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Road alignment and geometry design
4.1 Brief description of the project area
The project area for the present study is Jiri, Dolakha, district. It is located in the hilly area of the Central
Development region. Jiri is rural area with diverse topography. The area consists of many valleys and
ridges. For the alignment of road and its geometry design, we selected a track located after the bridge that
we surveyed situated northwest of Pasu Bikas Chhetra. The area is locally accessible and this road is of
utmost importance for the local people because it connects the main town area with the rural areas located
a little far from there and also there is no other major road available to connect these places.
4.2 Hydrology and Geology
The area has a lot of rainfall in the season when we were there so we made a conclusion that whenever a
road is to be constructed in the area we have to consider the application of methods in the construction to
counter the effect of too much of rainfall. Also the foundation there seemed to be stable.
4.3 Soil
The soil in the area was compacted and the rock was stable.
4.4 Norms (Technical Specification)
i. Stable ground
ii. Permissible gradient (according to NRS)
iii. Geometry of road (according to NRS)
iv. Making use of existing road or track
v. Location of bridge site
vi. Indivisibility between intersection point (I.P.)
vii. Obligatory points
viii. Optimum use by public
ix. Minimum use by public
x. Minimum road length as far as possible
xi. Economic condition of Project
xii. The road has to be designed for a width of 5 meter and length of 500m.
xiii. If the external deflection on the road is less then 3º the curve need not to be
fitted.
xiv. Simple horizontal curve has to be laid out where the road changed its direction, determining and
pegging the three points on the curves – the beginning of the curve, mid of the curve and the end of the
curve along the central line of the road.
xv. The radius of the curve should be greater then 12m.
xvi. The gradient of the road has to be maintained below 7%.
xvii. Cross‐section should be taken at the interval of 15 to 20m and also at the beginning, middle and end
of the curve along the central line of the road.
xviii. Plan of the road should be prepared in the scale of 1:500.
xix. L‐ Section of the road has to be plotted on the scale of 1:500 on X‐ axis and
1:100 vertically.
xx. The cross section of the road should be plotted on the scale of 1:100 for both
the axis.
4.5 Equipment
Digital Theodolite: It is used for measuring both horizontal and vertical angles.
Leveling staffs: It is used for calculating the staff intercept and reading the central hair reading.
Ranging rods: It is used for marking the position of stations while ranging a line.
Plumb bob: It is used for transferring the end points of the chain onto the ground while measuring
distances in a hilly terrain.
Tape: It is primarily used for measuring the horizontal distances.
Prismatic compass: It is used for determining the bearing of stations.
Hammer: It is used to fix the pegs.
Pegs : It is used to locate the traverse station
Auto level: It is used to transfer R.L. from a known bench mark to the station.
4.6 Methodology
4.6.1 Horizontal alignment
The location of the simple horizontal curve were determined carefully considering factors like the
stability of the area, enough space for the turning radius etc. The I.P. was fixed so that the gradient of the
road at any place was less than 7‐10%. After determining the I.P for the road, theodolite was stationed at
each I.P. and the deflection angles measured. The distance between one I.P. and another was measured by
two way taping.
The horizontal curve was set out by angular method using theodolite at I.P. and tape. The radius of the
curve was fixed first, assuming it to be more than 15m. Then for that radius, the tangent length and apex
distance of the curve were calculated using the following formulas:
Tangent Length =2 R tan Δ
Apex Distance =
Length of the Curve = πRΔ/180
Where Δ = External deflection angle
After performing the necessary calculation, the points T1 and T2 were fixed at a distance equal to tangent
length from the I.P. using a tape. Then the line bisecting the internal angle at the I.P. was found out with
the help of a theodolite. And on this line, a peg was driven at mid of curve at a distance equal to the apex
distance from the I.P. Then the necessary calculation was done, thus giving the required numerical values
of different parameters.
4.6.2 Vertical alignment
Most of the works related to the vertical alignment was done in the works of leveling. We were careful
that the gradient of the road is not more than 12% as this was not a highway but a road in a simple area.
When doing the recee, there are various places on the road falling at different elevations so in order to
connect those places with a road, a gradient should be provided. While providing the gradient we should
be careful that we follow the code give by NRS. This also gives us the information about the rough
quantity of cutting or filling that might be required in the process of the construction of the road.
4.6.3 Leveling
The method of fly leveling was applied in transferring the level from the given B.M. to all the I.P.,
beginnings, mid points and end of the curve as well as to the points along the center line of the road where
the cross section were taken. After completing the work of one way leveling on the entire length of the
road, fly leveling was continued back to the B.M making before and after forming the loops should be
less than 25 K mm, where k is total loop distance in km.
