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1. Ordnance Pwnpblet 166S describe and illumrates Italian and French. explosive ordnance. It covers bombs, bomb fuzes, mime, traps,. i@ters, and Italian projectiles and grewies. 2. Ordruwe Pamphiet 1666 is intended to provide generai descriptions of these fiekis of ordnance for instructional and informational purposes. 3. This publication supemedes the publications on Frenoh and Itaiian Explosive Ordnance issued by the United States Navy Bomb Disposal Schooi.


G. F, Husmm, Jm Vies Admiral, U. S. Naw
— — — — -.

Chisf oj the Bureau of CMtiance



; ,, ./., .,






2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Ualian Italian

Bombs---------------------Bomb Fuss . . . . . . . . . . - .-....-*.. -----------

. . . . . . . . . . . --- 4”.*-*.- -.-.**....**”*. *** *“-------*--------------. ..+--

1 ?9 61

Italitm Pmjeotiies

. . . . . . . . ----------------------------

Italian Projeotik Fuzes --------1* Hand and

. +.,------ - ..,--.*.” - .--...?-.

AMOI’t&! renades G

. . . . . . . . . *--*. .= ------------

156 166

Italian Mines and Traps -------Itaiian Igniters -- .-.*.... Frenoh Bombs “----------

. ---*----- -*-....*.

-..---.wm. Q *---------

.*. *.-. -.m -“”-* *. S*. . . . . . . . . . 173 “-*..*-.-*. - ****.----* -----177 \ ‘ -*-.*.*- . . . . . . . . . . 18Q * 206 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

French Bomb Wzea ---------

. . . . . . . . . -. .---..” . .-.....*---------

10. French Mines and Traps ---------11. French Ignitem . . . . . . . . . *--------

. “*-****.. . .*.--...* *..-.-**




OP 1668




,.. ) -



2-kg. Anti+ersonnef
Types # and Mtr.


, ?..


. This thickness varies for each bomb. In one type. . the tail unit fits over the base plate and is attached to the body or the base plate by screws or rivete. .. 1 yi ‘w . MaJi3 red red red red red grey u Normally the demolition bombs have a mild steel casing. or..5 in. High explosive.. . . The end of the bomb tail is &aped to aticmnmodate the arming vapes of the fuzes. . Type of filling . ... is enclosed in a sheet container. which is closed by a base plate attaohed by screws or rivets.. the bomb usuaily breaks into pieces about 1 in.. on the outside of which a slwelstrip is wound spiraiIy..1. .. ... . in csae of the imaller bombs. .5 irL.0 in . ‘The taii units vary considerably in their design. The Italian bomb is normally filled through the base. m- Body blue ----.0. and an initiating charge in the fuze. . or welded. -__ . ..72 kg. . assembled by screws or rivets... . to ~ in. increaeirig towards the rinse. -------1. . for light-cased and from ~ in. ... The space between the two containers is fiihd with steel fragments embedded in concreta These antipersomel bombs are known as Type F and Type Mtr. . . Greg.87 kg. In another type. The tail fume are screwed into the base of the bomb. In fragmentation. Body length . hi the case of Xl-kg..-. or less. .6.75 in. .75 in. The colorings are usually found on the nom and tho body. Total weight. A feit pad in the nose breaks the shock of impact on the explosive tiller.. . but some are constructed of cast aiuminum ailoy. . the filling is csat TNT. . the spring is enclosed by a thin ease.Chapter 1 ‘b i ITALIAN BOMBS \ 9 Italian bombs closely resemble Japanese bombs in that they are usually more than onepiece in construction. 100-kg.-TNT.18 in. hk.**mPractice.0 in. . .. . The bombs contain a booster. -. 2-kg. but the tail dhuneter is uaudly the same as that of the body of the bomb to which it is attache& Generally the bombs are of sheet steel. Demolition bombs and chemical bombs. . .224)kg. . Distin_g colors are identified ss follows: ~ of Bomb Fragmentation. reddish brown.. .-. . .=. . . 0. . Nose and tail fuzing is norrnaily used in demolition bombs of I&l-kg.. . ... to l% in. Fuzing Tail-Type K I&cripdon Type F: The bomb consists of a thin steei cylinder surrounded by a tightly coiled spring of MY$M@ar crosssection. Data Type F’ Type Mtr.. . by welding. the filliig is cont&md in a sheet. In most cseea. x 0. . . ._.----. or above.-. Over-all length -------.. the Wing.. ... These tail fuzes usually have very long arming spindles which extend the full length of the tail. . . while the armor-piercing bombs use hardened steel. . .. 2.-. -. . . . . . respectively. ... Anti-Personnel Bc~mbs Typles F and Mtr. ----. steel case which is enclosed by a Iarger contmer.:2in. .-. . --. bright yellow. _. bti”pemad. usually have provision for tail fuzing only... . . 2. .4. . . Anti-personnei bombs dii?er from the demolitio~ bombs in the construction of the outer caeing. . 6.. Ibut “a large number have been found with an alternate filling of knatol and TNT with aluminum powder. . In certain aewjmblies of this type. The bomb k no tail unit..__ 4. The object of the spring is to provide shrapnel effect...---gray. incendiary bombs. for heavy-cased... the tail unit is “cut to allow the vanes to be situated half-way along the tail in order to insure limitsd terminal velocity for the vcnes. . .. black or blue .”. . x 0. . Gu . . Normally... The wall thickness for the 24-kg. . . diameter . Incendiary -. ... or huge bombs ranges from % in. TNT Weight of filling --.3$0 kg. Italian bombs are either painted or gahmnized as a precaution against corrosion.

*. * Tdlen@h ------------------------Tail width . -----------weight of filling.-. . . . Color and lMarldngs Over-all-blue or biack Xoee-red Figure 2- 3-kg. . .a-is-mrr= tainers. . Data Over-ail len@h. . 12. . The tail is made of thin sheet metai. These bombs are very similar to l-kg.-. long and 0. . . 2. . . Totai weight ---------. and the outer cylinder is threaded at the top to take a screwed circular cover. .ITAIJAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSWE ORDNANCEType Mtr: The bomb consists of two cylinders of sheet metal. .5 in. .. Coior and Markings Over-ail coior—black RWnarka 1. . Body len@h. .*.. The bomb can also be used sa a Iand mine by use of a pressure igniter.-... 8.-.--------. . . in width.. . 2. with four vanes strengthened by a band 0.--. . A steel centrai tube. . g. 3. ) 4“ M I)escripdon The bomb body is thin sheet steel with a fuze adapter pressed and spot-welded into the nose. . .1 in.2 in. incendiary bomb and l-kg. Between the two cylinders are small steel peilets embedded in concrete. . The bomb may be dropped singly. 4. . . .-. . . . . . . 100 Sp. . .078 in. . -. TNT 0. ..--+ ---Fuzing NoseeType \ m’ c F ‘ %. . .... 3-kg... -*.-. ‘. Anti-Personnal Bomb Type Mtr. . 2 . 3 kg. gas bomb. 7. . . .17 kg. Body diameter --------.. -.. The space between the exploder container and the bomb’s outside wall is filled with steel fragments embedded in concrete.. . . .7 in. .. 2.. . thick. . . ..7 in. The inner cylinder contains the explosives. ..1 in. . .39 in. . contains the bursting charge of block TNT. . e. . . . . . . Type of Mug. . -. Anti-?wsunnel Bomb Typs Mtr. recessed to take the base of the fuze and the detonator.

.. . .?. . 2. . . . . . . Btiylm@----------------------7. . . . 3 * . and is extremely sensitive to vibration.3~. .-. Bombs fitted with Selfdestroying mechanism have an aluminum ~lOY fuzt>hO~~sing(v~ible where the fuze screws into the bomb). resembles a thermos bottle. :’% . .3k. . ‘u .witha II steelbodyandaluminum top. The fume ({inscribed in the fuze section) are very sensitive. but is designed to explode if moved. ---. .75 ht. . Wall thidmess . Totdwti@t ----------------------3. . . . . .. Anti-Pemonnei Bomb Manzdini (Thermos) Data Over-d len@h --------------------12.68% ManzoiiniTypeIand Description Thisbomb.. .. ... . Color and Maddngs Over-ail-buff or green Remarks 1. -. . . . . . .-. with maximum range of 300 yci. . ----2. The fragments are lethal to 100 ft.-..Type of filling-.l=fi. Bomb does not explode on impact. .67 kg. 0. . . ----. . .. .w Figufe 3- 4-kg. .. -.. . O. . . . . Bdy&-eWr. . . TNT Wei&t of&g -. . Anii-Personnei 8omb Manzoiini 44cg. .

...Fuzing Type F: Nose-Type F Type Mtr. Tail width ---------------Ty~offllbg -----------Weight of Mlbg-.5 in.3 in. . 16. thick. 3.of the wire is to provide shrapnei effect in fragmentation. Description Type F: This bomb consists of a steel ccmtainer around which are wound 25 turns of square steel wire. . 3. 32.5 in.. Anti-?ersonnei BombsTypes F and Mtr.: Over-all-blue or black.4 in. 3.. -. . In manufacturing the bomb. ~Mtr... . .--.. . nose-red 12-kg. the concreteshrapnei filling was poured into the base of the bomb and then the tail unit was screwed into the outer wall of the bomb.5 in.2 in. .-.---Totdwei@t-----. . nose-red Type Mtr.Oin.93 kg--12. . .: Nose-Type J 4 32. ~OiO~ and Markings Type F: Over-all--sky blue. 17.0.2 in----14. 0.ITALIAN ANI) FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE m’ L# F!gure 4- 12+.5 in. . The body is a double-walled steel cylinder containing steel shrapnel embedded in concreti. The tad assembly consists of four stamped sheet-metal vanes which are spot-welded to the b$se of the bomb. The purpose .90 kg.5 in. . 0.2 in.3 in----3.86 kg.--. Atii-%rsmmei Bombs Types F and Mtr. Type Mtr... Data Type F Over-all len@h ---------Bdylen@h ------------Body dueter--------WalI thickness ----------Tail length . but Mere in construction of the body. TNT----1.20 kg.5 in. . 12.: This bomb is very similar to the Type F in appearance..-.. TNT 1. 16. .

In all other respects this type is similar to Type I.2 in----. ..2 in. . 22. . Remarks Both type resemble the U. .4 in..11in. 4. . . Tail width --. . . S.5 in. . . Tail length -. . The nose pieoe is threaded to receiva the fuze. .4. . Body diameter. Body length .-. .-.2 kg. .5 in... Tho tail section consists of two sheet-steel plates bent to an angle of 90 degrees and heid to the extension rod. . 13.. . . on the side.. stenciled in black F30A IM439 TNT K Type 11: Over-all–. The base has an external receaa and extmsion rod for the tail wembly. .. . . 6. . ~ in. . 22. Four pisces of wood. is helicaily wound around the body. . .. smve as spacers for the fins.7 b. Fnzing Nose-Type I Description Type I: The body consists c~f a tubular steei cylinder on which the mat-steel nose and bsse secA square steel wire. 30-lb.1 in. Data Fragmentation Bombs Types I and 11 F.2 in----. .$1in----.4.13.14 kg. The assembiy is held by a steei pressure cap which threads into the &msion rod. 6.-. -------2 kg------. Color and ~ddll$&Zl Type I: Over-all—yellow. . . . Type 11: The body is’one-piece machined steel with the nose threaded to receive the fuze. and the base recmsed with an extension rod for the tail assembly. . . Red paint marks diametrically opposite on Aoulders of nose and lbase. .gure 5- 14-kg. . . . . .0.Dark olive green (painted over yellow). Fragmentation Types 1 and// 8ombs Type I Type II Over-all length. . 4.--. . . .I&kg.2 in. Wall thickness ---------0..4 in. shaped to form a truwated cone. 5 5 . . Type of fling ---------TNT-----Amatd Weight of filling.. tions are threaded. Total weight -----------14 kg-----.-. Fragmentation Bomb LNfk in size and appearance.

. . ~.e.&4 in. . .. . . . .------.. . including a sheet-metaI strengthening band at the end. .TNT ‘ Weight of fillkg. . 24kg. . 6 40-kg. . . .8 in.. . . .P. with a strengthening band at the end. . . . . . --------------12 kg.0 in. . . .------. .-. Body tietir -------------------Tail len~..-.-H.7 in. 8omb Data Over-ail length . . . Coior and Markings OveraU-grey. . .. The suspension band is bolted around the body.. -. . . .---. 323 in. . nose-red Remarim The bomb was declared obsolete by the Italians before the end of the war.---e-.0 in. . ..--.#-kg. with a steel body and nose in one piece. ... . . . . . . ... Tail tidth. GP. is attached to bomb by a metal band which is clamped around the body. .. . . . . .1 in. . . .. . . 9. Total wei@t --------------------. . 30. .. . 16. 9. ----------------------Type of filfing--------------------Weight of fi~ing------------------Totai ~vei~t ---------------------Fuzing Taii oniy—Type N-3 Description The bomb has a steel body and nose in one piece. --------. gas bomb except for filling. Body length -. A sheet-metal tail. .. ---Bdylen@h. . .--. . G. .. Fuzing Tail only-Type N-1 Description The bomb is light cased. Tail length . Bomb Data Over-all length . . G. . . . . ..E. The tad unit is bolted to four square luge on the body. . 19.. . . . . . .9 in..5 in. . . C/O~Or Markings and Over-all-grey. . figure 6. --------. Body dimeter.19. The tail is of sheet-metal construction. .. . . Bomb 244cg. . . —— . . TNT Unknown 40 kg. .-. .4LE.. .. . Type of filliig -------. 6. . Bomb figure 7. . . 14.. . . .P. .. . . .. -HE. . Tail width . . .---.24-kg. . . CLP. .4 in. . ..-H. .. ...--.E. nose-red Remarks This bomb is very similar to 40-kg.

.all+ull blue.-..-Ii.7bi..7 in.. .9 in.. .100 kg.-.-e ------. P.------.. . . . m m-.--. ..3 in. . . -. . and corrugated strengthening ring. . . P.----------------Type of fllng ---------------------Weight of filling---------------------TotaI\veight .H. -Type of filling. ..-kI. Bomb E u 50-kg..E.31 kg. ~OdJ Data Over-ail length -------. Tail width ----.. . -.. . and corrugated reinforcing ring. 59. -.-H. .9n9in. . The bomb can also be suspended horizontally. . The tail assembly is sheet metal.-.20 kg. (approx. -. w Bomb Figure 9.. -------. . The baso plate is attached to casing with two rows of screws. .51. pierced to take a suspension link. 9.. -. .5 kg. . TNT_. ----Tail width --------. The bomb can be suspended vertically or horizontally.E.. which is attached to the casing with one row of screws. . Tail length ------!..P. .5 in.”... . --. . tail cone.. . . G. . .32.. all attached to the bomb base. The tail assembly consists of four vanes. . .--.L w Figure % . 21. . Body diameter .. . pierced to take a suspension link. 30.5 in...22.------. . L----Zhlzing Tail only-Type C or Y 40. ---. Total weight. .. . . nose-red Amatol filled: Over. . both steel.6 kg.25in. Color and Markings TNT filled: Over-all—grey. . . Bomb Data Over-all length ---------------------Bodylength -----------------------Body diameter ---------------------Wail ttiche~--------------------Tail length --------. 18. Amatol Weight of filling. . G. P.”-. cone. The tail is secured to the base plate.-W&+ G. 10.4 in. . . .49.--w--. . .0 ill.) Fuzing Tail onIy--Type C-1 or Y-1 Description The bomb body is a drawn-steei tube to which is riveted a cast-steel nose. nose--red 7 Description The bomb body consists of a base section and a nose section.. all sheet metal. .. . Anmtol 29.. . 1()()-kg. .--.5U-kg.E. 1. .107 in.. Body length --------. 0. C..-. Color and Markings Over-all-dull blue .-. consisting of four vanes.. . Screwed into the nose is a pointed steel block.

. Body teeter----. 821. so as to use a greater explosive charge.8 in. 52. -. *.4 in.0 in. -. ------96.-. . nose--red Remarks A 630-kg.. CoIor and Markings Over-ai+qey. . . . 35. vary only in length and weight. . G. . . The base plate has a double flange and ii attached to the casing with a double row of screws. Fuzing No~Type A Td—Type O Description The bomb cssing is a drawn-steel tube with a cad-steel nose riveted to it. Total weight -. Bombs . . A lug is secured to the body near the center of gravity for horizontal suspension.-. with double-flanged base plate attached by double rows of screws.P.1 kg. Type. P.-.-.of fifig --------------------TNT Weight oftikg ------------------125. 39. . . .E. G. 17._ --. .6 kg.-.E.8 in. .6 in... 18.2S0-kg. . Bomb Data Over-alI length . . Tad len@h---.P.. -. . 216 kg. . . 7.7 kg.. . time bomb has been made from the 800-kg.P..6 in. . --. Tail length _-. Fuzing Nose-Type A Tail-Type O Description The bombs have a steel body and nose cast in one piece. nose--red SoO-kg.— . --..18 in. COiOF and lMarkin@ Over-all-grey..gurs 11-5d0-&g.. . Bqmba Data 500 kg.508 kg.0 in.. 127. Tail width -----------------------17. .4-LE.18 in. . by reducing the thickness of wails. . .-. . Tail width . G. and 800-kg.4 in..-= -.8 in. Body len@h----------------------35.E. K g Figure 10 . . .1 in... F.._. .-.-. . 800 k& Over-ail length.-H...-H. . . . Bomb @ ....73.._. . Body length ----------52...6 &.. ... A csst+dloy tail is attached to the upper flange of the base plate with screws. . . . .0 in____ 77. .-. . G.. and 80U-kg. ~. . .7 in. and 800-kg. Type of filIiig -------TNT Weight of Ming. Totdwei@t ---------------------269. . . . Body diameter --------18.367 kg.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLQ$IVE ORLWJANCE 250-kg. The cast-alloy tail is attached to the upper flan~ The 500-kg.4i. .

. . ... . . The controls for the ~~der contain a gyro unit for azimuth and an air-speed tit to control the dive angle.. . .. . .. (3) a truncated cone. . (approx. diameter. .. A steel plug closes the booster tube Wtthe tail end.. . . m the length of tho bomb. . Body len#h-.5 in..1000kg.. ... 0.--..000-kg. ._--. with a bore 2 in.-. --. 9 . . is screwed into the forward end of the booster tube. 3 in.. ...u. Wall t~chew.P. a steel diaphragm is welds ineide the casing to contain the main fig befOre this point. . A steei lxmster tu]be.. w .. . whioh is located by grub screws. ... . ... and both these have sermted flanges to form seals against rubber packings. ..-...000-km G.-. . . .-. T~offig--... . A steel nose plug carries a steel fuze adapter. . ..-.-. external diameter. . . ---------28in. booster tube contains penthrite.bout 30 im from the rear.. .-..P.. .. .. Remarks A glider attachment was used with this bomb..-.20. respectively. G... --.Tdlen@h-. -.. .-. Fkwre 12- 1. . Bomb 1..-. this is composed of annular rings of compressed TNT about 2X iu. ----------94. (2) acylirdricaipart. seals the booster charge at the rear. Bomb Data Over-all len@h.-----. -. .) Fnzing Nosefuze only--Unkno~ Desc@on The bomb cas& is nnade. . .--... it is inserted from the tail end. . A plug. .-. where it is screwed into the tail cone... and (4) the conical part to which the tail fine are attached.5 in. . . and at the nose end it is located by a deeve which forms an extension tc~the fuze adapter. 4&5in. . which are counter-sunk into the relative surfaces on the bomb nose plug.. . diameter.--. The. . . which’ is dril!ed to take the deto@tor..<..-. An internal plug...up of four pieces welded together: (1) the nose. about l% in. TNT Wei@tof ~g-. long.. u .. . .. Tailwidth . Unknown Totdwei@t . hound the booster tube and forming a core to the main filling is a tube.29 in. Body tiaeter-”-... . At a. . .! .-. there is a felt washer beneath this plug.. . 140 in..

. . -:---------------Total weight --------.-H*E. 1668 500-k~ G.------. . .. Type of fig--------------------TNT Wei@tof ~g------------------247. . . clamped around the body..7 in. !l d4- F)gure 13- 500-kg. . Description The bomb is thick-wailed with a steel body and nose cast in one piece. Bomb ‘) 13.1 in.7 in.A. SAP. Bmb Data Over-all length ----------------------Body length -------.oin.25 in. . . Totai weight Fnzing a> : K Nose-Four Type J and one Long-Delay Clockwork Nose Tail-One Long-Delay Clockwork Tail Description Main body and nose are cast in one piece. ..----.3 in. Body diameter -.. If a time fuze is used.--18.2 kg.7 in.----50. .0?. Body length --------.--------.P.E. G.--------..--TaiI length -----------------------Tail Math -----------------------Type of fibg --------------------Weight of filhg.. In the nose is a centrally-located clock work fuze and provision for four additional impact fuzes.9 i~ Body dimeter --------------------16. . [Color and Markings Figure 14- q 15-kg.----* FuZing Tail-Type N 31. to which a dome-shaped base is attached. 15-leg.3~. TNT 5. The cast aluminum-alloy tail is attached to bomb by screws. 4. Bomb Over-aJl-grey. 15. . nose-red 10 m. Tail width --------. IH. .------. Sheet metal tail fins are attached to a metal band. WaIi ttichem --------------------0.1 in. impact fuzes can be made inoperative.. 6.8 in.okg. /.. nose--red Remarks A similar bomb weighing between 8OO-1OOO kg. 20. .5 kg. . Tdlen@h -----------------------43.P. is thought to have been used by the Italians. ime Bomb P T Data Over-all len@h -------------------93.------. tiler and Markings Over-all--grey.I I ALlAP4 ANU FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE . S.

. .5 in. king Tail fuzeType C-1 or Y-1 .9 in. . . . . 6. . . Tail lash ----. . . .5 kg.. 109. -.. 31. . .. Coior and Markings Over-ali-grey. . . . .-.. . . Bomb Data Over-all law-------------------Body lm@ .. . . .3 in. S. ..0 kg. . . Body hetir .A. 9. . . weight of fig------------------Total weight . . . . . . .. 27. . . . . 21. ..----. . . S.. . ..31. .. . . wall thickness .. . . . . . .0 in. .. A sheet metal tail is attached to base plate by screws. .5 ill. ..4 in. .5 in.. . . . . . . . . . 22.. . . .. 16 . . 9. . nose-red band Figure . . . .. .7 in. Tail Ire@ . . . . . .. ..9 in. . . A suspension band is bolted about ‘the body. . . Type of %g---. Coior and Mari&vJ Over-all-grey or dull blue.JL P. . . 7. weided on.P. . 31.31-k~ SAP. . .. Body length “--------. . . .--. .. .31-kg9 S. . The sheet-metal tail is attached to a band which clamps around the body. . .-. nose-red Flgwre 15.. N-2 Description The thiok-walled steei body has a heavy nose. .A. .. . . . w Tail oniy-Type. .--. Tail tidti -----------------------knatoi Type of Wag--------------------Weight of ~g .. .3 k~ Total wei~t--.--.*. Bomb . . . larger than the rest of the body.0 kg. . . . . . . Bomb Data Over-ail lmti--. . . . . . . . . .10Q-kg. . . . Bomb 10)-kg. . TNT 10. .. . . . . 0. .. . . . .2 in. . . . .P. . .. . .. . . . Description The bomb has a singbpiece casing with a base plate attached by two rows of screws..-.) .-. 12. . 50. .--. . . . . --.. . -----. . . . . . (approx. . Body teeter . . . ------------Tail width . .5 in. . . . ... . .

unknown TMIm@L--. Tail lash ----------------15 in. 14in. FnZhlg Tail on&Type Ff9uFe 1812+.l@ a“ *. nose-wed 12 Over-all length -------------47in. S. A dome-shaped bsse plate receives the sheet-metal tail tins.---.) Total weight --------------104.A. Body length -------------33 in. Smoke Bomb Data DescriptiotI The steel body and nose are cast in one piece. Body len@h.A. Body diametwr--------. . (approx.-. Bomb Data Over-ail length ------------43. Type of Ming-------------TNT Waight of filling.------. Wall thickness ---------. tiler and Markings Over-ail-grey.--. ..0 in.----------30 kg..) Tail width ----------------11 in. .ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORCU+IJ4NCE 9P .P. Figure 17- 10&kg...2 in. whioh are attaohed to a metal hand which clamps around the body. Smoke Bomb C 12-lcg.?. (approx. Bomb 104-kg. 28.0 in.. .-. S. . . ..0 kg. ..0 in.5.. Body diameter -------------10.

. I. .1 in. Incendiary Bombs Types 1P. . thick.P stenciled in black on the body Type IT: Over-all-dark green. color and Markings Body-grey. 4. 3. . $mmJ Tail width . .5 in. . ... . diameter and 1 in.5 in. . . . but the main tilling is thermite. FI stenciled in black on the body Remark Figure 19- WI-kg. .-. each 3 in. 3. . IT stenciled in black on the body Type FI: Over-all-field grey. . .. tail-red w’ .75 in. 7in. enciosed in a perforated metal container. and FI Data W IT FI 6. . 0. IT.1 in. .5 in. . . Smoke composition TotAwei&t -------------28 lb. .) Fuzing AlI-Type x Description Type IP: This bomb consists of a thin mild-steel container of cylindrical shape whose 611ingconsists of cotton wicks soaked in ga801ine. . .. 2. . . Type IT: Bomb is also of thin sheet mild steel of cylindrical shape...95 in. 4. on a central stand. 2. Total weight-. (approx. Type FI: The casing is of mild steel and somewhat thicker thaa in the above two cases. . Mounted to fuze body. . 13 . .5 kg. .. .-.. A length of safety fuse leads from fuze to pellets and then to a selfdestroying charge in the nose. made of purple composition. . The main f311ing phosphorus. . . . Body diameter . These bombs are usually dropped in a bomb container. 2. . 5. . O. Over-all length . is Color and Markings Type IP: Over-a&light green.5 in. Between each one and the next. ia the smok~producing composition. .S-kg.35 in.--. Fuzing Nose ody+pecial fuze for this bomb Description Body is light alloy sll-welded construction (including tail unit) with longitudinal seam down the body. . . Incemdhy Bombs . . Type of dlling. .. there is a metal spacer. . . Body length. There are 26 smoke pellets.

.6 in. nose-red Remarks L These bombs can be dropped singiy or in a bomb container. Through the paper disc is’ looped :%piece. 4.1668 5 Figure 20- l-kg. Below 14 Types Iand II 6. and is filled with magnesium powder.473 kg.. the fuze is a powder pellet which is separated from the thennite by a paper diet which is giued to a cardboard ring. . These bombs were used also for sabotage work by using the Fuze Type H. approx. - . of quick-match which extends into the -~~* Type II: This type. Magnesium and thermite mix 0.ORIM&ANCE OP .7 in.. It is sealed at its lower end by a cork plug.-Total weight. t%for and Markfn@ Over-ail-reddish bicrwn. with a central cylindrical which is filled with magnesium powder. . ---.%. Weight of filling. These act as vent holes when the thermite Ming is ignited. made of the same materiai and having the same dimension as Type I..” . This tube contains a mimber of holes on its surface covered by thin paper.084 magnesium and 0. 2. a thin ahnninum tube is inserted in the magnesium tiling.Body diameter_ . . . ----Fuzing Type K Deacripdon Type I: The bomb is a tail-less cylinder made of electron metal.Type of Mling. 2. In place of the quick-match. .ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXP&OSWE . . the~ite 1 kg. On the curve surface are three small holes plugged with cork. Mers in the interred armngeinent for igniting the thermita.1 in. pressed in two halves. The themnite is in the form of a lightly pressed filling. lnwndilary Igniter Bomfa Type 1 and infernal for Type II 1-kg. Incendiary Bombs Types 1 and 1I Data Over-all length ----Body length .

except that the base plate is drilled to take four s. The lower portion is of sheet steel and contains a high-boiling turpentine oil. F.12 kg. ..--. . except for the tiling in both the upper and lower cylinders. q . Incendiary Bomb Type H.6 in. and the other co$tains nitrobenzene.. Type II: This bomb is very similar to Type I. The upper part contains magnesium and mercuric oxide powders. oil Weight of fillhg. 0.. Body diameter. Lower cylinder . . same as the l-kg. a 1“ J . nose-red Type II: Over-all-reddish brown.crews which secure the top plate of the lower cylinder to the base plate of the upper cylinder. Incendiary BombsTypes 1 and II Data Types I and II Over-all length---. 2-kg.-...339 kg.gure nb Type I .2 in.:. Type I: The bomb consists of two cylinders screwed together.-. 15-.12. nose-red . 0..660 kg. . Wall thickness Upper cylinder . Type I!I-Unknown Fuzing Type I and II—Type K Description. 2. Type I—Thermite and oil Type of fMng---. ---. q   . mix Type 11—Unlmown Total weight. 10.06 in.---and 0. Colorand Markings Type 1: Over-all-grey. and — Nitrobenzene Type I— 0.--. Body length . lMercuric oxide.-.. Type 1—2.-Type II—Magnesium. -. w .. The upper cylinder is the..34 in..7 in.

. . Fuzing Tail only—Type G Description Bomb casing is electron metai. Incetidiary Bomb Figure 23- 70-kg. .17 kg. corks blow out and filling burns about three minutes..6 in. -. . The cap insures adequate penetration without damage to the meing. . Tail width -------. Coior and Markings Over-all—reddish brown. Fuzing Tail only—Type E Description The bomb consists of nose.. Tail width -----------------------. . . The body is electron. long and ~ in. nose—red ._— /: .--.. . Type of ~ltig --------------------Thetite Weight of fllhg ------------------33. ---. Type of filling--------. the nose has a steel plug.5$ kg.--------. Body len@h ----------------------20. . . Tail length -----------------------24. Incendiary Bomb Data 70-kg. The igniter for the thermite filling is magnesium powder in an aiurninum tube passing through the center of the tail into the bomb body. .. igniter fires thermite.6 kg. .. . thick attached to the body by eight screws. and the tail is alloy or sheet metal. Wdlthicbess --------------------0. . . .2 in.--.0 in. Body diameter..20. . ‘Incendiary Bomb 20-kg.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EX OSIVE ORDN_ANCE OP 1668 .9 in.. in diameter. nw+-red q Over-all length . Wall tticbess --------------------Li) in. . . ---. ------6.5 in. all secured by screws. . . incendiary Bomb Data Over-all length -------. Coior and Marking Over-a&-reddish brown. .3 in.7S in.5 kg. 6. The nose is enc=ed in a steel cap 12 in. The fuze functions on impact. ..8 in. . .3 in. Ttillen@h -----------------------15. then casing breaks and burns with a white heat for ten minutes.9 in. and tail.-+” Thermite Weight of fiUing------------------10. l% in. . Five holes at the rear of the bomb casing are closed by cork pIugs. .--e-~. .-* 34.. are plugged with cork...------.--* 47. body. Fuze vanes haifway aIong taiI length insure limited terminal velocity for the vanes.9.0 in.. . . . Vent holes. Total weight --------. Body length . .. Body teeter -------------------9. . An aI1oy tailunit is secured to body by eight sorews. . .--------.-+. . ?5 Figure 22- 20-kg. Total wei~t ---------------------74. 23.

. Spezzine bombs are packed. I bombs). . . . . . . E.0 in. . . . the 32 small bombs (1 kg.. . the bomb is 8 0alledMO-kg. . .t * Nos~Type Tail-Type X Z w Description This is a composite which comprises: (1) 32 small Spemine bombs. . or 82. Color and Markings . .--------. thick. containing the central bomb. . . Nose fuze (Type X) functions at a preset height and 8 0auses the conical nose portion. \ ~..2 in. . nose-red 1’7 .1 kg.07 in.04 in.-. . which explodes on impact under the action of the tail fuze. .0 kg. 10. d ‘. TNT Total weight -------. protruding through the end plate and acting m a safety pin for Fuze Type Z of the central bomb.. . . . C2%h Figure 24 L YOf)-kg. $peciai Bomb Over-all—reddish brown. Type of filling .. The nose fuze protrudes and is attached by a steel adapter and locking-ball device to the central bomb. each coiumn has a 8onical spring to keep it in compression. . .-. .. .. Special Bomb Combination AntiPersonnel Bomb and Bomb Container Data Over-W len@. .08 in. -’ . . . The tail is attached to the outer 8ylinder by four threaded studs. .. The container part consists of two concentric sheet-steel cyiinders. .8 in. . held together by four strips and the end plate. in eight columns of four. Fnziug b q . . . smal~ bombs thus releasd fall independently. . . Body len@h--------------------29.-.. and (3) a nose charge which acts as an anti-personnel bomb. . Tdtidth. . .. . . . I. .100-kg. In the latter.. . to fall away and explode subsequently.. . If Spezzine bombs are dlled with H. . Bdy&~e@r ------------------10. I) may be replaced by 16 (2-kg. Under one spring is a spring-loaded plunger. . 53. in the inner cylinder is fitted the central bomb. (2) a central bomb.. . 8arrying a length of burning safety fuse and an explosive 8harge enclosed in concrete. . thick and the inner 0. . .7 in. . Tdlen@h--. . . . the outer 0. .. . . .113.7in. . Sp. 20. Wall tticbem ------------------0. .. of the “Mitroglia” type. . The main body continues its flight. with safety pins removed. .

. ...:-------Tail width . Body timetir -----------------6. 25 kg. IFmdrlg Tail fuze-Type K Ixx3cription The bomb has a blunt nose and paraliel sides. .7 in.. J’ ) 25-&g..------... Gas Bomb Data Over-all len@h -----------------Body len@h--------------------Body &ameter ------------------Tail len@h-. TNT 1. Type of ~Hng -----------------L~hrymator weight of filling.--.-.-. ..-. Gas Bomb (FurreMa) Coior and Markings Over-all-yellow. 6.. Diphenyl Chlorarsine 3. P. 2S-kg.15-kg. but the casing is pierced with small holes through which the kdrymator is ~&t#ted. to which a dom+shaped base @ attached..-... & A. --\ 20. TaiI fuze-Unknmvn Description The bomb is thick-walled. .10 kg. Gas Bomb ( Fwretta) :Data ‘ Over-all length -------.*.66 kg.. -.. 13..1 in.. Total wei~t---. . but it functions as a tear-gas generator.----. Color and Markings Over-all-yellow. except for 611ing. . *.3 in. There is no burster charge. Body len@h. Geneva cross stencikd on the body Remarks Figure 25- 15-kg.7 kg.7 in.-.-. . 30... -------------------T~eof Ning ------------------Weight of filling ----------------Bumtirti -------------------Weight of bureter--. 4. Geneva cross in red 18 . Shee&metal tail fins are attached to a metal band damped around the body..7 in.8 in.32...3 in. Gas Bomb 1* I This bomb is thought to be the same as the 15-kg. This is a percussion bomb.--..’. but no tailor stabilizing fins. Tot~wti&t -------------------Fuzing 31.. -. Figure 26- ..-. 16kg. with a steel body and nose cast in one piece.----. .-..0 in...

28. .-. .8 in.. . .. . 9.3 kg.. . .-H. . 218in. 9. Gas Bomb C441P Data 55-kg.9 in.. 0. .-Tail ordy.hknown 100-kg.. Body ti~eter --------------------Tail length .-.0 kg--------Total weight-. . . (B) Mustard 14. . bombs. 40.. . -. tienciledl in whit&Geneva cross NM-kg: Overall-yellow.7 kg. 21. . Body diameter ... Type of filling. . .-. Diphenyl Chiorarsine Weight of filling.. Gas Bomb (C100P) 32. . . . . . . .5 kg.. .-. . . . nosered.-. .7 in. Gas Bern& C40P Figure 2% . 9.6 kg. .2 kg. Gas Bomb 40-kg.. . .4 in. .. .7 kg. . Colorand Markings (A) Over-ail-yellow. .-. 55-kg. . . . . -. . . Other information i9 laoking. . stenciled in black— Geneva cross ?9 v . Tam KG179 100-kg. (A) Diphenyl. Tail width -------. Type of iilling .. .. . bomb in size and appearance....3 in. . .-. .---. . . . Chlorar9ine Weight of Figura 27- 40-&g. 55 kg. . . . . 18 kg. 55-kg.. . . I)ata ‘v %er-ail len@h. . . .or Y-1 Description These bombs are similar to same weight G. ... .. G. .47 kg.7 in. . . . Total weight . . .10. . .101. long.9 kg. ..*----. . . .. . .. . Gas Bomb 100-kg. Color and Markings 5&kg: Overall--yWow. 32..-. . P. -..5 kg. . . Weight of burster. ... P. . . . E. . ._ Weight of bumter-. .. . . . . .-1. . .Tail length . . . . - ... ._..18 kg. . . . Little information has been found on them. . Over-all length. . E. Body length . Body length --------. . . 20 kg.--. . stenciled in red marking: N 2226 LorPo KG 3&9... 32. . . Phosgerm. 10. Tailwidth. . .1 in.. . . . . Tail Ody—UIdMOWIl Ih3acriptfon This bomb is similar to 40-kg.-T.. -. .. .3 in. . . stenoiled in bkwk-Geneva mom (B): Over-ail-yellow. . .H. . -”. . . . . . . . ._ --..-. . . 50. . . . . .10&kg. .-. 16. The burster tube contains TNT and is about fifteen in.. probabiy C.---14. . . 13. .9 in.

The bomb is very similar to the 500-kg. unknown--96. Color and Markings 250-kg: Over-all-light .— bhm-grey.0 in----18. since it was not used in ths war.. . probably in green. but could take the alloy tail unit which is used in the C500’T. Inside the body casing is welded a perforated supporting disc which also acts as a bafiie for the chemical illling.._. 500-kg: Very We is known about this bomb.) without tail Over-all length . .12 in. . 5oo-kg. and 500-kg.3 in. . 57. C. one is made from recovered bomb and the other is from I’taIian drawings. Total weight ---------264 kg.Bombs Dat8 250-kg. . (%W17 Gas. (approx. 18. Geneva cross.54.214 kg-----. 250-kg: The casing is of thin sheet metal and is of welded construction. . . . 0. Body length ----------Body diameter ------Wau thickness . . m“ .— f 250-kg: 500-kg: NOS$+UllkIIOWU Nose--Type T Description ‘These two bombs are thought to be the same except for the slight differences in length of the body. and 5i10-kg.210 kg. . except that it has a ba%e plate in the center. (approx. .0 in. . Gas Bombs (SOOT) 20 . The tail unit was not reeovered. which could have been measured erratically. --.yellow . General F’urpose. Two dif7erent illustrations are shown. . 0. above the Ietteririg S. .5 in. nose plug— 500-kg: Over-akgrey.. figure 29- 25&kg. .) 298 kg.12 in. .ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXP~OSIVE ORDi$&iCE - OP 1668 250-kg. Type of filling--------- . M. 1-37 C-600T. Mustard___ D~phenyl Chlorarsine Weight of filling ------.. .6 in.

G. . . . Another modification of this bomb has no body liner but is all concrete and is used for practice. and (5) the upper end of a second helicai reinforcing wire. . .:2X3 $kg. . .. G. . (3) two pairs of diametrically opposite wire guides for the basqiug retaining wire. . Tdtidth. 0.-. which is coiled in three turns and puees thxough the holes provided in the vane support.2 in. . . 5. the liner is dosed by a cork plug. . . 5-kg. . . . . . . . . . . The body liner has welded to it: (1) the suspension-lug. . . . . 9t2in. . . . . . .. . . . . W. . Wall thickness . . . . . . . VtmitwMiwrker . . . . which is c&d in five turns and is weided at its other end to the fuze pocket. .Type 11. ..---. This bomb is used in conjunction with chemic@ bombs. Incendiary Bomb . . . . .0in9 T~eoftihg-. The night filling k the l-kg. Fnzing Noeefuze_TypeS Deacrfption Thebodyconsists ofathin metalcyiinder liner and outer co’ncrete bomb body.2kg. (4) the ends of a helicaI reinforcing wire. 8 S. 21 ‘4M+’J . . . . . . . (2) four metal vane supports which have riveted to them four aluminum-~oy vanes. which is reinforced with sheet pellete and wire. Body len@h----------------------8. . . W. The purpose is to indicate the force and direction of the wind at ground level. . . . . .4 in.iner closing disc is drilled centrally and hrw pressed to it the fuze pocket. The btuiy-I. a smoke tiling for use in the daytime. . . Ttilen@h-. . Vento+larker Data Over-all len@h -------------------17. l!’ Figure 30- .3 in. socket which is internally threaded to receive the horizontal suspension lug. Body &ameMr---.9 in. . At the upper end. ----------------------7. 16 S. .Q * r & t j @ . Two main iillinge are used. and an incendiary filling for use at night. Smokeor Incendiary Wei@tof fi~g ------------------UnkhOWn Totdwei@t ---------------------5.

. 62. . with a corrugated metal reinforcing fig around the rear of vanes. Tail width . . . . . . . .. . “50. . .. . . .. .-. . .. .. . . .2 in. . 12. . . It is thought thz~t this bomb was designed for use against sub_~--’” marines.. . . Tail Iength. wall ttichm. . 13. . . . Body diameter .4in. ...--. . The nose of the bomb is more hemispherical than other Italian H. (CS) Antisubmarine Bomb Data Over-all lash -------------------69. .6 in. Coior and Markings Over-all-grey. Total wei~t ---------------------176 kg. ..6 in. TNT Weight of *g------------------Unknown Total wei~t.2 in.wr 1000 160-kg. .. Body la@h ----------------------36... --. . . --. 12.. . .6 ht... . E.. . .E.. . .-’ . . .. . ‘T& vanes are short. .E. ..... q Figure 31 ~160-kg. . . ..— —. . . . -.. . . color and Markings Over-a&grey. H. . . Type of Mtig--------------------TNT Weight of ~g-. . .8 in.. . .27.. . .-----. . ..-s. . . . . .. . .. .. .. . Bomb D~ata Over-ail length ---. Body teeter -. . . . . Bomb 22 * —.---. . demolition bombs... . . .l. . (CSI Antisubmarine Bomb . .--.I I ALJAP4 ANLJ rKZNUll EA1’’LU3i Vt UKIJNAIJ~E . .5 kg. The vanes am short and attaohed near the end of the tail cone. . .. .. . ---. . no-re& -1 *. . . .4 in.-. . .3 in. . .. . nose-red 160+ ) >. Fuzing Nose fueunknovnl Description The bomb has an unusual taiI unit. Tail len@h -----------------------27. .. Type of Wag--. 0. Ftming Nose fuze-Type B Tail fuze-’(Granddaddy” ‘Dlescdptiori This bomb has a hemispherical nose. 163. .31 ill. .-.. Figure 32- H.. Body length --.— 160-kg. TaiI width -----------------------1/%3in. .. . .99 kg. . . .. . . . . . . . .

Wdl t~cbew . . . .L f ‘v 20-kg.okg. nose-red band ITALIAN BOMBS ‘b .---. .2iu.7in. .4 in. -. . .-. . . -. . Type of filling --------------------Urdcnom. . . .*3-kg. . . .7i. which tops the nose filling. .5 in.-. -------------6. . . . . forma a cushion between the concrete fWing. Bdy&me~--------------------3.”-------5. Body len@h. KS Figure 34. .20-kg. --. . . It appears to be a waterproof composition.oin.-. Tail len@h. .. Fuzing Noeefuze-TypeI Description The bomb consists of two containers made of mild steel sheet. . . . .---. . Tdtidth -----------------------3.-. . . . Body diameter ------. Total weight ---------------------3. . . . . .-. .5 in.. No furthe? description is available. Coior and Markings Over-ail-green... .. . .akg... . . -...2in.1 in. . . Tail width -----------------------5. . (CV) Antiaircraft Bomb Data Over-all length. .--. -g. . . .-. . . . . . The nose and the body of the bomb are apparently loaded separately with their filler of concrete and steel. T~~f Mkg. . T~len@-----------------------7. . ..-. . . .o~. -------------13. . ~atol Wei@tof fllbg ------------------O. A brown substance.. containing a resinous wax.-------Unknown Fuzing Nose fuz~Type I Description The bomb case ie loaded with steel pellets embedded in concrete.. . Body length .. . (CV) Ant/ikeraft Bomb ‘kllJ . . -------lg. . (O/) Antiaircraft Bomb Data Over-allIm@h. 1..5 in. . .U.. 30. .. Weight of tilbg ------------------Unknown Total weight ------. TIM space between them is filled with steel pellets embedded in concrete. 15.

