Automotive Electronic | Bipolar Junction Transistor | Diode

AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS

AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS

Published by Chonan Technical Service Training Center

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Chonan Technical Service Training Center

AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS

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Chonan Technical Service Training Center

AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS

FOREWORD
This service-training booklet has been prepared for service technicians of authorized distributor to familiarize them with vehicle basic electronic. It is our intention to increase the level of skill and knowledge of service personnel to enable effective and efficient problem diagnosis and repair.

December. 2003 Printed in Korea Published by Chonan Technical Service Training Center

ⓒ copyright by Hyundai Motors All right reserved. Chonan Technical Service Training Center http://training.hmc.co.kr training@hmc.co.kr

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Chonan Technical Service Training Center

AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 4 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .

C ········································· 53 12.3 Classification of semiconductor ·············· 13 9. Compositions/essence of electricity ·· 3.1 Zener diode ·········································· 26 6.2 Photo diode ··································· 28 6. Diode ······················································· 17 5.1 What’s transistor? ···························· 31 7. Special type of semiconductor diode · 26 6.C ································· 52 12.2 Basic operation of transistor ··················· 32 7.2 Diode usage & symbol representation ····· 17 5. Semiconductors ······························ 11 4. Microcomputer ·································· 59 14.1 NTC type ··········································· 45 8.Characteristic of diode ··························· 20 5.7 Diode check method by using a m-meter 25 13. Transistor ··············································· 31 7.2 Analog I.1 Integrated circuit general ··················· 51 12. Integrated circuit ······························ 51 12.6 Example of diode use in automobile ······· 23 5. Piezo-electric element ···················· 48 11.5 Rectification operation of diode ············ 21 5.3 Digital I.2 PTC type ············································ 46 4.4.4 Various logic circuits ························· 54 5.2 Semiconductor material ························· 12 4.3 Judgment of good/bad transistor ········· 42 5 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS CONTENTS 1. To understand electronic circuit ····· 63 APPENDOX ············································ 67 6. Conductor & nonconductor ·············· 7 8 9 8.1 Diode general ······································· 17 5. Hall effect ··········································· 49 12.3 Diode operation ····································· 18 5.3 LED (Light emitting diode) ······················ 29 7. Thermistor ··································· 45 8. Photoconductive cell ························· 47 10. General ·········································· 2.

AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 6 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .

transmission control system (TCS ) . there come forth also many electronic defects in comparison to traditional mechanical defects as for car trouble causes.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 1. 7 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . airbag. Accordingly learning the basic knowledge of electricity and electronic seems exigent subject for automobile maintenance and service. requiring microcomputer control. apart from the complicated structure or any academic theoretic. antilock brake system (ABS ) . Because of use of so many sophisticated electrical equipments and electronic parts. And it is hoped to be a little help in more efficient maintenance and trouble repair. General Today in automobile there are essentially used application fields of electricity and electronic beginning from switch for simple on /off of lamp to many equipments of engine management system (EMS ) . body electrical system (BCM). Here it is hoped to become opportunity to understand basic principle and to learn how they apply in automobile. etc. instrumentation system.. .

.. electrons are quickly turning around nucleus in conformity with respective orbits as the earth and planets are turning around sun . electricity. oxygen 8. these electrons are easy to escape from orbit due to external stimulus (heat . ) while each element has its characteristic number of electrons (e . Compositions and essence of electricity Every material is composed of molecules each of which is in turn chemically composed of aggregates of atoms. . . Generally nucleus has positive electricity (+) and electron has negative electricity (-) while these two have mutually attractive character so that atom becomes electrically neutral (positive electricity quantity = negative electricity quantity). electron started signifies that electric current flows. g . . . Because attractive force from atomic nucleus to electrons These electrons of outermost orbit (valence electrons) is the weakest . hydrogen 1. Only a certain number of electrons can exist in each electron orbit (K: 2. it means that movement of these free 8 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . Movement of these free Namely. . electrons directly becomes electric current .) and may move to other orbit . Example: water molecule (H2O) = two hydrogen atoms (H2) + one oxygen atom (O) M Orbit Electron Proton Neutron L Orbit Atomic nucleus K Orbit Atom relationship model As the above figure. carbon 6. light . L: 8. M: 18.. got out of orbit are called free electrons which are essence of electricity. ). .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 2.

the longer the cord and the longer the electric current flow time .2 mm 0.2 2.32 0.5 0.. Order of good conductance of electricity : silver  copper  gold  aluminium  tungsten  zinc  nickel ..1 3.8 4.5 7. multistrand type is contained inside a clothing of cord where copper (alloy) is mainly used as stuff material .. The larger the electric current . germanium (Ge).2 Allowable Current (A) 9 12 15 20 27 37 47 59 84 2. rubber.85 1. General Specification Table Area (mm ) 0. nonconductor which do not transmit electricity and semiconductors in middle between the two while these characteristics are determined by electronic configuration according to atomic structure of material .6 5.0 8.8 No. selenium (Se) etc .5 sq (Allowable electric current = 9 A) 9 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . of Strands 7 11 16 26 41 65 50 84 41 Electric Wire OD 2. they may be divided into conductor which transmit electricity well. 3) Semiconductor : which has medial characteristics between conductor and nonconductor Here fall silicon (Si). wood etc .7 3.32 0.25 2 3 5 8 15 20 Strand Diameter 0. 1) Conductor : where electricity flows well Here fall most metals where free electrons may well move in the interior of material . g . continuity.32 0.32 0.32 0.45 0.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 3. glass. ceramics.4 2.  As for automobile wiring. load. 2) Nonconductor : where electricity does not flow well It is called insulator where free electron is not easily generated e . the thicker the electric cord shall be .45 0.32 0.32 mm 0. plastics. which are used as raw material of electronic part. Cord thickness is determined by electric current value. temperature etc . Conductor & nonconductor If materials are electrically classified .

AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS MEMO 10 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .

