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Supervisor Yujing Liu (ABB) Examiner Hans-Peter Nee (KTH)
Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) School of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics
XR-EE-EME 2010 :008 Author: Hongyang Zhang Title: High Power Modular Drive System School: Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Date: November 2010 Type: MastersThesis
The novel converter topology 'Cascaded Cell Commutated drive' (CCC drive) of the brushless DC machine for the medium voltage, high power application is investigated in this report. Because of DC machine's good speed response and high power density, the study has been devoted to investigate the feasibility of using the electronically commutated DC machine for the high power (>20MW) applications where AC drives are exclusively used. The conventional DC machines with brushes are not considered in this thesis work, since we are aiming to develop the novel converter topology to replace the brushes with the electronic commutator to achieve the current commutation in the coils of the machine. During the thesis work, the coupling simulation between two software is used in order to obtain a better comprehension of the novel converter concept, different topologies and switching strategies of the converter are tested by the simulation, the power losses calculation of the converters and the evaluation of the system design are given afterwards. It was concluded that the proposed converter circuit for the CCC drive system works for the coil current commutation and some of its important features such as high power density, cascaded/parallel modular topology, extra low switching losses, integrated machine and converter system make it feasible to compete or replace with the medium voltage AC drives in the future.
Key Words: CCC drive, brushless DC , coil current commutation , converter topology
Abstrakt Romanen omvandlare topologin "Kaskad Cell kommuterade drive" (CCC-enhet) av borstlösa DC maskinen för mellanspänning, är hög effekt tillämpning undersöks i denna rapport. På grund av DC maskinens bra fart respons och hög effekttäthet, har studien ägnats att undersöka möjligheten att använda elektroniskt kommuterade DC maskin för hög effekt (> 20 MW) applikationer där frekvensomriktare uteslutande används. Den konventionella DC-maskiner med borstar anses inte i detta examensarbete, eftersom vi siktar på att utveckla topologi nya omvandlaren för att ersätta borstar med den elektroniska kommutatorn att uppnå den ström förvandling i rullar av maskinen. Under examensarbetet är kopplingen simulering mellan två program som används för att få en bättre förståelse av romanen omvandlare konceptet är olika topologier och koppling strategier hos omvandlaren provas av simulering, makten förluster beräkningen av konverterare och utvärdering av systemets konstruktion ges efteråt. Det var slutsatsen att den föreslagna omvandlare krets för CCC drivsystemet arbetar för spolström kommutering och några av dess viktiga funktioner som hög effekttäthet, kaskadkopplade / parallell modulära topologi, extra låga förluster växling, integrerad maskin och omvandlare systemet gör det möjligt att konkurrera eller ersätta med AC-drivsystem i framtiden.
Nyckelord: CCC, friktionsfri DC, spolström förvandling, omvandlare topologi
I am very thankful to Dr. Hongyang Zhang Västerås. who ever helped me in the past two years. for his profound knowledge of the motor drive system and his excellent programming skills helped me a lot during the thesis work. Yujing Liu. At KTH. the thesis work was carried out from January 14th to the end of June at ABB Corporate Research in Västerås. Firstly I wish to express my gratitude to my master thesis supervisor Dr. the group manager. Rahul Kanchan. Sweden June 2010 . Last but now least.Acknowledgements This thesis report was written for my Master of Science degree in Electric Power Engineering at Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). although he was very busy for his work. Hans-Peter Nee for his valuable help during my thesis work. I would also like to give my special thanks to Kai Pietilaeinen in CHIND for his great help on the ABB MV drive and Johan Lampinen in DC Machines for his study trip invitation and valuable discussions with factory experts on the topic. Pierluigi Tenca. I would like to say thank you to all of my friends in Sweden. for his encouraging and support during my thesis work. I also need to thank Dr. without him I would not have the chance to work in ABB SECRC and I am thankful to his helpful support. inspiration during my thesis work. Sweden (SECRC). a deeply appreciation is given to my family for supporting me to study abroad and their concerns about my life all these years. I need to say thank you to my thesis co-supervisor Dr. for his answers to my questions and feedbacks on my work. I also owe my thanks to my master thesis supervisor and examiner Prof. Robert Chin. he could always take time to come to my place for help and whenever I had a question he could always try to help me to solve it.
.............................................................5 4.............6 4................................................... 46 FEASIBILITY FOR IGCT...............................................1 2....... 4 TRADITIONAL BLDC TOPOLOGY ............................................................................................................. 14 SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS ................................................................ 64 APPENDIX B........2 2....................................................... 4 STRUCTURE .......................................................................................... 1 PURPOSE ....................................................................................................................... 6 CONCLUSIONS FOR THE LITERATURE SURVEY ....3 6............... 20 POWER LOSSES IN CCC CONVERTER ............................ 62 REFERENCE ........ 6 PROPOSED CONVERTER TOPOLOGY ......................................2 5....................................................................................................................3 5... 52 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK ...................................... 58 LITERATURE SURVEY ................................................. 14 PROPOSED CONVERTER TOPOLOGY .......................2 4..............................................................................2 1........................................................................ 44 IGBT SWITCHING LOSSES .......... 6 MULTI-PHASE BLDC TOPOLOGY ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 20 6-CELL SYSTEM WITH CURRENT SOURCE .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 5..............4 5.. 21 6-CELL SYSTEM WITH VOLTAGE SOURCE ......... 40 SYSTEM DESIGN SPECIFICATION ..................................... 72 ........................................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Acknowledgement 1 INTRODUCTION ...................... 34 SIMULATION FOR THE CONVERTER CIRCUIT UNDER AMATURE REACTION .............4 4.... 51 SYSTEM DIAGRAM ........................7 5 5.......................................................................... 33 24-CELL SYSTEM FOR HIGHER POWER .3 4................. 13 SIMULATION SOFTWARE...................... 4 SCOPE .............................................. 30 6-CELL SYSTEM WITH ADJUSTABLE SPEED ..................1 4...................... 66 APPENDIX C ..................................................................................................................................................................1 6................................ 40 IGBT CONDUCTION LOSSES ......................................................................................1 5........................................................................................................... 41 DIODE CONDUCTION LOSSES ........2 6.......................................................................................................... 50 POWER LOSSES IN THE MULTI-CELL CIRCUIT ... 1 1..................3 1............................................................................................................................................................ 53 CONVERTER-MACHINE INTEGRATION .......................................................................................2 4 4......1 3......................... 28 6-CELL SYSTEM WITH RECTIFIER ...............................................................6 6 6...........................................................................................4 2 2..................................... 16 SINGLE CELL SYSTEM .....3 3 3.............................................. 63 APPENDIX A ......4 7 BACKGROUND ........................................................ 52 COMPONENT LIST .................................................................................................................1 1......... 37 INTRODUCTION .............................................IGCT POWER LOSSES ......................................................................................................................................................... 56 BENCHMARKING WITH ABB'S ACS 6000 AND MEGADRIVE-LCI ............................................................
medium voltage (MV) drive has been dominated by the AC drives. The 3L-NPC (IGBT or IGCT based) and 4L-FC (IGBT based) shown in Figure 1-1 are typical examples for delta-connected converters. The topology is shown in Figure 1-3.  1 . the market for the high power. Current-Source Inverters (CSIs): Load Commutated Inverters (LCI) for high power application (>20MW).1 1. high power applications. designed for the low-speed. Cycloconverters (CCs): Based on the thyristor technology. hence many research activities have been devoted on how to achieve the ideal waveform by applying more levels or novel topologies of power electronic converters. The topology is shown in Figure 1-4.1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND Currently. where the multi-level topology is used to produce the near-sinusoidal waveforms. (b) 4L-FC topology. The typical converter topologies (load-side inverters) used for MV drive system feeding the AC motors can be generally divided into three categories:  Voltage-Source Inverters (VSIs): Now the medium voltage VSI is mainly based on the multilevel topology and VSI can be basically divided into two categories: converters in a delta connection and converters in a start connection. (a) (b) Figure 1-1 Delta-connected VSI topology: (a) 3L-NPC topology. Figure 1-2 shows the star-connected VSIs which are based on the series connected H-bridge cellular converter with 2-level or 3-level H-bridges.
 Figure 1-3 Current source LCI converter. (b) 3-level SC-HB topology.  2 .(a) (b) Figure 1-2 Star-connected VSI topology: (a) 2-level series connected H-bridge (SC-HB) topology.
while the speed control in AC machine is much more complex. The armature voltage and current keep constant so the constant power can be obtained. Secondly. Wide speed range with constant power: When the speed is adjusted in the field weakening range. some comparisons here are made to study the merits of the DC drive concept. the BLDC machine does not have the problem for brush maintenance. the flux is decreased by reducing the magnetizing current and the maximum speed of the DC machine can be reached to a high value. while the utilization of the dc machine is limited to a narrow application range and has little market share. easy for the maintenance: Due to the utilization of the electronic commutator. Though AC drives are popular. various topologies of AC dives are available and occupy the medium voltage drive market.Figure 1-4 Cycloconverter topology. the torque can be kept constant independent of the speed change by adjusting the armature voltage. the power density for the DC machine is much higher than the sinusoidal wave AC drive. Main advantage for traditional DC machine over AC machine: Easy and accurate speed control with dc drives: The speed of the DC machine can be changed very easily by adjusting the armature voltage of the machine and the field weakening. there are some advantages for BLDC (Brushless DC) machine over traditional DC machine: No mechanical brushes.  In sum. Constant torque from zero to base speed: The torque of the DC machine is proportional to the machine armature current and the flux. 3 . which means that with the constant armature current from zero to base speed. Higher power density: Due to the nearly square wave current and trapezoidal back-emf voltage in the DC machine.
Since the CCC drive is a totally new drive concept. the design specification of the whole drive system. The switching methodology of the IGBTs in the cell. The parameter settings for the passive components in the cell with the machine characteristics. the purpose is to investigate the proposed novel converter topology for the Brushless DC Machine to check if the idea is feasible or not.Voltage Source or the Current Source. The possible alternative converter topology for the cell.4 STRUCTURE 1 Introduction gives the background and the main purpose of this diploma work. The whole drive system design specification for the CCC concept. compared to the other topologies. the number of cells in the system. the study is focused on the following aspect: the converter topology of the CCC drive concept. The concept of the commutation cell works or not. 2 Literature survey introduces some of the theories on BLDC and the analysis for their feasibilities and benefits. 1. the BLDC machine can operate at low noise compared to the brushed DC machine.in series or parallel. Circuit simulation is an effective method for learning the behavior of the novel converter topology before the experimental work. The topology for the power electronic devices in the cell. 1.3 SCOPE The study of the Cascaded Cell Commutated drive (CCC drive) focuses on the application for the medium voltage (>10kV) and higher power (>10MW) on which range the voltage source and current source medium voltage drive products occupy the market.2 PURPOSE In this diploma work. More works have to be done in the future on the aspect of the machine design. the preliminary study should target on the feasibility of the drive system. 1. The topology for the cells. comparison between the CCC drive concept and other medium voltage drive products. The efforts should be made to study on the following aspects: Research activities regarding the BLDC machine in higher power range. during the thesis work the circuit simulation software Simplorer V8 and common software Matlab/Simulink are used together where the Simplorer for the circuit simulation and Simulink for the control of the power electronics devices. The current waveform by using the commutation cell. power losses issue of the semiconductor component.Low noise: Due to the elimination of the mechanical commutator. The possibility to integrate converter into machines. 4 . The drive method for the commutation cell . The total semiconductor losses in this kind of converter. During the thesis work. the machine losses estimation and other issues.
