Lightfoot. The Apostolic Fathers : a revised text with introductions, notes, dissertations, and translations. 1889. Volume 2, Pt. 2. | Jesus | Religion And Belief

.

.

'

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

-

-

LIBRARY OF WELLESLEY COLLEGE

PRESENTED BY
Mrs. Rooes

o^uun

$y**J)

vt^,

-

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS
SECOND PART
VOL.
II.

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS
PART
S.
S.
II.

IGNATIVS.

POLYCARP,

REVISED TEXTS
WITH INTRODUCTIONS, NOTES, DISSERTATIONS, AND TRANSLATIONS.

BY
J.

B.

LIGHTFOOT,

D.D.,

D.C.L.,

LL.D.,

BISHOP OF DURHAM.

SECOND EDITION.
VOL.
II.

Uonfcon

:

MACMILLAN AND
AND NEW YORK.
1889
\_All

CO.

Rights

reserved.']

bo

2.:
.

a

(Eambritige

:

PRINTED BY

C. J.

CLAY, M.A.

AND

SONS,

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
SECOND VOLUME.

GENUINE EPISTLES OF
INTR OD UC TION.
(i)

S.

IGNATIUS.
PAGE

i— 1
Au-

1

Circumstances

thorities for the text.

Previous editions.
present edition.
1.

of writing and order of the Epistles; (2) Exceptional position of the Letter to the Romans. Principles of the text and apparatus criticus of the

Symbols used.

TO THE EPHESIANS
Introduction

Text and Notes

Excursus on yevurjTos and dyevveros §
2.

TO THE MAGNESIANS
Introduction

Text and Notes
3.

TO THE TRALLIANS
Introduction

........... .......... ........... .......... ...........
7
.

.

.

.

— 20 — 89 — 94 90
15 21

13-94

95—140

Text and Notes
4.

.

.

— 140 — 182 141 — 143 — 149 150 182
105

97

— 104

TO THE

ROMANS

Introduction

Text and Notes
5.

— 188 — 234 189
185

183—234

TO THE PHILADELPHIA NS
Introduction

...........

235—282
237
248

Text and Notes
6.

— 247 — 282 — 326

TO THE SMYRNsEANS
Introduction

283—326
285, 286

Text and notes
7.

287

TO POLYCARP
Introduction

327—360
329, 330
.

Text and Notes

331

— 360

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

ACTS OF MARTYRDOM.
PAGE

INTRODUCTION.
1.
(ii)

363—47*
(i)

Different forms:
Acts,

Antiochene Acts, Greek,
(iii)

Latin,

and Syriac;

Roman
(v)
2.

Greek and Coptic;

Bollandist Acts;

(iv)

Armenian

Acts;

Acts of Metaphrast [363—368].
relations.

Mutual

The Antiochene and Roman Acts independent.

Their contents.
3.

The

other Acts composite [368

— 377].

The same
[383
389].
4.

— 386];

Historic credibility, place, and date of the Roman Acts [377—382]. internal evidence questions as regards the Antiochene Acts
:

external testimony (Chrysostom, Evagrius, the Menaea) [386

Possible nucleus of truth [389

— 391].

tribunician years [398
to Trajan's Eastern
5.

Chronology of Trajan's reign. Tables [391—398]. Reckoning of Notes on the tables with special reference 404].

campaigns [404

—418].

(2)

(1) Oct. 17, the original day [418—422]. Dec. 20, the later day with the Greeks [422, 423]. (3) July 1, the the Latin commemoration 1, (4) Feb. Egyptian festival [423—428].

The

festival of Ignatius.

[428—430].

Lessons for his day [430, 431].

Translations of the reliques

[43I—434]-

The year of the martyrdom. Pearson's disquisition [435, 436]. 6. Volkmar's theory that he was martyred at Antioch [436]. The testimony Statement of the Syriac Chronicle of John Malalas examined [437—447]. Authorities for the 9th year of Trajan [448]. Chronicon of Eu[447]. Harnack's theory examined [452—471]. Results of sebius [448—452].
the investigation [471, 47 2 L
7.

Authorities for the texts of the Antiochene and

Roman

Acts.

Pre-

vious collations and editions [473, 474].

A.

ANTIOCHENE ACTS.
Text and Notes

477—495

B.

ROMAN

ACTS.
496—540

Text and Notes

TRANSLATIONS.
1.

2

.

GENUINE EPISTIES OF ACTS OF MAR TYRD OM.
Antiochene

S.

IGNATIUS

.

.

.

-543—574
575

Ads

Roman

Acts

579

— 5^8

579

ADDENDA
INDEX

589—598 599—6i9

THE GENUINE
I.

EPISTLES.

genuine the Seven Epistles in the form in which they were current in the age of Eusebius have been stated already. Only a few additional words will be necessary

THE

REASONS

for accepting as

to explain the principles

which have been followed

in the

arrangement

of the epistles and These seven epistles were written in the early years of the second century, when the writer was on his way from Antioch to Rome, having
in the construction of the text.

been condemned
written at

to

beasts in the amphitheatre on his arrival.

death and expecting to be thrown to the wild They fall into two groups,

on his way. The letters to the and Romans, were sent from Smyrna, Ephesians, Magnesians, Trallians, while Ignatius was staying there and was in personal communication
two
different halting-places

with Polycarp the bishop. The three remaining letters, to the Philadelto the Smyrnseans, and to Polycarp, were written at a subsequent phians, stage in his journey, at Alexa?idria Troas, where again he halted for a
time, before crossing the sea for Europe.

The

place of writing in every

case

determined from notices in the epistles themselves. The order in which they are printed here is the order given by Eusebius {H.E. iii. 36). Whether he found them in this order in his
is

manuscript, or whether he determined the places of writing (as

we

might determine them) from internal evidence and arranged the epistles accordingly, may be questioned. So arranged, they fall into two groups, The letters themselves however according to the place of writing.
contain no indication of their chronological order in their respective groups ; and, unless Eusebius simply followed his manuscript, he must

have exercised his judgment in the sequence adopted in each group,
e. g.

Ephesians, Magnesians, Trallians, and Romans.

IGN.

II.

I

2

THE GENUINE EPISTLES

The two groups, besides having been written at different places, are All the separated from each other by another distinctive feature. epistles written from Smyrna are addressed to churches which he had
other hand

not visited in person but knew only through their delegates. On the all the epistles written from Troas are addressed to those,
(as in the case of the

whether churches

Philadelphians and Smyrnaeans)

whom he had already held personal communication at some previous stage in his journey. It has been seen that at some point in his journey (probably Laodicea on the Lycus), where there was a choice of roads, his
or individuals (as in the case of Polycarp), with
to

guards selected the northern road through Philadelphia and Sardis Smyrna. If they had taken the southern route instead, they would

have passed in succession through Tralles, Magnesia, and Ephesus, before It is probable that, at the point where the they reached their goal.
roads diverged, the Christian brethren sent messengers to the churches lying on the southern road, apprising them of the martyr's destination ;
so that these churches would despatch their respective delegates without delay, and thus they would arrive at Smyrna as soon as, or even before,

Ignatius himself.

The
the

first

group then consists of
at

letters

to

these three churches,

whose delegates had thus met him

Smyrna, together with a fourth to

them of his speedy arrival among them this last probably having been called forth by some opportunity (such as was likely to occur at Smyrna) of communicating with the

Roman

Christians apprising

The three are arranged in a topographical order (Ephesus, Magnesia, Tralles) according to the distances of these cities from Smyrna, which is taken as the starting-point.
metropolis.

had

The second group consists of a letter to the Philadelphians whom he visited on his way to Smyrna, and another to the Smyrnaeans with
he had stayed before going to Troas, together with a third to his

whom

friend Polycarp closing the series. The order however in the Greek
it

ms and

in the versions (so far as

can be traced) is quite different, and disregards the places of writing. In these documents they stand in the following order
:

i.

Smyrnaeans
Polycarp

5.

Philadelphians
Trallians
1

2.

6.
7.

3.
4.
1

Ephesians

Romans.

Magnesians
transposes Trallians and Philadelphians.

The Armenian Version however

OF
This sequence
is

S.

IGNATIUS.

3

the collection of the

consistent with the supposition that martyr's letters made at the time

we have here

who

writing to the Philippians says were sent to us by him, and others as

'The

many

by Polycarp, Epistles of Ignatius which as we had with us, we send

even as ye directed: they are subjoined to this letter' (§ 13). But though this order, which is given in the documents, has high claims for consideration as representing the earliest form of the collected
to you,
epistles, I

have substituted the chronological arrangement of Eusebius

as

more

instructive for purposes of continuous reading.

Of
1.

the data for the text an account has been given already.
follows.

Our

documents are as

The Manuscript of

the Greek Original (G).
'

been, as Turrianus described

it,

emendatissimus

',

If this MS had we should have had

no further trouble about the

text.

But since

this is far

from being the
in settling the

case, the secondary authorities are of the highest

moment

readings.
2.

Among

these the Latin
literal

Version (L) holds the

first

place,

as

being an extremely purer form of the
interpolations

rendering of the original.

It exhibits

a

much

text,

and omissions which
it

being free from several corruptions and a few At the same disfigure the Greek.

time however

is

clear,

both from the contents of the collection and

from other indications (as described previously), that this version was translated from a Greek ms of the same type as the extant Greek MS ;

and therefore
limited.

its

value, as a check

upon the readings of

this ms, is

Whenever

GL

coincide, they

must be regarded as one witness,

not as two.

The Syriac Version (S) would therefore have been invaluable as 3. an independent check, if we had possessed it entire, since it cannot have been made later than the fourth or fifth century, and would have
exhibited the text

much

nearer to the fountain-head than either the

Greek or the Latin. Unfortunately however only a few fragments But this defect is (S„ S 2 S 3 ) belonging to this version are preserved.
,

made up

to

a considerable extent in two ways.
Collection

First.

We

have a
Version

rough Abridgment or

of Excerpts (2) from

this Syriac

for three epistles (Ephesians,

ment of a fourth

Romans, Polycarp) together with a frag(Trallians), preserving whole sentences and even

4

THE GENUINE EPISTLES
Secondly.

There

paragraphs in their original form or with only slight changes. is extant also an Armenian Version (A) of the whole,
the Syriac (S). tudes, that it

made from

This
is

last

underlying

its

often difficult to discern the original It will thus be seen that tertiary text.

however has passed through so many vicissiGreek reading

AS

have no inde-

pendent authority, where S is otherwise known, and that SAS must be regarded as one witness, not as three. There is likewise extant a fragment of a Coptic Version (C), in 4.
the Sahidic (Thebaic) dialect of the Egyptian language, comprising the first six chapters of the Epistle to the Smyrnaeans, besides the end of the

The date of this version is uncertain, though spurious Epistle to Hero. but the text appears to be quite independent of our probably early ; other authorities, and it is therefore much to be regretted that so little
is

preserved.
5.

Another and quite independent witness

is

the Greek Text of

the

Long Recension (g) of the Ignatian Epistles. The Latin Versio?i (1) of this Long Recension has no independent value, and is only important
as
assisting in

determining the original form of

this recension.

The

practice of treating it as an independent authority is altogether The text of the Long Recension, once launched into the confusing.

world,

which should be kept quite distinct from of Ignatius. For the purpose of determining that of the genuine Epistles the text of the latter, we are only concerned with its original form.

had

its

own

history,

The Long Recension was constructed, unknown author, probably in the latter half

as

we have

seen,

by some

of the fourth century, from the genuine Ignatian Epistles by interpolation, alteration, and omission. If therefore we can ascertain in any given passage the Greek text of
the genuine epistles which this author had before him,

we have

traced

the reading back to an earlier point in the stream than the direct Greek

probably even than the Syriac Version. This not always easy to do, by reason of the freedom and No rule of universal application can be capriciousness of the changes. laid down. But the interpolator is obviously much more given to
authorities,
is

and Latin however it

change at some times than at others ; and, where the fit is upon him, no stress can be laid on minor variations. On the other hand, where he adheres pretty closely to the text of the genuine Ignatius, as for
instance through great parts of the Epistles to Polycarp and to the Romans, the readings of this recension deserve every consideration.

Thus
because
it

it

will be seen that though this witness is highly important, cannot be suspected of collusion with other witnesses, yet it

OF
must be subject
lying
its

S.

IGNATIUS.

5

to careful cross-examination, before the truth understatements can be ascertained.

6. Besides manuscripts and versions, we have a fair number of Quotations, of which the value will vary according to their age and full account of these has been independence. given already.

A

that, though each authority separately may be regarded as more or less unsatisfactory, yet, as they are very various in kind, they act as checks one upon another, the
it

From

the above statement

will

be seen

one frequently supplying

just that
is

element of certainty which
adequate.

is

lacking

to the other, so that the result

fairly

Thus

A

will often give

what g withholds, and conversely. Moreover it will appear from what has been said that a combination of the secondary and capricious authorities must often decide a reading against the direct and
primary.

For

instance, the

combination

Ag

is,

as a rule, decisive in favour of a

reading, as against the more direct witnesses GL, notwithstanding that singly, or g singly, is liable to any amount of aberration, though in

A

different directions.

The foregoing account applies to six out The text of the Epistle to the Romans has had a

of the

seven

letters.

distinct history

and

is

This epistle was at represented by separate authorities of its own. an early date incorporated into the Antiochene Acts of Martyrdom,

and thus disconnected from the other

six.

In
It

its

new connexion,
(the

it

was disseminated and translated separately. only extant Greek MS which contains this
is

so happens that the

epistle

Colbertine)
six (the

even

less satisfactory

than the sole Greek ms of the other

Medicean); but on the other hand we have more than compensation for this inferiority in the fact that the Acts of Martyrdom (with the
incorporated epistle) were translated independently both into Syriac which are ex(S m ) and into Armenian (A ra ); and these two versions,
tant,

furnish

Metaphrast,
in

who compiled

two additional authorities for the text. Moreover the his Acts of Ignatius from this and another
Epistle
to

Martyrology, has retained the

the

Romans

in

his

text,

an abridged and altered form. though From this account it will be seen that the authorities
to the
(1)

for the Epistle

Romans
Those

fall

into three classes.

authorities,

which contain the

epistle

as part of the

These are the Greek (G), the Latin (L), the Syriac Martyrology. These (S m ), and the Armenian (A m ), besides the Metaphrast (M).
authorities

however are of

different values.

When

the epistle was

first

6

THE GENUINE

EPISTLES

incorporated in the Acts of Martyrdom, it still preserved a comparaWhen it has arrived at the stage in which it appears tively pure form. In this last form, in the extant Greek ms (G), it is very corrupt.

among

other corruptions,

it

exhibits interpolations

and

alterations

which

have been introduced from the Long Recension

(g).

The ms used by

the Metaphrast exhibited a text essentially the same as that of G. The independent Syriac Version (S) of which only a few (2) fragments remain, but which is represented, as before, by the Syriac Abridgment (S) and the Armenian Version (A).

The Long Recension (g), which in great parts of this epistle close to the text of the original Ignatius. keeps
(3)

Though
looked.

be constructed are

the principles on which a text of the Seven Epistles should sufficiently obvious, they have been strangely over-

The first period in the history of the text of the genuine Ignatius commences with the publication of the Latin Version by Ussher (1644), and of the Greek original by Isaac Voss (1646). The Greek of the The text Epistle to the Romans was first published by Ruinart (1689). of Voss was a very incorrect transcript of the Medicean ms, and in this
respect subsequent collations have greatly improved on his editio firinceps. But beyond this next to nothing was done to emend the Greek text.

Though some very obvious corrections are suggested by the Latin Version, these were either neglected altogether by succeeding editors or were merely indicated by them in their notes without being introduced into the text. There was the same neglect also of the aid which might have been derived from the Long Recension. Moreover the practice of treating the several mss and the Latin Version of the Long Recension independently of one another and recording them
co-ordinately with the Greek and Latin of the genuine Ignatius (instead of using them apart to ascertain the original form of the Long Recension, and then employing the text of this Recension, when thus
ascertained, as a single authority) threw the criticism of the text into Nor was any attention paid to the quotations, great confusion.

which in several instances have the highest value. Hence it happened that during this period which extended over two centuries from Voss to
Hefele
(ed.
1,

1839; ed.

3,

1847) and Jacobson (ed.

1,

1838; ed.

3,

1847) inclusive, nothing or next to nothing (beyond the more accurate collation of the Medicean ms) was done for the Greek text.

The second

period dates

from the publication of the Oriental

OF
versions

S.

IGNATIUS.

7

Syriac Abridgment with the Syriac Fragments by Cureton (1845, 1849), and the Armenian Version by Petermann (1849) New materials of the highest value were thus placed in the hands of
l .

— the

critics

;

but, notwithstanding the interest which the Ignatian question

any proper use was made was due, at least in part, to a false solution of the Ignatian question. The text of Bunsen (1847), Cureton (1849), and Lipsius (1859), which started from the assumption that
excited, nearly thirty years elapsed before

of them.

In some cases the

failure

sarily

the Syriac Abridgment represented the genuine Ignatius, must neceshave foundered on this rock, even if the principles adopted had

been sound

in other respects. Petermann and Dressel (1857) however maintained the priority of the Seven Epistles of the Vossian text to the

Three of the Curetonian; and so far they built upon the true basis. But Petermann contented himself with a casual emendation of the text here and there from the versions; while Dressel neglected them
1863) and Hefele (ed. 4, 1855) also, which have appeared since the Oriental versions were rendered accessible, have been satisfied with recording
altogether.
in their

Jacobson

(ed.

4,

more recent

editions

some of the phenomena of these versions in their notes without applying them to the correction of the text, though they also were unhampered by the
false

Curetonian Abridgment.

theory which maintained the priority of the It was reserved for the most recent editors,

Zahn (1876), and Funk (1878), to make use of all the available materials and to reconstruct the text for the first time on sound and intelligible
principles.

The

text

these editions,

the same.

I have given was constructed independently of both and before I had seen them, but the main principles are Indeed these principles must be sufficiently obvious to those

which

who have
however

investigated

the materials with

any

care.

In the

details

my

views frequently differ from theirs, as must necessarily be

the case with independent editors ; and in some respects I have had the advantage of more complete or more accurate materials than were
accessible to them.

In the apparatus criticus, w hich is appended to the text, I have been anxious not to overload my notes with matter which would be Thus for instance, those divergences in irrelevant to the main issue.
T

1 The editio princeps of the Armenian was published at Constantinople in 1 783 but this version was practically unknown to scholars until Petermann's edition ap-

;

peared.

8

THE GENUINE EPISTLES

the several versions which, however interesting and instructive in themselves, cannot be supposed to represent various readings in the Greek
text, are carefully

excluded.

On

the other hand

it

has been

my

aim

to omit nothing

which could reasonably be thought to contribute to
this

the formation of a correct text.

In carrying out
served.
i.

principle, the following rules

have been ob-

various readings of the Greek Manuscripts of the genuine Ignatius (G), i.e. of the Medicean ms in the Six Epistles, and of the This is Colbertine in the Epistle to the Romans, are given in full.
also the case with the fragment of the Epistle to the Ephesians (G')

The

which

is

found in another Paris ms.

I

have not however thought

it

worth while to record differences of accent, or such variations as or o.v for orav, ovSe fiia for ovSe/u'a, etc., except where they had some real
interest.
2.

The

All these mss I have myself collated anew for this edition. readings of the Latin Version (L) are generally given from

This text it is printed in the Appendix. founded on a comparison of the two mss of the version, modified by other critical considerations which will be explained in their proper
the ultimate revised text, as
is

place.

It

did not seem necessary to give here the various readings of

these two mss (Lj,
tions occur,
I

L

2 ),

except in very rare cases.
it

Where such

varia-

have held

sufficient to call attention to the fact, refer-

ring the reader to the literal, every variation
text as restored to

Appendix itself. As the Latin Version is strictly which remains in the ultimate Latin text (i.e. the the condition in which presumably it left the hands
recorded, because every such variation represents,

of the translator)
or

is

may have represented, a corresponding variation in the Greek ms which the translator used.
readings of the different mss are not generally given. They will be found in the Appendix, where this version is printed at In length with an apparatus criticus of its own and a translation. admitting or rejecting divergences which this abridgment exhibits,
3.

In

like

manner the various

(25 x ,

Sjj,

2 3)

of the

Syriac Abridgment (2)

have been guided by the considerations already alleged. The few fragments which survive of the original unabridged Syriac Version (S) In the case of this and all the are also printed in the Appendix.
I

other Oriental versions Latin renderings are given in the critical notes
for the
4.

place.

sake of convenience and uniformity. The Armenian Version (A) has been described in the proper From the description it will have appeared that only a small

OF

S.

IGNATIUS.

9

proportion of its many divergences deserves to be recorded as bearing on the Greek text. In giving its various readings I have found Petermann's Latin translation of the greatest service; but I have myself

consulted the Armenian original as printed by him, in order that, so far as my slender knowledge of the language served me, I might not be

misled by the necessary distortion produced in passing through the medium of another language.
5.

The fragment

of the

Copto-Thebaic Version (C) will be found

Appendix, where it is published for the first time. It is ancient and literal enough to be an important authority as far as it goes, and I have therefore given all its variations. The Armenian and Syriac Versions of the Epistle to the 6. Romans in the Acts of Martyrdom (A m S m ), having been translated
in the
,

separately and directly from the Greek, are independent of each other and of the above-mentioned versions (A, S) in these languages. I have of the one and Moesinger's of the freely used Petermann's translation
other, but not without satisfying myself

by consulting the originals. the Metaphrast (M) for this same epistle is never The text of 7. quoted, unless supported by some other authority. In other cases his mode of compilation deprives his text of any weight. The mss of the Metaphrast are very numerous; the readings of some of these are given

by

Cotelier, Dressel,
8.

Zahn, and others.
of the

The Greek

Long

own

apparatus criticus in the

Recension (g) will be found with its Appendix. The limits within which it is

as an authority have been necessary for my purpose to quote its text In citing this recension I have given the indicated (p. 4). already
critical text

at

which

I

have myself arrived, without

(as

a rule) re(1).

mss or of the Latin Version ferring to the variations of the several These will be found in their proper place.

For convenience of reference
the symbols
:

I

give the following recapitulation of

G.

Greek Original (Medicean and Colbertine mss).
G'.

L.

Paris fragment of the Epistle to the Ephesians. Latin Version.
x,

L L
A.
S.

2

,

the mss of this Version.

Armenian Version.
Syriac Version.
Sj,

S 2 S 3 being the several collections of fragments belonging
, ,

to this version.

lO
C.

THE GENUINE EPISTLES
Coptic Version.

%
g.
1.

Abridgment of the Syriac Version. Greek Original of the Long Recension.
Latin Version of the

Long Recension.
alone
:

For the Epistle

to the

Romans

Am
Sm
.

.

Armenian Version

in the Martyrology.

M.

Syriac Version in the Martyrology. Acts of the Metaphrast.

The Greek and

volumes and pages of the standard editions
the pages of Cureton's Corpus Ignatianum.

Latin quotations from the fathers are given by the the Syriac quotations by ;

The
add.
prsef.
al.

following marks
1

and abbreviations are
are

also used.
in

Where

a

word or words

added or prefixed

the

authority subjoined. the divergence is so great in a version or recension, that no inference can be drawn as to the reading which the
J

Where

author of the version or recension had before him.
include passages which are less for determining a reading,
also

This

will

so

corrupt

as

to

be worth-

app.
def.

When

Apparently, the context, in which the word or words should occur,

is

wanting either from designed or accidental omission or from

om.

the imperfection of the ms or mss. When the context is there, but does not contain the

word or

words in question, dub. Where a word or expression is so translated or paraphrased, that the reading which it represents is uncertain,
marg.
s.

When

the reading

is

found

in the

margin of the authority
that

in

question.

Attached to
is

"an authority signifies

the reading of such

not given on express testimony, but authority from the silence of collators.
txt.

may be

inferred

When
text,

the authority quoted supports the reading adopted in the

edd.
in

When an authority is given as generally quoted, or as it stands the common editions, though some mss may be known or
it

suspected to have

otherwise.

OF
An
where

S.

IGNATIUS.
all

I I

authority is included in square brackets thus [g], in it is discredited by some special circumstances:

cases
(i)

e.g.

where the grammatical

forms are

so

close

as

to

be

easily
;

confused, as in the case of the singular and plural in the Syriac or (2) where the context in a version or recension is so altered
as to

impugn the

fidelity of

the author

or

the

scribe at

this

particular point; or (3)

where a passage may have been modified

(

)

in the process of quotation by the influences of the context. The words included in brackets of this form have reference to

the authority which has immediately preceded and which they explain or qualify in some way.

*

An
which

asterisk after
for

an authority
as

(e.g.

L*)

refers the reader to the

Appendix
is

particulars

to

the

reading of the

authority

so distinguished.

I.

TO THE EPHESIANS.

I.

TO THE EPHESIANS.
EPHESIANS belongs to the group EPISTLE of four letters written by the saint from Smyrna (§ 21). He had not himself visited Ephesus on his way ; but the Ephesians had been apprised of his journey and had sent delegates to meet him at

THE

TO THE

Smyrna (§§ 1, 2, 21). The probable manner in which this information was conveyed to the Ephesians has been suggested above (p. 2). Ephesus was the nearest to Smyrna of those cities which are
recorded to have sent their delegates thither, the distance between the two places being about 40 miles (Strabo xiv. p. 632 TpiaKocnoi €lkoctl

We are therefore prepared to find that the Ephesian delegacy was more numerous than that of any other church. The bishop Onesimus was there in person; and he was accompanied by four others who are mentioned by name, Burrhus, Crocus, Euplus, and Fronto
crraSioi).
(§§ 1,
2).

hand Crocus
'

greatly in the Epistle to the Romans (§ 10) ; while Burrhus the deacon is valued so highly by him that he requests the Ephesians to allow him This request was granted ; and we find to remain in his company.

names only are given. On the other singled out in this letter for special praise as having refreshed the saint and is mentioned also in affectionate terms

Of

the two last the
'

is

Burrhus with him at Troas, where he acts as his amanuensis (see the
note on
§ 2).

Altogether Ignatius appears to have had much satisfaction in presence of these Ephesian delegates, whom he mentions
other letters written from

in the
all

his

Smyrna (Magn. 15, Trail. 13, Rom. 10). Of his intercourse with Onesimus their bishop more especially he speaks in He describes him as unspeakable terms of grateful acknowledgment.
'

16
in love
'

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
(§ i).

He

says that in a very brief space of time they

had held

much

spiritual communion (§5). But not only was he moved by

gratitude to write this

letter.

He was

also deeply impressed with the previous history of the Ephesian Church. himself is the devoted speaks of it as renowned unto all ages '.

He

'

He

slave of such a church

(§ 8).

He

does not venture to

set

himself up

content to be their fellow-disciple. Nay, he will even look upon them as his trainers in the athletic contest for the
as their teacher
:

he

is

martyr's crown which awaits

him

(§ 3).

Above

all,

he remembers

their

companionship with Apostles; and remembering this, he is constrained to dwell on his own weakness as contrasted with their strength. They had escorted the blessed Paul on the way to martyrdom Paul who

of commemorating them in his letters ; and he himself would never fain tread in the same path (§ 12). Of the character of this church he speaks most favourably. Onesimus
tires

commended them in the highest terms (yirepeiraivei). No had found a lodgment among them. They were steadfast in heresy maintaining doctrinal purity and good order (§ 6). They were spiritually minded in all things (§ 8). They owned no other rule of life but God Thus the Ephesian Church appears to have sustained the cha(§ 9). racter and profited by the warning which it received on the last occahimself had
sion

when

it is

directly

mentioned

in the Apostolic writings

'

;

I

know

thy works and thy labour and thy patience, and how thou canst not bear them which are evil, and didst try them that call themselves
Apostles, though they are not, and didst find them liars, and thou hast Name's sake and hast not fainted. patience and didst bear for

My

Nevertheless
love.

I

have

this against thee,

that thou didst leave thy
fallen

first

Remember
first

therefore from
ii.

and do the

works (Rev.

2

whence thou hast
5).'

and repent

had not found a home among them, it was hovering in their outskirts. Certain persons who came from a distance had attempted to sow the seeds of error among them, but had been These were doubtless the docetic teachers, who are repulsed (§ 7). denounced in his other epistles. Hence the emphasis with which he dwells on the reality of the Passion in the opening salutation (iv TrdOei Hence also the prominence which he gives to the true d\r)0i.vu). of our Lord, where he has occasion to mention His two humanity
But, though heresy
'
'

natures

(§§

7,

18,
'

19,

20).

False teachers are described as 'violators
sense,

of the temple

in the worst

and as such condemned

to the

severest vengeance (§ 16).

TO THE EPHESIANS.
As a

1

7

safeguard against the inroads of this heresy, the saint gives the Ephesians some practical advice. They must assemble themselves together more frequently than hitherto for congregational worship
(§§ 5,

13).

No man

altar (§ 5).

can eat the bread of God, if he keeps aloof from the More especially they must adhere to their bishop, as the
(§§ 2, 3,
4,
5,

personal

centre of union

6).

The

silent

modesty of
Unity
will

Onesimus renders this warning the more necessary (§ 6). thus be secured, and unity is the overthrow of Satan (§ 13).

While enforcing these duties, Ignatius indulges in several metaphors, One such always vigorous, but sometimes extravagant, after his wont.

metaphor more especially demands attention, as containing a vivid In the reign appeal to the local experiences of an Ephesian audience.
of Trajan a munificent Roman of high rank, Gaius Vibius Salutaris, a citizen of Ephesus, gave to the temple of Artemis a large number of

gold and silver-gilt images. Among them are mentioned several statues of Artemis herself, one representing her as the Huntress, others as the Torchbearer; images of the Roman Senate, of the Ephesian Council, of the Roman People, of the Equestrian Order, of the Ephebeia, etc.

One

of the ordinances relating to his benefactions bears the

date February in the year of the Consuls Sextus Attius Suburanus 11 and Marcus Asinius Marcellus (a. d. 104) the same year in which,

Salutaris one Martyrology, Ignatius was put to death. an endowment for the care and cleaning of these images provided by and he ordered that they should be carried in solemn procession from the temple to the theatre and back again on the birthday of the

according to

;

goddess (6th Thargelion), on the days of public assembly, and at such other times as the Council and People might determine. They were to be escorted by the curators of the temple, the victors in the sacred The procession was to contests, and other officers who are named.
enter the city by the Magnesian gate and leave by the Coressian, so On entering the city it was to as to pass through its whole length.
it from gate to gate. of these benefactions on the The decrees, recording the acceptance conditions named, were set up on tablets in the Great Theatre,

be joined by the Ephebi who should accompany

where

they have
Inscr.
vi.

been recently
1

discovered

(Wood's Discoveries at

Ephesus

sq.).

The

and practice of carrying the images

sacred vessels belonging to the temple in solemn procession on the festival of the goddess and on other occasions doubtless existed long a new impulse before; but these benefactions of Salutaris would give At such a time the to the ceremonial. and add a new

splendour

IGN.

II.

2

1

8

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
saint

metaphor of the
festivals,

to the imagination of his

he

tells

would speak with more than common directness Ephesian readers, when, alluding to these pagan them that as Christians they all alike are priests and
Artemis

victors,

for they carry, not in their hands, as the votaries of

carry their images and treasures, but in their hearts, each his God, his Christ, his shrine ; that they too are duly arrayed for their festivities,

not indeed in ornaments and cloth of gold, but in the
of Jesus
§9)-

commandments

Christ

which are

their holiday

garments (see the notes on

The Epistle to the Ephesians is the longest and most elaborate of This fact may be explained by his close the extant letters of Ignatius. relations with the Ephesian delegates, as well as by his respect for the
past history and present condition of the Ephesian Church, as already mentioned. Towards the close he enters upon what looks like a

But systematic discussion of the doctrine of the Incarnation (§ 19). he breaks off abruptly, promising, if it be God's will, to send them a second tract ((3l{3Xl$lov) wherein he will continue the subject upon

which he has entered, the economy relating to the new Man Christ This promise he seems never to have fulfilled. At least Jesus' (§ 20).
'

letter or treatise has ever been heard of. The hurry of his subsequent movements (Polyc. 8), perhaps also the direct interference of his guards {Rom. 5), may have prevented his carrying out his

no such second

intention.

The
'

following

is

an analysis of the epistle

:

Ignatius to the Church of Ephesus, which was blessed by God and predestined to glory through a true Passion, hearty greeting in
Christ.'
'

You have

your delegates to comfort

acted in a manner congenial to your nature, in sending me on my way to martyrdom. In welcoming

Onesimus I welcomed you all. You are indeed happy in your bishop, and should love him as he deserves (§1). I thank you for sending Burrhus also, and I trust you will let him remain with me. Your other delegates too, Crocus more especially, have greatly refreshed me. Glorify Jesus Christ by unity and submission to your bishops and
presbyters
(§ 2).

I

do not say
fit

this, as if I

had a

right to

command.
will

Indeed
not
let

it

were much more be
silent.

for

me

to learn of you.

But love

me
Your

(§ 3).

bishops represent the will of Jesus Christ are to your bishop as the strings to the lyre. presbyters

The

TO THE EPHESIANS.
Let one harmonious chant
rise

1

9

one chorus singing up heaven, If my brief intercourse fellowship with God (§ 4). with your bishop has been so blessed, what blessing will not attend
as
in accord.

to

from

Union

is

your unbroken communion with him

!

The

united prayer of the bishop

and the congregation is all powerful. He that stands aloof brings God's condemnation upon himself (§ 5). If your bishop is silent, he The delegate of the Master only claims from you the more respect.
must be received as the Master Himself. I rejoice to hear so good an He tells me that heresy has found account of you from Onesimus. no home among you (§ 6). Still certain persons are going about Shun them, as you would wild beasts. There teaching false doctrine. is only one Physician who can heal their wounds and He is flesh, as
;

well as spirit,

Man

as well as
I

God

7).

away

all

evil

desires.

am

devoted to

Be not deceived, but put the renowned Church of

Ephesus.

The

things of the flesh

the one of the other.

and things of the Spirit are exclusive With you even the things done in the flesh are

I have learned that certain the promptings of the Spirit (§ 8). persons from a distance attempted to sow the seeds of false doctrine coming

among you

:

but you stopped your ears and would not

listen.

You

are

stones raised aloft to be fitted into the temple of God. You are holidaymakers, bearing your sacred things in festive procession ; and I rejoice that I am permitted to take part in your festivities (§ 9). Pray for the

heathen, since repentance

is

still

possible for them.

Teach them by

your conduct
the

steadfastness in the faith.

Lord
1

in

by your gentleness, your humility, your prayers, your Requite them not in like kind, but imitate forbearance. In this way show that you are their your
;

brothers.

Be chaste and modest
is

(§ 10).'

The world

grace, let us at

If we value not the present drawing to a close. least dread the coming wrath. One way or another let

us be found in Christ Jesus, in whom I also hope to rise from the dead and to have my portion with the Christians of Ephesus, the scholars of
I cannot compare myself with you Apostles (§11). you who were associates in the mysteries with Paul, who are mentioned by him in

every letter
service.

Meet together more frequently for eucharistic (§ 12). These harmonious gatherings will be the overthrow of Satan.

There
these

is nothing better than peace This ye yourselves know. (§ 13). Where Cherish faith and love the beginning and the end of life.

exist,

all
is

else

will

follow.

The

tree

is

known by

its

fruits.

not a thing of profession but of power (§ 14). Doing Christianity The silence and with silence is better than not doing with speech.

20
the

THE EPISTLE OF

IGNATIUS.
Whosoever
Nothing
that
is

speech alike of the great Teacher were operative. understands His word will understand His silence also.

hidden from the Lord.

In

all

our doings

let

us

remember

we

are

His temples
kingdom.

15).

No

violators of the temple shall inherit

God's

by corrupt doctrine the warning is especially addressed. They and their hearers shall go into unquenchable fire (§ 16). The Lord was anointed with ointment that He might breathe incorruption upon His Church. Shun the foul odour of false doctrine. Why should we perish in our folly, by refusing
those that
violate the faith
is

To

the grace of God (§17)? I am the devoted slave of the Cross, which a scandal to the unbeliever. Away with the wisdom of this world
!

Our God Jesus
threefold

Christ was born a

Man

18).
it

This economy was

hidden from the Prince of

this world, until

was accomplished

this

mystery, the virginity of Mary, her child-bearing, and the death of Christ. It was revealed by a star of unwonted brightness.
All the powers of heaven were

dismayed

at its

appearing

;

for the

the overthrow of the reign of evil. This was the beginning of the end. The dissolution of Death was at hand

Incarnation of

God was

19).

If

it

please God,

I

will write

economy.

Only be

steadfast in the faith;

again and say more of this preserve the unity of the

body

render obedience to the bishop and presbyters (§ 20).' 'My affectionate devotion to you and your delegates. I write this
;

from Smyrna. Remember me and pray for the Church in Syria, of which I am a most unworthy member. Farewell in God and Christ

")•'

TTPOC
I

E0ECIOYC.
ty\

T/V AT IOC, 6

Kcti

Qeocpopos,
ecpecriovs

evXoy^jJLevn eV /uieyey
in the

TTpoc 6cj)eciOYc] npos
iwLaroXr] irpbs icpecriovs

iyvdrios

G

(with

marg.)

;

rod avrov

g* (with
ephesios
est

ia in the

marg.); Ignatius ephesiis L;

[ejus]

secunda

quae ad ephesios
r

S

;

ad
qui

A.

6 Kal]

GLg;
it is

2

(1111,

and so Rom.,

Polyc.)

A

(and so always, except

Hero, where

qui

et).

fieyeda] neyidrj G.

'Ignatius, called also Theophorus,

to

the question
deocpopos
;

of

Trajan

ko\

ris

to

the

which is was foreordained from the beginning to eternal glory, united and elected

Church of Ephesus, greatly blessed of God and

ccrnv

Ignatius

answers
(3)

'O XpicrTov e^cov iv arepvois.

The

metaphor of 'bearing God,' 'bearing
Christ,' is frequent in early Christian

power of a real Passion through the will of the Father and of Christ
in the

writers; e.g. Iren.

iii.

16. 3

i

portante

;

hearty greeting in Christ.'
i.

capiente et complectente filium Dei] v. 8. 1 assuescentes capere
et
'

homine

6 Kal Qeo(p6pos]

This word would

etportare

Deum'
inscr.).
1

be equally appropriate to the true Christian, whether taken in its active sense (deocpopos, bearing God, clad with God) or in its passive sense (6e6<popos, borne along by God, inspired by God) Clem. Alex. Strom.
;

on Smyrn.
reading in
et

(quoted by Pearson See also the Latin
vi.

20 'glorificate in corpore vestro'; comp. Tert. de Resurr. 10, 16, de Pudic. 16, Cypr. Test. iii. 11,
Cor.

portate

(lollite)

Deum

Dom.

Oral.

11.

Hence
'

Tertullian

vii.

13 (p. 882) dclos apa 6 yvcoariKos
rjdr]

Ka\

ayios,

deocpopcov

na\

dco-

comp. Strom, vi. 12 There can however be little (p. 792). doubt that it should here be taken actively and accentuated Qeocpopos; for (1) We have the authority of Ignatius himself below, § 9, where the connexion of with feocpopoi
(popovp.evos;
vaocpopoi, xpiarortyopoi, ayiocpopoi, fixes
its

elsewhere, adv. Marc. v. 7, Ouomodo tollemus Deum in corpore perituro?' Compare also Clem. A\ex.Exc. Theod.

27

(p.

976) to 6eo(p6pov

y'iveo-6ai

rbv

avdpconov 7rpoo-e^c5y ivepyovpevov virb rov Kvpiov Kal Kadcnrep a cop a avrov (4) Even in later writers yiv6p.€vov.

and

meaning
(2) It is

;

see also the analogous

prj

in other connexions this active sense prevails e.g. Greg. Naz. Epist. 102 (II. p. 96, Caillau) ro delvTrpoo-Kwelv deoCpopov dXKa Qeov avOptoTVOv
:

words
5.

(rapKo<p6pos, veitpocpopos,

Smyrn.

aapKocpopov,
deocpopov
p. 521 sq,

and

below

prj

crdpKa

so interpreted universally till a very late date, e.g. by the Syriac translator who renders it 'clad with

dXXd

Qeov

See other examples
Xpio-Toqbopos

ciudpco7ro(p6pov. in Pearson V. I.
s.v.

Suicer Thes.

Similarly

See also the altercation in Mart. Ign. Ant. 2, where in answer
God.'

be always active (see Phileas in Euseb. H. E,

seems

to

22
6ei
i

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
Qeou

waTpos
Gg*

TrXtipooiiaTi,

Trj

irpoitipi(r\i£vr]

irpo
2:

TrXtjpwfxaTi]

(with a v.l.); perfectione
rrj] txt

A
;

;

et plenittidine

L

;

et perfcctae

see the lower note.

GLS[A]

add.

/ecu

g.

viii.

lOol xpt(TTo(f)6poi fiapTvpes)

;

while
is

It is

more probable

that this sur-

on the other hand nvevparocpopos commonly used in such a sense as

name was adopted by Ignatius himself,
as a token of his Christian obligations, than that it was conferred upon him by others, as a title of honour. For

to

suggest a passive meaning, 'inspired, borne along by the Spirit,' e.g. Hos. ix.
7 (lxx), Presbyt. in Iren. v.
5.

i,Herm.
i.

supposed references

to

it

in the

body

Mand. n, Theoph. ad Autol. 22, Dionys. Rom. in Athanas.
p.

9,

ii. I.

Op.

of his epistles, see the notes on Magn. It occurs in 1, Trail. 4, Smyru. 5.

But even here we are perhaps deceived, and
182,

and

frequently.

the opening of
stles;

all

his

genuine epiimitated by

and

in this

he

is

the idea of inspiration

may

be derived

equally well from the active irvevparo(p6pos 'a vehicle of the Spirit'; e.g. in Herm. Maud. 11 (a reference

Pseudo-Ignatius. The epithet however is not confined to him, but
the
is

applied freely to later fathers, especially to those assembled at any of

already cited) the word

may

be ex-

plained by an expression which occurs in the neighbourhood, e'xav tv iavrw
bvvap.iv irvevparos delov. Comp. Iren. iv. 20. 6 'videbitur Deus ab homi-

the great councils, as Nicasa; see Pearson V. I. 1. c. In his case however
it

has the character of a second
or surname, as the

name

mode

of

introduction, 6
Xos.

ical Qeotpopos,

shows;

nibus

qui portatit

Spiritum

ejus.'

The
is

passive

word

deocpoprjros,

which

comp. Acts xiii. 9 2ai>\os, 6 Kai IlavThis form of expression is ex-

also classical, is found occasionally in early Christian writers, e.g. Hippol.
(p.

tremely

common
C. I. G.

in inscriptions

Boeckh

2836

; e.g. 'Apiaro/cXf}? 6 kcu

Fragm. 123
i.

193 Lagarde), and

several times in Philo, e.g. de
43,
ii. 1

(1.

involved

in

pp. 658, 659). the word deocpopos
in
ii.

Somn. The idea
is

Zrjvcov, 2949 M. Avp. tterpcovtos KeXcros 6 Kal MiviTTivos, j 2 ^ 2 KaoTptKtos 'Aprepidoopos 6 Kai [' Apjpiavus, 33°9 'Epp.eias

6 Kal Airopis,
rj

found also
13

contemporary Stoic
8.

writers; e.g. Epictet. Diss.

12,

Kal 'PodoTri), Kal Tpvcpowa,
Iltcrror,

3387 $Xaovuz Tpv(pat,va 355° M.epe<rTparov rov 3675 Taios Tatov 6 Kal
Ma£'ipa
1)

Qeov

7repi.(pepeis...ev
k.t.X.

aavrco

3737
-q

Kal

'HSovtj,

(comp. ii. 1 6. 33), Lucan PJiars. ix. 563 'Ille Deo plenus, tacita quern mente gerebat? The active sense therefore must be adopted, but the alternative of 'bear(peptis

avrov

4207

'EAez/77

quently. tradition that Ignatius was the very child whom our Lord took up in

Kal"A(p(piov, and so freFrom this epithet arose the

Kis arms (Mark
xviii.
2,

ix.

ing God' and 'wearing God' still remains. All the passages quoted however seem to show that the former
is

Luke

ix.

47),

36; comp. Matt, the passive

the sense of 6eo(p6pos here, though
'

the Syriac renders it God-clad,' and S. Paul's metaphor of 'putting on

being substituted for the and a literal sense being attached to the word. The groundless suspicion of Dus6e6(popo9

active Oeocpopos

terdieck
I. v.

(p.

89),

might suggest this meaning. The former sense indeed is imperatively

Christ'

A.

p. 38),

Bunsen (B. p. 33, Renan {Les Evangiles

p.
is

demanded below,

§ 9.

xxvii), and others, that Oeocpopos a later insertion, has been refuted

TO THE EPHESIANS.
by Zahn
dence.
(/.

23
Smyrn. 11 Rom. 3 xpio-Tiaino-pos. These
comp.
peyeOos,

v.

A.

p.

69

sq).

It

goes

Church

itself;

directly in the teeth of all the evi-

dneXa^ov to

'lb\ov

Daille founded an objection

to the genuineness of the epistles on the use of this surname, urging that it

peyiOovs iariv 6 are the only other passages in Ignatius where piyedos occurs, and in

He is rearose out of the legend. futed by Pearson ( V. I. p. 520 sq), who shows that the converse was the case.
This opening rrj address contains several obvious reminiscences of Ephes. i. 3 sq. o
evXoyTifxevy k.t.X.]

both it refers not to God, but to the Church. We might be tempted by
the parallel,
ttjti

Rom.

rraTpbs

vylriaTov,

inscr. iv peyaXeioto connect iv

peyeSei

with Qeov naTpos,

but this
I. v.

would oblige us
paTi
p.

to interpret nX^pco-

Qeos
iv
rjpas

Kal 7rciTrjp...6

ivdcrrj
...

evXoyiq

...

evXoyrjO~as rjpas KaOus i^eXi^aTO

'fully,' 'richly' (as

Zahn

A.

415, while

ad

loc.

he compares
',

7rpo

Kara^oXrjs
...tt

Koapov,

Rom.

XV. 29 iv nXrjpeopaTi evXoylas)

elvm
fj

rjpds

...dpcopovs
ttjv

poopiaas

an interpretation which cannot,
think, stand.

I

tov 6eXrjalparos civtov... paTOs...8id 7rpoopia6evTes...icaTa ttjv (3ovXr)v tov
pas... Kara

evboKtav

tov

Qeov naTpbs
the plenitude

'

TrXr]pu>paTi~\

through

of God

deXrjpciTos avTOV...els to eivai rjpas See also eiraivov ho^r\s avrov. the notes on nXrjpapaTL below, and
els

where pleroma is Paul and S. John,

the Father] used, as by S.

on

pipr/Tal ovTes Qeoii §

I,

and
1 1

for nrpb

in its theological sense, to denote the totality of the Divine attributes and powers see
:

aloovcou

comp. Ephes.
alcovcov.

iii.

mitci

6eo-w tcov

Though

npoS. Paul's

the excursus
sq.

on Colossians
is

p.

257

The

dative case

instrumental.

so-called

Epistle to the Ephesians was probably a circular letter, yet even on this hypothesis Ephesus was the principal Church addressed, and there was therefore a special propriety in the adoption of its language. This is analogous to the references
in the

To participation in the pleroma of God, or of Christ, we are indebted for all the gifts and graces which we possess John i. 16 ix. tov
;

nXrjpcopciTos

avTov

-qpeis

TvdvTes

iXa-

fiopev k.t.X.

The

expression before

Roman Clement

47) to the

in

First Epistle to the Corinthians, and Polycarp (§ 3, comp. 9, n) to the

us should be compared especially with Ephes. iii. 19 Iva 7rXr]pG>drJTe els ndv ro 7rXtjp(opa tov Qeov, a passage

Epistle to the Philippians, where these fathers are writing to the same

which Ignatius probably had in his mind, as this same epistle of S. Paul
present to his thoughts throughout his opening salutation. See also Ephes. i. 23, where the nXrjpcopa is
is

two Churches respectively. The direct mention of the Epistle to the Ephesians, which is supposed to occur
at a later point in this letter (§ 12

HavXov...os iv
vevei vpayi'), is

ivacrr)

emo-ToXfj

pvrjpo-

regarded as transfused wholly into the Church. Ignatius again uses this term in its technical sense, Trail.
inscr.
paTi.
r\v

extremely doubtful (see the note there) but the acquaintance of Ignatius with that epistle appears from other passages besides this ex;

Kai dcnvd^opai iv Tto nXrjpa)-

ordium,
iv

e.g.

Polyc.

5.

For the prominence of the pleroma in the Valentinian theology see Colossians p. 265 sq. For similar instances of phraseology, which was
afterwards characteristic of Valenti-

peyeOet]

Hn

peyedos
spiritual

describes
stature

The greatness! the moral and of the Ephesian
1

nianism or of other developments of
Gnosticism, in these epistles, see the

24

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
eU ho^av Trapafxovov,
Kal eKke\eyp.hr)v

aicovwv eluai did 7ravTOS
1

ctTpeTTrefer the

7)vo)fihr) Kal iKXeXeype'vy'] T)vwpe'vr)v

GLg;

but
:

2A

words
note.
est

to the

Church, and seem therefore to have read the datives
et (i.e.

see the lower
;

Their renderings are
iK\e\ey/jLti>r))

quae
the

ecclesia) perfecta et electa
et

2
is

(om. Kal
I

A.

In

2

word K^JD^OI
Kal

perfecta

the

quae perfecta same which
later (and

notes on
Trail,
i.

§

(pvo-ei,

Rom.

6,

Magn.

8,

must be regarded as a

if

The sentence would be simplified, we could venture on the reading
In this case
p.eye8os,

obvious) insertion, and if it existed in the original copy, it must have dropped out at a date anterior

very

Koi nXrjpcofiaTL.

to

like Trkrjpwixa,

would be attributed

to

any existing texts. The original form of the Syriac was not X^DE'BI

God

;

and here again a Valentinian

'

and perfected (fulfilled),'

tinge would be given to the language of Ignatius, for pLeyedos appears to

in the
1

as it stands Curetonian MSS, but KvD1E>3

have had a technical sense with
:

this

or

in (or by) the perfection (fulness)] some similar expression, as the

school comp. Iren. i. 2. 2 8ia to ' p.eyeBos tov fiadovs Kal to ave^ixy 1
ao-Tov toZ narpos,

Armenian rendering Petermann ad loc).
KvDIB'
in
is

shows

(see

The
i.

word

and esp. Anon, in Epiphan. Hcer. xxxi. 5 (see Stieren's Irenaeus, p. 916 sq) tfv Tives "Ewoiav
ecpaaav,
€T€poi

the rendering of rr\r}pwp.a

Rom. xi. 12, Ephes. 23, iv. 13. The substitution would be the more
easy, because the former word occurs in the immediate context as the

Xdpiu oIkciws, 8id to
avrr/v
6rjo-a.vpLo-p.aTa

iiriKexop-qy-qKivai

tov p.eyedovs
oi

to7s eK

tov p,eyedovs,
^tyrjv

rendering (or loose paraphrase) of
rjvcop.evrj.
1.

8e

a.\r)3evo-avT6s
81

npoo-qyo-

pevaav, oti
to.

ev6vp.r]o-ecos j£0)pis

\oyov
cos

els]

ndvTa to p.eye0os eTe\eicoo-ev
npoelrrov,
77

els 'to

For the construction etvcu be destined for, reserved for'
eivat els enaiels

ovv

depdapros
prjf-ai

[atcovta]

(BovXridelo-a
p.

8eap.a

eOr/Xvve

to

comp. Ephes. i. 12 els to vov k.t.X., Acts viii. 23
Kpias...6pco ae ovto,
I

x°^V v

7rl ~

eye 80s en opetjei dvanavo-ecos avTov; comp. the Valentinian use of p.eye6r\
i.

Cor. XIV. 22 al
'

yXcocrcrai els o-qp.el6v elcriv.

for 'powers' in Iren.

13. 6,
I

i.

14. 4,

napdp.ovov

aTpeirrov]

abiding

and

and

see also

i.

13.

3.

find

more-

over that in Syriac 'the greatness' (Snm) was used absolutely to To the signify the Divine Majesty.

unchangeable! Both adjectives must be connected with 8ogav, even though

we should read
wards
IO
(p.
;

f}vcop.zvrjv k.t.\.

aftervii.

comp. Clem.
866)
ecr6p.evos,

Al.
cos

Strom,

passage from
Syr.
1.

Ephraem Syrus

(Op.

elnelv, (pcos

p. 68),

quoted by Michaelis

eo-T<as Kal

p.evov

I8ia>s,

ttclvti]

nduTcos

(Castell. Lex. Syr. s. v. p. 843) for this use, add two examples from the

arpenTou.

For

Trapdp,ovos

comp.

Philad. inscr. x a P^ a*°*wos Ka l napdp.ovos', for aTpewTos, which is used especially of the unchangeable things of eternity, see e.g. Clem. Horn. xx. 5

p.

Syriac of Clem. Recogn. p. 21 1. 28, 26 1. 7 (ed. Lagarde), both which passages are altered in the Latin of Ruffinus, perhaps because he did not understand this sense of p,eye6os.
It is

ciTpenTov yap [o 0eos] Kal del

cov,

Philo

km

Tr\rjpa>p.aTi is

possible therefore that this reading correct; but in the
it

Leg. All. [rbu Qeov]
TOV.
2.

i.

15

(i.

p. 53)

anotov avTov

eivat.

Kal dcpdapTov Kal aTpenI

extant authorities which have

the

tjjHOfietn)

k.t.X.]

have ventur-

TO THE EPHESIANS.
rov,
t]i/a)/uL6ur]

25
d\t]6ivw
iv

kcu

iitXeXey \xtvr\

ev

7radei

has occurred just before as the rendering of Tr\r)pwfj.aTi, and there is probably Cureton (1845) sugtherefore some corruption, as it does not represent ijvw/xevri.
gested that

2

read

rjvva'p&rrp .

ev

irddei]

GLAg

;

in signo

2

:

see the

lower note.

ed

to substitute datives for accusa-

But as the change is slight. if the accusatives be retained, they must still be referred to the Church,
tives,

the blood of His imitate [Rom. 6) passion purifies the water of baptism [Ephes. 1 8) the tree of the passion is the stock from which the Church
;

;

and not connected with

dogav.

As
eu/at

coming
.

after

the

infinitive,

has sprung [Smyrn. 1); the passion a special feature which distinis
guishes the Gospel [Philad. 9, Smyrn. In several passages indeed it is 7).

[avTrjv]. .tfvcofjLevqv k.t.X.,

they are jus§ xliv.
II.

tifiable
p.

:

comp. Winer Gramm.
lxvi. p.

402,

782,

Kiihner

p.

coordinated with the birth or the
resurrection [Ephes. 20, Magn. 11, Smyrn. 1 2, etc.) but frequently, as
;

590 sq. But in the present instance they are especially awkward, as being interposed between datives
before and after, and also as being
liable to confusion with the accusa-

stands in isolated grandeur, as the one central doctrine of the
here,
it

faith.

immediately preceding. For the frequency of kvovv etc. in Ignatius see
tives

the note on §
iv nddei]

4.

Hence the importance that the Passion should have been real [d\rjOivov), and not, as the Docetic teachers held, a

This should probably be connected with both the preceding words. The 'passion' is at once the bond of their union and the ground of their election. For the former idea

and death.

suffering opposition' of Ignatius to these Docetic views, see the note on Trail. 9. As this is the

mere phantom

On

the

comp. Philad. 3

et

tis

iv

dWorpia

only passage referring to Docetism in the Curetonian letters, and as the
Syriac MSS here read
signo,' the fact

yvtopy 7Tfpi7rarei, ovtos tco ndBei ov avyKaTartdeTai; for the latter, Trail. 11
iv tco nddei avTov TtpocTKakeiTai vfxds. This latter relation it has, because

Klx&ls

'in

has been pressed as

to

arguing the priority of these letters Cureton at first the Vossian.

in foreordaining the Sacrifice of the

supposed

that

it

was

a

corrupt

Cross

God

foreordained the call of

the faithful.

Thus

their election

was

reading for r^T»i 'in passione] but afterwards was persuaded that

involved in Christ's passion. This word has a special prominence in the Epistles of Ignatius. In Christ's passion is involved the

was genuine and represented the Greek iv npoOeaec, which (as he supposed) had been changed into iv nddeL
it

peace of one Church [Trail, inscr.) and the joy of another {Philad. Unto His passion the peniinscr.).
tent sinner

by the Vossian interpolator to controvert the Docetas, whose errors are combated elsewhere in the Vossian
'

letters,

or perhaps indeed the

Phan-

must return [Smyrn.
false
;

5)

;

from His passion the
dissents [Philad. 3) all men must die

heretic

tasiastae of a later period' [C. I. G. argument in favour
p.

276

sq).

An

His passion [Magn. 5); His
into

of Cu-reton's reading is, that it produces another coincidence with S.
Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians,
i.

passion the saint himself strives to

2

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
'

(\\)lUi(Tl
;i/((('i',

TOV

WCLTpOS

KCU

h)(TOV

XpUTTOV TOV Oeov
rip

t/7
r»S

tKK\t}(ria
ltd 1. X.
rofi

Tij

agiOfiaKapiirnp

outnp

ev

i

mrpta
fr

©eofl fcp&»]

GL

;

fcofi
;

rarpto »td Kvplov //au^'I.X.tou
rt

totems
[A] (omitting

w*
I'A^ari)
:

'••

tustri -

«W

dommi twin
r^s 'Arias]

iesu cAritti

sec the lower note.
;

3
Ktti]

Gl [A] (which
4
:

om. -• transposes the whole clause) g gSA \>; .'. GL see the lower note.
:

GLgJ om. SA,
Gg*

xw]

i

5

'Arodegducyos]

(uceftens'Li

1

1

irpooptcreVyrcs koto

irpodeoti'

k.t.X.

This view accordingly has boon adopted by several later writers, e.g.

where there is the same interchange between the two words KLxja=3,
rclxxlra,
slight
in

the

MSS.

As a very

Bunsen [Hippolytus
Lipsius (Aicki,
others.
p. :a.

i.

p.
~T.

04, ed\
p. 153)1

»),

knowledge
it

S,

and
ter-

has enabled
stances,

Nevertheless Cureton's mer view was unquestionably correct

me may be presumed
is

of Syriac literature to collect these inthat the

The

telling facts are these.
is

(1)

The

confusion

common.
letters

Indeed the
so closely re-

traces of the

word KlxxS

not in itself a suit-

able rendering of rpoeWtr, and as a matter of fact is never so employed
in the Peshito.

•mark,*

As denoting a 'sign," denotes an aim or purpose but this is somewhat difb), : ^^u the .'; -.v. ferent from other hand the Greek text has ht
it

semble each other that it naturally would be so. (4) The Armenian Version actually has :n passions here, so that KLxmi nmst have stood in the Syriac text from which it was
translated.
1.

is

rov

8eo€
is

9fM»»]

Where

the

which
by rdsjjcs.

exactly represented
(3)

The two words

infrequently confused in the Even in these IgnaSyriac texts. tian Epistles, the Armenian translator found this error twice in the
Syriac text which he had before him, rendered I care tow w in S see Petermann p. xix\ and

assigned to Christ in these epistles, it is generally with l our the addition of the pronoun. 1 iS e<^y : God, as below God,

Divine

Name

J

'

i;

.

£»
X.,

'Ir/cnus-

6

Xpiaros

exvo^opr/fy

k.t.\..

rascr..

'L

PofyC.

.:-'

i

>

evgOfMU, Rom, 0ovs rov 8eoS

3 6 Oeos rjn<av X. S eV Gea> ^/icor -afUfUfr^P eivai rov

1

uov:
in

or

it

has some
1

in

Trail
is

11

iv

rtj

-r.ru

rendered
latter

denning words as
(
-

Smj m.
-:-r

SogdOeos.
1

1.

\. roi Ocov

to--

The
passage
rdX-jjLia.
1

ovre>s 1'uas aocpi-

Syriac

of
v -'1

this
P-

.-Til,

preserved

*o°

Ef>/uS.

7

O
just

MHTf
§

may add
p.
-.;.
1.

a third inof
:; [ed.

The expression
.

below

eV

om

the Syriac Version

the Clementines
garde', where the two and

La-

ton 8reS can hardly be regarded as an exception (see the note there).
there

one MS (the older of
the
earliest
a. p.

In the really exceptional passages is more or less doubt about
:

known
has

Syriac

MS,

dated

411)

latter

h^jl^.i and the other r^Zu>x, the being correct, as appears from the Latin of Ruffmus C and a fourth from Sexti e ii. 58] :~ [ed. GUdemeistei pp. a6,
:

Trail. the reading or the connexion The authority for v. 6, 10. -. e/ the omiss *f wm here is quite in.;•.

uine,

-.

.

adequate; but, even if <a\ were genmi 9eoi rjiiav must be taken with % X.. and not as Bunsen Br. p. 8j with roi voryi >

ft)

THE

EPHESIA1
iv
'hicrou
X(jirrro)

27
ko\

'6<^e'<rw

\tw
'

'Atrias],

TrKetarra

I.

AiTOCe'£ufi6vo<>
'

\yfxu)v]
;

Iv

Geo) to 7ro\vaya7rt]is

quoniam acceptitm mihi :npra me) Z qiioniam cuceplabili: at apud me A, There no authority (except a worthless v.l. in g> for avede&i/upr. <rov Cs-' fr/ior] g r vestrum 2A, but there is nothing roXwyaTJrTW-] /L aw in what
(

;

;

posi*..'

tyuSr

stood in their text, or whether

it

stood there at all:
dilectum LZ[A].

see

the lower

DC

ToXvayArrp-of]
2.

G

;

TokwrbOifro* gj
i

multum

a£ioiuuutpurrtf[

worthy offeli5
TTorroi

See also Xen. Anab.
trot ttj
j

ii.

2.

6 i^

'p.

citation?

Comp.

y.':\\ov

'lama?.
dpaificj)
ttj

vfias fuucapifa.

The compound occurs

4.

iv
777

x a P?l Comp. Afagn.

again § 12, A'ow. inscr., 10. It is hardly classical, and its occurrence in Xenophon Apol. 34 has been alleged as an argument against the

7 iv

^apa

ing

had been

If the readafuifuf. left doubtful by the ex-

ternal authorities, this parallel

would

have decided
in the

it.

For a^por,

afutftmsy

genuineness of that treatise. On the fondness of Ignatius for compounds of agios see the notes on a£top6fiamvp
§

openings of these
inscr.,

Pom.
Polyc.

1:

Smyrn. inscr., comp. also §4
This

epistles, see Trail. 1,
>el

4 bel
3.

r
.

Trail. 13.
\\rriai\
i.

rf}j-

e.

the

Roman
hesita-

77Xet(rra...^aip6tj/]

form

of

province.
tion

With very much

salutation runs

through

six

of the

I have put the words in brackets, as a possible though not a probable interpolation, since they are wanting

seven Ignatian letters, sometimes with words interposed as here and

in the Syriac.

known
is

as

a

little

With a place so well Ephesus the specification It occurs howstartling.
1. iii. 1 'lmarrtjs...ep \\rrias diarpifjcov and is
;

Pom., sometimes in juxtaposition as Polyc, Magn., Trail., Smyrn. The exception is Philad., where the opening salutation runs on continuously
into the

ever in

Iren.

main subject
is

of the letter, so
for

'Erperro) ttjs

that there

no place

such words

added

also in the addresses of the

Smyrna, Tralles, and Philadelphia, cities only less famous than Ephesus, while in the letter to the
letters to

or any equivalent. The commonest form of salutation in the opening of

a Greek

letter is ^aipeii/;

and

it

is

Magnesians it is only suppressed to give place to another geographical
definition
rfj

occasionally strengthened, as here, by 7rXeto-ra. Of the Apostolic Epistles however S. James alone (i. 1.

irpbs

Matatr&pm.
'
'

The

comp. Acts
I.

xv.

23,

has x ai P* iV
in

m

case of 'ApTioxeut

rfjs Svfjias

Philad.

the opening salutation.
'I

10, Smyrn. 11, Pol. 7; is different, for several important cities bore that

heartily
is

welcomed you

God.

name. The other places called Ephesus were quite too obscure to come
into

Byz. s.v. Erpeaos vqrroi iv rco NctXo, on the authority of Hecataeus,; and the

competition (Steph.

errri kciV

very dear to me; for your character for love and faith with right judgment is not accidental, but and inflamed by natural to you Christ's blood you did but fulfil the
;

Your name

addition here must be explained by the formal character of the address.

the

dictates of your nature, in imitating loving-kindness of God. For
that
I

when you heard

was on

my

28

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
bvofJLa, b K€KTr](r6e (pvaei [eV ypw/urj

[i

tov

6p6r

t

kclij

Zucaia

Kara
i

ttIvtiv kcu dyairt^v ev XpiGTip 'Irj&ov
<pv<rei...5tKaiq,]

tw
txt.

o"corr]pL

natura
iv

(in) voluntate recta etjusta

2

;

revera immaculata volun2

tate

A;

<pvaei SiKalg. (omitting the

other words)
aurrjpi

praef. atque etiam
teste

S2

.

X.

'I. t<£
:

tj/xujv]

GLg. gL;

Kara]

GLA2 3 g
rj/xwv

;

ev 'I.

X. ry auTypi
3

G;

christi salvatoris ttostri

SA

see the lower note.

fxifirjTal]

Gg;
the

way from

Name

Syria, a prisoner for the of Christ our common hope,

to

ttoOtjtov

fioi

ovofxa

(see

also

expecting to fight with wild beasts in Rome and so to claim a place as a disciple, you were eager to visit me. Gladly then have I received you all
in the person of Onesimus your loving bishop and delegate. And I pray

note on *A\kt)v, Smyrn. 13). The various readings suggest the omission of the pronoun with wopa. At The all events aov can hardly stand. Latin translation here again has a

that you
for

may love and imitate him God has indeed been good to you
you such a
'

;

autem singulariter et continuo pluraliter possedistis, insinuans multitudinis in fide et charitate unitatem'; but this
gloss (L 2 ), 'Dicit

tuum nomen,

in giving

man

for

your

bishop.'

I am disposed to is too ingenious. think that a transcriber, finding no

welAnode £dpevos~] Having comed^'; comp. Polyc. 1, Trail. 1. He had welcomed them in the person

'

pronoun,carelessly inserted o-ou, which

The of Onesimus: see Trail. 1. sentence thus begun is never finished, being lost in a succession of subordinate

appears in Polyc. 1. Otherwise I should adopt the reading of the Long Recension vfiwv ev Qea to k.t.X., as
this

pronoun

occupies

the

same

and

parenthetical
is

clauses.

early place elsewhere in the opening addresses of Ignatius, Magn. 1, Rom.
1,

The

at length resumed in a different form, ene\ ovv...dne[\r](pa

subject

Polyc.
cf)vo-ei]

1.
l

The opening of the letter to the Romans fares in the same way. See also similar phenomena in Philad. 1, Smyrn. 1 comp. Magn.
k.t.X.
;

by nature] and not by Here accident or use or education. again the expression has a Gnostic
tinge
ficofxov
:

see the note on Trail.
didvoLav...eyvcov
v/acls

1

"A-

e^ovTas,

1,51.

ovofia]

'name]

here

equiva1

ov Kara ^pr^aiv dWa Kara (pvaiv. I have inserted ev yvcofXTj opOjj Kai]

lent
*

to

'personality,'

'character,'

worth'; comp. Clem.
ovofia
vfxeov.

Rom.

dgia-

ya.7rrjTov

A

these words from the Syriac, which is loosely followed by the Armenian.

marginal

They must have
prior to

fallen out at

an age

gloss to the

Latin translation (L 2 ) supposes that there is a play on the

any of our Greek

authorities.

word exeats

i

'appetite, desire,' Ej>he-

The epithet BiKaia is altogether unsuited to cpvo-et; and, if the Greek
be regarded as entire, I should suggest ot/ceia comp. Euseb. de Laud. Const. 15, p. 652 to Ovtjtov
text could
;

sis Gr2dce,desideriumLa.tine.

Ephesii
this

desiderabiles

dicuntur';

and

explanation

has

some

editors.

been adopted by Such a reference how-

ttjs

being too obscure in itself, is rendered improbable by such as Rom. 10 KpoKos parallel passages
ever, besides

olneias rjXevdepov <pvo~eco9, ib. p. 653 els eXeyxov ttjs oltceias (pvaecos, Clem. Alex. Strom, ii. 3 (p. 433) evravOa
cpvaiKrjv fjyovvrai
ttjv irivTiv 01 dp,<fi\

i]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
fMfjLviTai

29

Y\ixwv

oWes Qeov,

dva(^u)7rvpri(ravTes ev ai/uart

quia i?nitatores L ; the anacoluthon is obviated in 2A by conversion into a finite verb with a connecting particle et estis i?nitatores. dva^ojTrvprjcravTfs]

Gg* [Sev-Syr

172,

174];

et

reaccendentes

L;

et incalescentes estis... et

2;

def.

A

(see the next note).

Bao-ikei&rjv...eTi (paa\v
~Kei8r]v tv'mttlv

oi

dpcfn

Bacri-

apa
Kai

Ka\ iK\oyr)v

olneiav

The interpolator brings it out by writing piprjTal ovres Oeov (f>i\av6 p <D7r ias.

eivai.

very dydnrjv] frequent combination in this writer ; e.g. § 14, 20, Magn. 1,13, Rom. inscr.
(v.
1.),

2.

ttlcttiv

A

This sentence,
thetical,

piprjTal... ant) pTiaare,

was apparently intended
stating merely

to

be paren-

by the way

Philad.

11,

Smyrn.

inscr,

1,

explains himself on this point, § 14 dpxv C^V 5 Kai ^eXos, dpxr) pev ttlo-tis reXos Se dydirr), Smyrn. 6
13.

He

that the Ephesians had been true to their nature and had exhibited their

to yap o\ov £o~t\v niaTis Ka\ dydirr). See the simile in § 9. In Trail. 8
faith

and love are said to be the flesh and blood of Christ respectively.
iv Xpiarra 'irjaov k.t.A.]

character in action but it leads incidentally by a series of subordinate clauses to the main topic, the visit of Onesimus, and so breaks up the grammar of the sentence. This very
:

The

read-

is

disjointed and ungrammatical preface explained by the unfavourable cirletter was

ing of the Syriac and Armenian may be explained by the interchange of a single letter in the Syriac, ^ for 3
;

cumstances under which the
dictated:

Rom.

5.

The grammar would

see Clem.
favour.
in

Rom. 60

(p. 292).

Other-

be partially relieved, if there were authority enough for the insertion of Kai
before Kara n'umv, for the parenthetical sentence would then begin less abruptly with Kai Kara u'lo-tlv; but the Syriac without the Armenian is
valueless.
easily have authorities
ko.1 might dropped out in our main owing to the repetition of

wise the following reasons are in its (1) It has an exact parallel

Rom.

inscr. Kara, irlo-riv
;

/cat

'Ij/ctov
Tfj

Xpiarov

comp. below
ttj

§

aydnriv 20 iv

avroii 7rio~T€i Kai iv

avToii aydnr).

Otherwise the

more difficult than the other reading, and would therefore lend itself more easily to correction.
(2) It is
3.

the

same

letters

— kaiakaikata.
'

piprjTal

ovtcs

0eoO]
love.'

i.

e.

'

in

benevolence
Trail.
1
;

and

So
§ 10,

also

avafaTTvprjo-avTes] ki?idled into living fire] in an intransitive sense, i.e.
'

and see below

where
is

the point
iivieiKeia.

of piprjTaX tov

Kvpiov

sitive

stimulated to activity.' The intranuse is not uncommon e. g.
;

expression is borrowed from S. Paul, Ephes. v. 1, thus exhibiting another coincidence with
this

The

same
rfj

epistle

:

see the note

inscr.

evXoyqpevrj.

on Comp. Clem.

Mace. xiii. 7, the only passages where it occurs in the LXX. So also Clem. Rom. 27, Plut. Mor. p. 695 A, p. 888 F dva^umvpeiv
Gen.
xlv.

27,

1

vvKTcop,

KaOdnep tovs dvdpaKas,

etc.

Horn.

xii.

26 XPH tov (piXavOpconlav

piprjTTjv eivai tov 8fou, evepyerovvTa diKalovs Ka\ a8i.KOVS, cos avTos o Qebs iraaiv iv ra> vvv Koapto
do~KovvTa

alpan Qeov] Tertull. ad Uxor. See also Acts ii. 3 sanguine Dei.' 28 tt)v iKK\r)o~iav tov Qeov r\v XX.
iv

nepLenoirjaaro dia tov aiparos tov Idlov,

tov re rjXiov Ka\ tovs verovs avrov irapeThe same is the point here. XU)v.

where Qeov

is
;

correct reading

most probably the and comp. Rom. 6,

3o

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
dirt] pria are'

[i

Qeov, to avyyeviKOV epyov TeXeiws
cravTSs

clkov-

yap
Kctl

SeSe/uevov
e'A7r/So9,
Sev-Syr
7,

diro

Cvpias
ty\
this

virep

tov

kolvov
vficov
to
Qeov,
g*

ovo/uaTOS
i

eXirifyvTa
3
;

irpocrevyY]
defect

Qeov]

GL*2

clef.

A

(but

witnesses
;

the whole clause havipg dropped out
reXet'ws]
ciTr-qpriaaTe]

owing

to the homoeoteleuton)

GLg Sev-Syr -2,3; g*L2A Sev-Syr i,
5eoep4vov]

celeriter (as if rax^ojs)

2

;

xP LcrT °v cum amove A.
1

3;

dirapTio-aTe
;

G.

yap]

GLg*; om.

2* A.
syria

GL

;

pe dedepevov g

dub. 2A.
;

d?ro 1,vplas]
:

GLg

;

hi

A

;

ab operibus 2*. om. 2A see the lower note. 4 eivirvxetv] GLg dta. rod eTTLTvx^v] per poliri L*; per id quo dignor'L ; quando hoc dignor et perfero otd tov papTvplov einTvxziv see the lower note. 5td rod fxapTvplov g
;
;

A

G

:

For similar modes of expression

in

2.

anb Svplas]
in

A
'

condensed exhearing that
§
I
;

early Christian writers, see the notes on Clem. Rom. 2 to. nad/jpaTa avTov

pression in place of

was come
see

bonds from Syria
lxvi.

(with the Appendix; p. 402). It does not follow because a writer uses 'the the blood of blood of God and
'

Winer Gramm.

p.

776

'

(Moulton), Kiihner 11. p. 469 sq. For other similar constructions of prepositions
els

that

Christ' as convertible expressions, he would therefore speak of
is

comp. e.g. below, § 12 tcov Qebv dvaipovpevcov, § 1 4 et? koXo§

Christ as

passage
the rule
laid

This absolutely. therefore no exception to as to the Ignatian usage

'

God

'

Kayadiav ciKokovOa eaTiv,
\(DTt.o-T]...eK

IJ alxpa-

tov...£t}v,

down above on inscr. tov Qeov The 'blood of God' is the thxuv.
which fans the natural benevolence of their character into a
incentive
flame.

quently in Ignatius. ticular expression here see II oQev SeSepevos (comp.
§ 2I)

and not unfreFor the par-

Smyrn.
below,

the energizing action of the blood of Christ, see the note on

On

tov koivov ovopaTos] i.e. 'the Name of Christ which we all bear in com-

;

mon.'

For

Philad.
1.
'

inscr.

ovopui see

this application of t6 the note on § 3 below.

avyyeviKou]
'

'natural,'
'

literal-

3.

eX7rt'Sos]
tt\

So

§

21

ev

'irjo-ov

connate,'' congenital ; comp. ly Plut. Mor. p. 561 F KCtKias opioiorrjTa avyyeviKrjV ev veco fi\ao~Tavovcrav t]6ei.

XpicrnS
11
:

Koivfj

eXiridi tfpcov,
5.

Philad.
77

comp. Philad.
11.

For

eXnls

qpwv, applied to Christ, see the note

So

o~vyyei>LK.bv

Pericl. 22.

Here

Vit. Plut. voo-qpa, it refers back to

Magn.
4.

eTTiTvxtiv]

A

very

common and

perfected they possessed by nature. Zahn translates it fraternimi, adding

6 KeKTijaBe qSvo-ei. The Ephesians had in action the disposition

characteristic expression in Ignatius. It occurs most frequently in the

which
*

connexion
the

eiviTvyxdveiv

Qeov

;

see

note

on

Magn.

1.

His

mar-

decebat vos pra?stare erga qui eidem genti a Christo redempti [redemptas?] vobiscum ad-

quod

eum

tyrdom was the success, the triumph, to which he looked forward see
;

esp.

Rom.
*
'•

scripts

est.'

But

this,

though a

en-iTvx
12, 13.

possible sense, does not suit either the context or the general usage of

8 alTr/o-acrde nep\ epov, Iva comp. also Polyc. 7, Trail. So Mart. Ign. A?it. 5 tov

the word so well as the other.

arecfidvov Tijs ddXijaeoos e7riTvxil' Sid tov eTrcrvyetp] The genesis of

1]
'

TO THE EPHESIANS.
Pupy
6tipiOfxaxn(rai,

31

eTTLTVxeTv iv
5

iva

lid tov

eTriru.

padtjTth ehai, icrToprjorai kvrrov Ida-are x ewel ovv Trjv 7ro\v7r\ri6eiav v/ucov iv ovo/uart Qeov direi%vvr}6w
5 fiadrrrtp elvai]

eLV

L

;

add. dei
ko.1

2A

;

add. rod inrep

ijfiwv

tos v.

1.

in g) de$ Trpoacpopav

Ovaiav

Gg (from Eph.
: ;

v. 2

by adding in odorem bonae

eavrbv dveveyKovros (-pfyicav1 ; completes the quotation
Urroprjaai eo-irov-

suavitatis)

see the lower note.

oaaare] videre (leg. visere ?) festinastis L studuistis tit veniretis et videretis me 2; vos studuisHs recreate vie for ^imn); ora. (as if it had read Gg. Cureton supplies the missing words, fie IMv iffvovda^ere; Pearson, Petermann, Lipsius, Zahn, and Funk, ISelv eo-irovoao-are see the lower note. 6 eirel ovv] Gg* ; autem

A

^rVJn
L
5.

:

(8e)

2

quia

;

enim

(as if

i>
the

yap

TroXvirXrjOeiav)

;

ergo A.

iroXuwX^etai'] g*;

the

corruptions
(1)

in

text

is

as

padrjTrjs]
is

'a

learner?

This

follows.

Long
tov

interpolator of the Recension has substituted om

The

to save

paprvpiov for Sia tov eViru^fli/ a needless repetition and
;

an idea which has taken possession of Ignatius, and is repeated again and again by him. He
also

he has also helped out the paBrfTijs, which appeared to him bare and unmeaning, with the addition of
tov

does not set himself up as a teacher at present he himself is only beginning to be a learner see
of others
;
:

esp.

§

3

vvv
;

yap

dpxrjv

e^co

tov

vnep
S.

rjpcov

eavTov
kcii

dveveyKovros
v.

Qecp irpoacpopav

Ova-lav^

from
these

Paul,

Ephes.

borrowed 2. Both

comp. Trail. 5, Rom. 5 (quoted below), and see Mart. Ign. Ant. I prf7roi. .ecpay^dpevos. .Trjs TeXeias
fiadrjTfveaOaL
.
.

changes are after his usual manner. But in doing so he has carelessly thrust out the end of the
sentence, ioropfja-at ea-irovbdcraTe, and thus left aKovo-avres without any finite
verb.

tov padrjTov Tagecos.

His discipleship will then only be complete, when he is crowned with martyrdom, Rom. 4 comp. Magn. 9, Polyc. 7. Hence he
;

uses

pa6r]Trjs
:

Ignatius has been corrupted from the text of the but the work has not interpolator
(2)
;

The genuine

solutely

Trail.

elsewhere, as here, ab5 ov...napa tovto i"8t]

kcu p.adr}Trjs elpi,
fiadrjTrjs elvai.

been done thoroughly, and the word eniTvx^v has been allowed to stand. For a similar instance of interpolation in the Greek MS from the Long
Recension see § 2 after KaTrjpTio-pivot. In both cases however we have the
alternative of supposing conversely that the interpolation was made first
in

Rom. 5 vvv ap^opai The Greek interpolator

translator, not understanding this absolute use, have supplied genitive cases in different ways. This elpcoveta of Ignatius has a parallel in Socrates, who always professed himself merely a learner see Grote's Plato 1. p. 239.
:

and the Syriac

a MS of the genuine Ignatius and so passed into the Long Recension,
is

but this
Syriac,

not probable.

The

Latin,

lo-Toprjo-ai] Comp. Gal. i. 18 (with the note). In restoring the Greek from the Versions, I have chosen this word, because the Syriac render-

and Armenian Versions, when correctly read and interpreted, suggest the true restoration of the text,

ing seems to point to something more expressive than Idelv, which is generally supplied. 6. ewel ovv k.t.X.]

which however has been overlooked by the editors generally.

A

resumption

of the original sentence 'Anode gape vos

32

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
Tcp

[i

\t](pa ev 'O^crZ/ift),

eV

dyaTrrj dSiriyriTio,
'Irjcrovv

vfJitov

Se

[eV

CttjOK:/]

eTTKTKOTTUd'

ov ev^o/uai Kara.

XpiaTov

v/uds dyaTrav, Kai TravTas v/ud^ clvtco ev 6\xotOTr\Ti elvaC
Tro\vir\r)6lav

G

(so

it

there

is

no authority

for iro\vir\7]ptav
airel\ri<pa]

reads certainly, though the word is written in a slovenly way ; which has got into the common texts) see the
:

lower note.

GLAg

;

suscepimus 2.

i

e7r']

g

;

ev (probably
8e]

altered to conform to the following ev aapKi) om. (so that they take adnjy^TU} with

G

;

in L*; dub.

SA.
1
ev

GLg
;

;

SA

071x7777).

aapKl]

GL
g.
;

2Ag

:

see the lower note.
;

'Itjgovv

Xpurrbv]
elvai

GL2A
sitis

;

XP L(XT0V lyvovv

om. Add.

dominum nostrum 2
si?7iilitudine esse

om. GLAg.
ev
bpot(Jo/u,aTc

3 a.vrCp ev o/xoiottiti etvcu]

G

ipsi in

L

;

avrou

g

;

in similitudine ejus

2

;

This new never finished, but is lost in a crowd of subordinate In this respect it is an clauses. exact parallel to Magn. 2, which
k.t.X.
;

see the note there.
itself is

edeaprjo-a ev TTtoret k.t.X.

Comp.
tj£lg>6t)v
I

also

sentence

below,
ayanrjv

§

2

St'

(bv

TravTas

vpas Kara
Idelv
coo-re

eibov,

Magn.
k.t.X.,

2

vpas 81a Aapct

Trail.

pe

to Tvav nXfjOos vpoltv ev avra

6ea>prjo-ai.

begins

in

the

same way
l

iirei

ovv

q^idtdrjv k.t.X.

noXvTrXrjdeiav]
l

your

numerous
\

body?
2
Oeiav,

your
viii.

large numbers'
16
tt/v

comp.

Mace.

£8va>v Trokvrikr)-

xxxi.

Valentinus in Epiph. Hcer. 6 (ov Trjv noXvnXrjdeiav npos

The apidpbv e^enrelv ovk avayKcuov. expression is an incidental testimony
to

i. ev 'Ovr]o-ipa>] This Onesimus seems to be a distinct person alike from S. Paul's convert the slave of Philemon, who, if still living, would be too old at this time, and from his later namesake the friend of Melito (Euseb. H. E. iv 26), who belonged to another generation and was ob-

the flourishing condition of the Ephesian Church in the beginning

viously a layman. this notice stands

Chronologically

about

mid-way

The word of the second century. occurs occasionally in Classical wribeing found as early as Socomp. Arist. phocles Fragm. 583
ters,
;

between the two, being separated from each by about half a century.

On

the

name Onesimus and
it,

persons bearing
Colossians
etc. p.

the see the introduc-

tion to the Epistle to

Philemon

in

Hist.

An.

v.

4

(p.

562)

ttjv ttoXuttXt;'ttoXi;-

310

sq.

The name

Beuiv avToav.
7r\r)0€ia
is

It is

written both

occurs

in

an Ephesian inscription
o-apKi]

and noXvurXTjOia. The former more largely supported by ana;

Boeckh
2.

C. I. G. no. 2983.

ev

See
rfj

the

note

logy

but for the latter comp. Soph. Fragm. 342 KVKXel 8e naorav olKeratv TrapnXr)6Lav, which however, as a poetical passage, does not go far to establish a prose usage. The martyr received dnei\r)(pa] the whole Church, when he received

Rom. 9

rfj

68<p

Kara

tropica.

on But

the words ev aapKi here are highly
suspicious, both as being absent from some authorities and as being

unmeaning

in themselves.

They may

Onesimus, their representative j see
Mag7l.
6
eVel

ovv

ev

rois

irpoye-

ypappevois npocroinoLs to irav nXfjdo$

have been added to relieve the apparent awkwardness of the connexion vpwv 8e. There is no reason to suppose that the Syriac translator had not the fie in his text, because he

I]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
4

33

evXoyrjTos
5

yap 6 X aP«r<*^vos
K€KTfjo-0ai.

v^xiv

dgiois ov<riv roiod-

TOV ewicTKOTrov
II.

flepl $6
A.

tov (TvuSovXov
4 d#cns]

/ulov

Bovppov tov Kara
ftru»] oftri

similes-estote ei

GL2A;
ova.

5 KexTTJvdai]
1 efrcu,

GL;

KeKTrjadat ev

xpurrvg;

2 A.

tolovtou g. Similar omissions in

Or.

2

occur /faw]

fl^jr. 6

fxew

(*xe«).
it

The

translator probably

but declined to translate
iirel k.t.X.

as a pleonasm.

2

Botfppoi/]

G; Jwnfc

6 pov] ; fywS? g. A (a confusion of the Syriac

GLA
in

A

had Ketcrrjadai in his text here stops here and resumes again § 3 &K\> * read cvfipo6\ov for o-w5oiJ\ou.

variations in the

first

vowel

in the consonants here.

letters <| and 1, d and For the r). Appx. All the authorities, except A, agree See also the notes on Smyrn. 12, Philad. n.

Lg

see

has not translated it. This free handling of connecting particles is habitual with him. If iv vapid be
genuine, contrast
in
it

see Kiihner

Gramm.

11.

p.

interpolator has simpler construction
op.oicopa.Ti
4.

The

372

sq.

substituted a

would seem
the
great
3).

and order,

iv

to

imply a
iniaKonos

avTov.

to

But such a contrast is out of place here, and Ignatius was not likely to speak of
a bishop as a carnal
(/.

heaven (Magn.

pression
9,

favourite dglois ova-iv] in Ignatius;
§
2,

A

ex-

Magn.

12, 14, Trail. 4, 13,
II,

Rom.

9,

Smyrn.

Polyc.

8.

So also
;

agtos Oeov

v.
;

wise

officer. Zahn A. p. 254) explains it otherOnesimus belongs to all alike

virtue of love (iv dyairg), though externally (iv o-ap/a) he was connected with the Ephesians alone. But this antithesis is not suggested the

by

by

first

clause.

For vpav
8e

hi see Phil.
;

U.

25

vpatv
vii.

dnooToXov

comp.

Herod,

8 'Apio-rayopr] t<3 MiXrjo-icp

8ov\<0 8e rjpcripco. Onesimus had two recommendations in the eyes of Ignatius he was beyond praise for his love, and he was their chief
;

comp. Ephes. 15. Burrhus the deacon, I entreat that he may be allowed to remain with me. Crocus too has refreshed me much, and I pray that God may refresh him. These, together with Euplus and Fronto, have been very welcome to me as your representatives. May I have joy of you always, if I deserve it. Ye ought therefore to glorify
II.

§§ 2 j 4>

Rom.

10

'As

touching

Jesus Christ, who glorified you, by submission to your bishop and presbyters, that ye may be perfectly
sanctified.'
6.
is

pastor.
Kara,
'irjcrovv

Xptoro'z/]

'after the
'

standard of Christ] i. e. with a Christian love'; comp. Rom. xv. 5
to

This expression a-whov\ov\ with great propriety confined in

avro
,

(ppovelv
Itj(tovv.
i.

iv

aWrjkois

Kara

tion

Xpicrrov
3.

Ignatius to deacons, since the funcwhich the bishop had in common with them was ?ni?iistration j

Magn.

avTa]
after

e.

'Ovrja-lfKo.

For the
Plat.

dative

opoiorrjs,

comp.

Phad. 109 A
axirov £avTG>,
r-qra

ttjv 6p.oioTT)Ta roii

ovpavov

Phadr. 253 C eh opoioavTols Kai tg> Oca... aye iv and for
:

this case with substantives generally

Smyrn. 12. Similarly it was customary for bishops to address presbyters as compresbyteri see Philippians p. 228. So too Constantine was accustomed to speak of himself as a (rvvOepdiroav of
2,

Philad.

4,

'

'

;

IGN.

II,

34

TH£ EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
Slclkovov
vfJLcov [k<xi~\

["

Qeov

iv 7racriv evXoyrj/uevov, ev^o/mai
v/ulcov

Trapajjieivai
KCLl

avTOv
06

ets

Ti\xr\v

kcu tou
KCLl
V/ULCOV,

eTricTKOirov.

KpOKOS
i

O

USOU

Ct^lOS

OV
Se

€£€/Ug;
£/

Kal] (^J3

Ag; om. GL.
for
fl,

3 Kal Kpo/cos de]

«*w

m

for £)

A.

e£e/i7r\d,pioj']

GL; KpSicos GL; ws

»wr-

i^efXTXdpiov g;

secundum similitudinem
sentence).

A

(omitting however

ov,

and adding e«*»

at the

end of the

4 aireXafiov]

GLA;

aire\afiop,ev g.

6 dvaxpv^aC]

bishops, Euseb. V. C. ii. 69, iii. 12, 17, Socr. H. E. i. 9. For the relation of the Ignatian usage of o-vvbovXos to S. Paul's see the note on Col.
iv.

phrase,
etc. §

more
;

especially

with QeoZ

examples in the note on 21 below) comp. also Polyc. 5
(see

7.

The

limitation

observed by

Ignatius is not regarded in other early writers ; e.g. Clem. Horn, Contest.
5,

tov Kvpiov. KpoKos] mentioned likewise in the letter to the Romans § 10, which
els Tip.rjv Tt)s crapKos
3.

also

was written from Smyrna, as
/not

Ep. ad

lac.

2,

17,

where

to 7to6t]t6u

ovop.a.

It

is

a rare

presbyters and others are so addressed by a bishop.
Bovppov] This person is mentioned again Philad. 11, Smyrn. 12. He was the amanuensis of both those

name.
Qeov agios Kal vp,wv] The same expression occurs also Rom. 10. For Qeov agios see the note on § 1 dgiois
oiaiv.
e£ep.ifhapiov]
'

which were written from Troas and is there represented as bearing a joint commission from the Churches of Ephesus and Smyrna
letters,
;

'a

pattern,'

not

to

attend the saint.

The

request
prefers

therefore
just

which

Ignatius

merely 'a sample.' The Latin 'exexemplarium,' is properly emplar,' a copy, not in the sense of a thing copied from another, but a thing to be copied by others Hor. Ep.
;

below {ev\op.ai Trapap-elvai) was granted and he accompanied him when he left Smyrna, whence the In present letter was despatched. the Syriac Decease of Saint John (Wright's Apocryphal Acts u. p. 64)
;

'

17 imitabild!
i.

19.

Decipit

exemplar vitiis As a law term, it de-

nals
in

noted one of the authoritative origiwhere a document was written
duplicate
;

see

Heumann-Hesse

the Apostle
his latest

is

represented as giving

Hand-lexicon des Romischen Rechts Hence Arnob. adv. Nat. vi. 13 s.v.
'

commands to one Birrus (Byrrhus). As the scene takes place
it is

at Ephesus,

not improbable that

the person intended was the

same

Phryna... exemplarium fuisse perhibetur cunctarum quae in opinione sunt Venerum,' i. e. the original of all the statues of Venus held in
repute.

who

mentioned by Ignatius. The Greek copy however substitutes the
is

The

older form
ii.

is

'exem;

plar' ('exemplare,' Lucr.

124)

but

name Evti^

t6v kcu Ovrjpov (Tisch-

even
in
'

this

would become

egep.n\dpiop

endorf Act. Apost. Apocr. p. 274). In the corresponding passage of pseudo-Abdias (Ap. Hist. v. 23) the name is Byrrhus, as in the Syriac.
2.

A7roXkivapios.

Greek, just as Apollinaris becomes The word occurs
Trail.
vp.a>v,

again
ayairqs

3

to

igepirkapiop

rrjs

eh

Tifirjv]

A common

Ignatian

Smyrn. 12 ei-ep.ifka.piov Qeov SiaKovtas. It was natural that

n]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
d(f>'

35

irXapiov t^/9
5 /ue

vfjLwv dya7rr]<z
kcci

direXafSov,
'

Kara irdvTa
Xolcttov
kcli

di/67rav(T€v,

cos

ovtov 6
kcli

Trarrip

lr]<rov
kcli

dva^v^at, d/ua
0povTcovi,
01
tcv

'OutiCTi/mco

Bovppw

Gv7r\co

TravTas

vfjids kcltcl

dya7n]i/ elhov

oval-

GL; dvaxj/v^ei g (but refrigeret 1); dub. A. Bovppy] G; cendaro A (to be explained by the confusion of similar letters in the Syriac). L*g* have variations
in the first

vowel as before.
G.

Etf7r\y]

G;

ei/7rXoi'

g*; euplo L; euphathe A.

7 typovruvi] (ppovropi

ovaiprjv] uvaiprjv

G.

a provincial, like Ignatius, should adopt from the Latin a word which was a law-term, just as he elsewhere adopts others which are military terms (Polyc. 6 see the note). Kara navra k.t.X.] The phrase 4. Kara travra dvcnravetv occurs several times in Ignatius; Magn. 15, Trail.
;

cripov.

coincidence of names, EvttXou? 'Oi/aThe other form of the dative

which appears in the MSS of the interpolated epistles, is also legitimate, as 77X01)? is frequently
E#7rXot,

declined tov nXoos,
writers; see
sq,
i.

rco nXot, in later

Lobeck Paral.

Phryn.
I

p. 453.
it

12,

Rom.

10,
10).

Smyrn.
is
*

Smyrn. 9, 12 (comp. The word dvanaixiv

18

find

p. 173 In Alciphr. Ep. written EinrXoco. This

similarly used by S. Paul of the refreshment arising from the kindly offices of another: 1 Cor. xvi. 18, Philem. 7, 20. A remi5. <os Ka\ avrbv... ava^rv ^ai\
'

Euplus and Fronto are not mentioned again by name, though they are probably included among the many others who are mentioned together
'
'

with Crocus, as being in the saint's

company

at

Smyrna,

in

Rom.

10.

niscence of 2 Tim.
OVK

i.

16 itoWclkls pe

dveyj/v^ev [6 'Ovr)(ri<popos] Kai ttjv dXvcriu 6 KvpiOS CLVTG) €77T)(T)(Vp6r]...8(pT)

All these Ephesians, with the exception of Burrhus, appear to have

Latin translator of the interpolated letters has been so possessed with this parallel, that he has added the words ' et catenam
evpelv
k.t.X.

The

parted from Ignatius at Smyrna, as they are not mentioned in the epistles written from Troas.
7.

6Y

coy]

i.

e.

'

as your

repre-

meam non
stituted
'

erubuit

'

here,
'

Onesiphoro

for

'

and subOnesimo
'

For the general sense sentatives.' see the note on dneiXrjcpa § 1, and for
dia

comp. Magn. 2

tdelv

vpds 81A

just below. Ignatius exhibits another

Aapa.
ovaiprjv] Again a Pauline phrase, Philem. 20 (see the note there). In Ignatius it occurs several times in this same phrase or in similar con-

reminiscence of this context of S. Paul in Smyrn. io rd dea-pd pov a ovX ••• ifrgfrxyvBrfre' ovde vpas eVcu(TxyvOrjcrtTai
77

Xpiaros, a passage
closely
us.
12.
6.

reXeia 7riaris, 'irjcrovs which in thought

nexions,

Magn.
5.

2,

12,

resembles

the

one

before

comp. Rom.
again almost
12.

The
word

Polyc. 1, 6; clause occurs

For dvayj/uxew comp. also Trail.
EvVXoj]

for

word

in

The name

TLvirkovs is

found

occasionally in the inscriptions, as is also the feminine EvnXoia. In Boeckh CI. 121 1 we have the

spurious Ignatius has caught up this expression and Ant. repeats it, Mar. 2, Tars. 8, 10,

Magn.

The

14,

Hero

may

There 6, 8, Philipp. 15. the name possibly be a play on

3—2

36
\xr\v

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
vfJLwv

["

$ia

7ravTOS 9

eavirep

a^ios

co.
'

Trpeirov

ovv

eCTlV

KCLTO.

TTCLVTa

TpOTTOV $0^d^€LV

lt](TO\JV

XpUTTOV

tov So^dcravTa
KCtTCt
i

v/mas*

\va iv /uia vTroTayrj KctTtipTiv/xekcu tco TTpecrfivTepitp,

voi, vTroracrcrofJievoi tio eiriiTKOTrto

TTCLVTa r]T€ qyiCLCT/JLeVOl.
Tpiirov oZv) txt

GL;

add. vpas g; add. vobis A.
avTcp vot koX
Trj

3 Karrjpko.1

TKTfxfrot.]

L;

r/T€ Ka.T7jpTMTiJ.iv 01 Tcp

avTTj yviifiT]

ir&vres irepl tov olvtov tva

Gg (from 1 Cor. i. 10). only in L, but also in A, where however the syntax is rearranged perfectos fieri in omni submissione ; ergo submissi estote episcopo etc. 4 viroTaaad/xevoi]
;

t6 avTb Xiyrjre This addition is wanting not

'Ourjcrtfxos

here, as there seems certainly to be in S. Paul ; but this is

Trjpas SK
MiX^crioi.

TrdvTUiV 'TLWrjVGiV eiXovTO ol
(2)
It
is

a surgical term

not probable.
eavnep agios co] about his ' worthiness
1.

for 'setting

bones':
(ed.

This
is

doubt

XIX. p. 461
io~Ti

e.g. Galen Op. Kiihn) KarapTiapos
77

'

common in

peTayayrj oo~tov

oo~t<ov e<

tov

Ignatius;

Magn.
Smyrn.

12, 14, Trail. 4, 13, 11.

Pom.

9,

See also the
2.

Tvapa (pvaiv tottov els tov Kara (pvaiv. The use of the word here recalls its

note on

7]gia>8r)v,

Magn.
This
3,

occurrence in
ap10,

1

Cor.

i.

10 tva to
y ev vpiv

avrb
crxicr-

7rpe7roi>...ecmz>]

phrase
4,

XeyrjTe navTes,
para,

/cat pr)

pears again,

Magn.
Smyrn.

Rom.

Philad.
12,

10,
§

7

;

while

Trpe-rvei

occurs in
2.

4 below,
11,
. . .

Magn.

3, Trail.

r)Te 8e KaTr/pTiapevoi ev t<3 avrco From vol teat ev ttj avTjj yvap,r). this passage of S. Paul the Ignatian

Smyrn.

See 8o£a£eiv Philad. IO doi-aaai to ovopa...Ka\ vpels

Polyc. 5, 7. tov 8o£daavTa]

interpolator has introduced the words which I have here spaced into our

For similar turns of expression see the note on Smyrn.
Soi-ao-6r)0'eo~8e.

upper note) and from the interpolated epistles they have passed into the Greek MS of the
text (see the
;

5

paWov
3.
'

he K.T.X.

KdTrjpTio-fxevoi]

''joined

toge-

ther]
els

settled'

;

comp.

Philad.

8

KariipTiapevos, Smyr?i. I KaTrjpTio-pevovs ev aKivr}Tcp 7n'crrei. The

evcoaiv

genuine epistles. The versions are our authorities for ejecting them. For a similar instance see the note on § I 81a tov €7riTvx*wThis is a com4. 7rp6cr/3t;reptco]

Latin translator has rendered
as elsewhere,

it

here,

mon word
§§4,
13,

in

Ignatius;
2,

see below,
Trail.
2, 7,

by

'perfecti,'
'

which

20,

Magn.

13,

would be

dnTjpTio'p.evoi.

The promiis is

nent idea in this word
gether'; and
especially in
It
its

fitting to-

force

seen more
uses.
(1)

Philad. 4, 5, 7, Smyrn. 8, 12. In the Apostolic writings it occurs only once of a Christian presbytery,
1

two technical
'to

Tim.
III.

iv.

14.

reconcile factions,' so that a political umpire who adsignifies

justs differences between contending e. g. parties is called KaTapTio-Tijp
;

Herod.
to.

MiXtjtos. .voo-r/o~ao~a eg paAtcrra crracri p-^XP 1 ov H- ll/ ^dpioi
rj
.

V.

28

KaTrjpTiaav' tovtovs yap Karaprtcr-

do not venture to use the tone of authority. I am only a learner with you. I need to be trained by you for the contest. Nevertheless love would not allow me to be silent. I could not refrain from urging obedience to your bishop.
'I

in]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
III.

37

SeSe/maL

Od §iaTCL<7<rofJLai v/jl7v, ok aiv rr el yap ko.1 ev tw ovo/mari, ovttw ev Irjcrov a.7rripri.crfJiaL
vvv [yap] <*px*l v

Xpio-ra*

e^w tov

/uLadrjTeveo-dcu
ifxe

Kai
e$ei

7rpo(r\a\(jo v/uuv cos <rv vdiSacKaXlrais fjiov

yap

6 ri] gA; rts GL. gLA; eiriraao 6p.evoi G. 7 h ry oj/6/taTt] G; *« nomine (iesu) christi L*; Sia rb 8vop.a g* (add. aurou vulg.); propter veritatis notnen A. It may be a question whether we should read ev t£ 6v6p.ct.Ti or
dih rb 6vofia, but without

lower note.

8 yap]

doubt the words Christi, veritatis, are glosses: see the Gg ; autem L ; om. A.

The bishops abide

in the
is

Christ, just as Christ the Father.'
6.

the

mind of Mind of
Trail. 3

The Name is again used absolutely below § 7 to 6vop.a Trepi(pepeiv, Philad. IO 8o£acrai rb 6vop,a;
of Christ.

Ov
cov

diaTao-aofMai K.r.X.]

comp. Acts
arip.ao'drjvaL,

Iva

KaraicpiTos cos

81.aTacrcrcop.ac,

aVooroXoy vp.1v Rotn. 4 ov*X •* Tlerpos
vp.1v.

ovop,aros

41 vnep rov 6vop.aros Joh. 7 vnep rov So too [Clem. e£f}X6av.
V.

3

Kai

HavXos

8iaraacrop.ai

For

Rom.]

ii.

§

13 rb ovop.a
viii.
1

81

vp,as

p.rj

the general sentiment comp. Barnab. I eyco 8e ov\ cos 8i8dcrKaXos dXX' cos
els e'£ vp.cov

(3\ao-(pT]p.rirai. ..(3\ao-(pT]p.e1rai

rb ovop.a,
ijSecos

Hermas Sim.
eftdoTacrav, ix.
Xdftys, ib.
p.ev

10 rb ovop,a

vnobel^co oXiya k.t.X.,
<»?

lb.

4

epcorco vp,ds cos eis

again
irpeirei

ovx

e£ vp.cov cov, 8i8dcrKaXos dXX'

and
cos

3 edv rb ovop.a p.6vov edv rb 6vop.a (popfjs, lb. rb
ecpopecrav,
ix.

ovop.a

28

ol

ndcr-

a.yaTTcovTi...ypa<peiv

eanovdacra,

ire piyjrr]p.a vp.cov,
;

Polyc. Phil. 12 'nihil

Xovres eveKev rov 6vop,aros, Apollon. in Euseb. H. E. v. 18 KeKpirai...ov
81a

vos latet mihi autem non est concessum modo.' For the reading rt, rather than ns, comp. 1 Cor. iii. 5, 7, ri ovv ecrriv AnoXXcos ri be ear iv
'
',

rb

ovop,a,

Xrjo-reias,

dXXd 81 as eroXp-rjae Clem. Alex. Strom, iii. 6

(P*

S3 2 )-

There

is

a tendency in

UavXos',...ovre
k.t.X.,

6

cpvrevcov

ecrriv

ri

later transcribers, who did not understand this absolute usage, to

similarly, rls...rls is substituted for ri...ri in some copies;

where

supply a genitive
v.

:

e. g.

avrov in Acts

see also Gal.
I

ii.

6, vi. 3, elval
xii. 1 1,

™, and
elpu.

Christi, bouorum, in § 7 below ; Domini, etc., in Philad. 10 rov Kv-

41

;

;

Cor.

xiii. 2,

2 Cor.

ov8ev

piov, rod Xpiorov, in
13.

Kai 8e8ep.at]

'Even

my

bonds do

[Clem. Rom.] ii. Similarly the versions interpofiadTjreveo-Oai]

not perfect me; even my bonds do not make me a full disciple, much less a teacher'; comp. Magn. 12
61

late here.
8.

'of beco?ning a
for the verb, the

learner?

For the idea see the note
;

yap

Kai 8e8ep.ai, irpbs eva rcov XeXv-

on

§

1

\La6r)TT)s elvai

p,evcov vp.cov

ovk

et/xt,

Trail. 5

<o.l

yo.p

note on
9.

§

IO

p.a6r\rev6r\vat..

eyco
fjbr]

ov

KaOori

Kai p.a6r)rrjs
k.t.X.

elp.i,

8e8ep.ai...napd rovro TroXXa yap rjp.1v

o~vv8i8ao-KaXlrais p.ov]
I

'my school;

fellows?

Xeiirei

For

the

additional

dignity and authority which are conferred by his bonds, see the notes on
§ 11
7.

below,
ev
r<ji

Magn.

1.

01/opart]

'the

Name]

i.e.

cannot find either 8i8aaKaXirrjs or aw8i8acrKaXLrr)s elsewhere but there is a close analogy in comwhich pedagogita or conpedagogita in some Latin inscriptions appears (Fabretti /user. Aut.p. 361 sq, Orelli


v(j)

THE. EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
v/ulwv

I

III

V7ra\€«p6f}vai iricrTeiy vovdeaia,

KpoOvfULia,
vjjLtov,
l

dW
;

virofj-ovrj,

fxa-

€7T6i

r\

d'yairt]

ovk ea

/me (Tiwrrav 7repi
i//zas,

Sid

tovto TrpoeXafiov 7rapaKa\eiv
G
Tap' vp&v
[g],

O7rcos

v<p' vfxQp]

vinx\u<pdrivaC\

G

;

suscipi (\nro\r)<pdrivai)

L

;

accipere a vobis fidem etc.

A;

\)itop.vt)G6r\va.i g.

2 dXX' iirei /c.r.X.]

2

has

Lat. 2818, 2819), and which points to the meaning. These compedagogitcE are the slaves trained
Inscr.

since there is no reason for representing the Ephesians as a board or council of teachers.

wise

;

under the same pedagogus or in the same pedagogium, and are called elsewhere pueri compedagogii (see Fabretti I.e.). The word is a mongrel
(con-7rai8aya>yLTTjs),

yap eSei] This sentence must connected with ov 8ia.Tdao-op.ai vp.lv k.t.X., not with the words immee'/xe

be

diately preceding,
is

if
'

avv8i8aaKaXiTais

like

sullibertus
is

(ow-libertus) which also

found in

rightly interpreted school-fellows' ; and to such a connexion the imefiei 'it were meet' (not del) points. See the language of Ignatius to the Romans § 3.

some
the

Similarly avvbiinscriptions. daa-KaXiTai are those who have had

perfect

same

SiddcrKaXos or dtdaaKaXia or

didao-icakelov.

Their

common

diodcr-

koXos,

contemplated here, is not S. Paul or any Apostle, but Christ see
;

I. v7raXei(pdrjvai] 'to have been anointed] as an athlete preparing for the contest. Compare the metaphor

§

15 *is ovv 8i8d(TKa\os k.t.X.

Some

in Polyc. 2, 3,
...to

vrjepe, cos
.

GeoG

dOXrjTr/s
icrriv

would explain the word
ers'*

'joint-teach-

6epa
to

d<p6apa'ia. .pcydXov

(comp. August. Con/, i. 9 'condoctore suo'), and this meaning certainly suits the following viraXei$6r]vai well (comp. Plut. Vit. Pericl. 4 rc3 8e
IlepiKXel
7ToXltikcov
(TvvfjV,

dffXrjTov

8ipea6ai teal viKav. the meaning of vrraXeicpeiv see

For

Com.

ake'nrTrjs

KaQdrrep dOXrjTT], tcov kcu bibatTKakos)
',

in Plut. Vit. Po7np. 53 cos arepos npos tov erepov V7TaXei(p€Tai tco X e W € & vttokovUtcu. This duty of oiling

the athlete
10. 8,

fell

to the trainer,

hence

but

it

seems

to

be inadmissible on

called dXfL7TTr]s (see e.g. Epict. Diss.
iii.

several grounds. (1) There is no reason why Ignatius should not have used o-vv8i8d(TKa\os, which occurs in
Cyril Alex.

iii.

20. 10,

iii.

26. 22);

and

Ignatius here says that the Ephesians were the proper persons to perform
this office for him.
is

Ep.

lxvii

(x. p. 336, ed.

The metaphor

Migne). (2) Analogy shows that the termination -Ittjs signifies 'one who has to do with' anything, e.g. 'Apeo7rayiTT]Sj

variously applied: e.g. iiraXtifaiv ltd Tiva 'to incite against a person,'

eyKparir-qs,

ottXittjs,

ttoXittjs,

Polyb. ii. 51. 2 (see Wesseling on Diod. Sic. II. p. 138) akeicpeiv npos ti,
;

a-oipiTTjs, TexviTrjs,

Magn.

iii.

26),
iii.

(Maca. npoiTOKadedpLTrjs (Her7raXaLarpirr]s
etc.
9),

dXeicpeiv eVi

mas

Vis.

So

avpepv-

XaKLTrjs,

not 'a fellow-jailor,' but 'a
avCvyiTrjs 'a yoke(crv£vyia); a-vvopirrjs
trvvob'iT-qs
;

fellow-prisoner';
fellow,

educate to a thing' Philo Leg. ad Cai. 24 (11. p. 569), Quis rer. div. her. 24 (1. p. 490), Clem. Alex. Strom, ii. 15 (p. 436). For its application to a moral and
ti,

'to

husband'
'

godly
prob.

life
lib.

'a neighbour' (arwopla);
fellow-traveller

'a
(3)

generally, see Philo Omn. 12 sq (ii. p. 458 sq) to
vop.ois...Toiov-

(crvvoola)

etc.

TjdiKov ev

pdXa bianovovaiv, dXeiTTTais

The aw- would be

pointless other-

Xpiopwos toIs naTpiois

Ill]

TO THE EPHESIANS.

39

5

Kal yap 'Itio-ovs Xpicvvrpex^Te Trj yvw/ur] tov Qeov. O*T0S, TO dSlCCKplTOV fJ/ULCOV £VJl/, TOV TTCLTpOS Y\ yvdfJLt],
this

one sentence, but nothing afterwards
g.
Trepl v/nwu]

till

§ 8 orav

yap

k.t.X.

iirel]

G;

i-rreidi]

Gg; pro

vobis

L; de
al. g.

vobis

A; a

vobis

2

(a Syriac

idiom).