Namely. So semiconductor is material that has medial type character between conductor 11 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 4. Semiconductor 4.1 What is semiconductor? In material. here electric current is neither easy to flow as in electric property. and nonconductor. conductor nor difficult as in nonconductor. there are conductors easy for electric current to flow and nonconductor difficult for current to flow by the electronic property. Semiconductor denotes material of medial property Semiconductor is material that has such peculiar between conductor and insulator.

not belonging to conductor and nonconductor.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 4. If specific resistance is more than 1010 Ωcm then little electricity is conducted there so that such material is used as insulator. State Specific Resistance 10-6 -4 Material Silver. Meanwhile material in between such conductor and insulator. are called semiconductor where belong germanium and silicon used in manufacturing the diode and transistor.2 Semiconductor material The specific resistance of copper used as electric conductor is 10 -6 Ωcm that is lowest and even the specific resistance of Ni-Cr used as electric resistance wire is 10-4 Ωcm while these materials are called conductors because they conducts electricity well . diamond Glass Quartz glass 12 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . copper Platinum 10 Conductor 10 Nichrome Carbon electrode -2 Pyrite 1 Germanium 102 Silicon 104 106 10 Semiconductor 8 Copper dioxide 1010 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1018 Bakelite Mica .

Outer block Orbit S i Si S S S i i S i i <Silicon atomic structure> 13 <Silicon covalent bond> Chonan Technical Service Training Center . that added of impurity to increase the number of free electron are called negative type semiconductor while that added of impurity to increase the number of hole are called positive type semiconductor. insulator and has little electrical utilization value so that it cannot independently be used as Therefore it is used as a form of impurity semiconductor by adding small proportional quantity of other element atoms to these intrinsic atoms of valence 4. Here are iintrinsic semiconductor that does not utterly contain impurity in material crystal and impurity semiconductor that is added of specific impurity material into intrinsic semiconductor in order to improve conductivity. The main elements that are most frequently used are silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) while such conductor of high purity is called as intrinsic Silicon and germanium respectively have four electrons on outermost orbit .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS Semiconductors play role of conductor or nonconductor according to specific condition (relationship between voltage.3 Classification of semiconductor Semiconductor is largely constituted of two forms. Roles of impurity material are to increase in semiconductor the number of Increase free electron of semiconductor inside Increase hole of semiconductor inside Therefore among impurity semiconductors. 4. electric current . temperature etc . Because of such covalent bond. semiconductor. the material becomes an electric Namely in their respective crystal structures. And this impurity semiconductor is also classified into two according to role of added impurity material . ). semiconductor. Generally diode and transistor belong to this impurity semiconductor. the form becomes that each atom shares its own four electrons with its partner atom.

then silicon atom from these two kind of atoms cannot share one electron so that electric current can flow easier while this vacancy in octet is called hole. 1) P Type Semiconductor This is made by adding the material (Ga : gallium . b . In : gallium . ▷ Purity of intrinsic semiconductor has been refined about 99. if these two kinds And it is of material meet each other. Though silicon has four outer layer electron. N type semiconductor is that added of impurity to increase number of free electron in semiconductor. electron fills the hole site so that the hole continuously moves down.2 Impurity semiconductor ▷ This is impurity semiconductor added of specific impurity material into intrinsic semiconductor to improve conductivity.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 4. When voltage is applied. ▷ General semiconductors of diode or transistor belong to this impurity semiconductor. ▷ Classification of impurity semiconductor a.3.999999999 % (over ten-nine) with 11 nine. 4. called P (positive) type semiconductor because it assumes positive (+) electricity by electron deficiency. P type semiconductor is that added of impurity to increase number of hole in semiconductor.1 Intrinsic Semiconductor ▷ This is intrinsic semiconductor containing no impurity material at all in its crystal structure . ▷ For example germanium and silicon belong to this kind . B : boron ) having three valence electron in intrinsic semiconductor.3. Hole Structure of “P” type semiconductor 14 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . electric current is said to flow by means of hole in P type semiconductor.

Sb : antimony ) having five outermost layer electron in intrinsic semiconductor. This junction surface is called depletion layer while semiconductor bonded thus is called PN junction semiconductor or diode.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 2) N Type semiconductor This is made by adding the material ( P : phosphorus . Accordingly there exists electric charge of different polarity from each other on either side of depletion layer and there is generated a little amount of electric potential difference which is called electric potential barrier. Superfluity electron Structure of “N” type semiconductor 3) P-N Junction If P type semiconductor and N type semiconductor are chemically bonded with each other. P N Electron Hole Depletion layer 15 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . And it is called N (negative) type semiconductor because it assumes negative (-) electricity. there is made portion where carrier does not exist as hole and free electron are bonded together at narrow part of junction surface. If element of valence 5 is added to bind with silicon then one electron remains as surplus in octet so that electric conduction may be accomplished easier by means of free activity of this remainder electron. Electric current flows by means of electron in N type semiconductor (carrier : electron ) . As : arsenic .

AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS MEMO 16 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .

also used in many other functions so that main functions may be summarized as follows : Usage as electric current rectifier to change the alternating current to the direct current in electric supply facilities Use as detector to take out signal from radio frequency Usage in switching to control electric current ON/OFF Prevention of backward current flow Usage in protective circuit But it is Besides it is used in variety of wide range according to diode sort and usage. Anode Diode symbol Cathode Diode Polarity 17 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . As Although transistor is also a kind of semiconductor. diode specifically purports thus that electric current shall Silicon is most frequently used as semiconductor material whereas besides there are used also germanium and selenium for this purpose Anode(-) Cathode(+) 5. flow always in only one direction . to say.2 Diode usages and symbol representation Main function of diode is to rectify electric current to flow it always in only one direction.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 5 Diode (Diode for rectifier circuit) 5.1 Diode general Diode is semiconductor part substance flowing the electric current always in only one direction . semiconductor is called as such because it has intrinsically this kind of property.

hole and electron repulse to electric source so that electric potential barrier is lowered and also depletion layer is narrowed. Anode(+) Battery Cathode(-) Lamp ON 18 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .2.1 Forward diode for forward bias Diode has form to have connected terminals on both sides of P-N junction semiconductor to have characteristics to flow electric current always in only one direction .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 5.3 Diode operation § Forward diode for forward bias § Forward diode for backward bias 5. In forward direction as in figure if positive (+) voltage is applied at P type semiconductor and negative (-) voltage is applied at N type semiconductor. Depletion layer Consequently hole and electron may move to each other across junction surface. Accordingly electric current Current flow P N <Occasion that supply forward voltage / Electric current is flowing> Forward direction circuit of diode Lamp turns on because diode has been connected in forward direction in circuit below. flows by movement of hole and electron .

