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May. 16

Department of Electronics

Name: Submitted To: Roll #: CMS.ID: Subject: Section: Due Date: Asgher ullah Shah Sir Umer sb 10F-BS (EE)-055 15211 EMT A 16.05.2012

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ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY

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A system in which the location of a point is given by coordinates that represent its distances from perpendicular lines that intersect at a point called the origin. A Cartesian coordinate system in a plane has two perpendicular lines (the x-axis and y-axis); in threedimensional space, it has three (the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis).

Cartesian formulas for the plane The Euclidean distance between two points of the plane with Cartesian coordinates and is

This is the Cartesian version of Pythagoras' theorem. In three-dimensional space, the distance between points and is

Applications

Each axis may have different units of measurement associated with it (such as kilograms, seconds, pounds, etc.). Although four- and higher-dimensional spaces are difficult to visualize, the algebra of Cartesian coordinates can be extended relatively easily to four or more variables, so that certain calculations involving many variables can be done. (This

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sort of algebraic extension is what is used to define the geometry of higherdimensional spaces.)

Conversely, it is often helpful to use the geometry of Cartesian coordinates in two or three dimensions to visualize algebraic relationships between two or three of many non-spatial variables. All of these terms are more fully defined in calculus. Such graphs are useful in calculus to understand the nature and behavior of a function or relation.

Note that positions on a surface in navigation use latitude and longitude in a similar two dimensional system. However the co-ordinates are written in the opposite sequence, effectively (y, x).

In mathematics, a spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for threedimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers: the radial distance of that point from a fixed origin, its polar angle measured from a fixed zenith direction, and the azimuth angle of its orthogonal projection on a reference plane that passes through the origin and is orthogonal to the zenith, measured from a fixed reference direction on that plane.

The radial distance is also called the radius or radial coordinate. The polar angle may be called colatitudes, zenith angle, normal angle, or inclination angle. The use of symbols and the order of the coordinates differ between sources. In one system which is usual in physics gives the radial distance, polar angle, and is often azimuthally angle, whereas in another system used in many mathematics books gives the radial distance, azimuthally angle, and polar angle. In both systems

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used instead of . Other conventions are also used so great care needs to be taken to check which one are being us.

Applications

The geographic coordinate system uses the azimuth and elevation of the spherical coordinate system to express locations on Earth, calling them respectively longitude and latitude. Just as the two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system is useful on the plane, a two-dimensional spherical coordinate system is useful on the surface of a sphere. In this system, the sphere is taken as a unit sphere, so the radius is unity and can generally be ignored. This simplification can also be very useful when dealing with objects such as rotational matrices. Spherical coordinates are useful in analyzing systems that have some degree of symmetry about a point, such as volume integrals inside a sphere, the potential energy field surrounding a concentrated mass or charge, or global weather simulation in a planet's atmosphere. Two important partial differential equations that arise in many physical problems, Laplace's equation and the Helmholtz equation, allow a separation of variables in spherical coordinates. The angular portions of the solutions to such equations take the form of spherical harmonics. Another application is ergonomic design, where r is the arm length of a stationary person and the angles describe the direction of the arm as it reaches out. The output pattern of an industrial loudspeaker using spherical polar plots taken at six frequencies. The spherical coordinate system is also commonly used in 3D game development to rotate the camera around the player's position.

A cylindrical coordinate system is a three-dimensional coordinate system that specifies point positions by the distance from a chosen reference axis, the direction from the axis relative to a chosen reference direction, and the distance from a chosen reference plane perpendicular to the axis. The latter distance is given as a positive or negative number depending on which side of the reference plane faces the point.

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ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY

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The origin of the system is the point where all three coordinates can be given as zero. This is the intersection between the reference plane and the axis.

The axis is variously called the cylindrical or longitudinal axis, to differentiate it from the polar axis, which is the ray that lies in the reference plane, starting at the origin and pointing in the reference direction. The distance from the axis may be called the radial distance or radius, while the angular coordinate is sometimes referred to as the angular position or as the azimuth. The radius and the azimuth are together called the polar coordinates, as they correspond to a twodimensional polar coordinate system in the plane through the point, parallel to the reference plane. The third coordinate may be called the height or altitude (if the reference plane is considered horizontal), longitudinal position, or axial position.

Application

Cylindrical coordinates are useful in connection with objects and phenomena that have some rotational symmetry about the longitudinal axis, such as water flow in a straight pipe with round cross-section. Cylindrical coordinates are useful in connection with objects and phenomena that have some rotational symmetry about the longitudinal axis, such as heat distribution in a metal cylinder. Cylindrical coordinates are useful in connection with objects and phenomena such as electromagnetic fields produced by an electric current in a long, straight wire. It is sometimes called "cylindrical polar coordinate" and "polar cylindrical coordinate", and is sometime used to specify the position of stars in a galaxy ("galactocentric cylindrical polar coordinate"

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ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY

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As the spherical coordinate system is only one of many three-dimensional coordinate systems, there exist equations for converting coordinates between the spherical coordinate system and others.

Cartesian coordinates

The spherical coordinates (radius r, inclination , azimuth ) of a point can be obtained from its Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) by the formulae

Conversely, the Cartesian coordinates may be retrieved from the spherical coordinates (radius r, inclination , azimuth ), where r [0, ], [0, 2 ], [0, ], by:

Cylindrical coordinates

Cylindrical coordinates (radius , radians , elevation z) may be converted into spherical coordinates (radius r, inclination , azimuth ), by the formulas

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ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY

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Conversely, the spherical coordinates may be converted into cylindrical coordinates by the formulae

These formulae assume that the two systems have the same origin and same reference plane, measure the azimuth angle in the same sense from the same axis, and that the spherical angle is inclination from the cylindrical z axis.

The formulas below enable us to convert from cylindrical coordinates to Cartesian coordinates.

Notice the units work out correctly. The formulas below enable us to convert from Cartesian coordinates to cylindrical coordinates.

EXAMPLE

Q= Convert

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ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY

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Cylindrical coordinates

Q#2 Convert (2, p /6, 6) in cylindrical coordinates to spherical coordinates. ANS. They are

q = p /6 = 30 o

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