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Assignment Set- 1 Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MB0039 Business Communication

Q.1 Explain the different types of communication with relevant examples.


Ans: Types of Communication: Broadly, communication may be divided into two areas verbal and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication, or communication through words, provides the opportunity for personal contact and two-way flow of information. A large part of our communication, whether at work or outside, is verbal in nature. Verbal communication in turn, may be divided into two areas oral and written communication. Oral communication may be defined as a process whereby a speaker interacts verbally with one or more listeners, in order to influence the latters behavior in some way or the other. Example In a business context, a manager doing a performance appraisal with an employee, or a sales manager making a sales plan presentation to his sales team. In the first example, the manager may point out areas for improvement and in the second case, the sales manager may be explaining how to achieve new sales targets. Oral communication in a business context can take the form of meetings, presentations, one-to-one meetings, performance reviews and so on. Written communication is a process whereby a writer interacts verbally with a receiver, in order to influence the latters behavior. Example A manager writing a letter of apology in response to a customers complaint regarding poor service. Written communication at the workplace can take several forms such as letters, memos, circulars, notices, reports and email. We will examine some of these in more detail in later chapters. Non-verbal communication, on the other hand may be defined as communication without words. It refers to any way of conveying meanings without the use of verbal language. The game of dumb charades is a perfect example. Non-verbal communication is generally unintentional, unlike verbal communication. All of us tend to communicate silently and unknowingly send signals and messages by what we do, apart from what we say. Gestures, facial expressions, posture and the way we dress, are all part of non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication can have a greater impact than verbal communication, since how you say something is sometimes more important than what you say. Although non-verbal communication can affect both our personal and business relationships, it is particularly important in the workplace. Consider the following example Your boss has asked you to make a presentation on your suggestions for improving the organization. You take him at his word and come prepared with an elaborate presentation and a list of ideas.

However, as you make your presentation, he yawns repeatedly, sits back casually, looks out of the window, clenches his jaw muscles and begins to frown. At the end of your presentation, he rises abruptly from his chair, says thank you for your ideas in an angry voice and gives you a curt handshake. In the above example, the boss, through his non-verbal behavior, conveys a message beyond the spoken word which he does not really want to hear your suggestions. Therefore, while the spoken or written words may be perfect, the non-verbal aspects could convey the exact opposite meaning. This

Q.2 What are the general principles of writing especially business writing?
Ans: Written messages must be made as readable as possible, by making them uncomplicated and easy for even the average person to understand. Readability in turn is largely determined by the length of words, sentences and paragraphs. A common mistake made by writers, especially Indian writers, is to try and impress the reader by using flowery language and an oratory style of writing. Two broad principles of writing are Write to express, not to impress and Keep it short and sweet. A good writer is one who follows these principles and asks himself/herself even before framing a sentence What am I trying to say? What words will express it? Let us try to understand these principles by first looking at some tips on writing style, followed by some specific rules regarding English language usage, spelling and punctuation. Tips on Writing Style Writing style can be vastly improved through the choice of words. 1. Simple vs. Complex Words As far as possible, the sender should select words that are within the receivers vocabulary. If the words used are outside the vocabulary of the receiver, the latter may either not get the message at all, get the wrong message by guessing the meaning incorrectly, or wonder whether the sender intentionally selected a complicated word for making an impression. Therefore, it is better to rely on plain, simple words, such as the ones shown in the left column, rather than in the right column below, even though they mean the same thing About= Approximately Do= Accomplish Improve= Ameliorate Show= Demonstrate This is because short, simple words convey ideas more effectively and require less time and space. They also invite the sender to concentrate on ideas, rather than calling attention to the words themselves. 2. Jargon, Slang and Metaphors Jargon refers to technical terms that belong to a particular subject area or discipline. For example, medical jargon would include terms that only medical practitioners and not the lay person might understand. Such terms are to be avoided in general writing, since they would be out of context. Slang refers to casual words that are not accepted and recognized in a Standard English dictionary. While they could be used in a limited way in general or informal writing, they are to be avoided in business writing, which needs to be formal in nature. A metaphor is a figure of speech and refers to colorful comparisons which evoke visual images. Examples 1. He is rock solid in his support. 2. We provide an umbrella of insurance products for your security. 3. Parts of Speech

