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End-Semester Examination

Numerical Reservoir Simulation - May 2011

Time: 2 hours + 10 minute reading time prior to start. Open book test: all reference materials allowed including computers. Use of mobile phones, email and Skype not allowed. The paper is divided into six Sections on the basis of the number of marks awarded for each Exercise. Exercises may be completed in any order from all Sections. Where the Exercise asks you to dene the terms used, you must give a denition of each term used in an equation. For example, Darcys Law can be written as kA(1 2 ) L


An acceptable answer could dene the terms as q =ow rate. k =permeability, A =area, =potential, =viscosity, L =distance. If the terms are not dened, then no marks will be awarded!

Write your answers to the Exercises on the test paperbrief answers are best!


Section - 50 marks total

Exercise 1.1. In a 3D cartesian grid how many near neighbour connections does a typical grid block have? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.2. In a 2D grid using hexagonal cells, how many near neighbour connections does a typical grid block have? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.3. Reservoir simulation solves equations that arise from conservation of mass. For compositional simulation, what does conservation of mass refer to? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.4. What is the molecular formula for propane? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.5. What is the molecular formula for carbon dioxide? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.6. Is hydrogen sulphide, H2 S, a hydrocarbon or non-hydrocarbon component? (1 mark)


Exercise 1.7. In compositional simulation, how many components make up the oil phase? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.8. In compositional simulation, how many components make up the water phase? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.9. Write an equation for fractional ow for oil-water (two-phase) ow and dene the terms used. (1 marks)

Exercise 1.10. Dene pore volume. (1 mark)

Exercise 1.11. In reservoir simulation, we normally take into account the change in porevolume with pressure, but not the change in total (or gross) rock volume with pressure. Why is this? (1 mark)


Exercise 1.12. If Sg > 0 and So > 0, the 5 typical unknowns in black-oil simulation, po , Sw , Sg , Rs and rs reduce to 3 unknowns. What are they? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.13. Does the uid within a porous medium move faster, slower or at the same velocity as the Darcy velocity? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.14. Which geoscience discipline usually generates the top structure map of a reservoir? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.15. In converting a seismic time-map to depth, what property of the rock between the surface and mapped formation is used? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.16. Write an equation for the mass of component i in a multiphase system where Sj =volume fraction of phase j; j =density of phase j; V =total volume; wij =mass fraction of component i in phase j. (1 mark)


Exercise 1.17. If c =pore compressibility and cj =phase compressibility, write an equation for total compressibility ct in terms of these quantities and phase saturations Sj .(1 mark)

Exercise 1.18. Assuming water-wet conditions, how does water-oil capillary pressure vary with water saturationdoes it increase or decrease with increasing water saturation? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.19. Assuming that oil is the wetting-phase, how does oil-gas capillary pressure vary with oil saturationdoes it increase or decrease with increasing oil saturation? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.20. Is the viscosity of a uid owing through a porous medium dependent in some way on the rock type of the porous medium? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.21. What is the shape of a fractional ow curve if a shock-front does not develop during two-phase ow? Sketch an example. (1 mark)

1 SECTION - 50 MARKS TOTAL Exercise 1.22. What is meant by mass balance? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.23. Denoting the bulk volume of a cell by VB , the pore volume Vp , porosity by , oil phase volume by Vo and oil saturation by So , what is the relationship between these? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.24. In a 3-dimensional simulation cartesian grid model, how many neighbours does a corner-cell have? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.25. For a 10 15 8 fully implicit simulation model, how many unknowns are there to be solved at each time-step? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.26. For a 20 cell 1-D simulation model using an IMPES solution method, what is the approximate ratio between the number of values stored in the full pressure matrix and the number of values stored in sparse matrix format? (1 mark)

1 SECTION - 50 MARKS TOTAL Exercise 1.27. Referring to the following gure,

at capillary equilibrium write down the relationship between p+ , p , , , and R. (1 mark)

Exercise 1.28. What is the surface tension of n-Octane at 20C with respect to air? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.29. Dene the interfacial tension between oil and water in terms of their surface tensions. (1 mark)

1 SECTION - 50 MARKS TOTAL Exercise 1.30. What is Antono s relationship? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.31. What is wettability? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.32. What is an oil ganglion? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.33. If a gas has molecular weight of 18.7, what is its gas gravity? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.34. If an oil has a specic gravity of 0.82, what is its API gravity? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.35. Does the presence of capillary pressure increase or decrease the fractional ow of water? (1 mark)


Exercise 1.36. What is meant by a ash calculation at pressure p and temperature T ? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.37. What is the type of grid in the following gure called? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.38. What is the type of grid in the following gure called? (1 mark)

