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st

Sem AY 2011-2012

Trigonometric Functions and Identities LHBMonterde, 2011

Recall: The Concept of Angles, Triangles and the Pythagorean Theorem

To discuss the circular functions, one must be equipped with the knowledge

of the Euclidean geometry of angles and triangles.

Recall that an angle is a union of two rays with a common point called the

vertex. It is usually denoted by XY Z, where X and Z are points on the two

rays respectively, Y being the vertex and the points X, Y and Z being distinct.

A ray of an angle is terminal if it is the ray being rotated wrt to the other ray

which stays xed, called the initial side.

An angle is measured by degrees or radians. For conversion, it is useful to

note that radians is equivalent to 180

less than /2 radians; right if exactly /2 radians; obtuse if greater than /2

radians but less than radians; and reflex is greater than radians.

Suppose A = {

1

, . . . ,

n

} is a set of n angles, 2 n Z

+

. The set A of

angles are said to be complementary if

1

+ . . . +

n

= /2; supplementary if

1

+ . . . +

n

= .

On the other hand, a triangle is dened to be any set of three noncollinear

points. It is usually denoted by XY Z, where X and Z are called the vertices

of the triangle and the points X, Y and Z being distinct. It is a fact that the

three angles of a triangle are supplementary.

Triangles have two classications: according to side length and angle mea-

sure. A triangle is called equilateral if the lengths of its three sides are equal;

isosceles if two of its sides have same measure; and scalene if its three sides

have distinct measures. A triangle with all angles being congruent is called

equiangular. Note that a triangle is equiangular if and only if it is equilateral.

If all the angles of a triangle are acute, then we call it an acute triangle; right

if it has one right angle; and obtuse if it has one obtuse angle. Observe that if

XY Z is a triangle with Y being a right angle, then X +Z = /2.

Pythagorean Theorem. Suppose XY Z is a right triangle with Y as the

right angle. Then |XZ|

2

= |XY |

2

+|Y Z|

2

.

Exercise: Let x, y, z Z

+

. A Pythagorean Triple is an ordered triple (x, y, z)

that satises the Pythagorean Thm. A pythagorean triple (x, y, z) is primitive

if x, y and z are relatively prime. Find ten primitive pythagorean triples.

We also recall the special triangles: 30

60

90

and 45

45

90

.

Suppose XY Z is a 30

60

90

Y Z as the shorter leg. Then XZ = 2 Y Z and XY =

3 Y Z. If XY Z is a

45

45

90

2 XY .

Exercise: Verify the above relationships of the lengths of sides of special triangles

by derivation. (Hint: Use equilateral triangles and squares.)

CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS

I. Preliminaries

In the XY -plane, we dene an angle to be in standard position if its initial

side coincides with the x-axis with the origin as its vertex. If the terminal side

is rotated in counter clockwise direction, we say that the measure of the angle

is positive; negative if rotated in clockwise direction.

An angle in standard position is called quadrantal if its terminal side coin-

cides with the coordinate axes. It is easy to see that the measure of a quadrantal

angle is just an integer multiple of /2. Two angles in standard position are

said to be coterminal if their terminal sides coincide. That is, if angles and

are coterminal, then = + 2k, k Z.

Suppose we graph x

2

+y

2

= 1 on the XY -plane, as in Figure 1. Then every

radii forms a central angle wrt x-axis. Note that in the gure, is a central

angle in standard position intercepting the arc s.

Figure 1. The Real Unit Circle

To get the length of arc s intercepted by , we have s = r, where is in

radians. If we take = 2, then we get the whole arc legth of the circle, which

is just its circumference C. This explains why C = 2r. Since we have the unit

circle, then s = (the intercepted arc of has length ) and C = 2.

A sector is an area bounded by the sides of the central angle and its in-

tercepted arc. To get the area of the sector t formed by an angle , we have

t =

r

2

2

, where is in radians. If we take = 2, then we get the area A of

the whole circle, that is why A = r

2

. Since we have the unit circle, then t =

2

and A = .