Then hole of P type semiconductor is attracted to negative (-) side of electric supply while electron of N type semiconductor is attracted to positive (+) side of electric supply. Consequently electric potential barrier is heightened and accordingly depletion layer is also widened so that electron movement cannot arise between the two kinds of semiconductor. Cathode(-) Battery Anode(+) Lamp Off 19 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .2.2 Backward diode for reverse bias This time let us in reverse direction apply negative (-) voltage at P type semiconductor and positive (+) voltage at N type semiconductor. As the result .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 5. electric current does not flow Depletion layer No current flow P N < Occasion that supply backward voltage / Electric current is not flowing > Backward direction circuit of diode Lamp turns off because diode has been connected in backward direction in circuit below.

7 volt Backward direction Characteristic curb of diode Voltage-Current characteristicsGraph of Forward Voltage-Current Characteristics Diode : Diode Current Flow to Applied Voltage When forward bias voltage is applied below 0. electric applied over about 0. ID(mA) Forward direction current does not flow up to some voltage but abruptly flows at voltage over some definite value.7 V (Ge diode: 0.2 •0.8 •1. Voltage at this instant is called breakdown voltage.4 V).3~0.7 V → micro current flows : diode does not operate When forward bias of threshold voltage of 0.6 •0. Namely diode is broken down if it is connected in reverse direction and voltage above breakdown voltage is applied.4 Characteristic of diode It can be seen that .4 •0.6~0. Namely electric current only becomes to flow if voltage is And if backward voltage is applied.7 V is applied → diode operation current flows : diode operates • [mA] •60 •40 •20 Diode forward direction Spiritual enlightenment point I Forward direction voltage characteristic of silicon junction diode •0. when forward voltage is gradually increased from 0 V. electric current abruptly flows if a certain voltage is reached.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 5.0• Volt 20 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . Breakdown voltage VD(Volt) Silicon: 0.6~0.

5. 5. Rectifier circuit may largely be classified into Volt Diode IR Input voltage A.C Time Input Voltage A.C Volt Output voltage Half -wave rectifier D. This kind of circuit to flow electric current for only one side is called half wave rectifier circuit . half wave rectifier circuit and full wave rectifier circuit . electric current flows in forward direction. 1 Half -wave rectifier circuit When applying an alternating current to the circuit . but at moment when negative (-) side signal comes in.C Time 21 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .5 Rectification operating of diode An alternating current signal may be rectified to a direct current by using characteristic of electric current in diode to flow always in only one direction. electric current does not flow because it becomes the reverse direction. at moment when positive (+) side signal comes in.C Output Voltage R VR = D.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 5.

C D3 D4 R V= D. voltage doubler rectifier circuit etc .C Volt Time Output Voltage Bridge circuit full-wave rectifier 22 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .2 Full-wave rectifier circuit Next for other device also when applying an alternating current to the circuit . electric current flows through D1 and D4 during moment of positive (+) half cycle period of alternating current signal while the current flows through D2 and D3 during moment of negative (-) half period.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 5. ) Volt Time D2 D1 Input Voltage V= A. there are also full wave rectifier circuit using the center tap of transformer. This kind of circuit to flow electric current for both of half periods is called full wave rectifier circuit . ( *Although particularly here is represented a full wave rectifier using a bridge.5.

7 volts Voltage of B: AC Pick-to-Pick voltage 13.4 volts AC voltage of Pick-to-Pick voltage of B is outputted only in + voltage after passing the diode so that only 1/2 voltage of 27.7 volts × 2 = 27. Namely AC voltage after passing the forward diode is outputted in accordance with vanishing of – voltage.4 V is outputted.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 5.6 Example of diode use in automobile ◐ Alternator rectifier AC voltage generated at stator coil is transformed to DC voltage across the diode Voltage of A : DC 13. To Battery From fusible link From charging lamp A B Alternator internal circuit 23 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .

2) Motor operates as the relay turns on .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS ◐ Diode installed in relay to prevent surge voltage A B C Battery A Relay M Motor Controller ㄱ 1) If power transistor of controller turns on. 3) When power transistor turns off in controller. a high surge voltage about 80volts is instantaneously generated between A and B according to Lenz law so that it becomes + voltage. then the relay turns on . the controller may be damaged . diode is installed in the relay so that the surge voltage generated between A~B shall digress in direction from A to C across diode to be extinguished for controller damage prevention . ◐ Diode connection in forward direction and reverse direction in electric circuit Forward bias direction connection Anode(+) Battery Cathode(-) Lamp ON Backward bias direction connection Cathode(-) Battery Anode(+) Lamp Off 24 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . 5) In order to prevent this problem . 4) If this surge voltage of 80 volts flows in the controller.

3) And it will be rather good if resistance value is higher when connected inversely.7. 3) And it will be rather good if resistance value is higher when connected inversely. ① Short condition : normal if value is near 0 ohm when measuring in forward direction a n d backward direction . When checking by using digital multi meter = Normal condition Anode Cathode Cathode Anode ++ 0 Ω Red lead wire - ∞Ω Black lead wire Red lead wire + Black lead wire Resistance : ≒ 0 Ω Resistance : ∞ Ω 5. 25 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .7.1 How to check by using a Digital Multi-Meter 1) Select resistance or diode mode for the select switch of digital meter. we can judge it whether good or bad in accordance with the following.2 How to check by using an Analog Multi-Meter 1) Select at resistance range × 100 for the select switch of analog multi meter.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 5. ① Short condition : normal if value is near 0 ohm when measuring in forward direction a n d backward direction . 2) It is normal if resistance value is small when red lead wire has been connected to diode anode (+) and black lead has been connected to cathode (-). ② Open condition : normal if value is near infinity ohm when measuring in forward direction a n d backward direction . 2) It is normal if resistance value is small when black lead wire has been connected to diode anode (+) and red lead has been connected to cathode (-). 5.7 Diode check method by using a multi-meter If we had understood that diode is PN junction semiconductor where electric current would flow in case of forward direction but would not flow in case of backward direction.

