is the thin one. popularised by the mass media is significantly growing (Ritchards. and this trend. Consequently. 2002). Robinson and Clifford. but also find pleasure while exploring new things. but the process itself could be exciting (Long. when tasting unfamiliar cuisine it is possible that people even would not like the food. 2002). 2004. Traditional food is definitely a representation of the culture and lifestyle of the local community. 2003). When discussing tendencies in the modern lifestyle. Sometimes. 2011). Eating is a memorable experience and a delightful activity. 2002). which tourists can feel. 2002. 2002). it is important to mention that nowadays the fashionable. it is totally different from the destinations tangible heritage. So even if the modern societies value the thin 16 . the traditional food has the potential to be a drawing force to the destination. engaging all their senses (Kivela and Crottes. 2006. Urry.attention that tourists get satisfied not only by the products and services offered to them. which respond to the modern consumers’ wants. But gastronomy has an additional characteristic. 2003. Although the cuisine is part of the culture heritage of a destination. it is probable that they would indulge eating with no scruples. 2004. or pleasure seeking (Cohen. Especially women attempt to follow the fashion tendencies and very often keep strict diets. Okumus et al. 2004). 2009. Shields 1990). in terms of its possibilities to change (Richards. the exploring itself can be enjoyable (Long. because cuisine represents the traditions.. Bowen and Clarke. 2007. recently tourists’ interest in local culture is significantly growing and gastronomy is a way to answer this trend as it is an important foundation of destination’s identity (Richards. Mak et al. 2004).
traditional food is also applicable to the modern concept of destination marketing. which imply more positive perceptions of unknown cuisine. it is very possible that people would violate the restrictive food dietaries and truly enjoy food while on holiday. 1993 Buhalis. who claim that the promised experiences grow in significance for attracting customers. People travel in search of emotions and feelings rather than places and goods (King. 2002). Although the aforementioned evidences from the literature. that tourists seek unforgettable events beyond service and product excellence. So when the practitioners make a segmentation of their target market. Gilmour and Pine (2002) analyse the new economy paradigm and conclude that it is an economy of the experience – people do not get satisfied just by the perfect facilities anymore. to which food is strongly related. but in the same time stimulate the local production through the tourist demand for traditional food. Above and beyond. that tourists nowadays look for unfamiliar sensations and assign great importance on the intangible characteristics of the destination. or designing innovative experiences for their customers. In summary. 2000). Williams (2006) state that very important for the tourism industry is to start engaging with ‘experiential marketing’. 2002). it is useful to be aware of the contemporary tourists’ characteristics. Although there are different types of tourists regarding their attitudes towards novelty and unfamiliar food. Ritchie and Crouch. Kotler and Gertner. Marketing through traditional food has the potential to answer the contemporary tendencies in marketing. Boyne et al. the role of food from the perspective of the classic destination marketing concept was discussed. there are many common tendencies in the tourist consumer behaviour.. as the cuisine can respond to the desire of the modern tourist for a memorable and emotional experience. It is important that the destination addresses its potential visitors with the means that will be attractive to them (Collier. 1999. they pursue memories.body. Traditional food can have a multilateral effect on the local economy. 2000. marketers seem not to appreciate this and continue advertising through mass conceptions such as luxury accommodation or comfortable transportation (King. Another main tendency in the tourist consumer behaviour is noticed by King (2002) Gilmour and Pine (2002) and Williams (2006). Additionally local producers could benefit from 17 . Williams (2006) also claims. (2003) and Richards (2002) claim that the gastronomy heritage not only improves the region’s tourism. 2002). as a strategy for destination sustainability and benefits for all stakeholders (Kotler et al.