5 . the description of the commutation cell. 5 Power losses in CCC converter analyze the power losses in the CCC converter. 7 Conclusions and future work contains the conclusion of the diploma work and the future work on this topic.3 Proposed converter topology contains the introductions to the simulation software during the thesis work. 4 Simulation results and analysis gives the results obtained by the simulation work. Appendix C Contains the data sheet of the selected components. Appendix A Contains the simulation interface of the software. 6 System design specification describes the whole system design and the converter-machine integration issue. Appendix B Contains the calculation results for the power losses in the converter.
For instance.3-6. Nowadays.1 Marcus L. researchers started to investigate the multi-phase electronically commutated DC motor. the operation of this kind of machine shows many similarities to the operation of the permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM).1-4.3-2.2 2.5-4.1 LITERATURE SURVEY TRADITIONAL BLDC TOPOLOGY In the traditional Brushless DC Machine.  2. the rotor has the permanent magnet and the stator has phase windings in the same manner as for a synchronous machine. The commutation scheme is based on the machine back-emf and capacitance. where the rotor contains the permanent magnet field and the lap wound stator winding is sequentially commutated by the electronically commutator. this kind of BLDC is widely used in electric bicycles. 6 .2 MULTI-PHASE BLDC TOPOLOGY 2. each of the bridge corresponds to one phase of the machine. Simulation Study of an Electronically Commutated DC Machine  Early in 1985. in this topology. control is provided by applying PWM waveforms to the MOSFETs (or IGBTs) of the three phase inverter.  The most common topology for the BLDC drive (3-phase BLDC) consists of a 3-phase inverter. if the current flows in the pattern as shown in the below figure AC-AB-CB-CA-BA-BC . Figure 2-1 Traditional Brushless DC topology. Grahan and Sheldon Gruber. while at that time the thyristor is used as the power electronics switch.5-2.2. the switch sequence in the 3-phase BLDC should be 1-6.
Figure 2-3 Electronically coil current commutation scheme.Figure 2-2 Thyristor switched electronically commutated BLDC machine.  7 . since the capacitor and the inductance in the coil winding forms an inner resonant circuit. which is different from the commutation by using the mechanical brushes. the coil current can change its direction softly during the resonance period. The last interval starts when the commutation capacitor is switched into the circuit. one from the positive supply and the other to the negative supply. the function of the capacitor is to help the current commutation. The second interval begins when the adjacent switch in sequence is gated on and the coil between shorted. the switch operation is divided into three intervals: In the first interval. the two switches per pole pair are conducting.  In the paper.
Giulii Capponi. where 'Tcom' represents the current commutation time and the current is supposed to finish its commutation from positive/negative direction to negative/positive direction in this time period. Figure 2-4 'Solid State Commutator' Topology. Solero.  Figure 2-5 shows the switching sequence for the 4 switches in one H-bridge converter. In this paper.  In this converter topology. Crescimbini. Caricchi. however.2. since the BLDC machine has no actual phase as the same as the DC machine. they will never conduct during motoring. more 'phases' can be introduced by adding the H-bridge converter to form a multi-phase machine.2. F.2 F. Figure 2-5 'Solid State Commutator' Topology. 4 power electronics switches and 4 diodes are used. where the diodes are only needed for the regenerative braking. L. F. A Novel Solid-StateCommutator PM Motor . The H-bridge converters are connected in series and each bridge feeds one phase of the machine. the machine has three phases.Arrangement for EV Application  In this paper. a converter topology named 'Solid-State-Commutator (SSC)' is proposed to feed the state phases of the brushless dc motor. 8 .
Figure 2-7 is the resulting waveforms for the coil current and back-emf for one phase of the BLDC machine. The upper waveform is the experimental motor phase voltage and the lower waveform is the coil current of the motor.  The commutation angles are defined in the paper. Figure 2-6 The commutation angle for the current commutation. it is pointed out that the coil current will commutate successfully from positive/negative to negative/positive before the positive/negative emf zero-crossing time by using the above switching strategy. the CSI (Current Source Inverter) converter arrangement is applied to feed the system which revealed better performance concerning the motor current and toque waveform. It is also mentioned in the paper. In the paper. the commutation angle changes with the variation of the speed. since the back-emf of the DC machine is correlated to the rotational speed. the control signal is off and vice-versa. 9 . while the switch 2 and 3 are on from the beginning of the commutation time (Tcom) to the next negative back-emf zero-crossing time. according to their conclusion. During the experiment.In one period the control signal for switch 1 and 4 are on from the beginning instant of T1 to the next positive back-emf zero-crossing time. due to the CSI converter arrangement. During the rest of the time.(14mH-100mH) rated dc link inductor was used to provide a stiff current supply.
 Direct Drive Systems (DDS) .2. and this is actually the combination of 4 traditional 3-phases BLDC motor. Features: Multi-phase winding structure.The stator is made up of 4 independent sets of three phase windings. where single set of the windings are connected to and powered by independent 3-level inverters.  2. SPLIT-PHASE HIGH SPEED MOTOR  Figure 2-8 Space-shift. high-power synchronous motors and generators that utilize permanent magnet (PM) technology.SPACE-SHIFT. split-phase system winding configuration and converter topology.Figure 2-7 Back-emf and coil current waveform by using the 100mH input filter. 10 .3 DDS PAPER . an American company in the development and manufacture of highspeed.
the first RB-GTO is capable of being turned on and off by gate control having its anode connected to the first dc terminal. The thyristor pairs in this circuit are commutated under the help of back-emf. C4). B1. which is named as „Active Stator Technology '. B3. (A2. Figure 2-9 Schematic diagram of the stator winding and electronic commutator circuit. In this case. In each switching stage. where the schematic diagram is shown in Figure 2-2: Two thyristor/ RB-GTO pairs are connected to the two terminals of the coil winding respectively. there is a phase shift between each two phases. it should be pointed out that the interface between the machine windings and the power electronics commutator is the same as the referenced paper . for instance. has developed a 15MW BLDC by using the novel electronically commutated circuit inside the machine. while the second RB-GTO is capable of being turned on and off by gate control have its cathode connected to the second dc terminal. 2.FULL ELECTRONICALLY COMMUTATED MACHINE  CONVERTEAM. the proposed winding configuration allows the harmonic current cancellation by using this space-shift. C2). the phase A in the first and second 3-phase winding sets respectively and the phase shift is dependent on the number of the independent sets of three phase windings. thus the phase shift is 180/4/3=15° What's more. split-phase concept and this converter topology with this motor design reduces the switching frequency and has a better modularity.  Figure 2-9 shows the stator winding distribution in the CONVERTEAM's machine. the power electronic devices RB (Reverse Blocked) -GTO has been used in the circuit. 11 . the motor and the associated power electronics commutator have been integrated together as a system. C3). (A4. between A1 and A2. there are 4 sets of three phase windings: (A1. C1).4 CONVERTEAM PATENT . B4.2.Due to the introduction of this kind of winding structure. a French company. (A3. By using this technique. B2.
the DC ring is used to act as the dc link for the dc motor. For instance. which are generally composed of the RCD snubber. while in the CONVERTEAM patent. although the topology from the former paper  and the CONVERTEAM patent seems different: In the previous paper. the utilization of the power electronic switches is better than the former topology. Interestingly. The detailed commutation converter topology in this patent is shown as below: 12 . while the ratio for the former paper is 4 switches to 1 phase winding. Figure 2-10 above represents an 8 phase BLDC machine with 16 thyristor switches in total. there is no big difference between them. As a matter of fact. while for this patent.  Figure 2-11 CONVERTEAM 'Advanced Propulsion Motor'. they used several series connected H-bridge converters. The additional snubber circuit is introduced in both topologies to help the current commutation.Figure 2-10 Topology of the power electronics commutator circuit. the utilization ratio for this patent is 2 switches to 1 phase winding.
For the same reason. From the reliable point of view. the research trend for the multi-phase system is growing. from the control aspect the cascaded IGBT based SSC system has easier controllability than the thyristor based system and phase-shift inverter system.the major drawback of DC machines.  2. Another difference is that the space-shift. the electronically commutated machine is developed to get rid of the unreliable and inefficient brushes . However. the space-shift. while the SSC topology and the CONVERTEAM machine are the current source system due to their cascaded connected winding design. Although the most common BLDC by now is still based on the three phase inverter fed system.Figure 2-12 Detailed topology of one commutation unit. the multiphase BLDC machine shows its possibility for giving higher power rating and good fault tolerance.3 CONCLUSIONS FOR THE LITERATURE SURVEY In order to keep the benefits of the DC machine. the DC-ring based CONVERTEAM machine is more reliable than the SSC concept. Especially for the high power system. split-phase system is the VSI system since the phase windings are fed by the inverters respectively. such as the high torque density. the break down of two key components of one cell can lead to the whole system failure. 13 . split-phase system in the DDS's paper is considered to be more reliable than the SSC PM motor since for the former system each set of three phase winding is fed by one independent 3L-NPC inverter while for the cascaded cellular system.
1.1.1 SIMPLORER The simulation software Simplorer is a multi-domain simulation software program that enables engineers to model. Figure 3-1 An example of the interface in Simplorer.''  14 . electromagnetic.2 MATLAB/SIMULINK ''Matlab is a high-level language and interactive environment that enables you to perform computationally intensive tasks faster than with traditional programming languages such as C. The software can be used in the following applications: Power Electronics Electric Motors and Drives Automotive Electronics Mechatronic Systems Industrial Automation Hybrid-Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Propulsion 3. simulate.  The following figure is an example circuit in the Simplorer.3 3. C++. and FORTRAN. analyze and optimize complex systems including electromechanical. power and other mechatronic designs.1 PROPOSED CONVERTER TOPOLOGY SIMULATION SOFTWARE 3.
we use Simplorer to simulate the circuit. while MATLAB/Simulink is used to implement the control of the power electronics devices and analyze the data which comes from the Simplorer. video processing. 15 . simulate. Figure 3-2 and Figure 3-3 show the interface in the Simplorer and Simulink respectively.1. Figure 3-2 An example of 3L-NPC inverter in the interface in Simplorer. and test a variety of time-varying systems. the coupling of the two software is used. controls . It provides an interactive graphical environment and a customizable set of block libraries that let you design .''Simulink is an environment for multinomial simulation and Model-Based Design for dynamic and embedded systems. The coupling is based on the interfaces in the Simplorer and Simulink. one need to build the interface 'S-Function' in the Simulink and create a Simulink component in the Simplorer as well.signal processing. and image processing. implement . including communications.3 COUPLING OF SIMPLORER AND MATLAB/SIMULINK In the simulation of the proposed converter model. In the other words. ''  3.