5. when the applied voltage increased. 12. Following is a brief description of some diode type you might encounter. Some typical reverse bias voltages are 2. The amount of voltage required for reverse bias varies according to the zener diode selected. the forward current increase. When checking by using analog multi meter = Normal condition Anode Cathode Cathode Anode + Red lead wire Black lead wire Red lead wire + Black lead wire Resistance : ≒ 0 Ω Resistance : ∞ Ω 6.0V. Special type of semiconductor diode Diodes are used for a number of purposes. However. and even light production are some of their various uses.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS ② Open condition : normal if value is near infinity ohm when measuring in forward direction a n d backward direction . 9. Voltage rectification. the zener diode has unique reverse bias qualities that make differ from the typical diode.4V. The zener diode goes in to reverse bias at various voltages.1 Zener diode 1) Zener diode symbol Cathode(-) Anode(+) 2) Zener diode characteristic When the diode is forward biased.1V. 26 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . 6. At this point.0V. ect. voltage regulation.1V. 6. it acts like reverse diode or a closed switch.

because current is extinguished through earth for voltage above 12 Volts any voltage above 12 Volts is not supplied to controller. + Forward bias Zener breakdown region V2 Voltage remains constance over large current Reverse range bias 0 + Voltage - Current Zener diode characteristic 3) Zener diode usage An electronic device that can be used as a voltage regulator is the zener diode.If supply voltage exceeds 12 V then it is earthed through zener diode. So. . the zener diode is able to maintain a fairy constant voltage as the current varies over a certain range. 27 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . the diode provides excellent voltage regulation. 4) Example of circuit that use zener diode .Zener diode breakdown voltage of circuit below is 12 V. .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS This small reverse current flows until the diode reaches the zener breakdown point. V2 in figure.Supply voltage to controller through C1 in circuit diagram below shall never exceed 12 V. Because of this attribute. At zener breakdown point.

electric current changes in proportion to the light quantity.2 Photo diode 1) Photo diode symbol Cathode(-) Anode(+) 2) Photo diode characteristic Electric current flows if lighted on PN junction surface under condition where certain voltage is applied in backward direction. And if light irradiation dose is changed. 28 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . shed on PN junction surface under this condition. Whence if voltage is maintained constant . Electric potential barrier is made on PN junction surface and If light is becomes greater if reverse voltage is applied so as to become a complete insulator. Hole and free electron separated from Thus diode is used in light → respective ions move along so that electric current gets to flow. electric current flowing in circuit gets proportional to the light quantity received by element . change arises on the junction surface. Respectively electron and hole are activated by external light energy along with positive (+) ion in N side area and negative (-) ion in P side area .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS Supply Voltage R3 R1 R4 Controller C1 ZD 12Volts Condenser TR R2 Earth Earth 6. electricity transformation circuit .

green.3 LED (Light emitting diode) 1) Photo diode symbol Cathode(-) Anode(+) 2) Light emitting diode characteristic This diode is that which illuminates as electric current flows by applying forward voltage at PN junction diode. 29 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . It illuminates even with low voltage of 2 ~3 V. there are red. Response is speedy. If light irradiates on photo diode. Power consumption is small (about 0. then because battery voltage is supplied. It is much used as a switching circuit .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 3) Example of circuit that use photo diode Photo diode has been connected in backward direction in circuit below. Response of turning on and off is quick (by unit of millionth second). As for illumination color. according to semiconductor material. Its characteristics are as follows : It has longer life and electric power consumption is smaller in comparison to incandescent electric lamp. the lamp turns on . Photo diode Battery 12 volts Lamp Photo diode circuit 6. yellow etc.05 W ) .

then electric current flows so that LED illuminates. . it was used for voltage drop to apply a voltage of 3 V at LED. LED 9 Volts. Battery 3 Volts Switch Photo diode circuit 4) Trip computer display using a LED 30 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .As for role of resistance.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 3) Example of circuit that use zener diode .If switch is closed in circuit below.

E denotes emitter terminal.1 What’s transistor? PNP type transistor is that where thin N type semiconductor in a semiconductor crystal has been inserted between two P type semiconductors while NPN type transistor is that where thin P type semiconductor has been inserted between two N type semiconductors. 2SA××× ----.For high frequency transistor of NPN type 2SD××× ----. For symbols in semiconductor. Transistor 7. transistor according to usage and type. there are PNP type and NPN type. following name is attached.For low frequency transistor of NPN type D: For low frequency transistor of NPN type 31 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . B denotes base terminal and C denotes collector terminal Each Part Symbol and Sorts of Transistor Transistor according to association of semiconductor. And.For high frequency transistor of PNP type 2SB××× ----.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 7.For low frequency transistor of PNP type 2SC××× ----.

NPN type Emitter(E) Collector(C) Ib [uA] Current Ic Base(B) Current Ib Vcb Ic [mA] <Base electric current and collector electric current> And electrons that come from emitter as not having been able to join with base holes move to collector side owing to VCB of collector side so that these make Ordinarily 95~98 % among emitter current IE becomes IC but remainder 2 ~5 % Vbe Forward bias of NPN type transmitter: Emitter's electron most moves by collector 32 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . but in this NPN type.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS P type Collector(C ) N Type N Type Emitter (E) Collector(C ) P Type N type P Type Emitter (E) Base (B) Base (B) Collector(C ) Emitter (E) Collector(C ) Emitter (E) Base (B) NPN type transmitter structure & symbol Base (B) PNP type transmitter structure & symbol > 7. becomes IB. as shown in figure below.2 Basic operation of transistor 7. collector current IC.1 Basic operation of NPN type transistor This type has been connected in opposite case to PNP type.2. a few holes are supplied from positive pole of electric source so that these make a small portion current of base current IB.

Accordingly most IE becomes IC but very little portion becomes base current IB. if I B is 1 mA and I C is 100 mA then h F E is 100. transistor varies according to usage. For calculation example. collector current I C and base current I B . Holes that could not join with base electrons but come from emitter now move to collector side owing to VCB of collector side. big collector current may be deduced from small base current so as to be called electric current amplification while relationship (ratio) between I B and I C are called electric current amplification factor (h F E ). transistor that can amplify input signal by hundred times.2. sort etc . the following equation holds : So as electron current and electric current direction are ordinarily defined oppositely while emitter current I E is divided into I E  I B  IC Like this. Emitter holes are gradually supplied from positive pole so that these make emitter current Ic. electric potential barrier is heightened at PN junction surface so that electric current does not flow between base and collector. If backward voltage VC B is applied between base and collector.2 Basic operation of PNP type transistor If forward voltage VBE is applied between emitter and base. And as for base N side. And at P type side of emitter side. 7. ) Namely it means ( *Electric current amplification rate of 33 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . these make the small base current IB. But because these few electrons are continuously supplied by negative “-“ pole of electric source.3 Amplification function of transistor As we have already discussed above in `Basic Operation'. there are only few electrons. These make collector current I C . because this is very thin so that impurity material concentration becomes lower. most electron (no less than 95 %) move to collector but only a few electrons (no more than 5 %) join with base hole. electric potential barrier in between PN junction surface becomes low.2. Accordingly holes in emitter cross over the electric potential barrier and enter the base side by diffusion so as to vanish by bonding with a part of base electrons there.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 7. many holes are being generated because impurity material concentration has been heightened.

AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS hFE  IC IB . there are three earth methods of emitter earth. AC component is added upon DC so as to appear like what is shown in the following figure. Namely transistor does not operate during negative (-) half cycle because here it is in backward direction between base and emitter. Output C B E Input Output (Ic=mA) Input (Ib=uA) And generally amplification means that of alternating current component . . which we shall deliberate in the following example : In circuit shown in figure here. Whence collector current I C also appears as output while being amplified only of half wave. base current I B flows only when it is in forward direction (same as in diode). 34 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . if AC signal is applied between base and emitter.  100  100 1 hFE=100 C B E Ib=1mA Ic=100mA Meanwhile in how to use transistor. If AC is applied onto DC. base earth and collector earth among which the emitter earth method as in circuit above is most used. Here let us apply DC between base and emitter.

Accordingly transistor 's amplification action is accomplished only in specific area where collector current increases in accordance with base current increase so as to be called the active area . Now for the first time we can see completely amplified output waveform.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS Voltage at this time is called bias voltage. Also we may obtain the amplified AC waveform only if we remove DC component by Output C B Input E Input (Ib=uA) Output (Ic=mA) Bias voltage To avoid inconvenience of using two electric supplies due to bias voltage as in the depicted circuit . on the supply electricity source connected to the output terminal. So far we have learned electric current amplification but now let us think case of voltage amplification . we learned that collector varies proportionately with base current . a fixed bias using a resistance. actual circuits use various forms adequate to purpose of each circuit by such as an electric current feedback bias. Then we can think the following 35 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . connecting a condenser at output terminal. Let us think this as a variable resistor to control electric current .. equivalent circuit . condenser etc. According to the above explanation. there is limit area where collector current does not increase any more even though transistor base current continues to increase so as to be called the saturation region. * For reference to say.

output voltage to the base input waveform shows up reversely as may be seen in figure. 36 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . voltage drop due (Output voltage Eo = E – voltage drop due to resistance R (Ic × R). It is explained as total voltage E = voltage drop between collector and emitter (Eo) + Namely. if electric current Ic increases. (Ic × R)) to resistance R also increases so that the output voltage Eo decreases.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS E R Output (Eo) C B Current Ic E <Equivalent circuit> Current Ic E R Output (Eo) Input current (Ib=uA) Output Current (Ic=mA) Output voltage (Eo=E-(Ic*R) Under condition as above.

ratio of collector current to emitter current is below 1 so that electric current is not amplified.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS Now let us learn base earth and collector earth methods along with transistor 's switching action . in collector that is the output . collector current may also flow through resistance. 37 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . if we suppose for example that 10mA flows in emitter. E C Output B Input <Base earth circuit If there is no electric potential difference between emitter and base. then some 1mA and 9mA flows in base and collector respectively so that voltage drop occurs. emitter current does not flow as well as their flows no electric current at collector where voltage is applied in backward direction through resistance. through resistance. In this case. because sum of base current and collector current is equal to emitter current . In case of voltage amplification. Base earth circuit Method of base earth is type of circuit as shown in figure to take base as earth and apply input signal to emitter. Accordingly it becomes 9mA × resistance [kΩ] = output voltage so there is accomplished voltage amplification to the input signal . If forward voltage is applied between emitter and base as in circuit shown by figure.

As above. . In emitter earth circuit . emitter current (from collector to emitter) flows so as to be applied at load resistance as it is . Characteristic of earth methods Emitter Earth Circuit High High High Mid Mid Antiphase Bad Collector Earth Circuit Mid Low Low High Low Inphase Good Among But in collector earth circuit .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS Collector earth circuit Method of collector earth is type of circuit as shown in figure to take collector as earth . Accordingly emitter current is controlled by small base current as well as emitter current varies directly also by load resistance variation . because forward voltage is applied between emitter and base for output circuit . send input signal to base and send output from emitter. them the most general and usually used method is emitter earth method whereas to summarize it Item Electric current amplification degree Voltage amplification Electric power amplification Input impedance Output impedance Phase of output to input High frequency characteristics Base Earth Circuit Low Mid Mid Low High Inphase Best 38 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . collector current greatly varies according to base current while variation of value of load resistance connected to collector does not give large effect to electric current . may be explained by the following characteristics table. we learned three types of earth methods according to terminals used in common .

The R1's resistance changes NPN transistor base and bias that is approved to emitter voltage to 3 volts. Ic:Collector current) h F E IC IB hFE:The electric current amplification rate.Therefore flowing electric current is passed much to collector and emitter according to bias voltage . There is serving resistance . I E  I B  IC IB:Base current. If is low. become transistor's base and emitter bias voltage high if variable resistance value is high. bias voltage becomes low .Variable resistor is thing to control NPN transistor's bias voltage by 0 ~ 3 volt .That is.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS To understand amplification circuit that use transmitter R1=1㏀ Collector 12V Base M Motor D235 (NPN TR) Emitter 1~100Ω variable resistor Circuit description . and resistance value two. can control turning number of motor according to position of variableness resistance passing as motor's electric current by bias voltage differs.Therefore. 39 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .

It has longer life than mechanical relay. We can make role like of relay if using transistor 's switching action as shown in figure. . among transistor 's amplification action.Operation is stable and there is no chattering when on / offing the contact point as that in relay because there is no mechanical contact . usually use is made of amplification action not in saturation region but in active area . Namely it will do if we supply base current up to saturation state where collector current will not almost increase any more.Switching speed is fast (more than thousand times per second)..AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 7. 40 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . when we cannot supply sufficient electric current by a transistor. . we can make use of electric current amplification by means of connecting transistors in multistage in accordance to load capacity. whereas. we learned that if to electrify between emitter and collector. So transistor 's switching action has the following advantages to the relay.2. (Nevertheless in small signal amplification circuit or ordinary home appliances. Batt ON/OFF input signal This is called transistor 's switching action Batt Load ON/OFF Input signal C Current Ic Load B E Switching relay Switching transmitter Transistor 's base current corresponds to relay 's excitation current so that transistor may act as the relay while not using mechanical contact as in relay 's contact point .3 Switching function of transmitter In explanation of amplification action. And if load increases then electric current Ic also increases. It is small type with less electric power consumption . it would do making the base current Ib to flow. ) We can turn on / off circuit between emitter and collector by on / offing the base current Ib under this condition .