‘ Bomb Container Data Over-all len@h . . . . . .IAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE . and a safety pin holder is riveted to the tail vane to receive the safety pin of the fuze.) . .Oin. Tail length . 23 kg. .ft. and lCJO-kg. * . ..5 kg. wax. . 50-kg.. The main filling is 60% RDX.(approx..7 in. . . . Figure 3S .. . . 15 kg. 40-2 kg. This main filling haa the hollow domwhaped receea at its base and has fitted to ita apex an RDX booster pierced to receive the fuze and its booster.5-kg. . .. . Incendiary or 20-2 kgi Incendiary or 24-4 kg. . Tail width -------------------11 in. The 3. A horizontal suspension lug is riveted to the body. Aati. . (approx. . .5 kg. . . . . -------------5 ft.$in.0 in. ..-. was the only bomb of this type known to be used or manufactured by the Italians. .047 in. except the 25-kg. . RDX/TNT 2. . Body len@h------------------2.. .. . or 43--1 kg... Anti-Personnei Thermos . 22. ‘\ . . 3870 TNT and V. . . . 0.5-kg. . .ORDNANCE 3. 7. has the bomb casing of helically wound steel strips. . . The 25-kg.Hollow-Charge Bombs . . 3.) Type of ~ltig-. .. . . This bomb has a dome-shaped nom completely empty of any main filling and threaded at its base to screw over the threaded con+shaped body.. 8% in. wall ttichm . --------Fazing 3. 1 Taii fuze for hollow-charge bombs Description All these bombs are very similar in appearance. which diffem slightly. 25-kg. Bdytieter ---------------11 in.2kg. 6. .. ------------Body len@h ------------------Bdytieter ----------------Wall ttichess ----------------Tdlen@h -------------------Tadtidth -------------------T~eoffillkg ----------------Wei@tof Wag--------------Totdweight. U?. Weight (mpty)-. . . . Hollow-Charge Bombs Data Over-all length. .--. which is separately cast and is an easy fit in the bomb body. . ----------0.. 6. . Personnel F or Mtr. 24 --- .06in. . 5-kg.Oin.. . . 6 in.

This causes the bolt to be withdrawn. Riveted to the inside of this cap is a plate. $J . r Figure 36- tkrnb Containw 25 . presa~mgon tk plate within the cap. The range of movement of each drogue is limited by the length of a flexible tire cable 6xed to the tail cone. the withdrawal oi which releases the ball locking device. between the main body and inner tubes.LJAN -’?!-Y- WJMBS Description This is a metal container holding eight columns of anti-personnel or incendi~~ bombs. On rele=. Below the drum and situated between each pin of adjacent iins is a drogue of pressed steel. a fabric web fixed to the sides of the drogue by rivets. —. A fabric-covered elastic strip attached to each case at one end to the drogue. Operation On loading into the aircraft. ITA. the safety pin in the clockwork is withdrawn. It contains eight longitudinal tubes which are welded to the after closing plate and the forward ciosing plate. partly closes these hoke. A transit safety pin prevents withdrawal of the bolt. To the underside of this particular drogue is attached an additional cable which rum through a hole in the tail cone. the clockwork activates a cutter which severa the restraining wire and so allows the drogues to opm. This ciockwork is preverited from running by a safety pin. carrying four fins. Ejector sprin~. varying b+ tween O and 20 seconds. holes in the latter leave the forward ends of the tubes open. throws off the cap by .are fitted in the after ends of tube. in cum. After the preset time. The container is held cioeed by a ball looking. the transit pin is withdrawn. and terminates in a boit.-. The tail cone. The forward end of the bomb is closed by an aluminum cap held on by three clips. The body is cylindrical aad is of sheet metal. is fitted by screws to the body. A flap. and at the other end to the drum. the adjustment of which can be observed through the inspection hole. A corrugated ring strut strengthens the tail fins. Eaoh of these drogues is connected to its neighbor by. which is hinged to this plate. these drogues are prevented from opening by a cord or wire which encircies them and passes through a cutter. Before dropping. tends to pull each drogue open. w . The springs eJeci the bombs by forcing open the f-l~nwhich.

Figure 37Parachute Flares 26 .ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE O?_ l@yl . . .

The charge ignites the candle and at the same time ejects the candle and parachute from the tube.0 in.) 14...Total weight -.-. . . . ignites the magnesium... ignites~the safety fuse.46 in.--.-. .. . . .. . . 12. . . . .2 in.-. . .. . a thin cylindrical body filled with magnesium powder. ---. setting OH the ignition powder. 4. Flare length -.. . . w . Type of Wg-. Weight of Ming. in turn. . .-.. ... 17. and a tail unit containing the parachute and release mechanksni. whioh. with the fuze from the cardboard magnesium container. Color and Markings Over-all-bright red . . (approx. .. The flare operates by breaking the wal at the now end and pulling the string. -------------1. -------------Unknown ‘Weights . The resistance to the expelling charge is provided by a felt washer and waste packing at the top of the tube.. . . . 27 . The flare is set for height by means of an indicator on the parachute-release mechanism. . which ignites the friction composition. Beiow the grip the tube is constructed to fit into the groove in the wooden plug at the nose and is held by a wire. . . . the jerk is sufficient to operate the nose fuze.. . Razing Nose only-Type ‘w .. ..19 in. the fuze arms. ... in turn..9 in.-e-.. Parachute I%re (Cardboard) Data over-ail Im@h---. .-.-... r q 36.. . ... .-.0 in. ---0. .9 inches long suxrounds the tube near the center to form a grip.-. .. -. In central hole of the wooden plug is a friction igniter. This. ... Parachute Flares Martellona Parachute Flare Data Over-ail length -.-. The resultant explosion biows away the light metal nose. . . This consiglts of a friction composition attached to the end of a short length of string impregnated with a pho~~phorus cc~mposition.. Magnesium powder Unknown Unknown r L KHl$ Description The bomb consists of a light metal nose. . and.. . . .. A corrugated cardbomi 3. . . . when the parachute release mechanisni functions to cauae the parachute to open..-. -. Wall tbckness.. .. . .. Body diameter --------. . . . . . the vanes of both the release mechanism and the nose fuze rotate. Type of Wg. Tai3 length .. which givee approximately two seconds before igniting the powder charge located below the candle.. .. . . .. . .s h Body teeter--.* Unknom Fuzing Friction igniter in nose Description This flare is contained in a cardboard tube the same thickness throughout” its length. .. On release”from the plane... . -. . The open ends of the tube are sealed by paper gummed over. . .

Bomb Adapt!ers and Boosters 28 .-’.. . .. :..: . .gure 38. .) .’ . .. q m! ---- $.’.’ .. ..+..... .

the upper biock is recessed to take a boostw. a creep spring is incorporated in the design. steel. The balls either are prevented from moving inwards by an arming spindle. but. . The end of the bomb tad is shaped to accommodate the arming vanes. the top of which is threaded to a steei plug which fits into the &dapter. the striker overcomes the creep spring and hits the detonator. there is no externai evidence of arming. and the short type. time ‘bomb. which depends on a ol~’kwork for delay.3t in. Where two or more Mng pine are used.8 in. and the vanes do not rise as in the case where the arming spindle is attached directly to the vanes. Ll!fostnose fuzee hwre steel balls which lock either the striker or the sleeve h&iing the detonator. These then move either outward or inward to free the detonator slewe or unlock the striker. The long booster is screw-threaded at the open end to take an adapter an~ below the adapter. Moat of the nose fuzes may be divided into two general types: those which are armed by rotatian and the subsequently falling away of a vane cap. contains two compressed blocks of TNT. but which arms the same as most other Italian fuzes. the striker always has a guide to keep the firing pin and detonator caps in line. the striker is held in the armed condition by a creep spring. On impact. 7. and the detomttor is stationary. Normally. the absence of the c~p indicates arming of the fuze.4bove the auxiliirg booster. {1! 4 . which &s. In the former case. In the latter case. in the lattar cam.Chapter 2 ITALIAN BOMB FUZES r Italian bomb fuzea are all mechanically operated. Nose fuzea allow a considerably wider variation in operation than do tho tail fuzes. in some cases. These f~ are operated by the arming spindle. a shear waeher or a pin is used. 29 . which depends oJi the certain number of rotations of the vanes for functioning. . which rises to free the steel balls. external diameter. and the other. it is more difilcult to decide the question of inning. The fuze can be handled with relatively little danger when the safety pin is present. In most cases the st~er is immobilized in the unarmed conditions by steel balls resting against either a groove or a sleeve in the fuze body. Different types of adaptera are fitted to the booster to give deiay action or differsnt length projections of the auxiliary booster which fib into the booster proper. a longdelay. thus f= ing the steel ba@ which move inward to free the striker. which is withdrawn before the bomb is dropped. The striker for many tail fuzes has more than one firing pin in order to insure detonation of the bomb. and those which are armed by the simple rotation of the vanes. The principle of arming and functioning is the same for moat tail and nose fuzes. th~~booster lead-in pellet is located and. The auxiliary booster is the same for both types and is in an aluminum tube. Italian time fuzes are of two types: one for aerial bwt. In most cases. The normal boosters used were of two types. The short boostar is similar but contains Iess charge. The functioning in all cases depends on either the cap or the arming spindle. except for the time fuzes for the W-kg. or zIuminum and are coated with shellac or varnish to resist corrosio~ Tail fuzee are screwed into t~e base of the bomb and contain a cylindrical steel tube which extenda the whole length of the tail.3 iR. the fuzm are made of brass. Arming takes place during the fall of the bomb and depends upon the rotation of the arming vanes. ~d 1. since the arming spindle screws either into or onto the tube or rod attached to the arming vanes. long. The primary ssdety device is aiways the safety pin. 4. and most of the Italian bomb fuzes function upon impact. The bases of most italian furies are threaded internally to ‘receivea boaster. or are threaded to a rod or tube attached directly to the vanes. it has 3 relay or deiay powder pellet below it. the long type. In the case where the detonator is movable. but. long and also 1. diameter.5 in. when the striker is movable. attached directly to vanee which unscrew and rise above the collar into which the spindle screws.

. .-. General FUrpiie ‘- Fuze found with------Tail-Type O LMaterialof construction.5 k. The striker is prevented from moving.. with a booster lead-in screwed in the upper part. the safety wire withdraws the arming pin. the firing pine hit the twin primers. freeing the striker and sleeve. .. An arming spindle prevents the balls from moving in and releasing the striker.5 in. 6. by two steei ‘btdIs resting against 30 the sleeve and also by the creep spring. W&kg. which extends into the annular space.. OP. Description The fuze has a main body threaded to fit into the nose-fuze pocket of the bomb and also internally threaded to take the long-type booster. Width of fuze body. The vanes do not rise during rotation. When the arming spindle has withdrawn above the balls.~” u i“ L ~fIRING Impact SAFETYIN P .7. Operation When the bomb ia dropped. (without booster) Over-all length of vanes . but tie arming spindle rises through the vane collar. ARMINGPINDLE S LOCKING 6ALL SLEEVE PIN Figure 39- Type A - A&whanica! Nose Fuze Type A—Mechanical Impact Nose Fuze Data Bombs used in---------25&kg. prevents the collar from rising./ I . .. There is an inner sleeve in the main body in which the striker containing the twin firing pins is free to slide. On impact the striker and twin primer cap holder overcome the creep spring. 1668 -% ... the balls roil inwards. above the vane collar. in the unarmed condition.2. The vanes are prevented from rotating by a safety pin through the fuze body and arming spindle. 4! -.---. Brass body and vanes Over-all lerigth. The fuze is completely armed when the arming spindle projects 1.8 in.3 in. The vanes are attached to a collar in which are two pins traveling in annular space..ITALIAN AND FRENCti EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE . but the pin in the vane collar. This allows the vanes to rotate. 800-kz.

e h e e e h r o Figure 41. which fire the booster that is internally threaded in the base of the fuze. . . .ITALIAN w-8—Rw— BOMB FUZES w Types B and V—Mechanical Fuzes Dsta Bombs used in T~e B. Width of fuze body Type B . . . Impact Nose b $ ... . The striker h is held in place by a baiI race riding in an annular groove in the striker near the top. .7in. ..7 in. The outer shoulder or fiange is notched to receive a spanner wrench in this shoulder is the tightening t fuze. .. . . . . . Type V. . .3 in. . operation T safety pin is withdrawn when the bomb is released. Over-all length of vanes Type B. thus releasing the striker. . The st. . and %Icg. . the striker is forced down. . The striker is held from the detonators by shear washers and the steel bails. . . .s--. . B h threaded portion of the fuze body which screws into the noee-fuze pocket of t bomb. .. . . . . shearing the shear washer and bringing the firing pins in c with the detonators. . - Figure 40- ryf#$J 8 -- Atechan~ical fm~ Nose Pure u Description These fuzes have a domeshaped cap of which the vanes are an integral part. ------7.-. . . . 4-J#& —TWIN ~ WmwORa .tiker hae.. 160-kg.5in. . 2. .-. .5. two king pins.. . The striker is threaded at t top to receive the cap. Type V--------. . . . 5. . Type V..Type V . the steei bails fall away. -. The vanes rotate in flight and fall off. . 8. Type V.... Upon impact. . . .8. Incendiary AiOnO u z e zt-1 -. . . . ..-. .5 in. . . .8= Mechanical Nose Fuze Impact 31 4NJ . ..1 in. .. htisubmarine l-kg. there are no creep springs. . -----F F used with --------Over-all length Type B.. . .

. When the spindle is withdrawn 0.. rl>gardless of the bomb’s position on impact.8in. Upon impact. . Both fuzes are threaded at the base to receive the long-type boosters. regardless of how the bomb fails. FUZSSused with -------Material of construction-Over-all length Type F-. .6 in. . . . 32 . .3in. which is withdrawn . 3. whereas vanes on Type W slant away from the fuze body. releasing the striker. . Type W. . -). This insures contact of cap and striker.-. .. . . Both fuzea have arming vanes and spindle. the vane rotatee the arming spindle. which then rests on the creep spring. 1. --- - .6 in. Upon being releaaed from the plane. ..ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNAJICE OP 1668 Beneath the shoulder of each fuze am threads which screw into the no~fuze pocket._-.8 in. --. . steel balls move into the channel.. Anti-Personnel MOne Brass 5.5 in. The outer shoulder of the Type W Fuze is slightly longer than the Type @. the detonator caps and striker are retained in “Allways” housings which are free to move. the safety pin is withdrawn.. detonating booster and bomb.. SAFETY PIN . . .upon the rotation of the vanes.-. . < a L “ARMNG SPINDLE U3CKNGBAJA STRIKER Description These two fuzes are based on the same principle of operation and with few minor variations are similar in appearance. . freeing the bails and conm+ quently the striker. 2. . . . Vanes of the Type F slant down toward the fuze body. on the Type W.2 in. 3. * — * Figure 42 . . overcoming the creep spring and contacting the striker.Type F -= Mechanical Nose Fuze Impact Types F and W—Mechanical Fuzes Data Bombs used in. II iXTONATOR .4 in. . Operation Operation of these two fume is the same. 5. Impact Nose 12 kg.. The dome-shaped surface at the end of the striker cavity insures that striker and detonator-cap holder approach each other.— --- i . . on the Type F or 0. ----Over-alllengthof vanType F--------------Type W-------------Wldthof fuzebody. . the detonator cap moves forward. .. q Figure 43- ?ypa W — Mechanical lmpa& Nose Fuxe .

the upper part of the fuze %mJ II. prevents tie movement of bails until the vanee and cover have rotated” to withdraw the spindle pact the balk operation Whim the bomb falls. . W&m the arming spindle has moved past. the head of the striker twsembly acts as an smvil and the whole assembly is driven back. freeing the striker except for the ahear wtaher.Fuses used with. Anti-Personnel lMtr. Tme Bomb M-kg. (without booster) 4. On impaot. striker and Shear waSher Remainder br7. and the firing pins fire the dekmat o~ which in turn h the exploeive train. . ..5 in. which is attached to the arming vanes. body housing the striker sssembly and having a flange above the threads by which the fuze is secured in the bomb..——- ITALJAN 6(2MB FIJZES ..-. The striker is immobilized by a shear waaher and two steei balls located in the channel of the striker and a ret. 33 Description The ‘fuse is similar in appearance tQ Type R. the balls roll inward. The arming spindle. aheming the the body. Material figure 44- Type J — Mechanical ~mpe~ Nose Fuze) Type J—Mechanical Impact Nose Fuze of construction over-all length. &-ARNIING .— J/ L$ SAFETY PIN * b . a safety pin which paases tkrough cap and upper part of the fuze is removed. permitting the vanes to rotate and the arming spindle to riw in the striker aseembly. 276 in. Longdelay nose and Tail ciockwork Steel lower body. :from the piano. The fuhe body ie made in two parts: the lower part made of steel and inching the twin detonator osw with internal threada to receive the booeter and booster lead-ins.+ sPINoLE LOCKINGBALL i’ r 1- STRIKER SHEAR WASHER 1- ‘v Data Bombs wad in..8 in.(her-all length of vanes Width of fme body 500-kg.

3 in... After the vanes have made a few rotations. Data Bomb u~ k---------------Parachute Flare J?uzes used with. Below this flange. Inside the base of the cylinder is a tube sliding into the cylinder but prevented from movement by the 34 light creep spring resting against the top plate of the striker. L—Mechanical Impact Nose Fuze .ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSJVE ORfX%4JlCE OP 1668 r f ‘ LocmG SM.-.. In the bottom of the tube are twin detonator caps underneath the twin firing pins. the safety pin is pulled.-. with a central flange. The detonator caps are then fired. )ver-aU length of vanes . A hole through the stniker and vane cover receives the safety pin. 4. (lperation When the flare is dropped. -. is the striker on a plate which screws into the upper part of the cylinder.. the two steel b]dls can move out from under the vane cover.3 in. Alone ~ver-all length --------------4. overcoming the spring and impacting the striker. Two steel balk are placed in holes in the cylinder. the case receives enbugh deceleration to cause the sliding tube to set forward. allowing the vanee to rotate. \ / t------’ I Meehanica/ L ——= Impacf Nose $uze Type. the cyiinder is threaded to screw into the bomb.1 STRIKER -. Width of fuze body ---------1. and prevented from moving outwards by the arming-vane cover. When the parachute opens. freeing the tube except for the creep spring. .. the cylinder is also threaded to receive a builetAaped vane cover in which the vanes are integrally cast. Description The fuze body is cylindrical.. Above the flange. -. positioned @ an annular dot in the tube containing the caps. Beneath this cover..-.2 in. -.

~ u 9 the sleeve and striker being spaced by a creep spring. The base of the lower pswt of the fuze is threaded to receive the booster tube. The vanes do not fall away. . 1.16 (without booster) 2. the arming wire is pulled from the vanes.3 in. Over-all length of vanes Width of fuze body. In the bottom of the sleeve is the detonator cap. which has a small flange. Description The fuze body is made in two parts screwed together. . Type Q—=Mecha~icai Impact I’NoseFuze Data Bombs used in. the balls will be free to move inwards. Figute 47- Tyw Q —— Meehanicai Nos49 Fuze /mpacf 35. impact Nose Fuze 3-kg. This spindle screws into the striker assembly. the sleeve may be set forward cmto the striker.. After the arming spindle has withdrawn so that 0.u —— ITALIAN —W*-M BOMB FUZES . The vanes are secured to the spindle by a pirI and prevented from rotating by an arming who secured to the body and paesed through the hoiea. Upon impact. 1’ Upon release from tho plane.2. of the spindle shows beiow the vanes. . freeing the sleeve containing the detonator. A central opening. . ... The upper part is flanged and threaded to fit into the fuze pocket.6 in.8 in. operation b . .* !3AFETY PIN BOLT i’ H+-+OmING Figure 46- Type M — Mecfuhkaf Wse Fuze /mpaci W+~—OETONATOR Type M—Mechanical Data Bomb used in.Fuzes used with--Over-all length. receives the threaded arming spindle. firing the cap. Anti-Persomei Types F and lMtr.) Anti-Personnel Alone 3. allowing them to rotate. (Mtr. IrI the lower part of the fuze body is a sleeve with a beveled upper edge against which rest the steel bails located in a hole in the striker assembly.. /GAP . .~.


--l-kg. they fail inside the channel and the striker and detonator cap are freed.6 in.. The housing containe the striker and primer cap. Deacriptkm The cylindrical body has external threade beneath the shoulder which screw into the nfuzo pocket of the bomb. the stdrer and detonating cap will contact. rhea in the channei. Above the vane cup is a dome. (with booeter) Width of fuze body. The vanee are attached to a vane hub.khaped cup threaded to the arming spindIe. Incendiary Aione 1. Description The fuze has ‘u ‘ikd 37 . Upon impact.7 in. Over-all length. Remainder is aluminum alloy. .U2-kg. 1. which are set in a dome-shaped cavity at each end to give an “allways” tiect. The cap is held in place by the safety pin. . The vanea rotate in alight but do no come OH because of the set scmve. being threade!d to the vane hub.9 in.Anti-Personnel Type Mtr. S.8 in. An annular groove at the top of the Atriker receives three safety bolts. The arming spindle. which in turn is threaded at the top with the vane hub. ITALIAN BOMB FUZES ‘$lmd ““Over-aillength.Alone Brase arming Spide and Material of construction sleeve. (without booster) 3. which ride in an annular groova in the lbody. Over-all length of Vance Width of fuze body. Type R—hlechanical Impact Nose Fuze Data Bombe used in_--. The base of the fuze has internal threads h receive the booeta and extirnal threads to screw the fuze into the n~fuze pocket of the bomb.. and 2-~g. Because this ie an “all-waye” assembly.7 in.8 in. The base of the fuze is tlwe~ed to receive the longtype booster. operation The safety pin is withdrawn upon dropping the bomb. Fuzea US8dwith. regardless of the poeition in which the bomb hits. Only the creep spring keeps the firing pine and primers apart.1.—-—m Fuzea used with. an inertia striker with two :iiring pina. and during flight the cap fails away and releases the safety bolts. The striker is then frqe to reet on the creep spring. . Set screws in the hub. When the arming spindle paseea the steel baih. and a orwp spring set between the detonator cap and the striker. The firing mechudsm coneiets of a detonator holder with two caps. the detonator holder overcomes the creep spring and contacta the fixing pins ta detonah the bomb. operation The safety pin is removed when the bomb ia reled. prevent the vanes from co’dg off in flight. an outer cap which is a pueh fit over the housing of the fuze. -. On impac$ the striker and detonator cap owwcome the oreep spring and detonate the bomb. (leaa booeter) 2..

A creep spring separates the striker from the detonator. contacts the primer. A stop pin inserted in a channel in the striker prevents the spindle from turning with the arming vades.5 in. . with another small charge of explosives. me nose-fuze pocket of the bomb. .“-’l a HD P . STRIKER f--- I STOP ?1?’4 i-#--OHON. part of the striker. The cietonator cap is located in the lower part of the fuze body. . 3.4TOR ~igum 49- ryps -. m . the striker overcomes the creep spring. C)peration The safety pin is withdrawn when the bomb is dropped.9 in. The striker then rests on the creep spring.- . . .2 in. immediately beneath which are the threads which screw into 38 . 0. The vanes rotate in flight and rise on the striker. and initiates the explosion. Fuze used with---Over-all length-. The striker is threaded just below the lug in order to receive the arming vanes. Upon impact. -.Mec*anicai fmpacf Nos@ FW20 Type S=-Mechanical Data Bombs used in. The fuze body has a narrow shoulder. Over-all length of vanes Width of fuze body- Impact Nose Fuze Small smoke or Incendiary Alone 4. Description Ths nose of the fuze consists of a lug which is ~. .

1. the striker overcomes the creep spring and contacto the primer detonator.. . A safety pin prevents the vanes from rotating...8 in. (without booster) 3. the balls fall into the channel and relearn the striker. This action arms the fuze. The arming spindle is attached to the vanes by a small screw which appeam extermdly in the axis of the vanes. 1. creep spring. After the arming spindle k withdrawn a sufficient distance. Two steel bails set in the wall of the striker and resting in the wall of the striker sleeve by force of the arming rod. which ailows the vaues to rotate when the bomb is reieased from the plane.. l-kg. Anti-Personnel Type F and Mtr.’ PIN “uxluNGsAIL -m T “ Dmrww EJ w 39 . Operation The safety pin is withdrawn. immobilize the striker..Alone Over-all length. 2-kg.. and primer. -. Upon impact.8 in. (with booster) ‘ 1..--. v % ARMING SPINOLE / . The firing assembly consists of a striker. The rotation withdraws the arming spindle from the striker. Description The fuze is threaded at the base to screw into the nos~fuze pocket of the bomb. .8 in Over-ail length of vanes Width of fuze body.0 in.——9~- lTALIAf~ 6QM6 FUZES Type U—Mechanical Impact Nose Fuze ~ 1 /’ ‘ b Data Bomb used ip. and Z-kg.. . Incendiary Fgzea USedwith.

G1 -------. allowing the vanes to rotate when the bomb is dropped. .86 in. . b arming-spindle case is secured to it by M set screw. . The arming spindle is scoured to a steel tube..Types C and C-l_Mechanical Fuze Impact Tail Data Bombs used in G-5G-kg. A U-shaped pin engages in the annular slot to prevent the rise of the vanes on rotation. A. . 18.-------. Two bails are heated in the strikm and rest against a shoulder of the fuze body. . An inertia striker contains twin &ing pins. P. operation The safety pin is removed. G..15. . . Over-all length of vanes -. A safety pin passes through the arming-stem cm and COtiaX. the steel tube risee on the screw. . When the arming spindle moves met. A. . the striker compresses the creep spring. . ---. P. C-l—loO-kg. . The upper end of the arming screw is threaded into a brass collar to which vanes are secured by a pin.9 in. . twin flanges engaging in grooves in the body prevent it from rotating.. . On impact. . . and 100-kg. -. and I&&kg. . A pin through the case prevents the tube from rotating.7 in. As the arming aorew rotates. . the steel balls can move & &d free the s&lcer. and internally to receive the booster. . S. . .9 in.. S.. ----4. A creep spring separates the striker and the detonator housing. Deserfption The C-1 Fuze diilers from the C Fuze only in having a longer arming stem case and an opening near the center of the case to permit observation of the progress of arming. .-H. The fuze body is threaded externally to mew into the bomb.--------. . An arming spindle preveate inward movement of the bails while the spindle h in place in its channel in the striker. and the firing pins hit the detonators. E. . . Fuzesusti tith. Alone Over-all Iength c --------. P. . W~dthof fuze body ---------------1. in the upper end of which a threaded brass collar receives the arming screw.. . and l(ltl-ltg.‘ STRIKER L k Figure 51- KEYVJAY TWIN FIRINGPINS .--------. TWIN IXTONATORS Types C and C-1 /mpact Tail Fuzes Mechanical 40 ---- . . . r l=- LOCKING8ALL .

. The striker then rests on the creep spring. The vanes are attached to the aiming spindle.. . .-. regardless of the position in which the bomb hits. Incendiary Fuzesused tith. Description The base of the fuze proper is threaded internally to receive a zinc-alloy adapter.5 in. . The cylinder contains the striker. . . The top surface of the adapter is curved in order to receive the bottom of the cylinder.. ----. the steel balk+are rehased. The base of the adapter is threaded externally to screw into the ‘bomb. -------Alone lMaterial of construction.0 in. This assures that the fuze will operate. immob~fize the striker.-. Remainder is brass. tdong with the arming spindle.4 in... -. .-— -- PIN b— ARMING WNCL E 8ALL x Hgwe 52Type E Mechanical Tail $uxe ST@KER ‘OR OE7TM7 lmpa~ Type E—Mechanical Impact Taii Fuze Data Bombs used in.. . the striker md detormtor contact and initiate the mploeive train. Upon impact. and disengage tho striker. When the bomb is released.. . held in place by the arming rod. Over-ail length ---------8. and detonator cap. .. 41 u .3..- . . a creep spring. the creep spring is overcome. 20-kg. Over-dl length of vanes.2. The striker housing is spherical at the end and resta on the curved surface of the adapter.. When the arm+g rod has risen 0. . . . spindle tube.4 in. The arming spindle extends up through the steel shaft and is threaded at the upper end. ‘TWOsteel balls. operation The safety pin is withdrawn. Steel arming. -. fall into the channel. the vanes rotate and rise. . Width of fuze body. .

Aa soon as the arming spindle rises past the steel balls. Over-all length. A screw engaged in the annular slot pre vents longitudinal movement of the sleeve. . On impact.. ./’ -Description The fuze consists of a main body over which siins an internally threaded coUar used to attach the fuze to the ahunimun holder at the end of the ignition tube. Over-all length of vanes -.5 in. screwed into the base of the fuze body.-------Jhfaterial of construction-. the balls roll inward. -. (less ignition tube) 5. Tldth of fuze body. As the vanes turn. the arming spindle rises through the sleeve or hub. ‘The arming’ spindle moves in a channel in the striker weight. The armJing spindle has a siot ‘in which a screw engages to prevent rotation of the sleeve and arming spindle. . the safety pin is pulled. fiZeS USedwith. operation When the bomb is dropped.1668 . freeing the striker.~.2 in.. .spindle to prevent rotation of the vanes.... preventing the steel balls from moving in and rehmsing the striker.ITALJAN AND FRENCH EXP~OSIV~ ORI)NJJNCE . A creep spring is placed between the striker point and the primer cap in a fitting. F}gure . the striker compresses the spring and ignites the detonator. -. SAFETYPIN d!!!q Ii!i .. which is then kept from the detonator by the creep spring. allowing the vanes to rotate. which in turn fires the ignition powder in the tube..... 1. Incendiary Akme Aluminum and brass 3. OP .----- 70. .5 in..-. * STRIKER /’ 53- TY& G _ Mechanical lmpacf Tail $uze Type &= Mechanical Impact Tail Fuze Data Bombs used in. Three cast-brass vanes are an integral part of a sleeve which is threaded to hold the arming spindle.. . A safety pin passes through the sleeve and arming 42 .

which burns for about 90 seconds and then firee the detonating charge.. Steel cap. ----. When the cord is pulled taut. remainder vanes. There are no arming vanes.3 in. This ignites a three-foot length of safety fuse. and three feet of safety fuse. . A smaller.w. Then the spring takes hold and rotates the striker down to fire the detonator. The st~er arm pivots on a pin and is held by a spring. . $igure “C(MO q .. . . .. To the inaide of the cap is attached one end of a piece of cord 6 meters long (19 ft. The upper piece is male threaded. The top of the upper portion is dome-shaped. and the loop of the cord slides off the striker. it pulls the striker to a vertical position. . one end of which is secured to the top of the rear portion and the other looped around the striker in the body portion. A hole passes horizontally through the uppermost part of this dome to receive the . Over-ail length . . The other end of the cord is attached by a loop to the striker. the detonator. . --. The safety rod passes throug$ the striker. htiPersonnel type 1?and Mtr. 4 in. . The body contains the striker. . . The single arming vane is attaohed to this rod.1A in. . Description The body is cylindrical and divided into two pieces. . l-kg. . . braes 1. ---—-STRIKER -—DETONATOR --— SPRING ‘— SAFE7Y FUSE 54- Type }1 — Mechanical Tail Fuze Impact Type K—Mechanical Data Bombs u=d in----------- Impact Tail Fuze . Width of fuze bOdy. 2. . threaded cylinder at the front of the fuze serves to aflix the fuze to the bomb. Bombs used in . (without Over-all length.4 iw of cord. 2-kg. operation On removal of the safety pin. 43 . The base cover is a push fit over the body.). .-.-. 2-kg. the cap can be pulled away. . and !+l-kg.W . .6 in. --------booster) 3. Fuzes used with .5 in. Incendiary Alone Fuzes used with-------Material of construction-. Protruding from the shoulder of the upper housing is a hollow shaft with internal threads to receive the safety rod. The rear part of the fuze contains 19.. . .knti-Peraonnei Ty& F and Mtr. .8 in. Type H—Mechanical Impact Tail Fuze ITALIAN ——— BOMB FUZES . (with booster) Width of fuze body-. 1 and 2-kg.spIit pin which holds the vanes in the unarmed position. . lower body striker aluminum.Alone 5.. Description This fuze is divided into two pieces which are threaded together. Incendiary.

. N-3-1. which }hen rests on the creep spring. S. A. . regardhw of the position in which the bomb lands. P. Over-all length of vanes N—Unknovm N-1—L3 in. which eventually falls away. N-1—24kg. R -. the striker and detonator cap overcome the creep spring and make contaat. # Types N. A ii’ . E. This releases the striker. S. N-3-12. N-1. . N-2+-kg.-H. The kwge booster ie used. G. P.A&-+%-+.6 in. E. . N-2-2 in. Alone Over-all length N—unlmown N-1—10. PC-H. Fuzeeueed with . Upon ths bomb’s being released from the plane. A. the vane rotates and unscrews the safety rod. In flight. . Operation The arming vane is folded over the dome of the fuze and scoured there by a split pin. . N-2 and N-3--Mechanicai Impact Tail Fuzes Data Bombsusedin N—lS-kg. The striker and detonator housing are rounded at the ends to give the effeot of an “all-ways” fuze. N-2--11 in.’ “ARMING SiWNOLE ‘STRIKER DETONATOR --- -. Upon impact. . The striker and primer cap are held apart by a creep qwing when the fuze is arme& The base of the Iower housing is threaded to reeeive the booster. the split pin is withdrawn and the vane flies out in the position shown in the drawing. . G. .7 in. P. Since this is an “ail-ways” arrangement. the fuze will detonate. N-340-kg.8 in.

C . -. N-lg U-28 and /4-3 — Mechanicalfmpact Tall Fuzes . f= m Figure 56.‘ .Types N.

. Figure 57-Types Y and Y-l—-Mechanical Tail Fuzes Impact Description These fuzes are nearIy similar in outside appearance and have the same type of opel iion. Alone Over-ail length Y . The type fi’-3 has a twin firing pin and detonator... the vanes rotate and withdraw the arming spindle from the striker. Operation The lower safety pin is removed when the bomb is Ioaded in the plane.-------. -. . . . 1. ---Y-1 -------.ITALIAN ANO FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNJA~CE OP 1668 the arming spindle and tube to prevent the vanea from rotating.. Two steel balls in the striker rest against a recess in the fuze body and are prevented from moving inwards by the arming spindle. allowing the vanes to rotate. These fuzes have two safety pins.. ._ -. and 100-kg. .--------. E. A. the upper safety pin is withdrawn. 20. longer arming spindle and tube. On impact. and the other passes through 4 a . The arming spindle threads through the brass cohr and rises past the steel balls. The vanes are secured to the uming yindle by a locking pin. S. The baiis move inwards. the others have only one. G. the firing pins hit the detonators.-H.... .. The fuzea are mainly brass. . . freeing the striker.0 itL Over-aU length of vanes -. S. The steel balls move inwards to free the striker. and 10@kg.-./L P.-IL E. . W~dth of fuze body -. which now is held by a creep spring. . P.. A safety pin fits through the brass collar and the arming spindle to prevent the vanes from rotating. On impact. The only dMerences in the Y and T-1 is that the Y-1 has 3. . Two ecrewe secure the brass coilar ta the top of the arming tube.. 3. ... the firing pin or pins hit the detonator or detonators. Y-1—100-kg. Types Y and Y-1—Mechanical Fuzes Impact Tail . . -. One locks the striker during shipping. . Fuzes used titi. whioh now rests on the creep spring.0 in. (I@eration The safety pin is withdrawn when the bomb falls. When the bomb drops.- ~ . -..9 in. The two steel balls are prevented from moving inwwrds by the arming spindle. . . P.. G.~” . ----------------l&5 in. mscri@ion These fuzea are very &ilar to the Type C and Type N fuzes. __-. Type N-3 has a keyway which preven~ the striker from turning and keeps the iiring pin in @e with the detonator. . .5 in. The striker and detonator holder both have two projections which move in the keyway and thus keep the firing pine in line with detonator..--:. -. P. * Data Bombs used in Y’-W-kg. . . except for steel tube locking bah and creep spring. .-.

Length of the extension rod may vary to suit the varying lengths of the tail. General purpose Yose-Type A Fuzes usedwith --------Materiai of construction.8 in. accomplished by removing wines of the A and screwing in place the arming sieeve.e fuze A. Brass Over-ail length-. —--ARMING SLEEVE q k Figure ARMING SPINOLE LOGKING 6ALLS STR}KER WINFIRING PINS OETONATQR 58- Typa o — Mechanical Tail Fuze /mpacf q Type O-Mechanical Data Bombs used in----------- Impact Tail Fuze 250-kg... Operation The vanes on the extension arm rotate and withdraw the spindle into the hoiloxp sleeve of the arm. Type O is a combination of the fuze armirig mechanism and th. Width of fuze body . A fuze. 47 w .. except that on impact the inertia striker overcomes the creep spring and contacts the detonator.5 in. the operation is the same as the Type A. 500-kg. .4 in. (without booster) Over-all length of vanes . After the spindle is withdrawn. ITALIAN —~ M2MB iWZES LJ . . . Description Type O fuze is the same in construction as Type . Actually.2. 7. . setting the explosive train in motion. .— . . .-. -.j. 800kg. -EXTENSION TuBE . -------7.

The relay housing is intermdly threaded to receive the booster in the center of the spherical bomb. The fixing mechanism consists of the detonator.. STR!KER Figure 59- . . -. L till a. INNER BOOSTER MAIN800STER Operation The safety pin is withdrawn when the bomb is released. This assembly is housed in a dome-shaped cavity which &urea that the fuze will fire.. Unknown Spherical bomb l?uzesuse dwith --------Alone Over-all hmgth.. Type P—Mechanical Impact Tail Fuze Data Bombs used in---------70-kg. --------15.” The base of the fum is internally threaded to receive the housing of the relay eiemento The base of the relay housing is internally threaded to receive the long Italian booster.. ----.. - . .’ Type P — Mechanical lmpacf 7’aii Fuze 48 ..’ . and inertia striker. Deacriptfon ‘l%isfuzs has a long extension rod with the vanes at the top.: k . regardless of the positim in which the bomb lands... creep spring. the striker aud the detonator overcome the creep spring and come to6ether.2. The vanes rotata in flight and withdraw the arming spindle. ... . These fall into the channel and release the striker mechanism...-. which releases the steei balls.. Width of fuze body. Immediately beneath the shouider are the threads uiwd to screw the fure into the bomb. I /. The lower end is attached to the arming rod by the split pin.-. . (leas extension and booster) Over-all length of vanes. l!F--”T”s’”N- . .0 in. . Upon impact.0 ‘“ in. 8... > -. -.5 in.

..Width of fuze body.. . .. . . .. Materiai of oonstmction. . Nter the aerhd burst nos~fuze fuact.. . .. . . ..-. . and20-kg. . . . Upon impact. Type T--. . .. . . withdrawing the arming spindle. .. Types I atid T—Mechanical ‘T!me Nose Fuzes Data Bombs used in Type 1-.-. znd the spring-loaded stop gom forward. -------Type 1. . in turn. . The fuze is internally threaded at the base to receive the long Italian booster.. brass fittings 4 in.Over-all length. . . . The oyiindrical body is threaded beneath the shoulder to sorew into the base of the bomb.iou. release the striker. whioh incorporate the “ail-wa@’ feature with the creep spring. . —!—=- ITALIAN BOMB FUZES . Over-all length .. . and W. -. .. --.. These. (approx.0 in.6 in. . P. operation The safety pin is removed when the fuze is screwed into the beae plate. Type T. SAIW’Y PIN “-’-==sARMINGHNOLE S ? LOCKING SALL > A —= STRIKER “ q d — DETONATOR $I$ure 60- Type z — Mecfoanicai lmpa* Tail Fime Type Z-Mechanical Impact Taii Fuze 10&kg. Data Bombs used in . .. 4. . . The rotating vanes rise above the fuze head.. which releases the steel balls...:~ . Chemical Alone 8. . regardks of the position in which the bomb lands.. . . . . from the base plate to prevent rotation o: the vanes. .. Incendiary container Nose--Type X Aluminum body and VtUISS. . Fuzes used with. . . F. 6. . . tithout booster) 1. . the small bombs are reieased from the oon+ainer. A spfig-loaded stop protrudes 3-bg. fweing the vanes to rotate... .. . Antisubmarine 250-4004sg. 49 . . . . Over-all length of vines Type ?---------------- Deacripdon The fuze has four large arming vanes attaohed by two set sorews to the threaded portion of the withdrawal rod.. The striker and detonator resemble Typee E. the detonator hoider and striker are brought together.7 iri.. . l?uzeause dwith . . .9 in. .. .

ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDIA~CE OP.6in. the detonator cap and striker would contact. on impact. Vanes are attached to turn the reduction gears which operate the arming spindle.---.4 in. the vanes rotate. exploding the bomb.9in. idziicer. . If air pressure should fail. 4. l. the bfi are free to fail into the channel and free the. When the amning spindle has withdrawn 1 in. detonating the bomb and giving aerial burst. as the Itaiians used no chemical bombs. in diameter. but a series of vanes with different pitches is used ‘vith the fuze... The T fuze has a scale reading from Oto 6. Figure 61- Type ! — Mechanical Nose Fuze Time Type T-------------Width of fuze body Type I-------------Type T. “operation Operation of the T fuze is unknown. Both iuzes have an air pressure 50 * Figure 62- Type T — Mechanical Nose Fuze Time . Vanes of the I fuze remain at one pitch.2in. l.. The pressure plate on the I fuzs is 2. the gears cause the arming spindle to use in the internally threaded tube.which rests on the creep spring.. The scale is set to vary the pitch of the vanes to increase or decrease the time of functioning. AI . The internal assemblyof he fuze is not known. Air pressure against the pressure plate forces the striker down to contact the primer caps..-.. differing only in the vane assembiy.. which are readings in meters of altitude by onethousands.-. after some 400 revoiutione. but it is believed that it is similar to Type 1. so that functioning will take place at different altitudes. then. Description TheTfuze hasnot been recovered.1W plate beneath the vanes. The operation of the I fuze foilows: The safety collar is removed when the bomb is dropped.