1 MODEL INTRODUCTION The proposed 'cell concept' is the crucial part of the whole system.67 16 .Figure 3-3 An example of the interface in Simulink. 3.3kV 1kA 3.3MWA at a full load 1mH 10mΩ 50Hz 0. Table 3-1 Main parameters in the circuit. Main specification Cell voltage Cell current Cell power Coil inductance Coil resistance Frequency Square factor of back-emf Value 3.2 PROPOSED CONVERTER TOPOLOGY 3. the topology is shown in Figure 3-5 and the specification of the cell is listed in Table 3-1.2.
Figure 3-4 The shape of the back-emf used in the simulation. which is 50Hz. and the frequency of the waveform is based on the fundamental frequency. which is 1000 A.3kV. idc IGBT1 IGBT2 D1 D2 I dc IGBT4 IGBT3 D3 D4 idc Figure 3-5 The schematic figure of model. 17 . An example of the proposed back-emf is shown in Figure 3-4 below. The amplitude of the back-emf is designed about 3. the current source here is used to provide a constant current. As shown in Figure 3-5. the two legs of 'Hbridge' are connected through one phase of the machine stator windings . the topology is based on the typical 'H-bridge' converter.For the single commutation cell. and the back-emf in this single cell can be represented by a controllable voltage source.
S1 + - S2 S1 + - S2 S1 + - S2 S3 S4 S3 S4 S3 S4 Cell State 1 Cell State 2 Cell State 3 S1 + S2 S1 + S2 S3 S4 S3 S4 Cell State 4 Cell State 5 Figure 3-6 Switching technique for the five states of the cell. one single power electronic switch in the circuit is the combination of IGBT and diode. The operation of the cell is illustrated by the assumption of applying the current source between the two terminals of one cell. The function of the diode is to make sure that the machine current flows only in one direction when the converter is operating at the motor mode. (4 legs in total) one IGBT is connected in series with one diode to achieve to be fully controllable and bidirectional voltage blocking. On each leg of the converter. As shown in Figure 3-6.In the 'H-bridge'.2 SWITCHING SEQUENCE The technique of the switching sequence is of great importance for the coil current commutation and the power losses reduction. we can define the different 'Cell State' of the single commutation cell according to the different combinations of the switch statuses. 3. Cell State 1: 18 .2.
Figure 3-7 shows the switching sequence of different switches in one cell. In this case. in that case. S1 is open and this state is designed for the coil current commutation. S4 is open. one part of the inflow current in this cell starts to flow through the S2. Cell State 2: At the beginning of this state. The coil current will be ultimately inversed to the opposite direction and this state also represents the beginning of the second half period (10ms-20ms). switch 3(S3) are open. where the current equals to 1000A. Cell State 4: When it comes to the state 4. The main path for the dc current in this state is through switch 2 and switch 3. the cell current flows through the S2 and S3. the voltage at the turn-on instant is very low which reduces the turn-on switching power. switch 2 (S2) is closed.The switch 1(S1) and switch 4(S4) are closed while switch 2(S2). CELL STATE 1 CELL STATE 2 CELL STATE 3 CELL STATE 4 CELL STATE 5 CELL STATE 6 CELL STATE 7 CELL STATE 8 1 Switch 1 0 1 0 Switch 3 1 0 1 Switch 4 0 Switch 2 Figure 3-7 The switching sequence of four switches. S3 is closed. Cell State 5: At the beginning of the Cell State 5. In this case. The beginning of the first half period in the circuit (Based on the fundamental frequency 50Hz. The current flows through S1 and S4. but the total current flow out of the cell remains the same. The converter circuit for the state 4 is almost the same as the state 2. the time for the first half period is 0ms-10ms). The start time of this state can be chosen at a lower absolute value of back-emf voltage. The current through S4 at this time will gradually decrease. The current in the branch 2 is increasing while the other part of the current on the branch 1 is decreasing. 19 . Cell State 3: At the beginning of this state. while the other part of the current starts to flow through S3 and increasing continuously.
1 MODEL DESCRIPTIONS For the single cell circuit simulation. The controller signals are generated inside the Simulink and then be sent back to Simplorer to control the IGBT. Figure 4-1 The shape of the back-emf used in the simulation. The top flat area of the back-emf for the simulation is chosen as 6. The Simulink interface can be found in the Simplorer and the S-Function in Simulink acts as the Simplorer interface. 4. building the controller in Simplorer is complex and takes time while Simulink makes the control easier and reliable. the same as the control signals from Simulink to the Simplorer and by using the co-simulation we can also analyze the data in the Matlab.1.4 4. the current source with the constant current 1000A is used for the simplicity of simulation. The value of the current source is set as the constant value.3ms. the data of current/voltage from Simplorer is exported to the Simulink.2 COUPLING OF THE SIMPLORER AND MATLAB/SIMULINK The simulation tool Simplorer is used under the cooperation of Matlab/Simulink. while the area of the rest part (transition part) is 3. During the coupling of the two software. but varying with time. by using the Matlab programming language. however this is not a constant value.1. the controller for the IGBT devices is built inside the Simulink block. since using the constant voltage source at this stage is not realistic: the dc terminal voltage for one phase is the absolute value of its back-emf voltage. The benefit of coupling simulation is that Simulink is strong in the logical control but Simplorer is not. which are the outputs from the Simplorer. The initial condition for the coil current can be set as 1000A due to the current source in the circuit.1 SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS SINGLE CELL SYSTEM 4. 20 .7ms.
we can study the multi-cell topology by connecting several H-bridge cells in series. we can see that. the following ideas are implemented during the simulation: 21 .1 TOPOLOGY FOR THE 6-CELL CIRCUIT As mentioned above.1. The reason why we cannot make the cells in parallel connected is that for instance . the current is considered to be good since it never exceeds 1000A or the 1000A at the end of the commutation. for the series connected cells.2 6-CELL SYSTEM WITH CURRENT SOURCE 4. Figure 4-2 The coil current waveform. the coil current is quite flat and under the condition of using the current source.4.3 SIMULATION RESULTS Figure 4-2 is the coil current in the H-bridge circuit.2. So. the source can be short-circuited. 4. From the coil current waveform. DC Figure 4-3 The parallel connected cells. if several single cells are in parallel.
the 6 cells are in series connected. each single cell in the multi-cell topology has the same parameters and arrangement for all components. so each phase has the phase shift 360/2/6=30 degrees for the back-emf with each other. The current source in this series connection is the same as the current source in the single cell. since each phase is connected to an 'H-bridge' converter. Secondly. CELL 1 CELL 2 CELL 3 DC CELL 4 CELL 5 CELL 6 Figure 4-4 The series connected cells. the simulation of the multi-cell topology can firstly be implemented by using the current source first. since the cells are designed to be driven by using the rectifier unit in the first place. the number of the 'cell converter' determines the phase shift of the back-emf. the total number of IGBTs in this topology is 4×6=24 and the same as the number of diodes. where the rated current is 1kA.First of all.2 THE BACK-EMF WAVEFORM In the multi-cell circuit. then the voltage source can be used to replace of the current source to make the system realistic. In this multi-cell topology. Thirdly. 4. the transformers and the rectifier part can be connected to the cells so we can make the overall analysis of the system. the back-emf is phase shifted between each two phases and the shifted angle depends on the number of cells in the machine.2. 22 . In the CCC concept BLDC.
for instance. the switch combination changes from S1&S4 to S2&S3.. the third cell has 1. and each of them increase to the positive 3. The approximate resulting back-emf waveform for the series connected 6 cells can firstly be obtained by summing the absolute value of back-emf on each phase.6667×5(ms) time delay. after the current commutation from the positive direction to the negative direction. since for the negative back-emf . Since the source current is always constant and it is independent of the back-emf voltage. while the second one starts to run a certain time (one phase shift time) latter.. From Figure 4-5. Corresponding to the phase shift. 23 . we should not sum the negative value back-emf together with the positive ones. the back-emf also changes its direction.3kV after the certain phase-shifting time. although all the cells are connected in series.6667ms 2 So. it can be seen that. The reason why summing the abs-value of the back-emf is that. the time difference between the two cells is Tperiod 2 6 20ms 6 1. the last one has 1. we can consider the other five cells just as the mirrors of the first one.Figure 4-5 The phase shifted back-emf waveforms in 6-cell circuit. in this case. the only difference is the first one starts to run first.6667×2 time delay. The main reason for setting the initial value as 0 for the other five back-emfs is to simplify the simulation. apart from the first back-emf. the second cell has 1. the other five back-emfs start from 0V at the beginning of the simulation.6667ms time delay as the first cell.the combination of the two switches have forced it to turn to the positive value. In which case.
cell H may finish the current commutation from the positive direction to the negative direction. a preliminary view of the resulting back-emf is shown in the following figure. As shown in Figure 4-6. the dc source current flows through cell A and cell H. So in this case. the backemf voltage in cell A is positive on the left hand side and negative on the right hand side the cell current flows through S1 and S4. By summing all the absolute value of back-emf voltages. and the cell current flows through S2 and S3 in the cell H. we should use the abs-value for the back-emf voltage in cell H to sum the positive back-emf in the other cells. for example. the back-emf voltage at cell H now is positive on the right hand side and negative on the left hand side. at this instance. however.+ - A N CELLS DC + H N CELLS + - Z Figure 4-6 The illustration of the overall back-emf. 24 .
some cells which have finished the commutation with the negative back-emf such as cell H and there are also one or several cells which are during the commutation such as cell Z. For instant. thus the voltage distortion is lower for 12 phase and the lowest for 18 phase. It is learned that. The same shape and amplitude back-emf can be used to make various different combination of the single cell circuit connected in series. with the same single cell voltage. not only for 6 cells. The reason is that. at one certain instant. the cell current in that commutating cell does 25 . which also means that by using more phases. the waveform can be better. In that case. As shown in Figure 4-8. the waveform ripple is about 36V in all three cases. exactly the time delay between two phases.Figure 4-7 The sum of all the back-emfs. A further study can be made to investigate what is the optimum number of phases.6667ms. The real resulting waveform for the total back-emf It is not sufficient to consider only the ripple which mentioned above for the total back-emf. 12 phase and 18 phase topology is applied. The ripple in the waveform is due to the phase shift between each two cells. the resulting back-emf waveform is not constant. Figure 4-8 The zoomed in waveform of the overall back-emf. in which we can get the lowest total-emf ripple. there may be some cells with the positive back-emf like cell A (Figure 4-6). the time length between two neighbouring ripple is about 1. since the total back-emf voltage is higher in 12 phase and highest in 18 phase. for the multi-cell circuit. the total back-emf ripple is at its minimum value when the 6 phase.