3. Again ECM transmitter's base power when coil's electric current is shut off because connection between collector and emitter becomes open if do Off in coil high tension generate become. when ignition key switch does ON. In below circuit. From ignition key switch Ground G11 Pin No 23 41 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS To understand transistor switching circuit 1. If supply power to power TR Base from ECM through Pin No23 ignition coil of electric current passes by ground G11. power is supplied to the ignition coil. 2.

it may be affected by connected circuit resistance value. it is displayed as primarily short circuit form .3 Judgment of good / b ad transistor As may be seen in figure. there is little change in indication value of multi-meter for both of the reciprocal cases because it is not electrified for both cases.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 7. Whereas in some cases according to transistor sort and characteristic when red (+) rod is connected to collector and black (-) rod is connected to emitter (in case of NPN. but reversibly in case of PNP). it will be fine if we think transistor to have been connected with part of emitter and base considered as a PN junction diode and part of base and collector considered as another diode. And in case where generally transistor or diode has been broken . 42 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . For reference to say.. 2. it is not electrified so that there is little change in indication value of multi-meter (by which there is displayed a voltage same as for case when measuring rod was not connected in case of digital meter while there is displayed an approximately infinite resistance value is displayed in case of analog meter). Next if also measured for interval of E~C forwardly and backwardly with the measuring rod. Inversely when measured in reverse direction. Collector Emitter Collector Emitter Base Base NPN Transmitter Base 1. if measuring under condition where it has been connected to circuit . when testing transistor or diode. quite a high resistance value may be displayed even though it would not be infinite ( so namely a little current may flow). When multi-meter measures between B~E and B~C in forward direction under normal condition. it is electrified ( showing ordinarily some hundred mV in case of digital meter but a low resistance value in case of analog type meter). it is desirable to measure under condition isolated from circuitry.

2) First connect a lead wire to any pin in transistor. black lead wire connection becomes base line in NPN transmitter and red lead wire connection becomes base line in PNP transmitter. Then connect left 2 terminals in transistor respectively. using other lead wire. 3) At this moment. result in CW direction after measuring other two pins’ resistance respectively. 4) If you set mode switch in R1000 at circuit tester. Multi Meter Base Multi Meter 1 2 3 1 : Collector 2 : Emitter 3 : Base 43 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . if the direction becomes CW.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS Polarity distinction of transistor 1. which resistance measuring becomes nearly OΩ. 1) Put mode switch in Analog multi meter at R100 or R1000 with in measurable range. In case of using analog multi-meter. red lead wire connection becomes collector in NPN and black lead wire becomes collector in PNP.

AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 2. In case of find polarity to use transistor's lead wire. In case of 2SC1815 transistor (NPN type transistor for high frequency) .Center side lead : Collector .Center side lead : Collector .Left side lead : Base Base Emitter Collector 44 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . When saw flat side that printed of part name.Right side lead : Emitter .Left side lead : Emitter Emitter Collector Base In case of 2SD880 transistor (NPN type transistor for high frequency) .Right side lead : Base .

there is characteristic that resistance decreases Resistance Temperature .Usage in car Engine coolant temperature sensor. Air intake temperature sensor.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 8.Characteristic If temperature rises. there are NTC thermistor and PTC thermistor 8.1 NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient) thermistor) . Thermistor To semiconductor element that use change of resistance according to temperature. and Low fuel-warning sensor Engine coolant temperature sensor 45 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .

Therefore. there is characteristic that resistance increases .Characteristic If temperature rises.Usage in car Central door lock actuator . NPN transistor's bias voltage depends on NTC thermistor in below circuit If temperature rises. Lamp Battery Thermistor Switch 46 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . lamp turned ON when switch ON.To understand circuit usage PTC thermistor. Therefore.To understand circuit that use NTC thermistor. In below circuit. voltage between base and emitter is raised. If excess current is passed to ramp. prevent over current in circuit. heat by excess current is occurred to thermistor At this time. Lamp R1 12 Volts Battery NPN TR NTC Thermistor 8.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS .2 PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) thermistor) . TR does ON and lamp turned “ON”. thermistor's resistance increases and decreases electric current.

To understand circuit that use CDS 1) If transmitter1 does ON. TR2 must do ON 3) TR2's ON operates according to cds's resistance value 4) If receive a lot of raises in CDS. because cds's resistance increases lamp Off 47 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . FATC air conditioning system .000 Lux . value of resistance changes. Photoconductive cell According to brightness of light.(increase or decrease) .Characteristic Resistance decreases if brightness of light is strong. TR2's bias voltage decreases. Material that convey light is Cds (Cadmium sulfide) and CdSe (Cadmium selenide) . 2) For TR1 does ON.000 100 10 1 1 10 100 1. and there is Characteristic that resistance increases if light becomes feeble KΩ 10. TR2 does ON because TR2's bias voltage rises 5) If quantity of light decreases.Usage in car Auto light sensor. lamp turned ON.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 9.000 1.

Filtered Cylinder Pressure Signal c.7 ㏀ Circuit that use Photoconductive cell 2SC372 10. NPN TR1 2SC372 NPN TR2 R4=4. Barium Usage in car : Knock Sensor Knock sensor waveform Knock sensor a. if electromotive force happen.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS R1=10㏀ R2=4. Cylinder Pressure Signal b. and supplies voltage. Piezo-electric element If receive pressure. there is special quality that cause transformation Material : Titan acid. Knock Sensor Signal 48 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .7㏀ Lamp R3=1㏀ cds 12 volts BATT.

both hall IC end can produce some voltage. When this tone wheel reaches without any damage to the magnetic field the output voltage becomes off 49 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . A1 Iv Current “I” A2 If you simulate the magnetic field then the output voltage between A1 and A2 becomes on and off. A1 and A2 can produce some voltage out.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 11. becomes on. In the following picture. When tone wheel destroy the magnetic filed the output voltage between A1 and A2 in the following picture. Hall effect When you put hall IC in magnetic field at concentric position with current flowing. if you put any conduct in magnetic field and make some current flow through this.

