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Mathematics 17 1

st
Sem AY 2011-2012
Trigonometric Functions and Identities LHBMonterde, 2011
Recall: The Concept of Angles, Triangles and the Pythagorean Theorem
To discuss the circular functions, one must be equipped with the knowledge
of the Euclidean geometry of angles and triangles.
Recall that an angle is a union of two rays with a common point called the
vertex. It is usually denoted by XY Z, where X and Z are points on the two
rays respectively, Y being the vertex and the points X, Y and Z being distinct.
A ray of an angle is terminal if it is the ray being rotated wrt to the other ray
which stays xed, called the initial side.
An angle is measured by degrees or radians. For conversion, it is useful to
note that radians is equivalent to 180

. An angle is acute if its measure is


less than /2 radians; right if exactly /2 radians; obtuse if greater than /2
radians but less than radians; and reflex is greater than radians.
Suppose A = {
1
, . . . ,
n
} is a set of n angles, 2 n Z
+
. The set A of
angles are said to be complementary if
1
+ . . . +
n
= /2; supplementary if

1
+ . . . +
n
= .
On the other hand, a triangle is dened to be any set of three noncollinear
points. It is usually denoted by XY Z, where X and Z are called the vertices
of the triangle and the points X, Y and Z being distinct. It is a fact that the
three angles of a triangle are supplementary.
Triangles have two classications: according to side length and angle mea-
sure. A triangle is called equilateral if the lengths of its three sides are equal;
isosceles if two of its sides have same measure; and scalene if its three sides
have distinct measures. A triangle with all angles being congruent is called
equiangular. Note that a triangle is equiangular if and only if it is equilateral.
If all the angles of a triangle are acute, then we call it an acute triangle; right
if it has one right angle; and obtuse if it has one obtuse angle. Observe that if
XY Z is a triangle with Y being a right angle, then X +Z = /2.
Pythagorean Theorem. Suppose XY Z is a right triangle with Y as the
right angle. Then |XZ|
2
= |XY |
2
+|Y Z|
2
.
Exercise: Let x, y, z Z
+
. A Pythagorean Triple is an ordered triple (x, y, z)
that satises the Pythagorean Thm. A pythagorean triple (x, y, z) is primitive
if x, y and z are relatively prime. Find ten primitive pythagorean triples.
We also recall the special triangles: 30

60

90

and 45

45

90

.
Suppose XY Z is a 30

60

90

triangle with Y as the right angle and


Y Z as the shorter leg. Then XZ = 2 Y Z and XY =

3 Y Z. If XY Z is a
45

45

90

triangle, then we have XY = Y Z and XZ =



2 XY .
Exercise: Verify the above relationships of the lengths of sides of special triangles
by derivation. (Hint: Use equilateral triangles and squares.)
CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS
I. Preliminaries
In the XY -plane, we dene an angle to be in standard position if its initial
side coincides with the x-axis with the origin as its vertex. If the terminal side
is rotated in counter clockwise direction, we say that the measure of the angle
is positive; negative if rotated in clockwise direction.
An angle in standard position is called quadrantal if its terminal side coin-
cides with the coordinate axes. It is easy to see that the measure of a quadrantal
angle is just an integer multiple of /2. Two angles in standard position are
said to be coterminal if their terminal sides coincide. That is, if angles and
are coterminal, then = + 2k, k Z.
Suppose we graph x
2
+y
2
= 1 on the XY -plane, as in Figure 1. Then every
radii forms a central angle wrt x-axis. Note that in the gure, is a central
angle in standard position intercepting the arc s.
Figure 1. The Real Unit Circle
To get the length of arc s intercepted by , we have s = r, where is in
radians. If we take = 2, then we get the whole arc legth of the circle, which
is just its circumference C. This explains why C = 2r. Since we have the unit
circle, then s = (the intercepted arc of has length ) and C = 2.
A sector is an area bounded by the sides of the central angle and its in-
tercepted arc. To get the area of the sector t formed by an angle , we have
t =
r
2