26 . thus we can see that the relation between the average back-emf voltage and the rotational speed is not linear. In this case. Figure 4-10 shows the overall terminal voltage waveform for the 4 pole.during the commutation.5kV. 6-cell circuit at the machine speed 1500rpm. The average dc terminal voltage is about 16. Figure 4-10 The real terminal voltage waveform at machine speed at 1000rpm. the measured terminal voltage of the cascaded circuit is the overall back-emf voltage.5kV.not flow through the coils but through the switches only. Figure 4-9 The real terminal voltage waveform at machine speed at 1500rpm. 6-cell circuit at the machine speed 1000rpm. the average dc voltage is about 10. the duration time for that phenomenon is the same as the time for the commutation. Figure 4-9 shows the overall terminal voltage waveform for the 4 pole. the voltage is measured by using the current source circuit. which is explained in the report latter. For instance. in Figure 4-6 the path for the cell current is through the S2 and S4 . the overall back-emf decreases by the value of one cell's back-emf.
the current source with the constant current 1kA is connected to the cells. each Matlab block controls the IGBTs in its corresponding cell and then the control signals are sent back to Simplorer. there is no influence on the current commutation between any each two cells in this case.2. the interface and the controller in the Simulink is just the extended version of the single cell circuit.Thus.4 COULPING OF TWO SIMULATION SOFTWARE For the multi-cell circuit. Figure 4-11 The coil current in the 6-cell circuit. the overall voltage waveform shown in Figure 4-9 and Figure 4-10 above is ruined by the influence of this back-emf drop during the commutation state. 4. all of the components can be distinguished clearly by adding their corresponding cell number in front of their names. 4. The components in different cells are named uniformly.2.2. 27 . Here. 6 cells are in series connected. The input and output signals in the Simulink is about 6 times as the number in the single cell circuit.5 SIMULATION RESULTS The machine current waveform is constant 1kA by using the current source and the coil current in each 6 cell is of interest since we need to know whether or not there is any interference between the cells on the coil current commutation. Figure 4-11 shows that the coil current waveforms in all the six phases by using the multi-cell concept.3 MODEL DESCRIPTIONS As shown in Figure 4-4. 4. we can see that . the outcome of its influence by this phenomenon is analyzed in the following part of report.
switching the circuit to the voltage source. The detailed method for switching the voltage source into the circuit is: At the beginning of the simulation. the back-emfs of the other five individual cells are set to begin with 0 and then increase to their peak values.4. to try different value of voltages in this way and in the end choosing the right one to be the rated voltage source voltage used for the multi-cell simulation. everything becomes difficult. since the system at that instant is already at the steady state. if we use the voltage source first. However. 28 . It makes the simulation much easier to use this switching current source/voltage source strategy. right after the back-emf voltage in the last cell rises from 0 to its peak value. the current only flows through the two switches which makes the voltage source short-circuit in that case. In the simulation by using the current source. Then after a while. Figure 4-12 The simulation by using the current source/voltage source. we need to use the current source first to verify if the method works or not and by using the voltage source is not feasible to the single cell since the back-emf voltage varies a lot and during the current commutation and during that period.3. Thus we can use the current source for a while. using some kind of ideal switch in the simulation software. Setting the voltage source voltage at different values to see if the machine current is stable and around rated current 1kA. by using the current source with 1kA constant current first.1 MODEL DESCRIPTIONS The reasons why the voltage source is not used in the first place of the simulation are: The single cell circuit is used for studying the coil current commutation method. we can switch the current source to the voltage source.3 6-CELL SYSTEM WITH VOLTAGE SOURCE 4. Then.
the current should be changed from 1kA to 0 in the control block in the Simulink. when we switch the voltage source into the circuit. (b) The zoom-in figure of the machine current before and after 50ms. say. from 50ms to the end of simulation time (800ms). What should also be pointed out is that. normally the ratio of the peak-peak current ripple is within 30% of the rated dc current by using the rectifier unit and in the specific case. the coil current waveform is quite flat during the first 50ms by using the current source.2 SIMULATION RESULTS 1) The result for the machine current Figure 4-13 shows the machine current during the simulation time. the current source is used during the first 50ms. It can be seen from Figure 4-14. the filter inductor can also be added into the circuit to reduce the peak-peak current ripple based on the customer's demand. the voltage source is switched in to the circuit. (a) (b) Figure 4-13 The machine current by using current source/voltage source: (a) The machine current waveform in 800ms. the waveform would become better under the influence of the current source. 29 . It can be seen from Figure 4-13 (b) that. there are pulsations to the machine current waveform. however. the pulsation appears in the coil current. otherwise. Accordingly. for the traditional brushed dc machine fed by the voltage controllable thyristor rectifier. the machine current is flat by using the current source. 2) The result for the coil current The coil current waveform in all the 6 cells can be obtained in the condition by using the voltage source. and be changed to the rated value since 50ms to the end of the simulation time.4. at the first 50ms. the current source would influence the current waveform. From 50ms to 800ms. The overall back-emf voltage decreases by a certain amount during the commutation state of each cell. due to the same non-constant phenomenal of the back-emf voltage. the voltage value for the voltage source should be set as 0 during the first 50ms. after that instance. this phenomenon causes the pulsation of the machine waveform.3. One problem should be pointed out is that: the value for the current source is set as 1kA at the first 50ms. The pulsation on the machine current is due to the fact which mentioned before: the non-constant nature of the resulting machine back-emf voltage. this fools the observer in some extent. the machine current is also not constant.
Figure 4-15 The 12-pulse thyristor rectifier unit configuration. Figure 4-15 shows the rectifier topology for the 12-pulse thyristor rectifier. we replace the voltage source with the thyristor rectifier.4.Figure 4-14 The coil current by using current source/voltage source. In the simulation. The voltage is not stable any longer but with ripples on the dc side due to the rectifier. 4. the more realistic case is studied.1 MODEL DESCRIPTIONS Now. the 12-pulse rectifier is used to make the dc voltage ripple as low as possible. the rectifier is composed of two 6-pulse rectifiers in series at the output and the phase shifting transformers are used to derive multiple phase supply from three-phase AC mains using the star and delta combination of the transformer windings.4 6-CELL SYSTEM WITH RECTIFIER 4. The phase shift of the multi-pulse rectifier is calculated by the equation: 60 n (4-1) 30 .
So. Figure 4-16 The DC-link voltage with the 12-pulse rectifier unit. with no additional smoothing inductor in the circuit. The transformer turns ratio between the primary winding and star winding is 2 and the ratio between the primary winding and delta winding is 2/√3. by using the rectifier unit. for the 12-pulse rectifier. the phase shift between the two transformer windings is 30 degree and the star and delta connected windings are used. the dc voltage ripple of the 12-pulse rectifier is small compared to the 6-pulse rectifier.where n refers to the number of the 6-pulse rectifier and δ is the phase shift for the transformer windings. (b) The machine current waveform with 6mH additional inductor.4. Due to the phase shift introduced by the transformer winding. 4.2 SIMULATION RESULTS 1) The result for the machine current (a) (b) Figure 4-17 The machine current with the rectifier unit : (a) Results for machine current waveform without inductor. As shown in Figure 4-17 (a) . where the current ripple here is defined as: Ripple(%) I peak peak I rated 31 .1%. the ripple of the machine current is about 12. Figure 4-16 shows the waveform of the dc voltage by using the 12-pluse rectifier.
by using the extremely large inductor.67% One comparison graph can be made to show the relation between the additional inductor and the machine current ripple. the large inductor also indicate that the system could be current source based. 32 . the ratio for the current ripple in this case is 5. the machine current ripple will be lower. Figure 4-18 The comparison table for the additional inductor. Figure 4-17 (b) shows the machine current with 6mH additional inductor in the circuit. on the other hand. which can be considered as almost flat. we can see that. From Figure 4-18. 2) The result for the coil current Figure 4-19 shows the coil current waveform by using the rectifier unit in the system and without using any additional inductor. However. by using an additional inductor connected to the circuit. Figure 4-19 The coil current waveform.The same as the traditional dc machine.8%. using the additional inductor around 30mH can help reduce the machine current ripple to 1. We can see that there is no interference between each two cells and the ripple for the coil current is larger than by using the constant voltage which is not obvious in the figure. the ripple of the machine current can be controlled to a lower value. the larger additional inductor also brings more losses to the system. For instance.
Ra _ total is the total coil winding resistance and ia is the machine current. based on the equation: ea where. For the multi-phase cascaded connected BLDC. the relation between the dc terminal voltage and the rotational speed can be built as a very simple function as: U nrpm U1500 rpm I a Ra _ total n 1 I an Ra _ total (4-4) where. flux of the machine. ke m f m (4-2) is the machine rotational speed and f is the field vt etotal Ra _ total ia (4-3) vt is the dc terminal voltage of the cells. (b) The machine current waveform 33 . ke is the voltage constant of the motor. The general trend of the back-emf voltage for the decreasing speed from 1500rpm to 1000rpm in 800ms is shown as below: (a) (b) Figure 4-20 The trends of the back-emf and adjustable speed performance by applying the voltage source: (a) The decreasing trend of back-emf . U nrpm is the dc terminal voltage at n rpm machine speed. equation (4-4) can be generally utilized to the relation between the dc terminal voltage and the speed. I an is the machine current at n rpm machine etotal is considered as the average back-emf voltage of the 6-cell circuit so etotal is proportional to the machine speed.5 6-CELL SYSTEM WITH ADJUSTABLE SPEED For the adjustable speed drive system analysis. speed. For the traditional brushed dc machine. U1500rpm is the dc terminal voltage at 1500 rpm machine speed. the back-emf can be correlated to the rotational machine speed. etotal is the overall back-emf voltage of the 6 cells.4. since n is electrical speed at n rpm.
there are very high voltage jump. the parallel connection of cells can be made. according to equation (4-5). Due to the transient phenomenon of the switches. so if the pre-calculated value of U nrpm is lower than the actual required voltage due to the above reason. 34 . a 24 commutation cell circuit which has been showed in Figure 4-22. The simulation shows the circuit also works. the machine current is stiff and not influenced by the changeable speed. Figure 4-21 below shows the total back-emf waveform during the speed changed from 1500rpm to 1000rpm. the machine current will be very sensitive even due to a small difference between Ra _ total and the actual equivalent resistance. In the other hand. where the machine current is supposed to be constant in the different speed to provide the constant torque. Thus the current source dc line should be used. to combine with different series branches.6 24-CELL SYSTEM FOR HIGHER POWER For the higher power application. however the simulation shows the toque decreases with the changing speed.U nrpm I an U1500rpm I a Ra _ total n 1 Ra _ total (4-5) Figure 4-20 (b) shows the machine current by using the adjustable speed. the equivalent coil resistance is not exactly the same as the given resistance Ra _ total and the equivalent bulk resistance in the IGBTs and diodes also influence the accuracy of the estimated dc terminal voltage U nrpm . if the current source is used in the CCC drive system. Figure 4-21 The trends of the decreasing overall terminal voltage. The actual overall back-emf voltage is highlighted in the zones between the black lines. the reason is that in the simulated circuit. 4.