4.6.4 Longitudinal Section
The L‐section of the road is required to the road engineer an idea about the nature of the ground and the
variation in the elevation of the different points along the length of the road an also to determined the
amount of cutting and filling required at the road site for maintaining a gentle slope. In order to obtain the
data for L‐Section, Staff reading was taken at a point at 25m intervals along the central line of the road
with the help of a level by the method of fly leveling. And thus after performing the necessary calculation
the level was transferred to all those point with respect R.L. of the given B.M. Then finally the L‐Section
of the road was plotted on a graph paper on a vertical scale of 1:100 and a horizontal scale of 1:500.
4.6.5 Cross Section
Cross Section at different points is drawn perpendicular to the longitudinal section of the road on either
side its center line is order to present the lateral out line of the ground. Cross Section is also equally useful
in determining the amount of cut and fill required for the road construction. The cross sections were taken
at 25m intervals along the center line of the road and also at point where there was a sharp change in the
elevation. While doing so, the horizontal distance of the different points from the center line measured
with the help of a tape and vertical height with a measuring staff. The R.L. was transferred to all the
points were performing the necessary calculation and finally the cross section at different section were
plotted on a graph paper on a scale of 1:100 both vertical and horizontal.
4.6.6 Topographical survey of road corridor
While surveying the road the road corridor was also taken into consideration. The topographical survey of
road corridor was also done. This could give a general idea of the land that the road would be occupying.
4.6.7 Computation and plotting
4.7 Comments and conclusion
In spite of the different kinds of obstacles in the field, our group was successful in completing the
fieldwork as well as the office work in time. In field, we had spent quite some time discussing the route of
the road and also in designing the curves, which led to good results. However, the entire group members
were very cautious and tried their best to get error free data and calculations. Moreover, after performing
this road alignment survey, we were able to build confidence in designing roads at difficult terrain taking
factors like economy, convenience and its use into consideration. We believe that such a work will be a
lot of help for us in understanding the actual situation while undertaking actual design and construction
work in the future and we hope that organizes such useful field trips of the entire subject frequently.
5. Layout of building
5.1Brief description of layout
The real meaning and purpose of setting out (layout) is to transfer the plan, length and width of its
foundation on the ground so that the foundation can be excavated for construction of purposed building as
per drawing.
There are also many other complex uses of a building layout which are described below. The layout
shows how to use a transit to locate a building correctly on the lot, plan proper grades with minimum
excavation, find utility lines and easements, establish correct elevations, lay out accurate foundations, and
set correct floor heights. It also explains how to plan sewer connections, level a foundation that's out of
level, use a story pole and batterboards, work on steep sites, and minimize excavation costs.
5.2 Norms
The following preliminary works should be executed before actual planning of layout for the house.
 Clear the site from all grass, bushes, trees, etc.
 Record spot levels of the ground.
 Construct a permanent bench mark in construction area.
Base Line
For setting out /layout, the most important requirement is to establish a baseline. This is marked on the
ground as per site plan requirement with the help of offsets which are taken from the existing road or
existing building.
Centre Line
Centre line divides the plan into two equal parts. This can be marked in the field with the help of baseline.
This line is very necessary and useful for layout. This line should be transferred to Burjis and be kept up
to the completion of foundation work.
'Burjis' and its' Distance
Burji or marking pillars are masonry pillars constructed with bricks and cement mortar. These are
constructed on both ends of walls /columns and center line should be marked on the top surface of the
burjis with the help of base line. Burji is also constructed for indicating the plinth level of the building.
Burjis are very useful for the layout. Accuracy of the foundation can be checked with the help of Burji at
any time during construction. Burjis should be kept intact till completion of foundation work.
5.3Location and site plan
The location was situated to the north west of Pashu Bikas Chhetra, Jiri. The ground had some ups and
downs and it was a little bit uneven. However the ground was free from grasses and bushes so there was
no major difficulty in setting out the plan.
5.4Equipment
The various equipments used in the laying of building layout procedure are as follows:
 Pegs
 Measuring tape
 Hammer
 Thread
 Nails
5.5Methodology
5.5.1Site selection
The site for the laying out of the plan of the building was selected near the site for the survey of bridge
and road. We were careful in choosing the site which had the least ups, downs and irregularities. Also the
area was chosen so that it was free from long grasses and bushes.