. and central shaft with release pawi. Two insulated wires head from the base of the fuze to an dectrio detonator. When the bomb is released.. the setting nut is tu&ed until the desired distance of fau (in meters) . Material of construction. . The lower part hmses the armature and its shaft. the other to the rod which leads to the contads in the meter housing. . . after a few more rotations. castiran varies 7.—. electrical aontacts. ._.. 2. On the upper end of the shaft is mounted the clutch. 100-kg. .—. . .. bomb container Type Z Ahninum body..0 in. . . they meet and allow a current to flow through the leads to the electric detonator. (without booster) S. 51 —— . at the other end! the cap is screwed in.Fuzeused with . . The upper part of the body enalosee the height meter. the contacts almost touuh. ~ Description The exterior of the fuze body is cylindrical. .-------Over-all length of vanes-. .6 in. The vance . the vanes have attained a velocity sufficient to rotate the armature. Over-all length. A setting nut is aiso boated on tha top of the mefar housing and is used to set the height meter. Width of fuze bcdy. and. and the release pawl has released the spring detent in the main shaft which engages the clutch. geai train. with the lower part recessed and threaded for ssaembiing into the nose of the bomb. After a fall of approximately 30 meters. operation Before releaeing the bomb.3 in.-. th~ vanes me free to rotate and drive the meter through the gear train.. When a reading of zero shows on the meter.—— ITALIAN BOMB FUZES k) $igure 63- Typa X — Ekfdcai The Nose Fwre Type X—Electrical Time Nose Fuze Data Bombs used in. armears on the meter. ‘W are fastened to a spindle rotating ‘ina hub on top of the meter housing. One lead is connected to tho cap.

forcing the spindle dot~ in the channel and reie=ing the balls.!%” BALLS FIXED DETONATOR STRIKER Material of construction Over-all length --------Over-ail length of vanes. . The clockwork assembly is held under compdon by a spring which prevents premature impaat of the lower striker and detonator held in a brass fitting in the fuze base. Beiow the detonator are powder pellets and a flat copper plate sealed with a gas-light joint by the raised rig... . the flash in turn the powder pellets. ignites the explosion causes the plate to become domeshaped. . which fits into an inertia striker with twin strikers arid two steel balls..ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOWE OR!X$IANCE CIockwork Long-Delay Nosa Fuze Data Bomb ueedin ---------Fuzes used with . (without boost%r) 4. and a base with am exploder system. Attaohed to the plate is another arming spindle. When the striker is rekased after the delay setting of the clockwork has elapsed. There is no visual indication of arming. the detonator holder movee forward to hit the firing pins.. Figure 64. On irnpaot. The spring behind the clockwork pream against the plate. The striker is mountd on the timing disc. k*OIAFHRAGM RUB8ER OISC CLOCKWORK LOWERSTRIKER = II’-iNERTIA SLOCK ~OETONATOR 900STER LEAO-IN Description The ‘fuze consists of three parts: a nose unit with arming mechanism. . and bringing the lower detonator nearer the striker. When the pellets burst.Clockwork Lon@e]ay Nose Fuze 52 . Width of fu& bdy. C@eratfon When the bomb is dropped. .7 ill. it impacts the detonator.-. . .. .3 in. . 5. is a timing disc graduated with 48 divisions representing % of a day each or 8 days total. and the balk roll inward. a mid-body with clock-work delay mechanism. Vanes are scoured to the arming spindle. [~ E ‘ . setting off the explosive train. the vanes rotata and withdraw the arming spindle. OP 1668 E ! 4 ARMINGSPINDLE ?%. prevented from longitudinal movement by the screws. cawing the -g rod to release the ciockwork. ~ the vanes merely rotate.Delay Tail Fuze Mad bodyj braea and copper moving parts 16. releasing the sieeve. Tiie Bomb Type ‘J and C!ockwork Long . A Creep s@ng and sliding detonator holder fit beiow the striker. preventing movement of arming plates by engaging two steel balls.6 in. 5t10-kg. At the base of the clockwork cushioned by rubber washers.

5. the striker sets forward. The vanes are attached to the arming rod extension which fits on the upper portion of the fuze. . The lower striker is also brought closer to the detonator. the middle portion containing the clockwork deiay meohanim. the arming plate is forced down. body. . There is no visible indication of arming. .Delay Nose Fuze Steel.. .hdraw from its channel in the inertia striker. . . causing the arming spindle to wi+. and be the detonator. Over-all length --. Therest of the fuzeisdmihwtothe Clockwork Long-Delay Nose Fuze. causing the rod to move and free the clockwork.5 in. 130MS FUZES ‘%JJ’ SOO-kg. The detonator is fixed.../ay Tail Fuze .7 in. compresses the creep spring. . and the opertion is similar. . copper moving parta 14. .ITAJJAN Clockwork Long-Delay Tail Fuze Data Bombs used in. brass and Mat@d of construction. . operation When the bomb is dropped. At the same time.. Over-all hmgth of vanes Width of body _. me Bomb T Type J and Clockwork Long . . The withdrawal of the arming spindle frees the steel bails and therefore the striker. 8 detent in the diockwork frees the hollow central shaft. Ii Description The fuze body is of threemain parts: the forward portion containing the arming mechanism. and the lower portion with the exploder system. . which moves upward under a spring load to impact the striker. the vanes are free to rotate. The W ignites the powder pellets. since the arming spindle does not show. .. ..3 in. and the flash passes down the central shaft to the booster. After the delay time has elapsed._. On impact. .. (less booster and eXteXISiO!l) 7. causing an explosion which forces the copper disc to assume a aomed shape. 53 . -------Fuzes used with . —-ARMING ‘*LOCKING i ? -UPPER SPINOLE BALLS STRIKER ‘u DETONATORS FLASHPELLET DIAPHRAGM STRIKER F -OETONATOR -CLOG KWORK T Figure 65Cbdrwork -RUBBER DISC ——-%OOSTER LEAD-IN Long-De.

8.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE --- 4SB SAFETY PlF4— ARMINGSPIN(IL 3 I I . LOCKINGBALQ SLEEVE— STRIKER— DETONATOR Figure 46- Type T-2 — Mechanical Tail Fuxe $mpacf Type T-2—lvlachanicai Impact Tail Fuze Data Bombs used in--.--. inertia striker.4 in... -.. the striker compresses the creep spring. . and the firing pins pLMcture the primer tcaps to initiate an.Unknown Fuzeusd $vith--. 54 which is fitted with & safety pin.0 in. $ 1. explosive train within the booster. creep spring. Vanes are mounted on the arming spindle. Width of fuze body ----L1 in. unscrewing the arming spindle from the body. The arming spindle separates two steel bails within the striker. 6. Description The fuze consisi% of a brass body housing. -. When the arming spindle clears the bail bearings. On impaot. retai&g it in position. and on rehaee vanes rotate in counterclockwise direction.. (without booster) Over-all length of vanes . . operation The safety pin is removed.. ~ Unknown Over-all length -----. they fall and free the inertia striker.. and primer caps. arming spindle.-.. The booster is housed in an aluminum tube which is threaded to the fuze.

. On impact. . . Description ~The fuze consists of an aluminum body.. Operation The safety pin is removed. Fuzes Used with. Width of fuze body. housing the arming spindle.5 b. Into the base of the lower body screws the cap holder containing . . .8 in.5 in. and detonator caps. inertia strikers. . creep spring. turning the fuze body extension. flanged booster screws onto the cap holder. The arming spindle is completely unscrewed from the. .5 in.. ~- SAFETY PIN l-- ---—ARMING SPINOl_E t —LOCKING —STRIKER & I 8ALLS Over-all length of vanes . 55 . (without booster) Over-all length of vanes . and the firing pins puncture the detonator caps to initiate the explosive train. Fuze used with . inertia striker...8 in. . .. . . . permitting the ball bearings to come together to free the striker from the body. .—. . The arming spindle is fitted with a safety pin and separates two retaining ball bearings within the striker. and on releaee the vanes rotate in a counterclockwise direetion. ------Over-all length 9hort extension rod.. 31. Impact Tail Fuze Unknown Unknown ITALIAN —-= ROMB FUZES -~*- U . . . --- OETOINATIOP Description The body of the fuze is made in three parte. . . . ---1. . -.ti aiuminum cellar hokiing a the detonator.-------Hollow-Charge bombs Alone 5.9 in. The lowest portion is zinc alloy and screws into the rear end of the bomb from the inside. (without booster) Long extension rod---41. . . The brass arming extension rods are keyed to the fum b~y ~e~ion.’ Type O-2—Mechanical Data Bombs us@ in. Width of fuze body. the striker compresses the creep spring. Taii Fuze for Hollow-Charge Bombs Data Bombs used in . Over-ail length. . (without booster or extension flash tube) Unknown 1.

- _. . in ths unarmed condition of the fu5e. These are pressed outwards into the groove in the arming sleeve. projeot through the lower body into a groove in the heavy arming sleeve.Ls (2) OETONATOF? ?igum 68- Tail fuse b Ho{low-Cbge Bombs The centrai portion of the fuza is of brass and smom into the lower body.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDN&!)lCE OP 1668 ‘ --\ -J 4 . the sleeve sets down into the in the base of the fuze and so freee the tig bails. $+-) 1+ NfZRTIA 8LOCK a . 56 Operation On releasa. the steel bda move inward. . allowing the vanes to rotate. The steel bails are spindle held in the safe position by the aming mewed into the tail of the bomb.the safety pm is withdrawn. STRIKER +!RING SAL.. On impaot.5 in. When the vanea rotate enough to raise the arming spide 0. freeing the arming sleeve. . and the striker is thus releaad. It houses the two steel looking balls which. ARMING SPINOLE \ B -1 LOCKING BALLS(2) .

. although it is impossible for operation of the fuze at less than 9 meters depth in water. Antisubmarine (Cs. The inertia weight fits above the striker and is heid by a retaining wedge. the vanes force the pressure plate to move up and fail away. figure 69- Hydrostatic *8Grand. On impact with water.. 3. 11! RETAINING ARMINGSPtt’JOLE WEDGES - LOCKING BALLS STRMER I—DETONATORS . Dati Bomb used in.- :B0i$4B FUZES Hydrostatic Tail ‘u Fuzs=t’Crand-Daddy” 160-kg. when rotating.—. $ .!. lAY Kiw illitilt‘1 !!. the inertia weight moves forward against t~e striker spring.6 in. 0-90 meters. d . the balls move inwards to free the striker. -------Fuzes used with --------Over-all length --------Wldthof fuzebody ----Length of each vane. conveys the rotary movement through the worm wheel and gear to the collar. . thereby preventing the inertial weight r+ tracting and effecting compression of the striker spring. The spring is not in compression.8 in. and the wedgee on the specially shaped base will lodge in the recess provided.. The 0--90 meter range corresponds to Oto 35% rotations of the vanes. The vanes rotate during water travel to ‘raise the arming spindle.&dd~ 7ai$ Fuxe - . whioh has the effect of withdrawing the arming spindle from the striker.. ‘Description The fuze consists of a very long body and threebiaded steel vanes mounted on a brass cylinder which screws internally onto a brass collar. Alsoon impact. the vanes are prevented from rotating during flight through the air by a pressure plate which is held by a shear wire. The spindle &s into the striker and prevents the locking balls from moving inwards. 2. 57 ..ITALIAN . the shear wire breaks.) Alone 33. When the fuze is dropped. whiah is then forced into the detonator. except in the armed condition.7in.. The setting mechanism consists of a setting key which. The long arming spindle is keyed to prevent rotation and is braced along its length. As the spindle passes the locking balls. . operation The setting key is turned so th@ the did indicates the depth of function.

-. The 135-kg. 4.------Over-ail length of vanes . screws on the body and is proteoted by the vaned cap.. ..OP 1668 STRIKERS (4) . . -------------Fuzes used ~vith. Bomb Unknown -. pawing through the shoulder and through the fuze body.7 in.. -. 2.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLQWE ORDN&lCE /\. . * t -FLASH (%!ANN~L .5 in. A hole off center. takes a safety pin to retain the cap. which carries the four strikers and detonators.. .7 in. Width of fuze body -----------58 Description The fuze body is made of aluminum alloy and is threaded at the lower end to take the standard booster. The fuze head. Figure 70- Mechanical !mpati Nose Fuze - “orpiw’rn Mechanical Impact Nose Fuza-’’Orphan” Data Bombs used in.-------------Over-all Iength ------. 7. .

The ivhole mechanism is similar to the French R. mechanism. Each of the three strips has a brass claw which passes through one of the three equally-spaced holes in the body and holds the collar in position. the balls roll inwards and the two cylinders are free to move relative to each other. which are equally spaced circumferentiaily. the safety pin is withdrawn. The detonator then is forced into the striker. short. AR. .—— head of the fnze has a kmgitudinal siot in which one arm of the safety bolt is accommodated. When the piston has. or water. The closed end of the cylinder carries a short projection which passes through and 59 u . Anti-Disturbance Bomb Fume used with. Remarks A modification includes a device which will cause detonation after lapse of a certain period if the bomb has not already been detonated by vibration or interference. The arming delay thus obtained allows the bomb to come to rest before the fuze is cornpieteiy armed. Four dots for the striker mechanism are equally spaced on the domed head. Alone Over-ail length . The former is cushioned by the sprinq while the latter is slit in six places around the upper edge to allow it to pass the slight ridge on the cyiinder. (without booster) Width of fuze body. set down.6 cm. completed its travel. ITALIAN BOMB FUZES —*4-5—— fk# > . construction Description and Operation The sensitive Manzoiini Fuze screws into the bomb body and foims the nose of the bomb. The striker also has a small ahear wire resting on the detonator’s spring. The three steel balks. A.2 in. one or more of the strikers will be forced inwards. . TWO projections on the outer face project through correspondhg holes in the cati and prevent the latter “from rotating as the vane cap unscrews. completely masking ths fuze and preventing the entrance of sand. the piston rises through the light oil in the chamber. the fuze cap is released and is forced off the fuze mainly by the rush of & acting on the pm jections. claws so that the strip springs boar hard against the cap. This is also assisted by the pressure of the strip springs within the cap. can then move) outwards and free the pistons. The two spaclera at each end of the fuze allow laternl movement of the two cylinders. shorter. and the strips fdl away. . The fuze is then completely armed..6 in. ejects them completely. The projections usually break off. 7. and at the same time the fine wire is also sheared.&kg. impacts the detonator. except that the three projections replace the usuai shear wire... the striker spring is 2 cm. When the bomb strikes the ground.. The safety bolt is thexi rejected. It is protected by the aluminum cap. Cap is ahuninum. Thus any jar will overcome the light spring in the base of the fuze and will cause the upper cylinder to move down in the lower cylinder until the three pairs of steel balls come opposite the annular siot into which they then move outwards. passes through the fuze body and blanks off the flash channel leading to the booster. operation AS the bomb is released. S. which results in the cylinders approaching each other. allowing the vanes to rotate. grit. ‘U Data Bombs used in-. This frees the striker which.2. . moving under the compression of its spring. the piston travel is shorter.-. The steei collar then sets down and is prmsed hard against the rubber rings. the brass cup-shaped piece and the inertia akeve. made of bins. acting on the curved surfaces of the claws. Under the action of the strong spring. . The difference in the piston is 0. the three equally-spaced balls prevent reiative movement of the two cyiindera. . A strong spring in ‘the upper part of the fuze presses out the. UntiI the piston has moved upwards. the inner Material of parts. The striker itself has three equispaced small projections which rest on the shoulder of the slot. . . which is r~ tained by the vane cap. and the inertia sleeve is slit in ten pieces instead of six.. When the vane cap hsa unscrewed and has fallen away. bras and steel. brass . The caps thread up and fall away. The other arm. Mechanical Anti-Disturbance FuzeManzolini . On impact. The flash travels through the flash channel to the booster. After the cap has been forced off. clearing the flash channel. The device consists of a steel holder in ‘whichslides the hollow cylinder. the pressure of the strong spring on the steel collar.... This latter screws into the brass adapter in the fuze cover.

UGHTOIL . the cover sets down. fiwTnLcovER DISTANCE PIECE PISTON “ — SLEEW INE?WIA ARMING BALLS STRIKER \ :. 60 --..ITALIAN AND FRENCH EX~LOSiVE ORJ2~ANCE 4 /mu\ \ (a a=n:-. . At the end of a certain period (60 to W hours). The spring within this enclosure then exerts a pressure on the shear strip through the movabie cylinder.and the projection on the rim engages in the annular groove and so locks it4f ‘a the holder. ?qJ/ SMALL BALLS w .“Manxoiini” Fuze 9 locates the aiuminum shww strip. since the projection bears on the plug./“ . Above the holder sits the steel cover having eight sliti in the vertical rim and enclosing the strong ateei spring. O=ONATOR Figura 77. . the strip shears and. The operation of this device proceeds as frdlows: On impact. . an appreciable jerk is communicated to the cylinder to operate the fuze.

contrary to the usual Italian practice. Which has an extension piece fitted into the vent hole. is used. and externally threaded at the base for attachment to the shell body. In the baac of the cases are fitted percussion primers of standard design. Chapter 3 ITALIAN PROJECTILES AND CASES Introduction The projectiles used by the Italian army were very similar to French. E. the model number is thought to have designated the year in which the ammunition waa designed. The Italians designated their projectiles by the caiiber. the projectiles were direct copies of British ammunition and used the smne fuzing and filling. the nose.” and the other part as “augmentive. British. For initiation of the charge. Types of Projectiles 1. is sometimes formed by the “bottling” proceea with the upper portion threaded to take the fuze.” Igniters of black powder are dso inciuded. and ekctricpercussion. The compiete charge is enclosed in the cartridge case by means of a cardboard closing cup. percussion. the propellant charge is divided into a number of parts which are enclosed in silk bags. Another common method of construction is that which incorporates a shell machined from rolled bar steel and having a parailei-walled cavity of the same diameter as the nose adapter. ‘w In the medium calilw shell. the specific equipment in which they were used. Most field equipment is semi-fixed. The first part ia known by the Italians as the “fundamental. with a booster charge below the fuze. in . In mast cases. the types of tubes used are: friction. They most commonly have a shell body of forged steel and a parallel-wall inner cavity.. In some cases. i. The latter is a machined forging. When the sernifixed type of ammunition is used.nterndy threaded at the nose to receive the fuze. In guns us~g bag ammunition. an igniter. The cavity is threaded internally at the top to receive the nose adapter. The cavity and exterior are machined over-all. and Japanese in construction and appearance.) These are of conventional design and are usually fitted with a point detonating fuze. with the smaller caliber and antiaircraft guns using fixed ammunition. and the model numbers of projectiles. or. Hf@@xpiosive (H.

: :y “..I . and the other.. . The filling is cast with the fuze and booster assembled in the cavity.. The almost hemispherical head is made of light alloy and.. . steel plate.+? .. -.. / .!.. . .. S.“ .). . . . . . . This follows the German design..ITALJAN AND FllE~CH the latest type (E..... ....... . .’ . E. .. A . 40. incorporating a nose fuze with a long flash tube leading to the center of the explosive charge. to overcome the difficulties in direction of rifling of different equipment. i r-1 L ... ..8 . . >... P.. i . :. .“..Exampie 0+ High-Explosive Shell B?gufle73Typical [ !tafian Boosfers The body of the shell is the same as that of the corresponding H. “ .. ? ..- .. . : ?. k-- . ~J...:’? J. of 5870 cyclonite. There are two types of these shells..... .. ~Figure 72.. . parabolic in shape. ...:. .).’? . ..’. . :. .. ~ ‘.. .. . .5 TNT and 1.... shells.. The rotating band is usually located about ~ the distance from the base of the shell.. The nose portion of the shell is hollow and has a cavity liner pressed from l-mm. The explosive filling consists. C) RfM~NCE OP 166i3 ...570 wax. one using a 62 base fuze only (E... P.F . . the head is secured to the body by indentation..

but contains a liner which fits into the internal cavity. Il. 63 . . are lead-antimony alloy. type fuzes.. varying from 100 to 250 in number. E. The body contains a fragmentation cylinder machined from grey cast iron. D. Fragmentation This type is also vw PKJECTILES — ‘u . IE.. Aerial Burst or Impact (A. The chphragm ie stamped steel plate. The base of the adapter is recessed to fit over the forward end of the explosive Ming. Armor-Piercing (A. which forms a cover for the shrapnel bullets and provides a slot for the flash tube. The fomvard end is sc~w-threaded internally to receive the adapter. The shell body is forged steel and is machined externally. u ——.) Moat ItaIian armor-piercing shells are conventional in design. which are time or percussion fuzes. Ali but a very few have small explosive filling of TNT and a base fuze. the wail of the shell. The shrapnel bullets. 4.INTRCII)UC7WN 7’0 ITALIAN ——-*~ similar to the H. respectively. The exposed portion of the adapter forms the head of the shell and is shaped to form a eloping shoulder with a cylindrical neck. The explosive cavity and bearing surfaces of the diaphragm are also machined. . 6. The shell is generally machined from steel bar stock and then hardened from the rotating band forward. & Shrapnel The later type is designed on conventional lines. The shell hss a nose adapter. E. A ballistic cap may or may not be fitted. projectiles. An earlier type had a charge of TNT in the nose. . and is fitted with a copper driving band. ma@ined from grey cad iron and is screw-threaded internally to two diametm to receive the booster and the fuze. A. 13.) These projectiles are H. and a diaphragm separating the explosive filling from the shrapnel builets. P. The flash tube is of brass and fits between slots in the nose adapter 3. E. The nose adapter is. The nose adapter. D. In most caees. the combustion type of tixhe nose fuze is used.” are regular High Expiosive shells but have the A. which is grooved along its length and circumfer—. sheil with an aerial burst fuze. it has been found that the break-up of the fragmentation cylinder generally follows the line of weakness. 7. Antiaircraft (A. The shell body is of forged steel with a comparatively thin wall. A channel @foqned through the center of the cyiinder to accommodate the bursting charge. From tests. It dilfers from the British type in having gunpowder peilets in the central booster tube. entially on the exterior to assist fragmentation. is machined from bar stock. Red lead is imwted between the exterior of the cylinder.) Projectiles designated “A. and the fragmentation grooves. a flash tube to the explosive filling located in the base of the cavity. Pigure — Hollow-Charge Projectile 74- Typical and diaphragm.

. Scbneiderite.--------. .47% TNT-------------30% Aluminum.-. .--=------Smoke shell Yello~v -----------------Chemical shell Since 1931.. 5% 3. TNT 2.75~o PETN . Nougat Ammonium Nitrate. .. 40% 4.. . .. Blue ------------------Fragmentation Ctumine ---------*. ------------Shrapnel Fragmentation Blue -------------------Black ---.. 9 . . .13% 7. or A.-. . . E. .. . -. . A... .&nmonium Nitrate. ‘Tohdammomd Ammonium Nitrate. .. . . --. . PNP--------Ammonium Nitrate. .-. E. and the ogive and nose painted in distinctive colored bands may be found on the body of the dhell. . . Black-. . 37Q Ckbon----------- . the shell body has been zincated.------. . !50% MST ..--. . E. Expiosive iilling Weight of Projectile 61. . . . ._ . . . . . . -..EI. 6oy~ TNT.. . white-. . . Practice Band at Shouider Blue -------------------A.. % wax_. ------Dinitronapthalene ..- .. . . white -----------------Rd-s._ High capacity H.--. P. . ”--Shrapnel Color of Noise (C)givesame coior M body) M-------------------Prac$ioe shell H 20+. .87% Dinitronapthaiene. 4370 8. loo/17__ . . . .. . ..y Picric Acid 6. . . . ... .-.-. The following coioring scheme wae used: Color of ogive or nose same ~ before 193L Band above the Rotating Band Gown -----------------Steel shell Elgh Capacity H..A. . . . . . . ~C1’iCAcid-. of which the following are examples. . .. Incendiary shell Camke----------... . Chine ---------------$tarsheil Black ------------------Tracer Color of Ogive Rd----. ..- — .. .. may be found on the body of the projectile. .. -. . . . . Pertite-.. . . . . MBT--------Picrio Acid Dimitrophenoi 5. . -. VIII 1928---. ..... . . . P. .... .. E. .-Caliber/Ie@h of weapon in calibers Tritoio-.Phce and date of 811ing Explosive Filling The foiIowing explosive llllinge have been found used by the Italians. . .... “ Italian Nomenclature L Tritolo .-. .000 kg. . * /J a P/gure 75- ?’ypicai Fragmentation Projectile MarIcings Before 1931 the following coloring system was used: Coior of Body Grey -------.--. .. . The stenciling.770 TNT. . . . . MAT.. H. .

E. 570. . . . TO ITALJAN . .: Star shelle have a blaok triangle on the ogive. The shapes encountered have been fiat strip. have green ‘bodies and white heads (~~if made of cast ircm).Rifle M?31.listite (Ballistite or Bal. . 65 . . Ecrasite..Amathol Explosive 00/40 11. In addition. Dinitronapthaiene. a charge of !570grama of “Ballistite in Attenuata” in strip form lmm x 10 mm x 220 mm for the 75-mm W* Naval and Coastal Defense Equipment The equipment is similar to desigp as the AXIMy. This contains about 7270 nitrocelhdose. --. . An exampie of marking of the propellant is: “BaMstite Attemdata in Piastinel x 10 x 220 days CKA VI gre. Machine Gun Me30 and M“30... A modified ballistite (Ballistite Attenuate or Bai. TNT-------------Cydonite ---------- 50% 50% In some cases. Shot--. e. . Blank for machine gun-13uilet consists of inert biack powder which i~ enclosed in a thin braas jacket f. this type of propdant has been found to contain sodium carbonate or bicarbonate..__. pm sumably as a flash-reducing agent. . 2. .with red ogive Practice.-.. date.Caliber and type filling On the ogive. Ballistic caps-Unpainted). bags containing potamium chlo. In some cases the ammunition is interchangeable for use in each country% guns. Ammonium Trinitcocresoi 12.Yel!ow band above rotating band .-. . ride have been found included in tlhe charges. . . This refem to type of star filled. A straight bsl. Carbines M*!31. The following is a sumnmry of Italian small arms: 306-mm Rimlew 1. containing about 50% nitrc-celhdose and 5070 nitroglycerine without stabilizer). .. but different didinctiy in markings from Ualian tleld equipment. The fol[owing coking is used: H..5% 16. Guns used in. White body. . Fragmenting grooves on the bullet d. Amathol. ..-.- 72. 24To nitroglycerine. . Blank for rifleef%arlet wooden bullet e.INTRODUCTICJN 9. Machine Gun M*14 (Fiat) Ball M%l /9&-Round nose b.. . I?mgmenting bullet M“91—3 longitudinal striations on tim bullet bullet M%I. cord.. projectiles are: On the body -.”Yeilow with grey and white nom Speciai Iighii projectiles. . . Dummy M ‘91/95 a. . and 4$70 mineral jelly. square flake. The markings on the H. -. presumably as an additional stabilizer.-. .. Tritolite_ . and tubular cord.— PROJECTILES MNDT Siperite ------- Ammonium Nitrate.& P.—2 annular c.White body with red ogive star. --.8% 10. TNT. which may or may not enclose a black disc. The so-called “Italian Cordite” which ueually bears no markings other than the weapon and propellant sizes. Greeri band above rotating band A P--------Blue band above rotating band Practice H. At$. Propellants The composition of the propellants has no outstanding features.—9. Apparently only three types were used in service: 1.) containing 00% nitro-celluhxw. .Red bad above rotating band (Piercing caps–Red.” i.. . 26% nitroglycerine. L. E. ..7y~ w 10. M opposed to heavy projectiles. Type. E.. . and 14% dinitroluene as a moderant coating. . .. . ITALJAN SMALL-ARM AMMUNITION 2. Typea General Italian small-arm ammunition does not have many unusual characteristics and is very similar to British and Gexzhan ammunition.. place of filling Tracer fitted C. . ‘w 3..

Guns Used in-7. the upper half filled with lead.7-mm 2. Guns used in—12.4rmor-piercing tracer—White tip e.) 1. 73Mnm (Rindees) 1.55-in. 66 . Guns used in-13. Blank for machine gun-Green wooden bullet S=mm (Rimless) 1. . H. Armor-pieroing M37 and M43—M40 has red red tip. Types—Armor-piercing 20.—Arose percussion fuze and seifdestroying tracer b. Types a. Trace~Red tip c. Armor-piercing. h. Breder iM37 and LM38 h. Blank-Bullet consists of inert black powder enclosed in brass jacket. Types a. Practice for Miniature Range M“91—TMe ammunition consists of a brass cartridge case with a steei tube attached to the base of the case and fitting (Interchangeable with German 2 cm Solothun type of ammunition) 1. o. Guns used in--Captured British Anti-tank ri%e 2.l@8 g. Practice M“91—Bullet consists of a closed jacket of copper-nickel. Tyues-Similar to 6. c.Zmm Breder Machine Gun 2. Guns used in—20-mm Antiaircraft and AptiTank Gun Breder M35 2. Ball b.7-mm (Rindeee) 1.25045 a’ .ITALIAN AND FRENCH V-E ORDNANCE -— OP . Anti-tank rifle ammunition) 1.7-mm Aircraft Machine Gun 2. Tracer-Red tip c./H. A lead bullet fits into the top of the steel t ~be and cartridge fits into the base of the tube. Gum used in-Rifle M“38 Machine Gun M“38 2. &mor-piercingjtracer-Red tip 14-mm (Similar to British 0. Types a. Ball b. Incendiary (phosphorus)-Blue tip g. E. E. H. 12. Blank for Riffe-Reddish orange wooden bullet c. the lower half with sand. Guna used in-8-mm Marudicher Rifle 8-mm Schwarzlose lMachine Gun 2. E.incendiary (phosphoms)— Blue tip d. “’\ ) . Ball b. Armor-piercing-Green tip incendiary (thennite) d. Guns used in—Machine Guns Fiat M35. Projectile-Red body with nose percussion fuze f. Armor-piercing b.P. Incendiary (thermite) tracer-Blue body with nose percussion fuze similar to German I?uze A. Armor-piercing incendiary (thermite)— Green tip $-mm (Rimmed) 1. A.5-mm Ball Fragmenting PracticeMiniature ranges Blanks for rifles Blank for machine guns 7.303-in. Ball b. Types a. ./TraceBasese fuze consisting of a fixed firing pin and primer cap held in position bv a shear pin ‘! -—- . Types a. Incendiary (thermite) trace*Buff body with nose pemuesion fuze fitted ~3&run (Rimfess) 1.7-mm @rnrned) (Interchangeable kcraft lMachine Gun with British 2. Types a.

33.67 grams Length of bullet. Fucile jM”38 Rifle Over-all length of round.. 2.-. 2O.3 grams The round consists of a rimless brasa case. . The projectile has a nickel-plated steel jacket enclosing an aluminum case and a lead core to mar of the aluminum. 76. T’. .22. .ITALIAN SMALL-ARM PROJECTILES ‘%J . . . 30..10.73. . 2.32 grams Length of cartridge case-. -.5 grams Length of cartridge c-. . on the base of the brass cartridge caee. .1 mm Weight of bullet.$ mm Weight of round . --.4 mm Weight of bullet.. . -. . 52. .3 mm Weight of propellant-.2 mm Weight of prop@lant --. .1Ograms Over-all length of bullet ---. M.5.3 mm Weight of complete round.. G .. . .35-mm Ball Data Gun used m. 7.. . Figur P?gura 77- 7.. .. . .. . . . . .mm Ball Data Guns used in---------Moschetto LM ’91 Carbine Itaiian lManniicher Corcano Rifle Over-all length of round.-----. .6grams Remarks The round has the marking B. . ------8.35_mm 6.27..

96 grams Length of cartridge case. -.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDN4NCE OP 1668 -1 n’ . . .56 grams Remarka This round is intmohangeable with the British 0.43 grams Length of bullet ----------32.-.4 grams R. . . a m . lncen~iary (Blue Tip) ‘ Data Gun used ii--------------7. .L Incendiary (Blue rip) m 7.. The four hoke on the ogive permit the distribution of the phosphorus on implwt. The bullet has a copper-aickel plated steel jacket enclosing m ahzminum forwad core and a lead core in the mar. . 7.I. .7-nwn Ball Data Gun used in. and the forward nose portion filled with phosphorus are enchsed by the bullet jacket.emarks This round consists of brass cartridge case.-.5 mm Weight of round ----------25.7-mm A.7-mm Bail Figure 79.7.. The jacket is steel plated with either copper-nickel or copper-nickel alIoy.303-in. and is almost identical to the British Mk VYI.23. .. .. a copper cap.56 mm Weight of propellant ------2. --.7-mm A.--. . .7-mm Aircraft Wwhine (km Over-ail length of round---77.. .:-.2. -. . 9. a steel core in a lead sheath.33 grams Length of bullet ----------35mm Weight of bullet...P. . 77 mm Total weight of round .-. Figure 78.-----. . and a bullet whose jacket is pierced with four holes on the ogive so \hat at these pointe the incendiary composition is protected only by a thin copper sleeve...7. A cc~ppersleeve.9 mm Length of cartridge case. 36 mm h~umt. .7-mm Aircraft Machine Gun Over-all length of round. 7.. .P.

. In the tip ia a small quantity of magnesium potassium chlorate and behind it. . . . 10. . ----fkmWtieGm Over-all length of round . .. . .5 mm Weight of complete round-. . . 7. 77 mm Weight of complete round--. I. . .----3. 80. . and coppernickel jacketed bullet.7-fnm A.-. ------13. . ..2 grams Length of cartridge case---. but the nose is filled with two compositions..24. ‘~ F{gure so -7 ‘. P. surrounding the nose of the stael core.. . 35mm Weight of bullet .L (Green Tip) Data Gun used in. . .. .P.23 grams Length of bullet ..5 grams R43marka This round has a brass cartridge caee. D8ia Gu. . w 69 . . . . 30. . . . . The makeup of bullet is very similar to the A. . . (blue tip). .6 grams Length of bullet . .P. . .ITALIAN SMALL-ARM —— PROJECTILES u . . . -.!.nused in. ..7-mm lAvraft Maohine Gun Over-all length of round. . .7-mm A.56 mm Weight of propellant ------2. Four hoiea in ogive permit the mixture to be distributed on impact. .34 mm Weight of bulIet. .8-ntmI Bail 7..42 grams Length of cartridge case ----5{1mm Weight of propellant. 8-mm Ball Figure 81. . . . . some aiuminum-lead oxide. . .1 grams Remark8 This round consists of a brass cartridge caae and a bullet whioh is made up of a lead core enchsed in a plated jack~t..

7-mm Aircraft Machine Gun 107. . .08 grams Remarks The bullet is made up of a plated steel jacket enclosing a hard steel core with a soft lead point..59 mm Weight of propehnt. .. ---12. -.29..ITALIAN” AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORD1’&ANCE (2P 1668 figure 82. ---.P..25 mm 83.36.. 80.12.60 grams 42.. . Weight of propellant.. .9 mm Weight of builet . .35 grams 81 mm 8.3.1 grams . Length of builet ---------Weight of bullet ---------Length of cartridge case -.P.5 mm 36..34 grams Length of bullet -.. -.3 mm Weight ot’complete round.57 grams Length of cartridge case. --.. ..7-mm Tracer (Red Tip) Data Gun used in-------------Over-all length of round --Weight of complete round. 70 Figure 83- 127-mm Tracer (Red Tip) 12.8-mm A.. Jata Gun used in-------------&mm Machine Gun Over-all length of round. -mm A.

and the rear of the sleeve is sealed to the base of the core with soft solder. 84. The bullet has a lead core containing a tracer tube and an aluminum tip. The base is closed by a transparent disc and a brass waeher. . The color of the tracer is red.7-mm Incendiary ( BJueTip) Data Gun used in-------------12.1 grams ‘%J’ . The tip of the copper sleeve in front at the brass core is filled with phosphorus.. 12.7-mm Aircraft Machine Gun .5 grams 44.6 grame 81 mm 8.ITALIAN l?emarka The round has a semirimless brass cartridge case and a bulIet with a copper-riickei jacket.7 mm Weight of round ---------L~ngth of bullet ---------Weight of bullet ---------Leugth of cartridge case---Weight of propellant -----Remarka This bullet consists of a copper-nickel jacket with a copper sleeve container. and a lead base plug. .6 mm 36. a braaa core. SMALL-ARM PR131ECT1LES ‘u . The round is the normal tracer type. ‘w .106. Over-ail lerigth of round.

1 grams 51. . 107 mm Weight of complete round.T. Length of projectile ------Weight of projectile ------Type of filling------------ The projectile consists of a steel body with a co~ting of gilding metal in the exterior.I. T.E. .E.6mm Weight of bullet ---------36. next. a mixture of magnesium-potassium chiorate ‘antimony sulphide. .ITALIAN ANO FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE OP 1668 Figure &5 - lZ7-mm A.7-mm A. Figure 86- lX7-inm li. and around the nose of the core. Weight of propellant -----Remarks 81 mm 8. 7. The fuze is similar in action to the German A25046. 0. and a split steel supporting piece in the nose.3 mm 37. . . . -. .--12. 81 mm Weight of propellant . . magnesium-lead oxide.7-mm Aircraft Machine Gun 102.!.8 grams lZ7-mm Data Gun H. .83. .5 grams Penthrite-wax mixture USd in--------- weight of filling---------Length of cartridge case-. a mixture of aluminurnlead oxide.7-mm Aircraft Machine Gun Over-ail length of round. a lead base plug and tracer tube. 72 . . . a copper sleeve. Weight of complete round-. (White Tip) 12. The nose is filled with three compositions: first.. a steel core with a lead bend pressed around its base into cannehms.P. forming the nose of the buliet. .5 mm 84.5 grams Length of bullet ---------50. . a trarw parent closiqg disc and brass washer.2 grwns Over-all length of round-. .7 grams Length of cartridge case-.. 12. (White Tip) Data Gun used in. The tracer burns a bright red. which possibly acts as a forming anvil. . which is thickened to form a rotating band. . P. ...8 grams Remarks TIM bullet ‘consists of copper-nickel jacket. in the tip and intimately pressed into the split anvil. .

Figure 87- 37/40.—1— ITALIAN —“ PROJECTILES %!J .-. Data Gunueed in. . . . Futig ---------------------Over-all length --------------Diameter at basa . -. .-..-. E.. and there is no fuze. -. . . .. 322MM Weight ofoomplete round ----. -. . ..P. .. . . .. . E. . .mm H. . . . . ..~A. 698 grama Total length of round-. w 37/40-mm Gun None 138mm 30mm 18mrn 20mm 36.. -.502.}5grams Weight ofloaded projectile.4 mm BaUistite 73 ... l12grams Remadm The projecttie is clcsed by a heavy steel pointed nose fitted internally with the fum..P.E. ---------Mmetirat be------------Distance baaeto band -------Width of band .-.--. . Weight of (Wing . . . .-----../A. . 13.-. . 677grama ToMlen@h ofmmd --------32$mIn Weight of complete round_-..50z.. .2bs. Weight ofpropeilanlt --------112 grams Remarks The base of the projectile is eloeed by a sorewed plug. 14.) l$mm 22mm Diameter at bourrdet-------36. ..4mm (approx.. . . -... . . Data Gmtiti.E. It is possible that the falling is intended to ignite by heating effects resuiting from shock of impact.-. Weight of propellant .--..-. w Figure 88 -37/#-mm H..--. .. 23 grams Weight of loaded projectile. -------Distance base to band -------Width of band: _-. ..5mm T~of Mug--------------13allistite Wei@tof ~g------------41._. 21b... .. Diameter at bourrelet.. 37/40-mm H. 37/40+nm H. .--..-. .T~offig. . 37/40-mm Gun Noee Fuzefor 37/40Shell 72mm 36. . Futig --------------------Over-aI1length ._.

Length of cartridge case.----. 37/54-zntn A. ..-. The projectile is grey-green. -. base to band. .-.-.0.1. . . . . . . .mm A. 37/45-mm A.Unknown Distance.0..---.. .. !m .024 kg.2 kg. 202 mm Weight of propellant. -. Weight of loaded projectile. . -.A.-:.. .7kg. . . Remarks This projectile is a fixed round. Weight of complete round is 1. . Unknown Wldthof bred-.. Unknown Diameter at bourrelet. . The propellant charge weighs 0.----. . 0. with red band below the nose fuze. packed in ‘a tray for use in the gun.. ..A. airoraf%Gun Futig ---------------------Nose fuze for 37/54 Shell Over-all length ---------------Unknown Diameter at base ___.. . Weight ofcomplete round .P. Unknown Weight of Ioaded projectile ----.. Data Gmud k----------------- 37/43-mIn Antitd Gun Futig ---------------------None Over-U len@h--------------Unknown Di-ebratb~-..ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSiVE ORDNANCE — of 1668 ai ..-..... Unhowm Type oftihg --------------TNT Weight’of filling------------0. and over-all length is 14. unknown Dimetir at bowelet. .. A tracer is fitted into the base of the projectile. Unknow& Width of band. Data Guns used in-. . m“ .. . -----. Total length of round -------337 kg. 74 37/i%nm Anti. .TJnknowm Distance base to band -. composed of powder O*Mmm x 7 ~ x 185. Bemarks The projectile contains no explosive.-.P. Flgum 8937/45.~. . but hasa traoer. .-----.-. .43 kg.8 kg.. ---.188 kg.59 kg.. . Figure 90- 37/54-mm A.. .. .-..5 in. band -------Unkno~VU Width of band --------------Unknown Diameter at bourrelet.:-------------------Noae Fuzefor the 40/39 Shell Over-d len@h--------------Unho$vn Diameter at base------------Unknom Distance baee. . -.. . M35 47/W-mIn htitamk Gun Femussion Nose Fuze M39 10. .45 kg. composed of Italian type F. .&. Weight oi loaded prc}jeotile---- Remarks This projectile is a fixed round and is packed in a beit for use in the gun. The complete round weighs 1. The upper rotating band is more than one third of the length from the base. . A tracer is fitted into the base of the projectile.A.37 kg. . . . ..47/32=mm H. . . . . . .. . Width of band. . There is no base plate. .37 kg. H.. and is 291 mm long. . . . .104 kg.... .-. The projectile is grey-green in color. composed of powder 2. . ----------- Data Gmusd in----------------- 40/39-rnrnAn~iaircraft Gun fitig. .15 kg. The shell is machined from a rolled bar steel and has a parallel-walled cavity the same diameter as the fuze hole. .1 in. The propeUent charge weighs 0.-. . Distance base to band .-. Figure 92. . with a red band below the nose fuze.- ITALIAN —- PROJECTILES I u r : i .------Unknown Type of Wag--------------TNT Weight of filling-. The exterior of the shell is thinly coated with zinc before coloring. A.3 mm x 0. Diameter at base -. ‘w Remarks This projectile is used. 75 .-------Diameter at bourrelat -------Type of filling---------------Weight of filling. The propellant charge weighs 0.A. 0. . . C. . . .052 k[i. 9. . in a fixed round. . . ... . 4 powder.. .055 kg. . .-. . The complete round weighs 2. Data Gunused in----------------Futig.. . . 2.. . ..2 in} Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown TNT 0. ... . M35 47/32-mm Hgure 91.40/39-mm 40/39-mm A. . Over-all length Wlthf~lze ----------------Without faze. .8 mm x 98 mm.—. .

. M35 (With Cap) 47/32-mm btitank Gun Base he M09 ~$m 155 mm Utio~ W8Unkno~ TNT (). . Without c?ap -e----.----Distance baeetoba. . . ..P. A tracer element ie iixed to the baee of the projectile.9 kg.030 kg.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLQSiVE ORDNANCE 9P 1668 Figure 93-4 7/32-mm A. 299. .:----------Weight of filIing------------Weight of loaded projectile--Total kmgth of round . ------Weight of complete round ----R43marka Base Fuze M09 155 mm unknown 50mm 8 mm UnknO~ TNT 0. Remark! U4 ~7/32--m~ti.---Over-all length (with tracer) With cap.P. 1.9 kg. ------Type of fiHing. M35 (Without Cap) h---------------------------- D8t8 Gun Ueed in_..7 2. . -----------Diameter at bourrelet. 76 A tracer element is fixed to the base of the projectile.5 kg. .------. . .P. ------------Fuzing ---------------. .5 kg. -. . 35S.nd -------Width of band .P. .6 2. . --. .1)30 kg.. tank Gun Fuzing --------- Over-ail length (with tracer) --Diameter at base -------. MS (Wifh Cap) Figure 94- 47/32-mm A.. Di-etir at b~-----------Dietance base to band -------Wklth of band -. . ----------Diameter at bourrelet -------Type of Ming --------------Weight of tiling ------------Weight of loaded projectile---ToW length of round ------Weight of complete round_ -. 47/32-mm Data GU A. M3S (Withaut Cap) 47/32-mm A. 1. . .