launching campaigns for food products. is when there is a particular relationship. 2002). The fourth category is when the destination and the food are so connected. interested in culture and experiences and not just in mass attractions (Fields. 2002). because the idea of ‘being good’ and responsible while on vacation appeals to many people (Fields. as an essential life condition. 2002). which is a profitable situation for all stakeholders at the destination. as some tourists could continue demanding the specific food production when they are back home (Boyne et all 2003. The first type of a relationship between the destination and the food is weak and the author proposes several ideas to enhance it: including culinary in the promotion of the region. that not only tourists. Furthermore. one of the result of advertising through gastronomy is that it invites more up-market tourists. (2002) makes a framework for developing gastronomy tourism at destination according to the actual relationship between tourism and food. A conclusion can be drawn that in the first two cases food will be promoted. the traditional food has also a considerable business potential and can provide significant financial inflows to the destination. Mak et al.growth in the external market. The third type of relationship between culinary and destination is when the food is a significant part of the destination’s image and many activities and attractions connected with food can be developed. for example museums and cooking classes. Hjalager. Although this concept is for food tourism and not for food consumption within the vacation in general. An important question that emerges is if the food can be a dimension of the marketing of any destination and to what extent. so the destination can sell know-how. but also professionals and scientists are attracted to the region because of the food. Quan and Wang. as it constitutes one fourth to one third of the tourists’ total expenditures (Robinson and Clifford. 2002). Moreover. certification and branding. 2011. Richards. 2004). In addition. The authors conclude that because of all the benefits that gastronomy could bring to the destination’s prosperity. 2011. as well as food fairs and food events. A. but more awareness in the consumers should be incited by adherence to quality standards. there should be an emphasis on the local food when promoting the destination. food demand is not dependent on price and tourists are unlikely to cut their spending on food (Au and Law. The second order of development in gastronomy within the destination. it is a good source of practical advices for improving the correlation between gastronomy and destination. but not in order to attract people to the 18 . In addition the sustainability in the region also have the effect of increased tourism demand.
Examples are Mallorca (Alcock. 1995. cited in Fields. rebranding and differentiation. 2007). 2002). in order to reshape their image and to attract wider variety of tourists. it is important. this interrelation could be changed. Examples are the nature based destinations South Africa (Rand and Heath. More than logical and obvious is how they took advantage of this situation. 2002). DMOs should take this into consideration. Third form of affiliation is when traditional food is used to differentiate destinations. Southwest England (Beer et al. Gastronomy has been successfully implemented in some traditional mass tourism destinations. and mainland Spain (Ravenscroft and Westering. that the marketers determine the aimed interrelation 19 . A significant segment that has very successfully implemented the gastronomy in its marketing are the rural destinations. Isle of Arran. So. but the local cuisine becomes value added to the destination products and enhances its image. Another type of influence that the traditional cuisine can have on the destination is rebranding it. In the third and fourth type destinations. but to create revenue and be profitable for its own. there are destinations as France and Italy. In conclusion. 2006) and New Zealand (Hall and Mitchell.place. 2002). but to keep the expected level of quality and attractiveness. when deciding to apply the local cuisine to the destination marketing. And last. there are many examples showing how the role of the gastronomy within the destination has altered and how the traditional food has influenced the destination’s image and the tourism demand. Northern Portugal (Beer et al. where traditional food is for long considered as a majors attraction and became a key association when mentioning them (Fields. the relation between food and local cuisine can be changed. Scotland (Boyne et al. whether for others the local food is not considered as an important dimension of their essence. Corigliano. The challenge for them is not to change the relation they have with the food. However. 2002. The first type is when the cuisine has a supportive role in the destination marketing. 2002) and the urban destination – Hong Kong (Okumus et al. such as Wales (Jones and Jenkins. as the reality shows. the destinations have different relationships with their traditional cuisine – for some of them it is a significant attraction. 2002) are just some examples for the boosting the tourism of a destination as a result of promoting local cuisine. If considering the reality. 2002). food should be an actual dimension of their marketing strategies. which have indistinctive image. 2002). This article suggests a classification of three types of interrelations between local cuisine and destination: enhancing the image. or in other words the destination is known for something else. 2002). However.