2
, where is in radians. If we take = 2, then we get the area A of
the whole circle, that is why A = r
2
. Since we have the unit circle, then t =

2
and A = .
Examples: Find the length of the arc s intercepted by the angle 60

and the
area of the sector bounded by the sides of and s. Suppose the terminal point
of intersects the unit circle at (x, y). What is the area of the triangle formed
by the sides of and the segment connecting (x, y) and (1, 0)?
Examples: Find the coordinates (x, y) of the intersection of the unit circle
and the terminal side of =

3
. How about when =

3
? What if =
7
3
;
=
5
3
?
II. The Wrapping Function
For any R, the terminal side of intersects the unit circle at a unique
point (x, y), where x
2
+ y
2
= 1. Hence, we can dene a function
f : R (x, y) R
2
, where f() = (x, y) and x
2
+ y
2
= 1.
That is, f sends every real number to a point P(x, y) in the XY -plane. This
means that we can associate every real number with a unique point on a
unit circle called a circular point. In this sense we are wrapping the real line
around the unit circle, that is why the function f we have dened is called the
wrapping function.
For us to make use of this correspondence, we need to associate every R
to a single numerical value. Hence, from the wrapping function f dened above
as f() = (x, y), we dene the six circular functions (also called trigonometric
functions):
1. The cosine function of , cos = x, the abcissa of P(x, y) st f() = (x, y).
2. The sine function of , sin = y, the ordinate of P(x, y) st f() = (x, y).
3. The tangent function of as tan =
sin
cos
=
y
x
.
4. The cotangent function of as cot =
cos
sin
=
x
y
.
5. The secant function of as sec =
1
x
.
6. The cosecant function of as csc =
1
y
.
Examples: Find all the circular function values at =

4
. What if is quad-
rantal? For which values R will make one of the six trigonometric functions
undened?
Exercise: Examine cos, sin, tan, sec, csc, and cot as functions, i.e., what can
be said about their domains, ranges, graphs, etc..
III. Triangles and Special Angles
The origin of the concept of the trigonometric functions is actually not
the unit circle, but the ratios of the sides of right triangles. The unit circle,
through the concept of the wrapping function, is just a simple generalization of
the trigonometric functions.
Figure 2. A Right Triangle
In Figure 2, identify the right triangles ABC and AB

. The cosine
of is the ratio of the adjacent side corresponding to divided by the length
of the hypotenuse of the right triangle. The sine of , on the other hand, is
the ratio of the opposite side corresponding to divided by the length of the
hypotenuse of the right triangle. The tangent of is still the ratio of sin and
cos. Thus, we have the following ratios:
cos =
AC
AB
=
AC

AB

sec =
AB
AC
=
AB

AC

sin =
BC
AB
=
B

AB

csc =
AB
BC
=
AB

tan =
BC
AC
=
B

AC

cot =
AC
BC
=
AC

For convenience, I suggest the SOHCAHTOA mnemonics for circular func-


tions. Note that in the context of the unit circle, the hypotenuse of any right
triangle formed by is always r = 1. Hence, the problem of deriving the trigono-
metric functions has been reduced to right triangles with unit hypotenuse. For
the geometric interpretation of the functions tan, sec, csc and cot, we have
Figure 3. Observe that the tangent of is the length of the segment AE which
is literally tangent to the unit circle at A.
Figure 2. The Unit Circle w/ the Six Trigonometric Functions of
(Source: Wikipedia)
It is useful to note that the angles

6
and

4
as well as with their multiples
are called special angles because with the aid of special triangles, it only takes
simple manual calculations to get the trigo function values of these angles.
Examples: Given a right A with sides (3,4,5), calculate the values of the six
trigo functions at the angles and