The 7th cell to the 24th cell are named in the same manner as the 1st cell to the 6th cell. which makes the power rating of the entire system rises to be over 52MW. 52MW CCC drive system with the rectifier unit. The total machine current for the 24-cell circuit is 4kA. the 13th cell to the 18th cell are in the third branch. where 7th cell to the 12th cell are in the second branch.. the back-emf in the 8th cell is the same as the back-emf in the 2nd cell. the back-emf in the 7th cell is the same as the back-emf in the 1st cell. The Figure A-2 shows the co-simulation interface and the control blocks built in Simulink. Since four branches are in parallel connection. for the 24-cell circuit.1 MODEL DESCRIPTIONS The coupling between Simplorer and Simulink is used. 4.Cell 1 Cell 7 Cell 13 Cell 19 Cell 2 Cell 8 Cell 14 Cell 20 Cell 3 Cell 9 Cell 15 Cell 21 DC Cell 4 Cell 10 Cell 16 Cell 22 Cell 5 Cell 11 Cell 17 Cell 23 Cell 6 Cell 12 Cell 18 Cell 24 Figure 4-22 The 24-cell circuit. the 19th cell to the 24th cell are in the fourth branch. 35 .. 24 controllers for 24 cells have to be built. and the backemf in the 12th cell is the same as the back-emf in the 6th cell.6.
19th cell Figure 4-24 (a) shows the coil current waveform for the 6 cells in the first branch. 2) The result for the coil current (a) (b) Figure 4-24 Coil current in 24-cell circuit with voltage source: (a) coil current waveforms in the first 6-cell branch. The dc-terminal voltage for the 6-series cells in 24-cell circuit is the same as the voltage in the 6-cell circuit. 36 . 24-cell CCC drive system. Figure 4-23 Machine current in 24-cell circuit with voltage source.7th. which is equal to 1kA. (b) coil current waveforms in the 1st. we can see that the average machine current is 4kA and the current pulsates due to the same reason as the 6-cell system.2 SIMULATION RESULTS 1) The result for the machine current under voltage source Figure 4-23 shows the machine current of a 4 branches.Also because of the component parameters in the other three branches are the same as the component parameters in the first branch. the current in each branch should be the same. 4. it can be seen that there is no interference for the coil current by the other branches.13th.6.
6. the current source is applied and then the rectifier unit is switched into the circuit after 50ms. which is called the armature flux. the current flows in the armature winding and a magnetic field is established. Although the software simulation just demonstrates the simpler shape of back-emf. the power rating of the CCC drive system can reach to a very high value. In the first 50ms. by adding more branches. Figure 4-25 The shape of back-emf under the effect of armature reaction. which are totally the same. more branches also means better redundancy of the system. Secondly. the main field is produced by field coils. 13th cell and 19th cell. Thirdly.7. 4. 4.Figure 4-24 (b) shows the coil current waveform in the 1st cell. The effect of armature flux on the main field is called armature reaction. we can also analysis the effect of armature reaction by observing the waveforms. 4. 37 . it increases the system reliability when the fault happens.1 ARMATURE REACTION In a DC machine.7.3 POSSIBLE BENEFITS OF THE PARALLEL SYSTEM Firstly.2 SIMULATION RESULTS By the influence of this irregular shape of back-emf. making phase shift of the back-emf voltage between each two braches is a possible way to create a lower ripple of the terminal voltage of the CCC drive system by which means the reduction of the machine current ripple can be achieved.  The approximate shape of the back-emf for one coil winding under the effect of armature reaction can be modelled as in Figure 4-25. the total back-emf voltage over the terminal of the 6-cell circuit can be obtained.7 SIMULATION FOR THE CONVERTER CIRCUIT UNDER ARMATURE REACTION 4. 7th cell. In both the generating and motoring modes. avoiding to increase the current rating per branch to a high value to achieve the high power. due to the synchronous back-emf in the parallel four cells.
the ratio of the machine current ripple is 8. the terminal voltage becomes irregular under the armature reaction. the voltage is measured by using the current source system in the first 50ms of the simulation. the current source is used in the first 50ms then the rectifier unit is switched into the circuit. compared with the previous case.3% in this case .1) The result for the overall back-emf voltage Figure 4-26 shows the irregular shape of the overall terminal voltage. Figure 4-26 The shape of the overall back-emf voltage by influence of armature reaction. 2) The result for the machine current. The machine current waveform is shown in Figure 4-27. 38 . the ripple is almost 3% lower than the case by using the rectifier unit without considering the influence of the armature reaction and without additional inductor in the circuit. Figure 4-27 The machine current waveform.
this phenomenon of the machine current shows that: 1. The simulation by using the circuit analysis software Simplorer is impossible to demonstrate the real shape of back-emf as well as the machine current. 39 . 2. The quality of the machine current in this kind of multi-phase system is partly depends on the shape of back-emf.Thus.
which means that the losses generated by each switch is an unique value during one period. the IGBTs are triggered by the square wave and the conducting time of each IGBT differs based on the novel switching strategy.  The losses in a power-switching semiconductor device consist of three parts: Conduction losses( Pcond ) Switching losses( Psw ) Blocking losses( Pb ) Where the blocking losses normally being neglected. thus the converter power dissipation can be calculated by using the formulas for both of devices.5 5. Instead of using the PWM pattern switching signal. idc IGBT1 IGBT2 D1 D2 I dc IGBT4 IGBT3 D3 D4 idc Figure 5-1 H-bridge current source module.1 POWER LOSSES IN CCC CONVERTER INTRODUCTION The power-dissipation calculation for the IGBTs and diodes is executed by an average computation of the conduction and switching losses over one period T0 of the output frequency. In the CCC converter. 40 . the semiconductor devices are IGBTs and diodes. Thus the total losses=conduction losses + switching losses.
the conduction period for the diode is the same as the corresponding IGBT. On the four legs of the H-bridge converter.9. The total power dissipation during conduction is computed by using an IGBT approximation with a series connection of DC voltage source (uCE) representing IGBT on-state zero-current collector-emitter voltage and a collector-emitter on-state resistance (rc):  uCE (ic ) uCE 0 rC iC (5-1) The conducting device characteristic is fitted with a straight line that is characterized by two constants. the assumptions are: the uCE 0 is chosen at the Gate-emitter voltage equals 15V. IGBT1 conducts between T1 and T3 (during state1 and state2) .. while IGBT 2 conducts between T2 and T7 (during state 2.2 IGBT CONDUCTION LOSSES Conduction losses are the losses that occur while the semiconductor is in the on-state and conducting current.18ms(T2) 9. diodes are in series connection with IGBTs. 5.18ms(T6) 0ms(T1) 19.2042ms(T3) STATE8 STATE1 STATE2 STATE3 STATE4 STATE6 STATE7 STATE5 IGBT1 Conducting IGBT2 Conducting IGBT3 Conducting IGBT4 Conducting IGBT4 Conducting Figure 5-2 The conducting period of IGBTs For instance. according to the Figure 5-2. to state 6) .etc. These parameters are obtained from the ABB IGBT data sheet and they are influenced by the environment temperature and the Gate-emitter voltage.2042ms(T7) 10ms(T5) 19.93ms(T8) 20ms(T9) 9. Figure 5-3 is a case for how to obtain the uCE 0 and rC in the graph of datasheet. uCE 0 and rC . 41 .. T6 and T9 (during state6 to state 8). and the environment temperature is 125°C.93ms(T4) 19.
3 1500 500 2.Figure 5-3 Typical output characteristic of IGBT.8 3. then the average losses can be expressed as: 42 . The typical on-state characteristic graph is shown below: Figure 5-4 ABB IGBT typical on-state characteristics.5m (5-2) The instantaneous value of the IGBT conduction losses is: 2 pcondIGBT (t ) uCE (t ) iC (t ) uCE 0 iC (t ) rC iC (t ) (5-3) If the average IGBT current value is I cav .  According to the curve. the ABB IGBT Module Series No. 5SNA 1200G450300 is chosen. and the rms value of IGBT current is I crms . In the CCC converter. uCE 0 2V rC VCE IC 5. chip level.
Thus the calculations are just based on the losses in half the period. 4 IGBTs in one cell) together over half a period.2042ms(T3) STATE2 Figure 5-5 The conducting interval for IGBT1 According to Figure 5-5. T3 is 9.4200A 10 9. I cav _ IGBT 1 I crms _ IGBT 1 So. Example 5-1 The calculation of the conduction losses in IGBT1 0ms(T1) STATE1 IGBT1 Conducting 9. 43 . IGBT1 conducts between T1 and T3 .PcondIGBT 1 Tsw Tsw pcondIGBT (t )dt 0 1 Tsw Tsw 2 (uCE 0 iC (t ) rC iC (t ))dt 0 uCE 0 I cav 2 rC I crms (5-4) The total IGBT power losses can be obtained by summing the losses on every IGBT (in this case. here T1 is 0ms.2042 1000 920.3852 A 10 PcondIGBT 1 1 Tsw T3 pcondIGBT 1 (t )dt T1 2 uCE 0 I cav _ IGBT 1 rC I crms _ IGBT 1 (2 920.42 2.2042 1000 959. which yields: PcondIGBT 1 1 Tsw T3 pcondIGBT 1 (t )dt T1 1 3 2 (uCE 0 iC (t ) rC iC (t ))dt Tsw T1 T 2 uCE 0 I cav _ IGBT 1 rC I crms _ IGBT 1 Where Tsw represents the length of half the period.5 10 4.38522 ) 4. since the status of IGBT 1 in the first half period is the same as the status of IGBT 2 in the second half period. so the average current and the RMS current can be calculated by the simple formula for these four IGBTs. the conduction losses for the other IGBTs on the legs can be calculated in the same way and the calculation process can be found in the appendix of the report. the conduction losses for IGBT1 are: 9.1419 103 Using the same method as IGBT1.2042ms. The assumption is made that the conducting current through the IGBT1.10ms.1419kW 3 959. IGBT3 and IGBT4 is constant due to the current source. IGBT2. the principle is the same for the IGBT 3 and IGBT 4.
rD can be obtained in the same way as rC .3 DIODE CONDUCTION LOSSES rD iD For the diode losses calculation. the same as iF . Figure 5-6 Typical output characteristic of diode. The typical onstate characteristic graph is shown in Figure 5-7: 44 .Table 5-1 The conduction losses of IGBTs in one cell Device IGBT1 IGBT2 IGBT3 IGBT4 Conduction Period T1-T3 T2-T5 T4-T5 T1-T5 Conduction Losses 4. the ABB Rectifier Diode Series No. 5SOD 31H6000 is chosen.02kW 4. iD represents the forward current. the same as u F .37kW 0.47kW Total Losses 9 kW 5. the same approximation can be used: uD (iD ) uD 0 Where u D represents the forward voltage.14kW 0.  In the CCC converter. u D 0 is the forward voltage at zero forward current and at certain temperature.which is introduced before.
so the obtained current for IGBT can be used directly.9 1. 45 . which yields: Pconddiode1 1 Tsw T3 pconddiode1 (t )dt T1 1 3 2 (uF 0 iF (t ) rF iF (t ))dt Tsw T1 T Where Tsw represents the length of the half period. Example 5-2 The calculation of the conduction losses in diode 1 According to the switching sequence of IGBTs. The currents through the diode are the same as the current through IGBT. on-state characteristics. Assuming the conducting current is constant due to the current source.2042ms. 4 diodes in one cell) together in half of the period.62 12000 4000 0. diode1 conducts between T1 and T3 . and the rms value of diode current is I crms . here T1 is 0ms.  According to the curve.Figure 5-7 ABB diode max. uF 0 1V rF VF IF 2.16m The instantaneous value of the IGBT conduction losses is: 2 pconddiode (t ) u F (t ) iF (t ) u F 0 iF (t ) rF iF (t ) (5-5) If the average diode current value is I cav . T3 is 9. then the average losses can be expressed as: Pconddiode 1 Tsw Tsw pconddiode (t )dt 0 1 Tsw Tsw 2 (uF 0 iF (t ) rF iF (t ))dt 0 uF 0 I cav 2 rF I crms (5-6) The total diode power losses can be obtained by summing the losses on every diode( In this case. 10ms.