5.5.2 Topographical survey
Many other points also had to be considered while setting the layout of the building on the ground. The
main gate of the building had to be in the direction of the road. Also every line of the layout connecting
the various pegs had to be straight and orthogonal to each other at the edges. All these points were taken
care of in the topographical survey of the area.
5.5.3 Determination of area
The theoretical area occupied by the building was already known from the map of the plan. Also the area
at the site was found out by measuring the actual dimensions and it was made sure that the area was equal
to the theoretical area
5.5.4 Steps of layout
The following procedure was followed in order to make the layout of the building:
i. A peg was hammered into the ground to mark one of the edges of the area.
ii. The various dimensions were measured and pegs were inserted into the ground starting from the
external edges of the ground.
iii. Also nail was hammered on the top and center of the peg.
iv. Thread was tied on the nail of the hammer and the pegs were tied by the same thread thereby
giving the exact layout of the building.
5.5.5 Comments and conclusion
By performing the process of building layout on the ground we became accustomed to the various
techniques followed in this process. It greatly helped us in increasing our confidence about performing
this job.
6. Intersection and Resection
6.1 INTRODUCTION
In the method of intersection, either the coordinates of at least two accessible and intervisible points must
be known or the distance between them is measured directly in the field. These points are plotted on the
required convenient scale. The locations of other detail points are determined by drawing rays from each
end station after proper orientation of the table. The intersection of rays gives the location of detail point.
It is thus evident that it is very essential to have at least two points whose locations are plotted before the
survey may be started. The line joining the locations of the given stations is known as the base line. In
this method, no other linear measurement is required except that of the base line. The point of intersection
of the rays drawn from the ends of the base line forms the vertex of the triangle and two rays represent the
remaining two sides. The position of the vertex is determined by completing the triangle graphically. This
is why the method is also known as 'Graphic triangulation'. Moreover, the field work of intersection
involves the setting up of the theodolite at each existing control station, backsighting onto another
existing station, normally referred to as the reference object (i.e. R.O.), and is then sighted at the point to
be established. Normally, a number of sets of horizontal angle measurements made with a secondorder
theodolite (i.e. capable of giving readings to the nearest second of arc) will be required to give a good fix.
The process of determining the location of the station occupied by the plane table, by means of drawing
rays from stations whose locations have already been plotted on the sheet, is called resection. This method
which is also generally known as Interpolation Method or Fixing Method consists of drawing rays from
known points whose locations are already available on the sheet. The intersection of these rays will be at
a point if the orientation of the table was correct before rays are drawn. It is seldom possible to get an
accurate orientation even with a magnetic compass. The problem therefore lies in orienting the table at the
unknown occupied station. It may be solved by one the following methods:
1. Back ray method
2. Two points method
3. Three points method
4. A box compass method
The three point problem may be defined as 'finding the location of the station occupied by a plane table
on the sheet, by to means of sighting to three well defined points whose locations have previously been
plotted on the sheet'. It is location of a single point by measuring horizontal angles from it to three visible
stations whose positions are known.
6.2 CALCULATION
6.2.1 CALCULATION OF INTERSECTION
The intersection formulae for the determination of the x and y coordinates of the intersected point may
be easily developed from first principle as:
Let the existing control stations be A(Xa, Ya) and B(Xb,Yb) and from which point P(X, Y) is
intersected.
o = bearing of ray AP
 = bearing of ray BP.
It is assumed that P is always to the right of A and B. (o &  is from 0 to 90)
tan Y  Ytan X X
X  X = tan Y  tan Y
Y  Y
X  X
tan
A A
A A
A
A
o o
o o
o
+ =
=
Similarly,
tan Y  Ytan X X
X  X = tan Y  tan Y
Y  Y
X  X
tan
B B
B B
B
B
 
 

+ =
=
) tan  (tan
tan Y  Ytan X X
Y
tan Y  Ytan X X ) tan  Y(tan
tan Y  Ytan X = tan Y  Ytan X
B A B
B A B
B B A A
 o
 o
 o  o
  o o
+ ÷
=
+ ÷ =
+ +
Similarly,
cot X  Xcot Y Y ;
X  X
Y  Y
= cot
A A
A
A
o o o + =
cot X  Xcot Y Y ;
X  X
Y  Y
= cot
B B
B
B
   + =
) cot  (cot
cot X  cot X + Y Y
= X
cot X  cot X + Y Y = ) cot  X(cot
cot X  Xcot Y = cot X  Xcot Y
B A A B
B A A B
B B A A
 o
 o
 o  o
  o o
÷
÷
+ +
o

A
B
P
C
If the observed angles into P are used, the equation becomes:
) cot + (cot
cot Y + cot Y + X X
= Y
) cot + (cot
cot X + cot X + Y Y
= X
B A B A
B A A B
 o
o 
 o
o 
÷
÷
The above equations are also used in the direct solution of triangulation. Inclusion of additional ray from
C, affords a check on the observation and computation.
