frame to balance the total output currents while in the second
one, the GSC is controlled to eliminate the oscillations of the total
active power generated by the DFIG system. In the proposed
control strategy, the RSC is controlled in the (dq)
frame to
balance the stator currents; therefore the control of the GSC for
eliminating the oscillations of the total active power is done
easily. The simulation results obtained for a 7.5 KW DFIG based
wind turbine validate the proposed control strategy and show the
enhanced system operation during unbalanced voltage network.
KeywordsDoublyfed Induction Generator (DFIG);
Unbalanced Voltage; Converter; Reference Frame; Control
I. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, Doublyfed induction generators (DFIG), as
schematically shown in Fig. 1, due to their numerous
advantages in comparing with other generators that are used in
the wind power plants, have been put into great consideration
so that many studies have been carried out on modeling and
controlling the DFIG system. However, many studies that
have been done in this area are related to the balanced network
voltage conditions [1][4]. Nevertheless, the steady state and
transient unbalanced voltage can be occurred in the grid. Of
course, this condition can be had a variety of reasons.
The control of the DFIG based wind generation system,
regardless of unbalanced voltage conditions cause the
dysfunction of it. If these conditions are neglected to control
of the
DFIG, undoubtedly occurring small unbalanced voltage
in the terminals of the machine can lead to creating high
unbalanced currents in the stator windings that causes the trips
in the wind farms. Furthermore, occurring unbalanced voltage
in the network, creates the oscillations with high amplitude at
double the network frequency in the electromagnetic torque
and power and DCLink voltage [5].
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of DFIGbased wind generation systems
The oscillations of the electromagnetic torque make the
pulsating torque that can cause severe mechanical stresses
along with high noises in the gearbox and rotor shaft and
turbine blades, thus it can be expected severe damages. The
oscillations arising in the power and DCLink voltage also
cause low power quality of these generators under unbalanced
network voltage conditions.
In these conditions, the RSC controls the negative
sequence components of the rotor currents to minimize the
electromagnetic torque oscillations [6]. However, the
reference [7], has discussed about another reference currents
that can be used to improve the performance of the DFIG. For
controlling the threephase negative sequence components
related to the grid side converter (GSC), in the (dq)
reference
frame, specific objectives can be followed. One of the
methods that can be applied to control the GSC in these
circumstances, is to Balance the output currents of the DFIG
along with avoiding of output of the negative sequence current
of the DFIG toward the network so that the output negative
sequence current from the stator windings, instead of entering
into the network enters to the GSC [8]. Another way to control
the GSC in these conditions is to minimize the oscillations in
the total active power so that the oscillations of the output
active power from the stator windings and GSC neutralize
each other to make no Ripley in the total active power
generated by the DFIG system [9].
This paper investigates about two control strategies for
controlling the negative sequence currents in (dq)
reference
frame by coordinated control of the RSC and GSC under
unbalanced voltage network. Then with comparing and
2011 2nd Power Electronics, Drive Systems and Technologies Conference
9781612844213/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE 175
analyzing of their effects on the performance of the DFIG
system, a new control strategy is proposed to achieve more
advanced performance of the DFIG under this condition so the
RSC is controlled to balance the stator currents while the GSC
is controlled to eliminate the oscillations of the total active
power generated by the DFIG system. Finally, according to
the simulation results of a 7.5 KW DFIG based wind turbine,
the behavior of the DFIG with controlling the RSC and GSC,
applying two mentioned and proposed control strategy under
this condition, will be evaluated comprehensively.
II. OPERATION OF RSC
A. RSC (DFIG) Model
As under unbalanced conditions, the steadystate three
phase variables can be decomposed into positive, negative and
zero sequence components and assuming the neutral points of
the system in Fig. 1 are not grounded, then the zero sequence
current does not exist. Therefore, it is convenient to use two dq
reference frames, i.e., a positive (dq)
+
reference frame and a
negative (dq)
reference frame. Whereas, The daxis of the
(dq)
+
frame rotates with at an angular speed of +
s
and the d
axis of the (dq)
frame rotates with at an angular speed of
s
.
According to the Fig. 2, the variable F can be expressed
using their respective positive and negative sequence
components as:
_
F
dq
+
=F
dq+
+
+F
dq
+
=F
dq+
+
+F
dq
e
j.2.
s
F
dq
=F
dq
+F
dq+
=F
dq
+F
dq+
+
e
+j.2.
s
(1)
In (1), the subscripts + and refer to the positive and
negative sequence components, and the superscripts + and
refer to the (dq)
+
and (dq)
reference frames.