Nouns Just as the main actor in a film is the most important character, the subject in a sentence is the most important noun. There are two categories of nouns abstract nouns or nouns that cannot be visualized and concrete nouns or nouns that can be visualized. A message will be understood more clearly if concrete nouns are used as subjects in a sentence, rather than abstract nouns. Example Cancellation of the contract will be done in March. (use of abstract noun as subject) The contract will be cancelled in March. (use of concrete noun as subject) In the above example, the second sentence, using contract as the subject, is likely to be understood more clearly by the receiver. Not only is contract something which can be visualized, it also emphasizes the main idea in the sentence. Consider another example That decision can be made only by the supervisor. (abstract noun as subject) Only the supervisor can make that decision. (Concrete noun as subject) Pronouns Sometimes, using the masculine form of a pronoun might be taken in an offensive way by the receiver, especially if the receiver happens to be a woman. Consider the following example You need to consult your professor on that subject, but he has to be a specialist in the area of Finance. Such offensive pronouns can be avoided in the following ways1. Avoid use of the pronoun completely Example You need to consult your professor on that subject, but a specialist in the area of Finance is required. 2. Repeat the noun Example You need to consult your professor on that subject, but the professor has to be a specialist in the area of Finance. 3. Use a plural noun Example You need to consult some of your professors on that subject, but they have to be specialists in the area of Finance. (The use of they avoids implying that professors can be only men). 4. Use pronouns from both genders Example You need to consult your professor on that subject, but he or she has to be a specialist in the area of Finance. Another principle regarding use of pronouns is to avoid excessive use of the first person pronoun I, since this gives the impression that one is always talking about oneself. Never sound too pleased with yourself or boast of your own achievements. The following example illustrates this You made a good presentation. You made a number of mistakes in the report. The first sentence contains a positive idea. Therefore, the second person pronoun should be used, since it gives credit to the person who made the presentation. On the other hand, the second sentence contains a negative idea and emphasizes that you are responsible. This should be avoided by framing the sentence differently, such as The report contained a number of mistakes. Verbs Since verbs are action words and action is an essential part of a sentence, correct use of verbs is important. Senders of messages must use verbs that agree in number with the subjects of the sentence. The following examples illustrate the misuse of verbs in sentences 1.Only one of the students is present (right usage) Each of the following reports has been modified. (Right usage) Verbs must also agree in person. He doesnt like to work late Consider the following examples 1. He listens to the presentation and gave his feedback. 2. The manager spoke to the customer, but does not respond to his complaint.

Adjectives Adjectives give information about or describe nouns. Although they play a less important role in a sentence compared to verbs and nouns, they must be used with care Examples 1. Sales this year have been absolutely incredible. 2. That is the most wonderful, powerful and moving speech that I have heard in a long time. Adverbs In the same way that adjectives describe nouns, adverbs describe or modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. Therefore, the same principles apply when using adverbs i.e., avoid use of adverbs that are too strong, or are superlatives Examples 1. Sales have been fantastically high this year. The adverb fantastically describes the adjective high and is too strong to be credible. 2. This secretary types the fastest. 2 Active vs. Passive Voice We discussed the correct use of verbs in the previous section. Verbs may also be classified as active verbs and passive verbs. Using the active voice means that the subject is the doer of the action and that the verb is active. On the other hand, a sentence in passive voice means that the subject is the receiver of the action and that the verb is passive. Examples John wrote the report. (Active voice). The report was written by John (Passive voice). Note that in the first sentence, the use of the active voice draws attention to the doer of the action. Namely John. This gives a sharper picture to the receiver of the message. In the second example, the subject, i.e., the report, is emphasized more than the doer of the action, giving a less clear picture to the receiver. In most cases, the active voice is preferable to the passive, since it conveys ideas more vividly.