. since a larger portion of. . 1. . .. . 77 ‘LJ . A tracer element is fitted into the projectile. -.1. . . . . . . Remarks This projectile is used in a fixed round.5 mm DimeWrat b~e-----------Unknom Distance base to band -------Unknom Width Ofband . Remarks The complete round weighs 2. .P. -. . 3...Pi (Hollow Charge) Data 47/32-mm AntiGun@ in----------------tank Gun Fufig ---------------------Bwe Fuze EmP. . Unkmnm Diatwce b= to bad-------UnknoWII Width of bad--------------UnknOWI Dknetera tb ourrelet -------Unknom T~offiNng --------------TNT Weight of fillkg ------------0...UnkAoIvn Type of filling--------------Tritolite (5070 TNT and 50% cyclonite) Wei@tof ~g-.. the projectile is located in the case. .P.42 kg. The round is very similar to the 47/32-mm A.035 kg and contains 0. . .03kg.2? kg.. . Another version of the M39 has no explosive iilling or fuze but contains a tracer element. The propellant charge used is smaller than the other 47132-MM shells.179 kg. .* %uwJ figure 95d7/32-inm A. M35. propellant powder F.. M41 Over-all length --------------251.P.”mm E. . . C. M39 Data Gun used in . (HoUow-Charge) 47/32-mm A. Weight of loaded projectile . M39 Figure 9647/32. . Unknown Weight of loaded projectile---. ------------- 47/32-mm Antitank Gun Futig ---------------------Baee Fuze M09 Over-dll ength-------------Unknom Diameter at base --. -----. . . P. . 47/32-mm E. . . -------UIknOWTJ Diameter at bcmrrelet.




OP ,lq58



I i


Figure 9857/43-mm A.P, (Without Cap]

Figure 97-47/3 (Hoi!ow=

A.P. (Without

Cap) 57/43.-mm Antitank Gun Base Percussion Fuze M09 222 mm Unknown 36 mm Unknown Unknown TNT 0.130 kg. 2.912 kg.

J)ata Gunsusedire---------------Futig ---------------------Over*all length --------- ------Diameter at base -----------Distance base to bend -------Width of band ---------------Diameter at bourreiet -------T~eoffifling --------------Weight of fillhig-.. --. --.’----Weight of loaded projectile___

47/32-trim E.P,S. (Hallow Charge) Data Gun used in----------------47/32-mm Antitank Gun Fazing ---------------------Noe.eFuze I. E. P. JM. Over-all length --------------Ml,.fi mm Diameter at base.. . --------Unknown Distance base to band -------Unknown lVldth of band --.. .-- . . . . ..-. un~oln Diameter at bourreiet -------Un~own Type of filling--------------Unknown Weight of loaded projectile. --- Unknown Total length of round . . . . . . . . . Un~o~n Weight of complete round-.--., Unknown Length of cartridge case- --... 192 mm


Itemarks This projectile is part of a freed round which weighs 5.060 kg. and has a propellant charge of baliistite. The propellant weighs 0.460 kg. and is compressed of grains 2 mm x 2 mm x 300 mm.








. .




H. J?.

Figure. 9957/43-mm A.P.

ti.E. k... -------------65/17-mm .Mounlwin Gun Nose Percussion Fuze .M1O

(With Cap)

Data Gmumd


A.P. (With Cap)

Fuzkg ---------------------Over-all length Wlthfuze..-. - . . ..-. .-_. -.. Wlthollt ftize--------------Diameter at base _ . . --------Distance b-to band- ------Wldthof bred ---------------Diameter at bourreiet ------- -. Type of*g ----------------

Data Gunused in. . . . ..-. -... -----

57/43-mm Antitank Gun Fazing ------------------Base Percussion Fwze M(I9 Over-W len@h--------------252.5mm Dbsterat b-- . . . . . . . . . . . . Unknown Di@nceb -------36mm Wldthof bad--------------Unknown Diameter at bcmrrelet -------Unknown T~eoffillbg --------------TNT Wei@t of filling------------105kg. Weight ofloaded projectile--5.063 kg.

Ramarka This projectile is almost identical to the57%m. A. P. (without cap) except that a ballistic cap is added. The propellant charge weighs 0.550 kg. aud consists of powder C2 in grains 3.3x 1,1 x 205 and 102 mm.

ZNmm 64,5mm 23 mm 7mm 64,7 mm TNTor M.NDT Weight of filling .-... -.-- . . . . . 0.23 kg. Weight of loaded projectile---- 4.15 kg. Total length of round . . . . . . . . . 394 mm . Weight of complete :round--..,. 3,00 kg. Booster tad--”. -.-. -.--.. -.,. No, 5 M38

Remarks The projectile is thought also to have been fuzed ,with the Nose Fuze A. D. E. M06/17. This fuze requires the removal of nose adapter and also changes the length and weight of the projectile. 79



OF 1663







65/17-mm Data Gm@ti

A.~. -----------------

102 =,65j.17-mm



Mi17-mm LMountain Gun, Mortar Gun Futig --------------------Base Percussion Fuze M09 Over-all length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280mm Diameter at base -----------645mm Distance bsseto band -------23mm Wldthof bad . . . ..-. -------7Mm Diameter at bourrelet-.. --... 64.7 mm T~ofmg..--..-...--.-. TNT Wei@tof fiWg ------------0.MOkg. Weight of loaded projectile_.. 4.23 kg. The pro-


The projectile is part of a fixed round pellant charge weighs 5.130 kg. 80

65/17-mm liP. (Hollow-Charge) Data Gun used ~.- . . . . . . . . . . ---- 65/17-mm Mountain Gun Fag. --.. .-.. -.- . . . . . . ..- Base Fuze E. P. M41 Ove*a~len@h -------------243.4xun Diameter at base . . . . . ------64.60MM Diameter at bourreiet. -.... -. 64.70 mm .T~offlmg--...--.---.-.Unknown Weight of filling ------------TJnknomI Weight of loaded projectile___ Unknown Itemarke The projectile with its cartridge case makes up a 6xed round of ammunition, the length of which is 412.6 mm.




. ..











. .,

— ——...



17-mtYt E.P.S. (Hollow-Chargtd

70/1 S-mm H.E. llata -.-., .-. -- . . . . . ,0/15-mm P~ck Gun Fifing-.. -.- . . . . -----------NH Percll=ion Fuze M1O or Now Fuze M (Guerritore) Over-all length Without faze -------------~~mm Diameter at base. -----------6.93 (approx.) Dietance baee to band. . . . . . . . IJxl~own Width Ofband --------------u~()$~ Diameter at bourrel,et. ------69,5 mm T~eoffllkg.-...---.--.-.TNT Weight of fil!ing- -----------fi,z7s l<Z. Weight of loaded prr~?~tile--- . ~75 kg, 81 GuWk-7.

65/17-mm Data Gwwdk

E.P.S. (Hollow-Charge) ----------------65/17-rnm Mountain Gun Noee Fuze I. E. P. M. 248.7 mm 64.60 mm unknown 64.70mm unknown Unknown unknown


Over-all length . ..- . . -------Dtietir at baa-----------Dietance baae to band -------Diameter at bourrelet -------T~eoftihg-----..---.---. Weight of filling ------------Weight of loaded projectile---Remarka The projectile ie ueed in a fixed round the overaU length of which ie 418.2 mm.

82 /’ ..3? kg.6 mm TWeoffillkg. Over-all length -------------266mm Diameter at base -----------74.Unknown Width of band --------------unknown Diameter at bourrelet. . ( Light-Case) Data Gun used in----------------75/13-mm Field Gun Feting --------------------Nose Percu~ion Fuze M (Guerritore) or LM1O Over-all length Without faze--. . -.No.. . ---. or 1. .. .6 mm Type of filling.I.) Figure 105-75-mm H. Nose Percussion M1O. . Booster used -------------..5.’..37 kg.. . Oata Gunuwd in----------------- 75/13-mm Mountain Gun Fazing.2mm Distance base to band-. 1 M38 . .74.74..-.7mrn Dimeteratb~-------. c. 6. .668 .53 kg: Weight of loaded projectile---.. C. 1... .C. .E.-. Weight of loaded projectile.. (tight-Case) 75/13-tnm ~.---.1 kg. M38 ~. ..M35 p.-..E. .lTALiAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDh&A~CE OP 1.E...2mm Distance base to band -------38 mm Width of band --------------12mm Diameter at bourrelet -------74. ---. Figure 706- 75/ lhim H. ---. . .-.E.. 75/1 3-mm H. 34ND~ or TNT Weight of filling------------0. . -------------TNT Weight of filling ------------0.276.. M40 p. -----.. ..-.-.

6. .ellent charge 75/1$4420.— ITALIAN PROJECTILES —mm *. --. . . .. .. . . . -. 9.. Weight of propellent charge. kg..Mkg. c..-. ... Assault Guns Nose Percussion Fuze M1O Over-all length Wlthfw ----------------319mm Without faze..69 kg.. Ivf40 p. M32 ..------Weight of somplete round . -----T~e of filling--------------Weigh+ of. . Weight oi loaded projectile___ 6.-. 74. .35 kg.. 58mm Width of bud-.5 mm 7.-----------Weight of loaded projectile---Total length of rouncl.* . ..E M32 Data Guns wedin Fixed-75 /13-mm and 75/34-mm Self-Piwpeiled Semifixed-75/27-mm Fieid Gun Ma-..40mm Dk~cebwtQbm~d-. Figure 10775/13-mm H... 305mm Diameter at base. . .74mm T~eoffilkg.?25 kg.-. .filling.. ..E.. Over-ail length Wlthfuze.. M32 q 75/1 3-mm H. ... 0. ..7mm Diameter at bourreh!t-. 64. Ballistite 33 . . ... 75/27-mm H. . . . . . 75/34-8..-. .-...Qsauit Gun Semifixed-75/13-mm Mountain Gun Ftig --------------------Noee Percussion Fuze M1O or ‘ I. Total length of round 76/13-479... M32 Data Guns usd in Fiied-75/l%nm Self-Propelled ...-...420 kg..1 mm 75/34-530. .. . Weight of prop. 591.305mm Diameter at baae-----------Distance base to band -.E...-. . . 1131 owder P Figure 108- 7S/27-mm ti. . o.-_. . ..-.. --..--.. .74 mm TN’T 0. ..725 kg.. Unknown 46 mm 9. .60 kg. Ballistite 75/34-0. ...-.52 kg. . -... 319mm Without faze .7 mm Weight of complete round 76/13-7. . W3kg.E. . ..—. . . Wldthof band -------------Diameter at bourrelet..-.7 mm 74. F.

.& M34 75/46-mm Data H.-. .73/4&nm H....E. Over-d len@h -------------Dimeter at b~------------ M36 351mm 6&Xlmm Remarks The same projectile is used in tied or semi-fixed type ammunition The cartridge case used for tied round for the 75/34-mm gun is 632. Weight of loaded projectile . for 7!3/46. ..470 kg. * .. . The propelling charge is C2 weighing 1. 36 or Time M36 Unknown Unknown Unknown Width of bands mb~d-------. .- Over-all length ------------Dimeter at b=-----------Distance base to band -------84 Antiaircraft Gun Nose Fuze M..-. B-r--.330 kg.7 mm long.-. 75/32-mm H. . D. .. O.ITALIAN AND FREFJCH EXPLQSIVE (2RD \ JVgura 109-. . . M34 Gun used in Fixed ammunition-75/46=mm Fuzing -----------------..-.-----.. ....’ . E.-. Weight of loaded projectile___ 6. 1 powder weighing 0..E.....74 mm Probabiy TNT unknown 6. band with a space of 10 mm between them.--.5 kg. 5M38 Remarks The projectile has double rotation. ------74.69 kg. or M. T.. .. The propellant consists of I. . M. . 53mm 151nA 74.-. . .-. . .15mm tidb=d. /) --- Figure 1 ?0 . . T. 36/400rNose l?uze A. Distance baseto band -------Width of band . .35 kg. .. 75/32-mm H. .. . Nm Fuze I. and are 866. . . . B. Data Guns used in Fixed ammunition-75/34-inm Self-propelled Assault gun Semii5xedamrnunition-i’5/32-mrn Field Gun Futing-. No. The compiete rounds weigh 10.. -. . .. . . . Diameter at bourrelet. .1 mm long and weighs 8.760 T~offibg --------------TNT Weight of Ming------------0. . Type of filling--------------weight of filling-. . 16mm Diameter at bourrelet. .-..E. ...---. . .---. .42 kg.646 kg.

---Type Ofpropehnt 1. F. . . . or L606 kg. f22 Powder.-WZ 75/32-mm Data A. .. Weight of filling .5kg. 16mm Diameter at bourrelet -------74. 880. M36 Data Gun Wd in Freed ammunition-75/46-mm H*E.-. Gun ueed in Semifixed dmrmmition-75/32-mm Field Gun fitig --------------------Noee Fuze k D. .7 mm * Antiaircraft Gun fitig.. D. . F.__--.-_ ....356 kg. N.B.——. 85 . D. . ....-. .—. E. .E...E.. . .070 kg.. M36 Over-all length Wlthfim ----------------368mm Without faze -------------273 mm Diameter at base -----------65.-. . ahnoet identical to 75 H. BI Powder TNT (). . ---Weight of loaded pro@c~tile. ITALIAN PRQjECTILES %& . . . M34.75#-mm 75/46-mm H. . . .. . .E. . Powder. . Cartridge cafe. E. M36 @er-dlm@h--. 6.946 kg. or 1.- 14 IllIll 74.-H. Projectile “Figure 112- 7S/32-mrn A.345 kg.. . . . ..-. . -. . .Uuknown Width of band lat Bad------------------15 mm tided -..74 mm unknown 0. M. E. ..C4 Powder 1. O.617kg.E. Type for 75/32-mm gun Remarks This projectile ie @led ~ doublqmrpose type by the Italiane and Gennatm It can be eet for aerial burnt or impeot. .-.3 kg.7S mm Double rotating band 10 mm apart. Ng41ra 111. 6.665 kg. -----Type of filling. .4 mm w32.A. -------------------Noee FuzeA.20 Dietance baeeto band -------42mm Width of band -------------Diameter at bourrdet-.---------Weight of loaded projactk.. .Length of complete round ----Length of cartridge otyw.. Powder 1. . . Weight of fifing. .C.. . . M34 Type of fling -_.--Unknown Diameter at babe-----------Unknown Distance baee to band. .. . .

-..381 kg. Ballistite Bestir --------------------No.-. 75~mm A. Bdistiti.42 kg. . . .420 kg. .. 5 M38 IIWnark$ The projectile is fitted with piercing and ballietio caps.. Data Gun used in ‘ Fixed ammunition-75/27am . . Length of round (fixed) 75/18-mm Self-propelled gun 572.. .@i@rcraft Gun Fazing . -. . ..123 ~ 6.P.P.8 mm Weight of round (fixed)-----8. Over-all len@h -------------33omm Diameter at base.320 kg: 0. .-.A. Propellant charge (fixed)-. 75-mm A.74 mm T~eof filling . Data Guns used in Fixed-75 /18-mna Self-PropeiIed Assault Gun Sexnified-75/ 13-mm Mountain Howitzer Fazing --------------------Base Fuze Mo9/41 p.- . ----------Unknown Distance base to band -------49.. . . ----------- Unknown Unknown TNT 0. . . -. Nose ‘The Fuze M06/17 Over-all length -------------Unknown Diameter at babe-----------Unknown Distance base to band -------Unknown Width of band. . c. Length of complete round ----Weight of complete round . -------TNT Weight of filling ------------0.--0. . .-.. .-.Propellant charge..7 mm Width of band --------------9.265 kg Weight of loaded projectile___ 6. 517 mm 8.. or 0. !s Figure 114- 7&nm A. . The cartridge case for 75/18-mm fixed round is made of staei. . . Diameter at bourrelet -------Type of filling--------------Weight of filling-------------Weight of loaded projectile.080 kg. .7 mm Diameter at bourrelet -------74.A.-.564)kg.570 kg. .. . .. .ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE OF 1668 d!h Figure 113- 7%wrI A. C2 Powder :) . .

. --. . .~muhia 75/32-mm ““ -4 k : 74.. . ---. .. .74 mm “ Type of filling. . . .P. . Propellant charge (fixed)---. 0. Weight of loaded projectile.P. ..200 kg.+. ... ...Unknown Distance base to band ----.. Base Fuze Mo9/41 ...---------307 mm Diameter at base.. .7.. .7.-.. . . .P. :. .50 mm W~dthof bad-----------15mm Diameter at bourrelet. . -:. .-0. ..85 kg. .--— PROJECTILES ..74 7 ‘1 116- A.. 75/27-mm Data A. .- .. 13allistite Remarks Cartridge c=e for 75/lS-mm fixed round is steel. . . . .. 307 mm Unknown 50 nun 9. . . . w //\ 87 ... . . 75/32-mm A. ----. .. . .. . --.— ITALIAN -.6. F.----Weight of filling....*. Over-all length -------------Diameter at base -----------Distance base to band .. . . .B 1 Powder Remarks Projectile differs very dightly frc)m 7!%mm A.27 kg. . P.: y. .. ~. .59 kg.. .5mm Weight of round (llmd) ..Gun Semiiixed-75/27-mm Field Gun Fazing .. ~ -“h Figure .74. . .. . 4 !~. ... Width of band . . -----Length of round (Jxed) ---Weight of round (fixed)--.-.. Type 1 and Type 2. . . . . ~. ...Probably TNT Weight of filling------------0. .. . . . .- ~ . --..- L . . nsk —-— Guns used in Fixed-75/34-mm Self-Propelled Assault Gun Semifixed-75/32-mrn Field Gun Fazing -----------------Base Fuze M09/41 Over-ail length.7. . 1~~ L Figure llS-75/27-mm A. ..7mm Diameter at bourreiet. .P: . Type of filIing. .. .. . .880 kg. . . . . .Propellent charge (fixed). Guns used in Fixed-75/18-mm Self-??ropelled Assault . ..1 mm 8.. . .. .420 kg. . .&.. Length of round (fixed) 75/l&~ ---------------589. . - mm Probably TNT Unknown 591.. . .r’aw$ ... .. . ~. .—.:”’ .

7 mm Diameter at bourrdet-... . . .. ( tiollow-Charge) Data m.P.-. . . . the &d -. 302 mm Diameter at baee--. ... Figure 11% .500 kg.58 mm Width of band ----------Diameter at bourreiet. E.7 mm 74.S.870 kg. -... (Hoilow-Charge) 74.234mm Without nose cap-. -------weight of propellant 75/13aurl. Over-ail length With faze -------------310mIn WMout faze.-.__._. ?. . --.._.5 mm 5. 428. Unknown Distance base to band ----. P. .1 mm 6. Weight of filling ---------Weight of loaded projectile.-.------..-.P.Weight of round (ilxed).. .. Type”qf fihg. .249 kg. Propeflent charge {fixed). unknown unknown 4. &249 Bdliatita Remarks The semifixed round wee the cartridge case for the 75/knm lZowitzer. . ‘ a Figure 1 t7. ( Hol!ow-Charge) Data Gunsueedin Fw4id-75/18-mm Self-Propelled Assault Gun Semiiixed-75/18-mm Mountain Howitzer E!uzing ---------. M36 Over-ail length Wlthnosa cap. Length of round (fixed)---.-. -Type of fMing. ..74 mm unknown unknown 484.7S-mm E. .. Weight of complete round 7ti&mm ------------76/18-mm _. . . 9..690 && ... .5 mm 578. 0. . ---. ... .75-mm &P. .Base Fum I. . . The cartridge ease for round is made of steel.--. . -------- 9. . .n used in Semifixed-75 /13-w+27-3%nrn Guns Fmed-SeIf-Repelled Assault Guna fitig.57 kg.--. ._-. . P. 0.Baee Fuze E..37 kg. .-.. .. 75/18+ilm__.. .58 mm Width of band __. . . .% (Hotluw-Chatgel 75-mm E.. . M. .74 mm 75-mm E. .P.. ._-.-. --.-. . weight of filling ---------Total length of round 75/13-m -------------75/18-mm . 208 mm Diameter at base ---------Utiom Distance base to band ----. --.-.

.74 mm Type of ------------Probably TNT weight of tilling ---------Weight of loaded projectileIm@h of round (fixed) 75/18-mrn gun--------75/34-mm gun. Ballistite 0. MM O.67(jikg.300 kg.. h142 ( I+oitow<harge) Data Guneueedin FiKed-75 /lS-mm Self-Propelled &sault Gun 75 /34mm SeIf-Propelled &sauit Gun Semhixed-75 /27-mm Field Gun fitig. Remarka The cartrid~ caae in tho fixed typo of wnnmnition (75 /lS-mm) is made of steel....570 kg. .$. ..--.7 mm Diameter at bourreiet --. 6. 5. (Hollow-Charge) Data Guns Uti in Freed-75 /l&nm Self-Propelled Awudt Gun Semifixed-75 /i$-mm Mountain Hcwitzer Fazing . P.. Weight of round (fixed) 75/l%un______ .----. . 484. . The projectile hae a nosq cap vvhichis 83.P. ---Type of Ming.-..200 kg.4701kg.- 74. .].B~FumE. BI Powder . . . (Hollaw.-.-... . M42 over-all length Whh fuzz-------------31o mm without &e. . .5 mm long.-.P. .. . 75/34-mm __.58 mm Width of band ----------9. . —w PROJECTILES ‘b .. 89 4mJ . 298 mm Diarneterat base --------Unknown Distance base to band ----. The projectile haa a 74-mm Wp.74 mm Probably TNT Unknovim 483 mm 6. .. --Weight of round (6xecJ)_.-.--. . -.. Figure 120- 75-mm E.P.690)kg.. F.Charge) 75/13-rntn E. .. .-. Propellant charge (fumd) 75/13-mm gun---. . Ballistite ‘ Remarks The fixed cartridge caw is mad{>of steel.... .P.2W kg.. . whioh is hollow. . Figure 119-751 13-mm E..74. .------75 J34-mm gun_ -. .--. .. 5S mm Width of band ----------9. Weight of loaded projectilePropellant charge (fixed).“.-.7 mm Diameter at bourrdet. . .--.S M42 (Hohw-Charqe) 75-mm E. . .P.. . .. Weight of filling.---- TJnkllown 5.ITALIAN . .249I kg. 0.---Length of round (fied).. --. .M41 Over-all length ----------307 mm Diameter at base --------Unknown Dietauce base to band. . 7.S. Nose Fuae E. .5 ~ 5S6. ..

6mm Phosphorus 0. 0. . .-. Weight of complets round 76/40-mm . . Over-all length (without fuze) (F/C) ----------------266M. ..50 kg. . Guns used in-u Fixed-76 /40-mm Antiaircraft Gun 76/45-mm Antiaircraft Gun Fuzing..970 kg.. 276. 309mm Diameter at base --------75. C. 74. I/C) --------------- 74.4 mm Distance base to band ----.620 kg. 38 mm Width of band -----------10 mm Diameter at bourrelet (F/C) ----------------(F..-. .. 0.. Rmnarka These two projeotilee are similar except for weight and type of incendiary filling. . . F. . 9. I/C) :--Weight of filling (F..332 kg. . . ------------Fuzing --------. I/C) --------------Type of filling (F.ary (F/C) * ad” (F..2 mm Distance b~e to band. 76/4$mm -------------PropeIlent charge 76/40-Full charge--. -. C.. OP 1668 .ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLCISI. --. C. .--.E.. R. . I/C)-. 75.. . BaMstite a ! /“ . I/C) -. . R. .635 kg.--------Weight of loadw$ projectile. ME.lNose Percussion Fuze L M35 p. .74 mm 90 Type of filling-----------Weight of i?lling.2$4 kg. C. 9.I/C) Data 75-mm Infantry G@ Gunused in. . .gure 121-75-inm !ncand. .76/4&45-mm 76/40-45-mm H. 6.. -. . ---l---Noee Tiie Fuze M900/ 34 Over-all length Wlthno~-.-76 /40--RedUCed charge_ 76/45-Full charge ----76/45-Reduced charge-- TNT 0. .j~.7MM Diameter at base.M38 p..323 kg.. 6.3 or6. . . . . . Weight of loaded projectile (F/C) ----------------(F.5mm 74. 4 --- Figure 122.M (F. Unknown 10. .. .265 kg. Ballistite 0..70 kg.115 kg. ....050 kg. ..-..Unknown Diameter at bourreiet. .4kg 5. . . . 1. -. l/C) 75-mm Incendiary (F/C) and F. .

6. . -----. ----------Weight of filling.0.8 min 49 mm 8mm 76. .. . fJ . M36 Guns used in Fixed-76 /40-mm Antiaircraft Gun 76/46-mm Antiaircraft Gun fitig ------------------Nose Time Fuze M36 Over-all length-. . I. 1.E. -.--F~~ztig---. --------Weight of loaded projectile- 247 mm 75. .---. .. -------.Uriknown Width of band -----------17.Wldthof band. Distance base to band---. Weight of loaded projectile.. . 2 M38 Remarks The ammunition also is made up with reduoed propellant oharges. A36 . .. E.--- 77/28-mm Field Gun Nose Percussion Fuze M1O. c. Booster uwd-------------No.— JTALJAN PROJECTILES —— w .9 mm Propellant charge 76/4!o-mm------------0.Bailistite 76/4$m--..74 mm Type of filling-----------Probably TNT Weight of filling. . or JM(Guerritore) 261 mm Over-all length With faze-------------11[ Without fuze. -. Figure 123- 76/40-45-mm H. (Short) Data Gmusdin---------.236 kg.3 mm Probably TNT 0. ..2 mm Diameter at bourreiet --.----..-. ...2M kg. .E. %l#J .75.970 kg.E.61!0kg..-..58 kg..68 kg.--992. * 76/40-45-mm Data H. 4.--. Figure 124- 77-mm H. --------Unknown Diameter at base --------Unknown Distance base to band ----.----..736mm 76/45-~-. .---..1. ----Diameter at bourrelet -.. ----Diameter at base .. (Short) 77-mm H.. Length of complete round 76/40-mm __. Type of filiing-. M35 p.. c.. LM38p. ..

. Weight of complete round. Over-all length Wrth fuze--------- ----- Without faze ----------Diameter at base --------Distance base to band ----Width of band. ( Long) Data Gun used in-------------Fuzing -------. ---.3 mm TNT 0. G. .Propdent charge Full ------------------Reduced -------------- 76. LM38 p.600 kg. T~eoffilltig -----------Weight of filling.. .A. 7.---77/23-mm Field Gun Nose Percussion Fuze M1O. . Type of filling----------Weigh: of Wing. or I.. .. 492. . . BsUistiti . R. C.. c.5 kg.24 kg. ----------Diameter at bourrelet ---. C2 or C.) .Unknown Width of band -----------8.30 mm TNT 0. 6.~ ( Figure 126- 77-mm A. 0. 1 M38 & .220 kg. 298 mm . (Limg) 77-mm WE. ------Unknown Diameter at base. NO.--------Weight of loaded projectileBooster used ------------- 281 mm 76mm S5 mm 10mm 76...A.“ K. 77-mm A.3 mm 92 Diameter at bourrelet. S. Data Gun used in Fixed-77 f28-mm Antiaircraft Gun Feting ------------------Nose Time Fuze LM06/17 Over-ail length . 13 0. . 5. -------Unknown Distance base to band ----.- Figure 125- 77-mm ME.695 kg.544 kg.150 kg.00 kg.921 kg.--------Weight of loaded projectileLength of complete round. .

. 10. . 1. .E.4 kg. . .<... -. 89. . . Length of compiete round..7 mm TNT Unknown 10. Ty~offillhg--. --. . .. The projectile has a screwed-in haze plata and two copper driving bands. . . . .. .ITALIAN P!UXECTILES KmWJ Hgun 90/42-53-mm H. M40 p. . .. 887 mm 17. .. . . Weight of loaded projectileLength of compiete round -Weight of complete round-. . . Width of band . 93 .---Weight of filling-. 36 Nose FUZeI..05’0 kg to 17. c. . .------... . . . lNose l?uze R40 m. . -----Weight of filling..Unknown A. . . C. .. . . . tO 10. .10 kg. . . . . Diameter of bourrelet .. -----.-. T. . 2.A.-. . %J Figure 128.Unknown Over-all length.. Diameter at bourreiet . . to 2. Propellant charge-. Data Gun used in Fixed-90 /53-mni Antiaircraft Gun I?uzing Baaefuze.7 mm TNT 1 kg. . . Over-all length without fuze 309 mm Diameter at base .620 kg. . . . Propeilent charge . . . T~ of filling. . O. ... on{! band is covered by the cartridge CM.30 kg.90-mm %)-mm AA Data Gun used in Fixed-90 /53-mm Antiaircraft Gun Fuzing Nose Time Fuze M41 or M. .. -------Remarka The weight and hmgth of rounds depend on fuzing. 88 nun Unknowu 89. 400 MM Diameter at base..913 kg. Weight of loaded projectile.. . 17. . .97 mm Wsdth of band_ .OOkg.. . -------Unknown 127- 90/42-53-mm WE.Unknown Distance bw to top band’-.050 kg .465 kg. Distance base to top band. . . .

-. ... -. . . --- .. . . 90/53-mm A.7 mm Probably TNT Unknown 12. . M40) Over-ail length With faze ----------------386 mm 94 Without faze -------------Diameter at base -----------Distance base to band -------Wldthof band.---.Figure 129- 90/53-mm A.3M38 . ---- 97 mm Unknown 89.6 kg. _..or I.. ----Weight of filling .7 mm TNT 1. . . . . Width of bands ----. 12. I. ------Diameter at bourrelet -------Type of filling. ) IOO-mm H.1. No.. -------Weight of loaded projectileTotal length of round ----Weight of complete round -Weight of propellant. Unknown Gunud in-------------- Distance base to 2nd band.67 kg. .-. Weight of loaded projectile--Booster &---------------- 372mm 99mm 15 mm 13 mm 99. . .P.r Diameter at bourreiet. Data Guud h----------------- 100/17-mm Light Field Gun FuZing Nose Percussion Fuze M1O or (Guerritore I.. . Data 90/53-mm Antiaircraft Guh Fu~g ------------------Base Fuze M09 Over-all length -------.-.. LM38. . .-407 mm Diameter at baae..-------Unknown Distance base to 1st band. .7 kg.. .P. 983 mm 19. .160 kg. E.286 kg. Weight of filling.---. M35. 2.. Type of filling .-.

. Booster used .218kg.312 kg. ----------- . MBT.-. .. . No. -. .--.. . .70mm TNT 2.. Weight. . Data Guns used in---------------Feting --------------------Over-all length Wlthfuze. E.-I=I.. . or Pertite Weight of filling.-. . . 100/17-mm Light Field Gun IVoeel?uze A.. . Without faze -------------Diameter at base..-Diameter at babe-----------Distance baeeto band . .-. M12 399mm 341mm 99mm . .OMM 55mtn 16mm !39.. 1!293 kg. . . . . .2M38 F/gum 732-100-mm A. . -.. .=H. 410mm I..M32 100/17-mm H. 95 Distance base to band -.-. ..---.”...D. . -----TypoffiUillg. M32 Data Gun used in.. . .3MM 9!9.-.J5... . Width of band --------------Diameter of bourrelet. .. . . . .. No. . .. .--:.. 13.--.E. ~111111 86.D. ofloaded projectile---Bmterumd.49 kg. Wldthof bad--------------Diameter at bourrelet . Weight of loaded projectile_..—— ITALIANI —— PROJECTILES ‘QJ Flgura 131- 100j17-mm H.-. 100-mm A. -. .. E.. MAT. ... . -. . D.70mm TNT.. Type oftllhg---------------Wei~tof filhg----. -.-.-. .-. . . 1. . E.. . ... . -------Futig --------------------Over-all length Wlthfuze ----------------- 100/17-mm Light’ Field Gun Nose Percuaeion FuzelMIO 454mm Wl~houtfum-. .. . -.E. E. .3M38 Remarks This projectile is fuzed for-aerial burst or impaot. . .

99.. ) a’ . . ..7mm M36-479. M32474. .. D.3 kg.-H. Bmtirwd.. ..E. P. . .P. . . . . . . 3 M36 .mm Di~eter at base -.OP l@8 Figure 133- 100/17-mm A. . ( Hollow-Charge) Data Gun used in. .9. .-. . .. E.70 mm Type of~g --------------TNT weight of filling -----------1.. Weight of loaded projectile---.--. hIf32 M36-Nose Fuzti A. D.-Distance base to band -------Width of band -------------Diameter at bourrelet-.13.E.7 mm With fum-. . . 16 mm Diameter at bourrelet . . .. ----------100/17-mm Light Field Gun Fuhg. D.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANkE I .. . ... ..P. .70 mm ROX~T Unknown 12. M32 and M36 Data Gmusd b. . E. .-. E.-. . . .-. ---T~eof~g. D.g. M36 Over-ail length Without faze -------------379. . .570 kg. -------BWMFuze E. -------Unknown Dkticebto band -------561uM Width of band . M36 Over-all len”@h --------------377 mm % Dime*ratb=---. -------mO/17-mm Light Field Gun Fuzing lM32—Nose Fuze A. . . . .375 kg. .-. .. .. ...-.. M36 100/17-mm A.--.---. --. No.-Weight of Wing------------Weight of loaded projectile---- Unknowm Unknown Unknown 99. . .. .-H. . (#fo{/aw-chaqe) 1(1(1-mmE. .. . . . . ...-: Figure 134- ?@-mm E. -. .-.

. . .------. Filling ---------------------L7 kg. 97 . .--.090 kg.— . . .6 mm Weight of filling------------1. . . ( Hollow-Charge) Data 100/17-mm Light Field Gun Futig. . . C. . .Chargel 100-mm E. T. 104. .. 106-mm l[ncendiary Feting .-. .70 mm lw:nknown lJnknom 1. .-. I. .P. .S.100=mm E.24 kg. . . .. . .2.300 kg. .. . Unknown Gun used in. E. . . . .. . . . Phosphorus+ 0. . (Practice and Incendiary) Data 10&mm H.IITALIAN PROJECTILES —.53 kg.-. . . -----. 105/28-tnm H. L05/2$ Gun Fufig --------------------Nose Percussion M1O Over-all iength With fuze----------------418. ... .. .. . .. .S. .-. 31. .NT-1. ---Distance base to band.P... . .Omm Distance base to band ..-.. . Weight of filling -.O kg. c. ------Weight of loaded projectile-l- Unknown Unknown Unkno~vn 99. . . Diameter at bourrelet. .. .P.-. Weight of fiiliig.. . . . Nosel?ercussion M35 p.. . . . -. . . .— *.-. . (1I @ Figure 136- 10S/28-mm ME. . . . . . . Gun usdin. . r- Figure 13S . .. . ---Type of Ming *.15. .-. . . 0. .. {Hollow. TNT Remarks The projectiles differ only in filling :md fuzing. .E.. ------Wxdth of band . Weight of loaded projectile---. E. .5kg.2mm Without faze -------------404. . .5 mm Wldthof bad--------------15mm Diameter at bourrelet -------104. --. . . Over-all length.2mm Diameter at base -. Gasoline + 0. .-------- Diameter at base.. M. Another modification is cast in one pieca instead of having an adapter. .:’ . M&mm Practice Fuzhg ---------------------Nose Percussion n43s p. . . . . .’ . . . .070 kg.

. . E. Figure 138- 105/28. ...3 kg.. M32 Data Guns used in 105/14-mrn Light Field Gun 105/28-mm Gun 105/32-mm Gun Futig ---------------------- Wthoutfum -------------- 415mm Unknown 68mm 14...Width of bred. . 2 M38 ~ose Fuze A. . .. .M1O Over-ail length Wlthfuze ----------------469.. . .. . A. ‘ .ITALIAN ANCI FRENCH ~XPLOSWE ORDNANCE 0$1668 -“\ ah .D.E.. .. .. .E.Omm Without faze -------------Diameter at b=e-. .. .. ..6mm TNT L76 kg. . . . .M32 105/2&mm H. ..2M38 . . 16. D. 455mm 90. No..D.125 kg. 16. . E. . M32 or A. .35kg. . M36 Over-all length Wlthfuze---. . . . .. ..E. M32 Data Guns used in 105/14-mm Gun 105/28-mm Light FMd Gun 105/32-mm Gun Xose Percuseioon Feting -------------------Fuze .D.60mm TNT 2. 510mrn 98 Diameter at base -----------Distmce b=etibmd -------Width of band -------------Diameter or bourrelet -------Type of fiUing--------------Weight of filling------------Weight of loaded projectile---Booster used--------. -----------Dimeter at bourmlet -------T~ of filling --------------Weight of ~ling ------------Weight ofloaded projectile___ Booeter used .Omm 58mm 14. . . M32 105/28-mm A. .8mm 104.— Figure 137- 103/28-mm H. . . ~0. ----Distance base to band -..8mm U34. ..

. since it was used in 1944. . .M kg. . .—t—. . Data Gmusd 105/M-mm Light Fieid Gun I?uzing. The rotating band is softiron instead of copper. . 300. . .--- Unknown 39. . . ------Weight of filling------------Weight ofloadedp rojectile. The cap is 230 mm long. . . . . . 104. . . .5mm in----------------- Diameter at b-. 99 . . . . .. . T~eof tiling .P.Unknown Wldthof band --------------18 mm Diameter at bourrelet. .. (Hcdlow.5 mm 18 mm Unkmwp Unknom IJnkncmm 15. . . Remarks Little is known about this projectile except that it is a fixed round and is one of the latest types. .P. . .. . Figure 140-’ 105/25-mm E.65 kg. . . . 6 o ‘w- I II I Ffgure 139- 105-mm A. . ... .-. . . . . 105-mm A.P.------. . -.P. . .. . . Wldthof band . . . . . . . . . ------Diameter at bourrelet -. . . .. . . Unknown Distance base to band. . .. unknown Over-all length . . .. . . . . . . .. . ..Distance base to band . ( Hoilow-Charge) Data 105/~mm Guwdk ----------------Futig ---------------------Unknown Diameter at base. . .3 mm Gun Type of filling -------------Unknown Weight of filling------------Unknown Weight of loaded projectile---.. . ITALIAN PROJECTILES m . .Chargel 105/25-mm E.

1 mm 119. .E.100 kg.--. . Ilata Gmu~ in----------------Feting --------------------Over-all length Wlthfum----..-.. ------. 105-mm ( Hollow-Charge) M43 Data Gwudb--.. ..400 kg. 14 kg..-. .. Without faze -------------Dimeter at b~e-----------Distance baee to band -------W]dth of ~and. Wei@tof ~ng------------Weight of loaded projectile___ 120/21+nm Gun Nose Percussion Fuze 3417 355 mm 340mm 123.Unknoyn Width of band --------------Utiom Diameter at bourrelet -------unho~ Type of filling --------------UI&LIOTWI Weight of filling.unknown Over-all length-.---Diameter at bourndet -------T~eoffi~ing---.....:----Unknown Diameter at base. ----------Unknown Distance base to band . Figure 141- 10S-mm Hoilow-Charge M43 F.. 106/l+bmm Light Field Gun Fuzing .--.-----------TJnhown Weight of loaded projectile .-.----. 100 .-..3 mm MST 2.. ...gura 142- 120/21-mm H.----.--------.--... . . 120/21-mm J=I.--.. 16..ITALIAN AND FREF4CH EXPLOSIVE ORf)~Ah!CE OP 1668 i!!h.. .E.4mm 20 mm 17.. . -. Remarks Little information. since it waa one of the latest designs.--. .=-. is avaiIable cm this projeotiIe.

... .. . Weight ofloaded p. Futig--. . .. . . .20/2S-tnrn H. . . . 15mrn Diameter at bourrelet-. . . 119. . (Short) . (short) 120/21 -mm H. 17.-. . .-r———— ITALIAN PROJECTILES I $lw# (Cast-Steef) Figure 1441. Weight ofloaded projectile_. . 65mm Width of bad-. . .. . 120/25-mm Data Gmtiin.. -. . . H. . ..--.432mm Without fuze. . .. . . --.rojeotile_.-. . . Figure 143- 120/21-mm ME. -.. -. Unknown Dktmcsbutob~md------..E (Cast-Steel) Data 120/21-mm Gun Guwti in----------------*g--------------------Nose Percussion Fuza M17 Over-aU length Wlthfum ----------------377 mm Without faze -------------362mIn Di-etir atom -----------l19mm Distance baee to band -------22 mm Width of band _..4mm T~oftihng ----------------Tolite Wei@tof fifliag-------------2. .---. 119.-. . . . Remarks This projectile is cast steel. . .-. . . -. 15mm Di-ekrat kumelet . . .. .. .. . .-. .. .... . . 120/25-mm Gun ...... ’MST Weight of filling------------L290kg. Noeepereusaion Fuze LM17 Over-all length Wlthfuzs-.. 101 ‘bJ .&50kg.-.800 kg..5mm Type of fiUng.. ... . . .. .E..E.--..... .18. .700 kg. -------------417mm I)iameter at base.

. (Long) Data Gun used in-----..120/2!5-mm H. (Cast-Steel) Data Gun used in----------------120/25-mm Gun F~lzing---------------------Nose Percussion Fuze M17 over-all length With fuze----------------421 mm Without faze ---.--.E. . 406mm Diameter at base.--..120/25-mmGun Fwzing----.. .--. .. . . .. .4 mm Pertite 2.080 kg. ..---.1 mm Tolite 4.. . ..----. . . ---. -...E.E.. ----Type of filling-------------Wei@t of fig------------Weight of loaded projectile--Remarks This projectile is cast steel. ‘20..200 kg. .. . . ... Distance baseto band -------Wldthof bad--------------Diameter at bourrdet. (CasMteel) 120/25-mm H.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXp~OSIVE ORD~ANCE (2P 1668 Figure J4S .----------Unknown 102 Distance base to band -------Width of band -------------Diameter at bourrelet-. .’ .Nose Percussion Fuze M17 Over-ail length With faze. --. ----T~eof~ltig --------------Weight of filling------------Weight of loaded projectile---- 4Mmrn 122mm 25mm lornm 119. e Figure 146- 120/2S-mrm H.. * --- . . 65 mm i5mm 119.. 19.350kg. . .275 kg. 503 mm Without faze -------------Diameter at base -. . . . (Long) 120/25-nNn H..E.




. , Figure 747- 120/40-mm H.E. (GssMtee4)

120/40-mm ‘H.E. ( Cast-Steei ) Data Guns used in Gun 120/50-mm Gun 12i)/25-mm Gun Fuzing Nose percussion Fuze M17 or (Guerritore) M-m. e. g. c. Over-all length Wlthfuze..- . . . . . . . . . . . ---- 440rnm
120 /4&nm

Without faze-. --, . . . . . . . . . .. Diameter at base- ..,.. --....,. Distance base to band . . . . . . . .. Width of bred. ---.,, ----------Diameter of bourrelet -.-- ...,. Type of flting ----------------Weight of failing... <. . . . . . . . .. . Weight of lo&d projectile . . . .. Remarks This projectile is cast. steei.

42? mm 118 mm 25 mm 20 mm 11%5 mm IkEfT 1,880 kg. 24.900 kg.







H.E. (Base-Fums$)

120/40-tnm H.E. ( Base-Fuzed)




Guns used in 120/25-mm Gun 120/40-mm Gun 120/50-mm Gun Feting ----------------------


Over-all length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Diaeter at b=e-- .. . . . . . . . . .. Distance base to band . . . . . . . .. Width of band . . . . ..-_ -.- . . .. Diameter at bourrelot --- . . . . .. T~offiUtig-. -- . . ---------Weight of filling--- ... . . . . . . . .. Weiaht of loadwi projectile -----

4G3mm ll~mm 30.5 mm 38.1 mm 119.5 mm TNT 1,820 kg. 23.600 kg. 103



OP 1668


. Figure 14912[J/45-mm H.#.

120/45-inm H.E. Data Gun used in --------- -------120/45-mm Gun Fuizing-------- -. . ..-. --..-oUnknown Over-all length With fuze ---------- ---------- 493 mm Without faze -------------440mKcI

Di~eter at b~-----------Distance base to band -------Width of band -------------Diameter at bourrelet -------T~eofNlhg.-..----.---..Weight of filling------------Weight of loaded projectile..-.

