Salient Features of 500 MW And Major Difference between 200 and 500MW

Presentation By AJAY SHUKLA Sr.Faculty PMI,

lient Features of 500MW

1sT October 2008

Parameters for increasing Cycle Efficiency in PC-fired Units
Increasing main steam pressure Increasing superheat and reheat temperatures Adopting double reheat Increasing the vacuum of condenser Increasing final feed water temperature.

lient Features of 500MW

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Trends in Cycle Parameters

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Trend in unit sizes & Cycle parameters
Unit Size 60 / 70 MW 110 / 120 MW 200 / 210 MW 250 MW 500 MW 660 MW 800 MW SHO Pressure (kg/cm2(a)) 96 139 137 / 156 156 179 179 256 256 SHO/RHO Temperature (Deg.C) 540 540/540 540/540 540/540 540/540 540/568 568/596 568/596 Year of Introduction 1965(30.5%) 1966(35.7%) 1972(37.5%) 1991 1979(39%) 1985 2008 2008
1sT October 2008

lient Features of 500MW

Trends in Operating Pressures
Increased Operating Pressures are employed to improve Thermal Power Plant Cycle Efficiency Unit size increase has traditionally been associated with pressure increase Higher Unit Sizes (500 MW and above ) currently employ pressure cycles around 170 ata and above

lient Features of 500MW

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eff=(1-T2/T1)

T1

T2

lient Features of 500MW

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Rankine cycle

P2 T Pcr P1

S

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EMP 540’C 568’C
2 /cm Kg

00
56 2

00

00

00

SUPER CRITICAL BOILER CYCLE WITH SH, RH & Regeneration of SIPAT 3 x 660 MW
Steam flow Steam temp Steam Pres RH pre RH Temp Feed water Temp

00

00 0

:2225 T/Hr : 540 ‘c : 256 kg/cm : 51.6 Kg/cm : 568’c : 291’c

ENTROPY

lient Features of 500MW

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210 MW Boiler – Typical Arrangement

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Natural Circulation

Controlled Circulation

lient Features of 500MW

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Boiler Water Circulating Systems
Choice of Circulating system depends on Operating Pressure The density difference between water and steam provides the driving force for the Circulating fluid Higher pressures units warrant pumps to ensure circulation (Natural circulation not adequate)

lient Features of 500MW

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Types of Circulation

lient Features of 500MW

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500MW WATER AND STEAM CIRCUIT

DRUM

CC Pump

Bank II

Bank I

FROM BFP DISCHARGE

Economizer

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H.R .H

M.S

C.R.H

FROM F.R.S BOTTOM RNG HDR& Z-PANEL 1 ST PASS W.W O/L HDRS 2 ND PASS UPPER C-HDR LTSH I/L HEADER D.P.I/L HEADER S.H. HEADER 2 ND PASS ROOF O/L HDR(REAR 1 ST PASS W.W

ROOF I/L HEADER 2nd PASS LOWER C-HDRS LTSH O/L HEADER D.P.O/L HEADER R.H.HEADER

lient Features of 500MW

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ECONOMISER

Boiler Parameters
Raichur 210MW Steam flow at SHO Steam pressure at SHO t/h 680 540 597.2 540 247.5 Bellary 500MW 1625 178 540 1389.76 540 254.6 Ramagundam 500 MW 1675 178 540 1387.2 540 253.7

kg/Sq.Cm(g) 155

Steam temperature at SHO Deg.C Reheat steam flow t/hr.

Steam temperature at RHO Deg.C Feed water temperature Deg.C

lient Features of 500MW

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Types of boilers

¯ Drum type

¯ Once-through type

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Drum type boiler

• Steam generation takes place in furnace water walls • Fixed evaporation end point - the drum • Steam -water separation takes place in the drum • Separated water mixed with incoming feed water

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Drum type boiler

® Natural Circulation Boiler
ü Circulation thru water walls by thermo-siphon effect

® Controlled Circulation Boiler
ü At higher operating pressures just below critical pressure levels, thermo-siphon effect supplemented by pumps

lient Features of 500MW

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500 MW Boiler – Typical Arrangement

lient Features of 500MW

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500 MW – Arrangement Of Circulating System