So, the conduction losses are:
pconddiode1 (t )dt
2 u F 0 I cav _ diode1 rF I crms _ diode1
(1 920.42 0.16 10 1.0677kW
959.38522 ) 1.0677 103
Using the same method as diode1, the conduction losses for the other diodes on the bridges can be calculated in the same way and the calculation process can be check in the appendix of the paper.
Table 5-2 The conduction losses of diodes in one cell
Device Diode1 Diode2 Diode3 Diode4
Conduction Period T1-T3 T2-T5 T4-T5 T1-T5
Conduction Losses 1.07kW 0.095kW 0.0058kW 1.15kW
Total Losses 2.3208kW
Thus, the total conduction losses in one commutation cell can be obtained.
Table 5-3 The total conduction losses of semiconductors (IGBT+diode) in one cell
IGBT Conduction losses 9 kW
Diode Conduction losses 2.3208 kW
Total losses 11.3208kW
IGBT SWITCHING LOSSES
IGBT switching losses is the power dissipation during turn-on and turn-off switching transitions. Figure 5-8 shows a definition of the turn-on parameters for the IGBT.
Figure 5-8 Definitions of the turn-on parameters for the IGBT. 
Where, td ( on ) is the turn-on delay time, which is defined as the time between the time instant when the gate voltage reached 10% of the final value and the time instant when the collector current has reached 10% of its final value.
tr is the rise time, which is defined as the time between instant when the collector
current rises from 10% to 90% of its final value. The total turn-on time ton is the sum of td ( on ) and tr .
Eon : Turn-on switching energy. The energy dissipated during a single turn-on event. It
is the integration of the product of collector current and collector-emitter voltage from t1 to t2 .
The Figure 5-9 shows a definition of the turn-off parameters for the IGBT.
Figure 5-9 Definitions of the turn-off parameters for the IGBT. 
Where td ( off ) is the turn-off delay time, the time between the instant when the gate voltage dropped to 90% of its initial value and the instant when the collector current dropped to 90% of its initial value.
t f is the fall time, the time between instants when the collector current dropped from
90% to 10% of its initial value along an extrapolated straight line drawn between the instants when the current reached 90% and 60% of its initial value. The total turn-off time toff is the sum of td ( off ) and t f
Eoff : Turn-off switching energy. The energy dissipated during a single turn-off event.
It is the integration of the product of the collector current and the collector-emitter voltage from t3 to
The analysis of the switching losses for all the IGBTs can be based on the first half period. According to the ABB IGBT application notes, the switching losses formula is: 
I C 1.65)
For the turn-off losses, I C can be chosen as the value just before the current transition and VDC can be treated as the voltage after the transition at the moment the current reduces to zero. Vnom is the nominal voltage which can be obtained in the certain IGBT datasheet. Example 5-3 The calculation of the turn-off switching losses in IGBT1 According to the switching sequence, IGBT1 conducts during state1 and state2 and then it is switched off at the beginning of state 3. The Figure 5-10 shows the IGBT1 turn-off transient and the overlap between voltage and current.
Figure 5-10 The zoomed in overlap of voltage and current of IGBT 1
The turn-off energy for one switching transient can be estimated approximately based on curve in the ABB IGBT datasheet which is shown in Figure 5-11:
Figure 5-11 Typical switching energies per pulse vs. collector current
According to the graph at I C
960 A , Eoff
6.8 J .
After the nomination, the turn-off switching energy is:
Thus, since the switching frequency in the converter is 50Hz, the turn-off switching loss
f s Eoff
50 0.0482 2.4100W
The turn-on switching losses of IGBT1in the second half period is the same as the turn-on switching losses of IGBT2 in the first half period. The calculation is shown in the following part. Using the same method as IGBT1, the switching losses for the other IGBTs can be calculated in the same way .
Table 5-4 The switching losses of IGBTs in one cell
Device IGBT1 IGBT2 IGBT3 IGBT4
Switching Condition Turn-off Turn-on Turn-on Turn-off
Switching Losses 2.41W 19.85W 0W 0W
Total Losses 22.26W
Table 5-5 The total switching losses of semiconductors in one cell
IGBT Switching losses 22.26W
Diode Switching losses 0W
Total losses 22.26W
where only the characteristic parameters are different.5 FEASIBILITY FOR IGCT . it can be an alternate choice to replace the IGBT in the circuit. which is due to the fact that a transistor operates at much higher charge density than a transistor due to charge injection from its two emitters (pnp. 5. IGCT has the relatively low conduction losses compared to the IGBT.5.IGCT POWER LOSSES The ABB's IGCT (Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor) has the voltage rating up to 6.5kV and the current rating 4. uT (iT ) uT 0 rT iT (5-8) The on-state device characteristic is fitted with a straight line that is characterized by two constants.1 CONDUCTION LOSSES OF IGCT During the conduction.33 3000 0.44m (5-9) The instantaneous value of the IGCT conduction losses is: 50 .5. VT 0 2.  The calculation of the IGCT conduction losses is similar to the equation for the IGBT. IGCT is a thyristor and as such it generates substantially lower losses than an IGBT. threshold voltage uT 0 and slope resistance rT .  Figure 5-12 GCT on-state voltage characteristics As shown in the Figure 5-12. These factors are obtained from the ABB IGCT data sheet in the same manner as for the IGBT.and npn-transistors).2kA.05V rT VT IT 1. economically IGCT is more expensive than the IGBT at the same rating. however.
67% 51 .2 pIGCT (t ) uT (t ) iT (t ) uT 0 iT (t ) rT iT (t ) (5-10) The same as the IGBT.48kW Total Losses 4.5. there is no IGCT model in the model library. the switching losses can be assumed to be equal to the switching losses of IGBT.3028W 5. the same as the IGCT based 6-cell and 24-cell circuit. Table 5-8 The total power losses for both the IGBT based and IGCT based multi-cell circuit Converter Type IGBT based Circuit type 6-cell 24-cell Power range 13.6 POWER LOSSES IN THE MULTI-CELL CIRCUIT The power losses in the IGBT based 6-cell and 24-cell circuit can be calculated. the detailed calculation can be seen in the Appendix B.2MW 52.2MW 52.8MW Total power losses 67.3208kW Total losses 7.012kW 2. The calculation results are shown in Table 5-8.8MW 13.3 Table 5-6 The conduction losses of IGCTs in one cell Device IGCT1 IGCT2 IGCT3 IGCT4 Conduction Period T1-T3 T2-T5 T4-T5 T1-T5 Conduction Losses 2.2 SWITCHING LOSSES OF IGCT Since in the Simporer.9820kW Diode Conduction losses 2. 5.8168kW 175.2672kW Power efficiency 99.29kW 0.20kW 0. then the average losses of IGCT can be expressed as: PIGCT 1 Tsw Tsw pIGCT (t )dt 0 1 Tsw Tsw 2 (uT 0 iT (t ) rT iT (t ))dt 0 uT 0 I cav 2 rT I crms (5-11) Since the calculation procedure of the conduction losses in each IGCT is the same as what has been done in IGBT.9820kW Table 5-7 The total conduction losses of semiconductors (IGCT+diode) in one cell IGCT Conduction losses 4.6992kW 43.49% IGCT based 6-cell 24-cell 99.9248kW 271.
1 SYSTEM DESIGN SPECIFICATION SYSTEM DIAGRAM A + B N C Power Grid Two-winding Transformer 6-pulse Active Front End(AFE) Rectifier DC link capacitor CCC Converter BLDC Compressor Udc M Can be integrated together Figure 6-1 The whole system diagram-Scheme A.6 6. Phase Shifting Transformer 12-Pulse Thyristor Rectifier CCC Converter BLDC Compressor Can be integrated together Figure 6-2 The whole system diagram-Scheme B. CCC converter in the system is used for the coil current commutation of the Brushless DC machine (BLDC). The Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2 above illustrate the general block diagram of two schemes for the CCC converter BLDC. A dc filter inductor is connected to provide the stiff current to the system . The voltage level of the grid side in this case is chosen to be 11kV. The Table 6-1 below shows the benefits and drawbacks of both the system design and it is preliminary considered that Scheme B is a cheaper system and the lower machine current ripple can be obtained compared to Scheme A. for instance . Thus the Scheme B is chosen for the system design. and the connected 12-pulse rectifier converts the supply voltage to a dc voltage with an adjustable value and a lower voltage ripple.the CCC converter and the BLDC are connected in the same way as the Scheme A. a three phase phase-shifting transformer is used for reducing the line current distortion. 52 . a two-winding transformer is used to connect the power grid and the 6-pulse Active Front End rectifier and the DC link capacitor is used in the system. thus the rectified voltage can be flat by this system design. high power compressor application. A B N C Filter inductor M Power Grid Three-Phase. this kind of BLDC machine is used for the high power application (>20MW) . For Scheme B. For Scheme A.
Table 6-1 The comparison table between two system designs Advantage Scheme A cheaper transformer. constant DC voltage Disadvantage AFE is more expensive. Scheme B Stiff machine current.1 SYPPLY TRANSFORMER Converter Duty Transformers for Variable Speed Drive Application The Primary voltage: The VSD supply transformer is usually fed by a medium voltage network and in this case the grid voltage level is chosen to be 11kV (Line to line). almost constant torque.85kV. phase-shift transformer. The secondary voltage: Since the voltage level of the drive system is designed to be around 16.5kV and the maximum output voltage of the thyristor unit is about 1. Expensive transformer. Big capacitor Big inductor.4kVA. Power rating 19. We can choose the Liquid-filled type transformers.5kV. impossible to obtain low machine current ripple. Figure 6-3 The proposed transformer.35*11=14. it is necessary for the primary voltage be boosted to 16. The rated power: The power level for the drive system is about 13.2 COMPONENT LIST 6. three-winding Converter transformer supply of LCI-drives.2.2MW. cheaper grid side converter 6. Transformer winding: The rectifier used in the system is 12-pulse thyristor rectifier and it needs a three-winding. having two separate secondary windings with 30º phase shift. 53 .