5 T]p.u)v\

LA;

i\x(av

G;

tovs

t)

dix a

7T€pL€py€LaS

fXXtJVlKCOV

ovoparcov ddXrjTas dpeTrjs dnepyd^eTai
(piXoaocpia,
tcls

yvp.vacrp.aTa

irporiOelcra

inaiveTas 7rpd£eis (speaking of the Mosaic law), Epict. Diss. i. 24. 1 6
ere,

agree] and below § 4; as e.g. Clem. Horn. xx. 22 crvve.hpap.ov avTov tco The sense is ftovXrjp.aTL (comp. i. 10). not uncommon in later writers.
Trj yvc6p.T]

tov Geov] This expression

Qeos

cos

d\ei7TTT]s;
vii.

k.t.X.,

Clem.
pieydXco

is

characteristic of Ignatius
6,

Alex. Strom,

3
6

(p.

839) ovros 6
tco

Smyrn.
5.

Polyc.

8.

Rom. 8, So too yvwp.r]
:

a6\r]Tr)S dXr]9ciis crradico tco KaXa
vlktjv

iv

\r\aov Xpio-Tov here

and Philad.

inscr.

Kocrp.co tt)v dXrjdivrjv

Kara
.

ndvTcov

arecpavov p,cvos

dhiaKpiTov]' inseftarable''; comp. Magn. I 'irjcrov XpiaTov tov 81a

tg>v naOcov. .nepiyiverai 6 tt€i6t)vios rco

dXeLiTTr] yev6p.evos;
(p.

comp.

ib.

vii.

11

navTos r)p.cov £fjv. rious meanings.
it

The word has vaIn the active sense
'Unhesitating,
17
dvcodev
tin-

yvpvdcracra

dXeicpovcra Kal KaraaKevd^i tov tdiov But it came to be applied dOXrjTrjv. more especially, as here, to the struggle for the martyr's crown. Hence the vision of Perpetua on the eve of her martyrdom, Act. SS. Per ft.
872)
rj

dya7TT]

signifies;

(1)

wavering, single-minded, steadfast';
e.g.

James

iii.

77

o-ocfiia...
it

dftidicpiTos,

dvvnoKpiTos,

where

is

best

explained by a previous pression, i. 6 p,rjhev 8iaKpivop.evos.

ex-

So

elsewhere in these epistles,

Magn.

et Fel.

10 (Ruinart p. 84) 'et ccefautores mei oleo defrigere quomodo solent in agonem] Tertull.

perunt

me

15 K€KTr]p.€voi ddidicpiTov nvevp-a, Trail. Kal I didvoiav abiaKpiTov; ap.cop.ov

comp. Heracleon
xiii.

ad Mart.
spiritu
duxit.'
p. 255)

3

'Christus
et

Jesus... vos

§

in Orig. in Ioann. IO (IV. p. 220) tyjv ddidicpiTov
Trj (pvcrei
ii.

unxit

ad hoc scamma proBasil. Eft. clxiv (11. ore p,ivTot eibop.€v tov

kol KaTaXXrjXov

eavTrjs nicrTiv,

So too
Gamier)
os

Clem. Alex. Peed.
KplTcp
7tlctt€i:

3 (p. 190) dhiasee the note on dhia'

dOXrjTTjV,

ep.aKapio~ap.ev
Tvapa.

avTov
diKaico

tov
KpiTrj

kpltcos

Pom.

inscr. (2)

Undiscriminatiii.

dXe ittttjv
k.t.X.

tco

ing, indiscrimi?iate, indiscreet, reckless'; e.g.

And

plication
natius,

becomes
repeats
Oft.

in later writers this apcommon. S.

Clem. Horn.
dXoyoLS
'

5 to?s did
irapei-

t6

ddidnpiTov
(3)

£coois
1 ,

Chrysostom, in his homily on Igthe
II.

Kao-QftcTL.

Impartial
ii.

e.g.

Clem.

saint's
p.

own
(ed.

Alex. Strom,
dp.epicjTos
kolvcovlkyj.

18
iv

(p.

474)

dyd-rrj...

metaphor;
Bened.)
al

598

B

eo~Tiv

awTpe-^ovcrai
tcov ecpodicov.
3.

yap Kara, tt)v 6§6v noXeis navToOev r)Xei(pov tov

So

adiaxpiTos, the adverb, Test. Duod.
7rdo~iv,

d6Xr)Tr)v Kal /xerd iroXXcov e£e7~ep.7rov
i.e. 'I did not wait took the initiative,' 'I lost For the infinitive after

Patr. Zab. 7 dhiaKpiTcos irdcri cnrXayxIts passive senses vi(6p.evoi eXedre. are; (4) 'Inseparable, inseft arate] as

TvpoiXafiov]
'I

here;
(p.

comp.

Aristot.

de

Somn.

3

for

you/

458) hid de to yivecrdat dBianpi-

no
4.

time.'

7rpoXap.fidveiv

comp. Mark

xiv. 8.

TcoTepov to alp,a p.erd tt)v tt)s Tpocpfjs npoa(popav 6 vttvos yiveTai, ecos av
hiaKpiBfj

o-vvTpexrjTe]

'concur,

combine,

tov

alp-aros

to

p.ev

Ka6a-

4o
ws
y

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
kcli

[m

ol 67rio~K07roi

ol kcltcc

to.

irepaTa opicrdevTes ev

\t]crov

IV.
7tov

XpicTov 06ev
<f

yvwfjif]

eialv.

7rpe7rei v/uuu
kcci

gvvt peyeiv

ty\

tov eiriCKO-

yvco/uLr]'

bwep

7roieiT6.

to yap d^iovofiaarTOv
,

vfjioov

Trpeo-fivrepiov,

tov Oeov a^iov, outoos a vvr\p\xoo'Tai

5

i ev 'Irjcrov Xptarov yvw/xri] G; in iesu christi voluntale A; iesu christi sententia L, where the omission of i (—in) was easy between determinati and iesu; al. g.

3

irpiirei.

vpuv]

G

;

decet vos

L

;

kcxI

vpuv irptiru [g]

;

et vos decet

A.

5 vp.S>v\

pcoTepop els ra apco to de 6o\epcoTepop
els

ra

'

KOLToi.

(5)

as
Trap

Athenag.
dpBpconois
ttcivtI

Indistinguishable] Resurr. 2 kWp ndpv
abiatcpirov
eivai
8okt)
:

bishops, he says in effect, however wide apart, are still united in the

mind
dno

Marc.
avTTJs,

of Jesus Christ; see Liturg. D. p. 16 (Neale) ttjs eKKkrjaias ttjs
neparcop
/xe'^pi

to tco

ndXtp npocrepveos

r]pcop.epop

yrjs

and
'

so

'confused,

unintelligible]
qbcoprjp.
1

comp. Liturg.

tcop neparcop S. Basil, p. 164.

Polyb.
(6)

xv. 12. 9 abianpiTov Miscellaneous] Pro v. xxv.
'

Zahn

(lxx)
al

mean

objects that to nepaTa cannot ra nepaTa ttjs yr)s, and himself

al

napoip.iai

(naidelai) 'SoXop.copTos
(7)

abicLKpiToi.

Undecided'' (of a con(11.

conjectures ret noip.pia (I. v. A. p. 564) or top ndrepa (ad loc), and Markland

test),
cos

Lucian Iup. Trag. 25
ciijtttjtos,

p.

671)
ert

suggests

tt)p

xdpira

;

but the passages
justify

anodapr]

ap.<firjpicrTOP

which

I

have quoted amply
[to.]

Ka\ abianpiTov KaTakmcop top Xoyop. For this substantival use {j)p~\

the absolute use of

nepaTa.

Zahn

of

rightly objects
fuisse

(/.

v.

A.

p.

299) to

the word, see the note on § 11. This term here takes the r] ypcop.Tf\ place of the more usual \6yos or o-o<pia, as describing the relation of
Christ to the Father.

Pearson's interpretation 'episcopatum ab apostolis ex voluntate Christi institutum' (V. I. p. 271), a-

On

this ac-

count

is employed in the one and ep yvcopLrj in the other; though some authorities obliterate
ypcop.Tj

clause,

dopted also by Rothe and Uhlhorn. Ignatius is speaking here, not of episcopacy as instituted by Christ, but of the bishops themselves as
sharing the mind of Christ. IV. 'Act in concert with your bishop, as you are now doing. Your

the distinction.
1.

i.e.

to. nepaTa] the farthest parts] of the earth: comp. Rom. 6 ovdep

l

p.01 co(pe\r)o~ei to.

nepaTa tov

Kocrp.ov, ib.

(3acri\eveiP tcop nepaTcop ttjs yrjs.

The

presbytery stands in the same relation to the bishop, as the strings to the lyre. The theme of your song
is

expression [to] nepaTa used absolutely as here occurs, Ps. lxv (lxiv). 9 ol
KaToiKovPTes
to.

Jesus Christ.

The several members
will

of the

Church

form the

choir.

nepaTa

:

comp. also

nepaTcop,

Cat. 3 (p. 548) ol p.ixpi 2J (p. 571) otto nepaTcop avTcop, Celsus in Orig. c. Cels. viii. 72 axpi nepaTcop pepep.rjp.epovs. Ignatius would be contemplating regions as distant as Gaul on the one hand and
ib.

Philo Leg.

ad

will give the scale. Thus one harmonious strain will rise up from
all

God

and reach the ears of the Father.
;

will recognise your good deeds and by your union among yourselves you will unite yourselves with him.'
4.

He

onep Kal

7rotfire]

See for simiin Ignatius,

Mesopotamia on

the

other.

The

lar expressions

elsewhere

IV]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
eiricTKOTru) cos

41

tw

%op$ai Kidapa.
'

Sid
\t)(TOm

tovto

ev Ttj 6u.oa$€TCtl.

VOICL V/UCOV KCLl
kcli ol

O-V/UCpCOVO)

OL^aTTf]
^

XpKTTOS

kcct

avSpa Se X°P
xpw/ua Oeov
[g].

ywco'de, \va

crv/Lxcptovoi

SvTes

ev 6/uovoia,

/Va/3oj/Tes, ev evoTtjTi a&t)Te ev
a£io»>]

GL

[A]; om.

rod Qeod
estis

GL;

at-iov

8v rod 8eou [g];
estis)

al.

A.

8 ylveade] G; yiveaOe [g]; facti should read eylvecrde or eyeveade.

L;

estote (or

facti

A.

Possibly

we

9

cjdTjTe] ctdere

G.

Trail.

2,

Smyrn.
'

4,

Polyc.

1, 4.

God
of

1
:

comp.
xiv.
p.

e.g.

Antiphanes
erreiTa
cos
to.

in

dgiovopaarov]

worthy of record]

Athen.

643
601

p(Xr)

'worthy of fame?
Ignatius for the

The fondness

peTafioXals koi xpc6p.ao~iv

ev KeKparai,

word agios, which has been already remarked (note on § 2), extends to its compounds also. Thus we have d^iaydir^Tos, d^iayvos,
d^ierraivos,
d^ieir'iTevKTOS,

Plato Resp.
ye tcov
TT\s

X. p.

eirel

yvpvcoOevTa.

povaiKrjs xP^H-drcov rd tcov noirjTcov, avTa e(p avrcov Xeyopeva k.tX.

(see also Legg.
c

d£iodavpadi-id-

XpcopaTa

ii. The term p. 655). hues applied to sounds is
'

aros,

dtjioBeos,

d£iopandpio-Tos,

7Tiaros, d^tonXoKos, d£ioirp€7n]s, in

these

epistles.

Some

of these

must have

been coined
6.
cos

for the occasion.

only one illustration of the very common transference, by analogy, of ideas derived from one sense to another (see Farrar Chapters on

xopSai KL0dpa] See another in application of this metaphor Philad. I o~vvevpvdpio~Tai [6 eTrio~Konos\
rats

Language

p.

297

sq).

The word

Xpcopa then, as a musical term, designated an interval between two full

ivroXaisj

cos

x°P^ ais
Protr.
1

Kidapa.
(p.

tones
cos

;

comp.

Aristid.

Quint,

p.

18

Comp. Clem.
re
koi
crcopa

Al.

5)

yap to pera£u XevKov
ko.1

<a\ peXavos

tov QeovX6yos...Tov dvBpcoirov, tyvx^v
avTov,
dyico

Xpcopci KaXelrai, ovtco

to did picrcov

ap pocrapevos, x/z-aXAei tco tov noXvcpcovov o pydvov Kai TTpocradei Tovrcp tco opydvco tco dvQpcoixco'
cri)

izvevpaTi Qeco did

dpcpdlv Oecopovpevov ^pcapa Trpoaeipr)Tai. Hence it gave its name to the

chromatic scale, which was called
XpcopaTiicbv
yevos, or ^pcopa simply, as distinguished from the two other scales used by the Greeks, the dia-

yap

el

Kidapa
l

k.t.X.

dia tovto] owing to ment, this relation.''
8.

this adjust-

tonic

(diaToviicbv

ol tear

members' form themselves {yivecrde) into a band ox chorus. Forthe characteristic
1
'

the individual avdpa] of the Church, who are to

'

and enharmonic
dppovia)
19,

yevos or biaTovov) (evappoviov yevos or

Ignatian
5, 12,

expression
§
1.

ol

naT

avbpa

see Aristoxenus Harm. pp. ; 23 sq, 44, Euclid. /;//;'. Harm. p. 534 (ed. Gregory), Dion. Halic. de Comp. Verb. 19, Plut. de Mus. 11,

comp. below
Polyc.
\opos\

20, Trail. 13,
iva

Smyrn.
dydnr)
ev

32 sq {Mor.
Sext.

pp.
v.

11 34,

1142
vi.

sq),

Emp.
ii.

adv. Math.
4,

p.

366,

So Pom. 2
:

ev

Vitruv. Arch.
Scip.
4.

\opos yevop.evoi Xpio-Tco 'irjaov comp. Clem. Alex.
Strom,
vii.

acrr)Te tco 7rarpi

See on

this subject

14

(p.

885)

77

eKKXrjaia

Kvplov 6 nvevpariKos dyios xopos. ' the scale 9. Geov] xpc3/za

phal Harmonik Griechen pp. 129 sq, 141 sq, 263 Aristoxenus Harm. sq, Marquardt on
p.

Macrob. Somn. Westu. Melopdie der

of

246 sq and elsewhere.

Of

the

42
(boovrj
fJLia

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
Sid 'lrj(rou

t

IV

XpLcrrov
Si

tw

7rctTpi,

\va vfxwv

kcci

aKOv&r]

kcci €7riyivcoo-Kri,

cov ev 7rpaa-(reT€ 9 ^.eXt]

bvras

tov viov clvtov.
evorriTi elvai,

xptjcriiuLOv

ovv iarriv v^as ev dfxay^cp

iva koI

Qeov iravTOTe ^ere^/re.
ev fJLiKpw
eiricTKOTrov

V.

CI

yap eyw

XP° V(jP
u/ulcov,

)Tr rTOla ^ i v

o"vvrj- 5

deiav e<Tx 0V

^P^
A

tov

ovk dv6pm7rivrjv

words and renderi dia] GL; om. (attaching 'Irjcrov Xpurrov to the following be owing to homcEoteleuton ing patri domini nostri iesu christi: the omission may
(MIAAlA).
ko.1

The paraphrase

in

g

is

ev cvottjtl ev yevrjcde rrj

av^wviq.

ti$

0e$

irarpl

TiyaTrrujLe'vy

vUp avrov

'I.

X.

k.t.\.

i iirtyivdxricrj] cognoscat

LA

;

chromatic scale

itself there

were three
;

12,

Polyc.

8.

The words

ivovo-dai,

Aristox. recognised modifications Harm. p. 50 Tpels 8e xP a> P- aTLKa h V re tov fia.Aa.Kov xP a> lxaTOS KaL V T0V qfiioXiov Kal f) tov Tovialov (comp. Aristid. Quint, p. 19, Sext. Emp. 1. c, Such subEuclid. 1. c. p. 537 sq). divisions or modifications of any of

ivoTTjs,

evaxris,

are frequent in these
antici-

letters, as

might have been

pated from their general purport. oV av ev irpdao-eTe] 'through 2.

your good
hi
a>v

actions] as in § 14 hi
;

a>v
1

irpdao-ovo-LV dcpBrjaovTai

XaXel

Trpdao-r] k.t.X.

comp. There

§
is

5

no

the
e. g.

three
'

Xpoai,
yevrj re

great yevrj were called or colorations shadings
'

ground
81
ov.
it

for the conjectural reading

'

'

;

The Latin has not per quem
has hitherto been read), but

Aristox.

Harm.
ib.

p.

24 Kara
Kad'

to.

(as

km
i<p'

Tas xpoas (see Marquardt's
p.

note),

comp.

69

imamiv

Xpoav

eKaaTov yevovs. These subdivisions (xpoai) of the xP^P- a were called xP^H- aTa also themselves see Euclid.
1.

per qucsj and the Armenian translates in bonis laboribus vestris. For ev Tvpaao-eLv in the sense, not of
'faring well,' but
'

of 'acting well/
1 1

:

c.

Ignatius

may have

comp. Smyrn. n. members? as Trail. \ie\ri\
p.4\r)

ZvTas

been led to choose a term which pointed chiefly to the chromatic scale, because this scale was especially adapted to the instrument which suggested this elaborate metaphor, the KiOdpa comp. Philochorus in Athen. xiv. p. 637 sq Avo~av8pos
:

note there). There is no play here, as Markland and others have supposed, on the other meaning of the word, 'songs? Such an allusion would confuse the
avTov
(see

the

6

'SiKveovios
ttjv

o'TrjO'e

Kt6apio-Trjs TrpwTOs fiereyjnXoKLdapiaTiKrjv .... XP°>-

metaphor hopelessly, and would be unmeaning in itself. I V. myself have found much
'

\xard T€ ei>xpoa TvpcoTos eKiddpicre K.r.A., Plut. Mor. p. 1 137 xP (i) P" ariK §

Era

it; dpx^js exprjaaTo: Ki3dpa The Latin see Westphal p. 131 sq. translator here roughly renders xP®P< a

yevei

.

.

.

.

.

.

happiness in my brief intercourse with your bishop much more then must you, who are closely united with him, as the Church is with
;

Christ,

and

as

Christ

is

with the

Father.

by melos.
iv evoTr)Ti]

The phrase occurs again
2, 5,

§§

5,

14 below, Philad.

Smyrn.

deceive himNone shall eat the bread who self. stand apart from the altar. The united prayers of the bishop and

Let no

man

v]

TO THE EPHESIANS.

^>

ovcrav

dWa

7rvev /uLctTiKrjV, 7roo~cp

/uaWov

v/uds jmaKapita)

tovs dvcLKeKpafJievovs ovtoos, oo^ r\ €KK\r]crLa 'Irjcrov Xpi(TTU) Kcti ws 'Irjcrovs XpicrTOS Tip 7raTpi, \va iravTa eV 7r\avacr6uy edv [xy\ t*s evoTriTL crv/uLCpcova n, /urjSeis
r\

euros tov dvaacrTtipLOV, vcrTepelTai tov ctpTOv \tov
einyivuxjKwv
avaKeKpa/xevovs]
al. g. 4 perixv 7 ^ perix^re G. g* (but vv.ll.); rovs euKeKpapivovs G; qui mixti avr<I) [g] see the lower note. outojs] GL

G;

8 rovs
estis
;

A;

con-

junctos
11
77

L

:

;

cum

eo [A].

euros]

G Dam-Rup

1

;

sit

intra L; euros

77

g.

varepelraC] varepelre G.

rou GeoC]

GLg Dam-Rup;
all

om. A.
powerful.
XprjV

the whole Church are

yap perpias

els

dXXrjXovs (piXias

Whosoever comes not
gregation under the
Scriptures.
is

to the con-

durjrovs

dvaKipvaadai (with Valckpr/dels

self-willed,

and
of

falls

naer's note).
10.
6.

condemnation

the

irXaudcrOoi]

As Smyrn.
phrase
3
pr)

Let us obey our bishop. if we would be God's people.' not world6. ovk avOpcdirivqv] i. e. ly,' 'not after the ordinary ways of men'; see the note on § 9 kclt
'

So
16

too

the
S.

Apostolic
8,

(S.
§

Paul and
below,

James)

rrXauaaOe,

Magn.

Philad.

(see the note).
11.

rov Ovaiao-Trjpiov]

The same
Trail.
7

dudpamonu
8.

ftiov.
l

expression
closely attachey6

occurs

again

dvaiceKpapLevovs]

ed''

to him.

This,

rather than
to

be the proper word, when attachment, friendship, See Pollux Onom. v. 113 is meant.
KeKpapeuovs,
eirmjlleuos
avaK.iK.pap.ai

seems

euros dvaiaarrj p iov cou Kadapos eanu k.t.X. The dvo-iaarrjpiou here is not the altar, but the enclosure in

which the

npbs

avrou,

altar stands, as the preposition euros requires. This meaning is consistent with the sense of the

where

he

gives
:

o-vyKeKpapai
;

as

a

synonyme, but not eyKiKpapai and so again, viii. 151 comp. also Bekker

A need.
prj 7TOT€

p.

391

'AuaKpadiures'

duaKe-

paadiures, oXo^vxios KoXXcopeuoi. this use see Epict. Diss. iv.

For
2.
1

word, which (unlike fiapos) signifies and it is the place of sacrifice supported also by examples of its use as applied to Christian churches e.g. Cone. Laod. Can. 19 povois i%bu
'

'

;

;

eluac

rols

lepariKols el or lev at
8el

eis

to

apa t<ov nporipoiu crvvqOoov 77 cpCXau duaKp adrjs tiui ovra>s t»OT€
k.t.X.,

6vcnao-rr}piov (i.e.

the sacrariun^y comyvvaiKas

pared with Can. 4} ov
iu
t<3

M. Antonin.
ix.

x.

km

duaKeKpapiuou

T(S

24 n poo-Terr] kos crapKidlco, Clem.
duaKipuaurat

6vcnacrTr]pi(p

elo~ipx*o~@ ai

Horn.

9

rfj

^fvxV
15),

(comp. §§ 11, Exc. Theod. 36

13,
(p.

Clem. Alex.
ra> eul r<5

978)

6Y

(Labb! Cone. I. pp. 1533, 1537, ed. This seems also to be its Colet.). sense in Rev. xi. I pirprjo-ou rou uabu tov Qeov Ka\ to Bvo-Laarrjpiou Kal tovs
npocTKvuovuTas iu avrw, Kal ttju avXrju Kal tt)u e^(o6eu rov uaov eKfiaXe efjcodeu,
pr)

Orig. rjpas pepio-0euri dvaKpadcopeu, C. Cels. viii. 75 duaKpadao-i ra tov Qeov
X6ya>,

Euseb.

V.

C.

iii.

12

:

comp.
(11. p.

avrr)u
;

perprjarjs,

art
17,

edodrj

rots

Philo de Praem. et Poen. 16
424), Plut.
25,
Vit.

Wueo-iu

comp.

xiv.

18
.

aXXos
.
.

Rom.

29,

Vit.

Cat.

and the words

in Eur.

Hipp. 253

Kal dyyeXos iijfjXOev eK tov uaov aXXos dyyeXos [e£r)Xdev] ck tov Ovaia-

44
Qeou^.
ei

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
yap

[v

eVos Kal SevTepov irpocev^t] TO&avTrjv
t]

i(TXVV €^€£, 7TOCT6J /ULaWoV
(rrjs

T€ TOV kiriG'KOTTOV Kal 7rajur]

Ttjs

eKKXriffias.

6 ovv

ipxo/uevos

67rl

to avTO

outos

rjfiti

v7repr](paueT
6

Kal kavrov $L€Kpivev'

yeypawrai
o"7roi>oa- 5

yap, YnepH(J>ANoic
1 re]

0eoc antitaccetai.
4 ovtos]

Gg Dam-Rup;
inrepupavei

om. LA.

GA

;

sic (otfrws)

L;

al. g.

iiireprjcpavei]

diaKplvet

Dam-Rup;

G, and so vwepupdvou just below. condemnavit L; al. g; def. A.

diiKpwev]
5 ydp]

G;
5e

GLA;

(For the vaos, as confined to holy place and distinguished from the court of the altar, see Clem.
o-rqpiov.

the

similarly in Polyc. Phil. 4 yivcoo-Kovo-as oTi elalv 0vai.ao~T7Jpiov Oeou, it is applied to a section of the Church, the ' body of widows ; see also Apost. Const, iii. 6, 14, iv. 3.
'

Rom. 41.) The reference here

is

to the plan

of the tabernacle or temple. The OvaiaoTrjpiov is the court of the congregation, the precinct of the altar, as distinguished from the outer court.

Thus

S.

Ignatius

does not here

refer to a

literal altar,

meaning the
stress per-

Lord's table.

Too much

The

application

of this

imagery,

which Ignatius had in view, appears from the continuation of the parallel
passage already quoted, Trail. 7
6 de

haps has been laid on the fact that the early Christians were reproached by the Gentiles with having no temples and no altars, and that the
Apologists acknowledged the truth of the charge, explaining that their altars, temples, and sacrifices alike

tKTos OvcriacTTTjpiov cov ov tcadapos eanv,
TovreuTiv, o )((Dp\s iincTKoTTov Kal npeo-Qvrepiov Kai bianovov npacrcroiv ti,

were

ovtos ov Kadapos eariv

rfj

awe itinera.

32, Orig.

spiritual e.g. Minuc. Fel. Oct. c. Cels. viii. 17. But, inde:

The man who separates himself from the assembly of the faithful, lawfully
gathered about its bishop and presbyters, excludes himself, as it were,

pendently of

this,

the literal inter-

pretation will not stand here, because the place for the Christian laity would

from the court of the

altar

and from

not be ivrbs tov Ovo-iao-Trjpiov, In fact the imagery here is explained by
the following words, where 6 eViovconos Kal naaa r] €K<Kr]o-ia corresponds to Ovo'iacTTr/piov, while r) 7rpoaev^r) is
the spiritual sacrifice therein offered
;

the spiritual sacrifices of the Church. He becomes as a Gentile (Matt, xviii.

he is impure, as the heathen is 17) impure. See esp. Clem. Alex. Strom. vii. 6 (p. 848) ecrri yovv to irap rjp.lv
;

BvatacTTrjpiov

ivravOa

to

iiriyeiov

to

Clem. Al. eKKXr/aias \6yos ano
as
e. g.

/. c.

r)

Ovo-la

ttjs

tgjv ayloov ^rv\S>v
/.

a6poicrpa tcov raty

ev)(a.ls

avaneipevoiv,

dvaOvpuopevos, Orig.
dXr/das Ka\ votjtws
npocrevxai
oltto

C.

avanepneTai
6vp.1ap.aTa al

plav Sa7rep c\ov plav
at
yv(opr)v

(jxovfju ttju kolvtjv not

evoodt]

k.t.\.

(with the whole

avveidr^aecos

Kadapds.

context).

Thus

Bvo-iaaTijpiou,

being

once the place of sacrifice and the court of the congregation, was used metaphorically for the Church of
Christ, the 6vaiao-rijpiov epyjsvxov, as
S.

For the prayers of the Christians, as taking the place which the sacrifices held under the old dispensation, see the note on Clem. Rom. 44 irpocreveyKovras
piov
to.

8a>pa.

Chrysostom terms

it.

Somewhat

seems

to

In Philad. 4 6vaiao-Tijbe used (see the note

VI]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
OVV
/UL7

45
iva
(J0/UL6V

(TlOfJL€V

dvTiTd(T<T6(rdcu tic e7no"/co7ro),

Qeov

inroTaoro'OfJievoi.

VI.
Dam-Rup; G;
dey

Kal ocrov
al. g.

(SXeTrei

ns
om.

(riytovTa
[Dam-Rup
5]

eiricrKOTrov,
[Anton 3];
al.

6 oZv]

GLS
;

X

;

A

g.

amTd<T<Tecr$ai.]

7 Qeov] Dam-Rup Anton; avTirdaaeade G; al. g. 8 Kal 8<rov] G Dam-Rup Anton; deo LS X dub. A; al. g. Dam-Rup

LA

Lj Si

Anton;

et

quantum L; Say

olv [g];

a?

quando A; ^wza quantum (quanto) S r

cTTtcr/coiroj']

G Dam-Rup;
and in

rd? ewlaKOTrov [g] Anton.

there) as here

Trail. 7 (already-

For other applications of quoted). the term, likewise metaphorical, see Magn. 7, Rom. 2. These five are
the only passages in which it occurs in the Epistles of Ignatius. ' tov aprov tov Qeov] i.e. the spiritual

apros [Qeov], with the note. I. el yap evbs k.t.X.] An allusion to

our Lord's promise, Matt,
20,

xviii.

19,

eav 8vo

avp.cpcovrjo'ovo't.v

vp.o*v

K.T.X.
4.

eavTov huKpivev]

'separates him-

self then

sustenance which

God
is

His people.'

There

provides for probably a

as

it

and there.' He pronounces, were, the sentence of excommuFor
v.

nication on himself.
of the aorist see Gal.

this force

reference to the eucharistic bread here, as there is more plainly in

4 (note), and

Rom.

the note there). The eucharistic bread however is not ex7 (see

clusively

or directly contemplated, but only taken as a type of the
spiritual

Gramm. xl. p. 345 (Moulton). The Latin condemnavit does not imply a different reading KareKpivev (as Zahn), but is a mere
comp. Winer
mistranslation, just as this version renders Kai-qpTio-p-evot
fecti (§
2),

same
fier-

nourishment which is dispensed through Christ. This reference (like Rom. 7) seems to be inspired by Joh. vi. 31 sq, where also the eucharistic bread furnishes the imagery, while at the same time
6

as

if it

were

a7n]pTio-fxevot,

and
if it
5.

aSiaKpiTov (§ 4) incomparabile, as

were

ao-vyKpirov.

'Yneprjcpdvois k.t.X.]
iii.

A

quotation

from Prov.
1

34.

It is
iv. 6,

a larger application is contemplated, apros tov Qeov iariv 6 Karafiaivcov
e<

Pet.
;

v.

5,

James

quoted also Clem. Rom.

30

tov

ovpavov

k.t.X.

If

SO,

the

metaphor reverts ultimately to the manna, and thus harmonizes with

see the note on the last passage. In all alike [6] Qebs is substituted for but Ignatius is Kuptoy of the lxx
;

The preceding Ovo~iao-Tijpiov. manna was the bread provided by God for the congregation of Israel.
the

alone in placing vneprjobavois first. l we may be 6. <Sp.ev Qeov k.t.X.]

For a more direct reference
;

to the

God's by our subjection' comp. § 8 0X01 ovTes Qeov, Magn. IO ovk eo~Tiv tov Qeov, Philad. 3 oaoi Qeov eicrlp...
;

eucharistic bread, or at least to the agape, see below § 20 and for a different

ovtoi Qeoi) ccrovTdL,

Rom.

7

e'fiol

(v.

1.

enov)

yiveo~6e,

TovreaTtv

tov

Qeov.

application

and meaning of

The

substitution of the dative

was

be seen from 4. apTos, the authorities that the words tov Qeov are somewhat doubtful. Perhaps they should be omitted see an

Rom.

It will

so obvious, and almost inevitable, that I have adopted the genitive of authoagainst the preponderance
rities.

:

exactly parallel case,

Rom. 4 naOapos

VI.

'

If a

bishop

is silent,

he only

46
ttXelovcos

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
clvtov
(po(3eicr6oo.

[v.

iravTa yap bv

Trefjuret

6

oiKO$eo-7roTtis

eU iSiav

oiKOvo/ULiav, ovtcos SeT r)fias

avrov

Se^ecrdai, w? avrov tov ire\x^avTa,

tov ovv eiriGKOTrov

avTos StjXovoTi W9 avTov tov Kvpiov SeT irpocrftXeTreiv. ovv 'Ovt'icri/uLOs vTrepeiraivei v/ulwv t\]v ev Oeco evjulev
Ta^iav, oti irdvTes
i

5

Kai kclto. dXridetav Z/JTe

otl ev vfiiv

Tr\ei6vu$]

G GL

iri/xiret.]

GLg Dam-Rup
clitov]
g.

(written irXeidvusavTov)', wXelov [g] ; irXeov Dam-Rup 5 Anton 1 oirrws 5 Anton; hv 71-4171-77 Dam-Rup 1; viittct A.

8ei

7)1x0.^

Anton

;

ourws ripas

ovtus avrov del i)pas
;

3 8exe<rdai]
/j.\p

Dam-Rup 1 rccipere L. Rup 5 Anton; dub. LA.
4 8t)\ov6tl]

otv~\

Dam-Rup 1 ovtws de? vpas Dam-Rup 5 Gg Dam-Rup 5 Anton; virode^acrdai ire Trep.irovra Damaura] Gg Dam-Rup 1 Gg Anton, and so S X A; yovv Dam-Rup 5.
Set
;
; ;

GLS

x

;

om.

A

Anton Dam-Rup.
Tpo^XiweLv G.
5

Trpoo-fiXeireiv]

g Anton

Dam-Rup, and

so

LSjA;

m^

oiV]

GL;

atque igitur
its

A;

deserves the more reverence.

The

7.

KciToiicel]

'has

permanent

masters steward must be received as
the master, the bishop as Christ. Onesimus himself praises you. He

abode''',

see the note on Clem.

Rom.

At the same time though no one had settled here, Ignatius speaks
inscr.

me that no heresy has a home among you and that you will not listen to one who speaks of anything
tells

of certain heretics as napobevaavras

§9.
8.

izepi k.t.X.] I

have ventured so
the

to

else but Christ.
aiycovTa]

5

emend

the text, as

Armenian

subject again
larly

Ignatius returns to this § 15, without how-

Version suggests, and as the sense seems to require, substituting mrepiiHCoy
nep\, in

ever mentioning the bishop. Simihe commends the quiet and
retiring disposition of the bishop of

for

HTTepiHCoy;

see
for

the
<os

faulty reading of A,

ooatrep

Philadelphia (Philad.

1),

who

is

not

and he deprecates any one presuming on the youth of Damas the bishop of Magnesia {Magn. 3). 2. 6 olKodeo-noTTjs] Apparently an
;

named

[Clem. Rom.] ii. § 1. Compare Philad. 6 edv be dp.(poTepoi irepl 'Itictov Xpiorov p.rj \a\a>criv, ovtoi
epo\
o~TTJ\ai

elaiv

k.t.X.,

and
ovv,

simi-

larly
vp.lv

Trail.

9

KcoCpcodrjre

otov

allusion to the parable in Matt. xxi.

^ cop is 'Itictov XpicrTOv AaAr; tis. Another simple emendation would be
'irjcroiv

33 sq.
els
Trjv

The words «s

ttjv Idiav

0U0for

Xpiarov
eoriv

:

comp.
7
be

Magn.
H-V

10

voplav are a

condensed expression

cltottov

'ItjctoCi/

Xpicrroj/

AaAeif
AaAeTre

ol<ovop.iav tov Idiov oIkov

(or
xiii.

Kai

lovbat^eiv,

Rom.

ap.7re\6ivos).

'irjaovv Xpicrrov K.6o~p.ov

emSvp-elTe.

ovtcos del k.t.\.]

Comp. John
Trep^ra>

20 o

\ap,{3dva>v

av Tiva

ep.e

Xapfidvei, 6 be e'pe Xap-fidvcov Xapfidvei

The Latin aliquem ampiius quam Iesum Christum loquentem is ambiguous, and might represent the accusative as well as the genitive. VII. 'Certain false teachers are

tov Trepfyavrd
X.

p.e,

together with Matt.
curoa-TeL-

40

6 bexop.evos vp.as ep,e bex* Ta h < ai

o ep.e

Sexofievos Several tov
fie.

going about,

\avrd

who profess the Name of Christ in guile. Avoid them, as

vn]
oudejULia a'lpecris
'

TO THE EPHESIANS.
KaroiKer

47

a\V

ov$e cxKOvere twos irXeov
ev dXrideia,

fj

wept

Irjcrov

Xpi&TOv XaXovvTOs

VII.
7T€pi(pep€iv
f

Gioodacriv

yap
it

Ttves $o\cg 7rovt]pw

to

ovo/ma

aWa

v/uas

cos

diipia

pacrcr ovtes dvd^ta Qeou' ovs Se? 6KK\iveiv elcrlv yap Kvves \vo-crcovT6s,

Tiva

XadpoSfJKTai, ovs Sel vjdds (pvXacrcrecrdai bvTas $vo"6epa7T6VTOVS.
/j.4vtoi [g].

eh laTpOS
8
is
rj

eCTTLV,

CrapKLKOS
L;
rj

KCLl

TTVeV/ULaTLKOS,
etirep

irepl]

quam

(rJTep)

jibvov

g

(a si

paraphrase);

G.

In

A the
1

sentence

translated et

non audiatis quemquam,

non in
1.

veritatc de iesu

christo loquaticr vobiscum.

See the lower note.

9 to ovofxa] txt

GLg

(mss,

but

adds

christi)',

add. bonorum
tlpcl]

A; add.

x/hotou

Dam-Rup

See

§ 3 for similar
;

glosses.
aXXct

10 d'XXa
(sic)

So app. most mss of g*, and Dam-Rup (Lequien)

quaedam L; et revera (om. nva) A. 13 eh] txt diJKTai] G Dam-Rup; \adpo8rJKTOL g (mss). Theodt Gelas Sev-Syr 5, 6; add. yhp Anon-Syr^ al. g. [L] [A] Athan Gelas Theodt Sev-Syr (twice) Anon-Sy^; add. re G;
;

nva

G

sed (d\Xa)

12 \adpo-

GLA
al. g.

Athan

aapKiKos] txt

wild

beasts.

They

are

like

mad

a)

dogs, whose bite is hard to heal. There is only one sure Physician, flesh and spirit, create and increate, God in man, Life in death, the Son of

in the correspond; Xadpo&fjKTos (?) ing passage of the Pseudo-Ignatius: XadpoddKTrjs Pallad. Vit. Chrys.(Chrys.

Op. XIII.
in

p. 2l); \adpai68r)KTOS, PhotillS
;

Mary and
first

the

Son of God, passible

Oecum. ad Phil. iii. 2 Antiphanes in AnthoL
Epist.

\a8podd<vr)s, Grcsc. 11. p.

and then impassible, even Jesus Christ our Lord.'

to ovojia k.tX] Comp. Polyc. 9. Phil. 6 tcov \j/€vba8eX(pa>v kcl\ tc2v iv to ovofia tov cfiepovTcov vnoKpicrei For the absolute use of to Kvpiov.
ovo\ia see above § 3. 10. aWaTiva] certain
'

189 (Jacobs); XadpoSdwos (?), Nilus The i. 309, p. 196 A (Migne). recognised classical equivalent was
1068.

\a16apyos (kd$apyos), e.g. Arist. Eq.
50)

Phrynichus (Bekker Anecd. on Xddapyos kvcov says, tovto §£

p.
ol

other things?

TToXKoi TrapaCpOeipavres \a6pobr]KTT]v naXovaiv.

It

seems necessary
the

to

read

a'AXa,
is

conjunction oppositive dXAa would be quite out of place
after 86\a> novrjpcS.
1 1.

since

dvadepanevTovs] i.e. 'their madness a virulent disease which is hard to

cure and which they communicate to others by their bite': comp. Soph.

drjpia]

So Smyrn.
In Philad.

/\.7rpo(pv\dao-co

Ajax 609
13.

SvadepdnevTos

A'tas-.-Oela

Se vp.as
cpcov

dnb k.tX

tc2>v 6rjpia>v

tSv dv6pcoTrop.op2

p,aviq £vvav\os.
els larpos]

they are

'There

is

called 'wolves.'
12.

physician

who can cope

only one with it':

\adpo8fJKTat] Various

forms of

comp. Clem. Alex.
(p.

Qitis div. salv. 29

the

word

occur, \adpo8r}KTT)s, as here,

952) TOVTCOV Se
'Itjo-ovs
(I.

beingthe commonest, comp. Chrysost. Horn, ill Ephes. xv. Kaddrrep ol XadpoTOV p.tV TVpOO~LOVTCL brJKTdl TCOV KVVCOV ol ovdev v\aKTOvo~iv k.t.A. (Op. XT. p. 115

larpos

TCOV TpavpidTOiv p.6vos c. Cels. 11. k.t.X., Orig.
acorrip

67

p.

438) ?]\6e
cos

6

Kvpios
k.t.A.

rjpuv

p.ak\ov

larpos dyaOos
larpos

For the connexion of

and

48
yevvrjTos
icai

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
dyevvriTOS, ev

[vn

dvBpwww 0eos,
kcii
e/c

ev BavctTU)
iraQr\-

£W)

dXrjdivv, Kal €K

Mapias

Oeov 9 wpcoTOV

tos Kai tot€ d7ra6t]s, 'Itjcovs XpicrTOs 6 Kvpios

rifxwv.

i yewyrbs kclI dyivvtjros] G, and so app. Athan (though some MSS and the edd. read yevr/rbs ko.1 ayhyTos) ; genitus et ingenitus L /actus et non foetus The words Gelas Sev-Syr (twice) Anon-Sy^; yevvTjrbs ef dyewfyrov Theodt.
;

A

substituted in
K<xl

yevvrjTup.

g are 6 p.6vos dXrjdivbs 6ebs 6 dyhvr)TO$...Tov See the excursus at the end of this epistle.
(twice)

be p.ovoyevovs irarrip
iv avdp&Tri?

Qe6s]

Athan Theodt Gelas Sev-Syr
f

Anon-Syr a
r***

;

[A] (reading
ev

**y

y^

m^

'

'filius hominis'' for

lHJLa

deus et filius hominis in homine ; see Peter-

ev davarip fiw^ dXr)divq\ Athan mann); aapd yevop,evos deos GL ; al. g. in morte Theodt Sev-Syr (twice) Anon-Syr 1 vera vita et in ntorte vivus [A] vita aeterna Gelas ev ddavdru farj dX-qdivrj (the dative is intended, for this MS
;
; ;

Orjpiov

see Clem. Horn. Ep. Clem. 2
larpov
totvov
t%eiv.

fjpds

oparov, rov d\}/r)Xd(pr)Tov, [rbv
yjrrjXacp^Tov],

fit

rov 7rpoKa6e£6pevov Set
eTxeyeiv, ov> Br)piov

qpas
de

rbv

drradfj,

rbv

St'

dXoyov dvpbv

rjpds ivaOr^Tov k.t.X.

See also Tertull.
et

Compare
aapKiKos

§ 15 els

ovv 8i8d(TKaXos.

Cam.

Chr. 5 'Ita utriusque sub-

o-apKiKos k.t.A.]

The

antithesis of

stantias

census

hominem

Deum

and

7rvevp.ariK.bs is

to express the

human

intended and the Divine
;

exhibuit,hinc natum, inde non natum, hinc carneum, inde spiritalem, hinc

nature of Christ respectively

comp.

Stnym.

3

<x>s

aapKiKos, Kairrep nvevpa-

tikg>s rjvc£>p.evoi too Tvarpi.

combination

For the constant recurrence of the o-dp£ and irvevpa in Ig-

natius in various relations, see the note on § 10 below. The expressions
<rapK.iK.6s,

infirmum, inde prasfortem, hinc morientem, inde viventem,' a passage which too strongly resembles the words of Ignatius to be independent. It is worth while observing that in the immediate context Tertullian
quotes the incident from Luke xxiv. 39, which Ignatius elsewhere (Smyrn. 3) gives from another source. Comp. also Melito Frag?n. 13 (ed. Otto)

yevvrjTos,

ev

av0pcoTroi,

ev

6avdra>, €K Mapias, nadrjTos, here are introduced to emphasize the reality of Christ's humanity against the phantom theory of the Docetics see For the use the note on Trail. 9. of nvevp.a in early Christian writers,
:

'judicatum esse judicem [et incomprehensibilem prehensum esse] et in-

as opposed to adp^ and expressing the Divine nature of Christ as the
Aoyos,

commensurabilem mensuratum esse impassibilem passum esse et immortalem mortuum esse et caelestem sepultum esse. Dominus enim noster
et

see 2

Clem.
to

§

9 Xpiarbs

6

homo

natus...mortuus
14

est, ut vivifi-

Kvpios...a>v

pev

7rpa>Tov

nvevpa,

caret, sepultus est, ut resuscitaret';

eyevero <rdpg, with the note. alternative is that o-apniicbs

The
k.t.X.

Fragm.

'quum

sit

incorporeus,

should be taken closely with larpbs 'a physician for flesh and spirit alike' but the antitheses which follow
;

corpus ex formatione nostra texuit sibi...a Maria portatus et Patre suo indutus, terram calcans et caelum
implens, etc'
I.

seem to require the other explanation. For this sentence of antitheses
compare Polyc.
3 rov doparov, rov 6V

and

yevvqrbs ku\ dyevvrjros] generate ingencrate] i.e. 'generate as re-

'

gards His

human

nature and ingene-

vm]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
VIII.
Mr, ovv

49
worTrep ovle WC7T€p
€7ri-

to

f/xas

e^aTrarcLTijOy

5

i^awaTacrde, o\oi ovtes Qeov.
6v/ula

OTav yap un$ otclv yap /uLride/ULia
v/uas
L;
al. g.

ivrjpeKTTai ev vjjuv
G;
5 6

r]

Swa/mevr]

/3a(ravi(rat,
i koX
;

does not write the iota subscript)
€k]

in immortali vita vera
;

GLA

Athan Theodt Sev-Syr
3
;

al. g.

'Irjaovs

Xpurrbs

(om. /cat) Sev-Syr 6 Gelas Anon-Syr x Kvolos ijfiQv] Theodt Sev-Syr
iic

A

(twice)

Anon-Syrx
al. g.

dominus noster
5 oral?

iesus christus

yap]

2 commences

Gelas; domimis christus noster ~L; om. G; again here and continues to the end of

the chapter.

eindvixla]

2A

g;

£pt?

GL,
L;

see below.
hveipiurai

6 evqpe«TTai\

plantata

est

SA;

complexa

est
is

(eveipriTcu?)

G;

inrdpxv [g*].

The

impossible word iveipiarai

retained

even by the

latest

editors (e.g. Hefele,

Jacobson, Cureton, Dressel, Petermann, Lipsius, etc.), except Zahn and Funk. Dressel has accidentally transposed the words, heipio-Tou epts, in his text.

The as regards His deity.' words y€vvrjrbs kcu dyiuvrjro? are here used to signify 'create and increate,' in which sense the more careful
rate

VIII.

'Suffer
;

not yourselves to

dogmatic language of a later age would have employed in preference
the forms yevrjrbs kcu ayivrjTos with the single v. See the excursus at the

be led astray for now ye are wholly given to God. So long as ye are free from any evil craving, ye live after God. I would gladly devote myself for the renowned Church of Ephesus. Carnal men are incapable
of spiritual things, as spiritual men are incapable of carnal things. With you, even the things done after the
flesh are spiritual, for they are in Christ.'
5.

end of

this epistle.

ev dvOpwrro) 0eo?]

This reading

is

by the great preponderance of authorities and by the
alike
antithetical character of the sentence.

demanded

done

ovTes Qeov]

See the note on
of combination no doubt that

The
Qeos

substitution

iv

a-apKi

yevopievos

§ 5 "wa (op.ev Qeov.
eiridvfjLia]

may have been due to the fear of countenancing the Apollinarian doctrine that the Logos took the place
of the

The
leaves

authorities
this is

the correct
iv.

reading;
rets

comp.

human

vovs in Christ.

Ephes.
dnaT-qs.

22 Kara

ev davaTcp

our
tion

life,
;

For His death is /c.r.X.] His passion is our resurreccomp. e.g. Smyrn. 5 to ttciOos

For

emOu/ilas tt}$ the connexion of unre{eTviBvp-la)

strained desire

with false

o icrriv rjfxav dvdaracris.

there

is

Here again reference to His two natures.
:

teaching see 2 Tim. iii. 6 alxp-cuXcorevovres yvvaiKapia... dyoueva eT7idvp.ia.is
7Toiki\cus, 2

Pet.

ii.

18 tjeXed^ovaiv ev

He
life
2.

died as man He lives and gives as the Eternal Word.
e'/c

Trail. 9,

Mapias] See below § 18, and comp. Smyrn. 1. He might have said with 7rpc3roz/]

cmBvfiiais crapKos (comp. ver. 10), Jude The reading epis, though not 16, 18. inappropriate in itself (comp. Clem. Alex. Strom, vii. 16, p. 894, eptv rjv ev
rat?
alpeaeo-L
TrpoKpireov),

must

be

equal truth npaiTov d7radr)s kcu Tore 3 (already naOrjTos, as in Polyc. quoted) tov dnadri, tov St' rjp.ds nadrjrov,

its rejected here. It may have found way into the text from a marginal note attempting to give a derivation

but in these antitheses he commences with the humanity, as being the point attacked by the Docetic teachers.

of

eveipicrrai.
l

6.

ev7Jpeio-Tai]

is

inherent,

is

fixed?

So

it

is

necessary to read

IGN.

II.

5o

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
^fJTe.
7repiyp-t]iULa

[viii

apa Kara Qeov
vjJLvov

'£(pecricov

e'/cfcA^cnas Trjs

Kai dyvi^ofiai SLafiorjTOV tois aicocriv.
vjjlwv

i apa] apa G (so certainly). -jreptyruxa vp.uv koX kyvl^ofuu] G (but with a smooth breathing dypl^o/xaL); peripsima vestri et castijicer {i.e. ayvifafiai, but the MSS castificct) a vestra etc. L*; gaudeo in vobis et supplico pro vobis SA. In

for

eveipMTTai,

in

which the editors

generally have acquiesced, but which they do not attempt to justify. The

7r€piKadapp,a, especially of those inals, generally the vilest of

crimtheir

class,

whose blood was shed

frequent itacisms in the MS render Bunsen (Br. p. the change obvious.

ate the

to expisins of the nation and to

avert the wrath of the gods.

Photius,
r<5

was impossible, but substituted ivepyfjTai. Zahn first introduced the correct word into the For ivepeibeiv (-becrBai) com p. text.
88)

saw that

iveipio-rai

Lex.
Kar

s.v.,

says

ovtcos

inikeyov
rfj

iviavrbv epL(iaXXop.€Vco veavia iiri airaXXayfj tcov

6aXdcTo~T]

crvvexovTcov

KdK&v ILepi^ripLa
acorqpla
eveftaXov
ko!
ttj

f)p.a>v

yevov,

tjtoi

Dioscorid.

ii.

23

(p.

367, Kiihn) tcov

evrjpeiKorcov crTop.ax<p Kat koiXiol ^oXco-

aTToXvTpcoais, Kai ovtcos daXdcraT], coaavel tco Ho:

a use that would be appropriate to the metaphor at the close of the
Scoi/,

preceding

section

;

see
ib.

also

Plut.

Mor.
7rep\

p.

327 B

/3e'Xe6

dnb
p.

roi-ov to

crrepvov ivepeiadivTi,

344 C

rois

tuv pLdcrrbv evepeicrdeuros octtcois Kai KararrayevTos. Comp. Clem. Alex.

airoTivvvvTes comp. Amphiloch. cxxxiii. (Op. I. p. 731, ed. Migne), where Photius well explains the force of the word as used by S. In Athenian language these Paul. persons were called cpapp.aKoi, Arist. Ran. 731 *ai Trovrjpols kqk Trovrjpcov els

creiSam

Ovaiav

Strom,

ii.

20

(p.

487) dndrr] crvvex&s

anavTa xpcope#a,
aiv, oicrLV
ko\o~iv
fj

vorarois

dcpiypevoicpapp,a-

evairepei$op,ivr) rrj tyvxfl,

whence

iva-

tvoXis

npb tov ovhe
exptjo-aT

7repeiap,aTa 'impressions' in the conFor the form of the perfect see text.
p. 33, Veitch Greek Verbs s. v. epeidco and for the indicative with orau, Winer xlii. p. 388 sq. Merx would read eppifarcii or iveppl£coTai (p. 41), because the Syriac and
;

cIkt)

pqdicos

av.

On

these

human

victims see

Hermann

Lobeck Phryn.

Hence
here
'I

Griech. Alterth. Gottesdienst. § 60. the idea in the word as used
is

twofold

'
:

first,

I

am

as the

meanest among
devote

my

you,' secondly, life for you.' For its

and

Armenian have 'plantata
ing of
I.

but this seems to be only a loose renderest,'

biblical use see Jer. xxii. 28
p,rj

(Symm.)

nepfyrjp.a qt>avXov Kai anofiXiqTov 6
;

ivrjpeMTTai.

dvOpconos
el/xt.
I

Tobit
13

V.

20 (LXX) dpyvpiov
r\p\0iv yevoiTo, 7repiKa6dpp.aTa tov

For the omission of the substantive verb, and for the general form of the sentence,
7T€ply\rr)p.a

vpaov] sc.

... nepi\}/r}u.a

tov 7rai8iov
a>y

Cor.

iv.

Kocrpiov

eyevr\Qr\p.ev,

tvovtcov

Trepl^rrjp\.a

comp.

Rom.

4

dneXevOepos

'Irjaov

ecos dpTL.
\j/r]p,a

See also below
ep.bv

§

18 nepi-

Xpio~TOv (sc. ecro/icu) Kai dvao~rTJaop,aL iv Otherwise we might avrcd iXevdepos.

to

Trvevp.a

Barnab.

4

ypdcpeiv
lb.

aravpov, eanovdao-a e'yw
i?i

tov

read TrepH^^a
this position

elpn,

vp.cov,

as

et'/xi

in

Trepn/z^pa vp.cov,
dyd.7rr)s vpaov.

6

eyco Treptyrjpa ttjs

might easily have drop-

Hence Origen

Ioann.

ped out amidst the recurrence of
similar letters.
ILepiylrrjfia,

14 (IV p. 393), explaining the prophecy of Caiaphas, applies
§

xxviii.

literally

'filth,

scum,

offscouring,'

was used

like

KaOapua,

the term to our Lord with an apology In the middle of the for so using it.

VIIl]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
Ta
irvev}iaTiKa irpacrcreiv ov

51

ol

crapKiKol

a
r

VCLVTCLl

ov ;§e
T*Js

OL TrveVfJLCLTlKOl TCL O-apKlKCt, WCTTTep
5

OV06

Y]

7TLCTTLS

Ta

aTncTLas ov$e
g
it

r\

diriCTia Ta

ty\s

7rio-T€a)s.
t<p.

a 5e Kal
See the lower

is

altered into
3

Trepi\{/7]fj.a

vfxQv Kal tt}s ayvoTaT-rjs

Ikk\.

note.

ol

aapKLKol]

GLAg

(but

oi yap aapKLKol 2 [Antioch 12]. thv g. ovSt] Gg Dam -Reg-R up Antioch;

adds enim) Dam-Vat 5 Dam-Rup 7; 7rpdcrcreiv] G Antioch Dam-Vat-Rup; irpdr1

otfre

Dam-Vat.

5 5£]

GLA;

yap S.

third century, as appears from Dionysius of Alexandria (Euseb. H.E.

have been suggested;
the insertion of
vp.a>v.

e.g.

the sub-

stitution of dyvto-fxa for ayvi(opai, or
v(p'

aov had become a expression of formal compliment 'your humble and devoted
vii.

22), 7T€pL\j/T]pia

or of virip before
13

common

But, as

Trail.

(already

1.

servant' (see Heinichen on Euseb. c. Melet. xv.). This expression, he

quoted) agrees in the same expression, it is highly improbable that the scribes should have made the same
error
culty

says, which with others was a mere form of speech, had been actually fulfilled in the case of those devoted

and introduced the same
in

diffi-

both

passages.

A much

Christians

who had caught the plague

and died, while nursing others into Thus Trepl^fia is closely alhealth.
lied in
is

meaning to avrtyvxov, which also a favourite Ignatian word (see
§ 21),

more easy change than any hitherto proposed would be &[-<\zom<\i for ArufzoMAi; but no correction seems to be required. 2. eKKXr/o-ias] governs vpt,a>v, and does not stand in apposition with it,
as the article before
l

below

but superadds to the idea

biafiorjTov

shows.

of 'self-devotion,' which is common to both, the further idea of 'abase-

diafioijrov K.T.A.]

renowned through

ment, vileness.'
i

all ages] literally ''bruited about by The word occurs Clem. the ages?

ayvi^opai

k.t.A.]
;

J am

devoted to
ayvi-

Alex. Exc. Theod. 75
Cels.
i.

(p.

986), Orig.

c.

your Church'
fia.

comp. Trail. 13

{erai [dyvi^re MS], v/xcov to ip.ov ttvcvIt appears to mean literally 'I
ayvio-jxa,

which
€TL

51, last

Euseb. H. E. iii. 36, in passage it is used of Igelcr-

natius himself, 6 rrapd Tr\eio~TOis
vvv
8Laj36rjTos
'lyvcvriov.

make myself a

a piacular offering, for your Church.' The verb ayvigeiv sometimes means 'to sacri'to devote' (see esp. i<ftayvigeiv}

It

is

found also occasionally
cal writers, e.g.

in late classi-

Plutarch and Dion

fice,'

and ayviapa is 'an expiatory victim,' e.g. y£sch. Eum. 315. Of the genitive case after ayviCo/xai
Kadayvt(etv);

Chrysostom. Compare also irepifio-qRom. 1, 47. For the tos, Clem. dative see Xen. Ephes. i. 2 rjv 8e
dLaftoriTos

rots

6ea>pevois a-rraaiv k.t.X.

can find no other instance but it might fall under the category of
I
:

The

alcoves

tions,'

and
ol

are here 'future generathe dative is one of the

verbs of admiration, affection, and the like and, as Tpv\€o-6ai, e7rirv(peo-Sai, etc., are found with this case (see
;

agent.
3.

o-apKiKol
1

cence of
5.

Cor.

ii.

k.tX] 14 sq.
i.e.

A

reminis-

Kuhner II. p. 324), it can hardly be considered out of place after dyvl&<r$ai, when this secondary sense Several corrections predominates.

a 8e K ai

k.t.X.]
is

secular

business
is

exalted into

'even your a

higher sphere,
piety.'

spiritualized,

by your

52

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
7rpa(T(reT6,

[viii
%

Kara crapKa
'Irjaov

ravra

irvev\iaTiKa e&Tiv

iv

yap XpicrTw irdvTa

7rpa(T(reTe,

IX.

"Gyvcov Se 7rapo$ev<ravTas Tivas eiceWev, e^oi/-

tccs kclky\v
i

^i^a^W
GAg;
;

ovs ovk eiao-are cnreipai ets v^xas,

irpacrcreTe]

just below, except g, in

GL

;

5V vfiwv

(written irpa, patris vestri dei, parati

And so again 2; operetta stmt (irpcur<reT<u) L. which the passage is quite changed. 3 eneWev] 6 -irpoTjToifJUHrfiivoi] -rrpa rjTOLp.aap.hoi G ad vos A. [g] not irpoer, as stated by Markland and others); patris, paratl L;
fecistis

A;

deov...T]Toipao-pivos

[Antioch

1]

;

et

parati

estis

[2]

IX.
that

certain

'At the same time I learn false teachers from a

used several times
34,
x.

in the

lxx, and

always in this sense:
8.

Ezek. xxxvi.

your

distance have been passing through but ye stopped your ears city and did not suffer them to sow the
;

Wisd. i. 8, ii. 7, v. 15, vi. 24, See also the note on Rom. 9
l

jrapohevovra.

For ye are seeds of evil in you. stones of a temple, prepared for the building of God, hoisted up by the Cross of Christ, the Spirit being the rope and your faith the engine, while love is the way leading to God. Ye all take your part in the holy procession, bearing each his God and his Christ, his shrine and his sacred
things, dressed in the festive robes of Christ's precepts, while I by letter

eneWev]

from yonder comp. Mart.
';

The Polyc. 20 rots- iniKeiva dbeXcpols. martyr uses the same reticence here as regards place, which he uses elsewhere as regards persons
ra Se 6v6p.ara avrwv, ovra
e8o£ev
p.01
;

Smyrn.

5

ciTriorra,

ovk

permitted to share your rejoicing and to congratulate you on your unalloyed love of God.'
3.

am

dXXa p.r)8e yevoiTo But what place is meant? Bunsen (/. v. A. p. 38) says 'from Smyrna] translating it 'from here' but exeldev could not have this Baur (/. B. p. 29) answers sense.
eyypatyai,
p.01 p,vT]poveveiv k.t.\.
;

'from Ephesus'; and this, if I understand him rightly, is the view of

TrapobevaavTas]

SC. TTjv"Ecp€aov.

They had taken Ephesus on
;

their

Zahn also (/ v. A. pp. 258 sq, 356 sq, and ad loc), who takes the whole
sentence to

way, though they had not settled there see § 6 iv vplv ovdep.ia alpeais KaroiKe7 (with the note). These are
the itinerant false-teachers who are described in § 7 as doX<p novrjpa to
7tg picpepovres. ovop.a pretation of Baur (/. B.

mean

'

I

learnt that cer-

tain persons passed through

where I was (at Philadelphia) from Ephesus.' But neither again could a writer well use eKeWev of the place to which he
addressed his
certain
:

The
p.

inter-

letter.

The

reference

29)

and

in eneWev therefore

must remain unwere necessary to

Hilgenfeld (p. 191), who take rrapodevo-avras metaphorically, 'taking a by-path,' 'going out of the direct

but,

if it

name any

way/ cannot stand. The word always signifies 'to pass by,' 'to pass through on the way,' e.g. Plut. Mor.
p.

answer from notices

place, Philadelphia would the conditions. It appears

in the Epistle to the Philadelphians (see the introduction), that Ignatius had passed through

973 D

rots'

avvr/deos

7rapobevovo~i

their city

on

tov Tonov,
TTapodcvcras

Lucian Scyth. 10 (runny
TijXiKavTrjv
7roX.1v.

so that he would

It

is

and we

also

way to Smyrna, know the facts gather from the same
;

his

IX]
5

TO THE EPHESIANS.
eh to
/ulvj

53
tcc
(T7reip6-

(5v<ravres to. cora
ixeva
V7T

7rapaM^aa6aL

avTtoV
'

cos

ovres \Woi vaov

Trponroifj.aa'fjievoi

eh

oiKO^Ofiriv

Oeov Trarpos,
lrj(rou

dvatyepofjievoi

eh rd

v\jsti

Sid

Trjs ixr)yavr)^
(all

XpicrTOu, os €<ttiv o-ravpos, (Typiviw
al.

the

previous part of § 9 being omitted);
to
7?

g: see the lower note.
els

2
[g]
;

commences again here and continues
part of the chapter.
7

dvcupepovaa

Qeov, omitting the last

Qeov Trarpos]
8 os]

GLS

Antioch; Oeiav Trarpos

templi spiritualis A. crux L; dub. 2; al. Ag.
letter,

G;

Antioch; per machinam...qu(2

est

axo^'-v]

G;

crxotVy [g] [Antioch].

that

heresy had been
8).

busy-

there

(§§ 2, 3, 6, 7,

tutions for e<e7dev in

The substithe Armenian

the metaphor is violent, after the manner of Ignatius. It can hardly

be bridged over,

I

think,

by a
as

re-

Version
text

and in the interpolator's are mere expedients to get rid

ference to the idea of seed sown on

rocky ground (Matt.
suggests.
TrporjToifiao-fxevoi]

xiii. 4),

Zahn

of an obscure expression. See the metaphor of 4. o-7retpcu]
fiordvr]

So

I

have ven-qroi-

below,

§ 10.

Here the 'sowing'

tured to substitute for Trarpos
paap,evoi,
i.e.

is

regarded as taking place through
5.

the ear.
(SvaavTes rd ara]
Ka>(pf}s
k.cu

Ps.

lvii. (lviii).

npOHTOIMACMCNOI for npcHTOiM^CMCNOi. This was Markland's conjecture, but it had occurred
to

4 damidos
avrfjs.

ftvovarjs rd

wra

me

without knowledge of the

fact.

was an action expressive of horror, when any blasphemy was
It

Certainly irarpos is awkward, where Qeov narpos follows so closely; while
7rpoT)Toipao-p.evoi

uttered; Acts
avrcov,

vii.

57 avveaxov r "

£

" ra

gives another coinci-

Iren.

in Euseb.

H. E.

v.

20

ep.(ppd^as rd cora avrov (of Polycarp,

dence with the same Epistle of S. Paul (Ephes. ii. 10 ols TrporjroLixaaev 6
Qeos, comp. Rom. ix. 23 o-Kevrj e\eovs a TTpor)roip.acrev els 86£;av) which

when he heard any heresy
Iren. Hcer.
tiaverit
iii.

talked),

4. 2 'si

ea quae ab venta sunt...statim concludentes aures longo longius fugient,' Clem. Recogn. ii. 2>7 'aures continuo o&cludeus, velut

aliquis annunhaereticis adin-

has so largely influenced

this letter,

and more

An

especially this context. alternative correction would be

to substitute ttvs for

ne blasphemia polluantur' (comp. ib. ii. In Clem. Alex. Protr. 10 40, 52). 73j 83) dno^veiv ra cora is used of (PPresisting

irps, irvevparos for irarpos; see the note on Smyrn. For vaoi nvev/xaros comp. I Cor. 13. vi.

19.

good

influences

;

comp.

comes
59
(p.

But the mention of the Spirit in properly at a later stage.
See Hippol. de Antichr.

Clem. Horn. i. 12 fivovres ra>v crco'^ecr6ai 6e\6vTa>v rds duods. For the purport comp.
K.T.X.
6.

8. ii-qxavrjs]

Trail.

9

KaxpcoBrjre

ovv

31 Lagarde) <\lpa^ iv avrfj els dvdyovcra enl to Kepas eiKcov y-^ros eX<ovaa tovs o~r)peiov ivdOovs Xpi&rov,
els dvdfiacriv ovpavoov (comp. Clem. Rom. 49 to v\j^os els o dvdyei Method, de Sanct. rj dyaTTT] k.t.X.),

Xidoi vaov]

The metaphor, and in

ttlcttovs

part even the language, is suggested by Ephes. ii. 20 22; comp. 1 Pet.

ji.

The metaphor is elaborately carried out in Hermas Sim. ix. See below § 15 (note). The transition in
5.

Cruc.
rjs

1

(p.

400, ed.

Migne) wxavr, &'
evOerovvres
rfjs e<-

oi els ol<odopr]V

Kkrjaias KarcoBev \160v rerpaycovov 8Urjv

54

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
Tw
dylcp'
r\

[IX

^pdfjievoL tco TTvevfJLari
70)761)5 v/uLwv,
1

Y\

Si TTMTTIS VfXWV dvaeis
;

y\

Se dyoLTrt] 6$os
cVyi'oj]

dvacpepovca
g
;

Qeov.

rip irveifiaTL

r$

G

;

tQ

ayicp irvevpari

spiritu sancto

sanctus*L\ rip irvevpari [Antioch]; def. A. Rup 6, and so in the next line; al. g Antioch.

vpwv]

L qui est spiritus GL2; om. A; V"'' Damdvaywyevs]

G Dam-Rup;

dveXKOvrai, evappoaOrjaopevot tco
Xo-yo)

Oeico

(speaking of the cross), Chrysost. Horn. 3 in Ephes. {Op. xi. p. 19) a>oeXKcov pr}-)^avr]s ei s Tvep bid rivos
avrrjv
\jt)v

as an inclined plane), up which the spiritual stones are raised that they

may be
love.

fitted into

the building,

is

vy\tos

eKKXr/o-iav]

dvrjyaye

peya.
os]

by
7,

attraction

for

rj;

see on

core ovv k.t.X.] The mention of 3. the 'way' suggests a wholly different image to the writer. The members of

Magn.
I.

and Winer
'

§ xxi. p.

206

sq.

a lifting engine.' No other example of this sense of the word is given in the lexicons earlier than Eustath. Opusc. p. 328 (ed. Tafel)
dvaycoyevs]

the Ephesian Church are now compared to a festive procession, in which each person bears some sacred vessel or emblem, a statue of a god, a model of a shrine, and the
like;

Apyov ...ov
cocnrep

r}

TvoirjTov

TvKadTLKrj

els

comp. Epist.

Jer.

4

vw\

be

ttoXXovs rjvoi£ev ocpdaXpovs Kai ftpveiv

noXXals

e7roirjcrev

byj/eaiv,

els

o^reo~6e ev Baj3vXcZvi 6eovs dpyvpovs Kai xpvaovs Ka\ £vXivovs eV copois

pvpla

op, para KaTarpr)crao~a, cos

biappelv

alpopevovs.

How

large a place these

OVTCO TO OITTIKOV TOV 0X0V 0~(6pa.TOS, OiS

ore noXvTprjTov tivos dvayayecos vbcop

religious festivities occupied in the life of a Greek may be inferred from

This iroXvppovv ei-aKovTi^erai. parison to the many eyes of

comArgus

yeyaxr

seems

to

show
by

described

that the dvaywyevs Eustathius is, as a

Aristoph. Lys. 641 sq eirrd pev err] evOvs rj ppr](f)6povv...KdKavr]obopovv ttot ova a irals koXt) k.t.X.

Hence such words
(fiopOS,

as dvOocfiopos, ba7TaO~-

friend suggests to me, an engine like

bocpopos, epprjCpopos, 6vpo~o(p6pos, KavrjKlO~TO(p6pOS,

Barker's Mill.

The

dvaycoyevs con-

XtKVOCpOpOS,

not have been of the same kind, for the word but there would itself is not special

templated by Ignatius
;

may

At Ephesus roqbopos, vdpo<fi6pos, etc. itself the saint's imagery would have
an especially vivid
fact that treasures
illustration in the

be no anachronism in this identification, since (as I am informed on competent authority) the principle of Barker's Mill
I

was known before his time. have not found the word in the Mathematici Veteres, where it might have been expected to occur.

belonging to the temple of Artemis were solemnly borne in procession into the city by one road and taken back by another at stated times, as we learn from a recently found inscription see Wood's
:

The metaphor
not
otherwise

is

extravagant, but

ill-conceived.

The

Discoveries at Ephesus Inscr. vi. 1, pp. 32, 34, 42 (see above, p. 17 sq). description of such a procession

A

framework, or crane, is the Cross of Christ; the connecting instrument,
the rope,
is

in

Ephesus
is
i.

at

an

eivix<s>pios eoprr)

of

Artemis
Ephes.
ol

given
'

also

in

Xenoph.
ari^ov

the

Holy

Spirit;

the

2, Tvaprjeaav be

Kara,

motive power, which sets and keeps the machinery in motion, is faith the path (conceived here apparently
;

TTopnevovres npcorov pev to. lepa ko.1 babes Kai Kava Kai dvpidp,ara, eVt be
TOVTOLS mTTOl Kai KVVCS KOI
CTKfvrj KVVTJ-

ix]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
ovv Kal avvo^oi 7ravT€s, 6eo(p6pOL
kcli

55
vaocpopoi,

i(TT€

paraphrased marei dvayope'vovs [g]; dyuyetis [Antioch]; dux L; praeparator A. 1 apacpepovaa] G Antioch; referens L; dixa (pepovaa Dam-Rup; dub. SA; al. g.
eh] G; ci's t6v Antioch; irpbs Dam-Rup; irpbs tov om. A; paraphrased vabs QeoO by Antioch.
[g].

3 vaocpopoi]

GLg;

Accordingly elsewhere yeTLKd k.t.X. (C. I. G. no. 2963 c) we read of ol
tov...k6<tuov
Xrjs

secondary meaning to ayaXpa, 'an

{5acrTa\_£ovTzs\

rfjs

peydis

6ecis

['Apre/u.ijSoy

npb

7roA[e&)]?

image or 'representation' in its From Philo philosophical sense. the application of dyaXpaTocpopelv is
borrowed by the Christian fathers. See also Epictet. Diss. ii. 18. 12 sq
Oebv 7repL(pepeis, rdXas, Kal dyvoels' doKeTs pe Xeyeiv dpyvpovv Tiva r) XP V ~ o~ovv e^codev ev cravTa (pepeis avTov
;

5

lepels [<a\ Up\ovfiKai.

Again there

a

mention

in

another

inscription
19, p. 68)

(Wood's Discoveries Inscr.vi.
of a 8enrvo(popiaKT]
city.
ttoptttj

in this

same

Again we read of yet another Ephesian festival, the Karaycoyia, in which persons went along poivaXd re
enicpepopevoi Kal etKOvas eldcoXoov (Afart. S. Timoth. in Ducange Gloss. Graec.

k.t.X.

Similarly Clem. Alex. Protr.
tov
Kal

4

1 (P« 53) Vf**" *

eiKova
^covtl

7"P> ripels ecrpev ol 6eov nepxpepovTes ev
tovt(o

ttjv

ra>

Kivovpevcp

607: see Lobeck Aglaoph. p. 177). But indeed this was not characteristic of one or two special occasions. At all the great festivals of Ephesus, the Tavpeta, in honour of Poseidon, the 'A/i/Spocria, in honour of Dionysus, etc., the same sight would probably be seen.
p.

T<» dv6pa>TT(o k.t.X.
i

dydXpaTi, See also the note

on dyiocpopos below. crvvodoi] companions on the way' This word occurs several times in
iv.

Epictetus, Diss. ii. 14. 8, iii. 21. 5, 1. 97 (and so it should be writiii.

ten in
'a

13.

13).

Similarly ndpodos
2

wayfarer,'
xvi.
15,

lxx

Sam.

xii.

4,

not the only writer, to whom this characteristic feature of a heathen religious ceremonial suggests the image in the text comp. Philo
Ignatius
is
:

25; npoodos 'a precursor,' Clem. Horn. iii. 58, viii. 2,

Ezek.

xvi. 18, xx. 13, 14, 18; ecpodos patrol,' e.g. Polyb. vi. 36. 6.

'a

Leg.

ad

Cat. 31 (n. p.

yj/vxals

dyaXpaTocpopovai

577) ev rais ras tqjv

diartTaypevow elKovas, i.e. they carry the commandments in their souls, as the pagans bear the images of their

8eo(p6poL k.t.X.] i.e. 'each carrying his God, his shrine, his Christ, his holy things.' On this word Beocpopos

see the note, inscr. above. vaocpopoi] 'shrine bearers'

The

gods on their shoulders. So again de Miind. Opif. 23 (I. p. 16) Trpbs eva
tov tgov
6
ev
oX<x>v eKelvov, (os

metaphor
shrines

is

taken from the portable
the
deity),

av apxervnov,

exaora)

arreiKovio-dr],

[yovs] t<ov Kara pepos rpoivov Tiva Oebs £>v tov

avrov,
lepos

(pepovTos Kal dyaXpar oqbopovvros lb. 47 (I. p. 23) olkos yap vea>s
rj

ercKTaivero

\jfvx?is

Xoyacrjs

r\v

epeXXev ayaXpaTocpopijcreiv, dyaXpdrcov to 6eoeiheo~TaTov, and so fre-

image of which were made either to be carried about in processions, or to be purchased by pilgrims to any famous sanctuary as reminiscences of their visit and worn about the person as amulets. For the former see e.g. Herod, ii.
(containing

some patron

63 to
£vXiva>

be

ayaXpa ebv
Diod. Sic.

ev

vj]g>

piupco

quently in

Philo,

who however
attaches
also

in

KaTaKexpvo~a>peva>
i.

irpoeKKopi-

some

passages

a

(ovai

k.t.X.,

97

tQ>v vatav

56

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
'

[IX

Xpi&TO(pof)oi> dyiocpopoi, kcltcc iravTa KeKOo-fMifjievoi iv

ivToXaTs Ifjcov Xpio'TOv'
Si

dyaWi(jojJL6VOs rj^icodf]v y ibv ypa<pw, irpocrofxiKr}€rai vjuuv, Kai (rvy^apfjvai
i

oh

kcli

on

xP l(rTO(t) opoi] G;
rjyovv

et christiferi

L; om.
whole

A

[g]; recognized

by Antioch, who has
into

Oeocpopos

%pt<rro0opos
;

(the

being

transferred

the

singular).
/cat

ay Locpopoi]

GLAg

Antioch has

aycoSpo/Aos.

Kara Trdvra]

GLg;
G.

ra
iv\

iravra Antioch; et

omnino

[A].

KeKoa/m-rj/xhoc] KeKoafM/xivoi

L; om. G;

iv reus [g];

(in)

L

[g]; aya\\iu/j.ai

on

i)£iwdr)v

2 ayaWiu/Aevos -fj^iwdrjv] omnibus [A]. G. A begins a new sentence exulto quod dignus
'

/actus sum

loqui vobiscum,

et

gaudeo in eo quod scripsi
are the

ad

vos (thus strangely

dvaKop,i£op.iva)v
k.t.X.,

els dpcporipcov opos 14 eVf/Lt^av di Kai tovs i< raw lepcov xpvo~ovs vaovs toIs dcpidpvOf the latter p-aai npbs ttjv into Lav.

divinarum bajuli caeremoFirmic.
9.

xx.

niaru?n,
iii.

Matern.

11.

The word
inscr.
;

Astron. occurs again,
lepocpopos
ib.

Sinyrn.
C.
I.

comp.
b,

the miniature representations of the shrine of the Ephesian Artemis fur-

G.

1793
(e.g.

lepacpopos

2384 b (Appx.).
'sacra ferre' of priests.

So too the Latin
Virg. JEn.

nish the best illustration, and we may suppose that Ignatius had these more or less in mind; see Acts xix. 24 (with the passages collected by

352 B rots' (popois Kai Upoarokois npoaayopevop.evoLS'

iii. 19) esp. Plut. Mor. dXrjdcos Kai diKaicos lepa-

But see

commentators).
xxii.

Comp.

Amm. Marc,
ibat,

ovtoi &i elaiv 01 rov lepov XoeacrTrep

13

'deae caelestis argenteum

breve figmentum, quocumque
efferre
solitus.'

yov...iv tt) yj/'vxjj (pepovres, iv kIo-ttj, Kai nepio-TeWovTes

(with

See also the conjectural reading of Wordsworth on the Scholiast of Aristides, Athens

and Attica

p.

108

IlaXka8i<ov...Twv

Wyttenbach's note), Virg. Georg. ii. 476 'Quorum sacra fero ingenti percussus amore'; in both which passages the image is applied as
here.
K€Koo-p,r]p.evoi] ''ador/ied, decorated] as with festive robes, chaplets, trinkets, and the like ; comp. 1 Pet. iii. 3
gov ecrrco oi>x 6

nepiavTocpopoiv

icaXovp.ii'oov.

The appli-

cation of the metaphor is to the body of the Christian, as the shrine of

the Spirit; see below § 15 tva a>p.ev avrov vaoi (with the note). " 1. xP ia ro(P^P 01 ] Comp. 2 Cor. iv. IO TTavrore vfjp veKpooaiv tov 'irjcrov iv

Kai

Trepi6io~eas

e£a>dev ip,7rXoKrjs Tpix<x>v xP v0~'- a>1/ 1 ivdvaecos

ra

crco/mri 7re p i(pi povTes,

Magn.

12

yap Xpicrrov e'x erf iv iavTols. saint himself is called xp^Tofpopot in Mart. Ign. Ant. 5. So Phileas in Euseb. H. E. viii. 10 ol xP ia"ro ^~
'irjcrovv

k.t.X., i Tim. ii. 9 sq aoXppoavvqs Koo~p.elv iavTas. ,6V epycov dyaOav. See Xenoph.

lp,ari(ov

Kocrp.os

p.era aldovs Kai
.

The

Ephes.
ras

i.

2 edei be 7rop.7reveiv ndo-as
7rap0evovs KeKoo-p,rjKai tovs icptfftovs,

eVt^copt'ous

p.evas 7To\vt€\g)s

pot

p.dpTvpes.

Other compounds of
ovop.os

describing

a sacred

procession

at

Xpio-rbs in Ignatius are xpto-ro/Aatfta Rom. inscr. LO"r Philad.
8,

Ephesus.

Mention is made of certain

xP

bearers of holy things] such as sacred treasures, votive offerdyiocpopoij

'

officers as xP V(T0(P P 0VVT€ s connexion with these festive processions in honour of Artemis; Wood's Dis-

m

ings,

and the

like,

which

it

was

cus-

coveries Inscr.
iii.

vi.

pp. 32, 34 (comp.

tomary

to carry in procession.

They

p.

20).

This

seems

to

mean

IX]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
dv6pco7rcou (iiov

57
el
/uri

KctT
5

ovZev dyaTraTe,

\xovov

tov

Oeov.

X.

Kal

virep

twv dWcou

Se dvOpwiruiv d%ia\e'nrTU)s
4
kclt' dvOpLoircov filov k.t.X.]

deranging the connexion of the words). tear' dXXov fiiov k.t.X. GL; see the lower note.
the paraphrase in

My

conjecture
deov.

is

supported by
text

g

ovde Kara adpKa ay curare

dXXd Kara

The

was

early

corrupted, as appears from the confused rendering of A, alium quendam non diligitis sed eum qui secundum deum vivit. 6 Kal virtp tuv o\\wc de] GLg ; et pro
aliis

A

;

super omnibus 2.

2 commences again

here and continues as far as dderrjd^.

ddiaXdiTTWs]

GLg

;

om. 2A.

See the lower note.

'decorated with gold ornaments or wearing gold embroidery comp. Wesseling on Diod. Sic. iv. 83 xpvo-oThe fondness (popelv rfj 'Acfapodirr]. of the Ephesians for fine dresses
'

COmp. Rom. 8
6pco7rovs
£f)v,

ovkcti 6iXa>
2
'

Kara dvp.01

;

Trail.

(paiveade

ov

koto,
el

case

dvdpumovs will be p.rj

is

commemorated by the Ephesian Democritus quoted in Athenaeus xii. p. 525; it is rebuked by S. Paul, I Tim. ii. 9, 10. The interpretation of
Hilgenfeld (A.
V. p. 250),

other words it whole of the foregoing sentence, but to ovdev dyanare alone comp. Matt,
;

In this but only! In will not refer to the
£g>vt€s.

xii. 4,

Luke

iv.

26, 27, etc.,

and see

'durch die

Gebote Christi organisirt, geordnet,' seems to me quite impossible, whether the preposition iv be retained or not. 2. wherein also oh koX k.t.X.]
l

note on Gal. i. 19. The commentators fail to make anything of KaT aXXov filov. Zahn accepts Markland's conjecture Kad' oXov fiiov, but this is a violent change and does not
the
yield a very

rejoicing I was permitted to associate with you by letter, and to congratulate you, that ye love nothing after the common life of men, btit God

good sense. Pray also for unbelievers. There is hope of their repentance. Let them learn from your deeds, if they will learn from nothing else.
X.
'

The reading dyaXXiwp.evo^ only! should probably be adopted on the ground of external authority and if so, oh is more naturally taken as a
;

Requite them with good for evil; with meekness for their wrath, with humility for their boastfulness, with prayers for their revilings, with
staunchness in the faith for errors, with gentleness for
wrath.
thers
their

It may neuter with dyaXXia>p.evos. however be a masculine governed

their

by 7rpoo-op.iXfjo-ai and explained afterwards by v/juv see Winer Gramm. For the whole § xxii. p. 184 sq.
:

expression comp.
fxevos
irpo€iXdfxr]v

Magn.
iv

1

dyaXXico'ir/croO

7rtcrrei

XptcrroC npoo-XaXfjaai vpuv' Kara^icodels yap k.t.X. ; and for dgiovcrdai, a characteristic expression of Ignatius, the

yourselves their broImitate not them but the Lord. Vie with each other who shall suffer rather than do the most wrong. Let no rank weed of the devil spring up in you ; but live in chastity and soberness. 6. aSiaAeiVrcoy] See i Thess. v. 17,

Show

by your conduct.

3

note on
4.

Magn.

1.

KaT dvdpdncov $Lov\

So

I

have

ddiaXei7TT(os TvpocrevxewOe

ventured to emend, &nwn for <\AAon; or perhaps read &ninon = dv0p<oTnvov;

where also we have the expression comp. Hermas Sim. ix. 11. The same adverb
;

occurs also

Rom.

i.

9,

1

Thess.

i.

3,

58
TrpOGevyea-Qe*
'iva

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
6(ttiv

[x

yap

[eV]

avrols e\7ris /ueTavoLas,
kclv 6k tcov
f/ueFs

Oeov

TV)£a)ariv.

eiriTpe^aTe ovv clvtoIs
7rpos
,

epycov vfjuv /uLadrjTeudrjvai.

t«9 opyas avrcov

vva^ 7rpaels 9 7rpos Tct£ fjieya\opr]jjLOG

avrwv

voxels Taireivo-

ras /SXacrCpf] /mlas ccvtwv (ppoves, 7rpo9
i

voxels

ras

7rpo<Tev- 5

7rpoaevx e<T 6 e ] Trpoaeix^^dai G.

Add. deum L; add. ut redeant ad dcuvi A;
i k-KLTpixpare

ev] GL: om. SAg (mss, but inserted in 1). G2g. The whole of this passage is loosely translated in 2 ex /c.r.X.]

txt

discipuli-fiant

;

contra verba eorum dura in humilitate animi

operibus vestris magis placabiles-estote et in

eorum vos estote precantes ; et contra errore?n eorum armemini in fide ; et contra ferocitatem eorum estote pacifici et tranquilli et ne admiremini eos, where however the word fHDinn admiremini, is probably an error of
lenitate; contra blasphemias

transcription

for

jIDTDn

imitemini.

Greek.
oZv\

eiriTpi^are]

The Armenian substantially follows the G; monete L; rogate A; t-Kicrpk^are. g; om. 2.
8 ade\(f)ol...ddeTridrj]

GLg; om. 2A.

In place of these words
et eius

2

has simus autem imitatores domini nostri in humilitate

qui magis injurias-

ii.

13, in

thanksgiving.
ev^dis

connexion with prayer and See also Polyc. 1 nrpoodSiaAei7rroiy.

your words.'
elliptical

This use

of
v. 15,

kIlv

is
:

for kclv .... paB-qrevOaxTiv

cr^oXa^e

The

Syriac and 'pray' here

Armenian have simply and simply 'be constant
1.

comp. Mark vi. 56, Acts xi. 16, 2 Clem. ii. 7, 18.

2 Cor.

See Winer
'

Gramm.
3.

§ lxiv. p.

730 (Moulton).
to be

in prayer' in Polyc.
is

In the passage

vpCiv

pLa6r)T€v6fjvai]
''to

your

before us therefore the dStaXetWcos

disciples]

go

to school to

you';

highly suspicious, and may easily have been inserted from St Paul.

a

legitimate and not uncommon construction with padrjreveiv (-etrOai),
e.g.

In Polyc. 1 it is not quite so clear that the word is unrepresented in
the
text of the Syriac translator (followed by the Armenian), because

Plut.
r\v

Mor. 832 B
yap

narpi,
(Biadrjv
ib.

croCpiaT-qs, co

pa6r)Tevaras tc3 Ka\ 'AXki(poiTT/aai,
iii.

(paalv
c,

en nalda bvra
F,

837

840

Orig.

c.

Cels.

29
iir\

the Syriac £ttr^b\r£ 'be constant'

cu...XpicrTc3

padrjTevdelaai
v.

cKKX^crLai,

might
cr^oXa^e

be

intended to cover both
dStaXetVroif.

Euseb. H. E.
'Pooprjs,
cos

13 pac^TevcVis

and

On

the

was

other hand, supposing that the word in the Greek text used by the

(speaking
rco

TariavS laropet, of Rhodon), V. C. iii. 47
avrbs

Syriac translator, he may have rejected it on account of its apparent

Koivaj aoorrjpi p,e padrjTevaOai. this verb see the note Rom. 3.

On

npbs ras opyas
v.

k.t.X.]

See Matt.

extravagance.
1.

44,

Luke

vi.

27,
1

28,

Rom.
ii.

xii.

ecrriv

yap

k.t.X.]

Comp. Herm.

14 sq.

Comp.

also

Pet.

21, 22,

Sim. viii. 7 Kai * T h fajvwi eariv iv avrdis eknls peravoias (comp. ib. § 10),

where our Lord's example upon as here.
5.

is

dwelt

quoted by Zahn.
2.
l

(BXaacprjpLias]
'

Not

'blasphemies,'
;

kclv

k.t.X.]
if

at all events from

but

slanderings,' 'railings'
l.

comp.
e 77-77-

your works,

they will not listen to

Luke

C.

Trpocreu^ecr^f

vnep

rcoV

x]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
7rp09
ty\v

59
eAp<\ioi
fj.ri

%ds,
7rpos

7r\avrjv

avTwv

Vjueh

th

itictci,

to dypiov

clvtoov vfieis

tj/uiepoc

<T7rou$d?ovT€<s
Trj

dvTifJLifJLr\cra(rdca

clvtovs.

dSeXcpol clvtwv evpedcojuiev
%

eTrieiKeia*

/uLL/ULtjTai

Se

tov Kvpiov

o"7rov$d(^coiuiev eluai, tls

o irXeov dSiKrjdrj, tis d7rocrT6pr]6rj , t/s ddertjdfj'

iva

/uLrj

tov

After adeTrjdrj it omits everything till the patietur et opprimetur et defraudabitur. last sentence of § 14 ov [yap vvv] eirayyeXlas k.t.X. The corresponding words in are sed [in) mansuetudine state et similes dei studeamus jieri, the sentence ti's

A
at

being omitted. The Syriac Version (S) was probably corrupted an early date, and hence the aberrations of 2A. evpedw/xev] So G. Dressel prints evp7]6Q>fxev (after other editors) and does not notice any variation from his text in G. 9 tov Kvpiov] GS ; tov Kvptov g (with a different conir\eou...adeT7]di

struction)
ddLKrjdel.
. .

;

dei

LA

(comp. §
.
.

1).

IO ddLK7]9^...a7roaTeprjdy...d6eT7]9y]

diroffTeprjdet.

adeTydei

G
is

L;

def.

A.

The

construction

contemnatur fraudetur injustum patiatur changed in [g], but the words doiKTjdeis, diroaTe;
. . .
.

. .

prid-fj,

adeTT]drj

appear.
text.

The

rendering of

2

(see above)

points to the reading

adopted in the

p€a£6vTo>v
ing of

vfias.

(3\ao-(j)Ti[j.ia,

For this meanwhich indeed is
in
8.

Christ,
evteuceta,

not
as

of

them.'

The word
spirit

denoting the

of

more common than the other the N.T., see the note on Col. iii.
Tas npoacvxas]

concession and forbearance, which contrasts with strict justice, strict
retaliation,
is

The

interpolator

has supplied this
;

by dvTvrd£aT€ the Syriac translator has rendered it by a verb 'be ye praying.' For the elliptical sentence, which is
ellipsis

see the notes on Phil.

highlyappropriatehere iv. 5, Clem.
It

;

Rom.

59

(p.

284).

was moreover
of

especially (2 Cor. x.

characteristic
1),

Christ
is

whose example

en-

much more
p.

forcible, see

Winer
337

lxiv.

forced here.

734
6.

sq,

A. Buttmann
777 7r/crrei]
ttj

p.

sq.

edpdloi
el

Comp.
TrLo~Tei

Col.

i.

23
i

ye ernpeveTe
Ka\

Tedepe-

Xioipivoi

ebpaioi

k.t.X.

(comp.

in

Cor. xv. 58), Polyc. Phil. 10 'firmi So too fide et immutabiles.'
13 edpaaOai nlo-Tei.
'

to k.t.X.] This describes the 9. proper aim of their rivalry. They should try to imitate Christ and show 'who can suffer more wrong than his neighbour.' The words are comp. § 19 dependent on pip-qrai
;

Smyrn.
8.

Tapaxrj---TTo6cv

k.t.X.

For the conquestions,
see

requite them by i?nitating their co?iduct to you,' It oci.e. retaliate j a rare word.
avTipLprjcracroai]
'

junctive in indirect

It is 394 (11. p. 187). unnecessary to emend the sentence

Kiihner

§

curs

Appian

Bell. Civ. v. 41
vii.

;

comp.

to
or

ivXiov

JSlkiJOt)

k.t.X.

(Markland),

dvTipip.T](Tis,

Thuc.
avTcov

67.
i.e.

to

ivXiov ddiKTjBds (Hefele), or ov

ddeX<po\

k.t.X.]

'The

tls irXeov d^KTjdrj (Pearson), or kclv tls

right way of showing our brotherhood with them is not by imitating
their conduct, but

nXeov

ddiKr)6fj

(Dressel).

The whole
1

passage

is

a reminiscence of
M«XAoi/ ddiKeloSe
;

Cor.
8io.tl

regard.

by evincing our Our imitation must be of

vi. 7 Start ovx.1

;

ov^l paXXov an o are pelade

k.t.X.

6o
Sta/3o\ov

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
fioTCLvr]

[x

tis

eupedrj

ev

vpuv

a\X

ev

Tract]

dyveia

kcli

ev Xpia~rtp 'lycrou crapKicrcocppocrvvr] jueveTe

KIOS KCLI TTVeVfJLaTlKLOS.

XI.
i pe'vere]

Gcr^aTOL
G;
maneatis
al. g.

Ktxipoi.

Xolttov a\(ryyvQio[AeV) (f>o^rjA;
as
if

L;

ut

stetis

they had read

/j.hr)Te,

which

is

Xpurry 'I^troO A [g]; Irjaov xP L<rT V G-L. 4 "Etrxarot Kcupoi. Xol7t6v k.t.X.] So it seems to be taken in Dam-Rup 4 2ax aT0L KaipoL, ddeXtpol, \onrbi> al<Txvv8uip.ev, and this is apparently the connexion intended in L extrema tcmpora de cetero etc. In g Xolttov is connected with what precedes
perhaps correct;

ZaX aT0L

xaipol Xolttov elaiv;

in

A

it

is

omitted.

In

G

there

is

alaxwdw/xev.

See the lower note.
5

(f)oj3r)duJ/j.ev]
;

Gg Dam-Rup

no stop till after et timeamus L;
;

om. A.

wa\ GL; om.
1

Dam-Rup
the

al. g.

t)/mv els Kpifxa]

G

(Kplp.a)

L

;

1.

fioravri]
is

''weed.

Though

58 (see the note
KaOapicra>p:ev

p. 169).

word
vi. 7),

quite neutral in itself
it

often used in

and is a good sense (e.g. Heb.

aapKiKcos k.t.X.]

Comp.

2 Cor.

vii.

1

eavTovs dnb

navTos

fio-

yet
'

has a tendency to take a

bad meaning, 'a rank or noxious
herb,' a weed'; e.g. Hermas Sim. v. 2 eibev tov dp-TreXaiva (Soravcov TrXijpr] ovTa...Kal
yracray

aapKos kcu nvevp-aTos- This conjunction of 'flesh and spirit,' as comprehending the whole nature of
Xvo-fxov

man,
inscr.,

is

very
1,

common
1,

in

Ignatius

;

ras fioravas ras ovcras

Magn.
But see

13,

Trail, inscr., 12,
12,

Rom.
1, 5.

ev to) dp.TTeXa>vi e^eriXXev k.t.X., lb. ix. 26 a)? yap apLTreXos...V7rb tcov (3oTava>v
eprjpiovTai k.t.X. ; comp. Clem. Horn. xix. 15, 20, fSordvai BavdaipLOi, Kauai,

Smyrti.

13, Polyc.

esp. Polyc. 2 hid tovto aap-

kikos el Kai nvevpLaTiKos k.t.X.

In one

Clem. Alex. Strom,
dypiai fiordvai.

vi.

7

(p.

770)

Hence

fioravi^eiv 'to

place only there is a triple division Philad. 1 1 aapKL, ^vxf], Trvevp:aTi. See also the note on § 7, above.

weed,'
9.

Theophrast. C. P. iii. 20. This sense it gets, because its
e.g.

leading idea is the absence of culture. On the other hand Xa^ai/a is used

more
'

especially for 'garden

herbs,'

vegetables.'

Accordingly
is

ftoTavrj,

as

Let us therefore stand in awe of the judgment, or, if we do not fear the coming wrath, let us value From the one the present grace. motive or the other may we be found
in Jesus Christ.

XI. hand.

'

The end

of

all

things

is

at

especially applied, as here, to vice or to heresy ; comp. Trail. 6,Philad. 3. It is opposed to

a metaphor,

bonds

In Him I wear these these jewels in which I hope also to be decorated at the resurrec;

the planting, the (pvTeia tov naTpos {Trail. 11, Philad. 3). It is the rank

tion through your prayers. This is my hope that I may be united in one
;

growth which springs up of itself in the soil of man's unregenerate nature
;

destiny with the glorious Church of Ephesus, which was ever a devoted
follower of the Apostles.'
4.

or

it

is

the malicious sowing

of the devil, as here, where there is probably a reference to the parable in Matt. xiii. 25.
2.

eo-x aT01 Kaipo'i]

18 iaxdrr)
vii.

a pa

iariv,

See 1 John ii. and esp. I Cor.

29

dyveia kol acoc^poavvrj]
is

combination

found

in

The same Clem. Rom.

Xolttov tva k.t.X.

Kaipos o~vveo~TaXfAevos ecrrii/ to So also Magn. 6 ev

reXei

e(pdvr].

XI]
5

TO THE EPHESIANS.
tov Qeou,
*iva
juri

6l
rjfjuv eis

dw/ULev ty\v jJLaKpodvfJiiav

Kplfxa

yevtirai.
ty\v

t] yap ty\v ixeWovcrav opyriu (po/3rj6w/uLev rj evecTwcrav x a P LV cty a T^lcrcoiueu, ev tcov $uo* jjlovov ev

XpiCTTw

'Ir/cov
/mrjSev

evpedrjvai

eU to dXrjdivov
to

ffjv.

X W P^

tovtov

v/ulTv

irpeireTiay ev

tcc

SecrjULa

Trepicbepoo,

Dam-Rup; vobis... in judicium A; al. g. 7 x&P'"] GLA £v rQ>v dvo] GL; ev t$ vvv Dam-Rup; x a P av g* (mss, but 1 has gratia m). fi'iu) g Dam-Rup. Something like this may have been the reading of A which translates ttju eve<jT<2aav x&P LV k.t ,\. gratiam quam habemus in hoc mundo; unless indeed in hoc mundo represents evearujaav, but if so ev rCiv Svo is omitted. Perhaps ev t<2v
ets Kplfxa rjfjuv
dtio

was

first

corrupted into

ev

t$

vvv,

and

(3iip

added afterwards

as a gloss; see the

lower note.

8 evpedrjvai] G, and so too
;

to help out the construction)
dXrjdivbv]

invenitur

L*
9

;

GLA;
l

ak-qdivQs [g].

ev

words eVrw fie k.t.X. eipedwpev Dam-Rup inveniamur A. $] Lg; cujus causa A; ev rCp G.

g

(but inserting

;

Aowroi/]
'

for what remains] and so

povov

K.r.A.]

i.

e.

povov [ovtco

Trotrjo-a)-

henceforth'''; comp. Smyrn. 9 evXoFor the yov idTiv Xonrbv avavfj^ai.

pev

(Sore]

evpeOrjvai.

For

similar

elliptical

uses

of the infinitive see

occurrence of Xoiwov or to Xolttov at the beginning of the sentence see
2

Kiihner

dency

II. p. 590. There is a tento ellipsis with povov comp.
:

Cor.

xiii.
iii.

11,

Phil.

iii.

1,

iv.

8,

Rom.
tu^co,
'irjo-ov

5

povov Iva

'irjo-ov

Xpio-rov ini-

1, 2 Tim. iv. 8, Clem. and it should probably be taken with what follows in 1 Cor. 1. c. So too I have punctuated it here, as this is by far the most usual position of Xolttov and the most forcible in

2 Thess.

Smym.
Xpio-Tov
ii.

Rom.

58

;

k.t.X.,

4 povov iv r<3 ovopari and see the note

on Gal.

10.
7

treated as

this place.

the infinitive being ; a substantive, as above, § 3, and below, § 17, Magn. 1, 5. This very phrase to akrjdivbv (rjv occurs in
Cv v ] 'life

&

For the accent of this 5. Kpifia] word, see the note on Gal. v. 10. The Greek MS however accentuates
it

Trail.
9.

9,

Smyrn.

4.

tovtov]
i.e.
;

i.e. 'irjo-ov

vplv

7rp(7reToi]

''glitter

Xpiorov. in your
for
x.

uplpa here.
'

eyes]
it

'have any attraction
e.g.
iced

6.

yevrjTai]

turn] SC

f\

pa<poiii.

you'

as
di

Pind.

Pyth.
*v

105

dvpia tov Qeov.
7.
!i/

7T€ipa>VTi

xP vcros

fiao-avcp

ev tu>v

dvo]

See

Phil.
;

13

npeTvei
'

6V, to. pev o7ri(7(o k.t.X. compare the classical use of dvolv darepov, and

The word is opdos. thus a preparation for the imagery of
kcll

voos

for

examples of similar constructions
Kiihner
11.

see

§ lxvi. p. 774.

p. 244 sq, Winer See also Magn. 1 to

5e KvpiooTepov,

Magn.

3 to he tolovtov.
/3i'o>

which follows. Do not value Ignatius would say any decoration apart from Christ.' word 7rep«pepG>] He uses the same of his bonds again. Magn. 1, Trail.
the spiritual pearls
'

'

The reading

iv to> vvv

is

shown

12.

It

from the authorities to have been as early as the 4th century, but cannot be correct.

tion.
tion,

He

suggests the idea of ostentais proud of this decora-

invested

with which his Sovereign has On the prominent him.

62

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
ev

[XI

toi5s TrvevfJLctTiKom nxapyapiTas'
(TTY\vai Trj irpoo'ev'xfi
vjuluv,
fjs

oh yevoiro

jjlol

dva-

yeuoiTO

/uol dei \xeToyov

elvai, iva ev KXripco 'G<pe(rlu)v evpedto
Keel

twv XpKTTiavwv,
ev

o\

toTs

clttoo-toXois

7rctvTOT€

(Tvvr\vecrav

Swafiei
5

'ItlG-OV
3

XpKTTOV. h] Lg hi G al. A
;

;

;

4 avvrjveaav]
(if it

GL;

awrjaav gA.

see Ephes. 20 for a similar confusion of h, hi, in G. shows that the corruption The testimony of

A

be such) was very early.

8 irdpobos eare]

GL;

irapabodeis ye

place given to his 'bonds' by Ignatius, as by S. Paul, see the notes on
§ 3,
I.

other references to his condition at the resurrection see Pom. 4, Polyc. 7
(v. L).
5

above,

Magn.

1.

tovs nvevfxaTiKovs K.r.X.J Clem. Horn. xiii. 16 Tcp,iovs fi-qpyapiras nepiKelrat, tovs (TuXppovL^ovras Xoyou?.

3.

ev
(o

Kkr)p<jd~\

Comp. Philad.
rfkerjOrjv

5

Iva ev

icXr/po)

eVtru^o),

Ep.

See

also a similar

in Polyc. Phil. to Ig1, where, referring apparently natius and his companions, he says,

image

to)

Vie?in. § 7 in Euseb. H. E. v. 1 [ev] Kkijpco tcov fiapTvpoyv TvpoaeTedrj.

Voss, followed by some later editors, reads evl (for ev), but this poetic form

tovs evei\r)fxivovs toIs ayioTvpeTveat. decrtg>v akrjfxo7s, aTiva icrTLV Siadrj p,a.Ta 6a>s vtto Qeov ko.1 tov Kvpiov t)\lQ>v
eK.\e\eyp.h(ov.

would hardly be possible
like Ignatius. to7s dnoo-ToXois] 4.
S.

in a writer

So too
Ka\

in the Epistle

of the

Galilean
V.
I

Churches,
to.

Euseb.

H. E.

co'crre

deo~p.a Kocrp,ov

evirpenrj ivepiKelo-dai axiTols, cos vv/xobrj ev Kpoo-o-(OTo1s xP V(T0LS KeKocrp-rjuevr)
•KeiToiKL\p.evoLs,
'

829, Hartel)

Cyprian. Epist 76 (p. ornamenta sunt ista,

S. Paul and John primarily, for these resided and taught at Ephesus possibly S. Peter as well, for he corresponded with the Churches of Asia Minor, if he did not visit them (1 Pet. i. 1) perhaps also S. Andrew and S. Philip,
;

;

non

vincula, nee Christianorum pe-

whom early tradition represents as living in these parts ; see Colossians
p.

des ad infamiam copulant sed clarificant ad coronam,' Victor Vit. de

44

sq.

The

interpolator

names

Vand. iii. ad fin. 'rigentium pondera catenarum quasi quaedam
Pers.

and Timothy; but Timothy was not an Apostle: see GalaPaul, John,

tians p. 96.
awrjveo-av] I have, with some hesitation, preferred this reading to awfjo-av,

monilia pervidebat, quia non fuerunt ilia vincula, sed potius ornamenta ;
'

see Cotelier
588,

ad

loc.,

Pearson
1

V. I. p.

and comp. Magn.

(note).

likely to

dvao-TTJvat}

He

only because letters were more have dropped out than to
inserted.

can hardly

mean

have been
XII.

that he desired literally to rise in his chains ; but that he hoped through

'I

know

that

it

ill

becomes

main

the prayers of the Ephesians to resteadfast to the end, and so to appear at the resurrection invested

with the glory of discipline and suffering, of which his chains were the For instrument and the symbol.

such exhortations to I am only a weak criminal, you. while ye have obtained mercy and are strong in the faith. Ye have ever escorted the martyrs on their way to death. Ye were fellow-students of the mysteries with Paul the blessed,
to address

me

xn]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
XII.
OlSa
t'is elfJLi

63

kcci

Tier iv

ypd(j)w.

eyw Kara-

KpiTOs, v/ueTs tjAerj/uevor
piyfjievoi.

iyco 1/V0 kivSvvov, v/ueh icrTrj-

7rdpodos eare
orvju/uvcTTaL

toov

eU Qeov

dvaipovfjLevuW)
fue/uapTvptj'

flavXov

tov ^yiacriuevov, tov

g* (mss). qui propter dezim martyres-fiunt.
as stated in Dressel.

The reading

irdpodos underlies the rendering in

A

ad

vos viatores

9 ijyLacrphov] So G; not ayiaapivov

in

tread,

whose footsteps I would fain and who makes mention of
in all his letters.'
eya> k.t.X.]

shortly before his final trial

tyrdom

(1

Tim.

i.

3,

2

and marTim. i. 18).

you
6.

sage in
IlavXos

See a similar pasRom. 4 Ot^ as Herpos Kai
8iaTa(ro~op.ai

Probably Ignatius was thinking of other martyrs also of whom we know
nothing.

See

e.g.

Polyc.

Phil.
.

1

vplv'

eKeivoi

crvve^dprjv vplv

npoTrep^racnv

.

.

tovs

dnocTToXoi., £ya> KaranpiTOs k.t.X.,

and

comp.

Trail.

3

Iva

av

KardnpiTos

eveiXrjpevovs Toils dyiOTrpeneo-i Becrpols k.t.X. , and lb. 9 dcrKelv Ttacrav vTropovrjv
tjv Kai e'ibere kot dcpflaXpovs, ov povov ev tois p.aKapiots "lyvaria Ka\ Zacripa Ka\ 'Pov(pa K.T.X.
t

In as dnoaToXos vplv diaTao~o~apai. all these passages his civil status,
as narciKpiTos, is an ' I spiritual status
:

emblem

of his

am
;

under sen-

rav
tinto

els

Qebv

'

k.t.X.]

who

are slain

while ye have obtained mercy and are pardoned.'

tence

of condemnation

God^ a condensed expression for 'who are put to death and thus conducted to God'; comp. § 1 de8epivov dnb Svplas (with the note).

7.

vrrb

klv8vpov]

Comp.

Trail.

The

He 13 en yap V7rb klvBvvov el fit. alludes to the danger of his flinching before the terrors of death, or otherwise yielding to the allurements of the world. l a way of 8. -rrdpodos eare~\ ye arc
transit?
first,

word dvaipovpevav is a trapa TrpoaboKiau, where we should look for some
such expression as
9.

UavXov

TvpoTvepiropevav. ' crvppvo-Tai] i.e. fellow-

recipients,

They had escorted S. Paul and now they were escorting Ignatius on his way to martyrdom. Their spiritual position, he seems

fellow - students, of the mysteries, with Paul.' For the word see Orig. in Ies. Naue Horn. 7
'

(II.

p.

413)

Paulum nobis commu;

adhibeamus magistrum ipse enim est symmystes Christi,' Hippol.
niter

to say, corresponds to their geogra-

in Daniel,
pvo-Tai
Kai

p.

174 (Lagarde) as
dvdpes
(i.e.

o-vp-

phical position. the martyrs on

As they conducted their way in the

deoo-efiels

co-

body, so they animated their souls with fresh strength and courage. The reference to S. Paul will hardly

religionists), Constantine in Theodt. H.R. i. 19 6 Trjs TvpavviKfjs apoTrjTos
avppLva-Trjs.

This was signally true

of
S.

the

Ephesians,

among whom

be
for

satisfied

by the interview with the

Ephesian elders in Acts xx. 17 sq, he was not then on his way to death, if (as is most probable) he was liberated from his first captivity but
:

Paul resided for an exceptionally long time (Acts xix. 10 sq, xx. 31), with whom he was on terms of the

most

affectionate intimacy (Acts xx.

the notices in the Pastoral Epistles

show

that

he was again

at

Ephesus

and who were the chief, though probably not the sole, recipients of the most profound of all his
18 sq, 36),

64
/UL6VOV,

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
dpLOfiaKapLCTTOVy

[xn
V7TO

OV yeVOLTO

/ULOl

Ta

\")(yY\

epistles.

The

propriety of the lan-

guage here is still further enhanced by the fact that S. Paul, in the Epistle to the Ephesians more especially, dwells on the Gospel dispensation as nvorrjpiov
9, v. 32, vi. 19).
(i.

Clem. Rom. 17 (note), 18, 19, 44, and It must not however Philad. 5, 11. be confined to the opinion of the Church, but will refer rather to the
testimony of
Paul's

God

as

given
:

in

S.

9,

iii.

3, 4>

own

life

and work

comp.

Elsewhere (Phil. iv. he speaks of himself as p.€p,vrjIn later ecclesiastical lanfievos. guage the words pvarrrjpiov, pvarrjs, were /ifcrriKos-, a/xva-TOs, dpvrjros, etc., used with especial reference to the
12)

Heb.
7-77?

xi. 2,

4, 5>

39 papTvprjOevres 5ta

TTiWeaff.

refer to his
is

Thus indirectly it may martyrdom because this
;

God's chief act of attestation.
is
'

But
put

the Anglo-Latin translator
in

wrong

rendering
is

it

martyrizati,
'

i.e.

sacraments, more particularly to the eucharist (Bingham Christ. Ant. I. But there is no trace of this iv. 2).

to death as a

meaning

in Ignatius,

who

still

uses

these terms, as they are used by S. Paul, of the doctrines and lessons

of Christianity. For the force and significance of this use in the Apostle,

this sense To be very late Greek. a martyr' is not paprvpetadai, but paprvpelv to bear testimony.' Even in Latin the passive martyrizari is a solecism, though a common

passive

martyr not used in
;

because the
'

even

in

(

one

;

and martyrizare

is

the

more
as re-

see the notes on Col.
it

i.

26.

correct word.
also

On

the use of these
etc.,

If
is

be asked why

S.