1 SECTION - 50 MARKS TOTAL Exercise 1.39. What is a typical mole fraction of methane for a black oil? (1 mark)


Exercise 1.40. On the following P-T diagram, what is the name of region between the bubble-point line and the dew-point line called? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.41. Dene the dew point line? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.42. What is the range of formation volume factors for typical black oils? (1 mark)



Exercise 1.43. When approximating a derivative with a nite-dierence approximation, p we write the equation x = p(x+x) + (x). What is the term (x) called? (1 mark) p(x)

Exercise 1.44. What does round-o error mean? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.45. What does numerical dispersion mean? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.46. If the size of the grid cells in a simulation model increases, does numerical dispersion increase or decrease? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.47. What is a curvilinear grid? (1 mark)



Exercise 1.48. What does the term LIFT TABLE refer to in reservoir simulation? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.49. What are non-neighbour or special connections? (1 mark)

Exercise 1.50. What is meant by the expression equivalent well block radius? (1 mark)



Section - 60 marks total

Exercise 2.1. Sketch the pore doublet model of a porous medium showing connate water. (2 marks)

Exercise 2.2. If a grid cell has dimensions x by y, what is an expression for the equivalent well block radius re in terms of x and y? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.3. What does Cost-Benet analysis mean? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.4. What are the two main items to match during history matching of a 2phase oi-water reservoir? (2 marks)



Exercise 2.5. There are two types of numerical method commonly used for solving the reservoir simulation equations which take into account the stability of the solution with respect to time-step size. What are these methods called? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.6. Generally there are three phases in a reservoir: the water, oil and gas phases. The water phase is commonly referred to as the aqueous phase. What are the common alternative names for the oil and gas phases? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.7. What is the general molecular formula for the napthene series? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.8. What does coning mean? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.9. Describe two geological features where we may need to use non-neighbour or special connections in a simulation model? (2 marks)



Exercise 2.10. If we write the following equations for the mass of oil no and the mass of gas ng in a simulation cell at reservoir conditions So Vp rs Sg Vp + Bo Bg Rs So Vp Sg Vp + , ng = Bo Bg no = write equations for the volume of oil Vo = So Vp and the volume of gas Vg = Sg Vp . (2 marks)

Exercise 2.11. A 1-dimensional single phase simulation model has the following values of the parameters ct = 7 106 psia1 , x = 120 ft, k = 250 mD, = 0.4 cp and = 0.18. What is the maximum stable time-step size for a rate-constrained explicit solution to the nite dierence equations? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.12. One calculation of the undersaturated formation volume factor Bo is given as a function of both p and ps by Bo = Bos exp(cos (p ps )) An alternative is given by p ps
cos ps

Bo = Bos



Given that saturation pressure is 700 psia, reservoir pressure is 2100 psia, oil formation volume factor at saturation pressure is 1.25, and oil compressibility at saturation pressure is 12 106 psi1 , calculate the oil formation volume factor at reservoir conditions using both methods. Which is more likely to be correct? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.13. How many non-zero cells are there in the matrix used to solve an implicit 3 4 2-dimensional single-phase model (with rate constraints)? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.14. If capillary pressure is not negligible, give an equation for the fractional ow of water and oil in terms of oil and water relative permeability and oil and water viscosity, and capillary pressure. (2 marks)

Exercise 2.15. What hydrocarbon components make up kerosene? (2 marks)

2 SECTION - 60 MARKS TOTAL Exercise 2.16. Show using diagrams, two isomers of pentane. (2 marks)


Exercise 2.17. Dene the total formation volume factor for two-phase gas-oil systems. (2 marks)

Exercise 2.18. The Glaso correlation for oil formation volume factor is given by log(Bos 1) = 6.58511 + 2.91329(logBo ) 0.27683(logBo )2 logBo = Rs g o

+ 0.968T

given oil gravity = 0.83, gas gravity = 0.95, pressure is 1310 psia, solution gas content = 450 scf/bbl, and temperature = 182 F, what is the oil formation volume factor? If the solution gas content increases, does the oil formation volume factor increase or decrease? (2 marks)

2 SECTION - 60 MARKS TOTAL Exercise 2.19. What is meant by a recombination oil PVT sample? (2 marks)


Exercise 2.20. What does a constant composition expansion experiment measure? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.21. What does a dierential liberation experiment measure? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.22. In a depletion drive reservoir, why are oil PVT properties derived from dierential liberation used in reservoir simulation rather than constant composition expansion? (2 marks)



Exercise 2.23. Why do we need to correct laboratory measured PVT properties for eld conditions? What do we mean by this? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.24. What is meant by shrinkage factor when refering to dierent separator tests? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.25. In the following table

which separator pressure and temperature results in the lowest oil shrinkage, and which pressure and temperature results in the highest shrinkage? (2 marks)