Examples: Find the length of the arc s intercepted by the angle 60

and the

area of the sector bounded by the sides of and s. Suppose the terminal point

of intersects the unit circle at (x, y). What is the area of the triangle formed

by the sides of and the segment connecting (x, y) and (1, 0)?

Examples: Find the coordinates (x, y) of the intersection of the unit circle

and the terminal side of =

3

. How about when =

3

? What if =

7

3

;

=

5

3

?

II. The Wrapping Function

For any R, the terminal side of intersects the unit circle at a unique

point (x, y), where x

2

+ y

2

= 1. Hence, we can dene a function

f : R (x, y) R

2

, where f() = (x, y) and x

2

+ y

2

= 1.

That is, f sends every real number to a point P(x, y) in the XY -plane. This

means that we can associate every real number with a unique point on a

unit circle called a circular point. In this sense we are wrapping the real line

around the unit circle, that is why the function f we have dened is called the

wrapping function.

For us to make use of this correspondence, we need to associate every R

to a single numerical value. Hence, from the wrapping function f dened above

as f() = (x, y), we dene the six circular functions (also called trigonometric

functions):

1. The cosine function of , cos = x, the abcissa of P(x, y) st f() = (x, y).

2. The sine function of , sin = y, the ordinate of P(x, y) st f() = (x, y).

3. The tangent function of as tan =

sin

cos

=

y

x

.

4. The cotangent function of as cot =

cos

sin

=

x

y

.

5. The secant function of as sec =

1

x

.

6. The cosecant function of as csc =

1

y

.

Examples: Find all the circular function values at =

4

. What if is quad-

rantal? For which values R will make one of the six trigonometric functions

undened?

Exercise: Examine cos, sin, tan, sec, csc, and cot as functions, i.e., what can

be said about their domains, ranges, graphs, etc..

III. Triangles and Special Angles

The origin of the concept of the trigonometric functions is actually not

the unit circle, but the ratios of the sides of right triangles. The unit circle,

through the concept of the wrapping function, is just a simple generalization of

the trigonometric functions.

Figure 2. A Right Triangle

In Figure 2, identify the right triangles ABC and AB

. The cosine

of is the ratio of the adjacent side corresponding to divided by the length

of the hypotenuse of the right triangle. The sine of , on the other hand, is

the ratio of the opposite side corresponding to divided by the length of the

hypotenuse of the right triangle. The tangent of is still the ratio of sin and

cos. Thus, we have the following ratios:

cos =

AC

AB

=

AC

AB

sec =

AB

AC

=

AB

AC

sin =

BC

AB

=

B

AB

csc =

AB

BC

=

AB

tan =

BC

AC

=

B

AC

cot =

AC

BC

=

AC

tions. Note that in the context of the unit circle, the hypotenuse of any right

triangle formed by is always r = 1. Hence, the problem of deriving the trigono-

metric functions has been reduced to right triangles with unit hypotenuse. For

the geometric interpretation of the functions tan, sec, csc and cot, we have

Figure 3. Observe that the tangent of is the length of the segment AE which

is literally tangent to the unit circle at A.

Figure 2. The Unit Circle w/ the Six Trigonometric Functions of

(Source: Wikipedia)

It is useful to note that the angles

6

and

4

as well as with their multiples

are called special angles because with the aid of special triangles, it only takes

simple manual calculations to get the trigo function values of these angles.

Examples: Given a right A with sides (3,4,5), calculate the values of the six

trigo functions at the angles and

2

, being the opposite of the side of

length 4. Suppose B is right with sides (3n, 4n, 5n), n Z

+

. In comparison

to A, what can be said about the values of their trigonometric functions at

their corresponding angles? Could this be generalized?

2

IV. Identities

DEF. An equation of two algebraic expressions involving circular functions that

is true for all values of the unknown is called a trigonometric identity.