I12Mrn 43mm 40rnrn Unknown TNT 2.39kg. Unknown



Figure 150-




149/12-mm H.E. (Short) Data Gun ud in--..:. -----------

149/12-mm Heavy Field Gun

Fuzing Nose percussion Fuze M17 or (Guerritere) I. M35, I. M38, or I. JM40 Over-ail length With faze ----------------599 mm Without faze --------------584nun I 104

148,50 mm TNT or ~TMBT Wei@tof Hling ------------6.235 kg. TNT 3.73 kg. MAT 302 kg. lMBi’ Weight of loaded projecttie--- - 38.9 kg.

Di-etir at b~-----------Db-ceb= to band-- .---. s Wldtiofbmd.-.-.---.----.Diameter at bourrdet.. . . . . . . T~e of fillhg ---------------

147.8 nun 3smm






, *


1S1 - 149/12-mm


149/12-13-mm H.E. Data (%.lne usedin 149/12-mm Heavy Field Howitzer 149/ 13-m3nHeavy Field Howitzer Fuzbg ---------------------Nose Percussion Fuze M1O or Ml? Over-ail length With fuze----------------677.3mm W~thout faze -------------659 mm

Diameter at babe- . . ..--. . . . . . 147.6mm ,Dietancs baee to bane!... . . . . . . 38 mm W]dthof band _-. -... -------- 15 mm Diameter at bourrelet. . . . . . . . 148.50 mm T~eoffllkg-.,..-., -------TNTor Pertite Wei&tof fihg. --.., -------7.525 kg. Weight of loaded projectile---- 41.1:1kg. Remarks The projectile for the 149/13-.rnm gun differs slightly since the rotating band is 152 mm instead of 154 mm for the 149/12-mm gun,


1S2 - 149/ 12- 13-nwn H. E. (Light)

149/12-13-mm Data Gunsusedin

H.E. ( Light)

Without free.

-.-.., --------

533 mm 134.0 mm 76.0 mm 24.Orun 148.6 mm Probably TNT &450 kg. 31.635 kg. 105

Diameter atcbase. ----------Distancs base to bancl. . -----Width of band . . -------------Diameter at bourrelet -------Typeoffiliing . . . . . . ..-. .--... Weight of filling. . . . ---------Weight of loaded projectile..-.

149/12-mm Heavy Field Howitzer


149/13-mm Heavy Field Howitzer Fuzing Nose percussion Fuze M17 or (Guerritore), I. M35, I. M38, L O. M40 Over-ad length Wtihfuze-. -.. -.-.. . . . . . . . 564mm (approx.)


~ n ?







OP. 1668



. Figure 15314!?/ 13-mm H,E. . ,

149/13-mm H.E. Data GunsUSi3d -.. -.-- . . . . . . . . 149/13-mm in. Heavy Fieid Gun Fu*g.--.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nose Percussion I?uze M17 Over-all length With fuze----------------568mm

Without faze -------------Di~e~rat bue-----------Distance’base to band -------Width of b~d . . ..--. ..-. -... Diameter at bourrelet -------T~eof~ng..-----.--...-. Weight of filling- . ..’--------Weight of loaded projectile. --4

&52.7mm 147.4mm 2Smm 20mm 148.6 mm MAT 5.12 kg. 40.095 kg.

4!!IM “




H.E. M32

149/13-35-mm H.E. M32 and 149/140-mm H.E. M35 Data Guns USedin 149/13-mm Heavy Field Gun 149/40-mm Gun 149/35-mm Gun Fazing ---------------------Nose PercuSion Fuze M17 Over-all length Wlthfuze ----------------625.3MM Without faze -------------610 mm

Di-eteratb~e.------.---Distance base to band -------lVldth of band -------------Diameter at bourreiet -------Type of filling--------------Weight of filling--- . . . . . . . . . . Weight of loaded projectile_..

125mm 82 mm 16 mm 148.6 mm TNT 6.327 kg. 42.675 kg.



Remarks The projectiles for the 149/40-mm and 149/35mm guna differ from the 149/13-mm projectiles in diameter of the rotating band.

E.. M32/38 149/35-mm H.3mm Without faze -------------508mm Dimneter at base . . Diameter at baa. 154mm 24mm 25mm 148.. ---. ... .--. . .. .-.-. 3&47 kg.-. M32/38 Data Gmtik.-. .ITALIAN PRC)IECTILES .. .”------------Weight of fillkw . ... -. Diameter at bourreiet. . .--j..!!50 kg. .900 kg. Over-all length Wlthfuze ----------------- 707mm 128mm 82mm 2~~ 148. Distance base to band . .. Weight of loaded prc)jeotiie---. 149/1 2-35-inm H... ... . . . . Width of band _.-. .--. . Wldthof b. -. . . 4. . . w 107 I I I ..75 kg. . -.-. . .M38 M.-. . 523. Distance baeeto band. .149/35-mm HE. . fwJ Figure 156-149/12-3S-mm H.E. (Cas$-S#eal) . . . . .-. (Cast-Steel) Data Gune used in 149/lhun Heavy Field Howitzer 149/35-mm Gun Feting ---------------------Nose Percueaion Fuze M17 Over-all length Wlthfun-..-. Type oflllling-.. . .-. . . . . ------. .. C.-.-. . -. 738mm Without fuze. . ..6mm MIITor Mt!3Tor MNDT Wei@tof tilhg.. .-.. . .” T~e of filling. . u Figure 1S5 . . .-Futig ---------------------- 149/35-mmGun Nm-Percuaeiwi Fuze(Guerritore)I..E... . .45. . Remarks The projectile is made of cast steel..-. .and--------------: Dtietir at bo~~mele)t---. .-.. . .5mm MAT 4. ------~Weight ofloaded proljectile.


.. Figure 157149/ 13Wknm H.E. (One-Pke) #

149/1 3-35-mm t-1.E.(One-Piece)



Futig ----------------------

149/13-mm and 149/3&rnm Guns No$e Pemuion Fuze M170rM (Guerritore) 596mm 580mm 1301nm

Dis-ceb~to bad-------Wldthofbad-------..-----. Diameter at bourrelet -------T~eoffii~ng --------------Wei@tof flag - . . . . . ------Weight ofloaded projectile... -

Over-dllength Wlthfuze ----------------Without faze -------------Di~eter at b=------------

86mm 25mm 148.5mm lMBTor MNDT or MST 6.96kg.,5.26kg., or5.7 kg. 37.93 kg., 36.24 kg., or 37.1 kg.

Remarks The weight of this projectile depends upon the type of filling.

( ‘i.




H.E. (British)

t49/35-mm H.E. ( British) ~aia ..— Gunu* k----------------Futig-. .-.. .-.. -----------

149/35-mm Gun Nom Percussion Fuze M17 or M (Guerritore) 538;2mm 52L2mm 148.Omm

Distance base to band -------Wldthof bad--------------Diameter at bourrelet -------Type of filltig --------------Weight of filling ------------Weight ofloaded projectile___

Over-all length Withfum-..---.--.-.-..-Without faze -------------Dbe~rat be-----------108

23mm 25mm 148.5mm TNTor MST 6.61kg. or4.8 kg. 42.80 kg. or41.4S kg.


Remarks This projectile is of British manufacture and hae Britieh markings.

l~AIJAhl ——




~igU?t3 159149/35-inm A.D.E. M32 Data Gwud in----------------Fuztig-.:------------------Over-all Ien@h Wlthfum ----------------W]tiout fug . . ..-. --------





149/36-mm Gun

A. D. E. M32 728mm 614.4mm

Di~eWrat be------------Dti~cebw to Bali -------Wldthof l]and ---------------Diameter at bourrelet - -..... TyWofflbg. - . . . . ---------Weight of filling. . . ---------Weight of loaded projectile___

123mm 62mm %nam 143.6 mm TNT 4,90 kg. 45.9 kg.





A. D, E.-H.E. M3S

149/40-mm A. D.E.-H.E. M35 Data. Guudk----.---.-.--..-. 149/5&mm Gun Futig ---------------------Noee Fuze A, D. E. M36 Over-all length Wlthfum ----------------746.5mm Without fug: ------------660.5mm

l)iameterat base -----------Distance baee to band-.. ----Width of band. - . . . .----------I)iame@r at bou~t:t -.. -.--., T~eoffiiling ----------------Weight of tilling- --,----------Weight ofloaded projecttie.. -..

129.3mm 105 mm 228 mm 14$.6 mm Probably TNT 6.387 kg. 46.200 kg.







OP 1668

. Figure ?61-lS2-mmff.E.

152-mm H.E. ‘Data Gunpusd k----------------



152/37-mm Gun,152/45-mm Gug lNose Percussion Fuze 1M17 665.3 mm

Ir 0er-all length ‘~Withfaze -----------------

Without faze -------------Dismeter at base ------------Distanoe base to banci-------Wldthof bad--------------Dismeter at bourrelet -------Type of filxng --------------Wei@toffltig---.-..----.-We@tofl adedprojectile___ o

650mm 15L2mm 32mm 21.5mm 151.8mm TNT’ 5.52kg. 45.9 kg.

.. ,






152/13-mm H.E. (Short) Data Gunumd in-----------------

Fu~g ----------------------

152/13-mIti Heavy Field Howitzer Nose Percussion Fuzee British Nos. 101, 101E, 106, or 44 522.s=

Irer-all length Wxthfuze ----------------110

Without fug-------------471.5mm Dimetir at of.-. .--...-.. 150.lmm Distance base to band. -...-.. 31.5mm Wldthofbmd-.--.-----.-;-26.5mm Dimetir at bomiet -------151.4mm T~ofWmg---...-.-...--. TNT Wei@tof Ma------------&670 kg. Weight ofloaded projectile--4i5kg. Ii’’marks The fuze is similar to 152/13-mm (long) and is also British designed.








. Figure 163152/13-mm H.E. (Long)

15~/13-mm WE. (Long) Data Gun used in. . . --------------

Fuzing ---------

---- .-*.. ----

152/13-mm Heavy Field Howitzer Nose Percussion Fuzes British Nos. 100, 101, 101E, 106, or 44 582mm

Over-all length Wkhfuze -----------------

W~thout fuze---------------Diameter at base- . . . . . . . . . ... Distance base to band -------Width of band . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . Diameter at bwxdet -------T~eof filling” -------------Weight <)ffilling------------Weight ofloaded projectile-’-.. Remarks This projectile is of British British fuzes.

531mm 150,1 mm 21 mm 17mm 152 mm TNT 3.;340 kg. Xi kg. design and uses







152/37-mm H.E. Data Gunused in--. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152/37.rnm Gun Fuztig ---------------------Nose Percussion Fuiie .M17 (Guerritore) IM35 m. c. or 1,3’138m. c. Over-all length With cap-----------------84Amm Di-e%ratb~.--.---...-150.9mm

Distance base to lstt band ---- - 2S mm Distance base to 2nci band --- - 04 mm V7klth of 1st band-., ---------30 mm Wdth of 2nd band ----------35 mm Diameter at bourrelet -------151.87 mm Type of filling --------------TNT Weight of filling- -..’ --------4.E3 kg. Weight of loadedprojectile--- - 5-4,0kg.



152/45-mm Gun Fifing ---------------------Base Fwzes 1M9 14. or M911/917 Over-all length -------------545mm Diameter at base _ . Weight of loaded projectile---.-----------3.152/45-mm Gun. {Busduzad) Figure 166- 152/32-45-mm H. ( Base-F~lzed) -.351 kg.-----------Weight of loaded projectile___ 1T2 152/32-45-mm H.75 kg.4 mm Width of band -------------25 mm Diameter at bourrelet -------Unknown Type of filling--------------TNT Weight of filling.. F&we 165- 152/45-50-mm MB.4. ( Base-Fuzsd) Data Guns used in---------------152/32-mm Gun. ------------Diameter at bourrelet..s’ .3 mm Distance base to band -------32.E.E.------Fuzing -------------------- Over-all length -------. ------T~eoffilhg --------------Weight of filling. (Bssa-$uxed) 152/45-50-mm H. M909K25.. . .150. 152 /50-mm Gun Base Fuze M91# 599 mm 144. --------. . Data GunsUSedin .ITALIAN AbiD FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDN&CE OP 1668 . . ---. 47 kg.47 kg.- ------ Diameter at base -----------Diataace base to band -------Wldthof bad ..51nm 35 mm 65mm Unknown TNT 3.

Ram8rk3 The projectile haa a double rotating band” and both piercing and ballastic caps.. . .6mm Diameter at base -----------151. Di~e@rat bour~let -------T~offilling --------------- 730.-----Without faze .. . Data 210-rnnI H. i I 152/37-inm A.Wldthof ’band-. ----------0. ---------Diameter at baa-----------Dktimb-tobanl[i.--. . S.-------------Y). . . 152/37-mm Gun Fazing --------------------J3w FuzsM11 K.25kg. ---... ..1. . . ------- Over-dkmgth ~tifum-.ln9500kg. Data Gwtiti ----------------zlO@mmFiel~ Gun. . Weight of loaded projectile--.—7 ll~AIJAhl ——— PROJEC~l LES imJ .3mm 712mm lJnkno~Vn 25mm 25mm 209. .210/22-mm Howitzer Nosepercwion Fuze M 17 GuAti. ..43138 113 9 ..-.E.8mm Typeof filling.. -. .-.P. .519.. ..-. ...P. .-..-. . Over-all lm@h--. .24mm Distance base to2nd band---. R.. .7S kg. .._. I $i9ure 167- lS2i37-mm A. Fuidng.63mm Wldthof lstband:----------30mm Wldthof hdbmd ----------35mm Dismeter at bourrelet --------151. .. -. Boostir usd-.. . . .. 52..30rnm TNT or MAT or MBT Weight of filling------------14.-.----.42 kg. Wei@tof loddproj~tfle.-. .2mm Distance base tolst band. -... .

21 kg.. (Bombs) Data Gwudin ----------------- Feting ---------------------- 210/8-mrn Field Gun Nose Percussion Fuze (Gumritore L M350r I.. . .to 14. 107. to 103. . 60. . . . . . (Bombs) 21O-mm H. . Remarks ‘l%eprojectilehas a very unusual round base. 114 40 .--.E.E. 209. . . . . . . . _.. . . . . .. . .. 100 kg. . . M38) Diameter at bourrelet-. Over-all length 776 mm Wlthwtfuze -------------208 mm Diameter at babe-----------Distance base to band ----. (Cast-Steeil Figure 170-210-mm H. 200mm 14.5 mm T~eoffilfing-. . . . .3rnm Type of filling--------------Weight of filling-------------Weight of loaded projectile_. . I —— Figure 169210-mm H. . .5 mm Width of band -------------25 mm Dlameter at bourrelet. ..--.6 kg 2?0-mm H. -. . .E. .. . -----. MST Weight of filling--. (Cast-Steel) Data Gunus4 in . . 210/8-mm Fieid Gun F[tzing---------------------Nose Percussion l?uze M17 Over-all iength --------------735mm Diameter at base -----------Distance base to band -------Widthofb and. .209.70 kg. . Weight of loaded projectile. ... . .3mm 25mm TNT llkg. .I [ALIAP4 AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORO&ANCE OP 1668 ..E. .5 kg.

- .E.-25. . Field Data GuuAin Gun . . .-. Wldthof bwmiet ----------Diameter at bmwrelet _____ Type of filling--------------Wei@tof filiing ------------Weight of loaded projectile. . .--.73 mm Wldthof bad--------------34mm Diameter at bourreiet . . .100 kg Boosbr ---------------------XO. . .2 mm 185 mm 102.590 kg. M3S Figure 172-. . .133 kg. --. . . ------Unknown Distance baea to band. Unknown T~ofti.-. Figure 171. . . ..- PROJECTILES A u . . .953 mm Uaetirat b= .2 mm 820.. .210/22-mm H.5 mm Over-all length With fum----------------Without fug.tig. MM) 851. . . . Nose Percussion Fuze (Guerritore v. One 115 . 210/22-tnm 260/9-mm 210/2’2+nm H. .E.-. . . ..219. . .—t.— ITALIAN —. Remarks The projectile ha a streamlined modification has less wall thickaew.4 3438 Amatol 18. . . . . Weight of loaded projectile --.4.WOkg. base. 101. 260/9-mm h!.E: M35 H.. . . 30mm 209. --------TNT Wei~tof~mg-..4mm 260/9-mm Field Gun Feting ---------------------Nose Percussion Fuze M17 Over-all length with uose piug. ----------------- Data Gun used in----------------Futig .-. ----Diwe@rat b~-----------Distance base toband.....--.. .-.----. .

. 305-mm H.E. . . (Cast-Stou4J Figure 174- 305-inm H. Weight of Ioaded projectile---.M17 Over-all len@h -------------953mm Diameter at base -----------256mm Distance base to bcmd. . Booster --------------------A10. (Short) Data Guudin ----------------- .. 203mm Distance base to band -------24mm ~dthofbmd --------------57. -. . . .34 mm Dirimeter at bourrelet -------Unknown Type of filling--------------TNT Weight of filling.4mm Type of filling. . . . -----------19. ..287 kg. . Remarks Theprojectile issimikwto30&mmH. .8~ kg.ijmm Diameter at bourrelet -------304. .E.. . . .700 kg. . . . . . . (Cast-St~el) Data Gun used in---------------- 260/9-mM Fidd Gun Fazing . . Weight of loaded projectile. . . E.. . . . . . .73 mm Width of band --------. . . . (Short) 260/9-mm H.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE 0RD&4NCE (3P 1668 dlm Figure 173- 260/9-mm ME. (Long). . . . .E.4 M38 116 305/8-mm Field Howitzer Feting ---------------------B~e Fuze M09 Over-all len@h--------------946mm Di-etwat b~e-. TNT Weight of filling ------------32 kg. . . . Noee pe~ution Fuze . 222. . . .---” . . . . .

_.. .30$i.. . .... . . . . .E.8 mm Diameter at bourrelet.. . . .E.. 380 kg. . .-. Weight of loaded projectile___ 3058-mm Field Howitzer kaeFuzeM09 l130mm 303mm ‘Mmm 57. ..305 /17-mm Howitzer Futig-.4 mm TNT 34. . .Okg..ITALIAN PRCIIECTILES ‘U . .. -. . . . . . . 348... . w Figure 176. . . --. Weight of loaded projectile H. . TNT Weight of filling Shoti.... . .. . ( Long and Short Light . . . M . . . . ( Long) LM’a Gun usd in.-. . . .-. . .. . . . .... . . ---.--. . ---. . -. . . . .. .. . . . .Case) Data Gun UA inm --------------. . Diameter at base-.E. ..-. . Distance baeeto band -------Wldthof bad -------------Diameter at bourrelet ------. . .”-. 56mm Width of band .320kg.. -... .33. . . .Type of filling.. Mug. .l183mm Diameter at base. . . . .600kg. . --------50. .E. 303... . . . . .. Weight of filling. . (Long and Short Light-Case) 1 Figure 17S-305-mm H. ------l148mm hag... . . . ----------Futig --------------------Over-ail length . . . .1.. .2 mm Diatanoe base totvmd:-. . Ekwel!uzeM14 for 305 /17 Over-all length Shoti. . . . . . . brig .-. 117 I . 38. . . -. . .33 kg. . 302. . . .. .timm 304. -” ----------350 kg. . ..’.5 mm T~of~ng-. .. . . . . . .. .--. . 305-mm H. . . . . . (Long) 305-mm H. -.--.. . i . . . ..-.. . .

.31.. .5 mm Diameter at bae~~------. (British Short ami Long] 305-ITNnH.100 kg. Wei@tof 51tig ------------Weight of loaded projeetiIe_ -. h----------------3@j/17-mm Howitzer Fuzing lNoe8--unknown Over-ail length with plug-.------. .5 mm Long ------.-.------. T~offltig.-.---.45. Booster used --------------- 1151 mm 302.------‘340. 101~ Long—British Nose Fuze 450A or Itxdian M17 Over-ail length without fuze Short --------.--.$ mm TNT 43.-. Di~eter at b~-----------Distance base to band -------Width of band -------------Diameter at bourrelet.---.400 kg. -1.3 mm Distance base to band -------51 mm Width of band --------------76Diameter at bourrelet -------UxIkIIOwn Type of falling --------------probab~~ TNT Weight of Wing Short -------. . 348 kg. 118 Figure 178- 30Sj17-mm ME.1075.-----. .-------. ----. 301. 4 I&fw . .340.. .000 kg. . Long ------.------. Weight of loaded projectile Short ---------.2mm 56 mm 51.E.--------. .-. . ( British Short and Long) Data Gunu~ k----------------3Q5/17-mm Howitzer Fuzing $hort-13fitish Nose Fuze No. . Long------. .5rom 303.E. . 305/17-mm Data Gu~ud H. No.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE C)RDMA}4CE (3P 166$ -) 4!B Figure 177- 30S-mm ME... .500kg.975.-----..69u kg.------.

..500 kg.--.4 mm Distance base to band --------..0276mm Diameter at baae.491)kg.30$/ 17’.305/17-mm Howitzer Fuzing N’ose-Unknown Over-all length without fuze--. .5mm 303. Cast-Steel) Data Guud h-.100 kg. l’~ALIA~ —.--.. . Figure 179- 305/ 17. . d . -. ------. .E (Cast-Steel) 305/17-rnm H.1.E.... -.E. -------38..5 mm Diameter at bourrelet -------303.. -. ..55 mm Width of b~d-..- PR~jEC71LES .—8.2mm 5Smm /U. .mm H. .... .8mm TNT 19..328.. . . ------302.E... -... . . S1. . 441. . 4 -M33 119 u .Type of filling--------------Wei~tof fillkg ------------Weight ofloaded projectile___ 305/17-mm Howitzer B~FuzelM14 for 305 /17 l175mm 302. 305/17-mm H.. .-.14S kg. ( Heavy) 12ata Gunu~ in----------------Fazing ----------------------Over-al llength -------------Dimefir at b~-----------Distance baae to band -------Wldthof bad--------------Diameter at bourrelet . Be-r-.8 mm Ty~offiUhg---. w . ... .. H..-. . . .... . (Heavy) Figure J80 .. M3T Weight of filling. . -------------No. . Weight of projectile.

-.) W~dthof lst band ----------33. 32..-. q .M17 Over-ail length withoutfuze_. .49 kg. .52 mm T~eof61hg-.- . Figure 181-3t)5/17-mrn H. ( Base-Fuzed) Data Gun usedin----------------380/15-mrn Heavy Howitzer Fuztig .--. . .. .. . . Weight of loaded projectile.8mm Diameter at bourrelet -------303. . . No.--. B~steru~--. . . (Base-fuzed) 305/17-mm Data H...#. . . 177mm Width of band--------------51.25mm Distance base to2nd band---.-..ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE C)RDN~NCE OP 1668 .754)kg. . Gu usd in----------------- 1380/15-mm H. -.--.E.125 kg.. .--.. Weight of lcmded projectile-.-----. .6mm Wldthof tidband . .--.E. .. (One-Piece) Figure 782- 3a0/ l$mm WE. . l130mm Di-etir at b=-----------Unknown Distmce b~tobmd-. 4.. .5mm Diameter at bourreiet -------379 mm T~offlkg --------------TNT Weight of filling------------71.. (One-Piece) 305/17-mm Howitzer Fazing ---------------------Nose Percussion Fuze. - .. 120 .LM38 Remarks The projectile is of one-piece construction.. .-. MST We@toffilkg ------------46.65mm (approx. -: 259 kg. Base F~ze M16 Over-all len@h -------------1402mm Dheterat b=-----------378mm Distance base tolst band----.

. . . .. Diameter at bourrelet $hoti .ancebaeetolstbetnd. . .. . ------Weight of filing Shoti---. !Nkg.. . .. . . -. . . . .7mm TNT :75 kg. Long--. . .-. Long -..-.-. . .-. . . . [300kg. . . ----------1375mm Long --------------------ls54mm Diameter at base -----------485.+-.--.-. -. . . . . . .9mm IXet. . . . . . . . . . . .--..—. . . ..-. .420-mm 420-mm H.70mm Wldthof l~t band . . . . . Wldthof hdbmd. .5mm 418. .. MIOOlsg.. .-. -. 420/12+nm Heavy Howitzer Fuzing Baee-Unknown Over-ail length Shofi.. . . ”------Long -. (Short and Long) Gunueed in. Weight of loaded projectile Shoti. . . $k93 121 ( 1 .. I’TALIAN —.. . ... .. . . . . . . . . .. -------------- !Mmrn 40.. . T~eoffi~bg . . .--. . .Z.1 PROJE&Tl LES d. ?/gur* 183.. ... . 25mm Dietanos baeetm2nd band---. .-. . .. . .--..R (Short and Long) Data H. ..... . . ..8mm 418... -.. .

T. .. .. 672 mm 2... . . Body Diameter-------------Type of filling--------------Weight of Cling . . .5 kg. Over-all length with fuze 24&mm -----------------965mm 4~mm -----------------1700mm Length of body . Total weight 20m--. . . .-------. .9P lea \ —- Figure ?84- 240-mm (Bom&a) 240-mm and 4CXhnm ( Bombs) Data Equipmentusedin 2#mm Mortar whim Mortar Fuziw 24&-mm-French type M35. . . . . . . .I I ALIAN AND PKIXWH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE . 4M3$ Remarks These mortar bombs are very similar to aircraft bombs.---. or Nose Fuze M17 or L M38 400—rnm-French type 3415 I. 122 I . T. . 265 kg: No. .. -.. .40mm TNTor Amato] Unknown 65. . . . . . . . .-. .. . . win. . . ----------Boater . . I. . .-. . . . . .

. . . .--.~. . -. ---Black diamond. as follows: [1]—lst normal charge (2J—2nd normal charge [3]—3rd normal charge If the charge is flaahless. . Place and date of proof 4. . . A flashless charge is. Initial of manufacturer 2. Near end of life Star ~hell Blmk$tar -------------Tracer fitted” C.. . .~. Two types of marking and coioring systems were used. 7’7. On the bags are following general markings relating to propellant. L-------------------75/1 hwn Mountain Gun Cartridge Case Data Over-all length -. . . . . . . . coiored triangies n the Me. .. there is a half black ring on the base. .--. Starshell ‘ C. 1st class condition Gr~n-. . .--. . . IE9 mm Over-all diameter at mouth . 2nd. These are referred to a lst. Place and date of filling The New System The type of charge is indicated by a number in brackets.. Black circle-------------1st ck9 condition Black triangle -----------Zncl. A complete black ring indicates a speciaI charge for light projectiles. . D. . . . .. o Black . . In terms of weight. . . Rd-------------------1st nOlld charge Blue . . .mm Mountain Cartridge Case Gun %mlJ 123 . . . . .4 mm Diameter atrim -------------85 mm Weight of empty case -------0.-.. . . Lot and date of manufacture 3.75/ 13. and 3rd no-al charge.. ii. . . .2 mm Wxdth of rim .. q Figure 185. . -. It is the Itaiian practice to have more than one weight for the normal charge for a particular equipment. usuaily a 3rd normal charge.----. . .670 kg. .ITALIAN CARTRIDGE CASES CARTRIDGE CASES . Near end of its life Yeiiow ----------------Praotice C. ...----. and so coior letters give details. .. . A. these represent decreasing vahes. . . The following signs hnve indicated significance. The charge may be a hshless type or nonflaahless. obtained by the inclusion of bags containing potassium chloride.. >--..chu3scondition Black square.--2nd fiashless charge 2black @if rings -------3rd flastdess charge Green and white---. .Special charge for star shdls B.--. 2nd norrmd charge 2 black rings -----------3rd normal charge Red and white .. M fiaehless charge Blue and white--. L-------------------Tracer fitted On 76/17 and smaller calibers.. . ... . .------. . .. . .. .---. .. . Green circle------------AA ~te--. . . Other marks. there is insufEcient space for complete rings. . The Old System had: A. Colored rings on the base of the cartridge to refer to the propellant charge. 1..

160 kg.n ~ 0. I@iter 10 kg.075 kg. Bailistite (1. --.. black powder Primer Percussion Primer M29 or MM Propdallt Lightest loading No.075 kg. + 0.087 kg. 1668 Igniter 10 grams black powder Primer Percussion Primer 3429 or M35 Propellant Lightest loading ... + three (0.5 mm 3.04 kg.. + 0.2x 12x 12) Total-O. -.4 mm 78.240 kg. + 0. + 0. 4th lightest loading 0.) charges Tota+O.12 kg. 185mm Over-all diameter at mouth.12 kg.---Over-aU diameter at mouth. u*o~ OP. 78.12 kg..04 kg.. ..04 kg. 3rd lightest loading 0.2x 12x 12) 2nd tightest 10dh16 180 grams + W grams BaIliatite (1. + 0.. 75/1 hnm Mountain Howitzer Cartridge Case Data Over-all length. ----Wldthof A-------------------Dimetir atti ----------------Weight of empty cue-----------over-all 4!5’ . length -----a.336 grams 75/27-inm Data Field Gun Cartridge Case 186.-. Ballistite (1 x 10x 10) 2nd lightest loading 0.2mm 0.04 kg.-----.ITALIAN AND FREFJCH EX$LO$lVE ORDh&{CE Width of rim---------------Diameter at ti------------Weight of empty c-. Totai-O.’ Igniter 10 grams black powder Frimer Percussion Primer M29 or M36 Propellant .83S kg.04 kg.075 kg.087 kg. BaIiistite (1 x 10x 10) TotalA”.249 grams 4th lightest loading 0.) ChtU@9 TotaI-O.075 kg.2 x12x Totai-240 gI’8mS 3rd lightest loading 180 @MrU3 two 60+ _ Totai-300 @=S 4th lightest loading 180grams +three641gram chargee Totai-360 -S Sth lightest loading 180 grams + four 60 gram charges Total 420 grams 12) / 1 .162 grams 3id lightest loading 0. Totai-0200 kg.6 mm 90.12 kg + 0. Lightest loading 180 gnuns Ballistite (1. + two (0. + mm W.830 k. Mlistits (0.--. ------..087 kg.0.04 kg. 4 Normal Charge 0.5x 5 x 5) 2nd lightest loading 0. 1.

5x 15x 15) .*— 2nd lightest loading 0. . .280 kg.280 kg. Remarks This case is also used in.2%1kg. + 0.720 kg.365 kg. . Total . .5oo kg. . . .. Figure 187- 7S/27-mm Field Gun Catiridge Case : 75/32-mm Ligh$ Field Gun Cartridge Case Data Over-all len@h. .2mm Weight ofempty c~&. Ballistite (1. .220 kg. . .. . .1 mm Over-all diameter at mouth.220 kg.6 mm Diameter at rim----------------90. .. . .5 mm Wldthof h-------------------3.ITALIAN CARTRIDGE CASE6’ — —*W . . a 75 /27-mm fixed round.2S0 kg. . .280 kg.545 kg. + 0. . . Igniter 10 grams of black powder “ Propellant Type I Lightest loading 0. . 78.5x 15x 16) Seeond lightest loading 0.. + 0. Ballistite (2x 20x %) Total 0. .. Third lightest loading 0. . . Bailiatite (1. Type II Lightest loading 0. .. . Bailhtite (2X 20X 20) Totai-o.4 kg. iu$ . .1.280 kg. Figure 188- 7S/32-mm Cartridge Ligh+ Field Gun Case ‘~ 125 . 334. . +0.

0RDNJ4J4CE Fie\d Gun Cartridge Case . . .0. 6th lightest loading 0.28 kg.28 kg. BaJlistite (1.07 kg. + 0. ---.. . . + 0...184 kg. .77/28-mm field Cartridge Case lx Gun Over-W len@h -----------------132mm Over-all diameter at mouth -. Tota14.28 kg.Primer Percussion Primer M29 or M35 Propellant Lightest loading 0.’ . . Total-O. im’ 10 grams black powder Primer Percussion Primer M08 P.. .4f16 kg. a’ —- .103.--. OP 1668 --s ). 29 or 35 Propelkult Lightest loading 0. + 0. . ..210 kg. .07 kg.5x 15 x 15) 2nd Iightast loading 0. . 5th lightest loading “0.+ 0. l15mm Weight of empty case. Figure 190- 100/ 17-mm Ligh# Ple~d riowitzer Ca~ridge Case 100/1 7-mm Light Field Howitzer Cartridge Case Data Figure 189. . 4mm Dimeter atti .--. + 0.56 kg. + 0. + 0.6 mm Width of ti---.5x 15x 15) Tota14. + 0. . .-.63 kg.23 kg. +.07 kg. + 0. .07 kg..--. Tota14.5x 15x 15) Totai4.07 kg.07 kg. Ballistite (1. .07 kg.07 kg.5x 15 x M) 2nd lightest loading 0. + 0. Bdiatite’ (1.28 kg. 4th lightest loading 0.07 kg. + 0. + 0.5X 15 XJ5) Tota14.088 kg.. ---. + 0.312 kg.088 kg.224 kg. .07 kg.07 kg.. + 0. .224 kg..35 kg. . 1.--.49 kg.07 kg. 3rd lightest loading 0. B. + 0. . . 3rd lightest loading 0.42 kg.28 kg. ITALIAN 77/28-mm Dimriaiona Ugknown Igniter AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE .07 kg.07 kg. .. Bailistite (1.-. . Total-O. Ballistite (1. + 0.07 kg. + 0.224 kg.

.375 kg.. . . . . .. 3rd lightest loading 0.34 kg...-. + 0... Data Over-~l len@h. Ballistite (0.093 kg.135 kg. Weight’of empty case-. Total-1.5x 360) 2nd lightest Ioachg 0. Ballistite (1.63 kg. . .093 kg.. + two 0..-. + 0.l35 mm Over-all diameter at mouth .375 kg. -. charges Total--O.----------------Over-ail diameter at mouth ..135 kg. -. . 105/14-mm Case Light Field Howitzer Cartridge- . . .9 mm 122mm 1..34 kg. . + 0... Type II Lightest loading 0. . .. + 0. Igniter 25 or 30 grams biack powder with 5 grams of lead foil as a d~oppering c~arge “ Primer Percussion Primer .. Total-l . . Ballistite (1.. .465 kg. . -. ..50 kg. .9 mm Di~eter atti. .32l kg. + 0.. ----Diameter at rim-.5 x 360) Total-L02 kg.:----122mm Weight of cue.-. Ballistite (2x 20x 20) Total-1. . F}gure 192- 105/28-mm Gun t:drtridge Case 105/28-mm Gun Cartridge Case Data Over-ail ~n@h .M29 or M35 Propellant Type I Lightest loading 0. .66 kg.093 kg..68 k~ Ballistite in scroll form (1. 3rd lightest loading 0. + 0. 110.36 kg. 1. .CARTRIQGE CASES 4——’ Remarks This cartridge case rmd Ioadinge are also used for the 100/17-mm Mountain Howitzer. -.. .75 kg. .. ... -. .760 kg. 4th lightest loading Five 0. .75 kg. . . .34 kg.135 kg.-. . 3rd lightest loading 0. 125 kg. . .. Bailistite (2x20x 20) 2nd lightest loading 0. w’ Propellant Lightest loading 0. -. . .760 kg. ..22$ kg.75 kg. -. + 0..375 kg. J Figure 197- 105/ 14-mm Catiridge Light Case Field Howitzer . 127 . charges Totai 0.2 x12x 12) Total-O.ITALIAN—.. .5x 5 x 5) tid lightest loading 0. . Igniter 25 grams biack powder Primer Percussion Primer M29 or M35 135mm 110.

+ 0.80 kg. --. Over-all diameter at mouth-.5x 15 x 15) 2nd lightest loading 0.110 kg. . Bailistita (1.420 kg. + 0. but the propellant loading varies. + 0. Ballistite (1..-. Total—1. . + 0.465 kg. i Ffgure 193- 149/12-mm Cariridge Heavy Case Field Hewitzer I .545 kg.660 kg.220 kg. 4th lightest loading 0.-.220 kg.85 kg.465 kg. + 0. . Bailistite (1..5x 15 x 15) 2nd lightest loading 0. 3rd lightest loading 0.220 kg.625 kg. .895 kg. .88O kg.5 x15x 15) Totak--O.735’ kg.110 kg. 4th lightest loading 0. Total L1OOkg. + 0. 3rd lightest loading 0.660 kg. + 0. .. Diameter at rim----------------Weight of empty case-. ---. 4th-O.320 kg.80 kg.465 kg. ‘149/1 3-mm Heavy Field Howitzer Cartridge Case Data Over-all len@h -----------------221 mm over-all diameter at mouth. . + 0.220 kg.7 mm Igrdtir 25 grams of black powder Primer Perouseion Primer M29 or M35 -) k . -. + 0. + 0.2 mm) Other loadings 2nd-O. Igniter 25 grams of black powder MOmm 157. + 0.9 mm Wldthof k-------------------6.80 kg. 5th4.:. 3rd-O. + 0. Type II Lightest loading 0.465 kg. .0 mm Diameter at rim----------------164. 171 mm 1. + 0. + 0.80 kg.-----151.80 kg.5x 15x 15) Total-O.80 kg.80 kg.660 kg.160 kg. This same type of case and loading is used for the 105/32-mm gun. + 0.490 kg.80 kg. Ballistite (1.465 kg. Bailistite Total-O.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EX?L_OSl Primer _ or 1668 Remarks Most cases for 105-smn caliber guns are the same. Type III Lightest ioading 0. .220 kg. .660 kg. Totai-O.220 kg.. Ballistite (1.5x 15x 15) Total-O. 149/12-mm Case Heavy Field Howitzer Cartridge Percussion Primer M29 or M35 Pro@ant Type I Lightest loading 0...590 kg. + 0.70 kg. Data Over-W len@h-.--. 5th Iightest loading 0. Ballistite in sheets (1.2 mm. .

Ballistite (1. .66 kg. --=5th tighteet ~OMiill~ 0..22 kg.22 kg. + 0.32 kc. -i.22 kg. 129 .22 kg. \ I - I 1 Figure u Propeuant 194- 149/ 13-nun Cartridge Heavy Case Type I Lightest loading 0. + 0. Type H Same as Type I.66 kg. Total-LIO kg.. + 0.0. 3rd lightest Ioading 0. + 0. + 0.5 x15x 15) Tota14. CASES ‘+W .11 kg..ITALIAN CARTRIDCE . Totai-1.5x 15x 15) 2nd Iighteet loading 0. + 0.22 kg. d c Fkiii Howitzer . + 0. .88 kg. + 0.22 kg.66 kg.22 kg. .66 kg. + 0.22 kg.43 kg. Total—1.-—-*--. but does not contain the last charge of 0.22 kg.60 kg. 4th lighte9t loading 0.110 kg. Bailistite. Ballistite (1.

. Propellant Lightest loading 7. Ballistite--42Yo Nitroglycerine (3. . . . . . . Remarks The charge of the propellant varies with the type of projectile used. . . Bailistit+2~o (3. .. . \ 3 Figure 195- 152/37-mm Gun Cartridge Case 152/37-mtn Gun Cartridge Case 767’mm Unknown Unknown 180mm 9. .---Width of Am-------------------Dimeter at~k ----------------Weight of empty case. . .. .5 x35x 35) .5 x 35x 35) 2-Jitrogiycerine Data Over-all length ..2 kg. dl .----------Igniter 50 grams black powder Prhner Percussion Primer M35 T30 2nd lighteet loading 9. .720 kg.4 kg. . over-all diameter at mouth --.

5 kg. -1. + 10. BaUistite (5X50X50) 2nd lightest loading 23. . . 13allistite (5x 50x 50) Total--37.7. 131 .3 kg.+ 6. -lth lirzhtest loadimz 23. %mlJ I Figure 196- 380/ 1S-mm Heavy HowitzetI Cartrjdge Case 380/1 5-mm Heavy Howitzer Cartridge Case Data” Over-all len@h -----------------Over-all diameter at mouth-.5 kg. Ballistite (5 x 50 x 50) Total~~..=.2 ig. + 6. ~~listite (5 x 30 x 501) Tota147.~ kg.3 kg. Width of *-------------------Diameter at rim----------------Weight of empty case-----------Propellant 865mm 390 mm unho~~ 420mm 44kg. + 7.3 kg.2 kg. + 6.O kg.5 kg..3 kg.ITALJAN —.. Lightest loading 23.3 kg...2 kg.-. 3rd lightest loading 23.— CARTR1OCX CASES : .

3. Figure 199- Detonator M 10 Figure 200- Detonator M 10 (Allqeati) 132 .lTALIAFl ANO FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE W 1668 .. ... .. Figure 197Percussion Nose Fuze M 70 a ““--R4P- Figure 198- Detonato? M Corteso .

identification is often difiicl.8S in. E. .. The following abbreviations may be encountered in nomenclature of these fuze9: I . . On impact. (he type has no arming operation and functions on impact. was most widely used Itaiian fuze.) 0. MarkingN--------------Description 1. The fuzes were the moat widely used in the Italian projectiles. . supported by a pin and distance piece. c.----. The others use setback or centrifugal force as part of the arming operation.{1in.. c. . For smailcaliber m. . . .. (approx.97 in. .For large caliber m. . E.) M1O Unknown M17 ‘u type Time Fuze (Naval and Coastal Defense) O. On thing. Sc.. Many of the f~. . In the other portion the upper stirrup spring holds the forward brace inertia ring. the top inertia ring sets back and”overcomes the upper stirrup spring. for insertion in the shell The flange at the head protrudee from the fuzed shell. .) The fuzes are very similar to the time fuzes? but have a percussion feature incorporakd in them. . -by. as a remit. screw-thresded with apprmimately 11 threads to the inch. . and leads to an interior receea containing a striker with a lking pin nttaahed.$ in. . slotted to fit a. Bo. .dt. The copper sealing plug seais the flaah-hole and is threaded for sswnbly of the lower stirrup spring and Wachment to the striker. containing a detonator and a layer of gunpowder to increase the Hash..1 1. Instantaneoua p. c. projectiles. Bo. M. . (approx.K. but all are quite simple in operation. (spprox.Xrupp nose fuze with clockwmk safety device O. . . .For medium and large caliber Noee Percussion Fuzea (Naval and CoaatalDefense) These fuzes are similar in design to the fuzm for fie~d equipment. . . . Markingm... t. .or M1O and Detonator M1O (allegmti) vary only in dimensions above the screw threads. .-.” A screwthreaded hoie at the head receiv~ the detonator plug or transit plug. The striker has four fiash-holes &Wed..types are unmarked and. . The recess diameter increases to form a shouider near the bem to locate a retaining calllar. weight. T -----. Maximum diameter ------I’@ad’@uneter-. I?nder the cap is a thin brass piece. ._-.. .. .. . . . . . the setbaak bends down the brass piece and releasea the weight.Chapter 4 $&d’ ITALIAN Introduction Nose Percnesion Fuzea (Field Equipment) These are known aa “spdetta percussion” by the Italians. gauge. . . Operation On iiring. T . Percussion Nose Fuzes.. . .-.he pivot of which passes through the body of the detonator plug and bends over to cover the holes. . The recess is sorew-threaded below the shoulder to receive a black powder charge.. the weight mvipgs out and uncovers the detanatcw hoie. M17 Dimensions . the 133 . Xrupp nose fuze with 2 safety devices O.. K.-Nose Mechanical Time Time and Percusaion Fuze (JLD.. . . The fuzes vary slightly in design. g. 2s_. The Dotonat. c-------.. .. .M1O and M17 ProjectUes UsedIn Used in most Ital@ H. Various braw detonator plugs we used. c---------. A ilring pin is attached to the striker by two ribs tc)prevent blocking the iiaehholes. On deceleration. . but differ in nomenclature: o. brass..-Nose Time Combustion O..For medium caliber g. e. . . . The M17 M1O: The cylintiical bbdy is 0.--. Detonator M Cortese incorporates a.. safety device. -Nose fuze with clockwork Time FuzeB (Field Equipment) Tiie fuzes are of two types: A tempo-combustion type Meccanica a temp~mechanical PROJECTILE Data FUZES M1O Over-all length. .