.3 Spelling and Punctuation The important point to remember with regard to spelling is the difference between British English and American English. Certain words are spelt differently in British and American English. Here are a few examples British- Humour, colour, Analyse, Organisation, Programme, Centre, Cheque American-Humor, Color, Analyze, Organization, Program, Center, Check Generally British spellings should be used, unless you are addressing an American audience. In any case, either British or American spellings should be uniformly used and not mixed together, in order to ensure greater readability. Another common mistake made with spellings is to confuse the noun form with the verb form. Consider the following examples Noun- Licence, Advice, Practice Verb- License, Advise, Practise

Some words may sound the same but have different meanings when spelt differently. Some words may include a single vowel that makes them sound different and have very different meanings. It is important not to get confused with the spellings of these words Examples 1. Compliment means to praise someone, whereas complement means to go with ( e;g; your jewelry complements your outfit). 2. Stationery refers to paper, pencils, etc., whereas stationary means still or not moving. Punctuation Correct use of punctuation is important in both general writing, as well as in business writing. The main categories of punctuation and their uses are highlighted below 1. Apostrophe To form the possessive singular e.g., the Companys profits. To form the possessive plural of words ending in s e.g., the dealers margins. In expressions that indicate ownership e.g., last years records. 2. Parentheses or Brackets To separate a phrase from the main section of a sentence, when it is not related to it grammatically e.g., The Indian team tried their best (God knows it) but lost in the finals. 3. Colon * To suggest that a list will follow a statement in sentence form e.g. ,For three reasons, we have decided to expand our market : 1) 2) 3). 4. Comma To separate words in a series e.g., The main punctuation categories are the full stop, the comma, the colon, the semi colon and a postrophe. To separate two adjectives that modify the same noun e.g., The MBA exam is a long, difficult, objective type exam. 5. Dash * To separate the words in a sentence which are not necessary for its structure e.g., His answer the correct answer was supported by examples drawn from his own experience. 6. Full stop or Period At the end of a sentence After abbreviations e.g, Dr., No., Jr. 7. Quotation Marks To enclose what is stated by others, verbatim e.g., The manager said I will review your progress every month. 8. Semicolon It is a pause that is longer than that expressed by a comma and is used to separate clauses of a compound sentence when they have a comma. Example We would like the material to be delivered in the morning hours, but before 5 pm will also be convenient.

Q3. How would you prepare yourself for an oral business presentation?
Answer:

Oral Business Presentations: Oral business presentations are a powerful way of presenting your ideas to others and are usually called for when a written memo or report will not be sufficient to do the job. A written report tends to be less persuasive and may also be set aside without being read, whereas an oral presentation commands attention and fetches immediate feedback. Besides, approval for important ideas is rarely given without a face-to-face explanation. Presentations may be made to both internal audiences superiors, peers and subordinates, as well as to external audiences consumers, intermediaries, bankers, suppliers etc. Presentations may also be of different types, each with a different purpose.

Steps in Making Oral Presentations The table above indicates that oral presentations can range from simple to more complex ones, each with a different purpose. Whatever the nature of the presentation however, the same steps in planning and preparation are to be followed. In this section, we shall discuss each of these steps in detail. 1. Definition of the Purpose of the Presentation Before preparing for the presentation, it is important to be clear on the goal of the presentation. A general statement of purpose could be expressed in terms of one of the following To Inform A presentation that seeks to inform would merely create awareness about developments and progress on specific fronts, or try to spread knowledge about something new. In the table above, the first eight types of presentations are aimed at informing different audiences about something or the other new procedures, new terminology, new software, findings of a study, sales progress, company achievements, viewpoints and background. To Persuade A presentation that aims to persuade would try to change the attitude or behavior of the audience. It usually involves selling either a product, or an idea. In the above table, the product presentation, project proposal and policy proposal, are all persuasive presentations. To Entertain A presentation with this purpose is meant to make the audience relax and have a good time Although it is useful to define the general purpose of a presentation, it is more important to frame a specific statement of purpose, which clearly spells out the answers to the following questions 1. Whom do I want to influence? 2. What do I want them to do at the end of the presentation? 3. How do I want them to do it? 4. When? 5. Where? Key Idea The key idea of a presentation is a statement that expresses the main message to be conveyed to your audience the presentation. 3. Audience Analysis Making a good presentation alone is not enough. It also has to be tailored to your listeners, in such a way that they understand and appreciate it. The following information should be gathered about your audience, even before you begin preparing for the presentation Job Designations and Areas of Expertise You need to find out whether the audience comprises of specialists in a particular area such as information technology, or generalists. Preferred Style of Presentation It would also be relevant to know the personal preferences of your audience, with regard to the style of presentation that they are most comfortable with. Some people may prefer a more informal or conversational style with some humor thrown in, to a more formal style. Others may like the presentation to be made at a slower pace.