Some trivial examples are the Reciprocal and Pythagorean Identities. Given

R and f() = (x, y) such that x

2

+ y

2

= 1, since cos = x and sin = y,

then we have

cos

2

+ sin

2

= 1. (1)

Dividing eq. 1 by cos

2

and sin

2

respectively, we obtain the following:

1 + tan

2

= sec

2

(2)

cot

2

+ 1 = csc

2

. (3)

THEOREM. Complementary Identities

Let R. Then the following holds:

cos

_

2

_

= sin sec

_

2

_

= csc

sin

_

2

_

= cos csc

_

2

_

= sec

tan

_

2

_

= cot cot

_

2

_

= tan

Proof

Consider XY Z with Y =

2

. Let X = . Then Z =

2

. Then we

have cos = XY /XZ = sin Z = sin

_

2

_

. In the same fashion, we can

obtain the other identities. Their proof will be left as exercises.

To derive more identities, we introduce the Euler Formula, that according

to Richard Feynmann, is one of the most remarkable, almost astounding, for-

mulas in all of mathematics. This formula has established a deep link between

the exponential and trigonometric functions. Note that you must recall your

knowledge of complex numbers to understand this concept. This formula has

been derived from the Taylor Expansion of e

i

.

DEF. We dene Euler

s Formula as: e

i

= cos + isin, R, i

2

= 1.

From this formula, letting = , we obtain e

i

+ 1 = 0, an equation involv-

ing all of the special numbers. This equation has been noted for its singular

mathematical beauty.

THEOREM. Angle Sum and Dierence Identities

Suppose , R. Then the following holds:

sin( ) = sin cos cos sin (4)

cos( ) = cos cos sin sin (5)

tan( ) =

tan tan

1 tan tan

(6)

Proof

We only prove cos( + ). Note that:

e

i(+)

= cos( + ) + isin( + ). ()

Also, using our properties of exponents and complex numbers,

e

i(+)

= e

i

e

i

= (cos + isin )(cos + isin )

= cos cos + icos sin + isin cos + i

2

sin sin

= (cos cos sin sin ) + i(sin cos + cos sin ). ()

Note that () and () are equal quantities, in particular, they are equal complex

numbers. Thus, comparing their real and imaginary parts, we conclude that:

cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin

and

sin( + ) = sin cos + cos sin .

Thus, the angle sums in eq. 4 and 5 are true. The angle dierences will follow

from the fact the the sine and cosine functions are respectively odd and even.

The proof for the tangent part will be left as an exercise.

If we take = = , then we have the following identities.

THEOREM. Double Angle Identities

Let R. Then we have the following equalities:

cos(2) = cos

2

sin

2

(7)

sin(2) = 2sin cos (8)

tan(2) =

2tan

1 + tan

2

(9)

And from these Double Angle Identities, we obtain the Half Angle Identities.

THEOREM. Half Angle Identities

Let R. Then we have the following equalities:

cos

_

2

_

=

_

1 + cos

2

(10)

sin

_

2

_

=

_

1 cos

2

(11)

tan

_

2

_

=

1 cos

sin

=

sin

1 + cos

(12)

Proof

Manipulating eq (1) and (7), we have

cos 2 = 2cos

2

1. ()

3

Let 2 = . Then =

2

. By eq (), we have

cos = 2cos

2

_

2

_

1.

Manipulating once again, we get:

1+cos

2

= cos

2

2

. Taking square roots, we

conclude that eq (10) is true. The proof for the half angle of sin and tan will

be left as exercises.

The next set of identities follows from the Angle Sum Identities.