Usage in car CMP sensor. CKP sensor. Speed sensor ect. .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS .Signal waveform Volt Time Hall IC type CMP sensor 50 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .

transistors and other elements formed on a substrate to function as if they were single device.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 12.C) 12. Integrated Circuit (I. the output is obtained as ON/OFF switching signal. understanding of the operating conditions as indicated by the timing chart or table is important. Input Output 51 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . Input Output ▣ Digital IC I. When reading a circuit with an IC. Type of I.000 elements ○ LSI (Large Scale Integrated Circuit) : 1.C that performs switching only. how a circuit with an IC should be read will be described.C amplifying or controlling analog quantity (continuous quantity) Output signal always changes linearly with the input signal This type of IC’s is widely used in units using analog circuits.000 to 100.C Classification by Scale of Integration ○ SSI (Small Scale Integrated Circuit) : Less than 100 elements ○ MSI (Medium Scale Integrated Circuit) : 100 to 1. According to input ON/OFF signal conditions. In this chapter.000 elements ○ VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit) : 100.1 Integrated circuit general An integrated circuit or IC is several hundreds of resistors.000 or more elements Classification by Application and Structure ▣ Analog IC I.

+ + A (Va) c + c d Vc - Operating conditions Vd b (Vb) Output(Va volt) is made when Vc<Vd Output(Va volt) is not made when Vc≤Vd 52 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . one that remains constant is called the reference voltage and one that changes is called the comparison voltage which of the two input terminals has the reference voltage can be known from the circuit connected to the comparator. ○ Size reduced to minimum by integration ○ High reliability thanks to integrated structure ○ Low price thanks to volume production ○ Low power consumption 12. Of the two input terminal voltages.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS Features of I. it gives output va[v] at point e only when the potential at point c is higher than the potential at point d. both are required to supply power to the comparator for its operation but are not directly associated with the operation itself.2 Analog I.C. The comparator compares the potential at terminal c and terminal d and in this operating conditions shown.C The IC shown here is one called comparator. “a” is the power supply terminal and “b” is the ground terminal.

signal with high voltage (H) and signal with low voltage (L) or presence of signal and absence of signal. namely. Switch 12 volts Battery Vce Vce OFF OFF OFF 12 volts 0 volts ON ON ON TR 53 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . VCE becomes 0V and this state is taken as “0”. two signals are used. various information is expressed by combination of only two signals that can have only two states.3 Digital I. For example. When the switch is set to ON to turn on the transistor.C Logic circuit In a digital circuit. Vce is 12V and this state of voltage is taken as “1”. In a digital circuit unlike an analog one. A logic circuit is a circuit that gives an output “1” or “0” when input signal that is combination of “1” and “0” is applied.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 12. these two signals are represented by “1” and “0”. “1” or “0”. And as a convention. that is. when the transistor is off in this figure.

For output C to be high. Namely.4.1 AND circuit (logical product) And operation is the operation that gives a result only when all conditions are met such as “the brake warning lamp lights up when the ignition switch is ON and the parking brake switch is ON”. the AND circuit is a circuit of which output signal becomes “1” when the input signals are all “1”. Representation Actual Circuit Logic Symbol Input/Output relation A 1 1 0 0 B 1 0 1 0 C 1 0 0 0 This figure shows an example of AND circuit using transistors. 1(H) voltage is obtained at output C. it is necessary that Tr1 and Tr2 be on. And for Tr1 and Tr2 to go on.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 12.4 Various logic circuits 12. it is necessary that both Tr2 be off and for these two transistors to be off. When both input signals A and B are 1(H). 54 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . high (H) voltage must be applied to inputs A and B so that base current may flow to both transistors.

the OR circuit is a circuit whose output becomes “1” when at least one input signal is “1”. Representation Actual Circuit Logic Symbol Input/Output relation A 1 1 0 0 B 1 0 1 0 C 1 1 1 0 This figure shows an example of OR circuit using transistors.2 OR circuit (logical sum) OR operation is the operation that gives a result when at least one condition among various conditions is met such as “when any one door is opened. the door ajar indicator lamp lights up” Namely.4. the OR circuit may be considered as a circuit whose output is “0” when all inputs are “0”.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 12. When either input A or input B is “1” output C becomes “1”. 55 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . In contrast to the AND circuit whose output is “1” when all inputs are “1”.

when the base voltage is low. the output signal is “0” or vice versa. Namely. 56 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .4. such as when the input signal is “1”. the NOT circuit is sometimes called an inverter.3 NOT Circuit (negation) The NOT circuit is a circuit whose output is inverse of the input. the transistor goes on and hence the collector voltage becomes low. the transistor goes off and hence the collector voltage is high. Representation Actual Circuit Logic Symbol Input/Output relation A 1 1 0 0 B 1 0 1 0 C 1 1 1 0 Note : The relationship between transistor base voltage (VBE) and collector voltage (VCE) is NOT relation. On the other hand. when the base voltage is high.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 12. For this reason.

it is called NAND (meaning NOT + AND) Logic Symbol Input/Output relation Input A L L H H B L H L H Output Y H H H L 12. the output is the inverse of the AND or OR circuit. Logic Symbol Input/Output relation Input A L L H H B L H L H Output Y H L L L 57 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 12. In either circuit.4 NAND and NOR circuits The NAND circuit is an AND circuit followed by a NOT circuit and for this reason.5 The NOR circuit is an OR circuit following by a NOT circuit.4.4.

AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS

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13. Microcomputer
The microcomputer is a kind of computer. Let’s now review briefly the history of development of computers. The first computers ever produced were mechanical ones using gears and other mechanical parts, which was followed by electric ones using relays and them by electronic computers using vacuum tubes. An electronic computer using vacuum tubes was large enough to occupy an entire room of a building, with an many as 20,000 tubes in use. These vacuum tubes were then replaced by transistors and then by integrated circuits (IC). The degree of integration of these Ics then became increasingly higher, developing to LSI (large scale integration) and VLSI (very large scale integration) With these developments, computers also changed from vacuum type to transistor type to IC type and then to current LSI type, with their size becoming increasingly smaller. Let’s now see how microcomputers were born. When development was under way to make electronic portable calculators more compact and more sophisticated, every design change required redesign of LSI, which required very large cost and time. This problem was coped with by the use of LSI that allowed free change of internal functions by program. Namely, with such LSI, you can change the programs to allow development of new calculators. And such LSI whose internal functions could be freely changed by program modification was a microcomputer. In other words, a microcomputer is an LSI with functions that are described in the following. 13.1 Three elements of microcomputer A microcomputer consists of three elements, CPU (central processing unit) memory and I/O (input/output unit) 13.2 I/O unit (Input / output unit) Through this unit, the microcomputer communicates with external units (sensor, switch, actuator, etc.) In the case of ECU for instance, the intake air amount is input to the microcomputer as a sensor signal and the result of calculation by the CPU is output from this I/O as the fuel injection amount control signal. 13.3 Memory The memory stores the program (set of directions for operation, judgment, data exchange, etc.), data (reference voltage for ECU air/fuel ratio comparison, for instance) and signals that are input while the CPU is busy with calculation processing. The memory is generally classified into the following two types.

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13.4 ROM (Read Only Memory) A Memory for read only. In the case of a microcomputer for automotive application, only one fixed program needs execution and for this reason, the program is permanently stored in a ROM. The ROM is nonvolatile. The contents are held permanently even after power is turned off. This nature makes ROM optimum device for storing programs. 13.5 RAM (Random Access Memory) Memories that can be write in and read from. It is used for temporarily storing data. Normally it is volatile and the contents stored are lost once the power is turned off. Note : Nonvolatile RAM is also available that is called NVRAM. It is used in electronic odometer, for example. 13.6 CPU (Central Processing Unit) The part of a computer, that performs operation, interpretation and data exchange according to the program stored in the memory. Take the O2 sensor of ECM as an example. When the voltage signal indicating the air/fuel ratio arrives at the I/O unit from the O2 sensor, the CPU makes processing according to the program stored in the memory in the following manner. The CPU compares this signal with the reference voltage stored in the memory and if the signal voltage is higher, it judges that the air/fuel ratio is higher than the theoretical air/fuel ratio and outputs the signal for lowering the fuel injection rate to the I/O. Then, the I/O sends out this signal (to the injector) so that the fuel injection rate is reduced. 13.7 Types of microcomputer The microcomputers can be divided into two types depending on whether separate LSI implements its three elements or all these elements are implemented by a signal LSI. The former type is called a multi chip microcomputer and the latter type is called a one hip microcomputer. The microcomputers used in a car mostly belong to the latter category.

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9.9 Microcomputer in a system 15. 61 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . the microcomputer is essentially digital IC and its internal circuit can be represented by logical symbols. These two numbers correspond. 15. The internal circuits of a microcomputer for automotive application are complicated but they are relatively easy to understand if you have basic knowledge of logic circuits. as you will be aware. LSI and other individual parts. Note : Binary number The numbers 0 through 9 we use in our daily life are decimal numbers. to the two signals of a logic circuit.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 13. consist of only two numbers of 0 and 1. Personal computers and word processor belong to this category. In other words. a microcomputer is a digital IC that processes binary data by its logic circuit. on the other hand. Binary numbers. Typical examples are TV and radio sets and other household electric and electronic appliances.2 Use as a computer Application with emphasis placed on its calculation function. Namely. a microcomputer is introduced as a controller.8 Basic operation of microcomputer The basic internal operation of a microcomputer is addition and subtraction of binary numbers and the internal circuits are basically logic circuits.9.1 Use as a controller In a system formed by transistor. 13. IC.

62 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . Microcomputers used in a car belong to this category. In memory (RAM). the microcomputer judges conditions that are constantly changing and controls the machine adequately. 15. Signals from various sensors are input via the I/O unit and calculated by the CPU according to the program stored in ROM. This computer unit of ECM computers the optimum fuel supply rate to the engine. Namely.9.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 15.3 Combined use as controller and computer Use of a microcomputer not for simple control of machine. data and calculation results are stored temporarily as necessary.9. with its microcomputer. the computer unit for ECM will be descried.4 Example of application As an example of practical application of microcomputers to cars. etc. but for optimum control.

Room lamp delay control circuit 63 Chonan Technical Service Training Center . To understand electronic circuit Blower motor speed control circuit Blower Motor R1 1 ㏀ C IC M TR D235 IB Battery 12volts VR 1~100Ω B E Explain process that blower motor's speed is controlled according to value of VR (variable resistance).AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 14.

Auto lighting circuit 64 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .2W Door Switch R1 10㏀ TR 2 D471 E Explain process that room lamp operates according to ON/OFF of door switch in above circuit.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS Diode 1 10D1 12Volts Battery R1 330Ω Condenser 33㎌/25Volts B Diode 2 10D1 R2 15㏀ C Room Lamp TR 1 A1015 E B C 12Volts/1.

7㏀ Explain process that LED lamp operates in above circuit diagram.7㏀ LED cds R2 1㏀ B C B TR 2 2SC372 E C TR 1 2SC372 E Battery 6V R4 4.AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS R3 10㏀ R1 4. MEMO 65 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .

AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS 66 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .

AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS APPENDIX Electric unit symbols 67 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .

AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS Quantity Current Voltage Electric Resistance Conductivity Unit Ampere Volt Ohm Mho Coulomb Quantity of electricity Ampere-hour Electric power Watt Joule Work of electricity Watt-hour Static capacitance Electromagnetic induction Coefficient Magnetic flux Magnetic field intensity Magnetic force Magneto motive force Frequency Sound level Attenuation or gain Farad He Weber Ampere-turn Meter Ampere-turn Hertz Phon Decibel AT Hz P dB Wh F H Wb AT/m Ah W J C Unit Symbol A V Ω 68 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .

000 000 000 001 EXAMPLE 8 M = 8 000 000 20 Kv = 20 000 V 500 mV = . Mm PREFIX MEGA KILO MILLI MICRO NANO PICO SYMBOL M K m µ   RELATION TO BASIC UNIT 1 000 000 1 000 .000 000 001 .AUTOMOTRIZ ELECTRONICOS Multiplier fraction 106 103 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 Prefix Mega or Meg Kilo Deci Centi Mili Micro Nano Pico or Micro n.5 V 500 µA = . Symbol M K d c.000 000 02 V 20 V = .000 5 A 20 V = .001 .000 000 000 02 V 69 Chonan Technical Service Training Center .000 000 001 . p.

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