Demographic Characteristics of the Audience The gender, age, cultural background and economic status of the audience also needs to be studied. Size of the Audience The size of the audience would determine your presentation style, the time set aside for questions and answers, the size of visuals and so on. The Level of Knowledge on the Subject You need to know how familiar your audience is with the subject of the presentation. If the audience comprises of experts in that particular area, basic explanations may not be needed.. The Attitude of the Audience The attitude of your listeners, both towards you as a speaker and towards the topic of the presentation, needs to be studied in advance. 4. Analysis of Yourself as a Speaker Apart from analyzing your audience, you also need to do a self-analysis to determine your own purpose of making the presentation, your level of knowledge on the subject and your feelings about the subject. As explained earlier, a clear statement of the specific purpose of the presentation should be developed. If you have a choice of subject, it is always better to speak on a subject on which you are an authority. 5. Analysis of the Circumstances This includes taking into consideration any limitations of infrastructure, time and context that might affect your presentation in any way. For example, if you will be speaking in a small room where the lighting and the acoustics are insufficient, you may have to overcome these limitations by altering the seating arrangement, using brighter visuals and speaking loudly. Irrespective of the nature and purpose of the presentation, a standard format is generally followed, including the following Introduction This should include an attention getter to get the later. The key idea, or main message which was discussed earlier, will also be conveyed to the audience during the introduction. Body or Main Section This is where the main points will be presented and elaborated upon. It is best to limit the number of main points to five, so as not to overload the listeners with too much information. Conclusion A brief summary of the presentation, along with concluding remarks would be included in this section.. 7. Collection of Information and Material Once the outline of the presentation has been developed, you will need to start gathering the relevant material. This is a time consuming process and requires a fair amount of research 8. Organization of the Body The body of the presentation should always be prepared before the introduction. . The main points in this case may be 1. It has greater cleaning power than other brands. 2. It is more affordable 3. It is easier to use than other brands. 9. Planning the Introduction Since the introduction is where you make the first impression, it should be planned with care. It should take up between 10 and 15 percent of your total speaking time.. 10. Planning the Conclusion The conclusion of a presentation should be shorter than the introduction and occupy only 5 per cent of the entire presentation. Generally, every conclusion should have a review and a closing statement. The review is essentially a reinforcement of the key idea and a summary of the main points. The main points can be enumerated, as in the outline of the presentation. 11. Selection of a Delivery Style Five different delivery styles are available to speakers