Exercise 2.26. Write down the Redlich-Kwong equation of state and explain the terms? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.27. If fiV is the fugacity of the ith component in the vapour phase, and fiL is the fugacity of the ith component in the liquid phase, what is the relation between these if the phases are in chemical equilibirum. (2 marks)

Exercise 2.28. If a gas reservoir is in contact with an aquifer, the interface between the gas and the water is dened as the gas-water contact (GWC). Suppose that the aquifer is depleted by uid withdrawals from another eldthat is, the pressure in the aquifer decreases, but there is no production from the gas reservoir itself ? Does the GWC 1) remain at the same depth, 2) increase in depth (that is, deeper), or 3) decrease in depth (that is, shallower)? (2 marks)

Exercise 2.29. Oil compressibility can be calculated as 1 Bo Bg Rs + Bo p Bo p

Bg Rs . Bo p

co =

Explain in words why we need to include the term

(2 marks)



Exercise 2.30. Consider the following diagram showing the distance between the centres of two simulation cells.

If the width of each cell is y and the vertical thickness is z, and the permeabilities of the cells are ki and ki+1 , respectively, write an equation for the transmissibiluty between the two cells. (2 marks)

Section - 60 marks total

Exercise 3.1. We talked about the zone of consistency in the introductory lecture and in the lecture on history-matching. What are the three factors whose intersection creates the zone of consistency? (3 marks)



Exercise 3.2. Give three examples of dierent types of reservoir simulator. (3 marks)

Exercise 3.3. There are ve basic mechanisms for recovering oil from reservoirs, two of these are uid expansion and uid displacement. Name the other three. (3 marks)

Exercise 3.4. Hydrocarbon components such as methane form part of the composition of the oil and gas phases in the reservoir. Name three non-hydrocarbon components. (3 marks)

Exercise 3.5. It is planned to sequester carbon dioxide CO2 in an aquifer. If we wish to take into account the formation of carbonates in the reservoir due to interation between the CO2 and minerals in the rock, what type of simulation model should we use? (3 marks)



Exercise 3.6. What assumption about the impact of temperature in the reservoir is usually made in 1) black-oil simulation, 2) compositional simulation, and 3) thermal simulation? (3 marks)

Exercise 3.7. A tank model assumes that the pressure and temperature is everywhere constant in the reservoir. Explain why this assumption is often suitable for gas reservoirs, but is unlikely to be suitable for oil reservoirs. (3 marks)

Exercise 3.8. Let z be the depth dierence between two grid cells each lled with oil of density o at reservoir conditions. If the initial oil pressure in each cell is p1 and p2 , respectively, what is the relationship between p1 , p2 , and z to ensure equilibrium? (3 marks)



Exercise 3.9. If we have dened the reservoir geometry and geology, rock properties and uid properties, give at least three other items that we need to dene before we can proceed with running a simulation model. (3 marks)

Exercise 3.10. In an oil-water reservoir, decreasing the pressure results in compaction of the reservoir rock, which leads to reduced pore-throat size and reduced permeability. Explain why the usual formulation of a black-oil simulation model is not suitable to for this case. What do we need to include in the formulation to make the model suitable for this reservoir? (3 marks)

Exercise 3.11. If Sg > 0 and So > 0 then we have saturated oil and gas. The unknowns in the simulation equation are typically po , Sw and Sg (oil pressure, water saturation and gas saturation, respectively). If So = 0 then there is no dissolved gas in the oil phase: what are the unknowns in the simulation equations in this case? (3 marks)



Exercise 3.12. Briey explain the terms surface tension, interfacial tension and capillary pressure. (3 marks)

Exercise 3.13. When could a reservoir which initially has only a gas phase and water phase present, be modelled with a 2-phase reservoir simulator? (3 marks)

Exercise 3.14. Consider a simple drinking straw. What does capillary pressure depend on? (3 marks)

Exercise 3.15. The diusivity equation can be written in the form J(p pw ). What do the terms q and J(p pw ) represent? (3 marks)

p t

= a xp + q + 2

Exercise 3.16. What is the central dierence approximation to the rst derivative of a function p with respect to a variable x ? (3 marks).