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Comparison Of 210 & 500 MW Boilers
210 MW Furnace Upper furnace Type of circulation Water wall tubing Air heaters Double arch Open Natural Plain tubes (63.5mm) 2 Trisector 500MW Single arch Panellete Controlled Rifled tubes(51mm) 2 Trisector (or) 4 Bisector Mill arrangement Front or Rear Both sides or Rear 1sT October 2008

lient Features of 500MW

lient Features of 500MW

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500 MW

lient Features of 500MW

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Talcher-K Stage-1 Boiler
• Design & Supply – M/s. Stein Industries, France. • Type • Tower type Once through Circulation, Direct pulverized coal fired. Balanced draft furnace, Single reheat radiant, dry bottom type.

lient Features of 500MW

1sT October 2008

lient Features of 500MW

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Tower Type Boiler

lient Features of 500MW

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lient Features of 500MW

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Data Sheet

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Supercritical Boilers- Major Systems

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Pressure range Sub critical : Below 221 bar

Super critical : 221 bar and above

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SC Steam generator Boiler Steam Pressure above the critical point

3

5 Critical Point 221 bar, 374ºc

T 4 Temperature

1-2 Feed Water Pumping Process 2-3 Heat addition in the Feed Water Heaters & Boiler 3-4 Expansion in HP Turbine 4-5 Reheating in Boiler 5-6 Expansion in IP & LP Turbine 1 Entropy 6 S 6-1 Heat rejection in Condenser

2

lient Features of 500MW

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Supercritical Boilers
Supercritical pressure boiler has no drum and heat absorbing surface being, in effect, one continuous tube, in which the water & steam generated in the furnace water walls passes through only once hence called ‘Once through Supercritical pressure boilers’ The water in boiler is pressurized by Boiler Feed Pump, sensible heat is added in feed heaters, economizer and furnace tubes, until water attains saturation temperature and flashes instantaneously to dry saturated steam and super heating commences.

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The Concept
The mass flow rate thru’ all heat transfer circuits from Eco. inlet to SH outlet is kept same except at low loads wherein recirculation is resorted to protect the water wall system

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Concept of Once through Steam Generator

T
Economiser Waterwall Superheater

S

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Once through Supercritical Boilers
Major differences from Drum type boiler : Evaporator system Low load Recirculation system Separator

lient Features of 500MW

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Circulation Systems
STEAM TO TURBINE STEAM TO TURBINE

SH

SH

DRUM SEPERATING VESSEL

EVAPORATOR

ECO.

ECO. FEED CIRCULATION PUMP (LOW LOAD & FEED START-UP)

ASSISTED CIRCULATION TYPE

Drum Type

Once-through 1sT October 2008

lient Features of 500MW

EVAPORATOR

Once -through Operating Range

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Features of Once Through Steam Generator
To ensure adequate mass flow rates through water wall, spirally wound water wall tubes are used. Start-up and low load system up to 30-40% BMCR required. Feed water quality requirements are very stringent. Can be designed pressures. for both sub-critical and super-critical

Ideally suited for sliding pressure operation due to the absence of thick walled components.

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Once -thru Boiler
Evaporator system : Formed by a number of parallel tubes Tubes spirally wound around the furnace to reduce number of tubes and to increase the mass flow rate thru’ the tubes Small tube diameter Arrangement ensures high mass velocity thru the tubes

lient Features of 500MW

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ONT WALL ED TUBING

Vertical Wall Sliding Pressure Supercritical Desig
SIDE WALL RIFLED TUBING SCREEN TUBES SMOOTH TUBING HANGER TUBES SMOOTH TUBING ARCH RIFLED TUBING

1 1/4” (31.8 mm)O.D. Tubing

1 1/8” (28.5 mm)O.D. Tubing
SIDE WALL RIFLED TUBING

REAR WALL RIFLED TUBING

FRONT WALL RIFLED TUBING

SMOOTH TUBING FROM THIS ELEVATION ALL WALLS

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Spiral vs. Vertical Wall Comparison
• • Spiral Furnace System Applicable for all size units Benefits from averaging of lateral heat absorption variation (each tube forms a part of each furnace wall) Simplified inlet header arrangement Large number of operating units Use of smooth bore tubing throughout entire furnace wall system One material utilized throughout entire waterwall system No individual tube orifices – Less maintenance & pluggage potential • • • • Vertical Furnace Wall System Limited to larger capacity units (>700 MW depending on fuel) Less complicated windbox openings Traditional furnace water wall support system Elimination of intermediate furnace wall transition header Less welding in the lower furnace wall system Easier to identify and repair tubes leaks Lower water wall system pressure drop thereby reducing required feed pump power

• • •

• • •

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Design Features of 660 / 800 MW Supercritical Boilers for Indian Coal Fired Power Stations