JG FigeIre201 . but is used in projeotiles of larger caliber. which is the only part e.xt-endingfrom .?! *. -- m % .. -------------unknown 65/17 H.-..... k UE OET’ONATU? RING ARMING ..... Data Over-ail length --------------Unknown Maximum diameter. .E.J i AMHCW aiWU rxzr+um CAt’LU~i Vk QKLJNANCE OP 1668 stfier overcomes the lower stirrup spring. Remarka Ml? is simiiar to the M1O. .Percusshm MQse Fuze b Percussion Nose Fuze for 65/17 H. -> 4114 .~ . . .. withdraws the copper ciosing plug from the flash-hole..E. and forces the firing pin into the detonator. --------Unknowm Thread diameter ------------Unknown MMh@... .. W . Description This fuze is very similar in appearance and operation to Percussion Fume M1O and Ml?.+ . . The cylindriczd brass body is screw-threaded throughout its length for insertion in the shell and has a flange at ita head..

—--i’--wvrvr —! > \ . and M (Cuerritore) M. Unknown Maximum Diameter_ . I t STRIKER ‘w Figure 202- Percussion (Guerritore) Nose Fuze M 10 pc. .~e flash-hole is blocked by a plug with an enlarged head to seat in the chamfered upper side of the hole in the base plug. The closing piug sets back and blocks the @h channel during acceleration. which is held up by a spring. Operation On firing. The upper portion of the plug is threaded and has a stirrup spring w cured at.. the base is screw-threaded to receive the ldack-powder charge. .. ----.ITALIAN the fuzed shell.Unknown Thread diameter-. The flash-hokit is opened. . . . Below the shoulder. . surrounds the detonator holder at the top. E. and the flash passes thrqugh the striker to the flaeh-hole in the base. e.-SrnaU Caliber H.:-. . . ----. The striker is now hdd by the closing plug and i@ stirrup. 135 . drawing with it the cJosing plug and ita “stirrup spring. E.. An inertia ring. c. the 6ring pin hits the detonator. A safety pin. is alsc) included.( the nose by a cap holding the firing’pin and ciomd at the bme by a brcss plug holding a gunpowder pellet... which contains the detonator at the top and a gunpowder flash charge at the bottom. . g. ““: /-J~ <. On irnpaot the striker mmws forward.:. . with the firing pin attached at iti forward end and four holes drilled through the be. L .C. -------Unknown Description M1O (Guerritore): This fuze consists of a brass body which is closed . In the center of the fuze is the deton~tor holder. which i~ removed before fining. The stem alsopasaee through the central hole in the striker and is se- PROllECTl LE FUZES 11( w cured to it by a nut. . c. the arming ring sets back against its stirrup spring. Data Projectile used in M1O p..“ . iti basein a nut.4 creep spring and a split ring keep the detonator off the needle. Shell M (Guerritore) m. Percussion Nose Fuzas Ml O (Guerritore ) P. ..—Medium and Large Caliber M1O Shell C?ver-sUlength.. . . The striker is cylindrical. A Sctew-threaded hole in the head receives a detonator holder andleadsto the interior recess containing the striker with the firing pin attaclwci~ The diameter of this recess is increwd to form a shoulder near the base which locates the retaining Colhw.C.

however. The detonator holder has a small charge of biack powder in order to obtain a greater flash to the booster. Opemtion On &ing. The striker ia held from moving down by three small lugs at the 136 Projectile used in-. The fuze portion which threads into the projectile is very similar to that which is wed for Nqee Percussion Fuze IM1O. M35 75-mm-210-mm H. . in dimensions. . a diameter held away spring. an aluminum striker assembly. During deceleration. since it is intended for use in projectik of medium and large caliber. ------ top which rest in grooves at the nose of the fuze body. Shells Over-all length -------------Unknown lhfaximum diameter -------. Also at the top.%Y!wLISiVE 0RDP4ANCE presses its ring opens. to such as to allow the detonator holder to be from the firing pin by only the creep N4 (Guerritore): This fuze is similar in design and function to the 1M1O(Guerritore). There are no setback or centrifugal safety features connected with this fuze.I I HLIAN AiYIJ rf(tfwll t. .-. and a detonator held off the striker by a thin brass shear wire. the inertia ring sets back and com- --- NEEDLE sTRIKER ‘ y#R I Dfmuu “OR n Flgum 203PercussionNose Fuze L M35 Data Percussion Nose Fuze 1. . It dMers. the split a9 a result of centrifugal force. E.Unknowm Thread diameter ------------Unknown ‘Deecrfptfon This fuze consists of a brass body. This particular fuze wss found to have been used in many of the projectiles for which the 1M1O JM17 or were generally used. there is a split ring which keeps the striker in place. ---- . OP 1668 spring.

E. ‘m w figure 294Percussion . On impact. . The striker is forcd onto the detonator. PROJECTILE FUZES —— /! STRIKER WEAR WIRE [)ETONA~R . . the setback forces. M3$ Type 14tamped I-3$-p. . c. involving a ball which blocks the flash chard. I. . the shear wire and lugs are shear@. aluminum instead of brass. Data Projectilesusedin I. The two balls then fly out by centrifug~l foroe. is made inactive so that during flight the arming tube can creep forward. Shells L M38 Type II-Medium Caliber H. M38 and L M32/38 . . M32/33-UnknoWn Over-alI Length. The striker is held in position by three Iuga resting “m groovea at the nose. . c. . The spring. . I. M38 Type I-Small Caliber H. forced onto the detonator. and jam the inertia ring in the rear position. . this striker is. M38 Type 11-+tamped I-38-m. Operation On firing. . The arming tube. . . Unknowm Maximum diameter ---------Unknown Thread diameter ------------Unknown Markings I. which also moves towird the striker. the” striker is forced to the rear. the inertia ring to rear against its spring. M32/31+%amped 32-1-38 Dmwrfption These funs are very similar to Percussion Nose 6 n FJgure 205- Percussion Nose Fuze L M32/38 Fuze 1. is itself kept in position by two bails which press against an inertia ring. as a result. The ball blocking the ihwh-hole then moves outward due to centrifugal force. except for their markinge and dimensions. . PexcusskmNose Fuzes 1.ITALIAN —— Operation This fuze was called an instantaneous type by the Italians. Remarks These fu~es are similar. Shells I. M35. On impact. which holds the ball in the flash-hole. The main difference is that the fumw incorporate B safety device. 137 8AUS ‘+ (. thus shearing the lugs and shear wire. E. . and also that they are made of.

. . ..-. The fuze has a shipping plug used during transportation.< . which C1OWS flash-ho[e is freed and the moves outward to clear the flash-hole. . I Figure 206Percussion Nose Fuze A440 with Detonator M40 — Ordimwy s 1. A thin metal disc separatea the fuze proper from the detonator. E. In this case. The second type is also made of aluminum. The single ball bearing moves out and jams the arming ring in the rear position.(3 % ‘. . . . is colored red.. It is fitted with a detonator holder which .. . . --. There is no creep spring.— Percussion Nose Fuze Iv140 Data Projectile used in. The first type is made of aluminum.--. the striker in the detonator holder is forced onto the detonator.: u STRIKER SH R WIP E DETONATOR . the firing pin pierces Jhe metal disc and hits the detonator in the holder. operation On firing. . and contains a detonator only. The arming ring is positioned by a spring. The centrifugal bolt. 138 CENTRIFUGAL 8(2LT 7rEaiFigure 207Percussion A40 Detonator Nose Fuze M40 with Instantaneous ... The two types of detonators used were Detonator N140 Instantaneous and Detonator N140 Ordinary.-----------Unknown NlmMngs ------------------Unknown THIN METAL DISC ARMING RING BALL LOWER STRIKER i description This fuze is made of aluminum and is of recent aesign. and the detonator is screwed into the fuze before use. except to clear the ffash+ole with Detonator MM-O. -. The striker moves forward. Unknown Thread diameter.I I HLIAN ANU tKtNCiii EXPLCISiVE QRI))AN(X 0? 1668 DETONATOR The fuze contains a striker which is kept in the mamned position by an arming ring and ball bearing.75-mm-100-mm H. is unpainted.--------Unknown Maximum diameter . To the rear of the striker is a centrifugal bolt which is held in position by the striker. -. On impact with Detonator M40 1. . inactivating the spring. Shells Over-all length ----. the striker in the fuze proper plays no part. The striker then moves forward under the action of its spring.s screwed into the top. . and is similar in construction to Percussion Nose Fuze N135. the arming ring sets back and compresses its spring.

139 0. thereby arming the fuze. lMaximum diameter.. upon impact..--. . 4 i—.- A. It is not known if the :ing sets back over the striker iiuring acceleration. . with a fiat firing pin. .+.987 in.. is required in order to force the striker through the split ring.-w-DELAY Percussion Nose Fuze for 37/40 Data Over-all length -----------.STRIKEFf . or whether the striker is designed to set forward through the ring upon impact. is transmitted to the gunpowder pellet in the striker and to the charge in the baee of the fuze.-. DETONliT’OR —W ~J. The fuze screws interrmlly into the steel head of the shell. The flaeh from the detonator. The striker is held in position by a split brass arming ring. . hollow portion of thfi striker is fiiled with gunpowder. Thread diameter ------------M=ti@---.ITALI(AN PROJECTILE FUZES .P.+.. .P.T ARMING . ... Unknown Unknown Unknown Description This fuze coneiete of a hollow brass body with a detonator holder screw-threaded in the forwani end. —-47 FJgure 208Percussion Nose Fuse for 37/40 A.-------. would be reduced in flight by the centrifugal forcee acting upon the split ring. .+. .’. Its striker is cylindrical and hoilow. op&ation It has been found by test that a force of 45 lb. .. this force requirement. The . . .

---------Nfaximum diameter --.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE r . x SHEAR WIRE sTRiKER RFuGAl -.... The detents are held back during tight by the friction resulting from centrifugal force. . a . Ruring the period of deceleration. severing its shear wire. hitting the firing pin. . the firing pin may be driven in. -------Over-all length With booster -------------Without booster. Thread diameter ------------M=M&------------------- . .. The detonator holder fits into a centrifugal bolt which acb as a safety shutter to the flseh hole. movement of the centrifugal locking bolt. On impact. The fi-~g pin is fitted tith two ghear wires. aasisted by the Ming movment imparted by the step on the lower centrifugal bolt. Pereusshm Nose i%ze M39 47/32 H. the detonator overcomes the lower shear wire. Dependent on the resistance offered by the surface struck and the angle of the strike. and piercing the detonator se the holder moves forward. ~ DiETOPJA’TOR . the centrifugal locking ball md lifting bolt are throw outwards and the detanator hoider. . . thus disengaging the recess in the masking bolt.2 in.14mm RR2/41 I)eewiptiori The body of the fuze is screw-threaded externally at the base to receive the fuze booster. Shell Unknom 3. . 140 q . leaving the upper laterai channel clear for subsequent. . the two setback detents set back.4 I Figure 209Percussion Nose Fuze M39 Data ProjectiI~ used in. The masking bolt is then thrown clear of the flash-hole leading to the booster. creeps forward to the limit imposed by the lower shear wire.-.. The firing pin is held in position by a &mtrifugal bolt which is locked by two detents which are fitted with springs. . operation On acceleration.- . \. E. Unknosvn 1. — z II ‘@HI w .. Another centrifugal bolt is fittsd to perform the function of raising the detonator holder. The detonator holder is in the form of a cup.. OP 1668 /“ . the mouth of which fits over the lower end of the firing pin.

. the centrifugal bolt immediately moves cmtwardsY unlocking tho homeshoe centrifugal which is held by clock mechanism during acceleration. SC. . AGOS 36 XIV Description This fuze is in the shape of a truncated cone with screw-threaded brass adapter at the baseto screw into the nose of the projectile. . releasing the firing pin which. A centrifugal safety bolt is horseshoe-shaped and is fitted with teeth which engage the first wheel in the series of the clock mechanism. the striker is forced down. Another centrifugal bolt at ring angles to the safety bolt is fitted within a spring and locks the safety bolt in position. The striker fite into the outer casing and is not connected directly to the tiring pin but is scparaterl by a small connecting d. . 2S 912) b —— STR!KEFI ‘L’ 4 Data Projectile used in. on im. remains in position because of deceleration. On deceleration.Rb. . mH+——++— WIT?WOR wki ~s~ Figure 311Percussion v Nose Fuse M 16 (ON. . Bemarks q . 120-mm and3SOmm H.. .paat with a hard surface. . 80. The entire fuze. . ----------7. .*— Percussion Nose Fuzes M16 (OK. On impact with a soft surface. apart from the brass cover piate at the nose. 141 .9 @ M%xirnumdia meter . hitting the connecting rod. The firing pin is kept in upward position I Ht--fYe T —PUSHROC . D. since friction set up between the comparatively large surfaces of the contact of the cogwheels is mflicient to prevent outward movements of the bob. E. The clockwork is simikr to that used in Nose Fuze for the 37/54 H. 6. differs in exterior appearance but functions exactly the same. 41. BO. and allow the horseshoe centrifugal boit to move outwards. .-. . The outer casing is steel. is painted black. . Ffguru 210- Percussion Nose Fuze OK. ITALIAN —-* PR(~ECTl LE FUZES *. Sheila Over-ail length . SC. . The detonator holder is held in position by a creep spring resting against the clock mechanism. -. . Bs. . Operation On firing. 47 The fum OK.. Shell. however. . . which in turn causes the firing pin to hit the detanator. md the detonator holder ie brass. E. . 2S 912) by a collar at its miclpoint which rests on top of the centrifugal safety boit. the detonator mcms forward to hit the iiring pin. the inner housing is ahuninurn. .2 mm’ Thread diameter ------------Unknown Muti@------------------Lll.—— . the cogwheels set forward and separati. howevar. .

. On deceleration. -.BO. the detent sete back. and the.. each coaeisting of a spur and pinion.. and a hole in the center of one side engages 142 . -’. forcing the spring past the shoulder in the sleeve. . 34/40 is identical.60..&ing pin and detonator move together.78 in. The fuze body is brass.Bo. . the . . When the fork portion of the bolt clears the collar. wheels separate. 34/37 This fuze is a clock-mechanism arming type with a centrifugal safety bolt hoiding the firing pin and detonator apart. . the striker and centrifugal are aluminum. the fking pin is held apart from the detonator by a creep spring. ? —STRIKER —P SH R&) r- CLOCKWORKS . The detonator holder is kept in position by a creep spring. On hpact. Unknown Thread diameter -----------1. . and the centrifugal bolt moves outwards under control of the clockwork eecapemerit mechanism. the detonator holder and clockwork mechmism am brass. . --5 . The safety bolt is then held oxdy by clockwork mechanism. . a toothed rack is enmeshed with the first spur of the clockwork escapement mechanism. . and withdrawing the stem from the recess in the safety bolt. is clos@ against air by a brass disc. . . withdrawing the spring past the shoulder. On the opposite side of the safety bolt. P .BO.. . The clockwork meehanism has a train of four wheels. $&marks Fuze O. 30. operation On acceleration. Maximum diameter --. 4 in. 34/40) Data-O. 34/37 0. Centrifugal force causes the locking bolt to move autwards.. A recess to engage a deteiit is locati on the underside of the bolt. The spring then engages the detgmt and prevents the detent from returning to a forward position. ..stern of the spring-loaded centrifugal locking bolt. . flRING PtN c’ ~pmw Ea! SETBACK PIN *DETONA1’OR . . . . The nose of the fuze. Figure 212- Percussion Nose Fuze O. 34/37 Ovel%dllength. and a balance wheei oscillator. . &ilIed through its center to take the striker and ahlminum connecting rod. except that it is aluminum and has a green tip.BO –-~ -tioM. The safety bolt forks at P~ the inner end to provide two arms which paes under a collar of the iiring pin to prevent the pin from moving towards the detonator.34137 Percussion Nose Fuzes (O.






“ acawoms

w“ . ....’.. ‘-




F;gure 273-

Percussion Nose Fuze for 37/54



Percussion Nose Fuze for 37/54 Data Over-ail length .._ . . . -------Maximum diameter . . . . . . . . . . Thread diameter - . . . . . . . ----Muti@. .--.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I-I.E. Shell

Unknown Unknown Unknown L1O, 20.1 41 XIV, OPX a 35, 11

Description This is an aluminum fuze. In the body is a braw container which holds the ciock mechanism composed of a train of four wheels and an oscillator. Passing through the body of the fuze is a centrifugal safety bolt which is fitted with a slot. This centrifugal bolt is also fitted with teeth which engage the teeth of the first wheel in the train series. P~ing through the center of the brass container is a firing pin with a collar at its midpoint. The firing pin is kept in the upward position by the collar resting on the top of the centrifugal

safety bolt. In the lower part of the fuze is the detonator holder, which is fitted on, the outside with ball bearings which bear against the brass ring. Below the detonator holder is a spring under compression. Screwed into the base of the fuze is a booster. operation WherI the projectile is fired, setback prevents the centrifugal bolt from moving outwards. After the setback forces have been overcome, centrifugal force will muse the centrifugal safety bolt to move outwards under the control of the train of wheels. In the event of.the projectile’s hitting a target, the firing pin will be driven onto the detonator, the collar being sheared. In the event that the projectile fails to hit a target, after the centrifugal bolt has been fully withdrawn, the detonator holder will move upwarda under the action of its spring, the detonator then striking the firing pin. The function of the ball bearing~ appears to be to set as a friction-reducing device. 143





OP 1668



tall -..







Nose Time Fuzes M900/14 Data Projeotile,used in.. -.-... Over-all length ---------Maximum diameter -----Thread diameter.. ------Markings M 0900/14 ----M0900/34----------

and M900/34

~. E. Projectiles for Field Guns 3 in. (approx.) unknown unknown Uuknown Stenciled red cross

Description The two fuzes are similar excepti for modifications. The M900/34 time rings have a small capacity, but a different burning powder is used to equaI the time of burning. The fuze body is aluminum. haembled on the body are two time rings. A tension cap screwthreads on the body to keep the time rings iri position. Two semicircular recesses formed in the cylindrical part of the body coincide with similar recesses in the upper time ring to receive two looking pins which hold the upper time ring fixed. A recess in the forward end of the body contains the detonx 144

tor holder and striker. The detonator is held off the firing pih by a spiit braas ring which rests on the shoulder of the recess. The firing pin is ilxed to-the bottom of the resees. The upper time ring hae a powder-flkd groove in the underside which extends 310 degrees. Vents are provided for the escape of pressure during burning. The lower time ring also has a powder groove in the undemide extending 310 degreei. A flash-hoie connecting the commencement of powder groove with the upper surface of the rings contains a press powder centrally drilkd to assist burning. A vegetablepaper washer with a hole to correspond to the commencement of the groove, and a felt waeher perforated to correspond with the flash-hole, are used to separate the time rings. operation On acceleration, the detonator sets back through the spiit braas ring to hit the The flash ignites the upper time ring, which burns along the groove. Vent discs blow out due to pressure and ,prevent variation in the rate of burning. The



distance between the commencement of the powder groove in the upper ring and the powder-filled &w& hole depends on the angle the lower ring is turned in the setting. When the powder burns around to the

flesh-hole in the lower ring, the lower ring ignites and burns around to a delay in the fuze base. ~rom the delay, the ileeh is passed to a solid powder pelIet in the flash channel, then to the main charge.




Figure 215-

Nose Time @uze 0.7’.32

Nose Time Fuze O.T. 32 Data Projectile used in.. -----Over-all length.. -- . . . . . . Maximum diameter . . . --. Thread diameter. - ------Markings -------------102/35 .4. A.

are located in the recess in the forward portion of the fuze. 2.7 in. (approx.) Unknown 1.762 in. 632, LU, 1940

On acceleration, detonator holder sets back through the split brass ting, and tlhe chtonator is impinged on the firing pin. The flash produced paeses through the flash channel in the recess and ignites the powder in the flash channel in the upper ring, thus igniting the fuze powder, which starts to burn along the groove. The pressure set up by the burning fuze powder dislodges ‘the closing disc of the first vent, and thus. prevents variation in rate of bumin~ as the result if heat and pressure. The distmce between the commencement of the powder groove in the upper ring and the powder-iilled flash-hole de~nds on the angle through which the lower ring is turned in eetting. When the fuze powder h~ burned around to the flash-hole in the lower ring, the lower ring ignites and burns around to the delay in the base of t,hefuze. From the delay, the flash is passed on to the solid pnwiler pellet in the flash channel, und then to the ITMincharge.

Description This fuze is very similar to the Nose Time Ftizes M900/34 and M900/14 in shape and operation, and is only slightly different in construction. There are two types, one with a tapered projection at the base and the other with the end flash with the screw threads. Setting graduations extend from Oto 13.2. The fuze set to 13 gave burning time of 26.6 seconds at rest. A soldered alloy cover with tear-off wire and ring is sometimes fitted to the fuze. The fuze is made of aluminum and has a locked upper time ring sad lower adjustable ring for setting. Both time rings are held down by a tension cap which screws onto the forward end of the fuze. The detonator holder with a split brass ring and the firing w’ *






OP 1668


. .






, ..: {. ME$\v

Figure 216-


and PercussiotJ Nose Fuze


i ,’I

Time and Percussion Nose Fuze A.D.E. M99 Data Projectiles used in.._. . . . Unknown Over-all length . . . . . . . . . . - Unlmown Maximum diameter.. . . . . Unknown Thread diameter_ -- . . . . . Unknown Markinga --------------Graduated ring num. bered 0-9 Description This is a brass time and percussion fuse ~th an akninum graduated ring around the center. The body is fitted within a helical time combustion ring which has four turns. The powder is protected externally by a lead cover. Over this portion fits a brass tube having a vertical window, into which fits a brass piece with four perforations numbered Oto 3. These perforations are in line with the time rings. In the side of the outer case is a long cavity having a detonator at the base. A brass firing pin fits into the cavity, being held off the detonator by a piece of spring braes. A safety $in is fitted for

further protection, The percussion mechanism, fitting centrally into the nose of the fuze, coneista of a firing pin at the bsse and a creep spring. The detonator holder screws into the nose of the fuze. The graduated ring haa a reading up to 10. This setting gives the unit @ures, the 10’s figures being given by the perforations in the brass piece. When the correct satting has been obtained, the time ring is punctured through the correct hole in the brass piece. On firing, the firing pin in the side of the cover sets back against the spring to fire the detoriator. By means of a longitudinal flash-hole, the flash is carried to the perforation made in the time ring. The time ring burns helically to the perforated peilet in the base of the fuze, which sets off the main charge. In the percussion mechanism, no action takes place until impact, when the striker and firing pin set forward against the creep spring and strike the detonator. The flash passes through the center of the striker h the main charge.


. ..”




. . . *nMs RNG ‘ Figure 217- Nose Time Fuze M06117 ‘Mw+ 147 . M06 Data Projectiles used in 75/27 A. . . A4i@’ /yL q \ . . . . . . and the lower setting ring is graduated to 59 and numbered to 58.I ITALIIAN Nose The Fuze M06/17 and Time and Percussion Nose Fuze A. . . M06 has a recess in the rear portion which houses the second firing pin. E. but depends on a time element. M06 perforated powder pellet at the commencement of the fuze powder train. operation M06 /17: On acceleration. but the periphery of platform bearing setting index is sometimes brass. In a recess in the forward position of both type fuzes. --------Maximum diameter ---------Thrqad diameter ------------Markings M06/17. PM3JECT!LE FUZES —--4— . and firing pin. stirrup spring. ~~ Description These fuzes are combustion types with two time rings. M06: Operation for the time part of the fuze is exactly the same as LM06/17. spiit arming ring.5 in. The upper ring is iixed. The time rings are of normal design.D. and Shrapnel 77/23 Shrapnel and A. . The A. starting the fuze powder burning. The lower ring burns and ignitee the pellet in the fuze baae which in turn ‘“flashesto the main charge. the detonator overcomes the weep spring and hits the firing pin. carrying the detonator to the firing pin. . The iuze burns around to the perforated pellet in the lower time ring and ignites the fuze powder. each having tightly closed vents containing a Figure 218- Time and Percussion Nose Fuxe A. The rings and body are aluminum alloy. A. the detonator holder overcomes the stirrup spring and sets back. .E. creep spring. On impact. The creep spring keeps the firing pin and detonator apart. D. the split arming ring sets back and I?cks to position of the detonator holder. A. 2. Operation for the percussion parts differs. . which causes the fuze to detonate on imptit. The flaah produced is transmitted to the perforated pellet in the upper time ring. (approx. Over-all length . locating spring. .) Unknown Unknown Numbers 1 to 58 . whereas the M06 /17 will not detonate on impact. A.E. E. . D. . . On setback. s cured by a setscrew. The tension of the setting ring is adjusted at assembly by a screwed cap. . and detonator holder. The cap is aluminum. are located the detonator holder.D.

Maximum diameter .E. having the detonator holder held by a stirrup spring. and creep spring. . an arming ring sets back against a stirrup spring and fthe detonator holder. On impact. E. ..E. . . T A. --. 148 1 ![ . detonator. the upper and lower being movable and joined by a piece of flat metal. sets . . . .. Markings M36---------------------Mod-36. Mtimum diameter ----------2. E. . . D.. Figure 219- Time and Pel ‘cvssion Nose Fuze A. 441J . . . M12 Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown baok against the action of the stirrup spring onto the iiring pin and sends a flash to the time rings. . . E. I@J-mm H.& M 12 Time and Percussion Nose Fuze AD.-. The initiating parts of the time and percussion mechanisms are fitted with safety pins which are attached to a ring. . j a Description This fuze has three combustion rings. M36 Data Projectiles used in 7S-mm H. . stirrup spring. . The time rings burn to the flash peilet in the base of the fuze. all located in the base of the fuze. These must be removed before firing. . . . . and 100-mm Shrapnel Over-all length -------------4. the detonator holder moves forward and forms the detonator into the firing piri.. the detonator.7in. and Shrapnel 149-mm-Shrapnel Over-all length .D. ----------Marking .ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE OP 1668 -\. . The percussion mechanism has an arming ring. The time mechanism is of the standard type.. M36------------4Mod-36. . which is now held off the firing pin by a creep spring. E. The center ring is fixed to the body by two small rivets. D. E..Thread diameter. . 149-mm H.D. . . . . . E.2 b. . . This sets off the charge. Operation Time Mechanism: On firing. Data Projectiles used in 100-mm-H. . Nose Time Fuze M36 and Time and Percussion Nose Fuze A. . Percussion “Meolmnism: On firing. ~madtiametir ------------2 in. . .

M36 Description These two fuzes are similar except that the A. which sets off the main charge. ball. setback element. which in turn burns to the middle ring. in which are escape holes. M36 has a percussion meohaniem in the base consisting of detonator. The whole device is designed to minimize effect of changes in atmospheric pressure upon the rate of burning. the striker breaks the shear wire and moves against the creep spring to hit the detonator. the cietonator holder sets back against the creep spring and stirrup spring to hit the firing pin. the upper and bottom rings are movable. aluminum fuzes are fitted with a pull-off cover. shear wire. The fuze hae an outer cover under which are three time combustion rings. filhedetent moves back. LM36: The time operation is exactly the same as the M36. D. On impact. The centrifugal bolt blocks the firing pin from the detonator. and striker. The flash travels to~the upper time ring. which moves outward~ under influence of centrifugal force. A spring-loaded setback tietent looks the centrifugal boit in position. Gases do not paea directly into the atmosphere. centrifugal safety bolt. On setback. which rotates the upper and lower time rings to the desired setting.D. These. E. to prevent any change in setting of the liie rinl~ after firing. On firing. E. and spting. The percussion mechanism functions as follows. A. but collect under the cover. Operation M36: The fuze is set by turning the cover.lTA&JAN Projectile —- FUZES W k DETONATOR FIRING PIN TIME RINGS +“ %$ Figure 220Time and Pereuss& Nose !J!iiNJ fuxe A. In the fuze body are a locking rod. withdrawing the projection freo from the centrifugal bolt. The middle ring ia fixed.E. Over the escape channels in the fuze body is a controi plunger fitted with a spring. D. 149 . then to the lower ring. and fimdly to the charge in the base.

Screwed. . .---. a hole is pierced through the cap and body against the required graduation... . ----------loo-mm H. .ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPL~SJVE ORDNANCE 0? l@ . .. M32 Q Data %ojWtfle usd in. UnknO~ Thread diameter -------. The percussion mechanism con150 sists of a detonator holder which is held off the &ing pin by a brass arming ring.D. This initiates the rise mechanism. . . // \\ MAIN CHARGE FIRING PIN !qj= ARMING RING OETONATOR Figure 221- Time and Percussion Nase Fuze A.. The flash ignites the time ring at the point of perforation.Udcnown MarMn@-. .E..--. .D.. M32 Shell Over-all len@h -------------Unknown Maximum diameter. Percussion Mechanism The arming ring sets back against its stirrup spring on firing. . the aluminum cap contains a detonator holder held off from the firing pin by a stirrup spring.. q Time Mechaniam On firing. The time ring is helical. into the top. a stirrup spring. and a creep spring..E. To set the fuze. The time ring burns through to set off the main charge. .---. On impact.---Un.. leaving a clear charnel to the center of the fuze. the detonator sets forward to hit the firing pin. The detonator holder is now held by the creep spring.knO~ Description This fuze has an aluminum body. . which is covered at the top by a thin aluminum cap graduated from O to 880. the detonator of the time mechanism s@s back against its stirrup spring onto its firing pin. . having nine turna and finrdly leading to a gunpowder main charge in the base. .E. M32 Time anti Percussion Nose Fuze A.. .

ITALIAN PROJECTILE FUZES %/ #XKING NUTS ?df . The lower ring burns around to the fl~qh pellet.7. Operation On setback. and a firing pin. The lower portion which screws into the shell is brass. The stop formed by the reduction in diameter at the head has in it a partly circular groove. 33 Data J?rojectiles used in.. 151 . This is the normal combustion time type. Over-ail length .. There are two time rings. .. . to form a stem which is threaded to receive the covm plate and two locking nuts. The upper ring is locked to the fuze body by a locking pin. the detonator moves ba. 33 Nose Time Fuze O. .. The flash is passed to the upper time ring and ignites the fuze powder. ~. . . The body is screw-threaded near the forward end to receive the tensioning nut and is reduced in diameter at the head. . A brsm cover plate fits on the inside of the fuze to cover the detonator and the curved groove in the body.-. FJ3B41 Description This combustion type of fuze with settingsup to 160 gives a maximum time of burning of 35 seconds at low elevation and more than 50 seconds at high elevations. . the ends of which are connected with vertical grooves in”the recess containing the detonator. A recess off the center of the fuze contains the detonator holder. LN213. the lower one being the milled. The upper ring burns around t.o the flash pellet in the lower ring.766 in. . ._-. .~in. .T.A. . -. TJnknown against its stirrup spring to ‘hit the firing pin. its stirrup spring. . With the exception of a graduated brass ring. Maximum diameter ---------Thread diameter ------------Martin& ------------------102/3SA.DET’ONATOR +IRiNG PIN II Figure 222-Nose WneFuzeO. the exposed part of the fuze is made of aluniinum. then to the main charge in the base.

Inside the cover is an indicator disc. Inside the cover are four locking needes fitted into recesses and held in position by a stirrup spring. 4 152 -. and 40 respectively.x HAIR SPRING . On firing.-------. . . --------Thread diameter-. Its clockwork mechanism is identical to that in British Time l?uze No. a second centrifugal bait locked in position by a projection from a third centrifugal bolt. 16.. ---.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE OP lfxa &~ / &NCE -.. The fuze base is graduated and numbered in a circle from O to 7... and by the bottom crown wheel. —----. kept in position by a detent located in one end.” over-all length -------------Maximum diameter.---- Description This time fuze has a maximum-time setting of 40 seconds. This third bolt is locked in position by a spring-ioaded fourth centrifugal boit.. ---. 32. but this is prevented by the centrifugal bolt’s being immovable in an armed position by its detent. .. these needles setback and prevent rotation o]fthe setting mechanism. . .— DETONATOR F!gure223- Meehanicai Nose Fuze M36 Mechanical~me Nose Fuze M36 75/4&Inm H. representing seconds. . 209 except for operation. Mob36 Data Projectiles used in . At the other end of the bolt is a flash-hole. This disc is graduated 8. . E. Shells Unknown Unknovm Unknown MT. showing the number of compiete revolutions as seen through a small window. The detonator holder tends to ride up the inclined plane cm the lower centrifugal boit onto the firing pin. --. The firing pin and detonator are located in a holder which rests in a groove in a centrifugal bolt. Markings ------. . .

. however. and a centrifugal arming bolt with a setback element. . . the split arming ring sets back over the detonator holder and leaves the detonator holder held off the firing pin by the creep spring. . Maximum diameter. In the head of the fuze is screwed the booster for tb. The fuzes consist of a movable detonator holder. .e shell. . NIMWP. . 3 in. which in turn sets offthe booster. . $ . Simultane6uely. . This ring is split throughout its eniire length so as to permit expansion during setback. .. a fixed firing pin. . . .) ihhximurn diameter~. which is fped to move outwards between the plati holding the firing pin and detonator. . . . . crownwheels comes into position and the third and fourth bolts are freed to move outwards under centrifugal force. I -1 FIRING PIN -i =! r q SillT RING ARMING OETONATOR -. detonator holder. . . Base Fuze for 100/17 Hollow-Charge Data Over-all length -. .— V@ IBOOSTER . . This plug contains a flash hole filled with black powder to act as a delay. . . .P. 1. . is unable to move.. .4 in. . . The PROJECTILE FUZE5 . . . . . . the detonator overcomes the resistance of the spring by its momentum and hits the firing pin. On setback. The detonator holder is held away from the firing pin by a creep spring and a split brass ring. The booster iits over the delay pellet and is secured to the fuze by the shoulder on the nose plug. . ::i! ‘-. . Figurs 224- Base Fuze for 47/32 A. 3. 1.P. A brass nose plug screws into the top of the fuze body and holds the firing pin in position. . . fiaah-holes in the @t bolt.. . . -------------Unkno~vn Description This fuze screws into a recess in the base of the shell cavity. Thread diameter . the detent in the tit centrifugal bolt sets back and frees the bolt which.646 ~. The flash produced by the detonator passes through the flash-holes in the firing pin and then ignites’ the delay. * 153 . . The projection is then removed from the recess in the second bolt. Base Fuze for 47/32 A. (approx...ITALIAN —— operation On tiring. since the other bolts are locked until the slot in the bottom. . . and base of the fuze draw into line. On impact. Unknown Thread diameter ------------1.21 in. Data Over-all length . Description This fuze has a brass body. . .-. . . -. .21 k. . . This action causes the detonator holder to rise up an inclined plane to hit the firing pin.

the boit is held by friction.. the detent sets back. and a setbaekelement looks this bolt in position.’ .. The flash prcduoed passes through the flash-holes around the firing pin and initiates the booster....Base Fuxe for 100/17 H#ow_Chaqe . is sorewed into a projection in the top of the inner body.: : “... On impaot.. ... . These channels provide escape holes for pressure if the detonator is accidentally detonated... 154 Opsmiwl On acceleration. the detonator holder breaks the shear wire and hiti the firing pin..centrifu~ bolt separates the detonator from the &ted firing pin... . FIRING PIN CZ~TRWUGAL DETONATOR !a * k F{gure DETENT SHEAR WIRE ) 22S . .. the bolt is moved ciear of the detonator and the firing pin by centrifugal foroe and causes the detonator to creep forwakd until its shear wire rests on the shoulder.. ... . . .. .. A protruding shear wire prevents the detonator from hitting the firing pin after the centtiugal bolt clears the channeL Two channels extending through the length of the inner body are closed at the top by aiuminum discs.: .. TIM steel firing pin.-..II ALIAN ANU PKMW=J EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE OP 1668 . with four flash holes formed around it..!. During setback.. On deceleration. . [ .. thereby relwsing the centrifugal bolt.. .

O. a cylinder of smailar diameter which has a truncdied cone-shaped top. the chemicaI grenades that are not frangible are made of adapted anti-persomei grenade bodies and mechanisms with a chemical filler. Body red. . ... . and. and attached at the other end to the safety device.1 ounces unknown Body red. . . but did use a small mortar. The Italians did not make use of the rifle grenade. . TNT Weight of filling------------2. . Italian high-expiosive anti-pemcmnel hand grenades are almost totally of the “offenaive)’ type.1 in. . .. . The Mod 36 grenade is longer and thinner than the & R. . The ends of the strip pass into slots in the top of a loose metal piece which is retained by a pin in the large safety CSP (of light aluminum). lMaxirnum diameter -------.---.-. . . .. . . . ---------------Mod 40-----------------Mod 42-. a Mod 40 with a light meta~ globe 3$% in. .. . The spring maintains the striker &way from the detonator until impact. M. are not adapted for maximum fragmentation. T~oftilhg----. At one end it is attached “to a brass strip which is wound twice armmd the he~i of the grenade. . Italian grenades are of the impact type. --.-. . Although the loading factor is usually low. . . . The safety strip is in the form of an eiongated U and passes through the gnmade on either side of the channel-shaped safety device. -.. The other types are for anti-pwson:nei use. ..751b Description Types Mod 40 and. Maximum diameter Mod 36 and Mod 40-----lMod 42.Chapter 5 LJ ITALIAN HAND AND MORTAR GRENADES 35 with a hollow wooden handle attached.5in. Breda Hand Crenades Mod 35.. operation On withdrawal of the safety strip. The Mod 40 is a Mod .. . Mod 40. grenades in the armed position are very sensitive. . . and the Mod 42 is. w . . .. ..5 ounces Description This grenade is compcwed of a very light casing of metal. 35 grenade and has hemispherical ends. the safety cap pulls this out. and Mod 42 Data C)ver-ail length Mod 35. 2. . It consists of a thin aluminum case in two parts. .: -. the grenade bodies. There is no evidence of the use of shaped charges in Italian anti-tank grenades. . . . to fire a mortar grenade. 3.. They incorporate an “all-ways” acting fuze which arms in flight.. The striker pin is attached to the heavy head.T. . C.$ ounces Fag.. hknown..1 in. . . . Mod 35 I)ata Over-all length . 3A in. . . . The anti-tank grenades are adaptations of the anti-personnel grenades with an additional charge. . made in two ports: a flat lower cylinder. TNT 2. During flight. 9. Around the detonator tube is a perforated metal tube attached to the striker head. the safety cap is freed. N@d 42 incorporate the M3S in their construction. . 12im 2. screwed to this. 155 . .-. ----. -. .. . . Likewise. Safety Color----------------------Clip black Total weight ----------------7. .-. . . Mod 42-----------------2.62 in. Weight of tiling Mod 35 and Mod 40-----Mod 42-----------------Color----------------------- 3J3in. Safety cap black 0 Total weight Mod 35------------------7ounces Mod 40--. . Hand Grenade O. diameter screwed onto the bottom to give an additional charge for anti-tank use.. arming the grenade so that it fires on impact. .-. not unlike a grenade projector. For that reason.

AM. d M42 . ID ) .Jl Figure 226- Breda Hand Grenades M40.

The explosive is contained in a metal box whioh has a well in it for the detonator. The cap is hinged and by its weight withdraws the channel-shaped safety cievioe. the safety oap (of Iight aluminum) is freed so that it becomes disengaged during fight. DETONATOR WJU TAB .’ .. The two longer strips pasa one on either side of the base of the channel“shaped safety device... In triai with this grenade.” . .. the top of which is shaped to take the heavy metal ball. There is practically no fragmentation. / SAFETY STRIP hY -=’. A spring holds the striker away from the detonator...7’. The striker is riveted to the cap. Mmi 35 w The safety pin consists of two long brass strips and one short brass strip.. and the short strip engages and looks in a slot in the body of the grenade. .. -. ’. ...’. . The grenade is then armed to fire upon impact. SnwER II . . . and the blast is only fair..I IALIAN HANU —— ANU’ M(JK ! AK ——— (dtkNAi7ES LEAD SHOT Ihii#” ‘iu / . ~~~~~~~~ . no ill effects were felt by men standkqg 25 yards from the burst. . Figure 227- Hand Grenade 0. 157 .0. 1 operation On withdrawal of the~ pin. + .

(200 grams) Type of filling. . a pressed block of impure TNT recessed to take the detonator. . and the striker impinges upon the detonator. 158 The safety strip pasees over the ring and is bent up under it. and the upper part is cut to take the safety bars.1 in. The delay in arming is effected by means of a short chain.4 cm) Color. . . and on impact one end jerks forward to a position in which the striker is centraily behind the hole in the shutter to fire the detonator. Mod35 Data Over-all length------.R.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDM_NCE OP 1668 . around the outside of which is wound some course wire to form the metal loading.“ . . The cap contains the helicai spring which holds the striker and detonator apart. . attached at oa? end to the safety cap and at the other to a safety strip. . Mod 3S /’ Hand Grenade S.--3. Both parts are stamped to form a seating for the collar. If the grenade fails on its side. On impact. . so securing the safety cap (of light aluminum) to which the ring is attached.M. Internally the gnmade consists of two metal cobra and two light metal cyiinders. and carries the explosive charge. the safety cap ia free to disengage during fight and withdraw the second safety strip. . . TNT Weight of explosive -----1. . (6. . The bight of the chain is wound once around the” stop.2. ... Between two safety strips is an elliptical metal strip. the cylinders come together. (43 grams) Description The outer case is in two Varts which screw together. The striker is riveted to the head of the open cylinder.5 oz. these are jerked from’ their seatings and force the cyiinde~ together. There is only slight fragmentation from this grersde. Operation When the safety pin is withdrawn. -. (8 cm) lhlaximum diameter. . whose ends are joined by a spring passing around the side of a cylinder. . ---. . . .R. This acts as a safety shutter. -. . the upper one.6 in.S7RKFR ib- SA~Y CAP IL r-FIJL!L SAFETY STRIP -DETONATOR TAB Figure 228- Hand Grenade S. .C. Two steel coilars rest in recesses in the cylinders. the safety shutter moves into alignment.-..M. The lower’ cylinder is a loose fit inside. Grenade red Safety cap unpainted TotaI weight -----------7 oz. . with an “eccentric hole. “) .C. .

.. are contained in a 1%-in. the wingshaped safety cap will open and pull off.C. . Gtenade %1# P. ~aximum diameter -.:. . and. extracting the second safety strip.R. .C. --. each to pass through the body and cover a striker. the two end caps threading into the middle section. The ~econd safety strip ie attached to the hinged wing-shaped safety cap which passes around the body over the middle section. . . by the light spring only.2% in. to protrude sii@ly through the opposite side of the body. . .:. Each end of this passes thrcmgh an opening ii the middk section. . Grenade Data Over-all length .. ---. One of the cones is at each end of this cylinder and. Then each striker is held from its detonator. Two shallow cones of aluminum. . Color . . The end cap is cioeed by a metal cover. . in the space formed. There are two bars. . . one attached to the center of each end cap. Figure 229- P. . is a heavy lead ball 1 in..ITALIAN HAND AND MORTAR GRENADES l. . each with a striker and the center of” a four-prong stirrup spring at its apex. The first safety strip consists of a rubber pull tab and a one-pi~e U-shaped bar of light.5% in. . diameter cylinder held in the middle section by two collars.R.— —— %4 /PULL / TAB . in diameter. between a striker and a detonator. . Unpainted aluminum Description The grenade body is of three parts. Thus each striker is heid from its detonator by a stirrup spring and two safety bars. and the grenade will fire on impact.-. when” the grenade is thrown. 159 ‘i&j . and the expiosive filling is contained therein. .. soft metai. Operation The first safety strip is removed before throwing. The detonatom are held in two cylindrical tubes. The action of the ball in this cavity makes the fuze “all-ways” acting.