6.2.3 CALCULATION OF RESECTION
The Theodolite occupies station P, and angles o and  are measured between stations A and B, and B and
C.
Let BAP = u, then
BCP = (360°  o    )  u
= S  u
 is computed from coordinates of A, B and C
S is known
From APAB,
PB = BA sin u / sin o (1)
From APAB
A
B
C
o 

¸
P
PB = BC sin(S  u) / sin  (2)
Equating (1) and (2)
Q
sin BC
sin BA
sin
)  sin(S
= =
o

u
u
Q
sin
) sin S cos  cos S (sin
=
u
 u
sin S cot u  cos S = Q
cot u = (Q + cos S) / sin S
Knowing u and (S  u), distances and bearings AP, BP and CP are solved. Coordinates of P can be solved
with the three values. This method fails if P lies on the circumference of a circle passing through A, B,
and C, and has an infinite number of positions.
Example of the resection is given below:
Refer to Figure,
o = 41° 20’ 35”
 = 48° 53’ 12”
Control points:
X
A
= 5,721.25, Y
A
= 21,802.48
X
B
= 12,963.71, Y
B
= 27,002.38,
A
B
C
o 

¸
P
X
C
= 20,350.09, Y
C
= 24,861.22
Calculate the coordinates of P is done through method of resection as:
Dist. BC =7690.46004
Bearing of BC = 1060956.8
Dist. AB =8915.8391
Bearing of AB = 541921.5
 = 180  ((1060956.8)+(541921.5))
= 1280924.6
S = (360  o   )
= 1413648.4
Q = AB sin /BC sin o =1.322286
cot u= (Q + cos S) / sin S
u = 49 0415.5
BP = AB sin u/sin o
= 10197.4831
BP = BC sin (S  u) / sin 
= 10197.4831 (checks)
Z CBP = 180  [ + (S  u) ]
= 38.5708769°
Bearing BP = Bearing. BC + Z CBP
= 144  44  12.0
Ep = E
B
+ BP sin (BRG BP)
= 18851.076
Np = N
B
+ BP cos (BRG BP)
= 18676.061
Checks can be made by computing the coordinates of P using the length and bearing of AP and CP.
6.3 PROCEDURE
6.3.1 PROCEDURE OF INTERSECTION
1. The theodolite is set up at one of the station whose coordinates and the reduce level are known say at
A.
2. The ranging rod is kept at another known station (say B) accessible from A.
3. Setting zero at the known station 'B , and viewing another unknown and inaccessible point 'C', the
angle BAC is measured .
4. The theodolite is again set up at B, and the angle ABC is taken in similar way.
5. The distance between the known points 'A' and 'B' is measured.
6. The bearing of any line AB is taken.
7. The coordinate of the unknown point is then calculated using the trigonometric relation.
6.3.2 PROCEDURE OF RESECTION
1. The Theodolite is set up at the unknown station (say A).
2. The ranging rod is kept at the three known points (Say B, C,D).
3. The angle BAC and CAD is taken.
4. The distance between the known points BC and CD is measured.
5. The bearing of any line joining known point say CD is taken.
6. The coordinate of point A and its distance from three known points B, C and D is calculated by
trigonometric relation.
6.4 RESECTION VERSUS INTERSECTION
Resection and its related method, intersection, are used in surveying as well as in general land navigation
(including inshore marine navigation using shorebased landmarks). Both methods involve taking
azimuths or bearings to two or more objects, then drawing lines of position along those recorded bearings
or azimuths.
When intersecting lines of position are used to fix the position of an unmapped feature or point by fixing
its position relative to two (or more) mapped or known points, the method is known as intersection. At
each known point (hill, lighthouse, etc.), the navigator measures the bearing to the same unmapped target,
drawing a line on the map from each known position to the target. The target is located where the lines
intersect on the map. In earlier times, the intersection method was used by forest agencies and others
using specialized alidades to plot the (unknown) location of an observed forest fire from two or more
mapped (known) locations, such as forest fire observer towers. It is used to increase or densify control
stations in a particular survey project. It enables high and inaccessible points to be fixed. The newly
selected point is fixed by throwing in rays from a minimum of two existing control stations. These two (or
more) rays intersect at the newlyselected point thus enabling its coordinates to be calculated.