Speaking Impromptu In this case, the speaker is called upon to say a few words without any warning or advance notice. Speaking Extemporaneously This is different from speaking impromptu. While impromptu speeches are delivered on the spot and not rehearsed, an extemporaneous speech is prepared and rehearsed in advance, but delivered naturally, without the support of notes or other aids. Memorizing the Presentation This is the least appealing style of delivery, since it comes across as unnatural and monotonous to the audience.. Reading from Written Notes This consists in reading the entire presentation from notes. It is a method used by government or business officials and may be appropriate when the material to be presented is highly technical or complex. However, it has some limitations. Speaking from Notes This is generally the most effective style of delivery. It consists in jotting down the main ideas in point form on index cards and then referring to these cards merely as a trigger while speaking. c. Specific purpose statement iv) Use of humor d. Speaking from notes v) Trigger words e. Opening and closing statements Using Visual Aids to Support Presentations The use of visual aids enhances the effectiveness of a presentation and involves the audience more than a pure oral presentation. As the saying goes, A speaker has a wide variety of visual aids to choose from. Some of the commonly used types of visual aids are Product Demonstrations Since seeing believes, a sales presentation can be more effective and convince a prospective customer to try a product, if it is shown in actual use. Photographs Photographs are true to life and are an effective way of illustrating products and a variety of other images Diagrams These are two dimensional drawings which can convey information about size, shape and structure for example, floor plans. Lists and Tables These are an effective way of highlighting facts and figures and of making comparisons for example, comparing last years profits with this years profits. Pie Charts and Graphs Pie charts help to illustrate percentages of a single item for example, the percentage of the total students in each area of specialization of an MBA program. Graphs are good for illustrating trends, or growth in sales and profits over time. 1. Flip Chart This consists of a large pad of thick chart paper attached to an easel, where different pictures are shown on separate charts one at a time, by turning the pages. 2. Transparencies These are clear sheets used with an overhead projector to project an image on the screen. It is possible to transfer text or visuals from other sources on to a transparency, by using a copy machine. It is also possible to write directly on the transparency with special marker pens, during the presentation. 3. Power Point Slides This is an effective visual aid, since it lends a touch of sophistication and professionalism to the presentation. It is ideal for presentations where technical pictures and elaborate diagrams are needed to illustrate ideas to the audience. some slides and rush through the rest. 4. Handouts These are printed details on the topic of the presentation that are distributed to the audience. They have the advantage of providing a permanent record of your ideas.

5. Computerized Displays These are images stored on your own computer screen or laptop, which can be shown to the audience to illustrate your ideas. This is an inexpensive and convenient type of visual aid and requires little effort or advance preparation 6. Videotapes These are audio-visual aids that exploit the attention getting properties of television for maximum impact. No matter which type of visual aid you choose to support your presentation, Some basic rules need to be followed when using them 1. Use Visual Aids only if they Add Value Make sure that you have a reason to use a visual, rather than using it for its own sake. If your ideas are better explained through words, avoid the visual, since this will only distract the attention of the audience. 2. Match your Visuals with the Level of the Audience Your visual aids should be made more or less sophisticated, depending on your audience. 3. Make the Visuals Clear and Large enough Avoid creating visuals that are so small that that they have to be described. It is better to use no visual support, than to use visuals that cannot be seen. 4. Make the Visuals Simple When creating visuals, avoid making them too intricate and detailed, so that the audience can understand them without difficulty. 5. Avoid Too Much Text with Visuals Visuals should have short captions, using only key words and simple typefaces, so that attention is drawn to the visual alone. 6. Give each Visual a Title and Number For the sake of easy identification, make sure that each visual is given an appropriate caption and is numbered. 7. Show a Visual Only When You Discuss it Revealing a visual before you are ready to describe it will only distract the attention of the audience from what you are saying now. 8. Remove Visuals After Use Similarly blank out, erase, or turn off visuals soon after you have explained them, so that the audience can focus attention on what you are saying next. 9. Check if Visuals will Work Beforehand Remember to check all the facilities in the presentation room before the session, to ensure that the visuals can be shown without any problem. 10. Rehearse Setting Up Visuals Practice using the visuals before the presentation, so that you are familiar with the sequence, when to show and remove them, without any confusion.

Q.4 You are a team manager having 15 members in your team. Two of your key team members are on 3-weeks leave. You have to call for a monthly team meeting within a week. How effectively you would plan and carry out this meeting?
Ans: Meeting planning: Before the Meeting As pointed out earlier, meetings need to be planned in advance, so that they are successful. Before any planning can be done however, a basic question to be asked is whether to hold a meeting at all. The second and most important step in planning a meeting is to indicate the purpose or agenda of the meeting to the participants in advance. An agenda is essentially a list of topics that will be discussed during a meeting. In the words of Adler and Elmhorst, A meeting without an agenda is like a ship at sea without a destination or compass: no one aboard knows where it is or where it is headed. An agenda is prepared by the Chairperson of the meeting, or the person who calls the meeting. Apart from a list of topics, a comprehensive agenda should also include the following 1. The Time, Venue and Duration of the Meeting The starting time and length of the meeting needs to be indicated, so that participants know how much to prepare and can plan their other activities and meetings accordingly.