2
, being the opposite of the side of
length 4. Suppose B is right with sides (3n, 4n, 5n), n Z
+
. In comparison
to A, what can be said about the values of their trigonometric functions at
their corresponding angles? Could this be generalized?
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IV. Identities
DEF. An equation of two algebraic expressions involving circular functions that
is true for all values of the unknown is called a trigonometric identity.
Some trivial examples are the Reciprocal and Pythagorean Identities. Given
R and f() = (x, y) such that x
2
+ y
2
= 1, since cos = x and sin = y,
then we have
cos
2
+ sin
2
= 1. (1)
Dividing eq. 1 by cos
2
and sin
2
respectively, we obtain the following:
1 + tan
2
= sec
2
(2)
cot
2
+ 1 = csc
2
. (3)
THEOREM. Complementary Identities
Let R. Then the following holds:
cos
_

2

_
= sin sec
_

2

_
= csc
sin
_

2

_
= cos csc
_

2

_
= sec
tan
_

2

_
= cot cot
_

2

_
= tan
Proof
Consider XY Z with Y =

2
. Let X = . Then Z =

2
. Then we
have cos = XY /XZ = sin Z = sin
_

2

_
. In the same fashion, we can
obtain the other identities. Their proof will be left as exercises.
To derive more identities, we introduce the Euler Formula, that according
to Richard Feynmann, is one of the most remarkable, almost astounding, for-
mulas in all of mathematics. This formula has established a deep link between
the exponential and trigonometric functions. Note that you must recall your
knowledge of complex numbers to understand this concept. This formula has
been derived from the Taylor Expansion of e
i
.
DEF. We dene Euler

s Formula as: e
i
= cos + isin, R, i
2
= 1.
From this formula, letting = , we obtain e
i
+ 1 = 0, an equation involv-
ing all of the special numbers. This equation has been noted for its singular
mathematical beauty.
THEOREM. Angle Sum and Dierence Identities
Suppose , R. Then the following holds:
sin( ) = sin cos cos sin (4)
cos( ) = cos cos sin sin (5)
tan( ) =
tan tan
1 tan tan
(6)
Proof
We only prove cos( + ). Note that:
e
i(+)
= cos( + ) + isin( + ). ()
Also, using our properties of exponents and complex numbers,
e
i(+)
= e
i
e
i
= (cos + isin )(cos + isin )
= cos cos + icos sin + isin cos + i
2
sin sin
= (cos cos sin sin ) + i(sin cos + cos sin ). ()
Note that () and () are equal quantities, in particular, they are equal complex
numbers. Thus, comparing their real and imaginary parts, we conclude that:
cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin
and
sin( + ) = sin cos + cos sin .
Thus, the angle sums in eq. 4 and 5 are true. The angle dierences will follow
from the fact the the sine and cosine functions are respectively odd and even.
The proof for the tangent part will be left as an exercise.
If we take = = , then we have the following identities.
THEOREM. Double Angle Identities
Let R. Then we have the following equalities:
cos(2) = cos
2
sin
2
(7)
sin(2) = 2sin cos (8)
tan(2) =
2tan
1 + tan
2

(9)
And from these Double Angle Identities, we obtain the Half Angle Identities.
THEOREM. Half Angle Identities
Let R. Then we have the following equalities:
cos
_

2
_
=
_
1 + cos
2
(10)
sin
_

2
_
=
_
1 cos
2
(11)
tan
_

2
_
=
1 cos
sin
=
sin
1 + cos
(12)
Proof
Manipulating eq (1) and (7), we have
cos 2 = 2cos
2
1. ()
3
Let 2 = . Then =