2004. The few publications. 2007. When promoting local cuisine. 2002. Long. The destination has to be prepared to answer the new situation with increased quantity of production (Jones and Jenkins. and not only when it is a major motivation for the holiday.. In the previous literature. 2006. 2003. whereas this work consider food consumption in its general sense. 2002). because it will badly influence the quality of the food and it is controversial to the essence of local cuisine (Jones and Jenkins. Hassan. Okumus et al. 2002). 2002). the demand for it will most probably grow. which examine traditional food from the prospective of its marketing and promotional abilities for a destination and the quantity of works does not match the practical potential of this relationship. So the balance between quantity and quality is very important and difficult to manage. All the encountered works on the topic emphasise either on traditional food or on destination marketing. Despite all the advantages that the traditional food offers. Several conclusions have been drawn from the study. which is threaten by the McDonaldisation and global standardisation (Scarpatio. Richards. Conclusion: This article aimed to explore if the traditional cuisine within the tourism experience can be effectively used for the purposes of destination marketing and what is the practicable scope of this implementation. 2003). 20 . 2008) do not comment on the different aspects. there are of course some challenges when using it for marketing a destination. Rand et al 2003. there is a limited number of studies. Therefore an additional article in the field is useful in order to provide a new perspective of preceding findings. in order later to use the strengthen relationship for the purposes of the destination marketing. This article argues that the target tourists’ profile as well as the existing link between destination and its traditional cuisine influence the capacity of local food to be a successful agent for the destination marketing. (Hjalager and Ritchards. which can affect the marketing abilities of the traditional food for a destination. Hall et al. but the present article has a comprehensive discussion and synthesis of both subjects. where the authors explicitly connect traditional food and destination marketing (Rand et Heath. 2002). At the same time this should not be through mass production. Keeping the authenticity of the local cuisine is also a critical issue as it is its main asset.between cuisine and destination and work on it. Some of the scholars comment precisely food tourism (Boniface.
2007. So important is the consideration of the target’s market attitudes towards novelty in general and unfamiliar food in particular. even if it is useful to classify the tourists according to their perceptions towards unfamiliarity. The modern concept of destination marketing as a strategy for local sustainability and benefits for all stakeholders (Kotler et al. the traditional cuisine relates to both concepts of destination marketing. This should be taken into consideration by marketers. Then the role of food promotion is to inform and build a confidence in the tourists about the safety of the traditional cuisine. as it can attract more up-market tourists. Other case is when people are afraid to taste local food because of hygiene and health consideration. Richards. Okumus et al. 2002) of destination marketing is promoting the unique products in order to be easily recognisable and appealing (Buhalis. which suggest more positive perceptions of unfamiliar cuisine. there are several mutual trends in the tourist consumer behaviour interest in local culture and authenticity.. Owing to its characteristic the traditional food is definitely a destination’s unique product. which stimulate the local production and so has a multiple effect on the local economy (Boyne et all 2003. 2002). 2000.First. a logical question is if it is universally applicable. adventure and memories. 2000) also relates to the traditional food. In addition. although traditional food seems an unmistakable dimension of the destination marketing. Kotler and Gertner. As Buhalis (2000) state people make choices of products according to their personal characteristics. The classical perspective (Collier. but the practice shows that this relation can be changed. 2000. Second. Fourth. 1999. 2012). Dioko and So. 1993 Buhalis. apart from increased occupancy. traditional food and destination can be linked to different degree (Hjalager. seeking of pleasure. 2002). If the potential tourists are open to the new. rather than to be used as a pull factor to the destination. It is important to examine their present link and then to determine an aimed one. then the role of food promotion should be to inform and provoke interest. Third. especially when the target customers are with no clearly manifested preferences of familiarity and it is possible that their attitudes can be influenced by adequate marketing actions. according to which to undertake the adequate actions for promoting the destination by food. If the target visitors’ attitudes are more conservative. Ritchie & Crouch. 21 . the popularised local cuisine can provide significant financial inflows to the destination. they can be attracted by the local cuisine.
when implementing traditional food in the destination marketing strategy. the DMOs can change that by an appropriate strategy. Important is also the actual connection between traditional food and the destination – when it is not of big significance. so will be their approach towards unfamiliar food. it is not practical to use it for each target market and for each destination. uniqueness and taste qualities. and the contrary case.The practical implications of this work are the following: Food has the possibility to be a significant dimension of the destination marketing. 22 . For the purposes of this article it was considered that if people’s attitude towards novelty is positive. the food cannot be effectively used as a marketing tool. For a successful outcome. However. Another weakness is that the actual tourists’ perceptions of destination’s traditional food has barely been researched by the scholars. Important by such major changes is to consider the relation profit-investment. Food can be successfully promoted in terms of its authenticity. More research should be conducted in order to determine how tourists perceive the local cuisine when they are on vacation. If people’s attitudes are more neutral. The potential customers’ attitudes towards novelty should be researched. Main limitation of the study is that it is not based on a primary research. although logical that is not scientifically proven. it is important to balance between increased quantities as a result of increased demand and consistency in the quality. food can be used in the destination marketing. they can be easily influenced by the marketers. The actions by the two extreme situations are clear: when people are excited by the new. However. However. as these attributes are searched by the modern tourists.