15 in.- Breda Mortar Grenade Data Over-all length ---------Mwirnum diameter -----Color ------------------Type of and a double brass safety strip holds the cap in . . . Be sure that the wire is held securely. > m)? “OR Ren@a This grenade ma designed for use against vehiciee and tanks. The firing mechanism is alwaysacting. O. Body red. . .Modei 35— Brixia. holding the handle firmly. Length of handle. while in.TNT “L” Type Anti-Tank Hand Grenade . . which have yellow and unpainted aluminum tails. A tab protrudes from the top of the caeing. remove the safety strip attached to the tab. It is fired from the 45-mm Light Mortar. There is also a small metal strip protruding from the baee of the handle. handle unpainted Total weight -----------4% lb. . much like the O. In the armed position. . l% in.. . The steel cap is attached to a steel strip. -!. The wire is held in position by a piece of tape secured by a pin. and lies in the recess of the AC striker holder. this reIeasee the small metal strip. \ I a . and cover should be taken as protection against fragmentation. remove the pin. lMod 35 Hand Grenade. respectively. T. The grenade should be thrown at a distance of 15 to 20 meters from the target. / operation Before throwing this grenade. Then. The two are screwed together.. When the grenade is thrown.. the grenade is very sensitive. . which then moves over into a position so that the hole in it is in alignment with the striker and detonator. Pulling this tab removes a safety strip which. tad red -. On impact.. firing the grenade. blocks the striker from the detonator. Body black. E.--i Figure 230“L” Type Anti-Tank Hand Grenade 5% in. while the tail is of aluminum alloy. the striker and detonator are brought together. 14% Data in. 10M in. grenade is painted red to distinguish it from practice and instructional grenades. Color------------------- Description The body of this grenade is steel. la Over-all length ---------Maximum circumference. . This strip is held in position by a wire in the side of the handle. the wire is released.) WIRE )-‘---METAL BALL \ Description This grenade consists of a metal c@ng with a wooden throwing handle. . The tail of the H. The safety strip passes through two dots near the head of the grenade.

iMJ 161 . Four light brass spring strips hold the rod in the “setback” position. being prevented from. the set~ack c~uses the s~fety device to move down into its slot. On impact. being held in . and can move under the influence of the spring. hits the striker. is thus moved toward the detonator.ITALIAN HAND AND —. operation On withdrawing the safetv strim the ca~ is freed. rotating by the square shape of the portion moving in a squarAhaped channel. Th~estriker.—. This safety device consists of a short brass rod which projects into one of the holes in the disc and holds the disc from rotating. The collar and holder then act as one. knd. ‘w 1P DETONA7U? ‘1 L / 3AFETY STRIP SAFETY CEMCE Figure 231- Breda Mortar Grenade .- MORTAR GRENADES ‘V kll . the disc rotates as air pwses through the oblique holes near the edge of the: disc. on firi~g. forward on the spring and.—. At the same time.“. The grenade is then armed. the collar also sets back onto the firing-cap holder. During flight. the detonator rides .position by the detent spring.

F. mixture of chlorsulfonic acid and sulphur trioxide. Miscellaneous Hand Grenades SMOKE a~ . To avoid accidental ignition by a chance drawing of the cord. T.* b HANDGREN. A fuse match. the cord has a small wooden handle and is fixed to the nook of the bottle by a ring of thread. ---’ . C. fires the fuse. The handle is then given a sharp pull. If the bottie is not thrown immediately. but cannot be us&l if wind strength is above 7 m. V. grenade to be a good weapon for defense against A. Operation Just before use.[ ..’s at close quarters. the wooden handle is freed by a 162 Figure 233Breda Orill Grenade . p.+–. h. Lllodel 35 F O. white letter F (Fumogeno) on black background. protected by a canvas cover. which. A minimum of two seconds is given between the lighting of the fuse and the bursting of the bottle. . The bottle should then be thrown with force against the target. They produce a fairiy dense white smoke cloud of two to three yards front. Model 35 F Breda ModeI 35 F Markings Top part red. R. it may burst before reaching the target. 13escription These grenades are similar in co~tructiori to H. and containing an inflammable liquid. equivalents. Figure . %ll!h . To the top of the fuse is attached a fine cord. on being puihxi.ADES ‘rypes S. O.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE (2RD~~NCE light pull on the ring of thread which is securing it to the neck of the bottie. fitted with a metal pressure cap.–– . but contain a liquid smoke filling. is fixed to the side of the bottle by two rings of cord. M. E. lower part black. and a small flame will appear at the lower end of the fuze.- 232- Incendiary Bottle Grenade Incendiary Bottle Grenade Data Bottle -------------------Color--------------------Ftiing -------------------I-liter size Transparent hilammableliquid Description The incendiary grenwie is made from mordinary one-liter glass bottle. The Italians consider the .

Description Correspond to H. The instruction or drill grenade is unpainted or black. equivalents. equivalents . SMOKE. T. The lower cylinder containing the H. The shutter is also simplified so that there is no “safe” position after impaot.0. . R. The grenwie containing” a srnali charge is white. M.L . equivalents. Operation Same u H. The practice gnmade with a smoke filler is yellow. E. charge is replaced by a brass Figure 234- $R.INCENDIARY ANDGRENADES H Types L S. This cyliuder holds smolm-producing charge in a ceiluloid container. Ietteis FI on black background. its body above and below the screw threads. * . 3. S. . E. Pmcfke Grenade ‘v cylinder having a trunc@ed conical bottom with four holes init..C. C. 0------------------Model 35 FI 3. The burnt creates a dense white smoke covering an area of about 11 by 4 yards. PRACTICE ANDDRILLGRENADES 1. Baa-------------------Modei35 FI Markings Top part ‘d. R. C. Operation Same as H. with a ~-in. 2. red band around” the place where the two parts of the body join. lower part black. 163 . Mod 35 Practice Grenade is recognizable by six large holes cut b.M. E. with expiosive filliig replaoed by a charge of white phosphorus. E. M---------------Model 35 FI 2.

* q  Figure 23S .iTALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE . 4!!! .OP 1668 >.Picket .

The mine is closed by a screw-on lid which carries the spring-loaded striker. This sl!o~ti the key to fit . A trip wire ia attach~ to the pin. -.0 lb. . Told wei~t . 25 lb. They wem often difiicult to detect. The key is hekl by the grooves in the bress cap so that it can mcwe slightly in a direction parallel to the end of the mim. They are tubular. or ciiwuiar in shape. . . Type of filling. TNT Weight of filhg.“Chapter 6 u lTALIAl$l MINES AND TRAPS The 100M at the ends of the cap holdem enable the . .8 im (approx. Mine B-4-Anti-Personne! Mine Data (lver-ail length . The space between the walls is filled with scrap metal. .. . . 17. The lower portion of the mouhiing takes the detonator and the charge. Functioning The trip wire is pulled. Below this.6 in. . . .75 lb. . ‘v .. TINma detom~tor cap is inserted in the cap holder. . screws a braea cap carrying the striker and the spring. The cyliiders are he:ld together at their common base and by a cover at the top. . and a pin is inserted in the Iower hold.. which the cords are Aiached.. . Italian anti-personnel mines are opeiated by pressure or trip wires. Into ‘oneend of the brass moukiing. . and the hokder pdle into the armed position. . Picket Mine-=Anti-Personnel Mine Data Over-all length -. .. Most of these mince were of wooden construction aid used blocks of TNT for the explosive.. .... is the aluminum cap holder. .-.. . . . They used a majorit y_of the improvised mince in Abyssinia. which is located in the armed and unarmed positions by the spring.-----1. --.-. . . The Italians used bakelite and wood in the construction of some mines to prevent detection by magnetic instruments. . . The outer cylinder is fittened on one side.---. . The mine is mounted on a wooden picket and contains a 100-gram cartridge of TNT. . (with picket) 5. . The coiied end of the spring engages in the groove in the armed position and in the groove in the unarmed position. there is the percussion cap in the holder which is insartal from the aide. one inside the other.. ..... The open end of the moukiing k ciosed by the plug. (without Over-all length -------. . TNT Weight ofillling-. . . -. and the spring-kid striker hits the detonator.NT. Opecation To arm the mine.7 in. w 165 ... Description The mine consists of two cylinders. Anti-tank tainea vary in appearance. 100grams Total wei@t------.. . to. The cavity between the brass mould.6 in... . . . Passing diametrically through the lid. rectangular. . Sometimes shells were used for expioeive and shrapnel for mines..--. especially those operated by preeeum in which only a portion of the lid or igniter may appear above the ground. .. 3. Description The mine proper consists of a thin sheet metal cyliider around which is wound the strip metal loading. . . where there are six sharp projections for attaching the mine to a treeor post. into the center of which is pressed the detonator-locating tube. -.) Typeoffilhg. . . Rheted to the underside of the lid is the stirrupshaped holder. Improvised mines seem to have been the Italian specialty in the field. . . -. .” Some are made of bakelite or wood to prevent detection.. . .. .. .. .------picket) Body diameter --------------1. .ing and the inner cylinder is fdled with powdered T. since the supply of standard mines was apparently limited. through slots in the side. The triprekaee system coneists of a tripkey having a ring at one end. cap holdem ta be puhd into the armed position by remote control and at the same time prevent it from being p@Ied out loompletely. Two clips are provided with lircproof cord for securing the mine by Spi3Cidrings.. . . th~estriker h}pulled out. ..

. 1 lb. -------. the latter being covered by a hinged flap. when a cord attached to the trip-release is cut.. -. This hammer is not provided on aIl B-4 mines. TNT . a slot which fits around the striker and rests on the tripkey. A ring guides the cords whkh are wound -on a bobbin.5 in. MirIeAnti-Personnel Data Over-aiI length -------------Over-ail width --------------Over-all height. held closed by the pin.331b. The pin is used as th~> safety pin before setting the mine. Italian Bakeiite and Wooden 1-Lb. in one end.-: Type of filling--------------Wooda -----------------Total weight (wooden) ----- “.5in. the hammer drives the trip-key forward. This mechanism is in the form of a hammer on the cover which is set by attaahing the thin cord to the eye and stretching it under sufficient tension to hold the hammer at-leaat 4 mm from the end of the tripkey. and has a cap and detonator leading into the main charge. Description These iwo mines are similar except that one case ie bakelite and the other is wood. a —. - OP 1668 k== Ii •! There is a special mechanism for detonating the mine. 2.. When the cord is cut. . The i~ter used haa a spring-loaded striker held in the cocked position by a trip-key. 5. Figure 236- Mine B-4 — Anti-Persannei Mine into the groove cm the striker when in the ~rrned position...iTALlAt4 AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE OIRDNANCE .. releasing the striker. The lid of the mine baa. 1. The wine also contains metaI fragmentation plates on three sides of the charge. -.5 in. 166 Figure 2378akelife Mine — Anti-Persamel .

. Description The mine consists oftwoparts: theexplosivecontainer and the housing for the ratchet mechanism. detonating the main charge. .1 in. . . .. . Totdwei@t ---------------181bs. . Repeated operations of the ~ahhet mechanism by successive wheels of the same train is obviatwi by means of a delayed return of the ratchet pawl. 5. The explosive container of the miae is fitted with a short skirt which is a sliding fit over the upper portion of the housing. .. Gelignite Description This reins is made of a light alloy. . Type of filling. which. . ‘Thelid.lim @er-~hei@t-. .8 in.. Type of filling--------------Unknom’ Weight of filling.. . . .. . and the ingenious use of lead shot in the hollow spring-loaded platform insures a continuous rigid contact between the explosive container and the underaide of the railway sleeper or rail. . This ~ction releases the striker.. . .. Railway Mine Data Qver-aU diameter . 12 in. Gelignite-. . . . . The two parts are attached to each other by two bolts and heid apart by two springs. . projects a springIoaded plunger. which la . . The bolt heads are protected by the covers. . and a loop in the strap holds the ratchet winding key. . ‘w . The setting is made by the use of a key inserted in the hole situated beiow the setting observation window in the side of the mine. . . when the mine has been positioned.. . Through the top of the housing. . The lead shot is inserted before laying the mine by removal of the screw in the center of the platform. A hinged wooden device with the leather strap is provided for carrying the mine. . . The platform is released. 4 in. . . after any desired ‘nimber up to 59 depressions of the explosive container. Thewoodenbaee is screwed to the base of the mine. . . . . ..1 lbs. . 11. . is retained by a ratchet wheel having 60 teeth on its periphery. which is driven by thestriker spring into the cap. The mine is designed for use under railway tracks. Over-ail height . by removing the retaining pin. . to insure their free movement when buried below ground. which’ are canvaa-covered..--. .. . . .ITALIAN ——w Operation One to five pounds presmwe on the hinged lid presses the trip-key out of the hole in the striker. which initiates the detonation pf the mine.. . . . . Over-W ~tidth. operates the ratchet mechanism. The striker. . Ratchet Mine ( Railroad Mine) MINES AND TRAPS A@ ‘w a Data Over-ail length -------------9. .. This latter may be set to release the striker. 6.-. .. ‘w l-m Figure 238Ratchet Mine i’i?ailmed Mtd Provision is made for the attachment of an additional igniter by the screw-threaded adapter in the side of the expiosive container.

the framework is secured to the mine body by four clips. . on the cover. and the mine is completed by the addition of a fake lid which consists. Below the striker is the detonator.25 in. . . is recessed to take the four bolts with hexagonal nuts. weighing 100 grams.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE OP 1668 1 1 I I / Figure 239- Railway Mine “ is attached to body by four bolts..--. When assembled. and the pressure platform rests on top of the four ignitem with the canvas fully stretched. . “the striker with its ring is screwed into a recess in the side of the mine.-. is 5 in._>. One consists of a bakelite cone to which a bakelite lid is cemented.------. ... . . . The mine is C-W inside and out. long and l% in. Weight of tiling. . When arming the mine. A projection below the cone fits into an ordinary detonator. Ignitem have an ahuninum alloy body which tapers siightly and has a mushroom-shaped head. . The head is recessed to accommodate a steel washer. Two types of igniters have been used in this mine. a false lid.------6. The mine cover is held in position by two wire retaining straps. 8.. . setting off the main c~ge.0in. Total ~vei@t---------------9. . Mine Data Over-alI length --. Over-all width ------. two igniters. securing them to the mine body. and the booster is a push-fit ifito the base of the igniter. rope. . . . . the striker b placed in position over the detonator. . and the latter is then pressed on. .5 k. In the unarmed condition. .% in.. .. in diameter. Over-all height ------. .. The lid is supported on four springs and th~ holds the striker away from the detonator..10 in.-e.5 kg.pressure platform attached to a wooden frame by means of canvas. Wooden Box Mine (Anti-Tank) Data Over-ail length -------------Over-ail width ---. .3 kg. which can rotate about the pins. .0 k. In the false lid are two holes. . carrying handle. Over-all height -. and the springs drive the strikers onto the detonators. Description The mine coneisti of a wooden box whjch houses the explosive charge. T~eof Nlhg --------------TNT Weight of filling ------------Illb. There is a single. and the striker pierces the detonator. . -----. Within the cone is a small paper cylinder \ a“ . All the parts are nailed together..-. to receive the igniters. The striker “spring is maintained compressed between this wseher and the striker head by means of a copper shear-pin. . it consists of 24 cartridges. The explosive charge smells strongly of almonds. .. Four-Igniter Min~Anti-Tank. . T~eof~ng---. 3. The whole mine is painted for camouflage. Operation Pressure on the lid forces the springs down.) Figure 240- Wooden Box Mine (Anti-Tank) 168 –. . through which passes the shank of the striker. . . and a separate wooden cover. . 3. ... in diameter..12. of a movable . Gefi@te 2. shears the copper shear pins. On the underside of the mine cover are two metal plates. Op*tion Pressure from 185 to 380 lb. located above the igniters and intended to bear upon the strikers. each 1 in. Description Four holes in the lid of this box accommodate fuur igniters.-. . .

A detent with a spring provides against premature firing in the event of damage to the tension wire. . Through these guides passes a tension wire. and..” consisti of a welded sheet-metal box with a metal lid resting on two springs. two simiiar lengths of tube are welded on the baee of the box. and a thin bakeiite washer is inserted above this cap to give clearance for the striker needle sad to insure that the detonator is held secureiy by the plug. produces a flash which ignites the detonators. and a long length of D. L D. ‘knwJ Description This mine. a short length of F. At the ends of the box are charges. detonating the main charge. The other igniter is also bakelite. The base of the body is screw-threaded to take the plug which retains the detonator. a knife is located directly above the guides. .m— containing small pieces of hard hnestone mixed with a small quantity of a chlorate flash mixture. 33 lb. when the lidl is depressed. Trials have shown that the mine.” and “hinged lid.7in. The striker mechanism consists of a body with a slot for the percussion cap ancl holder. -=-----flei~t --------------------Type of filling--------------Weight of Ming------------Total wei~t ---------------F\ring pressure (On each spring) . The nut retains one end of the spring.. operation Preseure on the lid causes the ignitem to function.. The igniter functions when pressure on the lid of the mine causes the igniter body to break down and force the needle onto the cap. and the latter is closed by a push-fit cover.. The striker holder rests on a conical bbss within the body of the igniter. all four serve to locate the springs. tlin. connecting the detonator with a second charge. initiating the mine. On the underside of the lid are welded two short lengths of steel tube to fit into springs. I. the latest development of older types “S. each consisting of eight 200-gram slabs of TNT. but is of more robust construction. G. 3 ft.-. the bakeiite cones. The lid has two openings covered by hinged flaps corresponding to the positions of the striker assembly and the wire-tensioning screw... when fitted with this igniter. Pressure on the mine lid. . fastening the striker to a brass adjustable hook. Anti-Tank Mine B-2 Data Over-all l~ngth -------------Over-all width ------. C. The explosive compartments and the foundation of the ignition mechanism are wood. the thread tak~w the nut which retains the detonator (open and toward the percussion cap).. . and the striker and spring. insures normal w . In the center of the lid.ITALIAN MINES AND TRAPS —. The detonator contains a cap.Tank Min\e ‘u . 220 lb. TNT 7 lb. Figure 241Four-lgnifor Mine —— Anti. functions under a static load of approximately 300 lb. 4. D. and friction betweeri the hard limestone and the chlorate ‘mixture.5 in.

?70 Figure 243- V-3 Anti-Tank Mine ak -. A safety pin piaued on a hole in the body of the striker remains in position until the mine is loaded. wae smaller. (A weight of 264 lb. The mine functions when prwure on the lid overcomes the resistance of springs. TNT 6 lb. differs in that the lid has only one opening and has a small charge.) At each end of the body are cockiug grips.----Weight of filling--.+ . and the mine is covered with earth... 8. . G. A percussion cap is accommodated in a holder which is inserted in a hole in the side of the mine.. which releases the detent.-----.9 in. . Total wei~t. This additional safety defice is not found on W types.7 in. is required to shear the pins. causing a : *- -u Figure 242. and the lid deprems the detent lever. which comes into contact with the actuating pin. the flange of the striker is held by a cotter on a U-shaped spring clip. The cover is secured to the body by concav~headed nuts. its body strengthened by two partitions. . pulkd to cock the firing pins.. 2. Bemarka L Type S.---- m’ Description V-3: The mine is made of sheet steel. the springs compress. the hhged flaps are closed. .--.. . L’nscrewing the nuts makes the mine more sensitive to pressure. The holder passes into an annular space in the striker body. as littie as 22 lb. weight can be made to trip the striker. 2.V-3 “and V-5—Anti-Tank Mines \ 3 ft. The mechanism is shown.-----------T~eof611ing-------. C. . Type (Hinged Lid) ~vaathe earliest type. men the striker spring is compressed. the cutting blade descends to sever the wire holding the striker. 17 lb.. The underside of the cover has two knives engaging in guides provided to take copper pins. The actuating pin inserted through a hole in the side of the body is the comection between an actuating bolt and the U-shaped spring ciip carrying the cotter. . 2. Data Over-ail length -------------Over-all width --------------Over-all height-. The preseure applied to the mine cover forces dowm the actuating bolt against the spring. engaging on actuating bolts positioned by springs resting between a nut on the underside of the cover and a plate’covering the firing mechanism. When the nuts beneath the lid are screwed down. increasing the pressure required’ to operate the mine. . .. held there by a biade retaining spring engaging in the slot.Anti-rank Mine B-2 function by pressure on the lever.4 in. and waa made of wood. The charge extends between two firing mechanisms. .

U-shaped spring clip to depress against the retaining spring. The two halves are assembled with an outer circumferential countersunk joint and an inner spigoted joint. The flange thus freed allows the striker to initiate the percussion cap and fire the detonator. Nine steel helical creep springs. The outer joint has rubber sealing ring and is secured by hollow plastic rivets passing through 12 pairs of lugs. top and bottom being respectively % in. 7. 11. two steel balls. 6. . exc~pt for reduction of charge to 2 pounds of cylindrical borehoie charge.. Type II 13. .8 —*W*.. 300 lb. so V-6 has appearance of V-3 up~ide down. -+ 11..110 lb.87 in. --------Weight of casing--------Type of filling----------Weight of filling--------Activating pressure--. . and inversion of narts. 5. . both types are of waterproof design. . and % in..5 lb-----TNT . In Type 1. unarmed position.ITALIAN MINES .brnss shear pins 4. The brass bush which houses the striker peIlet. . Brace tumblers in the igniter locking device. omission of shear wire. .. the steel wires supporting the pressure plate. The brass striker peilet and its helical spring 3. .. The top is strengthened with riha. 5. . 5.. The inner joint is secured by a base figure 244- Pignone Anti-Tank Mines Types I and II 171 .12 in.. and .5 in. .. Description Mines are constructed of moulded bakelite. A perforated steel bar which sliies to screen the striker from the detonator in the. TNT 71b. Pignone Type I and Type I l—Bakelite AntiTank Mines Data . 71b . They are moulded to form a central circular chamber for the exploder system..87 in. . TYPE I: The caaing containing tho main charge is in two halves. AND TRAPS Over-all diameter-.W—. Diameter of casing ------Over-ail height. V-3: Simiiar to V-3. . SUppCU%llg the pressure plate. thick. Metal parts in the mines when armed are: 1.-- Type I 13 in. The case of -the detonator 2. . .

Because of the reduced d@eter. around the circumference. ribbed on the underside.e- --- a mm - . but on the outside circumference is held by the ring which screws into a threaded socket. There are two illler plugs threaded into l% in. The igniter assembly slides in the central tube formed in the top half of the casing and is retained by a locking ring. but are not placed in any fixed position relative to the handle. from the edge. and the top of the main casing ie closwd. The nib swings between two projections on the pressure cap. A webbing carrying harde is attached to the casing by wire loops which pase through the hollow rivets in two paira of lugs. set at 90” around the IX. It also carries a double cam-shaped collar which is free to swivel independent y and control the position of the screening bar. charge. The pressure plate. m . by a strip of impregnated canvas tied by two steei wires. diameter holes in tho The holes might be adapted for antibottom. formed on the top of the main casing. It bears on the top of the i@ter assembly. A steel bar slides through the tube to act as a safety device by screening the detonator in the unarmed position. in the armed position a hole in this bar is presented to the striker pin. loaded by pressure on the helicai Added safety devices are the moulded projections. which operates against two spring-loaded double tumblers. as in Type I. ~t is understood that this smaller type was not p@uced in any quantity. The plug also gives access to the booeter charge and detimator. A third type of bakeiite mine is stated to have been produced by Pignone. which slides over the brti tube. in diameter.. approximately 2~2 in.~ped through four lugs. The air space between the pressure plate. This cap is located by two brace shear pins set into the tube. held in a bakelite button. t~e act@8ting pressure was about twice the figure for Type I. they are diametrically opposite. the latter making a joint due to the upward pressure from the helical creep springs in the igniter. The igniter seemnbiy is sealed by two rubber rings. thick. and are retained by the sides of the cap. which support the cam collar in the unarmed position. A rubber ring seals this joint. but smaller and having a l% kg. The striker. A bakelite collar fits over the head of the pressure cap and is slotted so that it is held by the projections to”lock the arming key in the unarmed position. is only 5% in. is cocked against two steei bails. thick. The balls sit in the upper half of the striker pellet. it is % in. placed in the central chamber clos~i at the top by the base of the igniter assembly. sliding into the spindle from the side. this joint is sealed by a rubber gasket under the flange of the plug. The key is of brass. is heavily ribbed underneath and is the full diameter of. It was similar to Type I. which is knurled at the edge and provided with an indicating nib. It rests on the top of the igniter assembly J ‘d is held in position by steel wires which are 1:. of tough plastic materiai. % in. Igniter From the center of the base a braes tube projects upwards ae a guide to the brass striker pellet.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXP40$IVE ORD&4NCE (2P 1668 pIug threaded into the center tube formed in the top half of the casing. a“ . slotted down the center to take the arming key of ‘Yale’ pattern. The igniter assembly and arming wrangement are cbeed by the oap screwed into the pressure plate. The position of the cam collar is controlled by an inverted tough plaetic cup. TYPE II: ‘NM main casing ik similar to that of Type L The pressure plate. the mine casing. . and fastened with two phwtic rivets instead 04 one. lifting igniters. marked ‘S’ (SicuroSafe) and ‘A’ (Armato-Armed).

>:* p. . . . . . . Unpainted aiuminurn Over-aii length ---------2% in. Data Mines uaedin. . and igniters of various times are di17erentiated by the colors of the large threads on hour 45 steelgr(ly-~ hours M min. . . i. . . . +IERCWG PIN ALUMINUM RIN3 LEAD DISC CELLULOIO Disc . Sc%”timead ptitd scmW thread painted red-3 hours Colors are not seen when the igniter is anneal. . . A detcmator fitted with a fiauged cap is secured to the lower end of the body by a waaher and a screw-th-ied adapter slotted Iateraily A the lower extremi$y to permit the I 5 :*. . . Material ---------------Li@t aluminum alloy Position and method of ilximzin mine Connected to charge by t~reacis in base Delay times The delay time can be varied by the number of ceiluloid washers. .. . — Description The body houses a steel striker ratained against a compression of a steel spring by a ceihdoid washer which projects kto a cylindrical chamber at the upper end of the body.. . . .+. . JJJIFt IW3RE WASHER STRIKER Figuve 245- Chemical Delay Igniter 173 .. IGNITERS the upper part of body. . . . Demolition charges Color . . . . . Over-ail width ----------% in. .Chapter 7 ITALIAN Chemical Delay Igniter . as follows: Screw thread unpainted aiuminum-1 ..

consisting of a hoilow tube threaded externally at each end. when this point is reached. a hole through the striker coincides with a hole in the casing. cut by the chamfered edge of the upper end of the igniter body and projection from the end-cap.5in. the striker being prevented from turning by a set screw riding in a groove.3 in. thus 174 --- . Time Delay Igniter (Lead Shear Wire) Data Over-W len@h -------------(with detonator) Length of body. projecting through one end of the igniter casings. . The striker is surrounded by a spring which presses at one end against a screwed flange and at the other against the inside of the casing.) ‘2. Rotation of a galvanized mild-steel nut retracts the striker and compreeaes the spring.. the striker is released to initiate detonation.. A lead closing disc.llALfAN ANU FKZNGH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE OP ?668 )1--LEAO PIN insertion of the ilanged detonator head beneath the detonator locating ring. m . When the acetone dissolves. as showq screwed down and the long leg of the wire safety phi passed through a hole in the upper end of the body. Description The igni!er has a striker. permits acetone to enter the chamber and surround the ceilrdoid washer. the end-cap is cap. operation The safety pin is withdrawn and the end-cap aasembly screwed down. Unkm the arming operation is carried out with the end-cap down. Pressed into one end of the striker is a steel firing pin.625 in. the celluloid washer. while the short leg is passed through a hole in the collar. — STRIKER . .. which is of galvanized mild stsel.. When the end-cap is screwed down. (approx. ‘ The ring presses the circumference of the lead closing disc into a groove in’ the vail of the endFor transport. 0. The striker is provided with a flange which prevents withdrawal beyond a certain point. the acetone leaks out the airescape hole. I Figure 246Time Delay Igniter (Lead shearwire) “ a — _. The’ exterior of the body’s upper portion haa a lar~pitch square thread onto which screws the oap gssembiy with acetone sealed in the hollow-end cap by screwing the adapter collar hard down on the aluminum ring. ----------Width of body --------------3. the adapter collar bears hard against the fiber washer to form an effective seal. --..

(approx. the shear pin eventually fails. 50-Day Clock. .. . . the mild nut is unscrewed. . . which for this purpose is unscrewwi sufficiently to allow the flange of the cap to be inserted from the side into a slot in the adapter. . causing the lead shear pin to retain the spring. Friction Delay igniters-Micca Da 40 and 60 Data Mfcca da 40 Micca da 60 Length ------------3. . 0. allowing the striker to fire the cap and detonator.25 in----. The exterior of the tube surrounding the detonator itself is painted red. Data Over-ail diameter..3 in. To the other end of the igniter is screwed an akuninum adapter which is threaded externally for insertion into the charge.0. The time delay varies up to 26 hours. This latter is initiated by a sharp pull on a galvanized iron wire..4. . -------10sec .c# .25 in. but the remainder of the aseemkdy is left unpainted. –-SAfEW WE w ( –—DETONATOR “ Figure 247- Friction Delay Igniter 175 $&J . Resistance to the pull is provided by a flange on the aluminum tube. A detonator with a flanged percussion cap pressed into its open end is fitted into the base adapter. . Delay .----------16 in. Operation The galvanized wire k pulled.r—— permitting insertion of a %-in.15 sec.. Description This prepared detonator consists essentially ot a short length of safety fuse accommodated in an aluminum tube between a detonator and a friction igniter. and the aluminum tube is then 93 or 113 millimeters respectively in length. . operation To arm the igniter.7 in.) Description This device consists of a dry-cell battery aiid an electrical ciock with adjustable dial that can be set ITALIAN IGNITERS I ---m!l$n’. . . . The detonator and cap are then secured by screwing up the adapter. Diameter .. ----.—.-. . . After 10 to 15 seconds delay the safety fuses burn to the end and ignite the detonator. The assembly may be prepared for delays of 10 or 15 seconds. diameter lead shear pin. Under the pressure of the spring. Over-all height -------------8 in. igniting the friction mix and starting the safety fuse burning.

This entire unit is then attached to the sabotage charge. and the block is inserted in ‘the main charge in the space provided. . ‘ At the end of the set period. the setting dial closes the main switch which puta the detonator in seties with the battery. A block of approximately onequarter pound of Italian explosive T-4 is hoilowed out to house the detonator. the clock is rewound every five minutes instead of being a constant drain on the battery.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNJANCE OP 1668 up to %ty days. b 176 a . By means of a solenoid. This accounts mr the relatively long life of the battery. The main charge consists of appro.xirnateiy fifteen pounds of T-4 in a steel container which is bolted Itothe clock case. . which will stay active an entire iiftyday period and still produce enough current to fire the detonator.

. approximately in mdtipkse of 10 kg. stalmped on the bomb at 0. forged. either transversely near the nose-fuze pocket or in a direction parailei to the axis of the bomb. in weight and should be used at altitudes bt ween 1. e. The bombs in each class are named according to their weight. Service Bombs H. w ..----. M WmJ . and the mark of the factory.the inscription “F de Culot” on the same side as the other makings.000 feet. BOMBS UBlue body Incendiary-1 kg.Red body Green taii Smoke-----------------IBlacknose Green body and tail 2. Chapter 8 ‘u FRENCH Classes French bombs may be divided into three classes. The foUwing markings are painted cmthe bombs: IN BLACK.. H. . E. M Mn Stibombs ----------------MDu Other bombs ---------------DD Fillings The foiIowing fillings are used in French bombs: M Mn—Trbnonite (U. Coioring of Bombs 1. 4-22. with the month and year of Ming. and there follows a designation intended to differentiate several bombs of the weight. Flares Flares are normally used in reconnaissance of targets or landing grounds. bombs (old pattern) Grey ~wes..... * . . . E.. the establishrnen~s which have carried out th~ tempering and the manufacture. On mild or forged steel bombs they indicate the source of the steel. Lot number and year of filling. The nature of the explosive filling is indicated by letters 0. . the lot number..4 inch from the nmwfuze pocket. g. a cloud of smoke which lasts about a minute and indicates the direction of the wind. S. On bombs of cast steel. the year of manufacture..-.SF-514-20. -. a consecutive number. . The star burns for four or five minutes. . initials of the firm which carried out the filling. blue band or unpainted Instructional bombs . The smoke bomb produces. welded sheet or cast steel.. bombs -----------Yellow H. Nature of filling. markings indicate the foundry. (old IBlack tail pattern) Incendiary-(new pattern) :Red body Green tail Inceqhry-1(’) k~. .. The remainder are normally filled with “M Dn”. “D D“ being confined to certain types which are now considered obsoiete.--. “M Mn” is the most usual filling for cast steel anti-personnel bombs.Yellow. . on impact.. or drawn steel.-----. PCFD-7-22. g. service bbmbs are made of steel-hardened. E.-. the lot number and year of manufacture.Grey or black IBlueband Gray or black Ballast bombs -----------l~te b=d Markings on French Bombs Markings indicating manufacture are stamped on the ROWof the bomb. ~) 70% melinite (picric acid) 30% mononitronapthalene M Dn or MFDN 80% melinite 20% dinitronapthalene D D-Shellite (British) 60V0meiinito 40V0dinitrophenoi Of these..500 and 5. in Lhe case of bombs 177 . They may be 10 or 30 kg. e. Source and lot number of the explosive filling. ---. e. Miscellaneous Bombs Practice bombs. IN RED. The bomb fillings are generally as follows: Hardened steel bombs . g.4 inch in l~eight.. The letter M shows that the bomb is of rolled steel. .

Type G2 Antisubmarine. Tad No... . picric acid or picric acid and TNT.-~. . 7 222 kg. 11 Tad No... ... Type 12 Antisubmarine. ------------- 160 lb.. a number inchcatmg the exact weight of the bomb. 8 iVose Tail No. 15S in----- 265 lb.--.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPL951VE UWNANGE OF 1666 fuzed in the tail.A. .. . Only the information in the following chart is available. Totai Weight Ty’y’eof l% lb. \ — FRENCH NAVY BOMBS Little information hae been found cm French Navy bombs. .-.000 lb--- 224 kg.66 in. 20. picric acid and TNT. of Bomb 3%in. 8 ~ Nose No.860 lb.Voee Tad No.) Anti-Personnel Bomf3 17$ .9 in..--+- 150 kg.. ._ .240 lb. . below all other markings. “ 24 lb.picrioacid . (P.-..- Nose No. 8.102 lb. . -. . . . . e-. -.<.14. P.-. . A. . .. Mm Diam. 31 lb------------------500 lb-----.extent for the M&kg.. . 7 438 kg... ---lo% in----- Designation 14 kg..= . P. ... 10 Tail No. .. 8 . . Nose No. .-- 50 lb. 11 Tad No.900 Ib. --- 11. .... 1. -... . Type L-A. -. Type M-------------- 1. picrie acid or picric acid. TNT--. -P. bombs of 100 kg.-. Model 1938.. . TNT------------------ 490 lb------ Nose No.. and over carry.4. 33il lb------ 11 Figure 249- 10-kg. . ... In addition.-.. . 720 kg. ._ Weight and Natare of Filling .600 lb . . TNT.5 in. Type K-. . 73 kg.. . P. picric acid and TNT ----- 410 kg.. light-case bomb. Model 1938 A. .- 144------- 224 lb. which is included in the bomb section. 8 Nb88 No.75 in. . 9 and TNT.. . -.... .. .._. to the nearest kilogram..

Weight of filling--. . . Unknown Fuzing. internally threaded at the nose to accommodate the tapered steel fuze adaptor. . Tail width . . and secured by crimping the tail cone into an annular groove cut in the bomb body. .Persmmei Bomb Description TYFWI: The ‘bomb body consists of a converted 90-mm artillery shell.—m.5 in. 0. 5.-----.or Model 1928 Description The bomb casings are single-piece steal castings. A. Tail length ------------Unknown Tail width ..21. . with the following exceptions: no conical extension is fitted. Wall thickness . Totai weight ----------Fusing No& ordy-24/31 Type H. ) Anti-fersonnei Type I and Typi I I Data ‘TypeIand Type II 21. .. .-. ...5 in. . 10-lcg. . . ( P. the tail unit is formed of four similar segrnenta riveted together. .70YQPicric acidy 30% Mononitronapthaiene 2. fitted over the rear of the bomb. .5 lb. Over-all length ---------unknown Body Iength ----------Body diameter -.. .5 in. —C. . TYPE 11: This bomb is similar to Type I.3. 24/31 Mtiel 1925.A.5 in* Type of filling ---------. .4 in. . The taill unit is riveted to the upper half of the extension. . . . . Taillength . Length of body -------Unknown 3..s4 in. . . . . . . Nlodel 1921 R. Type II is similar to Type I. in height-nature of filling. .. .. Nose only—24 /31 Type H 1921 R. .0 lb.. . .21.”S.5 in. . . S. A sheet-rn~tal extension fits over the upper en{i of the body nnd is secured to it by crimping within two annular grooves machined in the “body.5 in. ..%3 ip. (P. from nose fuze pocket in letters 0. A. . . with the following exceptions: no struts are fitted to the tail unit. .-. . . . ) Anti-Personnel Type I and Type II Data ~Iand Type II Over-ail length--. color and Markings Over-all-yellow Stamped 0.Wall thickness ---------0. .**P FRENCH BOMBS . 10-kg. . . In Type I. 24/21 Modei 1925 and Model 192S Figure 250- !U-kg. . . (P) Anti.4 in.. Body diieter. and strengthening is effected by pressing the lateral and longitudinal corrugations” in each tail vane.. but a tail cone formed of a single-piece casting 179 . .

5 in. 7.A. 123. Type of iWingFilling weight.0 in.69 in. Model 1925.0 lb. Fusing No..5 in. Coior and Markings Both bombs: Over-all—yellow Painted on bomb rose-Type of filling and “F de Culot” if tail-fuzed only 50-IG3. No..-7.85 in.85 in.86 in. it has either a longitudinal or a circumferential weld.P.. Mn) is fitted over the upper end of the bomb and is secured to it by crimping within a single annular groOve. unknown 10.0 in. from the nose fuze pocket in letters 0. ---88. 3) GP. in height-nature of filling Over-all Jengm.0 lb.E. . 1. R.. 0.M. ( D. . . MDn or DD 42.5 in.. No. No. .125 in. Weight of filling. 112. (G.------Type of filling-.5 in. M. Figure 25150-kg. Tail length-.-H. . . S. 2: Nose-Type H. 2 Description (A): The body of this bomb is a single-piece steel forging made from a rejected 155-mm artillery shell. Unknown Unknown Mlvln 03. 123.0 lb. 22. 2 No.4 in.0 lb.0 lb.0 lb. Unknown Unknown Unknown 44. 3 from converted hydrogen cylinder. ---17. (A): Nose--Type H Model 1921. 1668 G.--. .0 lb. or Model 1928. and No. -Body length ----. (A) and 50-kg. (A) G. 46. . \ @ (G. Data Over-all length Body diameterWall thicknessTail length-. A. A.-H. Total weight. 2 46. both made obsolete —-‘ 180 .. 44.15 in---. Total weight. ----- 0. No.5 in.0 in-----7.-Body diameter ----Wall thickness . 3 46.. 0..& ~omb Description T&se bombs are single-piece forgings. 7.-H. ~~ and No. ..25 in.Mn) Data (A) OP.M. No. Tail+lch. 123.375 in. Mn): This bomb is made of sheet steel. ( C.. Color and Markings Over-all-yellow Stamped 0.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EX~~OSIVE 0RD3ANCE 50-~g.Unknown 0. 8.Mn): Tail—M. A. lModel 193s. 1..E. 46. P.2 in. . -..-----Taii width. Unknown Unknown 21. Wzirlg 39.MDn.7 in. . No.0 lb. JM.. . Model 1921. 1 made ~ from converted 220-mm artillery shell. R. No. Tail-3B15 (G.. A.T. -Tail width. 1 No.0 lb. . 3: Tail only—3B15 No. 2..----. Unknown .0 lb..

5 in.-.-. source.0 in.. 10. A.44 in. . 0. . Data 100-kg.(1Ibs.——w FRENCH BOMBS 100-kg. . Bomb by the French. S.Model 1938 .9in.-. . .. . . Modei 1930’ Tail-3B15 (100 kg. 56. . 14. Color and Markings Over-ail-yellow Painted on body-Type filling. 62. . Type of filling----------MDn or I)D Weight of filling. -----.258. %dy length----------Unknown Body diameter. No. 7. . R. Ttillength -------------18.P. The tail consists of four vanes fastened to the tail cone..E. only) Sch. 10. Bomb 181 ‘w .“ ‘u Figure 252- 50-kg. Over-alller@h_.2in.0 Ibs. 30/4$. Wall thickness----------O.-. S03..5 in.. strengthened between the vanes by sheet metal struts. .. . year of Ffgwe 253200. ..-IILE._.. Td~tidth.. G.._ 27. Unknown 14..E.25 in. .8 in.#in.-ti. of filling. N~A modified. . /0. P. .—. R.. 200-kg. and 200-kg.-H. G... ------ . .P.0 ~m. . . 2) G. etc.

. A. . 0. -.-H.E.P.44 in. - - .-. . Unknown Unknown Unknown 19. Model 1930 only) Ikscriptfon Model 1930: Bomb case is made of a singlepiiecesteel fo@lg.625 in.. Model 1930) Tail-3B15 SCh R. source. unknown MDn or DD 600 lb. The tail assembly consists of four van6s attached to the tail cone and reinforced by strute made of strip steel. 21. . (approx. ilata Over-all length. .4 in.iWO-kg. -.6 in.0 in. only - . out fuze) Body length --------.0 in..-.. 34.. Body diameter _. (Naval) Data over-ti length. 2: The bomb case is made of a single-piece steel forging. Mod. . Bomb Model ‘1930 .-. j n . Fnziug Nose-A modified R.. S. 79. 1148 lb. l~?5-leg. Color and Markings Over-ail-yellow Painted on the bomb c~Tme etc. .. 0. 1938 (500 kg. 1930 (except 500 kg. Tdtidth -----------------12..56 in. 83. --”. ---- Description These bombs have a forged steel case... eto.P.-. .-li.- Fuzing XoseType A Tsd-No.-. . and “F de Culot” if tail-f~~ 500-kg. 12.0 in. (Model 1930. Wall thichem. .. No.--. and No.Oin. source. unknown 27. .E. (with.. . Bdy diameterWall thicknessTail length---Tail width. .- . 8 182 . -H. No. 2) G. presumably circumferentially. 1 No.. 1182 lb. .--o.---Type of @ingF~g weight.---.2 in.. 1285 lb. 19.) Figure 2S4 .= in..E. . The tail’ assembly of these bombs consiets of a tad cone with four vanes attached. 595 lb. T~eoffilltig --------------TNT Weight of filling------------TJn~o~~ Total ~vei~t ---------------1X kg. . . Body length-. Model 1930 No. 662 lb.6 in. . . Tail len@h-----------------26. Total weight.2 in.8 in. . 2 84. P. . -\% of filling.-.-------36. 0..3 in. 1: This bomb is made of three sheekteel sections weIded together. G. 1. -.”------ -. C.0 in. - Color and Markhigs Over-ail-ye~ow Painted on case-Type of filling.61.2 in. . ”No.

.. ------------Tdlen@h-. Totdweight-. . G. w P 4Q-kg. . . . Unlmown l&75in. . . . Unknown 6.75 in.--. -----.--.---. .. . . Color and Markings Unknown Figure 2S6 . . ... .P. .. . ..-Body len@h----.-. . The tad assembly is secured to the bomb body by four clamping bolts which are received by four lugs on the body.40..E....-H. Fragmentation $omb Data Over-all length -----. . ------------- 35. 7.---. The tail unit has corrugated stiffening plates for strengthening.25 in. .. .75 in. Unknown Unknown Unknown .. .. Weight of filling. Fragmentation Bomb 183 ‘ktJ . Tail tidth -----------------T~eoftihg---.---.-—!—— FRE~~Ji BOMBS .kg.12S. . ‘u Figure 255 . hmb (NavaiJ Description This bomb is light cased.-Body diameter -------------Wall thickness.