According to the above discussion and Fig. 3, the positive
sequence of the voltage and flux linkage of the stator and rotor
windings in the (dq)
+
frame, can be express as[6]:
`
1
1
1
1
1
1
V
ds+
+
=r
s
.i
ds+
+
+
d
ds+
+
dt
s
qs+
+
V
qs+
+
=r
s
.i
qs+
+
+
d
qs+
+
dt
+
s
ds+
+
ds+
+
=L
s
.i
ds+
+
+M.i
dr+
+
qs+
+
=L
s
.i
qs+
+
+M.i
qr+
+
(2)
`
1
1
1
1
1
1
V
dr+
+
=r
r
.i
dr+
+
+
d
dr+
+
dt
(
s
r
)
qr+
+
V
qr+
+
=r
r
.i
qr+
+
+
d
qr+
+
dt
+(
s
r
)
dr+
+
dr+
+
=L
r
.i
dr+
+
+M.i
ds+
+
qr+
+
=L
r
.i
qr+
+
+M.i
qs+
+
(3)
Where r
s
, r
r
are the stator and rotor resistance, respectively;
L
s
, L
r
are the stator and rotor inductance, respectively; M is
mutual inductance;
s
is synchronous angular speed;
r
is rotor
angular speed.
The negative sequence of the voltage and flux linkage of
the stator and rotor windings in the (dq)
qs+
+
ds+
+
qs
ds
qs
ds
qs+
+
ds+
+
ds
qs
ds+
+
qs+
+
_
l
l
l
l
l
i
dr+
+
i
qr+
+
i
dr
i
qr
1
1
1
1
1
(5)
_
Q
so
P
ssin2
P
scos2
_ =
3.
s
2.L
s
_
ds+
+
qs+
+
ds
qs
ds
qs
ds+
+
qs+
+
qs
ds
qs+
+
ds+
+
_
`
l
l
l
l
l
ds+
+
qs+
+
ds
qs
1
1
1
1
1
M
l
l
l
l
l
i
dr+
+
i
qr+
+
i
dr
i
qr
1
1
1
1
1
/
(6)
According to the Fig. 3, the input power from the rotor
shaft equals the total output power from equivalent voltage
sources j
s
s
, j(
s
r
)
r
which is calculated as follows:
P
e
=P
eo
+P
esin2
sin(2
s
)+P
ecos2
cos(2
s
) (7)
Where
_
P
eo
P
esin2
P
ecos2
_ =
3.M.
r
2.L
s
_
qs+
+
ds+
+
qs
ds
ds
qs
ds+
+
qs+
+
qs
ds
qs+
+
ds+
+
_
l
l
l
l
l
i
dr+
+
i
qr+
+
i
dr
i
qr
1
1
1
1
1
(8)
So the electromagnetic torque of DFIG can be express as:
T
e
=
P
2
.
P
e
r
(9)
The active power exchanged by the rotor to the rotor side
converter can be calculated as:
P
r
=P
e
P
s
=P
ro
+P
rsin2
sin(2
s
)+P
rcos2
cos(2
s
) (10)
Where
_
P
ro
=P
eo
P
so
P
rsin2
=P
esin2
P
ssin2
P
rcos2
=P
ecos2
P
scos2
(11)
Figure 2. Relationships between (), (dq)+ and (dq)
reference frames
176
Figure 3. Equivalent circuit of a symmetrical threephase induction machines
in synchronous reference frame dq
B. Control of RSC
The desired objectives in terms of the balanced conditions
can be met through controlling the positive sequence rotor
current in the (dq)
+
frame. The control of the positive rotor
current, in (dq)
+
frame, is similar to the balanced conditions,
so that the daxis of this frame is fixed with the positive
sequence stator flux and rotates with at an angular speed of
+
s
. Under this condition,
ds+
+
is always constant and
qs+
+
will be zero. Therefore, the reference current i
qr+
+*
is
determined for enabling the wind turbine to obtain the
maximum wind energy. And according to the reference stator
reactive power, the reference current i
dr+
+*
is also calculated.
As the variety targets can be considered for controlling the
negative sequence rotor current in the (dq)
reference frame
under unbalanced voltage conditions thus the different
reference negative sequence currents can be determined [7].