John

words, paprvs, paprvpelv,
ferring

not mentioned here, the answer is Ignatius is speaking of the simple. of the Ephesians with relations

the testimony borne by the death of the witness, see the note on Clem. Rom. 5.
especially to
1.

martyrs (tu>v els Qeov dvatpovpeveav) but S. John died peaceably in extreme old age at Ephesus. He is doubtless

;

d£iopaKapl(TTov\ See the note
Pet.
ii.

on
21,

this

included in the cnrocrTokoi mentioned before; but here there is no place It should be added also, for him. that the life of S. Paul had a peculiar
attraction for Ignatius, owing to the similarity of their outward circumstances.

word above, inscr. vtto ra "x vr Comp. 1 and esp. Mart. Polyc. 22
]~\

Ilo\vKap7ros

ov yevoiro iv

rfj

fia<jikeiq

'irjcroit

XpurTOV

npos rd
that

'Ixvq

Mart. I gnat.
the

In the evpedrjvai qpds. A?it. § 5 it is related

saint

on his journey to

Rome
tively,

desired to follow in the A-

He
;

an 6KTpcopa
journeying

too, like Paul, had been he too, like Paul, was

postle's foot-prints, not only figuraftadi^eiv i6e\a>v tov

from Asia to Rome, there to win the crown of martyrdom. If Ignatius shows a full knowledge

but literally also, k<it 'ixvos dnoaToKov Haiikov', but adverse winds prevented him

teachi?ig of S. John, his heart clings to the example of S. Paul.
'

and appreciation of the

from landing at Puteoli and so entering Rome by the Appian Way as
S. Paul had done. 'Ynb ra "ix vr) nere stands for the more usual Kara ra ~ *X vr) or * v T01S ix v(0 tv With the accusative vno often signifies 'close to,' v. 10 vnb ras nvXas, e.g. Thuc.
-

tov pcpaprvp-qpevov]

attested,

and
' ;

approved] of good report as e.g. Acts vi. 3, x. 22, xvi. 2, xxii. So Clem. Rom. 47 v. 10. 5, 1 Tim.
aftoaTohois pepapTvpr/pevots
',

hence

'

'

Soph.
o-rrfk-qv

EL
(see

720

vV

avrfjv

ia-xdrr^v

see also

the note On V7revavrio? }

xn]
evpedfjvcu,

TO THE EPHESIANS.
otclv

65

Oeou
6V
3

€7tltv)^co'

69 eV Tracrt] €7ri<rToAij

/UVrj/ULOl/6V€L V/ULCOU

XpMTTW
fivr)/j.oveijet]

'Irj&OV.
;

GLg

/xvrjfiovevo}

A.
ii.

Col ii. 14); but the instances are very rare in which, as here, its local meaning is preserved while yet the idea of subjacence has altogether
disappeared comp. Plut. Vit. Pelop. 16 [UKpOV 8e VTTO TO. fXf] V€(OS iiTTlV It almost universally 'AttoXXcovos.
;

are either proper names, as Matt.
Tracra
'iepocroXv/ict,

3

Rom.

xi.
;

26 nav

or they 'io-paTyX (quoted by Hefele) are highly poetical passages,as Eurip. Med. 114 nets dofios eppoi (quoted by Jacobson) or they are false readings,
;

as Ephes.

5 <ai Ttdo-qs eKKXrjo-ias

(quoted

refers to objects which are more or less raised. Comp. Ov. Met. iii. 17
'

by Pearson

V. I. p. 488,

the incorrect text of

who has taken Voss, the MS

.s-«£sequitur

pressoque

legit vestigia

gressu.'
vtto
2.

The Armenian
vr l
'

translates

ra

'ix

under his

footstool.'

Qeoii eniTv^a)]

A
l

phrase used
;

especially of his

martyrdom
in

see the

note onMagu.
iv
tle!
Trdo-T]

1.

having <ai Trdo-rjs rfjs iKKkrjcrias)', or they are misinterpreted, as 2 Tim. 16 nao-a ypacfyi] (quoted also by iii. Pearson V. I. I.e. and wrongly explained 'tota scriptura'); or they illustrate wholly different uses of
nas, as Soph. Aj. 275 nelvos re Xvtttj

CTTtoroXj]

every epis-

Besides

the

epistle

which

bears their name, S. Paul refers to Ephesus and the Ephesian Christians, either alone or with others,
in
(xv.
(i.

Romans
32,
xvi.

(xvi.
8,

5),

1

Corinthians

nas ikqkarcu Ka<fj (again quoted by or they are false Pearson, 1. c.) Latin analogies, as e.g. Cicero's omne corpus which might stand quite as well for nav to crco/xa as for
;

'

'

19),

2

Corinthians

nav

o-aifia,

and the two Epistles to These references would Timothy.
8 sq),

in the

and which therefore fails main point (quoted also by
1.

Pearson,

a).

It

is

strange that

be

quite

sufficient

to
;

explain
i.

the
e. g.

comp. hyperbole in the text 1 Thess. i. 8 iv ttclvt\ tottco, Col.
iv

23

no one has adduced Ephes. ii. 21 where 7rScra oikoSo/xj; is the best supbut even though ported reading
;

ndaj]

KTtaei

77/

vtto

tov ovpavov.

this reading
(esp.

be accepted, the context
that

But, as Ignatius must have been born before the Apostle's death, it is not improbable that he had oral

many

shows o-vvoiKodopelaOe) olKobopal are required to

make

information respecting the Apostle's relations to the Ephesian Church, which has not come down to us and by which his language here is coloured.

up the one temple (comp. Matt. xxiv. xiii. 1, 2), and that therefore 1, Mark
1
'

every building
3.

is

the right render-

ing.
'

(jLvrjuovevei]

makes mention.'

Others would translate
*

iv

Trao-j]

inio-ToXfj

throughout

his
refer

letter,'

supposing
'Epistle
to

him
the

to

to

the

Ephesians'; e.g. Pearson V. I. p. 487 sq, and ad loc. But for the omission of the definite article with nas in this sense no example has been produced which
is

This would be singularly unmeaning, if not untrue, supposing the reference to be to the Epistle to the Ephesians. Hence Valois and others would immore than it port into the word 'vos cum laude memorat.' contains, The interpolator has changed what

seemed

to

analogous.

The

instances alleged

pression,

him a very awkward exand substitutes bs rravroTe
5

IGN.

II.

66

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
XIIT.

[xiii

C7rofSa^€T€ ovv irvKvorepov (rvvep-^ecrdai

eis

evyapMTTiav Qeov kcli eU ho^av* ot<xv yap 7rvKVws ewi to avTO yiveo~6e, KadaipovvTai al Swdjuieis tov CaTava,
kcli

\v6tccl 6

6\e6pos

avrov

ev

ty\

djuovoia
ev
rj

vfjiwv

Ttjs
5

7r/o"Tew9.

ovhev eo~Tiv a/ueivov

eiptjvrjs,

7ras TroAe/^os

KctTapyeiTai eirovpavLoov
2

i<ai itriyeiiov.
has ad eucharistiam
5o£av (om.

Qeov] here,

GLg

(mss, but
do^av]

1

et

gloriam dei)

;

after do%av

[Si];

om. A.
4: crebro

els

GLSjA;
al.

els) g.

7tvkvQs]

G Dam-

Rup
L;
4

L;
1.

o-vvex&s g;
g.

A.

3 yiveade]

G Dam-Rup
Gg;
al. g.

;

convenitis

yivTjcrde (v.

yivr/crde)

KaOaipovvrat at dwd/meis]

Kadaipovvrou

bvvafxeis
/ecu]

Dam-Rup;

destruuntur potentiae L; diruitur vis S x ; infirm atur vis A.
al. g.

GLA;

om. Dam-Rup;

6]

G; om. Dam-Rup;
ejus.

6\e6pos
ejus,

avrov]
this is

GL Dam-Rup;

avrov... oXedpos [g];

S x has CQi.TAJOr^ imperium

but

probably a corruption of

crUllsr^ exitium

The

rendering of

A

shows another corruption, memoria

= ony\& QJ|. ejus

5 ouSeV]

GLS 4 Ag

cV rats Se^crea-ii' avrov pvqpovevei vpwv. anonymous critic (see Lardner

An

Compare 6poL(eo-6ai (with the note). for similar injunctions in early times,
Heb.
x.

Credibility
fjLVTjpLovevco
;

Pt.

ii.

c.

5)

conjectured
to

25

/X17

eyKaTaXeiTTovres

rrjv

and

this is

now found

be the
fact,

Version.

reading of the Armenian This would be true to for Ignatius does mention the
in five of the six

Barnab. 4 e7r * to avro crvvepxopevoi avv^relre k.t.X., Clem. Ho7n. iii. 69 irpo be 7ravra>v, el Kai del vpiv Xeyeiv, avuex^Tepov arvve'Tncrvvay cay rjv

eavreov,

Ephesians

remain13, 12.

epx^crde.
is

The meaning
in larger

of nvKvorepov

ing epistles,

Rom.
as

to,

Magn. 15, Trail. Philad. n, Smyrn.
the general

numbers,' as it is taken by some (e.g. Pearson, here and

not

'

But the parallelism of the clauses,
well

as

tenour of
not

sentence,
Ignatius,

shows that
is
J

S. Paul, the subject here.

XI II. Gather yourselves together more frequently for eucharistic praise.

By your frequent gatherings the powers of Satan are frustrated. The concord of your faith is their ruin. Nothing is better than peace, which
vanquishes the antagonism of enemies, spiritual and carnal.'
I.

on Polyc. I.e.; Zahn /. v. A. p. 345, and ad loc), but more frequently,' which sense is demanded alike by the passage Polyc. I.e. and by the common usage of the adverb in later Greek (e. g. Acts xxiv. 26). The former rendering would have been more correct, if the reading had been
'

ivv nvorepoi.
'

2.

evxapio-Ttav]
is

thanksgiving? The
itself,

all

word

quite general in
refers

doubtless

indirectly

to

but the

irvKvorepov]

As Polyc. \irvKvorepov

(rvvayatyai yiveo~6(d(Ta.v,\(Z\em.

Rom.] ii.
1

chief evxapio-Tia of the Church,

Holy Communion, which was the and
;

17 nvKvorepov npocrepxopevoi ireipwpeOa
npoKOTrreiv k.t.X., Doctr. Afiost. va>s be avvaxBrjo-eaBe ; see also

6

ttvk-

Magn.

which elsewhere Ignatius regards as the special bond of union Philad. 4 The genitive (see the note there).
Qeov must be supplied also with
boj-av.

4 bia to

pr) /3f/3attoy

Kar

evroXrjv o-vva-

xiv]

TO THE EPHESIANS.

67
eav
reAeicos
els

XIV.
ecrTLV cipx r1
3

'

COv ovSeu Xavdavei

vfj.as,

'h](TOvv XpicrTOv kyr\Te Tr}V ttmttlv Kal ty\v ctyctTrriv

vjtis

t®?s KaL TeA.09*

ctp^t]

/uleu

ttig'tis,

tcAos Se

dyairri'
(but
1

tcl

Se Svo ev evorr]TL yevojdeva
1]

Qeos

ecttiv,

ra
7ras

adds enini) [Dam-Vat

[Dam-Rup
;

2]

[Anton 2]; add. yap S v
;

Gg Dam-Vat Dam-Rup 7ras 6 TroXepos Anton dub. LS^A. 6 Karapyelrai] g Dam- Vat Dam-Rup; KarapyeiTe G; evacuatur L; KaraXverat Anton; impediuntur A; frustrantur S 1 S 4 7 reXet'ws] GLS 4 Ag; om. Dam8 'Irjaovv Xpiarbv] GLS 4 [A] els] GLg Dam-Rup; om. S 4 A. Rup 6. tJtis ecrriv] GS 4 g Dam-Rup; quae sunt Xpt-GTov Irjaovv Dam-Rup; xpivrbv [g]. tigtis L; J7<«^ A (om. 77'rts). 9 i"w7?s] GLg Dam-Rup; al. S 4 om. A. 10 yepo/re^a] Gg yivopeva DamtLgtls... ...dydirr]] Gg; dydir-q Dam-Rup. Qeos ecmv] LS 4 A Dam-Rup deov ecrrtv G deov dud pcoirop diroreXei g. Rup.
TroXe/uLos]
.

;

;

-r)

t)

;

;

;

3. Ka0atpoui>Tai...Xverai] See § 19? where the words are similarly con-

work to which we are called consists not in empty profession, but in an
effective

nected.
the hosts, the forces of Sata?ij whether they are evil anal
'

and abiding

faith.'

dwapeis]

i.e.

ovdev Xavdavei] Comp. Phil. 12 'nihil vos latet.'
7.
8.
tJtis

Polyc.

gels (inovpdvioi) or
yetoi).

wicked

men
'

(eVt-

ia-rXv]

An

irregularity of

oXedpos avrov] i. e. the destruction which he is preparing for
4.

construction for atrives elo-iv. This leaves an ambiguity, which is cleared

up by the explanatory clause dpxq
pev K.T.\.
9.

others.'
5.

nas noXepos

k.t.A.]

i.

e.

'

every

apxv

fc*i s
vii.

K- r

-^-]

See

Clem.

antagonism which wars against the It is not the war between Church.' the powers of heaven and the powers
of earth, but the
{iTTovpavLot)

Alex. Strom,

10

(p.

864) apcpco

and

war of his spiritual his carnal (eViyeioi)

Se 6 Xpurros, o re depeXios r) re etroiKodoprj, di ov kol 77 apx*) kgu ra reXr)... re dpxr) aa\ to reXos, tticttis Aeyco, rj
Ka\
(p.
r)

dydnr]

k.t.X.

;

comp.
r]

ib.

ii.

13

enemies alike against the Christian, of which Ignatius speaks. For inovpdvioi,

458) 7rpor7yetrcu pev nlaTis, 06/3oy
dydnr].

8e olKobopel, reXfiot Se

See

as applied to the powers of evil, comp. Ephes. vi. 12 npos tovs KocrpoKparopas tov ctkotovs tovtov, wpbs
ra

also the confused passage in Barnab.
1

in the

Greek MSS, where the con-

nvevpaTUcd

rfjs

Tvovqpias

ev

rots

fusion has perhaps arisen partly from the insertion of some such passage

enovpaviois, a passage which the interpolator has introduced into his
text here.

written originally this, illustration in the margin.
as

as an For the
i.

second clause comp.

1

Tim.

5 t6

XIV.
needless,
love.

'All these
if

warnings

will

be

Faith

you abide in faith and is the beginning of life,

8e reXos TrjsnapayyeXtas earriv dycm-q. 10. Qeos ea-Tiv] Comp. Trail. 11

tov

and love is the end. Where these two coexist, there is God. Faith cannot err, and love cannot hate.

eo-Tiv

Oeov eva>aLv iirayyeXXopevov os See also a similar avTos.
in

expression
ddidapiTov

Magn.
os

15

KeKrrjpevoi
Irjaovs

irvevpa,

ecrTtv

The

tree

is

known by
tested

its fruits

:

pro-

fession

is

by

practice.

The

The Xpio-Tos. leaves rities

combination of authono doubt about the

5-2

68
Se

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS

[xiv

aWa

Sek

ovirdvTa eU KctXoKayadiav ctKoXovda ecrriv. 7ricrTiv eirayyeWofJievos dfxapTavei ovde dycnrriv

KSKTrj/ULevo^ /ULLceT.

cpANepoN to AeNApoN And toy KApnoy

aytoy'

ovto)s ol e7rayyeX\6fJievoi
6(p6ricrovTai,

Xpicrrov eivai,

Si

cov

irpdcrcrovcriv

ov

yap

vvv eirayyeXia^
els

to

5

epyov, a'AA' ev dvvdjuei 7ri<TT6u)s iav Tts evpedrj
1

TeAos.
;

tyetv

2 e7ra7YeXX6 uei'os] GLS 4 g Antioch 6 add. Gg; elcriv Dam-Rup. ovde] GLS 4 g Antioch, and so prob. A; oddels Dam-Rup. Dam-Rup. <pavepov] GLS 4 Dam-Rup; 3 K€KTT)/j.tvos] GLS 4 Ag Dam-Rup; e"x wv Antioch. add. yap [Antioch]; praef. quoniam A; al. g. 4 avrov] GLS 4 A Dam-Rup;
€<ttli>]
/

A

om. avrov
ol

[g]

(changing the whole context); ylverai (om. avrov) Antioch.

ovrws

iirayyeWofxevoi]
ovtcos)
;

GL Dam-Rup

;

ita et

qui promittunt

A
5

;

ol

eirayyeWofievoi [g]

(om.

6 ovv

iirayyeWofievos [Antioch], substituting the singular throughout.
ol

Antioch; xpianavol GL. again here and continues as far as \a\ovvra p.7)
Xpicrrov]

gA Dam-Rup

k.t\.]

2 commences
yap vav\

etvai §

15.

reading.
stituted

The interpolator has suban easier expression for a
i.e.

(e.g.
6.

Smyrn.
dXX'
ev

12),

and the

like.

bvvdp.ei

k.t.X. ]

'but

is

more
I.

difficult one.
els KakoK.aya.6Lav k.t.X.]

'at-

tend upon these and lead to perFor this pregnant use of fection.' the preposition see the note on § 1
bebep,evov a7ro Svpias.

realised only if a man be found in the power of faith (with an effective faith) to the end.'' The words iv bwdp,ei

7rto-T€a>s

are sometimes attached

to the preceding clause,

and ttio-tos

is

Kayadla

The word koXodoes not occur in the LXX or
but

understood with evpeOjj; but the construction which I have adopted seems
simpler.
It
is

N. T.,
vi.
1).
3.

seems here

to

denote

not

uncommon

to

Christian perfection (reXeior^s, Heb.
(pavepbv k.t.X.] Matt.
vi. 44.
l

throw some of the dependent words forward with iav and similar
particles, for the
e.g.
I

xii.

33 e*
;

yap tov KapTTOv to

bevftpov ytvcoaKerai

John
exqre,
is

x.

comp. Luke
5.

Cor.

vi.

sake of emphasis 9 6V ip,ov iav ns cltrikBy, 4 /3ta)TtKa p,ev ovv Kpirijpia
;

ov yap vvv k.t.X.]

for now

(i.e.

iav

xi.

1

5

ywrf
in

be

iav

Kop.a.

in these evil times, in this season of persecution) the Work is not a mere

The connexion
ever

evpedfj els reXos

how-

possible

itself

(comp.

matter ofprofession! For this absolute use of to epyov, meaning 'the

Rom. 2 XV.
to be,

evpedfjvai els bvaiv).
*

preaching and practice of the Gospel,' comp. Rom. 3 01' 7reio-p,ovrjs to epyov aXXct p.eye6ovs iariv 6 XP lo"riaVL(T f ° s orav pacrrjTai vno Koo-p.ov, a passage
JL
>

It is better to keep silence and than to talk and not to be. The great Teacher never spoke without and even His silence is of doing
:

the
the

which explains the force of vvv here. See also Acts xv. 38, Phil. ii. 30 Similarly we have (with the note).
to ovop.a (see
$e\rjp,a

He, who apprehends word of Jesus, understands also
Father.
silence.
is

His

With a man
our

so taught
is

speech
ticulate.

action and

silence

ar-

note § 3 above), [to] (see note § 20 below), rj \apis

Even
lie

most

secret

thoughts

open before the Lord.

xv]

TO THE EPHESIANS.

69
v\

XV.
fjLYi

*

Afjieivov

6<ttlv (TL0)7rav Kal eivai
$L$d(TK€iv,
k<\i

AaAovvra
iroir\.

eivar

koKov to
tov

eav 6 Xeyoov
kcu
6

els

ovv SidacrKaAos, bs elneN
o 7T€7roir]K6v

ereNeTO'
icrTiv.

a criywv Se
'

apia

iraTpos

Xoyov
rjcrv^La^

lr]<rov

K6KTY]fJL6VOS

dArjdcos

SvvaTai
*

Kal

Trjs

avTOv
$1

cLKOveiv, 'iva

reAetos

r\

\va Si

wv AaAei

irpdacrri Kal

6 aXX' ev] GL; dXXd Rup; al. Ag. Rup; om. [S][A]; al. g. 8 /xr) etvai] The \a\ovPTa] GLSS 4 A ; XaXovvras [Antioch 4] ; al. g. next sentences are omitted in 2, and the words IV a St' <jji>...<nyq. yivwaKrjTcu follow
7
it omits everything till the beginning of § 18. Antioch; quod dicit (0 \tyei) S 1 S 4 al. A. 9 5i5d<r/caAos] GLg G; 6 5i5do-/caXos Antioch; dub. LS 4 A; al. g. os] GLS 4 A; ws Antioch The same authorities omit (ed.); al. g. a] GL Antioch; om. S 4 A; al. g. 10 'Irjaov] GLA ; add. xpuxTov Antioch al. g. £<jtiv in the next line.

GL

immediately.

After these

6

\eywv]

;

;

12 reXetos

rj]

G

[L];
al.

fj

WXeios Antioch;

al. g.

XaXet Trpdaarj] Antioch;

XaX^ Trpdaaet G;

g.

Let us remember therefore that

we

i.e.

His retirement

in

childhood and

are His temple, and He dwells in This is so now, and it will us.
hereafter be
7.

made

manifest.'

youth, His refusal to allow His miracles or His kingship to be published, His withdrawal for the pur-

"A/xeivov k.t.X.] Iren. ii. 30. 2 ovk iv to) \eyeiv, dXX' iv tw elvai, 6 Kpe'iTTOtv

comp. Rom. 3 dXXd kcu 64\a>, and see the note on Clem. Rom. 38. This is an indirect defence of their bishop Onesimus, on whose quiet and retiring disposition men were apt to presume see above § 6.

deUwadai
p:r)

ocfietXei

:

Iva

fxovov Xeyco

pose of prayer, His silence before His accusers, and the like; in short, the passive side of our Lord's life. The impression which His silence at His trial more especially made on His followers may be inferred from
Matt. xxvi. 63, xxvii. 14, Luke
xxiii.

:

John xix. There 23.
9,

9,
is

Acts viii. 32, 1 Pet. ii. no reference here to
Incarnation,

i ey evero] and it came to pass] taken from Ps. xxxii (xxxiii). 9, where

9. kcu

the silence before the
as
in §
19.

The

silence here con-

the

LXX has

elirev kcu eyevrjOrjaav,

but

eyeuero would be a more literal translation of the original. Thus Ignatius

says in effect,

'

It is

true of Christ's

templated relates not to the counsels of God, but to the life of Christ. 10. 6 Xoyov k.t.A.] i.e. 'He, who has truly mastered the spoken precepts
of Christ,
is

earth, as the Psalmist says of God's work in the universe, that the word was equivalent to the deed';

work on

best able to appreciate
y

and copy His

silence.'

A\rj6as
i.e.

is

comp. Euseb. H. E. x. 4 (p. 469). This reference explains the following clause; 'The effects of His silence also, not less than of His speech, are
worthy of the Father.'
a aiya>v 8e
k.t.X.] 'yea,

best taken with k^ktvucvos. 12. Iva di" <ov XaXel K.r.A.]

'that,

and what

thus appropriated both the word and the silence of Christ, his speech may be as operative as action and his silence as significant as speech.' For the latter clause comp.

when he has

He hath wrought

by His silence] etc.

Clem. Al. Peed.

ii.

7

(p.

202) 6 de

JO

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
ovSeu XavQdvei tov Kvpiov,

[xv

ihv (riya ytvuio-KriTai.
Kcti

d\\a
avrov

to.

KpwjTTa

rj/uwv

iyyvs avrw

ecrTiv.
*iva

Travra ovv
w^xev

TroitofjLev, cos

avrov ev

r\\xiv

kcltoikovvtos,

vaol

kcli

avros ev

tfjuuv

0eoV

oirep Kal earriv Kal (pavrj-

Antioch (ed.); al. g. ovdev] txt GL [S 2] i yiviba-K-qrai] G; yivuxTKerai 2 avr$] Gg*; avrov Antioch. kanv\ Ag; add. yap Antioch. dei S 2 3 avrov vaol] GLg; templum ejus A; templa Gg; elo-iv Antioch. Oe6s] txt gS 2 add. ijfiuv GLA 4 avrbs] txt gL; add. y G [S 2][A].
.

;

epos vlos, eKclvov Xiyco tov aiooTrcovTa, Somewhat simiov iraverai XaXoov.
larly

rjplv,

Tatian
77,

vabs

ad Grcec. 15 « pev cos KaroiKelv iv avreZ (SovXerai Qeos
See
2.
1

Clem. Rom. 21 to

iirieiKes rrjs

did rov rrpeo-fievovros nvevparos.

yXojo~o~r]S

avrcov did rrjs aiyrjs (pavepov

on Mart. Ant.
'

7roir)o-dra)o-av.

See the note on Philad. 1

.

Geos]

as

God

;

i.e.

'that

He may

The meaning
53
I

of Philo Qui's rer. div.

1-

tt]s,

P- 5 1 J ) quoted by Zahn, onpocprjKai o7t6t€ Xtyeiv 8o<el, npbs aXr)-

Oeiav rjo-vxa&h 1S
'

somewhat

different,

he seems to speak, it is God who speaks and not himself.' The force of yLvcoo-Krjrai seems to be may be recognized, understood by others, as if he were speaking.' Otherwise
'

When

be the God of this spiritual temple in which He dwells, just as the image is the god of the material shrine in which it is placed the word Qebs being part of the predicate, and not the subject to KaroiKel. 'Hpcov, which is added in some texts, interferes slightly with the sense. See the note on § 9 icrre ovv k.t.X. above.
'
:

yiva>o~Kr)Tai

by God
but this
1.

(a

might refer to recognition meaning suggested by the
k.t.X.)
;

onep Kal eariv k.t.X.] i.e. It is the case that God dwells in us now, and
this fact will
fest to

'

words following ovdev XavOdvei
is

be

made

clearly

mani-

hardly so appropriate.
k.t.X.]

ovdev

Clem.

Rom. 27

our eyes hereafter from our deeds of love towards Him'; comp.
'

TTCLvra
7Tiov

iyyvs avrco io~riv...7rdvra ivcoavrov elaiv Kal ovdev XeXrjOev rfjv

§ 14 St oov jrpdaaovaiv ocpdrjaovrai.
'

5.

diKaicos]
;

rightly]

i.e.

as in
ov

fiovXrjv avrov.
2.

duty bound''

comp.
I

Magn. 9

avrcp]

For

the

dative

with

dtKaicos dvepevov,
diKaicos.

Cor. xv. 34
it

iKvrjy\raTe

iyyvs comp. Ps. cxliv (cxlv). 18, Acts
ix. 38, xxvii. 8,

Hence
see

sometimes

signi-

Vis.
p.

ii.

3

;

Clem. Rom. I.e., Herm. see Bleek Hebrderbr. II. 2.
genitive
is

fies

'truly';
'

Lobeck on Soph.
deceived.

Aj\ 547-

209.

The

the

more

XVI.
late the

Be not

To

vio-

usual case, and in classical Greek the dative is very rare; Kiihner II.
p.

house of

God

is

to forfeit

the

357.

The

authorities

leave no

doubt about the reading here.
4.
vi.

vao\]

Comp.

1

Cor.

iii.

16, 17,

16; and Philad. 7 ttjv ordpua vpoov cos vabv Qeov rt]pe7re, Barnab. 16 "iva 6 vabs tov Kvpiov
19, 2 Cor. vi.

of heaven. If those desecrated the temple of their bodies were punished with death, what fate must await such as defile the temple of the faith, for which Christ died? They are filthy in-

kingdom

who

deed, and will go into unquenchable
fire

evdo^cos

olKodoprj6r]...dio

iv r&) Karoi-

— they and their disciples.'
M?)

o KT]Trjpico fjpwv aXrjdcos

Qebs KaroiKel iv

7.

nXavdo-6e\

See the

notes

xvi]
5

TO THE EPHESIANS.
wpo
7rpocrco7rov
iJ/ulcov,

7

1

creTai
clutov.

ihv

SiKaicos

dyaircojjiev

XVI.
BaciAcian
crdpica
(but

Mr\

7r\avacr6e, d$e\(poi juov
oy

ol

oiKO(p66poi
ol

Oeoy

kAhponomh'coycin.

el

ovv

kcltci

Tavra
omits

7rpacrcrovTes diredavov, 7Too"gj fJidXKov eav
0Trep...7]fiuv]

A

h

r]fjuv).

homoeoteleuton);
aovres diridavov']

al. g.

7 oi]

GS 4 Ag;
si

om.

GL; om. S 2 A (perhaps owing to Dam-Rup i. g -rrpdaal. g.

GLS 4 A;
(plur.)

wdaxovres diredvrjaKOv
eai>);

Dam-Rup;
al. g.

edv]

G

Dam-Rup; qui
on

S 4 A (omitting

quis L;

§ 5 prjbeh nXavdadco
3.

above, and on
pasPaul's lanto

Philad.
ol
is

oUocpdopot]
in

The whole
S.

explanation which I have adopted be correct, the following airedavov will probably refer to the incident in

sage

founded on
the
;

Numbers
pr)8e

xxv.

1

9,

to

which also
Tives

S.

guage
8aT€

Corinthians
OTL

Epistle comp. iii. 16 ovk

First

the
o'l-

Paul alludes in the same
TTOpveva>pev,

epistle, x. 8
clvtcHv

Kadcos

VaOS vaov
19,
oi)Te

QeOV
tov

eOTf,

KOI

TO
ei

enopvevaav, <a\ eneaav

k.t.X.

The

in-

nvevua tov Qeov oIkci ev vulv;
tis

terpolator has got

altogether on a

tov
9,

(pdepel tovtov 6 Qeos,
vi.

IO,

fxi)

Qeov cfiOeipei, combined with TrXavaaOe ovTe
'

track, for he paraphrases el de tovs avdpcoTTivovs o'ikovs 8ia(p6eipovTes 6avaT(o KaTabutd^ovTai, nocra

wrong

ol

nopvoi

Qeov
otl

fiao~iXe'iav puOLxpi K\-qpovop.rjcrovo-Lv...ovK o'lbare

paXXov
K.T.X.
8.
I

ol

ttjv

XpicrTOV

eiacXr)o~{av

to ado pa vpaiv

vaos tov ev vplv
;

j3ao-iXeiav
vi.
3,

Qeov

k. t.

A.]
;

See

ayiov

uvevparos

eo~Tiv

Hence

oiko-

Cor.

9,

10, Gal. v.

21

comp.

cpdopos must be interpreted from S. Paul. It denotes those who violate

Philad.
el

ovv

ol

Polyc. Phil. 5. KaTa crdpKa k.t.X.]

Comp.
to.

the temple of their hearts

and bo-

Clem. Ho7n. Ep. ad lac. 7 iroXv yap
deivov
rj

dies, which is God's house, by evil thoughts or evil habits. In classical

poi)(eia toctovtov oo~ov

8ev-

Greek
(pdopla,

olKo(p66pos y

ol/cocpdopelv,

oIko-

Tepela e\eLV avrrjv ttjs KoXdcrecos' errel to. npcoTela toIs ev nXavy ovaiv anoSt'Sorai,
kq\v

commonly

refer to the squan-

cra)<ppova>cnv,

lb.

xvi.

20

dering of property, e.g. Plato Phczd.82 C but occasionally they designate the ruin of a house by offences of another kind, as in Plut. Mor. 12 B ywaaccov
;

p,oi)(eias nvevpaTLKrjs rfjs

Kara

%eipovos \mapxovo~qs.

This
force

crap/ca last pas-

sage
o-dpKa

illustrates

the

of

kclto.

in

the text.
lies in

The excuse

for

oLKocpdoplai yapeTcov, and perhaps in Orac.Sibyll. ii. 258 80X101 r ohocpOopoi
envoi
;

such language
early

the fact that the
cases highly

heresies,

which these writers

comp. Orig.

c.

Cels.

vii.

63

combat, were

in

many

voBeveiv ttjv vtto tiov vopcov irepta TrpoKaTaXrj<pde7crav yvvcuKa KOl (pdeipeiv

immoral

in their tendency, maintain-

tov aXXov dvdpconov oIkov. Whence Hesychius explains olitocpOopoi by poiXoi The word therefore would lend
itself easily to

ing in direct terms the indifference of See the note on sins of the flesh. [Clem. Rom.] ii. 9, where also the
sanctity of the bodily temple is maintained against such pernicious

the application which If the Ignatius here makes of it.

teaching.

72
tt'lvtiv

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
Qeov
ev KaKohihacrKaXia (pdeiprj, vTrep
t)s

[xvi

'Incrovs

6 tolovtos pvirapos yevopevos eU XpiCTOS ecrravpcddr]' to 7rvp to ao-fiea-TOV ^wprja'ei, o/uloicos kcci 6 dicovwv

avTOv.

XVII.
[airrou]
1

Aia tovto
'Iva

\xvpov eXafiev ewi

Trjs

KecpaXrjs 5
fit]

6 Kvpios,
Qeov]
/ca/07

irvin ty\ eKKXtjaia dtydapo'iav.
al. g.

tt'igtiv

GLA;

fidem veram S 4 ; om. Dam-Rup;

KaKodidaaicaXia]
Trail. 6,

Dam-Rup;
similar case

5i5acr/ca\i'ci

G;

al.

g: comp. Philad.

2.

See

where in a

Dam-Rup alone has preserved the correct reading KaTa$-ioTrc<rTev6(j.epoi. 26 toiovtos] GL; otl ovtos Dam-Rup; al. g. (pdeiprj] G; (pdepei Dam-Rup; As g paraphrases Xiiravdels ical al. Ag. pvirapos] GL Dam-Rup; al. A. 6 clvtov] Gg suo LA waxwdets, he would seem to have read rpvcpepos.
; ;
'

1.
i.e.

irio-Tiv

'the

Qeov] teaching
p. 155,

the faith of God of the Gospel.'
','

15, comp. Magn. 9; though hia tovto sometimes refers to the preceding

For
23,

this objective sense of niarts see

clause,

when followed by

Iva,

e.g.

Galatians
iii.

and the notes on
This use
is

i.

Eph.

vi. 13.

23, vi. 10.

so fully

recognised when Ignatius writes, that the definite article is dispensed with, as e.g. in 6eXrjpa (see the note on
§20).

reference to pvpov eXafiev] the incident in the Gospels ; Matt,
xxvi. 7 sq,

A

Mark

xiv. 3 sq,

[Luke

vii.

This (pdeiprj] '-any one corrupt? omission of tis in classical writers is not unfrequent see Kiihner II. p. 32
;

37 scl]> John xii. 3 sq. As on that occasion 'the whole house was filled with the odour of the ointment,' so to all time the Church is perfumed with the fragrance of incorruptibility

sq, Jelf § 373- 6-

shed
than
Paed.

from

the

'He, not less pvirapos] the other, is defiled with filth.'
2. 3.
iii.

Somewhat
same

similarly

Person of Christ. Clem. Alex.

to irvp to aafieo-Tov] See Matt,
12,

Luke

iii.

17,

and

esp.

Mark

ii. 8 (p. 205), speaking of this incident, says bvvaTai be tovto avpfioXov elvai ttjs dibao-KaXias ttjs

ix.

43.

KvpiaKtjs Kal tov

nadovs avTOv
k.t.X.,

'

pvpai

XVII. 'The Lord's head was perfumed with ointment, that He might
shed the fragrance of incorruptibility on the Church. Suffer not yourselves to be anointed with the foul odour of the teaching of the Prince We have received the of this world. knowledge of God, which is Jesus
Christ.

yap

eva>8ei aXet(p6pevoi

where

of the

Clement explains the anointed feet Lord to mean the Apostles
received the fragrant chrism of Comp. Clem. Horn.
r)

who
xiii.

the Holy Spirit.
15
dyaOrj
vi.

awcppcov yvvr)

ttjv enKXrjcriav
c.

Tip.fi

pvpi^ei, Orig.

Cels.
ttjs

79 ct« Xpicrrbs

KecpaXrj eaTiv

How

then shall

we

ignore
us,

eKKkrjo-ias, <os eivai ev o~a>p,a
tt)v eKKkrjO'iav,

XpiaTov

km

His grace bestowed upon

and

perish in our folly?' Aia tovto] to be connected with 5. the following "iva, as in 2 Cor. xiii. 10,
2 Thess.
ii.

to pvpov airo KecpaXfjs KaTafiefirjuev k.t.X. (with the whole con-

text),

Macar. Magn. Apocr.

iii.

14

(p.

11,

1

Tim.

i.

16,

Philem.

23) to ovpaviov pvpov (said of Christ, in reference to the incident at Beth-

XVIl]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
Suo-toS'iav t*7?
fxrj

'

*>

dXeKpeo-Oe
aitovos
(^ijv.

S^acrfcaX/as rod apyovros rov
e'/c

tovtov,

al-^fjiaXoiTLan vixas

rod

7rpOKei/uLevov

Sid tl he ov 7rdvT6s
'

(ppoPL/uoi jivo/meSa A«/3o^T65

io

Oeo v

yvioa-LVy

o

icrriv

Irjaous

XpurTOs

;

tl

puoptds

diroWvixeda dyvoovvres to yapuriia o
6 cos 6 Kuptos
om. g Antioch
a.\ei(piadu}...7]
2.
;

7re7rofJi(bev

d\r\-

/at?

aXeicpeaBe]

GLA;

prjdels ovv

aXeKptedw [Antioch]

;

/it?

ay ia rod deov

eKKXrjcrla [g*].

7 tt?s 5i5a<r/caXi'as]

G;

5i5a<r/caXi'as
(os)

[g]; doctrinae

L;

awiarlas Antioch; iniquitatis A.
11 x^P'O'Ma]

10 0]

G; qui

L;

dub.

A; al

g.

GL[g];
for

x<*P lv

[Antioch]; dub. A.

Zahn con-

jectures XP'^Ma.

There

is

a

v.

I.

x^o^a

XP"^
virep
t?s

GL;

ireirovdev

A

Antioch (who paraphrases,

in 1 Joh. ii. 27. irewopQev] weTrovdev aXrjdQs 6 Kvpios) al. g.
;

any). truly remarks that the allusion here implies a knowledge of
S.

Zahn

read 8vaco8eis for 8vaei8eis. See also Magn. IO dno rfjs oapfjs eXeyxQrjaeaOe.
rov dpxovros K.r.X.] The same expression occurs below § 19, Magn. 1, Trail. 4, Rom. 7, Philad. 6; comp.
xii. 31, xiv. 30, xvi. 11, 6 apx<ov rov Koafiov rovrov, I Cor. ii. 6, 8, oi apxovres rov ala>vos rovrov (this later

k.t.\.),

John's Gospel (17 8e oueia eVXrjpw'&r as well as of S. Matthew's
errl

(/care'xeei/

rfjs

K€(f)aXfjs

avrov)

or

S.

Mark's (Kare^eev avrov
6.
',

rfjs KeCpaXfjs).

John

avrov] not avrov on Col. i. 20, 22.
'

see the notes

dcpdapalav] 'incorruptibility] rather than immortalityI here, as the

requires comp. and so prob. Magn. 6 eis rvrrov <a\ dtda^Tjv At dcpdapaias. least the former idea must be promi(pOeiprj
;

preceding Ephes. vi.

24,

phrase however apparently being used S. Paul of earthly powers). 8. p.f) alxp-oXoaricTT) K.r.X.] 'lest he lead us captive and carry us away from the life etc' For the condensed

by

nent here, though the latter may not be absent. Zahn quotes Iren. iii. 11. 8
navra-^odev irviovras rr\v d(pdapo~lav said of the Gospels (so too i. 4. 1 68pfj

expression alxpoXcorl^eiv ck rov K.r.X., see the note on § 1 8e8epevov arro

For alxpaXario-T) comp. Phi2vplas> lad. 2 alxpa)<u> TL Cova lv tovs 6eo8popovs,
'

2

Tim.

iii.

6 alxpaXcorl£ovres yvvat-

d(p6apaias,

i.

6.

I

7rvofj

dcpdapaias).

Comp. Apost.
rovpev
trot.. .km

Const,

vii.

vnep
rov

rfjs

27 evxapiaeva>8las rov

Kapia (the correct reading). rov npoKecpevov {jjv\ 'the life which is set before us] i.e. 'for us to pursue.'

pvpov
K.r.X.

Kal

virep

ddavdrov alcovos

See Harnack in Zeitschr.
IT.

f

Kirchengesch.
7.

p. 295.

For this sense of irpoKelpevos comp. Heb. vi. 18, xii. I, 2. For the substantival use of £fjv see the note on
§ 11
9.

8vaco8lav] Liturg. D. Jac. p. 40 eva>8laaov r)u,a>v to 8vaa>8es rfjs ^VXV S
Kal rov acofxaros;

above.
l

Xaftovres]

by

receiving?

It

comp. Ep. Viemi.
I

in

Euseb. H. E.
86res

v.

rfjv

evco8lav 68<o-

might however be translated 'seeing that we received] but the words in
rcs,

dpa

rf/u

Xpt,arov

coare

iviovs

86£ai Kal pvp<0 KoapiK<2> Kexpladai avrovs, 01 8i KarrjCpels Kal raneivol Kal
8vaet8eis Kal

the following clause, pcopcos, dyvoovvpoint to the former interpretation. o ear iv K.r.X.] Comp. Magn. 10 10.
els

nXeoi

K.r.X.,

irdo~r)s dax r}flocr ^ T s dvdwhere perhaps we should
l' ]

pcrafidXeo-Oe
'Irjo-ovs

veav
Col.

(vpr)V
ii.

o

eariv

Xpicrros,

2

eviyvwiv

74

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
XVIII.
flepi^iua to
efJiov

[xvm

Trvevpa tov (TTavpov,

6 eo-Tiv (TKavlaXov toTs aTricrTOvcriv, n\xiv Se crcorripla

noy cocpoc; noy cyzhththc; ttov kcivKOI fyrj altovios. 6 yap Geo? y\}xu>v crvveTtov ; Xtjcns Ttov Xeyofievoiv
2 begins again here and continues to far? aluvios. It omits i TreplifnjfM k.t.X.] tov crravpov] the rest of the chapter and commences again with § 19. 2 0] G; quae (i.e. GL2A; cruets tuae Anon-Syr 2 ; al. g.
crux = os) L; dub.

2 A Anon-Syr 2

;

al. g.

Vfiiv

de]

GL

Anon-Syr 2
4

;

ttkxto?s [g]. vfuv 5t 2; sed vobis fidelibus A; rots hk in salutem et in vitam aeternam 2 Anon-Syr2 ;

<rarripla...al<bvios]
.

GLAg

o-vverC)v\ viro]

GLA

Tim-Syr 2; dwaruv g. GG' Theodt; e/c [g]; ex L; dub.
tov

5

0]

G; om. G' Theodt;

al. g.

A

Tim-Syr.
CO

Mapias]

txt

GLAg

jxv(TTT]piov

tov Qeov, XpiaTov €V

elcriv

ndvTes

01 dr)o~avpo\ ttJs o~o(pias Kai

yvcocrecos airoKpvcpoi (the

correct readof

Ephraem Syrus Op. Syr. III. p. 494 E 'crucem tuam adoravi,' which seems to be a reminiscence of the
in

ing).

The knowledge

God

is

coo,

extensive with Jesus Christ.

For

where we should expect rjns, see the note on Col. iii. 14 tt\v aycmr)v 6 ea-riv
avvb eap.os
reading).
K

Syriac version of 7r epn/z^p.a to ip.bv tov o-Tcivpov here, 'adorat spiritus meus crucem tuam.'
Trv€vp.a
2.

o io-Tiv o-KcivdaXov]
1

A

reminis-

rrjs

reXeioTrjTos (the correct
is

cence of
Gal. v.

Cor.

i.

It

not

uncommon
I.e.,

in

11.

The

24; comp. Cross was still a
18, 23,

these epistles;

Magn.

Trail. 7,
is

Rom.

7.

The reading however
;

stumblingblock, as it had been in the Apostolic age; but the persons

doubtful here

XVIII.

'I

see the upper note. am the devoted slave
It is

who stumbled at it were The stumblers, to whom
seems especially
to

different.

of the Cross.

a scandal to the

Ignatius allude in a<dv;

unbeliever, but salvation and life to In it the boast of this world's us.

wisdom comes God's scheme

to nought. Such was for our redemption.

dakov here, are the Docetics see on Philad. 8, and I. p. 359 sq, 568 sq. An inexact ttov o~o(j)6s /c.r.X.] 3.

quotation from
ttov

1

Cor.
ttov

i.

20 ttov aocpos;
tov

Jesus Christ our

God was born

as a

ypap.p.arevs

;

crvv£r)Tr)Tr} y

man. He was Himself baptized that by His passion He might cleanse the
waters of baptism for
'

alcovos

tovtov; which words themselves are a free paraphrase of Isaiah

us.'

xxxiii. 18.
Kavxr]o~is

The
tcov

following clause,
crvveTcov,

ttov
IS

1

.

nepn/z^/xa]
8.

the note on §
is

the offscourings ; see Here also the idea

Xeyopevcov
;

Ignatius'

own

but

it is

suggested by
14,

twofold, abasement
'

and

self-sacri-

the quotation from Isaiah xxix.
avveaiv tcov ctvvctcov
S.
(i.

fice

;

My spirit bows itself at the foot
'

AttoXco ttju o~o(piav tcov croepcov kcu ttjv
ddeTrjcrto,

itself for

of the Cross,' and 'My spirit devotes the sake of the Cross.' I

which

am

content,' Ignatius

would

say, 'to

Paul introduces into his context 19), combined with other expres(i.

give up everything, and to become myself as nothing, for that Cross in

sions of the Apostle in this neigh-

bourhood
KavxdcrOco,

31 6 <avxcop.evos ev Kvpico
ix.

which others find only a stumblingZahn points out a passage block.'

a condensed quotation of
23, 24,

the passage in Jeremiah

XVlli]

TO THE UfrittSIANS. 1U Ltiti EPHESIANS.
6 XpiCTTOS 6KVO(f)Op))6t] V7TO
(nrepfJiaTOs
kcli

Jc

5 'ItlffOVS

MaplCtS KCtT OIKOVOTrvevfjLaros

/mtav,

eK

jmev

Aavelh
iva

he

dyiov
vScop

6s

iyevvrjdri

e(3ct7rTi(r6ri

tw

irddei

to

Km ,6api(rrj.
Tim-Syr
dei
;

add.

ttjs

irapdevov G'.

kclt'

olKovofxiav]

KaroLKovofilav G.
;

olKovo/jtiav]

GG'L

add. dei patris [A] (the whole sentence being in brackets) add. 6 Aauei<5] 5a5 GG'. Theodt Tim-Syr irveufxa.To<i\

g*

;

GG'Lg*
/jLev...5e

7

For (with a v.l.); e/c irvetifxaTos Theodt, and so prob. Tim-Syr; dub. A. Tim-Syr has a simple connecting particle e semine dauid et e spiritu sancto. iva...Kadapiarj] GG'L; ut aquas passibiles purgaret Tim-Syr, so that his trans;

lator apparently read rod iradeiv for t<£ Tradei
tva to dvqrov
r}fi<2v

ut purgaret aquae corruptionem

A

;

Kadapicrdrj

Theodt;
avrov
iii.

al. g.

fir]

<av)(aadoi 6

o~o(f)6s

iv

rfj crocpia

k.t.X.)

and elsewhere (Rom.
rj

27

tvov ovv
4-

Kav-^rjCTLS

;).

o

yap Qebs

i]p.cov]

See the note

on that passage, where the history of the word is more fully traced. In this passage of Ignatius it is moreover connected with the 'reserve' of

on

this expression in inscr. above.
5.

'was borne in the wo?nb? For the word comp. Clem. Rom. 20. It is found once in the LXX, Eccles. xi. 5, and occurs several
eKvocfroprjOr)]

God (§19 iv rjo-vxi-q Qeov eVpa;^??). Thus 'economy' has already reached its first stage on the way to the sense of 'dissimulation,' which was afterwards connected with it, and which
led to disastrous consequences in the theology and practice of a later age. 6. e< aneppLaros AavelS] This is

times in late classical writers.
v7t6
kclt

Mapias]

See above, § 7. olKnvopLiav] according
'

to

a

dispensation.'' came to be applied

The word
more

oiKovop.ia

the

way
;

in

which Ignatius delights

especially

to represent the

human

nature of our

to the Incarnation (as here
§

and below

20 f)$ Tjp£dp.rjv olKovopLas k.t.X.), because this was par excellence the

Lord Rom.

system or plan which God had ordained for the government of His household and the dispensation of His stores. Hence in the province ed
of theology, oiKovop.la by the fathers

comp. § 20 below, Trail. 9, It is 7, Smyrn. 1. generally counterbalanced by a reference to His Divine nature, as here (6 Qe6s
ijpLcov,

nvevpLaros ayiov)

;

except where,
is

as in Trail. 9, his object assert the reality of the

merely

to

human
See

naesp.

was distinguishfrom OeoXoyia

ture against the Docetics. Tertull. Cam. Chr. 21.
'

proper, the former being the teaching which was concerned with the Incar-

not 'begotten,' but 7. iyewr)6-q\ born] as in Trail. 9 comp. Smyrn.
;

consequences, and the latter the teaching which related to the Eternal and Divine nature of Christ. The first step towards this
its

nation and

1.

So Luke i. tva rw nadei

13, 57, xxiii. 29, etc.
k.t.X.]

The baptism

of

special appropriation of olK.ovopi.La to the Incarnation is found in S. Paul;
e.g. Ephes. olKovop.iav tov See the note TrXr/pco'/Maror ratv KaipSv.
i.

Christ might in a certain sense be said, in the language of our liturgy, to 'sanctify water to the mystical

IO

els

washing away of sin' (comp. Tertull. but it was adv. Jud. 8, de Bapt. 9) the death of Christ which gave their
;

76

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
XIX.

[xix

Kat e\a6ev tov ap^ovra tov aicovos tovtov

but omitted in Jerome's version) Euseb Andri ko.1] GG'LAg Orig (Gk, i Maplas] txt Cret Tim-Syr; sed Anon-Syr 2 ; om. 2. ro/ceros] GG'g etc. ; add. ttjs aeiirapdivov /ecu &€Ot6kov G\ etc

GL

;

wapurifying effect to the baptismal The baptism was only the inters.
auguration of this sanctifying process. XIX. 'This divine economy was

who has quoted also the previous Of these writers however, context.
Basil and Jerome have obviously taken the reference, not from Ignatius himself, but from Origen, whose comment they mix up with the statement of Ignatius, as Cotelier has

hidden
world.

from

the

prince

of

this

Mary, her child-bearing, the death of the Lord these three mysteries, though destined to be proclaimed aloud, were wrought in the silence of God. The announcement was first made to all
virginity of

The

The passage was appamind of the commentator who bears the name of
pointed out.
rently also in the
p.

the ages by the appearance of a star, which outshone all the celestial
lights,

Theophilus of Antioch {in Evang. i, 280 Otto), of Ephrem Syrus

{Hymn.
sq),

19,

quoted by Merx,

and

and

stars

which sun and moon did obeisance. They were
to
this strange apparition.
;

of S.
1.

Ambrose on Luke
1

{Op.

p.

28 1

74 27 'ut virginitas Marias
p.
i.

terrified

at

Magic vanished before it ignorance was done away the ancient kingdom of evil was destroyed, when God appeared in the form of Man. Thus the eternal counsel of God was inau;

principem mundi'), of Cyrillonas the Syrian poet (Bickell Consp. Rer. Syr. Lit. pp. 34, 35, quoted by Zahn /. v. A. p. 187), of Anastasius
falleret

{de Beet. Ver.

Dogm. quoted by Pearand
;

son

V. I. p. 81),

certainly of a

gurated.

And

the whole

universe
disso-

lution of death
i.

was confounded because the was purposed.'
Ka\ Tkadev
k.t.A.]
is

Syrian Commentator on S. John (Cureton C. I. p. 285 this was either Harith-bar-Sisin, or Lazarus of Beth-

This passage
in the Igna-

more frequently quoted by the
any other

fathers than

Kandasa see Wright Catal. Syr. Manuscr. Brit. Mus. pp. 608, 610). The idea that the Deceiver was
;

It is cited or referred tian Epistles. to by Origen {Horn. i?i Luc. vi, Op.

reserve

himself deceived by God's mysterious is found in many connexions
besides the passages already quoted, Justin Martyr in Iren. v. 26. 2 2aTavas...p.rjheTTOi
Kpicriv,
Idoi)

938 a), by Eusebius {Quaest. ad Steph. 1, Op. iv. p. 881. ed. Migne), by Basil (Horn, in Sand. Chr. Gen.
III. p.

in the early fathers; see for instance,

3,

Op. 11. p. 598 B), by Jerome {Comm. in Matt. § 1, Op. vn. p. 12 b), by Jovius Monachus {de Oecon.
i.

ciScoy

avrov
p.

tt]v

Kara-

Hippol. Op.

38 (Lagarde)
fiovos,

6

Kvptos 7rapayiv€Tai \iros,

vii,

by

Phot. Bid/, ccxxii, p. 622), Andreas Cretensis (Horn, in
in
V. I. ii, in Pearson and by an anonymous Mono-

yvpvos, aivpo<TTaTevTos, evdvp.a e'xoov to dvOpcoTTivov (ra>p,a } KpvTTTcov 8e to
iva Xd6rj tov deorr/TOS a^tco/Lta dpaKOVTos to 7ravovpyr)p.a...aWa /cat cos audpeonos Xitos kcu vttoxp^^s dp.apTicov
ttjs

Nativ. B. Virg.
p. 87),

physite writer preserved in a Syriac version (Cureton C. I. p. 219 see
;

eickivev ttjv KfCpaXr/v

avrov ^aTTTLcrQrj-

*k P- 359)5 besides Timotheus of Alexandria (Cureton C. I. p. 211)

vai

k.t.X. (a

been

passage which may have suggested by the words of

xix]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
Mapla? Kal
6 tok€to<s avTrjs,
o/ulolco^

JJ

r\

TrapOevia
t6ko$

Kal 6
oyttoiajs)

Andr-Cret.

avTrj$...b ddvaros]
bfxoius Kal)
;

GG'L2 3

(which omits

A

(which has verum etiam for
(comp. Jov Kal
ib.
rrjv

g Euseb Andr-Cret Tim-Syr Anon-Syr
:

(Travpoxxiv)

om. S 2

see the lower note.

Ignatius),

p.

146 tovto de oIkoiva px\ o

would be equally valid against

6 to-

vofita
iv

roii irvevp-aros eyivero,
crvvir)

kctos avTtjs as against 6 Odvaros tov

diaftoXos

ra vnb ra>v npoCprjT&v
k.t.X.

7rapa/3oXaTs XeXaX^/xeVa

So

Kvplov. Again Theophilus of Antioch (if indeed we could venture to

too Greg. Nyss. Orat. Catech. 26 (11. p. 68 Migne) dnaTarai yap icai avTos
tg>

consider this commentary his genuine work) does not directly refer to the

tov dvdpanrov TrpofSXrjpaTi
ra>

6

npo-

passage at

all,

and therefore any

allu-

anaT^aas tov avOpoonov
SeXeao-ftart,

rfjs ydovfjs

and

for

other passages

sion to the death would be altogether out of place. Eusebius, the next
writer in point of time who quotes the passage, quotes the clause Ka\ 6 Oavaros k.t.\. also. Cureton alleges likewise the Pseudo- Ignatius {Philipp. 8),

in

writers

of the fourth
see

and

later

centuries
v. d.
2.

Baur
p.

Christl.

Lehre

Versbhnung

73 sq.

6p.oiois Kal k.t.X.]

For
16,

this

mode

of connexion

13: similarly (oo-avrcos kcu Clem. Rom. 43. In one of the two mss (2 2 ) of the

see §

Trail.

and

who mentions the virginity birth alone as being hidden from Satan; but here again the answer is
at all with the

Curetonian text this clause

is

omitted,

the same.

and the words run 'the virginity of Mary and the birth of our Lord and the three mysteries of a cry. Thus
'

This writer is not condeath of Christ. Moreover this very instance shows the fallacy of the argument from sicerned

the three mysteries are dissociated from the virginity and child-bearing.

lence; for this Ignatian forger certainly had Ka\ 6 Qdvaros tov Kvplov in

This reading has been adopted by Cureton (C. I. p. 284 sq), Lipsius

and

(Aecht. p. 128 sq, S. T. pp. 9, 36, 194), others, as the text of the original
;

Ignatius

and

is

adduced as an arguCuretonian

own recension shows. (2) It is urged that the statement involved in 6 Odvaros tov Kvplov is false for, since Satan is represented in the Gospels as prompting
his text here, as his
;

ment
urged
fold.

for preferring the
in

letters to the Vossian.

The reasons

Judas to the betrayal (Luke xxii. 3, John xiii. 2), he could not have been
ignorant of the death.

(1)

favour of this view are twoIt is said that the earliest
or refer to the

Nor
(p.

is

the

answer given by Uhlhorn

48)

and

writers

who quote

passage (Origen and Theophilus of
Antioch) stop short of the death of The answer is, that they Christ. were speaking of the virginity of

Hefele, that this ignorance of Satan applied to the predeterminate counsel

of

God and

not to

the historical

Mary and the birth of Christ alone, and therefore quoted, or referred to, just so much only of Ignatius' words
as served their purpose. In the case of Origen the argument is suicidal for he ends with 7 napBevia Mapias, so that the testimony of his silence
;

It is not howevent, satisfactory. ever the fact of the death, but the significance and effects of the death,

to

which Ignatius refers. The prince of this world instigated the death of Christ, not knowing that it was ordained to be the
life

Thus
ceived.

the deceiver

of mankind. was himself deCor.
ii.

See esp.

1

7 sq Xa-

7*

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
served,

[xix

Xovfiev Qeov ao^tav ev p.v a t i] p i a>, ttjv dnoKeKpvuiitvrjv, r/v npocdpicrev o Qebs
Trpb t<ov
alcovoov
els

bo^av

rjjxoiv,

r\v

ov8e\s t<ov dpx^ VTU>v tov ala>vos

Both these passages, it will be obappear in the Curetonian letters themselves. And, while the mention of Christ's death is thus
suggested by the parallel in S. Paul and required by the context of Ignatius himself, this
it

tovtov eyvooKev'
av tov

el

yap eyucoaav, ovk

Kvpiov ttjs 86^t]s eo~Tavpa)o-av the reference k.t.X., where, as here, is to the mystery of the atonement through the cross of Christ, and on

mode of regarding

entirely accords with the language of other fathers, who speak in the

which passage Chrysostom says to
Ovk eyvaxrav epo\
evTavda
elprjcrdai

8e

same way
specting
xxxiv. 8
it;

doKel ov Trepi

Xpiarov
tov
tl
oiov,

of Satan's ignorance ree.g. Orig. Sel. in Psalm.
ov yivacrKovcri tov

dXXa

7rep\ avrrjs

(commenting on the words
r\v
II. p.

7rpdyp,aTos

ttjs
6

olKOvopias,

eXdeTco avTols irayls
k.t.X.,

efiovXeTO

ddvaTOs

kcu 6 crTavpos,

Op.

650)

voixi^oi irepX

As Ignatius has quoted ovk rj8eio-av. the context of this passage of S. Paul just before, we must suppose that he
had the Apostle's words
here.
oi It is

o

o~Tavpov Xeyetv avrov, ets ov ep.7re7TTa>Kev didftoXos dyvocov k.t.X., Co77im. in
T. xiii § 6,

in his

mind

probable indeed that by

Op. III. p. 583 (comp. in Matth. T. xiii § 9, Op. III. p. 583? w oi 7rapaXa(S6vTes avTov. ..eK tov

Matt.

Comm.

dpxovTfs tov aloovos tovtov S. Paul means earthly rulers, such as Pilate

Kvpiov
o~

€K[xvKTT)pio-6a>criv,

els

KdTaXvuapd
ev

lvttjs I8ias (Sao-iXeias kcu dpxrjs

and Herod but very many ancient commentators (e.g. Marcion in Tertull. adv. Marc. v. 6 Origen Sel. in
;
;

TrpoaboKiav

7rapaXa^6vTes...t)i
£<ofj s 7repi7raTovp.ev).

ov

KaivoTfjTi

The

Psalm, ii, II. p. 538 Tives in Chrysost. on I Cor. ii. 6; Ambrosiaster ad loe.), and some modern, have interpreted the words of spiritual
;

Marcionites used similar language of the demiurge, Adamant. Dial, de Rect. Fid. ii 6 t)r)p,iovpybs...e7re(3ovXevaev avrco, fxr] el8<os on 6 Sdvaros tov dyadov crcoT-qpia avdp(07ru>v eyevero. See also the references in the previous note on the idea of the Deceiver deceived.

powers, and

Ignatius

is

likely

to

have done the same. Even if he did not, he would still regard the earthly rulers as acting under the
dpxcov tov alwvos tovtov in this crime.

Indeed the mention of the
of Christ'
is

'

death

On the other hand the shorter reading, which omits the reference to the death, is condemned alike on
grounds
criticism.

required by the context. Here, as elsewhere in Ignatius, the nddos is the centre round which his

of external
(1)

and

internal

Though one

of the

two MSS

(2 2 ) of the Syriac

has the pas-

thoughts revolve. The Incarnation has its importance mainly in the
fact that
It is
it leads up to the Passion. only the beginning of the end

sage as given above, the other (2 3 ) reads it 'the virginity of Mary and her child-bearing and the death of
the

Lord

(dpxV v

8e

iXdp.(3avev).

The whole

(oD^OSao

CT3.t\c090

passage opens and closes with the death of Christ. It opens with the mention of the 'Cross' which is
'salvation
;

and the three mysteries of ^^iSfl.TJ
crying,' thus only differing in sense from the Greek text by the insertion

and
it

life

eternal'

18 be-

of and' before
insertion

l

to.

rpia ixvo-Trjpia (an

ginning) to the 'dissolution of death' through the sacrifice of Calvary (§19 end).

closes with the reference

which a thoughtless transcriber would readily make). It is

said indeed, that this

MS

(2 3)

must

xix]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
Tp'ia \ivarrr\pia
;

79

davctTOS tov Kvpiov'
1

Kpavyrjs, cctlvu iv

tov

Kvpiov]

rpia fivaTripia]
tria mysteria

lower note.

GG'LSAg Tim-Syr Anon-Syr toO xpwtov Euseb Andr-Cret. GG'LA (which adds mirabilia) g Euseb Andr-Cret Tim-Syr; et 22 2 3 see the Kpavyrjs] GG'LS etc (ppiKra Andr-Cret driva] GG'LS etc; om. A.
.

;

;

have been corrected from the Greek text. But such a solution is highly
improbable in itself; for elsewhere 2 3 follows the Curetonian text closely in all the omissions and divergences from the Greek. In the only other passage of importance in which it
exhibits a variation,
al
p.r)

what has gone
been

before, has never yet
'

What adequately explained. in this case are the three mysteries of crying'? Cureton altogether evades this difficulty when he says
(C. I. p. 286) that they may 'refer to the song of the angelic host,' Luke ii. 14; for there is nothing in this

Rom. 9
rrj

kqx

yap

nporrriKovcrai poi
it

6Sco,

where

song which explains such a reference.
Ritschl {Entstehiuig
p.

with the Greek
tive
ixrj,

retains the nega-

578, ed.

1)

which 2 2 omits, .it clearly

preserves the original reading (see the note there). Even in smaller

and Lipsius (Aecht. p. 133) agree that two of the three were (1) the
voice at the baptism, the transfiguration.
Lipsius
(2)

the voice at anas
20)

matters

uncommonly more correct than 2 2 (see Zahn /. v. A. Again the Armenian Verp. 187).
it

is

not

For the third
angelic
i.

suggests

the

nouncement of the conception

sion,

which was translated from the

made

Syriac, has the clause here as in the Greek and it is quoted or referred
;

either to Joseph (Matt. or to the Virgin herself (Luke

i.

26)

;

in Syriac writers (see the references given above), who were to

while Ritschl supposes that Ignatius used some other Gospel containing a third proclamation similar to the

scarcely likely to have got it from Moreover the omission the Greek.
in

two
tion

others.
is

But,

if

the transfigura-

2 2 is readily explained. The eye of the transcriber would be confused

between words differing so slightly as en .l\ci£act 'and her child-bear-

allowed a place here, why not the death ? And again, in what sense can the announcements of Matt. i. 20, Luke i. 26 be called that they were strictly Kpavyrjs, seeing
S. private ? Volkmar (see Lipsius T. p. 9 sq) finds all the three \xvo~tj\pia Kpavyrjs in S. Mark, explaining them of the voice at the baptism,

and cn^C\273C\ 'and the death of,' so that the latter word might easily drop out and as a matter of fact this same confusion is actually made in Rom. 6, where tokctos is
ing,'
;

the voice at the transfiguration, and the exclamation of the centurion at
the crucifixion (Mark xv. he includes this last, it is to see on what grounds he
Oavaros tov Kvpiov.
I.

rightly translated in the Curetonian text dolores partus, but an extract

39).

As

difficult

elsewhere preserved gives
the

it

with
for

rejects 6

corrupt

reading

K^GSfl

K\i\c\5rt. and accordingly the Armenian version has dolores mortis (2) (see the notes on the passage). The reading of 2 2 which distin,

Kpavyys]

'of crying,
stronger

of pro-

clamation,'
Kr) P v£ea>s
:

a

word than

€7TLTpe\j/aT€

see Athenag. Suppl. 1 1 ivTavBa tov Xoyov e^a<ov-

guishes

the

three

mysteries

from

cttov p.cTa

noXXfjs Kpavyrjs yeyo-

8o
Y\arvyia
ctcrTrjp
i

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
Qeov ewpd^dr].
GG'LSA
all this

[XIX

7rws ovv ecpaveptadr] rdls aicoa-iu;

ev ovpavco eXafx^ev virep iravras tovs darTepas,
Euseb Andr-Cret Tim-Syr
has merely a latere
(a
;

GeoD]

om.

g.

ttws ovv

.

.

.airroh]

In place of
votos

2

Syriasm
p.

for diro or ck or wapa) stellae.

em

napp-qcriav avayayeiv a>s
cf)i\o(r6<fia>v

em

Marc.

16,

Lit.

S. Basil,

p.

164

ftao-iXeoav

aTroXoyovp.evov

(ed. Neale).
fivo-Tripia
(i.

So

in

Chrysostom the
VII. p. 310, VIII.

(comp. Luke i. 42 Kpavyfj p,eydXrj, probably the correct reading). Comp. also Philad. 7 eKpavyaaa, with the
note.

e.

the eucharist) are styled

cppiKTa, 4>piKc68r),
p.

Op.
393,

273,

x.

p.

and elsewhere.
evapyrj for Kpav-

Here

Kpavyrj

is

the

correis

Bunsen would read
yrjs-

lative to jjcrvxia, as revelation

to

mystery.
tius

'These mysteries/ Ignawould say, were foreordained
'

ev r)o-vxiq...eivpdx8ri\

Comp. Magn.

and prepared

in silence

by God, that

8 6 qyavepcoaas eavrov 81a 'irjcrov Xpiarov tov vlov avrov, os ecrriv avTov Xoyos
drrb
aiyrjs irpoeXdoav

they might be proclaimed aloud to a startled world.' It is an exaggerated expression of the truth stated
in

(with the note).

On
p,ev

this

silence

of

Dionys. Areop. de Div.
ovv avTrjs,
elprjvrjs

God compare Nom. xi -rrepX
ecrn,
rrjs

Rom.

xvi.

25 to Ktjpvyfia

'lrjo-ov

o

tl

7rore

Xpio-rov Kara aTTOKokv^nv p.vo-Trjp iov

deias

Ka\ rjcrvxias k.t.X.

See

Xpovois alcoviois
vepcaSevTos
9 TOV
fte

o~€o~ ty rjfxevov (pavvv k.t.X., Ephes. iii.

also

the language of Marcellus of
8.

Ancyra quoted on Magn.
1.

p.V(TT7] p'lOV

TOV

O.TT

OK€ K pV }l-

rols al&o-iv] 'to the ages' past

fxevov
...iva

dnb

tcov alcovcov ev rc5 Qea>
vvv reus dpxeus koi

and
fied.

future,
It

y

v(tipio~6f)

which are here personiseems probable that in S.
nvo-rrjpiov
diroKe-

reus ef-ovcriais ev toIs errovpaviois k.t.X.

Paul's

expression,

(with the parallel passage Col. i. 26 sq) comp. also 1 Cor. ii. 7 sq (already
;

For the use quoted), 2 Tim. i. 10. of fivo-rrjpiov in S. Paul as suggesting
the idea of revelation, see the note

(Eph. iii. 9, Col. i. 26), the preposition should be taken as temporal (see the note on but Ignatius the latter passage)
Kpvp,p,evov
;

ano

tu>v alcovav

may have
At
all

on

expression p.va studied o-Trjpia Kpavyrjs involves contradiction in terms for, as Chry;

Col.

i.

26.

The

it otherwise. events this personification of 'the aeons' is a step towards the

understood

sostom says (Op.

II.

p. 375), evBa \xv-

(TTijpia, TroXXr) criyr).

Valentinian phraseology, and affords another illustration of the Gnostic tinge which colours the language of
Ignatius.
2.

The
yrjs in

substitution of qbpiKTa for KpavAndreas Cretensis is not to
(p.

do-Trip]

In the evangelical nar-

be explained with Merx

76)

as

a corruption of upvirrd, this again being corrupted from Kpavyrjs. It is merely the substitution, in a loose quotation, of a common epithet of
(occurring in the liturgies) for a not very intelligible expression.
p.vo-Trjpiov

rative (Matt. ii. 2 sq) the incident of the star is very simply told but this simplicity was early overlaid by
;

So we find it gross exaggerations. treated in the Protevange/ium, § 21
e'idopev

darepa

7rap,[xeyedr) Xdp,y\ravra ev

The

epithet cppiKTov

is

found with

ao-rpois tovtois ko.1 dfxjSXvvovTa avrovs, coore tovs darepas p.r) (paivecrOai. to7s
[I

fivo-TrjpLov, e.g.

Hippol.

p.

Joseph. B. J. ii. 8. 5, 17 (Lagarde), Lit. D.

may

here

mention by way of

caution, that Lipsius (Aecht. p. 135)

xix]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
(pcos

81

Kai to
~Xev
y\

avrov dv6K\a\r]TOV rjv, kcli ^€vi<T}jl6v TrapeiKctivoTris avTOv* to. Se \onra Travra acTTpa a/ua
of all the other
stars'
1

erroneously quotes after Cureton as a separate authority, though closely allied, an extract from the MS, Brit.

(Dillmann

1.

c.

Whether Ignatius derived p. 135). his statement from some written narrative or from oral tradition, it would be impossible to say. In the only other passage where he seems to step

Mas. Add.

14, 484,

which Cureton

himself correctly gives as a Syriac translation of this passage in the

Protevangelium (C
the account of the
Catal. p. 99.] Alex. Exc. Theod.

/.

p. 286).

See

outside

of
3,

the

Canonical Gospels,
is

MS in Wright's Compare also Clem.
74
(p.

Smyrn.
able.

either hypothesis

ten-

986)

dve-

reiXev t-evos dijTTjp nai naivos,

Kara-

Xvcov
(pearl

ttjv naXaiav darpodeaiav, Kaiva> ov Koap,iKco Xap.7r6p.evos, o kcllvcls

In the Curetonian letters the whole passage, TrcSy ovv...rj avopoios avrols, is abridged into these words

r^T^QA
stellae,'

odovs Kai acarrjplovs rpenop-evos, avros
6 Kvpios dvdpcoTfcou odrjybs k.t.X., where the resemblances to this passage of Ignatius are perhaps too great to be

.T»^
if it

^3

'a

latere

which

had been

trans-

accidental.
is

Still

more extravagant

the extract which Cureton (C. I. work p. 287) gives from the Syriac called the Cave of Treasures, wrongFor two ly ascribed to Ephrem years before the birth of Christ the
'
:

Greek, would probably represent dno rod darepos. But even if it be rendered 'from the time of the star's appearing with
lated from

the

5

Weiss, Lipsius (Aecht. p. 132), and others (see below, III. p. 90), no good sense is attained. Bunsen boldly substitutes tKrjpvxQl f° r ^pdx^ but
;

appeared to the magi for they beheld the star in the firmament of heaven, which shone with a light, the appearance of which was greater than all the stars; and there was a it holding a boy, girl in the midst of
star
;

what

is

the meaning of ev

rjo-vxla

Gfou eKrjpvxdr]? Cureton does attempt to explain the words.
dve<\d\r]rov] Not a word; see 1 Pet. i. 8, Iren.
3.
i.

not

common
14. 5.

and a crown was placed upon his head, etc.' This extract is taken from the MS Brit. Mus. Add. 25, 875 see
:

''amazement, perplexity] as arising from a sense of strangeness; comp. 1 Pet. iv. 12 p}\ £evigevicrp.bv]

(eo-Oe

rrj

ev

vp.lv

nvpcoo-ei
cos

npbs

irei-

Wright's Catal. p. 1064. account of the appearance of the is found virgin and child in the star
also
in

A

similar

pao-p.bv vp.lv yivop.evrj,

gevov

vfilv

avpifiaivovros,

meaning.
o-ovrai

which explains the See the note on ^evio-Qi]ii.
'•

the

Adam and
Christliche

^Ethiopic Conflict of Eve, of which the Syriac

Cave of Treasures is apparently only another recension (see Dillmann Das

17 [Clem. Rom.] substantive occurs occasionally elsewhere in the sense which it has here ;

The

Adambuch
9
sq,

des Morgenis

landes p.

in

Ewald's Jahrthere

biicher no. v), but nothing

said of the two years. The star however is there stated, as here, to have

Polyb. xv. 17. 1 vvyicivel eKaarov rjp.U)V 6 £evio-p.os. The conception 4. ra Se XoiTra K.r.X-] here is obviously taken from Joseph's and it may therefore be a
e.g.

trus

dream,

'shone in the heavens in the midst

this as

intended question how far Ignatius a description of actual phy-

IGN.

II.

82
fjXid)

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
Kai
creArjvrj

[xix
r\v

x P^ iy^ eT0
<p(ios

V7T€pl3d\\a)v to
i

d&Tepi, avros Si avrov virep TrdvTa' Tapa^rj T6

r\v

x°pte] G'

;

x w/>° s

G

(but with a blot

which may be intended as a correction

into X°P°s)3 odev]

eytv€To]
'ivOev [g].

GG';

GG';

From
omnia

2 re] GG'Ag; autem {8e) L. iyivovro g. this point 2 reads ^/w/« adhuc in manifestatione filii

cocpit aboleri

magia

destruebatur.

vinculo, evanuerunt et regnutn vetus et error malitiae hide comtnota sunt simul omnia et dissolutio mortis excogitata est, et
et

erat initium

Mi quod

in deo {apud deum) perfectum

est,

where the

epistle ends, so

that §§ 20, 21 are omitted altogether.

iXveTo...diecpd€ipeTo,
7]<pavi'^eTo KaKlas,

Qeov k.t.X.]

iXvero iraaa fxayeia (/xayia), Kai

ttoLs 5ecr/j.6s

pyro), traXaid ^aaiXeia ducpdeLpero, Qeov /c.r.X. GG'L, But I am disposed to think that diecpdeipero the editors.

dyvoia Kadripelro (nadr)and so it is universally read by

ought to be omitted, and

the punctuation will be readjusted accordingly, as is done in the text. With perhaps the exception of Severus, I cannot find any trace of dt.e<pdeipeTo in our other authorities:
(i)

g paraphrases
ttoLs

ejxwpaiveTO crocpla Koap.LKij,
rjcpavi^eTO,

yorjreia

vOXos

r\v

Kai
Kai

yeXm

rj

/xayela,

dea/xos

/ca/a'as

dyvoias

£6<pos

dieaKeddvvvTO,

TvpavviKT)

dpxv

KaOrjpelro,

Qeov
et

^aaiXeia: (i)

A has

k.t.\., where rvpavvLKT] dpxv is the substitute for 7ra\cu& hinc solvebatur omnis incantatio astrologorum (= iXvero iracra

jxayeia Kai iras 8eo-fxos) et deceptiones

vetus regnutn destruebatur (KadrjpeiTo

mali finiebantur {i\<pavi'£eTo KaKlas dyvoia) et waXaid /3acriXe£a) per revelationem dei etc.
all in its
(pas is proaccusative, describing the thing in which the excess took place; as e.g. Aristot. H. A.
light,''

phenomena. The parallel passage of the Excerpta ex Theodoto shows how the already quoted symbol and the thing symbolized might be blended together: see also
sical

where to

bably the cognate

Ephrem
'A

Syrus, Op. Syr. IV. p. 416 star shone forth suddenly with

ix. 29 (p. 618) 7-771/ deiXlav vnepfidXXei tovto to opveov. At least I do not remember any instance where vnep-

light, less than the sun and greater than the sun. It was less than the sun in manifest light; it was greater than he in secret strength by reason of its mystery. A star in the east darted its rays into the house of darkness, etc.'; Marcellus in Euseb. c. Marc.

preternatural

ftaXXeiv signifies 'to make to exceed.' In 2 Mace. iv. 24 vnepftaXoiv tov
'ldacova

the

second

TakavTa dpyvplov TpLaKoaia, accusative is one of

quantity (see

Grimm ad loc).
>e 'there was trouble, know whence came appearance which was
i
-

Tapaxrf Te ty] perplexity, to

this strange

lh

3

(P-

48) ovtos yap

rjv

6 TrjviKavra

so unlike them?
Orig.
c.

For
58
Tjj

KaivoTys
(1.

comp.
Kaivov

(pave\s aarrjp 6 cpepoov re Kai 8r)\a>v ttjv qpepav roT? pdyois, explaining Ps.

Cels.

i.

p.

373) tov
o~vvqBa>v

6(p6ivTa daTepa iv
TvapanXrjo-iov k.t.X.
3.

dvaroXfj

cix (ex). 3. distinction

There

is

the

same

contra-

eivai vop,L£op.ev kcu p.rjdev\

twv

as here, 'the constellations'
star,'

between aarpa and da-Trjp 'the

odev eXveTo]

The

critical

note

single

in

Protev. 21 (quoted

will explain the diplomatic

grounds

above).
1.

x°P° s *yev€To]

Comp.

§ 4, Rotn.

2. 2.

on which I have placed bie(p6eiptTo in brackets, as probably a later and spurious addition. The gain to the
sense
is

v7T(p^aX\(ov k.t.X,] ''surpassing

great and obvious.

Aco-pos

xix]

TO THE EPHESIANS.
r\

&$
b6ev eXvero 7Ta(Ta

iroQev

KdivoTm

r\

dvofjLOios ctvToIs.

/uiayeia Kai iras Seo'/ULOS, tj<pavi(^eTO
(3)

kclkici's

ay voice,
iras

Kadrj-

The

sentence

is

much tumbled about
it

in

2

(as

given above), and retransnal
deap.6s i](pa.i>L£eTo

lated into the

Greek

would run

thus, iXvero p-ayeia

From a comparison of the two Kal KadrjpeXro TraXaia (3aai\eia /cat natdas ayvoia. last it seems to follow that the Syriac Version, of which 2 is a tumbled abridgtext of a secondary translation, must have is a ment and from which
finiebatur

magia et omiie vinculum et error malitiae regnum vetus destruebatur, etc. The scribe of the ancestral MS of GG'L, having begun with a wrong punctuation, found when he got to the end of the sentence that he had no verb for 7ra\cua patnXela and inserted diecpdeipero
run somewhat thus
et
;

corrupt solvebatur omnis

A

accordingly. dissipabatur
HI!!
in his text.
al.
,

Sev-Syr

5

quotes only the latter part of the

sentence,

ignorantia

regnum
is

N^nniD

corrumpebatur {destruebatur), where the last verb a natural rendering of 8t.e(pdelpeTo, which was perhaps already
vetus

4 fiayeia] p,ayia G'.
Kadrjpe'tTo]

Sea/xos]

GG'LS;

dea/xos [g]

;

g; destruebatur A; Ka0T]prJTo GG'; ablata est L. Qeou avdpuir Li>ws (pavepovp.evov] GG'L; qmim deus homo manifestaretur Sev-Syr; Qeov us avdpwTrov <pavepovp.evov g (treating the whole context paraphrastically) ;

A.

per revelationem dei qui incamatus
place in the sentence; see above).
is

est

A; in manifestatione

filii

2

(in

an

earlier

/SacrtXeia

thus connected with eXvero, and with KaOrjpelTO, to which

et species in

genere damnatur.'

The

have respectively a natural whereas in the common For the text they are separated. connexion of \veiv with deaths see Philad. 8 for the connexion of kclBaipelv with power and sovereignty, see above § 13.
they
affinity
;
;

large space which magic, witchcraft, astrology, and the like, occupied in

the popular religion of the heathen, may be seen from the denunciations
of the Christian fathers;
e.g.

Justin

Apol. i. 14, Tertull. Apolog. 23, etc. See the account of Hadrian in Orac.
Sibyll. viii. 56. into paganism
;

The

lapse of Julian

idea that magic was overthrown by the Advent of
4.

payeia]
is

The

was connected with

frequent in the fathers, and this overthrow was commonly conChrist
nected, as here, with the visit and worship of the magi, as the symbol

Eunapius Vit. Soph. magical rites Naz. Oral. 4, p. 89 sq (comp. Greg.
I.

magic

and assurance of
(i.

its

defeat.
c.

See
Cels.
at

e.g.

For the prevalence of Ephesus see Acts xix. 19. nas deo-fios] 'every spell'; comp. Porph. Ep. ad Aneb. p. 5 (ed. Gale)
p.

102).

at

Tertull. de Idol. 9, Orig.
p.

i.

60

374 sq) KaOaipovvrai evepyeiai fxrj hwapevai avn^\iy\taL rep rfjs 6eorr]Tos (pari, with
daijjiovcov

rcov

teapelv re lepovs As Xveiv tovtovs.

rivas
I

deapovs

km

have connected

to witchcraft, incantations,
like,

the words, deapbs will refer especially and the

other references given by Cotelier. The same too is said in Clem. Alex.

though

it

need not be confined

Exc. Theod. 72 sq
1.

(p.
;

986)

more

es-

to these, but will extend to any spell which the powers of evil exert over

pecially of astrology
c.

comp.

Tertull.

a

man

'attamen

cum magia

punitur,

examples of
etc.,

For other (see Philad. 8). this sense of delv, de apos,

cujus est species

astrologia, utique

see iEsch.

Eum.

303 vpvov

S'

6—2

84

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS

[xix

Oeov dv6pc*)7rivu)s peiTO iraXauc ($aai\eia, [pie<p0€ipeTO~], d'ihiou zoohc dp^iv ° 6 tXafx(pavepovjuevov ei$ kainothta
to Trapd Oew dirnpTiorixevov. evSev to, iravTa o-vvEKiveiTO Sid to fJieXeTaa'dai QavaTOv KaTaXvaiv.
fiavev
i eU...^y\{\

GG'L

Sev-Syr; ad vitam novam aeternitatis
apxi)v...KaT&\v<nv~\

A; om. 2;

al.

g.

didiov] deidiov G'.

GG'

(the latter reading eKiveiTo for

aKovaei Tovbe

oVer/uioi/

aedev (comp. ver.

the genitive of apposition

318), Plat. Resp. ii. p. 364 C iirayairial kcu yals Ka.Tadeo-p.oLs comp.
;

Winer
4,

§

lix.

p. 666.

comp. See Rom. vi.
;

where also

Kaivorr/s

faffs
life,'

means
as op-

Justin Dial. 85
kcu 6vpiap.acri

(p.

311 C) ei-opK.i(ovcn

'the

new
to

state

which

is

/cat

Tertull. de
ferro,

Sped. veneno, magicis devinctionibns perfici?' Euseb. L.C. 13 § 4 KaTat)eap,ois
tlctXv
1.

KaTatjcap.ois xP a>VTal ; 2 'vis homicidium

posed
death.
eXnibos.

the old

state

which was
els Kaivor-qra

Comp. Magn. 9
8e
k.t.X.]
i.e.

dpxw

'the

economy

aneLprjpevqs yoi]rel.as. 7ra\cua fiaaiXeia] The ancient

which had

been

kingdom of the Evil One was replaced by the pao-iketa Qeov. The visit of the magi was regarded from
the earliest times as the inauguration of a new kingdom, this being implied
in Matt.
ii.

counsels of God take effect.' The appearance of the star was the beginning of the end.

perfected in the long before began to

2.

Their

gifts

were the
sove-

These words to. ndvra k.t.X.'] be compared with a passage in the Protcvangelium, of striking power, but in its dramatic character
3.

may

offerings
reign.

of subjects

to their

Compare
01
-qcrav

304 D)
pivoi

yap npos

Justin Dial. 78 (p. p,dyoc, ctrives eaKvXevnacrcis KctKas 7rpd£eis

singularly unlike the representations of the Canonical Gospels, where not the universal disturbance, but the

ivepyovpivas vtto tov 8aip,ovtov €K€LVOV, e\66vT€S KCU 7TpO(TKVVljcraVT€S TCO
ras

universal hush, of nature is the consequence of this birth of the Victor

of Death;

§

18 kol dvefiXexjsa

els

tov

Xpiorta (paivovrcu anocTTavTes rrjs ctkvXevcrdarjs avrovs dvvdp.eoos eKetvrjs, Iren.
iii.

aepa kol eidov tov depa eKdauftov kcu dveftXeyjsa els tov noXov tov ovpavov
kcu eidov civtov e or cor a k.t.X.

16. 4, Tertull.
iii.

adv. Jud.

9,

adv.

So too

Marc.

13, etc.

Milton, 'The stars with deep
'

amaze

'when God thus appeared as a man to claim His own KingGfoG]
i.e.

Stand fixt

in stedfast gaze.'

dom.'

The

substitution

of 'at

the

revelation

of the Son' for Qeov dv-

OavaTOv KaTaXvartv] Comp. I Cor. 4. XV. 26 eaxaTos ex6p6s KarapyeiTcu 6 The actual destruction of OdvaTos.

BpamLvois (pavepovuevov in the Curetonian text seems to be a capricious alteration made by the epitomator,

who has abridged and transposed
freely throughout this passage.
is

death is the last scene of all but the appearance of the star was the signal for the commencement of the war destined so to end.
;

This

by reading Armenian, which follows the Greek.
2.

shown

the

of the
'so

els KcuvoTrjTa

k.t.X.] i.e.

as

to introduce a

new order
life,'

of things,

which

is

everlasting

fays being

If God permits me, I inXX. tend to write to you a second treatise, in which I will complete the subject thus begun, God's economy in the Passion and Resurrection of Jesus Christ more especially, if it should
' ;

xx]

TO THE EPHESIANS.

85

XX.
Trpocrev^rj

'Gav

jul€

KctTa^icoo-ri

'Irjcrovs

XpKTTos

ev

ty\

vjulcov, kcli

deAri/ma

rj,

ev tco Sevrepco fiifiXiSiw,
u/uuv
t)s

6 /uteAAu)
OLKOvo/uuas
avveKtveiTo)

ypcKpetv

v/uuv,

7rpocrSriAa)crct)

rippafiriv

eh tov

kclivov av6pco7rov 'hjcrovv

Xpicrrov, ev

LAg
is

ivdev k.t.X.,

Sev-Syr; the order of the two sentences, 6.pxn v transposed in 2.

&

k.t.\.

and

it to me. hear that you all meet together in one in the faith of Jesus Christ, who is both Son of God and

please the Lord to reveal

ii.

Only

let

me

CTKeis

17 Sq Kavxacrai ev Qecp Ka\ yivcoto deXrjpa, I Cor. xvi. 12 ndvTcos
-qv

ovk
in

OeXrjpa tva vvv eX6rj

;

though

Son of Man, and
one

that you are obe-

the former passage the fact is obscured by the proximity of Qea>,
in the

and presbyters, breaking bread, which is the medicine of incorruptibility and the
dient to your bishop

antidote against death.' favourite Igna5. KaTa^Laxrrj]

A

latter BiX-qpa is almost universally misunderstood as applying to Apollos himself. So too Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. 18 (p. 826) deXrjpaTi OeXrjpa kcu r« dyla nvevpaTi to dyiov

and

A.

A

tian
2,

word; Magn.
10,

1,

Trail. 12,

Rom.
1,

nvevpa

deoipelv edi£ovTes.

On the

Other

Philad.
ev

S?ny?-n.

11, Polyc.
l

hand of the
he

devil Heracleon said that

7, 8.
rrj

irpoo-evxfl vpa>v\

i.

e.

through

your prayers.'

The same expression occurs in a similar context, Philad. Z, Smyrn. 1 1. Altogether the 'prayers' of his correspondents occupy a very
letters of Ig-

pr] ex elv QeXrjpa, dXX' eiriOvplas, Orig. The in Ioann. xx. § 20 (iv. p. 339). translators and transcribers of Igna-

tius

however, not understanding this
:

absolute use, have in several instances see the supplied genitive cases
critical
11.

prominent place in the
natius.

He

either asks their prayers
I,

notes on Rom. 1, Smyrn. Compare the absolute use of
ro ovopa, etc.

1,
r)

for himself (§
5, 8,

II,

Magn.

14,

Philad.
at

Xup

1

?,

Smyrn.

11) or for the
9,

Church

Antioch {Rom.

Trail. 13); or

he

gratefully acknowledges the effects of their prayers on behalf of the latter

[Philad. 10, Smyrn. 4, Polyc. 7); or he gives them general injunctions

There is no iv ra devTepa k.t.X.] reason to think that this design was see above, p. 18. ever fulfilled / will go 7. 7rpoo-8rp\a)croi k.t.X.] on to expound the eco?wmy (of the Incarnation) upon which I com:

'

respecting prayer
Trail. 12,
6.

(§ 6,
'

5,

10,

Magn.
1).

7,

menced?
OLK.ovop.iav.
8.

See the note on
tov Kaivbv k.t.X.]
'

§

18

/car'

Smyrn.
i.

OeX-qpa]
is

e.

Polyc. the Divme will.'
either with
<os

It

used thus absolutely several
in

times

Ignatius,

the

definite article (Polyc. 8
Trpoo-Tdo-o-ei)

to deXrjpa

referring Christ? the words being closely connected with The Kaivos avOpanros of olKovopias.
to the

els

new Man, Jesus

or,

(Rom.
pe
he

I

edvnep deXrjpa

as here, without it tov d^icodfjvai fj
I

Ignatius

is

equivalent to the eV^aroy

k.t.X.,
feat

Smyrn.
bvvapiv,

vlbv
1 1

Qeov Kara

of S. 'A§ap, the bevTepos avOpconos, Paul ( 1 Cor. xv. 45, 47)- The Apostle

deXrjpa

KarT]£id)$T)v).

Kara OeXrjpa Examples of both
lb.

kinds appear also in

S. Paul,

Rom.

himself seems to use 6 Kaivos avdpa>TTos- in a different sense, Ephes. iv. 24 evbvaaadai tov Kaivbv avdpconov, though

86
ty\
kclI

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
avrov
7TL(TTei Ktxl ev rfj

[xx

avrov
wavres
kcli

dya7rri, ev iradei

avrov

dvao-rdcrei, /udXicrra edv 6 Kvpios fiOL aTTOKaXv^srr
ol tear

for if

dvlpa

KOtvrj

ev

X^P iTi
'Iricrov

e

'£ ovopctTOs

crvvepx^crde

ev /una Trio-rei

evl

Xpia-rtp
kcli

rco
vlco 5

Kara crdpKa
3
ori]

Ik yevovs AaveiS, rco
;

vlco

dvdpcoTrov

GL[A]

et

n
4

Theodt

;

om. Gelas

(treating irvvipxeffde as

an impera-

tive convenite);

al.

g:

see the lower note.
evl]

Theodt.

Theodt; in uno Gelas;

ev

Xap tTt ] G[g]; rrj x^ptrt GL, and so S 2 (which has

it

is

quite

possible that

Ignatius
rbv

tional statement.

Zahn (I. v. A. p.

569)

took this to

mean

evdvcraaOai

XpiCTTOV. ev ry avrov k.t.X.]

for oTi suggests %ti, or (as preferable) simply ti, which he reads in his text,

'consisting in

faith towards Him and love towards Him? This again must be closely connected with ol<ovop,las comp. Tim. i. 4 oiK.ovop.lav Qeov tj)v ev I
;

connecting it with the preceding This latter conjecture has words.

much
civdpa,

to

recommend

it.

For

ol Kar'

TTio-Tei,

to Se TeXos

ttjs

napayyeXlas

'each individually,' see the note on § 4, where it stands in the same relation to x°P^s as it does to
Koivrj

zo-Tiv dycnrr).

For the genitive case So see the note on Rom. inscr.
again the following ev ixdQei must be similarly connected.
k.t.X.

ndvTes here; comp.

Smyrn.

12

tovs KaT

In dvdpa kqu koivtj navras. this passage it is further strengthened
'

This

by


8.

ovopaTos

name

by

name\

latter clause describes the objective

'severally'';
note),
4.

comp. Polyc. 4 (with the
or perhaps evevl ^Irjo-ov. of the same letters
for

element, as the former described the subjective element, which are the
essential

evl 'It/o-ou]

characteristics of the dis-

The recurrence
omission.
'irjaovs

pensation.
3.

eNCNiiHCoy would account
k.t.X.]

the

fonf
in

'/or ye all meet

together

common

—every

Comp. Magn.

7

els eo-Tiv
.

indi-

XjOicrroff,

vidual of you?

If the

reading be

eva

'irjcrovv

zb. avvTpexeTe. .en\ XpiaTov, Clem. Rom. 46

correct, this must be the grammar and connexion of the clause. Hefele however follows Uhlhorn (p. 52) if in connecting on with a7roKaXv^r] the Lord reveal to me that etc.,' but
'

q ovx>---exopiev...€va Xpiarov, in

which

passages the application
as here.
It is
1

is

the

same

appeal in
Xpio-Tos
;

equivalent to S. Paul's Cor. i. 13 p,ep,epio~Tai 6

this

gives

a sense altogether un-

worthy of the writer and entirely opposed to his mode of speaking
elsewhere (e.g. §§ But the reading
3,
is

Here, as in § 12, Zahn suggests the impossible form evl. This is int<u Kara aapKa k.t.X.] serted as a protest against Docetic
error,

6,

9,

11,

12).

by

rendered suspicious by the fact that Theodoret has el ti, while Gelasius treats aweporeover the Xeo-Oe as an imperative.

threatened.
tion of the

which their unity was But this emphatic men-

M

dependent

els

to inraKoveiv vp-ds points

human nature requires a counterbalance. Hence he adds that Christ is not only Son of man,' but see above, the also Son of God
'

'

'

:

to a preceding imperative or condi-

note on

§

18 eK aneppiaTos Aaveld.

xxi]
\ «

TO THE EPHESIANS.
v/uias

*7

Oeov, ek to vwaKOveiv
fivTepia)
Icttlv
d7repL(T7ra(rTcp

tw

€7na-/co7ra) kcli too 7rpea--

Stai/ola'

eva aprov kXwvtcs
/ulvj

6

(pap/uctKOV ddavao-ias,
'

dvrihoTOs tou

dirodaveiv

dWa
[O
in

*Cf\v

ev

Irjcrov

XptcrTco Sid ttclvtos.
v/ulcou

XXI.
una
t£]

'Avtl\Isvxov
al.

eyco,

Kai

wv

eTrefJiylrare

fide in iesu christo);
al. g.

Ag.

See the converse error, Ephes. n.
5 Aaveid] dd.8
al. g.

G; om. Theodt;

G.
7
1

dvdp&irov...

Qeov] G; rov avdpdoirov...Tov 6eov Theodt; kXQvtos G. 0] gL; 6's G; dub. A.
7.

K\uvre$]
\

10 wv] g (but

has quern)

6v

gLA; GLA.

dwe pio-nao-Tco]
xvi.
11,
I

Wisd.

dnepio-rvdo-ru>s,

undistracted^ j Ecclus. xli. 1. So Cor. vii. 35. The
in classical

'

eternal

life,

the eucharistic bread.

because they partake of We need not

however suppose that Ignatius had
this very material conception in view.
8. dvridoros] This word, when used as a substantive, is either
77

words are not uncommon
writers
later,
e.g.

more

of the age of Polybius and especially in Stoic circles ;
i.

Epict.

29. 52,
iii.

ii.

21. 22, etc.,

dvridoros
4.

(sc.

8vvap.is, e.g.
ticti

Strabo
;

iii.

M. Antonin.
eva

6.

14 dvriborois

bvvdpe o~i
s.

see

aprov
will

ence

be

The referkXcovtcs] to the agape, but more

E.

A. Sophocles Lex.
(sc.
III.

v.)

or to

avr'ihorov

(pdpp.a<ov, e.g.
p.

Anthol.

especially to the eucharistic bread, in which the agape culminated, and

which was the chief bond of Christian union comp. Philad. 4 o-ttov;

daaare ovv p.ia ev xapio-riq xpf)o~dai' p.ia yap aapg rov Kvpiov k.t.A., Smyrn.
8 roiis [xepLo-povs <pevyeTe...eKeivrj
/3cu'a

yap eari K.aKa>v (pdpp.aK.ov avrlborov) but never apparently 6 dvriSoros. The feminine is the more common, e.g. Clem. Horn. xi. 9. The dependent geni80,

Ad.

166,

rovro
;

tive

commonly

describes the thing

/3e-

counteracted and not, as here, the
result of the counteraction.

evxapiarla qyeiadco,
eTTLo-Koirov

fj

vno rov
ovre

enio-Koivov ovo~a...ovK e£6v eo-nv ^copty

rov

ovre

ftanri^eiv

XXI. 'I am devoted to you and your representatives at Smyrna, from
which place me, and so
you.
I

aycnr-qv noietv (see the note there). For kXclv aprov comp. Acts ii. 46 (comp. ver. 42), xx. 7, 11, 1 Cor. x. 16, where it occurs as a synonyme for

write.

Remember
remember
in Syria,

will

Christ

Pray

for the

Church

celebrating the eucharistic feast, apparently in all cases in conjunction with the agape. o] The right reading rather than or.

whence I was Rome, though
glorious

carried in bonds to

all unworthy of the destiny which awaits me. Farewell in God the Father and in

Jesus Christ'
''

The

o

may

refer either to the

preceding unity in breaking bread,' or to apros alone by attraction with cpdpp,aKov.

clause, 'this

whole concord and

10.

Avri^rvxou]
2, 6.

So too Smyrn.

10,

Polyc.
istic

caught up
freely,

interpolator has the phrase, as characterit

The

The

latter is the
iv.

more probable
5,

;

see

of Ignatius, and introduces Tars. 8, Ant. 7, 12, Hero
14.

9,

Irenaeus

18.

v.

2.

3

quoted by Jacobson), who
that our fleshly bodies

(passages argues
inherit

Philipp.
'a
life

'Avrtyvxov
life,'

is

properly
tXeco?

offered for a

'a vicarious

must

sacrifice'; as [Joseph.]

Mace. 6

88
tts

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
Qeov
TL{JLr)v

[xxi

eU Cfjivpvav odev
''

kcli

ypa(j>0)

vfixiu

e^x a

"

piaTtov

Tip

Kvpitp,

Kai dyairvov rioXvKapTrov w?
VfJLWV
lr](TOV^

vfj.as.

0)9 Kftl fJLVt]fJLOV£U€Tl (JLOV,

XpLCTTOS.

TTpOCT-

ev^eade

virep
3 Kal]

tj]?

eKKAricrias

Trjs

ev Cupia, bvev oeoe-

GAg; om. L

ut being easy). (the omission of ct after

ytvov .Ka.8ap<Tiov uvtwv tpov aipa, icm aVTV^V\OV
. .

iroLrjcai
(v.
f/JLTjl/
1.

to
avTi

Zu]

i.e.

(Keivoiv

ovs,

referring

to

\lfV)(U>v)

(IVT(0V

\('t(J€

TT]V

\j/VX^]V,

Onesimus, Burrhus, Crocus, Euplus, Fronto, and others; see §§ I, 2. This
is

lb.

VCT. \J

Sowep
tQvOVS

uvri-^rv^ov yeyovoras
OfXCipTLUS
'.

TTJS

TOV

COllip.

I

of which
stituted
(1)

clearly the right reading, in place ov would easily be sub-

Kings

xx.

39 Kal

tarrai

77

uvt\ rfjs ylsvxrjv cwtov, lb.

"i^^xh <T('^ vcr. 4 2 2
?

by careless transcribers
earlier

:

for

Kings x. 24, Clem. Rom. 49. Hence Athanasius uses it of our Lord in ;i sense nearly equivalent to avriXvrpov, e.g. de Incarn. Verb. 9 (f. p. 44); comp. 1 John iii. 16 (Kflvos virep
S.
r)pQ>v ttjv yjsvxr]V

part of the epistle mentions several representatives of

The

the Ephesian Church (2) The grammar of ov would be extremely harsh as well as ambiguous, since it might
;

avrov

e'OrjKfv Kal rjpels

ov,

stand for cither (Kflvov op or e<dvos and indeed the latter would be

n(j)CLX<>IX€V V7T€p tcov a5eA</)coy t<is xjsvxus

the

Syriac translator of Ignatius has employed the same phrase, I will be instead of thy soul/ which is found in the Peshito in the pasOilvat.
'

The

more natural construction. (3) In the other letters written from Smyrna the Ephesian delegates are spoken of in the plural; Magn. 15,
Trail. 13,
1.

sages of the O. T. The expression means therefore properly 'I give my 1 devote myself for life for you,'
'

Rom. 10. ds 9eoG Ttp,r)v] As

just below.

So too Smyrn.

Magn.

II, Polyc. 5; 3, Trail. 12.

comp.

you,'
^/rjfia

and
in
;

is

closely allied to nepi-

cvxapio-Ta>v]

One
is

chief subject of

^

8)

(see the note but the direct idea of a

meaning
is

on
vi-

his thanksgiving

obviously his in-

tercourse with Polycarp, for
7rcov

whom

carious death
literated,

more

or less ob-

he entertains a strong affection (dyaTlo\vKapnov
k.t.A.).
i.e.
|

and the idea of devotion

to

and

affection for another stands

3-

p.vrjp.oi>€V(Te p.ov
;

cv rals Tvpoa14,

cannot thereout prominently. fore press the allusion to his ap-

We

evxais vp.wv
13,

see

Magn.

Trail.

Rom.

9.

See the proaching martyrdom. similar Jewish use of mQD (Buxtorf's Lex. s. v. p. 1078, to which It is in a Jacobson refers here).
different sense that
i.

'lrjaovs

p,vr)povevo-eie
9-

XpivTos] SC. p.vr)p.ovevo~ei or see the note on Smyrn.
:

Anselm

said of

made
Rom.
4.

Trpoaevxeo-Bt] The same request is in all the other letters written
;

Osbcrn (Eftist. 4, p. 313) 'anima anima mea est,' and that Horace calls Maecenas 'mea? partem an imae.' Even if there were any authority for
ejus
this

from Smyrna
9.

Magn.

14, Trail.

13,

o6ev

5efie/*eVos-]
1.

As Smyrn.

1 1

;

see also above $

sense of

ai/rix/zv^oi/

'another

self,'

we should expect not avrtyvxov
eyco,

vp,wu

5. aTrdyop,(u] The word is commonly used of criminals led to trial

but avTf^rvxov pov

vp.ds.

or execution

;

comp.

e.g.

Matt, xxvii.

xxi]
5

TO THE EPHESIANS.
ek
'

89
eVe? ttkttlov,
'

/xeVos

Pwjjlyiv dirayofJiaL,
eis ti\jl\]v
'

(jocnrep tj^KjoOrjv

ec^aro^ wv tcov Qeov eupedijvai.

Gppwcrde ev

Qeio ircLTpl Kai ev
7 iXirldi
t}/a£}v~\

Irjcov Xpia'Tto Ttj koiv\) i\7Ti0t rj/uwv,
add. 4v
irvevp.a.TL

txt

GL;

ayiip'

[fppojcrde]'

dfirju'

[77

x^P' 5 ] g*>

add. gratia vobiscum;

amen A.
in

There

is

no subscription
19, in

GLA.

For Sg see the Appx.

2,

Acts

xii.

which

latter pas-

They correspond
and Vale
pcoo-Oe),

to the Latin Salve
"Eppcoo-o (ep-

sage for the correct reading dmixOfjvul D has diroKTav&fjvcu.
tcov

respectively.
vyiaive,

like

was regarded

fuel]

i.

e.

ev

2upm

;

comp.
ovk

Trail.
a£ios

13

rrjs

ev 2vpia,
tov

o0ev Kai

e Ifxt

XeyecrOai,

etr\aTos (Keivcov.

as essentially a parting salutation, ' 82 ov yap npoalib. i. Farewell ovt(s dXkrj\ois...TavTa Xeyovaiv av' ;

He uses
1

similar language also,
1 1
,

Magn.
with

dpcoTroi,

d\\

y
:

4,

Smyrn.
.

Rom.

9.

e.g.

Boeckh
the
;

6.

cocrncp]

To be connected
This

letters.
all

COmp. aTvaWaTTop.(voi G. 3832, 3833, in The parting salutation in
C. I.

toetoepevos.

.atr&yopau

seven epistles

takes

this

"Epptto-Oe]

was a

common

form
etc.
7.

the attached words however
e.g. lv Kvpltp, iv ^apirt GcoG,

salutation at the close of a letter, as Xaipuv was at the commencement ;

varying,

Artemid. Oneir.

iii.

44

'l8lov

enicrToXrjs to Xaipfiv

Kai to

yapnaarjs Eppoxro
'

tt) koivt)

k.t.X.]

See the notes

§

\,Magn.

11.

(quoted by Pearson on Smyrn.

inscr.).

90

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS

Excursus on
The Son
God,
for
is

yevvrjTos koi dyevvrjros §

J.

this

is

here declared to be yevv^Tos as man and dyiwrjToq as clearly shown to be the meaning from the parallel

clauses.

definitions,

Such language is not in accordance with later theological which carefully distinguished between yev-qros and ytwrjTos,
;

between ayeV^ros and dyevv-qros so that yevrjros, ayeV^ros, respectively denied and affirmed the eternal existence, being equivalent to ktio-tos,
(xktio-tos,

tions,

whether

while yewrjTos, ayeW^ros, described certain ontological relaIn the later theological language in time or in eternity.

therefore the

Son was yei/nyros even in His Godhead. See esp. Joann. Damasc. de Fid. Orih. i. 8 (i. p. 135 Lequien) XPV yap ctS&ai ort to
Sia tov
iv6<s

ayev^TOV,

v

ypaqjo/Atvov,

to

ckktio-tov

rj

to

fxrj

yevo/xevov

to Sc dyivvrjTOV, Sia tuiv 8vo vv ypa^o/xevov, SrjXcL to fxrj yevvrjOiv (rrjfxaivei, whence he draws the conclusion that jjlovos 6 Trarrjp dyiwrjTos, k.t.X.;

and

[xovos 6 vlos yevvrjTos.

There can be
dyivvrjTos,
vrjTos.

little

doubt however that Ignatius wrote yewryro?
it

kou

though For (1) The Greek ms

his editors frequently alter
still

into ytvrjTos kou
v,

dyk-

retains the double

though the

claims of orthodoxy would be a temptation to scribes to substitute the And to this reading also the Latin ge?iitus et ingenitus points. single v.

factus

it cannot be concluded that translators who give had yei^ros kou ay evr/ros for this was after all what Ignatius meant by yewrjTos k.t.X., and they would naturally render his words so as to make his orthodoxy apparent. (2) When Theodoret writes yewrjTos e£ dy€wt]Tov, it is clear that he, or the person before him

On

the other
et

hand

non

factus

;

who
for

first

substituted this reading,

must have read yewrjTos

kcu dykwrjTos ;

there

yevrjTos

would be no temptation to alter the perfectly orthodox kou ayeV^Tos, nor (if altered) would it have taken this form.

(3) When the interpolator substitutes 6 fxovos d\r)0tv6s®€o<s 6 dykwqTos... tov Se fiovoyevovs iraTrjp kou yevv^Twp, the natural inference is that he too had the forms in double v, which he retained, at the same time altering

the whole run of the sentence so as not to
trinal
(4)

do violence
difficult.

to his
v. p.

own
114

docsq).

views; see Bull De/. Fid. Nic. ii. The quotation in Athanasius is more
this

2 § 6

{Works

his editors write yei^Tos kou dyevrjTos.

Zahn

too,

The mss vary, and who has paid more

attention to

point than

former work (Ign. v. Ant. p. written the words with a single

any previous editor of Ignatius, in his 564) supposed Athanasius to have read and
v,

though

in his

subsequent edition of

TO THE EPHESIANS.
Ignatius
single
(p.

91

and double

338) he declares himself unable to determine between the I believe however that the argument of Athanasius v.

decides in favour of the w.
distinction

Elsewhere he insists repeatedly on the between kti&iv and yevvdv, justifying the use of the latter term as applied to the divinity of the Son, and defending the statement in the Nicene Creed yevvrjTov ck 1-77S overtax tov 7ra.Tpo<; tov v\6v o/AoovcrLov (De Synod. 54, 1. p. 612). Although he is not responsible for the lan-

guage of the Macrostich {De Synod.
dvap^ov
otSafxev'

§ 3,

1.

p.

590), tov iraTepa /xovov

ovtcl koll dyivvrjTov y€y€VV7]i<4vai avecpLKTO)<; kou 7racrtv aKara\tJ7rT(ji<s

tov Se vlov ycyevvrjcrOai Trpo
etvat

cuojvcoj/

Kat fxrjKerL o/xotcos tco TrarpX

dyevvrjTOv

Kat ovtov,

would have regarded it In the passage before us, of terms entirely harmonizes with his own. ib. §§ 46, 47 (p. 607), he is defending the use of o/xoowios at Nicsea,

T0V ytvvrjaavTa 7raTepa, and as inadequate without the 6/jloovo-lov, yet this use
o.pyrjv ^X €LV

aAA

notwithstanding that it had been previously rejected by the Council which condemned Paul of Samosata, and he contends that both CounAs a cils were orthodox, since they used o/jtoovVios in a different sense.
parallel instance

he takes the word
it

ayevi/riTos,
is

which, like
in

6/jloovo-los, is

not a scriptural word, and like
either (i) to ov
d.KTLo-Tov.
ptev, fxrjTC. Se

also

used

two ways, signifying
clltlov,

yevvr)6kv p-iJTe

oAws €^ov tov

or (2) to

the latter
fathers.

In the former sense the Son cannot be called dyevvrjTos ; in He may be so called. Both uses, he says, are found in the

Of the

latter

he quotes the passage

in Ignatius as

an example;
aXrjOtvov
7,

of the former he says, that
iv to o\ykvvt]TOv 6 naTrjp,
k.t.X.

some
ets

writers subsequent to Ignatius declare
o e£ avTOv
vl6<; yvqo~io<>, ykvvt]p.a.

kou

[He may have been thinking

of Clem. Alex. Strom,

vi.

which

quote below.] He maintains that both are orthodox, as having in view two different senses of the word dyivvrjTov; and the same, he to take opposite argues, is the case with the Councils which seem
I shall

sides with regard to o/xoowios.
truly says, that

It is clear

from

this pa'ssage, as

Zahn

Athanasius

is

dealing with

one and the same word

if so, it follows that this word must be dyivvrjTov, would be intolerable in some places. I may add by since dyivrjTov way of caution that in two other passages, de Decret. Syn. Nic. 28 (1.

throughout; and,

c. Arian. i. 30 (1. p. 343), S. Athanasius gives the various senses of dykvr\Tov (for this is plain from the context), and that these passages ought not to be treated as parallels to the present passage

p. 184), Orat.

which

is

concerned with the senses of dyewrjTov.