The bombs differ in tail assemblies.J. The booster tube is threaded into the nose sleeve. Description The bomb bodies are cylindrical castings of magnesium alloy. 3 Tail fuze-Unknown Deacxiption This bomb is a converted artillery shell.. Tail tidti . central body. -.5 ~.0.---.2 in.. ... S.75in.5 in. .2.... Incendiary ~ Bomb Typa A 184 . Tail-green bhok ItO-kg. Tail length -------------4. with Type A consisting of three sheet-metal vanes supported at the ends by a circular ring and Type B consisting of a cast-alloy tail cone and eig$t vanes. -.. Body len@h-. ..-. -. plugged with wax. .-.35 in. Toward the nose..5 in---. --------14.-. Type of filling-----------l’hefiteThermite Total weight -----------1 kg-----. -. with the blade joined near the end of the bomb by a narrow strengthening band.. Plates divide the bomb into three sections. Nose oniy-24 /31 Type H ..-.. ( Model 1927) Incendiary Data . nose. .-...35 in. Magnesium Incendiary 8kg..Fnzing No-XO.. A.54 in. Incendiaries Type A and Type B Data Type ‘ -i.U~Own Wail thickness-.? 2.0 in----. Type of filhg --------------Totiwi@t Fllzing ---------------- 22. . the bomb c=ing is perforated by two small vents. &i Nose only-Fume for l-kg. Unknown 10. Incendiaries. The tail unit is the cross-blade type.1 in. . . Coior and Mt@ill@ Unknom l-kg.’:.l-kg.Unknom Tail width------. ~ I I I . ---. ..9 in------. A ~eB Over-all length. tail-black Type B: Body-red or blue.. Wall thick=--------------T4 l~@h--.-. Unknown 3. 5. * or Over-all length -------------Body len@h ----------------Body diameter . .1 kg.---. Model 1929 Description The bomb consisti of three parts: (1) a cast-steel nose iilling sleeve and fuze adapter which screws into (2) a cast magnesium alloy body at the rear of which is sorewed another (3) magnesium alloy casting in the form ofs truncated cone with a base plate as an integral part of the castings.Model 1929 or 24/31 -R. . with the nose internally threaded to take a nose fuze. . . Coior and Markings Type A: Body—blue..14.-. . . -..0. ..0 in.. $Igura 2S7 . -.

Old Type (A) New Type (B) Da~ Over-all length-.—u. 10 kg.*”and 10-kg. .10-kg. . ‘Unknown z .lo”kg. 4. :-. MI the incendiary composition is connected with wicks for ignition. Parachute Flare Type A 185 .&. i i / LJ Figure 2S8 . ----------Body len@h------.. Cohr and Markings Body-red or blue Tail-greerI or black t!d--a Figure 2S9 . ------- ‘Type A. Parachute Flares... !ncendary (Ah&d 1927) Bomb and tail portion.4 in.Body diameter --------------Wall tbchws.----. .. 45.3 ~m. The incendiary filling is contained in tweIve triangular tubes made of ma~esium and filled with incendia~ composition. ..— FRENCH BOMBS —-.-. The tail unit also contains incendiary.

rt ignites the powder charge. . The head of the flare contains bdkat. Tnn . and 50 kg. --------. . . .4: The lo-kg. tin plated.. protected from breakage by cork at the taiI.. Unknown 2. ---------------Tdtidth.45 in.. When the parachute opens. 13 kg. . 8 -. Titanium Tetrachloride 100 cc..15 in. . ii@t= the flare composition.4.75 in. k I?uzing None Description The casing is sheet aluminum. Pa~achute Flare Type B painted near the head 9.4: Type B: Nose only-Tiie Noseotdy-Tme Fuze V.. 15.-------Bottle con~nt --------------Figure 26010-kg. Coior and Markings Type.— . . Type of filling-------------Weight of fMing------------Totai wei@t ---------------186 unknown Unkrlown Star composition 8 kg.25 in.. “. At the same time. Description These types of dares are very similar. 4... . as weil as the powder charge which ignites and expels the contents of the flare. When the fuze functions. The newer type of dare is made of The tailcover is attached to the body by a lead strip running around the joint between the.ITALIAN ANO FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNAAICE - OP 1668 Type.lM.. . and this. in turn. body and the tail The expulsion of the stars and parachute is accomplished in the same manner as in the Type A. The ignition of the Iarge star is caused by the safety fusas. The Type A is the older type and B is the newer. They come in weights 10. .. the cup of which is lightly attached to the body.. of flare-three grey stars Smoke Bomb Data Over-all length -------------Body len@h----------------Body diameter -------------Tail len@h-----------------Tail ~tidth -----------------Fwg_ -.. . Tmm B: aiuminum. the gaa caused by the combustion of the powder creates sticient pressure to eject the star and parachute through the tail of the flare. the six small stars hang around the large star. and a coilar Tdlen@h . . 30. fiare of this t~e has a body alf sheet iron. 3. with the head pressed separately and soldered in several places to the body. . felt washers along the side of the casing. A glass container fits within the casing.4: Over-all-red Type B: Over-all-white.. Fuze Model 1930 ~’) .

%md’ - Figure 241A UOn Smoke Bomb supported on a helioal spring at the nose. color and Mdrings Body and tail-grsen Noee--blaok 1 I I .—m—-mw*. release. shaped safety pin holds the collar in position. the M fety @ is ptdled.- FRENCH BUMBS ‘$J . . the bottle moves forwards againet a spring onto four cuttem in the nose of the body. freeing the bottle in the caee. On impaot.

I 88 I -. I —-_ .‘. dh I [ .

. . the vane iteeif is heid fad by a sdety pin. ‘I%isspeed is normally attained after a fall of at least 66 feet. . the rush of air cm. The main feature of this R. S. percussion systam @that there is no speeial means of arming this fuze. The spindle either screws down or unscrews in order to bring the striker into the functioning position. the arming is @ected either by the resistance of the air operating a *e (fuzes a helice) or by the speed of descent (fume the vanes to iotate. or by the burning of a powder pellet. The arrangement for arming.06 or 0. and with a windvane arming device). S. C R. therefore. Fuzee (except bomb ilareVi M..Instantaneous Alternate biack and white Short delay band. For transportation. and often takes the form of a vane with screwed spindle which @mobilizes the striker and holds it apart from the ilaeh cap. Vane tips alternately red and black delay Long delay Iklay marked on fuwe and body. m%y be removed from the bomb with the use of special tools. ------Removal”of Fuzes Most fuzee... Unexploded bombs (if armed) are dangerous to handle. when the bomb is dropped. . fuzes.. within stantaneous action or delay of 0. in fact. On body of fuze above screw threada: MI-white band __ . French bombs are fuzed in nose or tail (or in both) with mechazdcal fuzes (L e. simiiar to the blow of impaot (but much law) may make a striker pierce a detonator. arming must not take place until the bomb is euflicierttiy clear of the ma@ine. ------Vane tips alternately black and Whit$. The result of either form of movement or shock WIiilprobably cause detonation..-. Aerial-burst fuzee: These may operate by the action of a vane. which aote in a speoial manner) sot on impact either by the striker being forced onto the cap or by the effect of inertik causing a movable. in order to prevent premature functioning of the fuze in the vicinity of the airp@ns. the length of the ““ pellet deterrmmn gthetime. A. .. a certain number of rotations being necessary to cause the fuse to function. . 2.Chapter 9 (w . if unarmed and not badly deformed by impact. 3.).. as a jar in one dirmtion. . Adhesive tape should be used to look the fuze and arming devices before bombs are moved. containing stnkem and detonators. Types of Bomb Fuzes There are three types of bomb fuzes: 1. . S. ---. Time fuzes (Clockwork Mechanianw and Fixed Tfme) These types are for explosive bombs. Percusdon ftmee: In these. In addition to. Bombs failing without initial speed and without rotation cannot become armed by employing the effects of setback or centrifugal force. ~or any parts pushed in or pulled out (this calls for great care in the use of the:probe when locating). g. and the fuze is then armed. . . a supplementary .. e.. kzning vanes shouldnoti be screwad or unscrewed. part to sit forward.. (short dalay) U 2.— security mechanism called %ecurity largable” is used in some fuzes. somewhat similar to U. or a jar in the other direction may withdraw a striker from a pmtially pierced but tied dakmator..15 seconds. armed when the bomb has acquired the requisite speed.tho usual &fety device. On the other hand. FRENCH BOMB FUZES Generaily speaking. It is.-. A. On Vanes: Vane tips all whk8. Colored Markings on Fuzes hlstsdaneous 8hOl% 1. The vanes having been freed. . Vane tips all black . .. 189 . Longdelay Black band _. provided this can be effected without movement of the parts. is also a safety arrangement.

\ 190 -’ . By the date of the particular model. while the denominator gives the diameter of the }>&se..i -— . 1 ARMING !4 L— RELAY Figure #. 3 bis 3. 1921. e. By a fraction indicating the dimensions of the fuze. g. peroueaiondetonating (percutante detonateur) 2. g.. 24/31. e. g. g.. i the portion which abuts onto the bomb casing. . A.s 263- Mechanical Impact TyJ#e A Nose Fuze ‘&iignation French bombs may be desc~hed as follows: 1.. e. 1928.5.... By a letter or number. By their type. 1930 4. e. in millimeters. Here the numerator imdicates the diameter. 36/67. e. H. of the thread-~ ed portion which screws into the bomb.

The striker is attached to the arming spindle by a pin. the sleeve remains with the dropping gear by means of the projection. “instmtaneous” -. When. and is shown at the top of Figure 262.and W-kg. 200-kg. 1929. and. Safety device for ~~e with tht3R S. the three pins ar6 free to move. The hood is held in’the head of the fu2e . R. S. Fuze when used for horizontal suepension of 10 and 50-kg.. . vizI--------S. shown in the lower portion of figure 262. the clip is pulled away.---------6. The intetior of these hciodsis shaped to conform with the contour of the fuze head. “long retard” ---. It is also used in a slightly modified form with R. The latter is attached to the ball-release cord. These are known as “dispoeitif de securite Iargable”.15 Sec.3Bia’hilFuze Over-all length. The safety device then opens during the descent of the bomb and falls away 2. the pins are pressed into a groove on an adapter. The collet travels with the fall of the bomb for the [ength of the sleeve. Fuze Model 1925.--. Description The fuze consiete of: (1) An upper brass conical section threaded internally receive the arming to spindle.1-in. The sleeve can slide over the collet guided by two ‘$UJ . and are of three types. By an abbreviation indicating the delay of screws. . “Raymondie sane Raymondie being the name of armament” manufacturer and “sane armament” meaning without arming device. R. Secondary Safety Devices Secondary safety devices are used with some French fuzes.--. GP-HE and EM-kg. lot number. . s.. and assists in the removal of the hood after the bomb is released. three spring-loaded pins. L. (“Schneider-Raymomlie”): This device.. with the aasijtance of the spring. SciI. The safety “device is closed by means of a clip to which cord and a ring are attached. the bomb iii released. L Fuze 30/4. so that the clip is puhd away when the bomb is releiwd. Safety device Model 1928: This device is incorporated with the 192S and 1929 Models of the R. (2) a truncated. wwh steel of strip having the projection to grip the fuze head. The detonator is houwd in a doubk-walkd copper container which is retained in the rear position by a creep spring.’—. Attached to the }MUSS the latter i~ a spring-steel toilet. no delay “court retard” --. in addition to any designation symbols. bombs.6 in.One or two reiaye. conical sectian of steel which is externally threadd to screw into the bomb fuze pocket.--.06 sec. and are prevented from rotating by a safety pin through a slot in the body and a hole in the spindle. If the fuze is to be used for 191 again 6. 3. C. and year of manufacture. Twice. I?uzceusedwith ---------No. . A. rt%ENbn BIUMD ru~ta the fuze. and (3) a lbrsss tube containing the detonator.. It consists of a steel sleeve through which peiww the suspension lug. his------‘Ws’’----...(with booster) Over-all length of vanes . 0. R. When the collar is closed by the ciip. bombs.0. Fuze Modele 1928 and. AIso-all fume bear markings indicating the factory or origin. MO-kg. A.—#. is used with R. at which point the strips can open out sdciently to allow the fuze hed to be freed from the reieasing gear. the safety hood falls away from the path of the bomb. which screws into the bomb. lnetantaneous “ems retard” ---. Model 1930: Thh k shown in figure 266. Long delay. Mechanical Impact Nose Fuza—Type A Data Bombs used in 50-kg. S.. A. and internally threaded to receive the upper section of the fuze.-. v When the bomb is reieaaed. 3.Short delay.------. A second safety device consists of a copper wire secured to one vane and caught between the u!pper brmw and steel sections of the fuze body. Vanes are attached to the upper end of the arming spindle by a brass screw. St@ety device.9 in.. . which pass through the lower portion of the wall of the hood$ and are heki in position by a spring collar.. A. It consists of a single pieoe of bronzed steei in the shape of a hood Inside of the apex of the hood is a spring which holds the head of thii fuze away from’ the hood.. “encore.2. Width of fuze body. for vertical suspension of 10. R. It consists of two symmetrical steel hoods joined by a band of spring steel.—— 5. follows: 1.

—Instantaneous C. i&&-- DETONATO b Figure 264- Mechanical ilmpacf Nose Fuze-ry$la M 192- . R. the safety wire is cut and the safety pih is withdrawn. R.15 seconds “\ a . L . the striker remains stationary. operation When the bomb is dropped. R.—(Short Delay) 0. the arming screw advances near the detonator until the striker rests on the recess in the fuze. one or more deiay pellets may be fitted into the top of the detonator holder. On impact. and the detonator hoider overcomes the creep spring and hits the striker.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLQSIVE ORDNANCE OP 1668 long.or short-delay action. As the vanes rotate.05 seconds L.—(Long Delay) 0. Remarks Fuzes are marked to show the following functions: S. The flash from the detonator passes directly to the booster or through the deiay and relay pellets to the booster.

26 and 29. When vanes have rotated sufficiently. differing mainly Nose Impact Fuzes R.-H. . Mle. Description fUZSS~ Th- w . A..) action. 3 Bia or Sch. 26 that except a short boostar replaces a long one sealed by Iead sdd~r. Mle. and relay. A braas ring is screwed over the main brass fuze body and secured by a setscrew.. T.. the safety pin is withdrawn... Markinga IL S. . only by the shear pin.. . P.2 in. 25. .. . 29 is similar to Mle.2im. P. . Below the weep spring between the striker aud wseher.. .A. The striker is now held..4 in. and delay. igniting the expioaive system. and comes to a rest against the upper :kdge in the fuze recess. Sixteen vaaea are formed on a ring riveted to the cap. The shear pin joins them. steel balls fall out and finally the vanes completely unscrew and fail out. 29.1. or 2924131 Deacriptiou Similar in function and appearance.or longdelay (0. when the striker and cup are forced back. The baee of the eyebolt has a bolt formed with it which screws into the striker. 3 Bis or Sch. delsy. and 1929 Data Bombs used in Mle. D. Mle. The secondary safety is removed when the bomb is released. 418J .. but both are easily d~tinguiahod by the square eyebolt on the upper cap. Incdiary Mcdel 1927 Fuzes Uti with MIe. MIe. P.. The model 1921 has a long lxmster containing a de+mnator..6 in 1929 Over-all length of vanes Model 1921. carrying the suspension eyebdt with them. Model 1929-.3. 4. . 2S and 29 are one-piece. . 2 G.15 im. 28.. The detonator and washer owwcome the creep spring. No. the fuze being used to igniti incmxiiaries.. Mle. 1925 and 192S-Alone Mle. 25.. l!M$-TaiI FUZBNo. (Without booster) Mle. (IWh booster) Mle. The striker and cup are heid.. These fuzes may give instantaneous.... a central dash channel leads to the relay pellet and booeter in Mle. and 60 kg.15 sec. .. Aort-delay (0. E.15 in..G. A brass shear pin SISO passes through the slot and the body. 50-kg. 28... 25-. no further arming occurs until impact. 21 or 29 Simik h OUtwWd 8P-C%..G. . M1e.) . i~ Mle. .2in. . 1. . by a ahear pin WhiCh pSSSeSthrOUgh tho fum bwiy. while the ddxmatir cap eets fomard tthe washer in dots of the (cup and w@nst a creep spring. consisting of a cup with a detonator in the base and two vertical slcita in the walls to receive the wings of a washer rmting on tap of the detonator. depending on the delay pellet used* operation As the Iximb is released. 1928. N@. . ‘2S-lo-kg. the detonator hita the striker.. a booster charge on the detonator. Over-all len~ (With booster) Model 1921... (Without booster) Model 4. Anti-l?emonrd..6 in. The striker is held in place by a steel threaded pin through the fuze body which pa through the lower portion of the slot in the striker.lO-kg.S.. On impact.. Between the striker plate and the upper looking ring of the body are six steel bds... 29-10-kg.vanee. . freeing the . Mechanical Impact Nose Fuzes Type H Models 1921 and 1929 Data Bombs used in lo-kg. Width of fuze body Model 1921--------------1.5. Width of fuze body Mle. . A.3. in size and detonator assembly.5 in. or 2S. .. the brass fitting containa a delay pallet and relay l~llet.05 sec. and booster chargee..-H. 2S-. E. relay. ----.. The model 1929 haa a short detonator holder containing a detonator cap. IL Tail Fuze in Wkg.26 in. Models 1925. IL Over-ail length (WW booster) Mle.5.... the striker shears the pin and hita the detonator. -.. Opemtion These fuzes we used with or without secondary safety device (other than the shear pin) in the striker. . 3. 2S..3im Mwti@------------------24/31-H-Mle. -.-H. Fuzee used with Alone in lo-kg. theee fuzea dMer slightly in construction. The upper part of the body contains a Raymondie (or Re’mondy) percumion-arming device. P. . E. 25 consists of tWOIpkma screwed together. ----------1. .. Model 1929./ FRENCH BOMB FLJZES ———— u # .

> –DELAY –RELAY Figure 265- Nose impact Fuzes R. Mede/s 1925.A.F STRIKER 1 SHEAR f3N DETONATOR b .S. ‘o .) . . . 1929 . 1928.

and 1929. A. 200-kg. Maybe found in other bombs from 100-kg.A. ~ldth of faze --------------1. 2). Model 1938 Over-all length -------------&8 in. fuze mechan.-H. (No.. Remarks The usual markings to indicate tho delay are found on the pin at the base of tha truncated hood and are as follows: White-+hxatantaneous Alternate Black and ‘White41h. E.S. At the apex inside the dome. Around the base of the hod are three spring loaded detents.ort delay 0. the clip is pulled away. A. or Sch. there is a spring which is compreawd when the hood is placed on the fuze. 1928.15 second 195 u . “-SAFETY DEVICE . operation When the bomb is released. P. Fuzes used with No. The distinguishing features are the truncated hood and the large diameter. Model 1930 Nose Impact Fuze R. to 1. releasing the spring-loaded detents.S. delay 0.A. The function of the fuze then is the same m described in the R. which are pressed into the A-groove on an adapter which screws into the bomb.05 seconds B1ack—I. The had then falls off with the help of the spring. Description The internal assembly of this fum is the same as the other R. S. 3 Bis.“Q . The hood on the dome cover is set down over the regular R. spring-loaded’ detents. w Figure 266- Nose Impact Fuze R. Models 1925. A. Model 1930 IJata Bombs used in ItIO-kg. S.. R. TIM clip tits around the base of the hood and compresses the.. models already described.000-kg. 500-k& (Model 1930) G. S. which spring out and fall away. ism.8 in.

..1. ~ti-pemome~ Fuzea used with-.2 in. ‘. which passes through the fuze body and engagea a ~oove in the striker.. Nose Atze — Mechanical Impact Nose Fuze-M.. The vanes rotate and rise on the striker siindle... the striker is forced down. . Description This fU9S consists of a brass body and steel striker.’--..----.3..-. operation “When the bomb is dropped. are screw-threaded on the striker. v ‘“’’%’--S+=r - R WIRE PIN I “~ ‘~SAFETY Ffgurer 267- Mechanical M.. Over-all length of vanes .. The shear wire passes through the striker and body.. lo-kg.-. <’.4 in. !n~pa~ flis . . Width of fuze body. .“t. . . initiating the explosion. . ..--. .1 in.. . The striker is held in place by the safety 1* bolt. cutting the shear pin and contacting the detonator.m E@ . .. Bis Date Bombs used in. The arming vanes.. the safety bolt is removed. On impact.Alone Over-all length ---------5.

. The striker block and inertia weight containing the detonator are kept apart by a creep spring and a spring-loaded safety bolt heidl between the two parto by the safety pin. There is a ring at the upper part of the safety pin. springloaded safety bolt to move from between the striker block and the inertia cap holder.... ... the safety pin ring. On impact. T. the inertia cap hoIder “@e forward”.2. . —m..-. .“.Magnesium Alloy Description The main fuze body is ‘cylindrical. this allows the. which hae been held by the dropping gear. -. .. .. The safety cover has two domed projection W degrees apart to receive the springIoaded stop heid in a recess in the body. A safety pin is located in the fuze head 180degrees from the spring-loaded stop and is preventwi frbm moving by the sahty cover in the safe position. Operation When the bomb is placed in the plane. 197 . Magneaium Incen~ diary Bombs Fuzes used with. Y—-e----- mw(u? {“ I&Fi==& “\ Figure 268- ——CKTENT Incendiary Bomb Puze Incendiary Bomb Fuzes Mode/s 1925 and 1930 Data Bombs used in. . . . Material of construction .----Both models l-kg. . When the) bomb is releaeed.. freeing the pin. tapering sharply to a smaller cyliider threaded to screw into the bomb case. The top of the fuze is covered by a domed safety cover held in place by a square suspension lug screwed onto the central pillar the baee of which is flanged to fit into the striker recese of the fuze. compressing the creep spring until the striker detonates the detonator. is withdrawn. causing the safety cover to rotate also.. . . . This allows the opening in the safety cover to come beneath the safety pin.4 in. .FRENCH BOMB FUZES ‘$4A a!’d ~. L . .0 in... the suspension lug is rotatod 90 degrees.. 3.---. (With lug) Width of fuze body.. -------Alone Over-all length. SAFETY NNG /$~FE-fy nlscS CETEFJT .

. The vanes rotate in flight and raise the striker. mb .2 in.5 in. ---Wldthof fuze body. . . .. 198 The fuze body has a narrow shoulder. ----------i Fuzeused witlt -------------Over-all length . UnknOWn Alone 4. . 0.9 in. A stop pin inserted in a channel in the striker prevents the spindle from turning ]tith the arming vanes. . Upon impact. . . . .-. . The striker is threaded just beiow the lfig in order to receive the arming vanes. . . . . Over-all length of vanes.. The striker then rests on the creep spring. . . and initiates the explosion. . contacts the primer. immediately beneath which are the threads which screw into the noee-fuze pocket of the bomb. . 3. b q . Description The nose of the fuze comists of a lug which is a part of the striker. . . . .-. A creep spring separates the striker fram the primer. the striker overcomes the creep spring. . t--- STOP PIN lH-+-OmONATO~ Mgure 269- Mechanical Impact Unknown) Nose Fuze (Designation Mechanical Impact Nose Fuze ( Designation Unknown) Data Bombs US@dn. with another small charge of explosives.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDl&ANCE - OF 1668 ... The primer cap is located in the lower part of the fuze body.. Operation The safety pin is withdrawn when the bomb is dropped. .

10 Fuze has a longer delay. 10).. . . 10). 10 are similar in operation. [u Figure 270Mechanical No. 199 ‘u . 10-125-kg. 9---------------IJnknown Description The No. . 9 and No.. The only difference be~ween them is that the No. The fuze body is threaded immediately beneath the cone to thread into the bomb-fuze pocket. The portion of the fuze which protrudes from the bomb is cone-ehaped.0 in. The clip retains the two steei balls which fit in the depression of the arming sp. 6. Width of fuze body (No. Over-all length of vanes (No. Type I (Naval) No. . -. . -. . . 3. Dimensions of No. and 224-kg. Type K (Naval) dver-all length (No. 10). .5 in.jndle. . A ring clip is inierted between the fuze body and the vanes. 4 9? K w STRIKER DETONATOR . 10 Impact Nose Fuze Mechanical Impact Nose Fuzes No.RING CLIP LOCKING BALLS ..3 in. . 9 and No. 10 Data Bombs used in No.. 2. The base of the fuze is threaded to receive the booster and delay element. -. . The striker spindle is attached to tb arming spindle by a pin. ‘I’hodetonator is held back by a creep spring. . 9--4lO-kg.

. 12 (Naval) ‘ 720-kg.. which faU out.OiR. This releasee the steel balls. .. 11 Data Bomb wed in 73-kg4 G2 (Navai) 2Q0 MO-kg. (fib booster) Over-all length -------------3. .. The striker. -. WIJ3CKIIUG 9AM ..0 in. the detonator overcomes the creep spring and hits the striker.“ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE OP 1668 . SYRIKER . Type iM (Naval) Fuzes used }tith..-. has a painted head which rests in the recess of the vane housing and is held in position by a 4 -. :OPPER SHEAF? i)EiuwoR -on ‘The safety clip is withdrawn upon rekaeing from the plane. 2.--Ubo~ Over-all length -------------6. On impact. The vanes and vane housing are held from the fuze body by the safety clip. --.. Mechanical Impact Nose FUZ* Type No. ---. permitting the rotation of the arming spindle and vanes to lower the striker until it recesses on the ehoulder in the l~wer part of the fuze. zDescription ‘ The portion of the fuze which protrudes from the bomb is cmwshaped.. Width of fuze body...6 in.

down. permitting the vanes to rotate. S. . .0. P. . 200-lrg. The fqze body is externally threaded beneath the cone to screw into the bomb. 16. 3 Bis. exphding the bomb. Fuzea used @th Type H Model 1921 R. Mle. . shearing the copper pin and striking the detonator cap. UN-kg. 2$. 3 84s 201 ‘u . . 3.-H. Deacripdon The body is ]ong and cyiidric~ being intern@ threaded at the top to receive the dome-shaped brass collar.q  copper shear pin. W04rg. The vanes rotate and screw the vane housing into the receee of the body which exposes the striker head. The tlkah goes do~ the flash chazmd ta the delay and relay eiements respectively. The amning spindle is connected to the vanea. The fuze is fully armed when the threaded ‘spindle is withdrawn 0. .. . Width of fuze body.. . . Upon “knpact.5 in.. Mle. . Data Bombs used in SO-kg.9 in. The brass coilar is internally threaded to “meive the srqdng spindle.0 h (with booster) 14. .() in. the safety clip is withdrawn. The detonating element is contained in a small cup-shaped. 1930 Ovedl length . operation Upon being dropped from the plane. . The upper recees of the fuze body is threaded to receive the vane housing.. . Operation A piece of copper wire preventi the vanes from rotatiug. The vanes and spindle may fall away and free the striker to me’ on the creep spring. Mechanical Impact Tail Fuze No.5 im (without booster) Over-ail Iength of VOll@-. which ignites black powder in the tube. the striker overcomes the creep spring. . and the balls fail out. The bsse of the body is externally threaded to screw into the bomb. rele@ng vane housing. thus withdrawing the arming spindIe. G. The arming spindle screws into the striker. i— &RIMll STRIKER ‘— -— OE70NA7W ‘-—’ b ~E -! E’ ‘w OELAY Figuro 272- Medmnical Impaci TaJl Fuxo 840. A. and MJe.-. E. . and it also b external threada at the base to receive the booster. Beneath the striker arb the meepspring and detonator. the wire is broken. Upon impact. which are six in number. . . Upon being released from’ the plane.container which screws onto the base of the fuze. . . 25.. the striker head is forced. . -. which detonate the bomb. striking the detonator.

T. 7). . The firing pin then moves forward against its spring and hits the detonator. Beneath .------- -------- ------ -~”- -.. lModel 1938 and 438-kg. the detonator must pass through the deiay pellet. . 16.. . 2. (with booster) Width of fuze body ---------1.05 seconds) All B1aok—Long Delay (0. The arming vanes are ccmnected to the arming spindie.-H. . There is no arming action during fllght.. Type K. detonator flash tube leading to a lower relay and booster.9 in. . . R. . Description In 1939. fits the striker a+ sembiy. 12 FuzesuA ~tith ------------------Unknown Over-all length (No. P. 7) ---. .. &M-kg. Type L. R.SAFETYCUP FIRING P!N * M$-4ETONATOR Figure 273- Mechanical impact ~ Model 1938 Tail Fuze Sch. In the top of the fuze. G2 and 150kg. . freeing the split safety ring. .)--Short Delay (0. Mechanical impact Tail Fuz~Sch. .15 in. 7 and No. this was the only French tail fuze in production. .“. . . lModel 1938 No. --. 202 . As a safety device. Description These two fuzes are essentially similar. A second creep spring is placed between the striker and the detonator. Type M. the spring clip is withdrawn.)-Instantaneous Alternate White and Black (C. D. 16.. Fuesudtith ------------Unknown Over-ail length . . Remarks The fuze body has a color band painted at the top of the fuze body to indicate delay time as follows: White [S. the striker assembly is carried forward by inertia. . Width of fuze body (No. The detonation is then transmitted through the relays to.. . . On impact. .-. NO. On the top of the striker is the spring safety ring which locks the striker assembly in position. a delay pellet may be placed between the upper detonator and lower relay.-. compressing the spring until the striker comes up against the detonator hoider. . .. 410-kg. 8-125-kg. .w M~hgs ------------------- Vs I Www 24 l~leo 1933- fY= Sch. .4. 7)--------1. 200-kg. the booster. R.4 in. . The lower end of this spindle is threaded to the striker.1 in.. . which consists of a firing pin and a creep spring held in the striker housing.. Operation When the bomb is dropped.0 in.15 seconds) Mechanical Impact Tail Fuzes No.. 7—222-kg. Over-all length of vanes (No. 100-kg. and 224-kg. . R. which are forced against the spindle to prevent rotation and withdrawal. 720-kg. the ring safety clip retains the steeI balls. . 73-kg. Model 1930 G.. E. For delay action. 8 Data Bombs used in No. Model 1938 Data Bombs used in W-kg. . Below the. .

As the valve opens. On impact. The fuze body is threaded beneath the lower flange to screw into the bomb. The ffash is carried down the tube to tho delay pellet. the balls fall out. where pressure builds up until it forcm open the sma[l spring-loaded cone-shaped valve. operation The ring clip under the head of the fuze is withdrawn when the bomb falls. Remarks These fuzes can be set for delay ranging from 0. and the vanes rotate and rak the threaded spindle.FRENCH BOMB FUZES —— v x SAFETYCUP LOCXINGBAIL ARMINGSPINI)LE L- b \ Ill “\ $s ‘Sn?lw? ALIGNINGPIN o!ElwwCm FLASH TWE ‘w Figure 274- Ahchanical the striker are the creep spring and detonator.0 seconds. The lower portion contains a long flash tube to the firing system. so q that the ?triker in which the end is housed becomes free se the screw in withdrawn upwards. screwed into the bw of the fu~e. A small con~haped valve is also located in the baee. the striker hits the detonator. the ilaah passes to another dalay pellet.1 to 7. 203 huJ . The lower end of the spindle is aiso threaded. and then to the booster lead-in and booster. The striker is then held by the weep spring.

screw spindle he a tubular base where the steel balls hold a spring-loaded striker. ?.. Width of fuze body ---------Alone 5._ --.--.-.0in. . the L-shaped safety bolt is withdrawn.25 in. Parachute Fu~Atith--. . The L2M . TIM vanee are secured to the domed cap screwed Atop the deeve.. Mechanical Time Fuze-Mocfel 1930 Data Bombs used in. The vanee rotate. which causee the arming spindle to move downwards until the steel balls are freed into the iuuguiar groove in the body. The booster screws onto the fuze base. The arming . ITAIJAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORINJANCE OP 1668 . Over-W len@h -------------Over-all length of vanes . The fuze requires 3 to 4 seeonds to arm and function. 1. .. . The striker then moves forward beoause of its spring and fires the detonator. . .. .---. An angular groove is cut into the body just above the detonator. . . the lower part of which is threaded @ receive an arming spindle..-. operation When the bomb is rekaeed. .45 in. Newer Type 10kg.. after release from the piane. (with booster) 3.. .gum 275- Machanicai rime Fuze Madef 1930 shaped safety bolt engaged by a spring-loaded detent prevents the rotation of the vanes. turning the sleeve. -tin The upper portion of the fuze ia a cylindrkwd tibe holding a’sleeve.

-. The split safety pin penetratm the striker’s upper portion to prevent rotating. . .. . .0 smonds.2in.—— —- F@.--. which ignites the booeter. . ‘Nw time fcirthe fuze to arm and function is 2. The fuxe body is cyhhicd. Description The fuze has 2$3 arming vanes mowed to a striker. . . .———— . the vanes rotate and eorew the four-pointed striker {iown until the threaded portion diseng~ea the threaded seotion of the fuse. The boostar holder somva onto the base... 205 .-. Over-all length of vanes -----~dth of fuze body -. and externally threaded to sorew into the ihre wee-piece. . . operation When the safety pin is withdrawn.. correepomiing to 100 to 150 feet of air fw.-. ....15 in. FRENC}I BOMB FUZES . Data Bombs used in.5 to 3. Air pressure then forma the four-pointed striker down onto the detunator.M.. l. . . A bracefitting hokie the detonatm in the f~e beae. . . 276.#&r’m —- OE70NA70R FJs*Mechanical lime Fuza=-V.MuhankaJ Tf&o PWZ*- V*M. ----Fuzeeueed with ------------Over-eli length .- ‘W . Older Type 10kg. ... (with booster) 4. . Paraohute Alone 5.2 ii 1..

206 ‘ . Inside the projeetor tube. . Description ‘TIMIteel projeotor tube. d I figure 27760-mm Mode! 1939Mine Ant&Peisonnol washer. . it is cksed by a maohined base plate. driven into position and fixed by dowels. Supporting plate ------------6. .-_ .. of blaok powder. Type of tiling -_.5”lb. is a push fit over the base plate.3-mm bore. At its lower end. Totdwdght ---------------5. consisting of 0. to which is welded the fhze holder. Melinite weight of billing------------50s... . into whioh a &h tube is screwed.Chaptetr 10 FRENCH MINES AND TRAPS 60-mm Model 793>Anti-Persmmei Mine 8.. which is held in position by clips. . Located in the flash tube is a propelling charge. .8’ gm. . .4 h x4 in.. is s closed at its upper end by a cap with a rubber aeaiing ma Over-ail height -------------- .. An igniter adapter is screwed onto the open end of the flash tube. the pfissedsted cap.25 in. -.. of 60..

. . -.-.Markings on upper surface within fuze weII: Ass 10. .. Light Anti-Tank Mine Data Over-ail length -------------Over-all width . 4.FRENCH MINES AND TRAPS . delay peiiet is ignited and. .. . . . to insure that the mine remains verticai and also @. . in which the lower part of the mine is placed. . . the after a tielay of about the bomb are exploded. The flash from the cap in the igniter fires the propelling charge. . . The projector tube and fiash tube we fixed to a rectaaguiar plate..-l3. .-. . This plate is designed to fit over the hole. . .. . .. Operation This mine is designed to throw a 60-mm mortar bomb into the air so that it will explode at a height of between 1 ft. . ~ere is a small distance piece to prevent the deton~tor from being screwed down onto the delay pellet. Models 1935 and 1936 . ..—* . . . Color and markings Camouflage--brown and biack . The bush containing a delay pellet is screwed into the fuze holder.. - 12. Over-ail height . A winged plug is provided to screw into the tail of the bomb to assist screwing it onto the fuze assembly. . % second.. 7 in. Piwic Acid &09 Pressure type. . ..$ ~ IGNITER / OE. 6 in. The gases produced from this charge expand into the space in the base of the projector tube and throw up the pressed-steel mortar bomb screwed to it.11 in. ---Type of filiing--------------Wei@tof ~ng------------Inter .. L“ 207 . Total \veight-----13 . ..70NATOR \ // ltUG Figure 278- Light Anti-Tank Mime w’ The fuze holder is threaded externally to fit into the mortar bomb and intemdly to take the holder containing a detonator... .4l Ib. . .4 in. ‘thedetonator sad cap together with the At the same time.39 M. . F. .11 in. 8.. .. and O ft. .prevent it from sinking if it is used with a preseure igniter. .

B j .SHEAR Plhl STflJKEFl Figure 279.Heavy Anti-rank Mine t .

U . . 9. .. A metal cover. The lid is hinged operation The igniter functioas when a load on the mine crushes the cover and. The. . . . . .26 lb. rests on two presauretypea igniters or fums.sheam the igniter pin. detotiator. . . . . In the top of the explosive container is a ~ingle socket for igniter. . descending onto the striker head.-. . presumably after setting the mine in the ground. . T. . . with detonator. . Total wei@t. This collar is placed in position on the head of the igniter body during transportation to prevent any load falling on the stfiker hwd. -. . thus firing the detonator. An aluminum safety bar prevents functioning of the igniter until removed. . . . .2 in. . this latter cmsistfi of a small circuhr metal container with a centraI hole to remive. . . Description The mine consists of a rectangular pressed-steel bese piate. . 4. . . Over-alI height . The mine consists of a rectangular metal container Ioadedwithp icricacid. . Weight of fillin g------------. 27 lb. . . . . . . 16. . . . . ‘u) 209 .28 in. . to which is welded the explosive oontainer. TIMigniter is nody supplied with a loose metal safety collar. . The ignitar. . . the detonator. while two wing nuts are provided on the opposite side to hold the lid shut. Over-d width . is thm screwed in place. A strong steel spring then forces the striker onto the clap. MODEL1036: Material of body and striker--aiuminum Material of cap and detcmator assembly— aluminum Diame$er of shear pin-O. w . and a thin pressed-steel cover. either md to the base of the mine. . . mineL Igniters of either type may therefore be fitted as follows: MODEL1935: Material of body and striker-steel Materiai of cap and detonator assembly-brass Diameter of shear pin4. . The igniter is similar to that fitted in the French light A.cover is corrugat~ and “is strengthened internally by the two metal supports. .. .. . the plug protecting the igni$ef socket is removed and the primer is place in position. which fito over the loaded container. . . I@ne allongee Iourde Over-all length -. and mine. . . The mine lid i8 held loosely in position by the mine-cover chains which are attached at. . . and primer.75 in. . The base plate has drilling at each corner to receive the holdingdown lugs. . . . .36 in. Heavy Anti-Tank Mine Data to the bwm ph-ste along one sidle.3. French designation .85 in. . In arming the mine.FRENCH Ml NES AND TRAPS Description . primer.

. di —PICKET -—c#F&m -~liai? Iii A ... U d.... . . . . Figure 280- Rupture Igniter Figure 281- Pull Igniter Model 1939 2?0 .ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE 0? 1668 .

. . Diameter of body . . . . q operation The safety ring is unfolded from the head of the igniter. . . but will finally be withdrawn through the slot in th~: head of the igniter. . . . .5 in. is wound round the body of the igniter. . (excl. through the 0. A transit cap is fitted to protect the c. If the pull is not exerted directly in line with the cotter. . . and then. A thrust applied to the top of the picket wili rupture the copper tube at $e circumferential notch and shear the striker at the neck. .... in lino with the axis of the igniter.---. French A/l? Mine (W-mm) Model 19i39 w Description The head is free to rotate in the top of the main body.odelay pellet and the powder train. joining the cap holder to the striker guide piece. 211 . 1 in.. . the firing cotter is palled out. A safety ring is pinmd to the projecting end of the firing cotter. A tubular picket is then fitted over the top of the igniter. fried to the loop. but. . This releases the spring-loyed striker head to fire the cap. say.. In the safety position this ring folds back over the head of the igniter. 0. . . the cottir will pivot about its inner chamfered end. . the trip cord. preventkg the cotter from “being withdrawn. The igniter is then armed. The Iocking pin cm the undeTside of the nut seats in the top of the boss pieoe to prevent the nut from working loose and rehaaeing the striker.. =e&ti. Width. . detonator) L75 in. . the spring pushes against a metal washer and a packing washer. . . . The detonator holder containing the detonator is screwed onto the open etid of the cap holder. . -. the grub screw making a bayonet joint. . During transit. the detonator. safety pin closed. to prevent movement of the safety ring. . . . @oI: Pull Igniter Model 1939 Data Pressure to actuate ----------?Jse The igniter ie screwed into the nose.. The union. which is heid against the spring by the nut. Running through this assembly is a striker. safety shutter) 52-kg. . and the striker is free to descenci onto the cap under the action of the spring. . The safety shutter cannot be withdrawn if the striker ha accidentally been releaaed. .-.. Over-all len@h . . Description The notched copper tube is fitted with the boss piece and the striker guide piece.. .or M-cm shells for use as improvised mines.36 in. of obsolete 12. . ss the striker head would have entered in the hole.. . While in compression. . . The cap hoider hM a collet at its lower end to enable a detonator to be push~i inio it. If a pull is exerted on the safety ring.65 in. carries the safety shutter. The @ker$ forked at the top to enable the firing cotter to be pushed home below the crose head pin.Chapter 11 FRENCH IGNITERS Rupture Igniter Data Over-all len&h . . ---Dimetir ------------------8.75-sec. 3. Operation The seal is broken and the safety shutter is withdrawn by means of a cord attached to the ring.apfrom dampness.

!fl — Figure 282- Push-and-Pull Ignifers ‘ 212 -.ITALIAN AND FRENCH EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE OP 1668 -. = .

in the unarmed position. Above the safety pin is a further small plunger which holds a detent ball rigidly in position in the recess in the cotter. . . . This bail is then free to escape and the striker can ascend onto the cap under the action of the spring. . The spring. .45 in. . and a cotter-extractor lever. pressure or tension ----------(Pressure igniter) Requi~ to actuate -. . . The upper end of this spring is held against the shoulder formed by the change in diameter of the hole through the striker guide. thus freeing the striker guide from the pressure head. the ball. . The striker Mfreed and fires the cap. and a small spring is held in compression between the shoulder and the undemide of the preseure head. . . P. . 1. . .1. The igniter is then armed. . . TIM lower end of the body is threaded internally to remive the CWP and deixmator holder. and. . operation With the safety pin in position. the hwtd aud the striker guide will move EW one until the striker detentball is clear of the guide piece. . . . . . . . . applied to the pressure head will force dawn the head against the spring. When the safety pin is removed. $krJ A 1- ‘&J’ $/14 . both internally and externally. The striker is held in position against an actuating spring by a detent” ball.FRENCH IGNITERS Push-and-Pull Igniters Data Over-all length . by a safety pin. 40-to 45-kg. PUW l?IRXN@:Under the influence of a pull on the ring. . A striker guide is held in position inside the pressure head by a firing cotter. carrying a ring to which the trip-wire is attached. Inside the actuating spring is a spring which holds the small spherical-headed plunger against the safety pin. is a fork) resting in the groove round the prcwure head. Mine (Mknm) Model 1939 Description The-body is covered by a sorew cap through which a pressure head is free to move against a compression spring. With the cotter still in position. the preesum head cannot be depressed as the safety pin rests on the screw cap. ~ed tw the outer end of the cotter. This biocks the safety pin hole and holds the plunger and the detent ball lightiy against the cc~tter. . . working between the base of the pressure head and the shoulder. will force down the guide and free the detent ‘baiI. . the cotter-extractor lever. will put out the cotter. the cotter is locked in position by the phmger and. ----. 3. the piuAger rises under the action of the spring. At the same time. . PRESSURM FIRING: ~ load of QO-1OOlb. . French A. . . to two different diameters. . The lower end of this guide is positioned in the body by a guide piece. (P@ igniter) fieu~ k-. 4-kg. The striker guide is finished. . Over-all diameter .95 in. which has a rocker action against the underside of the pressure head. ..-. 2. . .

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