The reverse of the intersection technique is appropriately termed resection. Resection simply reverses the
intersection process by using crossed back bearings, where the navigator's position is the unknown. Two
or more bearings to mapped, known points are taken; their resultant lines of position drawn from those
points to where they intersect will reveal the navigator's location. It is extremely useful technique for
quickly fixing position where it is best required for settingout purposes. It is weaker solution than
intersection.
6.5 SUITABILITY OF INTERSECTION AND RESECTION
The method of intersection is suitable when distances between detail points are either too large or cannot
be measured accurately due to undulations. The method is generally used for surveying the detail points.
Whenever this method is used for locating other points to be used at subsequent stations, the points
should be got by way of intersection of at least three rays. It may be noted that the angle of intersect of
different rays should not be acute to obtain accurate locations of the points. Triangle s should be well
conditioned. The angle of intersections of rays, should not preferably be less than 30° and not more than
120°. As no linear measurements are required in this method it can be suitably employed for surveying
mountaineous regions. As accumulation of error is limited only to the scale of plotting of the base line,
graphic triangulation can be extended to cover a large area without introducing any appreciable error.
Similarly, the method of resection can be suitably employed for the survey when a prominent point such
as a temple spire, chimney, etc... is available in the centre of the area.
theodolite was stationed at each I.P. L‐ Section of the road has to be plotted on the scale of 1:500 on X‐ axis and 1:100 vertically. Hammer: It is used to fix the pegs. The cross section of the road should be plotted on the scale of 1:100 for both the axis. mid of the curve and the end of the curve along the central line of the road. Pegs : It is used to locate the traverse station Auto level: It is used to transfer R. was fixed so that the gradient of the road at any place was less than 7‐10%. xviii.P.xiv. The distance between one I. After determining the I. and another was measured by two way taping. enough space for the turning radius etc. The gradient of the road has to be maintained below 7%. The radius of the curve should be greater then 12m. 4.5 Equipment Digital Theodolite: It is used for measuring both horizontal and vertical angles. xix. xvi. xv.L.1 Horizontal alignment The location of the simple horizontal curve were determined carefully considering factors like the stability of the area.P.P for the road.6 Methodology 4. middle and end of the curve along the central line of the road. determining and pegging the three points on the curves – the beginning of the curve. Prismatic compass: It is used for determining the bearing of stations. Leveling staffs: It is used for calculating the staff intercept and reading the central hair reading. 4.6. xvii. and the deflection angles measured. from a known bench mark to the station. The I. xx. Cross‐section should be taken at the interval of 15 to 20m and also at the beginning. Tape: It is primarily used for measuring the horizontal distances. . Plan of the road should be prepared in the scale of 1:500. Ranging rods: It is used for marking the position of stations while ranging a line. Simple horizontal curve has to be laid out where the road changed its direction. Plumb bob: It is used for transferring the end points of the chain onto the ground while measuring distances in a hilly terrain.
Then the line bisecting the internal angle at the I. And on this line.L. This also gives us the information about the rough quantity of cutting or filling that might be required in the process of the construction of the road. Then finally the L‐Section of the road was plotted on a graph paper on a vertical scale of 1:100 and a horizontal scale of 1:500. mid points and end of the curve as well as to the points along the center line of the road where the cross section were taken.3 Leveling The method of fly leveling was applied in transferring the level from the given B. a gradient should be provided. The R. 4.. the tangent length and apex distance of the curve were calculated using the following formulas: Tangent Length =2 R tan Δ Apex Distance = Length of the Curve = πRΔ/180 Where Δ = External deflection angle After performing the necessary calculation. . While providing the gradient we should be careful that we follow the code give by NRS. 4. was transferred to all the points were performing the necessary calculation and finally the cross section at different section were plotted on a graph paper on a scale of 1:100 both vertical and horizontal.M.2 Vertical alignment Most of the works related to the vertical alignment was done in the works of leveling.6. After completing the work of one way leveling on the entire length of the road.P.6. When doing the recee.L. We were careful that the gradient of the road is not more than 12% as this was not a highway but a road in a simple area.5 Cross Section Cross Section at different points is drawn perpendicular to the longitudinal section of the road on either side its center line is order to present the lateral out line of the ground.4 Longitudinal Section The L‐section of the road is required to the road engineer an idea about the nature of the ground and the variation in the elevation of the different points along the length of the road an also to determined the amount of cutting and filling required at the road site for maintaining a gentle slope. there are various places on the road falling at different elevations so in order to connect those places with a road. where k is total loop distance in km. using a tape. And thus after performing the necessary calculation the level was transferred to all those point with respect R. Then for that radius. assuming it to be more than 15m. While doing so.6. a peg was driven at mid of curve at a distance equal to the apex distance from the I. The cross sections were taken at 25m intervals along the center line of the road and also at point where there was a sharp change in the elevation. beginnings. of the given B. the points T1 and T2 were fixed at a distance equal to tangent length from the I. In order to obtain the data for L‐Section. 4. Then the necessary calculation was done. fly leveling was continued back to the B.P. thus giving the required numerical values of different parameters. The radius of the curve was fixed first.6.M making before and after forming the loops should be less than 25 K mm. and tape.The horizontal curve was set out by angular method using theodolite at I.M. was found out with the help of a theodolite.P. 4. Staff reading was taken at a point at 25m intervals along the central line of the road with the help of a level by the method of fly leveling. the horizontal distance of the different points from the center line measured with the help of a tape and vertical height with a measuring staff.P. to all the I.P. Cross Section is also equally useful in determining the amount of cut and fill required for the road construction.