Much

confusion

is

thus created, e.g. in Newman's notes on the several passages in the Oxford translation of Athanasius (pp. 51 sq, 224 sq), where the three is made to discriminate passages are treated as parallel, and no attempt

92
the

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
'
'

is given as the readings in the several places, but ingenerate If then Athanasius also rendering of dyivqrov and dyewijrov alike. read yewrjTos kou dyew-qros in Ignatius, there is absolutely no authority

The earlier editors (Voss, Ussher, Cotelier, printed it as they found it in the ms; but Smith substituted the forms with the single v, and he has been followed more recently by
for

yev^ros kou dyivrjTos.

etc.)

Hefele, Dressel,

and some
note
is

others.

In the Casanatensian copy of the
dvayvuHrriov
dyevrjTOS

MS

a marginal

added,

tovt

ecrri

fxrj

Waterland (Works ill. p. 240 sq, Oxf. 1823) tries ineffectiroi-qOdq. to show that dyivvrjro^ was invented by the fathers at a later date ually
to express their theological conception. even 'doubts whether there was any such word as dyew-qros so early as the time of Ignatius.'

He

In

this

he

is

certainly wrong.

The mss
yevqros
(p.

of early Christian writers exhibit
dyev-qros

much
:

confusion between
e. g.

and yewqros,
ii.

and

dyivv-qros

see

Justin Dial. 2

218) with Otto's note; Athenag. Suppl. 4 with Otto's note; Theophil.
Autol.
3,

ad

4;

Iren.

iv.

38.

1,

3; Orig.

c. 11.

Cels.
p.

vi.

66; Method.

de Lib.

Arbitr. p. 57
vii.

Jahn
22
;

(see Jahn's note
v. 1 6

122);

Maximus

in
;

Euseb. Praep. Ev.

Hippol. Haer.
pp.

(from Sibylline Oracles)

702, 718; and very frequently in later writers. Yet notwithstanding the confusion into which later transcribers have thus thrown the subject, it is still possible to ascertain the main

Clem. Alex.

Stro?n. v.

14,

facts respecting the

usage of the two forms.

The
is

distinction

between

the two terms, as indicated
creation,

and

that dyiv-qros denies the Both are used at dykw-qros the generation or parentage.

by

their origin,

a very early date; e.g. dyiv-qros by Parmenides in Clem. Alex. Strom.
v.

14

(p. 7 I 6)

<jos

dyivqTov lov kcu dvoj\e$p6v
vi.

Icttlv,

and by Agathon
av y

in

Anst. Eth. Nic.

2

(p.

1139) ayevrjra irouZv acra

7re7rpa.yiJ.eva

(comp. also
Track. 6 1
to

Orac.

Sibyll.

kcl£ ayevvrfrwi/

prooem. 7, 17); and dyiwqros in Soph. dpa pLvOot KaXws ttltttovviv (where it is equivalent
is
;

Here the distinction of meaning and so probably it always is in Classical writers
Svayeviov).

strictly preserved,

for in

Soph. Track.
after

743 to yap (fiavOlv

ti's

av SvvaiT

dyivvrjTov 7roiuv

we should

Porson

and Hermann read Swan-' dV dyiv-qrov ttouIv with Suidas. In Christian writers also there is no reason to suppose that the distinction was ever
though in certain connexions the words might be used convertibly. Whenever, as here in Ignatius, we have dyiw-qros where we should expect dyivqros, we must ascribe the fact to the indistinctness or
lost,

incorrectness
literation

of the

of the writer's theological conceptions, not to any obmeaning of the terms themselves. To this early

father for instance the eternal ycvj^o-ts of the

Son was not a

distinct

TO THE EPHESIANS.
theological idea, though substantially he held the Nicene fathers respecting the Person of Christ.

93
same views
as the

following passages from early Christian writers will serve at once to show how far the distinction was appreciated, and to what extent the Nicene conception prevailed in Antenicene Christianity; Justin Apol. ii. 6 (p. 44) ovojxa
oe rep 7ravT(x>v iraTpl 0€tov, ayevvT/'rw
liovos

The

ovn, ovk

Io~tiv...o Se vto's

Ikuvov 6
kou

Xeyop.evos Kuptcos vlos, o Xoyos irpo tcov ironqfxaTUiv Kat
k.t.X.,

crwcov

yewco'^evos

comp.

ay evrjTov

kol

a'iCaov. ..vcf>

13 (p. 51); Athenag. Suppl. 10 eva tov ov ytyivrjTai to ttolv Stct tov clvtov Xoyou...epco
ib.

§

Sta /^pa^ecov \tov vlovj TrpuJTOV yevvrj/xa etvat tco 7raTpt,

ov%

co's

yevo/cat

fxzvov k.t.X.

(comp.
[0eot],
k.t.X.',
kclO'

ib.

4); Theoph.
otl e^prjv
o

ad Aut.
ecos

ii.

3

et

yap eyevvcov
yiv€o~6ai

iyevvuivTO
yevv7]Tov<i
yevvrjar€
//!

S'fjXov

kolL

tov

Sevpo

Oeovs

Tatian Orat. 5
77/xas ttoo]o-iv

tt)v

Xoyos ev ap^T? y^vvt]Q^\^ avrethe context); Rhodon in Euseb. (with
apXV;
;

£.

V.

13

to

Se

7rws cctti

/xt'a

f^-V

ytvcoo"Ketv

eXey€V...fxr]
vi.

kiri-

aTaaOac
€j/

7rcos

ets ecrTtv dyevvr)TO<s ©eo's

Clem. Alex. Strom,

7 (p. 769)

/xev to
to.

dyivvqTOv
iyeveTO
r

ov

TrdvTO.

6 TravTOKpaTwp ©cos, eV 8e Kat to 7rpoy€vvr)6kv St k.t.X. ; Orig. c. Cels. vi. 17 (p. 643) ovre yap tov
c/>ucrecos

dyivf]Tov Kat 7rda qs yevrjTrjs
SwaTat,
cos
o*

irpuiTQTOKOv KaT
vi.
cos

a^tav ctSeVat tis
7rcpi
/>t€i>

yevvr/cras avTov 7rar^p
rj

k.t.X., /$.
">)

52

yevecrccos

koctjxov Kat <f>6opdS)

cos

dyivrjTos kcu ac/>#apTos,

Se k.t.X.; Concil. Antioch. (a.d. 269) in

Routh

ycv^ros /xev a<£#ap-ros iiW. .S^r. in. p. 290 oti o
toi/

0eos dytwrjTos,

ets,

avap^os,

k.t.X

toutov Se
5

utov yevv^ToV,
yevrjTov to

\xofxr)

voyevr} vlov k.t.X.;

Method, de
fa-fys

Creat.

(p.
ct

101

Jahn)
[xrj

ycveWcos ^X ov a PX rl v
dpxfj,

av

'>

ov

SrJTa.
et

yap

viroTriirTZi

ycvecrecos

aVayK^s dyei^Tov

Zcttlv
is

Christian

writing however the Clementine Homilies x.
',

yeyovev, the distinction more

Se

k.t.X.

In no

early

obvious than in
t<x

10 tov jxovov dytvrjTov, oVe

Xot7rd irdvTa
ovtojs
ytx>7

y€V7]Ta

Tvyxdvet'

cos

ovv tov
tco

ay evrjTOV
ovk
ccttiv,

lSlov to #eos etvat,
xvi.

7rav
yc-

otiovv

y€v6p.evov
ecrTtv,

t^eos

6'vTt

16 tov 7raTpos to
Se
ay^vv-qTio
is

ytvvrjcrOaL

utov

Se

to

yeyevvrjo-Qai'
k.t.X.

yevvrjTOv

rj

Kat

avToyevvyJTU)

ov

crvyKpiveTai

(where the distinction
:

employed

to support the writer's heretical theology) etre KaKOt ov yei/vco//.€#a aXXa ytvofxeOa, and

see also

viii.

16 etVe dyaOol

comp.

xix. 3, 4, 9, 12.

The

following are instructive passages as regards the use of these words where the opinions of other heretical writers are given ; Saturninus,
Iren.
i.

24.

1,

Hippol. Haer.

vii.

28

;

Simon Magus, Hippol. Haer.
vi.

vi.

17, 18; the Valentinians, Hippol. Haer.

in 29, 30, the Ptolemaeus

particular, Ptol.

Ep. ad Flor. 4 (in Stieren's Irenaeus p. 935); Basilides, Haer. vii. 22; Carpocrates, Hippol. Haer. vii. 32. Hippol. From the above passages it will appear that Antenicene writers were

94

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS TO THE EPHESIANS.

not indifferent to the distinction of meaning between the two words ; and when once the orthodox Christology was formulated in the Nicene

Creed

in the

words yewrjOevra,

ov iroirjOivTa,

it

became henceforth imthus declared to
to agree with

possible

to overlook

the difference.
I

The Son was

be yewrjTos, but not yev^ros.

am

therefore unable

104, 223, Ign. von Ant. p. 565) that at the time of the Arian controversy the disputants were not alive to the

Zahn (Marcellus pp.

40,

difference
(P-

of meaning.

See

for

example Epiphanius, Haer.

lxiv.

8

53

^s
Icrov

Xeytcv

koX y°-P TL v£s [i-e. the Arians] r]p.dq fiovXovrai o-o<pit,€o-0at to yevrjTov etvat t<2 yevvrjTU), ov 7rapaSeKT€OV oe iiri ®eov
7/

\eyew, dXX
ccTTt

kiri

rd KTtV/xara fxovov eVepov yap
;

eo"Tt yevrjTov

kcu krepov

yewrjTov,
(at

k.t.X.

which ran
tov

arguing against a passage of Origen least as Epiphanius read it) tw Trarpl t<x>v 6'A.cdv ©e<3 Sia
is

where he

aoirrjpos

rjp.u>v

koX

special

interest

for

them.

But it had no ap^iepews yevrjrov ©coo) k.t.X. While the orthodox party clung to the

6p.oovo-Los as

no liking for the terms ayeW^Tos and yew^rds, as applied and the Son respectively, though unable to deny their

enshrining the doctrine for which they fought, they had to the Father
propriety, be-

cause they were affected by the Arians and applied in their own way. To the orthodox mind the Arian formula ovk rjv irplv yewTjOyvac, or

some Semiarian formula hardly

less

dangerous, seemed always to be

lurking under the expression ©eds yew^-rds as applied to the Son. Hence the language of Epiphanius Haer. lxxiii. 19 (p. 866) lav ol Katvol
alperiKOL 7rpocrSiaA.eyo/xej/oi dyevvrjTOV Xiyovai
E7T€io?7
/cat

ytvvrjTov, ipovp.ev carrots,
iv

KaKOvpyrjo~avT€<;

to

ttJs

overlap

ovopia

^prjaei

rots

iraTpdo-iv

virapypv

ws aypacpov ov Se^ecr^e, ovSk ^/x€ts rd dyivvr\Tov aypacpov ov Se^d/xe^a k.t.X., i.e. 'As you refuse to accept our d/xoouVios because, though
it

used by the fathers,
decline on the
c.

does not occur in the Scriptures, so
to accept your ayeVvryros.'
p.

will

we
and

same grounds
p.
(p.

Similarly Basil
(p.

Eunotn,

i

(1.

215

sq,
sq),

227
in

sq,

p.

235),

iv

281),

especially

ib.

iv

283

which

last

passage he argues at

great length against the position of the heretics, el ayeWr/ros, cpao-iv, o iraTTjp, See also the arguyewTjTos Sk 6 vl6<s, ov tt^s avr^s ovVtas.

ments against the Anomceans
11.

in [Athan.]" Dial, de Trin. ii passim This fully explains the reluctance of the orthodox {Op. p. 423 sq). party to handle terms which their adversaries used to endanger the d/xoovVios, But, when the stress of the Arian controversy was removed,
it

the

became convenient to express the Catholic doctrine by saying Son in His Divine nature was but not And
yci/njTos

that
this

yev^Tos.

distinction

is

staunchly maintained in later orthodox writers,
p. 90).

e. g.

John

of

Damascus (quoted above

2.

TO THE MAGNESIANS.

2.

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
A

FTER
(xiv.

l\

leaving Ephesus, says
I,

Strabo,
iarlu
is

the

first

city is

Magnesia

p.

647

7rpu>T7j

S'

££

'E^eVov Mayvrjaia).
as the

The

sequence in the Ignatian Epistles
geographer's itinerary.

the

same

sequence in the

Magnesia by the Maeander was said to have been

originally a settle-

ment of the Magnesians from Thessaly (Strabo xiv. 1, p. 636; Plin. N. H. v. 31). The site of the city was well chosen. The valley of the Cayster on the north is separated from that of the Maeander on the south by a mountain chain running for the most part nearly due east and

more southerly direction in its western extremity and Indeed the terminating in the promontory of Mycale opposite Samos. lofty island of Samos itself is only a prolongation of this same mountain range which is broken by the intervening channel of the sea. There is
west, but taking a

marked depression in the chain towards its western extremity. The long range eastward of this depression, bounding the valley of the
a very

Maeander on the north during the greater part of
;

its

course, bore the
called
in the

name of Messogis the shorter range to the west or seaward was Mount Mycale. A few miles to the north of this depression
valley of the Cayster stood the

famous city of Ephesus ; while to the below the pass, on the ground overhanging the valley south, immediately of the Mseander Magnesia was built. It thus commanded the pass which ran the high road connecting the fertile and populous through
valley of the

Maeander with the metropolis of Asia Minor.
is

Magnesia
distinguish
it

occasionally designated the Asiatic in earlier times to from the Thessalian district of the same name; but in

'

'

later writers,

from Aristotle downwards, it is specified as 'Magnesia by' or 'on the Maeander', in contradistinction to another Asiatic city of
IGN.
II.

7

98

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS

the same name, which had risen meanwhile into importance, 'Magnesia under' or 'against Sipylus' (see the references given below p. 106). of the Maeander, It was not however situated directly on the banks
as this

name would

suggest, but

on a

tributary,

the Lethaeus, at

a

distance of
p. 41)

some four

miles* (6|- kilometres, Texier

Ask Mineure

in.

from the larger river; comp. Strabo xiv. 1, p. 647, Mayv^o-ta tto'Ais avrov ISpvraf iroXv Se AioAis, Xeyo/xevr) Se eVt MaiavopoiT ttXtjow yap Hence Pausanias 6 ArjOaw ifipdWw e« toV MaiWSpov. TrXrjo-iciLTepov
persistently speaks of

public the nobler stream.

on the Lethseus Magnesia or the Magnesians in Athen. xv. p. v. 21. 10, vi. 17. 3, x. 32. 6; comp. Nicander (i. 35. 6, in coins, inscriptions, and all But 683 ArjOatov Mayi^Tos i<f> vSaxriv). was designated by documents, as well as in common parlance, it
'

'

and others) had identitown of Giizel-Hissar. Magnesia Its modern Its true site was pointed out by W. R. Hamilton in 1803. is Inek-Bazar, or more properly Eyineh-Bazar (W. J. representative
fied

Earlier travellers (Smith, Chandler, Pococke, ad Mseandrum with the modern

Hamilton's Researches in Asia Minor
otherwise

1.

p.

535)

;

whereas Giizel-Hissar,

known

as Aidin,

is

close to the site of the ancient Tralles,

some

eighteen miles from Magnesia. with the distances recorded in ancient books of travel, and they are rendered absolutely certain by inscriptions found on the respective sites The scenery and ruins of Mag(see Leake's Asia Minor p. 242 sq).
nesia are described in Arundell Seven Churches p. 58 sq
;

These latter identifications alone agree

in Texier Asie

Mineure

in. p. 35 sq, p.

90

sq,

and
in

smaller work of the

same name

respects more fully in his Didot's series LUnivers p. 346 sq; in
in

some

in Hamilton's Asia Murray's Handbook for Turkey in Asia p. 305 sq Minor 1. p. 538 sq and elsewhere. It stands on the right bank of the Lethaeus and is built partly on the side of Mount Thorax, a spur or buttress of the main range, and partly in a plain girt with a back; ;

ground of

hills

(Strabo xiv.

I,

p.

647,

kcitou
Sic.

8'

iv

W€$ua

-rrpos

opet

The theatre, 36). KaXovpevqi ®copa/a rj ttoXisj comp. Diod. the principal ruin in the plain is is situated on the hill-side as usual, The ravine of the Lethseus to of Artemis the
xiv.
; 1

temple

Leucophryene

.

1

Though

the question respecting the

relation of

Leucophrys and Magnesia has no direct bearing on my subject, I venture
to discuss
it

author which seems to have been altonever thegether overlooked, but which
less

contains the key to the solution of

briefly in a note, as

this will give

me

an opportunity of

call-

ing attention to a passage in an ancient

the difficulty. The facts are these. (1) Xenophon (Hell. iii. 1. 14), speaking of the campaign of

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
the east of the
the Maeander,
city,
is

99

as

it

descends from

its

sources in Messogis to join

described as singularly beautiful.
396) in Asia

Minor, having been agreed upon between the generals of the contendDercyllidas
(B.

c.

out

(11.

p.

700):

for,

though the age of
is

states that, a parley

this invasion of the

Treres

doubtful,

it

certainly took place long before the time of

ing armies, the Persians retired to Tralles and the Greeks 'to Leucophrys where

Themistocles, and yet Magnesia was still on its ancient site in his time. Boeckh
continues

was a temple of Artemis of peculiar
sanctity (is AevKocppvv £vda
lepbv juaXa ayiov)
rjv

'Addo

earn

(i.e.

'Apre/xtSos

factam videri ante

medium

translationem) tertium sae-

a stadium
nial, of

(in length),

and a lake more than sandy and perenfit

warm water
(id.

to drink'.

In a
is

culum Christianam praecedens epocham, nam vs. 84 nostri foederis Dianae Leucophryenae templum Magnesiae ad Maean-

later passage

iv.

8. 17),

where he

drum
rr) irpbs

tribuitur'.

[The
iv

words
ifx

of

the

giving an account of the

Thimbron

(b.c. 391) in

he speaks of his setting and from 'the cities in the plain of the Maeander, Priene and Leucophrys and
Achilleion.' [This last by the way cannot be the place bearing the same name in the Troad, as commentators seem to In neither passage does he assume.] mention Magnesia, though Magnesia had

campaign of this same region, out from Ephesus

treaty (about B.C. 244) are

~May v-qaLa

tu Maidvopcp

T<?p

ttjs 'Apre/xtSos

ttjs

AevKcxppvrjvrjs.]

But indeed we are

not dependent on conjecture, where direct evidence is forthcoming. He and others

have overlooked a passage in Diodorus Diodorus, (xiv. 36) which gives the fact.
speaking of an earlier campaign
399) of the
(B.C.

same Thimbron

in these re-

existed for centuries.
p.

(2)

Strabo

(xiv. 1,

gions, says that, having taken Magnesia and made an unsuccessful attack on
Tralles,
5' ovcrrjs

647), speaking of the temple of the
'

he retired to Magnesia,
a.TeLxlo'Tov,
/cat

rcti/nys

Mother of the Gods
cles,

writes,

Now

by Themistohowever the temple
built

dia tovto <po[3ov-

fxevos
ttjs

pt.7]

Trore

does not exist (ovk Zo-ti to lepbv), because the city has been removed (fieTipidadai)
to another place
(iv 8i rrj

7r6Xews

6

xwpiodevTos avTOv Kvpievar] TiaacufiipvTjs, jieT ipKia ev
irX-qcrlov

but in the present city vvv irbXei) there is the temple of
; '

avT7]V irpbs r6 \ov<tl Qupaica.

8pos
is

kcl-

Here then
matter.

the whole
position

account of the

The

Artemis Leucophryene

etc.

chosen by Thimbron exactly corresponds
582) discerns
to the site of the later city as described

Boeckh

(C. I. G.

II.

p.

the true solution.

Magnesia stood originally on another site, but was
afterwards transferred to Leucophrys, so that the ancient temple of Artemis of

The

city of

by Strabo. In its original position it was defenceless and had been exposed but he removed it to successive captures
;

nearer to the hill-side, as the term
Kocppvs,
itself

Xetf-

Leucophrys was now within the city of Magnesia itself. This may perhaps be
also the

'White-brow' or 'White-cliff', suggests, so as at once to incortemple of Artemis
serve as a

meaning of Texier (VUnivers

porate the ancient

pp. 349, 350), but I am not quite sure that I understand him. When then did
this

and

to

make Mount Thorax

natural fortress.
391),

removal take place?

Texier

(p.

350)

during

few years later (b.c Thimbron's second camstill

A

says,

when

it

was

rebuilt after its destruc-

paign,

Xenophon can

speak of Leu-

tion
(see

by the Treres, a Cimmerian people Strabo I.e.). But this is quite im-

cophrys, because the migration was still recent, perhaps was not yet complete;

possible, as

Boeckh had already pointed

and the name of the old

fortress

had not

7—2

IOO

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS

Magnesia rose to very considerable importance at an early date. connexion with Themistocles, as his place of residence during his Diod. Sic. xi. 57 Strabo xiv. 1, p. 647 Athen. i. p. exile (Thuc. i. 138
Its
;

;

;

Them. 30, 31, 32 see Grote's History of Greece v. p. 385 has given it a special renown. His descendants, one of whom bore sq), his own name, enjoyed exceptional honours there even as late as the A more speaking testimony to age of Ignatius (Plut. Vit. Them. 32).
29
;

Plut. Vit.

;

its

to

importance is the have chosen it as

fact that the Persian satraps

appear
iii.

at

one time

their place of

abode (Herod,

122, Diod. Sic.

xiv. 36).
fertility

Indeed, considering the advantages of its situation and the of the country, the surprise is not that it was a considerable city
it

but that

did

not attain to
it

even greater distinction.

During the

Roman

period

268 (Mionnet Supplement vn. p. 256). Among the famous men, who were natives of Magnesia, Strabo especially mentions
the orator Hegesias the founder of the florid Asiatic style of eloquence, and Simus the inventor of a licentious form of lyric poetry called Simodia after him, each in a different way the corruptor of his respective
art (I.e.
p.

(Tac. An?i. iv. 55) ; Gallienus a.d. 260

appears to have declined somewhat in importance but it continued to strike coins as late as the reign of

648).

Altogether

its

literary reputation

did not redound

much

to

its credit.

Themistocles is said to have erected at Magnesia a temple to the Mother of the Gods under the name Dindymene (of which his daughter or his wife became priestess), in consequence of an epiphany of this goddess which saved his life (Plut. Vit. Them. 30 Strabo

xiv.

1,

p.

647)

;

The patron goddess

but this temple no longer existed when Strabo wrote. of the city was Artemis Leucophrys or Leucofor the epithet
of
is

phryne or Leucophryene,
yet been
nesia.

written in

all

these ways.

merged

in the

name

Mag-

or AevKocpptivq, but sometimes Aeijiccxppvs

The name

AevKcxppvs, I cannot doubt,

(Nicander in Athen. xv. p. 683, and frequently on coins, Mionnet in. p. 147 sq,

refers primarily to the natural features of

the ground (see Texier just as Tenedos was

U Univers p. 350),
called
\d)Ko<ppv%
v.
x.

Supplement vi.
the

p.

236

sq).

From being

of the place it was transferred to the goddess, as we say S. Christopherle-Stocks,
S.
etc.

name

(Strabo

xiii.

1,

p.
v.

83; Plin.

N.H.

604; Diod. Sic. 39 (31); Pausan.

Peter-le-Cheap,

S.

John

14. 3; Hegesianax in Athen. ix. p. 393). This account of the name seems far more probable than Boeckh's hypothesis
(II.

The story of the nymph Leucophryne who was buried at MagLateran,
nesia

(Zeno
3,

Protr.

p. 39;

Myndius in Clem. Alex. comp. Arnob. vi. 6) is

p. 582) that the

worship of Artemis

was imported hither from Tenedos. The goddess was properly called AeuKocppvrjvri

of course a legend founded on the of the place.

name

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
Her name and

IOI

effigy occur constantly on the coins (Mionnet in. p. 147 sq, Supple7ne7it vi. p. 236 sq) ; and her priestesses are mentioned in extant inscriptions (Boeckh C. I. G. 2914). She is commemorated

also in

Anacreon Fragm.
hivrjCTL

1

(Bergk) SeWoiv' "Aprefju

B-qp<2v

rj

kov vvv

«rc Arjuaiov

The
hi.

eCKaropas 7roA.1v \acpova k.t.X. Ionic temple dedicated to her was one of the most famous in
OpacrvKapBiwv dvSpwv
1,

Asiatic Greece (Strabo xiv.

p.
11.

647; Pausan.
p.
it

i.

26.

4;

Tac. Ann.
iii.

62;

C. I.

praef.).

G. 3137. Strabo (1. c.)

ii.

84,

697; Vitruv. Archit.
as

1,

vii.

commends

exceeding in

size

all

the

temples in Asia but two, those of Ephesus and Didymi (Branchidae); and, though inferior to the former in magnitude and in the costliness
its

yet superior in the proportions and design of considerable ruins of this edifice still remain, which will Very be found described in Leake's Asia Minor p. 245, p. 349 sq, Texier

of

its

offerings,

cell.

Asie Mineure in.

The site was p. 40, p. 91 sq, VUnivers p. 350 sq. excavated under the direction of Texier in 1836, when the sculptures of the friezes were removed to the Louvre
1
.

In the Epistles of S. Ignatius the Ephesians and Magnesians appear in close connexion (Magn. 15). This is accounted for by their near

The distance between Ephesus and Magnesia is neighbourhood. given by Artemidorus (Strabo xiv. 2, p. 663) as 120 stadia (so too The Diod. Sic. xiv. 36), by Pliny (IV. H. v. 31) as 15 Roman miles. distance between the modern railway stations of Ayasoulouk and
Balachik, which are near to the sites of Ephesus and Magnesia respectively, is stated to

be somewhat under 14 English miles. Owing to this name of the Magnesian proximity, the southern gate of Ephesus bore the Gate (Mayv^ViSes 7rvA.at, Pausan. vii. 2. 9; MayvqTi/o) izv\t\, Wood's As an illustration of Discoveries at Ephesus Inscr. vi. 1, pp. 32, 42).
the saying ovSev yeirovias ^aA.€7rwrepov (Arist. Rhet. ii. 21), we find the Ephesians and Magnesians at war in early ages (Strabo xiv. 1, in Diog. Laert. i. 117 ; iElian V. H. xiv. 46, N. H. p. 648; Hermippus
xi.

for

27 ; comp. Arist. Pol. ii. 3, p. 1289); and this state of things ended the time in the Ephesians taking possession of the Magnesian At a later date, under the territory (Strabo 1. c, Athen. xii. p. 525).
coins

Romans, we find the two to commemorate
MArNHTOON
kai

cities

making up
friendly

their differences
relations,

and
the
vi.

striking

their

with

legend
p.

ecpeciooN

omonioia

(Mionnet

Supplement

242).
in the

Among
1

the not very

numerous inscriptions recently discovered

While the sheets

for this

second edi-

Revue Archeologique Dec. 1887, giving an
account of further very recent discoveries

tion

were passing through the press, a

paper

by De

Villefosse appeared in the

on the

site

of this temple.

102

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS

temple of Artemis at Ephesus, at least two record services rendered to the Ephesians by individual citizens of Magnesia (Wood's Discoveries etc. Inscr.
ii.

3 'A7roAAtoi/ios KoVcovos Maying,

lb.

12 ®pa<rv//.axos

TLo(T€l§uiviov Mayviys).

This proximity of the two

cities
first

also answers another question.

How

and when was the Gospel

preached in Magnesia?

When

that during S. Paul's three years' residence in Ephesus (a. d. 54 57), 'all those who dwelt in Asia (the proconsular province) heard the word of God' (Acts xix. 10, comp. ver. 26), when we find the

we read

Apostle towards the close of his sojourn sending salutations to distant correspondents from 'the Churches of Asia' (1 Cor. xvi. 19), when we
learn that within two or three years of this date there were Christian congregations even in the comparatively distant towns of Hierapolis and Laodicea and Colossae, we can hardly doubt that Magnesia, the nearest
city

of any importance, lying within four hours' walk of Ephesus, must have been among the earliest of these recipients of Christianity.

If

we were to hazard a conjecture regarding the agent in its The name Tychicus seems sion, we might mention Tychicus.

converto

have

been especially common at Magnesia; see Boeckh C. I. G. 2918, Mionnet in. pp. 153, 154, 155, 157, Supplemental, pp. 236, 245, 250,
Apostle's companion bearing this name was a native of Asia (Acts xx. 2), and apparently of some place not far from proconsular But, though less Ephesus, if not of Ephesus itself (2 Tim. iv. 12). common than some of the New Testament names, it is not so rare
255.

The

that

any great

stress

can be laid on the coincidence.

The omission

of any mention of Magnesia in the Apocalypse presents no difficulty on the supposition that this church had been founded during S. Paul's residence at Ephesus. The seven letters are addressed only to the principal churches in the respective districts.
district

Ephesus was the centre of one

comprising Magnesia and Tralles and Miletus, just as Laodicea was the centre of another comprising Hierapolis and Colossae ; and ot
the subordinate churches no mention
link of connexion with S. Paul
is

made

in either case.

Another
where

was the

fact that thePisidian Antioch,

he preached, was a colony of this Magnesia (Strabo xii. 8, p. 577). At all events the Church of Magnesia seems to have been a
flourishing

community

in the early years of the
like the

Ignatius wrote.

The Magnesians,
Smyrna him there
;

second century when Ephesians, had heard of

his projected visit to

and, like their neighbours, they had sent

delegates to meet

(§§ 1, 2, 6, 15).

The Magnesian delegacy
It

was an adequate representation of the Church.
orders of the ministry the bishop Apollonius, the deacon Zotion (§ 2).

comprised

all

Damas, the presbyters Bassus and It was in acknowledgement of the

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
attention which the Magnesians
this letter.

103
to

had thus shown
is is

him

that he wrote

2

The main theme of the The bond 4, 6, 7, 13).

epistle

of unity

the exhortation to unity (§§ 1, obedience to the bishop and to

the other officers of the ministry.
their case,

A warning is the more needed in because some might be tempted to presume upon the youth
(§ 3).

of the bishop

object of this exhortation appears in another part of the letter. Unity is the best safeguard against the intrusion of heresy (§§ 8 n). The heresy in question is described as a return to the old and un-

The

profitable fables, the stale
'

and sour leaven, of Judaism
'

(§§ 8, 10).

He

expresses the substance of his warning to his correspondents in the exhortation not to sabbatize,' but to live after the Lord's day (§ 6). It appears however from incidental expressions, that he is not con'

templating Judaism of a pure Pharisaic type, for he affirms with emphasis the reality of Christ's birth, passion, and resurrection (§§ 9, 11),

The heresy therefore is a obviously having these same teachers in view. He acquits the Magnesians of any complicity therein Docetic Judaism.
as yet; but, while this false doctrine
is is abroad, he feels that the warning not superfluous, and he counts on their obedience (§§ 11, 12, 14). The Church of the Magnesians was not famous in later ecclesiastical

history.
at

The martyrdom

Magnesia, presumably the

of a certain Quadratus is said to have occurred of the city on the Maeander \ and one form

this name, legend identifies him with the celebrated Apologist bearing who presented his defence of Christianity to the emperor Hadrian. But

seems more probable that the martyr in question suffered during the the martyrdom is not persecution of Decius, if indeed the story of 26 Maii, and comp. Tillemont altogether a fiction (see Act. SS. Boll.
it

In the succeeding centuries we sq). from time to time, as represented by her hear of the Magnesian Church bishops at the great Councils of the Church (see below p. 105), though these occasions. they do not occupy any very distinguished position on

Mhnoires

11.

p.

236

sq,

589

that the Macarius, whose work has been owed his surname to this city, the recovered and published recently Church of Magnesia is not left without a representative in the field of

But,

if

we might assume

1

,

theological literature.

The
'

following
to

is

Ignatius

the

an analysis of the epistle. Church of Magnesia on the

Meander,

abundant greeting
1

in the Father

and
rj

in Jesus Christ.'

Mcucaplov

MdyvriTos, 'Attokpltikos

ed. C. Blondel, Movoyevrjs, ex inedito codice

Paris 1876.

104
1

IGNATIUS TO THE MAGNESIANS.
Knowing your harmony and
all

love I was glad to hold converse with those churches which preserve unity. I glorify Abiding in you. I rejoiced will resist the assaults of the Evil One (§ i). love, you therefore to see you in the person of your bishop Damas, of your

and Apollonius, of your deacon Zotion (§ 2). Let no man presume on the youth of your bishop. The presbyters recogHe who deceives his bishop plays nise his wisdom and obey him. You must be Christians in reality and not in false with God (§ 3). name only. It is not honest to be always talking of the bishop and The All things come to an end. yet always acting without him (§ 4). There are two coinages the stamp choice is between death and life. We must die into Christ's passion, of the world and the stamp of God. if we would live in His life (§ 5). Having met you through your
presbyters Bassus

representatives, I intreat

you to act in concert with the bishop, the Allow nothing to make divisions among you priests, As Christ did nothing without the Father, so do ye nothing (§ 6). Let there be one prayer, one without your bishop and presbyters. one hope. You have one temple even God, and one altar even mind,

and the deacons.

Christ

7).

Go

The prophets themselves bore
Himself through His incarnate
in the old

not astray after the antiquated tales of Judaism. witness to Christ. They were inspired
is

so as to convince the unbelievers that there

one God who manifested

who were brought ordinances forsook them for Christ, how can we live apart from Him, of whom the prophets themselves were disciples (§ 9) ? Let us not despise His goodness, nor forsake our Christianity. Put ye
(§ 8).

Word

If those

up

away the sour leaven, and be ye salted in Him. Jesus Christ and Judaism cannot exist side by side (§ 10). I say this to warn you against the snares of false doctrine. Be ye fully convinced that Christ was born and died and rose again in reality; for this is your only hope (§ n).'
not worthy to be compared to you. I say this, knowing that will not puff you up, but rather put you to shame (§ my praise 12). Stand steadfast, one and all, in the teaching of the Lord and His
I
'

am

Be obedient to your bishop Apostles. brief exhortation will suffice.'
'

and

to

one another

(§ 13).

A

Pray
prayer
write.

for
14).

me and

for the Syrian

Church.

We

need your united

The Ephesians send greeting from Smyrna whence I So does Polycarp. The other Churches salute you. Farewell,
in Christ (§ 15).'

and be united

TTPOC
'

TOYC
6
teal

€N
'

MArNHCIAI.
ty\

I

TN AT IOC,

Qeo(popo<>,
Irjcrov

evAoyrijULevtj
crcoTrjpi

iv

yapiTi Qeov 7rctTpos iv XptcTTW
TTpoc TOyc 6N
avrov
7r/)6s

tw

[tj/ULcov],

fAayi>T)<riovs
;

MAfNHCIAl] ad illos qui in magnesia Sev-Syr (being numbered 7) g* ; /xayvrjaievaiv iyvdnos G
See the lower note
XP ^T V
L

2,
;

7;

tov

ignatius

magnesiis L*
def.

ad magnesios A.

for other authorities.
ijfxujv]

2 XptcrT^j 'Itjctou]

Lg

;

Irjcrov

G

;

def.

A.

GL

;

om. g* ;

A.

npoc Toyc cn MAfNHcf^]
ing to Mayvrjala
a-ievs
is

The

proper Greek adjective correspond(the

Discoveries at Ephesus Inscr. ii. 3, It alone is found in classical 12).
writers of
Arist. Pol.

form

in the

neither MayvrjMS of the genMayvrjo-ios

uine

form

epistles) in the

nor

(the

MSS of the interpo(e.g.

ages (e.g. Herod, iii. 90, Strabo xii. 8, p. 577, xiv. 1, p. 647 sq, Plut. Vit. Themist. 32, Appian. Mithr. 21, Paus. i. 20. 5,
all
iv. 3,
i.

lated epistles), but Mdyvrjs, the femi-

26.

4,

Julian

Oral.

vii.

p.

210).

nine being sometimes Mayvfjns

Even

in ecclesiastical writings
I
:

down

C. I. G. 3381), sometimes Mdytnjaa-a (e.g.Theocr. xxii. 79), sometimes Mdyvrja-Ls

to a very late date

have not met
see e.g. Labb.
dvopari Maica-

with any other form
Cone.
III. p.

(Parthenius in Steph. Byz.). equally the case whether the Magnesia intended be the town on the Maeander or its namesake under

85 (ed. Colet.) tg>v Mayvrjr\v

This

is

tcov nokecos inio-KOTros

pios (at the Oak Synod A.D. document in Photius Bibl. 59);
p.
rfjs
ttjs
1

403

;

a

ib. VII.

Sipylus. Steph. Byz. s. v. Mayvrjaia says explicitly, 6 7to\itt)s Mdyvrjs opcoThis statement is vvpcos tco oIkicttt}.

1072 TlarpUios

eXeoJ

Qeov

e7ri(TK07ros

MayvrjTcov nepl MaiavBpov noXeats

confirmed by all ancient remains. The legend of the coins is universally

'Ao~iava>v enapx^as (comp. lb. p. 100; at the third Council of Constantinople, A.D. 680). In the Parall.

M&pNHTec
net in.
p.

or

m&pnhtcon

:

see Mion-

Rupef. pp. 779, 785

142 sq, Suppl. VI. p. 231 sq, for the city on the Maeander, and

Mionnet

IV. p.

68 sq, Suppl. vil.

p.

371 sq, for the city under Sipylus. The same is also the form which

(ed. Lequien), ascribed to John of Damascus, npos Mayvrjalovs occurs, but the present text of this collection of extracts elsewhere has also the impossible form

occurs in the inscriptions (C. I. G. 2913, 2919 b Appx., 2933; Wood's

npbs $i\a8e\(piovs. The form Mayvrjcrlovs also appears to underlie the Syriac translation of Timoth. Alex.

ro6
ev
Ttj

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
dcnraXpixai ty\v €KK\r\(riav tt\v ovcrav ev Mayvriaia kcli ev Trpos MaicivSpa), kcli ev^Ojuai ev Oeco irctTpi
XpL(TTCQ 7r\eT(TTa %aipeiv.
G.
ev 'lycrov Xpiarcp]

w

'Iricrov

2 Tpbs Matdvdpip] irpoafieavSpu} (sic)
v.
1.)
;

GL*

(with a

XP L(J T V lyfov (om.
'

ev) [g]

;

al.

A. the time

(Cureton C. I. p. 211). Nothing can be inferred from Magnisoye in a quotation from the Syriac Version

when

the epistle (on any

showing) was written. 'Ignatius, called also Theophorus, to the Church of Magnesia on the Meander, blessed through the grace of God in Christ, hearty

(Cureton C. I. p. 197 comp. p. 200), or from Magnisiatzis in the heading of the epistle in the Armenian
;

Version, as these forms follow the analogy of the respective languages. The Greek translator of Jerome Vir. 16 III. has Mayvrjaiavovs, but this

greeting in Christ.'
177

evkoyqpLevrf\ SC. eKK\r]o-iq,

but the

simply is a transliteration of JeThe proper form in rome's Latin. Latin is Magnes, following the Greek (e.g. Cic. Brut. 91, Tac. Ann. ii. 47), but Jerome writes ad MagneIn an ancient inscription sianos. (Boeckh C. I. G. 3137), about B.C. 244, recording a treaty between the

form of the sentence is changed as and the missing subit proceeds, stantive becomes the accusative to
d(r7ra^o/xat.
2.

was
bpa>,

npbs Maiavdpcp] This city rrj called frequently em [t<3] MaiavArist. Pol. iv. 3, Strabo xiv. 1

(p. 647),

Diod. Sic.

x. $7,

Athen.

iv.

p.
zo.,

173,

or eVl rod Maidvdpov, Athen. but more commonly, as here,

Smyrnseans and Magnesians (probably of the city ad Sipylum; see Boeckh p. 698), while the former are
always
2fxvpvaioi,

[tw] Maiavdpa), C. I. G. 29 1 0, 3137, Strabo xii. 8 (p. 577), Athen. xii. Cone. vn. p. 525, Labb. p.
Trpbs
1

the latter are

ol ev

100,

Ptol.

v.

2.

Sometimes
Labb.
Cone.

it

is
III.

(written efi) Mayvrjo-iq or ol etc (written also ey or eVy) Mayvrjcrias or ol ano Mayvrio-las. Similarly in two different

simply Maiavdpov,
687
;

p. 1088, IV. p. 506, 858, 894, viii. p.

passages of Severus of Antioch preserved in Syriac versions (Cureton
C. I. p. 213, Land Atiecd. Syr. 1. p. 32) this epistle is entitled 'to those who (are) in Magnesia.' The fact is the

ib.

and occasionally nep\ Maiavdpov, p. 1072, comp. [TEschines] Herodotus describes it Epist. x. 8.
vii.
(iii.

122) as

rj

vrrep

oiKrjfxevrj.

These

Maiavdpov Trorap,ov designations were

more remarkable, because

the other epistles he Ephesians,' 'to the Trallians,' etc. If therefore Ignatius or any early
transcriber
epistle,

in quoting writes 'to the

adopted to distinguish it from Magnesia in Thessaly, of which it was reported to be a colony, but more
especially from
its

near neighbour un-

der

mount

Sipylus, which

was called

had prefixed a title he would probably

to this

have

Mayvrjata npos 2t7TfX&) or vtto 2t7ruXo) or V7r6 2lttvXov, and its inhabitants
MayvTjTes
cltto

npoc Toyc en m<\|-nhci&i or npoc Toyc M&fNHT&c. At all events the facts alleged seem to show that the extant title \xayvr]o-iwritten either
evuiv lyvdrios

~2ltvvKov

(see C.
iv.
p.

I.

G.

2933, 3381,

Mionnet

Suppl. vii. p. yj 1 sq). The are mentioned in the same context,
Liv. xxxvii. 44, 45, Ptol. v. 2.

68 sq, two places

must date long

after

Wes-

i]

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
I.

1

07

rVOVS

VfJLtoV

TO TToXveVTCCKTOV
7rpoei\djur]i/

T7/9

KCLTO.
'

Qe6v
lt]crov

5 dyct7rris 9

ctyaAAiwiuLevos

ev

TTLcrrei

Xpi&TOv

7Tf>0(r\a\rjo'ai v/uuv.
g;
irpoeikbp.7)v

KaTct^uodeis
6 Kara^LOjdels]

yap
G;

ovo/mctros

5 TrpoeL\d/xr]v]

G.
is

d£iw0eis [g].
'

seling ///#. p. 658 states that called -q npa)ro/iaiai/Spov7roXt?
s.

it
;

to

7rokvzvTa.KTov]
1 ;

and

good order
TTCLlVei

the abundant comp. Ephes. 6 vnepe06G)
evra^iav.
I

the writer in Smith's Diet, of Geogr.

Vp.(OV

TTjV iv

says Later documents seem to imply that at one time it bore the
v.
'

name
tin.
iii.

Mseandropolis.'
p.

Both quote
however
is

have not found an example of this word elsewhere but comp. noXvcvaiikayxyos Clem. Alex. Quis div. salv.
;

as their authority 'Concil. Constan666.'

39

(P- 957)-

The Lexicons
7ro\vev7rpe7ri]s,

This
text,

7roAveu£&Ha,

also give as late

merely a corrupt

irpa>Top.aiav-

words.
it is

Here, as in other churches,

dpovnoXccos for npos ra Matdvdpa 7r6\ea>s: see Labb. Cone. VII. p. 1100.

the

harmony and submission

to

The Masandropolis mentioned byPliny N. H. v. 29 is a different place,
though identified with Magnesia by

authority in the Magnesians which secures the admiration of Ignatius

:

comp. Ephes.
6, etc.

6, 20,

Trail.

1, 2,

Polyc.

Spanheim de Usu
ix. p.

et Praest.

Numm.

889.

When
s.

Phlegon, as quoted
v.,

by Steph. Byz.

says MaiavSpov-

noXts, Mayvrjcrlas ttoXls, he means that it belonged to the territory of Mag-

nesia.

Our Magnesia
rj

is
i.

also desig38),

Kara Qebv] 'in the way of God', a somewhat favourite Ignatian expression: comp. § 13, Trail. \,Philad. So too Kara 'l-qaovv 4, Polyc. 5. Xpio-Tov, § 8 below, Philad. 3. This is a favourite preposition with Ignatius
in
epistle,

nated

'Ao-iavr)

(Thuc.

1

and

its

inhabitants are Mdyvrjres ol ev rfj 'Aaiy (Herod, iii. 90), to distinguish them

various connexions, e.g. in this § 3 Kara p.r)bepiiav viroxpHjiv,
§

from
It
is

their

namesakes. placed in Caria, Diosc. Mat.
Thessalian
130 (131).

§ 4 Ka T cvToXqVj Kara lovda'icrp.6v,

§

6 Kara adp<a, § 8 9 * aT d Kvpianijv,
§§
8,
1

§

IO Kara

xP'-O'Tiavt.o'p.ov,

5,

Kara

Med.

v.
'

ndura.

I. Knowing your orderly demeanour and godly love, I am de-

sirous
letter.

of conversing with you by For decked out in these

7'determined', as e.g. 5. 7rpoei\dpLT]v] Prov. xxi. 25 (LXX) ov yap irpoaipovvrai ai X €L P €i uvtov noielu ri, 2 Cor. ix.
7.

{

The

ordinary sense of the sub-

honorable chains, I sing the praises of the churches, and pray for their
unity in the spirit

stantive Trpoaipeais, 'choice, purpose,' points to the meaning of the verb.

and

in the flesh,

The word does not imply any preference of the Magnesians over others, as some commentators explain it. iv 7rio-T€i k.t.X.] i.e. 'as a Christian speaking to Christians, to converse with you (by letter).' For of 'addressing' by letter Trpoo-XaXeti/

a unity consisting of faith and love, and centering in Jesus and in the If we abide in Christ, we Father.
shall escape all the assaults of the Evil One and shall find God.'
'

4.

IVous]

Having

learnt]

i.

e.

probably from the reports of
their bishop

Dam as

comp. Ephes.
6.

3.

and the other Magnesian delegates mentioned in § 2.

6v6p.aros]

Is

it,

as

some

say, the

What is this name? name of Christ

io8

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
ev
ois
7rep«pep(t)
Seo-jULols

[i

deoTrpeTrecrTCLTOVy
e'/ooVf/cnas, iv
'Irjcrov

aSco

ras

ah

evwa'iv eu^OjuaL crapKos Kai 7rvevfJ.aTOS
tj/uicou

XpicrTOv tov Sia ttclvtos
G.
3 rj/Awv]

tyjv,
(?)

7r/o"Tews Te
;

1 tvb)GLv\ Zvoaiv

GA
4

;

rjpas
17s]

L*

al.

g.
ets

ri]

GL*; om.
(but this

[Antioch i]; al. g. must be a misprint or misreading).

A

GLA;

al.

g;

[Antioch]

7 Tev£6peda]

G
11

(certainly);

(see the

note on Ephes. 1)?

The

his

bonds see Ephes.

ra beo-pa

would be OeoTrpeneo-TaTov hardly adequate here for this name
epithet

nepicpipco, tovs TivevpaTiKovs

(with the note).

papyapiras See also the notes

of names, though in another connexion it is used of Christ Himself,
Orig.
c.

Ccls.

iii.

14.

Or

is

it

the

on Philem. 9, 13, for the correspondFor the metaing idea in S. Paul. phor in abeiv see Ephes. 4, Rom. 2,
with the notes on both places. The words iv oh k.t.X. are best taken with the following clause. Zahn has not

designation of 6eocp6pos, as Pearson and others after him (e.g. ( V. I. p. 523)

Hilgenfeld A. V. p. 193) maintain? This designation however seems to have been self-assumed, and not conferred upon him by others as a title of honour, as Pearson supposes. Or again is it the appellation of 'maras Lipsius (Aecht. p. 90) and others believe? But elsewhere Igtyr',

improved the passage by his reading. In his earlier work (/. v. A. p. 569) he boldly alters the words thus, <ara£l<ode\s

yap

St

rcov, iv ois 7repi<pipoc>

ovoparoov OeoTrpenearadeapols, Idelv ras
;

iKKk-rjaias

k.t.X. but in his subsequent text he contents himself with

natius shrinks from any such boastful title (see the note on Trail. 4).
I

substituting I8av for a8a>, retaining the other words and explaining ovopa
deoTrperreo-TaTov

think that the reference here
ois irepicpepoa deapols.

is

to

refer
lively

to

Damas
is

best supplied by the words
follow, iv

which
Ig-

the bishop.
teristic

The

and characthus
that

image of Ignatius
'

natius rejoices, as S. Paul had rejoiced before him, that he is dicrpios
Xpio-roC (Ephes. iii. 1, iv. 1, Philem. This is his proudest distinc1, 9).
tion.
I.

obliterated.
2.

ivcoaiv k.t.X.]

/ pray

there

may

be unity in their flesh a?id
spirit,
It

in

6eoTrpeTTeijTaTOv\

The
inscr.,

word
11, 12,

which are Jesus seems best so to explain the words, rather than Pinion with
their
Christ's.''

occurs again, Smyrn.
Polyc.
7.

It

is

found as early as

the flesh and spirit of Jesus Christ] or ''union in flesh and spirit with

Diodorus (xi. 89, xvii. 75) and appears in Philo [Vit. Moys. ii. 3, p. 137). Compare the similar Ignatian words, 6eobpopos, OeopciKapiaTos, 6eonpeo-fivTqs. iv ois k.t.A.]
7repi<pepoo.
i.e.

Jesus Christ\ because (among other we thus avoid an unmeaning and awkward repetition which
reasons)

otherwise arises out of the subse-

quent words, to
iv rols

deapols a
fetters

k.t.X.

For

ivcoo-iv

hi KvptcoTepov, *It)0~OV aapKOi Kal nvevpakcl\

He compares
reveller;

some gay

his

his holiday decoration ; of his song is the praise

himself to are the burden
of

tos

comp. Rom.
rjvozpivoiSy
rj

inscr. koto. acipKa

nvevpa
ivcoais

and below
re
Kai

§

13 tva

aapKiKr)

nvevpaTiKrj.

the of

churches.

For

this

conception

These passages seem to show that crapKos Kai nvevparos must refer to the

I]

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
dya7rris,
fjs

109

kcli
9

ovSev 7rpoK6KpiTai, to
€V
(A)

u

KVpitt)T€pOV

:

5

ItJCrOV KCtl TTCLTpOS' It]

V7TO/Ul6VOVTeS TY[V TTCMTCLV £7TfJpeLaV

tov ap-fcOVTOs tov
Tev^o/ueda.
potimur

aitovos

tovtov

kcci

Sia(j)vy6vTes

Qcov

L

;

refugimus ad {confidimtis in)
;

A

(the

word does not imply a
Voss print

different

Voss gave <pev^6peda as the reading of the MS, and offered rev^ofxeOa as a conjecture.
reading <pev£6pe6a)
al.

g.

The

earlier edd. after

(pev^opeda.

The churches and not to Christ. flesh and the spirit denote the secular
and the
tively.

spiritual sides of life respec-

20. The sense is rather injured than improved by the change, which introduces an irrele-

compares Ephes.

vant clause.
4.
(i.e.
r\s

the frequency of these words evovadai, etc. in Ignatius seethe note

On

ovbev

k.t.A.] is

''than

which
1

love)

nothing

preferable"
dycnrrj,

\

on Ephes. 4. The difference between evcoais and evor-qs is the difference between 'union' and 'unity', between the process and the result. For the genitive 'irjo-ov Xpiarov, as I have
taken

comp. Smyrn. 6
OllbeV TVpOKtKpiTCU.

ttLcttis kcu

a>v

For
3. 8,

TTpOKtKpiTCU,
iii.

comp. Xen. Cyr.
to
is
fie

ii.

Mem.
'

5. 19.

Kvpuorepov

k.t.X.]

and what
a union

more important than

all,

comp. Polyc. 5 els Tiprjv ttjs d-apKos tov Kvpiov (the correct reading), and see 1 Cor. vi. 20 (as read in
it,

in fesus and the Father in Jesus, in whom if we end?ire etc' where
;

iv

w must be connected with
the sense requires.
kcu
tt)v
5.

'irjcrov,

the received text) dogdo-are 8r) tov Qebv iv raj crcopaTL vpwv kcu iv ra>
ixvcvpari
vpcov,

as

For
'

ivoo-is

'irjo-ov

naTpos comp. John
ndo-av
eV^peiai/]

xvii.

2 1.

driva

icrTiv

tov

all out-

tion

to this construchere takes three sets of genitives; (1) Of the subject, which possesses the unity, aapKos kcu nvev(2) Of the matter in which paTos the unity shows itself, 7rlo-Te<6s re kcu

9fou.

According

evoocrts

For the emphatic position of rage.' the article preceding nas, and thus
denoting the whole range of possibility,

comp.

I

Tim.

i.

16

tt)v cnracrav

:

pa.Kp06vp.iav,

Hermas Mand.

v.

1

t/)v

nacrav

iXnida,
v.
14.

dyaTrrjs

:

(3)

Of

the personal centre
'irjaov

Gal.

and see the note on For iir^peiav comp.
viii.

in
xai

which the unity resides, For this threefold nciTpos.
§

Apost. Const,
8iafto\ov Koi

8

ttjs

nayibos tov
daipovcov

refer-

ttjs inrjpeias tu>v

ence comp.

13 KaT€vod(odrJT€ aapKt

(comp.
int.

ib.

§

11),

Lucian Pro Laps,

kcu 7rvevua.Ti, nicrTei kcu
KCU TVCLTpX K.T.X. did tov 3.

n dycmr
k.t.A.]

iv via

rravTos
life';

*

our

Salut. I yaKeirov piv, avdpconov ovTa, 8a.ip.ovos tlvos iir-qpeiav diaq^vyelv, Philostr. Epist. 18 (p. 349) dvoia

3 to abiciKpiTov r)puiv (r\v, Smyrn. 4 'Irjaovs Xpioroj, to akqOwbv For this substantival use of r]pa>v {j}v.
1

never-failing

comp. Ephes.

pdXkov

r)

eTTTjpeiq
is

tatpovwv yevopeva

;

'Itjctovs Xptcrro's ,

and so wanton

it

used elsewhere of the
inflicted

injury

by

superthe

human
6.

is

(qv see the note on Ephes. 1 1. There no sufficient reason for adopting

agencies. tov upxovTos

k.t.X.]

See

the ill-supported reading rjpas here

with Zahn (see

/. v.

A.

p. 570),

who

note on Ephes. 17. Qeov Tev£6pe6a] The phrase Tvyydveiv Qeov occurs again Ephes. 10,

I

IO
II.

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
'€,7rel
u/uicov

["

ovv

r]f iwdr\ v
kcli

iSelv

v/mas

Sta

Aafxa tov

dpLodeov
i

eTruTKOirov

wpecrfivTepcov ct^iwv Bglct2 ai-iwv]

Aafxd] dd/Ma G.

GLA;

deov d^luv g.

Smyr?i.

9.

More common
below
§
1

still

is

enirvyxaveiv Qeoii, 12, Trail. 12, 13,
S7>iyr?i. 11,

4,

Ephes.
4,
9,

Rom.
2,

1,

2,

and so also Rom. $. 'Iiyerov Xptarov enirvyxuveiv, II. 'I have seen you in the person of your bishop Damas, of your presbyters Bassus and Apollonius, and of your deacon Zotion, whose submission to the bishop and the
Polyc.
7;

in the person of.' For did comp. Ephes. 2 fit' (op rravTas vfxd9...eidop, Mart. Ign. A?it. 3, 4 and for the idea see the note on Ephes. 1 dn-eiXTjCpa. Aapa] This name occurs several times in the inscriptions, e.g. Boeckh C.I.G. 2880 MdpKOV OvXniov [<£Xa]/3iai

81a]

;

vov

Aapd

at

Didymi

;

2869

TrpocprjTrjs

KXavdios Aa/xds also at Didymi; 3507 MapKoi) OvXniov Aapa napabo^ov kcu
Kavidlas Bdaarjs Ovyarepa at Thyatira; 3902 1 rep dv8p\ Aapa at Eumenia;

presbyters
I.

is

a great joy to me.'
Tj^Lcodrjv

'E7r6t

ovv

k.t.X.]
is

The
never

sentence, thus

commenced,

completed. The protasis is lengthened out in recording the obedience of the deacon Zotion (ov eyco and this record ,..'lr)o-ov Xpia-Tov), suggests a general injunction to the

Aa/xa[fi]i

3983 Ovdvaijos Aapds T€Kva> ao)[po)] at Philomelium. See also
284,
iv.

nos.

Ephesus

2562, 3860 and Wood's 3 (p. 6), Bull, de Corr.

Hell. vii. p. 31 1. So too on Milesian coins in the time of Nero, ti

em

.

.

Magnesian Church at large (kcu vp,lv fie 7rpeireiK.T.\.), which again branches
off into subsidiary topics

A&ma, Mionnet
p. 272.
is

ill. p.

168, Suppl. vi.

In the inscriptions the

name
Aap.d.

occupying

commonly declined Aapds

three chapters (§§ 3, 4, 5), the apodosis being meanwhile forgotten. At

[In one instance however (no. 3983, already given) it is declined Aa/xay

the beginning of the 6th chapter the
original protasis is again resumed, eVrel ovv iv rols 7rpoyeypap.pevois 7rpoaa>7rois

Aapddos,
(see

if

Boeckh

Keil and Franz are right Vol. III. p. 1 107) and in
;

k.t.X.,

and the long-suspended

apodosis follows, Trapaivco iv o/xovoia Qeov k.t.X., doubtless modified in form and substance by the ideas

Latin inscriptions (C.Z.L.V. 1636, XIV. 1349) we have a dative dam ATI.] On the other hand we find Adpas Adpavros (like Qavpas Qavpavros) in Suidas s.v. 'AXKp.dv. The two forms

which have intervened.
lar

For a simi-

however seem

to represent different

sentence
I

Ephes.
K.T.X.

similarly broken see eVei ovv ttjv 7ToXvnXr'i6eiav

favourite word of Ig^Kodrjv] natius when speaking of himself;

A

names, as Zahn rightly supposes. Aapds (gen. Aapd) is probably a contracted name, like 'Erracppas, Zrjvds,
etc.

in

as

For these contracted names see the note on Col. iv. 15.
this to

Ephes.

9,

21,

Rom.

1.

The comoccurs
;

Assuming
the

be the account of

pound
§
1

Karafjiovo-dai

also

several times in this connexion

see
11,
2).

above,
1

Polyc.
a^ios
o).

Smyrn. (comp. Ephes. 20, Rom.
12,

Trail.

word, I have accentuated it Aapa, as it appears in the editions of interpolated epistles, rather than
Adpa, as
it

is

written

frequently,

See also the note on Ephes. 2 idvncp

even by the same editors (e. g. Cureton, Dressel), in the genuine Ignatius.

n]
''

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
KCLl

Ill

(TOV

AiroWoOVlOV
eyix)

KCLL

TOV CTwSovXoV

fJLOV

SiaKOVOV

ZtoTiwvos, ov

oual/uiriv,

otl inroTaarcreTai

tw

eiri-

3 'AiroWuvLov] airoXtaviov

G

(not airoXovtov, as given in Dressel).

4 Zwrluvos]

Gg

;

sotionem

A; zononem L*

(an obvious miswriting for zotionem).

On this hypothesis, it is worth mentioning that among the names occurring on coins, inscriptions, etc., relating to Magnesia are Ar)p.r)Tptos(M ion-

coveries at
(pp.

34,

66).

Ephesus Inscr. vi. 1, 17 At least two Smyr-

nasans bearing the
;

name appear

in

net

III. p.

143), ArjtxoveiKos (ib. III. p.

history see Pape-Benseler Wortcrb. d. Griech. Eigennamen s. v. At Mag-

156, Suppl. VI. p. 252), Ai)p.d<jTparas 148), and (ib. in. p. 157; comp. p.
Arjixoxapis

(Boeckh
C.

C. I. G. 291
;

1,

of

name appears on the borne by two persons at different epochs, each at the time
nesia itself this
coins as

the date A. u.
of the

850)

that the

name

same person is written A&Meoy and Ahmcoy on different coins of Magnesia (Mionnet Suppl. vi. p. 252) and that our Damas is called
;

recorder (ypa/t/xarevy), i. e. chief magistrate of the city (comp. Acts xix. 35 for the parallel case of Ephesus)
;

Armas in the spurious epistle Antioch. The name Damas occurs also in 13. Latin inscriptions; e.g. C. I. L. VI.
14991, 2061.

mapnhtoon B&ccoy under Caracalla (Mionnet ill. p. 151), em fP B<\ccoy M&r NHT k> N under
.

em

[~p.<t>A

.

.

16722,
It
is

X.

2263,

6164,

XIV

-

Maximinus (ib. Suppl. VI. p. 248). In a Samian inscription, C. I. G. 2248, the names Bassus and Apollonius occur together, as here.
latter
is

probably therefore the same with the common slave-name

The
most

a frequent
in

name

in

Dama
ii.

(Hor. Sat.
v.

i.

6. 38,

ii.

5.

18, 101,
I.

places.

One Apollonius a Magnesian
an Ephesian inscription,
Inscr.
ii.

7.

54, Pers. Sat. v. 76, 79, C.

L.

appears
erreibr)

4087, etc), just as we have in Latin the forms Apella, Herma, Heracla, etc. Basil Epist. 252
II.

5042,

Wood's Discoveries
'AttoWoovlos
k.t.X.
;

3 (p. 6)

Kopcovos

Mayvrjs

and two

others, also
in
C.
I.
'

Magnein-

(ill.

(Aafias ?) as later date.

mentions one Aa/za? a famous martyr of a Euseb. H. E. iii. 36, speaking of the Epistle to the Magnesians, refers to this passage,
p.

388)

sians, are

named
Boeckh
''

a Trallian
G.

scription,
(p.
1 1

23)

k.iioW(jiVio<i

2919 b AnoWcoviov

Mdyirrjs.
3.

eW
the

o-wdovXov]
2.

(tkotvov

mas
8.
2.

Aapd pvrjprjv mentioned is

7re7roirjrai.

Da-

tius solely to

Applied by Ignadeacons see the note
;

twice

in
15,

on Ephes.
4.

spurious epistles, Antioch.
dgioOiov]

Hero
is

ZcoTieovos]

The name

is

not
it

uncommon

in inscriptions,

where

Applied again to a

bishop in Smyrn. 12. On the word generally see the note on Trail, inscr.
dt-ia>v\

Comp. Ephcs. 4
Qeov
a£iov.

npeo-fivre-

piov tov

most frequently written 2omW, as In the same in one authority here. way in the inscriptions the same person is called Scort^os and Zcort^oy, Boeckh C. I. G. 202, 205. There is
also for thinking that the 2o)ra? of Euseb. H. E. v. 19 is the same with the Zcotikos of the preconfusion ceding chapter. On the

Bdo-aov k.tX]

Apparently not an
in

some reason

uncommon name
31

these parts of Asia Minor; see e.g. Boeckh C. I. G. 12, 3148, 31 5i> 3493. Wood's Dis-

112
cr/coVa)
'IriO-OV

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
ws yapiTi Qeou Kal

["

tw

7rpecrfivT€pi(t)

ws

vojulo)

XpiCTTOV. III. Kal vfjuv Se Trpeirei
i XpurTov]

\xr\

(rvyfcpao-dai ty\ rfKucia
in

For the addition

L

see

Appx.
t

of 2 and Z see the note on Polyc.
inscr.
ovai\x.r]v\
'

cktos dgiais a-vyxp<^P^ a

Ong. Ep. ad

Afric. 15
i.

(l.

p. 28) avyxpap-evovs npo-

e.

'

enjoy

his

comi.

(pijras 7rpo(f>r)T<ov

pany
I.

;

see the note on Ephes.

\e§e<ri.
it

Xoyois o~x^op avrals In this latter signification

yapiri Oeov k.t.A.]

The bishop

has a tendency to a bad sense,

here regarded as the dispenser of the presbyters as the blessings representatives and guardians of
is
;

like Karaxprjo-Oai, though not to the same extent. For the form -xpaadai,

For vopco comp. Trail. raacropevoi rw imcrKOTVco cos rrj
order.

13 vno(vtoXtj

instead of -xpwOat, see the notes on [Clem. Rom.] ii. 6 (pp. 195, 452),

and comp. Herm. Sim.

i.

xpa°" at

>

(with the note).

The expression here
that the presbyterate
institution,

does not
is itself

mean

though XPWU occurs in the context. For the sense see 1 Tim. iv. 12 prjdeis
crov rfjs veorrjros KaracppovaVa).

an ordinance, an

of Christ, but that the presbyters order with the authority of Christ. For v6pa> XpurTov see the note on

Kara bvvapiv k.tX] i. e. having regard to the power conferred upon
4.

'

him by God the
5.

Father.'

Rom.
repico,

inscr. ^ptoroi/o/io?

;

for wpeo-fiv2.

III.

the note on Ephes. 'I exhort you
to respect the

a7rovipeiv] 'to pay\ as his due ; for this is the force of the preposition.
7,

all

in

like

youth of your Follow the example of your bishop. presbyters, who regard not his age but his wisdom. Your duty towards

manner

Clem. Rom.
6.

So dvrovepav riprjv, I Pet. iii. 1, Mart. Polyc. 10.
'

ov Trpoo-eikrjCpoTas]

not taking adavoiav del t&v
tt

vantage oj"';
ii.

comp. Demosth. Olynth.
poo~-

p.

20 B

rrjv eKao~TG>v

God, the universal Bishop, requires you so to act. Whosoever fails in
his

dyvoovvToav avrbv e^anarcop Kal

obedience,

deceives

not

the

visible overseer,

but the
'

Invisible.

XapjBdvoov ovtg>s Tjv^rjdrj, Dion. Cass, lx. 2 /cal avTov Kal tovto TrpocrXap^dvovres (i.e. 'availing themselves of
this

His all-seeing eye nothing escapes.' kcu vp.lv Se] you the laity of 3. the Church, not less than the
deacons.'
to presume crvyxpavOai] to treat fajniliarly? literally
'

weak point in his character') ovk £kdxio~Ta Kareipyd£oPTO (passages quoted in Steph. Thes. s. v., ed.
Hase and Dindorf). The expression ov 7rpoa€iXr](p6Tas has been commonly explained 'not regarding] i. e.

'

upon]

The

word occurs

in the

N. T. once only,

J oh. iv. 9 ov yap crvyxp&VTat 'lovdaloi "Sapapeirais. The word signifies either

overlooking" but the parallels quoted suggest the correct interpretation, as Uhlhorn (p. 329) and Zahn
'
;

1

'to use together with another,' as perhaps in Polyb. vi. 3. 10 o-vp,^/evdovrai Kal cruyxpai irai navres oi
(1)

v. A. p. 303) have pointed out. (/". For other untenable explanations of

povap\oi rep rfjs ftacrikeias ovopart, ' or (2) to use constantly or fully or
;

ov 7rpoo~ei\T)(p6Tas see the next note. ' his youthful stavecorepiKrjv rd^ip]

familiarly,' e.g. Epict.

i.

2.

7 rats rrov

tus or condition] a slightly awkward but intelligible expression. The uses

Ill]

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
€7ri(rK07roVy

"3
TrctTpos irdcrav
kccl

tov
5

dWa

kclto. Svva/ULLV

Qeov

evTp07rt]v avrco dirovejieiv^ Kadcoi- eyvwv ty\v 7rpe(r[3vTepovs ov

7rpoa-€i\r](p6Ta9
g.

tovs dyiovs (paivofievr^v vewre[A].

4 dvua/xiv]

GLA

;

yv<l)/j.7)v

irarphs]

GLg; om.

of ro|ts elsewhere quite justify this interpretation seeesp. Aristot. Magn. Mor. i. 34 (p. 1 194) orav ijbrj Xdftjj ttjv
;

and the

veooTepiKr) Ta^Ls

was therefore

On the other only a semblance. hand Saumaise (Appar. ad Lib?', de
Pri?n. Pap. p. 57 sq, Lugd. Bat. 1645) gave a wholly different turn to the
rdtjis

rov dvSpos rd^iv, 'when he has now arrived at maris estate] which is an exact parallel comp. also H. A. ix.
:

7

(p.

612)
as,'

rjj

7rep\

tov
'

ttt]\6i/

a^vpcoaeL

ttjv

cwttjv

ex el T
Kara

^

tv

1S

°f the
11
(p.

same
761)
elvai

nature

An. Gen.
ttjv
i.

iii.

supposed that vewTepucr) newly created order or institution of the episcopate,' and he rendered the sentence sicut cogpassage.

He

meant

'the

'

fiovXerai
rd^iv.
els

tov

Magn. Mo?\
tqZiv

7rvpbs 2 (p. 1183) oo~a

novi presbyteros, non ut accipientes
earn,

quae nova videtur, institutionem,

'pertain to the category of power,' Plato Phileb.

dwdpews
ttjv

rjicei

sed tanquam prudentes in Deo, cedentes ipsi.' In reply to Saumaise,

49 C
kcu

cpvo-iv,

twu yekolcov e'lXrjxe tci^lv re Dion. Hal. de Adm. Vi

Petau (Theol. Dogm. v. 8. 5, iv. p. 162, ed. Antv. 1700), while maintaining the antiquity of the episcopate against him, was nevertheless led astray by his misinterpretation of ov 7rpocrei\r)<p6Tas, not recognising'' and so reptidiating] and himself ' explained vewTepiKrj Ta£ts novitia et He recens ordinatio et institution supposed that this new order of
'

Dent. 4° $eo-pov 8e twos 77 koWtjs Td£iv...7rape£op,evas 'to take the place
of,'

'to serve the
i.

purpose

of,'

Diod.

Sic.

25

els tt)v 7rpov7rdp£ao-av Kadi-

aTaadai tci^iv, 'restored to their former condition (of health and

'

soundness of
fore

limb).'

Ignatius there-

apparently belongs to the category of youth, yet his godly

says that,

though

from his years

Damas

things which the presbyters repudiated was the substitution of ap-

wisdom takes him out
gory.

of this cate-

pointment by superior standing

for

This

is

terpretation tian interpolator,

substantially the inadopted by the Igna-

free election, or in other words, of This however seniority for merit.
is

who paraphrases
ttjv

a pure hypothesis, not resting on
historical
basis.

the

words

ov

7rpbs

(paivop,evrjv

any

Both

these

dcpopuvTcis veoTtjTa,

nian translator, 'non spectant ad apparentem aetatem pueritiae ejus'; and it alone harmonizes with the preceding context, p,rj
crvyxpaadaL
It
Trj

and of the Armewho renders them

interpretations of the sentence are refuted by Pearson {V. I. p. 5 sq),

and have not been reproduced
terly.

lat-

But, while rejecting the general interpretation of the passage as given

i^XiKLa tov

cttictkottov.

by Saumaise,
piKrj Tagis,

several recent writers
vecoTe-

must be noticed however that
ttjv

have adopted his rendering of
order'
;

says, not veoTrjTa, for his veorrjs

Ignatius

(paivopevrjv
fact,

'the newly-created office or

was a

but

ttjv (paivopevrju vea>T€piKr)V

Ta^LV, for

he

was young without being youthful,

e.g. Rothe^///a>^, p. 436 sq, Uhlhorn p. 329 sq, Lipsius Clem. Rom. p. 27. Yet it is open to the most

IGN.

II.

8

ii4
piicrjv

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
tcc^lv,

[in

d\X
Se,

ok

(ppovi/uco

ev

Oew

(rvyxcopovvras

outw* ovk avTw

ctWa tw
ek
Tl\XY\V

TTOLVTOiV eTTKTKOTTU).
vfUia^

XpKTTOv tw iraTpl OVV 6K61VOV TOV 06\t](TaVTO^
'Ir/crod

viraKOveiv Kara fji^efjaav viroKpicriv TTpeirov early
<ppovip<p) sicut sapienti viro
(paivofJLeurjv

i

(om. ev

deep)

A; and

so the paraphrase of g oi -rpbs
cp'povipovs

TTjv

acpopuvras veorrjTa

dWa

irpbs ttjv ev deep <$>pbvr\<jiv\
TipJtp)

GL.

3 eKeivov]

GLA
5]
;

(which seems to have read
4
;

odv exeLvov [avrov] 6e\rjcraPTos); deov
k<xI

[Dam-Rup
obedire

al. g.

vfj.as]

A, and so

[g] irpeirov odv eartv

vpds vwaKoveiv

rep i-irco-KoTO)

vjmQv k.t.\.

ijpds

GL
5

L; audire A;

eiraKoveiv

Dam-Rup. G: comp. Ephcs.

vrrctKoveiv]
2,

Dam-Rup

[g];

where

G

reads e-mTacraopevoi

for viroTaaa-6/j.evoc.

ovx #"]

G; non qtwd

A

(less literally translated

serious objections.

(1) It dislocates

the connexion of thought.

Obviously

the words Ka6a>s...Ka\ rou9 ayiovs npea(Bvrepovs k.t.X. imply that the example

of the presbyters corresponds to the

previous injunction, whereas this interpretation

makes

it

refer to

some-

But his rendering strains the sense of and the veayrepLKTj and rdfjLs combined result is an awkwardness of expression far greater than in the traditional interpretation which I have adopted. Zahn was anticipated in his explanation by Bingham Ant.
both
;

thing quite different. (2) The words will not bear the meaning thus put

ii.

10.

'

1,

He

calls his

ordination

veooTepiKrjv rd^iv,

a youthful ordina'

upon them. might stand
'

Even though ra|ts for the 'institution' or

tion?

An

alternative rendering sug-

order' of the episcopate, the epithet vecorepiKr] cannot have the sense asIt denotes either signed to it.
'juvenile' or 'revolutionary,' but never, so far as I am aware, 'recent'; nor indeed does the form -ikos admit
this

gested by Cotelier recentem illius ordinationem'' is open to still greater This account would not objections. be complete without a reference to the interpretation by Bos Exerc. Phil, in 2 Tim. ii. 22 (p. 45), 11011 adsumentes ea quae manifesto juvenis
'

7 sq,

meaning Zahn /.

;

see Pearson
v.

V. I. p.
(3)
It

(episcopi) sunt
1.

munia?
I

A.

p.

304.

(ppovip<p\

Cor.

iv.

10 cppovi-

leaves

cpaivopevrjv

unexplained, for

/xoi

iv XpMTToi.

The reading which

there could be no question of appearances here, seeing that the age of the episcopal office must have been a matter of fact. Zahn (p. 304 sq)
gives

I have adopted from the Armenian Version and which is supported by

the interpolator's paraphrase seems to be required by the context. A
reference is wanted to the prudence, not of the presbyters, but of Damas

an explanation of vecorepiK^ which stands midway between that which I have adopted and that which Saumaise proposed, and inrdgis,

;

comp. Socr. H. E.
pev
alv,
rfj

ii.

6 avhpa veov

rjXiKLq TTpoftefirjKOTa 8e rals <fipe-

terprets

it

'the ordination of a

young

He thus brings the expression a nearer connexion with the preceding injunction, and gives a
man.'
into

speaking of Paulus when appointed bishop of Constantinople. 2. tco TrdvTcov eVtcrKOTrcol See the note on Rom. 9. Somewhat similarly

possible interpretation to

vecorepiKrj.

Polycarp Phil.

5

§iaKovoi...iropev6-

Ill]

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
OVX OTI TOP
eTTl(TKOTTOV

115
/3\€7TO JJL€VOV

67T€l

TOVTOP TOP

irXava tis,

dWa
eicHoTa.

top dopctTOP TrapaXoylVeTar

to

Se

toioutop, ov Trpos ardpKa 6 \070s
tcc

dWd

7rpos

Oeop top

Kpv(pia

IV.

llp67rop ovp icTTip

fJLt]

fiopop KaXetaQai Xpia-Tia-

nequaqua?n by Petermann); nequaqiiam L (this probably does not represent any other Greek than ovx on); ovxl Dam-Rup; ov yap [g]. 6 tov aoparov
irapa\oyi£eTai] txt

GL;

add. deov

[Dam-Rup]; add.

tov

fir)

dvvd/xevov k.t.X. g.

A

has simply invisibilem (omitting irapaXoyl^eraL). however has the form toiovto); t£ 5e toiovtcp
Xcicdai]

to 5e toiovtov]

GLg

(which
9 na-

Gg Dam-Rup

5; vocari

LA;

anoveiv

Dam-Rup; al. A. Dam-Rup 10.
'

uevoi Kara ttjv dXr/deiav tov Kvpiov, os

to 8e toiovtov k.t.X.]

but in such a

There is eyevero 8id kovos navTcov. a reference here to the primary idea
in eniaKOTTos 'to
all,'

Him who
to.

oversee'th
for the

thus preparing the
els
TLfxrjv]

way

have to reckon not with For t6 toiovtov flesh but with God.' see the note on Ephes. 1 1 %v tQ>v 8vo. For the sense of 6 \6yos and for the
case he will

closing words tov
3.

Kpvcpta etSora.

general tenour of the passage, see

See the
l

note
'

on
':

Ephes.

21.

OeX-qo-avTos vfxas]

who desired y'oti

Heb. iv. 13 TravTa de yvuva ... tois o(p6aXuo7s avTov 7rpos ov -qplv 6 Xoyos comp. Liban. Op. I. p. 201 (ed. Morel.)
;

comp. Rom. 6

eicelvov deXco.,

whereas

here the object is a person. For this sense of diXeiv see ib. 8 deXrjaaTe Iva Ka.lvp.eis OeXrjdrJTe, with the note.
4. is
iii.

dneKTovocn kcu npbs npos dvOpanovs ylvercu 6 Xoyos, and see Wetstein and Bleek on Heb. /. c. Similar is the exprestoIs Se
abiKOJs

Oeovs

kcu

Kara

urjfteuiav k.t.X.]

The thought
vi. 6,

the
22.

same

as in Ephes.
'

Col.
'

have
3980

l sion earai avTG> 7rpos tov Oeov, he will to reckon with the god,' C. I. G.

3890, 3902

f,

3902

n,
a,

3902
3963.

0,

3962

b,

will not say an see Kiihner ellipsis for ov Xeyco oti 525 (11. p. 800 sq), Winer § lxiv. p.
5.

ovx on]

/

;

;

comp. 3902

:

746.
(/. v.

It is difficult to see why Zahn ^.429 and ad loc.) should prefer

ov^i

which

is

much

less expressive.

speaks of iirei ovx or1 as not Greek but the presence of eVel can;

He

not in any way affect the correctness of the phrase ovx ° rt
-

tov to. Kpvcpia k.t.X. ] Probably 7. suggested by Ps. xliii (xliv). 22 avros yap yLva>o~K€L to. Kpv<pia Trjs Kapdlas comp. Ephes. 15, Philad. 7. The exact form Kpvcpios does not occur elsewhere in Ignatius, or in the N. T. It is not sufficient to bear IV. the name of Christians without the
:

'

6.

c

7rapaXoyi'£Vrai]

attempts

to

reality ; as some men profess respect for their bishop but act without re-

cheat] literally 'imposes upon with false reasoning'; see the note on Col.
ii.

4.

So [Clem. Rom.]

ii.

17 TtapdXo-

yt,o~auevovs ras evroXas 'irjcrov XptcrTov. In Apost. Const, viii. 11 is in-

The consciences of gard to him. such men are not upright for they absent themselves from the public assemblies of the Church and thus
;

God

disobey the commandment.'
o.
p,r)

voked as

cmapaXoyio-Tt.

uovov

KaXelcrdcu

k.t.X.]

8—2

n6
vovs

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
d\\a
teal

[IV

eivar
^

tixnrep

Kai

tives

eiricrKOTrov
ol

fiev

KaXovcriv,

XMP

L

^e

butov iravra
julol

irpdvG-ovcriv.

tol-

ovtol
fit]

[Se]

ovk evo-vve'&riTOi

ehai (palvovrai Zia to

/3e/3ou&)s

Kar

V

evToAtjv (ruvadpoi^ecrdai.
;

.

'€.7rei

Tat tcc

Sl/o

ovv teAos tcc irpdyfjiaTa e^ei, kcll ttqokelopou, 6 te ddvaros Kai r\ faq, Kai eKCHrros
5; vocant
82

2 KdXovaiv]

G Dam-Rup
,

L;
et

Xeyovacv [g]

;

al.

A.

01

tolovtol 5e]
01

GL*

(L 2 but om.

L

2

tolovtol

Dam-Rup.

3 e2Vcu]

A; ol yap GL[g]; om. Dam-Rup; dub. A.
);

qui

sic cogitant

tolovtol [g]
5

;

K al]

GLg;

dub. A.

Many

editors

omit
1

grammar.
imK€LTaL

Trpo/cetrat]

g (but

G:
tt?s

see the lower note.

A

it without authority for the sake of the has adjacet); proponuntur L; posita stmt A; 8 6 fxh...6 oe] L; 6 ^...6 8e G; dub.

5

al - §• irovriplas

&PXovtos

9 T <w Koa/iov toutou] GL; principis mandi hujus S t A; tou io xa/oa/tTifca] GL; so also [g]. which subg,

Comp. Rom.
Xpio-Tiavos,
I.

8 iva

aXXa

fir) fxovov Aeyco/nai Kai evpedco.
l

iiTLO-KOTrov p.ev k.t.X.]

have the

name of bishop aha ays on their lips.' But /caXouo-ii/ is an awkward expression, and we ought perhaps to adopt
Zahn's conjecture XaXoixriv (/. v. A. Scribes would be tempted p. 302). thoughtlessly to assimilate it to the preceding tcaXelaOaL, though a false

510), Clem. Horn. ii. 36, Clem. Al. Strom, vii. 13 (p. 882); evavveiSrjo-la, Clem. Horn. xvii. n. So the opposite
11.

8vit(tvv€l8t]to}s,
;

38
4.

§v<To-vveidt]cria,

Clem. Horn. i. 5, Clem. Horn. iii.

14.
'

It strictly, validly? explained by Smyrn. 8 exelvr} /3e/3m'a cvxapio-TLO. rjyeiaOcD, 77 vno top eViWo(3e(BaLoos]

is

connexion

is

suggested thereby. For

this use of XaXelv in Ignatius, see the
6. Comp. Bishop of London's Charge 1866 (p. 12) 'Is it too much to hope that some at least of those, who... profess an almost in-

note on Ephes.

The presence or the approval of the bishop was necessary for the validity of these gatherings. The persons here denounced held una?ithorised meetings for sectarian
ttov ovo-a k.t.X.

purposes.
is

ordinate

the Bishop's respect office in the abstract, will listen to
for

o-vvadpoL&o-dai] Great importance attached in these epistles to fre-

that practical exercise of its functions which warns them of the danger of the course on which have

they

entered
3.

'

?

evavvcidrjToi]

The
;

quent meeting together; comp. § 7 below, Ephes. 13, 20, Polyc. 4, and see the note on Such Ephes. 13. meetings were a symbol and a guarantee of harmony. The ev

adjective

occurs again Philad. 6 comp. Ep. Vienn. et Lugd. in Euseb. H. E. v.
1,

was the special bond of unity in these
gatherings
4,
:

X apLOTLa
Philad.

see Ephes.

5, 20,

Smyrn.
V.

6, 8.

Apost.

Const, ii. 17, 49, Clem. Al. Strom, vii. 7, 12, 13 (pp. 858, 879, 882), M. Antonin. vi. 30. So evo-vveidijrws, Isidor. in Clem. Al. Strom, iii. 1
(p.

'Ail things come to an end. great alternative of life and death awaits every man at last and

The

;

each goes to his own place.

There

v]

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
tov
lSlov

117

els

tottov jueWei %u)peiv

cocnrep

yap

Iottlv

vofjLLoriiaTa

duo, 6 juev

Qeou

6 $e koct/ulov,

ko.1

eKacrTOv

3

avTcov lSlov ^apciKTrjpa e7rLK.eLfj.evov e^L, ol olttlcttol tov KOO~fj.ov tovtov, ol Se ttlctol ev ayairr] yapaKTY\pa Qeov
'

7rctTpos

Slcl

Irjcov

XpicrTOv, 01

ov eav

/urj

avdctLpeTtos
hand S X A
lI &<*]
5);
5i'

stitutes eiKova fyovei,

must have had the accusative.
if

On

the other

translate

imago sunt dei patris, as
ko.1

GLSjA;
si

g.

dC ov]

GLg

they had read x a P aKT VP' (mss, but 1 propter qnod=bi

6v

Sx

{el

nolumus mori propter enm in passione eins) A {el si nolumus pati et mori propter nomen eius). Even g introduces a Perhaps 5i' ov is the right reading. reference to martyrdom by inserting words in the latter part of the sentence, to In Philad. 7 there is a similar v. 1. hC ov (for ev qj), where virep aX-rjdeias iradetv.
however
it

can hardly be correct.

are, as

it

kind

;

were, two coinages of manthe unbelievers who have

8.

vopiarpaTa]

'coinages?

The

issued from the mint of this world, and the believers who are stamped with the image of God in Christ.

image was perhaps suggested by our Lord's words in Matt. xxii. 19 litihd-

A

^are pot to vopicrp-a tov Krjvaov similar contrast between the

k.t.X.

good

We
if

must

first

die to Christ's death,

coinage
pevois)

we would

rise

with His

life.'

and the bad

(6p6a>s Konelai koa KeKcoSomo-v (x^'s Te Kal ^p4v

'E7ret ovv\ The apodosis to 5. this protasis is lost in the subordinate

Konelo-i to}

in a noble

KaKiaTco Koppari) appears passage in Aristophanes,

explanatory
io-Tiv k.t.X.

sentence,

wo-nep

yap

This explanatory sentence again is a protasis without an On these anacolutha in apodosis.
the letters of Ignatius, see the note

Ran. 717 sq: comp. Acharn. 517. See also Clem. Alex. Strom, ii. 4 (p.
436) to re 7rapaKex a P a ytx * V0V KaL TO ko.1 biaKpiveiv, Philo doKipov
xcopi'£eii>
(11.

de Execr. 6

p.

on Ephes.

1.
'

ra. 7rpayfx,ara]

the business of life?

vopicrpa ttjs evyeveias, Prol. § 5. See also Jer. vi. 30 dpyvK.T.X.

433) napaKo^as to Euseb. L.

C

7rpoKetrai]
€7TLK€LTaL
1

The common reading
door''',

piov aTTobedoKcpao-pevov KaXeaaTe avTOVs
o

would mean
€7TLKeiTai..

are at the

are at hand] comp. Rom. 6 6

'

pev...o de]

For to

pev...To
sc.

del

This reading however, as Zahn has seen, is the mechanical substitution of a scribe from below, where the word is used in a different sense. The life and death here mentioned are the spiritokctos poi
tual, the eternal, life

see
9.

Winer

§ xviii. p. 130.

tov Koapov tovtov]

x a P aK
of

~

Tijpa exovo-iv.

The reading

the

Syriac, tov apxovTos tov Koapov tovtov, deserves consideration. 10. ev dyairy] i.e. 'the faithful

-7«

tov Ihiov tottov]
ix. 4,

Hermas Sim.
larly

and death. So Acts i. 25, 5, 12, and simi:

whose
comp.
11.

faith manifests itself in love

' ;

Gal. v.

6

ttlo-tis

81

ayaTrrjs

evepyovpevq.
81a *Ir)<rov XpiaTov]

Rom.

tov ScpeiXopevov tottov, Clem. see also the 5, Polyc. Phil. 9

Christ
-

is

note on Clem.

Rom.

1.

c.

Himself the X a P aicT1lP ( Heb * 3) of God, and this image is stamped upon

n8
ex^^v to
>t

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
diroQaveiv eU to ccvtov 7rddos,
rj/ULlV.

[v

to

<^}v

avTOV

OUK 6CTTLV 6V

VI.

'Gwei ovv ev
7rArjdos

Toh

7rpoyeypa/uL[Aevois 7rpocra)7rois
ev

to

ttolv

edecoptio-a

wia-TeL

kcli

rjyct7rrio-a,

i

GLg

;

fy"/"^] ^x°^ v G (not 'ix w P<£v, as stated by Dressel). add. episcoporum scilicet et presbyterorum et diaconorum S r

3 7rpoo-w7rots]

Similarly

A

translates in eo

quod antca

et diaconis. scripsi de episcopo et presbyteris

4 to irav
ay&Trri);

ir\i]6os]

GLg;

add. vestrum SjA.
If

^ydwrjaa]

Gg*

(but v.l.

dilectione \J$> x k.

any alteration were
6
ets tijttov]

made,

crycurTjcrei

better than d/yctTn?; but the versions are not of great weight in this

would be case, where
Sev-Syr
1
;

the alteration was obvious.

els tottov

GLg

the

Christian by union with the Father through Him comp. Clem. Alex. Exc. Theod. 86 (p. 988) «ri tov
;

its

resumed, and at length matched with long suspended apodosis, rrapaivw
k.t.X. j
'

TrpoKopio~6evTos
€L7r€V...TLVOS
Tj

vopiapaTos
ZlKGiV KOI
f]

o

Kvpios
J

ev opovoiq Qeov k.t.X. ev toIs 7rpoyeypappevois

in

€1Ttypa(pi]

ovt(os kcu 6 nta-rbs eiriypacprjv pev e^et

the persons (or rather representatives) already mentioned"* in § 2 see the
:

dia

Xptorou

to bvopa tov Qeov k.t.X.

note on Ephes.

1

'E7rei

ovv

tt)v ttoXv-

On
of

the Alexandrian
el<c6v,

interpretation as the Xoyos, the dpxeTvirov

7rXt]6eiav vpa>v...a7reiXr](pa ev 'Ovqo-'ipGt.

The word
'

irpoo-ainov
l

napddeiypa, in Gen. i. 27 tear el<6va Qeov, see the notes on Col. iii. 10. so 2 Mace. vi. 19 avdcuptTcos]
:

more than a person'';
sonage]
Polyb.
V.

here signifies it is a peri
'

representative
107.

;

comp.

e. g.

avdaipeToi 2 Cor. I. els to avTov

viii. 3.

-rrddos]

6

a.Tvo6avelv els

XpiaTov

'irjaovv,

Comp. Rom. and see

3 e£rJTovv r)yepova koX avTvp6o-(OTrov (os iKavoi bvTes fiorjdeiv rois, xxvii. 6. 4 irpoQepevoi to tov
fiao-tXeoos

the note on Ephes. inscr. The language of Ignatius is moulded on that
of S. Paul; comp. Rom. vi. 5, viii. 17, 29, 2 Cor. iv. 10, Phil. iii. 10, 2 Tim.
ii.

Evpevovs TVpoau>irov (with other passages given in SchweighseuSo in Clem. Rom. 1, ser's Lexicon). 47, it is applied to the ring-leaders
'

'

11.

(see the note on the former passage). Again it was used in law-courts of

VI.

'

Well then, since

I

have been

the 'parties' to a suit
p.

permitted to see you all through your representatives, I exhort you to act together in harmony with the bishop, the presbyters, and the deacons who are entrusted with the ministry of Christ the eternal Son of God incarnate.

380,

Lobeck Phryn. and comp. Apost. Const, ii.
;

In all these uses it re47, 49, 51. tains something of its primary sense, and has not yet degenerated into
the colourless meaning person.' See also Meyer on 2 Cor. i. 11.
'
'

and
3.

Conform yourselves to God, love one another. Let no divi-

4.

rjyd7T7]cra]

welcomed, embraced?
refers

The word here

to

external

sions arise
'E7rei

among

you.'

ovv k.t.X.]

The

protasis

which commenced with the beginning
of § 2 'E7ret olv
fii-ia>8qv

k.t.X. is

here

tokens of affection, according to its see the note on original meaning Polyc. 2 to. decrpd pov a r}ya7rrjo~as. Though the versions favour the
;

VI]

TO THE MAGNESIANS.

119

5

irapaivui ev ofdovoia
7rpoKadr\jjL€vov

Qeov o~7rovBa^eTe TcavTa Trpacrcreiv^ tov eTTivKOirov eU tvttov Qeov teal tlqv
avveZpLOv twv aTroo'ToXcov, Kai

7rp€o~l3vTepc0v eis tvttov

NDD1D2 S
stand for

(where the word

tvitos,

thus transliterated into Syriac would naturally not for tottos; see Payne Smith Thes. Syr. s. v.); tanquam

A

(thus taking the Syriac

word

to represent tvitos).

The

authorities are just the

same, where the phrase recurs in the next line. See the lower note. 7 (TvvehpLov tQv airo<TTokwv'\ GLg Sev-Syr; angelorum consilii S r tanquam angeli (an erroneous rendering of ND?D> which differently vocalized signifies rex regis
;

A

or consilium).

reading dydTrr), no great stress can be laid on the fact, since there was every temptation to recur to the fre-

Xcov

:

comp. Apost. Const,
els

ii.

26

rj

8e

Trvevparos TeTiprjcrOco vp.lv... ol de TrpecrfivTepoi els

diaxovos

tvttov dyiov
TCOV

quent Ignatian combination niarei
Kai
dya.7TTj.
'

TVTTOV

TJpcOV

aTTOCTTokcOV

VeVO-

picr6cocrav...ai

zn godly ev opovoia Geou] 5. concord''; comp. § 15, Philad. inscr., where the same expression occurs. So too evonjs Qeov see the note on
;

dpcpavol vpcov els tvttov tov 6vo~t.ao~TTipiov Xe-

re

XVP aL

KaL

As the Xoyiadcocrav. in the Constitutioiis

whole context abounds in re-

Philad.
6.

8.

miniscences of this passage of Ignatius (see the notes on npoKad-qphov
above, and on dvev tov iraTpbs k.t.X. § 7), it is another very strong confirmation of the reading adopted (though the word tottov also occurs
in the context, § 28, as quoted in the

TrpoKa6rjpevov\

So

TrpoKadi^eadat.

is

used of the bishop, Clem. Horn. Ep. Clem. 12, 16, iii. 64, 66, 70, 72. Comp.
ii.

Apost. Const,
prjpevos,

TrpoKaOe^eadco vpcov

26 6 yap eirlcrKOTTOs cos Qeov d£la rerc-

a passage obviously mould-

next note).
also

Zahn quotes Barnab.
Qeov.
iii.

19

ed
voiv

after Ignatius (see the following

VTTOTayrjarj] Kvpiois cos tvttco

See

notes).

The same word
well be

rrpoKadrjpe-

Clem. Horn.

62,

where the

may

understood with

the following tcov TrpecrfivTepcov, as it is used of the presbyters just below ;

povapx^a of the episcopate is represented as the counterpart to the povapxia of God, and the people are

but with

tcov diaKovcov

it

is

necessary

to supply

some other word, such as

bidden to honour the bishop elKova Qeov. In Apost. Const.
the bishop
:

cos
1.

c.

avpnapovrtov, according to the sense. The clause TreTTiaTevpevcov k.t.X. is

added by way of explanation, seeing that they have been entrusted
etc'
els tvttov]

'

vpcov eV/yetos 6ebs peTa Qeov, with more to the same is the effect comp. ib. ii. 30.

is

called

He

highest earthly representative of the
spiritual power:
7.

whole
570
Ka\

to

sq).
3,

Trail.

seems best on the read with Zahn (/. v. A. p. See the parallel passage where the right reading is
it

So

crvvebpiov tcov aTTocrToXcov]

This

comparison exactly corresponds with the parallel passage already quoted, Trail. 3, where the presbyters are

tov

eTTiaKonov

bvTa

tvttov

tov

Trarpos, tovs de TTpetrftvTepovs cos crvve-

compared to 'the council of God and company (see the note on crvvdeo-pov) of the Apostles.
5

Spiov Qeov Kai

cos

avvheapov anoo~To-

Ignatius

is

120
TCOV

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
ZlCLKOVUOV
>

[VI

TtoV

6/UOl

yXvKVTCCTWV,

7r€7rLCTTeV^.6Va)V
rjv

SictKOviav
kcli

h](rov XpicrTOU, 69 irpo aicovoov irapa iraTpt

ev reAei icpdvr].

irdvres ovv ofdorideiav
ko.1 /uLrjSeis
'

Qeov AafiovcrapKct

res evTpeirecrOe d\\/}\ous 9 7reVw tov TrXtjcrioVf
1

Kara

pAe5

dW
ets

ev

Irjcrov

Xpio-Tco
(tfn

d\\t]\ovs
KDBItDH) Sj

diaKovojv]

GLg;

add.

tvttov

tCov

aToaroXiou

vKH

(which does not continue the quotation further); add. in for mis apostolorum A (where again fcc.DG1tD is taken as standing for tvwos). Sev-Syr omits the ante i irpo alwvcov] G clause /cat ruv dt-aKovoiv tQ>v ifiol yXvuvTOLTiov.
;

saecula

L;

irpo

ai&vos g (but ante saecula
ribui.
7rarpt]

1);

perpetuus A.
r<£ irarpl g.

Sev-Syr has a plural,
4 evrpttreo-de
a\\if]\ovs

but

it

depends on

G;

aWrjhovs]
irecrde

evTptirecrde

dXX^Xots

G;

veneremini

adinvicem L*;
5
'

ivrpe;

Dam-Rup

9

;

al.

g

:

see the lower note.

tov]

g

Dam-Rup

rw G.
dWrjXovs did

'ItjctoO

Xptcrcp]

GS 4 [A]

;

XP L<JT V lyvov g; XP L0 T(? Dam-Rup.
estote

ttclvtos dyairttTe]

GL

Dam-Rup;
cos

inter vos

omni tempore S 4
Qeov,

;

picturing to himself the gathering of the church, where the bishop and presbyters are seated on a dais, the

bianovovs
cos

[Xptcrrou]
/cat

Polyc.

Phil. 5

Qeov

XpioroG

8icikovoi',

bishop occupying the throne in the centre, and the presbyters sitting round (as in the Basilican arrangement) so as to form a corona; comp. 13 below a^ioirXoKov 7rvevp,aTi<ov §
o~Te(pdvov tov irpecrfivTepiov vp.cov (with

comp. 2 Cor. xi. 23, Col. i. 7, 1 Tim. iv. 6. This seems the most probable Otherwise it might interpretation. be explained 'a ministry in which Jesus Christ Himself served,' for He

became
5)
;

didaovos irdvTcov (Polyc. Phil.

the

note).

See

also

the
tov

note on
eiricrKOTVOv,
is

Phllad.

8

crvvehpiov

comp. Matt. xx. 28, Mark x. 45. For the comparison of the deacon to Jesus Christ, which is involved in
this latter interpretation, see the note on Trail. 3.
3.

where again the reference

doubt-

less to the presbytery. Comp. Aftost. Const, ii. 28 to2s Se irpeo-fivTepois... durXr) /cat avTols a(popi£ecrdco r) p.olpa
els
cov

ev reAei]

Heb.
I

i.

2

eV

tcov -qp.epcov tovtcov, ix.

26

eirl

eV^aroi; crvvTeXeia
x.
1 1

X^P IV T ^ v TOv Kupt'ou aVooToAcoi/, /cat tov Tonov CpvXdcTCTOVO-lV .eCTTl
.

tcov

alcovcov

:

comp.

Cor.

els

.

yap crvvebpiov /cat fiovXr) tt)$ €KK\r]o~ias. The presbytery are again compared to the Apostles. Trail. 2, Smyru. 8. The text of the Syriac (followed by the Armenian) seems to have been
altered deliberately, in order to pro-

ovs Ta Te\r) tcov alcovcov KUTrjvTrjKev. See also Ephes. 1 1 eo-\aToi Kaipol

(with the note).
i.

£o~xaTcov tcov Kaipcov r\ irapovaia tov vlov tov Qeov, TOvriaTiv ev tco TeXei ecpdvr) r\ apx*)-

IO.

3

^

Zahn quotes

Iren.

i

oporjdeiav Qeov]

moral conformity
I

duce what appeared suitable comparison.
2.

to

be a more
'a service
:

with God'; comp. Polyc.

rots-

/car'

biaKovlav

'I.

X.]

i.e.

tinder Jesus Christ] as their Kvpios comp. Trail. 2 tovs Smkovovs ovtos
[xvaTijpicov 'lt]aov

avdpa /caret 6fxorj6eiav Qeov AaAei (with This parallel passage the note). shows the meaning of the expression It is not 'godly conformity here.

XpiaTov,

Smym.

IO

among

yourselves,' as

Zahn takes

it,

VI]

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
jULtjSev

121

$ia ttclvtos dyairdre,
v^ids jULeplarai,
Ka6r]fJLevois els

€<ttw ev vjmv o $uv/i(T€tcu
eTTMTKOTru) kul toTs ttqo-

d\\'

evcodriTe

tw

tvtcov kol

SiSa^v
ovre
$i

d<pdap(rias.

VII.

'

Mcnrep ovv 6 Kvpios avev tov Trarpos ovSev
wj/],

o eTToir]orev [fjwwjueyos
om. g
dAX'
(here, but
it

eavrov ovre Sid tcov

is

represented in the context).
iesu christi.

A

abridges the whole sentence
7

ev...

ay air are into sed amore

eiricrKOTq) /cat rots

TrpoKadrjixivoLs]

GLS Dam-Rup
X

6;

eirLCXKOir^

ry

TrpoKaOrj/ievu)

A; ry
The

e7ricr/c6 7ry

g (omitting
8 of
ryTTOj/]

/cat

rots 7rpo/c.

and substituting

v-rroTaaao/xevoL t<$ 0e<2 /c.r.X.).

G

(but carelessly written)

LS 2

;

tottov

Dam-Rup;

al.

g.

rendering

from a misunderstanding of the Syriac KTflj which differently vocalized signifies exemplar and obtutus. 9 odu] GL* 6 Kiptos] GLg; add. tj/jluv Dam(but om. Lx ) g Dam-Rup; 5e S ± et A.
conspectum
arises
;

A

bomun

Rup [SJ
r}vo}fx£vos

[A].

10

£iroir}<rev]

GL[SJ Dam-Rup

;

faciebat

A;

7rotet

[g].

uv]

GL; om. S X A

[g]

Dam-Rup.
ye do nothing without your bishop and presbyters. Let no man study but let there be any private ends one common prayer, one common
;

and
0eoi),
4.

might suggest.
Ephes.
i,

as the preceding ev opovoia Qeov See also piprjTal
Trail.
1.

aAA.77A.ous-]

The reading dAX 77ivrpiiveo-dai

Aots

must be wrong, as

mind,

takes a genitive or an accusative (in Ignatius only the latter), but never

a dative. Though times has a dative,
ent meaning,
*
'

alo-xvveo-Qai
it is

somediffer-

one common hope. Jesus one be ye therefore one. Gather yourselves together as to one Temple, even God; as to one Altar,
Christ
is
;

with a

to
\

on account of be out of place here.
lar error in the

,

be ashamed al,' or a sense which would

There Greek MS,

is

a simi-

Trail. 7

even Jesus Christ, who came forth from One and is in One, and returned to One, even the Father.' See avev tov irciTpos k.t.X.] 9. viii. 28 an epavTov ttolw ouSeV, John
dXXci K.ada>s edida^ev pe 6 XaXco (see § 8 /carat rravTa
iraTijp,

(pvXaTTecrOe ovv rols toiovtois. Kara crapKa] i.e. 'so as to love

Tavra

and

evrjpeo-Trjcrev

hate his neighbour by turns, from

which
el

is

a reminiscence of the con-

merely human passion.' It is opposed to Sta ttcivtos ayairare. 8. th tvttov k.t.X.] i.e. 'both as an example and as a lesson of inIn Rom. vi. 17 we corruptibility.' have et? tvttov diSaxys. The idea of
acpdapo-la

text of this ov

same passage) comp. x. yj
;

epya tov naTpos pov k.t.X. See also Apost. Const, ii. 26 as 6 ovdev. tu XptaTOS, ttolcov d(/)' eavrov
7rotc5 to.
ii. 30 apeo-Ta 7roiei tc3 7rarpt iravTore, a>s yap Xpiarbs avev tov ivarpos ovdev ovtcos ov8e 6 dicucovos avev tov

in Ignatius {Ephes. 17, Philad. 9; comp. Polyc. 2) is not merely immortality, but moral incorruption as carrying with it im-

Troiel,

mortal
17.

life

;

see the note on Ephes.

(passages referred to by is a remiJacobson), where there niscence at once of these passages in Ignatius and of the sayings in S. John's Gospel on which they are
inio-icoTrov

VII. 'As the Lord Jesus did nothing without the Father, so must

founded.
'

10.

rpw/xeVos Sp]

being united'with

122
a.7ro(TTo\o)v,

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
outws
fur]Se

[vn
kcci

v/meTs

avev tov €7rL<TK07rov
^.r]Se

twv

7rp€or/3vT£pcov

fxri^ev

TrpdaaeTe'

7reipaa"r]T6
\iia

evXoyov

tl <paiveo~6ai ISia v/uilv

a'W

€ttl

to avTO

Trpocrev^r], fxla Sevens,
TY\

eh

vovs, jiia i\7ris, ev dya7rr\, ev
'

X a P? TV
I

(*>lA(JOfJ.(Jp,

09 eCTTLV IrjCTOVS XplGTTOSy OU CCflBlVOV
om.

5

nod tlou irpeafivTe'piov]
fxrj

GLA;

Dam-Rup

[g] (but

g continues

prjdc irpeafiv-

repos,

Slolkovos,

p,r] Xai'/cos).

1 irpdacreTe] irpdcGeTai

G.

3 (palveadai] qbaiveade

G.

v/uuv] txt

GLA Dam-Rup (but
dfxeivop ovdev iariv]

the quotation ends here);
;

add. seorsim ab

episcopo Sj (an accidental repetition

from the preceding sentence ?) al. g. 5 6s] quod (the antecedent being gaudio) L; 6' Antioch 1 ; eh G; al. Ag: see the lower

note.

GLAg

(but ovdev for ov6iv)\ ovdev

6vp.7]d-

Him'; comp. Smyrn.
fjvoofxevos
1.

ra

srarp/j

3 nvevpaTiKas said of Christ.

ovtcos
ii.

Const,

fJLTjde voxels /c.r.X.] Apost. 27 ovtcos Kal vpels avev tov

iTTLO-KOTTOV

pt]8iv

7T0ielT€.

The
2, 7,

pre~

cept occurs again Trail.
7,

Philad.
i.e.

Smyrn.
2.

8.

and els, and two extant readings, explains both. For the confusion of o and os in the text of the Ignatian Epistles, see below § 10, Trail. 8, 11. (2) This attraction accords with the idiom of these epistles elsewhere see below § IO p.eTa(3dXecrde els veav
;

pjqhe

neipdarjTe K.r.X.]

'do

£vp,r]v,

os ecTTiv 'lijaovs XpicrTos

(v. 1.),

not struggle to persuade yourselves that anything is right and proper

§15

eppcocrde ev 6p.ovola.Qeov iceKTrjpe-

voi ddiaKpiTov 7rvevp.a, os eariv 'irjaovs

which you do by and for yourselves.' For the word evXoyov itself, compare Smyrn. 9 and for the sense, Ephes.
;

XpiaTos

;

comp. Trail.

1 1

tov Qeov

evcoaiv enayyeXXou,evov, bs

ecmv ovtos

1 1

x^P^
3.

t°vtov

[xrjdev

vplv 7rpe7reVo).

(where however there is a various reading), Ephes. 9 did ttjs firjxavfjs..,
bs eo-Tiv aravpos (with the note).

eVi to avWoi]

sc.

avvepxopevois
is

The
to

yi.veo-&G>.

The

sentence

studiously

passages,

§

15,

Trail.

11,

seem

terse, the

words being thrown down singly, and the reader left to supply Zahn (/. v. A. the connecting links. p. 345 sq, and ad loc.) would connect

show
tjj

that the relative refers not to
'

x a P9- T Jl dp,cop.(o, but to the whole This perfect idea of the sentence, unity is Jesus Christ' Compare the
still

dXV

eVi to civt6

words; but

this

me

so forcible.

A similar alternative
ii.

with the preceding does not appear to

stronger expression, Ephes.
'

14
de

dpx*} h^ v irifTTiSf TeXos 8e dydnrj dvo ev evoTTjTL yevop,eva Qeos

to.

eariv.

as to the connexion of eVi to avrb with the preceding or following words

The reading
sion

els is

part of the confu-

presents itself in Acts
5.
777

47,

iii.

1.

which extends over the following clauses in the existing Greek text.
6.

x a PRdp.cop.a>

k >t.X.~\

See

Ephes.

as

els

eva k.t.A.]

Looking
can be

at

inscr. ev
os]
1

x a P9have ventured

the
to substitute

authorities, there

little

this reading, though there is no direct evidence in its favour, for two reasons.
(1)

I think, that the passage should be so read. (1) The word eva slipped out of the extant Greek text

doubt,

It

stands mid- way between the

of the genuine Ignatius in the

first

VIlJ

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
iravTes w?
m

12^

ovdev ecrTiv.
ai?
€7ri

ev

ek eva vaov awTpe^ere ^Qeovf, 6uo iao~Tr]piov, eiri eva '\y\<tovv XpiGTov tov
ek eva ovra Kai ^wpr\-

d<p'

eVos TTotTpos 7rpoe\6ovTct kcu

(ravra.
6 ovdev'] earepov [Antioch]. (not ovdev as in Dressel). Travres] txt els] GLA; eh els g. [Antioch]. eva] LA; tov [g]; LAg; add. ovv om. G. crvvrpix €T€ Qeov\ GL; deov crvvTpex eT€ S' Qeov] GL[g]; om.

G

G

A.
(but
v.
1.

7 eiri ev]

G

(eirl,

not

eirel

ws iwi eva); in

unum L x

(but

as suggested in Dressel's note). L2 ut hi umim); us errl eva

eiri

eva]

g*

G

;

om. A.

clause, owing to the combination of similar letters ooceiceN&N&ON, while

Horn.

V.

21

cocrnep
els

6V opyavcov tcov
ray tcov
votjtlov

r\p.eTepa>v

o~a>p,aTU>v

the

word eh found

its

way by a

(pepeTai crvvovalas,
cos ivpos o~Ta.Bp.rjv

reduplication (eiceic) into the text which the interpolator had before him. (2) The cos before eirl eva 'irjaovv Xpiarov must be rejected, as an ob-

Athenag. Sllppl. 3 1 tov Qeov K.avovi£eTai,
55
(1.

Orig.
Xaov,

c.

Cels.

i.

p.

370) tuvtu

7rpo(fiT]Teveo~dai cos irepl

evbs tov oXov

Macar. Magn.

vious addition of the scribes in

some

els p.eyaXo7roXiv

iii. 13 (p. 85) cos KaTanXlvas Trjv eprjp.ov
:

copies both Greek and Latin, which the supposed parallelism of the clause would suggest, but which really destroys the

and, as regards classical writers, see Kiihner § 451 (11. p. 479). The omission would assist the corruption
of Qeov into Qeov.

meaning of the sentence.

Jesus Christ Himself is compared to I the one altar. suspect however that a still further change ought to be made, and that Qeov should be read for Qeov as to one shrine,
'

This refers not Divine generation of the Son, but to the mission on earth; for it
8.

rrpoeXBovTa]

to the

corresponds
setting

to

^cop^a-aiTa,

as
;

the

out

to

the

return

comp.

even

to

God.''