2
. By eq (), we have
cos = 2cos
2
_

2
_
1.
Manipulating once again, we get:
1+cos
2
= cos
2
2
. Taking square roots, we
conclude that eq (10) is true. The proof for the half angle of sin and tan will
be left as exercises.
The next set of identities follows from the Angle Sum Identities.
THEOREM. PRODUCT TO SUM Identities
Let R. Then we have the following are true:
sin cos =
1
2
[ sin ( + ) + sin ( ) ] (13)
cos sin =
1
2
[ sin ( + ) sin ( ) ] (14)
cos cos =
1
2
[ cos ( + ) + cos ( ) ] (15)
sin sin =
1
2
[ sin ( ) cos ( + ) ] (16)
Proof
From eq. (4) of Angle Sum Identities, adding the sine of the angle sum and
dierence, we have
sin( + ) + sin( ) = 2 sin cos . ()
On the other hand, subtracting the cosine of the angle sum and dierence, we
obtain
sin( + ) sin( ) = 2 sin cos . ()
Manipulating and , we get eq. (13) and (14). On the other hand, eq. (15)
and (16) can be obtained by adding and subtracting the cosine of the angle sum
and dierence.
Finally, we have the last set of identities.
THEOREM. SUM TO PRODUCT Identities
Let R. Then we have the following are true:
sin + sin = 2 sin
_
+
2
_
cos
_

2
_
(17)
sin sin = 2 cos
_
+
2
_
sin
_

2
_
(18)
cos + cos = 2 cos
_
+
2
_
cos
_

2
_
(19)
cos cos = 2 sin
_
+
2
_
sin
_

2
_
(20)
tan + tan =
sin( + )
cos cos
(21)
tan tan =
sin( )
cos cos
(22)
Proof
Suppose x = + and y = . Then x + y = 2 and x y = 2. Hence
=
x + y
2
and =
x y
2
. Plugging this to eq. (13), we get
1
2
( sin x + sin y ) = sin
_
x + y
2
_
cos
_
x y
2
_
.
Manipulating, we conclude that eq. (17) is true. The rest can also be veried
in the same manner.
EXERCISES.
I. True or False.
1. If sin = sin and cos = cos then = + 2k, k Z.
2. If XY Z is right with Y =

2
, then tanX = cotZ.
3. The sum of the lengths of the intercepted arcs of two complementary central
angles of the unit circle is .
4. The angles
30
7
,
2
7
and
17
7
are coterminal.
5. If cos = , then cos 2 = 2
_
1
2
.
6. If =
2 + n
2
, n Z, then sec = csc .
7. Right triangles MNO and PQR are congruent if sinM = sinP.
8. The expression 2 2sin
2
_
3x
2
_
= 1 + cos 3x is an identity.
9. The value of sin 35

can be solved manually.


10. If R, then sin
_

2

_
= 2sin
_

2


4
_
cos
_

2


4
_
.
II. Solve:
1. Find the value of the following trigonometric quadrantal translations by
visualizing the position of the angle:
a) sin ( x ) d) csc ( x
3
2
)
b) cos ( x ) e) tan ( x

2
)
c)sec ( x
3
2
) f) cot ( x

2
)
4
2. Find the length of arc intercepted and the area of sector formed by =
2
3
on the circle (x 1)
2
+ (y + 2)
2
= 3, is a central angle.
3. Evaluate:
a) sec
_

2

_

8
+

6
__
b) 1 + cot
2
(52.5

+ 22.5

)
c)

n=1
_
1
sec
_
n
, =

8
4. Simplify:
a) csc (2
3
2
)
b) cos
_

4
_
c) cot
__
3

2
_


2
_
d) tan
2
_


2
_
+ cot
2
( + )
e) cos
_


2
_
sin ( ) + sin ( ) cos ( )
f) sin
2

2
cos
2

2
5. Express:
a) sin 3 in terms of sin
b) cos 3 in terms of cos
c) tan 3 in terms of tan
IV. Prove the identities:
1. sec
2
_

4


2
_
=
sin
2
_

2
_
+
_
1 + cos
_

2
__
2
1 cos
2
_

2
_
2.
_
tan
2
1
_
_
sin
2
csc csc cos
2

cos
2
csc
_
= sec
4
2sec
2

3.
sin 3
cos 3
=
3tan tan
3

1 3tan
2

4.
cos cos
cos + cos
=
tan
_
+
2
_
cot
_

2
_
5. If A + B + C = , show that tan A = tan (B + C).
In the confrontation between the stream and the rock, the stream always wins -
not through strength, but by perseverance.
- H. Jackson Brown
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