2. A List of Participants It is important to let all members know who will be attending the meeting, so that they know whom to expect. 3. Background Information This could be in the form of new information, repetition of facts as a reminder, or a brief explanation of the importance of the meeting. 4. A Clear List of Items and Goals These should be included in order to ensure that the meeting has an outcome. Participants need to have a clear idea of their role in the meeting. Goals should be stated so that they sound specific, result-oriented and realistic. 5. Advance Preparation by Participants A good agenda tells participants how to come prepared for the meeting for example, by reading an article, bringing important documents, collecting facts, or jotting down their ideas on a particular issue. In case certain members have to prepare in a specific way, this can be mentioned on their individual copy of the agenda. 1. Office Equipment Needs (Name of person responsible for making a presentation and initiating discussion). 2. Office Decoration (Name of person responsible for making a presentation and initiating discussion). 3. Advertising and Publicity (Name of person responsible for preparing advertisements and press releases). 2. An agenda is prepared by the participants of the meeting. 3. An agenda provides an outline of how the meeting will run. 4. A progress meeting is the most challenging type of meeting. 5. A problem solving meeting is the most frequently held type of meeting. During the Meeting The task of conducting and moderating the meeting rests with the chairperson. He or she must be well versed with the procedures for opening the meeting, encouraging balanced participation, and solving problems creatively, concluding the meeting and managing time efficiently. We shall discuss each of these procedures in detail. 1. Opening the Meeting The manner in which the meeting is opened is important, since a good opening will ensure that the rest of the meeting will proceed smoothly. 2. Encouraging Balanced Participation It is also the responsibility of the chairperson to encourage silent members to contribute to the meeting and to moderate the dominant members, so that they do not hijack the meeting. There are several techniques to encourage participation Encourages Participation in the Reverse Order of Seniority This means getting the junior members to speak or air their opinions first. Nominal Group Technique In this method, the meeting participants are encouraged to work and contribute their ideas independently. Encourage Participation In Turns In this method, the chairperson goes around in turns, to make sure that each member contributes to the meeting. This is a good way to break the initial silence and start off a meeting. Use Overhead QuestionsThese are questions that are addressed to the entire group and which may be answered by anyone in the group. * Use Direct Questions These are questions that are addressed to individual members. The idea is to get quiet members to speak out. Use Relay Questions This is similar to an overhead question. When a member asks the chairperson a question, the chairperson refers it to the entire group, to encourage participation. 3. Managing Time There is no prescribed length for a meeting. The duration of a meeting will depend on the type and purpose of the meeting. Generally, problem-solving meetings will take longer than other routine meetings. 4. Keeping the Meeting Focused Often, a lot of time is wasted during meetings by going off track and by discussing topics that are irrelevant. Some of the techniques that

