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AUDIENCES – construction – lots of information but useful! Market & Audience Segmentation Market segmentation is the identification of portions of the market that are different from one another. Segmentation allows the firm to better satisfy the needs of its potential customers. The Need for Segmentation The marketing concept calls for understanding customers and satisfying their needs better than the competition. But different customers have different needs, and it rarely is possible to satisfy all customers by treating them alike. Target marketing recognizes the diversity of customers and does not try to please all of them with the same offering. The first step in target marketing is to identify different market segments and their needs. Requirements of Market Segments In addition to having different needs, for segments to be practical they should be evaluated against criteria, some explained here: Bases for Segmentation in Consumer Markets Consumer markets can be segmented on the following customer characteristics. Geographic Demographic Psychographic Behavioural Geographic Segmentation The following are some examples of geographic variables often used in segmentation.
Region: by continent, country, state, or even neighbourhood Size of metropolitan area: segmented according to size of population Population density: often classified as urban, suburban, or rural Climate: according to weather patterns common to certain geographic regions
Demographic Segmentation Some demographic segmentation variables include: Age Gender Family size Family lifecycle Generation: baby-boomers, Generation X, etc. Income
Occupation Education Ethnicity Nationality Religion Social class
Many of these variables have standard categories for their values. For example, family lifecycle often is expressed as bachelor, married with no children (DINKS: Double Income, No Kids), full-nest, empty-nest, or solitary survivor. Some of these categories have several stages, for example, full-nest I, II, or III depending on the age of the children. SOCIAL CLASS SCALE in the UK:
A B C1 C2 D E
Top management, bankers, lawyers, doctors and other professionals Middle management, teachers, many 'creatives' eg graphic designers etc Office supervisors, junior managers, nurses, specialist clerical staff etc Skilled workers, tradespersons (white collar) Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers (blue collar) Unemployed, students, pensioners, casual workers
Psychographic Segmentation Psychographic segmentation groups customers according to their lifestyle. Activities, interests, and opinions (AIO) surveys are one tool for measuring lifestyle. Some psychographic variables include:
Activities Interests Opinions Attitudes Values
Good article online at „The Independent‟ http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/are-you-an-oink-a-timat-or-just-a-dimp1090289.html Lifestyle : Involves classifying people according to their values, beliefs, opinions, and interests. There is no one standardised lifestyle segmentation model, instead market
3 research firms, and advertising agencies are constantly devising new categories, which will best help target possible consumers of their clients products. One example of a life style classification model, is that developed by the advertising agency, Young & Rubican, called Cross Cultural Consumer Characterization (4Cs for short). This classification model is presented in the table below The 4Cs Resigned Rigid, strict, authoritarian and chauvinist values, oriented to the past and to Resigned roles. Brand choice stresses safety, familiarity and economy. (Older) Alienated, Struggler, disorganised - with few resources apart from physical/mechanical skills (e.g. car repair). Heavy consumers of alcohol, junk food and lotteries, also trainers. Brand choice involves impact and sensation.
Domestic, conformist, conventional, sentimental, passive, habitual. Part of the Mainstreamer mass, favouring big and well-known value for money 'family' brands. Almost invariably the largest 4Cs group. Aspirer Materialistic, acquisitive, affiliative (like to give their allegiance to), image, appearance, charisma, persona and fashion. Attractive packaging more important than quality of contents. (Younger, clerical/sales type occupation) Strong goal orientation, confidence, work ethic, organisation ... support status quo, stability. Brand choice based on reward, prestige - the very best . Also attracted to 'caring' and protective brands ... stress relief. (Top management) Energy - autonomy, experience, challenge, new frontiers. Brand choice highlights difference, sensation, adventure, indulgence and instant effect - the first to try new brands. (Younger - student) Freedom from restriction, personal growth, social awareness, value for time, independent judgement, tolerance of complexity, anti-materialistic but intolerant of bad taste. Curious and enquiring, support growth of new product categories. Select brands for intrinsic quality, favouring natural simplicity, small is beautiful.(Higher Education)
Behavioural Segmentation Behavioural segmentation is based on actual customer behaviour toward products. Some behavioural variables that are looked at in the audience are:
Benefits they seek Usage rate Brand loyalty User status: potential, first-time, regular, etc. Readiness to buy/consume Occasions: holidays and events that stimulate purchases/consumption
Behavioural segmentation has the advantage of using variables that are closely related to the product itself. It is a fairly direct starting point for market segmentation.