In

this

case the

shrine {vaos) would be compared to God the Father, and the altar or

John xiii. 3, xvi. 28 (quoted below), where e^eXBelv answers to irpoeXBelv See also the note on -rpoeXBcov here.

court of the altar (BvaiaarqpLov) to Jesus Christ. Thus the image gains in distinctness ; for the access to the former is by and through the latter.

in§
as

8.

eh eva 6Vra] For

this preposition,

describing the absolute eternal union of the Son with the Father,

Comp. Clem. Rom.

§

41 ep.ixpouBev

comp. John
tov iraTpos.

i.

18 6 cov els tov koXttov
i.

tov vaov npos t6 BvaiaaT^piov, and see the note on Ephes. 5. For the Bvatao-Tripiov in connexion with Christ
see Heb.
xiii.

See also John

is

u

\6yos

r\v

ixpbs tov Qeov.

XooprjaavTa] SC. els eva.

As

at the

10,

where perhaps

it

signifies more definitely the Cross ; and for the general complexion of

commencement istry He came

of His earthly minforth from One, as

For the the imagery Heb. ix. 6 sq. omission of els before Qeov (if this
reading be adopted) comp. Joseph. B. J. ii. 8. 5 KaBcurep els ayiov ti Tep.ej^oy TrapayivovTut to 0eL7rvr)Ti]piov, Clem.

is eternally with One, so also the close of this earthly minisSee estry He returned to One. etc tov pecially John xvi. 28 e^fjXBov

He

at

iraTpos

nal eXrjXvBa

els

tov <6ap.ov'

irakiv d(pirjp.i tov Koafxov *ai

nopevo-

124

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
VIII.
Mrj 7r\avaar6e Tafc irepodo^iais
el

[vni
/ur/he fjivdeu-

\xaoriv Tois waKaiols dvuXpeXecriv oucriw

yap ^e^pi

vvv

Kara lovhdiafiov
(pevcti.

(^utfjievy

ofjLoXoyovixev
7rpo<prJTai

X aP LV
kcltcc

W

€L

^ri~

ol

yap deioraroi

XpiaTOv
L;
vop.ov

i

ir\avaa9e] TrXavaadat. G.

3 lovdal'a/xov] judaismtim
[g].

lovda'CfffWV
'iTjcroi/e]

G; judaicam
G.

GLA;

ivTrpeofxevoi

legem A; uofiov lovba'Cnov i-qaovv XP L ^ T ° V S Sev-Syr 2, 7. 6 u7ro] G; dwo g.

4 Xptcrroj/
5 e/*7n'e6/Ae»'Oi]

auroG]

GL

Sev-Syr

rov TTarepa, comp. Xlll. 3 aVo Qeov i^rfkOev nai npbs rov Qeov vnayzi ; and for x co P 1 a avTa alone, see John xiv. 12, 28, nopevofiai npos rov narepa, xvi. IO, 1 6, 1 7? V7rayoo npbs top
fiat tvpos
'

epeis Kai /xa^as- vopuKas ne pucrraao, eiaiv yap dva>cpe\el.s kol jidraioi. These parallels

l

are important because they

serve to indicate the type of heresy

narepa.

'Be not seduced by false and antiquated fables. If we still live after the manner of Judaism, we avow that we have not reVIII.
doctrines

which Ignatius has in his mind. It belongs to the same category with the heresy of the Colossian Church (see Colossians p. 73 sq), of the Pastoral Epistles, of the Apocalypse, of the Catholic Epistles,
It
is

ceived grace.

Yes, the holy prophets

and of the Cerinthians. Judaism crossed with Gnosti-

themselves lived a life after Christ. For this they were persecuted, being
inspired by His grace, that so in the time to come unbelievers might be

cism.

The

'antiquated fables' are
:

convinced that there is one God who manifested Himself through His Son Jesus Christ, His Word that issued forth from silence and did the will of the Father in all things.' 1. See the note on p,rj nXapaade]
Ephes.
tols
16.

probably myths relating to cosmosee above, gony and angelology I. p. 360 sq, and Colossians pp. 89 This account sq, 101 sq, 109 sq.
of

the heresy

here

contemplated,

which is suggested by the parallels above quoted from S. Paul, is also demanded by the context of Ignatius himself.

He

warning against

erepodo^iais]
6.

So

erepodo^elv,

concludes

with

begins here with a and he a similar warning
erepodotjiat,

Smyrn.

The words

are at least as

old as Plato (Theact. 190 E, 193 d), but do not occur in the LXX or N.T.

These two 11). he connects closely together (§ 11
against Kevoho^ia (§
Se...#e'Aa)

ravra

vp,as

jxr]

ep-neaelv els

These are perhaps the earliest examples in Christian writings, though
erepodogos occurs in Philo de Sobr.

ra ayKiarpa

rfjs Kevodotjias),

so that he

13
ii.

(1.

p.

403)

and

in

Josephus B. J.

unquestionably has the same foe beYet in fore him from first to last. attacking this foe, he condemns two
things:
first
i.e.

8. 5.

(§§

8—10), Judaizing

pivdevpaaiv
iv.

k.t.A.]

Comp.

I

Tim.
I.
:

practices,

7 ypaco8eis pvdovs Trapairov, Tit.
p.r)

14

7rpocrixoi>T€S 'iouSaiKojs' fxvdois

ritual,

and

p.a>pas de

for dvcocpeXea-iv see Tit. iii. 9 ^rjT^aeis koi yepeaXoyiai kul

manent more especially the observance and secondly, of sabbaths (§ 9) Docctic views, which are directly met
;

the doctrine of the perobligation of the Mosaic

VIIl]
'

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
$ia

12

5

hjcrouv eVr\crav.
V7ro
Trjs

tovto kcu
eis

e^Lco^6r]0'av, efxirveoixevoi

^dpiTO^ [a^TOi;] 7r\rjpo<popridfji/ai toi)? oti eh 0eos ecrTiv 6 (pavepvovas eavrov hid direiQo\jvTa<i) Iriaov Xpicrou tov vlov ctvTOv , 69 icmv ciutou Aoyos
3

to

7

;

om.

Ag.
2
;

8

Xoyos]
ov

txt

A

Sev-Syr
d\X'
ovcria

;

add.

atdios

ovk

GL
icrriu

Tim-Syr
XaAcas
note.

g

paraphrases
(pdovr/pa

Xoyos

pyros
detKrjs

ovcn<Jo5r]s,

ov

yap
the

ivdpdpov

d\X'

ivepyeias

yevvr\TT\

:

see

lower

in

the words

7rerrXr]po(p6pr)o-6e

iv
),

rfj

yevvrjaei kcu

iraOei k.t.X. (§

1 1

hav§

expectation of a coming deliverer and a redemption.' So also Philad.
5
kcli

ing been alluded to previously in
(i.e.

9 ov

tovs 7Tpo(pi]Tas 8e aya7ru>pev

r)ia

tov 6a.va.T0v avrov) rives apvovvrai. The foe in question therefore was

ro KaX avrovs (Is to evayyeXiov Kar-qyyeXKevai <a\ els avrov iXni^eiv kol avTov
avap,evecv
^

For the Docetic Doceto-judaism. element see above, 1. p. 363 sq, and
on
Trail. 9.
2.

(comp.

ib. 9).

See too below
ovres k.t.X.

9

0L

TrpotprjTai

fiadr/ral

For
vvv l

the

uexP L

when two or

passed grace was revealed.
3.

'until now,' i.e. three generations have since the true doctrine of

'Itjctovv (rjv
;

expression Kara Xpirrrov comp. Philad. 3 (with the
see

and for the preposition note) the note on § 1 above.
5.

81a

tovto

k.t.X.]

The
xi.

same
16, 25,

Kara

lovda'io~p.6v]

There cannot

idea which appears in Heb.

be much doubt about the reading
superfluous v6p,ov in the extant Greek text of Ignatius is an
here.

The

26, 35 (and throughout this chapter generally): see also Clem. Rom. 17
iv dipfxacrLV alye'iois
pieTraTrjcrav,

ko! p.r)XcoTa7s rrettjv

obvious gloss; and the substitution of the 'Jewish law' in the Armenian Version and in the interpolator's text is a not less obvious Zahn however reads paraphrase.
Kara,

K7)pvcraovTes

eXevaiv

TOV XpiCTTOV.

Zahn quotes Iren. iv. iduoxdrjo-av] 33. 9 'similiter ut veteres prophetae
sustinentes

vbp.ov

lovt)a'io~p.ov

{couev

and

is

passage
this.

persecutionem etc,' a which closely resembles

disposed to take lovba'lo-pbv as a cognate accusative with (r v a construction which Pearson {ad loc.)
t

ip.7rveop.evoi k.t.X.]

Comp.
nepl
ttjs

I

Pet.

i.

IO sq npocprjTai

01

els

vp,as

o~p.6s,

For lovda'isuggests only to reject. denoting conformity to the external rites of the Jews, see the
notes on Gal.
i.

XapiTos
els

7rpo(pr]Tevo-avTes,
rj

Tiva

ipavvwvres nolov Katpbv idrjXov to iv
iav-

avTols Trvevp.a Xpio~Tov...ovx
toIs

13,

ii.

14.

vp.lv

opoXoyovpev
less

k.t.X.]

had

in his

mind

Ignatius doubtGal. v. 4 Karrjp-

where
tius

be birjKovovv avrd k.t.X., there are several ideas in

common
;

iv vop,co yqdrjre ano Xpiarov, oiTives diKatovaBe, ttjs x a P LT0S 6 tjeTrecraTe (comp. ii. 21 ovk aderoi rrjv ^dpty roG Qeov). For x^P^i as the central point of the Gospel dispensation, see the note on Col. i. 6.
4.

see the note on

with this passage of Igna§ 9 irapiav r\yeipev
>

k.t.X.
(piJTai,

Comp. also Barnab. 5 ol irpoan avTov exovresTr/v X"P IV

els

avrov inpocpqTevo'av. tovs direidovvTas] Not the con6. temporaries of the prophets themselves, but disbelievers in later ages,

Kara Xpicrrbv 'Ir/aovv]

'

i.e.

in

126
ct7TO

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
kcito.

[vm

ayfjs 7rpoeA0tov, 6s 7r€fJi^apTL avTOV.
I

iravra evripecTTYiaev tco

Kara

iravra.

evTipiarricrev']
;

G

;

ptaT7]<Tev

g (mss)

in omnibus

placuit

secundum omnia beneplacuit L Travra Karevain omnibus grains Tim-Syr Sev-Syr
;

;

fuit A.

who

fulfilment
selves
:

could test the prophecy by the and thus convince themsee
i

(2)

This reading

is

ed

to the context.

It

better adaptcorresponds to
dici
;

Pet.

1.

c.

For

7j-At7-

the previous 6 (pavepwaas eavrbv
'It](tov

po^opeli/,

Ho convince]
iv.

see the note

on Colossians

12.

8. \6yos dno o~iyrjs 7rpoeX#a)V] This reading has been altogether neglected by editors (before Zahn), but de-

follow, evrjpeo-rrjaev ra nepIt is also more con\jsavTi avrov. sistent in itself; for 0-177) and \6yos

and it which

Xpiarov, which it explains aptly introduces the words

text,

serves to be preferred to the common \6yos dtdios ovk drrb criyfjs 7rpoe\the following reasons.
It

are correlative terms, \6yos implying a previous aiyij comp. Iren. ii. 12. 5
:

6c6v, for

has higher authority than It stands in the oldest extant form of the text, that of the Armenian Version, and in one of the
(1)

the other.

'impossible est Logo praesenteSigen esse, aut iterum Sige praesente Logon ostendi; haec enim consumtibilia sunt invicem etc' (3) It accords entirely with the lan-

earliest

extant

quotations, that

of

guage of Ignatius elsewhere, where
the period before the Incarnation is described as God's silence ; Ephes.
19 pvo~Tijpia Kpavyfjs ariva iv ij(rv)(La 0eo£i errpdxdr]' nSs ovv icpave pa>drj',
(see the note there).

Severus (Cureton C. I. pp. 213, 245). Severus even comments on the expression; 'This (statement) that He

proceeded from silence means that
ineffably begotten by the Father etc' It is clear therefore that he had this reading before him, and it may be inferred from his silence that he was not acquainted with any other. This fact is the more important as Severus elsewhere {Rom, 6) mentions a various reading

He was

There

is

the

same contrast between the 'silence' and the 'manifestation' here.
(4)
a't'Stof

The

insertion

of the words

ovk, if spurious, is

much more

easily explained than their omission,
if

genuine.

A

transcriber would be

compares the ages of The paraphrase of the interpolator leaves some doubt about his reading: but inasmuch
as there
dtdios,

in Ignatius and different MSS.

sorely tempted to alter a text which lent itself so readily to Gnostic and

other heresies.
tion

The forced interpreta-

nothing corresponding to is hardly likely to have omitted, I suppose that in his text also di'Sio? ovk were wanting. He
is

which he

seems

after his

wont

to

have substi-

which Severus (as quoted above) is obliged to put on drrb aiy fjs irpoiKdaiv shows how distasteful the expression would be to orthodox ears. The interpolation should, I think, be assigned to the fourth or fifth century. About the middle of the fourth century

tuted for the Ignatian language \6yos
drrb o-Lyijs npoeXdccv,

which savoured

strongly of heresy, another expression which squared with his ideas of

Marcellus propounded his doctrine, which was assailed by Eusebius as Sabellian. The attacks of Eusebius

orthodoxy.

show that Marcellus expressed his views in language almost identical

VIIl]

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
245).

127

e. g.

with this statement of Ignatius': see Eccl. Theol. ii. 9 (p. 114) a §»)

This sense would correspond
systems, and
it

to the use of similar expressions in

MapKeXXos eYoA/xa

vTrorideadai, 7raXai

various Gnostic

is

pev Xeyotv elvai tov Qeov Kai riva f)o~va T <? Qeco vnoypdcpcov iavrco, X<- av

recommended
by the

to a certain extent also
;

^

kcit

avrov €Ke1vov tov

tcov dOeoav alpe-

parallels in Marcellus comp. also Tatian ad Graec. 5 ovtco ko.\ 6
€K
ttjs

(tkdtcov

apxqyov

(i.e.

Simon Magus,

Xoyos TvpoeXBcov
Swdpecos.

tov

TvaTpos

as Pearson, V. I. p. 420, rightly supposes), os to. adea 8oypaTi£a>v dnecpaivero Xeyatv, 'Hv Qeos Kai triyrj' per a Se
ttjv uiyr\v Kai ttjv rjo-vxiav irpocXdelv tov \6yov tov Qeov iv apxf] ttjs koo~-

not suit accord with the language of Ignatius

But nevertheless it does the context, nor does it

poirouas 8pacrTLK7J

ivepyeia

k.t.X.

It

elsewhere. As Logos implies the manifestation of Deity whether in His words or in His works, so

seems probable indeed from this and other coincidences (see Smyrn. 3), that Marcellus was acquainted with the Ignatian Epistles. See also on this procession of the Logos from Silence the passages quoted from
Marcellus,
(p.
c.

Sige
ii.

is

12.

5

the negation of this (see Iren. quoted above). Hence the
'

proceeding from silence' might be used at any point where there is a sudden transition from
expression

non-manifestation to manifestation
e.g.

;

Marcell.
i.

ii.

Eccl. Theol.

20

(p.

2 (pp. 36, 41), 100), ii. 8 sq
iii.

Wisd.
o~ov
tt)s

xviii.

14,

15,

rjcrvxov

yap

o-iyrjs 7repux o v°~ Tl s Ta 7T(n>ra...6 TtavTO-

112 sq),

ii.

11 (p.

118),

3 (pp.

dvvapos

Xoyos dw

ovpavSv...€ls

This mode of expression would thus be discredited, and the
163, 166).

oXedpias rjXaTO yrjs, where the reference is to the destruction of

peaov

text altered in consequence. parallel case is the insertion of dtdios
p,ev

A

with dpx<-epevs in Euseb. Quaesl.

the first-born in Egypt. To the Incarnation, as the chief manifestation of God through the Word, this lan-

ad

Steph. Op. iv. p. 900 (comp. p. 965) to save the orthodoxy of the
writer.

guage
cable
;

would
comp.

be

especially
xvi.

appli-

Rom.

25

Kara

This reading was advocated by
as early as 1868 in the

me

a7TOKaXv\l/Lv pvo~Tr)plov XP^> V01S olcaviois o-ecriyr) pevov, cpavepcodevTOs §e vvv

Journal of

(with

other
19),
I

passages
9)
Iva
ttjs

quoted

on

and again later in the Contemporary Review, Feb^ was adoptruary 1875, P- 357 SC ed by Zahn in his edition (1876) quite independently, for he was unaware of what I had written (see In his previous work (/. v. p. 201). A. p. 471 sq, 1873) he had tacitly
Philology
1.

p. 51 sq,

Ephes.
Cohort.
(pas, 6

and see

also Clem. Alex.
dXrjdeias to

(p.

L-

tcov irpo(prjTiKa>v alviypdtcov ttjv pvo~TiKrjv airoXvcrriTai cruoTrrjv,

Xoyos,

Since therefore evayyiXiov yevopevos. the whole context here relates to the
Incarnation and
(6
(j)avepao-as
it

human

life

of Christ
nepif/avTi

eavTov,

r<u

acquiesced in the vulgar text. The wonder is that a reading of such importance should have been so generally overlooked.

avTov),

is

natural

to

refer

aiyr)s irpoeXdcovto

the same.

anb See also

But if this be the correct reading, what is meant by it? Does this 'procession from silence' refer to the
Divine generation of the Word or to the Incarnation ? Severus takes the former view (Cureton C. I. pp. 213,

the parallel passage Ephes. 19 (already quoted), which is strongly in favour of this interpretation; and

comp. Rom.
\lrev8es
dXrjdcos.

8 'irjaovs XpiaTos...TO div
co

aTopa

6

7raTr)p

iXdXrjcrev

So too npoeXdelv has been

used just before of the Incarnation, Ignatius however does not § 7.

128

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
IX.
£2 ovv
ol

[IX

ev TraXaidls

irpd'yixaciv

dvacTpa-

<pevT€s eh KaivoTtjTa e\7n§os
i

t)\6ou, jul^kstl (rafifiaTiKpdyp.a<nv]

iv]

G; om.

g* (the existing mss).

GLA;

ypd/xfxaaiv g.

deny the pre-existence of the Word here, though he does not assert it. This was not the first time when the silence of God had been broken by the Word. Elsewhere this father asserts the eternity of the Son in the most explicit terms e.g. § 6 above,
;

text; for (1) nrjKeri implies a conversion from the old to the new ; and

Polyc.

3.

€vr]pecrrr)(rev k.t.A.]

A reminiscence

the correct reading is unquestionably koto. Kvpt.a<rjv 'in the observance of the Lord's day/ which could not possibly have been predicted of the prophets. Hilgenfeld has taken the corrupt reading Kara KvpiaKrjv farjv.
(2)

irpdyp-acnv]

See Orig. de
TravTcav tojv

P?'inc. iv.
'lov8a'iKa>v

then those who had lived under the old covenant attained to a new and higher hope by abandoning the observance of sabbaths and by keeping the Lord's day the memorial of Christ's resurrection, whereby we have found life through His death, which some deny but which to us is the ground of our faith and the strength of our endurance if, I say, this be so, how can we live without Him ? Nay, even the prophets were
'

of John IX.

viii. 29.

3
to

(i.

p.

160)

If

Trpayiiaroiv iv oh

io-ip-vvvro,
is

referred

by Zahn.

There

a slight tinge

of

points

It depreciation in this word. to the vexatiousness of the ordinances of Judaism. The read-

ing of the interpolator's text, ypdp.pLaaiv, is

tempting: comp. Rom.
civo rod
[77^10?]

vii.

6

KaTr)pyrj6rjp.€V

v6p.ov...<£>o'Te

8ov\ev€iv
/jlcitos

iv KaivorrjTi ttvzv-

;

Km

ov TvaKaioTrjT 1 ypdp,p,a.TOS,

which passage
suggested
it.

may
It

perhaps have must however be
:

His disciples, for in the Spirit they looked forward to Him as their
teacher
;

rejected for two distinct reasons (1) The convergence of the best autho-

and

therefore,

when He
dead.'

came,
1.

He raised them from the
ol iv Trahaiois k.t.X.] i.e.

'those

who were brought up

in the practices

of Judaism.' If the Jewish converts gave up the observance of sabbaths, a fortiori ought Gentile converts not to barter Christ for Judaic rites.

words
but
p.

Hilgenfeld (A. V. p. 232) refers these to the post-Mosaic prophets ;
this,

354),

Zahn truly says (/. v. A. would be to outbid even the
as

decidedly in favour of npayThe ypap.p.ara in this case would naturally refer to the Old Testament Scriptures, and wakcud must ' suggest the idea of antiquated? But this is not at all the language which meets us elsewhere in the Ignatian The patriarchs and the Epistles. lawgiver and the prophets are the forerunners of the Gospel there is an absolute identity of interests between them and the Gospel {Philad.
rities is
:

p.ao-Lv

(2)

;

Pseudo-Barnabas, who with all his hostility to Judaism does not go Such a statenearly so far (§ 15). ment would haA^e been quite untrue
in itself, and altogether discordant with the teaching of these epistles Moreover it is inconsiselsewhere. tent with the language of the con-

and see also the 5, 9, Smyrn. 7 mention of the prophets in this conMoreover the only direct quotext). tations in these epistles are from the Old Testament (Pro v. iii. 34 in Ephes.
;

Iii.

5; Prov. xviii. 17 in Magn. 12; Is. 5 in Trail. 8), and in two out of

three passages they are introduced

IX J

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
d\\a
al. g.

T29
Kal
r\

tyvres
3

KctTa

KvpiaKr\v gwvres, ev
;

rj

^cot]

fj/mmv
/ci/pta/cV

KvpLa.K7]j>]

fafy G;

dominicam L domiuicam diem sanctam et primam [A] See the speculations of Ussher Works xn. p. 584.
of authoritao

;

with the

common form

tive citation, yiypanTai.

The

inter-

scribes

change of ypdp.p.a and Trpayfxa with and critics is frequent: e.g.
Plato Soph. 262 d, Polyb.
ix.

Qeos o-kotos ko.) ttjv vXtjv Tpeyjsas Koap,ov inotrjo-e, Kai 'irjo-ovs Xpio-Tos 6 r}p.irepos acoTrjp ttj avTjj r]p.ipa €k veto
Kpa>v dvio-TTj, Dial.
rj

24

(p.

241)

r)

r]p,ipa

40. 3,

xi. 6. 3,
2.

xv. 26. 4, Euseb.

o-aftficiTi£ovT€s]

H. E. ix. 1. For the abroga-

oybor] fjLvanjpiov ti ei^e Krjpvo-o~6p.€vov 8ui TOVTOiV V7TO TOV QeOV

p,dXXoV

TTjS

i(386p.r)s

k.t.X.

(comp.

ib.

41, p. 260).

tion of the observance of the sabbaths see Col. ii. 16 (comp. Gal. iv. 10); and for opinions in the early church

So Ireruxus states that the practice of not kneeling on the Lord's day
dated from Apostolic times, and appears to have explained that it was
o-vp./3oXov Trjs dvao~Tao~e(0S, oV qs tov Xpto-Tov ftdpiTi twv re djiapTriudTcov Kal tov 67T avTtov T(6avaT(op.evov Oavdrov rjXevOepcodrjpev (Fragm. 7, p. 828, ed.

comp. Barnab.
Justin Dial. (p. 236), 21
12

15,

Ep. ad Diogn.
(p.

4,

sq

229
(p.

sq),

19
sq),

(p. 238),

23

240

29 (p. 246), Iren. iv. 16. 1, Tert. adv. Jud. 4. The word o-a/3/3art£eti/ is not found in the New Testament,
but occurs frequently in the LXX, where it bears a good sense comp.
;

(ra/3/3artfr^io? in
3.

Heb.

iv. 9.

Kara KvptaKrjv]

sc. r)p.epav.

This

Stieren); comp. Tert. de Cor. 3 'die dominico jejunium nefas ducimus, vel de geniculis adorare.' Melito wrote a treatise nepl KvpiaKrjs (Euseb. H. E. iv. 26) in which doubtless he

'living after the Lord's day' signifies

not merely the observance of it, but the appropriation of all those ideas and associations which are involved in its observance. It symbolizes the hopes of the Christian, who rises with Christ's resurrection, as he dies
with Christ's death. It implies the substitution of the spiritual for the formal in religion. It is a type and an earnest of the eternal rest in heaven. See esp. Clem. Alex. Strom.
vii.

drew out the symbolism of the day. The day is commonly called p.la \tg)v\ aa^aToav in the New Testa-

As late as the year 57 this designation occurs in S. Paul (1 Cor.
ment.
xvi. 2), where we should certainly have expected KvpiaKr), if the word had then been commonly in use.

Even
pari

in
iv

Rev.
tj]

i.

10

iyev6p.rjv iv
r}p.ipa

nvev-

KvpiaKrj

the inter-

12

(p.

877) ovros ivToXrjv

ttjv Kara.

is doubtful, and there are not conclusive, reasons for interpreting it of the day of judgment ;

pretation

good,

if

to evayyeXiov 8ia7rpa£dp.€vos KvpiaKr)v
€K€lvtjv ttjv r]p.ipav Troiei,

otov dnofiaXXr]

(pavXov

tt)v iv avTat

£d£a>v,

yvcoart<6v npocrXdfir] tov Kvpiov dvdarao'LV 80comp. ib. vii. 10 (p. 866).

vorjfxa kcli

see Todd's Discourses on Prophecies in the Apocalypse pp. 59, 295 sq. If so, the passage before us is the earliest

example of

its

occurrence in this

Comp.

also Barnab. 15 dpxqv r)p.ipas

sense, except perhaps Doctr. Apost. 14, where the expression is KvpiaKr)
Kvpiov.
r)

oy86rjs...o io~riv, aXXov Koo~p.ov dp^r/v dio Kal ayop.€V tt)v r)p.ipav ttjv oydorjv els ev<ppoo~vvr]v, iv fj Kal 6 Irjcrovs dvear-q

In Barnab. 15
17

it

is

called

r)p.ipa

078677,

where however the

writer has a special reason for dwell-

oc
(p.

v€Kp<ov

k.t.X.,

Justin Apol.

i.

67
iv
rj

99)

CTreiS?) TrpcoT-q icrTiv rjpipa,

ing on the eighth day. writing to the heathen

With
it

is

Justin tov r]

IGN.

II.

130
dveT€i\ev
hi

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
clvtov
kcli

[ix

dpvovvrar Sid TOVTO

hi

tov OavctTov avTOv, ov Tives ov /uva-rripiov eXafiofiev to 7riarTeveiv, Kai
'

V7TOfJi€VOfJL6Vy

\VCL

€Vpe6(x)JJL€V

\iaQr\Tal
7rcos fj/xels

Irio'ov

Xpiorrov tov fxovov hihavKaXov
1

v/uicQW
L.

hvvtjov ra

6v rives] o'irives
rrjs

G; quod

qtiidam

(6

rives)

The paraphrase
5ia

of

g

riKva
either

aTruXeias &Trapvovvrai points to the reading 8v rives.
a
St'

A may
Sev
1,

represent

rives or ov rives; al. g.

ov]

GL;

[A] (apparently).
7

3 viropevopev]

LA;

vrope'vwpev

G;

al.

g.

5 ov]

GLg

(Cramer's

tfkiov rjpepa

{Apol. i. 67), but to the pia rcov o-aj3(3dr(ov or rj 6y86rj qpepa {Dial. 24, 41). Melito's trea-

truth being involved in the denial of

Jews,
tise

77

the reality of the passion and resurrection; or (2) to the words rov Oavarov

on

this

day was designated

irep\

avrov

alone.

For

this

latter

KvpiaKrjs

(Eus. H. E. iv. 26) ; Dionysius of Corinth also calls

and
it

use of o see Trail. 8 iv

irio-rei o

iariv

by

this

name,

rrjv

orjpepov ovv KvpiaKrjv
it

dy'iav rjpepav 8irjydyopev, as if the familiar title (Eus. H.

were E. iv.

23)-

adp£ rov Kvpiov, Rom. J aprov Qeov and ...o iariv adp£ rov Xpiarov comp. Col. iii. 14, Eph. v. 5. See also below § 10, where the common text has veav £vprjv o iariv 'irjaovs Xpiaros.
;

The
text is

condemned

insertion (orjv in the Greek alike by the pre-

2.

81

ov pvarrjplov]

Zahn

(/. v.

A.

ponderance of authorities and by the following words iv 17 k.t.X. 1. For this metaphor avireikev] comp. Rom. 2, where again it is applied to the resurrection from the dead.
ov]
i.e.

p. 455) quotes Justin Dial. 91 (p. 318) oi en navroov rtov eOva>v 81a rovrov rov

pvarrjpiov
6eoaej3eiav

(sc.

rov

aravpov)

els

rrjv

irpdirrjaav k.t.X., ib. 131 (p. 360) drives 81a rov ifjovOevrjpevov Ka\ ovei8ovs pearov pvarrjpiov rov

rbv Odvarov avrov.
to

The

al-

lusion

Docetism, which denied the reality of our Lord's passion. See the note on § 8 pvdevpaaiv k.t.X. for the connexion of this error with Judaism here, and the note on Trail.
is

aravpov KXrjdivres vno rov Qeov K.r.X. Kal 81a rovro K.r.X.] This sentence
as far as 8i8ao-KaXov
thetical,
rjpeov is
is

paren-

and

81a

rovro

perhaps

best connected with the
iva (see

9 for the Docetism assailed in these In a parallel epistles generally.
passage, Smyrn. 5 ov rives dyvoovvres dpvovvrai, the relative refers to 'Jesus
Christ,'

following the note on Ephes. 17). The apodosis to el ovv oi iv rraXaiols k.t.X.
at the

opening of the section begins
vnopevopev]
i.e.

with
3.

7ra>s rjpels k.t.X.

'"we

and so

it

might be connected
;

secution.'

For

this

endure perconnexion be-

with avrov here but the meaning would hardly be so distinct, though the allusion to Docetism would still remain. The same will also be the
allusion, if for ov we read o, as some In this case o authorities suggest.

tween suffering and discipleship in
the

mind

of Ignatius, see the note
I

on Ephes.
5.

padrjrrjs.

was

avrov] This form of error a separation from Christ in two
(1)

xaP LS

ways;

In

its

Docetism

it

denied

may be
81

referred
77

either
£<or]

(1)

to

the

whole sentence
avrov
K.r.X.,

the

denial

-qpuv dvireiXev of this

the reality of His death and resurrection, which are our true bond of

union with

Him

;

(2)

In

its

Judaism

ix]

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
X^P
1

131
7rpo(pfJTai /uadtj-

5 (To/ueda (^fja'ai

^

at/T0 '~

'•>

°v Ka *

OL

Tctl
KCtl

ovTes

tw

TrvevfJLCLTi ftk SiSclctkclXov

avTOv irpocrehoKwv,

Sid TOVTO, OV SlKCtlWS dv6fJL6VOV y 7TapC0V t]y €lp6V CtVTOVS

€K veKpcov.
Cat. in 1 Pet. iii. 19 sq; Land Anecd. 6 irpoffeSoKuv] g Sev; irpoaebbKovv G.
I.

32); op A.

ol]

Gg; om.
(sic)

Sev.
(not

7 rapihu] Trap

wv

G

nap'

cov,

as Dressel).

it

substituted formal ordinances for God's grace, and so was a disavowal of any part in His redemption (see
§ 8

phets in Hades, to have taught them (cos Siddo-KaXov k.t.X.) the truths of the Gospel, and to have raised them
(rjyeLpev)

opoXoyovpev
TrvevpaTi]

k.t.X.).

6. tco

Zahn (comp.

I. v.

A.
;

heaven

;

either to paradise or to see Philad. 9 clvtos cov 6vpa
fjs

p. 462) attaches this to padrjTai ovres but the connexion with the following

tov TvaTpbs 8t Ka\ 'laaaK kcu

elcrepxovTai 'Aftpaap.

'laneofi kcu ol Trpocprjrai

words seems more natural, as well as more consonant with 1 Pet. i. 1 1
edr/Xov to

ev

avrols

nvevpa XpicrTov,

npopapTvpopevov k.t.X. as diddo-KoXov k.t.X.] For the sense in which the prophets expected Him as a teacher see the next note. The

k.t.X., comp. ib. 5 iv co kcu niaTevaavTes (sc. ol TrpocprJTai) iacodrjcrav, with the note. I have already pointed out (see the note on § 8 ip.7rve6p.ev01) that the functions assigned to the

prophets by Ignatius

semble

the

form

npoo-edoxcov

may

be retained

here, but TrpocredoKovv will not alter I mention this, because the sense.

Peter; and descent into

strongly rerepresentations in S. this reference to the

Hades
iii.

Zahn (I. v. A. p. 462) separates the two words, translating npoaedoKow 'sie schienen ausserdem noch.' For npoadoKelv, as a later alternative form of 7rpoa8o<av, see Dindorf in Stefth. Thes. s. v. and for the interchange of -eco and -aco generally in some early dialects, and in the later Greek,
;

parallel in 1 Pet. passages in the

has its Other N. T. which have
also
19, iv. 6.

thought to refer to it are Ephes. iv. 9, Heb. xii. 23. This belief appears in various forms in early
Christian
(p.

been

writers. Justin Dial. 72 298) quotes a passage from Jere''Epvqcrdr]

miah,
(1.

8e

Kvpios 6 Qebs anb
els yrjv

ayios with Iren.) 'icrpafjX tcov vexpdov
^coparrpbs civtovs

see Kiihner
§ xv. p.

§ 251 (1. p. 606), Winer 104 (ed. Moulton), A. Butti

avTov tcov KeKOiprjpevcov
tos kcu
KaTefirj

mann
7.

pp. 38, 50. 8imi(os] ''rightly] not

righteous'

ly'

\

see the note on Ephes. 15.
rjyeipev
k.t.X.]

7rapd>v

He came

aacrOcu civtoIs to crcoTrjptov says that the Jews had cut out this passage from their copies; and it does not appear in extant MSS of the

evayyeXiavTov. He

and raised them.'' This refers to the descensus ad inferos, which occupied
a prominent place in the belief of the early Church. Here our Lord
is

LXX. -What may have been its hiswe cannot say; but Irenasus quotes it several times (once as from Isaiah, once as from Jeremiah, and
tory
applies
in other passages anonymously) and it to the descent into Hades;

assumed

to

have visited

(rrapcov)

the souls of the patriarchs and pro-

9—2

132

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
X.

[x

Mr/ ovv dvaLcQ^TtdfJiev Ttjs yjpy)<TTOTV}TO<> avTOv.

av yap r\fjias /ui/uria'rjTaL Kctda Trpacrcro^eVy ovketl e&yiev. Sia tovto, \xaQy]Tal avrov yevofj.evoi, juadco^ev Kara %pi09 yap aWco 6vo\xaTi KaXeiTai irXeov G"TLavL(TfJiov Vnv.
I avai<r6r]TCj/j.€v]

G; non

sentiamus L; avaladr)TOL wfiev g;

al.

A.
al.

tos]

xP t<XT t>T7) T0S G.
r^as
fxifxrjaerai

^ & v 7^P]

G;

eav (om. 'yap) g; si

enim L;

xPV crT °T y~ A. ijfias
irpao-

(iilirjcnjTaC]

G

',

nos persequattir

L

;

/MfxijcrrjTai rjfxas g.

see
v.

iii.

20. 4, iv. 22.
1.

1, iv.

33.

1,

12,

In the last passage he writes 'tribus diebus conversatus est
31.

ubi
est

erant

propheta
(iv. 27. 2)

ait

mortui, de eo
etc'

quemadmodum
Commemoratus

Dominus

He

also relates

eous heathens as well as Jews but Hermas himself gives no hint whether he contemplated this exIn a tended application or not. later passage, Strom, vi. 6 (p. 763), Clement refers back to his second
;

a discourse which he had

heard from an elder who had known
personal disciples of the Lord, and who stated 'Dominum in ea quae
sunt sub terra descendisse, evangelizantem et illis adventum suum, remissione peccatorum existente his crediderunt qui credunt in eum
:

book, as having shown there that 'the Apostles, following the Lord, preached the Gospel to those in Hades'; and he maintains that, as our Lord preached there to the Jews, so the Apostles addressed themselves
to the righteous heathen, referring again to the passage in the Shep-

autem in eum omnes qui sperabant in eum, id est, qui adventum ejus
praenuntiaverunt...justi et prophetae et patriarchae etc' So too Tertullian

herd.

Somewhat similarly Hippolytus de Antichr. 45 (p. 22, Lagarde) makes John the Baptist after his
death preach to those in Hades, as a forerunner of Christ, trrjfiaiveiv fieXXcou KaKeiae KareXevaeaOai top acorfjpa

de

55 'descendit in inferiora terrarum, ut illic patriarchas et prophetas compotes sui faceret,' speak-

Anim.

Xvrpovp.evov

ret?

dyicov

yj/vxas

K.r.X.

;

ing of the three days between the death and the resurrection (comp. ib. § 7). Hermas makes the Apostles

and so too Origen in Luc. Horn.
(in. p. 917), in Ioann.
91).
ii.

iv.

and first teachers of the Gospel preach to the souls in Hades, Sim.
ix.
1

6 ovtol

ol

dn6(TTo\oi

ical

ol 818a-

§ 30 (iv. p. accepted the descent of Christ into Hades, though (unless he is misrepresented) he maintained that the righteous men

Even

Marcion

ctkoXol 01 Krjpv^avres TO OVOpia TOV vlov roil Qeov...i<rjpv^av kcli toIs irpoKCKOLfxruxevoLS.
.

and prophets under the old dispensation,

.€Ke7voi Se ol 7rpoK€Koifxr)fX€voi

These 7rpoKeKoip.r)fxevoi have k.t.X. been described before (§ 15) as the prophets and ministers of God, as well as the first two generations of mankind which preceded them. Cle-

as being subjects of the Demiurge, refused to listen to His preaching, and that only such persons as Cain and the other wicked characters of the Old Testament listened and were saved Iren. i. 27.
:

3,

Theodt. H. F.
des
so,
it

i.

24;

see
p.

Zahn

ment

of Alexandria, Strom,
it

ii.

9

(p.

Der Hirt
If this

Hermas
is

452), quoting this

mas, explains

passage of Heras including right-

be

425 sq. a speaking testi-

mony

to the hold

which the belief

x]

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
eCTTLU

T

1

*>

5

TOVTOV, OVK
Qjfjiriv

TOV QeOV.
kcil

V7T6p6ecr6e OVV Tf]V K<XKY)V

Tt]v

TraXauoQeicrav
fyiurjv,

evoQcracrav,
€(ttlv
'Irjcrovs

kcci

^era-

fiaAecrde

ek veav
G.

6s

XpicrTos.
yap] G DamGL Dam-Rup;
7 os] ^?«

aofxev] g; irpdaaco/xev

4 os]

Rup; add.
prsef. ovtos

av g.

TrXeo^]

G;

irXeiov

Gg; 6Vrts Dam-Rup g Dam-Rup.

6.

5 ovk]

gA.
al.

G; dub. A;

6 /xera^dXeade] g: see the lower note.

G

;

/uera/3d\Xecr0e g.

L

;

had on men's minds. For the opinion
of the later fathers on this subject
see Pearson Exposition of the Creed This belief was sometimes Art. 5.

denial of Christ's work; see above

§8.
treat us
k.t.X.] i.e. 'if He should with the same scorn and defiance with which we treat Him';
2.

av yap

connected with the incident related in Matt, xxvii. 52 noXXa crcofxara rav
K€Koiu.r)p.ev(ov

comp. 2 Sam.

xxii. 26,

27 (Ps.

xviii.

aylcov

tfyepdrjcrav

k.t.X.

;

e.g.

501),

by Euseb. Dem. Ev. x. 8 (p. and by Severus (Land Anecd. Syr. I. p. 33) commenting on this
'

25, 26). TrXiov tovtov] 4.

'beyond

this,' i.e.

tov xpi(TTiavi(rp.ov. Or is it tov 6v6p.aTos tov Xpio-Tov ? For nXeov see Polyc. 5.
5.

passage of Ignatius. X. Let us not be insensible to His goodness. If He were to treat us, as we treat Him, we should indeed be lost. Therefore, as His disciples, let us learn to live Christian
lives.

inripdecrBe] 'dispense

rally 'defer',
die.

and The word
(vp.r]v

so
is

with] litepostpone sine used somewhat
1

similarly in Prov. xv. 22.
6.

k.t.X.]

From

Cor.
6

v.

7
;

He who

is

called

name than

Christ's, is

by any other not of God.

e«adapaT€ ttjv TraXaiav £17x771/ comp. Clem. Horn. viii. 17
avTovi
QiO~Tvep

k.t.X.

Qebs

Put away the sour and stale leaven of Judaism, and replace it with the new leaven of Christ. Be ye salted in

efiovXeTo.

On

KaKqv £vfir)v i^iXeiv the metaphor gene-

rally see the note TraXaioodelaav]

Galatians

v. 9.

Not simply
13
for

TraXaiav.

Him,
It is

that ye

may

escape corruption.

See

Heb.
of

viii.

this

'anti-

monstrous to name the name

quation'
ritual.

the

Judaic

law

and

follow Judaism. Christianity did not believe in Judaism, but Judaism in Christianity, wherein all nations and tongues were

of

Christ

and

to

ivo£io-ao-av\

'which has gone sour?
is

No

other instance of the word

gathered unto G«d.'
'

given in the lexicons, though o£i£w and 7rapo£i£<o occur elsewhere.
7. os] I have preferred this to o, because it accords with the writer's idiom elsewhere in this epistle, § 15

1.

avai(j6r)T(0ixev\

be insensible to?

This verb not uncommonly takes a genitive; e.g. Jos. Ant. xi. 5. 8, B.
J. iv. 3. 10, Plut. Mor. p. 1062 C, Athenag. Suppl. 15. The word is at least as old as Epicurus, Plut.

09 io-Tiv 'Irjaovs Xpio-Tos

;

see also the

Mor.
TTjS

p.

1

103 D.
aVTOl)]

the other hand, 6 stand, and be referred to veav might For this use of the neuter £vpr)v.

note on

§ 7.

On

XprjCTTOTTJTOS

The

SUb-

relative see

stitution of

Judaism
of

for Christianity

Gospel

is

the note on § 9. spoken of as leaven
xiii.

The
in the
21.

was a

rejection

God's x^Ihs

j

a

parable, Matt.

33,

Luke

xiii.

134

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
°iva
/mrj

[x
eirei

d\L(r0f]T6 ev aura),

$ta(p6aprj tls ev

vf/iv,
'

aVo

Ttjs

007x7] s

eXeyx^d^creade.

cltottqv ecrriv

h](rovv

6 yap xpicmai/icrfjios XpiGTOv XaXelv ko.1 iouSa'L^eiv. ovk ek iovZaiafjiov e7ri<TTeucrev 9 dXX' lovha'icrjj.os; eis XP ~
L

(TTiavio'fJLOV) co

n ac a

tAwcca

7n(TT6v(racra

e*s

Qeov cyn-5
the

H X

H.
i

dXt'cr^T/re]

GL*

;

conjungamini (giving a wrong sense
rts]

to

ambiguous

&\iff9rjre)

A;

av\l<r9r)re g.

GL;

ti

A;

al. g.

i 607177s] odore

L; G;

of the spiritu (a confusion
al.

Syriac

KITH

g.
i

'Itjaovu

Xpivrbp]
crcdidit

5 (^...avvrjx^v]
1.

n Q uo omnis qui

and ftlTH odor) A; op^s Ifj^ovv G. ad deum congregatus est S 2 et omnis
spiritus

gLA; xp l(TT ^ v

;

aXiadriTe]
is

'be

ye salted?
to another

Here
meta-

7rvdayopi£eiv, lovbat£eiv, etc,

would be

again

an allusion

coined

soon

after

as

a matter of

phor
v. 13,

in

Mark

the Gospel parables, Matt, see ix. 50, Luke xiv. 34
;

course, to designate the peculiarities of the new sect, and with it the

the note on Col.

iv.

6.

There

is

a

possible reference to the injunction of the law, Lev. ii. 1 3 irav bapov 6vThe aias vfxcov aXl 6XiaSr](r€Tcu. metaphor is carried out in Siacpdapj}
1

epistles

But these substantive xpioriai't 0716 furnish the earliest extant
s-.
'
'

as in 007*77$. putrefy,' as well
2.
rrjs 007177s-] rfjs

Comp. Ephes.
tov

17 dvor-

example of its use. In the New Testament the word Christian is still more or less a term of reproach in the age of Ignatius it has become a title of honour see above § 4,
;
:

wbiav
rot)

8i8a<TKa\ias

apxovros

al&vos tovtov with the note. AaAetv] 'to profess.' For the ex3.
'I.

Ephes. 11, 14 (comp. Trail.
5.

(v.

1.),

Rom.

3,

Polyc. 7

6).

go]

Governed by mo-rev crao-a.

pression Xakelv

X. see the note

on

This correction of the existing Greek
text
justified

Ephes.

6.

For the whole sentiment

of the contradiction between Jesus Christ and Judaism see Philad. 6.
6 yap xptoTiawo-pjs'] The word occurs again Rom. 3 (v. 1.), Philad. 6 see Mart. Polyc. 10, Clem. Alex.

required by the sense and by the authorities. On the other hand Zahn (/. v. A. p. 429, and here) reads eh op with the incos is
;

;

terpolator

but this reading must,

I

Strom,

vii.

1

(p.

829).

The word
at

think, be regarded as a paraphrase of the interpolator after his usual

Xpio-Tiavos

first

arose

Antioch

manner.
7rao-a

(Acts xi. 26), but at what date we are not told. About a.d. 60 it is represented as used by Agrippa, Acts
xxvi.

yXcoaaa]

i.e.

'not Jews only,

and at the time of the 28 Neronian persecution (a.d. 64) it was
:

but every race upon earth.' It was therefore a larger and better dispensation than Judaism and it approved
;

itself as

the true fulfilment of the

already a common designation of the believers; 1 Pet. iv. 16, Tac.

Ann.

xv.

44 'quos per

flagitia

in-

visos vtilgits Christianos appellabat] The derived verb Suet. Ner. 16.
XpiGTiavi£eiv,

prophecy which declared that all naand tongues should be gathered to God; Is. lxvi. 18 (rvvayayelv Tvavra ra %8vr) nal ras yXocxrcras
tions

(comp.

xlv.

22,

23,

Zach.

viii.

23).

after

the

analogy

of

The language

of Ignatius

is

some-

Xl]

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
XI.

*35

Tavra
v/uuov

Se,

dya7Tt]TOL

/uov,
ajs

ovk

eirel

eyvtov

Tivas e£
6e\co
[o

ovtws e%oi/Tas 9
vjuds

d\K
/uri

fdiKpOTepos v/uiwv

7rpo(pvAacro~€cr6ai

efJLTrecreiv

ek

to.

dyty\

KLcrrpa t^9 KevoSo^ias,
yevvi}crei kcll

dWa
kcli

7re7r\ripo<p6pri<Td€

iv

tcu

iraQei

ty\

dvacrrdo'eL

ty\

yevo/uLevt]

iv Kctipco Trjs

r]ye\xovias IIovtlov fliXaTOV
'.
.

Trpa-^BevTa
'.

qui credit in eum ad deum congregatur A; ws...gvi>7)x9v G; ut .congregaretur L* In g the passage runs els ov irav edvos triaTevcav k<xI iraaa y\<x><rcra e^o/xoXoyr]els debv avvrjxdv7 ^Trel eyvvov] GLS 4 A; eirkyvwv g. 10 ireirXr}po(pbp7)G6e~\ g (app., but 9 wpcxpvX&crcreadai] TrpcxpvX&aceoOe G. with vv. 11.); TreTr\ripo(pope'i<rdai G; tit certificemini S4; corroborati-estote A; certiGa.ix.evr)

ficemini L.

what hyperbolical as applied

to his

own

time,
i.

but not more so than
S.

other expressions of self-depreciation see the note on Ephes. 21 ra>v eic«.
9.

some expressions of Rom. 6, 8, Col.
i.

Paul;

e.g.

7rpo(pvXaaaeo-daL] ''should be
1

on
the
8,

23.

Compare

your guard
active
7r

beforehand.
vp,as,

So
Trail.

the language of Justin Martyr {Dial. 117, p. 345), and of Irenseus (i. 10. 2),
in their

pixpvXdo-aco

Smyrn.

4.

Similarly da(pa\i£op,ai vp.as
1

regarding the spread of the Church own times respectively. XL 'I say this, not because I
that

Philad. 5. 10 Kevo$o£ias]

The word has two
glory,' as in Phil.

foolish opinion. senses (1) 'vain-

know

you have already
I

fallen

into error, but because

wish you to

Gal.

v. 26),

ii. 3 (comp. K€v68o£os, Clem. Rom. 35, Philad. 1,
;

be forewarned against the wiles of Have a firm belief in the heresy. Incarnation, the Passion, the Resurrection of Christ.

and so most frequently (2) 'vain opinion,' 'error,' as Wisd. xiv. 14,
Clem. Al. Protr. 5 (p. 55) fyikoa-ocpLav avrfjv Kevobo^ias eve<ev avei8a>\o7roiovaav
ttjv

These things are

no delusive phantoms, but real facts. Let no one divert you from your hope.' Tavra 84] SC. Xeyco. For the el7. sentiment alike comp. lipsis and the Trail. 8 Ovk eWi eyvav k.tX, where still more is left to be understood. It would be possible to treat the sentence here as complete, by making raOra the accusative after npocpv'Xdo-of the <readac; but the antithesis clauses would thus be destroyed. For the sentiment see also Smyrn. 4.

vXrjv,

and

so

here.

This

latter sense is

commonly overlooked

in the lexicons.
7re7r\r]po(p6pr]ade] 'be ye fully perFor this suaded, the imperative. sense of the word, and for the con1

struction nXripcKpopeladai iv 'to be convinced of a thing,' see the note

Colossians
777

iv.

12.

yewrjo-ei]

On

the

Docetism

which denied the

reality of the hu-

man body
of

of our Lord,

and therefore

'Ego autem Comp. Polyc. Phil, nihil tale sensi in vobis vel audivi.'
8.
cos

n

Incarnation, Passion, and Resurrection, see the note on Trail. 9.

His

who has no

i.e. 'as one pLiKporepos vjxwv] right to dictate to you' ;

12.

IIovtlov

Hikarov]

So

again

comp. Ephes.

3 (with the note).

For

Trail. 9, Smyrn. 1. In all these places the snecification of the date is in-

136
d\t]d(Jo^
r\fjL(jov>

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
kcli

[XI

/3ej3aia)^

vtto

'liqcrov

XpKTTOV,

Trjs

e\7nSos

r]s

6KTpct7rijvcu /mriSevi v/mcov yevoiro.
'Ova'ijULtiv vfJLWv

XII.
el

Kara 7rdura

9

eavirep a^ios w.

yap

el/ui.

Kal SeSe/xa*, 7rpos eva twv XeXvfJLevcov vfdoov ovk olSa otl ov (pv&iovcrde* 'Iri&ovv yap XpKTTOv

5

e^ere eV eauToTs.
1 vfXLov]

Kal /uaWov, brav
Ag*
(but with a v.
5 Xpitrrbv]
g.
6]

ksiraivoi)

v/ugls,

oi$a

GL;

ijjxQv

1.).

yivoiro]

G; y^r/rau
7

g.
otl]

3 'Ovalfitjp]

ibvalfiTjv

G.

GLA;
g.

om.

g.

yeypawrcu

GLA;

yiypanrat (om. on)

G; om.

9

<nroi/8aJ"ere]

G;

c7rou5d-

tended to emphasize the reality of the occurrence. The chief motive for the
insertion of the

XII.
if I
I

'May

name

in the Apostles'

am found am bound,

I have comfort in you, For although worthy. I do not compare my-

Creed was probably the same; see Pearson On the Creed Art. iv. p. yj 1 The mention of (ed. Chevallier). 'Pontius Pilate' in connexion with
the
crucifixion
is

with any of you who are free. I that ye are not puffed up for ye have Jesus Christ in you. Nay, my praise will only fill you with shame,
self

know

:

in

early

Christian

for

The righteous

man

is his

own

ac-

writings
e.g.
1

of constant occurrence,
vi.

cuser?
3.
6vaip,r)v K.r.A.]

Tim.

13, Justin
(p.

Apol.

i.

13

(p. 60),

Dial. 30

bably we owe to thus given to the name among the Christians themselves the fact that

247); and prothe prominence

Ephes.

2,

See the note on where the whole clause

occurs, as here.

he

is

so mentioned also by Tacitus,
xv. 44.
'

d yap Kal de8ep,ai] i.e. 'notwith4. standing the dignity conferred on me by my bonds.' See the note on
Ephes.
3,

Ann.

where
i

the

same phrase

npaxOevTci]

t/iings

done.'

The

occurs.

accusative
in

may be regarded

as stand-

npbs era
bonds.''

k.t.X.]

ing apposition with the object involved in the preceding words,

able to one of you

I am not comparwho are free from

For
§
ii.

which are equivalent

to iv rc3

yewq-

Kiihner

441

For various 6r]vai kcli naOelv k.t.X. loose constructions of the accusative
participle, see Kiihner
II.

Herod,

sense of npos see 450); comp. e.g. 35 epya Xoyov /xe£co nape^ethis
(11. p.

rai npos

naaav
ol

x°^P rl v

(i-

e

'
-

m

comPlat.

pp. 646 sq

667 sq, Winer
669.

§

xxxii. p. 290, lix.

p

parison with Prot. 328 C

any country'),
Ho\vk\€ltov

vie is...

The

participle, thus isolated

emphasizes the reality of the events 1. aXt]6a>s] See the note on Trail. 9 iXnidos rjpav] As in Trail rrjs So also 1 Tim. i. 1. Comp inscr., 2.

ovdev ivpos rbv narepa eicri, Xen. Mem. i. 2. 52 jj.T]8ap.ov nap avrois robs aXXovs
eirai

npbs eavrov, Demosth.
iv TavTT)

Symm.

p.

xprjpar evecmv...Trpbs arvaaas ras aXXas...noXeis.
5. <pvo-iovo-de]

185

PolyC

Phil.

8

7rpocrKapTepa>p,ev

rfj

iXnifti rjp.a>v...os iuTiv

Xpiaros

'lr)<rovs.
?j

Polyc.
2,
viii.

4.
1,

So too
xiii.

Trail. 4, 7, Smyrn. 6, 1 Cor. iv. 6, 18, 19, v.
Col.
xii.
ii.

iXn\s

For the longer expression kolvtj the note on Ephes. 1. r)p.(ov see

4,

18; comp.

(Pvalcoais 2

Cor.

20.

The word

xn]

TO THE AIAGNESIANS.
'

137
e a y t

on

eyTpeirecde

ok yeypaTTTai

on

6 Ai'kaioc

y

[O

fieflaitodrjvai ev Toh SoyTOV Kvp'lOV KCLl TOOV aTTOCTToXoOVy ivct TTANTA OCA fJLCUTLV noieiTe KATeYoAooeHTe <rapKi Kal 7rvev/uaTL, tti<tt£i Kal

KATHTOpOC. XIII. CTrovha^eTe ovv

dya7rr] 9 ev vloo Kal TraTpl Kal ev 7rvevjuaTt, ev dp^fj Kal
G. KarevodiodrJTe] G; KaTevodcodrjcreTai g* ; (jinDXfl splendeatis for |irv¥n prosperemini ; see Petermann). aapd] txt G[L][A] ; add. re g. For L see the note on Trail. 9. 12 ei' irvevpaTi] GL* (but add. sancto L 2 ); add. £7^ A; def. g.
care g.
1 1

7roietYe]

g

;

iroirJTe

prosperentur L; spendeatis

A

is

'lrjaovv

confined to S. Paul in the N.T. yap k.t.A.] 2 Cor. xiii. 5
e'crriz/,

pard eariv Kvpiov, and for the Other Acts xvi. 4 to. doypara to. Kenpipeva
vno
tcov dnodToKcov.
'

Xpicrros 'i^crovy ev vplv

el
"

/M77
>

rt

dboKipol

ecrre.

pot (Ep/ies. 9).

they bore the

They were xP LO ro 4 ^~ Thus bearing Christ, mind of Christ, which
(comp. Phil.
ii.

11.

Karevo8a)6rJTe]

ye may

be pros-

pered] an adapted quotation from Psalm i. 3 ndvra oaa civ ttoitj KaTevodcoOrjaerai,

was
5sq).
7.

Taneivo<ppoo~vvq

where

this prosperity is pro-

dUaios

k.t.X.]

Prov.

xviii. 17.

In the
is is

From the LXX of Hebrew howquite
different
;

who take pleasure ev rw The compound Karevovopat Kvpiov. dovv is not uncommon in the LXX, and
mised
to those

ever the sense

'The
then

first

man

upright in his suit

;

cometh

his
out.'

neighbour

and

the simple word evodovv occurs four times in the N. T. Zahn (/. v. A. p. 434, and here) reads /care voSa> #77
after the Latin version prospe?'enturj

In other words it is necessary to hear both sides of a case (see Delitzsch ad loc). In the LXX the subject and predicate of the
first

searcheth him

but
lator

I

suspect that the Latin trans-

had

KaTevodcodfJTai in

his text,

clause are transposed, and

it

is

rendered Ainaios eavrov Karrjyopos
7rpa>To\oyiq.

ev

XIII. 'Stand fast therefore in the ordinances of the Lord and His Apostles, that ye may be prosperous in all things, with your bishop, pres-

which (overlooking the itacism) he carelessly rendered in this way, as if it were Karevodoidrj. The reminiscence of the Psalm in the Vulgate, which runs omnia quaecunque faciei prosperabuntur, and after which he has modelled the rest of the quotation, would assist his mistake. Zahn
hova-6ai,

Submit yourbyters, and deacons. selves to your bishop and to one
another, as Jesus
to the Father,

objects to the accusative after Karevobut the Hebrew shows that
this is

Christ submitted

and the Apostles to Jesus Christ and the Father, that there may be unity of flesh and spirit.'
9. toIs 86ypao-iv] precepts] i.e. 'authoritative sayings' see the note on
:
<"

tion in the

most probably the construcPsalm comp. also 1 Cor.
:

xvi. 2 6r]aavpL^cov o crapKi

n

av evodarat.

Kal

nvevpan] See the note

on Ephes.
12.

10.

ev via k.t.X.]

The order
1

is

the

Colossians\\. 14.

For one half of the
1

same as

in 2*Cor.

xiii.

3.

It is

more-

phrase comp. Barnab.

rpia ovv 86y-

over a natural sequence.

Through

138
eV TtXet,

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS

[xm

fJL€TCL TOV d^L07Tp67reO-TaTOV eTTlCTKOTTOV VfJLWV Kai d^LOirXoKOV 7rvevjuaTiKOv G"T6(J)dvov tov irpecrfivreV7roT<xyriT€ too piov v/ucop Kal twv kcltcc Qeov Sicckovcov.

eincrKOTrcp kcci

dWrjAois,
kcci

eJs

'Irjcrovs

[/cara

crdpKa^

ol

aTTOCTToXoL

XpicrTos too irctTpi Top XpicrTop Kal tw

5

r crapKiKt] T6 Kal Trvev\xaTiKr]. 7raTpi, iva evoocris XIV. CiSoos otl Qeov yejusTe, crvvTOjULws irapeKa2 a£ioir\oKov] txt

GL;

d^ioirXoKov Kal g;
5

om. A.

4 'I^croGs Xptaros]

A[g] (but g also omits several words which follow, app. owing to the homoeoteleuton t£ Trarpl): see the lower note. iesu christo A ; def. g. Kal r<£ Trarpl] txt A ; rd) Xpia-ry] GL
[g]«
;

GLA;

6

xP LcrT ° s

KaT ^ ^apxa]

GL; om.

add.

Kal

ry irvev^aTi

GL

:

def.

g

(if

the lacuna in g

is

owing

to

homoeote-

leuton,

it is

evidence against Kal np

Trvev/uLart).

7

<jvvt6[xws

GLg; cum

the

Son

is

the
6)
:

way
this

to

the Father
is

8e dAA.77A.01?,

(Joh. xiv.

union with the
a com-

voi dXXrfkois
5.

Father through the Son

Ephes. v. 21 \morao~o-6ixecomp. Clem. Rom. 2>^>Kara adpKa] These words, if gen:

munion
1.

in the Spirit.

uine,

on

a^LoirpeTTecrTaTov\ Rom. inscr.

See the note
'

would expressly limit the subordination of the Son to His human

nature; see Rothe
co-

Anfange

p. 754.

2.

arecpdvov] Like the Latin

an encircling attendance; comp. Apost. Const, ii. 28, where the
rona,' of

But their absence in some authorities seems to show that they are no
part of the original text.
Kal too
Trarpl.]
kcli

presbyters are called

o~vp.fiovXoi

rov

I

iirMTKo-iTov kcli rfjs eKKXijaias CTTeCpaVO?.

the addition
suspicious in

r<a

have struck out nvevpLari, which
texts,

In the primitive assemblies of the Christians the bishop would sit in the
centre, surrounded by his presbyters ; This see the note on § 6 awedptov.

appears in the

common

as

sense of arecpavos

may be
e.g.

illustrated
//. xiii.

and as wanting in one important authority. It would easily be suggested by the previous mention of the three Persons of the
itself,

by such passages as
736
p.010
rjris

Horn.

Trinity, iv

via)

k.t.X.

On

the other

TrdvTi]

yap

o~e

nepl arecpavos ttoX4-

8e8r]6v,

Plut.

Mor. 228 E

ttoKiv

omission might be accounted for by a homoeoteleuton ffpi and
its

hand
TTNi,

dvdpdai Kal ov TrXivdots ecrreCpd-

which are constantly confused

:

vcorai,

clet,

'which has its crown, its cirnot of towers, but of men.' The

see note on
6.

S?nym.
10.

13.

aapKLKrj re /c.t.X.]

See the note
iv.

epithet dtjioirXoKos, 'worthily woven,' carries out the metaphor of o-recpavos, for nXeKeiv o-recpavov is a common expression, e.g. Matt, xxvii. 29, etc. Kara Qeov] See the note on 3.
§
1

on Ephes.

Comp. Ephes.
brief in

4

ev crd>p.a Kal ev nvevfia.

XIV.
tions, for

'I
I

am

my

exhorta-

know that ye are full of God. Remember me in your prayers,

above.
TCO eVl(TK07r&> K.T.A.l
repot,
I

Pet. V.

5 V£(£>-

as also the Syrian Church. I have need of your united aid, that the

virordyqre

7rpeo~{3vrepoi$,

navres

Church

in

Syria

may be

refreshed

xiv]

TO THE MAGNESIANS.
v/ixas.

139

\ecra
\va
10

/uvrjiuoveveTe

/ulov

ev tccIs 7rpocrev)^ais vfjaov,

Qeov

67rLTV)((t),

kcu Trjs ev Cvpla e'/c/cA^cnas, odev ovk

e7nSeo//6u yap Trjs tjvco/uevtis v/ulcov d^ios elfjii KaXeTcrdai. ev Qeco Trpoo'ev^s Kai dyaTrr\% eis to d^ttodrivai ty\v ev

Cvpia eKK\r](riav Sia

ty\s eKTeveias vjutov Spocricrdrjvai.

XV.
teal

'

AcTra^ovTai
v/uiv,

v/uds 'Ccpecrioi diro Cjuvpvrjs, odev
els

ypdcbco

irapovres

Eo^av Qeov,

tocr7rep
peto

kcli

fiducia ((tvvtovus?) A. KeXevaa G.

irapeKaXeaa] g; deprecatus stem 10 KaKeladai] Ka\e?ade G.
evraijlas [g].

L;

A;

irape-

12 eKTeveLas] see

below; iKKXyaias

GL;

In

A

the sentence runs digna fiat et ecclesia

syriae ut stillent in ea preces vestrae et firmitas.

by your fervent
7.

supplications.'

Ps-Ign.
v/jl&v

Philipp.

14

al

Trpoaevxcu

ye/xere] They are deocpopoi in the fullest sense comp. Ephes. 8

Qeov

eKTaOeLTjaap
to

els ttjv 'Avrto^eias-

:

0K01
deo.'

owes Qeov.

So

Virgil's 'plena

irapeKaXeaa]

A common
hand

word

in

especially in the same connexion as here, e.g. Trail. 6, Polyc.

Ignatius,

more

o6ev K.r.A., which would be taken from this passage. The confusion between CKTCNeiAC and ckkAhci&c would be easy, where gkkAhci&n had almost immediately
eKKkrjcriav

seem

7, etc.

On

the other

irapaKe-

preceded. The purists condemned these words e<revSs, cKreveia, etc.: see

\eveiv

does not occur elsewhere in

Lobeck Phryn.
dpoo-io-dr}vai\

p. 311.

this writer or in the
9.

N. T.

Pearson
ii.

compares
232) noa tov

Qeov e7riTvxa] On this phrase see the note § 1 above. See the rfjs ev Supt'a e/CKX^crt'as]
note on Ephes. 21 npoo-ev^o-de. See the note odev ovk a£ws k.t.X.]

Clem. Al. Paed.
rjpels

10

(p.

oi

rfj

x<*P LTl

8poo-i£opevoi

Qeov.

The metaphor

of
2,

much

older; Deut. xxxii.

course is Prov. xix.

12, etc.

on Ephes.
12.

21 tg>v e#c«.
I

eKTeveiasYfervency,tii'gency?
this
it is

have ventured on
for eKKXrjo-ias, as
tor's

emendation

XV. 'Greeting from the Ephewho are in Smyrna. Like your own delegates, they have refreshed
siar.s

suggested by the

me

greatly.

Armenian Version.

interpolaevragtas may be explained as the substitution of a simple for a difficult or illegible word,

The

greeting.

churches.

Polycarp joins in the also do the other Farewell be of one mind

So

;

;

be steadfast in

spirit;

for

this

is

according to his

common practice. For the connexion
of eKTevrfs, eKTevais, eKTeveia, with prayer

Jesus Christ Himself.' 'E^eVioij For these Ephesian 13. delegates who wefe with Ignatius,
see Ephes.
els

comp. Joel
iv. 9,

i.

14,

Jonah

iii.

8,

Judith
xii.

12,

Luke
10.

xxii.

44, Acts

5,

xxvi. 7,

Clem. Rom. 34,

59, Ps-Ign.

the notes). 1, 2 (with 86£av Qeov] So too Rom. 14. 10; comp. Ephes. 13, Polyc. 4.
in Ignatius
els
rifxrjv

A

Ephes.

called enrevrfs

For the supplication in the Greek ritual see
p. 270.

more common expression
is

Qeov

;

see the note on

Clement of Rome

See esp.

Ephes.

21.

140
i>/xeis,

IGNATIUS TO THE MAGNESIANS.
01

[xv

Kara Travra
C/ULVpvaiU)V
.

»

r

t/

jue

aveiravcrav^ a\xa
CLl

V\o\vKapiru}

eTTKTKOTTm
'

KCLl

\Ol7FCLl

$6 6KK\tlCTiai 6V

Ti/ut]

h](rov

XpiffTOv dcnraXpvTai
K6KTt]jULevoL

v\xa^.

eppuxrde

iv

6/uiovola

Oeov,

dSictKpiTOV irveuixa,

6s eorriv
5

Iriorovs
i

XpLCTTOS.

dveiravaav]

GLA;
g.
;

aveiradaare g.
adiaKpirov]
Siclkpitov

i k-KicKo-Ky

Zpvpvaiwv]

GLA;
al.

om.

g.

4 Qeov]
fxeuoL

GLA;

om.

gLA

(the order being irvevpa

/ce/cr??-

adL&KpiTov in g)

G.

5

'Itjctovs

XpiaTos] txt

GL;

g; add.

valete fratres ;

amen A.
title

scription.

For the subscription of G see the For g see the Appx.

to Philadelphians.

LA

have no sub-

aanep kcu vfxe7s~\ SC. ndpeare. The Magnesians were present in the persons of their representatives mentioned above, § 2. 1 Kara irdvra k.t.A.]
.

which belongs

to the sphere of,

which

springs from, Jesus Christ.' Thus it is a fuller phrase for do~Trd£eo~6ai iv
Kvpico (e.g.
1

Cor. xvi.

19).

For

this fa-

3.

vourite Ignatian phrase see the note

iv

See the note Ephes. 21. opovoia Oeov] See above § 6
eppoocrOe]

on Ephes.

2.

(note).
4.

dpa IIoXvKapiTco] These words are perhaps better taken with do-ird^ovrai vpas, than with the clause immediately

ddidicpiTov]
;

fast'

comp.
3.

Trail.

Ka\ dfiiaKptrov,

unwavering, steadI apwpov bidvoiav and see the note on

l

preceding;
t\

comp.
aydirr^

Trail.

13

Ephes.

aana^erai vpas
'~E(p€cria>v.

Spvpvaioov nai

os io-Tiv k.t.A.] See above § 7 (according to the reading adopted), and

2.

al Xotirai k.t.A.]

i.e.

through their

compare the still stronger expressions,
Trail.
1 1

representatives, who also were with him: comp. Trail. 12 dpa rais avpQeov. Ttapovcrais poi ckkXtjctlciis tov

tov Qeov

iva>o~iv

i7rayye\\o-

pevov, os icrriv avros, Ephes. 1 4 ra 8e 8vo iv ivoTrjTi yevopeva Qeos iariv.

The Trallians would be included among al Xonral here; comp. Trail.
I.

These
rrvevpa,

parallels

seem
is

to

show

that

the antecedent to os

not

dftiaKpirov

iv Tipfj k.t.A.]

i.e.

'not the

honour

which

is

implied

in

the

ordinary

but the whole sentence, more especially the exhortation to concord; since unity is the prominent idea in
these passages.

greetings

of men, but the honour

all

3-

TO THE TRALLIANS.

3-

TO THE TRALLIANS.
{

A FTER
Jr\.

(xiv. i, p. 648).

leaving Magnesia the road leads to Tralles,' writes Strabo Here again the route of the geographer accords
2,

with the sequence of the Ignatian letters (see above pp. have followed him from Ephesus to Magnesia, so now

97).

we

follow

As we him

from Magnesia to Tralles. Magnesia is nearly equidistant between the two, being about fifteen miles from Ephesus, and about seventeen or
eighteen from Tralles (Artemidorus in Strabo
...cit'

xiv. 2, p.

663,

efc

TpaAAeis
tKarov

ets

Mayv?7<rtai/ eKa/rov T€TTapa.KOVTa [oTaSioi], cis

E<£e<xov 8

clkootlv, cis 8e

^fxvpvav rpiaKoo-iOL

etKocrtv).

The road between Magnesia

and Tralles runs from west to east on the right bank of the Mseander, having the mountain range of Messogis to the north, and the river and plain to the south a broiling and dusty journey,' aestuosa et
' '

;

pulverulenta

via,'
it

as

it

is

described by Cicero (ad Att.

v.

14)

who

travelled along

the same time of the year {Rom. 10) delegates of the churches must have been traversing it in the opposite direction to pay their respects to Ignatius. It is described by Artemidorus as

— about

in the latter part of July,

on

his

way to when the

his province

'a high-road trodden by all who make the journey from Ephesus to the East (Strabo xiv. 2, p. 663, kolvtj tis 6S6s rirptTTTai aVao-i rots eVi For a description of this road rag avaroAas oSoiiropova-tv e| *E<f>€<rov).
'

see Hamilton Asia

Mhior

1.

p.

533

sq.

ancient city of Tralles was situated on the right bank of the at some distance from it, and occupied a square or oblong river, plateau with steep sides, a prolongation of the hills which jut out

The

from the main range of Messogis.
fortress (Strabo xiv.
1,

It

thus formed a strong natural
p\v twv TpaAAiavcov ttoXis eVi
kvkXio 6

p. 648, Ihpvrai

8' 77

koX Tpa.7reQ.0v Ttvos aKpav £)(Ovto<; epvpvrjv

to.

Ixavm

cvepKTj).

It

144
is

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
owed
/.

said to have

its
c.

origin

and

its

name

to a colony of the

Thracian

Trallians (Strabo p. 649). representative is GiizelHissar or the Beautiful Castle, also designated Aidin from the province

Its

modern
it

of which
the

it is

the capital, to distinguish

from other places which have

Aidin Giizel-Hissar, which lies on the lower ground at the foot of the ancient city, is a large and flourishing town with a popu-

same name.

lation variously estimated at
It is the

from

thirty-five or forty to sixty

thousand

terminus of the Smyrna railway, and stands in the people. centre of a very fertile district, which has been described as the orchard of Asia Minor. Among its chief products now, as in ancient times
(Athen.
iii.

p. 80), are figs

and

raisins for the

Smyrna market.

natural advantages Tralles was always a wealthy place. Attalus, the Pergamene king, whose magnificence passed into a proverb

Owing

to

its

(Hor. Carm.

i.

1.

12),

had a famous palace here
.

(Plin.

N. H. xxxv. 49;

see also the inscription on a coin, Tp&A attaAoy, Mionnet Suppl. vn. which under the Romans became the official residence of the p. 460),
high-priest of Tralles for the time being (Vitruv.
C. I.
ii.

8

;

comp. Boeckh
defence

G. 2934 [ap]xiepaT€uovTos).

Somewhat
'

later Cicero, in his

of Flaccus, describes this city as

gravis locuples ornata civitas.'

De-

nouncing an obscure person, one Mseandrius, who claimed to represent the Trallians in their complaints against his client, he asks what had

become of
illi

the
1

illustrious

names among
Lepisones,

their

Pythodori

,

Aetideni,

ceteri

citizens; 'Ubi erant homines apud nos noti,

inter suos nobiles? ubi ilia magnifica et gloriosa ostentatio civitatis?'

If they are

adds, then

let

content to put forward such a mean representative, he them abate their pride, 'remittant spiritus, comprimant

Flacc. 22, 23). Some years of Tralles as surpassed by no other city of Asia speaks in the opulence of its principal inhabitants (/. c. crvvoiKUTai KaAw? et tis

animos suos, sedent arrogantiam' (pro

later Strabo

aAA?; T(3v Kara rrjv Axriav viro eviropwv dvOpwirixiv), and in illustration of this fact he mentions that the Asiarchs or Presidents of the Games,

who

incurred great

position, were constantly taken

expenses in maintaining the splendour of their from its citizens. At the martyrdom

Polyc. 12, 21).

of Polycarp the Asiarch Philippus, who presided, was a Trallian (Mart. At the same time, while the chief citizens thus enjoyed

high distinction at home, the lower population contributed to swell
1

This Pythodorus

is

mentioned also

He had by Strabo (xiv. 1, p. 649). amassed a 'princely fortune' (fiactKiKty ovatav) of more than 2000 talents, but
unfortunately

Pompeius. Julius Caesar stripped him of his wealth in consequence, but he succeeded in again amassing as large a
fortune as he had thus lost.

espoused

the

cause

of

His daughter was Queen of Pontus when Strabo wrote.

TO THE TRALLIANS.

1

45

the flood of greedy adventurers who sought their fortunes in the metropolis of the world and threatened to sweep away everything that

was

Roman

in

Rome

(Juv.

iii.

70).

Altogether Tralles seems to have

purse-proud place, much given to display, and not altogether free from vulgarity. Cicero is not always as compli-

been a busy,

thriving,

mentary to

this

city,
1 .

as

it

suited his purpose to be,

when he was

defending Flaccus

When Caesar landed in Asia after the battle of Pharsalia, the Trallians were not slow to pay their homage to success. A miracle sealed their allegiance. statue of Caesar had been erected in the

A

A palm-tree shot up through the hard temple of Victory at Tralles. at the base of the statue ; and it is even said that the pavement goddess
herself turned

round and looked upon the
iii.

effigy

(Caes. Bell. Civ.

105, Plut.

Vit.

Caes. 47,
it

Dion. Cass.

of the conqueror xli. 61, Val.
its

Max.

i.

6.

12).

Under Augustus, whom
speaks of
it

regarded as

'founder'

(Bull, de Corr. Hellen. x. p. 516), the city took the

name

of Csesarea.

A

boastful

inscription

as

'

the most splendid city of the
77

Caesarean Trallians' (Boeckh

C.I. G. 2929
et

XafjarpordTr]

Kouo-apeW

TpaWcavuv

America?i School at Athens

From
coins

Papers of pp. 94, 113, Bull, de Corr. Hellen. x. p. 517). this time forward till the end of the first Christian century the
;

7ro'Ai5

comp. Lebas
1.

Waddington

Inscr.

600

a,

commonly bear the legend K&ic&pecoN tp&AAiangon, and sometimes even kaicapgcon alone (Mionnet iv. p. 181 sq, Suppl. vn. p. 462 sq; comp. Eckhel Doctr. Num. 111. p. 125). This loyalty to the emperors
.

brought
(about

its

return to the Trallians.

B.C.

26

— 24) the

city

was

visited

During the reign of Augustus by an earthquake, a catastrophe

to which this region was and is especially liable. The earthquakes at Tralles play a prominent part in the Sibylline Oracles (iii. 459, v. 287). On this occasion the destruction which it caused was very considerable

(Strabo xii. 17, p. IO 1,

p.

579 to yv/xvaa lov kou aAAa
G. 2923).

fxiprj
/cat

<tvv€7T€(T€v

:

Agathias
relief

ii.

icretcrOr) re ajraaa koX avtrpdin)

ovSev aur^s o rt laicroicno
to
its

:

comp.

C. I.

The emperor however came

and

contributed largely to the rebuilding. It seems to have recovered from the effects of this calamity ; for under Tiberius we find the rapidly Trallians competing with other great cities of Asia for the honour of
3.s

erecting a temple to the emperor and senate, but they were passed over 2 parum validi (Tac. Ann. iv. 55)
.

1

3 Philipp.6 'Aricina mater.

Trallia-

flourishing cities of Asia Minor, such as

nam

aut

Ephesiam putes

dicere.'

In the

Tralles or Ephesus.
2

eyes of a Roman a small country-town like Aricia was far nobler than the most

The

expression

is

commonly

sup-

posed to mean

insufficient wealth,

but

IGN.

II.

IO

146 The patron
named
in. p.

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
G. 2926 t^s XaixTrpoTarrjq deity of the city was Zeus ; comp. Bull, de Corr. Hellhi. x. p. 516) sur-

(CI

7roXc(os...tepa? tov Aio's

Larasius (Mionnet iv. pp. 179, 183, Suppl. vii. pp. 462, 465, etc., Amer. School at Athens 1. pp. no, 112; comp. Bull, de Corr. Hellen.

468

;

comp. Waddington
(ix.

Inscr.
xiv.

604), written also Larisius or

Larisseus

these latter modes of p. 649) with a reference to tradition or the spelling being adopted apparently theory that Tralles was colonized from the Thessalian Larissa (Strabo

by Strabo

p.

440,

ix.

/. C.

tcrco5

Se

/ecu.

6 Aaptcrtos Zeus iKeWtv e7ru)vo//,acrTcu)

priest

already mentioned
xiv.
/. C.

god (Strabo
besides Zeus,

and the highwas doubtless the functionary of this (p. 144) But t\(s>v ttjv Upuio-vvrjv rov Aios tov Ao.pio~aLov).
;

also of the worship of Demeter (C I. G. 2937 of Dionysus (C I. G. 2919 AiovvVw Ba/c^ta) toj S^/xocria) ; tepeia A^/z^rpos), comp. ib. 2934), and of ^Esculapius (Vitruv. vii. 1). Among the games

we read

celebrated at Tralles in honour of different deities are mentioned the

Pythia (C I G. 2932, 2935, Mionnet iv. pp. 181, 192, 194; see Waddington Inscr. 598) and the Olympia (Wood's Discoveries at Ephesus Inscr. vi. 14, 20, pp. 60, 70, Mionnet //. cc. etc.), as well as those bearing
of Hercules (C I. G. 2936 dv aiOXotcnv a.Tap(3e[os] 'Hpa/cA^os; Amer. School at Athens 1. p. no). The city boasted of several comp. buildings, of whose architectural character notices have been preserved
the
(Vitruv.
ii.

name

8,

v. 9,

vii.

1,

4).

Nor was
it

it

without distinction as the

mother of famous men.

who was nicknamed
this city

boasted Dionysocles and Damasus orators, o-Ko^po^ (Strabo xiv. p. 649), both doubtless

Of

representatives of the affected

and

florid Asiatic style, for

which indeed

was famous
It

mosthenes').

Orator 234 'quasi vero Trallianus fuerit Dehad also an illustrious school of physicians, of whom
(Cic.

two are mentioned by name, Philippus and Thessalus (Galen Op. xin. p. 105, xiv. p. 684 comp. C. I L. 1. 1256). At the time when Ignatius wrote, Tralles was represented in literature by a living writer, Phlegon,
;

the freedman of Hadrian,

whose works have
Graec.
111.

partially survived the

wreck

of time (Miiller Fragm. Hist.

p.

603

sq),

but whose fame

this interpretation

may,

I

think, be ques-

tioned.

When we

readjust below 'pau-

lum

addubitatum,

quod

Halicarnassii

also set aside on this occasion for same reason as Tralles, is elsewhere commemorated for its wealth (Tac. Ann.

was

the

mille et ducentos per annos nullo motu terrae mutavisse sedes suas, vivoque in

xiv. 27, see

Colossians pp. 6 sq, 43 sq);
itself

and Tralles

must have been very

saxo fundamenta templi adseveraverant,'

flourishing at this time.

On
a

the other

we

are led to suspect that parum validi refers to the insecurity of the ground

hand both
earthquakes.

localities

were

prey to

owing

to earthquakes.

Laodicea, which

TO THE TRALLIANS.

1

47

chiefly rests on the fact that he is quoted by Christian writers as a heathen witness to the preternatural darkness which shrouded the At a much later date Tralles Crucifixion (Miiller /. c. p. 606 sq).

gave birth to an

illustrious son,

who

has

left

to posterity a far

more

impressive memorial of himself than these third-rate literary efforts, Anthemius, the architect of S. Sophia at Constantinople (Procop. de Altogether Tralles was invested with SEdif. i. 1, p. 174 ed. Bonn.).
sufficient interest in herself

and her

history to induce

two authors

at

times, Apollonius of the neighbouring Aphrodisias (Miiller Hist. Graec. iv. p. 310 ITepi TpaWeinv) and Christodorus of the Fragm. Egyptian Coptos (id. p. 360 Ilarpia TpaAAeW), to take it as the subject
different

of their writings. Of the evangelization of Tralles no record

but the preserved hypothetical account which has been given of the foundation of the Church in Magnesia (p. 102) will probably hold good for this neighis
;

1

bouring city

We can hardly doubt that it also. ledge of the Gospel to the disciples of S. Paul.

owed

its

first

know-

Lying on the highroad between Ephesus and Laodicea, where flourishing churches were
established through the agency of this Apostle almost half a century before Ignatius wrote, Tralles would not have been allowed for any long

This epistle however contains time to remain ignorant of the Gospel. the earliest notice of Christianity in connexion with Tralles. 'Sub idem fere tempus,' writes Livy, describing the Roman conquest of these regions (xxxvii. 45), 'et ab Trallibus et a Magnesia quae

super

Maeandrum

est et

ab Epheso legati.-.venerunt.'

The words would

These apply equally well to the incidents of the Christian conquest. same three cities sent their delegates to meet Ignatius at Smyrna ; but, while Ephesus and Magnesia were each represented by several
persons (see above pp. 15, 102), Tralles, as being more distant, was content with sending a single representative,
least
its

bishop Polybius

(§ 1).

At

no mention
is

Trallians

shown meanour he praises (§§ 1, 3). The main purport of the letter is a warning against the poison of Docetism (§§ 6 11). As an antidote he recommends here, as elsethus

Epistle to the written by the saint in grateful recognition of the attention to him through their bishop, whose grave and gentle deis

made

of any other name.

The

1

The Greek books

(Oct. 11) represent

Philip the Evangelist, whom they identify with the Apostle, as the founder and first

dation in fact, that a Philip, more probably however the Apostle than the Evangelist, resided in proconsular Asia ;
see Colossiam p. 45 sq.

bishop of the Church of Tralles (Tp<x\\77, M enaea). The story has this slender foun-

IO

2

148

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS

where, union among themselves, and submission to the bishop and The denunciation other officers of the Church (§§ 2, 3, 7, 11, 12, 13).
of Docetism
his
letters.
is

fuller

On

the other
;

and more explicit in this than in any other of hand no allusion is made to the Judaic
with his language elsewhere have been Judaizers also (see the notes,
5, 8, Trail. 9).

side of the heresy

but a comparison

shows these

false teachers to

Magn.

8, 9, 11,

Philad. inscr.,

He

acquits the Trallians

indeed of any complicity

in this heresy hitherto,

Nor guard (§ 8). have assumed that in a busy thriving city like Tralles, might safely situated in a district where Jews abounded (see Colossians p. 19 sq), there would be a considerable Jewish population which would act as a
them on
their

but he writes to put would the caution be unneeded. We

conductor to

this

heretical teaching,

even

if

we had no

direct

in-

formation of the

published by Josephus however xiv. to. 20) mentions the opposition of the Trallians to an ordi[Ant. nance of the Roman governor giving permission to the Jews to keep their sabbaths and to celebrate other sacred rites without interruption
fact.
;

A document

and,

whether

this

document be genuine

or

not,

it

is

satisfactory

evidence of their presence in Tralles in considerable numbers before The interest moreover which the Sibylline Oracles the age of Ignatius.
take in Tralles (see above p. 145) points in the same direction Tralles does not occupy any prominent place in the subsequent history of Christianity but like Magnesia, it is represented from time
.

1

;

to time at the great synods of the Church.

At the Council of Ephesus

the bishop of Tralles records his assent to the orthodox doctrine in
explicit terms (Labb.

name
1080;
1024,

in a

He signs his Cone. ill. p. 1024 sq, ed. Colet). which furnishes an instructive parallel to the opening way
p.

of the Ignatian letters

comp.
:

'Hpa/cAeW, 6 kcu 1222, where the second
;

®e6<f>i\.os,

lirtypaxpa

(lb.

p.

Theophanius
iv. p.

elsewhere
135).

he gives his
later

first

name name
at

is

written
in.

in Latin

only,

pp.

996,

1

At a

meeting held

Ephesus, the notorious

Robbers' Synod, a.d. 449, Maximus bishop of Tralles commits himself
to the opinions of the majority

and to the heresy of Eutyches (iv. p. 894, 1117, 1178, 1187); but he appears afterwards to have recanted, for his assent to the decrees of Chalcedon (a.d. 451) is attested in his
his
the

absence by
1

metropolitan, the
unidentified

bishop of Ephesus
placed at
lr?.

(iv.

p.

1503).

May

not

NDvID

May

not this
as

Lud be

(Tarlusa or Tralusa), which is mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud Taanith iv. 8, be our Tralles? The incident

Lydia, rather than
(Geogr. Tralles

Lydda

Neubauer

du Talm. pp.
is

80, 268) takes it?

sometimes spoken of as a

which took place

at

Tarlusa

is

elsewhere

Lydian

city

by

classical writers,

TO THE TRALLIANS.
Amongst

149

the letters of remonstrance addressed to Peter the Fuller,

and purporting to have been written a few years after the Council of Chalcedon, is one bearing the name of Asclepiades bishop of Tralles At later Councils of the Church also bishops of Tralles (v. p. 241 sq).
were present.

The
'

following

is

an analysis of the

epistle.

Ignatius to the

Church of Tralles, which
and hearty

has peace through

the Passion of Christ, an apostolic
I

greeting.'

Polybius your bishop informed Seeing him, I seemed to see you

me
all,

of your blameless disposition.

and

kindness in sending him

1).

Be obedient
to

would

live after Christ.

Submit also

your your bishop, if you the presbyters. The deacons
glorified

I

God

for

to

too must strive to please all men and avoid offence (§ 2). Let all reverence the deacons in turn, as also the bishop and the presbyters. I am persuaded you do so ; for I have received a token of your love
in your bishop, respect of all (§
I

whose gravity and gentleness must command the
3).

I

fear lest I

should
I

fall

through spiritual pride.
worthy.
I lack gentle-

wish to

suffer,

but I
I

know not whether

am

ness

4).

Though

could reveal the mysteries of the heavens, yet

I forbear for

your sakes.

Notwithstanding

my

fetters

and my know-

I beseech you, ledge of heavenly things, I am not yet a disciple (§ 5). touch not the rank weeds of heresy. The cup of poison is sweetened with honey to deceive you (§ 6). Shun these false teachers and cling

is

and to your bishop. Whosoever stands aloof from the altar not pure (§7). I say this by way of warning. Strengthen yourselves with faith and love, which are Christ's flesh and blood. Give no
to Christ

occasion to the heathen to blaspheme
seducer.
.

(§ 8).

Turn a deaf
truly

ear to the

Christ

was

truly

born,

truly

lived,

died,

and

truly

rose again, even as He will truly raise us (§ 9). If all this had been mere semblance, as these men say, why am I in bonds? Why am I

ready to fight with wild beasts (§ 10)? Avoid these rank growths which are not of the Father's planting. They are no true branches of the
Cross.
I

The head cannot
greet

exist without the
I

members

n).'

I

you from Smyrna.

appeal to you by

my

bonds
for

;

be
that

united and submit to your bishop and presbyters.
I

Pray

me

may

attain

my

desire

(§ 12).

you.

Pray

for the

Church

in Syria.

The Smyrnaeans and Ephesians greet Once more, be obedient to your

I am in peril now, I am devoted to you. bishop and presbyters. but God will answer my prayer. May you be found blameless in Him
(§ '3)-'

TTPOC
'

TPAAAIANOYC.
ty\

ITNATIOC,
'

6 Kai Qeocpopos, riyaTT^fievr} Qeto iraTpi
overt]

hiorov

XpMTTOv, €KK\r]crla dyia
rpaXiapdis iyvdrios

ev

TpaWecriv

npoc TPAAAlANOyc]
by Dressel); ignatius

G

(not written TpaWiavo'ts, as given

tralesiis

L*; rod
1

number
I

/3

in the marg.)

g* (but

TpaWrjaiovs (with the has the form ad trallianos) ; ad trallianos A.
olvtov eiriaToXri irpbs
/ecu

0e^...XptcrroO]

GL;

irapa deov irarpbs

Irjaou

xpurrov g; a deo patre

et

npoc Tp^AAiANoyc] Steph. Byz.
says of this city to eOviicbv TpaX\iav6s, and the statement is fully confirmed by evidence of all kinds.
s.

v.

magica percontatione consulentibus.' The word is most commonly spelled TpaXXtavos, but it occurs sometimes with a single X; e.g. Mionnet IV. p.
187, Suppl. vii. p. 472.

It is

to the

the only form on the coins, even latest date (Mionnet IV. p.

In the edict

of Diocletian
ly

it is

written indifferent-

It 178 sq, Stippl. VII. p. 439 sq). alone occurs in inscriptions, whether Greek (C.I.G. 2926, 2929, 2935) or Latin (Orell. Inscr. 5298, 6232) nor does any other form appear to be
;

TpaWtavos and TpaXtavos, Inscr. Lat. in. pp. 1191, 1 193. On the other hand there
title

Corp.
is

the

greatest variety in the

of this

found in any classical writer, either Greek or Latin. Boeckh indeed supposes that there was also a form
TpaXXels (C.f.G.u.p. 584,comp. m.p. 30), but his own data do not bear him
out.

Ignatian Epistle. The Greek of the genuine Ignatius and the Latin of the interpolator have the common form TpaXiavoi, Trallia?ii while
;

found

TpaXkels is indeed elsewhere (see Schmidt-Alberti Hesych. Lex. iv. p. 168), but it refers to a Thracian people. So again
TpaXXioi occurs (see Steph. Byz. s. v. TpaXXia), but it denotes the inhabitants of the Bithynian
'

The form

conversely the Greek of the interpolator and the Latin of the genuine Ignatius read instead TpaWrjo-ioi,
Tralesii.

Jerome again

refers to
;

it

as

ad Trallenses

(Vir. III. 16)

in the

Parall. Rupef., ascribed wrongly to John of Damascus (Op. II. p. 772,

town Trallium.

Pearson again (ad loc.) is wrong in saying Cives etiam ab antiquis Latinis Tralles dicebantur, ut a Varrone

Lequien), it is entitled npbs TpaWaels in the Pseudo-Ignatian Epistle Antioch. 13 the form seems to be
;

and

TpaWaioi.
correct

apud Apuleium': Varro
the city Tralles
itself,

personifies
belli

Generally however the form is given. So for instance Theodt. Dial. 1 (iv. p. 51 ed.

Apul. Afiol. 42

'Trallibusdeeventu Mithridatici

Schulze), Chron. Pasch. 1. p. 417 (ed. Bonn.), Sever. Ant. Frag?n. (preserv-

TO THE TRALLIANS.
Trjs 'Acrlas,
domini nostH

151
ev crapKi
but not carried

€K\eKTrj Kal d^iodeco,
commoner form
et

elprjt/evova'rj

iesu christi

A (where et seems to be the commencement of a correction,
domino nostro
etc.,

preparatory to substituting the
out).
2 TpdWecriv]

g; rpdXeaiv

trallianus)

A.
;

3 r?}s 'Acrtas]

G; GL;

tralesiis

L;

in tralliano (from a

nom.

urbe asiae

A; om.

g.

ed in the Syriac see I. p. 171). So too the Greek translator of Jerome
{Vir.
III.
1.

a).

It

is

clearly also

the

form which underlies

the Ar-

menian title of the epistle. On the other hand the fragments of the
Syriac Version (see
give
'

III.

pp. 678, 682)

G. 2936 noXios 6' iyiprjpe fie TpaXXeo? elv dedXoiaiv k.t.X., Inscr. in Agath. Hist. ii. 17 (p. 102, ed. Bonn.) wpdaxre TpdWiv rav tot* KeK\ip.evav, 0?'ac. Sib. iii. 459 TpoXXi? §' rj yeircov 'E0eVou, ib. v. 289 7toXvj]pare TpaXXty (see C. I. G. II. pp. 557,
e. g. C. I.
dfjfjios
1 1

a

Titiliyu.'

»\i^« ^, 0.i\i\^i \j, These words are ob;

19),

comp. Bekker Anecd.
:

p.

1193

TpaXXi?, TpdXXios
Plin.
3.

and so

in

Latin,

viously

corrupt

but possibly they
'Tralliyu,'

N. H.
TT/s'

v. 29.

stand for

CjAliV

'Aalas]
is
'

The Roman
;

which

pro-

vince of Asia'
Inscr. 132

cannot have been derived from TpaX-

meant comp. Orell. Natus in egregiis TralliAgath. Hist.
77

and might represent TpdXXioi, but probably was invented by the
\t.avoi

bus
(p.

ex

Asia,'

ii.

17

IOO) TpaXXei?
KaXovp,€vr)
I

noXis
5

f)

iv

777

'Acrta

Syriac transcriber or translator himThese facts show that the present heading of the Greek Ignatius, Tpaself.

vvv
xiv.

X&P9It is

comp. Strabo
therefore a poli-

(p. 649).

tical designation.

Ethnographically

Xiavols

'lyvdnos,

is

very

much

later

or topographically, Tralles was as-

than the epistle itself, and has no authority whatever. I have therefore substituted a title which conforms to
the others.

signed sometimes to Lydia (Steph. Byz. s. v.), sometimes to Caria (Plin.
^V.

H.

v. 29, Ptol. v. 2).

sometimes

to

Ionia (Diod. Sic. xiv. 36, Mionnet
last

Ignatius, called also Theophorus,
to the

Church of the Trallians,

Snppl. vil. p. 477). Probably this was the designation which the
Trallians most affected,
as neither

beloved of God, and having peace through the passion of Christ, hearty greeting after the Apostolic fashion.
1. 9fw 7rarpi] On this dative, which stands for vnb Qeov narpos but

Lydians nor Carians stood in very high repute (Cic. pro Flacc. 27).

For similar instances of various

eth-

does not, like
the agent, so terested, see
p.

it,

much

directly describe as the person in§ lxxxi.

nological attributions in the case of towns in this neighbourhood see Colossians p. 17 sq. The addition rfjs
'Aaias
is not quite so superfluous here as in other cases (e.g. Ephes. inscr. see the note there), since there were other places bearing similar
;

Winer Gramm.
;

274

(ed.

Moulton), Kiihner

(II. p. 368 sq) ayancop-evos tg> Geco. 2. eV TpdXXeaiv]

423 comp. Neh. xiii. 26
§

The

plural form

or identical names, e.g. TpdXXris in

TpaXXeir is by far the most common name of this city, not only in Greek, but also in Latin (e.g. Juv. Sal. iii.

Phrygia, TpaXXts in Caria, TpaXXia or TpaXXeis- in Illyria see Benseler;

70; Orell. Inscr. 321, quoted below;
C. I. L.
III.

144).

Very rarely howis

Worterb. d. Griech. Eigenn. s. vv. But our Tralles was far the most important of them all.

Pape

ever the singular TpaXXis

found

:

eKXeKTJj]

Used probably,

as here, of

152
KCll

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
TTVeVfJLCLTl

TW

7Ta6ei

'ItJCTOV

XpKTTOV
t]v

Ttjs

i\7Tl60$

fj/uLwv

ev Tr\ €is ccvtov

dvacTaorer

Kal acnralCoixai ev
eii-^Ojuai

tw

7r\rjp(i)iuaTL ev

aVocrToAt/ca) yapaKTTipi^ Kai

irXeia'Ta -^alpeiv,
i

Trveifiari]

g;

a'ifj.a.TL

GLA

;

see the lower note.

r<£

iradei]

G;
;

ct

passione

L;

ev

irddei [g]
;

(the context being

much

altered);

om. A.
(pticriv]

5 ddiaKpLTov]

GL[A]

avvwoKpirov g.

6 Kara

GL

Kara

churches in
2 Joh. 1,13.

I

So also

Pet. v. 13 ((rvveKkeierq), €k\cktoi, (kXck-

be

directed

against
'

Docetic error,

tov yevos, of Christians generally, 1 On this meaning of Pet. i. I, ii. 9.
'election,' as

signify fully in the belief in

and would

reposing peaceand union with a
'

truly incarnate Christ
3

;

comp. Smyrn.
avTov
Kal
rco

more

distinguished from its restricted sense, see the note on
iii.
1

Kpadevres
1.).

tt)

vapid
'

cupari (v.
1.

Colossians
d^Lodiq)]
agios,

2.

rep irddei]

through the passion?

Like other compounds of a favourite word with Ignatius;
2,

Magn.

Rom.
;

inscr.,
is

1,

Smyrn.

12.

For the prominence given to the work of the Passion in these epistles, see the note on Ephes. inscr. rjvoip.evr\

In Rom. inscr. it church as here in

all

applied to a the other ex-

ttjs

Kal iKXeXeyp.evj] iv nddei dXj]6ivoo. iXrridos rj/xcoi/] See the note on
11.
tt}

amples, to individuals.
iv vapid k.t.X.] The existing text iv (rapid Kal aipaTi ra>
'lrjcrov

Magn.
Greek
irddei
2.

iv

k.t.X.]

To be connected

Xpicrrov
;

stand
to

and
for

I

k.t.X. can hardly have thought it best

closely with ttjs iXnidos tjp.<ov. These words define wherein Jesus Christ is

the Christian's hope.
ev tg> irXrjpdyLaTi] in the p lero ma,' the sphere of the Divine graces. It is no mundane salutation which the
'

adopt from the interpolator's text

nvevpaTi alp,arL. same confusion of nvevp,aTi
fiari in

There

is

the
a'i-

and

Smyrn. 3. With this reading we have the common Ignatian combination 'flesh and spirit'; see the note on Ephes. 10, and comp. especially the opening
1

the authorities in

writer sends
15

;

see the note on

Magn.

ev Tipfj 'irjaov XpiaTov.

For the

addresses in Magn. aapKos Kal nvevpaTos, aapKa Kal nvevpa

evaaiv

ex>xop.ai
/caret

sense of nXr]p(op.a see the note on Other explanations, Ephes. inscr. such as 'in the whole body of the Trallian Church' (Smith ad loc), or
in the plenitude of Apostolic power (Bunsen Br. p. 139, interpreting it by what follows), or 'in the fulness of Christian good wishes' (Zahn I. v. A. p. 416), seem to be excluded
'
'

Rom.

inscr.

r]vcopevoLS

k.t.X.,

Smyrn.

I KaOrjXcopevovs iv rco &ravp(p ...aapKi re Kal nvev p,aTi. The alternative would be to omit

t(3 nddec,

as a gloss.

To

this

mode

by the use of the word or by the

of

remedy the Armenian Version
In this case the

grammar
3.

of the sentence.
'

gives countenance.

ev dirocrToXiKG} k.t.X.]

passage might be compared especially with PJiilad. inscr. r)v do-nd£op,cu iv aipaTi ^lrjaov Xpicrroi},
I

manner of the Apostles?
tation

It is

after the a salu-

which followed the precedent

Smyrn.

rjdpaapevovs iv ayanr)

ev ro3 aifxari

set in the Apostolic epistles. Another ' in Apostolic interpretation is

my

XpiaTov.

The sentence would then

character or office

'

e.g.

Vedel.

ad

I]
'

TO THE TRALLTANS.
I.
AjJLiofJLOv

153
ev
virofdovr]
(bucriv'

5

ciavoiav

Kal

dZuiKpirov
6

eyvcov Kadcos

v/uias

e^ovra^, ov
,uoi

Kara
Qeov

y^pr\(Tiv

ciWa Kara

iSrjXoocrev

floXvfiios

eiricrKOTros

v/ulwv,

09
ev

7rap6<yev€TO

6e\r}{j.aTL

kcli

'Irj&ov

Xpurrov
ins.
1).

KTijaLP g; sagaci sapientia A. 8 Qeov Kal 'Irjcrov XpLcrrov]

7 p.01]

GLA;

om. g* (mss, but

GL;

domini nostri

iesn christi

A;

Beov irarpos

ko.1

Kvpiov

'I.

X.

k.t.X. g.
6. ov Kara, xpfjo-iv k.t.X.] not from habit but by nature'; comp. Ephes.
'

loc. p. 18,

p. 139, Lipsius p. 56; but this would make the writer contradict himself, as Zahn has pointed out (/. v. A. p. 415); for just below, § 3, he disclaims giving them orders coy dnoaToXos. On the other hand see Mart. Ign.

Bunsen Br.

Aecht.

I

b

KeKrrjade

<pvaei...To
1

avyyeviKov
e

epyov,
hcopeas
ib.

Barnab.

ovt&s
X**P LV

p<pvTov

Trvevp.aTiKrjs

etAijc^are,

Ant.

I

dvijp iv rots Tvaaiv drrocrToXiKos,
is

9 6 tt)V epCpvTOV hu>pedv ttjs hihaxrjs avTov 6ep.evos ev vp.lv. See Cope's note on Aristot. Rhet. i. 7. 33. For
the opposition of (pvais and xPWis see Plut. Mor. 11 15 F, 11 16 A; comp. the passages in Jahn's Methodius p.

but this
himself.
I.

not his

own

estimate of

'I

know how blameless and
ye
I

steadfast

are

naturally.

knowledge

have

obtained

This from

your bishop Polybius, who is with me in Smyrna, and has so warmly sympathized with my bonds that in
seeing

The same contrast is repre124. sented elsewhere as between (pvais and ao-Krjcris (Plut. Mor. 226 a) be;

tween (pvais and naiheia (Plut. Vit. Them. 2); between (pvais and edos
(e.g. Arist.

him
I

I

have seemed

to see

Rhet.

i.

II, p. 1370, Plut.

you

heartily welcome your kindly interest as manifested through
all.

him, and I am full of thanksgiving that ye show yourselves thus followers of God.'
5. "Apcopov k.t.X.] See the eulogy of the Trallians in Apoll. Tyan. Ep.

between (pvais and Tpocpij (Plat. Tim. 20 A, Legg. 961 b) between (pvais and Seais (Macar. Magn. iii. 13, iv. 26); etc. This is one of those passages in which the

Mor.

132

a);

;

language of Ignatius takes a Gnostic tinge; see Iren. i. 6. 4 rjpas pev yap
ev xprjaei
ttjv
ii.

09 (Philostr. Op.

II.

p.

364, ed.

Kay-

ttjv

x^P iv

^-o,p(3dveiv

Xe-

ser) els Tijvhe ttjv rjpepav ovk av e^oifii

yovai...avTovs

he

irpoKpivai TpaXXiavcov vpcov ov Avhovs, vvv he ovk 'A^cuovy, ovk "lavas k.t.X

x^P lv
3
(p.

'

comp.

lhioKTr)Tov...exeiv Clem. Alex. St?'om.

433).

The

povov vpas enaivelv Kaipos avhpas re
tovs rjyovpevovs vpcov, coy noXv KpeiTtovs tcoV nap' erepois dperfj Kal Acryco
K.T.X.
'

KTfjaiv,

where

(pvaiv

interpolator has stands in the

text of the genuine Ignatius, and the passage of Irenasus might seem to favour this. But the alteration was

ddiaKpLTov
steadfast,
dhia.Kpi.Tov
i?i

k.t.X.]

unwavering,

doubtless

made

to obtain the

Here

it

is

patient endurance? For see the note on Ephes. 3. closely connected with ev

moner
p.
'

antithesis

of

xPV ais

coman d
II.

KTrjais (e.g.

Philo Leg.
possession,'
;

ad
i

Cai. 2,

547),

'temporary occupation' and
usus*

vnopovTJ,

some

which probably refers to persecutions undergone by

'absolute

and
vii.

the Trallian Church.

mancipium' comp. 29 'sum XPW* 1 H"* u

Cic. Earn.

tuus,

KTijaei

he

54
C/uivpvri,
3

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
Kai oi/Tws
fjioi

li

lr](rov 9 cocrre /ue

avveydpf] SeSe/uevto ev XpicrTw to irav ir\r\Qo^ v/ulwv ev avTco decopfjo'ai.
Trjv
kcltcc

dTroSepdjuevos

ovv

Qeov evvoiav
/uu/uiriTas

hi

avTOv,
m

eSo^acra eupwv vjuds, w§ eyvcov,
II.
'Itl&ov

ovtcls Qeov.

°Orav

'yap

tw

enrio'KOTrw

v7TOTacrcrria 6e

ws

5

XpiaTO), (paiveo-de
Irjcrov

/ulol

ov kcltcc dv6pa)7rovs (^dovres,
2 6ewprj<xaC\ g;
dewprjcrde

i XptcrTU) 'I-qaov] LAg; G; speculer L; vidi A: see bonam mentem veslram A.

" xP ca r V G.

the lower note.

3 etivocav]

GL;

vpdv evvoiav g;

7neum iesum christum A; cistis A; om. g. 5 om. Dam-Rup 5.
Sev-Syr 2;
/caret

t8oi;a.

Gg*.

4 e56£acra] gloriatus sum L; glorificavi dominum ws ^7^wi/] GL; quomodo et didiXptcrry]

tbs 'I^crou

GLS A
X

Sev-Syr 2;

cos to; /cupl'cp

[g];

6 /card di^pcoTrovs] secundttm homines L; sicut ho?7iines dvOpcoirov Gg Dam-Rup; :'» corpore S X A: see the lower note.

Attici nostri

:

mancipium

illius.'

ergo fructus est tuus, At the same time
Krfjo-ts

polator inserts for clearness. Trallians appear to have sent

The some

the substitution of

for (pvais

substantial proofs of their goodwill

as getting rid of a questionable doctrine.
itself
' 1 he reavvexap 7] dedepevco ] joiced with] or perhaps, congratulated me in ?ny bonds J For o-vyxaprjvai comp. Ephes. 9, Philad. 10, Smyrn. 11, and see note on Philip. '

would recommend

by the hands of Polybius. '/ gave glory to 4. idogacra] God.' For this absolute use comp.
''

Polyc.
Geco

I

Anode xopevos
xliii.

o~ov

ttjv

iv

yva>pr]v...v7rep8o£;a£<0,

and

see

also Ecclus.
laxvo-copev
;

28 dogdfavres nov
edo£a
is self-

The reading

pians

ii.

17.

condemned,
thority.

independently

of au-

2. iv avrw] i.e. as being the representative of the whole body. For this use of the preposition comp.

as

eyva>v] 'as

I had
to

bee?i

referring
eyvmv.

back

the

informed] foregoing

Magn.
cottols,

6 iv rols irpoyeypappivois

Tvpoo~-

Ephes.

I

ev ^Ovrjcr'ipa).
1.

ptprjTas K.r.A.]

See the note Ephes.

This reading is to be There seems to be no preferred. good authority for the middle 6ecoOeaiprja-ai]

peladai,

though

it

appears
classical

in

some
Thes.

corrupt texts of see Dindorf and
s. v.

authors;

Hase Steph.

Apoll. Tyan. Epist. 69 addressing the Trallians says, tis ovv alria, 81 rjv anode xopai pev vpas
3. a.TTobe^apevoi\
ac.t.X.

II. 'When ye submit to your bishop as to Jesus Christ, ye live after Jesus Christ, who died that you through faith in His death might yourselves escape death. Do and nothing without your bishop be obedient also to the presbyters
;

The deacons

as to the Apostles of Jesus Christ. likewise must study

Kara Qeov] see the note

On

this Ignatian
1.

phrase
inter-

Magn.

to satisfy all men; for they are ministers of Christ's mysteries, not of meats and drinks. Therefore it
is

tuvoiav] sc. vfiaVf

which the

their

duty

to

shun

all

blame,

»]

TO THE TRALLIANS.
KctTa
'lrjo~ovv

155

XpLCTTOV, tov Sl rivets dirodavovTa \va irLCTTevcavre^ eU tov BavccTOv avTOv to diroQavexv
€K<pvyr]T€.
10

dWa

dvayKcuov ovv e&Tiv, (henrep

TroieiTe, avev
uTTOTcto'G'eo'de
'Iri&ou

tov
kcu

eTTLCTKOTrov /mtidev Trpaaaeiv v/uLas*

d\X

Tip

TTpecfivTeplcpy

a>$

[to7s]

aiTOO-ToKois

XpicrTOv, Trjs eA7r*Sos
7
T](j.as]

rifJLwv,

iv

to

SiayovTes
8 TnarenjaavTes] 9
wo-rrep]

[iv

avTto]

GSjAg Dam-Rup
G;
wparreLV g.

Sev-Syr; vos L.

G;
X

TriarevovTes
oerenrep g.

g; credentcs L; qna?ido
10
irpaacreiu]

creditis

S 2 A Sev-Syr.
viroraaaeade]
11
§ 7).

GLS

A;

GSjA;
G;

VTrordaaea-Oac

L

[Antioch

14]; the authorities for g* vary.
byteris

ry

irpeafivTepicp]
rots]

S 1 ; sacerdotibus

A
;

(see

XpiaTov]

GLS x g
al.

Antioch

xpttrrou

below on A.

Antioch; presom. g Antioch. 'Irjaov

GL*g

12 kv avrcp]

gS x

(see the next note);

om.

GL;

A.

as they would shun the fire.' Kara dv6pu>7rovs £coi>res] So too 6.

Rom.
ing

8.

See

also

Ephes.

9

<ar

dvOpconcov (Slop (according to the read-

proposed). S. Paul uses the singular /caret avBpconov (see the note on Galatiafis iii. 15); and the re-

miniscence of

S.

Paul has doubtless

led to the substitution of avBpconov for dvdpojTTovs in some texts here.
8.