F (2002) Regional food cultures: integral to the rural tourism product? In Hjalager. Marketing the competitive destination for the future. Boyne. Bornhorst. (2002) Categorical classification of tourism dining. K. (2003) Cuisine and cultural identity in Balkans Anthropology of East Europe Review Vol. Beer. D (2002) On the trail of regional success: tourism. Tourism Management. J. No. Boyne. 43-48. Support and Promotion for FoodRelated Tourism Initiatives. (1998). Edwards. S. 23 . 88–97. London: Routledge. Annals of Tourism Research. T. (eds) Tourism and Gastronomy. 31 pp. D. London: Routledge.. Asia Paciﬁc Journal of Tourism Research. and Sampaio. No. Buhalis. 97–116. (2003): Policy. D. Vol.14 N.. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. Boyd. (2000). G. pp. (2003) Tasting tourism: Travelling for food and drink Hampshire: Ashgate. Z. D and Williams. 32. No.1. Fernandes. C. A. (2001) ‘Tourism Destination Marketing – A Tool for Destination Management? A Case Study from Nelson/Tasman Region. Blumberg. F. A. Sheehan.. 1. principles and challenges. 131-154.References: Au. Vol. food production and the Isle of Arran Taste Trail In: Hjalager. B (2011) Travel queries on cities in the United States: Implications for search engine marketing for tourist destinations Tourism Management Vol. 3. and Richards. (2010) Determinants of tourism success for DMOs & destinations: An empirical examination of stakeholders’ perspectives Tourism Management Vol. Buhalis. and Hall. 21.R. pp. pp. F.572–589. 29. and Richards. (2002). pp. Tourism Management. G. Cultural and heritage tourism in Canada: opportunities. L. R.3-4. 21 No. 10. 819–833. Boniface. 409–421. S. C. 19(5). Vol. Hall. (eds) Tourism and Gastronomy. and Pan. In Xiang. Ritchie J. 211 233. 3 (3).. S. Williams. Bradatan. B.. S. N and Law. P.. Tourism and Hospitality Research. Strategic use of information technologies in the tourism industry. New Zealand. 1. Vol.
Vol. (1991). pp. S. M. Auckland. Current Issues in Tourism. Weaver. 31. and Newton. 10. Cohen. G. G. and Kim. Vol. P.. Annals of Tourism Research. No. K. 4. A. 31. pp. In: Blumberg. (2003). Cohen. N. C. Principles in tourism. (eds) Tourism and Gastronomy. 440-456. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. I. M. and Avieli N. 37. (2012) Branding destinations versus branding hotels in a gaming destination—Examining the nature and signiﬁcance of co-branding effects in the case study of Macao International Journal of Hospitality Management Vol. A. Dwyer. 39. Journal of Sport Management. (2004) Tourism destination competitiveness: a quantitative approach Tourism Management 25 pp. A. E. No. 1 pp. (1974) Who is a tourist? A conceptual clarification The Sociological Review Vol. Effects of sport event media on destination image and intention to visit. Corigliano. London: Routledge. (1999). M. Asia Paciﬁc Journal of Tourism Research. Collier. Researching pilgrimage: Continuity and Transformations. L. (eds) Tourism and Gastronomy. W. K. pp. and Richards. 164-182. Collins-Kreiner. In Enright. Vol.. 369–414. Cohen. No. No. 5. (2010). 24–27. and C. & Hill.. No. 755–778. Marketing your community: Image analysis in Norfolk. New Zealand. (1972) Toward a sociology of international tourism Social research. C. Vol. Destination Competitiveness: A Model and Indicators. J. New Zealand. Addison Wesley Longman.. Vol.A. Green. 554 – 563.. London: Routledge. Dioko. 1. 777–788. (2002) The route to quality: Italian gastronomy networks in operation In: Hjalager. L. 24 . Corigliano. Chon. 6. pp. Vol. A New Zealand perspective. pp.N. 214–23. Kim (2003). (2002) The route to quality: Italian gastronomy networks in operation In: Hjalager. and Richards. 22. J. 5th edition. (2001) ‘Tourism Destination Marketing – A Tool for Destination Management? A Case Study from Nelson/Tasman Region.Chalip. and So S. 31(4). A. 4. B. pp. E. 17. L. Y. 527-555. (2004) Food in tourism Attraction and Impediment Annals of Tourism Research. E.
