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STF 1073 BIOMETRY
STF 1043 – BIOMETRY
Lecture 1: • • • • • • Announcements Introduction What is Statistics ? Why study Statistics ? Some important statistical concepts and definitions Exploratory Data Analysis (Descriptive Statistics)
What is Statistics? • • • • Variability refers to the fact that almost anything we choose to measure is not constant, and can take on a range of values Variability is everywhere (plants to plants, animals to animals, within plants/animals) Statistics is the science of collecting, organising , and interpreting numerical facts (data). As a science, statistics gives us tools for meaningful patterns in the data we collect, while taking variability into account. It also provides the theory necessary to determine whether we can conclude that the patterns we se would hold in a more general setting.
Why study Statistics ? • • • • • • Everyday, you are bombarded with data (game statistics, weather statistics, advertising claims, educational statistics.....) A knowledge of statistics helps you to become an informed consumer information Statistical analysis is an essential component in most scientific research Many careers require some knowledge of statistics (scientists, economist, financial advisors, doctors, farmers, engineers, market researchers, ......) Statistics is the “science of data”. “Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary for efficient citizenship as the ability to read and write” (H.G. Wells)
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Cjlaman
Lecture 1:
STF 1073 BIOMETRY
Top 29 Scientific Advances of the 20th Century (Science, 1984) • • • • • • • • Antibiotics Computers Lasers Television Pesticides IQ tests Plastics Statistics
Statistical Definitions and Concepts A population is the entire group of objects or people about which information is desired. Individuals members of the population are called units. 

all first year students at UNIMAS all households in Kuching all trees with ≥ 8 inches dbh in UNIMAS forest reserve. All motor vehicles in Kota Samarahan
A sample is a part/subset of the population which is actually examined A parameter is the number describing some characteristic of the population A statistic is a descriptive index or numerical summary which can be computed from a sample. We use statistics from the samples we collect to try to make inference about population parameters. Data: Quantitative data are observations that are measured on a numerical scale.  bacteria count in your drinking water  person’s blood pressure Qualitative data are data when measured/interpreted, falls into one and only one of a set of categories.  sex group into males and females  political party affiliation of a group of citizens  Tshirt size into S, M, L, XL
Cjlaman
2
05/25/12
Lecture 1:
STF 1073 BIOMETRY
Discrete Numerical Data Values are isolated points along the number line
Continuous Numerical Data Example: Population: Parameter: Sample: Statistic: all students in this room mean/average height of all students students siting in the front row average height of students in the front row height of the students Sex/Gender of the students number of students height of the students Values are from the entire level of the number line.
Quantitative data: Qualitative data: Discrete data: Continuous data:
Two components to statistical analysis: I Descriptive Statistics or Exploratory Data Analysis II organising, describing, summarising the data the first stage in any statistical analysis highlights important features of the data
Inferential Statistics modeling, estimating and hypothesis testing use arguments based on the laws of probability to draw conclusions which extends beyond the data at hand.
Descriptive Statistics Organising data (from a sample) to be more informative Cjlaman
summary tables plots and graphs
3 05/25/12
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