the entire group members were very cautious and tried their best to get error free data and calculations. However. convenience and its use into consideration. bushes. The topographical survey of road corridor was also done.7 Computation and plotting 4. The layout shows how to use a transit to locate a building correctly on the lot. Clear the site from all grass. find utility lines and easements. We believe that such a work will be a lot of help for us in understanding the actual situation while undertaking actual design and construction work in the future and we hope that organizes such useful field trips of the entire subject frequently. Construct a permanent bench mark in construction area. plan proper grades with minimum excavation.2 Norms The following preliminary works should be executed before actual planning of layout for the house. use a story pole and batterboards.1Brief description of layout The real meaning and purpose of setting out (layout) is to transfer the plan. Layout of building 5. Moreover. and minimize excavation costs. 5. etc. lay out accurate foundations. Record spot levels of the ground. after performing this road alignment survey.6 Topographical survey of road corridor While surveying the road the road corridor was also taken into consideration. trees. 4. which led to good results. and set correct floor heights. level a foundation that's out of level. There are also many other complex uses of a building layout which are described below.7 Comments and conclusion In spite of the different kinds of obstacles in the field.6. .4. In field.6. 5. our group was successful in completing the fieldwork as well as the office work in time. length and width of its foundation on the ground so that the foundation can be excavated for construction of purposed building as per drawing. It also explains how to plan sewer connections. we were able to build confidence in designing roads at difficult terrain taking factors like economy. we had spent quite some time discussing the route of the road and also in designing the curves. This could give a general idea of the land that the road would be occupying. establish correct elevations. work on steep sites.
We were careful in choosing the site which had the least ups. the most important requirement is to establish a baseline. Also the area was chosen so that it was free from long grasses and bushes. However the ground was free from grasses and bushes so there was no major difficulty in setting out the plan.Base Line For setting out /layout. Jiri. 5. Accuracy of the foundation can be checked with the help of Burji at any time during construction. This can be marked in the field with the help of baseline. 'Burjis' and its' Distance Burji or marking pillars are masonry pillars constructed with bricks and cement mortar. This is marked on the ground as per site plan requirement with the help of offsets which are taken from the existing road or existing building.4Equipment The various equipments used in the laying of building layout procedure are as follows: Pegs Measuring tape Hammer Thread Nails 5. This line is very necessary and useful for layout. Burjis should be kept intact till completion of foundation work.5Methodology 5. Centre Line Centre line divides the plan into two equal parts. Burji is also constructed for indicating the plinth level of the building. The ground had some ups and downs and it was a little bit uneven. Burjis are very useful for the layout. downs and irregularities. These are constructed on both ends of walls /columns and center line should be marked on the top surface of the burjis with the help of base line.5. 5. . This line should be transferred to Burjis and be kept up to the completion of foundation work.3Location and site plan The location was situated to the north west of Pashu Bikas Chhetra.1Site selection The site for the laying out of the plan of the building was selected near the site for the survey of bridge and road.