Iva 7ri<TT€V(ravT€s
5

k.t.A.]

Comp.
to

Magn.
9.

lav

p.fj

avdaipercos

c-^copei/

dirodavelv k.t.X.
coenrep
7roieire]

now, we shall be found in Him But in order to get this sense it seems necessary to insert lv avrcp, which appears in the interThe words without polator's text. this addition can hardly have this meaning, since lv cp cannot well be made to do double duty. If, intending this sense, Ignatius omitted lv avrco, we must regard this as an illustration of the hasty writing in which these epistles abound and which is explained by the circumstances of

Him

hereafter.'

Comp. Ephes.
k.t.A.]

the writer (see above, pp. 28,

1

10, 159).

4,

with the note.
avev

An
See

alternative

would be
a>

to read the

tov

eVtcrKoVoi;

conjunctive, lv
pec9a
'in

didyovres evpedrjera-

Magn.
11.

7 with the note.
rco 7rpeo-/3urepi'a>]
2.

whom may we
is

be found

See the note

living'; but the existence of a future

on Ephes.
coy

dnoaroXois k.t.A.] They stand in the same relation to the bishop, as the Apostles stood to
rots

very questionable (see xiii. p. 89), and our Greek authorities here do not countenance it. So too in Rom. 4 Iva...
conjunctive

Winer Gramm.

Jesus Christ.

So again Sniyrn. 8; comp. Magn. 6 rcoV 7rpecr/3urepcoz> els

evpedrjo-op-ai

(not

ti/a...eupec9^crcopat) is

Tinrov avveftpiov rcoV dirocrTokcov (with

Conthe notes), and below § 3. versely the Apostles are called 7rpecrfSvripiov iKKkrjo-ias in Philad. 5.
12.

interpolator for In I Cor. of Ignatius. xiii. 3 the authorities show that the alternative is between the fut. indie.

substituted

by the

lva...yiva>p.ai

Iva

Kav8rjo-op.ai

Iv

cp

k.t.A.]

i.e.

'if

we

live in

and the

(not iva Kavdrjo-copai) conj. aor. Iva Kav\T]o~a)p.ai.

•56
€upe6ri<roiuLe6a.
'

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
SeT he Kal tovs SictKOvous
kclto.

["

ovras

/uLvcrTrj-

pio)v

Iricrou

XpiVTOv

iravTa Tpoirov

ttolctiv

dpicKeLV*
cr'A/V

ov

yap
i

fipco/uLarcov

Kal ttotcov elcnv SiaKOvoi,
but
1

eV-

evpedtjirofieda]
it

Gg*

(mss,
slip

has inveniamur)

0r]<rup.e6a, if

be not a

of a Latin scribe).
(i"Q

The

inveniamur L (= evpe; Oriental Versions are; ila
S x (which seems ut inveniatur vita
p.v<x-

ut

certainly to
vestra

inveniamur quod in have read ev

ipso

ID

T\2

= eodem)

vivimus

ai/ry

and perhaps
versions,

eipedrio-u/Aeda);

cum
g;

iis

A

(a

corrupt text of a loose rendering of the Syriac).

T-qpicou]

iivvr-qpiov

G.

The

which

all

have the genitive, are as

fol-

lows;

diaconos ministros existentes mysteriorum
;

assist the sense)

(ministros being supplied to diaconos qui sunt filii mysterii S x ; diaconis qui stint participes
1*I<fov g.

Lx

2 'Irjcrov Xpiarov] GLSjlA; xP l<TT °v mysteriorum A. GLS X Antioch 14; deo et hominibtis A; om. g. Antioch ciborum L ; fipwr&v g. 4 vir-qpiTai]
;

Traaiv]

3

Ppw/xaTuv]

G

GLg

Antioch

;

om.

ofiv] GLg Antioch; et propterea A; om. S r avrovs] GS x Ag* praecepta eorum observare) Antioch ; vos L (mss, doubtless a scribe's error for eos). <pv\aa<xecrdcu to. eyKXrjfiaTa] {(pv\aa<Te(Tde, but corrected by a

S X A.
(but

1

G

later

hand)
tovs

L

Antioch; rd
et

iyKX'rjfj.a.Ta

<pv\aTTecr0ai g.
o/jloIws)

6
al. g.

'0/J.oiojs]

G

Antioch; similiter
irarpos]

L;

et ita
cl>s

S1

;

et

(om.

A;

toi>s 8lo.k6vovs...

diaKovovs

Irjffovv

xptcrroV,

ws

Kal
et

tov

eirlaKOVov

6vra

viov

rod

irarpos

G;

diaconos ut

mandatum
is

iesu

christi,

episcopum ut iesum christum

I.

Set 8e Kal k.t.X.]

This

not an

tendance

injunction of obedience due to the deacons, as the preceding sentence

on the priest when offiBut such ciating at the eucharist. a restriction of p,varrjpiaiv would be

might suggest, but a statement of requirements from them, as the following words clearly show. Not their
claims, but their duties, are enforced. tJlOSe TOVS dldKOVOVS OPTOS K.T.A.] who are deacons {ministers) of the
'

an anachronism
apparently
uses

in

Ignatius.

He
the

the
in

word

in

same wide sense
by
S.
2.

which

it is

used
S.

Paul, 'revealed truths.'
/cara

iravra]
1

According
Cor.
x.
2>3

to

Paul's example,

<ada>s

mysteries assertion

of Jesus
is

Christ?

This
fol-

Kaya> rrdvra Traaiv dpeaKco.
3.

justified

by what
K.r.A.

(3pa>pdTG)i>
ii.

K.r.Xi]

See
ix.

lows, ov yap reference here

(3pa>pLa.T<ov

The

xiv. 17, Col.

16,

Heb.

10.

Rom. The
and
the

is to the deacons, and some have supposed) to the See Smyru. 10 cos diapresbyters.

diaconate was

originally

instituted

not (as

biaKoveiv rpane^ais (Acts vi. 2) ; these less spiritual duties of
office,

kovovs Qeov [Xpio-rou], Polyc. Phil.
ofioiois diaKovoL ap,€(xnToi...6c>s

5

Qeov Kal

Xpiarov

diaKovoi
I

Kal
I

ovk

avdpamu>v.

Comp.

Cor.

iv.

coy

u^pe'ras- Xpito

the distribution of alms, the arrangement of the agape, and the like, tended to engross the interests of the deacon (1 Tim. iii.

such as

arov kcu otKOVopovs pv arrj p icav Qeov,

which passage seems
fluenced

have
here.

in-

He needed therefore to be 8 sq). reminded that the diaconate had a
higher aspect also. The mode of expression here may have been suggested by Rom. xiv. 17.

the expressions
writer
diaKovovs
refer

In

a

later

would probably

pvarrjpicov to their at-

II]

TO THE TRALLIANS.
Qeov
V7rr]perai'

157

KArjcrias
5

heov ovv avrovs <p}i\dtTcretrdai

tu

eyKX^fJLciTa ws Trvp. III. 'OfWicos Trdvres evrpeirecrdcocav tovs Skxkovovs
'Itiaouv XpitTTOV, cos kcxi

cos

top eTTLGKOTrov bvTa tvttov

existentem filium patris

fonna (NDQ1D2) patris
Xpivrov
Itjctovv,

L a diaconis sicut a teste christo et ab episcopo qui est in Sj (for XDD1D see the note on Magn. 6); a diaconis sicut a iesu christo et ab episcopo sicut a patre deo A; clvtovs [i.e. tovs 5iclk6vovs] (is
;

ov <pv\a.K£s

elctv

tov

tottov,
(is

(is

/ecu

6

iiricrKOTros

tov

irarpos
ihs

rQiv

oXcov tvttos U7rapxa

g

;

tovs ScaKOVovs

Iqcrovv xpurrov

Kai tov iirio~KOirov

TOV

traTepa Antioch.

Comparing

these authorities

we

arrive at these results.

(1)

In

the

ws ivToXijv irjaov xp'o'tou, as standing alone against all the others (GS 1 Ag Antioch) which support the simple ws i-rjaovv Xpt-VTov (g however transposing and reading xptcrroV hjaovv, but dominum iesum
first

clause

we must

reject the reading of

L

christum

1).

(2)

rejected in favour of tvttov,

Antioch.
its

(3)

vlbv of GL must certainly be which appears in Sg and is loosely paraphrased in A The second ws is somewhat awkward, and the sentence would gain by

In the second clause the corrupt

rejection or transposition,

/ecu

tov i7riaKOTrov ws
(is

tWa

tvttov k.t.X. (or in this case

we might perhaps read

ws Ivtvttov for

oVrct vlov, as

nearer to the traces of the

ms); but it appears in this place in Gg, while on the other hand the versions are It ought probably therefore to be retained, not of much account in such a case. as it is capable of explanation. (4) For an account of the anomalous reading of L in both clauses see the lower note.

4.
is

qvtovs (j)v/\dcr(r€o~6ai k.t X.] S. Paul's injunction also, that
aveyicXrjTOt,
5,
1

It

him.

the

deacons should be
iii.

Tim.

10; Const,

comp. Polyc. Phil.
ii.

Aftost.

I spare you for the love I have towards you. Though I might have written more strongly, I fornor do I venture, being a bear
;

10, viii.

18.

The reading
the authoritext,

convict,

to

command you

as

if

I

avrS>v is
ties

condemned by

were an Apostle.'
6. As the deacons are 'Ofioicas] required to consult the wishes of the laity, so in like manner must the

even in the interpolator's
it

and

interferes with the sense.

III.

'At the same time

let

the

laity pay respect to the deacons as to Jesus Christ, while they reverence

laity

pay respect

to

the

deacons.

the bishop as the type of God the Father and the presbyters as the re-

presentatives of the Apostles. Without these three orders no body of

men
This

deserves the
rule,
I

name

of a Church.

persuaded, you follow; for I have with me a pattern of your love in the person of your
bishop,
in

am

whose gentle demeanour

is

a powerful lesson. Even the godless heathen must reverence
itself

by even where the duty is not The identical, comp. 1 Pet. iii. 7. ndvTes here corresponds to the ttcloiv of the preceding sentence. As the deacons have duties towards all, so they claim respect/>w;z all. a>s 'l-qaovv Xpiarov] This start7. ling comparison of the deacon to Jesus Christ rests on the assumption that the relations of the deacon to
o/xoicos-,

For

this reciprocation introduced

the bishop are

analogous to those

158

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
TTCtTpOS,
[ftjs]

[in

TOV
kcli

TOVS §6 7Tpe(r(3vT€pOVS WS CWe&piOV 6eov

crvvSecr/uiov ccttocttoXwi/'

X w P^ toutwv

e/c/cA^cna

ov KctXelrai.
i

Trepl

(hv irl'nreio'iJLai v/uias

ovtcos e^eiv
avvdeo/xov]

to

ml

<hs]

G

Antioch;

kclI

(om.

Cos)

LS A
2

[g].

conjunctions

L;

dea/xdv

Antioch;

o~v~v5eo/xos

G; g

also has ovvSeo/xos, but as a nominative, the

of Christ to the Father
Const,
ii.

;

comp. Apost.
.

26

6 8e

SiaKovos tovtco [tc3

enter k6tv<o\

7rapL(TTaada>. .Kai

XeiTovpcos

yeiTG)

avToi

iv

rracnv ap.ep.TTTcos,
d(f>

o
to.

Xptoros,

noLcov

eavrov

ov8ev,

npeara noiel ra> irarpl ndvTOTe, lb. 30 cos yap 6 Xpicrros ctvev tov rrarpos
-

ovoev

7roieT,

ovtcos ovbe 6 Sicikovos avev
k.t.X.,
ib.

tov enio-KuiTov
6 SiciKovos too

44

rravTa peV

immediate neighbourhood (see below dyancov vfxas k.t.X.) has been much tumbled about, such a change would perhaps be justifiable. I have preferred however to retain it in the place where it is found in most authorities, because it thus introduces the a?ialogy of the relation between Jesus Christ and the Father as explaining the previous injunction. tvttov tov ivaTpos] See the note on

iiriCTKoTTCC dracpepeVco, cos

6

See also XpiaTos tco rrarpi k.t.X. the note on Magn. 6. The preponderance of authority seems to show very decidedly that

Magn. 6
I.

els tvttov

Qeov.
'

cos

crvvebpiov

k.t.X.]

as the

council of
the

But if so, this is the original text. how can we account for the reading
of the Latin translator
?

God and (as) the band of Apostles? As the bishop sits in

It is

pro-

bably to be explained as having arisen from a combination of two
readings, tovs
*\i)o~ov

the place of God, so too the corona of presbyters (Magn. 13) is compared to the company of the Apostles,
seated, as it were, on thrones encirThe tercling the Eternal Throne. restrial hierarchy is thus a copy of

dtaKovovs

cos

ivrokrjv

Xpiorou and rotes' 8ia<6vovs as 'irjaovv Xpiarov. The former of these was probably in the first instance a marginal illustration taken from another passage, Smyrn. 8 tovs 5e ftiaicovovs eVrpe7reo"#e cos Qeov evToXrjv,

the celestial

;

comp. Rev.

iv.

4 kvk\6-

dev tov Opovov Bpovoi e'lKoai Teaaapes' Ka\ eVi tovs Opovovs e'Uoat, Tto-crapas

Ttp€cr(ivT€povs Ka6rjp.evovs (comp. vii. The aweSptov tov Qeov is de11).
fined

or

by

this parallel.

an emendation suggested It would then dis-

by avvdeapov
the

tcov

anocrTokcov
is

;

and
feres
this

second

cos,

which

dis-

place the original reading cos 'Iqcrovv and this latter Xpio-rov in the text
;

credited by external authority, intersomewhat with the sense. On

would be inserted just below, where it seemed to be required, the corrupt
reading ovra vlov (for ovra tvttov) having set the transcriber on the

comparison of the presbyters to the Apostles, and on the arrangement in the early Church which suggested
it,

see the notes on
ib.

Magn. 6
1

wrong
cos

track.
Kai

tcov curoo-Toha>v,
k.t.X. J

3

o~T€(pdvov

o-we8piov tov

tov iirlo'KOTTOV

sentence would be rendered

The much

7rpecr/3vTepiov.

For

this concrete sense

of

o-vv8eo-p.os,

placed

smoother, if cos were transposed and before 6Vra tvttov. As the text of this epistle here and in the

and

so

signifying an aggregate either 'a bundle' of letters

or 'a band' of persons, see the note on Colossians iii. 14. It occurs with

in]

TO THE TRALLIANS.
e^€fJL7r\apiov
Tf?s

1

59

yap
5 /usd'

dyairr]^

v/ulcov

e\a/3ov Kai

e^co

iavTOv ev tw

eTriGKOTrco
r\

v/ulgov,

ov cluto to

KaTci.-

(TTrjjUia

/ueyaXr] /uadrjTeia,

de

irpaoTt]^
4 vpwv]

avTOv Suva/Ms;

construction having been changed.
vestrae
1).

GLA

om. g (mss, but add.

5 ped* iavrov]

G; per

ipavTov g (edd., but see the Appx).

much
though
xii.

the
in

same meaning as
Kings

here,
xi. 14,

a bad sense 'a confede-

racy, a conspiracy,' in 2

20, Jer. xi. 9. It will thus appear that

ary form of address, like dilectio vestra,' r) evo-efteia vpcov, 'your grace,' Pear'your holiness,' and the like. son explains § 13 77 dyc'imj Spvpvaicov
'

both the

and Smyrn.

it.

r]

dydnrj tcZv a§eA<pc5i/

comparison of the deacons
Christ

and

to Jesus that of the presbyters to

the Apostles flow naturally, though in separate channels, from the idea of the bishop as the type of God. But

(comp. Philad. 11) similarly. Any such usage however would be an anachronism here. For dydnrj vpcov comp. Rom. 1, 9. Polybius was an
rj

illustration of their affection for the

the combined result is incongruous, for the presbyters are made to occupy

martyr.
5.

eavrov]

For ipavTov; see Winer
'

a lower place in the comparison than the deacons. We may suppose therefore that the last clause tovs 8e npeaftvrepovs k.t.\.

Gra?nm.

xxii. p. 188.

KaTdo-Trjpa] Plut. Vit.
diKrjv

demeanour'
23 ovtc

;

comp.
tt)v

Marcell.

<p 6[3cp

was added as an

after-

ovt€ dvpco Trpbs tovs ^vpaKocriovs

thought by Ignatius, without noticing the incongruity. This is only one among many indications of extreme haste, to be explained by the circumstances under which

tov avvrjdovs pfTCtfiakcov KaTacrTrj patos, aAAcz irpdcos Tvavv /cot Kocrplcos The to ttjs diKrjs reXoy endexdpevos.

these
i.e.

letters

were written {Rom.
2.

'

5).

derivation suggests, though it does not require, the idea of composure,' quietude] staiduess (comp. Orig.
'
'
'

^copts tovtcov K.r.A.]

'With-

C.

Cels.

iii.

80 to
;

ttjs

aapKos evo~Ta6es

out these three orders no church has a title to the name, deserves to be
called a church'.

KaTaaTrjpa) kos signifies

and hence KaTaaTrjpaTi'of calm demeanour,'
Vit.

This seems to be
ov naXelrai,
'is

as in Plut.
TTpOCTCOTTOV
tt

Tib.

Gracch. 2 Idea
KOL
KlVTJpaTl

the

meaning of

not

Kai

{3\eppaTL

spoken of, 'is not recognised', as in Heb. iii. 13 d^pis ov to arjpepov KaXetrai comp. Polyc. J os dwrjo-erai
;

phos K.a\ KaTacrTrj paTLKOS rjv. See Wetstein on Tit. ii. 3, where KardThe view of Hammond o-ttj pa occurs.
(on Tit. ii. 3), that KaTaaTrjpa signifies rank, office (from KaBiaTavai to ap'

deoBpopos Kakelo-Oai, Afagn. ovk a£ios elpi KaXcladai.
'

1

4 oOev

3.

Tvepl
1

ooj/]

concerning

which

things , not referring to tovtcov, but to the general injunctions of the pre-

Tit. i. 5), point,' Acts vi. 3, tute of support from usage.
I

is

desti-

ceding sentence.
4.

6. peydXrj paOrjTeia] lva...bia Trjs tcov yvvaiKcov dvaaTpoCprjs

Pet.

iii.

I

e£ep.7r\dpiov]
2.

See the note on
This
is

Ephes.
ttjs

also the \6yov KtpSrjdrjaovTat. See language which Ignatius uses respectdvc-v

dydirrjs

vpcov]

treated

ing

by Jacobson as a mere compliment-

Onesimus of Ephesus (Ephes. and Damas of Magnesia (Magn.

6)
3).

i6o
ov XoyiVofJMi

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
kcli

[in

tovs

cideovs

€VTpc7reo-6ai.

dyairuiv

vfias outcos (beihofjiai, crvvrovooTepov
V7T60

Swa/uevos ypa<peiv
&aVTOV~\
€(5

TOVTOV
'iVCL

[«A\'

OV%

IkCLVOV

TOVTO

WqdtlV,
aroajxai.

LOV

$lCLTa<TKCLTCCKpiTOS COS <X7r6o~TOAoS VJJUV
5

i 6V] GLg*. There is a plural in A, which probably therefore read wv. This is a in Ignatius takes an accus. (see the note possible reading, but evrpt-rreadai elsewhere on ay air (2v...^nrjdr}v k.t.X.] ayawcovTas ws ov (peioo/xai eavTov irorepov 6).

Magn.

tovto cprjdrjv k.t.X. G; diligentes quod non parco pro illo, in hoc existimer ut etc. L ; etiam quonia?n amo vos, parco vobis scribere vehementer et glorificare ; sed et non sum sujficiens sicut vir aliquis condemnatus sum A; dyairuv vp.b\s apostolus praecipere vobis, quoniam 'iva pt-r) 5d£w ricrlv elvai irpoadvTTjs i) eiri5er]S k.t.X. g. <peibop.ai crvvTOVuirepov eirLO-TelXai, Here the text of GL is seriously corrupt. In attempting to restore the reading
bwa/xevos ypdcpeiv virep tovtov
els

ipsum aliqualem potens

scribere

we may observe
note.
(2)

as follows: (i)

The agreement
is

of

A

and g establishes one unques-

tionable emendation; eavrov irorepov

The coincidence
is

of the

same

a corruption of avvTOuwrepov: see the lower authorities shows that a^aTrwi' is correct, and

that the corruption

in -ras ws ov.

Having regard

to the sense as given in

Ag,

1.

who were

tovs aOeovs] i.e. 'the heathen] adeoi ev tco koV/xo), Eph. ii.

See also Clem. Horn. xv. 4, 12. Clem. Al. Protr. 4 (p. 52), Paed. iii. 1 1 Origen {c. Cels. i. 1, iii. 73) (p. 300). adeos -rroXvdeoTrjs COmp. speaks of Mart. Ign. Pom. 8. On the other hand, the Christians themselves were denounced by the heathen as aOeoi, because they had no images or
f) ;

comp. Polyc. 7 Vfiav to o~vvtovov ttjs This emendation is much less violent than it seems at first
dXrjOcias.

cyNTONcoTepoN for c&yto no(see the note on dXX' ovx k.t.X. At all events the interjust below). polator's text leaves no doubt about its correctness, as Pearson saw long
sight,

TepoN

ago.

shrines or visible representations of
deity; Mart. Polyc. 9 (comp. ib. 3), where the cry against Polycarp is alpe tovs ddeovs, which he himself,

vpa>v,

vnep tovtov] i.e. tov i7rio~K.6irov or possibly 'on this matter.' dXX' ovx k- 1"-^-] The state of the
3.

text in the
(e.g. at

immediate neighbourhood
;

the beginning of this chapter
§

looking
repeats.

els

rravra rhv oxXov rcov ev ra>

see also

4

ol

yap Xeyovres
k.t.X.)

k.t.X.

and

catches up and See also Justin Apol. i. 6 (p. 56), ib. 13 (p. 60), Athenag. Suppl. 3, 4, 30, Clem. Alex. Strom, vii. 1 Tertull. (p. 828 sq), Mimic. Octav. 8, Apol. 10 sq comp. Clement of Rome
crraSico dvopcov edvav,
;

MS of GL must have been much worn and probably mutiarchetypal
lated in this part. Accordingly I have sought to remedy the text here on the hypothesis that some words have dropped out. For eavTov see the note on covtov above. I have chosen this form (rather than ep,avrov) here, because it better explains

§60!

Kai

la>

shows that the

1.

p.

34.

Below,
to

§

10,

the epithet
the

dOeoi

seems

be applied to the
(see
'

Docetic
there).
2.

teachers

note
'

o-vvTovatrepop]

more urgently

;

the corruption of o-wTov<x>Tepov just

IV]

TO THE TRALLIANS.
IV.
rioWci
ev

161

Qeco' (ppovco ev
aTroXcofjiai'

ceAA' e/uavrov /ueTpa),

\va

juLrj

Kav^crei
kclI
/ulol
fir)

vvv

yap

fj.e

Sel irXeov
ol

(po/3eT(r6ai

Trpoveyeiv toIs (pvcriov(riv
/ue.

/ue'

yap

Xeyovres
I

fiaaTiyovcriv
v/nas
ovtojs.

ayanu)

fiev
seem

yap to
to indicate
els

have substituted
these were

(3)

These two

authorities also

that

some words have dropped
it

out, probably

between

inrep tovtov

and

tovto.

impossible to say, owing to the capricious changes in g and the habitual laxity and constant omissions of A. I have hazarded a conjecture in accordance with the general sense of A. Hilgenfeld {Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Theol.
is

What

xxi. p. 541 sq) has his own conjectural reading, but he does not seem to me to be on the right track. 4 bt.aTao-<j<jop.aC\ praecipiam L; diaTaaaojuac Gg (but in the latter the form of the sentence is altered, oi>x ws airocrroXos 8iaTacrcrop.ai).

6 IloXXa (ppovCb ev 0e£] GLS Dam-Vat 3; multa cogito in divinis A; om. g. This and the following chapter appear at the close of the Epistle to the Romans
in 2.
fxe

7

/xe

del irXeov]
2 (but

G

;

me

oportet

phis

L*

(but oportet

me phis L x
8
fir)]

) ;

-wXelbv

del [g]

Dam- Vat

quoted by Max,
ol

7r\^o»' /xe 5e?).
p.01

GLSAg
GL;
01

(but

om.
p,e

Max Dam-Vat).
;

yap Xeyovres

iiaaTiyovalv pe]

yap

ewaivovvTes p-acTiyovaiv

txa<TTLyov<n[v])

g (but Max Dam-Vat quote it eiraivovvres yap pe Mi enim qui dicunt mihi talia flagellant me 2; def. A: see the

lower note.

For the construction of ha comp. Luke 43 -noBev p.01 tovto Iva
before.
i.

then
spirit,

I

have every need of a gentle which defeats the prince of
cppovco']

eXOrj

rj

p-rjTr/p

k.t.X.,

I

Cor.

iv.

3 els

this world.'
6.

eXa^iaTov
I

eo~Tiv 17.

ha

lift v/xcov dvaicpidaj,

IloXXa

Comp. Herod,
I

ix.

Joh.
4.

iv.

16 7roXXa (ppoveovTa

p.T]8evos upaTeeiv.

a>V

KdTCLKpiTOS K.T.X.]

HlS pOSiis

Similarly Barnab.
p.ai k.t.X.

avveidcos epavTcp

tion as a

condemned criminal

taken

otl ev vpuv XaXrjo-as
l

noXXa

enio-Ta-

as a type of his unworthiness in the sight of God. See the note on Ro?n. 4,

where he uses similar language of his relation to the Apostles. For
Starao-o-co/Liat

f take the measure of ?nyself\ 'I do not exceed my proper bounds'; a reminiscence of
ep.avTbv p.eTpa]
S. Paul, 2 Cor. x. 12, 13, ev eavTols eavTovs p.eTpovvTes...rjp.els 8e ovk eis

comp. also Efthes. 3 ov
cos

Siaracrcro/mi vp.lv

cov

ti

(with the

note).

Ta
'I

a.p,eTpa K.avxT)0~6p.e6a.
7.

have many deep thoughts in Christ. Yet I put restraints upon myself, lest my boasting should be my ruin. I have need to tremble.
IV.
praise of these men is a stumbling-block and a torture to me.

nXeov

(pofielo-dai]

So Philad.
cos

5 cov

hehepevos (poftov p,ai p.dXXov,
dvandpTicrTos.

The

For indeed

I

tyrdom, but I am worthy of

earnestly desire marknow not whether I
it.

8. ol yap XeyovTes ftoi] This can hardly be correct as it stands, and probably some words have fallen out see the note, § 3 aXX' ov^ k.t.X., on the mutilated state of the arche:

The envy

of the

typal
rally

MS

in these parts.

It is

genesup-

devil fights against

me

all

the more,

supposed

that

Ignatius

because

it

is
II,

unseen by many.

So

presses

some

words addressed to
II

IGN.

l62
Tradeiv,

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS

[IV

dXM

ovk

olSa

el

a^ios

eljur

to yap

(^jAos

Se fjiev ov <paiv6Tcu> e/ue XPV& [7rA€0i/] 7roAe/xer. ovv iraaoTYiTOS) ev r] KcurdhveTai 6 ap^cou tov aiwvos

7roA\oIs

TOVTOV.
i

to]

Gg

(but the latter with a v.

1.

6).

i irkkov]

GL; om. SAg.
3 TrpaoTr/Tos]

It

was perhaps interpolated from
4

ir\lov

cpo^adat above.

Gg Dam-Vat
to

Dam-Rup

6;

irpavTt]Tos

Anton

9.

ii>

rj]

GLg Anton;

iv

4 tovtov] txt GLSA; add. 6 <5ia/3o\os g; add. (but these writers may be quoting the interpolator's 5 M77 ov] G; nonne L; /xrj yap ovk g; text, not the genuine Ignatius). om. SA. vp2v] bvvaixcu] GLSA; i^ov\6/xrjv [g] (but 1 has poteram).

Dam-Vat-Rup; dub. SA. 8ia(3o\os Dam-Vat-Rup Anton

LSA
made

[g];

om. G.
7
6.

6

vtjttiols
/

oSgiv]

irapaQConai g.
in

<riry7i'w uoi>eiTe]

G

;

avyyuwre

GLg; om. SA. The g.

vapadu] G;
converse change
is

Rom.

him such
loc,

as fidprvs
p. 23,

earj

(Smith ad
/.
z'.

attempts to rob
£r)\<6oai tcov

me

of the crown of
5 p,r)6ev p.e

Uhlhorn

Zahn
is

A.

pp.

martyrdom'; comp. Rom.
Iva It](tov

416, 572 sq); but there

no adequate

opaTcov kai Ttav aoparwv,
i.

reason for the suppression.

With more probability Bunsen {Br. p. 121) supposes that the word puiprvs has accidentally dropped out owing to It seems the following fxaa-r ty ovaiv.
probable that the title here disclaimed by Ignatius would be that of a martyr or witness comp. Euseb.
:

XpurTov eVtTv^o,

e.

may

no power of man or devil interpose through envy to prevent my finding Christ by martyrdom As these are the only places in Ignatius where (r)\os, foXovv, occur, it seems natural to explain the one passage by the
'.

2 (quoted by the commentators here) earore tls yp-oov 6Y imo-TO-

H. E.
\rjs
rj

v.

other. The interpolator therefore correctly interprets the sense, when he adds tov ex&pov after £rj\os. For

diet

\6yov p.apTvpas avrovs
7riKpa>s' ijdeios

the allusion see the next note.

Other

npocrelTrev, eVeVX^o-croi/

yap

napex^povv
p-aprvpi

rr/v

rfjs

p.apTvpias

interpretations are; (1) 'My passionate desire, my excessive ambition,
for

Trpocrrjyopiav tco
ak-qdivco

Xpiara
k.t.X.

tco mcrrcc kcll

Hilgenfeld {A. V. p. 204) suggests that the writer may refer to the name 6eobut as this name implies cpopos obligation rather than renown, and as the writer of these epistles boldly
;

martyrdom', as e.g. Voss p. 287, Smith p. 88, Jacobson ad loc, Dressel
;

ad

loc. but the language of Ignatius elsewhere throughout suggests that he would consider such a passion as

the reverse of blameworthy

'
;

(2)

The
;

claims it elsewhere, this suggestion has little to recommend it. Possibly the Syriac Version may preserve the
true text,
roiavra.
coCpeXtl,
el

opposition and ill-treatment from my guards' {Rom. 5), Nirschl p. 101 but I do not see how the connexion involved in yap can be explained on
this hypothesis.
2.

and we have only

to

add

Comp. Smym.
e'/xe

5 ri

eVcui/ei

tls,

yap [pe] with the
i.e.

iroWols
fail

p,ev

ov

(fiaiueTai]

i.

e.

'many

to

see

this

jealousy of

note.
I.

to yap

^Xov

k.t.X.]

'the

jealous

opposition

of

Satan,

who

Satan in its true colours, and so unconsciously abet him.' Ignatius is alluding, as I suppose, more es-

v]
5

TO THE TRALLIANS.
V.
Mr)

163

ov

Svi/a/uai
jjly]

v/uuv

to.

eirovpdvia

ypdy^ai

;

dWd
Kal

(pofiov/ULai

vr}TrLOL$
julol,

ovoriv vfxiv fiXdfirjv irapaOw.

(rwyyv(jOf.{.ov€LT€

[x^irore.

(TTpayyaAcodtJTe.
/^71-ore]

Kal

yap

ov hvvridevTes ^(jopfjcai iyw, ov Kadori SeSe/uai Kal
;

GL

\

Hi)

g;

cautus enim

remaining words of the sentence).

sum ne forte 2 et caveo [A] The insertion in 2 is probably

(omitting the a translator's

8 a-TpayyaXcoOrJTe] g; device to ease the awkwardness of the negatives. strangulcmini L; implicemini 2; arpdyyaXov drjre G; def. A. iyu] txt GLS x 2Ag; add. X^yw (?) Sev-Syr 4c (but om. Sev-Syr 7): see Zahn /. v. A. KadoTi] The rendering of L secundum p. 180, Ign. et Pol. Ep. p. 355.

quodcumque seems to represent ku0' tl, not naO' otiovu, as Zahn supposes. om. Sev-Syr 7 v. 1.); sed L. ical] GS x 2Ag Sev-Syr 4c, 7 (but
pecially to those

Roman

Christians

Xverai
xii.

6

oXeBpos avrov

;

comp. John
8.

who were

desirous

of obtaining a

31, xvi.

n,

1

Joh.

iii.

reversal of his sentence,
in

and whose
Church.

6

apxoov

k.t.X.]

See the note on

interposition he strongly deprecates

the letter to the

Roman

describes this interposition sometimes as a £rj\os 'jealousy' {Rom.
5,

He

quoted
a

in the last note),

sometimes
:

as

(3ao-K.avia
prj

'envy' {Rom. 7 fiaaKaroaceiTco

Am I not able to write about Yet I fear lest heavenly things ? such strong meat should not be suited for you babes. Forgive me, I would not have you suffocated. Nay,
I myself, though I am privileged to be Christ's prisoner and though I could unfold all the mysteries of the celestial hierarchy, yet do not therefore hold myself to be already a dis-

Ephes. 17. V. '

Kavia iv vplv

comp.

lb.

It is a 3 ovdenore ifiauKavaTe ovdevi). device of the devil who would effect his ruin, and he entreats the Chris-

tians of

Rome

not to ally themselves
7 6 apxcovrov pe /3ovXeTai...
j3ot]6€lt(o

with the Evil

One {Rom.

ciple.

We

want much,
k.t.X.]
2,

in order that to us.'

aloovos tovtov diapnacrai
fir)8e\s

God may not be wanting
6.
prj

ovv twv Trapovrcov vp(ov
'

vrjnLois
iii.

Suggested
aXX
(os

avT<o)
-rrXeov]
it
i.

by
e.

1

Cor.

1,

ovk -qhwqd^v XaXfj-

all

the

more because
if

aai vplv

cos

TrvevpariKois,

aap-

eludes the notice of others',
'

the

klvois, (os vqrriois iv XpicrTco'

ydXa vpas

word be genuine. wars against me\ 7roXe/xeT]
this construction of ivoXzptiv

For with an
in

inoTLaa, ov fipwpa' ov7ra> yap idvvaade, aXX' ov8i en vvv dvvaade.
7-

accusative,

which

is

common
:

me\
this

i.e.

bear with crvyyvopovelre poi] 'when I refuse to give you
:

'

Polybius, Diodorus, and later writers, see Wesseling on Diod. iv. 61 comp. Clem. Horn. xix. 20, Hippol. p. 166

strong meat'

comp. Rom. 6

On the form avyyixoavyyvoore poi. poveiv see Lobeck Phryn. p. 382.
'

Lagarde. On this tendency of the later language to substitute the accusative for other cases, see the notes

X<opfja-ai]

to

take

it

in?

The
again

word
Smyrn.
8.

is
6.

used

transitively
'

on Galatians
3.

v. 7, 26.
k. t.

aTpayyaX(odr)Te]

be
ii.

KaTokvtTai

X.]

Ephes.

13
ko.1

The word occurs Tobit

3.

clwked\ Other

KaBaipovvrai al ftvvaptis rov 'Sarava

forms are (TTpayyaXaoj, (rrpayyaXifa.
II

2

164
dvva/uai
voeiv

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
to,

[v

kirovpavia

kcli

tocs

TOTroQeo'Las

rci?

ctyye\iKas
1

kcli
voeiv]
it

ras
is

crvcrTacreis

rets

apyovTiKa<z,

opctTa

Mvafxai

potens scire, as the supposition

gS x SA Sev-Syr (twice); dwdpevos (om. vodv) GL* (not commonly read). The consensus of authorities excludes
voeiv
is

that

a gloss

:

see
7.

the lower note.
3
pad-rjT-^s

1

/cat]

GLS
St))

a

[A][g]

Sev-Syr 4c; om. Sev-Syr

^rf]

Lg

Sev-Syr (twice); om.

SjSA.
;

eipi]

G GLS

(written

et

[disciptdus

sum
of

mihi)

A

g Sev-Syr (twice)
the
Syriac,
(the

discipuli
for

estis

mihi

S x (doubtless an error
4 v/mv] GS x error for nobis);
note.

transcription in Sev-Syr 4c; vobis
[g].

L

jlJVin MSS, but

JVIH). doubtless a
see

scribe's

pot

For

SA, which have a

singular,

the

next

For the metaphor see Hieron. Epist.
525) 'ne parvuli atque lactentes solidioris cibi edulio suffocemur',

Alex. Strom,

vii.

2 (p. 833)
8rj

77

paKapla
01

84

(1.

p.

ayye\o6eo~la
tcov

Kai

pexpis

rjputv av-

aAAoi

vtt

aAAois e£ evos Kai
'

evos

Op. hnperf. in Matt. Horn, xxxviii (Chrysost. Op. VI. p. clxi) 'sicut enim infanti si dederis fragmentum panis,

o-oi^6pevoi re Kai aco^ovres

rai.

For

roirodeaia

Starerfi^aa topographical
i.

description' see Cic.

ad Att.

13, 16.

quoniam angustas habet fauces, offosic et catur magis quam nutritur
;

Just such a TOTrodecria of the celestial hierarchy is given in the Test. Duod.

homini imperfecto
sensibus
volueris
si

in fide et

puero

altiora mysteria sapientiae

Levi 3, where the different ranks of angels with their several
Pair.

dicere, angustam' habens fidem et sensum magis scandalizatur quam aedificatur' (comp. xlix, ib. p. ccv), passages quoted by Pearson

names
seven

are distributed through

the

{V. I. p. 517, and ad loc). ov KadoTi Sidepai] Comp. Ephes.

3

el

yap Kai
apxv v

fttdepai

iv

rco

ovopari,

space which angelology occupied in Jewish and Christian speculation in the Apostolic age, appears from the incidental language of S. Paul e. g. Ephes. i. 20, 21 inrepdvoi ndarjs dp)(r}s
large
;

heavens.

The

ov7rco

arrripTio-pai

iv

'irjcrov

XpKrra'

Kai e^ovaias Kai dvvapecos Kai KvpiorrjTos
Kai

vvv yap

^X<°

T0V padrjreveo-dai.

navros ovoparos ovopa^opevov
Col.
i.

On

the

manner

in

which Ignatius

k.t.A.,
e'ire e'ire

16
e'ire

to.

opara Kai

to.

dopara,

regards his bonds, see the note there. 1. bvvapai voeiv] 'am competent For this expression to understand*.
so comp. Hermas Sim. ix. 9, 14 PearEph. iii. 4 8vvao-de...vofjo-at. son saw that this must be substituted for dwdpevos; and his opinion has been confirmed beyond question by the versions and citations dis;

Bpovoi

Kvpiorrjres

e'ire

dpyai

etjovcriai,

and the condemnation

of dprjaKeia ru>v dyyeAcov Col. ii. 1 8. On this whole subject see the notes Colossians i. 16, ii. 18; and to the references there given add Papias

(Routh Rel. Sacr. I. p. 14), Hermas Vis. iii. 4, and (for Jewish angelology)
Gfrorer Jahrh. des Heils 1. p. 357 sq, Eisenmenger Entd. Judenth. II. p. 374, Edersheim Life and Times of

covered since.
great;

The change is not AyNAMeNoei for Ayn&mcnoc

(dvvapai being written dvvape). rag T07ro6ecri.as K.r.A.] 'the dispositions of the angels\
i.e.

Jesus

their distribu-

tion in their several ranks or in the

11. See also the p. 748 sq. discussion about angels in Orig. c. Cels. vi. 30 sq, especially c. 40, where Celsus brings this charge against

several celestial spheres

:

comp. Clem.

the

Christians,

eoypaKevai

rrapd

Ttcrt

v]

TO THE TRALLIANS.
kcli

1

65

re

dopara, irapa

tovto

t]Srj

Kai

/x«0*7T*/s

eljui'

5

7ro\\d yap VI. riapctKaXw ovv
Xenrufieda]
\et.Tru)fj.e6a.

y\\uv \eL7T6i, *lva

Qeov

fJLt]

XenrwfjLeda.

v/ud'S,

ovk iyw
[g].

dW

y\

dyairr]
iroWa...

GLSi Sev-Syr
;

;

&Tro\ei(pd<2

The whole
;

sentence

is

thus translated in the

Oriental versions
deficiens

multiim enim deficinms
perfectione quae

ne a deo destituamtir S x
est deo

multum enim

sum a

digna

Thus seem sed quod valde deficiens sum a similitudine dei A. to give loose paraphrases of the original Syriac rendering, which is preserved After this sentence 2 has estote incolumes perfecte in patientia iesu christi in Sj.

2

;

SA

dei nostri,
10).

which forms the conclusion of the Epistle
5
i]

to the
1

Romans
1

(see

on Rom.

dydir-rj]

GLSjAg;

7/

xdpis

Dam-Rup

(see

Cor. xv. 10).

7rpecr(3vTepois

rrjs

yperepas do^rjs rvy-

XO-vovai /3i/3Xia /3ap/3apa 8aipova>v dvoFor the para e'xovra kol repareias.

of cognisance. 6 (see the note).
see also
3.

So again in Smyrn. For opard Kai dopara
'

Rom.
5

5.

passage
€7rovpdvia

here
teal
Tj

comp. Smyrn.

6 ra
oi

ivapd rovro]

on this account

' :

86£a rcov dyyiXayv kol
''the

see

Rom.

dpxovres oparoi re Kai aoparot. 2. tcis avardaeis k.t.X.]

paOrjrrjs

(with the note). See the notes etfit]
i.e.

on
still

as-

Ephes.

1, 3.

semblages,

musterings, of the hea-

venly
(t€ls,

rulers'",

comp.
1.

edviKal crvo~rd3,

noXXa yap 4. lack much, that

k.t.X.}

'we

we may

not be

left

Polyb. xxiv.

xxx.

10.

6.

The
S.

apxovTfs here, like the ap^ai in
:

behind by God, may not fail in finding God', where XeineaOac Qeov is
the of enirvx^ Qeov, a Ignatian phrase (see the note on Magn. 1). For the construction here comp. Hermas Vis. iii.

Paul, are angelic beings comp. Justin Dial. 36 (p. 255) ol iv rols ovpavols ra^divres vtto tov Qeov apxovres (quoted
6).

negative

favourite

by Jacobson on Smyrn. For dpxovTiKos see Celsus in
c.

I

o~o\

8e 7roXXa XetVet

wa

k.t.X.

;

and

Orig.

Cels. vi. 27 erepcov 8e ra>v Xe-

for the

yopevoov dpxovriKcov k.t.X. (comp. § 33), from which it appears that in some

Ignatian play on XeiVet, XenrcopeOa, see the note on

characteristic

Smyrn.
qpiv]

5

systems of angelology dpxovriKol denoted a particular class of the cehierarchy. Jacobson would translate o-vardo-eLs 'the conflicts',
lestial

i.e.

pdXXov 8e k.t.X. 'you and myself

alike.'

comparing
vicov

Efthes. 13 ndXepos enovpa-

Kai eiriyeicov, but such an idea seems to be quite inappropriate to

this context.

The word
Kai

occurs again

VI. 'I therefore entreat you yet not I but the love of Christ to eat only the wholesome food of Christianity and to abstain from the noxious herbs of heresy. These false teachers mix poison with Jesus Christ; they impose upon men with their

Rom.

5.

plausible professions

opard re

dopara]

The know-

drug,

and the deadly thus disguised with a sweet
;

ledge previously mentioned (ra inovpdvia) has reference to the things invisible; but opard are also named

flavour,

is

thoughtlessly taken, though

death
5.

is its

consequence.'

TlapaKaXco ovv k.t.X.]
is
vii.

The form
CO eya>

here
Col.
all

(after the
i.

precedent of S. Paul, 16) for the sake of including
fall

of the sentence
I

here suggested by

Cor.

IO napayyeXXoi, ovk

things which

within the range

dXXd

6 Kvpios.

1

66

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
Xpiorrov,
Se
\x6vy)

[VI

'Irjo-ov

rfj

Xpiorriavij
riris

Tpcxprj

^pfjade,
aipecris'
Xpiariapfj]

dWoTpias
I

(ioTavns aireyevQe,
GLSjg; Dam-Rup;
rot;

ecrriv

'Irfaov
"

XpiaTov]

Kvptov r\puv

'I.

X.

A

Dam-Rup.

GL;
S1 ;
al.

xp La rLaviK i
al.

christianismi

A;

g7'atiaram actionis (euxaptcrrt/q??)

g.

xp^e...d,7re'xeo-^e]

LSjA; xP 7V0ac...d7r<?xea-0cu
3 ol Kal
lu?

G Dam-Rup;
L;

g: see the lower note.

irairapepirX^KOvJiv'] ol xaipol
et

pe/jLTr\iKov(TLv

G;

Kal

irapenirXiicovaiv
rrjs

Dam-Rup; quae
rrj

inquinatis implicat

koX rov ibv irpoa-rrXeKOvres

irXdvrjs

yXvKeta irpoarjyopia g.

The

renderings

of the

in (cum) jesu christo S r

passage in the Oriental Versions are: eorum qui commiscent semetipsos commiscent semetipsos cum jesu, christo A. They ; jam
semetipsos to

may have had simply ol Kal irapep-rrXeKovaiv and supplied the The rendering of L perhaps arises from a further sense.
corrupt text of G, OLKaiponrapenirXeKovo~iv being read
ol

make

corruption of the

Kal pv-rrap' ep.irXiKovo'i.v;

1.

rpocpfj]

Comp. Rom.

7 ovx >?oV

fiai rpoCprj (pdopds.

XPwOe]
finitives,

The

imperatives, besides
in-

being better supported than the
are

For the p. 49 sq., Matthias § 435. metaphor of 16s, as used here, comp. Hermas Sim. ix. 26, Clem. Horn. See also Clem. Horn. xix. 15 x. 14.
ovx
tpntTcivv
o

more

in the

manner

of

ioy elpyd^TO, ov twv

Ignatius,

who
;

napaKokeiv

prefers this mood with see below § 1 2 irapaKakei

ftoTavav al evepyciai, for the same connexion of words as here.
kclkcov

...diapievere,
p.r)...yivr]o~6e,

Rom. 4
Pliilad.

7rapaKa\a> vp-ds, 8 napaKaXco 8e

Zahn

refers to Iren.

i.

27.

4 'Christi
irrita-

quidem Jesu nomen tanquam

vpas, p,r)8ev 7rpdo-(r€T€ (where the infinitive irpdo-o-eiv has been substituted

mentum
tificant

proferentes, Simonis autem impietatem varie introducentes, mor-

in

some copies). So too napaivco with an imperative in Magn. 6. The exception is Polyc. I napaicaXco (re
TrpoaOeivai k.t.X.
2.

multos...per dulcedinem
et

et

decorem nominis amarum

malig-

num

principis apostasiae
eis.'
i

serpentis

venenum porrigentes
Heresy or error
is

fioTavrjs]
fiordvrj,

irapep,Trk£K.ovo~iv\

in/7cse\

An

ob-

a rank weed, a noxious herb, again in Ephes. 10, Philad. 3. For the meaning of fioTavrj see the note on the former passage. In the
called

jection has been raised to such an emendation as the one adopted on

Gospel of the Egyptians our Lord

was reported as having said
p,r)

ndo-av
~

(pdye fiordvrjv, ttjv de 7TiKpiav ex ovo ap
(pdyys,

Clem. Alex. Strom,
kcu

iii.

9

(p. 541).
3.

the ground that it 'vitio incongruae metaphorae laborat' (Churton in Pearson V. I. p. 103). If indeed the derivation of the word be scrutinized, we have in this expression 'interweave poison' a combination of metaphors as violent as e.g. in 1 Tim.
vi.

ot

ic5]

This emendation

19 dnoOrjo-avpi^ovTas

06p.eXi.ov.

A

involves a very simple change, k^iicoi For the construction ot for KMpoi.
(i.e.

ot alperiKoi

understood from the

preceding cupecris) comp. e.g. Thucyd. vi. 80 drro YleXonovvrja-ov 7rap€(rop,ePT]s
(ocpcXcias,
ol

T(ov$€

Kpelrraovs
§

etcri

to
11.

however might well be conceded to an inexperienced writer like Ignatius, which the greatest of modern poets has asserted, when he speaks of 'taking arms against a sea of troubles'. But usage entirely jusliberty
tifies

napdnavy and see Kiihner

356,

the combination.

It

appears

VI]

TO THE TRALLIANS.
KCll
lit)

167

ol

'7rap€fJL7r\6KOV(TlV

'IriffOVV

7ri<TT6v6jJL€voi, oiaTrep davdaifJiov (pdpfJLaKOv
comp. Ephes.
the
16,

XpL&TOV, KCtTa^LOh&ovTes /lercf

where
ol

pvirapos

is

rendered inquinatus (the only passage where

word occurs
first

in Ignatius).
kcu
lots,

The paraphrase
lots,

Voss

suggested
Icp

which some
nearer to

have substituted

for

as

of g points to the true reading. I editors have accepted. the traces of G, as corresponding
later

to the singular in g,
Kara^LOTria-Tevo/uiepoL]

and

as

more natural
(see

in itself:

see the lower note.

Ephes. 16 Kct/coSiSatr/caXia) ; om. L (perhaps because the translator could make kclt' d^iav irLo~Tev6/j.evoL G nothing of the unusual word); ut simplices credere faciaut A; ita ut credatur-iis

Dam-Rup
;

the

note

on

{credaniur)
jriaTevofxePOi.

Sx

;

al.

g.

The

renderings

of

AS

X

are

paraphrases

of

/carafto-

that the words TvapepirXtKeLv, napepn\o<r),

Clem. Horn.

vi.

19

and

ib.
l

Ep. Clem.

5.

this

were employed especially in connexion, as medicinal or culie.g.

KaTa^LOTTLCTT€v6p€POL]
xii. 17. I tva

WlpOSl7lg by
86£copev tcov
k.t.X.

their professions of honesty'''; comp.

by the physician Diphilus of Siphnus in Athen. ii. p. 57 C ol o~Tpo(3iXoi...dcdpaKos Kadapnary terms;
tikoI
8lci

Polyb.

8e

prj

TrjXuiovTcov dvdpcov KaTa%L07rLCTT€vecr6aL,
pvr)(j6r)o~6pzBa
p.Las

napaTa^ecos

to e^eiu

nape pTzeirXeypevov

to p^nvoiSes', Agatharchides in Photius Bibl. ccl. 1 2 tovtov [tov Kapnov tov
rraKLOvpov] crvfifuyePTOg KoXXcodes pev TO 7TCLV 7ToXv pClXXoV yLVCTOL, SoKcl 8'

For the bad sense of dtjionio-Tos, 'specious, plausible', and so 'an impostor,'
see the parallel passage Philad. 2 7roXXol yap Xvkol d^LonLCTTOL fjbovfi KaKrj

nape pnXonrjS tci^lv The more common words exeiv. however in this sense in medical
rj

olov ijdvcrpaTos

the note).

al^paXcoTL^ovo-LV tovs Oeobpopovs (with From this comes the verb
d^LOTTLo-Tevco-dai,

which on the analogy

of dcrcoTeveo-dai, dLaXeKTiKevea&ai, nepnepeveaBai, napa[3oXeveadaL, etc. (see the note on Philippians ii. 30), signifies

writers

are the

single
;

compounds,

e. g. Galen napanXeKetv, napanXoKrj Op. xiv. p. 1 68 (ed. Kiihn) Upas j3o-

'to

play the

d^LonLo-Tos',

'to

Taurjs

piKpov

tl

napanXeKcov,
tl

ib. p.

367
ib.

make loud

deovTai

ttjs tcov o~Tv(p6vTcov

napanXoKrjs

professions of honesty'. It does not appear to occur in extant
is

...napanXeKeiv
p.

tcov

crTV(p6vTcov,

standard writers, but

recognised

398 o-TvpaKa

ttjv

vypdv pi£as eXaico

by Hesychius

s.

v.

(Bpev6vecr6aL,

napdnXene, Sext. Empir. Pyr?'h. i. I02 yypcov tlvcov napanXoKrj, Clem.
Alex. Strom,
io~TLV
i.

dvpovcrOai, opyi^ecrdaL, d^LonLCTTevecrdai,

and by Suidas
d^ioTTLaTevovrai

s.

v.

dvaneio-Trjplav,
ol

I

(p.

325) olov r/bvapd
(ipcoiii.

8e

dLdaaicaXoi

Xe-

pan.
(p.

napanenXeypc-vov dSXrjTov See also Macar. Magn.
.

yovTts k.t.X.
Arist.

(from the scholiast on
866).

37

Nub.

Hence

the com'to

133) crvpnXe£avTes.
dLafteftXrjpivov

.iv

r\

crvpnXoKTj

pound

KaTa^LOTVLCTT€veo-8aL,

over-

tov
o~tov

(pappdnov

hoOelaa

comp. ib. iv. 25 ToovopaTov XpiavpnXaKev to7s v8ao~i. Thus the language here will have a parallel in
K.r.A.;

power, or impose upon, by playing the part of an a£io7rio-roy', on the analogy
of K.aTaXa£oveveadaL, KaTaveavLeveadai,
KaTacro(3apeveadaL, KaTacrcoTeveo-dai, icar€LpcoveveadaL, KctTepj3pideveadaL, KaTiaXvpeveo-Oai,

the

somewhat elaborate medicalmeta2. The verb napepnXeoccurs in other connexions in

phor of Polyc.
KfLv

There can be no etc. doubt about the reading here, though

i68
olvofieXiTOs,
KctKrj

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
OTrep

[VI

6

ctyvowv dSeccs \ajuif3aveL eV

t)$ovij

to dirodaveiv.
(puXctTTecrde ovv
fJLYl

VII.
6<TTai VfMV
I

rom

toiovtous.

tovto

Se

<pV<riOVjJL€VOlS

KCLl OVCTLV

d^COpLG'TOL^ [OeOL?]

oirep... to

dirodave'iv]

i)5oi>rj'

kclk€? (so

see the lower note; oirep 6 dyvowv r/5e'ws \apfidvei ev written and punctuated) to dirodaveiv oirep 6 dyvoQiv ijdecos \ap-

G

;

fidvei, ev i)dovrj Kcucfj to diroddveiv

Dam-Rup
et is

in delectatione mala mori

L

(where
is

quod qui ignorat delectabiliter accipit et added to help out what seemed to be a
;
;

defective construction) ; ita ut

qui non novit in voluntate mortem accipiat S x ut ii quos 11011 cognoscunt cum voluptate mortem accipiant A. 3 tovs tolovtovs] Dam-Rup [g] (but in g the verb is dacpa\i^ea6e); rot's tolovtols G. 4 Qeov]

it

depends solely on the quotation

in

oirep
x. 1 2

k.t.X.]
e'i

Comp.
ns

Clem.

Horn.

the
1.

Parall.

Rupef.
l

ov yap,

irpocrkdfioi

davaaipov

olvofxeXiTos]

wine mixed with
xii. 2. 7.

(pappaKov dyvodJv, ovk
aoVcos]

diroOvrjo-Kei.

honey'; comp. Polyb.
corides {Mat.

Dios-

Med.

v.

16)

explains

wherein

from olvos fieXiTiTrjs, how it is made, and what are its medicinal qualities. For the idea in the
it

differs

'without apprehension^ as e.g. Plut. Mor. p. 477 ddecos Ka\ dvvI venture on this conjecture, TTOTTTOis.

which
tor's
TO.TJ]

is suggested by the interpolaparaphrase Iva 6 irlvoiv, rfj y\vKv-

text

comp. Theoph. ad Autol.
r)

ii.

12

KkaTTe\<i

TTOlOTrjTl

TTjV

yevO~TlKT)V

KaOairep cpappaKov tl 8r)\r]Tijpiov avy-

a'iardr]cnv,
Trapf}.

KpaOev peXiTL
i.

o'lvco

rj

eTepco tlv\ to

ttclv

a(pv\d.KTQ>s tw SavaTto uepiThe alternative would be to
altogether, as a gloss of ev

TTOLel fi\a(5epov k.tX.,

Anon. adv. Marc.
p. 783,

eject

?J6Vg)s

Oehler) 'dulcique cruentum circumfert miseris mixtum cum melle venenum', Lactant. D. I. v. 1 'incautos animos
facile irretire

85 (Tertull. Op.

II.

At the close of the sentence the reading of the Greek MS *ca/ceT to
fjbovfj.

ditoOavelv
lel

is tempting; but the paralpassage Philad. 2 (quoted above

monis...mella

possunt suavitate sersunt haec venenum

on

Kara^ioTTia-Tevopevoi) is decisive in
kokt}
is

favour of

tegentia...circumlinatur modo poculum caelesti melle sapientiae', Ephrem

and
great
ties.

this

(rather than also supported

m/cel),

by the

preponderance

of

authori-

554 a 'et propinavit simplicibus amaritudines (venena) dulcedine commixtas' (speak-

Syrus Op. Syr.

II.

p.

VII.
is

'Therefore be on your guard

against such men.
to

Your best

security

ing of the Bardesanes).

hymns Thus

of the

heretic

shun pride and

these impostors

and

were mimicking genuine physicians,

to hold your bishop, and to the ordinances

self-sufficiency, fast to Jesus Christ, to

who
larpol

disguised their curative drugs

in the

same way
Ta
iriKpa

;

Plut.
t<ov

Mor.

p. 13

D

who

(pappaKcov

to7s

ykvKecri xvpots KaraptyvvvTes ttjv Tepyjsiv eVi to avpcpepov irdpobov cvpov,

He only is pure, of the Apostles. is within the pale of the altar. In other words, he that acts apart from the bishop and presbyters and
deacons
3.

is

not pure in conscience.'

Julian Caesar, p.
IIpo/3f, otl to. TTiKpa
01 larpol tg>

314 ovk

olcrOa,

00

(pappaKa piyvvvTes

is

tovs tolovtovs] This correction necessary, as qbvXdo-aeardai does

peXucpaTcp 7rpoo-qbepovo~i;

not take a dative.

A

similar cor-

VIl]
y

TO THE TRALLIANS.
XpKTTOV
KCtl

169

5

lr](TOV

TOV eTTKTKOTTOV

KCtl

TCOU SiaTay/ULClTCOV

Tu>v diroo-ToXwv.

6 evros dvo-ictcTTripiov
(JOV

wv Kadapos

ecttiv,

6 $6 CKTOS 6v(Tia<TTt1pioV

OV KCldapOS eCTTLV
in the text
etvai

TOVT60T-

GL; om.

A.

It

seems however

to

have been

used by the interpolator

(either with or without 'Irjaov Xpiarov), for

g has

axupiarovs 9eov...albet(xde de
dteTa^avTO dirocrToXoi.

Kal tov eiriaKoirov v/jlQv ws

xP i<Jr^ v xada
i

vfxiv 61 /xaKcipioi

See
est

the lower note.

7 6 de...wv ov Kadapos eariv]

qui vero extra altare

non mzcndus
k.t.X.

est

recognised in g,
lator perhaps

L; om. G (doubtless owing to homoeoteleuton). The clause is where the sentence is abridged 6 de e/cros on/ ovtos ecrTiv 6 x w P' s
6 de euros... TovreaTiv

For the whole sentence had before him a

A

has merely
as in

et\

the trans-

text with the
it

same omission

G

and, finding

nothing to explain TovTecmv, struck
its

out and substituted a connecting particle in

place.

rection

was required
fyvo-iovfxevois]

in

the

MS,

reading (see the notes).
5.

Magn. 6
4.
iat)

evrpeiveo'de dXXrjXois.

ra>v
is

biaTayparaiV

k.t.X.~\

The

Comp. Magn.

reference

doubtless to the institu-

In both 12 oi'Sa on ov (pvcriovaQe. passages Ignatius refers to the pride
of self-assertion, which rebels against lawful authority.

tion of episcopacy.

Early tradition

points to S. John as mainly instrumental in establishing an episcopal

Qeov] Probably this word should be omitted with the Armenian Version.

him more

Though

speaks

Ignatius frequently of Jesus Christ as God, it

organisation in Asia Minor, and to especially Ignatius may be comp. Clem. Alex. referring here Qicis Div. Salv. 42 (p. 959) oirov pev eTnaKOTTovs KaTao~Trjo~cov, onov de
;

may be

questioned whether he ever

oXas

€KK.Xr]o~Las

dppoacov

k.t.X.,

Fragm.

so styles Him without some explanatory or qualifying phrase; see the

Murat.
suis',

p.

33 (ed. Tregelles) 'cohor-

tantibus

note on Efihes. inscr. tov Qeov

fjp.a>v.

condiscipulis et episcopis Tert. adv. Marc. iv. 5 'ordo
stabit
3.

Hence the awkwardness of the exFor pression is at once apparent. other doubtful cases see Smyrn. 6,
If Qeov be rewith the notes. it should perhaps be separated of God, of Jesus from Xpio-Toi),
10,

episcoporum ad originem recensus
in

Ioannem
iii.

auctorem.'
els

So
ttjv

Irenaeus
vtvo

4 says of Polycarp
KaTaara6e\s

a.Troo~ToX<x)V
Trj

tained,

'A<riav ev
o-Konos,

'

iv ~2p.vpvrj eK<Xrjaia eiriwhile elsewhere (v. 20. 1),

Christ,

and of the bishop,

etc'

;

but

the absence of the connecting particle is hardly consistent with the
Ingenius of the Greek language. stances of such omission occur indeed in the existing Greek text of

more especially in reference to the Asiatic elders, he speaks of 'episcopi quibus apostoli tradiderunt ecclesias'.
6.

See Philippians

p.

212

sq.

6 Ivtos Ovo-iaarrjp-ov k.t.X.]

For
'the

the

meaning of

Bvaiao-T^piov,

Ignatius; § 12 els
ttjv

Tiu-r/v

narpos, 'lrjaov

XpLffTOV, KCU TCOV aTTOO~T6XoZV, PllUdd. 9

napovo-iav tov Kvptov r/p,cov 'irjaov Xpicrrou, to nddos avTov, koi ttjv dvao-rao-Lv, but in both passages there are

place of sacrifice', 'the court of the altar', and for the application here, It symsee the note on Ephes. 5.
the congregation lawfully bolizes gathered together under its duly appointed officers.

good grounds

for

questioning

the

170
tip, 6

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
x w P^
tTTiVKOTrov
Kctl

[vii

7rpecr/3vTeplov

KCXl

SiaKOVWV

irpdacrtov tl, outos ov

VIII.
I

Ovk
G
;

eirei

KaOapos e&Tiv ty\ Q"fi/etSf/cre*. eyvtov toiovtov tl ev vpuv, d\\a
irpeafivreplov]

eiriUKOirov]

rod einGKoirov g.

GL*

;

tlov Trpeafiv-

(this is the common rendering of Trpeafiurepiov in A, and g; sacerdotibus /ecu 5l<xk6vwi>] /ecu buxKovov therefore it determines nothing as to the reading). GL; Kai t<2v diaKovcov g (having inserted articles before the previous words) j om. A.

reptov

A

tl rrpicrcnov g. 1 irpdcrcrtov n] ; 5 ttjv] 4 Trpoopcdv] irpb bp<2v G. written above the line, though prima manu, in G. Hence it is omitted by many 6 dva.KTif]cracr6e] Cotelier; avaKTiaacrde editors. (which similarly in

GL

G

1.

o

^copi?

iiriCTKOTrov
7.

k.t.A.]

See

r<Si»

dvOpoinofiop^oiv:

comp.
14

Magn.
used

the note on

Magn.

11.
is

In Xen.

BiaKovap] This alteration

neces-

sary with 7rp€aj3vT€piov, which seems certainly to be the correct reading.
If

npeofivrepov

could

be retained,

represented as saying to the sheep ey& elp.L 6 Ka\ vp.as avras aco^cov ware pLrjre vtv dvdpccTrcov KkenTecrdai p.f]Te vtto Xvkcov
dp-rrd^eodai,

of the

Mem. ii. 7. watch-dog, who is

it is

Sicikovov

might stand.
it

The
is

alterna-

eVei

vp-els ye,

el

pj)

eyat
ve-

tive is to eject Ka\ dtaKopov as a later

7rpoCpv\drroip.i vp,ds, ov&
p.eo-8ai

av

interpolation, since

wanting in
I

bvvaiaOe

k.t.X.

The same

the Armenian.
2.
iii.

metaphor of the flock guarded against
k.t.X.'}

Kadapos
2

Comp.

Tim.

9,

Tim.
'

i.

3,

ev Ka.6a.pa avvecdij-

to underlie

the attacks of wild beasts appears both these Ignatian passages.

The

false teachers are
:

wolves

because you have already fallen into such errors, but I wish to put you on your
VIII.
I

do not say

this,

in sheep's clothing comp. Philad. 2 onov Se 6 Tvoiprjv ecrriv, eneX cos rrpo^ara
ciKoXovdelre' noXXol yap Xvkol d^toTricrwith the end of § 6 in this

guard against the snares of the devil. Therefore be gentle-minded; renew yourselves in faith, which is the flesh, and love, which is the blood, Let no man enterof Jesus Christ.
tain

tol k.t.X.,
epistle.

ras eveSpas]
5.

TTpavTTcideiav]

only once in
vi.

Comp. Philad. 6. The word occurs the Greek Bible, 1 Tim.

any ill-will against his neighbour. Give no opportunity to the
heathen, lest through the folly of a few the whole body of God's people

11,

where the

common

text has

npaorrjTa, which the interpolator subThe verb npavTrastitutes here also.
6elv (jrpaoTradelv) occurs Philo de Prof.
1 (1. p. 547), and the substantive TrpainrdOeia ib. de Abr. yj (II. p. 31).

be evil spoken of, and thus the woe denounced by the prophet fall upon
you.'
3.

6.

dvaXaj36vTes]

''taking

up\

i.e.

Ovk
k.t.X.
:

ejret]

i.e.

Ov

Xeyco
1 1

ravra

eWi
4.

see

Magn.

(with the

your proper arms of defence'; comp. e.g. Eph. vi. 13, 16, dvaXdfiere
'as
tt]v

note).

TvavonXiav, avaXaftovres rov Qvpeov.
'

'/ keep watch over you in good time\ as Smym. 4 npoq^vXaacrco de vp.ds dnn twv Orjpmv
7rpo(piAdo-<rco]

dvaKTijacKrOe]

recover,

refresh''.

This

is

doubtless the right reading.
dvaKTacrdai eavrbv
is

The phrase

com-

VIIl]

TO THE TRALLIANS.
bvTas

171

7rpo<puAao"o-to ujuias
;

/uov dyct7niTOvs, rrpoopcov tcls

evehpas

tov

SiaftoAov.

v/meh

ovv

Tr\v

dvaAafSovTes dvaKTriaaade iavTOvs ev
(rap£ tov Kvpiov,
kccl

TrpavTrddeiav 7ri<TT€i, 6 Icttlv
'

iv dydirri,

b e&Tiv ai/ua

Irjcrov

Philad. 6 writes KTiacovrai for
the lower note.
o]

kttjctiovtoli)

;

recreate
(or quod)

L
S1

;

rcquiescere-facite
;

SXA

:

see

quod L;
christi

6s

G; quae
est

al.
et

Ag.

The whole

clause

runs in S 2

,

in fide quae (quod)

in spe (&£~DD2)
ayairrj is

in convivio (jucunditate

WODXll) sanguinis jesu
comp. Smyrn.
foresaw, there
8)
is
;

(where

taken in the sense of a love-feast,

in

A, fide

et spe et

a confusion of the Syriac

coena sanguinis christi (where, as Petermann &OD2 caro and fc$"QD spes).

mon;
Ant.
p. 223.

e.g.
ix.

Epict. Diss.
4,
it

iii.

25. 4, Jos.
vii.

eirayyeX'ias
cov
r)

to noTipov dXXijyopcov, 6Y

6.

Dion Chrys. Or.

As
or

denotes recovery after

eKKXrpria... dpdeTai re Ka\ av^erai, avyKporelral re kcu av pTrrjyvvTai e'£

hunger or sickness or wounds or the like, we must suppose that the peril of the Trallians was more serious than Ignatius was willing to State in words {Ovk eWt eyvcov
fatigue
k.t.X.).

apcpolv, crcopaTos peu rr/s iriOTecos, "^^XV 5 8e rrjs cXtt/SoSj cocmep koi o Kvpios ck

aapKos

kcii

aiparos' tco yap ovti
r)

aipa

rfjs nicrTecos

eXnls,

e<p'

Kadanep
o-dcrrjs

The metaphor
and
dvaKTcitrdai

in

both dvaeavrovs
is

be

vtto ^rvx^s, T) rfjs eXttiSo? 8ikt]v

crwe^erai, 71 lcttis' bianvevfjs

eicpvevTos

Xafielv

probably taken from campaigning; comp. Polyc. 6. If the other verb (avaKTi^ziv) had been used, the words

aiparos to £cotikov ttjs Triarecos vttckXverai, where the application of the image is exactly the same as here,

except that 'hope'
'love'.

is

substituted for

would have been
o

dvaKricraTe kavTovs

Zahn

{I.

v.

A.

p.

349 sq)

rather than dvaKTicraade kavTovs.

food

crap}; k.t.A.] This is the which their refreshment demands. The reference is only indi-

iariv

explains the words here differently ; he supposes that faith and love are

we

so described, as the means whereby participate in the flesh and blood
of Christ,
i.e.

rectly to the eucharist.
ristic

The eucha-

are united with

Him.

bread and wine, while representing the flesh and blood of Christ,

See Rom. 7 dprov Qeov
o~dp£ tov Xpio~Tov...Kai

OeXco 6 eariu

nopa

BeXco to

Faith represent also faith and love. of the is the flesh, the substance Christian life love is the blood, the
;

aipa avrov o io~Tiv dydnq dcpdapros (with In Philad. 5 npoo-cpvycov the note).
tco

evayyeXico

cos crapKi 'lrjcrov,

we have

energy coursing through its veins and See esp. Clem. Alex. Paed. arteries. 6 (p. I2l) (Bpcopa 8e fj tt'mttis els i.
depeXiovTrjs KdTrjxijo-eats avvecTTpappevr],
7)

a different application of the euchaSee also the notes ristic metaphor.

on Ephes. 5, Smyrn. 6, 12. For the neuter relative o, referring
to the

8rj

arepepvicorepa

ttjs aKofjs

vTrdpxovaa

feminine substantives

nio-Tei,

(3pcopaTi dn€iKd^€rai...Kai 6 Kvpios... eTepcos i^TJveyicev did avpfiuXcov, <bdyere

the notes on dydnr] respectively, see Magn. 9, 10: for the combination of
'faith'

pov tc\s adpnas, to aipa, evapyes

elircov,

kci\

Tliere

pov
ttjs

and
1.

'love', see

the note on

rfjs

n tore cos

Koi

Ephes.

172

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
/urjSek
vjjlwv

[vin

XpiCTOv.
dcbopfjids

Kara tov
edveaiv,

ttXyio'lov
*Lva
/urj

e^erw
cV

fj.rj

$i$ot€

to?s

6\iyovs
T
N O) N 5

a<ppovas to evdeov TrXrjdos /3\acrcj)r]jurJTar MA M Y A f MATAIOTHTI TO N of en H M e ?T A B A AC
I

Oy&i yap
eTTI
I

(J)

I.

i

TrXrjaiov]

g Dam-Vat

6.

This

is

also the reading of G,

though several edd.

print TrXyaiov,
txt

which appears also

in

the
ti

G;

add.

n

here,

Dam-Vat;
is

add.

Casanatensian copy. e%^ TW ] after vjxwv g; add. aliqaid (before

habeat)

L; add. simultatem A.

3 to ZvOeov']

in deo

L

(but in § 10 ddeoi

translated sine

deo)',

Dam-Vat; to ev deui G; qtcae The reading 'ivOeov dei A.
6

perhaps underlies the loose paraphrase of g, where
substituted for to hdeov wXijOos.
I.

\6yos

ical

7?

didao-KaXia

is

(3Xa<T(pT][xrJTai]

pXacrcpTj/J.e'iTcu

G.

i\eT(ti\

So e\ eLV

ti

kotcl tlvos,
;

Matt.

v. 23,

Mark

xi.

25

e'xeiv

kclto.

peculiarity Oval.. .81 ov remains. As the Armenian Version omits the whole

tlvos, otl k.t.X.

Apoc.
ix.

ii.

4, 20.
ii.

Zahn
dXXr)-

clause Oval yap...e7ri
fxeirai,
it

tlvcov

(3Xao-q)i]-

refers to

Hennas Maud.
23

e^eis koto,

tov d8eX<pov, Sim.
Xcov exovres

01 k<it
iii.

might be thought that this quotation was a later interpolation

;

(comp.
of the

Vis.

6),

for the

omission

accusative
12
e'xeiv

here.

Comp.

also 2 Cor. v.

npos

see instances of interpolated quotaBut, tions, Ephes. 1, 2, Rom. 3, 6. besides that it is found in all the

be able to answer another'. The upper note shows how ti is
Tiva, 'to

other
Isaiah

authorities,
is

the

passage

of

similarly quoted in Polycarp

supplied differently in different texts.
fjLTj

Phil. 10

'Vae autem

dcpoppds

k.t.X.]

1

Tim.
rto

v.

14

nomen Domini

[illi] per quern blasphematur', and

prjbeplav

dcpopprjv

SiSorai

dvTiKei-

pevoo Xoiftopias xdpiv.
3.

ev6eov]

Comp. Eus. H.E.

x.

4

twice in the Apost. Const, i. 10, iii. 5, Oval ydp, <pr]o~i, SY ov to bvopa pov (SXaacprjpe'iTai ev to7s eOvecnv (but without the Oval in a third passage, vii. and as both these writers had 24)
;

47°) T V S vpeTepas evdeov Tvoipvqs. Oval yap k.t.A.] loose quotation from Is. Iii. 5 6avpd(eTe <al dXoXv(p.

A

Tabe Xeyei 6 Kvpios, Ai vfxas 81a navTos to ovopa pov ^Xaacpt] pe7rai ev rots eOveaiv, a passage which is
£ere'

the Epistles of Ignatius before them, there is a certain presumption that

likewise quoted indirectly by S. Paul Rom. ii. 24; comp. 1 Tim. vi. 1, Tit. ii. 5. See also Ezek. xxxvi. 23. None

of these other passages however account for the departure of the Ignatian quotation from the LXX of Isaiah
:

they derived the quotation from him. Moreover the Armenian omission is easily explained by the homceoteleuton fiXaa(pr}pf}Tai, (BXaarcprjpelTai. There is no trace of the Oval in the Hexaplaric versions and Justin (Dial. 17,
;

p.

235)
iv.

and Tertullian {adv. Marc.
14)
it.

iii.

23,

both quote the passage

nor

is it explained by the original Hebrew. The interpolator brings it somewhat nearer to the lxx; Oval

without

For instances
it is

in later

fathers where

ydp, (prjalv 6 npo(pi]Tr]s cos en Trpoadnov tov Qeov, di ov to bvopd pov (SXao~(pr]fj.e7.Tai

quoted Oval k.t.X., as here, see Cotelier on Apost. Const. In [Clem. Rom.] ii. 13 we have i. 10.
in

ev to7s edvecnv,

but the chief

apparently this same passage quoted two forms (see the note there).

IX]

TO THE TRALLTANS.
IX.
KaxpwOrjTe
T*9,

*73

ovv,

orav
€K

vfjuv

X^P
re

1

^

'h<rou

XpKTTOV \a\r\
Mapias,
05

TOV

J6VOVS

ActV6L$,
kcci

TOV

6K

ctAtidcos

iyevvtidrj,

e<payev

67riev,

and so g (with additions and variations); om. A: 6 ofo] GLg Theodt; om. [SJ A. 8rav] G vfiiv] here, Gg; after xp^ T0 ^ (6V hp) LSjg Theodt; in omni quod A. 8 6s] Theodt after loquatur [SJ om. A. 7 Aaveid] dad G. This is clearly the reading of G. re] GSj(?)A(?) Theodt; om. g [L]. In this matter the authority of L is of little value; it sometimes reproduces re but more commonly omits it (e.g. Magn. 5, (e.g. Magn. 1, Trail. 5, Smyrn. 1, 12),
Oval...p\a<r<fn)neiTai]
;

GL

see the lower note.

;

;

Trail. 12, jfawz. 3,

Smyrn.

6, 12, 13, Polyc. 1).

IX.
Christ.

'Therefore stop
Believe
it:

your

ears,

when any man would deny

He

or ignore was true

foreign church, and in the Epistle to Polycarp, as addressed to an indi-

man, the descendant of David, the His human body child of Mary. was no mere phantom. He was really born. He really ate and drank. He was really persecuted, crucified, put to death a spectacle to men and angels and demons. And so too He was really raised again by the Father,

The vidual, it does not appear at all. letter to the Ephesians contains allusions to
it,

but they are indirect (inscr.

the reality of the passion, § 18 the scandal of the cross, §§7, 20, the stress laid

on

Christ's humanity).
letters

In the four reis

maining
tacked.

heresy

directly at2, 9, 10, ti)

In Trail, (inscr.,

who
is

will

as

surely

raise
in

us

also

through Jesus Christ,
true
6.
life.'

whom

alone

and even more fully in Smyrn. ($ 1 Docetism, as such, is denounced length. In Magn. (§§ 8, 9, 10) and

— 8)
at in

Kai(f)G>dr)T€]

See Ephes. 9

|3i5-

cravres to. cora,

with the note.
k.t.X.]

Philad. (§§ 5, 6, 8, 9) he appears to be attacking Judaism rather than Docetism but from incidental no;

Xo>pk
7.

'Irjaov
77

See the note

on Ephes. 6
€<

nepl 'Irjaov k.t.X.

tices (Magfi. 9 ov rives upvovvrai, § II nenX^poCpoprjo-de ev k.t.X., TvpayBivra

Enforcing yevovs Aaveid] the reality of Christ's humanity, as elsewhere in Ignatius; see the note

dXrjdvs

Km

(3e@ala)s
k.t.X.,

;

Philad. inscr.
3 tco

ayaXXioopevr)

§

naOei

ov

on Ephes.

18.

o-vyKaTarWerai, § 5 &S (rapid 'l/;o"oi), § 8 6 o-ravpbs avrov k.t.X.), it appears that

eK Mapias]

Another mode of

ex-

pressing Christ's human nature, as in Ephes. 7, 18; so too Smyrn. I ye-yei/€K napdevov. vrjpevov a\r)6a>s
8. d\r]Oois] The watch-word against Docetism; as in Magn. 11, Smyrn.
T

2

The
main
it

opposition to

Docetism

is

a

Judaism was Docetic, so that it same with the heresy of the Trallian and Smyrnaean Epistles, though attacked from the other side. This Docetism, as appears from the notices in these two epistles, was extended to the birth, passion, and resurrection, in fact to the whole
this
is

the

characteristic in Ignatius ; but has various degrees of prominence

human

life

of Christ.
'

iycwy&rj]

was born

1
:

see the note

in the different letters.
tle to

the

Romans,

In the Episas addressed to a

on Ephes.

18.

174
d\ridco9
pcodr]

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
ehtdydn
lirl

[ix

flovTiov

fliXaTOV, dXridws eo-TaveirovpavLiov Kai

Kai

ctTredavev,

^XeirovTcov [twi/]
09
kcli

67nyeiu)v Kai

VTToyQov'ivaV

dAridcos tjyepdrj

diro

veKpwv, iyeipavTO? avTOV tov iraTpos avTOV,
OjUOLCOjULa
t

Kara to
OVTOOS
aXydQis]

09

KCCl

t] /ULCtS

TOVS
Theodt
;

TTlCTTeVOVTCtS
UlXoltov Uoutlov S r
i toou]

avTw
g.

5

HovtIqv IltXarou]
a

GLAg

GLS

[g];

om. [A] [Theodt].
[Theodt]; ovpaviwv
/cat

G
3

Theodt; om.
viroxdovlwv]

eirov-

paviiov]

G

g.

Theodt

is

alone in transposing the order and

reading

e-TLyeicov

errovpavltov.
ii.

G;
/cat

ko.to.~)(6ovI<j}v

[Theodt]
et

(after Phil.

10).

4 /card to opolcopa os

/c.r.A.]

g G; qui
nos

secundum similitudincm nos

credentes ipsi sic resuscitabii etc.

L

;

it a tit et

1. eVt TLovtIov IltAdrou] On the significance of this form of expression, as giving force to the protest against Docetism, see the note Magn.

versions
are

but in a transposition they not a safe guide. Zahn goes further and reads ov /cat /card to opolco;

pa.
cos

An

easier correction

would be

11.
2.
ii.

fikeixovrcov /c.r.A.]
ttclv

Comp.
:

Phil,
/cat
I

IO

yovv

Kafiyj/i)

eirovpavlcov

for 0?, SO that /card to opolcopa cos would be equivalent to opolcos cos. The tautology /card to opolcopa... ovtcos
is

emyelcov Kai KaTa^Oovlcov Cor. iv. 9.
3.

see also

explained by the circumstances
letter

under which the
See Orig.
iiri
c.

was written

:

Kai
ii.

akqdas
16

Tjyepdrj]

see the next note.

Cels.
-jaOelv

r\peis

to

doxeiv
Tva
pr)

tov

ov

Ta.o~o~op.ev,

~J/ev8r)s

show

dvaaraais 7/, aXX' d\rj0rjs- 6 r] dXrjdcos divoBavcov, el dveo~Trj, dXrjBcos dveo~TT], 6 8e 8okcov a-T0Te6vr]Kevai ovk
yap
dXrjOcos dveo~Tt].
4.

avTov Kai

d Added to TraTrjp avTov] that the agent intended is not Christ, as the form of the sentence
6.

This is might otherwise suggest. one of many instances, in which these
letters

betray haste of composition.

eyeipavTos
o

/c.r.A.]

Apparently
iv.

a reminiscence of 2 Cor.
oTi
rjpas

14 eldores
Kai

Markland, Petermann, and others would omit these words, but without
sufficient reason.
It is

eyelpas tov
o~vv
^lrjcrov

Kvptov

'irjcrovv

true that they
;

14

el

yap

eyepei, I Thess. iv. nto'Tevopev oti 'irjcrovs a~reda-

are wanting in the Armenian but, as the Syriac from which the Arme-

KoiprjBevras
avTcp
:

vev Kai dveo~Tr), ovtcos /cat 6 Qeos tovs Sta tov 'irjaov i'i£ei o~vv

see also
I

Rom.

viii.

11.

So too
avrbv e<

Polyc. Phil.
KaTa.

o 8e eyelpas

nian was taken contains them, the omission is obviously due to the Armenian translator or to some transcriber. to akqOtvbv £fjv] See the note on
Eplies.
1 1
.

veKpcov Kai rjpas eyepei.

to

opolcopa

/c.r.A.]

For the
/cat

sense see
(pvToi
tco

Rom.

vi.

5

dAAd
tt)s

[o-vp-

opoicopaTi]

dvao-Taaecos

eo~6pe6a,

which passage Ignatius probably had in his mind. The sentence would be simplified by the transposition, os Kai KaTa. to opolcopa for

X. 'If it be true, as these godless unbelievers affirm, that Christ did not really die, then why am I a prisoner ? Why do I desire to fight with wild beasts? In this case I die
for nothing Lord.'
8.
;

and
/c.r.A.]

I

lie

against the

Kara

to opolcopa os

Kai,

as suggested

by the

ddeoi,

-god/ess men,

I

.X]

TO THE TRALLIANS.
x^P
1

175
^

eyepeT 6 7raTt]p avTOv ev XpicrTco 'Iri&ou, ov d\t]6ivov Xr\v ovk e^o/iei/.

X.
a7TL(TTOL,

Gl

Se,

co(T7rep

Tives

a6eoi

ovt£<z,

tovt€o~tiv

Xeyovaiv to SoksTv A

7r€7rov6evcu
Sj
al.

avrou, avTOi
nos -credentes hi

qui credimus in eum itidem resuscitabit secundum eandem rationcm resuscitabit
6 6
for
,

etc.
;

;

itidem
:

et

eum

g

see the lower note.

TraTT]p... Ir](Tov]

GL;

T would produce pater ems in jesu

pater jesu christi S x (the change of a single letter 2 ehristo, which was doubtless the prior

form of the Syriac); om.

A

(as

being superfluous);

al.

g.

9 to

oo/ce?i>]

G

;

tw

SoKeiv [g]

;

secundum videri L.
Hier. Cat.
dXrjdas

7>iean disbelievers\ The first, word, not being strictly applicable to these heretics, needs explanation: 'They are disbelievers says Ignatius, 'and therefore they have severed themselves from God'. By calling them
1

Cyrill.
(os

iv.
icai

9

(p.

56) (payav
cos
tifxels

v/J-els

ttiwv

dXrjdoos- el
7TT]<TIS,

,

(pdvT(urp,a tfv rj ivavOpw(pdvTll(Tp,a KOI T) (TOiTTJpLa.
.

yap

to doKelv] 'in appearance* For 9. this adverbial use of to doKelv comp.

adeoi (see § 3 above) on a level with the

he places them heathen comp.
;

Orig.
'i^croC

c.

Cels.

ii.

ndvTT} dWorpicov.

3 alptae<ov dde<ov kcu So Tertull.
15

de

Cam.

Chr.

'merito

ethnici
:

talia,

sed merito et haeretici

num
quod

quid enim inter
ethnici

illos distat, nisi

haeretici

credendo credunt, at credendo non credunt?', speaking also of a form of Docetism.

non

The former of these almost word for word the same as here. See also Tertull. de Cam. Chr. 1 et partus virginis et ipsius exinde infantis ordo to doKelv haberentur', where some editors read re* SoKeiv. But the dative is read in the interpolator's recension here and
Smyrn.
2, 4.
is

passages

'

in

Smyrn.

2,

4

;

and so
c.

also in Philo

Leg.
(II.
(ii.

ad

Cai. 34 (p. 584), 42 (p. 594),

The same epithet amo-Tos is applied to these Docetics in Smyrn. 2, 5, as
not believing in the reality of Christ's
birth,

Orig. in Hieron.
p.

431), Hieron. p. 758), at least

and death. Comp. Iren. iii. 18. 7 'Venit... omnibus restituens earn quae est ad Deum comtminiolife,

texts.

The

Ioann. Hieros. 25 c. Pelag. ii. 14 in the printed accusative however seems

nejn: igitur qui dicunt

eum

putative

altogether to be preferred here. The construction is different in Plat. Gorg. 527 B /xeXeTrjTeov ov to oonelv eivat dya6bv dXXd
to
elvat,

manifestatum, neque in carne natum neque vere hominem factum, adhuc sub veteri sunt damnatio?ie...non
devicta
tius

which Jacobson
'

quotes as a parallel.
avTo\ ovTes k.t.X.]

being themselves
professioji\

secundum eos
to
It
is

morte'.

seems

have the same
reality

Ignaidea

nothing

but

outward

here.

the

of Christ's

Similarly Iren. iv. 33. 5 'judicabit autem eos qui putativum inducunt...

humanity, as well as of His deity, which makes communion with God
possible to the believer.
fore,

putativum
27 'ita

omne apud eos'
omnia

est igitur, et non Veritas, Tertull. adv. Valent.
;

Those

there-

in

imagines urgent,

who deny this, hold themselves aloof from God they are still atieoi
;

eV

ru

Ko<rfxa>

(Ephes.

ii.

12).

See also

plane et ipsi imaginarii Christiani'. Hippolytus plays on the word 8okt)ttjs in another way; Haer. viii. 11

176
bvTes to

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
SoKelu,
;

[x
kcci

iyco

ti

SeSejuai

;

ti

Se

evxonicu

BripiOjULa^rjcraL

Scopeav ovv

d7ro6vt)0'K(t).

apa ovv kclto.ras

^evBo/uiai

tov Kupiou.
0ei/'yeTe
L*
2
it

XI.
1

ovv

tcls

/cafcas

7rapa<pva$as

rl

de Kal]

(but with a v.
oi5i>]

[g].

cipa

Voss

;

rl de G; et quare S^A.; /cat 1.) Sev-Syr 2; &pa ov GL ^?/a;v S x (the same interrogative
;

with which
(at least oiV

is

has twice translated tL just before); &pa (om. oZv) [g] Sev-Syr et A. But SjA seem to have transferred apa not translated)
;

ovv to the sentence

eyw

rl

dede/mai.

5

ov]

GLg Dam-Rup

1

Sev-Syr.

no authority for the reading (av. I do not quite understand Zahn's statement, c5f Sf 1, 15 [i.e. SJ A, quorum hie ad fructus, ille ad propagines traxit S x translates the sing. pronomen, uterque enim Kapirovs davaTrjtpopovs habet.' There
is
*

Kapirov here (as

it

does Kapiros just below) by the plur. of fcO^S, this being a

common

practice with Syriac translators, and necessarily therefore it substitutes a the form of this plural In this it is followed by A. In plural in place of ov. pronoun gives no indication of gender, and it might be referred equally well to In S x the irapa(f)vd8as, if we had not the Greek to determine the reference for us.

A

8oKr)Tas eavTovs Trpocrr)y6pevo~av

a>v

ov

to hoKelv eivai Tivas Karavoovpev paTni£ovTas, aXXa ttjv £k ToaavTrjs vXr/s toKov iv oqbdaXpai (pepopevr/v SieXeyPearson (on Smyrn. 2) comX°H- €V pares Epiphan. Haer. lxxvi. 10 (p.
-

ment shows. The Sr/piopax^v of S. Paul however is probably metaphorical,
2.
ii.

while that of Ignatius
dcopeav ovv k.t.X.]

is literal.

Comp.

Gal.
lie

21 apa Xptcrro? 8a>peav direOavev. l apa ovv k.t.X. ] in this case I

923) avopoiov TTarpi Xeyoov yeyovas, K.Xrjp(o8e\s tovto
prjKeTi opoios

o~v

avopoios
ovopa,

to

(ope'vov.

vnap^iov tcov iv 0fc5 rroiIn the same vein Plato

makes merry with
philosophers
1.

the views of those

against the Lord', i.e. 'my life and my preaching alike are a falsehood against Him, for they assume that The whole Christ really did rise'. argument here is founded on 1 Cor.
xv.

whom he calls ol peovres,
'The atoneChrist
is

Theczt. 181 A.
iya> rt bebepai] i.e.

see especially ver. 15 12 sq evpio-KopeBa Se kcu ijfevdopdpTvpes tov Qeov, 0T1 ep-aprvprjo-apev Kara tov Qeoii
:

ment becomes an
fore

unreality, and therefor

otl rjyeipev tov

Xpiarov
v.

k.t.X.

For apa

my

sufferings
different

are

ovv

comp. Rom.

18, vii. 3, 25, viii.

vain'.

somewhat
el

put in a Smyrn. 4 yap t6 doKetv Tavra livpay6r\ vnb tov

The argument

12, etc.

The reading

ov (which re-

form

in

quires to be read interrogatively, apa ov — nonne) is possible in itself (see

Kvpiov, Kay<o to 8o<elv bedepai.
'

Klihner

Gramm.

II.

p. 1027),

but not
irregu-

evxopai drjpiopaxrjaai]

I pray that
:

I may fight with wild beasts' comp. Ephes. 1, Rom. 5. The same verb
occurs with an aorist
below, Ephes.
2,

good here. XI. 'Shun such
lar
;

false

and

infinitive, §
5,

12
11.

growths for their fruit is poisonous and causes immediate death.
the

Rom.

Smyrn.

This passage is obviously a reminiscence of I Cor. xv. 32 el Kara avdpoittov (6r]pLoprtxr]cra k.t.X.,

as the argu-

These men are not the planting of Father otherwise they would have been seen to be branches of the Cross and have borne imperish;

XI]

TO THE TRALLIANS.
Kapirov 6avaTri<popov> ovtoi yap a.7ro6vt](TKei.
el

177

5

yevvwcras

ov

irapavra
m

eav yevcrrjTai tis, ovk elcriv (pvTeia

7rctTp6s

Kal

i\v

tov crravpov, e<palvovTO av icXaooi av 6 Kapiros avTiov acbdapTOS' ui ov ev tco iraGei

yap

r}o~av 9

jTUD, which would refer to irapacpvddas, but this is doubtyevo-qrai] yevo-qre (with at written pn:D. tis] here, GL Dam-Rup above, but whether prima manu, is doubtful) G.
existing text has the fem.
less

a scribe's error for the masc.

;

TrapavriKa [g] Dam-Rup. rod Trvev,aaros om. [g] A. x Ag 7 irarpos] yap] GLS : Dam-Rup Dam-Rup. For the not uncommon confusion of ttnc and npc see the note on

before

yeva-qrai

g.

6 irapavra] Trap avrd

G

;

;

GLS

;

Smyrn.
8 Kal

13.
r)v

rjcrav]

GLA;

add. (pvreia Trarpos S 1

;

add. rod irarpos kX&Soi

[g].

av 6 Kapirbs avrCov k.t.X.] GL; et fmctus eoru?n incorrupti manerent in passione cruris domini nostri cujus tnembra estis S x ; et fruclus eorum permanens. of signo iam signo cruris domini nostri vos membra estis eius (for the substitution for passione see above, p. 26) ; al. g. The Syriac translator must have had a mutilated text, which omitted 5t ov and TrpoaKaXeTrai.

A

able fruit

— the

calleth us unto

Cross, whereby He Him, being His own

allegory of the napacpvddes in

Hermas

Sim.

viii.

1

sq.
i

The Head cannot be members. found apart from the members, forasmuch as God promiseth union, which union is nothing else than
Himself.'
'

6. forthwith''; comp. napavTa] Mart. Ign. Ant. 6. It is a good classical word see Lobeck Phryn. p. 47. Philad. 3 (pvreia irarpos'] So again
:

4.

napacpvafias]
'

slwots

;

comp.

excrescences, offClem. Alex. Paed. i. 8

hid to pr) eivai avrov s <f)VTfiav irarpos. The reference is to Matt. xv. 13
nrao-a (pvreia r)v

ovk e(pvrev(rev o

irarrip

(p. 138) KaQvXopavel yap pr) ickadevopevrj r] dpneXos, ovrats he Ka\ 6 dvdpcottos' KaOaipei de avrov ras e£vfipi£ovo~as

pov 6 ovpdvLos k.t.X., which passage the interpolator has introduced into
his text here.
KXddot. rod aravpov] This they 7. are not, for they deny the reality of On the prominence the Passion.

napacpvabas o Xoyos, t\ payaipa, k.t.X. The word is used of an adventitious

shoot or other growth of a plant. Aristotle, Plant, i. 4 (p. 819), writes napa(pvd8es Se elat rd airb rr)s pi£rjs
tov

Sevdpov (3Xao~rdvovTa, but Theophrastus Hist. Plant, ii. 2. 4 contemplates their springing from other parts besides the root, for he says
eav dnb pi£rjs

given to the Cross by Ignatius in refuting Docetism, see Ephes. 18, Philad. 8, Smyrn. 1, with the notes. 8. d(pdapTos] For the Cross is the
true tjvXov £air)s. oV ov] sc. rov aravpov
vi.
;

occurs

r] napacpvas 77. several times in the

This word

14,

Eph.

ii.

16,

Col.

i.

comp. Gal. See 20.

where however
precision.

it is

LXX, not used with any

is naturally pears at least as early as Aristotle, Eth. Nic. i. 4 (p. 1096). See also the

The metaphorical sense very common, and ap-

also Ephes. 9 81a ttjs pr/xavr/s 'irjaov The inXpioroi), os eariv uravpos. termediate clause, Kal r\v av 6 Kapiros
avTcov d(pdapros, is parenthetical. ev to) irdOei avrov) See the note J
1

on

Ephes.

inscr.

IGN.

II.

12

i

78

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS

[XI

avrov

ov ovtcls /xeAr/ avrov. Trpoo-KaXeiTai v/ads, Svvarai ovv Ke<paXr) X W P^ y^vtjdfjvai dvev peXwv, rov

Geov

evioaiv
'

eirayyeXXofjievov,
v/ULcis

os ecrriv avros.

XII.

kcTTraCpixai
jjlol

diro

CfJLVpvm,
o\

a\xa

rah
5

(TVfjLTrapoixrais
/me

iiacXtiO'icus
kcii

rov Qeov,

Kara iravra

dveiravcav o'apKL re
Sea-fuct

irvevfjiari.
'

irapaKaXei vfxas
7repi(j)ep(i),

rd
3

/uov,

d eveKev
def. g.

Incrov

Xpicrrov

6's]

mihi L;

fiov

G; quod L; al. A; G apud vos A.
;

5 poi]

wavra]

GL
XII.

;

irav [g];

g* (but with a dub. A.

v.

1.

fiov)

;

1.

Trpoo-KakeiTai]

i.e.

probably

o

Xpio-Tos, to

whom

the preceding and
22,

me
I
I

at

'The churches present with Smyrna join in my salutation.
:

following avrov must necessarily refer:

appeal to you by the chains which

comp. Clem. Rom.
KakfiTai
fieXt]]
ijjjias

where
4
sq,
1

irpoa-

is

said of Christ.

As

in

Rom.
v.

xii.

Cor.

vi.

and especially Cor. xii. 12 sq, which last passage 1 has suggested the words following
15,

Eph.

30,

wear in Christ Remain in unity and prayerfulness. It is your duty one and all, but especially the presbyters, to assist and cherish the bishop, to the honour of God, of Listen Christ, and of the Apostles.
to

here:

comp.

ver.

21

ov

8vvarai...-q

me,

lest

this letter rise
I

up as a

Kecpdkr/ k.t.X.

See also Clem. Rom.
Ephes.
'

37, 46 ; comp. also ov dvvarai ovv]

4.

witness against you. prayers that by God's
attain the martyr's
I

desire your

possible (in

not the nature of things) that
it
is

Now

thirst,
4>

mercy I may crown for which and may not be rejected.'
avfi7rapovo~ais
p.01

a head should be
as the
bers.

bom without limbs'

1

;

rals

k.t.X. j

and therefore the existence of Christ

The
in

churches

who were

present

Head implies the attachment of the believers to Him as His memPerhaps however we should
yevrjdfjvai for yevvijOfjvai.

the

person of their representa-

tives;

comp. Magn. 15
.

koL al Xoinal

be eKxX^o-Lai. .a.o-nd£ovTai vp,as.

Among

read

these

were the Ephesians (Ephes.

2. tov Qeov evtoaiv k.t.X. ] i.e. 'God supplying the principle of cohesion, which principle is nothing else than

1 sq.) and the Magnesians {Magn. 1), from both which churches several delegates were present with him.

Himself; comp. John
iva

xvii.
crv,

21

sq

5.

KaTa.

irdvTa

k.t.X.]

On

this

navres ev

<ocrtv,

Ka6a>s
'Iva

ev epoi Kayco iv ijp.1v coaiv k.t.X.

o~oi,

ndrep, Kai avTol ev

common
6.

Ignatian
2.

phrase see

the

note Ephes.

With
to. he.

bs eariv avros

comp. Ephes. 14

8vo ev

cvottjtl

on Ephes.

o-apKL re 10.

k.t.X.]

See the note

yevofxeva Qeos e'ariv,

Magn.
bs
'

and see the note For the attraction of see the note on Magn. 7. The
15.

7rapoK«Xei vp.as k.t.X.]

For similar
iv. 1

appeals in
KaXco

S.

Paul see Eph.
6

napak.t.X.,

ovv vpds eya>

deo-jxios

interpretation

suggested by Smith,

qui Deus

est ipse Christus] is quite

Philem. 9 /xdXXov 7rapaKaXas, toiovtos ov a>s UavXos...8eo'iJ.ios Xpio-Tov 'i^rrov
;

out of place.

comp.

Col.

iv.

18.

xnj
aiTOVfJievos
v/ulwv
vfdiv
teal

TO THE TRALLIANS.
Oeov eirLTVYeTv
Trj
/U.6T

179
ev
ty\

Sia/meveTe
Trpoo'evyri.
k<zi

ouovolcl

dXXrjXtav

ivpeirei

yap
eis

to??

Ka6'

eva, e^aipeTtos
enricTKOTTOv
kcli

to?9 TrpecfivTepois,

ava\jsV)(€iv
TijULrjv]

top

ek

ti\xy\v

iraTpos

\kcil

'Iticrov

XpicrTOV

Twv

aTTOCTToXcov.
jj.y)

ev^o/u.ai
to

v/uas
6

ev
ixe]

ay airy
here,

aKOvcrai
before Kara. [g].

/ulov,

\va

eU /uapTvpiov
ti/ultjv

GL;

n
A
;

/ecu

eh

'I.
kclI

X.] g;

et

uni-

geniti eius domini nostri jesu christi etc.
see the lower note.

'Irjaov

Xpurrov (om.

eh

ti/j.t]u)

GL

:

7.

7reptcf)€pu>]
1 1
,

See the notes on
1
.

of Jesus Christ, and of the Apostles
y
'

'

Ephes. Magn. 8. Qeov cirirvxe'tv]
§

So too below,
Ignatian
1.

13.

For

this

favourite

(making Ir)crov Xpiarov dependent on to the honour Trarpos), rather than of the Father, of Jesus Christ, and of
the Apostles'
;

phrase see the note on
dtapevere]

Magn.

for the latter

connexion

These are the words of the appeal (7rapa.Kakel) which his For this bonds address to them.
favourite

would almost necessarily require a
connecting particle, Kcu'lrjo-ov Xolcttov (see the notes on § 7 dxoopio-rois Oeov
k.t.X.,

construction in

who

prefers

infinitive

Ignatius, the imperative to the after napaKaXelv, see the
1

and Philad. 9

rfjv

Trapovcriav).
'

note on
10.

§

6 xPV°~@ e above.
eva]

But in this case the omission of the honour of Jesus Christ' would be inThe probability however explicable.
that the right reading is preserved in the interpolator's text, which inserts
is

toIs Kad

See Eph.

v.

23

for this expression.

avhpa below,

§

Similarly ol icar 13 (see the note on
xii.

another
Xpiarov,

kcu

els

riprjv

before

'I^crou

Ephes.

4).

In

Rom.
The
;

5

we have

the strange expression to
egaipercos kcu]

kclB' els.

transposition

and that a transcriber has ejected the words as a superfluity. Zahn defends the common text on

teal e'£aipeT(os, suggested by Jacobson, seems unnecessary comp. § 13 ouoioos For the adverb Ka\ (with the note).

the ground 'scriptoris menti similitudinem illam obversari, quam et
inter

episcopum

Deumque

Christi

e^aiperois comp. Smyrn. 7 (with the note), and for the corresponding ad-

patrem, losque intercedere existimat' (comp.

et inter presbyteros aposto-

jective e^aiperos, Philad.

9.

Neither

Magn.
13.

6).

N.T., but etjaiperos occurs in" the lxx, Gen. xlviii.
is

word
22,

found

in the

els

uaprvptov
t)e,

co]

Comp. Philad.
ktijctcovtui.

6 Kal
Iva

rcao-i

ev ols e\d\r)aa, evx°H- ai

Job

v. 5.

ur)

els

uaprvpiov avro

11.

ava\lfvxeiv]
2.

See the note on

Ephes.

should probably be retained, in which case ypdyj/as will stand by

The

ev

els Tiprju k.t.X.]

For

this Ignatian

itself,

'by

my

writing.'

The

inter-

mode
Ephes.

of expression see the note on
21.

irarphs k.t.X.] If the

Greek MS of

polator has omitted the preposition in conformity with the very common idiom els paprvpidv rivi, Matt. Vlll. 4'
x.

Ignatius be followed we must punctuate 'to the honour of the Father

18,

xxiv.

14,

Mark

i.

44,

vi.

11,

etc.

12

2

i8o
[iv]

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
vinv ypcc^as.
kclI

[xn

irepl

efxov
*v

Se

77?s d(ti v/uwv
€19

dyaTTtis XP^0VT0£
iue

T$

^

irpocrevx^^y ' € 6£ T0 " ® €0 ">
eyKeipai

to

KaTct^icodfivai

rod

KXtjpov

ovwep

£TTiTvyeiVy LV a

W ctSoKipos evpedw.
teal 5

XIII.
'Gcpeo-iav.

'Ao-TraQTai v/uas t) dyairr] C^ivpvalcav ev rals Trpoorevx^ vpwv /uLvrnuLOvevere
odev
[kcli]

Tfc

ev Ci/p/a eKKXrio-ias-

ovk u^los eipi Xeyeardai,

i

iv]

GL; om.

Ag. om.

3 oC7re/3 tyKei/mai iTiTVX&v] accipere (sortes)

rvxeiv

Gg: qua conor potiri L;

rah
;

irpoaevxcus]

GLA
iijcov

;

g.

Bunsen ov TreplKeifxai itri6 iv ad quas vocatus sum A. A. 7 ««*] vp.<2v] GL [g*]; om.
;

G om. LAg. GL iv Kvpiip
;

8 eKeLvwv]

GL; twv
»

a<ti

g

;

al.

A.
1)

iv 'Irjaov Xptcrry]

XP L<XT $ g

(

MSS

but

*

w

christo jesu

A.

9

cis

3.

Kara^ioi^rai] See the note on
20.

eyKetpai eiriTvx*w)j as

m
am

S. Paul.

Ephes.

XIII.

'

The Smyrnseans and Ephewhich
I

tov K\ijpov] i. e. the glory of martyrdom, as in Rom. I els to top Kkrjpov pov avefXTToftiaToos arrokafie'iv, Philad. 5 irpoaevxh v/xe3i/ els Qeov
r)

sians salute you. Pray for the
in Syria, of

Church an unworthy

member.
byters,
spirit

Farewell in Christ. Be obedient to your bishop and pres-

pe dnapTio-ei, iva ev
enirvxco-

a>

Kkrjpa
is

rjker}6r}v

and love one another.
is

My
now
God.

The word

same connexion

used in the Mart. elsewhere
;

devoted to you, not
I

only,

but when
I

shall
still

find

Polyc. 6 Iva e<elvos tov tbiov Kkrjpov Vienn. et Liigd. § 3 airapTLo-rj, Ep.
(in

At present
dangers
to fulfil
;

exposed to but the Father is faithful

am

Euseb. H. E.
els

v.

1)

dvektjcpdr] ko\

avrbs

rbv Kkrjpov ra>v papTvpwv.
'

ovnep

eager

which I eyKCifiai k.t.X.] I know no better to attain.''

am

Christ Jesus, in found blameless.'
5.
r)

your prayers and mine in whom may we be

dyanr] K.T.X.]

Comp. Rom.

9,

emendation of the obviously corrupt
ov irep'iKeipai than this conjecture of

Bunsen's {Br.
to the Latin

p.

141),

corresponding

am
not

cotior potiri; but I I do not quite satisfied with it.

qua

Phi/ad. 11, Smyrn. 12. This is not a mere complimentary title, as Pearson and others would take it see note on § 3 rrjs dydirrjs vpav. 6. 'E^eo-iW] Though the repre;

know whether ey<etadai elsewhere
;

sentatives of other churches were pre-

takes an infinitive struction is with

its

common

context

sent with
sians

him

at

Smyrna, the Ephe-

a

dative of the

thing or person.

The common

are singled out, as the more numerous body of delegates and as
;

might mean which I am

'to obtain the lot

with

attending more' continuously on him

invested'' {ov by attraction for ov), but this is hardly sense.
Iva prj aboKipos k.t.A.] Suggested 4. by 1 Cor. ix. 27. The idea of a race seems to be present here (e.g. in

comp. Magn. 15, Rom. 10. Seethe notes on Ephes. 1, 2. Ephesus and Smyrna were regarded as the 'two
of Asia; Plin. N. H. v. 'Ephesum alterum lumen Asiae'

eyes'

31
(in

XIIl]

TO THE TRALLIANS.
ecr^aro?
eiceiviov.

18
Xpio-rco, vtto6/uLoioos

(i)v

epptocrde ev 'Irjcrov
cos

TaacrofjievoL
[o

tw

67ricrK07rcp

rrj

evToArj,

Kal

tw
ov

7rp£cr{3vTepicp'

Kal

ol kclt

avopa d\\f]\ovs dyaTrdre
v/ulcov

ev afjiepia-Tcp KapSla.
fjiovov vvv

ay venerea

to

e/uov irvev /ma,

dWa
el/ur
add

V7r6

klvSvvov

Kal brav Qeov eiriTvyco, en yap ttio'tos 6 7raTtjp ev 'Iricrov

dWa
LA.
;

Trj £vTo\rj]

G

;

om. g

;

dei

IO t£

Trpecr^vTepi(j}]

GL*

;

rots

Trpe<TJ3vTepoLS /ecu rots diaKovois

g

sacerdotibus
;

A

(see
v/xas

above on

§ 7).
caslificet

11 ayvi-

ferat

vpuiv]

ayvifere

v/jlQv

GL

aawafeTai

g (MSS, but

vos

1)

;

desiderat erga vos A.

13 vwb niudwov]
kv 'ItjctoO

in sollicitudine A.

GL; tTrudvSvvov g Xpiarf] GL* (but Lj in

(mss, but see
christo
iesu)

Appx)
;

;

irjaov

XpuTTov g

;

domini nostrijesu

christi [A].

reference to
viously).
rrjs ev

Smyrna mentioned

pre-

orders.
active,

The

sense of evToXrj here
;

is

appears in

2vpiq eKKXrjalas] This request all the letters written from
see the note on Ephes. 21.

'the voice ornot passive dering,' not 'the thing ordered.' 6poia>s Kal] See the note on Ephes.
19.
10.

Smyrna;
7.

S0€v k.t.X.] Comp. Magn. odev ovk at-ios elpi KaXe7<rdai.
8.
<x>v

14

ally''\

each individtiol kclt dvbpa] see the note on Ephes. 4.
dpepto-Tco
6.
I,

'

eo-yaroy

k.t.X.]

Comp. Ettlcttcov

11.

phes. 21 ecrxaros (with the note).
epp<x><r6i\

cov tQ>v exei

Philad.
KpLTov § 20.

Thus

So again Kapdia] also bidvoiav dSiaEphes.

a7rept(T7raaTa) diavoiq

See the note on Ephes.

21.
9.
cos rfi evTokfj]

ayv'i^CTCiL vpa>v~\

i.e.

So too Smyrn.
cos

8

vpiov,

where

dyvio-pa,

ayvio-pa yiyverai 'a piacular offer-

tovs

diaKovovs

evrpinecrOe

Qeov
2
r<5

ing,' like nepi^/Tjpa, neptKadappa, etc.,

evToXrjv.

comp.
cos

also
vopep

Magu.
'irjcrov

Trpeo-fivTepico

(with the note).
evTokrj is
vii.
rrjs

Xptorov In our passage rj
apapria dia vi. 14 777k.t.X.

sacrifice for
7T€pfyr]pa.

denotes entire devotion to and selfanother comp. Ephes. 8
:

vpeov

kcu

dyvi(opa.L

vputv

used absolutely, as in Rom.
r)

8 depopprjv Xaj3ovcra
evroXfjs
ere

k.t.X.,

I

Tim.

(with the note). 12. oTav Qeov eVtrvxco] i.e. 'by martyrdom'; see above § 12.
13.
eya>

my
12

prjo-ai

rrjv

evroXrjv

acnriXov

vivo klv8vvov]

Comp. Ephes.