(2006) Searching for the Future: Challenges Faced by Destination Marketing Organizations Journal of Travel Research Vol. Hassan. (2008) Local cuisines in the marketing of tourism destinations: the case of Kelantan In: ECER Regional Conference 2008. knowledge and 25 . 281-293. Finkelstein. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. UK: Butterworth-Heinemann.Mitchell. and. 43. R. N and Law. Thrusting Islam. Gretzel. Food tourism around the world: Development. J. G. U. Ismail J. 1. Hall. (2002) Demand for the gastronomy tourism product: motivational factors In: Hjalager. Feng. Sharples. K. pp. 777–788.87-96. Oxford. Vol. (1989) Dining Out: A Sociology of Modern Manners. Fesenmaier. R. N. and Pine. 45. (1982) Cooking. Cited in Bradatan. (2003) Cuisine and cultural identity in Balkans Anthropology of East Europe Review 21 (1). 819–833. Gilmore. Frochot. management and markets. Hall. Vol. Macionis. D.. 25 pp. F. 77-96. (2004) Tourism destination competitiveness: a quantitative approach Tourism Management. In M. A. C.Enright. 43-48. & B. Vol. pp. M. R. 3 pp. J. J. (2003). A. and Sharples. J (2002) Differentiating hospitality operations via experience Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Quarterly. J. Journal of Vacation Marketing Vol. No. 29. Gilmore. Goody. UK: Cambridge. L. The consumption of experiences or the experience of consumption? An introduction to the tourism of taste. (2002) Categorical classification of tourism dining Annals of Tourism Research. pp. 43–56. Cambourne (Eds). pp. No. Brand management. 116. 10 No. (2002) A country – can it be repositioned? Spain – the success story of country branding. I. S. A. Cited in Au. (eds) Tourism and Gastronomy. Formica.and O’leary. J.. J. 3. L. Fields. 14:3-4. Morrison. Vol. Cambridge. London: Routledge. M. and Newton. Cambridge: Polity Press. Y. and Richards. A Study in Comparative Sociology. (2003) East versus West: A comparison of online destination marketing in China and the USA.. pp. No. (2003): An Analysis of Regional Positioning and Its Associated Food Images in French Tourism Regional Brochures. 4/5. 9. H. Cuisine and Class.
(eds) Tourism and Gastronomy. Kota Bharu. 105 – 108. Øgaard.Z. 9. and Ritchie. Annals of Tourism Research. Hjalager. J. No. 25–35. G. 2.R. Vol. Cited in Blumberg. Kelantan.. Y. M.professionalism in ECER development. Journal of vacation marketing Vol. New Zealand. G. P. 10. 39–55. (1993). Brand management Vol. A. Vol. and Richards. (2005) Tourism Destination Marketing – A Tool for Destination Management? A Case Study from Nelson/Tasman Region.B. King. Vol. (2004) Tourism destination competitiveness: a quantitative approach Tourism Management. 8. & Crotts. J. Hu. pp. K. (2006). (2002) A typology of gastronomy tourism In: Hjalager. Larsen. pp.Measuring destination attractiveness: A contextual approach. and Gertner. Jones. 690-707. 2011. (2002) Country as brand. Vol. (2002) Still undigested: research issues in tourism and gastronomy In: Hjalager. No. A. A. and Richards. London: Routledge. A. London: Routledge. pp. T. A. Malaysia (eds) Nik Maheran. and Richards. Vol.(1993). (1991). Kivela.25. 9–14. J (2002) Destination marketing organisations – connecting the experience rather than promoting the place. G. No. pp. (eds) Tourism and Gastronomy. Backpackers and mainstreamers: Realities and Myths. Upper Saddle River. No. Journal of Culinary Science and Technology. (4/5) pp. J.. NJ. J. 249-261. and Richards. Kotler. 2. P. Kotler. G.. & Brun. J. 32. 1. London: Routledge. pp. Jansen-Verbeke. D. Journal of Travel Research. Gastronomy and tourism: A meaningful travel marketsegment. 777–788. J. Bowen. 26 . In Enright. W. 12. J. Prentice Hall. 38. M. pp. Leisure shopping: A magic concept for the tourism industry? Tourism Management. Asia Paciﬁc Journal of Tourism Research. I (2002) ‘A Taste of Wales – Blas Ar Gymru’: institutional malaise in promoting Welsh food tourism products’ In: Hjalager. and Jenkins. product and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective. A. S. Hjalager. & Makens. and Newton. (eds) (2002) Tourism and Gastronomy.. 4. Marketing for hospitality and tourism. Vol.
