STATION PROTECTION

ENGINEERING
Knowledge Management System
ELECTRICAL

Key Words : Relay Circuit, Stabilising Resistors, CT Parameters, Tripping Sequence, Dynamic Load.

Submitted by : Ms. C.Saroj, DGM(PE-Elect), CC, EOC, 9868391368, csaroj@ntpceoc.co.in

17/12/2007

STATION PROTECTIONS
By NTPC

Bus bar protections
• Standard practice
• 400 kV And above
– – – – Duplicated main protection per zone (bus) Two prot connected to different CT cores Preferably, both main protections on different principle Two out of two principle(main 1 & 2) for tripping

• 220 kV / 132 kV
– One main protection per zone (bus) – Single CT core is switched to respective main zone through switching relays – Common check zone for all the buses connected to an independent CT core other than main protection – Tripping based on operation of both main and check zone

Specifications for Bus bar protection
– OPERATING TIME OF 15 MS AT 5 TIMES SET VALUE

– INCLUDE CT SUPERVISION – INDIVIDUAL TRIP RELAYS(DUPLICATED) FOR EACH FEEDER – TRANSIENT FREE OPERATION – DC SUPPLY SUPERVISION – IN /OUT SWITCH FOR EACH ZONE – MODERN NUMEIRCAL BUSBAR PROTECTIONS ARE AVAILABLE IN CENTRALISED AND DECENTRALISED FORM – IN DUPLICATED BUS BAR SCHEME, PREFERABLY ONE SCHEME SHALL BE LOW IMPEDANCE BASED AND SECOND SHALL BE HIGH IMPEDANCE BASED

Bus bar prot scheme design

R2 R1

LOGIC OF MAIN AND TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM

Bus section protection

TYPES OF BUS BAR PROTECTIONS

• HIGH IMPEDANCE TYPE
• VOLTAGE OPERATED • CURRENT OPERATED • ALL CT CONNECTIONS ARE LOOPED IN THE YARD AND SINGLE CABLE TAKEN TO THE RELAY • AUGMENTATION IS EASY • THROUGH FAULT STABILITY ACHIEVED THROUGH STABILISING RESISTORS CONNECTED IN THE RELAY CIRCUIT.

• Designed stability level Shall correspond to swgr rating
even if the available SC level is less • Settings

– Vs = If(Rct+2 Rl) – Vk not less than 2 x Vs – Effective current setting
Ir = Is+ n, Ie Is= relay circuit current setting Ie= Magnetising curent N= No of CTs in parallel I pry = Ir X turns ratio

• CT
– Matching CT ratio to avoid spill current during healthy state – Less Rct/ less Ie/high CT ratio

BUS BAR PROTN (contd)

• Supvn of CT circuit
– Detected by using a 3 phase rectifier relay to effect the summation of the bus wire voltages and short the pilot wire from the affected phase

Routing of CT connection
– Looped at the yard itself to ensure minimum loop resistance and thus a minimum setting voltage and a minimum Vk for a given stability limit

LOW IMP BUS BAR PROTECTION
• • • • • • • Use biased differential PRINCIPLE. Stability for through fault achieved by restraining quantities proportional to the feeder current. Less stringent CT parameters CT wires directly to the relay More stability for spill current CT mismatch (typ of the order of 1:5 ) can be accommodated. More suitable for numerical integrated protection systems AS THE CTs CAN BE SHARED FOR MANY FUNCTIONS. BUILT IN LBB FUNCTION IS ACCEPTED IN BUS BAR PROTN.

• Use of bias
– Compensate for small ratio mismatch – AC switching of feeder current through isolator contacts are avoided and switching is done on the sec side of aux CTs forming part of the relay.Alternatively in static / numerical relays,the bus bar replica is made inside the relay through isolator contacts and the logic is done by the same. – Aux CT takes care of ratio mismatch of CTs – A current operated auxiliary relay is used to detect any unbalance sec current for supervision of the CT ckts. Current setting of the supvn relay must be less than that of main diff relay and more than the lowest loaded feeder

Setting criteria
• Main diff relay is set above the highest loaded feeder. • Must be more than 30% of the min fault level.

Numerical bus bar protections
• Centralized: all functions in a centre unit • Decentralized : Peripheral units attached to each bay and a central unit for relay logic. • Have many zones of protection in the same relay • Many added functions like LBB, Feeder back up protection • Event logging • Dist recording

ISLANDING SCHEMES

Islanding scheme

n DEPENDS ON TYPE OF GENERATING SYSTEM n GRID CONNECTED GENERATING STATIONS
• GENERATOR IS CONNECTED TO THE GRID THROUGH EHV TRANSMISSION LINES.

• CAPTIVE GENERATING STATION
• DEDICATED GENERATOR(S) SUPPLIES POWER TO A PARTICULAR UTILITY/ESTABLISHMENT. • NOT CONNECTED TO THE GRID.

TYPE OF ISLANDING SCHEMES.
• FOR GRID CONNECTED GENERATORS CRITERIA: UNDER FREQUENCY AND/OR RATE OF CHANGE OF FREQUENCY ACTION: STAGGERED TRIPPING OF GRID LINES AT PREDTERMINED LOGIC AT THE PRE DECIDED SEQUENCE. CONCERN: VERY DYNAMIC SYSTEM CONDITIONS

ISLANDING SCHEME FOR GRID CONNECTED GENERATORS. • KEY FEATURES
– INTEGRATED SCHEME FOR THE WHOLE PLANT – FREQUENCY BASED – TRIGGERING BASED ON THRESHOLD AND RATE OF CHANGE OF FREQUENCY – U/F RELAYS CONNECTED TO BUS CVT – BASED ON 2 OUT OF 3 LOGIC – INDIVIDUAL TRIP RELAYS FOR EACH FEEDER – STAGGERED TRIPPING SCHEME TO BE ENGINERED IN COORDINATION WITH RESPECTIVE GRID AGENCY DEPENDING ON THE SYSTEM CONDITIONS AND THE POWER NUMBER OF THE CONNECTED GRID.
– SUCCESS CHANCE MORE IF RADIAL LOAD IS AVAILABLE.

CVT SUPPLY FOR U/F RELAYS
• CONNECTED TO THE SELECTED BUS CVT SUPPLY OR • DISTRIBUTED AMONG THE 2 BUS CVTS
{2 ON ONE BUS CVT (ON 2 CORES) & 1 ON OTHER BUS CVT}

TYPICAL SWYD SLD

5 8 17 20
R2 R2

181 F 6 4 7 9 16 18 19 21

3 1 281 F 381 F

10

12

13

15

2

11

14

481F

581F

681F

TYPICAL ISLANDING LOGIC FOR SELECTED BUS CVT

TYPICAL ISLANDING LOGIC FOR NON SELECTED BUS CVT SUPPLY

ISLANDING FOR CAPTIVE GENERATING PLANTS.
• FEATURES
– – – – – BASED ON LOAD GENERATION BALANCE. SCADA BASED DYNAMIC LOGIC ADAPTIVE TO SYSTEM CHANGES PRIORITY GROUPS ARE SET FOR ISLANDING TRIPPING SEQUENCE IS DECIDED BY THE SOFTWARE BASED ON THE PRIORITY AND THE DYNAMIC LOAD GENERATION BALANCE.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME

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