1) For balancing the stator currents:
_
i
dr
*
=
ds
M
i
qr
*
=
qs
M
(12)
2) For eliminating electromagnetic torque oscillations:
`
1
1
1
1
T
esin2
=u
T
ecos2
=u
=
`
1
1
1
1
i
dr
*
=
us
us+
+
i
ui+
+
+
qs
qs+
+
i
qi+
+
i
qr
*
=
qs
qs+
+
i
ui+
+
us
us+
+
i
qi+
+
(1S)
3) For eliminating the stator active power oscillations:
`
1
1
1
1i
dr
*
=
2
ds
ds
ds+
+
i
dr+
+
qs
qs+
+
i
qr+
+
i
qr
*
=
2
qs
qs
qs+
+
i
dr+
+
+
ds
ds+
+
i
qr+
+
(14)
So according to the obtained positive and negative
sequence reference currents, the reference rotor voltage for
supplying the rotor windings according to (3) and the PI
controllers used in the current controller in accordance with
block diagram of Fig. 4 can be calculated. And the desired
voltages for feeding the rotor windings can be created with
using SVPWM to produce the switching patterns for the RSC.
Figure 4. Overall vector control scheme of the RSC
III. OPERATION OF GSC
A. GSC Model
The positive and negative sequence output voltage of the
GSC, respectively in the (dq)
+
and (dq)
frames, are express as:
`
1
1
1
1
V
dg+
+
=r
g
.i
dg+
+
+L
g
di
dg+
+
dt
s
.L
g
.i
qg+
+
+V
ds+
+
V
qg+
+
=r
g
.i
qg+
+
+L
g
di
qg+
+
dt
+
s
.L
g
.i
dg+
+
+V
qs+
+
(15)
`
1
1v
ug
=i
g
.i
ug
+L
g
ui
ug
ut
+
s
.L
g
.i
qg
+v
us
v
qg
=i
g
.i
qg
+L
g
ui
qg
ut
s
.L
g
.i
ug
+v
qs
(16)
Where r
g
and L
g
are the resistance and inductance of the
line between the GSC and grid, respectively.
The active power output from the GSC is given by [9]:
P
g
=P
go
+P
gsin2
sin(2
g
)+P
gcos2
cos(2
g
) (17)
Where
`
1
1
1
1 P
go
=
3
2
(V
ds+
+
.i
dg+
+
+V
ds
.i
dg
+V
qs+
+
.i
qg+
+
+V
qs
.i
qg
)
P
gsin2
=
3
2
(V
ds+
+
.i
qg
V
ds
.i
qg+
+
V
qs+
+
.i
dg

+V
qs
.i
dg+
+
)
P
gcos2
=
3
2
(V
ds+
+
.i
dg
+V
ds
.i
dg+
+
+V
qs+
+
.i
qg
+V
qs
.i
qg+
+
)
(18)
With refraining from the losses of the resistance r
g
, the total
active power generated by the DFIG system is expressed as:
P
total
=P
s
+P
g
( 19)
The voltage of DCLink capacitor can also be express as:
C.
dV
dc
dt
.V
dc
=P
r
P
g
=P
e
P
s
P
g
(20)
Where C is the DClink capacitance.
177
B. Control of GSC
Under balanced voltage conditions, the following
objectives must be met [1]:
1) Charging the DCLink capacitor and maintaining its
voltage constant.
2) Independent controlling the active and reactive power
exchanged between the grid and GSC.
The control of the positive sequence currents of the GSC,
in the (dq)
+
frame, is similar to what occurs in the balanced
conditions, so that the daxis of this frame is aligned with the
positive sequence stator voltage. Thus V
ds+
+
is always constant
and V
qs+
+
is zero. So according to the reference voltage of the
DCLink and reactive power of the GSC, the reference
currents i
dg+
+*
and i
qg+
+*
can be determined, respectively.
But two targets for controlling the negative sequence
current output from the GSC, in the (dq)
reference frame,
under unbalanced network voltage, can be considered.
In the first control target, due to the existence of the
negative sequence stator current, the GSC is controlled in a
way to make this current not to be injected to grid, and instead
of entering into the grid, makes it to enter the GSC. So in these
conditions, the reference currents i
dg
*
, i
qg
*
are given as [8]:
_
i
dg
*
=i
ds
i
qg
*
=i
qs
(21)
According to (19) and (20), under unbalanced network
voltage, the oscillations at double the network frequency can
be created in total active power and DCLink voltage. Thus for
solving this problem, the second control strategy is useful.