5. the field work of intersection involves the setting up of the theodolite at each existing control station. The locations of other detail points are determined by drawing rays from each end station after proper orientation of the table. either the coordinates of at least two accessible and intervisible points must be known or the distance between them is measured directly in the field. It is thus evident that it is very essential to have at least two points whose locations are plotted before the survey may be started. backsighting onto another . The line joining the locations of the given stations is known as the base line. Also nail was hammered on the top and center of the peg. This is why the method is also known as 'Graphic triangulation'.3 Determination of area The theoretical area occupied by the building was already known from the map of the plan.5. Also every line of the layout connecting the various pegs had to be straight and orthogonal to each other at the edges. The main gate of the building had to be in the direction of the road.5.5 Comments and conclusion By performing the process of building layout on the ground we became accustomed to the various techniques followed in this process. no other linear measurement is required except that of the base line. Thread was tied on the nail of the hammer and the pegs were tied by the same thread thereby giving the exact layout of the building. The various dimensions were measured and pegs were inserted into the ground starting from the external edges of the ground. In this method. These points are plotted on the required convenient scale.5. The intersection of rays gives the location of detail point. iii. Intersection and Resection 6. The point of intersection of the rays drawn from the ends of the base line forms the vertex of the triangle and two rays represent the remaining two sides. All these points were taken care of in the topographical survey of the area. ii. Moreover. Also the area at the site was found out by measuring the actual dimensions and it was made sure that the area was equal to the theoretical area 5.1 INTRODUCTION In the method of intersection. 6.5. 5. The position of the vertex is determined by completing the triangle graphically.4 Steps of layout The following procedure was followed in order to make the layout of the building: i.5. A peg was hammered into the ground to mark one of the edges of the area. iv. It greatly helped us in increasing our confidence about performing this job.2 Topographical survey Many other points also had to be considered while setting the layout of the building on the ground.
The problem therefore lies in orienting the table at the unknown occupied station.e. by means of drawing rays from stations whose locations have already been plotted on the sheet. A box compass method The three point problem may be defined as 'finding the location of the station occupied by a plane table on the sheet.O. by to means of sighting to three well defined points whose locations have previously been plotted on the sheet'.1 CALCULATION OF INTERSECTION The intersection formulae for the determination of the x and y coordinates of the intersected point may be easily developed from first principle as: . capable of giving readings to the nearest second of arc) will be required to give a good fix. Back ray method 2. Normally. It is location of a single point by measuring horizontal angles from it to three visible stations whose positions are known. The process of determining the location of the station occupied by the plane table. a number of sets of horizontal angle measurements made with a secondorder theodolite (i.2 CALCULATION 6. R. This method which is also generally known as Interpolation Method or Fixing Method consists of drawing rays from known points whose locations are already available on the sheet. normally referred to as the reference object (i.e. and is then sighted at the point to be established. Two points method 3. Three points method 4.). 6.existing station. The intersection of these rays will be at a point if the orientation of the table was correct before rays are drawn. is called resection. It may be solved by one the following methods: 1. It is seldom possible to get an accurate orientation even with a magnetic compass.2.
Y) is intersected. ( & is from 0 to 90) tan X .YA .YB tan Y(tan .XA cot = Y .X Bcot X .X A cot = YB Xcot .YB tan (tan .YA tan Similarly.YA tan = X .YA tan = X B Ytan . Ya) and B(Xb.YB Y tan .XB YA Xcot .tan ) X B X A Ytan .X Bcot X= YB YA + X A cot .XB Y .YB .X B X X B Ytan . cot = Y .X A cot X .X Bcot (cot .YB tan = X .X A X X A Ytan .X Bcot X(cot .YA Y tan .cot ) A B .Let the existing control stations be A(Xa.cot ) = YB YA + X A cot . It is assumed that P is always to the right of A and B.Yb) and from which point P(X.tan ) Similarly. tan X . Y YB Xcot . Y YA Xcot . = bearing of ray AP = bearing of ray BP.YB tan X A Ytan .YB tan Y X B X A Ytan .XA Y .
If the observed angles into P are used. the equation becomes: YB YA + X A cot + X Bcot (cot + cot ) X X B + YA cot + YBcot Y= A (cot + cot ) X= The above equations are also used in the direct solution of triangulation. and angles and are measured between stations A and B. then BCP = (360° . . B and C S is known From PAB. affords a check on the observation and computation. =S is computed from coordinates of A. Let BAP = . and B and C. Inclusion of additional ray from C. 6.3 CALCULATION OF RESECTION B C A P The Theodolite occupies station P. PB = BA sin / sin From PAB (1) . .2.) .