Exercise 3.17. List three sources of error that arise in building a reservoir simulation model which are related to the formulation of the nite dierence equations. (3 marks)

Exercise 3.18. List three sources of error that arise from the size and shape of the grid cells used in numerical simulation? (3 marks)

Exercise 3.19. Oil and water relative permeability are calculated using the Corey formulation. That is, letting Sw 1 Swc Sor

Sw =


then, if 0 Sw 1, kro = kroe (1 Sw )nco krw = krwe (Sw )ncw if Sw 0, kro = kroe krw = 0



3 SECTION - 60 MARKS TOTAL if 1 Sor Sw 1, kro = 0 krw = 1 (1 krwe ) else, if 1 Sw , kro = 0 krw = 1 where Swc = connate water saturation Sor = residual oil saturation kroe = oil relative permeability end-point krwe = water relative permeability end-point nco = Corey exponent for oil ncw = Corey exponent for water. (1 Sw ) Sor




If Swc = 0.25, Sor = 0.16, kroe = 0.7, krwe = 0.35, nco = 2.2 and ncw = 3, calculate the oil and water relative permeabilities for 1) Sw = 0.12, 2) Sw = 0.35, 3) Sw = 0.95. (3 marks)



Exercise 3.20. Counter current ow occurs where oil and water ow in opposite directions. Explain whyin reservoir simulationthe water relative permeability and the oil relative permeability are typically calculated at dierent water saturations for countercurrent ow between two grid cells. (3 marks) Hint: consider which is the upstream cell for calculating the ow of each phase.

Section - 20 marks total

Exercise 4.1. Isothermal compressibility of water has been dened in terms of water density. Derive the equation for isothermal compressibility in terms of the water formation volume factor, Bw . (4 marks)

Exercise 4.2. List four examples where the matrix solved in reservoir simulation does not have the same number of non-diagonal entries as would be assumed in the normal formulation of the equationsthese have been referred to as symmetry breakers. (4 marks)



Exercise 4.3. By drawing a picture, explain why including faults in reservoir simulation usually results in the what are called non-neighbour or special connections. (4 marks)

Exercise 4.4. List four observations which may mean that we should include an aquifer in the simulation model. (4 marks)

Exercise 4.5. In the following gure, the symbol F shows the ll-in which occurs if the we solve the matrix equation using a direct method.



In the next gure, the equations have been re-ordered (D4 order) with the ll-in again shown by the symbol F.

Why would using D4 ordering reduce the time it takes to solve the equations on a computer? (4 marks)



Section - 20 marks total

Exercise 5.1. A dierential liberation experiment and separator test on a sample of reservoir oil are undertaken. The saturation pressure of the oil sample is 2550 psia. At this pressure the oil volume in the PVT cell relative to the residual oil volume at the end of the dierential liberation experiment is 1.62 (bbl/resid bbl) and the GOR is 833 (scf/resid bbl). At 2350 psia the ratio of the oil volume to residual volume is 1.57 (bbl/resid bbl)and the GOR is 776 (scf/resid bbl). The results of the separator test are given in the following table: Separator psia o F 350 80 250 80 135 80 90 80 Stock psia 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.7 Tank o F 60 60 60 60 Shrinkage stb/rb 0.6610 0.6513 0.6642 0.6766 GOR scf/stb 583 573 586 599

What are Bo and Rs at the saturation pressure of the oil sample, and at 2350 psia, corrected for best separator conditions? (5 marks)

Exercise 5.2. Name ve iterative solution methods that could be used to solve the equations in a reservoir simulator. (5 marks)



Exercise 5.3. Grid block orientaton can lead to physically unreasonable saturation fronts developing in the simulation model as shown in the following gure.

Explain why this occurs and when could it be signicant in terms of oil and water properties. (5 marks)



Exercise 5.4. Numerical dispersion can be seen to arise from the fact that the rst order approximation to the saturation derivative S(x) S(x x) S = + (x) x x has order x, whereas the approximation S S(x) S(x x) x 2 S = + (x)2 2 x x 2 x

has order x2 . Explain why this leads to numerical dispersion in the model when the grid cell size x increases. (5 marks)



Section - 30 marks total

Exercise 6.1. Assuming the following matrix formulation of the explicit solution to the nite dierence equations for rate constrained wells pk+1 = Bpk + t q, show why superposition is true for two wells of rates q 1 and q 2 , respectively.

Exercise 6.2. Why doesnt superposition work for pressure constrained wells? That is, where we have pk+1 = Bpk + J pk pbhp , for two wells with constant bottom-hole pressures p1 and p2 , respectively. (6 marks)



Exercise 6.3. For a 2-dimensional single-phase model with well rate constraints, write down the implicit nite dierence equation for 1) a corner cell; 2) an edge cell; 3) a centre cell. Hint. Make sure that the coecient of the diagonal is correct. (6 marks)

Exercise 6.4. By refering to the following diagram

derive the equation for the eective block radius re as a function of x. (6 marks)



Exercise 6.5. Briey explain what each of the following inputs to reservoir simulation means: 1. Reservoir geometry 2. Simulation grid 3. Aquifer properties 4. Rock properties 5. Fluid properties 6. Rock-uid interactions 7. Fluid-uid interactions 8. Well data