This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Common Metallurgical Defects in Ductile Iron
Compacted Graphite Low Nodule Count Chunky graphite Exploded graphite Nodule Alignment Carbides Graphite flotation Ferrite/Pearlite - ratio Slag inclusions Shrinkage porosity Gas porosity
with flakes branching out from branching out from nodules nodules causes a need for more causes a need for more magnesiumto counteract magnesium to counteract this this .Compacted Graphite in Ductile Iron POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE increase Mg and/or RE increase Mg and/or RE reduce S in base iron reduce S in base iron reduce fade time reduce fade time better inoculation better inoculation possibly reduce Ti possibly reduce Ti contamination from CGI contamination from CGI returns returns Titanium in Ductile Iron causes compacted causes compacted graphite structures graphite structures combines with and combines with and removesnitrogen removes nitrogen leads to poor nodule leads to poor nodule shape.with flakes shape.
Low Nodule Count POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE improve inoculation improve inoculation or reduce fade time or reduce fade time avoid superheating avoid superheating and excessive hold and excessive hold times times improve base iron improve base iron response to response to inoculation inoculation (preconditioning) (preconditioning) avoid excessive Mg avoid excessive Mg 151 Nodules/mm2 712 Nodules/mm2 Chunky Graphite POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE reduce RE content in reduce RE content in nodulariser or reduce nodulariser or reduce addition rate of addition rate of nodulariser nodulariser reduce eventual other reduce eventual other additions of RE additions of RE add S or use a Sadd S or use a Scontaining containing recarburiser to recarburiser to neutralise excess RE neutralise excess RE improve inoculation improve inoculation to reduce to reduce segregation effects of segregation effects of RE’s RE’s .
Bi and Sb as Pb.Exploded Graphite POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE reduce carbon reduce carbon equivalent equivalent increase cooling rate increase cooling rate reduce RE content in reduce RE content in nodulariser or reduce nodulariser or reduce addition rate of addition rate of nodulariser nodulariser reduce RE vs. reduce RE vs. sulphur ratio sulphur ratio Spiky Graphite POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE reduce amount of reduce amount of tramp elements such tramp elements such as Pb. Bi and Sb watch for Pbwatch for Pbcontaining scrap or containing scrap or Pb-paints Pb-paints avoid Bi-containing avoid Bi-containing inoculant inoculant increase RE addition increase RE addition .
002% levels above 0.005 wt%) alloy (0.Lead in Ductile Iron will segregate to grain will segregate to grain boundariesand cause boundaries and cause intercellular flakes at intercellular flakes at levels above 0.002% this effect is countered this effect is countered bythe presence of rare by the presence of rare earths in the treatment earths in the treatment alloy (0.005 wt%) harmful to mechanical harmful to mechanical properties properties Irregular Graphite Irregular Graphite POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE Improve inoculation Improve inoculation Avoid long hold Avoid long hold times after times after inoculation inoculation Reduce magnesium Reduce magnesium addition addition .
V. Mo.Nodule Alignment POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE increase carbon increase carbon equivalent equivalent use better use better inoculation inoculation Intercellular Iron Carbides (Chill) POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE increase carbon increase carbon equivalent and/or silicon equivalent and/or silicon content content reduce Mg and/or RE reduce Mg and/or RE content content reduce content of carbide reduce content of carbide promoting traces (Mn. Cr. Mo.) better inoculation better inoculation avoid tellurium cups in avoid tellurium cups in charge charge increase pouring increase pouring temperature temperature . Cr. promoting traces (Mn.) V. etc. etc.
Mo. etc.) (Cr. etc. Spectrum 1: Cr-C Spectrum 2: Pearlite .) better inoculation to better inoculation to minimise segregation minimise segregation change nodulariser to change nodulariser to improve nucleation improve nucleation Chromium in Ductile Iron Case Study: Sample shown had a chromium content of . This caused large carbides in addition to excess pearlite.42 wt%. Mo. V. V.Segregation Carbides (Me-C) POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE reduce content of reduce content of carbide forming traces carbide forming traces (Cr.
) Sb. elements (Mn.. Sn... Sn.Graphite Flotation POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE reduce Carbon reduce Carbon equivalent.) use more high purity use more high purity charge materials (pig charge materials (pig iron) iron) better inoculation better inoculation increase Silicon increase Silicon content content avoid hot shake out avoid hot shake out .. Cu. Cu. especially equivalent... especially C-content C-content reduce pouring reduce pouring temperature temperature increase cooling rate increase cooling rate better inoculation better inoculation Low Ferrite/Pearlite Ratio POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE reduce content of reduce content of pearlite stabilising pearlite stabilising elements (Mn. Sb.
.. Sn.Low Pearlite / Ferrite Ratio POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE increase content of increase content of pearlite stabilising pearlite stabilising elements (Mn.. Cu.) Sb. Sn.) reduce Silicon content reduce Silicon content Watch out for Boron Watch out for Boron contamination contamination Slag Inclusions POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE improve deslagging improve deslagging practice practice empty ladle between empty ladle between treatments treatments improve pouring practice improve pouring practice improve gating design to improve gating design to reduce turbulence reduce turbulence use filter or slag traps use filter or slag traps reduce Mg/nodulariser reduce Mg/nodulariser addition addition .. Sb.. elements (Mn.. Cu.
Flake Graphite Surface POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE reduce sulphur in the reduce sulphur in the sand sand use special mould use special mould coatings coatings increase Mg or Mg/S increase Mg or Mg/S ratio ratio avoid use of long avoid use of long runner-systems runner-systems reduce pouring reduce pouring temperature temperature increase pouring rate increase pouring rate use RE-containing use RE-containing inoculant inoculant Shrinkage Porosity POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE increase mould strength increase mould strength improve gating and improve gating and feeding design feeding design increase carbon content increase carbon content up to 3.8 up to 3.8 reduce Magnesium reduce Magnesium addition addition reduce alloying reduce alloying contents contents use better inoculant use better inoculant reduce inoculation fade reduce inoculation fade time time .
Hydrogen Pinholes POSSIBLE CURE POSSIBLE CURE reduce moisture in reduce moisture in sand sand ensure that tools. To the left is the gas related pore with the black inner surface. . refractory and refractory and coatings are dry coatings are dry use clean and dry use clean and dry cover material cover material reduce Al and Ti reduce Al and Ti content in iron content in iron improve venting improve venting Hydrogen in Ductile Iron Case Study: Shows the two types of porosities mentioned above. ensure that tools. And to the right is the shrinkage with a metallic surface and dendrites.
high recoveries and reproducible analyses. Mo. S. Ti. contents of trace elements (Mn. Cr…. V. nodule depleted zone Magnesium gas defect: no carbon layer Hydrogen pinholing:H2O + C Followed by: 2 CO H2 + CO C + CO2 This is the reason for the nodule depleted zone Conclusion/Summary To avoid metallurgical defects in ductile iron To avoid metallurgical defects in ductile iron the following must be emphasised: the following must be emphasised: use good quality raw materials with low use good quality raw materials with low contents of trace elements (Mn. S. use a consistent treatment process giving use a consistent treatment process giving reproducible analyses.. Mo. V. Cr…. high recoveries and good temperature efficiency good temperature efficiency use high quality nodularisers with consistent use high quality nodularisers with consistent analyses and sizing analyses and sizing use high quality inoculants specific to the use high quality inoculants specific to the requirements requirements ..Hydrogen in Ductile Iron Hydrogen pinhole: carbon layer. Ti.