could be used to do this are Reminding Members of Time Constraints When members dwell on a topic for too long, or engage in irrelevant discussions, the chairperson must intervene to remind members that time is running out and request them to proceed to the next item Summarizing and Moving On When an item on the agenda has been fully discussed but the discussion rambles on, the chairperson can quickly summarize the ideas, acknowledge the contributions and mention the next item to be discussed. Postponing Discussion of Irrelevant Ideas Sometimes, participants may waste time by coming up with ideas that are not relevant to the topic being discussed. In this case, the chairperson should be firm but polite, by appreciating the idea and promising to discuss it after the meeting. 5. Ensuring Convergence Convergence means hearing the points of view of all the members and then arriving at a decision. 6. Summing Up This means summing up the different points of view, the decisions and the actions to be taken. This should be done by the chairperson, identifying the role of each person on each item of the agenda, along with a specified deadline. 7. Concluding the Meeting The way a meeting is concluded is as important as the opening, since it will influence the follow-up action taken on decisions made during the meeting. The chairperson should know when and how to conclude the meeting. There are different ways of concluding a meeting. One way is to signal and indicate how much time is remaining, so that the group can wrap up the discussions. 8. Keeping Minutes of the Meeting Since meetings are called to take important decisions concerning the organization, it is important to maintain. A permanent written record of the proceedings, which can be referred to at a later stage, or serve as a guide for action. Such a record is known as minutes of the meeting and may be done in an informal or formal manner, depending on the type of meeting. In the case of routine meetings, minutes are written in an informal manner, in the form of a broad summary of the proceedings. On the other hand, minutes for more formal meetings such as board and shareholder meetings are written in a specific format, recording the names and views of the different participants. There is a meeting etiquette, or code of conduct that needs to be followed by participants. 1. Be brief and to the point It is important to focus on the topic mentioned in the agenda and to remember that there is a time limit for the meeting. Do not dominate a meeting by speaking more than what is necessary and do not engage in irrelevant discussions. 2. Do not say something for the sake of it Participation in a meeting does not mean just saying something, whether it is relevant or not. 3. Contribute to add value Adding value may be done by expressing a new idea, through constructive disagreement (e.g., why not do it this way instead?), by endorsing another persons opinion (e.g., I agree with you) or by seeking clarification ( e.g., Can you explain that again?). 4. Give credit where it is due It is good meeting etiquette to appreciate someone elses idea, if you think it is good. 5. Keep an open mind to facilitate convergence Dont impose your own ideas on others. Give others a chance to express their ideas, so that different viewpoints emerge on a single issue. 6. Do not interrupt If you wish to say something, always signal this by raising your hand politely at a suitable juncture. 7. Always address the chairperson Avoid bi-lateral talks and mini meetings, or discussions with other participants, as well as speaking in another language. Address your questions to the chairperson. 8. Use tools and technology with care As mentioned earlier, meetings today can be non face-to-face, thanks to technological advances. When using facilities such as internal messaging, teleconferencing and video-conferencing, remember to be brief and to avoid using the tool for its own sake. After the Meeting

A meeting that proceeds smoothly will still not be successful, unless proper follow-up measures are taken to ensure that the goals are fully accomplished. Follow-up may involve the following steps 1. Plan for the Next meeting Very few meetings is conclusive and cover all the items in the agenda completely. It is the chairpersons responsibility to make a note of the items that have not been discussed and to schedule the next meeting, along with a fresh agenda. All participants must be informed that a follow-up meeting is being planned. 2. Check Progress on Follow-up Actions Members of the meeting may have been assigned different responsibilities and deadlines for completion of tasks. Therefore, it is important to monitor their progress every now and then, after the meeting is over, to ensure that the deadlines are met. 3. Do your own Groundwork Apart from monitoring the progress of meeting participants, it is also important that you as the chairperson finish any pending work before the next meeting.

Q. 5 Distinguish between circulars and notices along with formats.


Ans: Circulars and Notices Like memos, circulars and notices are also written forms of communication within the organization. The difference between a circular and a notice is that circulars are announcements that are distributed to small or selective groups of people within the organization, whereas notices are meant for a larger group of people. Example If a manager wants to call a meeting of heads of departments, he will pass around a circular only to the heads, requesting them to attend that meeting. On the other hand, notices generally contain information or announcements that are meant for all the employees of an organization. Example A list of declared holidays for a calendar year is a notice, since the information is relevant to all employees. A notice is therefore a legal document that has to be put up on an official notice or bulletin board. Sometimes, under special circumstances, notices may also be sent to individual employees. An example of this type of notice is the Show Cause Notice, which is sent when an employee is found to be guilty of major misconduct. The notice mentions the allegations against the employee and asks for a written explanation within a specified time, failing which the action that would be taken against him/her (e.g., being suspended from the job) is stated. Notices are read by a large number of people and can also be used as evidence in court cases. Therefore, care must be taken when writing them. They have to be worded very precisely and clearly, to make sure that there is no ambiguity. They should also be brief and to the point. NOTICE Sub: GEFamily Day Celebrations This is to inform all employees of GE that a GE Family Day celebration will be held at GE County on Friday March 14 th between 10 am and 7 pm. A pick-up and drop back facility is being organized for all employees and their family members. In view of the celebrations, this will be a holiday. Instead, Saturday, March 15 th will be a working day to compensate for this holiday. All are encouraged to attend and make the event a success.