4 AUDIENCES – uses & gratifications Blumler & Katz (1974) Which of these „pleasures‟ or „uses‟ is the crime drama audience using?
The emotional pleasures offered to the audiences of genre films are particularly significant when they generate a strong audience response. Horror, comedy or melodrama for example are generically designed to make audiences feel emotional in a particular way.
Visceral pleasures („visceral‟ refers to internal organs) are defined by how the film's stylistic construction elicits a physical effect upon its audience. This can be revulsion, kinetic speed or a „roller coaster ride‟ for example – it has a PHYSICAL effect.
Certain film genres such as the thriller and the 'whodunnit' offer the pleasure of trying to unravel a mystery or a puzzle. Scream, although primarily a horror film, draws upon the conventions of the whodunnit and much of the pleasure of watching the film comes from analysing the suspects, their motives, and the clues. Pleasure is derived from deciphering the plot and forecasting the end or being surprised by the unexpected.
Rick Altman (1999) argues that one of the primary pleasures offered to audiences by gene films is the release from cultural rules and regulations. Audiences can abandon themselves to the pleasure of actions that break with established moral or legal regulations
Counter-reading of genre films
Generic pleasure can take place from a counter reading of the 'repertoire of elements' Altman argues that many fan groups create their own genres out of their own shared interests. For example, train enthusiasts have defined their own genre of 'railway films'.
Genre criticism tends to discuss audiences of a particular genre in broad terms, suggesting that gene films are designed to be recognised by mass audiences whereas in fact, each genre has its own audience. Audiences for war movies are not necessarily the same as audiences for horror films Some audience groups, according to Altman, create 'cultural communities of fans, often based upon a shared recognition of the counter-cultural pleasures offered by a gene‟. “Considered in this manner, films are not just a content and a form transmitted by producers to consumers, they are also the medium of an additional mode of communication that groups of consumers carry cut with each other” (Altman. 1999) Altman goes on to suggest that the common assumption that genre films share a repertoire of elements is only part of the equation. A genre may only exist when it has came to service a community of audiences who recognise the same repertoire of elements
McQuail – according to McQuail‟s study, this is why people watch TV: Information
5 finding out about relevant events and conditions in immediate surroundings, society and the world seeking advice on practical matters or opinion and decision choices satisfying curiosity and general interest learning; self-education gaining a sense of security through knowledge Personal Identity finding reinforcement for personal values finding models of behaviour identifying with valued other (in the media) gaining insight into one's self Integration and Social Interaction gaining insight into circumstances of others; social empathy identifying with others and gaining a sense of belonging finding a basis for conversation and social interaction having a substitute for real-life companionship helping to carry out social roles enabling one to connect with family, friends and society Entertainment escaping, or being diverted, from problems relaxing getting intrinsic cultural or aesthetic enjoyment filling time emotional release sexual arousal Which, if any, are relevant to Crime Drama?
AUDIENCE ENGAGEMENT AUDIENCE EXPECTATIONS AUDIENCE FOREKNOWLEDGE AUDIENCE IDENTIFICATION AUDIENCE PLACEMENT This describes how an audience interacts with a media text. Different people react in different ways to the same text. These are the advance ideas an audience may have about a text. This particularly applies to genre pieces. Don't forget that producers often play with or deliberately shatter audience expectations. This is the definite information (rather than the vague expectations) which an audience brings to a media product. This is the way in which audiences feel themselves connected to a particular media text, in that they feel it directly expresses their attitude or lifestyle. This is the range of strategies media producers use to directly target a particular audience and make them feel that the media text is specially 'for them'. Measuring an audience is very important to all media institutions. Research is done at all stages of production of a media text, and, once produced, audience will be continually monitored.
Look through these – use the internet to find out more... 1. What is the main target audience for Crime Drama? 2. How many people, and who, watch Crime Drama? (Start with BARB – website)
6 3. What are the main pleasures in watching Crime Drama 4. For your target audience, what other „products‟ are already available? 5. If the market is „new‟ or „limited‟, think carefully about how you will adapt the norms of the genre to fit your target market.
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