Considering that, the daxis of the (dq)
+
frame for
controlling the RSC is aligned with the positive sequence
stator flux and the daxis of the (dq)
+
frame for controlling the
GSC is aligned with the positive sequence stator voltage, thus
between
s
(angle of the daxis of the (dq)
+
frame for
controlling the RSC) and
g
(angle of the daxis of the (dq)
+
frame for controlling the GSC), (22) can be concluded [9]:
g
=
s
+
2
(22)
Thus according to (19), (20), (22):
P
total
=[P
so
+P
go
+(P
gsin2
P
ssin2
) sin(2
g
)+(P
gcos2
P
scos2
) cos(2
g
) (23)
C.
uv
uc
ut
.v
uc
=(P
eo
P
so
P
go
)+(P
esin2
+P
ssin2
P
gsin2
). sin(2
g
)
+(P
ecos2
+P
scos2
P
gcos2
). cos(2
g
) (24)
According to this strategy for eliminating the oscillations
of the total active power, between the output active powers of
the stator and GSC, Equation (25) must be defined as:
`
1
1
1
1
P
gsin2
=P
ssin2
P
gcos2
=P
scos2
=
`
1
1
1
1
i
dg
*
=
2
3
.
P
scos2
V
ds+
+
V
ds
V
ds+
+
i
dg+
+
V
qs
V
ds+
+
i
qg+
+
i
qg
*
=
2
3
.
P
ssin2
V
ds+
+
V
qs
V
ds+
+
i
dg+
+
+
V
ds
V
ds+
+
i
qg+
+
(25)
Figure 5. Overall vector control scheme of the GSC
According to the positive and negative sequence reference
currents, the desired output voltages of the GSC according to
(15) and (16) and the PI controllers used in the current
controller in accordance with block diagram of Fig. 5 can be
calculated. The desired voltages can be created with using
SVPWM to produce the switching patterns for the GSC.
IV. COORDINATED CONTROL OF RSC AND GSC
A. Alternative Control Strategies
As the variety of targets can be considered for controlling
the negative sequence currents of the DFIG system, in the
(dq)
reference frame, under unbalanced network voltage,
therefore, the different strategies can be applied for
coordinated controlling of both the RSC and GSC.
In the first strategy, the RSC minimizes the oscillations of
the electromagnetic torque and thus the mechanical stresses in
the gearbox and rotor shaft and turbine blades will be
removed. And with controlling the GSC, the DFIG output
currents are balanced. But, the total active power generated by
the DFIG system oscillates at double the network frequency
and thus according to (20), the DClink voltage will have
ripples. Therefore, the power quality of the DFIG isn't
satisfactory and also the stator currents are unbalanced.
In the second strategy similar to first one, the oscillations
of the electromagnetic torque are removed. The GSC
minimizes the oscillations of the total active power thus the
DClink voltage has no ripples. But in this Strategy, as the
oscillations of the stator active power must be compensated
with the oscillations of the active power output from the GSC,
therefore with increasing the percentage of the voltage
unbalance, the amplitude of these oscillations will be
increased. Thus due to limited capacity of the GSC, the
compensation of these oscillations will not be achieved
completely. The stator currents are also unbalanced.
B. Proposed Strategy
As in both the strategies, the elimination of the torque
oscillations was considered thus under this condition, the
amplitude of the oscillations of the stator active power would
be high. So according to the strategy 2, for compensating these
oscillations, the capacity of the GSC must be increased. On
the other hand, with applying above two strategies, the stator
currents are unbalanced. Also the stator unbalanced currents
178
result in the output current unbalance. In the strategy 1, this
problem was solved approximately but the stator current still
was unbalanced and also the total active power generated by
the DFIG system oscillates at double the network frequency.
In the proposed control strategy, the negative sequence
reference rotor current is given as the average of these for
targets 23 considered for controlling the RSC to reduce the
oscillations of both the stator active power and torque. Thus
the required negative sequence currents are then given as:
_
i
dr
*
=
ds
M
i
qr
*
=
qs
M
(26)
As (26) is identical to that for target 1, thus this target not
only removes any stator current unbalance but also gives good
attenuations of both the stator active power and torque
oscillations. So for compensating the oscillations of the stator
active power, the small oscillations of the active power output
from the GSC will be required so the elimination of the stator
active power oscillations is done completely by the GSC. Also
due to the balanced stator current and the small negative
sequence current of the GSC, the output currents of the DFIG
will also be balanced approximately.
V. SIMULATION RESULTS
Simulations of the control strategies for a 7.5 KW double
fed induction generator based wind turbine were carried out
using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The DFIG system parameters
are given in Table 1. During the simulations, the generator
speed is fixed at 1.1 p.u. and at the time of t = .1 (sec), the
voltage of the network is unbalanced as much as 8.5% and.
Initially, the simulation results with no controls over the
negative sequence currents of the RSC and GSC, under
unbalanced voltage, are shown in Fig. 6. The frequency of the
positive and negative sequence rotor current are (65 Hz 60
Hz) and (65 Hz + 60 Hz), respectively. Due to the significant
amplitude of the positive sequence rotor current compared
with the amplitude of the negative one, the positive sequence
rotor current is considered as the main component of the rotor
current and the negative sequence rotor current will swing on
it. Also, the unbalanced voltage has been caused the stator
current unbalance and creates the oscillations with high
amplitude at double the network frequency in the stator active
power (P
s
), output active power from the GSC (P
g
), total
active power (P
total
) and the electromagnetic torque (T
e
). Due
to these oscillations, the DCLink voltage has also ripples.