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Boiler Parameters
Description Boiler Parameters SH steam flow SHO pressure SHO/RHO temp. Feed water temp. t/h kg/cm2(a)
oC oC

Unit -

800 MW BMCR 2585 256 568/596 294

660 MW BMCR 2100 256 568/596 291

500 MW BMCR 1625 179 540/540 254

lient Features of 500MW

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Features of Boiler
Pulverised coal fired Once through, evaporator suitable for variable pressure operation Single reheat Tilting Tangential firing System Dry Bottom Balanced draft furnace Side mill layout

lient Features of 500MW

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Features of Boiler (Contd.)
Dry Bottom Balanced draft furnace High performance Bowl Mills Two Nos. of Axial FD Fans Two Nos. of Axial PA Fans Two Nos. of Axial ID Fans ESP to meet reqd. outlet concentration

lient Features of 500MW

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Salient Design Features
Description
Circulation System

800 MW
Once-Through

660 MW
Once-Through

500 MW
Controlled

Startup low load Vertical separator with Vertical separator recirculation System One no. startup Rewith One no. startup Not applicable circulation pump Re-circulation pump Water walls SH / RH / Economiser system Vertical walls with rifled tubing • 2 stages of SH • 2 stages of RH • 1stage economizer Tilting tangential firing Balanced draft Spiral walls with Plain tubing Vertical walls with rifled tubing

Firing System Draft System

• 2 stages of SH • 3 stages of SH • 2 stages of RH • 1 stages of RH • 1stage economizer • 1stage economizer Tilting tangential Tilting tangential firing firing Balanced draft Balanced draft 1sT October 2008

lient Features of 500MW

Pressure Parts Arrangement (Typical)

Final RH Platen SH

Final SH

LTRH

Economiser

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Boiler Auxiliaries
Description
Pulverisers Airheaters

800 MW
9 nos.HP bowl mill 2nos Regenerative Tri-sector air heater system

660 MW
9 nos.HP bowl mill 2 nos. Regenerative Tri-sector air heater system

500 MW
10 nos. bowl mill 2 nos. Regenerative Trisector air heater system or 4 nos Bisector air heater system with 2 nos. primary&2 nos. secondary. 2 Axial FD, 2 Axial PA and 2 Radial ID with VFD 50 mg/Nm3

Fans

Axial FD, Axial PA and Axial ID-2nos each 50 mg/Nm3

Axial FD, Axial PA and Axial ID-2nos each 50 mg/Nm3

ESP outlet dust concentration

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Highlights
• Boiler and Auxiliaries
• Controlled Circulation( 3 CC Pumps) • Smaller Dia Rifle Tubes for WW • Bisector Airheater • Two stage reheating • Tower Type Once Through boiler with spiral

tube arrangement in Talcher-K

lient Features of 500MW

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Highlights
• Turbine and Auxiliaries
• TD BFP • FRF for governing system • Vacuum Pump in place of ejector • 4 stop and control valves for turbine • Horizontal HP and LP heaters

lient Features of 500MW

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COMPARISON OF 500 MW AND 200 / 210 MW TURBINES
CONSTRUCTION 500 MW (KWU) 200 /210 MW (KWU)

cylinder reheat condensing turbine

3 cylinder reheat condensing turbine

ngle flow HP turbine with 18 reaction ages

Single flow HP with 25 reactio stages

ouble flow IP turbine with 14 reaction ages per flow

Double flow IP turbine with 2 reaction stages each flow

ouble flow LP turbine with 6 reaction ages each flow

Double flow LP turbine with 8 reaction stages each flow

Main stop and control valves ombined)

2 Main stop and control valve (combined)
1sT October 2008

lient Features of 500MW

COMPARISON OF 500 MW AND 200 / 210 MW TURBINES

CONSTRUCTION 500 MW (KWU)

200 /210 MW (KWU)

Reheat stop and control valves ombined)

2 Reheat stop and control (combined) 2 Swing check NRVs in cold reheat line 2 Bypass stop and control valves
1sT October 2008

Swing check NRVs in cold reheat line

Bypass stop and control valves

lient Features of 500MW

COMPARISON OF 500 MW AND 200 / 210 MW TURBINES
500 MW (KWU) 1568 T /hr 54,000 M3 /hr Hydraulic / Electro – hydraulic (throttle) 4 3000 r.p.m 3090 r.p.m (51.5 Hz) 2850 r.p.m (47.5 Hz) 200 MW (KWU) 670 T / hr 28,570 M3 / hr Electro-Hydraulic (throttle) 4 3000 r.p.m. 3090 r.p.m (51.5 Hz) 2850.r.p.m (47.5 Hz) 1sT October 2008

ated steam flow

irculating water

ype of Governing

o. of bearings (Turbine only)

ated speed

ax, Speed no time limitation

in. speed no time limitation

lient Features of 500MW

COMPARISON OF 500 MW AND 200 / 210 MW TURBINES

ermissible below 47.5 Hz and above 51.5 Hz in life time (Total)

2 Hrs.

2 Hrs

ritical Sped r.p.m.