6.2. Frequency: 50Hz We can choose the ABB 12-pulse rectifier with the same configuration as the rectifier unit on the grid side of LCI. Each cell of the converter is connected to one coil winding of the machine. 6. no capacitor bank is needed in the system since the system is considered as the current source system. so the smoothing inductor is needed.3 CCC CONVERTER UNIT The CCC converter can be designed into a cabinet closed to the machine since the connection cable between the CCC converter and machine should be as short as possible. Figure 6-4 The ABB LCI converter. The power electronic component: Since it is designed for the machine drive application. which is not good.2kVA DC filter By now. The power rating The power rating of the rectifier is 13. there will be too many cables between the cabinet and machine. 54 . thyristor rectifier is used to make an adjustable speed system by regulating the dc-terminal voltage.2 RECTIFIER UNIT The pulse number: The 12-pulse rectifier configuration is used to make the dc terminal voltage ripple as low as possible and minimize the harmonic influence of the converter on the supply system. however. one drawback of this conventional cabinet design is that if the number of cells is large in the CCC converter.2.
5kV and the collector current is 750A. 6. there are only 3 phase windings. the maximum collector-emitter voltage is chosen to be 6. the maximum repetitive reverse voltage is 6kV. 55 . the rotor part of the BLDC can be chosen as the laminated pole rotor and the stator can be integrated with the power electronics commutation cells.2.2MW power rating and 15kV voltage rating can be chosen for the analysis of the system cost.For the synchronous motor or the typical BLDC motor.1) IGBT Total number of IGBTs: 4×6=24 The IGBT Module Series No. ROTOR AND STATOR To avoid the damaging eddy current on the surface during the coil current commutation. 2) Diode Total number of diode: 4×6=24 The Rectifier Diode Series No. 5SOD 31H6000 is chosen for the circuit. 5SNA 0750G650300 for the circuit. since in the BLDC the phase shift between each two windings depends on the total number of windings . The winding design is different from the typical synchronous machine.4 ELECTRICAL MACHINE ABB 4 poles synchronous motor with 13. Figure 6-5 ABB Synchronous machine. while the newest ABB IGBT produce with 1kA current rating is expected to be released in the future. MACHINE EXCITATION The excitation of the CCC concept BLDC machine can be operated in the rectifier fed mode.
the same principle as the brushed DC machine.3 CONVERTER-MACHINE INTEGRATION The idea to integrate the CCC converter and the BLDC together is to build the converters inside the machine. The optimum packing of the PE components also based on the cooling system design and the EMI which the cells are subject. thus the whole system can be compact and there is no need of the converter cabinet on the machine side. liquid cooling) and the converters can be connected to the coils without using the long cables. Figure 6-6 Demonstration figure 1 for cells packing. it becomes to an irregular shape where half of the flat area increases and the other half of the flat area decreases. power electronics components are connected to the terminal side of the coils. the compensating winding can be designed in the rotor of CCC concept BLDC. the compensating winding is mounted in the pole-plates of the stator. The converters can be mounted within the free space of the machine's stator. the back-emf of the machine is no longer as the shape in Figure 3-4. the CCC concept BLDC does not need the commutation pole to help and improve the current commutation. so the preliminary arrangement of the power electronic devices can be made based on this figure.  To eliminate these damaging back-emf voltages and to improve the commutation. in other words. 6. By using the integration. 56 . the difference is that for the brushed DC machine. COMMUTATION POLE Different from the brushed DC machine. In our model. machine and the converter share the same cooling system (air cooling. the inside structure of the machine determines the positions for the distribution of the components and that makes various combinations of PE packing possible.COMPENSATION WINDING At load the armature current in stator will interfere with the ideal symmetrical no-load flux distribution. Figure 6-6 shows the typical internal structure of the synchronous machine.
say. the converters could not share the same air cooling system with machine in this case and the connection distance between the converters and the coil winding inside the machine will be longer than the previous arrangement. the converter cells are outside the machine. the main advantage for this arrangement is Fully utilize the space inside the machine. where the exciter is at its original place of the traditional machine and the PE devices can be mounted round it. If it is too crowded inside the machine. the power electronics components can be mounted on machines' inside four corners . Other ways for packing are also possible. 57 . As mentioned above. Compared to the normal exciter of the synchronous machine. on the right/left side of the exciter. they can be mounted along the longitudinal side of the machine. the two terminals of one phase winding are on the right side of the machine. which makes the maintenance easier than the previous arrangement and it also solves the EMI problem for the control units. etc. there are also some drawbacks for this arrangement: It makes maintenance inconvenient if the devices are inside the machine. in the above/bottom part of the boxes. middle left and middle right inside the machine. A third way for the converter arrangement is to place them around the exciter of the machine. Machine vibration influence on the operation of cells.For instance. In the other hand. the PE devices are placed outside the housing of the machine. the control units are subjected to the EMI problem. The converters and the machine share the same cooling system which also reduced the cooling losses. By using this kind of arrangement. Figure 6-7 Demonstration figure 2 for cells packing. we can use a larger size of the box. For instance. say. the whole system size could be smaller. Short cable connection between converters and windings. However.
3kV. 6. matches the voltage over one single H-bridge cell of the CCC converter and the power rating of the lowest size of the inverter module is at 3MVA and the output power to machine can be chosen as 2.Figure 6-8 Demonstration figure 3 for cells packing. this 'box' could be built larger.4 BENCHMARKING WITH ABB'S ACS 6000 AND MEGADRIVELCI In order to study the advantage of this new drive concept.4. the same as the power rating of the CCC converter.5.9 and 11MVA).3kV and available with five sizes of inverter modules (3. 6. The size of the additional 'box' depends on what size of system we decide to build: for instance for the 50MW system with 24 cells.2MW.2MW.the driver circuit will not suffer from the EMI problem and the connections between the windings and converters are also short .  CASE STUDY ACS 6000 is a perfect study target since its motor voltage could be 3. 58 . two case studies for the CCC concept BLDC and two of the ABB Medium Voltage Drive product are given in this section.7. 2.1 CASE STUDY BETWEEN CCC CONVERTER AND ABB'S ACS 6000 ACS 6000 ABB's ACS 6000 medium voltage drive is a modular drive designed for the most demanding singlemotor or multi-motor applications. It is designed for control of 3-27MW motors up to 3. less vibration influence on the cells . The benefits of this arrangement are: convenient maintenance by using the additional space in the exciter box.
the concept is designed for the single motor drive system by now Exclusively for the high power brushless dc machine Converter efficiency Machine 59 . based on IGBT/IGCT respectively.49% IGCT: 99. the total losses are about 18kW 1-18/(2.32kW/7.2MW machine 3. self-commutated .67% Modularity Converter rating optimally adapted to customer requirements . 3-level voltage source inverter with IGCT technology is applied.2MW 3.Figure 6-9 ACS 6000 converter topology. possible for the multi-motor drive configuration Mostly for the induction motor. In the inverter module.3kV cell voltage IGBT/IGCT:4×1=4 Diode:4×1=4 Total:4+4=8 Switching for the current commutation Extra-low Switching losses. the total losses are about 11. 6-pulse. The comparison between ACS 6000 inverter module and CCC converter is shown in the Table 6-2.18% CCC converter (Single cell) Average power rating 2. also for the synchronous motor Changeable converter rating . where one phase leg of a three-level voltage source inverter topology to be configured to act as an AC to DC or DC to AC converter.30kW.2×103)=99. IGBT: 99. Table 6-2 The comparison table between ACS6000 and CCC converter ACS 6000 Inverter module (3-phase) Power rating Voltage rating Component list 3MVA inverter unit with 2.3kV terminal voltage IGCT: 4×3=12 Diode:6×3=18 Total:12+18=30 Modulation mode Power losses Direct Torque Control (DTC) Low losses IGCT.
2MW. Figure 6-11 MEGADRIVE-LCI application range.  One example of the topology of LCI is shown in Figure 6-10. 60 . Figure 6-10 MEGADRIVE-LCI converter topology. the additional parallel branch brings another 13. The power and voltage range of a LCI is shown in Figure 6-11. For the 1kA current rating. the maximum power level designed for the CCC converter so far at 4kA maximum current is at 13. load-commutated inverter (LCI) synchronous motor drives become competitive with the induction motor drives in adjustable speed applications. since below the power rating 20MW.5MW to 72MW and the voltage rating from 2. 6-cell in series circuit per branch.2 CASE STUDY BETWEEN CCC CONVERTER AND ABB'S MEGADRIVELCI MEGADRIVE-LCI In very large power ratings applications. ABB's ACS 5000 and ACS 6000 also cover the market.2×4=52.5.1kV to 22kV. The ABB MEGADRIVE-LCI is designed for the power range from 4.2MW.8MW. The case study between the CCC converter and the LCI should target on the very high power application (larger than 20MW). the power rating for one branch of the CCC converter is 13. both its maximum voltage and power are much higher than other ABB medium voltage products.6.
Thus. the total losses are about 11.2/(55×103)=99. based on IGBT/IGCT Converter efficiency IGBT: 99. CASE STUDY The case study target is chosen as the ABB MEGADRIVE-LCI series no.6kV and the shaft power is 55MW. The case for the CCC converter could be the 4-branch.84kW. and the number of the cells per branch is also not limited to the 6-cell circuit. Table 6-3 The comparison table between MEGADRIVE-LCI and CCC converter MEGADRIVE-LCI Power rating Voltage rating Component list 55MV inverter unit 17kV dc terminal voltage Thyristor/branch: 5 Total: 5×6×2×2=120 CCC converter (24-cell) Average power rating 52. Complicated control for the thyristor. the line side converter is 12-pulse thyristor rectifier and the same 12-pulse thyristor converter at the motor side. possible for the multi-motor drive configuration Exclusively for the synchronous motor Changeable and very flexible converter rating .32kW/7.67% Modularity Converter rating optimally adapted to customer requirements . the output current is 2. the output voltage is 15.0kA.8MW 16. Control aspect Power losses Extra-low Switching losses.5kV and the power rating is 52. Low conducting and switching losses for thyristor units. the current commutation is provided by the internally induced emf's in the synchronous motor. 5 thyristor per branch. this cellular converter topology makes the CCC concept suitable for a wide range of application fields.8MW and the machine current is 4.5kV dc terminal voltage IGBT/IGCT:4×1=4 Diode:4×1=4 Total: (4+4)×6×4=192 Modulation mode Complex thyristor control. 1-124. Load commutated Inverter. The power losses for the whole converter system without the dc-link inductor are 24. the concept is designed for the single motor drive system by now Exclusively for the high power brushless dc machine Machine 61 .3kA.77% Simple switching for the current commutation Simple control for the thyristor in the rectifier unit and IGBTs in the commutation cells. it can be 12 cells in series or even more which also means a large potential of increase for the voltage rating. 24-cell circuit.49% IGCT: 99.The current rating of the CCC converter per branch can be designed over 1kA .W1212-855N. where the dc terminal voltage is around 16.30kW. both of the characteristics show that the voltage and power rating for the CCC converter can be very flexible.
more efforts can be made by using the co-simulation between Simplorer and Maxwell. Low converter losses makes it possible to integrate the inverter attached to the machine. 7. The system has extremely high level modularity. the machine has high power density. the calculation of the machine losses.2 FUTURE WORK Because of the thesis work only focused on the converter topology of the CCC drive system. the converter rating can be designed flexible due to different requirements. 62 . the excitation system design.1 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK CONCLUSION Comprehensive simulation with Simplorer and Simulink shows the commutation in the CCC concept works well in different back-emf assumptions. Power factor is 1. coupling the converter model and the machine model together to check the operating behaviour under using the realistic model. The cooling solution for the commutation converters and the machine in this integrated machine concept should be studied .7 7. The system has extremely high efficiency due to the low switching losses. With the square wave back-emf.0 of CCC converter. More efforts should be made on the aspect of the machine winding design and its inner structure optimization. The cost of the whole system is not well discussed in this thesis due to the limitation of the sources so more efforts should be made to check the feasibility of the CCC drive system.