. YB = 27.) / sin (2) Equating (1) and (2) sin(S .cos S sin ) Q sin sin S cot .721. This method fails if P lies on the circumference of a circle passing through A. and C. = 41 20’ 35” = 48 53’ 12” Control points: XA = 5. YA = 21.002.48 XB = 12. and has an infinite number of positions. Example of the resection is given below: B C A P Refer to Figure.PB = BC sin(S . B.cos S = Q cot = (Q + cos S) / sin S Knowing and (S . BP and CP are solved.38. distances and bearings AP.963.71. ) BA sin Q sin BC sin (sin S cos .25.).802. Coordinates of P can be solved with the three values.
.061 Checks can be made by computing the coordinates of P using the length and bearing of AP and CP.4831 (checks) CBP = 180 . YC = 24.5 BP = AB sin /sin = 10197.[ + (S . .8)+(541921.6 S = (360 .861.8 Dist. BC + CBP = 144 .((1060956.5)) = 1280924.12.8391 Bearing of AB = 541921.46004 Bearing of BC = 1060956.076 Np = NB + BP cos (BRG BP) = 18676.5 = 180 .22 Calculate the coordinates of P is done through method of resection as: Dist. AB =8915.09. BC =7690. ) = 1413648.) ] = 38.) / sin = 10197.350.44 .XC = 20.0 Ep = EB + BP sin (BRG BP) = 18851.4831 BP = BC sin (S .4 Q = AB sin /BC sin =1.5708769° Bearing BP = Bearing.322286 cot = (Q + cos S) / sin S = 49 0415.
2. 5. C. 6.D).1 PROCEDURE OF INTERSECTION 1. 2.3. The theodolite is again set up at B.6. The coordinate of point A and its distance from three known points B. 5. The ranging rod is kept at the three known points (Say B. and the angle ABC is taken in similar way. The bearing of any line AB is taken. The coordinate of the unknown point is then calculated using the trigonometric relation.2 PROCEDURE OF RESECTION 1. 3. 6. 4. The ranging rod is kept at another known station (say B) accessible from A. The angle BAC and CAD is taken. The distance between the known points BC and CD is measured. The distance between the known points 'A' and 'B' is measured. C and D is calculated by trigonometric relation.3 PROCEDURE 6. the angle BAC is measured . The Theodolite is set up at the unknown station (say A). The bearing of any line joining known point say CD is taken. Setting zero at the known station 'B . and viewing another unknown and inaccessible point 'C'. 3. The theodolite is set up at one of the station whose coordinates and the reduce level are known say at A. 6. 4. 7.3. .
chimney. Two or more bearings to mapped. etc. the method is known as intersection. Whenever this method is used for locating other points to be used at subsequent stations. . where the navigator's position is the unknown. The angle of intersections of rays. 6. such as forest fire observer towers. As no linear measurements are required in this method it can be suitably employed for surveying mountaineous regions. lighthouse.). then drawing lines of position along those recorded bearings or azimuths. It is used to increase or densify control stations in a particular survey project. At each known point (hill. The newlyselected point is fixed by throwing in rays from a minimum of two existing control stations. As accumulation of error is limited only to the scale of plotting of the base line. should not preferably be less than 30° and not more than 120°. The reverse of the intersection technique is appropriately termed resection.5 SUITABILITY OF INTERSECTION AND RESECTION The method of intersection is suitable when distances between detail points are either too large or cannot be measured accurately due to undulations. drawing a line on the map from each known position to the target. Similarly. The method is generally used for surveying the detail points..6. is available in the centre of the area. Triangle s should be well conditioned. etc.. their resultant lines of position drawn from those points to where they intersect will reveal the navigator's location. The target is located where the lines intersect on the map. the navigator measures the bearing to the same unmapped target. Resection simply reverses the intersection process by using crossed back bearings. graphic triangulation can be extended to cover a large area without introducing any appreciable error. intersection. the method of resection can be suitably employed for the survey when a prominent point such as a temple spire. It is extremely useful technique for quickly fixing position where it is best required for settingout purposes. are used in surveying as well as in general land navigation (including inshore marine navigation using shorebased landmarks). the intersection method was used by forest agencies and others using specialized alidades to plot the (unknown) location of an observed forest fire from two or more mapped (known) locations. It is weaker solution than intersection. Both methods involve taking azimuths or bearings to two or more objects. It may be noted that the angle of intersect of different rays should not be acute to obtain accurate locations of the points. known points are taken.4 RESECTION VERSUS INTERSECTION Resection and its related method. It enables high and inaccessible points to be fixed. These two (or more) rays intersect at the newlyselected point thus enabling its coordinates to be calculated. When intersecting lines of position are used to fix the position of an unmapped feature or point by fixing its position relative to two (or more) mapped or known points. the points should be got by way of intersection of at least three rays. In earlier times.
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