. R. R. 1. 1. and Hawkins. Lumbers. and Hall. A. & B. pp. pp. (1996) Tasting Food. ButterworthHeinemann. pp. Hall. and Pigott.C. pp. UK: Butterworth-Heinemann. Middleton. Mohsin. 37. M. L. pp. Pritchard. No.Law. No. Brand management. Macionis. 4/5. & Au. Oxford. K. Relationship modeling in tourism shopping: A decision rules induction approach. pp. Mintz. Brand management. Vol. T. Oxford. 10. (2011) Globalisation and food consumption in tourism Annals of Tourism Research. 3. 21. 39. N. Long (2004) Culinary tourism University of Kentucky Press. The creation of a powerful niche destination brand. C. R. N. Tourism Management. A. No. 1.Eves. Martinovic. N. Vol. 423-439. pp. 100% Pure. S. Vol. (2003) Food marketing in the function of tourist product development.T. (2002) Branding Hrvatska – a mixed blessing that might succeed: the advantage of being unrecognisable. Asia Paciﬁc Journal of Tourism Research. and Cerovic. (1994). Boston: Beacon.. (2002) New Zeeland. S. (2001) ‘Tourism Destination Marketing – A Tool for Destination Management? A Case Study from Nelson/Tasman Region. C. Butterworth Heinemann. Vol. Morgan. 27 26. Vol. R. (2003) Cuisine and cultural identity in Balkans Anthropology of East Europe Review. 105. (1998) Sustainable Tourism: A Marketing Perspective.9. New Zealand. Marketing in travel and tourism. M. A. No. A.. Vol. management and markets. Food tourism around the world: Development. M. Oxford. Vol. Vol. 9. (2003) Consuming tourists: food tourism consumer behaviour In M. Tasting Freedom. (2010) Searching for jewish answers in indian resorts: The Postmodern Traveler. Vol. Mitchell. 723–732. No. Sharples. (2005) Tourist attitudes and destination marketing—the case of Australia’s Northern Territory and Malaysia.21. Middleton. 2nd edition. Z. Annals of Tourism Research. Cambourne (Eds). V. R.. 43-48. Mak. Maoz. 335-354. Cited in: Blumberg. (2000).Mitchell. 175-192. 4/5. 171–196. 241–249. No. pp. D. 315 – 322 Meler. Tourism Management.. British food journal. C. W. and Bekerman. V. Z. Cited in Bradatan.