Not satisfied with
have added
use
is

this, the translators This absolute 'Dei.'

vnb kLvSvvov, vpels

eo-njpiyfxepoi

not consistent with Pearson's interpretation of Smyrn. 1. c. tam'

is still the risk (with the note). There that either by his own weakness or the interposition of others he may

by

quam Dei praecepto

institutes]

i.e.

be robbed of the martyr's crown.
mo-Tos
1

'as being God's ordinance' (where he refers to this passage). The Trallians are told to

obey the bishop's orders, as they would obey God's

mo-Tos 6 naTTjp] Compare S. Paul's 6 Qebs and similar expressions Cor. i. 9, x. 13, 2 Cor. i. 18, 1 Thess.
;

v. 24,

2 Thess.

iii.

3.

1

82

IGNATIUS TO THE TRALLIANS.
7r\rip(j0(rai
jjlov

[xm
eV

XpiffTtp

rrjv

aiTt\(jiv

kcu

vjulcop'

w

evpedeit]}JLev a/uLw/jioi,
i evpeOeirj/xev]

Ag;

evpedei-qre

GL.

A

single letter

might make the difference

-HM6
add.

for

-HTe-

dfj.ojfji.oL]

GL;

add. gratia vobiscum omnibus,

amen A;

ovaifirjv v/xwv iv Kvplu} g.
is

There

no subscription to

GLA.
after

For g see the Appx.
aurcp k.t.X. ; comp. Ephcs. iv Xptorw 'irjaov evpedfjvai, also § 2 of this epistle,

i.

7rA?7pcoo-cu]

An
xiii.

infinitive
13.

n

7tktt6s, as in

Neh.

and

povov see

iv a>]
iii.

i.e.

'lyo-ov Xpio-ro),

as in Phil.

9

iva

XpiaTov

Kepdtjaoi kcu evpedoo iv

4-

TO THE ROMANS.

4-

TO THE ROMANS.
1IKE
Crocus
It

the three preceding letters, the Epistle to the Romans was The Ephesian delegates, _/ written and despatched from Smyrna.
and, as the name of ; out for mention, we may suppose that he was the chief singled on the occasion. This is the only letter which bears a date.
still

who were
is

with him, acted as amanuenses

penman

was written on August 23rd (§ 10). Ignatius had been preceded by certain members of the Syrian He assumes that Church, who however are not mentioned by name. he bespeaks for them will have arrived in Rome before the letter they
;

a kindly welcome
arrival.

;

and he wishes them
is

to

be informed of

his

speedy

Of

these persons nothing

said elsewhere.

Probably they

had been despatched from Antioch direct to Rome, immediately after the condemnation of the saint, with the news of his impending visit.

The

letter
fate,

throughout assumes that the

Roman

Christians are informed

of his

and

will act

upon

the information.

But, though the letter was despatched from the same place and probably about the same time with the Epistles to the Ephesians, in style Magnesians, and Trallians, though it closely resembles them

The subject and expression, yet the main topics are wholly different. in the relations between the writer matter is changed with the change and the readers. There is no direct allusion to the Judaeo- Gnostic
letters to the Asiatic heresy, which occupies so large a place in his is complimented in the opening as The Roman Church Churches.

from every foreign colouring,' and from first contains no reference to false doctrine of any kind. epistle
'filtered clear

to last the

On

the

1

86

the epistle of Ignatius
and other

correlative topic also, the duty of obedience to the bishop

officers of the Church, which shares with the denunciation of heresy the principal place in the other letters, he is equally silent here. Indeed we might read the epistle from beginning to end without a suspicion office existed in Rome at this time, if we had no that the

episcopal On the relation of this phenomenon to other grounds for the belief. other early documents bearing on the Roman Church I have spoken

single topic,

elsewhere (S. Clement of Rome i. p. 68; comp. Philippians p. 217 sq). On the other hand the letter is almost wholly taken up with one which appears only casually in the other epistles his

coming martyrdom. We had preceded him to Rome. He was alarmed at its possible effects. Perhaps he had good reason to fear the too officious zeal of his friends At all events there were Christians holding influential from Syria.
have seen

how

the

news of

his

conviction

about the court (see positions in Rome at this time, more especially the note on § 1 cfropovjxai k.t.X.). What, if they should attempt to Their inopobtain a reversal or a commutation of his sentence?

The whole letter is a portune kindness would be his ruin (§ 4). The for martyrdom, an eager deprecation of pardon. passionate cry Will they then withhold the libation (§2)? Will they altar is ready. It will be an act of jealousy (§ 5 £77X000-0.1), refuse the sacrifice (§ 4) ?
a display of envy (§ 3 ifiaaKavaTe, § 7 (Bao-Kavta), an infliction of wrong (§ 1 aSi/070-77), an outbreak of hatred (§ 8 e/AKnyo-are), an abetting of

Satan

7

fiorjOcLTU)

currcS),

to rob
in

him of

he himself on

his

arrival

Rome
is

his crown. Even though should crave their intercession
listen to

which now he deprecates, he intreats them not to

him

7)

Martyrdom Martyrdom

is

the

new

birth,

the true

life,

is

the pure light

6) 4) 6)

is

The

martyr's

the complete discipleship, the final enfranchisement crown is better than all the kingdoms of the earth
sets to the world, will


Only then, when he

he

rise to

God

2).

The

teeth of the wild beasts are the mill which grinds the fine flour for the sacrificial bread. Therefore he will entice them, will provoke them,
to mangle, to crush, to pulverize his limbs for the altar of

God
;

(§§ 4, 5).

Crowned by martyrdom,
of martyrdom,
it is

his life

becomes an utterance of God

robbed

a vague unmeaning cry (§ 2). The Epistle to the Romans had a wider popularity than the other letters of Ignatius both early and late. It appears to have been circulated apart from them, sometimes alone, sometimes attached to the Thus it seems to have become in some sense story of the martyrdom.

a vade

mecum

of martyrs in the subsequent ages.

At

all

events

we

find

TO THE ROMANS.
it

187

quoted before any of the other epistles (Iren. v. 28. 4 ; see $ 4, p. 207 below) ; and its influence on the earliest genuine Acts of Martyrdom
extant

to

those of Polycarp, and those of Perpetua and Felicitas— seems be clearly discernible (see the notes on § 6 7r/ooo-/3iao-o/xcu, § 5 'Ovai/rqy k.t.X. comp. also the note on § 4 a.7re\ev6epos k.t.A..). Moreover in the
;

S. Ignatius in the later Greek with expressions taken from it, again whereas there is no very distinct coincidence with the other epistles. On the other hand, where the interest was doctrinal and not practical,

Mensea

for

Dec. 20, the day assigned to

Calendar, we meet again and

as for instance in the Monophysite controversy, the other letters are prominent and the Epistle to the Romans recedes into the background. Owing to these circumstances, the history and the phenomena of the
text are different in several respects (see above, p. 5 sq).

from those of the other

epistles

The
'

following

is

Ignatius to the

an analysis of the epistle. Church of Rome, preeminent

in position as in

worthy of all good things and filtered clear from all defilement, abundant greeting in Christ.' My prayer has been more than granted for I shall see you in my bonds. Only do not interpose, that so my course, which has begun
love,
1

;

well,

may

also

end well

(§ 1).

The

If
for

you keep
sacrifice;

silence,

God

will

opportunity is great; do not mar it. speak through me. The altar is ready
of praise round the victim

2).

chant ye the
duty, as

hymn

Teach me my

you have taught others. Pray that I may have I shall be seen most plainly then, when to do, as well as to say. strength I have ceased to be seen. Christianity is not talk, but might (§ 3).
I tell all the
I

churches that

I die freely.

Leave

me

to the wild beasts.
Stir up the wild you as Peter and
4).

am

the fine meal ground in the mill for sacrifice.

beasts to devour

Paul did; for I with wild beasts the whole
of

me wholly. I cannot command am only a criminal and a slave (§

I

am

fighting

my

guards

is

the beasts will
eager.

way from Syria to Rome. Yet the cruelty I trust and pray that a wholesome discipline to me. devour me at once ; that they will be eager, as I am

Let no power in heaven or on earth envy
for

me my

crown.

I

am

kingdoms of the earth are nothing any ready Let me imitate the I desire Christ; I desire light and life. to me. me as his prey do Satan would seize on passion of my God (§ 6). not abet him. Obey me in these words which I write now. My
torture
(§ 5).

All the

;

earthly passions are crucified.

I

desire not the food

of corruption.

1

88

IGNATIUS TO THE ROMANS.
bread and the cup of God (§ 7). Once again ; do not I write briefly, but Christ will interpret. It is God's own

I crave the

thwart me.

will that I declare (§8).'
1

of which

Pray for the Syrian Church, which has no bishop now but God, and I am an unworthy member. The churches which have re-

ceived and escorted

me

join in

my

salutation

(§ 9).

I write this

from

Smyrna, with the assistance of the Ephesians, especially Crocus. Tell the Syrians who have preceded me, that I shall arrive shortly. Written on ix Kal. Sept. Farewell, be patient to the end (§ 10).'

TTPOC
'

PQMAIOYC.
Y\KeY]ii£vr)

ITNATIOC,
viov

6 Kal Qecxpopos, ty\
'

ev /meyct-

XeiOTrjTL TTCLTpOS V^p-ICTTOU

avTOv, €KK\ricria

XpiCTTOV TOV fJLOVOV riyair^fxevri Kal 7re(p(i)Tio iueurj ev
KCCl

lr]GTOV

m

6e\t]/uLaTL

tov

6e\rj(ravTOs

to.

iravTa

a
;

ecrTLV,

kcito.

npoc poOMAIOyc] tov avrov hnaroXrj irpbs pcofxalovs g* ignatii epistola ad romanos L*; epistola tertia {eiusdem sancti ignatii) 2*; ad romam urbem A. There is no title in GA m S m M.
i

6 Kal]

M

;

qui

est

Am

;

om. S m
Kal]

.

For the other

authorities see the note
;

on
;

Ephes. inscr.
vxplcTov deov irarpds g.

i irarphs v\pL<TTOv]

GL2AA m M
[g*]
;

excelsi (om.

irarpos)

Sm

GLA m S m [M]
:

2.

3 7]yain]/j.ivri]

GLA m S m M

g (but omitted
sancti
;

in 1);

om. A;
it

def.
if it

ijy laa/xfrr]

A

(translating

as

had read the sentence
aavros]
'

viov tov rjyiao-fievov Kal (po)Ti£ovTos)
;

def. 2.

4 tov
'>

deK-rj-

GLAA m M
to

;

tov TroirjaavTos [g]

ejus qui ligat et tenet

omnia S m

def. 2.

Ignatius

the

Church of
mercy and

ii.

II to fxeyaXela tov

Qeov).

It

oc-

Rome,

that hath found

enlightenment in Jesus Christ, that is foremost in rank as in love, worthy in all respects, attached with Christ's

curs in other connexions, Jer. xxxiii (xl). 9, 3 Esdr. i. 4, Acts xix. 27.
3.

qyamjfievTJ]

So

to

Trail, inscr.

Though

rjyiao-piivr)

be read, as in has

commands,
clear

full

of grace,

and
a

filtered

of

all

defilement;

hearty

greeting in Christ.'
1. 'which has tt] TJXeijpLevrj k.t.A.] found mercy in the mightiness of the Father Most High] i.e. 'on which He in His compassion has conferred gifts such as His mightiness alone can bestow'; comp. Smyrn. inscr. For iv Tzavri ^apt'cr/ian. qXeij/jLevrj For qke-qpiivT] see also Philad. inscr.
' '

very high support, yet it ought probably to be rejected, as a likely word (comp. 1 Cor. i. 2) to be substituted This in this connexion by a scribe. very substitution has been made in

many MSS

of Jude

1

to7s iv Qec5 rrarpX
is

rjytacrfjLtvois,

where

rjyairrjpLivoi.s

the

correct reading. tov QiK-qo-avros 4.

l

k.t.\.]

of

Him

that willed all things which exist'; Magn. 3 els Ttfxrjv eKeivov tov

comp.

fieyakeioTTjs,

mightiness,'

magnifi24, in

OcK-qo-avTos vfias.

I

have punctuated
it

cence,' applied to God, ix. 43, 2 Pet. i. 16, Clem.
all

comp. Luke

after eVrtv

and accentuated

paroxy-

Rom.

which passages

it

ficent exhibitions of

refers to muniHis power (Acts

faith

tone, as the sense requires. in KaTCt niaTiP <al aycmnv /or. A. J and love toward Jesus Christ!

190
tt'kttiv
i

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
'

koI a<yaTTr\v
kclI]
;

Irjcrov

Xpi(TTOV rod Oeov
;

tjfAwv, #T£S
;

ir'icTTiv

gAA m

;

om.
.

GLSmM

def. 2.

loco chori

L

regime S m
digna vita

d£i6deos...d£Layvo<;] txt

explicable through the
(d£i66eos) ct

medium

of the Syriac;
for

x&>pM G2AA m Mg GLA (with variations see the next note) A m S m g; digna deo
2 t6tt V
is

(d£i<yirpeirrjs,

HTI

vita

doubtless a corruption of

NW

genitive case is objective and probably refers to both the preceding substantives, as in Ephes. 20 ev ttj

The

1. p. 322, Venet. 1753), 'civitas sacerdotalis et regia, per sacram beati

Petri

sedem caput

orbis effecta, latius

avrov

7ri<TT€i
ib.

kol ev

Trj

civtov
els

ayanr)

;

praesideres

religione

divina

quam

comp.
irr)v.

14 edv TeXeicos
ttjv tt'kttiv
1

'lrjaovv

XpiaTov

e'xrjre

ml

ttjv

dyd-

with the note. The preposition Kara gives the rule or standard after which their con-

See also Ephes.

dominatione terrena.' ev Tona k.t.X.] These words probably describe the limits over which
the

duct
1.

is

fashioned.
77/x63j>]

tov Qeov
inscr.

See the note

supremacy or jurisdiction excomp. Tert. de Praescr. 36 'percurre ecclesias apostolicas apud quas ipsae adhuc cathedrae apostolotends;

on Ephes.
2.

rum
l

irpoK.a6r)Tai\

has the chief seat,
1

case
the

suis locis praesident? In this it might be thought that there

presides, takes the ftrecede?ice.'

The

was a reference more

especially to

word

is

riority

used of preeminence or supegenerally in writers of about
e.g.
rrjs

this time;

Dion Chrysost. Or.
T€ QpvyLas TTpomOrjk.t.X. (of

presidency of the Roman see over the suburbicarian bishops, who formed a sort of college under the

xxxv
ade

(p.

68)

bishop of

Rome as their head — a con-

icai

Avblas

the town of

Celaenas),

Galen xix.
m6e£6p.evoi
xliii.

p.

22 (Kiihn)

q^loiaav Tives tcov d£iok6ya>v larpcov ev
rrpoedpeia
k.t.X.,

which the later college of Cardinals grew. But, not to mention that the presidency is here asstitution out of

Greg.

Naz. Or.
£dvriov,
ttoKlv.

14

(1.

p.

780) to Bv-

ttjv Trpom6e£cp.evqv rijs ecoas Schol. to Soph. Electr. 234
r)

signed not to the Roman bishop but to the Roman Church, such a reference would probably be a great anachronism. Though some have seen
distinct traces of this relation between the bishop of Rome and the suburbicarian sees at least as early as the

MvKr/vai

TrpoKaBe^opevr) tov "Apyovs.

See the inscription in Bull, de Corresp. Hellen. VI I. p. 283 Tdpaos.-.Tcov y enapxeieov, [KiXtKiasJ/lo-avpias-, Avmovla[s,

Trpo]Ka6e£op,evT],
{ib. p.

ence
Op.

with the refer285) to Basil of Seleucia

beginning of the third century (Bunsen Hippolytus I. p. 422 sq, ed. 2;

Milman

Lat. Chi'ist.

1.

p. 41

;

comp.
ii.

p.

275 (Paris, 1622) ZeXevKeia...

Trpoebpevovcra
'lo-avpi$os

ml

Trpom6e£op,evq 7rdar)s

Ruggieri de Port. Hippol. Sed. in Lumper Hist. Sa7ict. Pair.
p.

8

VIII.

7ro\eo)s. Pearson quotes an edict ascribed to the Dictator

518 sq), yet there is really no evidence of such a constitution till a

Caesar in Ioann. Malal. Chron. 216 (ed. Bonn.) 'Ev

ix. p.
fir)-

Avnoxeia

rfj

TponoXei, lepa

ml

dpxovo-y

ml davXa> ml avTovopa ml 7rpom0rjp.evr) ttjs dvaroKaiaap
k.t.X.

much later date, while many facts point in the opposite direction ;
very
p.

Xijs,

'lovXios Td'ios

see Dollinger Hippolytus u. Kallislus 108 sq. The tottos x w pi°v 'Patfiaiav

Leo

the Great thus apostrophizes Rome herself at a later date (Serm. 82, Op.

therefore will have a looser signification, denoting generally 'the country or district of the Romans'

(comp.

TO THE ROMANS.
'

191
Ct^lodeOS,
et

KCLl

7TpOKCt6f]TaL

£V

T07TC0

^topiOU
et

PtO/UiaiWV,

decorum, as Cureton and Petermann suggest) = d^iayvos, (d^Leiraivos) et mentor ia (perhaps
$031*7 purificatio)
et

beatitudine (d^o^a/cdpto-Tos)

laude

memoria being a comuotion of digna prosperitate (d^teiriTevKTos) 2; om. M.
p. 135,

WOII

iv (TK^nTpcp kcu
;

Macar. Magn. Apocr. iii. 38, X^P? 'Pvpalcov

quoted by Pearson and others as a
parallel to the

avatra-

expression here,

we

r&v) and the Church of Rome itself is so entitled, as the principal church in this region, just as the Church of

ought probably to read ^copt'ov. The explanation of Bunsen, who governs
Xoipiov
tottco

Jerusalem might be said
iv tottco x<opiov lovdaicov.

TTpoKa6r)o-6ai

p.

by TrpoKaOrjTai and interprets iv in dignitate, in officio suo {Br. 114), appears to me quite unten-

On the other hand it might be urged
that iv
tottco k.t.X.

range of the

describes not the supremacy, but the

Nor again does it seem possible to accept Zahn's solution (/. v. A. p. 311 sq, and ad loc), who takes the
able.
tvttco for tottco,

locality of the supreme power itself. In this case TrpoKaB-qTai would be used

same construction but making iv
'as

substitutes
tvttco

signify
els

absolutely of a certain precedence assigned to the Church of Rome, as
situated in the metropolis of the empire and the world, over the other

an example,'

i.e.

to

the other

churches.

We

should

expect
;

tvttov or cos tvttos in this case

churches of Christendom. The expression would then be allied to the
'potentior principalitas,' which Irenasus (iii. 3. 2) assigns to the Roman

Church
itself.
it

;

But,

though not so strong in if this were the meaning,
to

and indeed the extreme awkwardness of the whole expression condemns it. The words x<*>P 0S Xooplov] 'region. ('place'), x<wpa ('country'), and x®' piov ('district'), may be distinguished as implying locality, extension, and
1

limitation,

respectively.

The

last

is

difficult

see

why

Ignatius

word commonly denotes
estate,

either 'an

should write
in

iv tottco ^coptou 'Pcopalcov

place of iv 'Vcoprj, which alone would be natural to describe merely the locality. The idea of the cathedra
'

term)

a farm,' or 'a fastness, a stronghold,' or (as a mathematical 'an area.' Here, as not unis 'a it frequently in later writers, the same funregion,' 'a district' but
;

Petri' therefore

has no place here.
tottco

For the pleonastic
Clejn.

comp.
ttjs

damental idea
relation

Horn.
in

'lovdaias

14 nodco eVt tov yeveaOcu tottov, Letter
i.

of

Abgar

Euseb. H. E.

i.

13 o-cor^pi

dyadco dvafpavevTi iv tottco 'lepocroXvpcov

preserved. of x^P 0S t0 X a> P i0V s tne same as that of apyvpos, XP V<T ° S t0 the former being dpyvpicv, xpvcri'oj/, the metals themselves, the latter the
*
>

is

The

(comp. Doctrine of Addai p. 4, ed. It may perhaps be regardPhillips). ed as a Syriasm, since the Syrians constantly insert the corresponding

metals

worked up

into

bullion

or

coins or plate or trinkets or images, iii. 42 (p. e.g. Macar. Magn. Apocr.
147) ravr
Xo)^kov
kcii

€K

xP v<T °v

KC

" apyvpov

<a\

word

$Oin$* in translating
it

from the

(TiSrjpov

TjKaTTopeva popcpco-

Greek, where
original;
e.g.

has no place in the Acts ii. 9, 10, iv. 36,
xx. 2,

para dpyvpiov kcu xpwiov. the frequency d£w6eos k.tX] On
of these compounds of a^ios in Ignatius see the note on Ephcs. 4 «£toIn this passage, though vopavTov. in composition, they are

xi. 19, xiv. 24, xvi. 7, 8, xviii. 2,

etc.,

in the
ii.

Peshito.
12 (IV.
p.

In Origen in
172)
TT€TT0irjK€V
7Tapaickrjcreoi)s,

IoaflU.
ixel,

tov tottov x (0 P lQV

symmetrical

192

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS

d£i07rpe7rris, d^LO/uaKapLcrro^ y d£i€7rcuvos, d^i€7riT6UKTOS,

d^iayvos,

kcu

TrpoKadrifJievri
rju

rfjs

dya7rr]<s y

xP l(rTOVO tJi0 ^y
'Irjcrov

TraTptoWfJLOS'
1

kcci

dcnrdi^pfJLai

iv

ovoixclti

aZiewfrevKTos] g* (but

1

has fide dignae)

G

(written d^LoeirirevKTos)

2

(see the

last note)

Am S m

1

xP ia r ^ uo /xoi]

"

digne ordinata S* (though the
;

see the lower note. digna precibus common text has xP lcrTt^ vv lX0 ^) 5 christi habens
;
:

L

A

hardly so in meaning, but take their complexion from the other compo-

passive sense 'difficult of attainment'
(unless indeed
cult of success
6pa>v
')

its

meaning

is 'diffi-

nent

element,

'worthy

of praise,'

'worthy in
1.

purity,' etc.

For the word

in Diod. Sic. xvii. 93 hvcreniTevurov tt)v eiri rovs Tav-

dtjwOeos itself see Trail, inscr. (note).
dgieniTevKTos] The meaning of the word may be doubtful. Accord-

eis

dapidas (Trpareiav ovaav, id. xxxii. exc. TToXXas 67Ti/3oXay 8v(re7riT€VKTOvs

tax*

Tas vpdtjeis,
Co?iv.
i.

and so
1

certainly

ing as an active or a passive sense

is

Methodius
7rois

assigned to -enirevKros,

it

will signify

ed. Jahn) (TTTaviov rraw Kai dvaeTT it€vktov dv6pa>(p. 11,

'worthy of success' or 'worthy of associating with.' Jacobson indeed says of this latter sense, 'mire Vedelius dignissima quae invisatur? But it is suggested by the passive form it is supported by such analogies as
;

ay vela; while Hesych. uses a somewhat different sense, but

it

in

still

passive, 'difficult of access, unsociable/ when he writes 5t)o-7rere'a-re-

pos' 8vcrKo\<DTepos } SvaeniTevKTOTepos. As regards the form of the word,
d^c€7TLT€VKTos is

dt-iotfXeoTos,

d^Lodearos,

d£ioKTT)Tos,

more

in

accordance

and

especially

dgioKoivoivrjTos

(Plat.

Resp. p. 371 E) ; and it would harmonize with Ignatius' expressed desire
to see the

with analogy (e. g. dgiinaivos just above, dgievrpenros Clem. Alex. Proph.

Ed.
2.

28, p. 997).
1

Romans (§

1).

On the other

hand dveniTevKTOs, evenLTevKTos, both of them late and rare words, are used
in
nate,' respectively.

sense 'unsuccessful,' 'fortuAll those versions also, which had the worduncorrupted,
the
it
;

dgiayvos] worthily pure.' Bunsen {Br. p. 115) conjectures dglaivos, supposing that the previous d^uivaLvos is a transcriber's gloss to explain the unusual word dgiaivos. But the convergence of so many and various
in the

agree in so rendering
ritate

dig?iaprospe:

digna asseeutione (desideriorum) A m digna Us quae petiit S m and this fact may perhaps be allowed
;
;

2

authorities in favour of the reading text forbids such a violent
alteration.
7rpoKa6r]p.€VT]
rrjs

to decide the

meaning. Of the others,

ayaTrrjs]
2,

digne ordinata in
TTLTaKTos,
TTio-TevTos,

L

Clem. Horn. Ep. Clem.

17,

Comp. where

represents dgied^toprecibus in
in

and fide digna

irpoKadi^ea-QaL dXrjOeias is said of Cle-

in

1

ment

as the successor

of S. Peter.

A

is

while digna due to a corruption

the
for

Syriac text (a.

A ^ya\precatione

There is doubtless here a reference back to the foregoing npoK.a6r)p,£vr) iv The Church of Rome, as tottco k.t.X.
it is first

CUiA^iru

prosperitate) which the

in rank, is first also in love.

A

Armenian translator had before him, as Petermann has pointed out. Yet dvo-eniTtvKTos seems to have a

is borne to the which distinguished the early Roman Church by Dionysius of

noble testimony

spirit

Corinth,

who

writes as follows to the

TO THE ROMANS.
/*
f

193
irvevfjia YlVOOfievOLS

^

XpiorTOV vlov TrciTpos*
Tracrt]

KCtTa capita Kai
7re7r\r]po)fjievoi^

evToXrj avrov,

^apin-o^

Qeov dliaAm

KpiTtos Kal
both readings,

aTTo'&ivXio'iJLevois airo
;

wavTos dWoTpiov XP°^~
;

legem L; in lege christi [2] S m

lege christi

A

xP l(rr uvvpo<i

G

;

def.

M.

gives

christi--habens-legem
is

{ant; christi- habens-nomen).

In the passage

which follows, 2
Christians in

greatly abridged.
(c.

Rome

A.D. 170), e£
tovto,
iravras

4.

adpKa

icai

rrvevpa]

See the note

dp%fjs vpiv eBos

ecrrl

on Ephes.
ing
t7i

10.

pev dbeXcpovs noiKtXcos evepyeTelv, i<Kkrjcriais re 7ro\\ais rais Kara nacrav
7t6\lv eCpdSia 7rep7reiv, code pev ttjv tcov deopevoiv Treviav ava-^rv)(0VTa<;, ev peraX-

qvoiptvois]

'united to\ and so 'act;

unison with'
3.

comp. Magn.
'

6,

Sviyrn.

Xois Se d8e\(frols v7rapxovo~iv eVt^opjy-

yovvras'
dicov
71

6Y
cit

oov

nepneTe dpxrjdev

e(po-

ponapddoroi

edos

Poo-

5. dStaKpt'rco?] not inseparably^ but 'without wavering, with undivided allegia?ice, with single?iess of hear?', comp. Philad. inscr. dyaX,

(pyXdrrovTes, and he adds that Soter, their present bishop, had more than sustained the tradi-

pa icov

'Poopaioi

Xioopevrj

iv too Trade 1 tov

Kvpiov ijpwv

d8iaKpLT(os.
roi/,

See the note on ddidicpiEphes. 3. Comp. also such exdp.€pio~Toj

tional

reputation of his church for Euseb. H. E. iv. deeds of charity The Epistle of Clement itself is 23.
;

pressions as

Kapbla

Trail.

a happy illustration of this spirit. law Xpia-Tovopos] 'observing the of Christ*', comp. 1 Cor. ix. 21 ewopos Xpca-Tov, and see also Gal. vi. 2 dvan\r]poicrere tov vbpov tov Xpicrrov,

Ephes. 20. 6. dnodivXio-pevois] strained clear\ 'filtered^ comp. Philad. 3 ovx on nap
13, a7Tfpio-7racrra) biavoiq
'

;

vpuv pepicrpbv evpov
single literally in

aW
6,

drrodLvXiapov.

The

compound

8iv\i£eiv

occurs

Magn.

2

00s

vdpoo

'Irjaov

Xpiarov'

24 (comp. Clem. Alex. Strom, ii. 20, p. 489), and metaphorically in Clem.
Alex. Proph. Eel. 7
(p.

Amos vi.

Matt,

xxiii.

Considering the great preponderance of the best authorities in favour
alteration

991) to

ko.\

nvevpara dmdapTa

of xpi-^TO'^opos, and the likelihood of into xP L(TT(^ vv P os f° r the

avpTreTrXeypeva rrj For the subtyvxy §iv\'i(eo-6ai k.tX. stantive see Iren. i. 14. 8 ev re novois
Kal

sake of conformity with the following word, there can be no doubt about
the reading.
3.
71736s

TaKaarcopicus

^VXV

yevopevrj

els

div\io~pov avTtjS

naTpoowpos] SeeEphes. iii. 14, 15, tov Trarepa e£ ov irdcra narpia

(explaining the Valentinian teaching), Clem. Alex. Paed. i. 6 (p. 117) ot SivXicrpbv pev tov TvvevTr\v

paros
(paalv'

ev ovpavols Kai «ri yfjs

dvopa^eTai. The lexicons give no other example of this word, though the derivatives

8iv\icrpbv

elvai pvqprjv toov KpeiTTovcov 8e voovcri tov arro

tt]s vTTopvrjcreois

tcov apeivovoiV tcov

x ei

~

TrarpoovvpiKos,

uncommon
rpcovvpios

naTpoovvpiKcos, are not in later writers, and iraoccurs even in ^Eschylus
rj/xere-

of certain povcov x^pio'H-ov (speaking <a\ Gnostics)... tov axiTov ovv Tpoitov
r]pe\s
. .

.hivKi^opevoi

fiaTVTia-paTi

k.t.X.

For another compound see Clem.
Alex. Exc.

Pers.

I

5

I

to TTdTpoivvpiov yevos

pov (where Blomfield
7va.Tp0ivvp.ov a>v k.t.X.).

would This same play
read to

Theod. 41 (p. 979) Kal to. enrepo-vvbivk'io-drj Kara, bvvapiv

&

4

also offers a

good analogy to the preceding word in Tlepaovopos ver. 916.

to nX^pcopa. para avve\6uvra avrco els For coincidences with the Valentinian phraseology in Ignatius see the

IGN.

II.

13

194

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS

I.

'drei

ev^ctfjievos
fj/iuv]
;

Qew
Sm
;

eireTv^ov ileiv vfxwv
X. t$ 6e$ (om. t?/xcDj>) 'I. X. g om. 2
;

ra
'I.

i

'I.

X. ry $e£

GLA m

'I.

M;

X.

(om.

rep 0etp ijfiQv)

A

0etp /cat Trarpt /cat Kvpicp ijfiav

(see the last

note).

3 'ETret c^a^evos]

GAA m Mg*
£/

(but

1

has deprecans); deprecans

(iirev&nevos) L.

The

following are doubtful;

fierem...nunc autem ligatus etc S;

ot»/

jampridem deum oravi ut digitus datum est mihi ut viderem etc S m but
;

of they seem to be attempts to mend the anacoluthon lower note. Gey] GM; t£ 6e<2 g.
oJ-iodiara

e7ret edl-afievos

k.t.X.

See the

4 a£iodea]

GSS m

gJ

(but this does not necessarily imply see the d^iodeara, since d&odea might have been so interpreted, though wrongly; m (this lower note) ; vestras dignas visione fades (aut, vestras deo dignas facies)
(but v.
1.

M

a^iodea)

;

dignas visione

L

A

alternamight imply merely alternative renderings of a&oOea, but probably intends 1 has om. A. tive readings, d£iodea and <L£io6eaTa) cos] GL ; ofc g* (mss, but does not imply any other sicuti)', quod (or quern, or quos) A; id quod S m (but this
;

notes on Ephes. inscr., Magn. 8, Trail, i. The construction and meta-

l

3.

'E7T61

ev^dpevos k.t.X.]
to

Seeing

that in

answer

my

prayers\
;

The

phor here are well illustrated by a fragment attributed to Archytas in
Stobasus Flor.
Kai
SivXtcrfAevav
i.

73

Qebs...dXiKpivfj

e^et rav Travros tu> QvarQ) nddeos.

dperav

citto

The

^pco/xa

sentence is an anacoluthon dependent clauses crowd upon each other and the thread of the in succession grammar is lost. For similar instances in the openings of these epistles
;
'

refers to the colouring

matter which

see Ephes.

1

'Anode^dpevos (with the

pollutes the purity of the water. I. 7rXeTa-ra...^aipetv] See the note

The anacoluthon here has a note). close parallel also in Magn. 2 'End
ovv
TJ£-ia>8r)v

on Ephes.
T(»

inscr.
lj/jidov]

k.t.X. (see

the note).

The

Geco

See the note on

subject on which he here

'flies off at

Ephes. inscr.

opening salutations of the Ignatian Epistles see the note Ephes. inscr. I. 'My petition has been more than answered, when I prayed that I
ducofxcos]

On

this

word

in the

a tangent' is his fear lest the Roman Christians should interpose and rob him of his martyr's triumph. Here, as in similar cases, the transcribers

and
the

critics

syntax.
is

have attempted to mend Such an attempt, for
the substitution of 'E7rev(Vedelius,

might see your faces for I hope at length to salute you as a prisoner of Jesus Christ, if it be God's will that
:

instance,

gdpevos for

'En-el evfjdpevos

I complete ning indeed

my
is

course.

The begin-

am

well ordered, if only I successful to the end, so that no

tion.

one interposes to rob me of I say this, because I
prehensive of your love.
for

my poram apeasy
it

Ussher, Pearson, etc, with the Latin Versions and some mss of the Metaphrast), or the reading IldXai eVeu^afxeuos (Bunsen after the Syriac), or the omission of yap after dedepevos
(the editors

commonly

after the

Me',

It is

dicean MS).
iirervxop] '/
'

you to do as you

will;

but

is

difficult for

me

have been successful

to find

God, unless

you stay your hands'.

has been granted me f ; not meaning that he had already seen them,
it

1]

TO THE ROMANS.
TTpotrcoTra,

'95

d^Lodea
5

ak

kcli
'

7r\eov

rj

riTOu/utji/

Xafielw SeSe-

pevos

yap

ev Xpiarrw
rj

Irjcov iXiri^ta v/Lids dcrirdcraa-Qai^

eavirep 8e\riiuia
reading than
tbs)
;

tov
For

d^Lcodfjvai

jue

ek rekos eluar

y\

def.

SM.

Am

see below; v\eov

yroij/j.r)v

GLAg;

rendering of wXtov rather than a v. 1. etiam accept, which gives the same sense as

see the next note. irXeov $ riTov/xrju] ex multo tempore petebam S m (perhaps a bad A m has quantum petii, plus 7rd\cu); def. SM.

gL A m nunc
;

the existing

my conjectural reading. 5 yap] aute?n [S] (see a previous note); et mine A; om. al. S m (but text seems to have been corrupted from one which had yap; see

GM

;

Moesinger p. 25).
aairaaaadai]
accipere

Xpio-ro) 'ItjctoO]

GLA m S m Mg;

Irjaov

GLAA m Mg;

venire

et

sa/utare S m ;

accipere et salutare

XP^ T ^ SA. S (where
*
:

seems to represent
6 di\rjixa\

\aj3e7u,

context).

gLSS m
elpai]

which has been preserved from the omitted add. rod deou GAM; add. domini A m see
;

the lower note.

GLg;

ovtus elvai

haec S m ;

om. SA.

The

variations of the

M; pervenire A m sustinere Oriental Versions seem to be mere
;

expedients of translators, and not to imply any

v.

1.

in the

Greek.
11,

but that circumstances were such as to have already insured the fulfilment
of his prayer.
dgiodea] See the note on Trail. inscr. The authorities for dgiodeara are too slight to justify its adoption,
4.

on Ephes.
with the

3,

Magn.

1.

For

cos

infinitive,

consequence, see e.g. Clem. Horn. i. 20 as eKTrXnyevra
davpd^eiv, 3 MaCC. i. 2 It is not very uvtuv.
cos

expressing the Acts xx. 24 (v. 1.),
p.€

povos Krelvai

cannot find that dgioOeos (or indeed any compound in -deos) is ever derived from

though plausible

in itself.

I

classical authors, e.g. vEsch. Xen. nab. i. 5. 10, i. 8. 10,

uncommon in Ewn. 36,
iii.

A

4.

25,

iv.

3.

29 (with Kiihner's notes), and

Sea,

diaros (as maintained

and therefore equivalent to by Zahn

dfjio/.

fairly

common

in later writers.

The

v.

A.

posed

558, though ad loc. he is disIn to retract this opinion). C. I. G. 4943 d&Oeovs in ver. 3 has
p.

reading of the MSS here seems quite unintelligible, though the editors have I have hitherto acquiesced in it.

remedied the

fault

by the repetition

not the
in ver. 4

same meaning as

d^tOecapov

which are mentioned
line.

but refers to the 'shrines' in the same
iii.

of a single letter, nXeov rj fjTovpr)v for nXeov fjTov^v (comp. e.g. the vv. 11. in

Alciphron Ep.
is

55

is

in the lexicons for this sense,

reading
odea.
cos

probably
(

dt-ioxpea,

quoted but the not d^i-

For Gal. v. 1, Clem. Rom. 35, ii. 8). the construction comp. Aristid. Op. I.
p.

48

<TK€Trr]S

ebti

likeiovos

rj

(pepetv

Another simple emendabwaiprjv. tion would be n\eov olv for ifkeov, as
the wv might easily have been omitted owing to homceoteleuton comp. €ls Polyc. I airov avveatv nXeiova fjs ex
; >

<a\ k.t.X.]

so that

ceived even more than

I have reI asked for\

prayed that he might see the Romans; he was permitted to visit them, decorated with a prisoner's fetters and (so he ventured to hope) crowned with a martyr's chaplet.

He had

ib.

3 n\iov (nrov8a1os yivov ov
6.

et.

be willed'.

it eavirep 8i\r)pa 77] Hf For this absolute

should
use of

For the ideas associated with
in the

deo-pios

mind

of Ignatius see the notes

to the Divine will, 6i\r)p.a, referring Here, as see the note on Ephes. 20. in most other passages where it oc-

13—2

196
fjiev

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
6<ttiv,

[1

yap dpxv euoiKOVOfJLrjTO^ tvyw €i? to tov KXrjpov fjiov
(pofiodfjiaL yelp
vfTiv

eav 7repctT0s

eiri-

dve/uL7ro$iaTtos
fxrj

a7roXapeiv.
/xe
dfiiKriorri'

rrjv v/ulcov

dydirnv,
o

avrrj

yap evxepes
;

earriv,

6e\ere,
;

iroincrai'
si

epoi

Se
ad

A dignus-fiam perduci 1 (toy wiparos £ttlt6xu] si finem etiam inveniam M. Hitherto we finem 2 edvirep xo-piros iiriTtx" GL ; edvirep tt)$ xdptros eiriHx^ In the authorities which follow have had two separate words x<¥> tT0S and T^paros. ad finem assequar hanc gratiam S m si finem etiam they are combined ; tit usque A m ; and so too the presence of both words is betokened in the
;

gratiae assequar adaptation of g, edvirep
dlffTus diroXapelv.

x^P^os einrix^ See the lower note.
.

els

to t6v KXrjpov fxov els iripas dvep,iro2 airoXapeiv] The addition of 2
3 yap]
g.

patienter

is

GL2M
curs,

g ; sed

a mere gloss unsupported by any other authority. ttjv dyaTnjv ufiQp ; mSm rty v/iQv dydirrjv]

AA

GM

the

transcribers

explanatory words.
note.
els

have added See the critical
arrive at the 7, and see A.

2.

tov Kkfjpov

pov~\

See the note
In
diro-

on Trail. 12 for
referring to his
Xafielv,

this use of KXrjpos,

martyrdom.
it

reXos elvai]
:

'to
xi.

'to

end'

comp. Luke
p. 286.

probably

secure\ the denotes that

preposition

was

his

Buttmann
on

See also the note

§ 2 eupedrjvai els bvaiv.

For similar

proper, destined lot: comp. [Clem. Rom.] ii. 8, and see the notes on Galatians
3.

uses in classical writers (e.g. Herod, i. 21 es ttjv MiXrjrov rjv) see Kiihner II.
p.

iv. 5.

(po/3o£)/iat

k.t.X.]

For the con-

471

;

comp. Polyc. Phil.
to

9.

It is

struction see

Winer

§ lxvi. p. 782.

unnecessary Young.
I.
jjltjtos,

read

le'vai

with

The

persecutions in the reign of

evoiKovoprjTos]
e.g.

So too

8vctoikov6-

Domitian show that Christianity had already forced its way upwards to the
highest ranks of society in
(see

Artem. Oneir. ii. 58. The words more often have the meaning 'digestible', 'indigestible', e.g. Diphilus of Siphnus in Athen. ii. p. 54, where both occur. They are rare in

Rome

Clement of Rome I. p. 29 sq). Although Ignatius had been conto death, yet the interof powerful friends in the metropolis, whether open Christians

demned
cession

any sense.
neparos] as
e.g.

'the

termination, goal\

Lucian Harmon. 2 eVi to nepas deploy ttjs evx^js. This reading, which I have restored, seems to follow from a comparison of the authorities as given above. We can there trace the
genesis of the variations.
ginal reading
eav TTtparos,

procured,

or secret sympathisers, might have if not a pardon, at least a
his

commutation of

sentence.

An

instance of such interposition with the emperor on behalf of Christian convicts at a later date is given by

The

ori-

Hippol. Haer.

ix.

12.

The strenuous
under
like

would be emended thus
arise

efforts of the Christians

xyi

circumstances are described in Lu-

whence would
( 1 )

two

cian Peregr.

I

2 enei 5' ovv ededeTo, ol

variations ;

eavirep xdpiTos, the

read-

ing of GL; (2) eav ireparos x^pi-Tos, the reading of A m which is also the foundation of S m g.
,

rb iroiovfievoi Xpio~Tiavo\ o~vp,(j)opav 7rpayp,a iravra eicivovv e£apiracrai ireipcop.evoL avTov.

Ignatius appears to have
efforts

heard that such

were contem-

I]

TO THE ROMANS.
Qeov
eTTLTv^elvy edvirep
vfjieh

-97
jud)

5

Sv(tko\ou ecTiv tov
<peia-t]cr6e
jjlov.

II.

Ov yap

6e\co
kcci

vjjias

dv6pa)7rapeo-Krjo-ai

dWd

ovre yap eyco 7rore dpecrK6T6. tolovtov Qeov eiriTvyeiv* ovre v/jleIs, edv e^co icaipov
4 yap]

Qeto dpe&cu, oicnrep

L2A
app.

GLA m g; autem 2; g* (but with a v. 1.); om.
GLM;
vfuv G.
;

M

scio

enim quod S m

;

om. A.

5

[xtj]

GS m A m

(substituting nunc)
;

M.
v/jlcLs]

7

after ov

after 6e\co g;

om.

AAm

yap]

al.

Sm ;

def.

S.

L

;

aXXa 9e£ apeaai]
def. S.

GLA m M
%u

gM, and
otire]
1.

g

;

sed deo

A

(a translator's

abridgment); om. S m

8 apeV/cere] apecrneTaL G.
(?).

gL Sm (?);
outoi']

ov

GMS(?)
;

A(?)

Am

Trore

Koupbv]

e£u> 7rore Kaipbv)

e£w Kcapov trore
It is

G

;

tolovtov uaTe g.

habebo aliquando tempus L. omitted altogether in M.
;

M

Gg*

(but with a v.

9 rot-

plated on his behalf. Qeov eViru^eli'] 5.

See the note
'

on Magn.

1.

fxrj (peio-rjoSe p,ov] if you should not spare me\ i.e. 'should interpose to rob me of my desire.' To Ignatius martyrdom is life: comp. § 6 /u.77 ipL7Tobia-r)Te poL (not davelv, as

I shall be reduced again to an inarticulate cry. Permit me I ask nothing more to pour out my blood as a libation to God, while there is still an altar ready. Encircle

the flesh,

this altar as a chorus,

and sing your
to

hymn

of

thanksgiving

God

in

we might have expected, but) £r}o-ai. Whosoever stands between him and this his true life, does him a wrong
(ddiK^ar] just above).

the bishop of Syria from the rising to the setting of the sun. Yes, it is good for me to

Christ for

summoning

set

from the world, that
avOpanrapecrKrjaai
i.

I

may

rise

Such a person
(§ 3

unto God.'
7.

grudges him a blessing
if5ao~K.ava.Te ovbevi, §
fir]

ovdinore

K.r.X.]

For
Thess.
is

KaToiKeiT(o).

7 j3ao~Kavia ev vpuv Hence in his nois

the opposition see Gal.
ii.

10,

1

4.

The

adjective avOpoiirapeo-Kos

menclature the meaning of words
reversed.
to death,

To

'spare'

means to deliver
is life.

a Pauline word, Eph. vi. 6, Col. iii. 22, and it occurs also in Ps. Iii. 7

;

because death

From

not understanding this, transcribers here have omitted the negative. Similarly fxr) was omitted in some texts in § 6 prj de\rjo-r}Te fie dirodavelv (see
the note there).

comp. [Clem. Rom.] ii. § 13. The verb is not found either in the lxx or in the N. T. Justin {Apol. i. 2) uses avdp(07rapeo-K,eia. This family of words seems to be confined to biblical

and

ecclesiastical

Greek.
p.

On
62 1
.

would not have you please men but God, as indeed you are For me this is the great opdoing.
II.
'I

these forms see Lobeck Phryn.

you

portunity of finding God, while for it will be the noblest achieve-

'pleasing men' he means abetting those friends who desired to save him, or gratifying the merely human

By

cravings of his
eav epacrOrjTe
rfjs

own nature

:

comp.

ment
silent

to hold

your peace.

If

you are
;

aap<6s pov just beK.T.X.J

shall
if

and leave me to my fate, I become an utterance of God

low.
9.

KaipOV

TOLOVTOV
like

you are solicitous for

my

life

in

opportunity

the present'.

CM For

'

j

98

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
KpeiTTOVi
Sm
;

[n

(ri(t)7njo-riT6,
2

epyco

e^ere erriypacprivai.
a
v.
1.

eav
odv);

yap]

GLAA m
;

yap g. words; sum
but there
is

2 Joann-Mon (twice), M (but with GMg. Other authorities A m sum mihi S m Joann-Mon (once); ero S Joann-Mon
om.
eyu] txt

re

L

;

add. yeprjaopai

supply different
(once);

no reason

to think that

any corresponding word stood in
omission of
eyu> (with

their
it

fiam A; Greek text.
appears
di-

There
in the

is

no

sufficient authority for the

Zahn):

rectly in

GLAA m Mg Joann-Mon (once), and is represented, though less emphatically,
first

deov (om. \6yos)

sum mihi of S m Joann-Mon (once). Xoyos deov] L*2S m Joann-Mon (twice); GMg; ego verbum sum (aut ; ego dei sum) A m (where both readings
imperfectly, for there
is

are recognised, but the

no other evidence

without deov).

A

has si

siletis

a

me

vet-bo ego

pars dei fatn.

for eyw Xoyos This departure from

the

infinitive
e.g.

after

comp.

Horn. Od.

mipbv tolovtov vii. 309 ov poi
II.

alone.'

Xoyos Qeov

k.t.X.]

'a

word of God\
to

tolovtov ev\ o-TrjOecrcn (piXov nrjp pa^rLSia>s K€xo\a>crdai,

The
out

saint's career, if
its

it is left

work

and see Kiihner
'

pp. 580,
1.

ion.

have your k.t.X.] name attached to, have ascribed to you, win the credit of, any nobler
upetTTovL

course and ends in martyrdom, will be a word of God; it will be an expressive testimony to the Gospel, a manifestation of the Divine
but, if interfered with, it purpose will be reduced to a mere inarticulate
:

achievement''

\

as e.g.
toIs

Plut.

Mor.

p.

326
vii.

F

ttjv

TV%r)v

KaTopOwpacriv

iavTrjV

emypacpovaav, Dionys. A. R. 5° TO'? €K(3aivovo~i Tvapa Tag vpeTettjv tvxtjv dXXa ttjv eViypa<£ct biavoiav, ./Elian viii. 2 rois dXXoTpiois eavTov

meaningless cry. The point of this sentence depends on a recognised distinction between Xoyos and §&vr],
as denoting respectively 'an intelligible utterance' and an 'irrational cry'; comp. Arist. Probl. xi. 55 (p.
to.

pas avvOrjicas ov

vperepav

H. A.
dative

novois ovk iiriypdcpoav.
is

Sometimes the

omitted, and imypd<fieiv tlvci signifies 'to give the credit to a person', e.g. Clem. Ho?n. ix. 16, 17, 18,
xii.

905) Xoyou noivcovel povov (avdpamos), de dXXa (ficovrjs, de Inter pr. 4 (p. 16)

Xoyos he eari Cpcovrj o-rjpavTLKrj k.t.X. It was a Stoic definition also that Xoyos del arjpavTLKOs
vii. 57).

II,

while iniypacpeo-Oai
xi. 9.

is 'to

have

ecm (Diog.

Laert.

the credit', ib. neca de Brev.
illis

So

in Latin Se-

Vit.

vitia nostra incendere,

16 'quid aliud est quam auctores

See Lersch Sprachphilos. d. Alten iii. p. 32 sq, 42 sq. Thus (poovrj, as Aristotle says elsewhere (de Gen.

inscfibere deos'.

The metaphor

An.

v. 7, p. It

is

taken from a public tablet, where the name of the person is added to the mention of the achievement.
2.
ai(D7rrjo~r]Te air

of Xoyos. of Xoyos.
(pvvrj,

786), is has in

merely the
it

vXrj

the

making

The

three

words Xdyos,
a descending
;

yjsocpos,

are in

epov]

With

refer-

ence to what follows, 'Silence in you is speech in me'. The twice repeated tap o-iu>Tvrjo-r}Te shows the nature of
the efforts which Ignatius feared from
his

and denote respectively (1) the utterance of a rational being; (2) the cry of an animate creature,
scale,

whether articulate or not
confused

;

(3)

a mere
;

Roman
for his

friends.
life.

plead
silent

They might The words 'be
and leave me

indistinguishable sound comp. Arist. de An. ii. 8 (p. 420)
<pa>vr) \j/6(pos
k

-q

from me' are a condensed ex-

tls eariv epy^v^ov. They are respectively an utterance', 'a cry',

pression for 'be silent

and

'a noise'.

It will

be seen from

n]

TO THE ROMANS.
A0705 Qeou' eav
(i)

199
Se

air e^xou, eyia <ydp Guairr](Tr]T£
the Syriac

epaa-

may be

explained in several ways;

A

may have

read
;

K^USJla
There may
portio for

verbo for

r^o\jL2?9

verbum, and pars dei

may

represent deov

(2)

have been

in the Syriac text of the translator a corruption

r^GVlia

K^U*?!
(3)

verbum, and a subsequent correction, so that both words were retained; The mixed result may be due to a confusion of the two Greek readings

Xoyos deov and eycb yev^aofMai deov, the Armenian text having been clumsily and imperfectly corrected by a Greek MS which had the latter. The substitution of currens in the next clause from such a Greek Ms favours this last explanation.
eycb

this distinction,
(ficovr)

why

rather than
it

\|/-g(£os

Ignatius uses for cfxcvr/, as
;

trasted with

such, though

does not imply reason,

where the Baptist adding that the prophets were rj^os and
i.

23,

styles himself (pavrj f3oa>PTos,

yet expresses animal emotion, Arist. Pol. i. 2 (p. 1253) 77 fxev olv (f)(ovr) rov
Xvnrjpov
Kal

arguing
Tea

ttjv (poovrjv oiKeiOTepav ovo-av Xoyo) Xoyov yiv eo-dai (Orig. inloann.

Kal

r/8eos

eWi
1-

o'ljp.e'lov,

810

vi

§

12,

IV.

p.

121).

And

Origen

toU

a'XXois

Xoyos eVl to} Kai to (3Xa(3epov,
to

vnapx* fyXovv ecrri to
oocrre Kai

£coois...o

^e

o~vp,(pepov

himself, though rejecting the comments of Heracleon, assumes the distinction of Xoyo?

to diKaiov Kal

and

<Pcovr}

as under-

adiKOU' tovto

yap

rrpos

rdXXa (aa

rots civOpoiTrois Idtov, to p.6vov ayadov Ka\ KaKOv Kal diKaiov Ka\ ddiKOV Kal tcov

lying the language of S. John, and argues at length from it, the (fxovfj

being the minister and forerunner of
the Xoyos- (zb. ii 118 sq comp.
;

aXXcov

a'lo-6r)o-iv

*x* lv

stands to Xoyos in as the yJAvxt-Kos avOpeoTros to the rrvevSo again Plut. Mor. p. 1026 p,aTiKos. A cos he (poovrj ris icrriv aXoyos Kal ao~qp.avTOS,
tlkt)

Hence cpvvrj the same relation
'

§ 26, p.
c.

85

;

vi § 10, p.
9).

Cels. vi.

The

Docetse too in Hippolytus {Haer. viii. 9) base some of their speculations on See also Clem. this distinction.
Alex. Protr.
vqs, Kal
k.t.X.
:

Xoyos Se
;

Xe'£is iv cpcovf) at]p.av-

1

(p.

diavoias

203 B ev *X et
ye
to.

comp. Plato Theaet. p. d>v Ae'yccr^at avTa aXoya,
e'x
et J

rj

(pcovrj

8) 7rp68pop.os 7rp68pop.os tov

'la>ai>-

Xoyov

eVapyeo"Tara...0coi>r)i/ p.ovov

Xoyov be ovS* ovtlvovv. This distinction of Xoyos and (pcovr) was at once pressed into the service
of Christian theology. Melito (Fragm. see Cureton Spirit. Syr. xv, ed. Otto
:

comp. Strom, viii. 2, p. 914 sq. From Origen more especially the distinction would find its way into
fathers;

later

comp.
30
Cone.

Meletius
(p. §7%),

in

Epiph. Haer.
Syr. Eva?ig.

lxxiii.

Ephr.
39
ex-

Exp. 3

sq,

(ed. Moesinger).

pp. jaA, 53) speaks of our

Lord as

The passage

of Ignatius

is

'among angels

the Archangel,

among
have

voices the Word', where the editors

(Renan, Cureton, Sachau)

all

plained accordingly by John the Monk in the latter part of the fourth century (see Quotations and References
no. 21),

who

writes,

'The Word

is

the singular 'in voce', 'in the voice', but where we ought certainly to read the plural r^iAjQ.3 with ribui.
asrain O this

So

Heracleon the Valentinian saw distinction in John i. 1, 14, where
is

our Lord

called 6

X.'ryos,

as con-

not of the flesh but of the Spirit, whereas the Voice is not of the Spirit but of the flesh. ..for every beast and bird together with cattle and creeping thing of the earth utter the voice in him a only; but because man has

200

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
/ulov,

["

6t]T6 rfjs crapKos
/uLOi jurj

7rd\iv ecro/mai

(ptovrj.

7rapd<rxricr6e

tov

(T7rov()i(rdrjvai

irXeov [SeJ OeC0, ok 6TL 6v-

rpex^v GAMg. As before, 0WJ/7?] L*2S m Joann-Mon 206 sq (several times) vox {ant, iterum ero currens). It recognises both readings, iteruw ero mera the words iraKiv ?crofj.a.i rpcx wv are omitted in the text should be noticed that in
i

;

Am

G

and added

in the margin,

though apparently by the same hand.

The

alterations

in this context, (1) the insertion of yevrjao/xai, (2) the omission of X670S, (3) the

The substitution of r^x wj/ f° r <pwy, all hang together; see the lower note. departure of A here from the original text of the Syriac Version, as shown by readings of 2 Joann-Mon, must be explained as the alteration of some later scribe who substituted in a familiar quotation the form with which he was acquainted.
ir\iov]

GM;
i
fj-v]

irkeiov g.

8£]
;

MLg jam A m
;

;

igitur

Sm

;

om. G2A.

GLSAA m Sm
irap^x^de g

om. g*

(the existing authorities)

M.
mss, but

Trapd(TXV<r6 € ]

G

;

;

irapdax^crde

M

;

tribuctis

L

(the

we should probably
is

read tribuatis).

airovbLadrjvai.']

gM

;

cirovbtaa-

soul

and

not like the rest of the

note on
p.

irakivftpopelv, S.
2)
;

Hippolytus

other bodies, he uses the Word and the Voice etc.', with much more to the

same
text

effect,

and he

refers in the con-

but the interpolator probably meant that Ignatius, instead of receiving the crown of
124 (ed.
victory,

to

the

contrast between

the

Word and
23.

the Voice in John i. 1, 14, This is doubtless substantially

would be put back again to run the race (comp. Macar. Magn.
iii.

40, p, 138, Ke/cXetorat tg>v novcov koa

meaning of Ignatius. His martyrdom alone would make his life an
the
intelligible

T(av 8popa>v rb aTa.8iov...Kal

av nakiv
:

utterance; otherwise it was no better than the passionate cry of some irrational creature to whom
life is

dvotyeis Kai and for the
I

rpex €lv cmraTTeis K.r.A. metaphor see also Polyc.
;

Trpoo-Qeivai tu> 8pop,co o~ov

SO too rpeii.

Xew
7,

in

1

Cor.
ii.

ix.

24, 26, Gal.

2, v.

pleasure or pain, and nothing In the highest sense of all more.

Phil.

16, etc.,

xx.

24, 2

Tim.

iv.

and dpopos Acts But he has 7).

only is the Aoyos, the Word of God; but all His saints, made perfect in knowledge, are utterances, words,
of God,

One

spoiled

the

antithesis.

From

the

interpolator it has got into the Greek MS of Ignatius. Cureton sug-

as

fragments

of the

One

Word.
Partly because he did not understand this distinction of \6yos and and partly (we may suppose) (frctivi], because he shrank from applying the term \6yos Qeov to any one but Christ, the interpolator has altered
the passage
tuting eya> yevrjaopat. Qeov
after his wont, substifor eyu>
rpe^coj/

gested tjx<o for rpixcov on account of the similarity of the letters, and this not very happy conjecture is

adopted by Bunsen

p. 96, by Lipsius S.T. pp. 75, 196, and by Zahn, though Cureton himself (C. I. p. 292) retract-

it in favour of (pcovr). But obviously the case here is not one of a clerical error, but of a deliberate alteration.

ed

\6yos
143)

Qeov

and

for

(powij.
I.
l

Wordsworth {Church History
translates
ttoKlv

p.

Moreover cpoovrj is required as well by the common antithesis of \6yos and cpeovij, as also by the renderings of the versions; e.g. the Latin vox\ which is not an equivalent to
l

rpe^cof
to

renehis

gade,

backslider\ referring

"]

TO THE ROMANS.
6TOifJ.ov

20
'XPP
^

1

(TLacTTripiov
/mevoi acrrjre
dijvcu

eo~Tiv

iva

ev aya7rrj

ytvoiiri-

Tip

war pi

ev 'h)crov

XpicrTcp,
ut in amore
;

on

tov

G.

3 'iva...d<T7)Te\

GLA m Mg

;

et glorificetis

2

(probably only a loose paraphrase)
;

nna-voce gloriosum facite
4
Tip irarpl]
;

Xptcrry]
i-qaov

A sed in coetu amoris estote GLAA m S m Mg (but deo patri 1); deo patri 2. L per iesam christum A m S m in iesu christo domino nostro
;

sitis in uno consensu tantum (aim) amore state et mi/ii cantatores et glorificate S m
.

£v 'Itjgov

2

;

iv xpicrry

GMg;

domini nostri

iesu

christi

A.

6Ti...fM€TaTe/x\pdfj.evos]

txt

GLA Mg

(with the variations in dignificavit ut sit dei, quum vocaverit

GM

noted below); quod episcopum (syriae) eum ab oriente in occidentem 2 (where [rov]

deov is perhaps read for 6 6eos, and where tit sit represents evpedrjvai', see however the lower note for another possible explanation) ; qui episcopum syriae dignatus est vocare ab oriente in occidentem (not reading os for on, but so translating the

A

ambiguous Syriae

*1)

;

quod

dignificavit episcopum syriae ut in confessione dei inve.

niretur in occidente missus in vinculis ex oi-iente S m

qx<»-

Again, in the

first

clause the edi-

the voice nor the sense of the context
will

tors read ey<o yevr'/aopai

\6yos Qeov

(Cureton, Bunsen), or eyco yevrjaopai Qeov Xoyo? (Lipsius), or Xoyos yevr/but the Latin o-ofiai Qeov (Zahn)
:

cos

admit it. en dvo-ia.aTijpt.ov

K.r.X.]

''while

version,
literal,

which is almost always shows that the terse and
eyco

yet there is an altar ready \ i.e. prepared for the sacrifice. The altar intended is, we may suppose, the
his

characteristic
correct.
1.

Xoyo?

Qeov

is

Flavian amphitheatre, the scene of approaching martyrdom.

irXeov k.t.X.] 'give
'I

me nothing
Trape^eo-dai

3. x P° f ] The Roman Christians are asked to form into a chorus and

more on youi' part\ of you beyond this.'
2.

ask no favour

sing the sacrificial

hymn round

the

On
'

see the note Colossians
tov
o-Tvovbio~6rjvai\

iv. 1.

altar; comp. Ephes. 4 kcu ol kcit av8pa 8e xopos yiveo~6e. The metaphor

to be

ponred
taken
anev-

oitt

as a libation*.
S. Paul, Phil.
rrj

The
ii.

idea
el

is

from

17

km

dvaiq k.t.X., 2 Tim. iv. 6, In both anevdopai. eyco yap rjdr] these passages it occurs in immediate connexion with the metaphor of the
dofxai in\

taken from a heathen sacrificial see K. F. Hermann GottesFor a dienstl. Alterih. ii. § 29. from a similar figure borrowed
is

rite;

heathen
Ephes. 9
4.

eo~Te

religious procession see ovv Ka\ crvvooot k.t.X.

stadium, and this

suggested

rpe'x 0iV

possibly have t0 tne interpolator.

may

belonging to Syria\
tant east'

tov en'io-KOTTov Supias] 'the bishop i.e. 'from the dis-

The word occurs also in Joann. Damasc. Ep. ad Theoph. 18 (1. p.
639)
vivo

the genitive denoting, not ; the extent of his jurisdiction, but the place of his abode. Onthe supposition
that episcopal jurisdiction
is implied, objection has been taken to 2vplas is wanting in one copy of the

Sta/3oXo) cnrovbi(6pevos.

tov paOrjpaTiKov 'TLfipaLov rco The lexicons
in

'to be reconciled' both passages. This meaning might be possible in John Damascene, as the word might there be middle, but in Ignatius neither

give the
(

= o-Trev8op.ai)

meaning

(which Curetonian Syriae) as an anachronism in the time of Ignatius, and therefore as

an indication of the spurious-

ness of the Greek Epistles (Bunsen

202

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
KaTt]pLO)crev 6

[n

Qeos evp60f]vat eis Svcm;, kclKov to Suvai diro euro dv<xTo\f)S /x€Ta7re/x>/rayue^09.
OTKOTTOV Cvpias
KOOTjULOV 7TpOS
i

QeOV,

\v<X

€£S

CLVTOV dvaT€l\tt)

.

"Lvplas]

GL2 3 AA m SmMg
;

(comp. Mart-Rom 10); om.

22

.

Karrj^iojcreu

6

Qebs]

gLA m

6 Oebs KaTiji-laxrev

GM;

al.

SAS m
M.

(see the previous note, p. 201).
kclXov] txt
.

2 IxeTairefxipaiievos] txt

GL[g]

;

prref.

tovtov
;

GL2.2 A m Mg*

Sev-Syr 4a; add. mihi
in

AS 3 Joann-Mon
A;

add. autem S m

the

authorities

for
;

g see the Appendix.
congregari
(but

dvvai]

For the complications GL2S m M Joann-Mon
3 7rp6j 0e6f]

Sev-Syr; intrare

Am

to 5iaXv6rjuat g*.

GL2

AAmSmMg;
est occidere

om. Sev-Syr
a

he quotes the passage loosely from memory bonum
christd).

mundo

et oriri in

duarelXio]

GL2Ag

Joann-Mon;

Br. p. 117). But the anachronism would be as great in the third or
fourth century, as in the second
;

besides several other allusions to this

see

Zahn
other
tains

I.

v.

A.

p.

308.

Moreover the

MS

the word,

of the Syriac version conand therefore its

See passage more or less direct. also Ephrem Syrus Op. Graec. III. p. 261 ebvcrav dno Korxp-ov Kal npos Xpio-Top dveTetXav, quoted by Zahn.
2.

Ka\6v to dvvat

K.r.X.]

He was
;

omission in this one copy must be due, not to the text which was before the original translator, but to an excision practised by a later
scribe.
evpedrjvat els Bvaiv] Comp. Esther T0 ^ s edvecrt rots evpe$e7o~iv els tt)v noXtv, Acts viii. 40 QiXinnos 8e evpeOr}
1.
i.

following the course of the sun his life would set to the world in the far

west

;

but as the sun
rise

rises, so

it

also

5

again to God. For this expressive intermingling of the actual and the metaphorical, see KaraKpiros There is a somewhat similar § 4.
turn in
P-eXP 1
III.

would

2

Tim.

ii.
cos-

9 ev

<u

KaKonaBro

els"A.£a>Tov.

So too
33.
elvai.

(pavr/vat els, e.g.

decrp.a>v,

KaKoiipyos,

dXXa

6

2
§

Mace.
1

i.

See also the note on

Xoyos tov Qeov ov dederat.

els

t4\os

The rendering

of

the Curetonian Syriac may perhaps be explained by an accidental repetition of the first syllable of evpeSfjvat,

which would
S.

to

easily be read OyeypChrysostom obviously alludes this passage in his oration on
11.

Ignatius, Op.
Kal

p.

598 (ed Bened.)
'. .

'You have never yet grudged one his triumph you have always hitherto been the instructors of others. It is my wish now that the lessons which you have taught One service you should stand fast. can do me. Pray that strength may be given me within and without, so

any

:

Ka.8a.7rep rjXtos tis

npos
Kal
to.

tx]v

e£ dvaToXrjs dvlaxcov hvrrtv Tpe\(HV .KaKelvos
evdecos
Svrreros

p.ev els tol Trjs dvrrecos antra v p-ep-q

TeTat
8e
els

WKTa
Trjs

endyet,

Kpvnovtos
p-eprj

I may not only say, but will may not be called, but be found a Christian. The name will follow in due course.

that

;

My faithfulness will then be manifest,
when
world. worth.
I

dneXdcov

am

So too (patdporepov eiceldev dveTeiXe. the Mencea Dec. 20 toIs dpopoLs ttjs
ntrrTeoos,
cos

Nothing

no more seen by the visible is of any

r]Xtos,

dtidpafies

an

yevvairos huprop ovpavov, Kal ftvvas
yrjv
els

tt/v

self is the

Our God Jesus Christ Himmore clearly seen, since

He

aSvrcos

dno

yrjs

Xpiarov to
7-779

(pais

work of the Gospel

has returned to the Father. The is not a matter
:

avvao-TpdnTeis

cu'roS

drpdapcrias,

of persuasive rhetoric

Christianity

Ill]

TO THE ROMANS.
III.

203

Ov^eirore
iyco
Se

L^acrKavare

ouSevi-

aAAovs
rj

e'Si-

5

Sapare.
dvareiXco/xev

deAoo \va

Ka.KO.va

fiefiata

a

uadri-

fiam oriens) (which seems to offer an alternative reading avaroXr] cJ for dvareiXu}); tandem (ad fine m) oriar S m ; al. Sev-Syr. After dvareiXu} SA Joann-Mon have in vita, which must be regarded as a mere gloss
oriar {aut,

M;

Am

gM

of the Syriac translator. ovbeva G; ovde ;

Am

4 efiacr aware] Gg; e^atrKTjvare M. (non iinquam invidistis nobis, et non alios

oi/devi]

etc).

As the

case affects the meaning,

the testimony of the versions is important ; invidistis in aliquo L; invidistis cuiqnam SAS m fascinastis aliqnem 1 (which requires ovdeva, not oiidevl as in g): see the lower note. 5 eyu 5L..evTeXXeade]
;

GLA m S m Mg;
is
it is

om. SA.

a thing of energy and power, hated by the world.'
eftao-Kavart ovdevi]

when

by

letter or

by

delegates, to foreign

churches.

More

especially

we may

4.

one\ i.e. comp. § 7
k€ltoo,

''grudged any the triumph of martyrdom
:

suppose that he had in his mind the Epistle of Clement, which contains several references to confessors

fia.CTKa.vLa

iv vp.lv

fir)

kutol-

where he
'

is

speaking of the
Ignatius,
;

and martyrs, with exhortations
tient

to pa-

same thing.
'

Do not', writes

endurance founded on these ex;

depart from your true character you have hitherto sped the martyrs forward to victory, do not now interpose and enviously rob me of my For the form and meaning crown.'
of
ifiavKavare

amples
§

e.g. § 7 ravra, dya7rr]Toi, ov fiovov
eVicrreAXo/xei'
k.t.X.,
"

v/xas vovdeTovvres

46 tolovtois ovv
kcl\

vTrobe'iyiiacriv koXXtj-

6f)vai

ijfias

Set k.t.X.,

§

55 iva

^

Koi VTrodeiynara e6va>v eveyKcofiev k.t.X.

see Galatians
:

iii.

I.

There are other
also
in

slight

indications

The

required here for fiacrKaLvav nvd is either 'to bewitch' or 'to calumniate', while fiao-Kaiveiv rivl
dative
is is

'to

envy';

see

Lobeck Phryn.

Ignatius that he was acquainted with the Epistle of Clement and the fact of his mentioning S. Peter and S. Paul in connexion a
;

p. 463.

little

aXXovs e'Sioa^are] 'you instructed others', i.e. in the training of the
Christian athlete
v<§>
;

below (§ 4), just as they are mentioned in Clement (§ 5), makes this inference very probable. Zahn (/.
313) supposes that Ignatius also to the Shepherd of Hernias, which is directed to be sent but this els tus '4<» rroXeis ( Vis. ii. 4) assumes the early date of Hermas,
v.

comp. Ephes. 3
(with the hitherto been the
;

A.

p.

vfxcov inraXeicpdfjvai rriarei, vovV7rofxovrj,

alludes

8ecrLq,

jxa<po6vfxia

note).

Rome had

;

chief arena of martyrdom

the

brethren

had cheered on

Roman many a

which
5.

is

at least doubtful.
Se

Christian hero in this glorious contest during the persecutions of Nero

iya>

&'Xa> k.t.X.]

'For my-

self, I

be only desire that you should

and Domitian. The expression might
therefore refer to the

Roman martyrs
case aXXovs

themselves,
'

in

which

which consistent, so that the lessons, thus give to your disciples, may you not fail when it comes to a practical
issue in

would be others besides myself. Perhaps however aXXovs here means
1

my own

case.'

ways uses
verb
3, 10.
;

[xaOrjTeveiv

Ignatius alas a transitive

'others besides yourselves' case Ignatius would refer
.

In this
to

the

comp. § 5 below, and Ephes. So too Matt. xiii. 52, xxviii. 19,

exhortations of the

Romans, whether

Actsxiv. 21, and probably also Matt.

204

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
\iovov
/ulol

[in

TeiWTes evreWecrQe.
re Kal e^oodev,
\xr\

SvvafiLV alreia-de

eawdev
iva

wa

/urj

\xovov \eyco

fjiovov

XeyuofJicu

Xpicmavos
Xeyeadai
/urj

dWd Kal deXto' dWa Kal Bvpedw.
ovSev
[M]

eav

yap
ehai,
i

evpedu),

Kal

hvvafj.ai, Kal

tote wkttos
(paivopevov
;

OTav
fioi
.

KoVyUa)
alrelade]

(paii/wiuai.
dtvafiiv

5

SfocLfUV
2

GL

;

p.OL
;

alrrjaaade

dvvap.iv

alreiadi

fJL0L

g the same
tit

ha

urj

sec]
et

GM

ottws

m g (comp. Smyrn.
is

u, where

there

is

substitution,
et
al.

and

Polyc.

2,

where there
.

the converse);
3

ut non S m ;

non

L;

non ut 2;

non

AA m

eav yap]

gL2A m
et

;

eav

yap Kal
fidelis

G;

AS m
fieri

;

def.
;

M.
et

possum

Am

" \ 4 Kal r6re 7rt0 r6s dvaC tunc sum fidelis tunc sim fidelis A;

GLM g5

tunc
;

2 Joann-Mon

et fidelis

(creditus) ero [S m ] (rore

M

GL; ore g (mss) M. (with a v. l.)j appareo L. Syr 1]; add. yap 2S m M.
5 orav]
;

being transferred to the former clause). <paivup.a(] Gg* (with a v. 1.); (paivopac
ov8ev] txt

SS m

<&rc«J (KK*)

Tim-Syr; cu'iojw
cryafloV

have chosen koXov rather than

pulchrum (TEH?) GMg. Doubtless alwvLov is wrong; and I (Petermann, Zahn), as it is suggested by the
;

6 jtaXov] &>»«»?

GLAA mg (but LAA m

1

add. enim) [Tim-

xxvii. 57,

where however there
for
efxadrjTevdt]
:

is

efxaOrjTevirev

a v. 1. but in
p.

when
rore

I

myself

am

the sight of the world'
eVojuai
pLadrjrrjs

withdrawn from comp. § 4
;

classical writers (e.g.

Plut.

Mor.

dXijdcos

'Irjcrov

perhaps more commonly He intransitive, 'to be a disciple'.
837 c)
it

is

Xpiarov, ore ovde to
oyj/erai.

cra>p.a

p.ov o KocrpLos

His martyrdom alone

will

here

claims the Romans for his teachers, as elsewhere he regards the

make him
as
it

truly nia-ros, 'a believer',

alone will
ovdev

make him

truly

p.aBr]-

Ephesians
1.

in the

same
'This

light, Efihes.

TT)S.
'

3 (quoted above).
plovov]
i.e. is

5.

(paivoptevov
i.e.
;

k.t.X. J

no18

the only

interposition wish.'
e<r<o0ev

on your

part,

which

I

thing visible\ terial, 'is goocP
pjr)

external

and maiv.

comp. 2 Cor.
to.

o~K(movvT<tiv
p.fj

T]p.a>p tci

(3Xe7rop.eva

aXXa

re

k.t.X.] i.e.

'with moral

ra

(3Xe7r6p.eva'

yap

(SXeTrop-eva

courage and with physical endurance'.
It is

nearly equivalent to the

which passage the latter part has been foisted into the text of
k.t.X.,

of

common
2.

antithesis in Ignatius vap-

Ignatius in

many

copies here.

S.

id re Kal Trvevu-ari.

iva
1

p.rj

p,6vov Ae'ya) k.t.A.]

Comp.

in his panegyric of Ignatius says {Ofi. II. p. 598) neidoiv Kara-

Chrysostom

Efihes.
3.
iii.

5 apLtivov k.t.X.

pLrj

p.ovov

with the note. Xeycopiai] Clem. Horn.

Kal p.r]8ev (ppovelv rijs Trapovo-Tjs tcofjy ra. (3Xe7r6p.eva Kal ra>v

fiyelo-Qai

37 p-6vos yap ovros koi Xeyerai Kal
'

€CTTLV.

p,eXX6vra>v ipav k.t.X., probably having this passage more especially in his

If I am proved a iav yap k.t.X.] Christian by my martyrdom, then I shall certainly be recognised as

mind. Zahn {Add. et Corr. p. 404) has pointed out that this expression is quoted by Origen de Orat. 20 (1.
p.

one

;

and

my

liever will

position as a true bebe only the more manifest,

olovei SoK^crei

229) ovbev (paivop.(vov koXov ionv, ov Kal ovk aXrjuais.

Ill]

TO THE ROMANS.
yap Geo? fxaWop (paiverai.
6
ecrrlv
^/ulcojj

205
XpicrTos, ev iraTpl

KaXov.
cou,

'hicrovs

ov

ireio-fjLOvrjs
l

fieyedovs
KOCT/ULOU.

6

xP L<TTLavL(r UL0 ^y

to epyov dXKa orav [xi(TY\Tai vrro

[The above note was written before I Syriac renderings (see e.g. koKov in § 6). noticed Zahn's Add. et Corr. He there quotes Origen ovdh cpaivo/xepov kolXov eariv
lower note), and is disposed to adopt kclXov, pointing out 'vocem dyados omnino Ignatianam non esse'.] After aubviov Gg add ra yap p\ew6/j.eva TrpoaKaipa, rd 8e prj fiXewoixeva alwvia (from % Cor. iv. 1 8), and similarly M; om.
k.t.X. (see the

L2AA m S m
def.

Tim-Syr.
7

6 yap... (paiverai]
Trei<T(jLovrjs]

GLAA m S m

M.
povov

gLSA m

Tim-Syr;

desiderii

Tim-Syr; om. 2g; S m vanitatis A;
;

cria)T7Js,

G;

def.

M.
1,

fpyov] t-pywv G.

8 xP ia"riavia'(Juos]
>

GSAAmg*
it is

(as

appears from

but the mss xP l(JTLav ^)

christianus

LS m

(but here

doubtless due to a corrupt reading in the former part of the sentence, vir for tfl3y opus, thus rendering christianus necessary) Tim-Syr ; def. M.

N123

orav

pLLcrrjraL

vwo

Koapov]

g*LA m Tim- Syr; quando
this inversion of subject

odit

enm mundus SA;
is

quando

mundum

odit

S m (but

and object

explained by

a superfluous letter in the Syriac); om.

G;

def.

M.

6. 6 yap Qebs rjpa>v\ note on Ephes. inscr.

See
'is

the

note on the closely parallel passage Ephes. \\ ov yap vvv inayyeXias to
epyov, aXX'
iv

iv

Tvarp\

a>v

k.t.X.]

i.e.

more

bvvdpei niaTecos

k.t.X.

clearly seen,

now

that

He

has as-

cended

to

His Father'.

During His
but

Ignatius here returns to the idea expressed a few sentences above in the

earthly ministry

He was
;

stood and traduced

misundernow His

words
6eXa>.

tva

prj

Men must

povov Xeya> dXXd ko.\ not talk fluently,

power

is manifested and acknowledged in the working of His Church. As soon as He ceased Koapco cpaivecr-

but act mightily, when persecution I do not understand how is abroad.

Oai,

He
is

fxaXXov

e(paiveTo.

The

sen-

Ren an (Les Evaugiles p. 490 sq) can defend the reading aico7rfjs povov.

thrown into the form of a 'Christ Himself is more clearly seen, now that He is no more
tence

The

external evidence
*

is

decisive

paradox;
seen'.
7-

against

it

nor does

it

suit the con-

ov
is
I

'

neio-pov^s

k.t.X.]

The

Work
comp.

not of persuasive rhetoric''; Cor. ii. 4 6 Xoyos pov koi to

talk as context, which depreciates trasted with work. the idea of 8. peyidovs] Involving 'power, efficiency,' as e.g. Mart. Polyc. 17 to peyeQos avrov ttjs paprvpias
:

Kijpvypd
dvvdpecos,

pov
I

ovk

iv

Treidols

crocpias

comp. Ephes.

inscr.,

XoyoLS dXX
rjpav

iv cmodei^ei irvevpaTos KOt

6 xpi°"rLavia'H-° s ]

Smyrn. n. See the note on

Thess.
iyevrjdrj

i.

5

T0 evayyeXiov

Magn.
vii. 7,

10.
vtto

ovk

els

vpas

iv

Xoyop

pLo-fjTai.

Koapov]

Comp. John

For povov dXXd koi iv Svvdpei k.t.X. Gal. v. 8 with the Treio-povrf comp. note. On to 'ipyov 'the Work', as a

This
the

xv. 18, I9,xvii. 14, 1 Joh. iii. 13. last clause has dropped out of

Greek MS.
§

There
prjfte vXtj

is

a similar

synonyme

for

the

Gospel, see the

omission in

6

KoXaKevarjTe.

206
IV.

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
'€yw

[IV

nacrous rah €KK\ticricus, kcll evypdcpco TeXKofxai iracriv otl [c'y^] eKwv virep Qeov aTrodvri erica),
edvirep v/ueh
/urj

KwXvcrtiTe.

TrapaKaXw

i)/xa§,

\xr]

ef-

ivriXkofUu] GL*S 2 S 3 2 g S 2 S 3 SAA m Tim-Syr; om. GLS mM. i iyu>] GM; om. g. Tim-Syr; evreXovpai g* (mss but mando 1). 3 evvoia It is not expressed in LAA m S m Tim-Syr, and doubtfully in 2S 2 S 3 or zb\.) fiatis L; sitis duaipos ytv-qade'] GMg; concordia (avvvoia?) intempestiva (nom.
i

jraVats]

AA m S m M

.

in aniore i?ztempestivo

amorem...intempestive

2 A;

(evvoia aKaipu), unless

it

is

a loose paraphrase); faciatis

inutiliter (aut; incongrue) curas ostendere

A m (this

is

per-

haps an alternative translation, not an alternative reading); compatiamini inaniter, sitis amatores inanes S m (a double translation): see the lower note. 4 drjpluv add. cibum LA; ehai] S S 2S m add. fioppav G; add. popdv M; add. /3pc3yua g;
2

3

;

a

bestiis

devorari

Am

.

5 iveariv\

GM
It

(with a v.

1.);

Zctiv g;

est

IV.

'I

write

and

tell

all

the

k.t.X.

may have been
some
texts

the apparent

churches that I die gladly for Christ, I unless you hinder me. beseech you, be not inopportune in your kindness. Give me to the wild beasts, that so I may be given to God. I am the

contradiction between these two passages which led to the omission of

naaais
here.
3.

in

of

Ignatius

evvoia anaipos]
itself to

wheat of God, and

am

ground by

ness

They were kindhim. but this kindness

their teeth, that I may be made pure bread for a sacrificial offering. Lure

was inopportune. An easy alteration would be evvoia axaipoi, but the text
is

the wild beasts that they may devour me wholly and leave no part of my body to be a trouble to any. So

probably correct as seems to be a reference
evvoi
ovftev
i.

it

stands.

It

to the

proverb
diacpepei
§ 8

aicaipos

e\dpas
50)
;

be truly a disciple, when the world sees me no more. Pray God, that I may be found a fit sacrifice to
shall
I

(Zenob. Paroe?n.
eav dirodoKL/JLacrOa),
4.

comp.

epLicrrjcrare.

6r)p'«av\

The

opposition between
studied.

Him.
I

I

do not

command
;

you, as

if

Orjpleov

and Qeov

is

He must
The
the

were Peter or Paul. I am only a convict, not an apostle only a slave, not a free man. Yet, if I suffer, I shall be liberated by Christ, and be
free in the resurrection.
I

first

be the wild-beasts', that in the end he may be God's comp. Smyrn.
;

4 p.era^v
existing

6r)pi(ov,

p.era£v

Qeov.
in

insertion of (Bophv or

fip<op,a

am
I.

At present learning from my bonds to

Greek

texts

entirely

mars

the antithesis.
5.

crush

all

my

desires'.

Qeov eiTLTvx^v] See the note on
1.

ndcracs rats eKKXrjcriais] So Lucian relates of Peregrinus (§ 41) <pao~\ 8e

Magn.
6.

ndaais ax^^bv rais evBo^ois Tto\eo~iv eniaTokas bianep,y\rai avrbv k.t.X. Ignatius was afterwards prevented by

the present indicative being used, as in The correction above. cnrodvrjo-KU)
d\r]Qop.ai\
;

'I

am groimd

1

dXijB(op,ai is

circumstances from entirely
this intention:
Tins
(kkXtjo-uus

fulfilling

the

sense.
is

Polyc. 8 eirel ndaais ovk rj^vvrjOrjv ypd\j/ai

dXelv

unnecessary and weakens As regards the form, considered by some more Attic
;

than

dXrjdeiv

see

Lobeck Pliryn.

IV]

TO THE ROMANS.
jjlol.

207
jue

noia AKAipoc yewicrde
5 Si

acpere

dtipioov
el/mt

elvai,
teal

wv [ev-le&Tiv Qeov €7riTvxew°
oSovtcov drjptoov aXrjdoiuLai,
;

(tItos

Qeov,

$1

'Iva

Kadapos apros evpedw
This saying
is

LA m

book deprives the I shall not therefore give its quotations of any value. readings as a rule. Qeov] Theod-Stud; rod 9eou g Mart-Rom 10; dei LS.2 S 3 m S m Beda Comm. in
in the

possum S m Mencea in

;

al.

A.

<xiros k.t.X.]

quoted several times

different forms, but the license taken in this

GM

2AA

Apoc. xviii; christi Iren. v. 28. 4 (Lat., but quoted deov in Euseb. H. E. iii. 36) Beda Martyr, viii Kal. Dec. 6 dX-qdo/iai] Mg (but 1 has molar) Iren MartRom (but Copt, has molar) Theod-Stud; dXe'do/icu G; molor S 2 S 3 2AA m S m molar
;

L = dXrjdcjfiai,
(

if

and see Zahn
yivco/jicu (v.
1.

/.

not intended for a future; comp. Hieron Catal. 16, v. A. p. 339): see the lower note. evpedui] GLS etc;

indeed

it

is

yivu/xai)

Mart- Rom.

p.

151.

The

latter

form occurs

in

other dialects, and even in Pherecrates (quoted by Suidas s.v.) dvrjp (8e) yepa>v dvobuvros dXrjdei, which
illustrates the expression as well as

Herod, ii. 40. See also the passage of Josephus quoted above. This is doubtless the quaint but
e.g.

beautiful thought of Ignatius here. He was the grain of God; by the

the form here.

Meineke however

teeth of the wild beasts he would be

pp. 285, 292) gives reasons for questioning the reading.

[Fragm. Com.

11.

ground
the

into fine flour

;

thus he would
fit

become a pure
altar

sacrificial loaf

for

comes the substantive dXeapos, which is better supported
dXelv

From

of God.

See Qeov

Ova-ia

than

dXrjafxos below, in §
i

5.
;

below, and comp. o-iTovhio-drjvai § 2. See the Me?icea (Dec. 20) airos Qeov
Kadapbs
Brjplaiv
elpi,

KaOapoi apros]

a pure, clean loaf
iii.

eXeyes,
Iva
rco

koa

SV

obovrcov

comp.

Jos.

Ant.

10.
1.

5

Kadapas
ras

aXrj6op.ai,

npos dXearav
ivpoa dyovcri
is

(v.

dXeo~p,bv)

leporeXovpevos
Ka6app.evos. So far the

yevcopai epaarf) na\ Gfcp K€is clear.

apros

Kpidas Tronfjaavres rco
too

/3cojuc5

aaaapoiva
epithet
;

Qea.

The

metaphor

But

especially applied to apros

e. g.

we may perhaps go a
and
of

(Fragm. Com. III. p. 483, Meineke) apros KaBapbs els eKarepco, Tvorrjpiov vdaros, of the Pythagoreans Hermeias (Athen. iv. p. 149 E) eneira
Alexis
;

step further see a reference to the offering

These the Pentecostal loaves. were ordered to be made of fine flour (Lev. xxiii. 17); it was sifted
twelve times to insure the greatest
7); purity (Mishna Menachoth the loaves were eaten the same night, and no fragment was allowed to
vi.

fKacrrw rrapariQerai apros KaOapos, of a

sacred banquet Lamprid. Vit. Alex. Sev. 27 'panis mundus', opposed
;

to 'panis

sequens' (i.e. 'seconds'). purest bread (6 KaOapccraros apros), according to Galen, was called in Latin aiXiyvirrjs (i.e. 'siliginea'), the next quality in point of pureness

The

remain
10. 6).

till

The language

the morning (Jos. Ant. iii. of Josephus,

resembles the context of

describing this last regulation, closely Ignatius

being

o-ep.i§aXlrr)s

(Op.

VI.

p.

483,

Kiihn.).

As symbolical
were

aproi KaQaptn

purity, offered in sacrifice ;

of

here; npoadyovai rep Qecp aprov...K.ai tcaraXurelv ovhev e'anv !£ avrwv els
r l* rrjv entovo-av o-vyi<ex">p lf
V(> v '

208

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
XpLOTTOv^.

[IV

[tov
fjioi

jutaWov KoXaKeuaare
kcii
fjir]6ev

to.

dtipia,

\va

Tficbos yevcovrai,
jULOV,

KaTa\i7ra)criv

twv tov
yevco fxai.

(Tto/maTOs

iva

\xy\

Koi/utideh

(Sapvs

tivl

Tore

ecro/mai /uadrjTrj^ dXridcos 'Irjarov
JJLOV

Xpi&Toi), ots ovSe

TO

CrttifJid

6

KO&fJLOS

SKETCH.
;

\lTaV€VO CtT€

m

TOV

5

deov (before evpedcd) g dei S 2 S 3 SAA m Iren-Lat Beda i tov XpitTTov] GLS m Martyr.; om. Iren-Gr (Euseb) Mart-Rom Hieron Catal. 16 Beda Comm. in Apoc. It seems probable from a comparison of these authorities that the genitive should be omitted altogether. If indeed deov (contracted dv) had stood in the
;

M

original text before evpedco, as in g, its omission through carelessness might easily have been explained by the recurrence of similar letters (see the notes on deov Qvcrla
just below,

and on

§ 2 evpe&TJvcu els Svctlp above);

but with deov, or rod deov, in the

appearance again here would be very awkward, though it has It is apfar better support than tov X/hotov. fxaXXov] GLAMg; om. A m intended to be expressed by the strong forms, provocando provocate, aduparently
preceding clause,
its
.

2 firjdev] lando adulamini, in S 2 S 3 2S m of g vary. KaTaXiTrojcriv] KaTaXiiriocn (sic)
.

fxrjdev (sic)

G;

ur)8ev

M.
-en)

The MSS

G;

KaTaXeiTrwcnv (or

gM
??iei

(the

latter

with a

v. 1.).

tl2v tov crw/uuxTos

iiov~\

g; eonim quae corporis

L;

e

i.
fxrj

/iaXAoi/]

Referring to the clause
p.01.
'

p.

1096) 6r)pia

7re7r\r)apiiva,

rdcpovs rpe-

evvoia ancupos yivrja'ue

XOVTdS.

KoXanevcraTe]

coax,

humour,

en-

u-qBev Ka.Ta\'nroio-Lv\

In one Martyr6), it is re-

tice', a somewhat favourite word in Ignatius see the note on Polyc. 2.
:

ology, the Antiochene (§ lated that the saint's wish

was almost

2.

Ta(pos yevcovTai]
it

So

in the

Me-

ncea (Dec. 20)

is

said of Ignatius

literally fulfilled, Iva ur\8ev\ tcov d8eX81a rr/s avXXoyfjs tov (pcov enaxdrjs
Xei\j/dvov yevr/Tai, Kadcos ev tt\ eVtoroX^ ttjv 18 lav iire&Vfiei yeveadai TeXeicocnv

(nr\ayxya

Orjpicov o~oi Ta<pos ycyovacriv.

Gorgias spoke of vultures as efi-^tv^oi Our Tcxpoi (Longin. de Subl. iii. 2). own Spenser has the expression 'to be entombed in the raven or the

uova yap

to.

Tpa\vTepa
driva
els

tcov Xeiy^avcov
ttjv

7repie\ei(p0T],

'AvTioxeiav

aTreKopiiaOrj

k.t.X.

In the other, the
is

Fairy Queen ii. 8. 16. The last two passages, with others from Latin writers, are given by Munro on Lucret. V. 993 'Viva videns vivo sepekight',
liri

Roman,

this

wish

entirely ignored,

10)

ol

nvi^av avTOv tcov

XeovTes...9rpoo~necr6vTes dne[avTov] p,6vov, ovk ediyov 8e
crapKcov,

Iva

to
ttj

Xetyavov
c

viscera busto'. Compare Suicer Thes. s. v. Ta(pos for other illustra-

avTov
7r6Xei

(pvXaKTrjpiov in k.t.X., though
e'irj

Pcop.aicov

this

latter
al-

tions.
vcov

See also Soph. El. 1487
Tacpevaiv,
cov

/cra-

7rp60es

tov8*

(Ikos

document the passage has been tered in one copy to conform it
the

to

ecrri Tvyx^aveiv, cittotttov r/ucov,

Eur. Io?l
;

933

Gr}pa\v

<pikov Ti>p.(3€vp,a

and

a-

mong
tcvkcos

Christian

Stlppl. 36 Ti'y eVi o~cop,aaiv

fathers, Athenag. av co8' avacnaa-Lv nemo-avao~Tr)aop,evois
;

other account (see the note on the passage). In either legend the narrative has been framed to meet the claims of certain cities to the possession of the saint's reliques.
It

iavrov napdaxoi rdcpov

Amphiloch. Iamb, ad Set. 148 (Greg. Naz. Op. II.

may

safely

be said that the saint

had no thought of the preservation

1\

-]

TO THE ROMANS.
epiov,
'iva

209

Kvpiov virep
6vcTLa evpedw.
\j.ai

Sid tccv opyctvcov tovtcov

Qeou

Ou%

cos

flerpos

kcll

llauAos

$ictTcicr<ro-

vfMv'

eKeivoi

ci7to(tto\ol,

eyco

KarctKpiTOs'

eKelvoi
7rct6co,

tXevdepoi, eyco Se fJL£XP L v ^ v covXos.
corporibus meis
a-tifxards
/.(.ov

dW
;

edv

A ra (probably the plur. is intended to represent the tuv) ; tov (om. tu>v) ; e corpore meo S 2 S 3 2A (but in such a matter the Oriental Versions do not count for much). situ S m 3 yfrw/xai] tvped-qcop-at g* ; inveniar L ; appaream A m ; def. A. totc 5k 4 Tore] GL2A m S m ;

GM

GSM

I

M

g

;

et

tunc A.

dX-qdQs]

LSA m g;
GLSm
;

rod xp l ctov

GL*A m GAS m M.
;

in veritate'L; dXr/Orjs

6 Qeov] m deo S 3 2S m ; om. (probably the latter) 8 iyu] GLS 3 (which last reads dvala KaOapd) see the lower note. tyk 5k [g] (altering the context freely) 2S m Sev-Syr 8; et m ego 9 tyu 5k] GS 3 SM[g]; et ego m eyu (om. 5k) LS m There can be little doubt that ok


;

xP'°"r<?

M.

'Irjcrov Xpiarov] gAS m M. 5 tov Kipioy] S 3 SAAmg; tov xpurrbv g* (but om. 9eov 1; and some Gk MSS

read 0e£)

&»'L;

deo or

<fei

AA

;

GLM
;

:

M

AA

.

AA

;

.

should be admitted here, but rejected in the previous clause. The testimony of some authorities however (g2AA m ) is weakened here by their insertion of a connecting particle in the former case.

of his reliques in the words
tivi

/3apt'?

that this
earliest

phenomenon appears

in

the

yhtopai, but referred only to the

difficulties of sepulture in

a strange
favourite
1.
'

document emanating from, as well as in the earliest document addressed
8.

city
4.

and

at a season of trouble.

to,

the

Roman

Church, after
'

naOrjTrjs]

On

this

the death of the two Apostles.
i<elvoi a.7r6(TToXoi k.t.X.]

idea of Ignatius see the note Ephes.
6.

They

tiov opydvcov tovtcov]

these ini.e.

struments of

my purification',
The omission

the

wild beasts. Qeov Bvcria]
in

visited you, as Apostles, as accreI only as dited delegates of God a convict, as one despatched to
:

of Qeov

Rome
For
6epoi

to

receive

his
. .

punishment
.

'.

must be explained by the similar letters eyeyciA. For
texts
Qfco.

some

eKelvoi aTrocrroXoi

ckcIvol ikev1

comp.
;

1

Cor.

ix.

ovk
;

elpl

this reason Qeov is to

be preferred to See however the v. 1. in Clem.
TroS Qecol.

Rom.
7.

IO Bvaiav
cos

ovk elp\ auoaToXos His juKaTciKpiTos] 'a convict! dicial condemnation by the Roman

eXevdepos

Uerpos kcu IlavXos] S. Peter and S. Paul are especially mentioned, because they had been at Rome and

power was a type of

his unworthi-

given commandments (cWato the Roman Church see the note on Ephes. 12 liavXov o-vjj.For the combined mention pvo-rai. of these two Apostles in connexion with the Roman Church in early
%avTo)
;

had

ness, his conviction, in the sight of God ; his diKaiaxrts was yet to come For (§ 5 ov irapa tovto dediKaicopa^. this intermingling of the symbol and
§ 2

the thing symbolized see the note on KaXbv to Svvai k.t.X. For the whole

KpcTos

sentence comp. Trail. 3 a>a cov Kard<os dnoaToXos vplv dtaTaao-copLai,
eyco KaTciKpiTos,
vfxeis jyAe??-

writers see the note on Clem.
5,

Rom.
in

Ephes. 12
9.
/xe'xP

where also

their
It
is

names appear

pevoi (with the notes).
4

conjunction.

worth observing

wv

SovXos]

It

has been

IGN.

II.

14

2IO
direXevdepos
eXevdepos.
i

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
'Irjarov

[IV

XpicrTOv,

kcli

ava(TTY)(roixai

eu

avrw

vvv fiavdavco SeSe/xeVo? prjSev eiriQufxeiv.

The versions naturally supply various sum S 3 S sum mihi S m see the lower iv aury] GS 3 2S m Mg om. G. note. XpurTov] LS 3 2AA m S m Mg et nunc LS A nunc autem S m i vvv] GA m Mg cum eo A m om. LA. iiri6vfieiv] pavOdvw] txt GLSAA m S m M; add. ev avr$ g* (MSS, but om. 1). add. KoapiKov rj fi&rcuov GMg. txt L2AA m S m 3 yJJs koI BaXda-a-qs] GLA m S m [M]g Euseb Mart-Rom 1 6aXdaarjs koX yrjs SA Euseb-Syr Hieron.
aweXeudepos]
;

GM
A

add. yev-qcopai g.

words; fiam L; fio

;

inveniar

Am

;

ego
;

;

:

;

;

;

;

.

;

;

inferred from this

(Bunsen Ign. p. Kirche p. 412), that Ignatius was, or had been, actually a slave. This inference is at all
58, Ritschl Altkath.

stantive verb) comp. Ephcs. 8 nepi"^rrjpa

2.

vpcov <a\ ayvi^opai vpcov. ' vvv pav6ava) k.t.X.]
I

sent

am

only a learner

events supported by the analogy of KciTaKpiTos, which describes an actual fact, though taken as the symbol of

are teaching me to worldly desires': comp.
0T)T€vopa,t....vvv

At prebonds abandon all
;

my

§ 5

paXXov pa-

apxopai
Syria to

padrjTrjs elvai,

a spiritual state. Some external fact indeed seems to be required but
;

and
V.

§7o
'

ifibg epcos ecrTavpcoTai k.t.X.

From

Rome, by land

probably Ignatius means nothing more than that, as a prisoner, he

and by

was subject
others
I.
;

to the despotic will of

sea, night and day, I fightI mean these ing with wild beasts. I soldiers to bound, for

am

whom

am

see

Zahn

/. v.

A.

p.
'

410

sq.

a freeddneXevdepos k.t.X.] man\ the idea being taken from 1 Cor. vii. 22 6 yap iv Kvptca icKrjBeis
bovXos

they are like ten leopards. only makes them worse.

Kindness Yet their

wrong-doing
beit
I

is

my discipline.
thereby
I

How-

am
shall

not

justified.

dneXevOepos

Kvpiov
et Soc.

eariv

:

Gladly
I

welcome the wildwill

comp. Mart. Justin,
e\7ri(TTos

4 Eu-

beasts that are prepared for me, and
trust

dovXos Kaicrapos a.7T€KpivaTo,

they
I

do
if

Xpianavos elpi, iXevBepcoBels virb Xpiarovj Cyprian Epist. 76 (p. ' O pedes in saeculo ad 829, Hartel) praesens ligati, ut sint semper apud Deum liberi,' Act. SS. Did. et Theod. 1 'Judex dixit Ingenua es, an anKayd)
cilia f

quickly.
willing,
I

will

lure

their work them on to

devour me.

Even
will

they are un-

dixi, Christiana

Theodora respondit Jam tibi sum; Christies auteni

adveniens

me

Mart. Sine.

p. 428,

liberavif (Ruinart Act. Ratisbon. 1859).

them to it. Pardon me, I know what is good for me. I would not have anything visible or invisible stand between me and God. Fire and cross, wildbeasts, the most horrible manglings and tortures which the devil can
force

devise

let all

these overtake me,
'

if

Similarly Epictetus Diss. iii. 24. 68 ov p ($• 'AvTiaOevrjs rjXevdepcoo-ev,
^Xevdepoxrev k.t.X., iv. 7. 17 rjXevdepcopai vrro tou Qcov, cyvcoKd avrov ras evroXas, ovkiti oiJfieis SovXaywyrjaai pe bvvarai (comp.
;

only
3.

I

may
'A7To

find Christ.'

2vpias

k.t.X.]

Shall

I

ovKtTL

edovXevcra'

7rcos

encounter wild-beasts only then at
length, when I arrive in Rome ? Nay, I am assailed by them every hour

throughout
the
lions

iv.

i.

35).

For the form of the sen-

my
of

journey.
the

This man-

iple of soldiers is to

me now what
amphi-

tence (with the omission of the sub-

Flavian

v]

TO THE ROMANS.
V.
'

21

I

'Airo Cvpias JJ-e^pi
kccl

Pco/ul^s

Oijpiojuia^co, $ia

yTjs

Kctl

daXdcrcrrj^, vvktos

rifdepas, eVSeSeyueVo? Se/ca

\eo-

In the passage which follows I have not generally recorded the vv. 11. of Jerome and of Gildas [de Exc. Brit. iii. 7) as having no independent value, since the former merely repeats Euseb, and the latter borrows from Rufinus' translation Nor again are all the vv. 11. of Mart-Rom recorded here ; of the same historian.
they will be found in their proper place. Mart- Rom ; vinctus inter 2A; vinctus cum
vinctus (with dat.) L.

4 iudedepeuos] g Euseb

Am S m

Euseb-Syr; oedepevos

GM

;

theatre will be to

me

then.'

The

metaphor of 6r)piop,ayQ> is suggested by I Cor. xv. 32 el Kara uvBpconov
reference
edqpLOfid^rjaa to
e'v

T(ov de^apevcov pe...oi>x «y 7rapodevovra' Kal yap ai p.rj rrpocnJKovaal pot ttj 68a> k.t.X. In this case the
eKK.Xrjo~ia)V

the

'Ecpeaco, literal

but

it

has

difficulty is to explain 8id BaXdcra-qs

;

flrjpiopaxia

but the answer
far

is

the same.

It

is

which awaits him.

See the saying of Pompeius in Appian Bell. Civ. ii. 61 olois drjpiois fiaxuueBa, and Lucian
Pise.

from improbable indeed that (as suggests, I. v. A. p. 253) they should have taken ship from Se-

Zahn

7rpoo"7roX6/A^crat Secret p.01,
(tlv

17 ov yap rots TV\ovai Oqpiois dXX' dXa£61

leucia to

some

Cilician or

Pamphy-

lian harbour, in order to shorten the

dv6pa>nois kol BvaeXeyKTOis,

in

Wetstein on
k.t.X.

Cor.

/.

c.

quoted For enrb
3425

2vplas
Trjs

comp.

C.

I.

G.

(TTetpavaidevra

lepovs aywvas tovs dnb Ka77tra)arrb 0lK.0vp.ivqs irdvTas

Xeicov eeos 'Ayrto^eias ttjs "Svp'ias. dia yfjs Kai 6aXdo-o~rjs] This

ex-

even without this, the contemplating the voyages from Smyrna to Troas, from Troas to Neapolis, and from Dyrrhachium to Puteoli or Ostia or Portus, which are yet to come. This reading is 4. e'vdedep.evos]
route
saint
;

but,

is

pression has been thought to militate against the statement in Mart. Ign.

better

supported and more appro-

priate than 8edep.evos.

The

saint

was
ten

Ant. 3 KcireXdwv dno
ttjv

y

AvTio%eias els 'EeXevKeiav, e<eWev e'l^ero tov irXoos
npocrxcov
p,era

attended
soldiers,

by a company

of

who

relieved guard in turn,

Ka\

noXvv Kaparou
k.t.X.,

tjj

"2p.vpva.Laiv

iroXei

as

the few

so that he was always bound night and day to one of them by a dXvo~is
dia
or 'coupling-chain.' mililaris'' see
8 sq.
It is

miles from Antioch to its port Seleucia would hardly justify the 8ta
yrjs.

On

this

l

custop.

Philippians

not serious. Ignatius is referring to the whole journey, not yet completed, so that not only the stay at Smyrna, but the way across the continent
difficulty
is

The

however

probable that the soldiers were in charge of other prisoners also, though these are not mentioned might have conby Ignatius. jectured that among these were

We

from Neapolis and Philippi to Dyrrhachium will be included. On the other hand Eusebius speaks of it as a land journey through Asia Minor, H. E. iii. 36 ttjv 6Y 'Aaias dvaKopibrjv, and this is required by another expression
in

Zosimus and Rufus who are mentioned by Polycarp {Phil. 9) together with Ignatius, as visiting Philippi
(apparently)

on their way to mar-

this

epistle,

§

9

rcov

if his fellow-prisoners tyrdom. had been Christians, he would probably have alluded to them.

But

2 12

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
6 ea-Tiv (rrparicoTLKOU rctypa, oi
icai

[v

7rctp$ois;,
i

euepyeMart-Rom

6 iariv]

GLMg
;

Euseb (Gk MSS, Hieron Rufin)
; ;
;

;

otnvis d<n

(v.

1.);

U qui

stmt S m

Euseb Mart-Rom

qui sunt SAAm Euseb- Syr. militum militaris L arpan^TQiv G
*

(n-pariwri/cH

gM

SAA m S m

Euseb-Syr

I. XeoTrapSot?] This is the earliest occurrence of the word in any extant

ita ut expergefacti in

cubiculo

eodem

writing.
'

Thirty or forty years before
7
.

however Pliny (A H. viii. 17) speaks of leones quos pardi generavere,' so that the word was then on the point
of formation,
if

leones ursos pardos...invenirent,' so that Lampridius appears to use 'leopardus' and 'pardus' as synonymes.

Under

mention
pardi

the younger Gordian again is made, among other foreign
'

not already formed.
years
it

And

about

fifty

later

than
v.

Ignatius,

we

find

in

Galen {Op.

koI Xeaivcov p. 134, Kiihn) in\ Xeovrcov kgu napdaXecov re Kai Xeonapboov, apKToav re nai Xvkcov, oi ras aapKas avT&v
TjdidiS

animals exhibited at Rome, of leomansueti triginta,' Capitol. Of Probus too it is Vit. Gord. 33. related (Vopisc. Vit. Prob. 19) that 'editi deinde centum leopardi LiThis byci, centum deinde Syriaci.'
last

vos cos afipoiTov,

caOloires dcplo-Tavrai tov aTrXt]where it is used as

a familiar word.

The work quoted, de Atra Bile, appears to have been one of Galen's earliest treatises see Op. I. p. lxxviii. Again in a rescript of Marcus and Commodus (i.e. be;

word explains why leopards should occur to Ignatius as naturally In the edict of as lions or tigers. Diocletian also leopards are mentioned, Co?p. Inscr. Lat.
depp,a
III.

p.

832

tween a.d. 177 180), quoted by Marcianus in Dig. xxxix. 4. 16, mention
is

made

of 'leones, leaenae, pardi,

leopardi, pantherae,' among commodities liable to customs' duty. Again

Xeonaprov aepyov, €lpyao-p.evov, ' leopardina infecta, eadem pellis The word occurs also in confecta.' one text of the Acta Philippi 36, but this work is of uncertain date and cannot be very early. In Cant,
iv.

contemporary Acts of Perpetua and Felicitas, who were sacrificed to grace a birthday of Geta about A.D. 202, this word occurs
in

the

8 'pardorum' is quoted 'leopardorum' by Jerome adv. Jovin. i. 30
"

(II. p.

286).
1.

Bochart (Hierozoicon Pars
iii.

Lib.

several times;
perti,'
ib.

§

19 'leopardum ex-

'ab uno morsu leopardi,'
objectus.'
is

alleged the word as a proof of the late date of the epistles, asserting that it was not used till the
c.

8)

§ 21
ib.

'ab uno morsu leopardi' (again),

age of Constantine.
to
set

He

attempted

'leopardo
too
it

Of

this

Geta
tions

related
cries

(Spartian.

some of the passages from the Augustan Historians on
aside
the ground that they represented the language of the narrators, and not of the times to

Vit. Get. 5) that

he used to ask quesof different
barriunt.'

about
as

the
'

criminals,

leones rugiunt, leoelefanti

which the events

pardi

rictant,

Again of Heliogabalus we are told (Lamprid. Vit. Hel. 21) that he 'habuit leones et leopardos exarmatos in deliciis,' and again {ib. § 25) that he subito nocte leones et leopardos et ursos exarmatos inmittebat,' among his drunken friends,
'

Pearson ( V. I. p. 456 sq), belong. and Cotelier {ad toe), besides other
considerations, referred to the Acts of Perpetua and Felicitas in reply. But they overlooked the earlier pas-

sages from Galen and the Digests, which, so far as I know, are adduced here for the first time and
;

v]

TO THE ROMANS.
j^

21 3

-ov/uevoi
(the

xeipovs yivovrai,
arpaTLbir-qs
17

iv Se TOi? aoiKJjjuacrLi' clvtoov e
:

Greek word

ad

Alar. 4

arpaTiuTiKri (ppovpd.

being transliterated in 2S m Euseb-Syr) comp. Ps-Ign. The Syriac Versions are of no account here,

as they could hardly have translated otherwise.

the Edict of Diocletian was yet undiscovered. Bochart's objection was

Vegetius describes
prevailed 'Centuriae
sunt,

(ii.

13),

when
in

Ignatius
militibtis

already wrote

;

revived by Baur
copats
p. 156).

(

Ursprung des Epis-

contubernia

divisae

ut

decern

sub uno

The form

of the word seems to

show that it was of Roman and not Greek origin. The more natural Greek would be XeovrondpSaXis, like Theognostus howKapirjXoTrapfiaXis.
it

papilione degentibus unus quasi praeesset decanus, qui caput contubernii

nominatur

;

contubernium autem ma;

need. p. 1394) treats ever (Bekker as Greek, and justifies it by the analogy of yeponopos (from yepo>v),

A

nipulus vocabatur etc' comp. Spartian. Vit. Pesc. Nig. 10 'decern commanipulones.' This is a great de-

'AnoXkoyevrjs, 'AnoXXocpdvrjs (from 'A7rdA.Acoi>).
(1.

In Athanas.

p. 640),
is

Vit. Anton. 9 where Xeondpdcou occurs,
1.

parture from the earlier sense of 'manipulus,' which was equivalent to 'centuria,' and contained 100 or 120 men see Marquardt Edm.
;

Alterth.
p.

there

a

v.

XeonapbdXcov (see Fes-

The name oritus quoted below). ginated in the mistaken belief that
the animal was a hybrid;
sides Pliny
/.

2, p. 458 sq (comp. ib. 253 sq). The Greek ray pa is used widely, to denote any body of soldiers, whether maniple or cohort
iii.

see (be-

or legion.

The very
here,

expression which
rdypa,

Mueller) malia ex

Festus (p. 33, ed. * Bigenera dicuntur anic.)

we have

crrparicoTiKov

diverso

leopardalis

ex

leone

genere nata, ut et panthera'

occurs in Dion. Halic. A. R. vi. 42 of a legion; comp. Dion Cass. lxxi.

9 KaXovai

(where for leopardalis inferior MSS have leopardus), Philostr. Vit. Apoll.
ii.

de to ray pa 01 'Fvpa'ioi Xeyeava; but more properly it denoted an 'ordo' or maniple, as in

14

(p.