900, 1548, 1896, 2700, 3858 400-2859 r.p.m 3350 r.p.m 240 . 210 (r.p.m.) cut-in /cut-out (Hydraulic)

1200,1600, 1900

peed exclusion range at peration without load

700-2850 r.p.m 3330 r.p.m

ver speed trip

arring Gear Sped (r.p.m)

540 / 500 cut-in / cutout (Hydraulic) 1sT October 2008

lient Features of 500MW

COMPARISON OF 500 MW AND 200 / 210 MW TURBINES
Initial Steam Pressure Initial steam temperature Before HP Ist stage pressure HP cylinder exhaust pressure HP cylinder exhaust temp. IP cylinder stop valve inlet pressure IP cylinder stop valve inlet temp. Bleed Steam point (stages of turbine) 170 Kg / cm2 (abs) 537°C 151.8 Kg / cm2 (abs) 45 kg / cm2 (abs) 342.5°C 40.5 Kg / cm2 (abs) 537°C 1 Nos. CRH 2 Nos –IPT 1 Nos. Coross around pipe between IPT &LPT, 2 Nos, LPT 147 Kg / cm2 (abs) 535°C 132.6 Kg / cm2 (abs) 39.2 Kg /cm2 (abs) 343°C 34 Kg / cm2 (abs) 535°C

25, 36, 45, 48, 50, 52 1sT October 2008

lient Features of 500MW

COMPARISON OF 500 MW AND 200 / 210 MW TURBINES
Extraction valves 500 MW (KWU) No Valve 1 swing Check valve with Au. actuator 1 swing check value with Aux. actuator 2 swing check valves with Aux. actuator 1 swing check valve with Aux. actuator No valve 200 MW (KWU) No Valve 1 swing Check valve with Aux. actuator 1 swing check valve with Aux. actuator 1 swing check valve with Aux. actuator 1 swing check valve with Aux. actuator No Valve

traction 1-

traction 2-

traction 3-

traction 4,1-

traction 5-

traction 6

traction 71sT October 2008

lient Features of 500MW

COMPARISON OF 500 MW AND 200 / 210 MW TURBINES
Extraction7- Pressure /temp.

traction 6-Pressure /temp.

45 Kg. /cm2 (abs) 19.5 Kg / cm2 (abs) 428.3°C 7.57 Kg / cm2 (abs) 302°C 2.76 Kg / cm2 (abs) 197.8°C 1.42 Kg / cm2 (abs) 138.8°C 0286 Kg / cm2 (abs) 43°C

39 Kg /cm2 (abc)

traction 5 -pressure/ temp

16.7 Kg / cm2 (abs 433°C

traction 4 – pressure / temp.

7.06 Kg /cm2 (abs 316°C

traction 3 – Pressure / temp.

2.37 Kg / cm2 (abs) 200°

traction 2- pressure / temp.

0.86 Kg /cm2 (abs) 107° 2.216 Kg / cm2 (abs) 1sT October 2008

traction 1

lient Features of 500MW

COMPARISON OF 500 MW AND 200 / 210 MW TURBINES
0.884 Kg / cm2 (abs) 43°C

LP cylinder exhaust pressure / temp

0.118 Kg / cm2 (abs) 49°C

Low vacuum trip (hyd. & Electrical)

0.31 Kg /cm2 (abs)

0.3 kg / cm2 (abs)

Bypass trip

061 Kg / cm2 (abs)

0.6 Kg / cm2 (abs)

lient Features of 500MW

1sT October 2008

• Generator and Auxiliaries
• Brushless excitation system • Stator water cooled and rotor hydrogen cooled as in 200 MW •An additional 11 KV supply for MD BFP

lient Features of 500MW

1sT October 2008

lient Features of 500MW

1sT October 2008

lient Features of 500MW

1sT October 2008

lient Features of 500MW

1sT October 2008

lient Features of 500MW

1sT October 2008