Björn Backlund. Eric Carroll. ABB Semiconductors AG. Applying IGBTs. Marco Rossinelli.vol. Grahan and Sheldon Gruber. Evgeny Tsyplakov. "A Novel Solid-State-Commutator PM Motor . Stockholm 2009. Saban. Simplorer. KTH Electrical Machines and Power Electronics. ABB Switzerland Ltd Semiconductors April 09. Bjoern Oedegard. www. Rectifier Diode 5SDD 31H6000 ABB product datasheet. ABB Switzerland Ltd.mathworks. Space-Shifted Split-Phase HighSpeed Motor/Converter Topology with Fault-Tolerance Capability. Semiconductors.mathworks. Ulrich Schlapbach. Solero. ACS 6000 Brochure. Application Note.Arrangement for EV Application". ABB 63 . Publ. Electrical Machines and Drives.org/wiki/Armature_(electrical_engineering)#Armature reaction in a DC machine IEC 60146 "Semiconductor converters" IGBT Power Losses Calculation Using the Data-Sheet Parameters by Dr. 'Advanced Propulsion Motor'. Roland Fischer. 1999 Zhiguo “Zach” Pan. Rainer Sommer. 2007 CONVERTEAM. p2545-2551.System Simulation Software for Multi-Domain Design http://www. EP1798847A2.com/products/simulink/ http://en. Giulii Capponi.com/products/matlab/ http://www. Automotive Power IGBT Module 5SNA 0750G650300 ABB product datasheet.Reference                      Marc Hiller. Product overview. European Patent Application. Medium Voltage Drives. Raed Ahmad and Daniel M. November 1985 F. IAS Annual meeting. 2008 Converteam. Brushless DC Motor Fundamentals.no. Max Beuermann . IEEE transactions on industrial electronics . F. Simulation Study of an Electronically Commutated DC Machine.4.wikipedia." IAS08. Marcus L.com Medium Voltage AC Drives. ABB Switzerland Ltd.Dusan Graovac.abb. Raffael Schnell. Marco Purschel. "Electronic Commutation Circuit". Crescimbini. Caricchi.IE-32.Microchip Technology Inc. F. L. Thomas Stiasny. IEEE Industry Applications Magazine MAR|APR 2010. Semiconductors. Asymmetric Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor 5SHY 42L6500 Application Specific IGCTs. AN885.
1 6-CELL CIRCUIT INTERFACE 64 .APPENDIX A A.
2 24-CELL CIRCUIT INTERFACE 65 .A.
The conduction losses of IGBT 1 is calculated in Chapter 5.93ms . 66 . the constant current is about 742A due to the other part of current flows through IGBT 4.18ms .1940 2.0802A The conduction losses are: PcondIGBT 3 1 Tsw T5 pcondIGBT 3 (t )dt T4 2 uCE 0 I cav _ IGBT 3 rC I crms _ IGBT 3 (2 5. T5 is 10ms and Tsw 10ms . T5 is 10ms and Tsw 10ms . The conduction losses in IGBT 3 IGBT 3 conducts between T4 and T5 .5 10 0. where T2 is 9. T5 is 10ms and Tsw 10ms . The conduction losses in IGBT 2 Based on the same principle. IGBT 2 conducts between T2 and T5 . I cav _ IGBT 2 I crms _ IGBT 2 10 9. where T1 is 0ms .369kW 3 286.During the conduction period. During the conduction period of IGBT 3.1940A 10 10 9.35642 ) 369.3564A 10 Thus the conduction losses are: PcondIGBT 2 1 Tsw T5 pcondIGBT 2 (t )dt T2 2 uCE 0 I cav _ IGBT 2 rC I crms _ IGBT 2 (2 82 2. where T4 is 9.0000 3.020kW 3 62. the constant current is about (1000-742)A due to the other part of current flows through IGBT 3.18 1000 286.APPENDIX B CALCULATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR LOSSES B.08022 ) 20. 2.93 742 10 62. The conduction losses in IGBT 4 IGBT 4 conducts between T1 and T5 .93 742 5.18 1000 82A 10 10 9.0229 4.1 IGBT CONDUCTION LOSSES 1.5 10 0. I cav _ IGBT 3 I crms _ IGBT 3 10 9.
7276A 9.93 1000 (10 9.4733 103 67 .93) (1000 742) 10 994.4733kW 3 996.5 10 4.93 10002 (10 9.8060 2.I cav _ IGBT 4 I crms _ IGBT 4 9.8060A 996.93) (1000 742) 2 10 The conduction losses are: PcondIGBT 4 1 Tsw T5 pcondIGBT 4 (t )dt T1 2 uCE 0 I cav _ IGBT 4 rC I crms _ IGBT 4 (2 994.72762 ) 4.
T5 is 10ms and Tsw The conduction losses are: 10ms . The conduction losses in diode 2 Based on the same principle. Thus the conduction losses are: Pconddiode 2 1 Tsw T5 pconddiode 2 (t )dt T2 2 uCE 0 I cav _ diode 2 rC I crms _ diode 2 (1 82 0.The conduction losses in diode 1 is calculated in Chapter 9.8060 0. Pconddiode 4 1 Tsw T5 pconddiode 4 (t )dt T1 2 u F I cav _ diode 4 rF I crms _ diode 4 (1 994.93ms .1538kW 3 996. Pconddiode3 1 Tsw T5 pconddiode3 (t )dt T4 2 uCE 0 I cav _ diode3 rC I crms _ diode3 (1 5. T5 is 10ms and Tsw The conduction losses are: 10ms .08022 ) 5.00581kW 3 62. The conduction losses in diode 3 Diode 3 conducts between T4 and T5 .35642 ) 95. 2. where T2 is 9. where T4 is 9.16 10 1.09512kW 3 286.1940 0. T5 is 10ms and Tsw 10ms .1538 103 68 .18ms .B.72762 ) 1. where T1 is 0ms .1200 3. The conduction losses in diode 4 Diode 4 conducts between T1 and T5 . diode 2 conducts between T2 and T5 .16 10 0.16 10 0.8106 4.2 DIODE CONDUCTION LOSSES 1.
05 920.05 5. where T4 is 9.During the conduction period.8060 0.08022 ) 12.93ms .18ms . where T2 is 9.44 10 0.38522 ) 2. The conduction losses in IGCT 3 IGCT 3 conducts between T4 and T5 .44 10 2.44 10 2. the conduction losses for IGCT 1 are: PcondIGCT 1 1 Tsw T3 2 pcondIGCT 1 (t )dt VT 0 I cav _ IGCT 1 rT I crms _ IGCT 1 T1 (2. The conduction losses in IGCT 2 Based on the same principle.42 0. The conduction losses in IGCT 4 IGCT 4 conducts between T1 and T5 .1800 3. T5 is 10ms and Tsw 10ms .204kW 3 286.35642 ) 204.4765kW 3 996.B.2918kW 3 959. During the conduction period of IGCT 3.05 994. where T1 is 0ms .72762 ) 2.1940 0. IGCT 1 conducts between T1 and T3 .The conduction losses of IGCT 1 The same as by using the IGBT 1.012kW 3 62. Thus the conduction losses are: PcondIGCT 2 1 Tsw T5 pcondIGCT 2 (t )dt T2 2 uT 0 I cav _ IGCT 2 rT I crms _ IGCT 2 (2.44 10 0.3434 4.3 IGCT CONDUCTION LOSSES 1. T5 is 10ms and Tsw 10ms .2918 103 2. IGCT 2 conducts between T2 and T5 . the constant current is about 742A due to the other part of current flows through IGCT 4.4765 103 69 . the constant current is about (1000-742)A due to the other part of current flows through IGCT 3. T5 is 10ms and Tsw 10ms .05 82 0. The conduction losses are: PcondIGCT 3 1 Tsw T5 pcondIGCT 3 (t )dt T4 2 uT 0 I cav _ IGCT 3 rT I crms _ IGCT 3 (2. The conduction losses are: PcondIGCT 4 1 Tsw T5 pcondIGCT 4 (t )dt T1 2 uT 0 I cav _ IGCT 4 rT I crms _ IGCT 4 (2.
it is preliminarily designed for the thyristor unit to be 5 thyristor per branch. Figure B-1 The conducting current through the thyristor 1.25 4000 0 1666. each thyristor conducts the current within one third of one period (20ms). the total thyristor power losses in CCC converter system are: P _ total TH 100 8 108kW THYRISTOR POWER LOSSES IN LCI Different from the output current rating of the thyristor unit in CCC converter. The Fig. the rated output current for the LCI is around 2.08 8000W 8kW So. however in the power losses calculation.3kA. For the 12-pulse rectifier. Firstly. the conduction losses for all the thyristor in the 12pulse rectifier are: PcondTH _ total 1666. so the conduction losses for one single thyristor are: PcondTH 1 1. upper rectifier . in the figure. the conduction losses of one thyristor on the line side converter are: 70 . the thyristor switching losses inside the junction are about 8% of the forward ON conduction losses. Thus. the current will be assumed to be stiff enough to be constant. B-1 shows the current flowing through the thyristor by using the voltage source.25V. the conduction losses and switching losses of the thyristor can be calculated.67ms.4 POWER LOSSES IN THYRISTOR UNIT OF CCC CONVERTER SYSTEM The power losses in the thyristor converter contains two parts: the thyristor conduction losses which is obtained by using the forward ON voltage multiplied with the current. The forward ON voltage in the simulation is about 1.7W 3 For the CCC converter system at 52.B. in this case. there are small ripples for the current due to the voltage source. So. each thyristor in the line side converter conducts for 6.7 12 5 100000W 100kW The total switching losses are estimated about: PswithTH _ total 100000 0.8MW converter power rating .
6 62.5 4. so the total power losses in the LCI converter are: P _ total TH The LCI converter efficiency is: LCIconverter 62.5kW The total switching losses in the line side converter are: PswithTH _ linetotal 57500 0.1 2 124.1kW The power losses in the motor side converter is estimated to be the same as the losses in the line side converter.08 4600W 4.3333W Then.2kW 1 124.3333 12 5 57500W 57. the conduction losses for all the thyristor in the line side 12-pulse converter are: PcondTH _ linetotal 958.6kW Finally.77% 71 . the total thyristor power losses in the line side converter are: P _ linetotal TH 57.PcondTH 1 1.25 2300 0 3 958.2 55000 99.
APPENDIX C C.1 ABB'S IGBT SELECTED COMPONENTS 72 .
C.2 ABB'S DIODE 73 .
C.3 ABB'S IGCT 74 .