TABLE I. PARAMETERS OF THE DFIG SIMULATED
Rated Power 7.5 KW
Rated stator voltage 220 V
Rated frequency 60 Hz
Stator resistance 0.0453 p.u.
Stator leakage inductance 0.0775 p.u.
Rotor resistance 0.0222 p.u.
Rotor leakage inductance 0.0322 p.u.
Magnetizing inductance 2.042 p.u.
Number of pole pairs 3
Lumped inertia constant 3.5 s
Rated DC link voltage 450 V
Line resistance 0.1
Coupling inductance 12 mH
DC link capacitance 2400 F
As shown in Fig. 7, according to the first control strategy,
the RSC is controlled to remove the oscillations of the
electromagnetic torque and with controlling the GSC, the
output currents of the DFIG system are balanced and thus
these currents have no negative sequence components. But the
oscillations of the stator active power and GSC create the
oscillations at double the network frequency in the total active
power thus the DCLink voltage has also ripples.
Figure 6. Simulated results without controlling the negative currents of the
DFIG under 8.5% stator voltage unbalance
Figure 7. Simulated results with the control strategy 1 under 8.5% stator
voltage unbalance
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
50
0
50
i
a
r
,
i
b
r
,
i
c
r
(
A
)
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
50
0
50
i
a
s
,
i
b
s
,
i
c
s
(
A
)
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
0
5000
10000
P
s
(
W
)
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
0
1000
2000
P
g
(
W
)
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
0
5000
10000
15000
P
t
o
t
a
l
(
W
)
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
0
50
100
T
e
(
N
.
m
)
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
445
450
455
Time (Sec)
V
d
c
(
V
)
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
40
20
0
20
40
i
a
r
,
i
b
r
,
i
c
r
(
A
)
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
20
0
20
i
a
t
,
i
b
t
,
i
c
t
(
A
)
.5 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
6000
8000
10000
P
s
(
W
)
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
0
500
1000
P
g
(
W
)
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
7000
8000
P
t
o
t
a
l
(
W
)
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
50
55
60
T
e
(
N
.
m
)
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
448
450
452
Time (Sec)
V
d
c
(
V
)
179
As shown in Fig. 8, according to the second control
strategy, the oscillations in the electromagnetic torque have
been removed and the oscillations of the active power output
from the GSC compensates that of the stator active power thus
the total active power and the DCLink voltage have no
oscillations. But due to the significant amplitude of the stator
active power oscillations, the oscillations of the active power
output from the GSC for cancelling them must be increased.
Simulation results with applying the proposed control
strategy are shown in Fig. 9. The negative sequence rotor
currents are controlled by the RSC to balance the stator
currents thus both the stator active power and torque
oscillations are attenuated. Also by controlling the GSC the
oscillations of the total active power are eliminated. Due to
minimizing the stator active power oscillations at double the
network frequency, the oscillations of the output active power
from the GSC for cancelling them gets effectively diminished.
VI. CONCLUSION
In this paper, two coordinated control strategies of the
RSC and GSC for improving the performance of the DFIG
under unbalanced voltage network are analyzed. Then with
comparing of their effects on the performance of the DFIG, a
new control strategy is proposed that the targets considered in
the mentioned strategies are achieved approximately. So with
controlling the RSC the stator currents are balanced that this
control target not only removes any stator current unbalance
but also gives good attenuations of both stator active power
and torque oscillations. Therefore, the GSC is easily
controlled to eliminate the total active power oscillations. The
simulation results show the behavior of DFIG with control of
RSC and GSC, applying two mentioned and proposed control
strategies under unbalanced network voltage conditions that
confirm the effectiveness of this proposed control strategy.
Figure 8. Simulated results with the control strategy 2 under 8.5% stator
voltage unbalance
Figure 9. Simulated results with the proposed strategy under 8.5% stator
voltage unbalance
REFERENCES
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[2] Lie Xu, Direct Active and Reactive Power Control of DFIG for Wind
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[3] A. Tapia, G. Tapia, J.X. Ostolaza, J.R. Saenz, Modeling and control of
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[4] S. Muller, M. Deicke, and R. W. De Doncker, Doubly fed induction
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0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
20
0
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P
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P
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448
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Time (Sec)
V
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20
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50
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448
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Time (Sec)
V
d
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(
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180