30) Xeyerai oe

/cat

nepl tu>v

Xeaiva>i> Xoyos, cos

epaards pev ttoiovvtcu
(ttlktcl

tovs napddXeis k.t.X
rovaiv.

yap

t'ik-

Polyb. vi. 24. 5. For o-TparKoriKuv raypa see Euseb. Quaest. ad Matin. {Op. IV. p. 984) 77 yap Kova-rcobia o-rpaTiobviKov io~Ti rdypa, Vit. Const,
ill.

the animals intended by the ancients under the several names ndvdrjp, irdpdaXis, pardus, etc., see

On

44,

47,

iv. 56,

68, 70, 71.

For the number
iii.

ten

comp. Joseph. B. f.

6.

2

Wiegemann
287
o sq.
icrriv

in

Oken's Isis 1831,

p.

k.t.X.]

This looks

like

a

tovtols d(p' €KaaTi]S iKarovrapxias rjicoXovdow Se/ca k.t.X., and see esp. Leo Tacticus iv. 2 (quoted by Marquardt

gloss at first sight, but it is found in all the copies. It is added some-

Rom. Staatsverw.

II.

p.

580

sq).

what awkwardly
Ignatius, as
his

explanation by obscure metaphor might otherwise have been misun(TrpaTLcoTLKov Tay/xa] 'a company of soldiers? The word ray pa here might

in

i.e. 'the more evepyerovpevoi k.t.X.] they receive in gratuities, the harsher

and more
I. p.

extortionate they become'

;

as rightly explained

by Pearson
this

(

V.

derstood.

$11) who, to illustrate of procuring comforts for Christian confessors and martyrs, cites Lucian

mode

be rendered
if

in Latin by 'manipulus,' the disposition of the legion, which

tvSov per Peregr. 12 o~wei<d6ev8ou avrov 8ia(pdetpovTcs rovs 8e(r/xo-

214

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS

[v

/ULctWov juadrjTevo/ULaL

aA

A'

oy

n<\p^
tu)V

toyto

A e A

i

k a

i

<*>

-

mai.

'OvaifJLnv

tcov

dtjpioou
juloi

ifxol

fiTOifAao-fievcov,

a

teal

evxoiucu crvi/TO/uid

evpedijvar

a Kal KoXaKevcria

(tvvto/ukjos jue
2

tlvcov ZeiXaLvofieva Karacpayeiv, ovx lovirep

tZv

e/iol T)TOipacrp.evup]
;

GMg

(comp. ad Mar. 2 ovalp-qv
;

tCjv Seivwv tu>i> epol
;

i]Toipacrpeuiov)

twv

ifiol

frolfuav

Euseb

mihi

esse

paratis

L*

quae mihi paratae
;

m om. GLM. It 3 d] g Euseb sunt (manent A m ) £AA m S m Euseb-Syr. idiom would suggest the omission. is omitted also in SS m Euseb-Syr, but the Syriac Euseb ; veloccs...in tempore suo S m confestim 2 (the same word which fftivrofLa]
g
;

AA

renders crvvTopus just below)

A
is

(the following avvrb/xm is not represented)
;

Am

(the following ctvvtoplws

which

omitted) eroL/xa omit avvTo/mus below, favour crvvTopa here;
desire
;

GM

;

promptas L.

prompte Those texts,
;

for the

omission

is

then ex-

plained by the

GLAA m Mg
1
;

Euseb

of avoiding an ab aliis ho'minibus

awkward

repetition.

2

(but tlvCov of

g

is

4 tlvwv] translated in aliis

while Jerome freely renders Euseb here sicut aliorum martyrum, and the by a multis S m 8eiAcui>6has ab aliis) Syriac version of this same historian m S m Mg Euseb (but with a v. 1. r)\pa.To). 2 Euseb-Syr ixeva. ovx fyoLVTo]
; .

GLA

have metuens ab

aliis (add.
oi'x

Jiominibus 2)

et

non appropinquans Us, as
g
;

read deiXaivd.uevos

y^aro.

5 enovTa pr) deXy]

if they had volentem non velint

(pvXaKas' eha 8elnva rroiKiXa elaeKOHi£eTo k.t.X., Apost. Const, v. 1 et tis XpicrTiavbs...KciTaKpi8r} vno aaeftcov
els

or with an interrogation which is equivalent to a negative. This however is not always the case;
negative,

Xovdov

rj

Qrjpia

rj

peTaXXov...

see e.g. the references in Kiihner
p.

II.

7rep,yj/aTe

els

p.

avTco els dtaTpofprjv avrov ko.1 icr 6 an 08 oa lav tccv orparicoIva

444
2.

sq.

'Ovalprjv k.t.X.]

So Act. Perp.
lucraretur'.

roov,
tv)(J],

eXacppvvdrj
e<fi'

na\

entp-eXelas
pr]

et

Fel.

14 'ut

bestias

Iva ocrov to

vplv

6\lj3r]Tai

6 paKapios dbeXcpbs vp-wv, Act. Perp. et Fel. 3 'Tertius et Pomponius, be-

Pearson has given a wrong turn to the expression, when he writes 'potior feris leopardis\
;

nedicti diaconi, qui nobis ministrabant, constituerunt praemio ut paucis

For
2.

potius feris quam his ovaip.i)v see the note

on Ephes.
3.

horis

emissi

in

meliorem

locum

carceris

refrigeraremus,' with other

passages.
1.

expeditions\ as frequently. The emendation avvTova suggested by Voss is
o-vvTop.a]
\

prompt\

'

p.a6r)Tevopai\

See the note on

not an improvement.
4.

deihaivcp,eva]

See for examples

I

ov ivapa tovto Cor. iv. 4 °v K

k.t.X.]

Taken from

* v tovtco dediK.aicdp.ai.

For 7rapa tovto 'on this account', where napa. 'along of denotes causation,
ko.1

7 (quoted in a subsequent note), Act. SS. Tarach. Prob. etc. 10 (in Ruinart Act. Mart.

Euseb.

H. E.

viii.

Sine. p. 473).

So too of Blandina, Ep.
1

comp. Trail. 5 7rapa tovto So too I Cor. p.a6rjTijs elfii.
ot»

ijdrj

Vienn. in Euseb. v.
vov TOTe tiov
5.

p.r\hevos cv\rap.i-

xii.

6-qplcov avTrjs.

15, 16,

7rapa tovto ovk ecrTiv eK tov

crcopaTos,

In

all

Clem. Horn. xv. 10, xviii. 18. these passages it is with a

rities

Kav avTa de k.t.X.] The authopoint to eKovra as the original reading; and, if so, it is perhaps

v]

TO THE ROMANS.
Kav avra Ze eKOura
jjloi
fxt]

215
6e\ri,
/ulol

5

ovx h^avTO*
(&id(yo\iai.

iyw
/me

irpocr-

avyyvwfJLriv

e^eTe*

tl

(rvficpepei eyco

yivwcTKco*
(TCa

vvv ap^o/mai
KCCL

/uLadriTrjs

eivar
\vci

/uridev
'

trjXco-

TCOV OpCtTCOV
cLKOvra
p.7]
;

TCOV CCOpaTCOV,
anovTa
fxi]

IrjCTOU

XpiCTTOV

L;

6e\rj
11011

Euseb;

velitit

Am S m

velint appropinqnare
/at]

represent a reading eKovra

ZXdrj,

G; aKovra fir] OeX-qaeiev M; non mihi 2 A Euseb- Syr. This last seems to the confusion of eX0H and 6cAh being easy.
deX-^ay
deXrj

Possibly however appropinquare\% supplied after is translated 'approach' in all the three.
;

from the previous tj-J/clvto, which 6 eyc<3...etVcu] GLS 2 AA m S m Mg

Euseb Euseb-Syr om. 2. A line seems to have dropped out in the copy from which this abridgement was made. 7 fiyOev] G ; /xrjdev or fxrjdev g; fxrjoev Euseb def. M. fyXuaai] {rjXoxrai. g (accentuated as infin. faXwaai in the mss) Euseb (Jerome treats it as an infin.; Rufinus and the Syriac as an
;

optat.)

;

^XQaaL
;

(for it is treated as

an

infin.)

LAA m

;

invideat (f^Xwo-at or ^rfKwarj)

S 2 S Joann-Mon £rj\uar) G. The original reading therefore was doubtless f^Xwcrcu rather than ftXQaaL see the (not fyXuari), and the sense requires pfKuxrai 8 t<2v dopdrcov] gS 2 Euseb-Syr (the two latter repeating lower note.
:
-

ex

its
;

quae)
al.

;

ippdrwv (om. r£v)
;

G

Euseb

;

dub.

L2

(which repeats quae only)

AA m

Sm

def.

M.
the preceding beiXaivopeva.

best taken as the accusative with the Latin Version, i.e. kclv avra fxrj BeXy
[Kara(f)ayeiv
e'pe]
I

eKovra,

'to

devour

mencement
Ephes.
ship
1,

me, though

am

ready'.

vvv apxopai K.r.X.] The comof his sufferings is the inauguration of his discipleship (see
7.

So Mart. Polyc. 3 (of the martyr Germanicus) iavT(3 iireaTracraTO to Brjpiov 7rpocr/3iacra6 (of Agafxevos, Euseb. Mart. Pal.
7rpoo-/3iao-o/zcu]
1

3,

notes).

This disciple-

will

when

only then be complete, his sufferings are crowned by
;

his passion

comp.

§

4 rare eVopat

pius)
kclt

opopatos

avTLKpvs

diroXvOeicrr)

k.t.X. p.a6rjTr)s dXrjdoos

avrov

apKrco

vnavridcras,

ravrrj

re iavruv cicrp,€veo-TaTa
(3opav,

eVtSeScoKco? eiy

Act. SS. Tarach. Prob. etc. io 'sanctus vero Andronicus posuit

The optafrXwo-ai] Not ^Xcoo-at. tive is wanted rather than the infiniThe word here seems to have tive.
its §

common meaning
' ;

caput suum super ursum et instigabat eum ut irasceretur etc' This
provocatio
tary in
viii.

3 efiao-Kavare, § 7 fiaanavia, Zahn however gives notes.
ferent sense
ose

'envy'; comp. with the it a difi.

was not purely volunsome cases Euseb. H. E.
;

fyXovv rivd,

e.

studi-

gratiam alicuius
artificiis
iv.

quaerei'e omnixi.

7 Toiv dvBpcDTToftopcov eVt nXeiova
firj

busque
in

aliquem captare\ as
2

Xpovov

£eii> rot?

TTpocr^raveiv [xrjbe TrXrjo'iara>v 6eo(pt,Xa>v o~(op.ao~iv eni...

Gal.

17,

Cor.

2.

The

ToXpcovTCOv
ddXrjTcov

p,6vov

be

T(ov

lepcov

Report

earcoTcov yvp.va>v Karao-eLovTcov eVt re

kcu

rats

expression 'lrjo-ov Xptarov enirvxelv is equivalent to pa^r^s- etVai in the will at language of Ignatius. Both
length be realised
in

a (pas av-

his

martyr-

tovs

aureus i7Ti(T7ra>p.iva>v, tovto yap eKeXeveTO Trparreiv, p^S' oAcos ecpanTOpeiw, which passage also illustrates

dom.
8.

oparcov

...

dopdrav]

See Trait.

5 (note).

2l6
67TITI/YW.

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
re (rvcrTaaei^, 7rvp Kctl array pos dripicov
(TKOpTriarfJiol

[v

[dvape-

TOjuaiy

Siaipea-'eis],

ocrrecDV,

crvyKorrai

\wu,

dAeorfJiol

oAov tov

o-oo/uaTOs,

KctKai

KoAao-eis tov

i

ffvaraffeis]

GLA m Mg;
two
latter

<rv<rTa<ns

Euseb-Syr (the paratae sunt {mihi).

owing
S.2 A;

to absence of ribui).

Euseb (Laemmer, but v. 1. <ri/<rrd<re{s) S m S 2 2A have bestiae quae

avaro/xal, diaipiaeis]

GA m [S m ]Mg
et

;

5icup<*<xeis

(or rather

8iaipe<ns, omitting dvarofxai)

om. altogether, LS Euseb Euseb-Syr. minor variations Tur/wl..:fukvr] GLS 2 AA m S m Mg Euseb Euseb-Syr (the
authorities

2 CKOp-

in these

given below) ; et abscissio Rom. (transposing the two clauses; comp.
are
irLfffiol]

membrorum
inscr.,

dispersio
19).

ostium

2

Ephes.

OKop-

GLMg
in

Euseb Mart-Rom
Euseb-Syr
is

5

(v. 1.)

;

dispersio

SAA m S m

Euseb-Syr (but

the

sing,

SAS m

explained by the absence of ribui, and

Am

renders diaipiaeis, avaropal,
u<jt£o}v

<rKopiri<rfiol, aXea/uol,

G
;

avyKoirai]

by singulars). g Euseb Euseb-Syr [Mart-Roml
G.
3
dXe<r/xoi]

also

oareaw]
;

cvyKoirr}
(see the

GLS 2 SAA m S m M
last
v.
it
1.

but the

Oriental Versions are of no

account here

note).
dXrjafxoi)

/AeXw] p.eXXQv

gM

Euseb (but

Mart-Rom
mean
a

;

0X7707*01

G.

There

is

no authority
dissolutio),
/ecu

for dXvcixoi, unless

be

Am

which has

contritio
v.
1.

{aut, contritio

et

where the words in
Ara/ccd]

brackets perhaps

giving both words, dXeafxoi

dXvap.oi.

'

1.

avardcreis]
'.

conflicts,

grap-

As avardb-qv /zcry^ cr<9cu is plings with a common phrase for 'comminus pugnare', so owrao-i? denotes 'a hand
to
Vit.
fxeurjs

Pathol, p. 295. For similar instances Phisee Galatians vi. 6, and p. 92
;

lippians
3.

i.

28,

ii.

14.

aAeo>ioi]

For

this
4.

form

see
read'dis-

hand

engagement', e.g. Plut. Pomp. 70 ttjs (rdkiriyyos apx°eyxtXeveoSctL 7rpbs
1

the note on dXr\6op.ai §

The

ing

dXvo-pioi,

'restlessnesses',
is

rrjv

avaracnv,

tractions',

has no authority (see the
inappropriate.
It

Vit.

Dcmctr.
It is
viil.

6 ayedv
ters).

e'xr) (i.e.

6 otov pdXiaTa o-ihttcktlv comes to close quar-

upper note) and

was

first

introduced into the inter-

indirectly defined in Plat.
p.

polator's text

Legg.

833 A

rj

iv rais

(rvpL'

who
(as

prints dXvap.o\,

by the editor Morel, and is not found
Cod. August.

irXoKois p-dx*] Kat (rvaraais. The word occurs in a different sense, Trail. 5.
2.

Smith

states) in the

(TKOp7TL(TpLn\

oaricov]

Ps.

xxi

(xxii).

15

difa-KopTTiadri Tvdvra

ra octtu

of the interpolator's text. KctKai KoXdaeis k.t.X.] Pearson quotes Justin Dial. 131 (p. 360 c) KoXdo-eis
p-*XP L Qavdrov vttu
o-TpctTLcis
c.

p.ov

;

comp.

Ps.

lii

(liii).

7,

The word

o-KopnLCeiv is
It

an

cxl (cxli). 8. illustration

toc

baip.ovLa>v ical rfjs

of the exceptional character of the
Attic dialect.
tseus,

tov 8icifi6\ov, Celsus in Orig. Cels. vi. 42 (I. p. 663) 6 tov Qeov

appears in Hecaand reappears in writers, sacred

irals

upa
tcoj/

r/TTciTat
vit

vnb diajBoXov, kol
ovtov
SiSacr/cei
*cai

KoXa£6/ievos
ripas

and profane, of the post-classical ages; it is called by some an Ionic, by others a Macedonian word; but in Attic it seems not to occur. See Lobeck Phryn. p. 218, and comp.

v7ro

tovtov KoXdcreccv Kara-

(ppovelv.

For the ellipsis 4. 1va\ p.6vov with ijlopov see the note on Ephes. 11. VI. 'The kingdoms of this world

v]

TO THE ROMANS.

217
'

SiafioXov
5

eV

e/ue 6px6(r6co(rav'

fjiovov 'iva

hjcov XpLcrrou

eTTLTV^O),

VI.

OuSev

fJL6

(jocpeXtjcreL

to.

irepaTa tov Kooytov,
kol\6v
jjlol

ovCe at fiaarCKeiai tov aiwuos
GL;
tcai

tovtov

cltto-

el

malae S 2 A (the conjunction
Euseb-Syr;
0111.

is

of no account); durae 2;

et

omnes

Am S m

;

gM

altogether, Euseb.

Nothing can be

inferred from the

loose quotation of Sev-Syr 216 ignis /coAdcrets] GLS 2 super me.

et bestiae et

mille species tor??iento?'um veniant

2AA m S m (?)M

cpxevdu for ipxeaOojaav) Euseb-Syr. solum A Sev-Syr; et solum S 2 SS m Euseb-Syr.

4 fxovov ha]

Euseb; KoKacns g (reading also GLA m Mg Euseb;
'Irjaov]

Euseb Euseb-Syr Sev-Syr; om. A m (with the exception of the words 6 tokctos
.

GLSS AS m Mg
till

5 iirirvx^]
/xoi
;

S

breaks off here and
contains nothing
Trepara]

iiriiceiTai § 6)

§ 7 6 e/xos Zpws k.t.X.

6

fie]

gM

p.01

G.

gLS 2 A m S m

(written however TlHiy opera for m S m Mg; 7 tov alwvos tovtov]

Tmsy
ejus

termini); t/iesaurus

A;

ripirva

GM.
kcl\6i>]

GLA

S 2 ; hujus A.

The

Syriac had already

exhausted the proper equivalent to aiwv, Nu?y,

in translating kov/jlos.
p.b\\\ov

gM; bonum LS 2 A Tim-Syr
p.oC]

r;

pulchriwi S m ;

G; melius

(?)

Am

.

GM

;

i/JLol

g.

It is better will profit nothing. to die for Christ than to reign over
I the whole earth. long for Him died and rose for me. The labour-pangs of a new birth are upon me. Do not prevent me from living

me

olKovp.ivr]s) is

a
ii.

common
8
dcoo-co
.

expression
.
.

:

see esp. Ps.
crx^o'lv

ttjv

Kara-

aov

to.

nepaTa

ttjs

y^?,

which
Ig-

who

well illustrates the

meaning of
reading

natius here.

See also the note on

;

Ephes.

3.

The

other

ra

do not desire
fain belong to

me

would God; do not bestow
to
die.
I

Ttpirva is discredited

by the deficiency
This was

of authority.
7.

me

on the world.
light.

Let

me

see the

at

ftaaiXeiai

k.t.X.]

pure

When I am come thither, Permit me I shall be truly a man. to imitate the passion of my God. Let all who have Him in their hearts feel and sympathize with my
desire, for they

temptation offered to Christ Himself; see Matt. iv. 8, Luke iv. 5. koXov k.t.X.] Suggested by 1 Cor. ix. 15 KaXbv yap [xoi p.aXXov airodaveiv
the
rj

to Kavx^P-O- P-ov k.t.X.

For KaXov

.

.

.rj

know what

constrain-

eth me'.
6.
fxe cocpeXjjo-ei]

With an accusa36,
1

(without p-aXXof) comp. Matt, xviii. 8, and see Winer 9, Mark ix. 43, 45; for this construc§ xxxv. p. 301 sq
tion,

tive, as

Mark

viii.

Cor. xiv.

6,

which

is

common

in the

LXX.

This is the common construction; but it sometimes takes a

Heb.

iv. 2.

If

the

alternative

were accepted, we
wcpeXrjo-ei;

reading p.aXXov must understand

dative,

especially in poetry. See Kiihner 11. pp. 251, 252. tile OOUHTOV K.T.X.] TO. TTepCLTO.
'

more

but

it

is

condemned by

the great preponderance of authorities. It was perhaps originally written

daries of the earth\ i.e. 'the whole earth from one end to the other.'

above the line to supply the defective and afterconstruction KaXou fj,
. . .

In the

LXX

to,

nepaTa

ttJs

-yrjs

(rrjs

wards displaced

kqXov.

2lS

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
rj

[VI

daveiv Sid 'lri<rouv Xpiarrov,
t?7s
7;??.

fiacriXeveiv
virep
^(JLtSv

twv

7repaT0)v

eiceivov

^tw,
L

tov

dirodavovTcr
6 TOKeros poi

eKeivov 6e\co, rov \%i
i 8th] g (but have read either
1

fifxas]

dvavTavTa.
h M;
els

translates in)

Tim-Syr;
.

G;

in S 2

AA m

(they

h

or

els)',

cum S m

'Irjaovv

Xpiarov]

may LS 2 Ag

Tim-Syr

tuv irepaTUv] or XP l(TT V tyvw) GA m S m M. ( i 777s] txt Tim-Syr; super omnes terminos S 2 A. LSoAAmSm Tim-Syr; add. rl yap w0eX«7cu dvdpuiros ehv KepS-qay tov Koafiov oXov (top koo/xov oXov Kepdrjay g) tt\v 8e ^vx^v avrov fyptwOy ( T 8e $• ai/rou Matt. xvi. 16 comp. Mart-Rom 2. airoXtari g, kclI f. r. ip. avrov M) GMg from 6 tok&' was] GLA m [S m ] Tim-Syr; om. S 2 A[g] Mart-Rom; def. M. 3 [S]A m S m ; 6 8e tokctos GL* (reading however doe for 6 5e, and mis;

xP iaT0V l^oovv

GLA m S m Mg

-

:

eros]

translating tok€tos lucrum)

Tim-Syr;

et

dolores mortis

S 2 (reading K'wCXSQ.l

mortis for T<\l^Cl273.! partus; see above p. 7§ s q); dolores mortis (om. 5e)
def.

A;

has partus mens {aut; fenus et lucrum maim), where the words in brackets may imply another reading tokos or another interpretation of tokctos.

Mg.

Am

fxot]

GLSAS m

Tim-Syr;

ptov

Am

]

om. S 2

;

def.

Mg.
5.

4 ffvyyvure]
5

GM;
.

o-vyyvo}/uLoi>e?Te

g Tim-Syr; ptrjSe deXrjcnjTe M; velitis {secundum alios; ne velitis) A m no other trace of this v. I. deXrjo-rjTe for ptrj deXrjcnjTe. The omission of the the same. fie] negative has an exact parallel in § 1 [firj] (peio-rjade, the motive being top tov gM and perhaps L (velitis me) ptot G. The rest are doubtful.

g: see the converse change in Trail.

m

BeMjayre]

GLS 2 AS m
is

There

;

Qeov OtXovTa]

G

S m Tim-Syr; tov deov BtXovTa

pte

gA m (?)

;

del volentem...me

L;

3.

6

ToneTos

i

k.t.X.]

My

birthre-

est

angelorum', a passage which has

pangs are at hand\
fers not

The image

only to the birth of the child, but to the pangs of the mother also. Ignatius stood in the position of both His martyrthe one and the other.

dom

They were

represented the pains of labour. suffered by the earthly

Ignatius; they resulted in the birth of the heavenly. The codlves tov Oclvcltov (Acts ii. 24) were with him the 'natalicia' of his higher life.

more than one resemblance to the language and thoughts of Ignatius here. As this interpretation was written down some years before Zahn's book appeared, I am confirmed in its correctness by finding that he had expressed independently and in other language the same view
respecting the double reference in The tokctos {I. v. A. p. 561 sq). word takes a genitive either of the

For the metaphor, as regards the mother, comp. Gal. iv. 19 TfKvla ptov, and as reobs naXtv (ob'ivoi k.t.A.
;

mother (Ephes.

19,

Job

xxxix.

1,

2)

or of the child (Ecclus. xxiii. 14). On the other hand the Latin Version renders it lucrum\ and the Armenian Martyrology gives as an alternative translation fenus et lu~ c7-am? So also some modern critics, e.g. Smith p. 99, Denzinger p. 62,
i
l

gards the child, e.g. August. Serm. 381 de Natali Apost. (v. p. 1481)
Natalicio ergo Petri passus est Paulus, non quo ex utero matris in numerum fusus est hominum, sed
1

quo ex vinculo carnis

in

lucem natus

who compare

Phil.

i.

21 to airoQaveiv

VI]

TO THE ROMANS.
(TvyyvcoTe
6e\t](niT6
jjlol,

219
jur)

67riK£iTai.
5

d(He\<po'r

efJLiro^LcrriTe

juloi

(^rjcraL, jut]

fie

diroQaveiv.

tov tov Qeov

6e-

Xovtcl elvai
def.

Kocrjjiu) \xr\ -^apicrr]G'de y /mrj^e v\rj

KoXctKevcniTe.

M.

S 2 A favour rbv...6e\ovTa as against deXovrd
:

/xe,

corrupt text
catis,

see the next note.

6

lff x a p' W^ c ] gA m S m (which has

but otherwise they have a dedu-

a loose rendering) Tim-Syr (for doubtless
)
;

we

should read f

^mW
L
;

\ for

P^*!«\v

x a PWV a'^ e

G

;

separetis (xwpL<rr)<Tde, taken as if x^picr^Te)

def.

M.

In S 2 the whole sentence is rendered, ilium qui non vult esse in mundo ne honoretis me in hoc, and similarly in A qui non volo manere in mundo, ne honoretis sic. The explanation of this rendering seems to be this; (1) Some letters dropped out,

TOn[tOY0€]oyO€Aonta, owing
read tov ov OeXovra k.t.X.;
(2)

to the recurrence of similar letters, so that

it

was

In order to

make

sense, Kda/xu

was attached

to the

preceding words ; (3) xa.pio-<\<sde was inaccurately translated honoi-etis. At all events the coincidence of S 2 A shows that the corruption is not in the Armenian, as Petermann not unnaturally supposed, but existed already in the Syriac Version. p-rfih
neque per materiam seducatis L neque per adulcmini {blandiamini) me Tim-Syr; neque provocetis-me-ad-aemulationem hylen A neque labefactetis per ea quae videntur S 2 et ne aemulatorem facialis visibilium
ti\r}

KoXaKevarjTe] see the lower note

;

;

;

;

me (om.

S\jj)

S m (but

for the

verb
est,

^. ix.
which

labefaclavit, pcccare fecit,
is

we ought

surely

to substitute
rialibus)
letter

A ^X.

blanditus

used in Tim-Syr)

;

ne dementis {mate-

quibusdam seducamini

Am

in

makes the difference between the the Greek) om. Gg def. M.
;

(reading perhaps KoXaKtvdrpe, but a single active and the passive in the Armenian, as

;

Ke'pSor,

arises

and similarly Leclerc. This from a confusion of words.

While

tokos frequently bears this secondary sense of 'interest', tokctos seems never to have it.
6.
fjLT)8e

it expreferred KoXaKevariTe, because better than plains all the versions or irapa(e^a7raTr]aT]Te) egaTrarciTe

fyXcoo-rjTe,
CrjX<oo-r]T€

vXrj
i.e.

Ko\aKevo-T)Te]

For

1/A77

'matter',

'external things',

see the note on cpi\6v\ov § 7. The words missing in the existing Greek
text

sense. translator of Timotheus uses here, occurs in 2 as the rendering of koXaiceveLv in Polyc. 2, and the sub-

moreover irapawhile does not give the right The verb ^YJ*, which the

have been supplied \x.-q& vXjj e^anaTUTe by Petermann, prfi vXrj and p.r)8e 7rapa£r]\a>crriT€ by Lipsius, V. A. v\t] i^anaTrjO'r]Te by Zahn (/. They p. 560, and in loc.) and Funk. have rightly substituted p.r)8e for since there is no reason for lirjTe, introducing a connexion ^.../z^e which is only not solcecistic. The

stantive from the
in the Peshito of
Xaiceia.

sion S 2

root appears Thess. ii. 5 for koThe word in the Syriac Ver(from which the Armenian
1

same

A

is

translated),

pB

(Aphel, provo-

care

ad zelum,

neither well
is

slimulare), though suited to the context
KoXaKeveiv,

nor a good rendering of
closely allied in
(excilare)
4,
5,

word

v\rj is

of Timotheus.

preserved in the Syriac For the verb I have

which

is

meaning to ro used by 2 in Rom.

the only remaining passages

220
a(pere
6pto7ro^
/me

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
Kadapou
(puis Xafieiv'

[VI

eW
poi

7rapayei^6^ei'0£ avixiixr\Tr\v

eo-ojjiai.

tTTLTpe^are
ptov.
kclI

eivai

tou
e^e*,

irddovs
votio-ctTco

tou Oeou
o

el

tis

avrov
p.01

iu

iavrw

6e\to

G-vpi7ra6eLTto

eiSws to. crvve5

yOVTCt
i

fJL€.

cw9pwiros]

is

clearly a corruption,

LS m Tim-Syr; homo perfectus S 3A; in luce perfectus S 2 (but this r^i 0301=3 in luce for rtlx_2i=D homo, as S 3 shows);

The perfectus of the Syriac and Armenian, and the deov of avdpwiros Oeou GMg. In m the sentence eK€?...iffo/JXU runs nunc the Greek copies, are evident glosses. homo sum, sed illuc iens angelus fiam, the seemingly unmeaning avOpmcos being i iirirptyaTe' /xoi] GMg; edcrare Anast-Sin. displaced by a paraphrase. The singular permitte in Sev-Syr 3 is doubtless an error of transcription, as

A

the plural appears in three other places, 1 (twice), 4 b.
(written
fxrjuTjTrjv)

pu/x-qTrjv]

G

LS 3 AA m S m Mg

Anast-Sin

Tim-Syr

(twice)

1,

2,

Sev-Syr

where KoXaiceveiv occurs in Ignatius; and indeed the two roots are connected together in the Peshito rendering of 2 Cor. XI. 2 to vpcov (rjXos On the ditrev tovs 7rXeiovas. 77 pk other hand in the Latin Version
blci7idiri is

ore yeyova dvrjp) or courage (opposed to yvvr), e.g. Horn. //. vi. II2 avepes core, cp'ikoi), avOpconos denotes the ideal

of humanity. The use of the word here is partially illustrated by M. Antonin. iv. 3 eXevdepos eVo Ka\ opa ra
TTpaypaTa,
Xitt]s, cos
oi
cos c\vr\p, cos avOpcoiros, cos tto£coo:>,

the consistent rendering

of KoXaKeveiv in these epistles elsewhere, while sedncatis occurs here.

Bvqrov

x.

1

5 laToprjrcoaav

For the sense of KoXaneveiv comp.
riq,

avQpconoi avOpcorvov dXrjdivov Kara (pv(Tiv £covra, xi. 18 ap£ai nore avdpcoTros
(rjs.

Clem. Horn. xx. 4 KoXaKevovcrfi apapand see the note on Polyc. 2. a man' in the I. uuBpconos]
'

dvai, ecos

Thus too Menander

highest and

truest sense, 'a rational,

says (Fragm. Co?n. IV. pp. 355, 372) cos X"P ^ V ^°"r> a.v6pcoTTOs, otclv auOpco7ros ?J, quoted by Clem. Alex. {Strom.
L

immortal being'.

In the language

viii.

3,

p.

916)

whose comment
Koivas

is

of Scripture generally, as in other writers, avdpconos is a disparaging term, suggesting the weakness, the sins, the mortality of human nature ;
see esp.
1

ovtcos

avQpconos, 6 ras

KeKTtjpevos.

So again

in

(ppevas the well-

known
(Diog.

story of Diogenes the Cynic Laert. vi. 41) Xvxvov pet?
{j]Tco %

Cor.

iii.

4 ovk avdpconoi eWe

;

(where

received reading, ov^l is a mere crapKiKoi eVre paraphrase). Here however the case is different.
;

the

rjpepav cruras, "AvOpconov, ecprj, and in another story of this

same

philosopher {ib. vi. 60) inavr^et dno 'OXvpnicov npos ovv tov nvOopevov el
OxXos
fjV

Ignatius speaks of the naivhs avdpconos, the man regenerate, in whom the

7T0\VS,

HoXvS
1

pkv,

tilttV,

oyXos, oXiyoi de avdpconoi.

See also
213)
dta.

Divine image (Gen. i. 26) is renewed. So used, it is higher than avi]p for while avrjp implies either maturity (opposed to pr/mos, e.g. 1 Cor. xiii. 1 1
;

[Clem. Rom.] Fragm.
tovto
icrpzv
avOpcoTrot

(p.

<ai

cppovrjaiv

e'xopev k.t.X.

Scribes and translators,
this

not

understanding

use,

have

VI i]

TO THE ROMANS.
VII.

221

'O apyuiv tov aiwvos tovtov CiapTrdcrai /me @ou\6Tai Kctl Tt)v €£? Qeov fuov <yvtjifJLr]v Sta(p6elpai. pri$els

ovv tcov 7rap6vTcov
times),
'

vjulcov

fiotideiTO)
In the
'

avrw'
first

[aclXKop

(four

Anon-Syr2 Anon-Syr 3 Theod-Stud.
which are rather older

passage Severus
is

states that

in other copies

the reading

p-ad^T-qv .

No

other trace of this reading exists. ehai] The Oriental Versions determine nothing here.
irddovs g.
3 tov

GLMg;

yevto-dai Anast-Sin.

Qeov

,uov]

GLS 3 AS m

tov irddovs'] Anast-Sin; Anast-Sin Tim-Syr (twice) Sev-

GM

Syr (three times) 2, 3 (while elsewhere 4 b he quotes it 'my God' for 'of my God,' but probably a letter 1 has dropped out of the existing text) Anon-Syra " domini mei A m > 4 elAnon-Syr 3 xP l0 r0 ^ T °v @ € °v fxov S T °v XP i0 T °v
~ ; >

^

.

odis]

GLAmSmMg

Tim-Syr; hoc
v/jlZv]

dico

quod
1st

scio

A, but

this
7

is

probably a translator's

insertion to refer

et'Scis

(wrongly) to the

person.

Geo?]

GM
;

;

tov Qeov g.

8

tQv trapovTuv

interpretation of the

Gg; praesentium de vobis L (which probably is a missame Greek); e vobis (om. tuiv irapovTuv) AA m tQv Trapovruv
avTu] There
is

(om.

v/jluv)

SmM.

no

v.

1.

here.

For

L

see the

Appx.

helped out the meaning in different wavs, as the critical note shows.

to

The reading

of the

Greek MS

avOpca-

All my you, desiring to die. earthly longings have been crucified. There is no more any flame of passion in me, but living water, which speaks and summons me to the

nos Qeov was probably suggested to the scribe as a scriptural expression, e.g.
17.
2.
p,ip.r]Tr)V
I

1

Tim.

vi.

11, 2

Tim.

iii.

Father.
sures.
I

I

have no delight

in

cor-

ruptible food or in this
eivat

life's

plea-

k.t.X]

Comp.
ava£oi-

Ephcs.
notes).
i.

p,ip.T)Tai

owes Qeov,

which

is

desire the bread of God, the flesh of Christ the son

7rvprjo-avTes ev

12, p.

aipaTi Qeov (with the Anastasius of Sinai {Hodeg. 196 Migne) mentions this as

of David,
c

and His blood, which
love.'

is

imperishable
6.

O

note apx<»v K.T.X.] See the
1

one of the passages in earlier writers, which the Monophysites quoted in
support of their doctrine. The quotations in the extant fragments of the Monophysite Severus confirm this statement. VII. 'The prince of this world
desires

on Ephcs.

7.

diapTvdaai]

The word used

in the

man's house, parable of the strong which Matt.xii.29(v. 1.), Mark iii. 27; may have suggested its empassage

ployment here.
7. rrjv

els

Qeov

t

K.T.A.]

tny

mind

my

ruin.

Do
;

not ye abet,

him

in his

purpose

but espouse

my

which is to God-ward*, 'my heavenward thoughts': comp. Philad. 1
ttjv

cause, which is God's cause also. Do not talk of Jesus Christ and desire the world at the same time.

els

Qeov avrov

yvcoprjv.

See also
rj

[Clem.
avrov.
8.

Rom.]

ii.

3

r\

yvwcns
'

nphs

Let no man grudge me my crown. Obey not my prayers, if I should entreat you by word of mouth, but
rather obey
to you.

TO>V

TTClpOVTMv]

IVkO

0?C

OH

my

letter,

as

I

now
I

write
write

the spot,' i.e. 'who will be witnesses It of my approaching martyrdom.' to the following napcov,

corresponds

For though

living,

'when

I

am among

you.'

222
ijj.01

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
yivea-de,

[vn
'Itjcrovv
fit]

rovreaTiv tov Qeov.

fin

\a\eire

Xpia-Tou Koorfjiov Se imBu/ueire. KctTOiKeiTW /urio*' av iyco 7raptov irapaKaXio
i

fiao-Kavia eV VfMV
iifxas^

wei-

i/xol

yiveade]

gM

;

i/xou

yiveade

G

;

mei fiatis
e'/xot

L

(which would

suit either read-

the possessive pronoun seems to be mistaken for the dative of the personal pronoun); al. S ra 3 firj^ av eyCo irapCbv eav eyw vpcas irapuv irapaKoKw g; neque utique ego vos ; fi-rjde TrapaKokw vp.as]
ing);

ad

vieiim latus eslote

AAm

(where

.

GM

p7-acscns (v.

1.

GLAA m M;
TnarevaaTe]
Treiadrjre

illi

already dropped,

4 p.01] ireiadrjre] vdadeire G. praesens vos) deprecor L. S ra (perhaps a corruption in the Syriac text, eyd> having been so that a third person takes the place of irapaKaXu) ; om. g.
(prob.,
for
it

gA

above)

Am

(prob., for

has crcdatis here, but obtemperetis (obediatis) for it has crediie here, but convincamini {conscntiatis)

above) S m ;
cases).

TreiadrJTe

5 yap]

GML* (prob., for it uses the same verb credere in both def. A m yap...ep<2)\ om. GAS m gLM (which has e£
<2>v
;
:

see Clem.

Rom. 62

(note).

6 e/xbs]

GLAA m S mM
2

Theod-Stud;

6 eaTavpurai] GL2A (see below) S m Mg Orig Dion-Areop Theod-Stud ; but A m has maim desiderium a patre est {secundum alios ; meiim desiderium vel mens amor crucifixus est), where the
corrupt reading
e/c

et metis [2]; mens antcm Orig. (with omissions) to the end of the chapter.

g Dion-Areop 2 resumes here and continues
(v.
1.

ep.os)

irarpbs

kari.

(for

earavpuTai)

is

partially

explained by the

1.

ifiot

yiveade]

where

e/xol is

take my side] the nominative of the

*

pcoaav

trvv

rols
vi.

Tradijp,aaiv
ep<o\

kol

reus

eTTiQv}xLais,

14

Koapios eo-ravepcor,

Scribes, mispossessive pronoun. taking it for the dative of the personal pronoun, have altered the text
to

pa>Tai Kayco

Koap.(p.

The word

frequent in classical Greek, is found only twice in the LXX, and in
it denotes strong sensual passion, as a term of reproach Prov. vii. 18 bevpo kcu eyKvkio-6a>p.ev epcoTij XXX. 16 q8r]s kcu epcos yvvambs
;

so

produce conformity in the two

both passages

clauses,

some reading

ep,ov for efxoi,

Others
/tj.77

tco Qeco for

tov Qeov.

XaXeire k.t.X.] See the note
6.

on

Ephes.
2.

k.t.X.

desire to spare his life is to grudge him the glory of martyrdom comp. § 3 ovdenoTe efiafiao-Kavia]
;

To

In the New Testament it does not occur at all. Conversely

the
in

common term
the

for Christian love
dydnrj,
is

New
if

Testament,
(in

cTKavaTe ovbevi (with
fxrjdev jxe £V/Acocrat.

the note),
'

§

5

almost,
classical

not quite,

unknown
Plut.

in
p.

writers

Mor.

izapwv TvapaKakui] i.e. if on arrival in Rome I should change
3.

my my

709

dyaTTTjs

dv

has

been

rightly

corrected into
therefore
in a

dyanrjo-cov).

Ignatius

mind and ask your
save
5.

intercession to
'

would necessarily use epos
to denote the passions

my

life.'

bad sense
his
dydTrr],

In the £wv yap k.t.X.] i.e. midst of life, with all its attractions,
I

of

former

unregenerate

life.

His

we might

write deliberately
£c3v is
*

and

desire death' ;
'

fected,
it

when

say, was perhis epco? was crucified.

where

emphatic.

6 epos epas] comp. Gal. v.

my
24

earthly passion
ttjv

;

His meaning therefore being clear, is strange that Origen should have

o-dp<a

io-rav-

given a wholly different interpreta-

VIl]

TO THE ROMANS.
/ulol,
<^(jov

223
ols ypdcpco

(rdrjTe
5

tovtols Se /uaWov TricrTevcraTe,
[y«jo] ypa(p(jo
6<TTavp(jOTcu,
of
Trarpo?

Vfiiv.

v/uTv,

epwv tov diroQavfiv
ecrrtv
its

6

epos

epcos

Kai
cxravpos

ovk
(with

eV

efxol

ITVp

usual contractions

and

derivatives).

The double
est,
is

rendering in
to

A

amor mens crux

est,

meum

desiderium crucifixum

owing

the

ambiguous

K2v¥

of the Syriac, which

may

be either crux or cruciiioojp

fixus.

£<jtiv\

'e<TTT]v

G.
'c~£v

irvp

c/hAoiVAoj/,

de

'$<2i>

G;

irvp <pi\6v\ov,

vdcjp 8e p.a\\ov

Kai

\a\ovv

20); irvp <pi\ovj> tl, vdojp de £<2v aWo/xevov g (1 the remaining words aqua autem viva alia ma.net, i.e. vdup de £wV ah\o p.ivov)\ ignis amans aliquam (leg. aliaml) aquam sed vivens et loquens est {irvp <pi\otv tl vowp fcv de Kai XaXovv) L; ignis in amore alio (v. 1. amoris alius) S (perh. irvp
<pL\6a\\ov, a corruption of <pt.\6v\ou; the rest of the words are omitted); alius calor amoris. aqua bona et vivida...existit (nvp (ptXoaWov, vdcop ko\6v /ecu fav) A; ignis amandi (alienum quidquam) aqua vivida et loquens est A m (where the words in

Theod-Stud (Menasa Dec. omits irvp <pi\ovi> tl and translates

M

Kai XctXoiV]

brackets
diligo

may be merely an explanatory gloss or may betoken a v. 1.); ignis alienus, enim aquas vividas et loquentes S m The Menaea (Dec. 20) have ovk &rx« irvp <pi\6v\ov iv aol, lyvdrLe, vdcop de £<2v fidWov Kai XaXovv. ..vdwp to aXX6/j.evov k.t.X.
.

Thus

the authorities exhibit a strange confusion of

-v\oi>,

aXXo, KaXov, fidWov,

aXXofievov: see the lower note.

tion to the
III.

words

;

Pro/, in Cant.

in all

which
it

it

is

interpreted in the
epdv,

30 'Nee puto quod culpari possit si quis Deum, sicut Ioannes [1 Joh. iv. 8] caritatem [aydnr^v], ita Deipse amorem [epcora] nominet.
p.

same way.
pretation
epao-Trjs,

In favour of this inter-

might be urged that
applied
in

are
6,

the
to

lxx
the

nique memini aliquem sanctorum dixisse, Ignatium nomine, de Christo Metis autem amor crucifixus est, nee reprehendi eum pro hoc dignum
judico.' Origen is followed by some later writers. Thus the false Diony-

Wisd. viii. 2) pursuit of Divine wisdom;
(Prov.
iv.

comp.

Justin Dia/. 8
paxprjp-a
epcos

(p.

225 B)

e'poi he ira-

Ttvp iv Trj "fyvxfl dvijcpdrj Kai el^e pe tu>v irpo(pr)T(ov Kai tu>v

dvbpdv eKeivcov oi elcri Xptcrrou cptAoi, Clem. Al. Coh. 11 (p. 90) o ye toi
ovpdvios
icdi

sius the Areopagite, de Div. Nom. iv. 12 (p. 565 ed. Cord.), accounts for

delos

ovtgos

epus,

lb.

Fragm.

the expression by saying that it was thought by some deioTepov dvai to

1019 fiaOvv Tiva tov tov ktlo'tov nepicptpcopev epcoTa. So Chrysostom says of Ignatius himself {Op.
p.
oi epcovTesp. 599) toiovtol yap ~ cVep av 7rdo-x <00 LV vnep tcov epapevcov, though he may not
II.

So tov epcoros bvopa tov rfjs dydiTrjs. also Theodorus Studites, Catech. 3
(Grabe
his
Sftic.
11.

p. 229) 6 epos

epos

peffrjbovfisbexovTai,

icTTavpcoTaL Xptcrros

own
Kapdiq.

gloss),

(where Xptcrros is ib. Jamb. 70 (p.
Xpto-ruz/ iv

have been thinking of But the fatal objection

this passage. to this inter-

1797 Migne) %x^v epcoTa
crfj

Hence

too in the Mencea
epcoTi dydnrjs
epcos,

(Dec. 20) cos rtrpcopivos tov Kvpiov crov, 'O epos

e/3oas,

if otherwise pretation is that, even admissible, it would tear the clause out of the context. Obviously epcos are synonymous here, as and

Xptcrros eo-TavpcoTai dekcov, besides several other allusions to this saying,

nip of Justin. they are in the passage See the saying ascribed to Buddha.

224
cj)L\6v\ov,
fjioi

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS

[vn

\a\odA ev i^xo'i, eawdeu vhwp Se %wv fical Xeyov Aevpo irpos tov rrarepa. ovx ffiopai Tpo(pr\
tffudev]

i

(sic)

G

;

\4yei

et

dicit

Am

.

indicative.

et...damat et dicit A dicit L g (but 1 dicens)', dicens Sev-Syr 4 b; The two last seem to have had the participle rather than the miki dominus S m renders the sentence t(ru0i* fioi Xeyav qimm sit
; ;

GMg;

ivtodcv Theod-Stud.

i Xtyov]

M

Theod-Stud

;

\4yav

Dhammapada
like

251 'There

is

no

fire

Papassion' (Buddhaghosha's rables, by Rogers, p. cxxviii). ''sen1. (piXovXov] matter-loving] suous] carnaV\ comp. § 6 jur?§e
'

written or unintelligible to the scribe; Conversely it is not usual for (3)

a transcriber to show such

intelli-

l

gence as appears in the substitution of an unusual word cpiXovXov for
either cpiXovv
vdoip
fie

v\j] Ko\aK€i>ar]T€.

On
is

the other
aiJXov
'

hand
ignis
I.

n

or (piXovv aXXo.

the
S.
p.

nvp Holy Spirit materiae expers' in the Liturgy of
Cyril
38).

(Renaudot

Lit.

Orient.

The word

vXr]

has here

its

secondary sense 'matter,' as e.g. in Wisd. xi. 18, xv. 13, Clem. Rom. 38.
too fanciful to see (with Zahn also to its primary p. 563) a reference sense, as if Ignatius had in view the
It is

Doubtless a reference to John iv. 10, II, as indeed the whole passage is inspired by This water at the Fourth Gospel. once quenches the fires of sensual
£a>v]

passion and
Justin, Dial.
7T€Tpas...v8ccip

supplies

draught of spiritual strength
114 (342
£c5i>

an unfailing comp.
;

KaXrjs rais Kapdiais tcov di B)
rfjs

same metaphor

as

in

James

iii.

5

avrov

tjXikov nvp qXiierjv v\r)v avairrei Is. x. 17, Ecclus. xxviii. 10).

(comp.

dyanrjaavTcov ZXoiV fipvovo~qs.
f/cai

tqv

narepa
to

toov

There

XaXoOi/f]

According
I.

Jorto

seems indeed

be the double reference in the passage to which he refers, Clem. Alex. Paed. ii. 1 (p. 164)
to
01 7rafi(payoi, KcidaTrep

tin (Fceles. Hist.

p.
is

356 sq, quoted

by Jacobson) there
waters

an allusion

the heathen superstition that certain

to nvp,

rrjs ZXtjs

(where however we should but it is perhaps read cf-ex°lxevov ) there brought out by the form of the sentence. Forthe compound (piXovXos, which is very rare until a later age, comp. Orig. Fragm. in Luc. (piXovXtov
e^expfievot
'>

power
e.g.

to the

communicated a prophetic person drinking them
;

Anacreont. 11 (13) 8a<pvr]<p6po[.o XdXov Triovres vdcop (comp. <J>oi'/3ou
Stat. Sylv.
i.

2. 6, v.

5.

2).

As

there

kiu cpiXoacopaToii' Xoyoi TviQavot (ill. p.

For the Gnostic Delarue). (Valentinian) tinge of the sentiment see the notes on Fphes. inscr.
982,

was one of these 'speaking' fountains at Daphne (Sozom. H. E. v. 19, Evagr. i. 16) the famous suburb of Antioch, he supposes that the image would readily suggest itself to Ignatius.

This reference seems to

me

have adopted (piXu'tXov here on authority which elsewhere would
I

more than doubtful, even if the text were correct. But I am disposed to
believe
that

not deserve a preference, for several (1) It is so obviously the It best reading (2) explains the
reasons.
;

the

right

reading

is

other

main

variations, cfuXovv

n

and

<piXovv aXXo, which would be substituted for (ptXuvXov, if either mis-

preserved in the interpolator's text, aXXopevov for kcu XaXovv. The various readings show that the text here has been much tumbled about in very
early times;

and

this

being

so, Xa-

VIl]

TO THE ROMANS.
ovSe
rilovah

225

(j)6opas

tov

fiiov

tovtov

aprov

Oeov

\iyw (with G) and wishing Similarly Severus translates irpos tov irarepa ad patrem metim, thus giving a personal reference to the participle, and he too perhaps read Xiyuv. see the lower note. 2
oi>Krj5ofj.cu

metis intus dicens jnihi, doubtless reading the masculine accordingly to give it a personal application.

G.

3 Qeov]

GM

oi>x

7700/xcu]

;

tov deov g.

Xovv might very easily suggest itself to a scribe from the following Xeyov. If aXKofievov be correct, it is taken

between /3/os and (cor) (in vdcop (cov\ which is brought out more definitely in the interpolator's text by the insertion

from John
[xevov
els

iv.

14

77777)7

vdaros dXXo-

of aprov

(corjs

in

the

next
the

(corjv

alcoviov.

Combined

sentence.

The former denotes

from
(ver.

this
10,

and the preceding passage 11) in the same Gospel, the

lower

expression v8cop (cov dXXopevov took a prominent place in the speculations
of the second century
av aoi
;

earthly life, the latter the higher divine life. If (cor) is sometimes used of the earthly life, ftlos is

e. g.

of the
ebcotcev
;

Naassenes, Hippol. Haer.

v.

9

mew

vdcop (cov dXX6p.evov
ib. v.

of

the Sethians,
eirie

\iivov

to noTrjpLov of Justin the Gnostic,
;

19 dneXovaaTo kcu (covtos vdaTos dXXoib.

never used of the heavenly. This distinction holds in the writings of the Apostolic Fathers, not less than in the N. T. It is founded on an essential difference between the two
words, recognised by Greek philobut to the Christian their sophers
;

v.

27

o7rep

eari XovTpov avTols,

cos

vopi-

relative

(ovcri,

Trrjyr)

(covtos vScitos dXXop.evov.

position is exxhanged, because his point of view is altered. principle of
(3ios
life,

This makes the combination the more probable here. Heracleon in Orig. in locum, xiii. § 10 (iv. p. 220), the earliest commentator on this Gospel, lays great stress on dXXopevov. 2. Xeyov k.t.X.] Similarly Philad. 7
to 8e ivvevpa inrjpvcrcrev, Xeyov Tade' See also Xcopls tov eiricTKcmov k.t.X.

As far) is the qua vivimus,
of
life,

vita

denotes the process, the circumstances, the accidents
in
its

social

and physical

relations, vita

quani vivimus; comp. Athenag. Resurr. 19 r] tcov dvBpcotrcov
(cor)

kol uvp-Tvas 6

/3t'os.

Hence
;

Aris(cor]

totle

could say
s.

/3ios eo~Ti
/Sios)

Xoyiicr)

Euseb. H. E. vii. 7. I have not ventured to sub§ 2, 3. stitute the masc. Xeycov, though the evidence is in its favour. This readDion. Alex,
in

(Ammonius
/3t'os

v.

for with

him

ing

would

identify

the

vScop

(cov

was the higher term of the two. See Trench N. T. Syn. § xxvii. p. 86 Philosq, and Field in Journal of But in logy X. p. 178 sq (1882).
Christian philosophy the principle of not physical, but spiritual and
;

Christ (see the upper note), and thus the reference to John iv. 10 sq would be made more distinct.

directly with

life is

alternative

For a similar instance of an between Xeyov or Xeycov
1.

former thus, while $ios remains at its has been translated into a level, (cor)
higher sphere and takes the preceSo too Dion Cass. lxix. 19 dence.
(3iovs p.ev err/

see Philad.
Tpocpfj

c.

<pOopas]

Suggested
fxr)

by

roaa,

(rjcras 8e eTrj

e-rrTa.

John
3.

vi.

27 epyd(eo~de

rr)v fipcocriv

ttjv d.TroXXvp.evr)v.

Accordingly, while ddvaros is opposed to (cor), it may be identical with
fiios
;

vcov

The phrase 77S0(3iov occurs Luke viii. 14. This sentence involves a distinction
fjbovais k.t.X.]

[Clem. Rom.]
I

ii.

I

6 fiios

r)p.cov

tov

oXos aXXo ovdev
trast

t)v el prj

OdvaTos.

Conwith

Joh.

iii.

15

(oorjv alcoviov

IGN.

II.

15

226
6e\co,
i

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
6 i(TTiv (rap^ tov

[vn

Xpio-rov

tov €k G-7rep^aro^
GMg.

0<f\o>] txt
1.

LSAA m S m
;

;

add aprov
;

ovpdvtov, aprov fays

o]GLM
;

tov X/hctoi'] g*S It)<jov vulg. 6's. g dub. SA A m S ra GLAA m S m M. After xP^tov a^d- rod vlov tov deov GMg; om. L[S]AAm S m» XpwTov est ex genere) ; add. yevo/xevov GAA m Mg tov] txt L (ejus qui ex genere) S m [qui (with a v.
os)

m are not of much weight in this matter) (but the versions om. ; lower note. After tov [yevop.hov] add. ev vcrrep^

AA

;

def.

2

:

see the
;

GMg

LAAm S m

def. 2.

ib.

ver. 17 tov fiiov tov koo~(xov, or the

same
in
1

Apostle's absolute use of 6 /3ios with his absolute use Job., ii. 16
far)

of

r)

Contrast
fiiov

elsewhere, also the
20.
I

e.g.

iii.

14, v. 12.

source of Ignatius' inspiration, and has introduced expressions freely the heavenly from the Gospel bread' (vi. 31, 32, 50, 58), 'the bread
' ;

expression

tov

of

'

life

'

(vi.

48),

eternal
54).

'

life

(far)

tovtov here with

rrjs farjs ravr-qs

aloovios,

vi.

27,

40,

For apros
5

in

Acts v. Ep. Clem.
(r)v

See too Clem. Horn.

Qeov compare also Ephes.
note.

with the

to

aVTOS TOV vvv fiiov (Slcucos fieryWagev (i.e. 'received true
for .this earthly life'),
a(Sao-avio-TG>s

The

reference here

is

not to the

life in
ib.

exchange
14
07T03S

eucharist itself but to the union with
Christ which is symbolized and pledged in the eucharist. Obviously any limitation to the actual reception of the eucharistic elements and the blessings attendant on such reception would be inadequate for Ig;

xii.

tov

£r)v

peTaXXd^ai dvvrjBrjs (which passage, like the former, seems to have been altogether misunderstood by the critics), whereas ib. i. 14 we have tov iravTa pov 7-779 farjs fiiov, but
fiiov

tov

there an only half-converted heathen Clem. Alex. Paed. ii. 1 is speaking
;

natius

is

mation

contemplating the consumof his union with Christ

(p.

168)

ol Tcnreivocppoves, ^a/xoiyej/et?,

tov

icpr'jpepov

8lcokovt€S
ib.

jBLov,

cos

ov

The indirect through martyrdom. reference to the eucharistic elements
is

fto-ofxevoi
C.

(comp.
16
(i.

p.

163),

Orig.
etjrjs

analogous to that which our Lord
in

Cels.
(3la>

iii.

p. 457) nepl ttjs

makes
I.
'

John
Ik.

vi.

raj

tovtco
iii.

farjs,

Macar. Magn.
(3i<p

tov

o-TTepparos

Aavft'5]

i.e.

ApOCr.
tt)v

12 (p. 82) apkp<KTco 8e

who was

really

and

truly incarnate':
18.

farjv ipeyakvvev,

C. I. G. 9474?

a

see the

note on Ephes.

The

Christian

inscription

where
far)

6

(Bios

(ovtos) is contrasted
(alcovios)-

with

ovpdvtos

reality of Christ's humanity is necessary to the full power and significance

of

communion with Him

;

because

Here again is an expression taken from S. John's Gosaprov Qeov]
text

only so is our own manhood truly united with God. The shadow of Docetic antagonism, which was rife in Asia Minor, rests for a moment even

Indeed the whole consuggested by this portion of the Evangelist's narrative. The contrast of the perishable and imperishable food the bread and the cup as representing the flesh and blood of
pel, vi. 33.
is

on

this letter to the

Church of Rome,

the mystical power emanating therefrom are all ideas contained in the context (vi. 48 59). The later interpolator has seen the
Christ

though the Romans were cmohivkio-pevoi ano rravros dWorplov ^pcw/xaros', and though there is no direct mention
of this heresy in it. The insertion yevopevov stands on a slightly different footing from the

other interpolations in this context,

VIl]

TO THE ROMANS.

227

Aavelh, Kal iro\±a deXcu to al/ua uvtou, 6 ecttlu dya7rt]
)TOS. a(pdap'
t

Aaveid]

8dd

G.

After

daveld
;

add.

/cat

dfipad/j.

GMg

;

om.

LAA m S m
L2AS m

>

def. 2.

iro/ma]

gL2AA m S m
In

add. deov

GM.

3 a<pdapTos] txt

;

add. Kal devvaos (devcuos G) £uiq

seems to be recognised).

GMg*; comp. Mart-Rom 10 (where this addition A m et vita aeterna is added in brackets as a v.
1.

being somewhat more highly supported but it ought probably to be omitted. There was an obvious mo;

ivbihovs ddavao-ias.

i

I

desire,' Ignatius

inserting it, so as not to overlook the preexistence and Divinity of Christ comp. Smyrn, 4 tov
tive for
;

appears to mean, 'that heavenly sustenance which is derived from union with a truly incarnate Christ through faith and love.' But it is impossible to be confident about the interpretation of language so obscure.

reXeiov

dvOpamov [yevopevov], where the motive for the insertion would

On
p.

the other
sq,

be the same, and see also the
Ephes. 7
2.

v.

1.

348

hand Zahn (/. v. A. and ad loc.) would apply
clause
o
io-Tiv

iv (rapid yevopevos.
aycnrr}

the

relative

aycnrr}

acpdapros] relative refers to to alpa avrov.

6 icrriv

The As
the
life,

acpdapTos not to to aipa avrov, but to both clauses of the preceding sentence,
flesh
i.e.

the flesh

of Christ represents

'which participation

in the

solid substance of the Christian

so the blood of Christ represents the element of love which circulates

and longer be

blood', so that it will no parallel to os eariv o-apt;

through all its pores and ducts, animating and invigorating the whole. See especially TralL 8, where the flesh and the blood are separated in a similar way, and made to represent
respectively the faith of the Christian and
;

Xpio-Tov. Accordingly he supposes that in aycmrj there is a secondary ' reference to the love-feast (comp..
'

Smyrn. 8) of which the eucharist formed a part. This reference to the
agape is, I think, barely possible but the grammatical construction thus adopted seems to me altogether harsh.
;

and the love
compare
also

the passage from Clem. Alex. Paed. i. 6 (p. 121) there quoted, in which
there
is an analogous application. Ignatius does not here directly say what he means by the flesh, as distinguish;

It

is

true that the parallelism, as
is

I

take the sentence, rather than logical.
rallelism
ttjv 0-a.pK.a

grammatical,
logical pade\oj

The
r)

would have been aprou
tov XpiaTov
;

£o*tiv ttio~tls

ed from the blood but we may supply the omission from the parallel passage in Trail. 8, and say that he refers to faith as the substance of man's union See also for partial with Christ. illustrations of this passage Clem. Alex. Paed. ii. 2 (p. 177) tovt zctti
ivulv to alpa tov
'irjcrov,

aTpeivTos k.t.\. and in a more finished and less hurried writing it might have

But instances of not strictly logical are parallelism common, and here it is too obtrusive to be set aside; while it is further

been so expressed.

confirmed by the very similar passage, Trail.
3. 8.

ptTakafieiv d(p6apo-las, Xoyov to nvevpa, cos aipa aapKos, Quis div. sail). 23 (p. 948) apTov ipavTov
didovs, ov yevcrcipievos ovdels en irfipav Qavarov Xap-fidvei, Kai iropa KaB' rjpepav

Kvpiaiajs lo~xvs 8e tov
ttjs

The interpolator a(p6apTos] adds Ka\ devvaos ^17, an expression occurring in the LXX apparently only
in 2

N.T.

Mace. vii. 36, and never in the But it was doubtless suggested

15—2

228

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
VIII.

[viii

Ovk en deXw Kara
$i
/ulol.

dv6p(07rovs

£rjv'

tovto

Se eo-rai, eav vfieh 6e\ria-r]T6.
6e\rj6iJT€.

6eX*i<raT6, iva kcu

vpeh
ttl-

SXiywv

ypa/uLjuaTcov

airovpai vpdr

a-revo-are
paxrei,

'Irjarovs

Se

Xpicrros vfjuv

ravra

otl dXrjdcos

XeyW

to

d\]sev$es otto pa,

ev

(pavew 6S

7rart)p eXaXncrev [dXtidws].

aiTnvavQe
ov

irepi

epov, \va
v^xiv

eirirvyja
2
texts

\ev wvev/uaTL

dyito],
The omission

kcltcl

crapKct

de\rj<T7)Te]

GM

;

6e"Xr}Te

g.

of the following words in
deXr]<rr}Te,

the next note) therefore favours deXr/a-ore.
(see

points to a homceoteleuton,
6eX7iaaTe...deXr]d^Te]

deX^drJTe,
;

some and
[g].

GLA m S m M
;

om.
;

A

With

deXrjaaTe connecting particles appear in
.

some

texts

antem

LS m
et

ovv

M

;

jam

Am

inveniatis (aut ;

tit

m ; def. Ag. 3 deXydrJTe] et vos optati Jiatis, id est accepti).
1.

GLMS

Am

has ut

vos auxilium

The
is

alternative auxilium

inveniatis seems to represent a v.

cocpeXrjdrJTe,

but there
(or
a)

no trace of
.

it

else-

where.

5i
;

6Xlywi>]
;

GLS m Mg;
g.

prsef.

8

AA m

4
;

5e]

GLMSm
by

om.

AA m

al.

vpuv ravra cpavepwaei]

GM
c.

(pavepuxret.

vpuv

£0017 aldvtos which occurs several times in John vi. ( VIII. I no longer wish to live, I entreat you to as men count life.

6eXr)6els, Athan. {Op.
77

Arian.
Tjj

iii.

66

I.

p.

487 sq)

6 vlos

OeXrjcrei

BeXeTai

rrapa tov irctTpos Tavrrj kol

fulfil

my
I
;

desire, that

God may

fulfil

avTos dyaira Kai BeXei kcu Tip.a tov irarepa, Greg. Naz. Oral. xxix. 7 (1. p.
527)
77

yours.
effect

have written

briefly to this

to

pLev

civtoi)

BeXr/crav, to be

but Christ, the unerringmouthpiece of the Father, will show you that I speak the truth. Pray for me, that I may succeed. I write not this after the flesh, but after the will of God. If I suffer, it is your favour if I am rejected as unworthy,
;

The passive occurs not very commonly of things (e.g. Epict. Diss. iv. 1. 59), and still more rarely
6eX-q6ev.
crcocppcov els

of persons (e.g. Clem. Horn. xiii. 16 to deXeaOai TrpoCpao-eis ov
77'

Trape^et 77 rw avTrjs avftpi' 77 acocppcov V7to eTepov 6eXop.evr] XuTreirai).

From

it is

your hatred.'

this passive use

comes the

QcXijtos,

I. koto. avdpasrrovs] i.e. 'according to the common, worldly, conception of life'; comp. Trail. 2 cpaiveade

p.01

ov

Kara dvOpconovs
'

{covres

(with
to live

which has a place among the aeons of Valentinian mythology (Iren. 1. 2). in a brief 6V oXlycov ypapLp.a.TG>v] letter'; comp. Polyc. 7. So oY 6X1i.
'

the note).
tovto]
this desire of

ycov,

i

Pet. v.

12,

Ptolem.
xxxiii.

ad Flor.
;

4

mine

in Epiph.
Xecoi/,
5.

Haer.
xiii.

7

81a /3pa-

no longer the common
3.
l

OeXrjdfJTe]

i.e.

may

be desired,
xi.
el

favourably,

may by God

'

life of men'. vno tov Qeov be looked upon comp. Clem.
;

Heb.
eV

22.

w
77

k.t.X.]
yvoopLrj

So
in

He

is

styled

tov ncnphs

Ho7n.
ov
a7ToXfj

25
rj

8e kol p.eTa to KXrjdrjvai

OeXei?

(Spabvveis,
r<w
pirj

dinaiq

Qeov
p.rj

Kpicrei,

SeXijcrai

Kphes. 3. 8. Comp. Ephes. 3, yveopirjv Qeov] Smym. 6, Polyc. 8. The expression itself does not occur in the N. T. (see however Rev. xvii. 17).

vm]
eypa\jsa,
crctTe'

TO THE ROMANS.
d\\d Kara
yvu>fJLr\v

229
idv 7rd0to,
t)6e\}j-

Qeov.

eav dTTO^OKLfjLacdw ,
MvriiuLOveveTe

e/uia'ricraTe.
ty\

IX.
Cvpia
fjiovos

ev

7rpo(rev)(r)

vjuuSp

tiJs

iv

€KK\rj<Tias, rjTis dvTi i/uLOV 7roi\xkvi too Qeco xptJTar
'

avniv
iyco

Iricrovs

XpiGTOs

e7ricrK07rri(Tet

Kal

r\

vpiuv

ay

dirt],

Se

yap d^ios
al. g.

el/UL,

a\<jyyvo\xai e£ avrcov Xeyecrdai* ouSe (hv ea'^aTOS ovtwv Kal eKTpco/uLa' aAA'
5
dX-rjdQs]

ravra g; vobis manifestabit haec L.
7 iv Trvev/JLaTL
;

GLA;

om.

Am S m

;

def.

M

;

rd yvd^v] GLS m Mg dum vohmtatem A m
.

ayiy] [g]; spiritu sancto spiritu et voluntate
ydeXTjaaTe]

A; om.
;

GLA m S m M.
et
;

8

/ca-

A secundum spiritum GLAA m S m yiyair-qaare
;

secun;

g

def.

M.
use the

10 irpoaevxfi]

word
;

evxv-

yap]
def.

G
M.

ou

yap g

;

14
;

The genuine Ignatius does not anywhere ovde I 5£ nal g; def. M. 3 ^] GLAA mSm non enim L quia non A quoniam non A m non S m sum el/xt, dittos g agio's elpu] G (but writing fai for el(j.i)
;

GM

euxv g«

;

;

;

;

;

;

dignus

L

def.

M.
In

riOekrjvaTe] 'Ye have done me the favour which I asked'. It is best not to understand to Tradeiv, but to refer T]0e\rio~aT€ to the preceding iav

noLfxevi

k.t.X.]

connexion with

€7n<TK07rrja€i

sents a

follows, this preclose parallel to 1 Pet. ii. 25

which

e7veo~Tpa(j)r]T€

vvv eVt rov noipeva nai
y\rv\ojv

vpels 6iKr](Tr)T€.
9.

enio-KOTrov

tcov

vpaiv

(comp.
:

anoboKiiiao~6(d\

See

Trail.

12

iva

jjlt)

IX.

ddoKipos evpedco (with the note). 'Pray for the Church of

Pet. V. 2 7roipia.vaT€...e7n,(TK07rovvTes, but €7naK07rovvTes is very doubtful)
I

see also Ezek. xxxiv.
'

1 1

sq.
its

Syria whose only pastor now is God. Jesus Christ will be its bishop He and your love. For myself, I am not worthy to belong to them but God has had mercy on me, if so be


;

12.

e7ncrK07rrjo-ei]

be

bishop^:
eVeo-Ko-

comp. Polyc.
Trarpl
'h]o~ov

inscr.

pdXXov
rat

Tvqpeva viTo Qeov,

and Magn.

3

ra>

Xpiorov

rravrcov

iiTLo-KOTTcp.

I

shall find

Him

in the end.

Saluta-

is

from myself and from the brotherhoods which have received me as Christ's representative, not as a for even those mere passer by churches which lay out of my path
tions
;

The office of Jesus Christ here identified with the office of God in the pastorate of the Syrian
Church.
7;

vp.a>v

ayaTrq]

See the note
k.t.X.]

on

Trail. 3. ovde yap 13.
enel 7TiarTcov.
'

a&os

went before
10.

me from

MvTjuovevere

k.t.X.]

city to city'. For this

note on Ephes. 21
14.
€KTpcop.a]

€o-x aTOS

See the wv tu>v
birth \

injunction, which occurs in all the four letters written from Smyrna,

an immature

The word,
is

see Ephes. 21.
11.
rjris]

obviously suggested
9,

occurring in this context, by 1 Cor. xv.

'seeing

that

it\

thus
:

8

eo-x aTOV

^

ndvro)V, wo-nepii t<o
elpi

giving the reason for their prayers see Philippians iv. 3 (note).

eKTpcopan, ScpOrj teapot iyu yap twv drroordX coi/, os 6
iX&xio-Tos

ovk

230

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
edv Oeov eTTLTifx^y\

[IX

riXerj/ual t*s elvai,

da-Tra^erai vixas

tc efxov Trvevfxa Kal
jUi€Pcov ixe
2
kcli

dyaTrt]

twv

6KK\ti(riwv

twv §e£a-

eU ovo/ua
et ecclesiae)

'Irja-ou

ws TrapoSevovTaXpLOTTov, oi>x
(so doubtless originally,
;

i]

ay&TT) twv iKK\7)<nui>]

GLSSm

but the present

text has

amor

Mg

;

et

amor omnium cccksiarum

in {in nomine, but els is often so translated 3 ets] cbs 2 (TOt^n "pN, not ws propter S m (probably representing els) ;

GL

A m et omnes ecclesiae A. cbs); L) A m Mg* (but v.
1.

els

as

Petermann

elpu iKavbs

KaXelcrOat aTrocrToXos k.t.X.
eKTiTpcoo-Keiv,

eeo(p6pos
inscr.)

Objection was taken to
the approved words
(3Xcop.a,

(see the note on Ephes. and cannot be reconciled with
It is
life

€KTpcona, etc., in this sense, instead of
dp.(BXlo-Keiv,

ap.-

his expressions here. sible that his early

very pos-

had been
immorali-

etc.,

by

purists
;

(see

Lobeck

stained with the
ties of

common
;

but they occur as Phryn. 208 sq) early as Hippocrates and Herodotus and e.KTpcop.a is mentioned by (iii. 32) Aristotle as a common word, de Gen.
;

but at all heathen society events this expression throws a flood of light on his position and explains
the language of self-depreciation which he uses so freely. See on this point Zahn /. v. A. p. 403 sq. In the
letter of the Gallic

All.

iv. 5 (proils

773) Kvi]p.ar eWiVret TrapaKaXovp,evois
it

Trkrjcria

eKTpcop.ao'iv.

In the same sense

occurs also in

Churches, Euseb.

the LXX, Num. xii. 12, Job iii. 16, See also references to Eccles. vi. 3.

H.E.

v. 1,

the

same metaphor is twice

other writers in Wetstein on 1 Cor. For the metaphorical use com/. c.

In § 4 it is said similarly applied. of some who shrank from martyrdom,
kol dyvp,vacrecpaivovro de 01 dveroip.oi toi Kal en do-Bevels, dycovos p.eydXov rovov bvvdp.evoi, cov Kal e£ep.r

pare Philo Leg. All. i. 25 (1. p. 59) ov yap 7re<pvice yovip.ov ovdev TeXecrcpotov (pavXov ^vxVi a &' av $ 0l<jj peiv
r)

eveynelv

npocrCpepeLV, api(3Xco6pl8ia evplaKerai Kal

iKrpa>p.ara (referring to
cocrel

Num.

xii.

12

and in rpcoaav cos deica tov dpiOp-ov 12 of others, who had before denied § their faith but at the last moment
:

\o~ov Oavarco,

cocrel

e/crpcotia

eKjro-

pevop,evov e< p.rjrpas p-rjTpos), Clem. Alex. Exc. Theod. 68 (p. 985) dreA.77 Kal
vrjiTia

ttoXXtj

gave themselves up to X a P a Td rrapOevco
ovs
cos

die, eveyiveTo
p.r]Tpl
[i.e.
777

eKKXrjala],

veKpovs

e£erpcoo~e,

Kal a<ppovc*Ka\ dcrdevrj Kal ap.op(pa, olov €KTpu>paTa T7po(jev€-)(6evTa, Iren. i. 8. 2, ev eKTpwpLaTos pioipa. The idea

tovtovs £a>VTas

drroXapiftavovcrT].

of S. Paul,

in the

metaphor, as used by S. Paul

and by

Ignatius, is twofold: (1) irregularity of time, referring to an unex-

Again an echo Tim. i. 13 dXXa. r)Xer]6r]v otc k.t.X., where the words occur in a similar connexion comp. 1 Cor. vii.

dXX

rjXerjpai k.t.X.]
I

;

25

-qXer)p.£vos virb
1.

pected, abrupt, conversion; and (2) imperfection, immaturity, weakness of growth. Ignatius, like S. Paul, we must suppose, had been suddenly brought to a knowledge of the The late story, that he was Gospel. the child whom our Lord took up
in His arms and blessed, is doubtless founded on a misinterpretation of

Oeov
1.

Kvpiov ttlutos eivai. eTriTvx^] See the note

on Magn.
2.

to ep.bv 7rvevp.a] Comp. Eftkes. 18, Trail. 13, Smyrn. 10. This again is a Pauline expression, 1 Cor. v. 4.
fj

dydTT-q]

See the notes on Trail.

3, 13-

tcov 8e£ap.evcov k.t.X.]

of the

The Churches Ephesians and Smyrnaeans

IX]

TO THE ROMANS.
7rpocrt]KOV(rai
jjlol

231
ty\

5

jap al /mr] Kara tto\iv fxe
teal
:

ty\

6Sw

Kara (rdpKa

7rpofjjov.
4
/xr}]
;

gives it, 7 being merely the sign of the accus.) [A]. S 2 see the lower note. rrj /caret adpKa]

GL2 3 A A m S m Mg om. om. gA. 5 irpoIt is translated by an imperfect in 2, and rjyov] wpo-qyayov g. by an aorist At this point 2 departs from the text of Ignatius see the or perfect in LAA m S m lower note on Tpdcfxa 8e, p. 233.

GL2A m S m M;

GM

;

.

:

are
also

meant

in
15,

the

first

instance;

els

6ebv ripiav is excellent

Greek

;

(3")

comp. Magn.

Trail. 13.

He was
time

attended about this

by

Considering the meaning of dexeo-dai. els, it cannot be assumed that those
versions which give a rendering equivalent to cos had cos in their text.
'

several delegates from the Magnesians (Magn. 2 sq), and by one at
least

from the Trallians (Trail. These churches also would be

1).

ovx

(*>$

7rapo8evovra]

not

as

a

in-

By rap Be^ap-ivtov he intends not only those churches which (like
cluded.

chance wayfarer, a mere passer by\ as e.g. Ezek. xxxvi. 34; comp. Ephes.
9 eyvcov 8e irapohevcravrds rivas incldev, Mart. Ign. Ant. 5 81a <£iAiWcoi> napcodevev MazeSoviav (of Ignatius himself). See also napodos, Ephes. 12. On the

Philadelphia and Smyrna) he had visited in person, but those which (like Ephesus and the others) had

welcomed him through
sentatives.
3.

their repre-

other

hand Hilgenfeld (A.
as
in
'

V. p. 191

els

ovopLa] i.e.
i.e.

''having regard

to

the

name\

'because

I

bear

Ephes. 9, gives to to take a sense Tvapobeveiv the by-way', understanding it of one who
sq) here,

the authority of, 'because I represent Christ': comp. Matt. x. 41,
42,
6
7rpo<fjt]Tov

has deserted the true path of the
Gospel, which is par excellence 'the way', and supposing that an an-

ovop.a bexbp.evos 7rpo(pr]TT]v ... o 8exop.evos diKaiov els

els

ovopba

dcK.al.ov:

and see Buxtorf Lex.

Talm. p. 2431 for the correspondIgnatius seems ing usage of Utth. here to have in his mind the context of this same passage of
S.

intended between this bhbs Qebv and the odbs Kara crapKa mentioned in the next sentence.
tithesis is
Kara.

Matthew,
e/xe

ver.
:

vp.as

Several

40 6 dexop-evos comp. Ephes. 6

answer; though a fairly common word, never has this meansuch an ing elsewhere and (2) That antithesis would be meaningless here,
this
it

To
(1)

is

sufficient to

That

vapoheveLv,

;

ovras del rjp.as avrbv dex*ar6ai cos The readavrbv rbv TvepL^avra k.t.X. ing els must be preferred to cos-, be-

even if the readers of the could have discovered it.

letter

cause

(1) It is
;

the
(2)
els

more

difficult

read-

ing of the two

The
into

scribes
cos

would

naturally alter

to

produce

uniformity with the words following,

ovx

G)s

7Tapo8evovra.

Independently

reason, the tendency is to change els into cos in such cases; e.g. Potter on Clem. Alex. Strom, i.
of this
15 (p. 359) ov ... els 6ebv renp\r)<aai writes 'seu potius cos 6e6v\ though

Kai yap al p.rj k.t.X.] i.e. 'for 4. not only have those churches through which I passed welcomed me; but also those which lay out of the way, The Curetonian Syriac text, etc' as represented by one MS 2.2 omits the negative and reads 'for even those which were near to the way, It has been contended that etc'
,

this

was the
supposed

original
fact

reading,

and

this

has been alleged

232

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
'

[x
$1

X.

rpd(j)(jO

Se VfMV TCLVTCL
,

CL7TO

CfJLVpVtJS

GcpeCTLOOV

twv

dpLOfJLaKapL(TT(jov

i(TTLV

Se Kal a\xa kfxoi
\_\Jioi\

cvv a\-

\ois 7to\\o7s Kal KpoKOS,
i

to TToQnrov
di]

bvofjia,

5e]

GLSmMg;

om.
/cat)

AAm
gM;

.

GM

;

5ia g.
.

2

%<mv

Zk Kal]

GL; GLg
aliis

ZvTiv dt (om.
;

est or

sunt

AAm S m

apa
;

i/jiol]

before cnV

after 7roXXots

M.

dXXots 7roXXots]

GLM

7roXXcus

Kal
3

dWois g
/cat

;

(om. 7roXXots)
/cpo/cos

Am

.

For
Gg.

AS m

see the next note.

Kpo/cos]

LA m M;

(om.

/cat)

The two remaining

authorities take a different form;

as favouring the priority of the Curetonian letters by Lipsius (S. T. p.

ology,

Pearson (ad
p,oi,
i.e.

loc.)

translates

at prj 7rpoo-T]Kovcrai

But (1) The negative cannot 136). be dispensed with, for it alone gives any significance to /cat yap 'for even\ 'for also''; and (2) Though absent in one (2 2 ) of the two Syriac
MSS,

belong to me',

'which do not 'are not under my
777

jurisdiction', separating
'

68a> k.t.X.;

and so too Smith multi ab ecclesiis non mei juris et ad me neutiquam
spectantibus
in
[/z?)

irpoa-^Kovo-al

pot],

and

present in the other (2 3 ), the latter elsewhere preserves
it

is

the correct reading as against the former; see Ephes. 19 with the
note.
S.

quod in mundo restat emetiendum [777 65c5 rrj Kara crap/ca], ut mihi obviam
itinere,

hoc nimirum ultimo

irent

missi,

me

singulas

civitates

Chrysostom indeed says

of Ignatius at yap Kara rrjv 68ov noXeis navTodtv rj\ei(pov tov avvrpexovcrai
affkrjTrjv

Kal

/itera

7roWa>v
{Op.
II.

e£e7rep.7rov

ingressurum honoris causa praecessere'. It will be seen that Zahn (/. v. A. p. 254) is mistaken, when he charges Smith with giving to odos
the sense episcopal jurisdiction ; but though Smith is not guilty of this error, his separation of rfj 6dcp
' '

TG>v

i(pohioiV

k.t.X.

p.

598)

;

but the expression diverges too far

from the words of Ignatius

to justify

the inference that the negative was omitted in his copy of Ignatius; and indeed the word awrpexovaac implies the

from

7rpoo-7]Kovo-ai

and

his

general

interpretation of the passage (in which he follows Pearson) are too

which
route.
777

did

presence of those churches 7iot lie on the actual
o-apKa\

harsh to be tolerable. Even

if this in-

terpretation were possible, Kara iroXiv

would remain an insuperable
/caret

diffi-

By

this qualifying

clause he wishes to imply, that though in actual locality they lay out of his

The only land journey which culty. on this hypothesis Ignatius had
hitherto taken
Seleucia,

was from Antioch

to

they were all his close and intimate neighbours: comp. Ephes. I u/zc5j/ 8e [eV crap/ct] eVi-

way, yet

in the spirit

15 or 16 miles (130 stades, Procopius Bell. Pers. ii. 11, I. p. 199 ed. Bonn. ; 120 stades. Strabo
xvi. 2, p. 751).

some

0-/C07TCD.
1

For the double dative
xii.

This passage is quite inconsistent with the account in the Antiochene Martyrology, which represents Ignatius as sailing direct from Seleucia the port of Antioch to Smyrna. To save the credibility of this Martyr-

comp.
rfj

2 Cor.

7 iboOri pot o-KoXoyj/
§ 424 (11. § xxxii. p. 276.
'

crapKi,

and see Kiihner

p.

375
Kara

sq),

Winer

ttoXip

k.t.X.]
',

went

before

me from city to city i.e. so as to make preparations and welcome him

x]

TO THE ROMANS.
flepl

23
'

twv

7rpoe\6ovT(jov
7tlctt6vu)

/ue

diro Cvpicu

els

Plo/uujv

ek
kccl

5

So^av [rov] Oeov
sunt

v/ulccs

eireyvtoKevai.
icpoKos)
;
;

oh
al.

mecum

et alii

multi fratres
(sic)

dilecti

A

(omitting

sunt autem

mccum
comp.

etiam alii multi crescus

Sm

.

yu.01]

GLA m
fie]

om. S m Mg;

A

:

Smyrn.

13, Polyc. 8.
ct

4 tQv irpoekdovTwv

G

;

qui praruenerunt

me

A

;

qui comitati stmt

seems to represent irpoeKdbvTwv comp. Luke xxii. 47) ; tQv irpoaekdovTwv (om. fxe) g ; advenientibus mecum L ; tuv (TvvekdhvTwv fioL [M]; qui venerunt A m see the lower note. 5 rod Qeov] G;
(this also
;
:

deduxerunt me S m

deov

gM.
arrival.
viii.
1,

on his

For Kara irokw comp.
4,

Luke

Acts xv.
xi. 9, etc.

21, xx.

23;

for npodyeiv, Matt. xiv. 22, xxvi. 32,
xxviii. 7,

Mark

Zahn

(/. v.

A.
it

p.

255) rightly objects to taking

as an equivalent to 7rpo7reu7mi>, a sense which it seems never to
;

were with Ignatius at Smyrna, see These delegates are Ephes. 1, 2. mentioned also in Magn. 15, Trail. For the whole expression comp. 13. Philad. 1 1, Smyrn. 12, in both which passages he says ypdcpco vpXv dm
Bovppov (the only Ephesian then remaining with him at Troas). See
also
bi
I

have nor indeed would have allowed anything

his guards like a triayeiv

Pet. v. 12 dia 2i\ovavov

vp.1v...

umphal procession.

The

of

npoayeiv here is intransitive, and the construction is the same as in npoeX6elv § 10.
tive,
it

In all these inoXiywv eypa^a. stances the preposition would seem And this to denote the amanuensis.

When

the

word
'to

is

transi-

would appear

to

be the case also

in

has the sense
'

put forward'

or 'to drag forward'. X. I write this from Smyrna by the hand of the Ephesians. Among others the beloved

the passage before us. But in Polyc. Phil. 14 'haec vobis scripsi per

Crocus

is

with

Crescentem', Crescens would appear be the bearer of the letter; and in Dionys. Cor. quoted in Euseb.
to

me.

believe you have already received instructions concerning those
I

H. E.

iv.

23

ttjv

irporipav

rjplv
is

bib.

KXrjpevros ypcKpelaav,

Clement

the
is

who have gone
fresh

before
I

Inform them that

me to Rome. am near. Refriendly serI write

composer of the
sent in the

letter,

though

it

name

of the whole Ro-

them with your

man
2.

Church.
d^LopaKaplaroov]

vices, for they deserve it. this on the 9th before the

See

Ephes.
2.

Kalends of September. Farewell; endure unto the end in Christ Jesus.'

inscr
3-

KpoKos] See the note Ephes.
tcop
is

4
tion

The Syrian 8e K.r.X.] epitomator here leaves the text of this epistle. He first makes up a
1.

Tpacpco

npoikdovTwv jue] No menmade of these persons else-

where.

The

letter

however presup-

sentence of his own; 'Now I am near so as to arrive in Rome'. He then inserts two chapters (4, 5) from the Epistle to the Trallians. And he concludes with the farewell sentence of this epistle, eppaxrOe k.t.X.

the Roman poses throughout that Church already possessed information

of his

proaching

visit to

condemnation and apRome; and such

some

For the names of oY 'E^eo-iW] of the Ephesian delegates who

information could only be conveyed from Syria. by a previous arrival The Metaphrast, not understanding this obscure allusion, abridges the

passage so as entirely

to

alter the

234

IGNATIUS TO THE ROMANS.
/me

[x

hjXwa-are iyyvs

Oeov

kcli

vfjLwv

ovs Trperrov
de

ovra* iravTes yap eicriv a^ioi [rod] iravTa dvavfjuv e&Tiv Kara
vfuv TavTct
tvj

Trava-ai.

eypa^a

irpo

evvea kciXclv-

SJSv C67rT€iuf3piwv.

eppa)0~6e

ek reAo? ev

inrofxovri

lycrou

XplCTTOV.
i

drjXuaaTe]

G

;

brfKwaere g (but

1

mandastis or mandalis)

;

manifestatis
i

L
1)

;

notificate
iffriv]

Am S m
;

;

def.

AM.
g
;

rod GeoG]

G

;

Oeov

g

;

def.

G

karlv 6/uv

est vos

L

;

def.

M.

3 de]

M. GLS m g

vpuv
;

(but

om.
;

om.
dies

AAm M.
it.

Ti...2eirre{jLpplui>] txt
elic&di rplr-Q

LMg

(but <xeirTe/x(3piov in

M)

add.

Tovreariv avyovvTOv
erat

G

;

ante ix kalendas septembres, mense augnsto qui
lat.

A

;

ante ix kalendas ahekani {gr. et

The difference in the calculations in GAA m shows been made independently. S m substitutes for the clause a
Am.
undecimo
prref.
{die)

septembris, hoc est 24 augusti) that the additions have
local reckoning of time,
;

mense

ab.
;

4

'Irjaov Xpicrrov]

GLMg
om.
see the

add. dei nostri

S

;

domini nostri
is

Am

add. gratia domini nostri vobiscnm ovinibus
-

A

;

add.

estote

incolumes. gratia vobiscnm S m

Add.

dp.'qv

GAS m M

;

SLAm g.
Appx.
together with Obs. Sacr. 1

There

no subscription

in

GLAAm S m M.
see

For Sg

sense; KpoKos, to ttoO^tov
crvveXOovTcav
p.01

6vop,a, tu>v

Winer
S

§ lxi. p. 697,

drro "2vplas els do£av

the instances in
P-

Kypke

Oeov.
1.

eypa^ra vpuv k.t.X. eyyvs pe ovtcl] This would be the case, when the letter arrived in Rome and the message of Ignatius

393

T ^

to ante

i s the Greek equivalent diem nonani Kalendas Sep-

tembres; though the construction in

Latin
4.

is

somewhat

different.

was
at

delivered.

There

is

therefore

no

difficulty in his

using such language

eppcoade'] Ephes. 21.

See

the

note

on

Smyrna;
a£ioi tov

see

Zahn
k.t.X.]

/. v.

A.

p. 251.
2,

ev v7rop.ovr) k.t.X.]
iii.

Comp.

2 Thess.
els

Qeov

See Ephes.

5

KaTevOvvai

vp,a>v tcls

Kapbias

where the same expression occurs. 2. Kara navra a.v<nravo~ai\ See the note on Ephes. 2. 3. 177 npo ewea k.t.X.] i.e. August 24. The Armenian martyrology alone has The correctly reckoned the day.
others give the 21st, the 22nd, or the The 2 1 st is the equivalent to 23rd.

Trjv

Oeov nal els ttjv vttotov Xpio-Tov. In Rev. i. 9 p.ovr}v v7rop.ovrj 'lrjcrov, the right reading is
ayaTTTiv tov
v7rop,ov7J

ev 'It/ctou. The expression apparently has the same sense here as in 2 Thess. iii. 5, but the meaning

is

doubtful.

Most probably

it is

'the

nth of Ab in the Syriac Martyrology (Mcesinger p. 26). For the common construction 777 np6 evvea
the
k.t.A.

patient waiting for Christ': comp. I Thess. i. 3 T V S VTrop-ovfjs ttjs eXnidos tov Kvpiov k.t.X., and see also Rom.
viii.

25.

In the

LXX

it is

a translalxxi (lxx).

comp.
p,ias

e.g. Plut.

npb

vcovav

Mor. 203 A rfj So also oKTceftpicov.
as Trpo
p.ias

tion of

mpD, nipn,

etc, 'expectatio',
5,

'spes', e.g. Ps. lxii (lxi).
5, Jer. xiv. 8, xvii. 13, etc.

we have such expressions

rfpepas, irpo Tpiatcovra r)p.epcov,

'one day

The commentators however more commonly
take it otherwise, 'such patience as Christ Himself showed'. The former

before', 'thirty days before', in Greek writings of this age comp. e.g. John
:

xii.

1

Trpo e| -qpepaiv

tov

7rao-_^a,

and

sense

is

much more appropriate here.

TO THE PHILADELPHIANS.

5-

TO THE PHILADELPHIANS.
name Philadelphia was borne by several cities (see below, p. Of these perhaps the most important was the Syrian Phila249). the Rabbah or Rabbath-Ammon of the Scriptures while the delphia,

X

THE

second in importance if second was the Lydian Philadelphia, with which Ignatius corresponded. But, though bearing the same name,

;

The Syrian city was so they did not owe it to the same person. from the second Ptolemy of Egypt, who restored this ancient designated capital of the Ammonites ; the Lydian city was called after the second
Attalus of Pergamus (b.c. 159
distinctly ascribed to the
KTLo-fjLa

— 138)
its

its

founder.

bore the surname Philadelphus.
rov ^tXaSeX^ov), as indeed
to

The foundation
situation

Both these princes of the Lydian city is
s.

Pergamene king

(Steph. Byz.

v.

'Atto.Xov

would

suggest.

Yet we

may be tempted

suspect an error in this statement. Joannes Laurentius the Lydian, a writer of the sixth century, himself a native
of this Philadelphia, in a
related

part of his

work which

is

not preserved,

how it was founded by the Egyptians (de Mens. iii. 32, p. 45, and this ed. Bonn., on rrjv ev AuoYa <J>iAaSeA.<£€iai/ Aiyu7rnoi liroXia-av) who had large notice would seem to point to Ptolemy Philadelphus,
;

possessions in Asia

Minor (Theocr.

Idyll, xvii. 88).

Philadelphia

the valley of the
south,

and

is

the

Hermus

(Plin.

Tmolus mountains, which separate the north from that of the Cayster on the washed by the river Cogamus, an important tributary of N. H. v. 30 Philadelpheni et ipsi in radice Tmoli
lies at

the foot of the

Hermus on

'

Cogamo

flumini appositi,' Joann. Lyd. de Magistr.

iii.

26, p.

218,

rr/9

238

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
rrj<;

iveyKOvcrrjs /xe <3>i\aSe/\.</>eias

vivo t<3 T/xwXid

kou Ai>3ux Kei/Aevrjs).

It

is situated in the loop which connects the valley of the Maeander with that of the Hermus, the valley of the Cayster being shut in between the

two.

Hence

the importance of

its

position, as

commanding

the

way

to

the pass between the two valleys. It is nearly equidistant from Tripolis to the west and Sardis to the east (33 miles from Tripolis, 28 from Sardis, Anton. Itin. p. 336 ; 34 miles from Tripolis, 30 [?] from Sardis, Peuting.

between Apamea and Smyrna, which Tab.), lying on the great high-road leaves the Maeander close to Tripolis and touches the Hermus near

Along this road the great king led his countless hosts on his expedition against Greece ; and Callatebus, at which he halted on this occasion, and where he committed the plane-tree to the guardianSardis.
fatal

ship of one of the Immortals,
1
.

must have been not

far

from the

site

of

It was along this same road also that the later city of Philadelphia Cyrus marched with his Greek auxiliaries from Sardis to the Maeander

Travels i?i the Track of the Te?i but no place within these limits is menp. 13 sq) ; tioned by name in Xenophon's account of his march. Descriptions of the road, and of the city of Philadelphia, will be found in Smith

(Xen. Anab. i. 2. Thousand Greeks

5,

see Ainsworth's

32 sq; Chandler Travels in Asia Minor etc. P- 3°3 Churton); Arundell Seven Churches p. 163 sq; W. J. Hamilton Researches in Asia Minor etc. 11. p. 370 sq ; Ainsworth
Sept.

Asiae Eccles. Not.
SCL

p.

L

e d(

1.

in. p.

a; Fellows Asia Minor and Lycia p. 216 sq; Texier Asie Mineure For the physical features of the region see Tchihatcheff 23 sq.
1.

Asie Mineure P.

p.

235

sq,

470

sq, P. iv. Vol. 3. p.

229

sq.

Philadelphia does not appear ever to have attained the magnitude or the wealth which its position might have led us to expect. The little
'

power' (Rev.
1

iii.

8 /xtxpav l^ets Svvafjuv) of the Christian

Church here
Hamilton

Herod,
to\lu, ev

vii.

31 i^at irapa

KaXXdr^-

Cogamus

at

Aineh Ghieul
II.

(see

fiov

rfj dri/uuoepyol fj.e\i e/c fivpU-qs

Asia Minor

p. 374),

near which the

T€ Kai irvpov iroievai k.t.X. Philadelphia is still famous for a similar confection,
called halva\

is

tamarisk grows in great abundance. This possible; but not so the position assigned to Callatebus in Smith's Diet, of Bible, s. v. Philadelphia, 'not far

von
1.

Hammer
stated

Gesch. d. Os-

man. Reiches
p. 27
r.

p. 220,
is

Texier UUnivers

the

Xerxes
at

by Herodotus

to

have arrived

Sardis from Callatebus

from the Maeander'; for the Maeander must be some seventy miles from Sardis
a distance far too great for Xerxes' host to traverse in the time. Cyrus took
three days,

devrepr) Ti/xepr], and as the distance between Philadelphia and Sardis is 28 or 30 miles, this would be a fair two days' march for a large army. On the other

marching

quickly
force

with

a

much
Anab.

more
i.

manageable

(Xen.

hand, some would place Callatebus about four hours higher up the valley of the

2. 5).

TO TKtE PHILADELPHIANS.

239

probably reflected the comparative size of the city itself. It lies indeed in a region of great natural fertility and, as is frequently the case with volcanic regions, this was especially a vine-growing country. The wines
;

Tmolus were among the most celebrated of antiquity (Virg. Geor*. But this physical characteristic was 98, Plin. N. H.\. 30, xiv. 9). at the same time its most terrible scourge. It borders on the region called Katakekau??iene, which is to Asia Minor what the Phlegrzean Plains are to Italy and in a country where every city was more or less liable to such catastrophes, none suffered more cruelly from convulsions
of
ii.
;

On this account the city itself conof the earth than Philadelphia. tained a very small population, the majority preferring to live in the country and follow agricultural pursuits. Strabo, who gives us this
expresses his surprise that even these few are hardy enough to brave the dangers. The earthquakes, he says, are conthe houses are continually gaping asunder with the shocks stant
information,
:

:

the architects are obliged to reckon with this fact in building (Strabo In the terrible catastrophe during the xii. 8, p. 579, xiii. 4, p. 628).
reign of Tiberius,

when twelve
I.

cities

were thrown down in one

night,

Philadelphia was among the
Puteoli marble, C.

sufferers (Tac.

L.

x.

1624).

47 see also the Doubtless these subterranean forces
ii.
;

Ann.

were exceptionally active when Strabo wrote ; but the account of a Philadelphian in the sixth century shows that the danger was not
This last-mentioned writer, Joannes Lauconfined to any one epoch. also speaks of the hot springs in this region, as connected with rentius,
its

its

volcanic energy (de Ostent. 53, p. 349, ed. Bonn.) In the age of Pliny (N. H. v. 30) this city had no law-courts of own, but belonged to the jurisdictio or conventus of Sardis (see
.

1

Before the middle of the next century however Colossians p. 7 sq). a change appears to have been made; for the rhetorician Aristides 1. p. 530, ed. Dindorf, speaks of the legate as holding courts here {Op.
Kvpol
rrjv

x €L P OTOV ^av
;

*v

$iA.aS€X<£ta

[v.

1.

<£iAaSeA(£€ia]

oWctt 77/51019

aTrdvTos

e/xoi)

see

Masson

Vit. Aristid. ib. in. p. cxviii sq).

No

great

fact epithet 'splendid' is weight can be attached to the of the age of Valerian given to Philadelphia in a Smyrnaean inscription lv I. G. $iAa8eA<£cW ttoAci); nor and Gallienus

that the

(C.

3206

rfj

Xafxyrpa

again,
1

do the

titles

of the two ruling bodies in the
was obtained
...olos e<rrtv 6
e/c

city,

'the most

From

this district also

$i\a8e\<pdas
see the

KOfitiofievos

the highest quality of the commodity which the ancients called spuma nitri;
Dioscorid. Mat. Med. v. 130 a<p ? h virpov

t^s

h

Avdig..

For the substance meant
reff.

by

d(f>pds
s.

virpov

in

Steph.

Thes.

v. acppbvirpov, ed.

Hase

et Din.I.

240
sacred,' or
'

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
the most excellent Council,' and 'the most splendid People'

(y Upwrdrr] [KpaTtcTTr)] fiovXrj kou o A.a/x7r/3oraTos Srjfxos, C. I. G. 3416, It is more important to observe that Phila3421), imply very much.

delphia bore the name of to the city on account of

'

Little Athens.'

its

religious character.

This designation was given As the great Athens

especially prided herself on being the most 'pious' city in Greece (see the passages in Wetstein on Acts xvii. 16, 22 sq), while from an opposite point of view the earliest historian of the Christian Church described

the place as 'beset with idols' (Acts xvii. 16 KaretSoyXov) \ so also this miniature Athens was distinguished by the number of its temples

and the frequency of
etSwAwj/).

its

festivals

MiKpas 'A^T/vas IkoXovv

tyjv

(Joann. Lyd. de Mens. iv. 40, p. 75, <£iAaSeA.<£eiav ota Tas koprds kcu to, lepd tcov

is borne out by the not very numerous extant inscriptions found in or near the city. Among the festivals celebrated there we read of the Jovialia Solaria (Aeta "AAeia 3>iAaSeXAeta "AAeia iv ^tXa^Xcpeta no. 3428, /xeyaAa "AAeta </>€ia C. I. G. 3427,

This statement

no.

3416; see Boeckh's note,

11.

p.

804

sq,

Lebas and Waddington no.

645), of the Communia Asiae (kolvo, 'Ao-ias iv <3>/AaSeA(£eia, no. 1068, 3428), and of the Augustalia Anaitea (p.€ydXa ^e/3a.o-ra 'Avactreia no.

3424,

i.

e.

in

honour of Artemis or Aphrodite
in

Anaitis, a Persian

and

Armenian

deity worshipped

these

parts)

:

while

Asiarchs,

pane-

gyriachs, xystarchs, ephebarchs, hipparchs, etc., appear in considerable

profusion.
(no.

3422)

More especially mention is made of the 'priest who seems to have been the patron-goddess
iv.

of Artemis'
of the city

(see
'

97 sq, Suppl. vn. p. 398 sq) ; and the title of high-priest,' which occurs from time to time, probably belongs to this

Mionnet

p.

functionary.
It

would seem from these
less clear

facts that

vitality in this otherwise not very important place.
it

paganism had an exceptional At the same time,

Philadelphia was a stronghold of the Jews. Church in the Apocalypse contains a reference to the synagogue of Satan,' which is further denned as those that called themselves Jews, though they are not' (Rev. hi. 9); and in accordance
is

no

that

The message
'

to the

'

with this notice the Epistle of Ignatius is largely occupied in controverting a stubborn form of Judaism which obviously constitutes the chief The peril of the Christian Church in this city (see esp. §§ 6, 8, 9).

promise in the vision of Patmos that the Jews should come and worship
while

'before the feet' of the Philadelphian Church had been fulfilled meanbut the influx of Jewish converts had been attended with the ;

usual dangers. The intimate connexion which subsisted between Philadelphia and

TO THE PHILADELPHIANS.
Smyrna, where Ignatius made
cumstances.

241

Among
the
'

commemorate

his long halt, appears from several cirthe coins of Philadelphia are not a few which concord (o/xovota) of the Philadelphians with the
'

Smyrnaeans (Mionnet, iv. pp. 100, 108, SuppL vn. pp. 400, 401). The Anthology again contains a couplet recording some honour which Philadelphia, fxvrjfxwv -q tt6\i% cvvo/xtr;?, had paid to a statue of one

Smyrna' (Anthol. 11. p. 450). Again, an inscription at Smyrna mentions one Apollinaris, a citizen both of Smyrna and of Philadelphia, as of other places also (C. I. G. 3206). And lastly we hear of Philadelphian Christians crowned with martyrdom at Smyrna about
'Philip ruler in

the middle of the second century (Mart. Polyc. 19; see below, p. 243). The earliest notice of Christianity in Philadelphia is the passage in

the Apocalypse
this

(iii.

7

13).

But the language there used implies
for

that

church had already existed
fall
its

some

years at least.

In default of

back, as before (see above, pp. 102, 147), on the evangelization was due to S. Paul and his companions though here the distance from Ephesus, his head-quarters, was much greater than in the cases of Magnesia and Tralles.

any information we

supposition that
;

Unlike the churches which have come before our notice hitherto

At the bifurPhiladelphia had been visited in person by Ignatius. cation, on the banks of the Lycus, his guards had taken the righthand road which led in a more northerly direction over the Derwend
of the Cogamus pass through Philadelphia and Sardis, by the valleys At Philadelphia they and Hermus, to Smyrna (see above, p. 2).
this visit Ignatius appear to have made a halt of some duration. To once in the course of the letter. He incidentally alludes more than whose modesty and speaks of making the acquaintance of their bishop,

reserve
S.

and gentleness he

Paul, he

After the example of praises highly (§ 1). It to the character of his intercourse with them. appeals

was

He of any kind (§ 6). entirely free from tyranny or oppressiveness to an attempt on the part of certain persons to lead alludes
obscurely
lost time to attempt to explain.
'

him astray— an

allusion which (in the absence of information) it were He reminds them that he had warned
'

them emphatically with the voice of God to give heed to the bishop and other officers of the church (§ 7). He had done all that one man

He recals a disputecould do (to ISlov iiroiovv) to promote unity. held at Philadelphia— when the Judaizers had pleaded the apparently deancient charters (to apx€ "0 against the Gospel, while he himself own witnesses clared that Christ's Cross and Resurrection were their
and superseded any such appeal
IGN.
II,
(§ 8).

l6

242
Nor
differs
is

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
this the only point in

from the previous

letters.

which the Epistle to the Philadelphians It was also written from a different

place.

Since the despatch of the earlier letters, the saint had moved onward from Smyrna to Alexandria Troas, and was waiting there to embark for Europe. This interval had somewhat altered the position Two persons had meanwhile joined him from the east after of affairs.
his arrival at Troas, or at all events after his departure

from Smyrna

Philo, a deacon of Cilicia, and Rhaius Agathopus, a member of the They had followed in his track, and halted at PhilaSyrian Church.

delphia.

— ponents had
But

body

Here they had of the church ; but
treated

received a hearty welcome from the main some persons doubtless his Judaizing opthem with contempt (§ n). From them he

probably heard of those misrepresentations of his conduct during his stay at Philadelphia, which he considers it necessary to rebut (§§ 6, 7).
at the same time, they brought him more welcome news also. The persecution at prayers of the churches had been heard. Antioch had ceased. He therefore urges the Philadelphians to despatch

The

a deacon to Syria, as their representative, to congratulate the brethren Other churches which lay nearer, he tells them, had sent delegacies on a larger scale (§ 10).
there.

But, though the letter contains this incidental charge,

its

direct

The main burden is the heresy which purport and motive is different. It had awakened his anxiety troubled the Philadelphian Church.
during his

own sojourn

there,

and the

later report of Philo

and Aga-

the nature of this heresy was, He is attacking a form of the tenour of his letter plainly indicates. Docetic Judaism (see the note Trail. 9), but more directly from its

thopus had aggravated

his alarm.

What

Judaic than from
the
'

its

Docetic

side.

The Docetism

is

tacitly

reproved in
'

where he congratulates the Philadelphians as opening rejoicing in the Passion of our Lord without wavering,' and steadfast in the conviction of His Resurrection/ and salutes them in the blood
salutation,
'

of Jesus Christ which is eternal and abiding joy.' There are perhaps also allusions to it, when speaking of the eucharist he refers to the
'

one

flesh of

our Lord Jesus Christ

'

(§ 4),

and when he describes him-

flesh of Jesus' (§ 5). But the Judaism is openly attacked. Jew talking Christianity, he says, If any disputant is silent is better than a Christian talking Judaism. about Christ, he is no better than a tombstone with its epitaph inscribed The Judaizers allege the ancient charters but to himself Jesus (§ 6).

self as 'taking refuge in the

Gospel as the

A

Christ

— His Cross and Resurrection —

:

is

the one inviolable charter

(§ 8).

TO THE PHILADELPHIANS.

243

The prophets are to be loved and admired, because they foretold Christ The priests too are not to be despised, but the great High(§ 5).
all. He is the door through whom patriarchs and not less than the Christian Church, must pass to the prophets alike, Father (§ 9). These heretics are described as treacherous wolves

priest is better than

devouring the flock (§ 2). The heresy itself is a noxious herb, which does not belong to the husbandry of Jesus Christ (§ 3). As a safeguard against its assaults he recommends here, as elsewhere, unity and obedience to the bishops and officers of the Church (§§ 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). In saying this, he merely repeats a charge which he had given them More especially they must not separate themselves from orally (§ 7).
the one eucharistic feast
(§ 4).

No

schismatic can inherit the kingdom

of

God

(§ 3).

When Ignatius wrote this letter from Troas, Burrhus the Ephesian, alone of the delegates who had been with him at Smyrna, still remained He was the amanuensis of in his company (see the note on Ephes. 2).
n). be seen from the above account, that the impression of the is less favourable Philadelphian Church left by the language of Ignatius than that which we obtain from the message in the Apocalypse, where The warning with which is commended (Rev. hi. 8, 10). its

the letter

It will

constancy

closes was not superfluous; 'Hold fast no man take thy crown (ver. 11).' At the same time the main body of the Church appears to have been sound; and for Ignatius praises the steadfastness of their convictions (inscr.), declares that he has found sifting, and not division,' among them (§ 2).

the

Apocalyptic

message

that

which thou

hast, that

'

The

next notices also in point of time are honourable to the PhiladelShe numbered among her sons eleven martyrs, who phian Church.
suffered at

155 <J>iAa8eA<£a'a 'A/ifu'*) phetess of Philadelphia (y nourished early in the second century, for her name

a.d.

in the persecution which was fatal to Polycarp, are also told of one Ammia a pro(Mart. Polyc. 19). who appears to have iv

Smyrna

We

is

mentioned

in

connexion with Quadratus more especially (Anon, The Montanists claimed her as a forerunner of their 18). Eusebius but this claim the orthodox writer quoted by phetesses and occurs comis probably Phrygian, The name indignantly denies.
v.
;

in Euseb.

H. E. own pro-

monly in inscriptions belonging to these parts (see her At the council of Nica^a this Lydian Philadelphia is represented by Miscellanies 1. p. 535, Cowper Syriac bishop Hetcemasius (Spic. Solesm. On as is also the Syrian by her own bishop Cyrion.
pp.

Colossians p. 507).

n,

28, 33),

l6—2

244
the other

THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS
hand
at the

Council of Constantinople (a.d. 381) the only is the Isaurian (id. p. 37, Labb. Philadelphia which puts in an appearance both her more famous namesakes being unrepreCone. 1. p. 1135), In the meanwhile our Philadelphia has been toying with Semisented.
arianism.
(a. d. 347) there was present bishop of Philadelphia (see Labb. Cone. 11. p. 743), (Kv/oios) the name of the bishop would suggest apparently the Lydian city, though the Syrian; and at the Synod of Seleucia (a.d. 359) again, we meet with a Theodosius, bishop of Philadelphia, here expressly denned as the

At the Synod of Philippopolis

one Quirius

At Ephesus (a.d. 431) the represented by Theophanes or Theophanius Lydian Philadelphia at later councils also her bishops appear (Labb. Cone. in. p. 1086) and For some centuries Philadelphia remained a suffrato time. from time gan see under Sardis, but at a later date it was raised to an independent
Lydian
city

(Labb.

Cone.

11.

p.

922).

is

j

metropolitan rank, though apparently not without some vicissitudes (see the Notitiae pp. 96, 132, 156, 226, 236, 246, ed. Parthey). It was in the last struggle for independence that Philadelphia won

The strategical importance of the site, which an undying renown. doubtless had led to the foundation of the city in the first instance,
was also the cause of her chief woes.
Philadelphia was besieged by

every invading army in turn, Byzantine, Latin, and barbarian. Against For the Turkish hordes the Philadelphians offered a manly resistance.
nearly a hundred years after the neighbouring places had succumbed, The whole land beneath the sun,' writes the Philadelphia held out.
'

Byzantine historian, a star shone still in
ed. Bonn.).

was subjugated by the Turks, but this the over-clouded mid-heaven' (Ducas iv.
'

city like
4, p. 19,

It is said that

commendation and the

she was sustained in her resistance by the At length she promise in the Apocalypse.

yielded to the assaults of the victorious Bajazet, 'the thunderbolt.' But even then her fall was due quite as much to the baseness of
the Byzantine emper