THEOREM. PRODUCT TO SUM Identities

Let R. Then we have the following are true:

sin cos =

1

2

[ sin ( + ) + sin ( ) ] (13)

cos sin =

1

2

[ sin ( + ) sin ( ) ] (14)

cos cos =

1

2

[ cos ( + ) + cos ( ) ] (15)

sin sin =

1

2

[ sin ( ) cos ( + ) ] (16)

Proof

From eq. (4) of Angle Sum Identities, adding the sine of the angle sum and

dierence, we have

sin( + ) + sin( ) = 2 sin cos . ()

On the other hand, subtracting the cosine of the angle sum and dierence, we

obtain

sin( + ) sin( ) = 2 sin cos . ()

Manipulating and , we get eq. (13) and (14). On the other hand, eq. (15)

and (16) can be obtained by adding and subtracting the cosine of the angle sum

and dierence.

Finally, we have the last set of identities.

THEOREM. SUM TO PRODUCT Identities

Let R. Then we have the following are true:

sin + sin = 2 sin

_

+

2

_

cos

_

2

_

(17)

sin sin = 2 cos

_

+

2

_

sin

_

2

_

(18)

cos + cos = 2 cos

_

+

2

_

cos

_

2

_

(19)

cos cos = 2 sin

_

+

2

_

sin

_

2

_

(20)

tan + tan =

sin( + )

cos cos

(21)

tan tan =

sin( )

cos cos

(22)

Proof

Suppose x = + and y = . Then x + y = 2 and x y = 2. Hence

=

x + y

2

and =

x y

2

. Plugging this to eq. (13), we get

1

2

( sin x + sin y ) = sin

_

x + y

2

_

cos

_

x y

2

_

.

Manipulating, we conclude that eq. (17) is true. The rest can also be veried

in the same manner.

EXERCISES.

I. True or False.

1. If sin = sin and cos = cos then = + 2k, k Z.

2. If XY Z is right with Y =

2

, then tanX = cotZ.

3. The sum of the lengths of the intercepted arcs of two complementary central

angles of the unit circle is .

4. The angles

30

7

,

2

7

and

17

7

are coterminal.

5. If cos = , then cos 2 = 2

_

1

2

.

6. If =

2 + n

2

, n Z, then sec = csc .

7. Right triangles MNO and PQR are congruent if sinM = sinP.

8. The expression 2 2sin

2

_

3x

2

_

= 1 + cos 3x is an identity.

9. The value of sin 35

10. If R, then sin

_

2

_

= 2sin

_

2

4

_

cos

_

2

4

_

.

II. Solve:

1. Find the value of the following trigonometric quadrantal translations by

visualizing the position of the angle:

a) sin ( x ) d) csc ( x

3

2

)

b) cos ( x ) e) tan ( x

2

)

c)sec ( x

3

2

) f) cot ( x

2

)

4

2. Find the length of arc intercepted and the area of sector formed by =

2

3

on the circle (x 1)

2

+ (y + 2)

2

= 3, is a central angle.

3. Evaluate:

a) sec

_

2

_

8

+

6

__

b) 1 + cot

2

(52.5

+ 22.5

)

c)

n=1

_

1

sec

_

n

, =

8

4. Simplify:

a) csc (2

3

2

)

b) cos

_

4

_

c) cot

__

3

2

_

2

_

d) tan

2

_

2

_

+ cot

2

( + )

e) cos

_

2

_

sin ( ) + sin ( ) cos ( )

f) sin

2

2

cos

2

2

5. Express:

a) sin 3 in terms of sin

b) cos 3 in terms of cos

c) tan 3 in terms of tan

IV. Prove the identities:

1. sec

2

_

4

2

_

=

sin

2

_

2

_

+

_

1 + cos

_

2

__

2

1 cos

2

_

2

_

2.

_

tan

2

1

_

_

sin

2

csc csc cos

2

cos

2

csc

_

= sec

4

2sec

2

3.

sin 3

cos 3

=

3tan tan

3

1 3tan

2

4.

cos cos

cos + cos

=

tan

_

+

2

_

cot

_

2

_

5. If A + B + C = , show that tan A = tan (B + C).

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