Renko. Okumus. Vol. (2001). P. No. T. J. F. No. pp. pp. 253–261. Renko. McKercher. P Smith. No. 4. Journal of Vacation Marketing. (2006): Towards a Framework for Food Tourism as an Element of Destination Marketing. No. Vol 9. Tourism Management. Rand.C. New York. pp. 3. S. 14. Vol. (2007) Incorporating local and international cuisines in the marketing oftourism destinations: The cases of Hong Kong and Turkey Tourism Management. pp. S. B. 40. B. 258–259. and Westering J.E.Morse. A. C. (2005) Tourism destination branding complexity Journal of Product & Brand Management. B. pp. 9. (2010) Understanding the Role of Food in Rural Tourism Development in a Recovering Economy. G. 7. (eds) Tourism and Gastronomy. and Wang. The Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: How the AustralianTourist Commission leveraged the games for tourism. Pritchard.E. Quan. Free Press. (2002) the power of psychographics and the concept of venturesomeness Journal of travel research. 1. (2003) The Role of Local and Regional Food in Destination Marketing: A South African Situation Analysis In Hall. and Richards. 101–107. G. N. No. Rand. Plog. and Cooper. 309–324. 297–305. 28 . 206234. S. 1990. Murphy. E.E. 1 pp. Vol. Porter. and Polonijo. pp. 16 pp. N..& Heath. 35-51. (2000): The destination product and its impact on traveller perceptions Tourism Management. Pike. (2002) Gastronomy and intellectual property In Hjalager. Ravenscroft N. 43–52. 1998) "The Competitive Advantage of Nations". E. M. Vol. (2004) Towards a structural model of the tourist experience: an illustration from food experiences in tourism.. Prideaux. Vol. and Alberts. N. (1990. G. Okumus. M. Vol. M. Vol. B. 28. London: Routledge... Vol. (Eds) Wine. 25. S. Heath. Current Issues in Tourism. Journal of Food Products Marketing. (2003) Marketing and destination growth: A symbiotic relationship or simple coincidence? Journal of Vacation Marketing. 21. food and tourism marketing Haworth Press.244-251.2.
No. A. B. I. Vol. A. C. Asia Paciﬁc Journal of Tourism Research. Y.). Targeted tourism destinations. 1–7. L. The competitive destination: A sustainability perspective. Vol. Cited in Blumberg. London: Sage. 1. W. New Zealand.. Vol. G. (eds) (2002) Tourism and Gastronomy. (2001) ‘Tourism Destination Marketing – A Tool for Destination Management? A Case Study from Nelson/Tasman Region. J. Richards. The tourist gaze: Leisure and travel in contemporary societies (2nd ed. (2002). Selective tourism growth. Tourism destination area development (from theory to practice). (1997). 3. Information technology and tourism: a challenging relationship. Shopping satisfaction for domestic tourists. Tourism Geographies. and Pan. H. B. R (2002) ‘Sustainable gastronomy as a tourist product’ In: Hjalager. K. Vol. and Clifford. and Crouch. No. K. R. (1999). (2001) ‘Tourism Destination Marketing – A Tool for Destination Management? A Case Study from Nelson/Tasman Region. Ritchie. J. Robinson. New Zealand. 10. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. In Press. No. In G. Tourism Management.15–27. B. G. Cited in Xiang. 8. 10. Travis. pp. R. J. Richards (Ed. and Richards. I. A. Cultural tourism: Global and local perspectives. (2007). Torres. Z. 282–306. Richards. (eds) Tourism and Gastronomy. (2002). R. No. Vienna: Springer. Vol. London: Routledge. and Richards. (1989). G. S. Werthner. Scarpato. Turner. Toward a better understanding of tourism and agriculture linkages in the Yucatan: Tourist food consumption and preferences. 1. Vukonic.). 1. London: Routledge. (2001). Asia Paciﬁc. & Reisinger.Ritchie. G. and Klein. New York: The Haworth Hospitality Press. G. (2000).. (2011) Authenticity and festival Foodservice experiences. 21. pp. Annals of Tourism Research. Journal of Tourism Research. & Crouch. Introduction: global trends in cultural tourism. B (2011) 29 . Urry. 4. Cited in Blumberg. S. R. Corrected proof. pp. (2003) The competitive destination: a sustainable tourism perspective CABI. G. (2002) Gastronomy – an essential ingredient in tourism production and consumption? In Hjalager.
Z. 88–97. pp. 88–97. No. G. B (2011) Travel queries on cities in the United States: Implications for search engine marketing for tourist destinations. Head. No.. feeling and fun International. 3. 32. 6. Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. Williams. Vol. (2006) Tourism and hospitality marketing: fantasy. Tourism Management.Travel queries on cities in the United States: Implications for search engine marketing for tourist destinations Tourism Management. and Pan. Xiang. Lane. pp. Vol. (2003) The boundaries of nature tourism Annals of Tourism Research. 523–545. Waitt. 482-495. L. Vol. pp. 18. 32.. 30 . R. 30. Vol. pp. A.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.